Paul, Narayan Chandra; Bärgman, Sofia Cathrine; Moodley, Arshnee
This is the first large-scale study of Staphylococcus pseudintermedius colonization and diversity in healthy dogs where samples were collected over a long time and strains were identified by PCR according to the current taxonomy of the S. intermedius group and typed by a highly discriminatory...... method such as pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). A cross-sectional study of nasal, oral, perineal and inguinal carriage in 119 healthy dogs was followed by a longitudinal study where oral and perineal carriage was examined in 16 dogs for 10 times over a period of 1 year. Altogether we collected...... 762 samples and 285 S. pseudintermedius isolates, 182 of which were typed by PFGE to determine spatial and temporal strain diversity within individual carriers. In the cross-sectional study, S. pseudintermedius was isolated from at least one body site in 82 (69%) of the 119 dogs. The most frequent...
Quintero, B.; Araque, M.; van der Gaast-de Jongh, C.; Escalona, F.; Correa, M.; Morillo-Puente, S.; Vielma, S.; Hermans, P. W. M.
Streptococcus pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus cause significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. We investigated both the colonization and co-colonization characteristics for these pathogens among 250 healthy children from 2 to 5?years of age in Merida, Venezuela, in 2007. The prevalence of S. pneumoniae colonization, S. aureus colonization, and S. pneumoniae?S. aureus co-colonization was 28%, 56%, and 16%, respectively. Pneumococcal serotypes 6B (14%), 19F (12%), 23F (12%), 15 (9%), 6...
Barzegar, A.; Rezaei, H.; Malekfar, R.
In this study, spontaneous Raman scattering and surface-enhanced Raman scattering, Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy spectra have been investigated. The samples which were kept in the formalin solution selected from the human's healthy and cancerous colon tissues. The Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy spectra were collected by adding colloidal solution contained silver nanoparticles to the top of the samples. The recorded spectra were compared for the spontaneous Raman spectra of healthy and cancerous colon samples. The spontaneous and surface enhanced Raman scattering data were also collected and compared for both healthy and damaged samples.
Quintero, B.; Araque, M.; Gaast-de Jongh, C.E. van der; Escalona, F.; Correa, M.; Morillo-Puente, S.; Vielma, S.; Hermans, P.W.M.
Streptococcus pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus cause significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. We investigated both the colonization and co-colonization characteristics for these pathogens among 250 healthy children from 2 to 5 years of age in Merida, Venezuela, in 2007. The prevalence of
Describes the Healthy Places for Healthy People technical assistance program that helps communities create walkable, healthy, economically vibrant places by engaging with local health care facility partners
Quintero, B; Araque, M; van der Gaast-de Jongh, C; Escalona, F; Correa, M; Morillo-Puente, S; Vielma, S; Hermans, P W M
Streptococcus pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus cause significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. We investigated both the colonization and co-colonization characteristics for these pathogens among 250 healthy children from 2 to 5 years of age in Merida, Venezuela, in 2007. The prevalence of S. pneumoniae colonization, S. aureus colonization, and S. pneumoniae-S. aureus co-colonization was 28%, 56%, and 16%, respectively. Pneumococcal serotypes 6B (14%), 19F (12%), 23F (12%), 15 (9%), 6A (8%), 11 (8%), 23A (6%), and 34 (6%) were the most prevalent. Non-respiratory atopy was a risk factor for S. aureus colonization (p = 0.017). Vaccine serotypes were negatively associated with preceding respiratory infection (p = 0.02) and with S. aureus colonization (p = 0.03). We observed a high prevalence of pneumococcal resistance against trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (40%), erythromycin (38%), and penicillin (14%). Semi-quantitative measurement of pneumococcal colonization density showed that children with young siblings and low socioeconomic status were more densely colonized (p = 0.02 and p = 0.02, respectively). In contrast, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole- and multidrug-resistant-pneumococci colonized children sparsely (p = 0.03 and p = 0.01, respectively). Our data form an important basis to monitor the future impact of pneumococcal vaccination on bacterial colonization, as well as to recommend a rationalized and restrictive antimicrobial use in our community.
... There is much we can do to promote healthy eating habits. Together we can prevent or delay onset of diabetes, obesity and other chronic conditions and diseases. Benefits Helps maintain a healthy weight A healthy weight reduces risk of chronic ...
Murray, Kathryn; Hoad, Caroline L; Mudie, Deanna M; Wright, Jeff; Heissam, Khaled; Abrehart, Nichola; Pritchard, Susan E; Al Atwah, Salem; Gowland, Penny A; Garnett, Martin C; Amidon, Gregory E; Spiller, Robin C; Amidon, Gordon L; Marciani, Luca
The rate and extent of drug dissolution and absorption from solid oral dosage forms is highly dependent on the volume of liquid in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). However, little is known about the time course of GIT liquid volumes after drinking a glass of water (8 oz), particularly in the colon, which is a targeted site for both locally and systemically acting drug products. Previous magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies offered novel insights on GIT liquid distribution in fasted humans in the stomach and small intestine, and showed that freely mobile liquid in the intestine collects in fairly distinct regions or "pockets". Based on this previous pilot data, we hypothesized that (1) it is possible to quantify the time course of the volume and number of liquid pockets in the undisturbed colon of fasted healthy humans following ingestion of 240 mL, using noninvasive MRI methods; (2) the amount of freely mobile water in the fasted human colon is of the order of only a few milliliters. Twelve healthy volunteers fasted overnight and underwent fasted abdominal MRI scans before drinking 240 mL (∼8 fluid ounces) of water. After ingesting the water they were scanned at frequent intervals for 2 h. The images were processed to quantify freely mobile water in the total and regional colon: ascending, transverse, and descending. The fasted colon contained (mean ± SEM) 11 ± 5 pockets of resting liquid with a total volume of 2 ± 1 mL (average). The colonic fluid peaked at 7 ± 4 mL 30 min after the water drink. This peak fluid was distributed in 17 ± 7 separate liquid pockets in the colon. The regional analysis showed that pockets of free fluid were found primarily in the ascending colon. The interindividual variability was very high; the subjects showed a range of number of colonic fluid pockets from 0 to 89 and total colonic freely mobile fluid volume from 0 to 49 mL. This is the first study measuring the time course of the number, regional location, and volume of
Afzelius, P; Nielsen, Hans Jørgen
The immune surveillance hypothesis suggests impaired immune responses to participate in development of cancer. This may partly be due to increased amounts of PGE2 and histamine, which inhibit cellular immunity. These effects are mediated by cAMP, which is increased and thereby may down-regulate I...... no difference in levels of intracellular cAMP, IL-2 mRNA expression, IL-2R mRNA expression, or proliferative responses of PBMC from colon cancer patients compared to healthy blood donors. There was no effect of the immune modulating agents on PBMC from colon cancer patients....
Ethington, Matthew W; Galligan, Larry D; Stephen, Fred M
The genus Monochamus Dejean (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) includes large, woodboring, longhorned beetles, which colonize pine trees in North America. Many authors have classified the genus as saprophagous, but one recent study reported successful colonization of standing jack pine trees (Pinus banksiana Lamb.) (Pinales: Pinaceae) following severe wind disturbance in Minnesota. We tested whether two Monochamus species native to the southeastern United States (M. titillator (Fabricius) and M. carolinensis (Olivier)) could successfully colonize healthy shortleaf pines (Pinus echinata Mill.) (Pinales: Pinaceae) in recently harvested stands without coincident abiotic or biotic stressors, such as lightning strikes or bark beetle attacks. We attached commercially available semiochemical lures, including monochamol, ethanol, and ipsenol, to healthy shortleaf pine trees and observed Monochamus spp. oviposition response. Egg development was monitored following oviposition by harvesting attacked trees and dissecting oviposition pits. High numbers of oviposition pits were observed on trees treated with lures containing the bark beetle pheromone ipsenol and pits were highly concentrated on the tree bole near lures. Although egg deposition occurred, pit dissection revealed large amounts of resin present in almost all dissected pits and that egg hatch and subsequent larval development were rare. Our results demonstrate that southeastern Monochamus spp. are unlikely to be primary pests of healthy shortleaf pines due to resinosis. To better understand the host finding behavior of these two Monochamus species, we also conducted trapping trials with several semiochemical combinations. Both species and sexes demonstrated similar attraction to compounds, and the most attractive lure combined host volatiles, pheromone, and sympatric insect kairomone.
Mikes, J.; Kleban, J.; Jendzelovsky, R.; Solar, P.; Fedorocko, P.; Hyzdalova, M.
Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is becoming a rapidly developing method in cancer therapy, recently. PDT is based on administration of nontoxic/weakly toxic photosensitive compound and its activation with light. The phototoxicity of PDT depends on generation of superoxide radicals (Type-I reaction), which in turn might form peroxide and hydroxyl radicals, and production of singlet oxygen ( 1 O 2 ) (Type-II reaction) after irradiation with light of appropriate wavelength which properly overlaps the photosensitizer's absorbing spectra. Oxidative damage in the cell induced by reactive oxygen species depends on the intracellular localisation and affects different cell organelles. Although PDT is of use in clinical practise, new promising photosensitive compounds with advantageous attributes are discovered continuously. Hypericin, one of these compounds, is known to affect cell cycle and proliferation, to alter gene expression and to induce cell death. Due to its spectral characteristics, hypericin is applicable for treatment of superficial malignancies and therefore also for treatment of colon adenocarcinomas. We compared two cell lines of identical histological origin, one as a model of colon adenocarcinoma (HT29) and second as a model of healthy colon epithelium, to evaluate photo-cytotoxicity of PDT with hypericin to healthy tissue and determine applicability of this therapy in treatment of colon malignancies. (authors)
... Health Menu Topics Environment & Health Healthy Living Pollution Reduce, Reuse, Recycle Science – How It Works The Natural World Games ... Lessons Topics Expand Environment & Health Healthy Living Pollution Reduce, Reuse, Recycle Science – How It Works The Natural World Games ...
Ravera, Iván; Altet, Laura; Francino, Olga; Sánchez, Armand; Roldán, Wendy; Villanueva, Sergio; Bardagí, Mar; Ferrer, Lluís
It is unproven that all dogs harbour Demodex mites in their skin. In fact, several microscopic studies have failed to demonstrate mites in healthy dogs. Demodex canis is a normal inhabitant of the skin of most, if not all, dogs. This hypothesis was tested using a sensitive real-time PCR to detect Demodex DNA in the skin of dogs. One hundred dogs living in a humane society shelter, 20 privately owned and healthy dogs and eight dogs receiving immunosuppressive or antineoplastic therapy. Hair samples (250-300 hairs with their hair bulbs) were taken from five or 20 skin locations. A real-time PCR that amplifies a 166 bp sequence of the D. canis chitin synthase gene was used. The percentage of positive dogs increased with the number of sampling points. When a large canine population was sampled at five cutaneous locations, 18% of dogs were positive for Demodex DNA. When 20 skin locations were sampled, all dogs tested positive for mite DNA. Our study indicates that Demodex colonization of the skin is present in all dogs, independent of age, sex, breed or coat. Nevertheless, the population of mites in a healthy dog appears to be small. Demodex DNA was amplified from all 20 cutaneous points investigated, without statistically significant differences. Using a real-time PCR technique, Demodex mites, albeit in very low numbers, were found to be normal inhabitants of haired areas of the skin of healthy dogs. © 2013 The Authors. Veterinary Dermatology © 2013 ESVD and ACVD.
Vento, Todd J; Calvano, Tatjana P; Cole, David W; Mende, Katrin; Rini, Elizabeth A; Tully, Charla C; Landrum, Michael L; Zera, Wendy; Guymon, Charles H; Yu, Xin; Beckius, Miriam L; Cheatle, Kristelle A; Murray, Clinton K
Staphylococcus aureus [methicillin-resistant and methicillin-susceptible (MRSA/MSSA)] is a leading cause of infections in military personnel, but there are limited data regarding baseline colonization of individuals while deployed. We conducted a pilot study to screen non-deployed and deployed healthy military service members for MRSA/MSSA colonization at various anatomic sites and assessed isolates for molecular differences. Colonization point-prevalence of 101 military personnel in the US and 100 in Afghanistan was determined by swabbing 7 anatomic sites. US-based individuals had received no antibiotics within 30 days, and Afghanistan-deployed personnel were taking doxycycline for malaria prophylaxis. Isolates underwent identification and testing for antimicrobial resistance, virulence factors, and pulsed-field type (PFT). 4 individuals in the US (4 isolates- 3 oropharynx, 1 perirectal) and 4 in Afghanistan (6 isolates- 2 oropharynx, 2 nare, 1 hand, 1 foot) were colonized with MRSA. Among US-based personnel, 3 had USA300 (1 PVL+) and 1 USA700. Among Afghanistan-based personnel, 1 had USA300 (PVL+), 1 USA800 and 2 USA1000. MSSA was present in 40 (71 isolates-25 oropharynx, 15 nare) of the US-based and 32 (65 isolates- 16 oropharynx, 24 nare) of the Afghanistan-based individuals. 56 (79%) US and 41(63%) Afghanistan-based individuals had MSSA isolates recovered from extra-nare sites. The most common MSSA PFTs were USA200 (9 isolates) in the US and USA800 (7 isolates) in Afghanistan. MRSA/MSSA isolates were susceptible to doxycycline in all but 3 personnel (1 US, 2 Afghanistan; all were MSSA isolates that carried tetM). MRSA and MSSA colonization of military personnel was not associated with deployment status or doxycycline exposure. Higher S. aureus oropharynx colonization rates were observed and may warrant changes in decolonization practices.
... such diets limit your nutritional intake, can be unhealthy, and tend to fail in the long run. The key to achieving and maintaining a healthy weight isn't about short-term dietary changes. It's about a lifestyle that includes healthy eating, regular physical activity, and ...
Miller, Gregory E; Engen, Phillip A; Gillevet, Patrick M; Shaikh, Maliha; Sikaroodi, Masoumeh; Forsyth, Christopher B; Mutlu, Ece; Keshavarzian, Ali
In the United States, there are persistent and widening socioeconomic gaps in morbidity and mortality from chronic diseases. Although most disparities research focuses on person-level socioeconomic-status, mounting evidence suggest that chronic diseases also pattern by the demographic characteristics of neighborhoods. Yet the biological mechanisms underlying these associations are poorly understood. There is increasing recognition that chronic diseases share common pathogenic features, some of which involve alterations in the composition, diversity, and functioning of the gut microbiota. This study examined whether socioeconomic-status was associated with alpha-diversity of the colonic microbiota. Forty-four healthy adults underwent un-prepped sigmoidoscopy, during which mucosal biopsies and fecal samples were collected. Subjects' zip codes were geocoded, and census data was used to form a composite indicator of neighborhood socioeconomic-status, reflecting household income, educational attainment, employment status, and home value. In unadjusted analyses, neighborhood socioeconomic-status explained 12-18 percent of the variability in alpha-diversity of colonic microbiota. The direction of these associations was positive, meaning that as neighborhood socioeconomic-status increased, so did alpha-diversity of both the colonic sigmoid mucosa and fecal microbiota. The strength of these associations persisted when models were expanded to include covariates reflecting potential demographic (age, gender, race/ethnicity) and lifestyle (adiposity, alcohol use, smoking) confounds. In these models neighborhood socioeconomic-status continued to explain 11-22 percent of the variability in diversity indicators. Further analyses suggested these patterns reflected socioeconomic variations in evenness, but not richness, of microbial communities residing in the sigmoid. We also found indications that residence in neighborhoods of higher socioeconomic-status was associated with a
Pierangelo, Angelo; Manhas, Sandeep; Benali, Abdelali; Fallet, Clément; Antonelli, Maria-Rosaria; Novikova, Tatiana; Gayet, Brice; Validire, Pierre; De Martino, Antonello
Healthy human colon samples were analyzed ex vivo with a multispectral imaging Mueller polarimeter operating from 500 to 700 nm in a backscattering configuration with diffuse light illumination impinging on the innermost tissue layer, the mucosa. The intensity and polarimetric responses were taken on whole tissues first and after progressive exfoliation of the outer layers afterwards. Moreover, these measurements were carried out with two different substrates (one bright and the other dark) successively placed beneath each sample, allowing a reasonably accurate evaluation of the contributions to the overall backscattered light by the various layers. For the shorter investigated wavelengths (500 to 550 nm) the major contribution comes from mucosa and submucosa, while for the longer wavelengths (650 to 700 nm) muscular tissue and fat also contribute significantly. The depolarization has also been studied and is found to be stronger in the red part of the spectrum, mainly due to the highly depolarizing power of the muscular and fat layers.
Every person has a stake in environmental public health. As the environment deteriorates, so does the physical and mental health of the people within it. Healthy places are those designed and built to improve the quality of life for all people who live, work, worship, learn, and play within their borders -- where every person is free to make choices amid a variety of healthy, available, accessible, and affordable options. The CDC recognizes significant health issues and places that are vital in developing the Healthy Places program and provides examples in this report.
Full Text Available Antibiotic resistant and invasive pneumococci may spread temporally and locally in day care centers (DCCs. We examined 267 children attending four DCCs located in the same city and 70 children staying at home in three seasons (autumn, winter, and spring to determine prevalence, serotype distribution, antibiotic resistance patterns, and transmission of pneumococcal strains colonizing upper respiratory tract of healthy children without antipneumococcal vaccination. By pheno- and genotyping, we determined clonality of pneumococci, including drug-resistant strains. The average carriage of pneumococci in three seasons was 38.2%. 73.4% and 80.4% of the isolates belonged to serotypes present in 10- and 13-valent conjugate vaccine, respectively. Among the pneumococcal strains, 33.3% were susceptible to all antimicrobial tested and 39.2% had decreased susceptibility to penicillin. Multidrug resistance was common (35.7%; 97.5% of drug-resistant isolates represented serotypes included to 10- and 13-valent conjugate vaccine. According to BOX-PCR, clonality definitely was observed only in case of serotype 14. Multivariate analysis determined DCC attendance as strongly related to pneumococcal colonization in all three seasons, but important seasonal differences were demonstrated. In children attending DCCs, we observed dynamic turnover of pneumococcal strains, especially penicillin nonsusceptible and multidrug resistant, which were mostly distributed among serotypes included to available pneumococcal conjugate vaccines.
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This thesis deals with the influence of several types of dietary fibre on cholesterol metabolism and colonic function in young healthy subjects. Dietary fibre has been defined as those plant polysaccharides (cellulose, hemicelluloses, pectic substances) and lignin which are resistant to hydrolysis
Vento, Todd J; Cole, David W; Mende, Katrin; Calvano, Tatjana P; Rini, Elizabeth A; Tully, Charla C; Zera, Wendy C; Guymon, Charles H; Yu, Xin; Cheatle, Kristelle A; Akers, Kevin S; Beckius, Miriam L; Landrum, Michael L; Murray, Clinton K
The US military has seen steady increases in multidrug-resistant (MDR) gram-negative bacteria (GNB) infections in casualties from Iraq and Afghanistan. This study evaluates the prevalence of MDR GNB colonization in US military personnel. GNB colonization surveillance of healthy, asymptomatic military personnel (101 in the US and 100 in Afghanistan) was performed by swabbing 7 anatomical sites. US-based personnel had received no antibiotics within 30 days of specimen collection, and Afghanistan-based personnel were receiving doxycycline for malaria chemoprophylaxis at time of specimen collection. Isolates underwent genotypic and phenotypic characterization. The only colonizing MDR GNB recovered in both populations was Escherichia coli (p=0.01), which was seen in 2% of US-based personnel (all perirectal) and 11% of Afghanistan-based personnel (10 perirectal, 1 foot+groin). Individuals with higher off-base exposures in Afghanistan did not show a difference in overall GNB colonization or MDR E. coli colonization, compared with those with limited off-base exposures. Healthy US- and Afghanistan-based military personnel have community onset-MDR E. coli colonization, with Afghanistan-based personnel showing a 5.5-fold higher prevalence. The association of doxycycline prophylaxis or other exposures with antimicrobial resistance and increased rates of MDR E. coli colonization needs further evaluation.
Every person has a stake in environmental public health. As the environment deteriorates, so does the physical and mental health of the people within it. Healthy places are those designed and built to improve the quality of life for all people who live, work, worship, learn, and play within their borders -- where every person is free to make choices amid a variety of healthy, available, accessible, and affordable options. The CDC recognizes significant health issues and places that are vital in developing the Healthy Places program and provides examples in this report. Created: 4/10/2007 by CDC National Center for Environmental Health. Date Released: 4/13/2007.
Schaumburg, F.; Biallas, B.; Alabi, A. S.; Grobusch, M. P.; Feugap, E. N.; Lell, B.; Mellmann, A.; Peters, G.; Kremsner, P. G.; Becker, K.; Adegnika, A. A.
Children with sickle cell anaemia (SCA) might carry hospital-associated bacterial lineages due to frequent hospital stays and antibiotic treatments. In this study we compared Staphylococcus aureus from SCA patients (n=73) and healthy children (n=143) in a cross-sectional study in Gabon. S. aureus
different based on deployment status and exposure to an austere environment where antimalarial agents with MRSA/MSSA activity are used. However, the...adequate hygiene practices. Further, these deployments are often to geo- graphic regions that require antimalarial chemoprophy- laxis. The use of...genes. Methods Participants Two populations of healthy active duty service members (101 non-deployed personnel in San Antonio, Texas, USA and 100
... seeds; Healthy food trends - linseeds; Healthy snacks - flaxseeds; Healthy diet - flaxseeds; Wellness - flaxseeds ... of nutrition and dietetics: dietary fatty acids for healthy adults. J Acad Nutr Diet . 2014;114(1):136-153. PMID: 24342605 www. ...
Healthy Lifestyle Nutrition and healthy eating Healthy-cooking techniques capture the flavor and nutrients of food without extra fat or salt. By Mayo Clinic Staff Healthy cooking doesn't mean that ...
Cheon, Byunggyu; Moon, Sohyeon; Park, Seungjo; Lee, Sang-Kwon; Hong, Sunghwa; Cho, Hyun; Choi, Jihye
OBJECTIVE To evaluate contrast agents for their ability to improve visualization of the colon wall and lumen during CT and ultrasonography. ANIMALS 10 healthy adult Beagles. PROCEDURES Food was withheld from dogs for 36 hours, after which dogs consumed 250 mL of polyethylene glycol solution. Dogs were then anesthetized, a contrast agent (tap water, diluted barium, or air; order randomly assigned) was administered rectally, iodine contrast medium (880 mg of I/kg) was administered IV, and CT and ultrasonography of the colon were performed. After a 1-week washout period, this process was repeated with a different contrast agent until all agents had been evaluated. Two investigators reviewed the CT and ultrasonographic images for colon wall thickness, conspicuity, artifacts, wall layering, and degree of lumen dilation at 4 sites. RESULTS Thickness of the colon wall was greatest in CT and ultrasonographic images with water used as contrast agent, followed by barium and then air. The CT images obtained after water administration had a smooth appearance that outlined the colonic mucosa and had the highest score of the 3 contrast agents for wall conspicuity. Although no substantial artifacts related to any of the contrast agents were identified on CT images, barium- and gas-induced shadowing and reverberation artifacts hindered wall evaluation during ultrasonography. For ultrasonography, the degree of conspicuity was highest with barium in the near-field wall and with water in the far-field wall. In contrast to CT, ultrasonography could be used to distinguish wall layering, and the mucosal and muscular layers were distinct with all contrast agents. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Use of water as a contrast agent for both CT and ultrasonography of the colon in dogs compensated for each imaging modality's disadvantages and could be beneficial in the diagnosis of colon disease.
Venema, Koen; Vermunt, Susanne H.F.; Brink, Elizabeth J.
D-Tagatose is partly absorbed in the stomach and small intestine. Most of it is fermented by the large intestinal microbiota. The effect of D-tagatose on the composition of the microbiota and production of short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) was studied in vivo and in vitro. Gastrointestinal (GI) complaints were also studied. The in vivo study was performed according to a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, five-way cross-over design in healthy subjects (12 men and 18 women). All subjec...
Schniers, Armin; Anderssen, Endre; Fenton, Christopher Graham; Goll, Rasmus; Pasing, Yvonne; Paulssen, Ruth Hracky; Florholmen, Jon; Hansen, Terkel
The purpose of the study was to optimize the sample preparation and to further use an improved sample preparation to identify proteome differences between inflamed ulcerative colitis tissue from untreated adults and healthy controls. To optimize the sample preparation, we studied the effect of adding different detergents to a urea containing lysis buffer for a Lys-C/trypsin tandem digestion. With the optimized method, we prepared clinical samples from six ulcerative colitis patients and six healthy controls and analysed them by LC-MS/MS. We examined the acquired data to identify differences between the states. We improved the protein extraction and protein identification number by utilizing a urea and sodium deoxycholate containing buffer. Comparing ulcerative colitis and healthy tissue, we found 168 of 2366 identified proteins differently abundant. Inflammatory proteins are higher abundant in ulcerative colitis, proteins related to anion-transport and mucus production are lower abundant. A high proportion of S100 proteins is differently abundant, notably with both up-regulated and down-regulated proteins. The optimized sample preparation method will improve future proteomic studies on colon mucosa. The observed protein abundance changes and their enrichment in various groups improve our understanding of ulcerative colitis on protein level. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Capsular serotypes K1 and K2 of Klebsiella pneumoniae are thought to the major virulence determinants responsible for liver abscess. The intestine is one of the major reservoirs of K. pneumoniae, and epidemiological studies have suggested that the majority of K. pneumoniae infections are preceded by colonization of the gastrointestinal tract. The possibility of fecal-oral transmission in liver abscess has been raised on the basis of molecular typing of isolates. Data on the serotype distribution of K. pneumoniae in stool samples from healthy individuals has not been previously reported. This study investigated the seroepidemiology of K. pneumoniae isolates from the intestinal tract of healthy Chinese in Asian countries. Stool specimens from healthy adult Chinese residents of Taiwan, Japan, Hong Kong, China, Thailand, Malaysia, Singapore, and Vietnam were collected from August 2004 to August 2010 for analysis. Results Serotypes K1/K2 accounted for 9.8% of all K. pneumoniae isolates from stools in all countries. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of K1/K2 isolates among the countries excluding Thailand and Vietnam. The antimicrobial susceptibility pattern was nearly the same in K. pneumoniae isolates. The result of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis revealed no major clonal cluster of serotype K1 isolates. Conclusions The result showed that Chinese ethnicity itself might be a major factor predisposing to intestinal colonization by serotype K1/K2 K. pneumoniae isolates. The prevalent serotype K1/K2 isolates may partially correspond to the prevalence of K. pneumoniae liver abscess in Asian countries.
... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Healthy Family 2009 Assuring Healthy Aging Past Issues / Winter 2009 ... for steady, modest loss. Seek emotional support from family and friends. Expect setbacks; forgive yourself. Make physical ...
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... Thalassemia” More What can a person living with thalassemia do to stay healthy? A healthy lifestyle is ... disorder”, as well as making healthy choices. Managing Thalassemia Thalassemia is a treatable disorder that can be ...
Healthy food trends - borecole; Healthy snacks - kale; Weight loss - kale; Healthy diet - kale; Wellness - kale ... Kale is full of vitamins and minerals, including: Vitamin A Vitamin C Vitamin K If you take ...
Leite, Hianna Almeida Câmara; Silva, Anderson Barbosa; Gomes, Fábio Pinto; Gramacho, Karina Peres; Faria, José Cláudio; de Souza, Jorge Teodoro; Loguercio, Leandro Lopes
Clonal genotypes resistant to fungal diseases are an important component of the cocoa production system in southeastern Bahia state (Brazil), so that technologies for faster production of stronger and healthier plantlets are highly desirable. In this study, the effects of inoculated bacterial endophytes isolated from healthy adult cacao plants on seedlings, and aspects related to inoculation methods, colonization patterns, and photosynthesis were investigated. Sequencing of 16S rRNA, hsp-60, and rpo-B genes placed the wild-type isolates within the species Enterobacter cloacae (isolates 341 and 344) and Bacillus subtilis (isolate 629). Spontaneous rifampicin-resistant (rif(R)) variants for 344 were also produced and tested. Endophytic application was either by immersion of surface sterilized seeds in bacterial suspensions or direct inoculation into soil, 20 days after planting non-inoculated seeds into pots. Results from in vitro recovery of inoculated isolates showed that the wild-type endophytes and rif(R) variants systemically colonized the entire cacao seedlings in 15-20 days, regardless of the inoculation method. Some endophytic treatments showed significant increases in seedlings' height, number of leaves, and dry matter. Inoculation methods affected the combined application of endophytes, which maintained the growth-promotion effects, but not in the same manner as in single applications. Interestingly, the 344-3.2 rif(R) variant showed improved performance in relation to both the wild type and another related variant. Photosynthetic rates and stomatal conductance increased significantly for some endophytic treatments, being partially associated with effects on growth and affected by the inoculation method. The results suggest that E. cloacae and B. subtilis endophytes from healthy adult plants (not transmitted by seeds) were able to promote vegetative growth on cacao seedlings. The development of products for large-scale use in seedlings
Hiroz, P; Schlageter, V; Givel, J-C; Kucera, P
The Magnet Tracking System (MTS) is a minimally-invasive technique of continuous evaluation of gastrointestinal motility. In this study, MTS was used to analyse colonic propulsive dynamics and compare the transit of a magnetic pill with that of standard radio-opaque markers. MTS monitors the progress in real time of a magnetic pill through the gut. Ten men and 10 women with regular daily bowel movements swallowed this pill and 10 radio-opaque markers at 8 pm. Five hours of recordings were conducted during 2 following mornings. Origin, direction, amplitude and velocity of movements were analysed relative to space-time plots of the pill trajectory. Abdominal radiographs were taken to compare the progress of both pill and markers. The magnetic pill lay idle for 90% of its sojourn in the colon; its total retrograde displacement accounted for only 20% of its overall movement. Analysis of these movements showed a bimodal distribution of velocities: around 1.5 and 50 cm min(-1), the latter being responsible for 2/3 of distance traversed. There were more movements overall and more mass movements in males. Net hourly forward progress was greater in the left than right colon, and greater in males. The position of the magnetic pill correlated well with the advancement of markers. MTS showed patterns and propulsion dynamics of colonic segments with as yet unmet precision. Detailed analysis of slow and fast patterns of colonic progress makes it possible to specify the motility of colonic segments, and any variability in gender. Such analysis opens up promising avenues in studies of motility disorders.
Beamer, May A; Austin, Michele N; Avolia, Hilary A; Meyn, Leslie A; Bunge, Katherine E; Hillier, Sharon L
The vaginal microbiota of 36 white versus 25 black asymptomatic women were compared using both cultivation-dependent and -independent identification. Significant differences by race were found in colonization and density of bacterial species. However, exclusion of 12 women with bacterial vaginosis by Nugent criteria resulted in no significant differences by race. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
... important that you: Don’t smoke or drink alcohol. Eat healthy foods and get enough folic acid. Stay active. Take ... Learn more: Pregnant? Don’t Smoke! Quit Smoking Alcohol Use in Pregnancy Next ... 7 of 11 sections Take Action: Eat Healthy and Stay Active Eat healthy foods. Making healthy food choices during pregnancy can help ...
Di Stefano, A F D; Radicioni, M M; Vaccani, A; Fransioli, A; Longo, L; Moro, L; Repici, A
Methylene blue-MMX® tablets are proposed as an aid for detection and visualisation of adenomas and carcinomas in patients undergoing colonoscopy, by improving their detection rate and highlighting the presence of the intestinal dysplastic lesions. Single total doses of 100 and 200 mg were administered to healthy volunteers undergoing a bowel cleansing preparation and a full colonoscopy to investigate the colonic staining. The pharmacokinetics of methylene blue and the safety after exposure to the tablets were also investigated. With 200 mg, the best staining, assessed as the sum of acceptable and good staining, was achieved in the ascending colon and rectosigmoid (75% subjects each), the transverse and the descending colon (approximately 63% each). Absence of staining or overstaining were reported for no colonic region of interest in any subject. Similar results were observed in the 100 mg dose group. Methylene blue blood concentrations reached a peak (C max ) in a median time (T max ) of 12 h with 100 mg and 16 h with 200 mg. AUC 0-t was 10.7 ± 6.7 μg/mLxh after 100 mg and 25.2 ± 7.4 μg/mLxh after 200 mg. Half-life ranged between 9 and 22 h after the lower dose and between 6 and 26 h after the higher dose. The cumulative excretion was about 28% after 100 mg and about 39% after 200 mg. The overall frequency of adverse events was 39%, but only one was related to the product: abnormal transaminases. The most frequent adverse event was a transient polyuria (17%). One serious adverse event (gastrointestinal haemorrhage) led the subject to study discontinuation and hospitalisation and another subject withdrew the study due to one adverse event (haematemesis). Either event was not related to methylene blue. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Power, Krista A; Lepp, Dion; Zarepoor, Leila; Monk, Jennifer M; Wu, Wenqing; Tsao, Rong; Liu, Ronghua
Understanding how dietary components alter the healthy baseline colonic microenvironment is important in determining their roles in influencing gut health and gut-associated diseases. Dietary flaxseed (FS) has demonstrated anti-colon cancer effects in numerous rodent models, however, exacerbated acute colonic mucosal injury and inflammation in a colitis model. This study investigates whether FS alters critical aspects of gut health in healthy unchallenged mice, which may help explain some of the divergent effects observed following different gut-associated disease challenges. Four-week-old C57Bl/6 male mice were fed an AIN-93G basal diet (BD) or an isocaloric BD+10% ground FS diet for 3 weeks. FS enhanced colon goblet cell density, mucus production, MUC2 mRNA expression, and cecal short chain fatty acid levels, indicative of beneficial intestinal barrier integrity responses. Additionally, FS enhanced colonic regenerating islet-derived protein 3 gamma (RegIIIγ) and reduced MUC1 and resistin-like molecule beta (RELMβ) mRNA expression which may indicate altered responses in regulating microbial defense and injury repair responses. FS diet altered the fecal microbial community structure (16S rRNA gene profiling), including a 20-fold increase in Prevotella spp. and a 30-fold reduction in Akkermansia muciniphila abundance. A 10-fold reduction in A. muciniphila abundance by FS was also demonstrated in the colon tissue-associated microbiota (quantitative PCR). Furthermore, fecal branched chain fatty acids were increased by FS, indicative of increased microbial-derived putrefactive compounds. In conclusion, consumption of a FS-supplemented diet alters the baseline colonic microenvironment of healthy mice which may modify subsequent mucosal microbial defense and injury-repair responses leading to altered susceptibility to different gut-associated diseases. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
... for restoring areas with degraded water quality, as well as protecting healthy waters from emerging problems before expensive damages occur. ... exclusively on restoring impaired waters, EPA created the Healthy ... more emphasis to proactively protecting high quality waters, following the ...
... prevent voice problems and maintain a healthy voice: Drink water (stay well hydrated): Keeping your body well hydrated by drinking plenty of water each day (6-8 glasses) is essential to maintaining a healthy voice. The ...
understanding of adolescent healthy eating. Based on this, the thesis presents three research questions which are investigated in three research papers. The research questions are: 1. Which roles do parents and adolescents have in healthy eating socialisation? 2. How does the social influence from parents...... and family members’ roles regarding healthy eating socialisation is underexposed, the study aimed at exploring adolescents’ and parents’ awareness of and involvement in healthy eating and investigated how they related it to their roles in the healthy eating socialisation taking place within the family...... or a cooperative one helping parents. Parents initiated dialogues with family members about healthy eating and felt responsible as role models often fulfilling the adolescents’ demands and acknowledging their help. The findings confirm that parents still have the upper hand, when it comes to healthy eating...
Scanlan Pauline D
Full Text Available Abstract Background The incidence and diversity of human methanogens are insufficiently characterised in the gastrointestinal tract of both health and disease. A PCR and clone library methodology targeting the mcrA gene was adopted to facilitate the two-fold aim of surveying the relative incidence of methanogens in health and disease groups and also to provide an overview of methanogen diversity in the human gastrointestinal tract. Results DNA faecal extracts (207 in total from a group of healthy controls and five gastrointestinal disease groups were investigated. Colorectal cancer, polypectomised, irritable bowel syndrome and the control group had largely equivalent numbers of individuals positive for methanogens (range 45–50%. Methanogen incidence in the inflammatory bowel disease groups was reduced, 24% for ulcerative colitis and 30% for Crohn's disease. Four unique mcrA gene restriction fragment length polymorphism profiles were identified and bioinformatic analyses revealed that the majority of all sequences (94% retrieved from libraries were 100% identical to Methanobrevibacter smithii mcrA gene. In addition, mcrA gene sequences most closely related to Methanobrevibacter oralis and members of the order Methanosarcinales were also recovered. Conclusion The mcrA gene serves as a useful biomarker for methanogen detection in the human gut and the varying trends of methanogen incidence in the human gut could serve as important indicators of intestinal function. Although Methanobrevibacter smithii is the dominant methanogen in both the distal colon of individuals in health and disease, the diversity of methanogens is greater than previously reported. In conclusion, the low incidence of methanogens in Inflammatory Bowel Disease, the functionality of the methanogens and impact of methane production in addition to competitive interactions between methanogens and other microbial groups in the human gastrointestinal tract warrants further
This is a review article on "Healthy Cities". The Healthy Cities programme has been developed by the World Health Organization (WHO) to tackle urban health and environmental issues in a broad way. It is a kind of comprehensive policy package to carry out individual projects and activities effectively and efficiently. Its key aspects include healthy public policy, vision sharing, high political commitment, establishment of structural organization, strategic health planning, intersectoral collaboration, community participation, setting approach, development of supportive environment for health, formation of city health profile, national and international networking, participatory research, periodic monitoring and evaluation, and mechanisms for sustainability of projects. The present paper covered the Healthy Cities concept and approaches, rapid urbanization in the world, developments of WHO Healthy Cities, Healthy Cities developments in the Western Pacific Region, the health promotion viewpoint, and roles of research.
Griera Borrás, José Luis; Contreras Gilbert, José
It is currently postulated that not all obese individuals have to be considered as pathological subjects. From 10% to 20% of obese people studied do not show the metabolic changes common in obese patients. The term "healthy obese" has been coined to refer to these patients and differentiate them from the larger and more common group of pathological obese subjects. However, the definition of "healthy obese" is not clear. Use of "healthy obese" as a synonym for obese without metabolic complications is risky. Clinical markers such as insulin resistance are used to identify this pathology. It is not clear that healthy obese subjects have lower morbidity and mortality than pathologically obese patients. According to some authors, healthy obese would represent an early stage in evolution towards pathological obesity. There is no agreement as to the need to treat healthy obese subjects. Copyright © 2012 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Ball, Stephen; Kovarik, Jessica; Leidy, Heather
The Active and Healthy School Program (AHS) can be used to alter the culture and environment of a school to help children make healthier choices. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of AHS to increase physical activity while decreasing total screen time, increase healthy food choices, and improve knowledge about physical…
Manrique, Pilar; Bolduc, Benjamin; Walk, Seth T.; Oost, van der John; Vos, de Willem M.; Young, Mark J.
The role of bacteriophages in influencing the structure and function of the healthy human gut microbiome is unknown. With few exceptions, previous studies have found a high level of heterogeneity in bacteriophages from healthy individuals. To better estimate and identify the shared phageome of
Guldborg Hansen, Pelle; Skov, Laurits Rohden; Lund Skov, Katrine
. However, integration and testing of the nudge approach as part of more comprehensive public health strategies aimed at making healthy choices easier is being threatened by inadequate understandings of its scientific character, relationship with regulation and its ethical implications. This article reviews...... working with or incorporating the nudge approach into programs or policies aimed at making healthy choices easier...
In February 2017, seven partners signed a contract to collaborate on a project called the Healthy Workplace. Measuremen, Menzis, Health2Work, ENGIE, Planon, and Hanzehogeschool Groningen are dedicated to make the regular workplace a healthy workplace. Health is of primary importance for both the
Cristobal, Alba; van den Toorn, Henk W P; van de Wetering, Marc; Clevers, Hans; Heck, Albert J R; Mohammed, Shabaz
Diseases at the molecular level are complex and patient dependent, necessitating development of strategies that enable precision treatment to optimize clinical outcomes. Organoid technology has recently been shown to have the potential to recapitulate the in vivo characteristics of the original individual's tissue in a three-dimensional in vitro culture system. Here, we present a quantitative mass-spectrometry-based proteomic analysis and a comparative transcriptomic analysis of human colorectal tumor and healthy organoids derived, in parallel, from seven patients. Although gene and protein signatures can be derived to distinguish the tumor organoid population from healthy organoids, our data clearly reveal that each patient possesses a distinct organoid signature at the proteomic level. We demonstrate that a personalized patient-specific organoid proteome profile can be related to the diagnosis of a patient and with future development contribute to the generation of personalized therapies. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Jaundice in Healthy Newborns KidsHealth / For Parents / Jaundice in ... within a few days of birth. Types of Jaundice The most common types of jaundice are: Physiological ( ...
... Nutrition Cooking for Health Food for Thought: Heart-healthy Diet is Also Good For Your Brain Physical Activity Get Moving and Boost Your Brain Power Understanding Risky Conditions Converging Risk Factors for Stroke ...
... skin. If you’re helping out in the kitchen, make sure you use hot pads or wear ... in humans, plants, and animals, while others are essential for a healthy life. Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes) ( ...
... maintain a healthy weight. Try brisk walking, jogging, biking, swimming or water aerobics. If you're a ... as dancing and gardening, also can improve your health. Whatever you choose, take time to warm up ...
Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — A dataset that shows trips taken using the Healthy Ride system by quarter. The dataset includes bike number, membership type, trip start and end timestamp, and...
Without healthy conflict management skills, conflict can often escalate or intensify over time. This fact sheet gives tips on utilizing key negotiation skills to help individuals effectively address and cope with conflict and potentially build stronger relationships with others.
Pirzadeh, Asiyeh; Sharifirad, Gholamreza; Kamran, Aziz
Introduction: The role of individual healthy behaviors like physical activity, nutrition and stress management on reduction of rate of disease mortality and morbidity is well known. The aim of this study is to determine healthy life style in teachers employed in district No.4 in Isfahan, Iran, in 2010. Materials and Methods: The participants of this cross-sectional study were 96 teachers in district No. 4, selected via random sampling method. The data collection was performed using a question...
Manrique, Pilar; Bolduc, Benjamin; Walk, Seth T; van der Oost, John; de Vos, Willem M; Young, Mark J
The role of bacteriophages in influencing the structure and function of the healthy human gut microbiome is unknown. With few exceptions, previous studies have found a high level of heterogeneity in bacteriophages from healthy individuals. To better estimate and identify the shared phageome of humans, we analyzed a deep DNA sequence dataset of active bacteriophages and available metagenomic datasets of the gut bacteriophage community from healthy individuals. We found 23 shared bacteriophages in more than one-half of 64 healthy individuals from around the world. These shared bacteriophages were found in a significantly smaller percentage of individuals with gastrointestinal/irritable bowel disease. A network analysis identified 44 bacteriophage groups of which 9 (20%) were shared in more than one-half of all 64 individuals. These results provide strong evidence of a healthy gut phageome (HGP) in humans. The bacteriophage community in the human gut is a mixture of three classes: a set of core bacteriophages shared among more than one-half of all people, a common set of bacteriophages found in 20-50% of individuals, and a set of bacteriophages that are either rarely shared or unique to a person. We propose that the core and common bacteriophage communities are globally distributed and comprise the HGP, which plays an important role in maintaining gut microbiome structure/function and thereby contributes significantly to human health.
Berglund, B.; Lindvall, T.; Maansson, L.G.
The Healthy Buildings '88 Conference focuses on the technical solutions and functional requirements contributing to Healthy Buildings for people to live and work in. The main object of the Conference is to give architects, consultants, real-estate owners and manufacturers of building materials recommendations on choice of materials and choice of systems and on how to combine materials and systems. The program includes overview lectures, plenary symposia with invited speakers, workshops, poster presentations and an exhibition of scientific, educational and technical material. One part of the conference is devoted to the problem of radon in residential buildings
de Gunzburg, Jean; Ducher, Annie; Modess, Christiane; Wegner, Danilo; Oswald, Stefan; Dressman, Jennifer; Augustin, Violaine; Feger, Céline; Andremont, Antoine; Weitschies, Werner; Siegmund, Werner
During antibiotic treatments, active residuals reaching the colon profoundly affect the bacterial flora resulting in the emergence of resistance. To prevent these effects, we developed an enteric-coated formulated activated-charcoal based product, DAV132, meant to deliver its adsorbent to the ileum and neutralize antibiotic residues in the proximal colon. In a randomized, control, crossover study, the plasma pharmacokinetics of the probe drugs amoxicillin (500 mg) absorbed in the proximal intestine, and sulfapyridine (25 mg) metabolized from sulfasalazine in the cecum and rapidly absorbed, were compared after a single administration in 18 healthy subjects who had received DAV132, uncoated formulated activated charcoal (FAC) or water 16 and 8 hours before, concomitantly with the probe drugs, and 8 hours thereafter. The AUC0-96 h of amoxicillin was reduced by more than 70% when it was taken with FAC, but bioequivalent when it was taken with water or DAV132. By contrast, the AUC0-96 h of sulfapyridine was reduced by more than 90% when administered with either FAC or DAV132 in comparison with water. The results show that DAV132 can selectively adsorb drug compounds in the proximal colon, without interfering with drug absorption in the proximal small intestine, thereby constituting a proof of concept that DAV132 actually functions in humans. © 2014, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.
Clemens, C. H. M.; Samsom, M.; van Berge Henegouwen, G. P.; Fabri, M.; Smout, A. J. P. M.
BACKGROUND: Alosetron is a 5-hydroxytryptamine-3 receptor antagonist reducing symptoms in female patients with diarrhoea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome, and is known to increase the colonic transit time. AIM: To study the effect of alosetron on left colonic phasic motility in ambulant
Pirzadeh, Asiyeh; Sharifirad, Gholamreza; Kamran, Aziz
The role of individual healthy behaviors like physical activity, nutrition and stress management on reduction of rate of disease mortality and morbidity is well known. The aim of this study is to determine healthy life style in teachers employed in district No.4 in Isfahan, Iran, in 2010. The participants of this cross-sectional study were 96 teachers in district No. 4, selected via random sampling method. The data collection was performed using a questionnaire including demographic healthy lifestyle questions. Analysis of the data was performed through Software SPSS version 18. The mean age of the subjects was 40.26 ± 6.05 years and, BMI mean was 25.08 ± 3.20. 96.8% of them were married and 3.1% also were single. 1% of the teachers had a weak lifestyle, 13.5%had moderate, 85.4% had a good lifestyle. In terms of nutrition, 2% of the teachers had a weak lifestyle, 23% moderate, 74% good. 76% in terms of physical activity, 29.2% smoking and 21.9% stress had a weak lifestyle. According to the results, planning for teachers in school for receiving information about healthy lifestyle is important.
... and beverages, such as some yogurts and juices. Foods and Beverages to Limit To keep weight in check at ... helps with weight control, muscle strength and stress management. Reviewed April 2018 Tags Food Health Nutrition Wellness Dietary Guidelines and MyPlate Healthy ...
International travel is usually very safe but there are things you should do to stay safe and healthy. Experts show you how to avoid problems when visiting developing nations. This includes being cautious about the food you eat and the water you drink, and to be aware of vehicles and road conditions to prevent problems.
You are what you eat—and so is your baby. In addition to being smokefree, eating well during pregnancy is one of the best and most important things you can do for yourself and your baby. But healthy “eating for two” is more than just eating more.
Full Text Available Abstract Uncomplicate regurgitation in otherwise healthy infants is not a disease. It consists of milk flow from mouth during or after feeding. Common causes include overfeeding, air swallowed during feeding, crying or coughing; physical exam is normal and weight gain is adequate. History and physical exam are diagnostic, and conservative therapy is recommended. Pathologic gastroesophageal reflux or gastroesophageal reflux disease refers to infants with regurgitation and vomiting associated with poor weight gain, respiratory symptoms, esophagitis. Reflux episodes occur most often during transient relaxations of the lower esophageal sphincter unaccompanied by swallowing, which permit gastric content to flow into the esophagus. A minor proportion of reflux episodes occurs when the lower esophageal sphincter fails to increase pressure during a sudden increase in intraabdominal pressure or when lower esophageal sphincter resting pressure is chronically reduced. Alterations in several protective mechanisms allow physiologic reflux to become gastroesophageal reflux disease; diagnostic approach is both clinical and instrumental: radiological series are useful to exclude anatomic abnormalities; pH-testing evaluates the quantity, frequency and duration of the acid reflux episodes; endoscopy and biopsy are performed in the case of esophagitis. Therapy with H2 receptor antagonists and proton pump inhibitors are suggested.
Rodrigues, Ana Catarina; Belas, Adriana; Marques, Cátia; Cruz, Luís; Gama, Luís T; Pomba, Constança
Methicillin-resistant staphylococci (MRS), namely Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP), are opportunistic agents of great importance in human and veterinary medicine. The aims of this study were to investigate the frequency, persistence, and risk factors associated with nasal colonization by MRS in people in daily contact with animals in Portugal. Seventy-nine out of 129 (61.2%) participants were found to be colonized by, at least, one methicillin-resistant (MR) staphylococci species (MR Staphylococcus epidermidis [n = 68], MRSA [n = 19], MR Staphylococcus haemolyticus [n = 7], MRSP [n = 2], and other coagulase-negative staphylococci [n = 4]). Three lineages were identified among the MRSA isolates (n = 7): the major human healthcare clone in Portugal (ST22-t032-IV, n = 3), the livestock-associated MRSA (ST398-t108-V, n = 3), and the New York-/Japan-related clone (ST105-t002-II, n = 1). MRSP isolates belonged to the European clone ST71-II-III. We identified two risk factors for nasal colonization by MRS in healthy humans: (i) being a veterinary professional (veterinarian and veterinary nurse) (p < 0.0001, odds ratio [OR] = 6.369, 95% confidence interval [CI, 2.683-15.122]) and (ii) have contacted with one MRSA- or MRSP-positive animal (p = 0.0361, OR = 2.742, 95% CI [1.067-7.045]). The follow-up study revealed that the majority (85%) remain colonized. This study shows that MRS in veterinary clinical practice is a professional hazard and highlights the need to implement preventive measures to minimize spread.
Bruselius-Jensen, Maria Louisa; Egberg Mikkelsen, Bent
". This paper highlights the role that the organisation of food provision plays by comparing the attitudes of students towards in-school food provision as opposed to out-of-school provision where food is provided by outside caterers. Schools having internal food production and schools having external food...... operated catering seems to have a negative effect on the social and cultural structures and functions related to the meal during lunchtime. Having meals in schools where external caterers are employed is experienced as an individual act by the students in comparison with schools having internal catering......Unhealthy eating are common among adolescents and the school is a well suited setting for promoting healthy eating. For the school to play a role here, however an environment must be created, in which the school and the students develop a sense of ownership for a healthy food and nutrition "regime...
Fernández Gómez, Erika; Díaz-Campo, Jesús
International audience; The goal of this research was to analyse the advertising of food broadcast by the two Spanish private thematic channels aimed at children with more audience in Spain (Neox and Boing). A content analysis was made in order to study the commercials showed during the hours of children’s enhanced protection established by the normative of this country. The paper presents the increasing concern about kids´ obesity and the role of food industry. Healthy lifestyles are promote...
Contini, Caterina; Casini, Leonardo; Stancu, Violeta
Authorising new health claims in Europe will favour the diffusion on the market of a greater number of foods with health claims. This scenario presents new opportunities to promote healthy food choices and launches new challenges to define strategies aimed at promoting products on the market...... sensitive of health claims and to characterise them with respect to the rest of the population. The results supply insights for the development of more targeted health promotion campaigns, as well as for actions in food marketing....
International travel is usually very safe but there are things you should do to stay safe and healthy. Experts show you how to avoid problems when visiting developing nations. This includes being cautious about the food you eat and the water you drink, and to be aware of vehicles and road conditions to prevent problems. Created: 2/8/2010 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Disease (NCEZID). Date Released: 2/8/2010.
Kushner, Jodi; Ruffin, Tasha
This article provides frontline nurses a tool kit so they can advocate a healthy practice environment. The healthy nurse, healthy work hours, job satisfaction, adequate sleep, power naps at work, and balancing family/work are discussed. The overweight nurse, nurse fatigue, compassion fatigue, shift work sleep disorder, and role strain are discussed as barriers to a healthy practice environment. Case reports with analysis and recommendations are discussed to overcome these barriers. Resources are presented for frontline nurses to develop a tool kit for transforming their environment to a healthy practice environment and to empower them to become healthy nurses. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Asymtomatic carriage of Neisseria meningitidis and Neisseria lactamica in relation to Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae colonization in healthy children: Apropos of 1400 children sampled
Bakir, Mustafa; Yagci, Aysegul; Ulger, Nurver; Akbenlioglu, Cengiz; Ilki, Arzu; Soyletir, Guner
Meningococcal disease is one of the most important causes of morbidity and mortality among children in many parts of the world. Main reservoir of carriage and site of meningococcal dissemination appears to be the upper respiratory tract. Colonization of Neisseria meningitidis and lactamica and factors affecting this carriage were determined in a group of healthy children aged 0-10 years. Meningococcus and N. lactamica carriage were detected in 17 (1.23%) and 245 (17.7%) of 1382 subjects, respectively. Number (%) of serogroups for meningococci was 1 (6), 5 (29), 0 (0), 1 (6), 1 (6), and 9 (53) for A, B, C, D, W135, and Y, respectively. Having more than three household members, elementary school attendance, pharyngeal carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae were associated with carriage of meningococci, whereas age less than 24-month was associated with carriage of N. lactamica. There was a reverse carriage rate between N. meningitidis and N. lactamica by age which may suggest a possible protective role of N. lactamica against meningococcal colonization among pre-school children
Szweda, Magdalena; Szarek, Józef; Dublan, Krystyna; Męcik-Kronenberg, Tomasz; Kiełbowicz, Zdzisław; Bigoszewski, Marcin
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may cause gastrointestinal damage in dogs. To determine the extent to which lansoprazole, liquorice extract, and a herbal solution exhibit protective effects on colonic mucosa when administered to dogs concurrently with the NSAIDs carprofen or robenacoxib. Thirty-five healthy beagle dogs (15 male and 20 female) aged 13-14 weeks and weighing 4.3-5.5 kg at the beginning of the experiment were included. Endoscopy and biopsy of the caudal gastrointestinal tract were performed pretreatment and on the last day of a 21-day treatment period with (1) oral carprofen; (2) carprofen and the proton-pump inhibitor lansoprazole; (3) carprofen, liquorice extract, and a herbal solution that contained extracts of thyme, icelandic lichen, hyssop, and saponariae root; (4) robenacoxib; (5) robenacoxib and lansoprazole; (6) robenacoxib, liquorice extract, and herbal solution; or (7) an empty gelatin capsule. Statistical analyses were performed with the Kruskal-Wallis, Cochran's Q, and chi-squared test with p carprofen and robenacoxib tested damaged the colonic mucosa with most severe microscopic lesions following administration of robenacoxib with lansoprazole. The risk of histopathological lesions in the colon increased most rapidly in robenacoxib with lansoprazole (absolute risk increase -0.85) similar to robenacoxib only (-0.75), whereas the best result was recorded following the plant remedies together with carprofen (-0.15) and the plant remedies together with robenacoxib (-0.2). Concurrent administration of liquorice extract and an herbal solution with robenacoxib was associated with decreased severity of the NSAID-induced mucosal lesions.
... Medical Professionals En Español Publications, Data, & Statistics Healthy Swimming Resources Health Promotion Materials Find Your State Training & ... Announcements Outbreak Response Toolkits CDC at Work: Healthy Swimming Fast Facts Index of Water-Related Topics Model ...
This podcast highlights the evidence that supports the link between healthy eating and improved academic achievement. It also identifies a few actions to support a healthy school nutrition environment to improve academic achievement.
... 2018 Print this issue Health Capsule Healthy Habits Can Lengthen Life Send us your comments Physical activity is one of five healthy lifestyle factors that can lower your risk for several diseases and lengthen ...
Additives are used for improving food structure or preventing its spoilage, for example. Many substances used as additives are also naturally present in food. The safety of additives is evaluated according to commonly agreed principles. If high concentrations of an additive cause adverse health effects for humans, a limit of acceptable daily intake (ADI) is set for it. An additive is a risk only when ADI is exceeded. The healthiness of food is measured on the basis of nutrient density and scientifically proven effects.
... out of your control, you can make positive lifestyle changes to lose weight and to maintain a healthy weight. These include a healthy eating plan and being more physically active. Take the Challenge When it comes to aiming for a healthy ...
... with no breaks in the surface. It is warm (not hot or red) and neither dry and flaky nor moist and wrinkled. Healthy skin is a mirror of a healthy body. How to take care of your skin NUTRITION: To keep your skin healthy, eat a well- ...
Quintero-Corzo, Josefina; Munévar-Molina, Raúl A; Munévar-Quintero, Fabio I
Objective To determine factors that characterizes school environments and their relationship with student learning, welfare and health. Method This is a case study supported by a comprehensive qualitative paradigm applied to classroom ecology. The fieldwork was carried out in six public schools for students in economic strata one and two that use computers in virtual classrooms. The information was collected through field journals, film recordings, observation, and recordings of interviews. The information was analyzed by categories in open general and focused cycles. Results The virtual era has enriched the debate about the importance of the environment in pedagogical processes. Nonetheless, the emergence of new diseases is a risk which students are exposed to. Pollution and overcrowding factors prevail in traditional classroom activities, while in the computer rooms the environment is healthier. Hence the need to incorporate these issues into the curriculum reforms and action plans to guide healthy living of schoolchildren and their families. Despite budget constraints, innovative ideas and projects were found. Schools have developed free preventive and corrective strategies such as workshops, talks and lectures by invited specialists, trainees, and students writing theses. They have also introduced controlled Internet access. Conclusion The educational community understands that the concept of health is at the heart of a comprehensive concept of education. In addition, classroom ecology has determining implications for learning and living together in pleasant and healthy environments that are incorporated into institutional educational projects.
Firmesse, Olivier; Alvaro, Elise; Mogenet, Agnès; Bresson, Jean-Louis; Lemée, Riwanon; Le Ruyet, Pascale; Bonhomme, Cécile; Lambert, Denis; Andrieux, Claude; Doré, Joël; Corthier, Gérard; Furet, Jean-Pierre; Rigottier-Gois, Lionel
The objective of this study was to determine i) if Camembert cheese micro-organisms could be detected in fecal samples after regular consumption by human subjects and ii) the consequence of this consumption on global metabolic activities of the host colonic microbiota. An open human protocol was designed where 12 healthy volunteers were included: a 2-week period of fermented products exclusion followed by a 4-weeks Camembert ingestion period where 2x40 g/day of Camembert cheese was consumed. Stools were collected from the volunteers before consumption, twice during the ingestion period (2nd and 4th week) and once after a wash out period of 2 weeks. During the consumption of Camembert cheese, high levels of Lactococcus lactis and Leuconostoc mesenteroides were measured in fecal samples using real-time quantitative PCR, reaching median values of 8.2 and 7.5 Log(10) genome equivalents/g of stool. For Ln. mesenteroides, persistence was observed 15 days after the end of Camembert consumption. The survival of Geotrichum candidum was also assessed and the fecal concentration reached a median level of 7.1 Log(10) CFU/g in stools. Except a decreasing trend of the nitrate reductase activity, no significant modification was shown in the metabolic activities during this study.
Chan, Kara; Prendergast, Gerard; Gronhoj, Alice; Bech-Larsen, Tino
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore Chinese adolescents' perceptions of healthy eating, their perceptions of various socializing agents shaping their eating habits, and their opinions about various regulatory measures which might be imposed to encourage healthy eating. Design/methodology/approach: Four focus group interview sessions…
Sproesser, Gudrun; Klusmann, Verena; Schupp, Harald T; Renner, Britta
The present study investigated people's perception of their own as compared to their peers' healthy eating and related these perceptions to actual healthy eating, BMI, and subsequent healthy eating behavior. Data were collected within the framework of the longitudinal cohort study Konstanz Life Study (T1: N = 770; T2: N = 510). Our results demonstrated an optimistic bias on the group level. Specifically, people rated their own eating behavior as healthier on average than that of their average peers. This comparative optimism occurred even when actual healthy eating was unfavorable and BMI was high. However, it increased with actual healthy eating behavior. Importantly, optimistic perceptions were positively related to the intention to eat healthily and healthy eating six months later. Hence, the results suggest that an optimistic comparative view of one's own healthy eating is grounded in reality and boosts rather than deters subsequent health behavior. This implies that there might not be a need to reduce optimistic perceptions of healthy eating behavior. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Healthy Lifestyle Nutrition and healthy eating By Mayo Clinic Staff If you're like most adults, caffeine is a part of ... US adults: 2001-2010. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2015;101:1081. 2015-2020 Dietary Guidelines for ...
This thesis is focused on healthy lifestyle. It concentrates specifically on impact on human health and which lifestyle lives Czech population. This work summarizes the principles of helathy lifestyle and reveals lifestyles of Czech people with market segmentation and MML-TGI data in the practical part. This can help firms in targeting and addressing people within healthy lifestyle.
... and SCI • Depression and SCI • Taking Care of Pressure Sores • Maintaining Healthy Skin (Part I) • Maintaining Healthy Skin ( ... For information on establishing skin tolerance, see our “Pressure Sores” pamphlet.) Pressure releases in a wheelchair can be ...
This podcast highlights the evidence that supports the link between healthy eating and improved academic achievement. It also identifies a few actions to support a healthy school nutrition environment to improve academic achievement. Created: 12/9/2014 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP). Date Released: 12/9/2014.
Izumi-Taylor, Satomi; Rike, Cheryl
Toddlers--from about 16 to 36 months--can learn a variety of skills as they prepare food and follow recipes in developmentally appropriate ways. Early childhood teachers are encouraged to support young children's healthy eating habits by offering simple food preparation experiences. When toddlers--and preschoolers--safely prepare healthy snacks,…
Bassett-Gunter, Rebecca; Yessis, Jennifer; Manske, Steve; Gleddie, Doug
Background and context: Healthy school communities aim to optimise student health and educational achievement. Various models, terms and resources have been used to describe healthy school communities. Policy makers and practitioners have reported confusion around many of the key concepts involved because of the varying models and terms.…
Lin, Phylis Lan
The reason for studying the characteristics of a healthy family is to encourage and strengthen the family and to move toward an enriched family life by using the characteristics as bench marks. Six characteristics are discussed as the essence of a healthy family: (1) commitment; (2) togetherness; (3) appreciation; (4) good communication; (5)…
Full Text Available The genera Malassezia and Candida include yeasts which are members of the normal mycobiota of the skin and mucosal sites of humans and other warm-blooded animals. These yeasts are associated with a variety of dermatological disorders and also systemic diseases in humans and other animals. This study confirms the occurrence of Malassezia and Candida species in healthy dogs. Samples were collected from different body sites: external ear canal, interdigital area, skin of the axilla and of the neck, and the oral and rectal mucosae. The isolates were identified using phenotypic methods (biochemical-physiological and morphological characteristics. The presence of yeasts were investigated in the specimens from 70 healthy dogs. Malassezia species were isolated in 44 dogs from which 84 Malassezia isolates were obtained. Only one Candida isolate was obtained from the dogs examined. It was found that Candida does not occur in dogs normally and Malassezia was the main colonizing yeast in healthy dogs.
Apr 26, 2016 ... ... restricting sales of unhealthy food and drink in the vicinity of schools, and ... Read the full story of change: Caribbean health: Healthy children, ... the Caribbean by the Canadian International Food Security Research Fund, ...
Thunström, Linda; Nordström, Leif Jonas; Shogren, Jason
Menu labelling of meals prepared away from home is a policy designed to help consumers make healthier food choices. In this paper we use a field experiment in Sweden to examine if a restaurant benefits from introducing a meal labelled as healthy on its menu by experiencing an overall increase...... in sales. We cannot reject the hypothesis that sales are the same before and after the introduction of a meal labelled as healthy on the menu, i.e. our data does not support the idea that restaurants increase their sales from supplying a meal labelled as healthy....
Mariante, Afonso Ravanello
Full Text Available Introduction: The nasosinusal microbiology of healthy individuals is not much documented. Its knowledge allows to determine the nasosinusal colonizing agents and to monitor the patterns of bacterial resistance. Objective: To evaluate the microbiology of the middle meatus in healthy individuals and to compare it with that of patients with chronic rhinosinusitis. Method: 61 healthy individuals were included. The samples were collected under endoscopic view and Gram stained with leucocytes count and aerobic, anaerobic and fungus cultures. 114 patients with chronic rhinosinusitis formed the control group. Results: In healthy individuals 58 microorganisms were isolated. The most frequent ones were coagulase-negative Staphylococcus, Staphylococcus and Corynebacterium. Fungi were cultivated in 10%. There were rare or no white blood cells in all samples. There was penicillin resistance in 75% of the Staphylococcus aureus and 69% of the coagulase-negative Staphylococcus. As for oxacillin, 100% of Staphylococcus aureus and 92% of coagulase-negative Staphylococcus were sensitive. In the control group 158 microorganisms were cultivated. The most common ones were Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative Staphylococcus. Gram-negatives represented 26% of the aerobics. 73% of the samples with positive cultures presented a few or many white blood cells. Conclusion: Rare or no white blood cell, coagulase-negative Staphylococcus and Corynebacterium were more frequent in healthy individuals and Streptococcus pneumoniae, anaerobics and oxacillin resistant coagulase-negative Staphylococcus and Gram-negative were more frequent in the control group.
... For Teens: How to Make Healthy Decisions About Sex Page Content Article Body Before you decide to ... alcohol or use drugs. Are You Ready for Sex? Sex can change your life and relationships. Having ...
Van Wezemael, Lynn; Verbeke, Wim; Dutra de Barcellos, Marcia
of beef consumed. Focus group participants were not in favour of improving beef healthiness during processing, but rather focussed on appropriate consumption behaviour and preparation methods. CONCLUSIONS: The individual responsibility for health implies that consumers should be able to make correct......BACKGROUND: Consumer perception of the healthiness of beef is an important determinant of beef consumption. However, little is known about how consumers perceive the healthiness of beef. The aim of this study is to shed light on the associations between beef and health. METHODS: Eight focus group...... as well as negative effects of beef consumption on their health. Labelled, branded, fresh and lean beef were perceived as signalling healthful beef, in contrast with further processed and packaged beef. Consumers felt that their individual choices could make a difference with respect to the healthiness...
... foods you buy. “Product labels give consumers the power to compare foods quickly and easily so they can judge which products best fit into a heart healthy diet or meet other dietary needs,” Schneeman says. “ ...
... About CDC.gov . Disability & Health Home Disability Overview Disability Inclusion Barriers to Inclusion Inclusion Strategies Inclusion in Programs & Activities Resources Healthy Living Disability & Physical Activity Disability & Obesity Disability & Smoking Disability & Breast ...
A healthy pregnancy begins before you ever become pregnant. Give yourself the best chance for a healthy pregnancy and healthy baby before you start down the road to motherhood. If you smoke, now’s a great time to quit.
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High prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus colonization among healthy children attending public daycare centers in informal settlements in a large urban center in Brazil.
Braga, Eneida Dias Vianna; Aguiar-Alves, Fábio; de Freitas, Maria de Fátima Nogueira; de e Silva, Monique Oliveira; Correa, Thami Valadares; Snyder, Robert E; de Araújo, Verônica Afonso; Marlow, Mariel Asbury; Riley, Lee W; Setúbal, Sérgio; Silva, Licínio Esmeraldo; Araújo Cardoso, Claudete Aparecida
In the past decade methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has become increasingly prevalent in community settings. Attending a daycare center (DCC) is a known risk factor for colonization with MRSA. Brazil operates free, public DCCs for low-income families, some of which are located in census tracts defined by the Brazilian Census Bureau as informal settlements (aglomerados subnormais, AGSN). Physical and demographic characteristics of AGSNs suggest that S. aureus colonization prevalence would be higher, but little is known about the prevalence of MRSA in these settings. We conducted a cross-sectional study to assess risk factors for S. aureus and MRSA colonization among children attending DCCs located in AGSN vs non-AGSN. Nasal swabs were collected from children aged three months to six years in 23 public DCCs in Niterói, Brazil between August 2011 and October 2012. Of 500 children enrolled in the study, 240 (48%) were colonized with S. aureus and 31 (6.2%) were colonized with MRSA. Children attending DCCs in AGSNs were 2.32 times more likely to be colonized with S. aureus (95% CI: 1.32, 4.08), and 3.27 times more likely to be colonized with MRSA than children attending non-AGSN DCCs (95% CI: 1.52, 7.01), adjusted for confounding variables. S. aureus and MRSA colonization prevalence among children attending DCCs in informal settlement census tracts was higher than previously reported in healthy pre-school children in Latin America. Our data suggest that transmission may occur more frequently in DCCs rather than at home, highlighting the importance of DCCs in AGSNs as potential MRSA reservoirs. This finding underscores the importance of local epidemiologic surveillance in vulnerable AGSN communities.
Chan, Kara; Prendergast, Gerard; Grønhøj, Alice
/methodology/approach - Four focus group interview sessions were conducted with 22 eighth and ninth grade adolescents (aged 13 to 15) in Hong Kong. Findings - The participants perceived a balanced diet and regular meal times as the most important attributes of healthy eating. Participants were most likely to eat unhealthy...
Ann M Swartz
Full Text Available Physical activity is known to significantly impact cardiometabolic health. Accelerometer data, as a measure of physical activity, can be used to objectively identify a disparity in movement (movement discordance between healthy and unhealthy adults. The purpose of this study was to examine the Movement Discordance between healthy and unhealthy adults in a large US population sample.Demographic, health and accelerometer data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Study (NHANES 2003-2004 and 2005-2006 cohorts were used for this study. Participants were classified as either having a "normal" or "abnormal" value for each cardiometabolic health parameter examined, based on published criteria. Linear regression analyses were performed to determine significance of each abnormal health parameter (risk factor in its unique effect on the accelerometer counts, controlling for age and gender. Average accelerometer counts per minute (cpm by gender and age categories were estimated separately for the groups of normal and abnormal cardiometabolic risk.Average cpm for those with healthy levels of each individual cardiometabolic health parameter range from 296 cpm (for C reactive protein to 337 cpm (for waist circumference, while average cpm for those with abnormal levels of each individual cardiometabolic health parameter range from 216 cpm (for insulin to 291 cpm (for LDL-cholesterol. After controlling for age and gender, waist circumference, HbA1c, Insulin, Homocysteine, and HDL-Cholesterol were the cardiometabolic health parameters that showed significant, unique and independent effects on cpm. Overall, individuals who have abnormal values for all significant cardiometabolic health parameters ("unhealthy" averaged 267 cpm (SE = 15 cpm, while the healthy sample of this study averaged 428 cpm (SE = 10 cpm. The difference in cpm between the unhealthy and healthy groups is similar between males and females. Further, for both males and females, the
Bogucz, Edward A. [Syracuse Univ., NY (United States)
Healthy buildings provide high indoor environmental quality for occupants while simultaneously reducing energy consumption. This project advanced the development and marketability of envisioned healthy, energy-efficient buildings through studies that evaluated the use of emerging technologies in commercial and residential buildings. The project also provided resources required for homebuilders to participate in DOE’s Builders Challenge, concomitant with the goal to reduce energy consumption in homes by at least 30% as a first step toward achieving envisioned widespread availability of net-zero energy homes by 2030. In addition, the project included outreach and education concerning energy efficiency in buildings.
op den Akker, Hendrikus J.A.; Klaassen, Randy; Nijholt, Antinus; Esposito, Anna; Jain, Lakhmi C.
Since the introduction of the idea of the software interface agent the question recurs whether these agents should be personified and graphically visualized in the interface. In this chapter we look at the use of virtual humans in the interface of healthy lifestyle coaching systems. Based on theory
Willekens, F.J.; Carey, James; Li, Qiang
This Special Collection was edited by Frans Willekens, James R. Carey, and Qiang Li. The papers in this collection represent a small selection of papers presented at an international conference on healthy aging, held in October 2012 in Beijing and Hangzhou, China. The first part of the conference,
Chrysochou, Polymeros; Askegaard, Søren; Grunert, Klaus G.
This paper proposes a framework of discourses regarding consumers' healthy eating as a useful conceptual scheme for market segmentation purposes. The objectives are: (a) to identify the appropriate number of health-related segments based on the underlying discursive subject positions of the frame...
Helfrich, Christine M.; Fetsch, Robert J.; Benavente, Janet C.
The prevalence of overweight children and adults has been increasing steadily over the past three decades. Behaviors related to diet and nutrition are often established in early childhood. Toddlers most often develop healthy eating habits through parent modeling. Due to the steady increase in obesity in children, there is a clear need for…
Helfrich, Christine M.; Fetsch, Robert J.; Jefferson, Gisele
The number of obese children has nearly tripled in the past 30 years. Research has identified a clear connection between parental income, education, ethnicity, and the risk for obesity. Recent research demonstrates that parenting style may also impact the ability to establish healthy eating environments. This article reviews a program, currently…
Evron, Lotte Orr; Wind, Gitte
and the spouses built their mutual and individual lives focusing on their relationship and strived to return to their usual everyday life. Within three to six months the couples went from “survival” where the diagnosis dominated to “wellbeing” where healthy aging/lifestyle dominated. All eight couples led...
... fatty acids for healthy adults. J Acad Nutr Diet . 2014;114(1):136-153. PMID: 24342605 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24342605 . Review Date 4/24/2016 Updated by: Emily Wax, RD, The Brooklyn Hospital Center, Brooklyn, NY. Also reviewed by David Zieve, ...
The thesis deals with the healthy lifestyle of Czech university students. The main objectives are to map the healthy lifestyle of Czech university students, especially to find out whether they follow the principles of healthy lifestyle, to find out their knowledge concerning this issue, to find out if there are any obstacles to follow the healthy lifestyle and to find out whether they know any projects supporting health and healthy lifestyle. In the theoretical part of the thesis the basic te...
Colorado Children's Campaign, 2011
A woman's behaviors during pregnancy can have a significant influence on her baby's healthy development. Women who smoke or drink alcohol during pregnancy, go without prenatal care or suffer from poor nutrition are more likely to experience complications during pregnancy or childbirth, and their babies are at increased risk for developing a number…
Restrepo, H E; Llanos, G; Contreras, A; Rocabado, F; Gross, S; Suárez, J; González, J
This article describes the Healthy Municipios movement in Latin America and gives examples of some PAHO projects that could become demonstration projects. The Healthy Municipios movement was established in the early 1990s. The movement aims to promote healthy municipalities according to objectives set forth in the 1987 Ottawa Charter on Health Promotion, the 1992 Declaration of Bogota, and the 1993 Caribbean Health Promotion Charter. The movement is a joint effort of government, the health sector, and the community in promoting health locally. Key features of the movement are its creativity, variety, political strength, and adaptation to local conditions. Technical cooperation serves the purpose of facilitating information exchange and promotes the use of modern techniques of analysis and scientific and technical information. All projects shared the following common features: initiation by the local community with strong political commitment, intersectoral organizational structure, widespread community mobilization and participation, problem solving activities, and a recognizable leader. Pioneering projects include the Comprehensive Project for Cienfuegos, Cuba; the Health Manizales, Colombia; the Network in Mexico; Baruta and El Hatillo, Venezuela; Valdivia, Chile; and San Carlos Canton, Costa Rica. It is concluded that these projects and most others aim to assure equity. These efforts are important for placing health on the political agenda and implementing healthy policies. The Valdivia project, for example, serves a population of about 120,000 in the urban city of Valdivia, the semi-urban area, and rural areas. The project was officially sanctioned by the President of Chile on World Health Day in 1993. Progress was reported in mass communication and school-based programs. Attention was directed also to prevention of risk factors for noncommunicable diseases and to the problem of traffic accidents.
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Healthy People 2020 Tobacco Use Objectives. Healthy People...
Full Text Available Abstract Background New Zealand rates of obesity and overweight have increased since the 1980s, particularly among indigenous Māori people, Pacific people and those living in areas of high deprivation. New Zealand's response to the obesity epidemic has been The Healthy Eating-Healthy Action: Oranga Kai - Oranga Pumau (HEHA Strategy ('the Strategy', launched in 2003. Because the HEHA Strategy explicitly recognises the importance of evaluation and the need to create an evidence base to support future initiatives, the Ministry of Health has commissioned a Consortium of researchers to evaluate the Strategy as a whole. Methods This paper discusses the Consortium's approach to evaluating the HEHA Strategy. It includes an outline of the conceptual framework underpinning the evaluation, and describes the critical components of the evaluation which are: judging to what extent stakeholders were engaged in the process of the strategy implementation and to what extent their feedback was incorporated in to future iterations of the Strategy (continuous improvement, to what extent the programmes, policies, and initiatives implemented span the target populations and priority areas, whether there have been any population changes in nutrition and/or physical activity outcomes or behaviours relating to those outcomes, and to what extent HEHA Strategy and spending can be considered value for money. Discussion This paper outlines our approach to evaluating a complex national health promotion strategy. Not only does the Evaluation have the potential to identify interventions that could be adopted internationally, but also the development of the Evaluation design can inform other complex evaluations.
de Leeuw, Evelyne; Skovgaard, Thomas
The question whether the WHO Healthy Cities project 'works' has been asked ever since a number of novel ideas and actions related to community health, health promotion and healthy public policy in the mid 1980s came together in the Healthy Cities Movement initiated by the World Health Organization....... The question, however, has become more urgent since we have entered an era in which the drive for 'evidence' seems all-pervasive. The article explores the nature of evidence, review available evidence on Healthy Cities accomplishments, and discusses whether enough evidence has been accumulated on different...... performances within the realm of Healthy Cities. A main point of reference is the European Healthy Cities Project (E-HCP). Building on the information gathered through documentary research on the topic, it is concluded that there is fair evidence that Healthy Cities works. However, the future holds great...
Janum, Susanne; Nielsen, Signe Tellerup; Werner, Mads U
We aimed to study the relationship between pain perception and cytokine release during systemic inflammation. We present a randomized crossover trial in healthy volunteers (n = 17) in 37 individual trials. Systemic inflammation was induced by an i.v. bolus of Escherichia coli LPS (2 ng/kg) on two...... separate trial days, with or without a nicotine patch applied 10 h previously. Pain perception at baseline, and 2 and 6 h after LPS was assessed by pressure algometry and tonic heat stimulation at an increasing temperature (45-48℃) during both trials. Compared with baseline, pain pressure threshold...... was reduced 2 and 6 h after LPS, while heat pain perception was accentuated at all testing temperatures after 2 but not 6 h. The magnitude of changes in pain perception did not correlate to cytokine release. No effect of transdermal nicotine or training status was observed. In conclusion, LPS administration...
Huijg, Johanna M.; van Delden, A. (Lex) E. Q.; van der Ouderaa, Frans J. G.
OBJECTIVES: This study took an emic multidimensional approach on successful aging and examined what older people consider important to age successfully by asking them about their plans and wishes (PWs). Associations between participants' demographics, health status, working life, social contacts...... with a higher life satisfaction indicated significantly more often to have PWs than individuals with a lower life satisfaction. DISCUSSION: The majority of older people desire an active, engaged, and healthy life. PWs were variable and personal, which endorses an emic, multidimensional approach to successful...... aging. Knowledge on what older individuals find important in their lives and what they want to achieve can assist older individuals in setting and attaining their goals toward aging well....
Full Text Available Promoting a culture in health not only towards the physical but mental health of the human being is a priority in the training of the professionals of the Preschool Education, evidenced in the diagnosis implemented, that provided the necessary information of the real and desired state in terms of the insufficiencies that present the students of 1st, 2nd and 3rd year of the day course of the Degree in Pre-school Education; in their lifestyles for the formation of coexistence in the university context. It demonstrates the need to develop an educational strategy that contributes to the formation of coexistence based on the promotion of healthy lifestyles, which in the hands of teachers will help to transform the behavioral attitudes of students, which will allow them to interact in a positive way with society and be better people and professionals.
Cosco, T D; Howse, K; Brayne, C
The extension of life does not appear to be slowing, representing a great achievement for mankind as well as a challenge for ageing populations. As we move towards an increasingly older population we will need to find novel ways for individuals to make the best of the challenges they face, as the likelihood of encountering some form of adversity increases with age. Resilience theories share a common idea that individuals who manage to navigate adversity and maintain high levels of functioning demonstrate resilience. Traditional models of healthy ageing suggest that having a high level of functioning across a number of domains is a requirement. The addition of adversity to the healthy ageing model via resilience makes this concept much more accessible and more amenable to the ageing population. Through asset-based approaches, such as the invoking of individual, social and environmental resources, it is hoped that greater resilience can be fostered at a population level. Interventions aimed at fostering greater resilience may take many forms; however, there is great potential to increase social and environmental resources through public policy interventions. The wellbeing of the individual must be the focus of these efforts; quality of life is an integral component to the enjoyment of additional years and should not be overlooked. Therefore, it will become increasingly important to use resilience as a public health concept and to intervene through policy to foster greater resilience by increasing resources available to older people. Fostering wellbeing in the face of increasing adversity has significant implications for ageing individuals and society as a whole.
Renfrew, Mary J; McCormick, Felicia M; Wade, Angela; Quinn, Beverley; Dowswell, Therese
Background There is extensive evidence of important health risks for infants and mothers related to not breastfeeding. In 2003, the World Health Organization recommended infants be exclusively breastfed until six months of age, with breastfeeding continuing as an important part of the infant’s diet till at least two years of age. However, breastfeeding rates in many countries currently do not reflect this recommendation. Objectives To assess the effectiveness of support for breastfeeding mothers. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group’s Trials Register (3 October 2011). Selection criteria Randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials comparing extra support for healthy breastfeeding mothers of healthy term babies with usual maternity care. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. Main results Of the 67 studies that we assessed as eligible for inclusion, 52 contributed outcome data to the review (56,451 mother-infant pairs) from 21 countries. All forms of extra support analysed together showed an increase in duration of ‘any breastfeeding’ (includes partial and exclusive breastfeeding) (risk ratio (RR) for stopping any breastfeeding before six months 0.91, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.88 to 0.96). All forms of extra support together also had a positive effect on duration of exclusive breastfeeding (RR at six months 0.86, 95% CI 0.82 to 0.91; RR at four to six weeks 0.74, 95% CI 0.61 to 0.89). Extra support by both lay and professionals had a positive impact on breastfeeding outcomes. Maternal satisfaction was poorly reported. Authors’ conclusions All women should be offered support to breastfeed their babies to increase the duration and exclusivity of breastfeeding. Support is likely to be more effective in settings with high initiation rates, so efforts to increase the uptake of breastfeeding should be in place. Support may be offered either by
A large proportion of the lives of Canadians is spent indoors, whether in vehicles, restaurants, shopping malls, offices or houses. The health of people working and living in those indoor settings might be damaged a a result, despite best efforts. Indoor pollution has been identified as one of the most serious risks to human health, according to numerous leading authorities, among them the American Lung Association, the United States Environmental Protection Agency, the Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation (CMHC). A large number of cancer deaths are attributed to indoor pollution each year in the United States, as well as respiratory health problems. A causal link between certain indoor exposures and the development and provocation of asthma was established recently in a report on asthma and indoor air quality published by the National Academy of Sciences/Institute of Medicine. Exposure to indoor pollutants has also resulted in thousands of children experiencing elevated blood lead levels. Not enough attention is paid in Canada to pollution in buildings by government agencies, corporations and other non-governmental organizations and citizens. Not much seems to have changed in the past thirty years. An ambitious strategy by Pollution Probe was described in this document, listing the initial goals and measures required to achieve those goals. The creation of Healthy Indoors Partnership (HIP) was proposed to regroup all the stakeholders under the same umbrella. refs., tabs
Chandra, Shirley Vionita
Healthy Day Care is a child care center which designed with priority of children's health that applied to all room elements which designed with healthy and attractive design that its application is done by making the formation, color, circulation space, lighting, which draw the attention of the child to can do their activities cheerfully but not excessive. Healthy Day Care is designed to solve the problem of any women who has some problems with her children, seeing the health of children toda...
Gartrell, Nanette; Lampert, Suzanne
Barbara Brenner, JD, was the Executive Director of Breast Cancer Action (BCA) from 1995-2010. Before that, she was a longtime activist in the anti-war movement and an attorney who, for most of her career, practiced public policy law. After she was diagnosed with breast cancer in 1993 at the age of 41, she took the helm of BCA. Under her leadership, the organization moved into a position of national advocacy-demanding research on the causes and prevention of breast cancer, including the role of industrial pollutants. Barbara started the "Think Before You Pink" campaign, encouraging people to question whether companies that display pink ribbons actually produce products that harm women's health or generate any funds to fight breast cancer. Her blog, "Healthy Barbs," challenged readers to critique routine healthcare practices and policies. Barbara received numerous awards, including a Jefferson Award for Public Service in 2007, the Smith College Medal in 2012, and the ACLU-Northern California's Lola Hanzel Courageous Advocacy Award in 2012. Barbara had a recurrence of breast cancer in 1996. She died of complications associated with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, ALS, on May 10, 2013.
In many areas of the world, lack of money, time, and education compels women to perform their household duties and neglect their health care regardless of how sick they are. In response to this situation, the World Health Organization created a "Healthy Women Counselling Guide" (HWCG) package consisting of 1) a document that describes background research conducted in Nigeria, Kenya, and Sierra Leone; 2) a document that chronicles the development of radio and illustration materials; 3) sample audiocassette tapes from the three country teams; 4) two illustrated booklets and a calendar supporting the radio tapes; and 5) a user's guide. The pretested materials in the HWCG were designed with community input for rural women. The sample tape from Kenya focuses on malaria and that from Nigeria on vesicovaginal fistula. The Nigerian team also produced a booklet on adolescent childbirth. The Sierra Leone team prepared a calendar illustrated with information about a variety of ways to obtain good health. A further HWCG series is being developed in India on alcohol abuse. The HWCG package was developed for policy-makers, nongovernmental organizations, and other individuals and agencies concerned with improving women's health. Additional HWCC activities will involve wider dissemination of the material that has been developed, exchanges among teams to determine cross-cultural applicability and adaptability of the material, and studies of the impact of the HWCG process.
Billich, Natassja; Adderley, Marijke; Ford, Laura; Keeton, Isabel; Palermo, Claire; Peeters, Anna; Woods, Julie; Backholer, Kathryn
School canteens have an important role in modelling a healthy food environment. Price is a strong predictor of food and beverage choice. This study compared the relative price of healthy and less healthy lunch and snack items sold within Australian school canteens. A convenience sample of online canteen menus from five Australian states were selected (100 primary and 100 secondary schools). State-specific canteen guidelines were used to classify menu items into 'green' (eat most), 'amber' (select carefully) and 'red' (not recommended in schools). The price of the cheapest 'healthy' lunch (vegetable-based 'green') and snack ('green' fruit) item was compared to the cheapest 'less healthy' ('amber/red') lunch and snack item, respectively, using an un-paired t-test. The relative price of the 'healthy' items and the 'less healthy' items was calculated to determine the proportion of schools that sold the 'less healthy' item cheaper. The mean cost of the 'healthy' lunch items was greater than the 'less healthy' lunch items for both primary (AUD $0.70 greater) and secondary schools ($0.50 greater; p snack was cheaper than the 'healthy' snack. These proportions were greatest for primary schools located in more, compared to less, disadvantaged areas. The relative price of foods sold within Australian school canteens appears to favour less healthy foods. School canteen healthy food policies should consider the price of foods sold.
The Healthy Homes-Healthy Business project is a recipient of a Level II CARE cooperative agreement. The communities of focus for this CARE level II project are the adjacent neighborhoods of Southwest Detroit and South Dearborn.
Healthy Buildings, Healthy People lays out a blueprint by which agencies and individuals across the country, and around the world, can focus their efforts towards improvements in the indoor environment and health.
United States Department of Agriculture 10 tips Nutrition Education Series MyPlate MyWins Based on the Dietary Guidelines for Americans Make celebrations fun, healthy, and active Eating healthy and being physically active can be a ...
A page to register to view the first webinar in the IAQ Knowledge-to-Action Professional Training Webinar Series: Healthy Schools, Healthy Students: Taking Action to Improve IAQ in Your School District
Williams, Yvette Gail
Many children in U.S. K-12 schools struggle with childhood obesity. A healthy lifestyle taught in a child's early years is essential for student learning, and it can set the pace for healthy choices to be made in adulthood. The purpose of this exploratory case study was to explore the experiences of parents in Montgomery County, Ohio, who…
Willekens, F.J.; Carey, James; Li, Qiang
Background: This is an introduction to a Special Collection of Demographic Research on Interdisciplinary Research on Healthy Aging. The collection is an outcome of an international conference in China on biodemography and multistate modeling in healthy aging research. Causal analysis is the common
Kort, Helianthe S.M.
A healthy building environment, when looking from a gerontechnology perspective, should facilitate ageing adults' functioning, self-esteem, and prosperity. Creating healthy environments is becoming more and more relevant in society. Older adults tend to stay more indoors when compared to younger
Loftness, V.; Hakkinen, B.; Adan, O.C.G.; Nevalainen, A.
Abstract Background: The elements that contribute to a healthy building are multifactorial and can be discussed from different perspectives. Objectives: We present three viewpoints of designing a healthy building: the importance of sustainable development, the role of occupants for ensuring indoor
Loftness, V.; Hakkinen, B.; Adan, O.; Nevalainen, A.
Background: The elements that contribute to a healthy building are multifactorial and can be discussed from different perspectives. Objectives: We present three viewpoints of designing a healthy building: the importance of sustainable development, the role of occupants for ensuring indoor air
Huang, Terry T-K; Sorensen, Dina; Davis, Steven; Frerichs, Leah; Brittin, Jeri; Celentano, Joseph; Callahan, Kelly; Trowbridge, Matthew J
We developed a new tool, Healthy Eating Design Guidelines for School Architecture, to provide practitioners in architecture and public health with a practical set of spatially organized and theory-based strategies for making school environments more conducive to learning about and practicing healthy eating by optimizing physical resources and learning spaces. The design guidelines, developed through multidisciplinary collaboration, cover 10 domains of the school food environment (eg, cafeteria, kitchen, garden) and 5 core healthy eating design principles. A school redesign project in Dillwyn, Virginia, used the tool to improve the schools' ability to adopt a healthy nutrition curriculum and promote healthy eating. The new tool, now in a pilot version, is expected to evolve as its components are tested and evaluated through public health and design research.
Estebsari, Fatemeh; Taghdisi, Mohammad Hossein; Mostafaei, Davood; Rahimi, Zahra
Background: Death is a natural and frightening phenomenon, which is inevitable. Previous studies on death, which presented a negative and tedious image of this process, are now being revised and directed towards acceptable death and good death. One of the proposed terms about death and dying is "healthy death", which encourages dealing with death positively and leading a lively and happy life until the last moment. This study aimed to explain the views of Iranians about the elements of healthy death. Methods: This qualitative study was conducted for 12 months in two general hospitals in Tehran (capital of Iran), using the thematic analysis method. After conducting 23 in-depth interviews with 21 participants, transcription of content, and data immersion and analysis, themes, as the smallest meaningful units were extracted, encoded and classified. Results: One main category of healthy death with 10 subthemes, including dying at the right time, dying without hassle, dying without cost, dying without dependency and control, peaceful death, not having difficulty at dying, not dying alone and dying at home, inspired death, preplanned death, and presence of a clergyman or a priest, were extracted as the elements of healthy death from the perspective of the participants in this study. Conclusion: The study findings well explained the elements of healthy death. Paying attention to the conditions and factors causing healthy death by professionals and providing and facilitating quality services for patients in the end stage of life make it possible for patients to experience a healthy death.
Silva, Dayanne Caroline de Assis; Frazão, Iracema da Silva; Osório, Mônica Maria; Vasconcelos, Maria Gorete Lucena de
The objective in this article is to analyze how adolescents at a school in the interior of the State of Pernambuco, Brazil, perceive healthy eating. A descriptive and exploratory study was undertaken, based on the qualitative method. Forty adolescents between 10 and 14 years of age were investigated, using a semistructured interview. The interviews were analyzed using the software Alceste, which evidenced two thematic axes: Eating practices, divided in two classes (routine eating diary and Eating at weekends); and Education practices, consisting of four classes (Factors interfering in and facilitating the maintenance of healthy eating, Role of the school in the education process for healthy eating, Knowledge on healthy eating, The family and the promotion of healthy eating). Although the interviewed adolescents are familiar with healthy eating, they do not always put it in practice, due to the multiple factors that interfere in their preferred diet. The school and the family play a fundamental role in encouraging healthy eating. The school needs to accomplish eating education practices that encourage the consumption of locally produced foods.
Niebylski, Mark L.; Lu, Tammy; Campbell, Norm R. C.; Arcand, Joanne; Schermel, Alyssa; Hua, Diane; Yeates, Karen E.; Tobe, Sheldon W.; Twohig, Patrick A.; L’Abbé, Mary R.; Liu, Peter P.
Unhealthy eating is the leading risk for death and disability globally. As a result, the World Health Organization (WHO) has called for population health interventions. One of the proposed interventions is to ensure healthy foods are available by implementing healthy food procurement policies. The objective of this systematic review was to evaluate the evidence base assessing the impact of such policies. A comprehensive review was conducted by searching PubMed and Medline for policies that had been implemented and evaluated the impact of food purchases, food consumption, and behaviors towards healthy foods. Thirty-four studies were identified and found to be effective at increasing the availability and purchases of healthy food and decreasing purchases of unhealthy food. Most policies also had other components such as education, price reductions, and health interventions. The multiple gaps in research identified by this review suggest that additional research and ongoing evaluation of food procurement programs is required. Implementation of healthy food procurement policies in schools, worksites, hospitals, care homes, correctional facilities, government institutions, and remote communities increase markers of healthy eating. Prior or simultaneous implementation of ancillary education about healthy eating, and rationale for the policy may be critical success factors and additional research is needed. PMID:24595213
Jungerstedt, J; Hellgren, Lars; Drachmann, Tue
Lipids in the stratum corneum are key components in the barrier function of the skin. Changes in lipid composition related to eczematous diseases are well known, but limited data are available on variations within healthy skin. The objective of the present study was to compare ceramide subgroups...... and ceramide/cholesterol ratios in young, old, male and female healthy skin. A total of 55 participants with healthy skin was included in the study. Lipid profiles were correlated with transepidermal water loss and with information on dry skin from a questionnaire including 16 people. No statistically...
Emotions can be a healthy, normal response to difficult situations and people. But sometimes they can feel overwhelming, and we reach for other things – like cigarettes or “comfort foods” to deal.
Some women love being pregnant; others have a really hard time with it. Either way, returning to a healthy weight after you deliver your baby may lower your chances of diabetes, heart disease, and other weight-related problems.
Jul 7, 1996 ... radiographic screening process was used to identify a healthy population ... significantly lower values than the Autolink for FVC measurements despite .... t Medical Instrumentation. ATS '" American ... Quality control. Biological ...
Hansen, Louise; Netterstrom, Marie K.; Johansen, Nanna B.
Context: Recent studies have suggested that a subgroup of obese individuals is not at increased risk of obesity-related complications. This subgroup has been referred to as metabolically healthy obese. Objective: To investigate whether obesity is a risk factor for development of ischemic heart...... risk factors (low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, elevated blood pressure, triglycerides, and fasting plasma glucose). Metabolically healthy individuals were defined as having no metabolic risk factors, and metabolically unhealthy individuals were defined as having a minimum of one. Main Outcome...... Measures: IHD. Results: During follow-up, 323 participants developed IHD. Metabolically healthy obese men had increased risk of IHD compared with metabolically healthy normal-weight men [hazard ratio (HR), 3.1; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.1 to 8.2)]. The corresponding results for women were less...
... I wanted to understand the underlying biology and psychology of my obesity. Self-understanding is a very ... and other breathing problems, and some forms of cancer (breast, colorectal, endometrial, and kidney). There are healthy ...
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Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Healthy Vermonters 2020 Improving the Health of Vermonters Our state has a long history of improving public health. Vermont was named the #1 healthiest state for the...
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The Healthy Eating Index (HEI) is a measure of diet quality, independent of quantity, that can be used to assess compliance with the U.S. Dietary Guidelines for Americans and monitor changes in dietary patterns.
Ma, Wenjie; Hagan, Kaitlin A; Heianza, Yoriko; Sun, Qi; Rimm, Eric B; Qi, Lu
Background: Adult height has shown directionally diverse associations with several age-related disorders, including cardiovascular disease, cancer, decline in cognitive function, and mortality. Objective: We investigated the associations of adult height with healthy aging measured by a full spectrum of health outcomes, including incidence of chronic diseases, memory, physical functioning, and mental health, among populations who have survived to older age, and whether lifestyle factors modified such relations. Design: We included 52,135 women (mean age: 44.2 y) from the Nurses' Health Study without chronic diseases in 1980 and whose health status was available in 2012. Healthy aging was defined as being free of 11 major chronic diseases and having no reported impairment of subjective memory, physical impairment, or mental health limitations. Results: Of all eligible study participants, 6877 (13.2%) were classified as healthy agers. After adjustment for demographic and lifestyle factors, we observed an 8% (95% CI: 6%, 11%) decrease in the odds of healthy aging per SD (0.062 m) increase in height. Compared with the lowest category of height (≤1.57 m), the OR of achieving healthy aging in the highest category (≥1.70 m) was 0.80 (95% CI: 0.73, 0.87; P -trend healthy aging ( P -interaction = 0.005), and among the individual dietary factors characterizing the prudent dietary pattern, fruit and vegetable intake showed the strongest effect modification ( P -interaction = 0.01). The association of greater height with reduced odds of healthy aging appeared to be more evident among women with higher adherence to the prudent dietary pattern rich in vegetable and fruit intake. Conclusions: Greater height was associated with a modest decrease in the likelihood of healthy aging. A prudent diet rich in fruit and vegetables might modify the relation. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.
Matthews, Karen A.; Hall, Martica; Dahl, Ronald E.
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Inadequate sleep among adolescents has negative consequences for self-regulation, emotional well-being, and risk behaviors. Using multiple assessment methods, we evaluated the adequacy of sleep among healthy adolescents from a lower socioeconomic community and expected differences by race. METHODS: A total of 250 healthy high school students enrolled in public school (mean age: 15.7 years; 57% black, 54% female) from families of low to middle class according to the ...
... Lifestyle Nutrition and healthy eating The heart-healthy Mediterranean diet is a healthy eating plan based on typical ... Mediterranean-style cooking. Here's how to adopt the Mediterranean diet. By Mayo Clinic Staff If you're looking ...
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Alamgir, M.; Hussain, M.M.
Background: Heart rate variability has been considered as an indicator of autonomic status. Little work has been done on heart rate variability in normal healthy volunteers. We aimed at evolving the reference values of heart rate variability in our healthy population. Methods: Twenty-four hour holter monitoring of 37 healthy individuals was done using Holter ECG recorder 'Life card CF' from 'Reynolds Medical'. Heart rate variability in both time and frequency domains was analysed with 'Reynolds Medical Pathfinder Digital/700'. Results: The heart rate variability in normal healthy volunteers of our population was found in time domain using standard deviation of R-R intervals (SDNN), standard deviation of average NN intervals (SDANN), and Square root of the mean squared differences of successive NN intervals (RMSSD). Variation in heart rate variability indices was observed between local and foreign volunteers and RMSSD was found significantly increased (p<0.05) in local population. Conclusions: The values of heart rate variability (RMSSD) in healthy Pakistani volunteers were found increased compared to the foreign data reflecting parasympathetic dominance in our population. (author)
Kakoschke, Naomi; Kemps, Eva; Tiggemann, Marika
The continual exposure to unhealthy food cues in the environment encourages poor dietary habits, in particular consuming too much fat and sugar, and not enough fruit and vegetables. According to Berridge's (2009) model of food reward, unhealthy eating is a behavioural response to biased attentional processing. The present study used an established attentional bias modification paradigm to discourage the consumption of unhealthy food and instead promote healthy eating. Participants were 146 undergraduate women who were randomly assigned to two groups: one was trained to direct their attention toward pictures of healthy food ('attend healthy' group) and the other toward unhealthy food ('attend unhealthy' group). It was found that participants trained to attend to healthy food cues demonstrated an increased attentional bias for such cues and ate relatively more of the healthy than unhealthy snacks compared to the 'attend unhealthy' group. Theoretically, the results support the postulated link between biased attentional processing and consumption (Berridge, 2009). At a practical level, they offer potential scope for interventions that focus on eating well. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Schoenberg, Nancy E; Howell, Britteny M; Swanson, Mark; Grosh, Christopher; Bardach, Shoshana
Extensive attention has been focused on improving the dietary intake of Americans. Such focus is warranted due to increasing rates of overweight, obesity, and other dietary-related disease. To address suboptimal dietary intake requires an improved, contextualized understanding of the multiple and intersecting influences on healthy eating, particularly among those populations at greatest risk of and from poor diet, including rural residents. During 8 focus groups (N = 99) and 6 group key informant interviews (N = 20), diverse Appalachian rural residents were queried about their perceptions of healthy eating, determinants of healthy food intake, and recommendations for improving the dietary intake of people in their communities. Participants included church members and other laypeople, public health officials, social service providers, health care professionals, and others. Participants offered insights on healthy eating consistent with the categories of individual, interpersonal, community, physical, environmental, and society-level influences described in the socioecological model. Although many participants identified gaps in dietary knowledge as a persistent problem, informants also identified extraindividual factors, including the influence of family, fellow church members, and schools, policy, advertising and media, and general societal trends, as challenges to healthy dietary intake. We highlight Appalachian residents' recommendations for promoting healthier diets, including support groups, educational workshops, cooking classes, and community gardening. We discuss the implications of these findings for programmatic development in the Appalachian context. © 2013 National Rural Health Association.
Aaron C Ericsson
Full Text Available Horses are exquisitely sensitive to non-specific gastrointestinal disturbances as well as systemic and extraintestinal conditions related to gut health, yet minimal data are available regarding the composition of the microbiota present in the equine stomach, small intestine, and cecum and their relation to fecal microbiota. Moreover, there is minimal information regarding the concordance of the luminal and mucosal microbial communities throughout the equine gut. Illumina-based 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing of the luminal and mucosal microbiota present in seven regions of the gastrointestinal tract of nine healthy adult horses revealed a distinct compositional divide between the small and large intestines. This disparity in composition was more pronounced within the luminal contents, but was also detected within mucosal populations. Moreover, the uniformity of the gut microbiota was much higher in the cecum and colon relative to that in the stomach, jejunum and ileum, despite a significantly higher number of unique sequences detected in the colon. Collectively, the current data suggest that while colonic samples (a proxy for feces may provide a reasonable profile of the luminal contents of the healthy equine large intestine, they are not informative with regard to the contents of the stomach or small intestine. In contrast to the distinct difference between the highly variable upper gastrointestinal tract microbiota and relatively uniform large bowel microbiota present within the lumen, these data also demonstrate a regional continuity present in mucosal microbial communities throughout the length of the equine gut.
Mutanu Jungersted, Jakob; Hellgren, Lars; Høgh, Julie Kaae
Lipids in the stratum corneum are key components in the barrier function of the skin. Changes in lipid composition related to eczematous diseases are well known, but limited data are available on variations within healthy skin. The objective of the present study was to compare ceramide subgroups...... and ceramide/cholesterol ratios in young, old, male and female healthy skin. A total of 55 participants with healthy skin was included in the study. Lipid profiles were correlated with transepidermal water loss and with information on dry skin from a questionnaire including 16 people. No statistically...... significant differences were found between young and old skin for ceramide subgroups or ceramide/cholesterol ratios, and there was no statistically significant correlation between answers about dry skin and ceramide levels. Interestingly, a statistically significant higher ceramide/cholesterol ratio was found...
Engberg, Henriette; Oksuzyan, Anna; Jeune, Bernard
Centenarians surpass the current human life expectancy with about 20-25 years. However, whether centenarians represent healthy aging still remains an open question. Previous studies have been hampered by a number of methodological shortcomings such as a cross-sectional design and lack...... of an appropriate control group. In a longitudinal population-based cohort, it was examined whether the centenarian phenotype may be a useful model for healthy aging. The study was based on a completefollow up of 39 945 individuals alive in the Danish 1905 birth cohort on January 1, 1977 identified through...... with 68.4% among individuals who died in their early 80s. This trend was evident in both sexes. As a result of their lower hospitalization rates and length of stay in hospital compared with their contemporaries, who died at younger ages, Danish centenarians represent healthy agers. Centenarians constitute...
Healthy Mothers, Healthy Babies Coalition, Washington, DC.
The Healthy Mothers, Healthy Babies survey conducted in spring 1985 drew responses from over 1,500 programs active in maternal and child health efforts directed toward low-income women and their families. The executive summary of this report identifies the major goals, common strategies, and needs of program respondents. Chapter 1 summarizes a…
Grammatikopoulos, Vasilis; Konstantinidou, Elisavet; Tsigilis, Nikolaos; Zachopoulou, Evridiki; Tsangaridou, Niki; Liukkonen, Jarmo
The aim of this study was to develop an instrument to evaluate the knowledge of preschool children about healthy lifestyle behavior. The innovation was that the instrument was designed to get direct evidence about healthy lifestyle from children aged 4-6 years old. Usually, children knowledge is estimated indirectly (parents, teachers), but the…
Vierregger, Alyssa; Hall, Johnna; Sehi, Natalie; Abbott, Mary; Wobig, Karen; Albrecht, Julie A.; Anderson-Knott, Mindy; Koszewski, Wanda
The Growing Healthy Kids Program is a school-based nutrition education program that teaches students in Kindergarten through 2nd grade about healthy eating, physical activity, and how their body uses food. Pre- and post-knowledge data is collected from the students to measure changes in nutrition knowledge. In the first 2 years of the program,…
Bergen, Sharon; Robertson, Rachel
Early childhood is a critical time in human development. Understanding and supporting children's wellness early on can make the greatest impact on physical, social and emotional, and cognitive health throughout childhood and adulthood. "Healthy Children, Healthy Lives" provides a comprehensive collection of checklists and research based…
Anderson, Alicia; Spear, Caile; Pritchard, Mary; George, Kayla; Young, Kyle; Smith, Carrie
Purpose: Healthy Habits, Healthy U (HHHU) is a two-day school-based primary prevention cancer education program that uses interactive classroom presentations designed to help students learn how to reduce their cancer risks. HHHU is a collaboration between a local cancer hospital, school district and university. HHHU incorporates real cancerous and…
A recent article in the Dutch Journal of Medicine describes two cases of patients with body integrity identity disorder (BIID), a disorder in which patients might resort to self-amputation in order to create the body they wish for. The authors wonder if medical professionals should provide elective amputations in BIID patients in order to prevent them from harm and death. The amputation of a healthy limb in BIID in a medical context is currently under discussion. Doctors struggle to proceed to elective amputation of a healthy body part in BIID. An analogy with gender dysphoria or euthanasia might shed a different light on this dilemma.
Mithril, Charlotte Elisabeth
Summary: Many of the diseases today are diet‐related, and recommendations for a healthy diet are one of the main challenges for public health today. At the same time, concern for the environment and the planet's health has developed to be an equally important challenge, and the circumstances call...... to define and test a New Nordic Diet (NND). The hypothesis is that an optimal diet composition, based on healthy, palatable meals, may not only contribute to the prevention of excessive weight gain, obesity, and other health disorders, but may also improve quality of life, learning ability, and mental...
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Chocolate is derived from cocoa beans - the fruit of the cacao tree or Theobroma cacao (the latin term: food of the gods. Recent published articles demonstrate that the quality and quantity of the antioxidants in cocoa and chocolate are very high and their flavonoids are believed to reduce the number of free radicals in the body that contribute to medical problems, such as cardiovascular disease and cancer and also to offer some anti-aging health benefits. Cocoa can lower the leukotriene/ prostacyclin ratio and is shown to have beneficial effects on platelets and possibly inflammation and vessel dilation. They inhibit low-density lipoprotein (LDL oxidation, raise the high-density lipoprotein (HDL level and reduce the thrombotic tendency. Their antioxidant catechin content is four times that of tea. They help the body process nitric oxide. Their flavanols and procyanidins have inhibitory effects on hemolysis, they can also attribute as a defense against reactive oxygen species (ROS and can inhibit their carcinogenic processes. Also they are shown to inhibit growth and polyamine biosynthesis of human colonic cancer cells. They contain tryptophan and anandamide, which lessen anxiety, promote relaxation and trigger the production of endorphins. Cocoa can prevent dental caries and may play a regulating role in the function of the immune system and prevent infectious and autoimmune diseases. It stimulates lactase enzyme activity. Although caffeine may be harmful in large dose, chocolate contains it in small amount in comparison to coffee and tea. Negative effects of chocolate on childhood hyperactivity and migraine as well as tension headaches are controversial. Since the theobromine content of chocolate relaxes the esophageal sphincter, patients suffering from heartburn should avoid it. Cocoa can trigger some allergic reactions such as atopic dermatitis. This article reviews the potential health benefits and disadvantages of cocoa
... and more likely to take risks,” explains Dr. Charles Raison, a psychiatrist and behavioral scientist at Emory University. “People who travel healthy make strong decisions about what they will and will not do, and they plan for ...
In this podcast, Dr. Phyllis Kozarsky, CDC Travel Medicine expert, discusses what travelers should do to ensure a safe and healthy trip to China. Created: 10/9/2008 by National Center for Preparedness, Detection, and Control of Infectious Diseases (NCPDCID), Division of Global Migration and Quarantine (DGMQ). Date Released: 10/9/2008.
Dallinga, Joan; Mehra, Sumit; van der Bie, Joey; Nibbeling, Nicky; Simons, Monique; Deutekom-Baart de la Faille, Marije
During the persuasive technology symposium, Marije Deutekom - Baart de la Faille and colleagues organised a symposium session with 4 presentations: • Presentation 1: A home based exercise program: are older adults able to use mHealth technology? (Sumit Mehra). • Presentation 2: Promoting healthy
This article is about healthy selfies. Images of fit bodies and sweat are the hottest thing in selfies these days. They fit somewhere between recognition and narcissism, says an associate professor and PhD, Bent Fausing, who believes that the fit body is an images of success - and protection...
Faigenbaum, Avery D.; Milliken, Laurie A.; Westcott, Wayne L.
Evaluated the safety and efficacy of 1 repetition maximum (1RM) strength testing in healthy children age 6-12 years. Data were collected on 96 children who performed a 1RM test on one upper body and one lower body exercise using child-sized weight machines. Findings indicated that children could safely perform 1RM strength tests provided…
Biktagirova, Gulnara F.; Kasimova, Ramilya Sh.
Healthy living is one of the most important issues of modern education, especially for students of pedagogical specialties. The article discusses the need for this process, its appropriateness, the study of the problem in psychological and pedagogical literature and presents the results of the pedagogical experiment. The authors reveal the main…
Brookins-Fisher, Jodi; O'Boyle, Irene; Ivanitskaya, Lana
The purpose of health education is to positively influence the health behavior of individuals and communities, as well as living and working conditions that affect health. The goal of a Healthy Lifestyles course that is offered to undergraduate students enrolled in a university general education program (e.g., liberal arts education, core…
Casado-Kehoe, Montserrat; Kehoe, Michael P.
Family therapists have used genograms as an assessment tool for years to examine the interactions and relationships of family members across generations. This article discusses how a therapist can use a genogram creatively to help clients examine the impact of family relationships on healthy and unhealthy lifestyle patterns and how those…
Full Text Available This scientific article aims to identify the perceptions of healthy academic administrative processes in the university context. This contribution was directed by socio-educational research processes generated at the National University of Costa Rica (UNA, in the Center for Research and Teaching in Education (CIDE. The issue of health is part of the institutional plan and the Center. Whereas health, like education, is a fundamental human right that deserves responsibilities from pedagogy as educational science research, which analyzes and transforms. Therefore, it is urgent, in the face of new global challenges to address planetary crises linked to health. This research is based on the naturalistic paradigm and a methodology that assumes a type of joint research, where using a semi-structured interview achieves a deeper analysis that allows contrasting perceptions, theories and practices by comparing qualitative and quantitative data. From the results of impact the concept of Healthy Pedagogy is unknown in the university context. The connection between education and health as a holistic theoretical, epistemological and axiological construction, it includes the complexity theory that allows the university to take challenges with an enormous potential; promoting environments, styles and healthy organizations from healthy academic administrations from both individual and collective aspects. It is possible to construct new sense of orders, which assume in a responsible manner to re-dignify the university life in its various spaces and dimensions. Research has the valuable potential to become a dynamic element of institutional policies in favor of life.
In this article Jill Donovan shares her experiences as a parent in finding a healthy balance between protecting her sons and letting them take the risks necessary for growth. Like all parents, she often struggles with providing appropriate safety nets and trusting them (and the world) enough to let them try things and make mistakes. She describes…
In sub-Saharan Africa, many children die from diarrhea, acute respiratory illness and malaria, despite the fact that there are well recognized, inexpensive and highly effective treatments for these ailments. Healthy Child Uganda (HCU), a Ugandan-Canadian partnership, has been operating a village health volunteer program ...
Vazquez-Marrufo, Manuel; Luisa Benitez, Maria; Rodriguez-Gomez, Guillermo; Galvao-Carmona, Alejandro; Fernandez-Del Olmo, Aaron; Vaquero-Casares, Encarnacion
Introduction. Diverse evidences have shown that the process of natural aging causes a decline in different cognitive functions, including among them the attentional process. Aim. To determine how the healthy aging affects to the different attentional networks. Subjects and methods. Two groups: young
Mroczek, Daniel K.
This commentary on the special section on conscientiousness and healthy aging focuses on several topics brought up in this collection of articles. One is the promise of personality interventions. Despite skepticism on the part of some, such interventions may ultimately prove successful. This is in part because of similarities between personality…
In this podcast for kids, the Kidtastics offer some simple ways to stay safe and healthy during the winter holiday season. Created: 11/23/2010 by CDC Office of Womenâs Health. Date Released: 11/23/2010.
Without a doubt, winter is here. Between the icy weather and the recent hustle and bustle of the holidays, everyone is at an increased risk of getting sick. With that in mind, Occupational Health Services has a few simple tips for staying healthy this winter.
The promotion of health education in schools has been operated continuously in Thailand with expecting to enhance a healthy society based on the definition of health under the new trend "A comprehensive and integrated health and social dimensions of body, mind and soul into a lifestyle linked and interrelated the human relationship with a…
... sugars. Sugar and syrups are added to some foods and beverages when they are processed or prepared. This includes ... Pets and Animals myhealthfinder Food and Nutrition Healthy Food Choices Weight ... Healthcare Management End-of-Life Issues Insurance & Bills Self Care ...
Kessler, Daniel B.
Daniel B. Kessler, MD, a developmental and behavioral pediatrician, provides guidance on establishing healthy eating patterns in the early years. He emphasizes the importance of the feeding relationship as an important part of a child's social and emotional development. How parents approach feeding and mealtime is about so much more than physical…
Methods. We measured the blood pressures of 650 healthy, randomly ... In addition, blood pressure measurement should be a part of the routine clinical examination of children. ... familial risk factors.2 ... common cause of elevated blood pressure in children.4 They ... sphygmomanometer (Accoson, hospital model BS 274,.
Full Text Available Air pollution in South Africa is a serious environmental health threat, particularly in urban and peri-urban metropolitan areas, but also in low income settlements where indoor air pollution from domestic fuel use is a concern. A healthy population...
Bregnhøj, Anne; Søsted, Heidi; Menné, Torkil
potential healthy worker effect. Methods. During the first 2 weeks of training, 382 hairdressing apprentices were enrolled in this study. All apprentices completed a self-administered questionnaire, including previously validated questions regarding, for example, previous and present hand eczema, eczema...... and by 11.9% of the controls (p worker effect, as there was a lower reported incidence of hand eczema and eczema...
The first years of life are important for the development of a healthy life style. Therefore, parents should pay attention to nutrition and activity when caring for their toddlers. Current recommendations give advice about these issues and also address topics as vegan nutrition and food allergies.
This podcast is about the importance of effective sanitation programs and steps people can take to stay healthy, including proper hand washing. Created: 3/12/2008 by Division of Parasitic Diseases. Date Released: 3/17/2008.
Duggan, Anne K.; McFarlane, Elizabeth C.; Windham, Amy M.; Rohde, Charles A.; Salkever, David S.; Fuddy, Loretta; Rosenberg, Leon A.; Buchbinder, Sharon B.; Sia, Calvin C. J.
Describes Hawaii's Healthy Start Program (HST), its ongoing evaluation study, and evaluation findings at the end of two of a planned three years of family-program participation and follow-up. HST uses home visitors to help prevent abusive and neglectful parenting. Found significant differences in program implementation among the three…
Jeppesen, Lisbeth Fruensgaard; Stacey, Julia
Nowadays most consumers perceive fish as a healthy and nutritious meal and many are fully aware of the various nutritious values of fish. In spite of this, the consumption of fish has diminished or stagnated in many European countries in recent years....
Lin, Pei-Ying; Wood, Wendy; Monterosso, John
Can healthy food-choice habits protect people against temptations of consuming large portion sizes and unhealthy foods? In two studies, we show that the answer is yes, good habits serve this protective role, at least in contexts in which people are not deliberating and thus fall back on habitual responses. In the first study, participants trained with unhealthy habits to approach eating chocolate, but not those trained with healthy habits, succumbed to temptation and ate more chocolates when their self-control resources were depleted. Study 2 extended and clarified these findings by demonstrating the role of environmental cues in eliciting healthy habits when self-control resources are depleted. Participants who had been trained to choose carrots habitually to a pictorial stimulus (i.e., habit cue) subsequently resisted choosing M&Ms as long as the cue was present. This effect of habit cues on healthy food choices suggests the usefulness of manipulating such cues as a means of meeting self-regulatory goals such as portion control. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sarmiento, Juan Pablo
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to map out and characterize existing health-promotion initiatives at Florida International University (FIU) in the USA in order to inform decision makers involved in the development of a comprehensive and a long-term healthy university strategy. Design/methodology/approach: This study encompasses a narrative…
As the prevalence of lipoprotein abnormalities in adolescents is increasing dramatically, the identification of relevant risk factors is a major public health challenge. The aim of this study was to investigate whether a family history of diabetes could be a risk factor for lipid abnormalities in healthy individuals. This study is a ...
Fall is a great time to try new and healthy activities with your parents! Have a food tasting or a leaf raking contest! Whatever your plans, make sure to have fun and be safe! Created: 10/14/2010 by CDC Office of Womenâs Health. Date Released: 10/14/2010.
Pedersen, Susanne; Grønhøj, Alice; Bech-Larsen, Tino
Purpose - Healthy-eating socialization is often described as a bi-directional process, but there are only few studies on children and parent’s roles in the process. This paper investigates children and parents’ accounts of awareness and involvement in healthy eating and how they relate it to thei......Purpose - Healthy-eating socialization is often described as a bi-directional process, but there are only few studies on children and parent’s roles in the process. This paper investigates children and parents’ accounts of awareness and involvement in healthy eating and how they relate...... it to their roles in healthy-eating socialization. Design/methodology/approach - Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 38 families three months after a healthy-eating intervention involving dietary advice and SMS feedback. The interviews were analysed by means of qualitative content analysis. Findings...... or a cooperative strategy helping the parents. Parents initiated dialogues with family members about healthy eating and felt responsible as role models often honouring the children’s demands and help. Research limitations/implications - Findings provide a concrete empirical account of the socialization process...
Janss Lafond, Leah; Heritage, Zoë
National networks of Healthy Cities emerged in the late 1980s as a spontaneous reaction to a great demand by cities to participate in the Healthy Cities movement. Today, they engage at least 1300 cities in the European region and form the backbone of the Healthy Cities movement. This article provides an analysis of the results of the regular surveys of national networks that have been carried out principally since 1997. The main functions and achievements of national networks are presented alongside some of their most pressing challenges. Although networks have differing priorities and organizational characteristics, they do share common goals and strategic directions based on the Healthy Cities model (see other articles in this special edition of HPI). Therefore, it has been possible to identify a set of organizational and strategic factors that contribute to the success of networks. These factors form the basis of a set of accreditation criteria for national networks and provide guidance for the establishment of new national networks. Although national networks have made substantial achievements, they continue to face a number of dilemmas that are discussed in the article. Problems a national network must deal with include how to obtain sustainable funding, how to raise the standard of work in cities without creating exclusive participation criteria and how to balance the need to provide direct support to cities with its role as a national player. These dilemmas are similar to other public sector networks. During the last 15 years, the pooling of practical expertise in urban health has made Healthy Cities networks an important resource for national as well as local governments. Not only do they provide valuable support to their members but they often advise ministries and other national institutions on effective models to promote sustainable urban health development.
Nilsson, Matias; Poulsen, Jakob Lykke; Brock, Christina
Twenty-five healthy men were assigned randomly to oxycodone or placebo for 5 days in a cross-over design. The analgesic effect was assessed with muscle pressure algometry and adverse effects were measured using questionnaires including the bowel function index, gastrointestinal symptom rating scale....../ascending colon by 41% (P =0.005) and in the transverse colon by 20% (P= 0.005). No associations were detected between questionnaire scores and colorectal volumes. Conclusion Experimental OIBD in healthy volunteers was induced during oxycodone treatment. This model has potential for future interventional studies...
Robine, Jean-Marie; Cambois, Emmanuelle; Nusselder, Wilma
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Life expectancy has been increasing during the last century within the European Union (EU). To measure progress in population health it is no longer sufficient to focus on the duration of life but quality of life should be considered. Healthy Life Years (HLY) allow estimating...... the quality of the remaining years that a person is expected to live, in terms of being free of long-standing activity limitation. The Joint Action on Healthy Life Years (JA: EHLEIS) is a joint action of European Member States (MS) and the European Union aiming at analysing trends, patterns and differences...... in HLY, as well as in other Summary Measures of Population Health (SMPH) indicators, across the European member states. METHODS: The JA: EHLEIS consolidates existing information on life and health expectancy by maximising the European comparability; by analysing trends in HLY within the EU; by analysing...
As of August 1 last year, Finland's Electricity Market Authority became the Energy Market Authority. The timing of the change coincided with the introduction of Finland's new Natural Gas Market Act and reflected the extension of the Authority's responsibility to cover promoting healthy and efficient competition on both the electricity and natural gas market and to secure reasonable and equitable service principles in the operations of both networks. The Electricity Market Authority began operations in mid-1995 as an expert body subordinate to the Ministry of Trade and industry when Finland's Electricity Market Act came into force, bringing with it a phased opening-up of the Finnish electricity market. The principle task of the Authority was, and remains, to supervise the pricing of transmission, distribution, and other network services, and to ensure a healthy level of competition
at population levels. Therefore, there is a call for additional research in order to identify the alternative ways of changing dietary behaviours. Healthy eating is a target behaviour of social marketing, which is a knowledge discipline and a practice that applies commercial marketing principles to achieve...... a voluntary behavioural change for personal welfare and/or the benefit of society. Even though social marketing is considered the most advanced framework for diet-related interventions, it has been criticised for a number of problems that can be grouped into: 1) lack of consumer orientation and research, 2......) lack of availability and application of theories that explain the process of specific behavioural change, 3) predominance of "downstream" approaches, and 4) ethical issues. The overall aim of this dissertation is to provide insights into healthy eating behaviour using the social marketing approach...
Bech-Larsen, Tino; Grunert, Klaus G.
Functional foods presumably enable the consumer to lead a healthier life without changing eating habits. Whether consumers accept this proposition or not is potentially influenced by their perceptions of the healthiness of the processing methods, enrichment components, food-types, and health claims...... used in the production and marketing of functional foods. Because consumers may perceive functional enrichment as interfering with nature, cultural values pertaining to man's manipulation of nature may also influence consumer acceptance of functional foods. The purpose of the study described here...... is to clarify to which extent Danish, Finnish and American consumers' perceptions of the healthiness of functional foods are explained by the factors mentioned above. The general results indicate that values pertaining to man's manipulation of nature is only modestly related to the acceptance of functional...
Hansen, Kamilla Marie Speht
spreading of pathogens between swimmers because of its residual disinfection effect. In addition to potential contamination of pathogenic microorganisms, swimming pool water is polluted by organic matter deposited from the bathers such as saliva, urine, sweat, hair and personal care products. Since chlorine...... is a strong oxidant it oxidizes the organic matter in the pool water and forms disinfection byproducts (DBPs). More than 100 different DBPs have been identified. Some of these have been found to be genotoxic and may pose an increased cancer risk for the bathers. The aim of this thesis was to give an overview...... of the strategies which can be used to achieve microbiological safe water with low levels of DBPs to ensure healthy environment for bathers. There are different approaches to achieve healthy environment in public swimming pools which in this thesis are divided into three strategies: alternatives to chlorination...
and food cultures. The questionnaire researched the attitude, policies and serving practices regarding promoting organic foods and healthy eating habits through school food service and classroom activities. The data illustrated that schools with organic supply or policies children tend to behave healthier......The prevalence of overweight and obesity among children is currently increasing as trend of globalization. Schools as a setting may play a crucial role in preventing children from becoming obese and overweight, through providing healthy school foods and curricular activities. The current study aims...... to investigate the effectiveness of organic food intervention in school meals and nutritional curricular activities results in healthier eating behaviours among children. The research was conducted among school food coordinators (school staff in charge of the school food service) in the public primary...
between organic school food policies and indicators (proxies) for healthy eating among children when (school food coordinators') statements on indicators (proxies) for healthy eating are used as variable. This project continues to search for the above signs of associations but involving also a “bottom......The project is a part of the iPOPY research project funded through the European Research Area program Core Organic I. The poster presents a study of the following hypothesis: Organic food service praxis/policy (POP) is associated with praxis/policies for healthier eating in Danish school food...... service. In other words, we wanted to test if organic procurement policies and the resulting praxis in schools can help to establish healthier eating habits among pupils as compared to schools without organic policies/praxis. A former study in Danish primary schools has shown that there is an association...
Gholam Hasan Khodaee
Full Text Available Consuming a healthy diet throughout the lifecourse helps prevent malnutrition in all its forms as well as a range of Non-communicable diseases (NCDs and conditions. But the increased production of processed food, rapid urbanization and changing lifestyles have led to a shift in dietary patterns. People are now consuming more foods high in energy, fats, free sugars or salt/sodium, and many do not eat enough fruit, vegetables and dietary fibre such as whole grains. In the first 2 years of a child’s life, optimal nutrition fosters healthy growth and improves cognitive development. It also reduces the risk of becoming overweight or obese and developing NCDs later in life. Nutrition for kids is based on the same principles as nutrition for adults. Everyone needs the same types of nutrients; such as vitamins, minerals, carbohydrates, protein and fat. Children, however, need different amounts of specific nutrients at different ages
Traditionally, the primary outcome of infertility trials has been a positive pregnancy test or a clinically recognized pregnancy. However, parents desire a healthy baby that grows up to be a healthy adult, rather than a positive pregnancy test. Too often results of infertility trials are lacking in crucial obstetric details. This is problematic because treatments for infertility have the capacity to increase the risk for a variety of adverse obstetric outcomes. This review will outline important obstetric variables that should be included when reporting infertility research. The rationale for including these data, precise definitions of the variables, and cost-effective strategies for obtaining these obstetric details will be highlighted. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Poor lifestyle habits, such as unhealthy eating and physical inactivity, are major contributors to increased adult morbidity and mortality from chronic diseases. Over the past decade there has been an increase in sedentary lifestyle and obesity in children and adolescents, both in North America and worldwide. Physicians need to be aware of the scope of this problem, provide anticipatory guidance to families and promote healthy active living in their practices.
cafeterias, managed by the Military and companies such Healthy Foodservice Benchmarking and Leading Practices | 7 as ARAMARK (Rolfsen, 2010) and...machine, a cafeteria line, a table where a patron gives his or her selection to a waiter , a cashier’s counter, a drive-thru window, a phone where orders...Nutrition and Weight Management Center at Boston Medical Center, the Medical Director of the Obesity Consult Center at Tufts University School of
Huntington, Mark K
The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services' Healthy People 2020 goals call for a reduction in the number of cases of malaria in the United States. Historically, South Dakota has had a low incidence of this infection, but a demographic shift has poised the state for a potential increase in the number of cases. The reasons for this are reviewed, and proactive steps that can be taken to avoid this rise are presented.
Abstract Good sleep is advantageous to the quality of life. Sleep-related benefits are particularly helpful for the working class, since poor or inadequate amounts of sleep degrade work productivity and overall health. This review paper explores the essential role of sleep in healthy work schedules and primarily focuses on the timing of sleep in relation to the work period (that is, before, during and after work). Data from laboratory, field and modeling studies indicate that consistent amoun...
Brooks-Wilson, Angela R
Longevity and healthy aging are among the most complex phenotypes studied to date. The heritability of age at death in adulthood is approximately 25 %. Studies of exceptionally long-lived individuals show that heritability is greatest at the oldest ages. Linkage studies of exceptionally long-lived families now support a longevity locus on chromosome 3; other putative longevity loci differ between studies. Candidate gene studies have identified variants at APOE and FOXO3A associated with longevity; other genes show inconsistent results. Genome-wide association scans (GWAS) of centenarians vs. younger controls reveal only APOE as achieving genome-wide significance (GWS); however, analyses of combinations of SNPs or genes represented among associations that do not reach GWS have identified pathways and signatures that converge upon genes and biological processes related to aging. The impact of these SNPs, which may exert joint effects, may be obscured by gene-environment interactions or inter-ethnic differences. GWAS and whole genome sequencing data both show that the risk alleles defined by GWAS of common complex diseases are, perhaps surprisingly, found in long-lived individuals, who may tolerate them by means of protective genetic factors. Such protective factors may 'buffer' the effects of specific risk alleles. Rare alleles are also likely to contribute to healthy aging and longevity. Epigenetics is quickly emerging as a critical aspect of aging and longevity. Centenarians delay age-related methylation changes, and they can pass this methylation preservation ability on to their offspring. Non-genetic factors, particularly lifestyle, clearly affect the development of age-related diseases and affect health and lifespan in the general population. To fully understand the desirable phenotypes of healthy aging and longevity, it will be necessary to examine whole genome data from large numbers of healthy long-lived individuals to look simultaneously at both common and
Cartee, Gregory D; Hepple, Russell T; Bamman, Marcas M
caused by diseases and lifestyle factors. Secondary aging can exacerbate deficits in mitochondrial function and muscle mass, concomitant with the development of skeletal muscle insulin resistance. Exercise opposes deleterious effects of secondary aging by preventing the decline in mitochondrial...... respiration, mitigating aging-related loss of muscle mass and enhancing insulin sensitivity. This review focuses on mechanisms by which exercise promotes "healthy aging" by inducing modifications in skeletal muscle....
Silva, Gabriela C.A.; Cardoso, Mariana Trés; Gaiad, Thais P.; Brolio, Marina P.; Oliveira, Vanessa C.; Assis Neto, Antonio; Martins, Daniele S.; Ambrósio, Carlos E.
Kinematic analysis relates to the relative movement between rigid bodies and finds application in gait analysis and other body movements, interpretation of their data when there is change, determines the choice of treatment to be instituted. The objective of this study was to standardize the march of Dog Golden Retriever Healthy to assist in the diagnosis and treatment of musculoskeletal disorders. We used a kinematic analysis system to analyse the gait of seven dogs Golden Retriever, female,...
Wang, W C; Worsley, A
Beliefs about what people think they ought to eat to be healthy ('healthy eating norms (HENs)') may be important influences on food consumption. The purpose of this study was to examine the predictive roles of normative expectations and demographics, personal values, substance use behaviours and body weight on reported food consumption among middle-aged Australians. A questionnaire was administered by mail to a random sample of people aged 40 years and above, drawn from the Electoral Rolls in Victoria, Australia. Part of the questionnaire contained questions about the respondents' beliefs about what should they eat to be healthy, what actually they ate, their personal values, smoking and alcohol use, as well as self-reported heights and weights and demographic characteristics. Respondents' reported food consumption did not match their HENs. Demographics, smoking, body mass index (BMI) and personal values, and HENs were associated with reported consumption but the relationships differed among men and women. Generally, high energy-dense, nutrition-poor (EDNP) food consumption was negatively associated with age. Fruit and vegetable HEN and consumption was positively linked to universalist values but negatively related to smoking status among men. In contrast in women, fruit and vegetable HENs were positively related to income and education while EDNP HEN was negatively associated with age and income but positively linked to body weight and power values. Reported food consumption was associated with HEN, personal values, demographics, smoking and BMI through different pathways among men and women. The implications for nutrition promotion are discussed.
City environmental conditions are associated with health outcomes in people living there. World Health Organization (WHO) initiated Healthy City in 1986. To promote the networking, Alliance for Healthy Cities (AFHC) was launched in 2003 with local offices including AFHC Japan. As of 2010, 26 cities are members of AFHC Japan. A questionnaire was sent to those member cities. It includes questions on why they became an AFHC member, which section is in charge of the initiatives, what factors are important for promotion, and others. Out of the 26 cities, 13 cities returned the completed questionnaire. As for factors important for promoting the initiatives, 10 (77%) out of the 13 cities answered "consciousness of residents", while five (38%) chose "budget". This result suggests that community participation is a more important factor than budget for promoting and succeeding in the initiatives. Aging is a problem in any of the member cities, and six cities out the 13 falls under the category of superaged society, which is defined as a society with the proportion of aged people cities (85%) agreed that bicycles are an alternative means of transportation to cars; however, infrastructure for ensuring safety needs further improvement. In the promotion of Healthy City, networking among the member cities in Japan and worldwide should be promoted. Community participation with empowerment from the planning stage should lead to sustainable initiatives. The function of AFHC in collaboration among the members should be strengthened to cope with the rapidly changing city environment.
Moon, Ji Young; Nam, Eun Woo; Dhakal, Sarita
The Healthy Cities project started in 1998 in Korea. Around the world, public health and healthy cities are becoming bigger and bigger priorities. Capacity mapping is an important tool for improving a country's health status. This study aims to review the initiation of the Korean "Healthy City" project. Korea follows a bottom-up approach for the development of Healthy City policies and has implemented plans accordingly. Korea has created a unique program through Healthy Cities; it has developed a Healthy City act, indicators for evaluating the program, a health impact assessment program, an award system, and a domestic networking system.
Fleischhacker, Sheila; Byrd, Randi R; Ramachandran, Gowri; Vu, Maihan; Ries, Amy; Bell, Ronny A; Evenson, Kelly R
There is growing recognition that policymakers can promote access to healthy, affordable foods within neighborhoods, schools, childcare centers, and workplaces. Despite the disproportionate risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes among American Indian children and adults, comparatively little attention has been focused on the opportunities tribal policymakers have to implement policies or resolutions to promote access to healthy, affordable foods. This paper presents an approach for integrating formative research into an action-oriented strategy of developing and disseminating tribally led environmental and policy strategies to promote access to and consumption of healthy, affordable foods. This paper explains how the American Indian Healthy Eating Project evolved through five phases and discusses each phase's essential steps involved, outcomes derived, and lessons learned. Using community-based participatory research and informed by the Social Cognitive Theory and ecologic frameworks, the American Indian Healthy Eating Project was started in fall 2008 and has evolved through five phases: (1) starting the conversation; (2) conducting multidisciplinary formative research; (3) strengthening partnerships and tailoring policy options; (4) disseminating community-generated ideas; and (5) accelerating action while fostering sustainability. Collectively, these phases helped develop and disseminate Tools for Healthy Tribes-a toolkit used to raise awareness among participating tribal policymakers of their opportunities to improve access to healthy, affordable foods. Formal and informal strategies can engage tribal leaders in the development of culturally appropriate and tribe-specific sustainable strategies to improve such access, as well as empower tribal leaders to leverage their authority toward raising a healthier generation of American Indian children. Copyright © 2012 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
McArthur, Laura H; Valentino, Antonette; Holbert, Donald
This cross-sectional survey study compared the on- and off-campus snack choices and related correlates of convenience samples of exercise science (ES) ( n = 165, M = 45%, F = 55%) and non-exercise science (NES) ( n =160, M = 43%, F = 57%) undergraduates. The hypothesis posed was that knowledge of healthy foods will not translate to healthier snack consumption by the ES students, and that the snack choices and related correlates of ES and NES students will be similar. Data were collected using self-administered questionnaires completed in classrooms (ES sample) and at high-traffic locations on-campus (NES sample). Chi-square and t-test analyses compared ES and NES students on snack correlates. Snacks consumed most often by the ES and NES students on-campus were health bars/squares ( n = 56 vs. n = 48) and savory snacks ( n = 55 vs. n = 71), and off-campus were savory snacks ( n = 60 vs. n = 71) and fruits ( n = 41 vs. n = 34). Over half of both samples believed their snack choices were a mix of unhealthy and healthy. Fruits were considered healthier snacks and chips less healthy by both samples, and fruits were the most often recommended snack. About 20% believed these choices would impact their health unfavorably, and about two thirds self-classified in the action stages for healthy snacking. Since knowledge about healthy food choices did not translate to healthy snack selection, these students would benefit from interventions that teach selection and preparation of healthy snacks on a restricted budget.
Graff, J; Brinch, K; Madsen, Jan Lysgård
To investigate the effects of age and gender on gastric, small intestinal and colonic mean transit times, a study was conducted in 32 healthy volunteers: eight young women (22-30 years), eight young men (20-28 years), eight middle-aged women (43-51 years) and eight middle-aged men (38-53 years......, small intestinal and colonic mean transit times were calculated. The gastric, small intestinal and colonic mean transit times were significantly longer in women. Ageing was shown to accelerate the gastric and small intestinal transit significantly. In the group of men the colonic mean transit time...... was unaffected by age, but middle-aged women had a significantly slower colonic transit than young women. We therefore conclude that both age and gender have to be considered when reference values for gastric, small intestinal and colonic mean transit times have to be established....
Graff, J; Brinch, K; Madsen, Jan Lysgård
To investigate the effects of age and gender on gastric, small intestinal and colonic mean transit times, a study was conducted in 32 healthy volunteers: eight young women (22-30 years), eight young men (20-28 years), eight middle-aged women (43-51 years) and eight middle-aged men (38-53 years......). After ingestion of a meal containing 111Indium-labelled water and 99mTechnetium-labelled omelette imaging of the abdomen was performed at intervals of 30 min until all radioactivity was located in the colon and henceforth at intervals of 24 h until all radioactivity had cleared from the colon. Gastric......, small intestinal and colonic mean transit times were calculated. The gastric, small intestinal and colonic mean transit times were significantly longer in women. Ageing was shown to accelerate the gastric and small intestinal transit significantly. In the group of men the colonic mean transit time...
... should I start talking to my kids about sex? What are examples of healthy rewards? Resources American Academy of Family Physicians, Healthy Habits for TV, Video Games, and the Internet American Academy of Family ...
... May 4, 2015. U.S.Department of Health and Human Services website. Healthy snacks: quick tips for parents. healthfinder.gov/HealthTopics/Category/nutrition-and-physical-activity/nutrition/healthy-snacks-quick-tips- ...
... in particular are an important part of a healthy diet. Grains are naturally high in fiber, helping you ... to make whole grains a part of your healthy diet. Also called cereals, grains and whole grains are ...
Keywords:dietary quality, dietary patterns, lifestyle factors, smoking, physical activity, elderly, mortality, Mediterranean Diet Score, Healthy Diet Indicator, healthy ageing, self-rated health, functional status
In this podcast, the speakers will discuss how to create healthy changes that benefit residents and businesses in local communities, as well as provide inspiration for other communities to make healthy living a priority.
Mendoza, F J; Perez-Ecija, R A; Monreal, L; Estepa, J C
Coagulation disorders are frequently diagnosed, especially in hospitalized equidae, and result in increased morbidity and mortality. However, hemostatic reference intervals have not been established for donkeys yet. To determine whether the most common coagulation parameters used in equine practice are different between healthy donkeys and horses. Thirty-eight healthy donkeys and 29 healthy horses. Blood samples were collected to assess both coagulation and fibrinolytic systems by determination of platelet count, fibrinogen concentration, clotting times (prothrombin time [PT] and activated partial thromboplastin time [aPTT]), fibrin degradation products (FDP) and D-Dimer concentrations. PT and aPTT in donkeys were significantly (P donkeys than in horses. The coagulation parameters most commonly determined in equine practice are different in donkeys compared with horses. Thus, the use of normal reference ranges reported previously for healthy horses in donkeys might lead to a misdiagnosis of coagulopathy in healthy donkeys, and unnecessary treatments in sick donkeys. This is the first report of normal coagulation profile results in donkeys, and further studies are warranted to elucidate the physiological mechanisms of the differences observed between donkeys and horses. Copyright © 2011 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.
Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to present the results of a survey of railroad employees’ motivation for a healthy lifestyle. For this purpose a specific questionnaire was developed. The study was performed on 245 Slovene railroad workers (168 of them blue-collar ones. The great majority (66.9% were found to be overweight or obese (BMI 25 or more, with no significant difference between blue- and white-collar workers. The great majority of them were in general aware of having unhealthy nutrition and an unhealthy lifestyle. Most of the employees felt the need to improve (at least in part their nutrition (74.7% and lifestyle (78.0%; the majority (67.8% also declared that they could adopt a healthier lifestyle despite the constraints of everyday life and work conditions; however, 57.6% said that they had been already putting considerable effort into a healthier nutrition and lifestyle. Thus the effort needed to overcome constraints toward a healthier lifestyle seems to be the key problem: the majority (54.3% would rather choose walking than running or other intensive forms of exercise; they are not ready to do it for more than one hour per day (60%, and they are not ready to give up permanently food that they like and that is considered unhealthy. The differences in motivations for a healthy lifestyle between blue- and white-collar workers were not significant at the 0.05 level. Further research in this field is needed; however, it seems that the methods of efficient marginal modifications of lifestyle are required. KEYWORDS human resources management, railroad, blue-collar workers, white-collar workers, healthy lifestyle, motivations
Kiefte-de Jong, Jessica C; Mathers, John C; Franco, Oscar H
Healthy longevity is a tangible possibility for many individuals and populations, with nutritional and other lifestyle factors playing a key role in modulating the likelihood of healthy ageing. Nevertheless, studies of effects of nutrients or single foods on ageing often show inconsistent results and ignore the overall framework of dietary habits. Therefore, the use of dietary patterns (e.g. a Mediterranean dietary pattern) and the specific dietary recommendations (e.g. dietary approaches to stop hypertension, Polymeal and the American Healthy Eating Index) are becoming more widespread in promoting lifelong health. A posteriori defined dietary patterns are described frequently in relation to age-related diseases but their generalisability is often a challenge since these are developed specifically for the population under study. Conversely, the dietary guidelines are often developed based on prevention of disease or nutrient deficiency, but often less attention is paid to how well these dietary guidelines promote health outcomes. In the present paper, we provide an overview of the state of the art of dietary patterns and dietary recommendations in relation to life expectancy and the risk of age-related disorders (with emphasis on cardiometabolic diseases and cognitive outcomes). According to both a posteriori and a priori dietary patterns, some key 'ingredients' can be identified that are associated consistently with longevity and better cardiometabolic and cognitive health. These include high intake of fruit, vegetables, fish, (whole) grains and legumes/pulses and potatoes, whereas dietary patterns rich in red meat and sugar-rich foods have been associated with an increased risk of mortality and cardiometabolic outcomes.
Loftness, Vivian; Hakkinen, Bert; Adan, Olaf; Nevalainen, Aino
Background The elements that contribute to a healthy building are multifactorial and can be discussed from different perspectives. Objectives We present three viewpoints of designing a healthy building: the importance of sustainable development, the role of occupants for ensuring indoor air quality, and ongoing developments related to indoor finishes with low chemical emissions and good fungal resistance. Discussion Sustainable design rediscovers the social, environmental, and technical values of pedestrian and mixed-use communities, using existing infrastructures including “main streets” and small-town planning principles and recapturing indoor–outdoor relationships. This type of design introduces nonpolluting materials and assemblies with lower energy requirements and higher durability and recyclability. Building occupants play a major role in maintaining healthy indoor environments, especially in residences. Contributors to indoor air quality include cleaning habits and other behaviors; consumer products, furnishings, and appliances purchases, as well as where and how the occupants use them. Certification of consumer products and building materials as low-emitting products is a primary control measure for achieving good indoor air quality. Key products in this respect are office furniture, flooring, paints and coatings, adhesives and sealants, wall coverings, wood products, textiles, insulation, and cleaning products. Finishing materials play a major role in the quality of indoor air as related to moisture retention and mold growth. Conclusions Sustainable design emphasizes the needs of infrastructure, lower energy consumption, durability, and recyclability. To ensure good indoor air quality, the product development for household use should aim to reduce material susceptibility to contaminants such as mold and should adopt consumer-oriented product labeling. PMID:17589608
Loftness, Vivian; Hakkinen, Bert; Adan, Olaf; Nevalainen, Aino
The elements that contribute to a healthy building are multifactorial and can be discussed from different perspectives. WE PRESENT THREE VIEWPOINTS OF DESIGNING A HEALTHY BUILDING: the importance of sustainable development, the role of occupants for ensuring indoor air quality, and ongoing developments related to indoor finishes with low chemical emissions and good fungal resistance. Sustainable design rediscovers the social, environmental, and technical values of pedestrian and mixed-use communities, using existing infrastructures including "main streets" and small-town planning principles and recapturing indoor-outdoor relationships. This type of design introduces nonpolluting materials and assemblies with lower energy requirements and higher durability and recyclability. Building occupants play a major role in maintaining healthy indoor environments, especially in residences. Contributors to indoor air quality include cleaning habits and other behaviors; consumer products, furnishings, and appliances purchases, as well as where and how the occupants use them. Certification of consumer products and building materials as low-emitting products is a primary control measure for achieving good indoor air quality. Key products in this respect are office furniture, flooring, paints and coatings, adhesives and sealants, wall coverings, wood products, textiles, insulation, and cleaning products. Finishing materials play a major role in the quality of indoor air as related to moisture retention and mold growth. Sustainable design emphasizes the needs of infrastructure, lower energy consumption, durability, and recyclability. To ensure good indoor air quality, the product development for household use should aim to reduce material susceptibility to contaminants such as mold and should adopt consumer-oriented product labeling.
Mueller Loose, Simone; Peschel, Anne; Grebitus, Carola
Although seafood is considered to be a healthy food choice, the recommended consumption level of two servings per week is still not reached in most countries. Previous research has identified potential barriers of seafood consumption, including purchase and consumption convenience, but it is still...... participated in an online choice experiment with visual product stimuli to simulate their choice of oysters in a retail store. Considering preference heterogeneity respondents’ choices were analyzed with a scale adjusted latent class model and six different consumer segments differing in their preferences were...
Bassis, Christine M; Tang, Alice L; Young, Vincent B; Pynnonen, Melissa A
Background The microbiota of the nares has been widely studied. However, relatively few studies have investigated the microbiota of the nasal cavity posterior to the nares. This distinct environment has the potential to contain a distinct microbiota and play an important role in health. Results We obtained 35,142 high-quality bacterial 16S rRNA-encoding gene sequence reads from the nasal cavity and oral cavity (the dorsum of the tongue and the buccal mucosa) of 12 healthy adult humans and dep...
Pedersen, Lise Mariager; Pedersen, Susanne Møller; Brasen, Claus Lohman
Klotho concentrations were determined in 120 healthy adults aged 19-66years. Blood samples were collected, and stored sera were assayed for Klotho according to age and gender. In addition several other clinical and laboratory characteristics were determined in the cohort and compared to the levels...... genders. Concentrations of serum Klotho were independently associated with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and body weight using TRF whereas serum Klotho concentrations were associated with age using the ELISA. CONCLUSION: Comparison of two different immunoassays for serum Klotho indicate...
Nielsen, Peter V.
Healthy buildings are to a great extent a question of indoor air quality. The processes involved in air quality can be looked upon as a number of links in a chain. Typical links will be emission from building materials, convection and diffusion in the room, local airflow around a person, personal...... exposure and at last the effect of the air quality on the occupant. The best results will obviously be obtained by using building materials with low emission. However, there will always exist some emission and the ventilation will consequently be an important link....
Çelebi, Evrim; Gündogdu, Cemal; Kizilkaya, Aysel
Healthy lifestyle behaviors can be defined as all the behaviors believed and applied by individuals to be healthy, maintain health and be protected from diseases. This study aims to determine the healthy lifestyle behaviors of high school students studying at the high schools in the Province of Elazig, Turkey. The study population of this…
... seven locations where the program will take place and the criteria used for selection; and (2) the... more physically active, and offering more healthy food choices in worksite cafeterias and vending..., nutrition counseling/education, menu labeling on healthy foods, healthy foods in cafeterias and vending...
de Ridder, Denise; Kroese, Floor; Evers, Catharine; Adriaanse, Marieke; Gillebaart, Marleen
Objective: To discuss healthy diet from a psychological perspective by considering definitions of healthy diet in terms of consumer understanding; the health effects of specific dietary elements in terms of overweight and (chronic) illness; the prevalence of healthy diet; the psychological and
Childhood obesity now affects about one in six kids and disproportionately affects low-income and minority populations. This podcast highlights one preschool teacher who teaches kids about healthy eating and is incorporating small, healthy changes that can be made in any classroomâlike planting a classroom garden and eating healthy snacks.
Polletta, Valerie L; Reid, Margaret; Barros, Eugene; Duarte, Catherine; Donaher, Kevin; Wensley, Howard; Wolff, Lisa
This article presents qualitative research findings of Section 8 landlord perceptions regarding healthy housing practices to inform landlord-focused initiatives. Approach or Design: Five focus groups were conducted with landlords. Boston, Massachusetts. Section 8 landlords participated in focus groups (n = 39). Focus group transcripts were coded for key themes using a grounded theory approach. Landlords' primary challenges to creating a healthy housing environment included tenant behavior, financial burden, and policy enforcement; tenant safety and cost savings were seen as primary benefits. Landlords play a critical role in implementing healthy housing practices. Several opportunities exist to reduce barriers and capitalize on perceived benefits of implementing these practices, including increasing access to educational and financial resources.
Healthy food baskets have been used around the world for a variety of purposes, including: examining the difference in cost between healthy and unhealthy food; mapping the availability of healthy foods in different locations; calculating the minimum cost of an adequate diet for social policy planning; developing educational material on low cost eating and examining trends on food costs over time. In Australia, the Illawarra Healthy Food Basket was developed in 2000 to monitor trends in the af...
Cerretani, Colin F; Radke, C J
Dry-eye disease, an increasingly prevalent ocular-surface disorder, significantly alters tear physiology. Understanding the basic physics of tear dynamics in healthy and dry eyes benefits both diagnosis and treatment of dry eye. We present a physiological-based model to describe tear dynamics during blinking. Tears are compartmentalized over the ocular surface; the blink cycle is divided into three repeating phases. Conservation laws quantify the tear volume and tear osmolarity of each compartment during each blink phase. Lacrimal-supply and tear-evaporation rates are varied to reveal the dependence of tear dynamics on dry-eye conditions, specifically tear osmolarity, tear volume, tear-turnover rate (TTR), and osmotic water flow. Predicted periodic-steady tear-meniscus osmolarity is 309 and 321 mOsM in normal and dry eyes, respectively. Tear osmolarity, volume, and TTR all match available clinical measurements. Osmotic water flow through the cornea and conjunctiva contribute 10 and 50% to the total tear supply in healthy and dry-eye conditions, respectively. TTR in aqueous-deficient dry eye (ADDE) is only half that in evaporative dry eye (EDE). The compartmental periodic-steady tear-dynamics model accurately predicts tear behavior in normal and dry eyes. Inclusion of osmotic water flow is crucial to match measured tear osmolarity. Tear-dynamics predictions corroborate the use of TTR as a clinical discriminator between ADDE and EDE. The proposed model is readily extended to predict the dynamics of aqueous solutes such as drugs or fluorescent tags.
Pan, Szu-Yu; Chang, Yu-Ting; Lin, Shuei-Liong
Pericytes are interstitial mesenchymal cells found in many major organs. In the kidney, microvascular pericytes are defined anatomically as extensively branched, collagen-producing cells in close contact with endothelial cells. Although many molecular markers have been proposed, none of them can identify the pericytes with satisfactory specificity or sensitivity. The roles of microvascular pericytes in kidneys were poorly understood in the past. Recently, by using genetic lineage tracing to label collagen-producing cells or mesenchymal cells, the elusive characteristics of the pericytes have been illuminated. The purpose of this article is to review recent advances in the understanding of microvascular pericytes in the kidneys. In healthy kidney, the pericytes are found to take part in the maintenance of microvascular stability. Detachment of the pericytes from the microvasculature and loss of the close contact with endothelial cells have been observed during renal insult. Renal microvascular pericytes have been shown to be the major source of scar-forming myofibroblasts in fibrogenic kidney disease. Targeting the crosstalk between pericytes and neighboring endothelial cells or tubular epithelial cells may inhibit the pericyte–myofibroblast transition, prevent peritubular capillary rarefaction, and attenuate renal fibrosis. In addition, renal pericytes deserve attention for their potential to produce erythropoietin in healthy kidneys as pericytes stand in the front line, sensing the change of oxygenation and hemoglobin concentration. Further delineation of the mechanisms underlying the reduced erythropoietin production occurring during pericyte–myofibroblast transition may be promising for the development of new treatment strategies for anemia in chronic kidney disease. PMID:24465134
Full Text Available In our fast paced world, using technology allows us to connect with people and assist them in developing healthier lifestyles within their time limits due to families, work, and other responsibilities. The goal of our project was the development of online, technology-based, nutrition, health, and fitness education challenges using social media as a means of helping consumers develop healthy lifestyle changes. Participants completed preassessments and postassessments to determine overall program impact and to self-report perceptions of knowledge gained and practice/behavior change. Results from the challenges indicated participants gained knowledge on nutrition, health and fitness topics while making strides towards lifestyle changes and adoption of healthy habits. Results revealed healthier eating habits were developed and physical activity was increased with many participants losing weight. Ease of participating was the most reported reason for participating in the challenges. To determine “best practice,” varying lengths of time for the challenges from four, seven, and thirteen weeks allowed the educators to derive implications for future programming, including branding, length of the challenge, frequency, and participant behavior change. To remain relevant and reach a greater diversity of populations, educators need to continue to explore and utilize various social media tools.
Campos, Ana Cristina Viana; Ferreira, Efigênia Ferreira E; Vargas, Andréa Maria Duarte; Gonçalves, Lúcia Hisako Takase
to identify the healthy aging profile in octogenarians in Brazil. this population-based epidemiological study was conducted using household interviews of 335 octogenarians in a Brazilian municipality. The decision-tree model was used to assess the healthy aging profile in relation to the socioeconomic characteristics evaluated at baseline. All of the tests used a p-value adultos mayores participantes, la mayoría eran mujeres (62,1%), edades comprendidas entre 80 y 84 años (50,4%), viudos (53,4%), analfabetos (59,1 %), con ingreso mensual inferior del salario mínimo (59,1%), jubilados (85,7%), viviendo con el cónyuge (63,8%), sin cuidador (60,3%), con dos o más hijos (82,7%), y dos o más nietos (78,8%). Los resultados indican tres grupos de edad con perfil de envejecimiento más saludable: adultos mayores de 80-84 años (55,6%), adultos mayores con 85 años o más y casados (64,9%), y adultos mayores con 85 años o más sin pareja y ni cuidador (54,2%). el perfil de envejecimiento saludable de octogenarios se puede explicar por el grupo etario, el estado civil y la presencia de un cuidador.
OTOMARU, Konosuke; HIRATA, Masaya; IKEDO, Tomonobu; HORINOUCHI, Chie; NOGUCHI, Michiko; ISHIKAWA, Shingo; NAGATA, Shun-ichi; HOBO, Seiji
To determine the intrapulmonary concentration of enrofloxacin (ERFX) in calves, plasma, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and alveolar cells samples were obtained from clinically healthy calves. Four clinically healthy calves were administered a single dose of ERFX (5 mg/kg) by subcutaneous injection. Samples of plasma were obtained for each subjects at 0 (before administration), 1 and 2 hr after administration of ERFX. Samples of BALF were obtained from each subject at 0, 1 and 2 hr after administration of ERFX. This examination was conducted two times, one week apart. The mean EFRX concentrations in plasma at 1 and 2 hr after administration were l.23 and 1.29 µg/ml, respectively. The mean EFRX concentrations in pulmonary epithelial lining fluid (ELF) at 1 and 2 hr after administration 8.53 µg/ml and 9.42 µg/ml, respectively. The mean ERFX concentrations of alveolar cells in BALF at 1 and 2 hr after administration were 4.04 µg/ml and 5.19 µg/ml, respectively. These results suggest that the ERFX concentrations in ELF and alveolar cells concentrations in BALF at 1 and 2 hr after administration were higher than the plasma concentrations. PMID:26668174
Hämeen-Anttila, Katri; Bush, Patricia J
Chronically ill children's perceptions of medicines have been widely studied, but healthy children's less often. However, information on healthy children's beliefs and attitudes about medicine use is needed to be able to target health education messages about medicines appropriately. A literature review was performed to determine schoolchildren's attitudes, beliefs, and knowledge about medicines; autonomy in using medicines; expectations of using medicines; and questions about medicines, so as to guide the development of a medicine education curriculum and to inform health care professionals who communicate with children. This study was a review of literature from 17 countries. The review indicated that children of school age tend to view medicines cautiously. Although age is a factor, children have very limited ideas about how medicines work and issues around medicine efficacy are confusing to them. Even young children recognize that medicines may have harmful effects and, children of all ages and cultures studied want to learn more about medicines. Autonomy in medicine use is surprisingly high and disturbing given that knowledge of medicines is poor. Primary conclusions drawn are (1) children of the same age in different cultures appear similar in their attitudes, beliefs, behaviors, and desires to learn about medicines; (2) children lack information about medicines, especially in view of their levels of autonomy; and (3) health educators and health care professionals should educate children about rational medicine use, at appropriate cognitive development levels, before the children become independent medicine users.
Adamson, Bonnie J
Although I find Graham Lowe and Ben Chan's logic model and work environment metrics thought provoking, a healthy work environment framework must be more comprehensive and consider the addition of recommended diagnostic tools, vehicles to deliver the necessary change and a sustainability strategy that allows for the tweaking and refinement of ideas. Basic structure is required to frame and initiate an effective process, while allowing creativity and enhancements to be made by organizations as they learn. I support the construction of a suggested Canadian health sector framework for measuring the health of an organization, but I feel that organizations need to have some freedom in that design and the ability to incorporate their own indicators within the established proven drivers. Reflecting on my organization's experience with large-scale transformation efforts, I find that emotional intelligence along with formal leadership development and front-line engagement in Lean process improvement activities are essential for creating healthy work environments that produce the balanced set of outcomes listed in my hospital's Balanced Scorecard.
Foreyt, W J; Snipes, K P; Kasten, R W
In a series of three experiments, isolates of Pasteurella haemolytica biotype A, serotype 2, ribotype reference WSU-1, from healthy domestic sheep, were inoculated intratracheally into eight bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis canadensis) and seven domestic sheep with doses of bacteria ranging from 5.3 x 10(8) to 8.6 x 10(11) colony forming units. Seven of eight inoculated bighorn sheep died from acute pneumonia within 48 hr of inoculation, whereas all seven domestic sheep inoculated with comparable or greater doses of bacteria remained healthy. One contact control bighorn sheep also died 6 days after its penmates received P. haemolytica. Three other noncontact control bighorn sheep remained healthy during the experiments. Pasteurella haemolytica biotype A, serotype 2, ribotype reference WSU-1 in the inocula was recovered from one or more tissues from all bighorns that died; whereas, it was not detected in any bighorn sheep before inoculation. Three different ribotypes of P. haemolytica A2 were recovered from bighorn sheep; however, only the ribotype reference WSU-1 in the domestic sheep-origin inoculum was recovered from all dead bighorn sheep, and was not recovered from bighorn sheep that survived the experiments. Thus, a relatively nonpathogenic and common isolate of P. haemolytica from healthy domestic sheep was lethal in bighorn sheep under experimental conditions.
Calcaterra, Roberta; Di Girolamo, Michele; Mirisola, Concetta; Baggi, Luigi
Gingival epithelial cells have a pivotal role in the recognition of microorganisms and damage-associated molecular pattern molecules and in the regulation of the immune response. The investigation of the behavior of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and nucleotide oligomerization domain (NOD) like receptors (NLRs) around a healthy implant may help to address the first step of periimplantitis pathogenesis. To investigate by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, the mRNA expressions of TLR2, TLR3, TLR4, TLR5, TLR6, TLR9, NOD1, NOD2, and NLRP3 from gingival epithelial cells of the sulcus around healthy implants and around healthy teeth. Two types of implant-abutment systems with tube-in-tube interface were tested. After 6 months of implant restoration, gingival epithelial cells were obtained from the gingival sulcus around the implants and around the adjacent teeth of 10 patients. Our results did not reach statistical significance among the mRNA expressions of TLR2, TLR3, TLR4, TLR5, TLR6, TLR9, NOD1, NOD2, and NLRP3 in epithelial cells around the implant versus around natural teeth. This study shows that the implant-abutment systems tested did not induce an immune response by the surrounding epithelial cells at 6 months since their positioning, as well as in the adjacent clincally healthy teeth.
Full Text Available Overwhelming evidence reveals the close link between unwarranted weight gain among childbearing women and childhood adiposity. Yet current barriers limit the capacity of perinatal health care providers (PHCPs to offer healthy lifestyle counselling. In response, today’s Internet savvy women are turning to online resources to access health information, with the potential of revolutionising health services by enabling PHCPs to guide women to appropriate online resources. This paper presents the findings of a project designed to develop an online resource to promote healthy lifestyles during the perinatal period. The methodology involved focus groups and interviews with perinatal women and PHCPs to determine what online information was needed, in what form, and how best it should be presented. The outcome was the development of the Healthy You, Healthy Baby website and smartphone app. This clinically-endorsed, interactive online resource provides perinatal women with a personalised tool to track their weight, diet, physical activity, emotional wellbeing, and sleep patterns based on the developmental stage of their child with links to quality-assured information. One year since the launch of the online resource, data indicates it provides a low-cost intervention delivered across most geographic and socioeconomic strata without additional demands on health service staff.
Randall, Jill; And Others
This package consists of two sets of bilingual instructional materials for use in helping Indochinese refugees learn prenatal care and nutrition skills. Included in the package are Vietnamese, Laotian, and English translations of an instructional booklet dealing with how to have a healthy pregnancy. The second item in the package is a set of…
Douw, L.; Nieboer, D.; van Dijk, B.W.; Stam, C.J.; Twisk, J.W.R.
A healthy lifestyle is an important focus in today's society. The physical benefits of regular exercise are abundantly clear, but physical fitness is also associated with better cognitive performance. How these two factors together relate to characteristics of the brain is still incompletely
On April 28th CGH joined several NCI offices at the Shady Grove campus to celebrate Take Your Child to Work Day 2016. Volunteers hosted three activity stations, each offering creative fun with a message: With healthy kids, we can create a healthier world.
Talaei, Mohammad; Mohammadifard, Noushin; Khaje, Mohammad-Reza; Sarrafzadegan, Nizal; Sajjadi, Firoozeh; Alikhasi, Hasan; Maghroun, Maryam; Iraji, Farhad; Ehteshami, Shahram
The scientific evidences show that the content, baking methods, and types of bread can make health impacts. Bread, as a major part of Iranian diet, demonstrates a significant potential to be targeted as health promotion subject. Healthy Food for Healthy Communities (HFHC) was a project of Isfahan Healthy Heart Program (IHHP), consisting of a wide variety of strategies, like Healthy Bread (HB) Initiative. The HB Initiative was designed to improve the behaviour of both producers and consumers, mainly aiming at making high-fibre, low-salt bread, eliminating the use of baking soda, providing enough rest time for dough before baking (at least one hour), and enough baking time (at least one minute in oven). A workshop was held for volunteer bakers, and a baker-to-baker training protocol under direct supervision was designed for future volunteers. Cereal Organization was persuaded to provide less refined flour that contained more bran. Health messages in support of new breads were disseminated by media and at bakeries by health professionals. Evaluation of the HB Initiative was done using before-after assessments and population surveys. While HB was baked in 1 (0.01%) bakery at baseline, 402 (41%) bakeries in the intervention area joined the HB Initiative in 2009. Soda was completely eliminated and fibre significantly increased from 4 +/- 0.4 g% before study to 12 +/- 0.6 g% after the intervention (p bread decreased from 13 +/- 1.8 g% to 2 +/- 0.5 g% and was expressed as the most important advantage of this initiative by consumers. People who lived in Isfahan city consumed whole bread 6 times more than those who lived in reference area Arak (p breads as a healthy choice that were compatible with local dishes and made a model to solve the longstanding problems of bread. It used various health promotion approaches but was best consistent with Beattie's model.
Jones, C M
The unexpected announcement by the UK Chancellor of the Exchequer of a levy on sugar sweetened beverages (SSBs) on the 16 March 2016, should be welcomed by all health professionals. This population based, structural intervention sends a strong message that there is no place for carbonated drinks, neither sugared nor sugar-free, in a healthy diet and the proposed levy has the potential to contribute to both general and dental health. The sugar content of drinks exempt from the proposed sugar levy will still cause tooth decay. Improving the proposed tax could involve a change to a scaled volumetric tax of added sugar with a lower exemption threshold. External influences such as the Common Agricultural Policy and the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership may negate the benefits of the sugar levy unless it is improved. However, the proposed UK sugar tax should be considered as a start in improving the nation's diet.
Christmann, A.; Frenzel, B.
The symptoms of the forest decline point to disturbances in the balance of different hormones. It was to be examined, to which extent the most important phytohormones are affected by the disease in the course of time. Up to the present, ethylene metabolism and partly abscisic acid have been examined. Healthy fir needles show great differences in the ethylene and abscisic acid (AbA) contents, which depend on the season, the age of the needle, the age of the branch, the age of the tree, the exposition and the site. In addition to this behaviour, there are considerable changes caused by the disease. In this case, the examined hormones on sites with a strong respectively negligible SO/sub 2/-impact react differently from each other.
Tuck, Inez; Alleyne, Renee; Thinganjana, Wantana
The purposes of this longitudinal, descriptive pilot study were to (a) test the acceptability and feasibility of a 6-week spiritual intervention; (b) determine the relationship between spirituality and stress; (c) explore the effects of the intervention on measures of perceived stress, spiritual perspective, and spiritual well-being; and (d) explore the meaning of spirituality. The sample consisted of 27 community-dwelling adults. Six categories emerged from the qualitative data as descriptors of the meaning and significance of spirituality. The survey data indicated that there were significant negative correlations between perceived stress and spiritual well-being at three time intervals, a significant decline in the levels of perceived stress, and a significant increase in spiritual perspective from the pretest to the 6-week follow-up. There were no significant changes in spiritual well-being. The intervention proved effective in reducing stress in this healthy adult sample.
Maryn, Youri; Debo, Kim
Literature has shown that voice-disordered persons are at higher risk for negative attitudes on several personality and physical appearance traits than vocally normal persons. This study investigated general perceptions of health in subjects with various degrees of dysphonia. Recordings from 100 normophonic and dysphonic subjects were auditorily rated on dysphonia severity by five experienced clinicians and on degree of healthiness/unhealthiness by seven unexperienced listeners. Results revealed strong correlation between auditory ratings of dysphonia severity and unhealthiness severity. Dysphonic subjects are rated significantly unhealthier than normophonic subjects, and the receiver-operating characteristics curve showed that even slight dysphonia induces negative attributions of unhealthiness. This study provides additional evidence for the negative attitudes with which dysphonic speakers are confronted, especially in terms of health.
Cartee, Gregory D; Hepple, Russell T; Bamman, Marcas M; Zierath, Juleen R
Primary aging is the progressive and inevitable process of bodily deterioration during adulthood. In skeletal muscle, primary aging causes defective mitochondrial energetics and reduced muscle mass. Secondary aging refers to additional deleterious structural and functional age-related changes caused by diseases and lifestyle factors. Secondary aging can exacerbate deficits in mitochondrial function and muscle mass, concomitant with the development of skeletal muscle insulin resistance. Exercise opposes deleterious effects of secondary aging by preventing the decline in mitochondrial respiration, mitigating aging-related loss of muscle mass and enhancing insulin sensitivity. This review focuses on mechanisms by which exercise promotes "healthy aging" by inducing modifications in skeletal muscle. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Bradford, Judith B; Putney, Jennifer M; Shepard, Bonnie L; Sass, Samantha E; Rudicel, Sally; Ladd, Holly; Cahill, Sean
In Boston and Outer Cape, Massachusetts, we explored the expectations of lesbians 60 years and older regarding healthy aging and community importance. Focus groups were conducted with participants after completing an anonymous demographic questionnaire. Thematic analysis was used to generate themes and identify how they varied by urban versus rural settings. Group discussions focused on community, finances, housing, and healthcare. Primary concerns included continued access to supportive and lesbian communities as a source of resilience during aging. Concerns about discrimination and isolation mirror themes found in national research. The study findings suggest a need for more research into the housing and transportation needs of lesbians approaching later life, with a focus on how those needs relate to affordability, accessibility, and proximity to social support and healthcare. These findings also suggest the need for substantial investments in strengthening the LGBT-related cultural competence of providers of services for the elderly.
Kaeberlein, Matt; Rabinovitch, Peter S; Martin, George M
Age is the greatest risk factor for nearly every major cause of mortality in developed nations. Despite this, most biomedical research focuses on individual disease processes without much consideration for the relationships between aging and disease. Recent discoveries in the field of geroscience, which aims to explain biological mechanisms of aging, have provided insights into molecular processes that underlie biological aging and, perhaps more importantly, potential interventions to delay aging and promote healthy longevity. Here we describe some of these advances, along with efforts to move geroscience from the bench to the clinic. We also propose that greater emphasis should be placed on research into basic aging processes, because interventions that slow aging will have a greater effect on quality of life compared with disease-specific approaches. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.
Gusmano, Michael K; Michel, Jean-Pierre
The authors notice the low vaccine coverage rate among European citizens and inventory the multiple reasons leading to the non-use of preventable infectious diseases vaccines in adults whose mortality consequences represent an important and unexpected burden of diseases. These facts are in close relation with the disruption of vaccine recommendations after the childhood vaccine program, the poor literacy knowledge concerning vaccines among the general population, but also unfortunately among physicians and other health care workers. Popular beliefs, fear of side-effects, fear of needles facilitated the constitution of active non-vaccine groups which conduct to the reappearance in non-vaccinated adults and with dramatic consequences of preventable childhood infectious diseases. This careful analysis of the current preventable infectious disease vaccine coverage in old adults leads to propose a life course vaccine programme including adult vaccinations as part of healthy aging as well as old adults' vaccine guidelines integrated in health prevention programs.
Ageing can be understood at various levels, from evolutionary and biological levels to psychological and sociological levels. At the molecular biological level ageing is characterized by the stochastic occurrence and progressive accumulation of molecular damage. Failure of homeodynamics, increased...... molecular heterogeneity, altered cellular functioning and reduced stress tolerance are the determinants of health status, probability of diseases and the duration of survival. The inefficiency and imperfection of the maintenance and repair systems underlie the biological basis of ageing. Two major issues...... life style alterations are examples of ageing interventions. A promising healthy-ageing approach is that of hormesis by strengthening the homeodynamic ability of self-maintenance through transient and repetitive mild stress-inducing hormetins. Achieving the goal of extended health-span will depend...
Traill, W. B.; Shankar, B.; Branbila-Macias, J.
Although in several EU Member States many public interventions have been running for the prevention and/or management of obesity and other nutritionrelated health conditions, few have yet been formally evaluated. The multidisciplinary team of the EATWELL project will gather benchmark data...... on healthy eating interventions in EU Member States and review existing information on the effectiveness of interventions using a three-stage procedure (i) Assessment of the intervention's impact on consumer attitudes, consumer behaviour and diets; (ii) The impact of the change in diets on obesity and health...... and (iii) The value attached by society to these changes, measured in life years gained, cost savings and quality-adjusted life years. Where evaluations have been inadequate, EATWELL will gather secondary data and analyse them with a multidisciplinary approach incorporating models from the psychology...
The Healthy Cities network in Europe was inspired by the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion when it was launched in 1987. The networking process was initiated by the WHO Regional Office for Europe, but developed its own dynamics in different European countries during a time marked by fundamental political transformations in many of the countries of Eastern Europe. The networks then connected with the 'Local Agenda 21' and the 'Sustainable Cities and Towns Campaign' to create a new and broader programmatic agenda at the local level. In particular, the ''Aalborg plus 10 - commitments"--of local governments in 2004 have the potential to inspire a new phase of participatory and sustainable policies at the level of local communities in Europe. However, the extent to which these initiatives will influence the macro-politics of the European Union towards a proclaimed "Europe of Citizens" remains to be watched carefully during the coming years.
Full Text Available The aim is to study the effectiveness of different physical training for the relatively healthy students. The study involved 1004 students. The directions of development of the students' positive personal qualities. Found that the positive development of personality of students observed mostly on the first and third year than in the second. Could not find significant differences between the growth estimates of development of personality traits of students in classes in the sample program and the program specializations. Found that the rate of development of students' personality traits minor: the average growth estimates for core positive personal qualities for 3 years does not exceed 10% of the maximum possible level. Recommended in the classroom more emphasis on developing positive personality traits. It is shown that special attention should be paid to the development of emotional stability of students and their tolerance towards other people.
Smith, R N
Safeguards for healthy volunteers in drug studies have not been as strict as those involving patients. The shortcomings include the lack of surveillance over the scientific validity of the protocol and its ethical review, and over the financial inducements to volunteers. Recruitment is open to abuse because the volunteers may have some allegiance to the investigators. There is an urgent need to institute checks on these aspects. Most important, however, is the lack of legal safeguards for volunteers taking part in research done outside the pharmaceutical industry. The suggested procedure for obtaining consent, for health checks, and for providing compensation can be equitable to all concerned, and yet not restrict initiative, nor curtail research aims.
Wilson, J.; Tohn, E.
In the summer and early fall of 2010, the National Center for Healthy Housing interviewed people from a selection of state and local agencies that perform weatherizations on low-income housing in order to gauge their approach to improving the health and safety of the homes. The interviews provided a strong cross section of what work agencies can do, and how they go about funding this work when funds from the Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP) do not cover the full extent of the repairs. The report also makes recommendations for WAP in how to assist agencies to streamline and maximize the health and safety repairs they are able to make in the course of a standard weatherization.
Hansen, Pelle Guldborg; Skov, Laurits Rohden; Skov, Katrine Lund
In recent years, the nudge approach to behavior change has emerged from the behavioral sciences to challenge the traditional use of regulation in public health strategies to address modifiable individual-level behaviors related to the rise of noncommunicable diseases and their treatment. However, integration and testing of the nudge approach as part of more comprehensive public health strategies aimed at making healthy choices easier are being threatened by inadequate understandings of its scientific character, its relationship with regulation, and its ethical implications. This article reviews this character and its ethical implication with a special emphasis on the compatibility of nudging with traditional regulation, special domains of experience, and the need for a more nuanced approach to the ethical debate. The aim is to advance readers' understanding and give guidance to those who have considered working with or incorporating the nudge approach into programs or policies aimed at making healthful choices easier.
Claudio-Campos, Karla; Orengo-Mercado, Carmelo; Renta, Jessicca Y; Peguero, Muriel; García, Ricardo; Hernández, Gabriel; Corey, Susan; Cadilla, Carmen L; Duconge, Jorge
Puerto Ricans are a unique Hispanic population with European, Native American (Taino), and higher West African ancestral contributions than other non-Caribbean Hispanics. In admixed populations, such as Puerto Ricans, genetic variants can be found at different frequencies when compared to parental populations and uniquely combined and distributed. Therefore, in this review, we aimed to collect data from studies conducted in healthy Puerto Ricans and to report the frequencies of genetic polymorphisms with major relevance in drug response. Filtering for healthy volunteers or individuals, we performed a search of pharmacogenetic studies in academic literature databases without limiting the period of the results. The search was limited to Puerto Ricans living in the island, excluding those studies performed in mainland (United States). We found that the genetic markers impacting pharmacological therapy in the areas of cardiovascular, oncology, and neurology are the most frequently investigated. Coincidently, the top causes of mortality in the island are cardiovascular diseases, cancer, diabetes, Alzheimer's disease, and stroke. In addition, polymorphisms in genes that encode for members of the CYP450 family (CYP2C9, CYP2C19, and CYP2D6) are also available due to their relevance in the metabolism of drugs. The complex genetic background of Puerto Ricans is responsible for the divergence in the reported allele frequencies when compared to parental populations (Africans, East Asians, and Europeans). The importance of reporting the findings of pharmacogenetic studies conducted in Puerto Ricans is to identify genetic variants with potential utility among this genetically complex population and eventually move forward the adoption of personalized medicine in the island.
Claudio-Campos, Karla; Orengo-Mercado, Carmelo; Renta, Jessicca Y.; Peguero, Muriel; García, Ricardo; Hernández, Gabriel; Corey, Susan; Cadilla, Carmen L.; Duconge, Jorge
Puerto Ricans are a unique Hispanic population with European, Native American (Taino), and higher West African ancestral contributions than other non-Caribbean Hispanics. In admixed populations, such as Puerto Ricans, genetic variants can be found at different frequencies when compared to parental populations and uniquely combined and distributed. Therefore, in this review, we aimed to collect data from studies conducted in healthy Puerto Ricans and to report the frequencies of genetic polymorphisms with major relevance in drug response. Filtering for healthy volunteers or individuals, we performed a search of pharmacogenetic studies in academic literature databases without limiting the period of the results. The search was limited to Puerto Ricans living in the island, excluding those studies performed in mainland (United States). We found that the genetic markers impacting pharmacological therapy in the areas of cardiovascular, oncology, and neurology are the most frequently investigated. Coincidently, the top causes of mortality in the island are cardiovascular diseases, cancer, diabetes, Alzheimer’s disease, and stroke. In addition, polymorphisms in genes that encode for members of the CYP450 family (CYP2C9, CYP2C19, and CYP2D6) are also available due to their relevance in the metabolism of drugs. The complex genetic background of Puerto Ricans is responsible for the divergence in the reported allele frequencies when compared to parental populations (Africans, East Asians, and Europeans). The importance of reporting the findings of pharmacogenetic studies conducted in Puerto Ricans is to identify genetic variants with potential utility among this genetically complex population and eventually move forward the adoption of personalized medicine in the island. PMID:26501165
Carmona, Juan José; Michan, Shaday
As human life expectancy is prolonged, age-related diseases are thriving. Aging is a complex multifactorial process of molecular and cellular decline that affects tissue function over time, rendering organisms frail and susceptible to disease and death. Over the last decades, a growing body of scientific literature across different biological models, ranging from yeast, worms, flies, and mice to primates, humans and other long-lived animals, has contributed greatly towards identifying conserved biological mechanisms that ward off structural and functional deterioration within living systems. Collectively, these data offer powerful insights into healthy aging and longevity. For example, molecular integrity of the genome, telomere length, epigenetic landscape stability, and protein homeostasis are all features linked to "youthful" states. These molecular hallmarks underlie cellular functions associated with aging like mitochondrial fitness, nutrient sensing, efficient intercellular communication, stem cell renewal, and regenerative capacity in tissues. At present, calorie restriction remains the most robust strategy for extending health and lifespan in most biological models tested. Thus, pathways that mediate the beneficial effects of calorie restriction by integrating metabolic signals to aging processes have received major attention, such as insulin/insulin growth factor-1, sirtuins, mammalian target of rapamycin, and 5' adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase. Consequently, small-molecule targets of these pathways have emerged in the impetuous search for calorie restriction mimetics, of which resveratrol, metformin, and rapamycin are the most extensively studied. A comprehensive understanding of the molecular and cellular mechanisms that underlie age-related deterioration and repair, and how these pathways interconnect, remains a major challenge for uncovering interventions to slow human aging while extending molecular and physiological youthfulness
Greenberg, Jonathan P; Duncker, Tobias; Woods, Russell L; Smith, R Theodore; Sparrow, Janet R; Delori, François C
Fundus autofluorescence was quantified (qAF) in subjects with healthy retinae using a standardized approach. The objective was to establish normative data and identify factors that influence the accumulation of RPE lipofuscin and/or modulate the observed AF signal in fundus images. AF images were acquired from 277 healthy subjects (age range: 5-60 years) by employing a Spectralis confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope (cSLO; 488-nm excitation; 30°) equipped with an internal fluorescent reference. For each image, mean gray level was calculated as the average of eight preset regions, and was calibrated to the reference, zero-laser light, magnification, and optical media density from normative data on lens transmission spectra. Relationships between qAF and age, sex, race/ethnicity, eye color, refraction/axial length, and smoking status were evaluated as was measurement repeatability and the qAF spatial distribution. qAF levels exhibited a significant increase with age. qAF increased with increasing eccentricity up to 10° to 15° from the fovea and was highest superotemporally. qAF values were significantly greater in females, and, compared with Hispanics, qAF was significantly higher in whites and lower in blacks and Asians. No associations with axial length and smoking were observed. For two operators, between-session repeatability was ± 9% and ± 12%. Agreement between the operators was ± 13%. Normative qAF data are a reference tool essential to the interpretation of qAF measurements in ocular disease.
Matthews, Karen A; Hall, Martica; Dahl, Ronald E
Inadequate sleep among adolescents has negative consequences for self-regulation, emotional well-being, and risk behaviors. Using multiple assessment methods, we evaluated the adequacy of sleep among healthy adolescents from a lower socioeconomic community and expected differences by race. A total of 250 healthy high school students enrolled in public school (mean age: 15.7 years; 57% black, 54% female) from families of low to middle class according to the Hollingshead scale participated in weeklong assessments of sleep duration and fragmentation, assessed by using actigraphy; sleep duration and perceived quality, assessed by using daily diaries; and daytime sleepiness and sleep delay, assessed by using a questionnaire. Students slept during the school week a mean ± SD of 6.0 ± 0.9 hours per night according to actigraphy and 6.8 ± 1.1 hours according to daily diary, and during the weekend, a mean of 7.4 ± 1.2 and 8.7 ± 1.4 hours, respectively. Black participants and male participants slept less and had more fragmented sleep; female participants reported poorer quality of sleep in their daily diaries and more daytime sleepiness. The results remained significant after adjustments for age, physical activity, smoking status, and percentile BMI. Most students slept less than the 8 to 9 hours suggested by the guidelines of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Black male participants had the least amount of sleep, which may play a role in the substantial risks experienced by this demographic group. Our findings are consistent with recommendations that pediatricians should routinely screen their adolescent patients about their sleep, especially those from at-risk subgroups. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Harvey, J.W.; Harr, K.E.; Murphy, D.; Walsh, M.T.; Nolan, E.C.; Bonde, R.K.; Pate, M.G.; Deutsch, C.J.; Edwards, H.H.; Clapp, W.L.
Background: Hematologic analysis is an important tool in evaluating the general health status of free-ranging manatees and in the diagnosis and monitoring of rehabilitating animals. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate diagnostically important hematologic analytes in healthy manatees (Trichechus manatus) and to assess variations with respect to location (free ranging vs captive), age class (small calves, large calves, subadults, and adults), and gender. Methods: Blood was collected from 55 free-ranging and 63 captive healthy manatees. Most analytes were measured using a CELL-DYN 3500R; automated reticulocytes were measured with an ADVIA 120. Standard manual methods were used for differential leukocyte counts, reticulocyte and Heinz body counts, and plasma protein and fibrinogen concentrations. Results: Rouleaux, slight polychromasia, stomatocytosis, and low numbers of schistocytes and nucleated RBCs (NRBCs) were seen often in stained blood films. Manual reticulocyte counts were higher than automated reticulocyte counts. Heinz bodies were present in erythrocytes of most manatees. Compared with free-ranging manatees, captive animals had slightly lower MCV, MCH, and eosinophil counts and slightly higher heterophil and NRBC counts, and fibrinogen concentration. Total leukocyte, heterophil, and monocyte counts tended to be lower in adults than in younger animals. Small calves tended to have higher reticulocyte counts and NRBC counts than older animals. Conclusions: Hematologic findings were generally similar between captive and free-ranging manatees. Higher manual reticulocyte counts suggest the ADVIA detects only reticulocytes containing large amounts of RNA. Higher reticulocyte and NRBC counts in young calves probably reflect an increased rate of erythropoiesis compared with older animals. ?? 2009 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.
de Ridder, Denise; Kroese, Floor; Evers, Catharine; Adriaanse, Marieke; Gillebaart, Marleen
To discuss healthy diet from a psychological perspective by considering definitions of healthy diet in terms of consumer understanding; the health effects of specific dietary elements in terms of overweight and (chronic) illness; the prevalence of healthy diet; the psychological and environmental determinants of healthy diet; and the psychological interventions that have been designed to promote healthy diet. A systematic review of the psychological literature on healthy diet. Our findings suggest that consumers have a relatively poor understanding of a healthy diet. The literature also demonstrates that there is poor evidence on the health protective effects of single foods or nutrients. We further show that low SES is the single consistent risk factor for not adhering to a healthy diet. Our review of the literature on determinants demonstrates that intentions, habits, self-regulatory skills, and the social and physical environment are the most important determinants of a healthy diet, which are in turn amenable to change by intervention strategies with varying levels of effectiveness. Educational interventions generally show a limited effect on practising a healthy diet whereas interventions targeting habitual behaviour and/or the physical environment seem more promising. In view of the large number of people who are concerned about their diets and make attempts to change their dietary patterns, we conclude that it is crucial to gain a better understanding of both the automatic and environmental influences that are responsible for people not acting upon their good intentions for diet change.
Shak, Joshua R; Cremers, Amelieke J H; Gritzfeld, Jenna F; de Jonge, Marien I; Hermans, Peter W M; Vidal, Jorge E; Klugman, Keith P; Gordon, Stephen B
Colonization of the nasopharynx by Streptococcus pneumoniae is a necessary precursor to pneumococcal diseases that result in morbidity and mortality worldwide. The nasopharynx is also host to other bacterial species, including the common pathogens Staphylococcus aureus, Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis. To better understand how these bacteria change in relation to pneumococcal colonization, we used species-specific quantitative PCR to examine bacterial densities in 52 subjects 7 days before, and 2, 7, and 14 days after controlled inoculation of healthy human adults with S. pneumoniae serotype 6B. Overall, 33 (63%) of subjects carried S. pneumoniae post-inoculation. The baseline presence and density of S. aureus, H. influenzae, and M. catarrhalis were not statistically associated with likelihood of successful pneumococcal colonization at this study's sample size, although a lower rate of pneumococcal colonization in the presence of S. aureus (7/14) was seen compared to that in the presence of H. influenzae (12/16). Among subjects colonized with pneumococci, the number also carrying either H. influenzae or S. aureus fell during the study and at 14 days post-inoculation, the proportion carrying S. aureus was significantly lower among those who were colonized with S. pneumoniae (p = 0.008) compared to non-colonized subjects. These data on bacterial associations are the first to be reported surrounding experimental human pneumococcal colonization and show that co-colonizing effects are likely subtle rather than absolute.
Joshua R Shak
Full Text Available Colonization of the nasopharynx by Streptococcus pneumoniae is a necessary precursor to pneumococcal diseases that result in morbidity and mortality worldwide. The nasopharynx is also host to other bacterial species, including the common pathogens Staphylococcus aureus, Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis. To better understand how these bacteria change in relation to pneumococcal colonization, we used species-specific quantitative PCR to examine bacterial densities in 52 subjects 7 days before, and 2, 7, and 14 days after controlled inoculation of healthy human adults with S. pneumoniae serotype 6B. Overall, 33 (63% of subjects carried S. pneumoniae post-inoculation. The baseline presence and density of S. aureus, H. influenzae, and M. catarrhalis were not statistically associated with likelihood of successful pneumococcal colonization at this study's sample size, although a lower rate of pneumococcal colonization in the presence of S. aureus (7/14 was seen compared to that in the presence of H. influenzae (12/16. Among subjects colonized with pneumococci, the number also carrying either H. influenzae or S. aureus fell during the study and at 14 days post-inoculation, the proportion carrying S. aureus was significantly lower among those who were colonized with S. pneumoniae (p = 0.008 compared to non-colonized subjects. These data on bacterial associations are the first to be reported surrounding experimental human pneumococcal colonization and show that co-colonizing effects are likely subtle rather than absolute.
Stephen, Legg; Ian S., laird; Olsen, Kirsten Bendix
Although much is known about small and medium enterprises (SMEs), our current knowledge and understanding of occupational health and safety (OHS) and the work environment in SMEs is limited. Far less is known about how SMEs put our knowledge of OSH into action. In short, how do we create healthy...... work and healthy lives as well as ‘healthy business' in SMEs? The present paper, which also acts as an editorial for this special issue, addresses these questions by providing a summary of current knowledge - our understanding - about how to create healthy work and healthy lives for workers and owner......-managers in SMEs whilst concurrently also aiming to create a healthy business (in terms of profitability and sustainability). This paper and the special issue also emphasise the need to convert this knowledge into action - ‘from understanding to action'....
Franceschi, Claudio; Bezrukov, Vladyslav; Blanché, Hélène
The aim of the 5-year European Union (EU)-Integrated Project GEnetics of Healthy Aging (GEHA), constituted by 25 partners (24 from Europe plus the Beijing Genomics Institute from China), is to identify genes involved in healthy aging and longevity, which allow individuals to survive to advanced old......DNA). The genetic analysis will be performed by 9 high-throughput platforms, within the framework of centralized databases for phenotypic, genetic, and mtDNA data. Additional advanced approaches (bioinformatics, advanced statistics, mathematical modeling, functional genomics and proteomics, molecular biology...... age in good cognitive and physical function and in the absence of major age-related diseases. To achieve this aim a coherent, tightly integrated program of research that unites demographers, geriatricians, geneticists, genetic epidemiologists, molecular biologists, bioinfomaticians, and statisticians...
Bjegović, V; Zivković, M; Marinković, J; Vuković, D; Legetić, B
The term of project management is commonly used to describe the work of a team that is handling a special program. In this type of management, a form of leadership which creates environment, enables fast movement of participants through different work phases achieving the common aims, is used [1-4]. The "Healthy School" Project, launched in almost all European countries, has been taking place in Yugoslavia since the end of 1991 . The project developed within the country designed as a health promotion-education intervention study in primary schools. The network of 13 schools on 11 locations representing typical economic, cultural and social environments, was established to cover the country. Although the proposed methodological approach from WHO was followed , the specific situation in the country (economic crisis, break down of Yugoslav Federation, the war and international blockade) distated the particular modification. The management of the Healthy School Project in general, and in Yugoslavia particularly, is based upon project management structure (Scheme 1). The objective of this research was to assess the Healthy School project management in Yugoslavia, by measuring causal, intervening and output variables. In the process of assessing the management in general, three groups of criteria are commonly used: (a) causal (those that influence the course of developments in the Project), (b) intervening (representing the current condition of the internal state of the Project), and (c) output (that reflect the Project achievements). (a) For the purpose of this study the causal criteria were measured by analyzing the overall management strategy and the level of agreement in objectives of the Project itself, the Project Coordinators and main participants in the Project. (b) The intervening criteria used in this assessment were: the time spent on different project activities, the estimate of the severity of the problems in different aspects of project management
Gao, Zhifeng; Yu, Xiaohua; Lee, Jonq-Ying
A large volume of literature has been focusing on the measure of diet quality and consumer demand for food. However, little has estimated consumer demand for diet quality. In this article, we systematically estimate consumer demand for diet quality using the healthy eating index (HEI) developed by the U.S. Department of Agriculture. The Results show that consumers have insufficient consumption of the food containing dark green, orange vegetable, legumes and total grain. Age and education have...
EUROPREV : European Network for Prevention and Health Promotion in Family Medicine/General Practice
The goal of this paper is to promote a healthy diet, improve the health status of the population and prevem chronic non- communicable diseases that are related to unhealthy diet. Diet plays an importam role in coronary hean disease, cancers, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, cerebrovascular disease and obesity. This documem is imended for primary care professionals as a tool for nutrition-related advice and guidance to patiems. In their daily practice, such professionals must provide instructi...
The purpose of this study was to improve the accuracy of determining the basal metabolism of healthy people. Comparative studies of basal metabolism of healthy men and women on probation and respiratory physical factors are considered. Surveyed 30 healthy men and women aged 21-56 years. Determination of the volume of absorbed oxygen and produces carbon dioxide carried by the gas analyzer "Spirolit-2" were defined. Calculate the actual respiratory rate. It is established that the actual value ...
This podcast highlights the efforts of one educational organization, Los Angeles Universal Preschool (LAUP), to keep kids healthy at an early age. Childhood obesity now affects about one in six kids and disproportionately affects low-income and minority populations. LAUP teaches kids healthy habits and is incorporating small, healthy changes that can be made in any classroomâlike teaching fun dances and providing nutritious snacks.
This work is focused on the point of the secondary school youth attitude on the issue of the rational nutrition. Using the questionnaire investigation that is divided into several research areas I am trying to prove or disconfirm the existence of the mutual relationship between the branch of study and the preferences of healthy nutrition and healthy lifestyle for youth. My thesis deals with the question of a provable relationship in knowledge achieved in the field of healthy nutrition and hea...
Positive attitude to healthy diet, recommendations and advice on healthy eating is very important during childhood and teenage years. As children develop healthy eating practices, the choice of foods and their eating style will be part of the lifestyle. This helps to maintain good health through all the stages of their lives and prevents chronic non-contagious diseases as well as promotes a good well-being. The intention of this degree thesis is to determine what is the attitude of pupils ...
Moms are often worried if theyâll be up to the task of caring for a newborn baby. However, women can increase their chances of giving birth to a healthy infant and avoiding birth defects by taking several healthy steps during pregnancy. In this podcast, Dr. Cara Mai discusses ways to improve your chances of giving birth to a healthy baby.
Vientós-Plotts, Aida I; Ericsson, Aaron C; Rindt, Hansjorg; Reinero, Carol R
Probiotics have been advocated as a novel therapeutic approach to respiratory disease, but knowledge of how oral administration of probiotics influences the respiratory microbiota is needed. Using 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing of bacterial DNA our objective was to determine whether oral probiotics changed the composition of the upper and lower airway, rectal, and blood microbiota. We hypothesized that oral probiotics would modulate the respiratory microbiota in healthy cats, demonstrated by the detection and/or increased relative abundance of the probiotic bacterial species and altered composition of the microbial population in the respiratory tract. Six healthy young research cats had oropharyngeal (OP), bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), rectal, and blood samples collected at baseline and 4 weeks after receiving oral probiotics. 16S rRNA gene amplicon libraries were sequenced, and coverage, richness, and relative abundance of representative operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were determined. Hierarchical and principal component analyses (PCA) demonstrated relatedness of samples. Mean microbial richness significantly increased only in the upper and lower airways. The number of probiotic OTUs (out of 5 total) that significantly increased in relative abundance vs. baseline was 5 in OP, 3 in BAL and 2 in feces. Using hierarchical clustering, BALF and blood samples grouped together after probiotic administration, and PERMANOVA supported that these two sites underwent significant changes in microbial composition. PERMANOVA revealed that OP and rectal samples had microbial population compositions that did not significantly change. These findings were visualized via PCA, which revealed distinct microbiomes in each site; samples clustered more tightly at baseline and had more variation after probiotic administration. This is the first study describing the effect of oral probiotics on the respiratory microbiota via detection of probiotic species in the airways. Finding
Aida I. Vientós-Plotts
Full Text Available Probiotics have been advocated as a novel therapeutic approach to respiratory disease, but knowledge of how oral administration of probiotics influences the respiratory microbiota is needed. Using 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing of bacterial DNA our objective was to determine whether oral probiotics changed the composition of the upper and lower airway, rectal, and blood microbiota. We hypothesized that oral probiotics would modulate the respiratory microbiota in healthy cats, demonstrated by the detection and/or increased relative abundance of the probiotic bacterial species and altered composition of the microbial population in the respiratory tract. Six healthy young research cats had oropharyngeal (OP, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF, rectal, and blood samples collected at baseline and 4 weeks after receiving oral probiotics. 16S rRNA gene amplicon libraries were sequenced, and coverage, richness, and relative abundance of representative operational taxonomic units (OTUs were determined. Hierarchical and principal component analyses (PCA demonstrated relatedness of samples. Mean microbial richness significantly increased only in the upper and lower airways. The number of probiotic OTUs (out of 5 total that significantly increased in relative abundance vs. baseline was 5 in OP, 3 in BAL and 2 in feces. Using hierarchical clustering, BALF and blood samples grouped together after probiotic administration, and PERMANOVA supported that these two sites underwent significant changes in microbial composition. PERMANOVA revealed that OP and rectal samples had microbial population compositions that did not significantly change. These findings were visualized via PCA, which revealed distinct microbiomes in each site; samples clustered more tightly at baseline and had more variation after probiotic administration. This is the first study describing the effect of oral probiotics on the respiratory microbiota via detection of probiotic species in the
Infeld, Donna Lind; Whitelaw, Nancy
An overwhelming array of policies and programs can be used to help older people (and future older people) maintain healthy lifestyles. How can clinicians help ensure that their patients take advantage of these opportunities? How can these broad-scope policies, educational and information initiatives, and direct service programs be turned into tools to help older people maximize health and independence? First, physicians do not need to do it all themselves. They need to know where to send their patients. For example, case managers in local aging service organizations and social workers, nurses, and discharge planners in hospitals can help connect elderly patients to appropriate benefits and services. Physicians play a critical role in creating a bridge between patients and the array of programs and information that can help them change their individual patterns of behavior. A serious lack of integration exists between what is known about healthy behaviors and lifestyles and what is really happening and available to older people today. From the earlier articles in this issue we know that much can be done to prevent many types of age-related disease and disability. This article provides examples of mechanisms that can be used to broadly disseminate knowledge about effective behavior and treatment changes and create mechanisms to turn this knowledge into real and widespread client-level, practice-level, health system, and community-wide interventions. Second, physicians need to understand that they are not merely subject to these policies and initiatives. They can help formulate and shape them. This political involvement includes active participation in policy initiatives of professional associations, involvement in research and demonstration activities, keeping informed about policy proposals at the federal and state levels, and helping advance ideas for improving health behaviors by speaking up and working toward change. These changes go beyond health initiatives to
Tindale, Lauren C; Leach, Stephen; Spinelli, John J; Brooks-Wilson, Angela R
Several studies have found that long-lived individuals do not appear to carry lower numbers of common disease-associated variants than ordinary people; it has been hypothesized that they may instead carry protective variants. An intriguing type of protective variant is buffering variants that protect against variants that have deleterious effects. We genotyped 18 variants in 15 genes related to longevity or healthy aging that had been previously reported as having a gene-gene interaction or buffering effect. We compared a group of 446 healthy oldest-old 'Super-Seniors' (individuals 85 or older who have never been diagnosed with cancer, cardiovascular disease, dementia, diabetes or major pulmonary disease) to 421 random population-based midlife controls. Cases and controls were of European ancestry. Association tests of individual SNPs showed that Super-Seniors were less likely than controls to carry an APOEε4 allele or a haptoglobin HP2 allele. Interactions between APOE/FOXO3, APOE/CRYL1, and LPA/CRYL1 did not remain significant after multiple testing correction. In a network analysis of the candidate genes, lipid and cholesterol metabolism was a common theme. APOE, HP, and CRYL1 have all been associated with Alzheimer's Disease, the pathology of which involves lipid and cholesterol pathways. Age-related changes in lipid and cholesterol maintenance, particularly in the brain, may be central to healthy aging and longevity.
Dannefer, Rachel; Williams, Donya A; Baronberg, Sabrina; Silver, Lynn
We assessed the effectiveness of an initiative to increase the stock and promotion of healthy foods in 55 corner stores in underserved neighborhoods. We evaluated the intervention through in-store observations and preintervention and postintervention surveys of all 55 store owners as well as surveys with customers at a subset of stores. We observed an average of 4 changes on a 15-point criteria scale. The most common were placing refrigerated water at eye level, stocking canned fruit with no sugar added, offering a healthy sandwich, and identifying healthier items. Forty-six (84%) store owners completed both surveys. Owners reported increased sales of healthier items, but identified barriers including consumer demand and lack of space and refrigeration. The percentage of customers surveyed who purchased items for which we promoted a healthier option (low-sodium canned goods, low-fat milk, whole-grain bread, healthier snacks and sandwiches) increased from 5% to 16%. Corner stores are important vehicles for access to healthy foods. The approach described here achieved improvements in participating corner stores and in some consumer purchases and may be a useful model for other locales.
Merkx, Astrid; Ausems, Marlein; de Vries, Raymond; Nieuwenhuijze, Marianne J
Gaining too much or too little weight in pregnancy (according to Institute of Medicine (IOM) guidelines) negatively affects both mother and child, but many women find it difficult to manage their gestational weight gain (GWG). Here we describe the use of the intervention mapping protocol to design 'Come On!', an intervention to promote adequate GWG among healthy pregnant women. We used the six steps of intervention mapping: (i) needs assessment; (ii) formulation of change objectives; (iii) selection of theory-based methods and practical strategies; (iv) development of the intervention programme; (v) development of an adoption and implementation plan; and (vi) development of an evaluation plan. A consortium of users and related professionals guided the process of development. As a result of the needs assessment, two goals for the intervention were formulated: (i) helping healthy pregnant women to stay within the IOM guidelines for GWG; and (ii) getting midwives to adequately support the efforts of healthy pregnant women to gain weight within the IOM guidelines. To reach these goals, change objectives and determinants influencing the change objectives were formulated. Theories used were the Transtheoretical Model, Social Cognitive Theory and the Elaboration Likelihood Model. Practical strategies to use the theories were the foundation for the development of 'Come On!', a comprehensive programme that included a tailored Internet programme for pregnant women, training for midwives, an information card for midwives, and a scheduled discussion between the midwife and the pregnant woman during pregnancy. The programme was pre-tested and evaluated in an effect study.
Tasdemir-Ozdes, Aylin; Strickland-Hughes, Carla M; Bluck, Susan; Ebner, Natalie C
Regardless of age, making healthy lifestyle choices is prudent. Despite that, individuals of all ages sometimes have difficulty choosing the healthy option. We argue that individuals' view of the future and position in the life span affects their current lifestyle choices. We capture the multidimensionality of future thinking by assessing 3 types of future perspective. Younger and older men and women (N = 127) reported global future time perspective, future health perspective, and perceived importance of future health-related events. They also rated their likelihood of making healthy lifestyle choices. As predicted, older participants indicated greater intention to make healthy choices in their current life than did younger participants. Compared to younger participants, older participants reported shorter global future time perspective and anticipated worse future health but perceived future health-related events as more important. Having a positive view of one's future health and seeing future health-related events as important were related to greater intention to make healthy lifestyle choices, but greater global future time perspective was not directly related to healthy choices. However, follow-up analyses suggested that greater global future time perspective indirectly affected healthy choices via a more positive view of future health. None of these relations were moderated by age. Individuals' perspective on the future is shown to be an important multidimensional construct affecting everyday healthy lifestyle choices for both younger and older adults. Implications for encouraging healthy choices across the adult life span are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Adjoian, Tamar; Dannefer, Rachel; Willingham, Craig; Brathwaite, Chantelle; Franklin, Sharraine
To understand the impact of healthy checkouts in Bronx, New York City supermarkets. Consumer purchasing behavior was observed for 2 weeks in 2015. Three supermarkets in the South Bronx. A total of 2,131 adult shoppers (aged ≥18 years) who paid for their groceries at 1 of the selected study checkout lines. Two checkout lines were selected per store; 1 was converted to a healthy checkout and the other remained as it was (standard checkout). Data collectors observed consumer behavior at each line and recorded items purchased from checkout areas. Percentage of customers who purchase items from the checkout area; quantity and price of healthy and unhealthy items purchased from the healthy and standard checkout lines. Measures were analyzed by study condition using chi-square and t tests; significance was determined at α = .05. Only 4.0% of customers bought anything from the checkout area. A higher proportion of customers using the healthy vs standard checkout line bought healthy items (56.5% vs 20.5%; P < .001). When healthier products were available, the proportion of healthy purchases increased. Findings contribute to limited research on effectiveness of healthy checkouts in supermarkets. Similar interventions should expect an increase in healthy purchases from the checkout area, but limited overall impact. Copyright © 2017 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Talaei, Mohammad; Khaje, Mohammad-Reza; Sarrafzadegan, Nizal; Sajjadi, Firoozeh; Alikhasi, Hasan; Maghroun, Maryam; Iraji, Farhad; Ehteshami, Shahram
The scientific evidences show that the content, baking methods, and types of bread can make health impacts. Bread, as a major part of Iranian diet, demonstrates a significant potential to be targeted as health promotion subject. Healthy Food for Healthy Communities (HFHC) was a project of Isfahan Healthy Heart Program (IHHP), consisting of a wide variety of strategies, like Healthy Bread (HB) Initiative. The HB Initiative was designed to improve the behaviour of both producers and consumers, mainly aiming at making high-fibre, low-salt bread, eliminating the use of baking soda, providing enough rest time for dough before baking (at least one hour), and enough baking time (at least one minute in oven). A workshop was held for volunteer bakers, and a baker-to-baker training protocol under direct supervision was designed for future volunteers. Cereal Organization was persuaded to provide less refined flour that contained more bran. Health messages in support of new breads were disseminated by media and at bakeries by health professionals. Evaluation of the HB Initiative was done using before-after assessments and population surveys. While HB was baked in 1 (0.01%) bakery at baseline, 402 (41%) bakeries in the intervention area joined the HB Initiative in 2009. Soda was completely eliminated and fibre significantly increased from 4±0.4 g% before study to 12±0.6 g% after the intervention (p<0.001). The preparation and baking times remarkably increased. Wastage of bread decreased from 13±1.8 g% to 2±0.5 g% and was expressed as the most important advantage of this initiative by consumers. People who lived in Isfahan city consumed whole bread 6 times more than those who lived in reference area Arak (p<0.001). The HB Initiative managed to add new breads as a healthy choice that were compatible with local dishes and made a model to solve the long-standing problems of bread. It used various health promotion approaches but was best consistent with Beattie's model. PMID
Leme, Ana Carolina Barco; Philippi, Sonia Tucunduva; Thompson, Debbe; Nicklas, Theresa; Baranowski, Tom
To evaluate the immediate post-intervention and 6-month post-intervention effects of a Brazilian school-based randomized controlled trial for girls targeting shared risk factors for obesity and disordered eating. Total of 253 girls, mean of 15.6 (0.05) years from 1st to 3rd grades of high school participated in this 6-month school-based cluster randomized controlled trial. "Healthy Habits, Healthy Girls-Brazil (H3G-Brazil)", originally developed in Australia, emphasized 10 key nutrition and physical activity (PA) messages delivered over 6 months. Disordered eating prevention procedures, i.e., prevention of weight-teasing, body satisfaction, and unhealthy weight control behavior, were added to the intervention. Body dissatisfaction, unhealthy weight control behaviors and social cognitive-related diet, and physical activity variables were assessed at baseline, immediate post-intervention, and 6-month post-intervention. Intervention effects were determined by one-way analysis of covariance or logistic regression, after checking for the clustering effects of school. The control group did not receive intervention prior to follow-up assessment. A conservative significance level was set at p healthy eating strategies (F = 6.08, p = 0.01) immediate post-intervention; and healthy eating social support (F = 14.731, p = 0.00) and healthy eating strategies (F = 5.812, p = 0.01) at 6-month post-intervention. Intervention group was more likely to report unhealthy weight control behaviors (OR = 1.92, 95% CI 1.15-3.21, p = 0.01) at 6-month post-intervention. No other significant immediate or 6-month post effects were detected. H3G-Brazil demonstrated positive 6-month effects on some social cognitive variables but an adverse effect on unhealthy weight control behaviors. Thus, this study was not able to achieve synergy by combining obesity and disordered eating prevention procedures in an intervention among low-income girls in Brazil. Level I
Botros, Raif M; Sabry, Inas M; Abdelbaky, Rania S; Eid, Yara M; Nasr, Merihan S; Hendawy, Laila M
Vitamin D deficiency is becoming endemic in many parts of the world. To study vitamin D status in Egyptian females of different age groups. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 404 females, who were categorized into group 1 (51 nursing females); group 2 (50 pregnant females); group 3 (208 females of childbearing age); group 4 (38 elderly females); and group 5 (57 geriatric females). Females completed a questionnaire regarding dietary calcium and vitamin D intake, sun exposure, and clothing habits, and performed laboratory tests including calcium, PO4, alkaline phosphatase, intact PTH, and 25-OH vitamin D levels. Median and IQR of vitamin D levels across groups 1, 2, 3 and 5 were in the deficient range, being lowest in groups 3, 5, and 1, respectively. Vitamin D deficiency was found in 72.6% of the nursing group, 54% of the pregnant group, 72% of the childbearing age group, 39.5% of the elderly group, and 77.2% of the geriatric group. Vitamin D was significantly higher in non-veiled females [23ng/dl] as compared to veiled females [16.7ng/dl]. Vitamin D levels with poor, fair, and good sun exposure were 14.1, 14, and 37ng/dl, respectively. These results show a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among healthy Egyptian females. Copyright © 2015 SEEN. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
El-Abbadi, Naglaa Hani; Dao, Maria Carlota; Meydani, Simin Nikbin
Yogurt consumption has been associated with health benefits in different populations. Limited information, however, is available on nutritional and health attributes of yogurt in older adults. Yogurt is abundant in calcium, zinc, B vitamins, and probiotics; it is a good source of protein; and it may be supplemented with vitamin D and additional probiotics associated with positive health outcomes. Aging is accompanied by a wide array of nutritional deficiencies and health complications associated with under- and overnutrition, including musculoskeletal impairment, immunosenescence, cardiometabolic diseases, and cognitive impairment. Furthermore, yogurt is accessible and convenient to consume by the older population, which makes yogurt consumption a feasible approach to enhance older adults' nutritional status. A limited number of studies have specifically addressed the impact of yogurt on the nutritional and health status of older adults, and most are observational. However, those reported thus far and reviewed here are encouraging and suggest that yogurt could play a role in improving the nutritional status and health of older adults. In addition, these reports support further investigation into the role of yogurt in healthy and active aging.
Latham, Laura S; Hensen, Zeb K; Minor, Deborah S
Dark chocolate and other cocoa products are popular in the population as a whole, but their overall health benefit remains controversial. Observations from the Kuna Indian population have shown an impressive cardiovascular health benefit from cocoa. For various reasons, this benefit has not been as robust as in other populations. Additionally, several mechanisms have been proposed that might confer cocoa's possible health benefit, but no consensus has been reached on cocoa's physiologic role in promoting cardiovascular health. Flavanols, as well as theobromine, may contribute to enhancements in endothelial function and subsequent improvements in various contributors to cardiovascular disease (CVD) including hypertension, platelet aggregation and adhesion, insulin resistance, and hypercholesterolemia. While the benefits of cocoa may be altered at the various stages of growth, development, and production, it appears that for many people "healthy" dark chocolate may, indeed, provide a pleasurable role in CVD risk reduction. The objectives of this review are to discuss the associations of cocoa with decreased blood pressure and improved CVD risk, to describe the possible mechanisms for these potential benefits, and to highlight considerations for the use of cocoa as a dietary supplement.
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To present a Diet Quality Index proper for dietary intake studies of Brazilian adults. METHODS: A diet quality index to analyze the incorporation of healthy food choices was associated with a digital food guide. This index includes moderation components, destined to indicate foods that may represent a risk when in excess, and adequacy components that include sources of nutrients and bioactive compounds in order to help individuals meet their nutritional requirements. The diet quality index-digital food guide performance was measured by determining its psychometric properties, namely content and construct validity, as well as internal consistency. RESULTS: The moderation and adequacy components correlated weakly with dietary energy (-0.16 to 0.09. The strongest correlation (0.52 occurred between the component 'sugars and sweets' and the total score. The Cronbach's coefficient alpha for reliability was 0.36. CONCLUSION: Given that diet quality is a complex and multidimensional construct, the Diet Quality Index-Digital Food Guide, whose validity is comparable to those of other indices, is a useful resource for Brazilian dietary studies. However, new studies can provide additional information to improve its reliability.
Genissel, P.; Bromet, N.; Fourtillan, J.B.; Mignot, A.; Albin, H.
Rilmenidine is a novel alpha 2-adrenoceptor agonist, used in the treatment of mild or moderate hypertension at the oral dose of 1 mg once or twice daily. The pharmacokinetic parameters were investigated after single or repeated administration in healthy subjects, using labeled and unlabeled compounds. Rilmenidine was rapidly and extensively absorbed, with an absolute bioavailability factor close to 1 and a maximal plasma concentration achieved within 2 hours. Rilmenidine was not subject to presystemic metabolism. Distribution was independent of the free fraction because rilmenidine was weakly bound to plasma proteins (less than 10%). The volume of distribution was approximately 5 l.kg-1 (315 liters). Elimination was rapid with a total body plasma clearance of approximately 450 ml.min-1 and an elimination half-life of approximately 8 hours. Renal excretion was the major elimination process (two-thirds of the total clearance). Metabolism was very poor, with a renal elimination of rilmenidine as the parent drug (urinary fraction of rilmenidine was about 65% and no metabolite plasma levels were detected). Linear pharmacokinetics were demonstrated for rilmenidine from 0.5 to 2 mg but, at 3 mg, a slight deviation from linearity was observed. In repeated administration, the linear disposition of rilmenidine with dose was confirmed
D'Amour, Sarah; Harris, Laurence R
Perceptual body size distortions have traditionally been studied using subjective, qualitative measures that assess only one type of body representation-the conscious body image. Previous research on perceived body size has typically focused on measuring distortions of the entire body and has tended to overlook the face. Here, we present a novel psychophysical method for determining perceived body size that taps into implicit body representation. Using a two-alternative forced choice (2AFC), participants were sequentially shown two life-size images of their own face, viewed upright, upside down, or tilted 90°. In one interval, the width or length dimension was varied, while the other interval contained an undistorted image. Participants reported which image most closely matched their own face. An adaptive staircase adjusted the distorted image to hone in on the image that was equally likely to be judged as matching their perceived face as the accurate image. When viewed upright or upside down, face width was overestimated and length underestimated, whereas perception was accurate for the on-side views. These results provide the first psychophysically robust measurements of how accurately healthy participants perceive the size of their face, revealing distortions of the implicit body representation independent of the conscious body image.
Oriá, Arianne P; Raposo, Ana Claudia S; Araújo, Nayone L L C; Lima, Felipe B; Masmali, Ali M
To evaluate and compare three tear sampling methods using two grading scales for administering the tear ferning test (TFT) to healthy dogs. In total, 90 dogs (180 eyes) were subjected to tear sampling using millimetered strips, reused after the Schirmer tear test (STT) (Schirmer group, SG). Then, the dogs were subdivided into three groups according to sampling approach: micropipette (MPG), microcapillary (MCG), and Schirmer sample 2 (S2G). The collected tears were dried on a clean microscope glass slide at room temperature and humidity. The ferning patterns were observed under a polarized light microscope and classified according to the Rolando and Masmali grading scales. Although all three methods were feasible, the STT was easier to perform in clinical settings. Type I and Grade 1 were the most commonly observed (64.17% and 61.7%, respectively) regardless of collection method. There was no significant difference between the STT median values and the TFT classifications. The TFT is appropriate for dogs and can be performed using the three suggested sampling methods, with a higher frequency of Type I and Grade 1. Thus, it is possible to use both grading scales in the classification of tear ferning in dogs. © 2017 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.
Studerus, Erich; Gamma, Alex; Kometer, Michael; Vollenweider, Franz X
Responses to hallucinogenic drugs, such as psilocybin, are believed to be critically dependent on the user's personality, current mood state, drug pre-experiences, expectancies, and social and environmental variables. However, little is known about the order of importance of these variables and their effect sizes in comparison to drug dose. Hence, this study investigated the effects of 24 predictor variables, including age, sex, education, personality traits, drug pre-experience, mental state before drug intake, experimental setting, and drug dose on the acute response to psilocybin. The analysis was based on the pooled data of 23 controlled experimental studies involving 409 psilocybin administrations to 261 healthy volunteers. Multiple linear mixed effects models were fitted for each of 15 response variables. Although drug dose was clearly the most important predictor for all measured response variables, several non-pharmacological variables significantly contributed to the effects of psilocybin. Specifically, having a high score in the personality trait of Absorption, being in an emotionally excitable and active state immediately before drug intake, and having experienced few psychological problems in past weeks were most strongly associated with pleasant and mystical-type experiences, whereas high Emotional Excitability, low age, and an experimental setting involving positron emission tomography most strongly predicted unpleasant and/or anxious reactions to psilocybin. The results confirm that non-pharmacological variables play an important role in the effects of psilocybin.
Full Text Available Responses to hallucinogenic drugs, such as psilocybin, are believed to be critically dependent on the user's personality, current mood state, drug pre-experiences, expectancies, and social and environmental variables. However, little is known about the order of importance of these variables and their effect sizes in comparison to drug dose. Hence, this study investigated the effects of 24 predictor variables, including age, sex, education, personality traits, drug pre-experience, mental state before drug intake, experimental setting, and drug dose on the acute response to psilocybin. The analysis was based on the pooled data of 23 controlled experimental studies involving 409 psilocybin administrations to 261 healthy volunteers. Multiple linear mixed effects models were fitted for each of 15 response variables. Although drug dose was clearly the most important predictor for all measured response variables, several non-pharmacological variables significantly contributed to the effects of psilocybin. Specifically, having a high score in the personality trait of Absorption, being in an emotionally excitable and active state immediately before drug intake, and having experienced few psychological problems in past weeks were most strongly associated with pleasant and mystical-type experiences, whereas high Emotional Excitability, low age, and an experimental setting involving positron emission tomography most strongly predicted unpleasant and/or anxious reactions to psilocybin. The results confirm that non-pharmacological variables play an important role in the effects of psilocybin.
Cappelletti, Marinella; Didino, Daniele; Stoianov, Ivilin; Zorzi, Marco
Numerical skills have been extensively studied in terms of their development and pathological decline, but whether they change in healthy ageing is not well known. Longer exposure to numbers and quantity-related problems may progressively refine numerical skills, similar to what happens to other cognitive abilities like verbal memory. Alternatively, number skills may be sensitive to ageing, reflecting either a decline of number processing itself or of more auxiliary cognitive abilities that are involved in number tasks. To distinguish between these possibilities we tested 30 older and 30 younger participants on an established numerosity discrimination task requiring to judge which of two sets of items is more numerous, and on arithmetical tasks. Older participants were remarkably accurate in performing arithmetical tasks although their numerosity discrimination (also known as 'number acuity') was impaired. Further analyses indicate that this impairment was limited to numerosity trials requiring inhibiting information incongruent to numerosity (e.g., fewer but larger items), and that this also correlated with poor inhibitory processes measured by standard tests. Therefore, rather than a numerical impairment, poor numerosity discrimination is likely to reflect elderly's impoverished inhibitory processes. This conclusion is supported by simulations with a recent neuro-computational model of numerosity perception, where only the specific degradation of inhibitory processes produced a pattern that closely resembled older participants' performance. Numeracy seems therefore resilient to ageing but it is influenced by the decline of inhibitory processes supporting number performance, consistent with the 'Inhibitory Deficit' Theory. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Konstantin G Iliadi
Full Text Available Human life expectancy has nearly doubled in the past century due, in part, to social and economic development, and a wide range of new medical technologies and treatments. As the number of elderly increase it becomes of vital importance to understand what factors contribute to healthy aging. Human longevity is a complex process that is affected by both environmental and genetic factors and interactions between them. Unfortunately, it is currently difficult to identify the role of genetic components in human longevity. In contrast, model organisms such as C. elegans, Drosophila and rodents have facilitated the search for specific genes that affect lifespan. Experimental evidence obtained from studies in model organisms suggests that mutations in a single gene may increase longevity and delay the onset of age-related symptoms including motor impairments, sexual and reproductive and immune dysfunction, cardiovascular disease and cognitive decline. Furthermore, the high degree of conservation between diverse species in the genes and pathways that regulate longevity suggests that work in model organisms can both expand our theoretical knowledge of aging and perhaps provide new therapeutic targets for the treatment of age-related disorders.
Good sleep is advantageous to the quality of life. Sleep-related benefits are particularly helpful for the working class, since poor or inadequate amounts of sleep degrade work productivity and overall health. This review paper explores the essential role of sleep in healthy work schedules and primarily focuses on the timing of sleep in relation to the work period (that is, before, during and after work). Data from laboratory, field and modeling studies indicate that consistent amounts of sleep prior to work are fundamental to improved performance and alertness in the workplace. In addition, planned naps taken during work maintain appropriate levels of waking function for both daytime and night-time work. Clearly, sufficient sleep after work is vital in promoting recovery from fatigue. Recent data also suggest that the time interval between shifts should be adjusted according to the biological timing of sleep. Although sleep is more likely to be replaced by job and other activities in the real life, research shows that it is worthwhile to revise the work schedules in order to optimize sleep before, sometime during and after the work period. Therefore, we suggest establishing work-sleep balance, similar to work-life balance, as a principle for designing and improving work schedules. PMID:22738292
Full Text Available Abstract Good sleep is advantageous to the quality of life. Sleep-related benefits are particularly helpful for the working class, since poor or inadequate amounts of sleep degrade work productivity and overall health. This review paper explores the essential role of sleep in healthy work schedules and primarily focuses on the timing of sleep in relation to the work period (that is, before, during and after work. Data from laboratory, field and modeling studies indicate that consistent amounts of sleep prior to work are fundamental to improved performance and alertness in the workplace. In addition, planned naps taken during work maintain appropriate levels of waking function for both daytime and night-time work. Clearly, sufficient sleep after work is vital in promoting recovery from fatigue. Recent data also suggest that the time interval between shifts should be adjusted according to the biological timing of sleep. Although sleep is more likely to be replaced by job and other activities in the real life, research shows that it is worthwhile to revise the work schedules in order to optimize sleep before, sometime during and after the work period. Therefore, we suggest establishing work-sleep balance, similar to work-life balance, as a principle for designing and improving work schedules.
Good sleep is advantageous to the quality of life. Sleep-related benefits are particularly helpful for the working class, since poor or inadequate amounts of sleep degrade work productivity and overall health. This review paper explores the essential role of sleep in healthy work schedules and primarily focuses on the timing of sleep in relation to the work period (that is, before, during and after work). Data from laboratory, field and modeling studies indicate that consistent amounts of sleep prior to work are fundamental to improved performance and alertness in the workplace. In addition, planned naps taken during work maintain appropriate levels of waking function for both daytime and night-time work. Clearly, sufficient sleep after work is vital in promoting recovery from fatigue. Recent data also suggest that the time interval between shifts should be adjusted according to the biological timing of sleep. Although sleep is more likely to be replaced by job and other activities in the real life, research shows that it is worthwhile to revise the work schedules in order to optimize sleep before, sometime during and after the work period. Therefore, we suggest establishing work-sleep balance, similar to work-life balance, as a principle for designing and improving work schedules.
Raap, U; Kapp, A
Understanding the complex mechanism of allergic inflammatory skin diseases has been a main challenge of clinical and experimental research for years. It is well known that the inflammatory response is also controlled by tissue resident cells including neurons and structural cells. Thus, allergic inflammation triggers neuronal dysfunction and structural changes in diseased skin. Prime candidates for the interaction between immune, structural, and neuronal cells are presented by neurotrophins. Neurotrophins have initially been described for their neurotrophic capacity. However, recent evidence emerges that neurotrophins display bidirectional interaction pathways in activating structural cells, immune cells in addition to neurons. Neurotrophins including brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and nerve growth factor (NGF) are upregulated in allergic inflammatory skin diseases. Further, structural cells, neurons and tissue resident cells have not only been shown to be a target but also a source of neurotrophin. In this regard, eosinophil granulocytes which are key target effector cells in chronic inflammatory skin have been identified as a target of neurotrophins but are also capable of neurotrophin production. Thus, neuroimmune interaction mechanisms in allergic inflammatory skin display a novel pathophysiological aspect in which neurotrophins serve as prime candidates for bidirectional interaction mechanisms. In this review, we provide an actual overview of neurotrophins in healthy and diseased skin with special emphasis on atopic dermatitis and therapeutic implications.
Jansson von Vultée, Pia Hannele
In Sweden, leave due to sickness was high during the 1990s. The Swedish Social Insurance Agency was able to decrease sick days in the period between 2000 and 2010 but sick days are rising again in Sweden, mostly due to psychological problems among women and partly due to their work environment. It is important to find methods to identify poor work settings to prevent absenteeism due to sickness. The paper aims to discuss these issues. The authors created a web questionnaire focusing on the organizational setting and its impact on employee wellbeing--reported as mental energy, work-related exhaustion and work satisfaction. The questionnaire measures good and poor work environment factors to help managers improve organizational settings. The questionnaire was validated qualitatively and quantitatively. It is possible to measure individual wellbeing in an organizational context at an early stage. The authors followed a company undergoing organizational change and identified groups at risk of developing illness. Managers uncertain about employee mental status can measure employee wellbeing easily and cost effectively to prevent illness. The authors created a method, statistically evaluated, to proactively identify good and poor work environments to promote healthy co-workers.
Baggott, Matthew J; Childs, Emma; Hart, Amy B; de Bruin, Eveline; Palmer, Abraham A; Wilkinson, Joy E; de Wit, Harriet
Theobromine, a methylxanthine related to caffeine and present in high levels in cocoa, may contribute to the appeal of chocolate. However, current evidence for this is limited. We conducted a within-subjects placebo-controlled study of a wide range of oral theobromine doses (250, 500, and 1,000 mg) using an active control dose of caffeine (200 mg) in 80 healthy participants. Caffeine had the expected effects on mood including feelings of alertness and cardiovascular parameters. Theobromine responses differed according to dose; it showed limited subjective effects at 250 mg and negative mood effects at higher doses. It also dose-dependently increased heart rate. In secondary analyses, we also examined individual differences in the drug's effects in relation to genes related to their target receptors, but few associations were detected. This study represents the highest dose of theobromine studied in humans. We conclude that theobromine at normal intake ranges may contribute to the positive effects of chocolate, but at higher intakes, effects become negative.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Schizophrenia aggregates in families and accurate diagnoses are essential for genetic studies of schizophrenia. In this study, we investigated whether siblings of patients with schizophrenia can be identified as free of any psychotic disorder using only register information. We also analyzed the emergence of psychotic disorders among siblings of patients with schizophrenia during seven to eleven years of follow-up. Methods A genetically homogenous population isolate in north-eastern Finland having 365 families with 446 patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia was initially identified in 1991 using four nationwide registers. Between 1998 and 2002, 124 patients and 183 siblings in 110 families were contacted and interviewed using SCID-I, SCID-II and SANS. We also compared the frequency of mental disorders between siblings and a random population comparison group sample. Results Thirty (16% siblings received a diagnosis of psychotic disorder in the interview. 14 siblings had had psychotic symptoms already before 1991, while 16 developed psychotic symptoms during the follow-up. Over half of the siblings (n = 99, 54% had a lifetime diagnosis of any mental disorder in the interview. Conclusion Register information cannot be used to exclude psychotic disorders among siblings of patients with schizophrenia. The high rate of emergence of new psychotic disorders among initially healthy siblings should be taken into account in genetic analysis.
Green, Hilary; Broun, Pierre; Cook, Douglas; Cooper, Karen; Drewnowski, Adam; Pollard, Duncan; Sweeney, Gary; Roulin, Anne
Global food systems will face unprecedented challenges in the coming years. They will need to meet the nutritional needs of a growing population and feed an expanding demand for proteins. This is against a backdrop of increasing environmental challenges (water resources, climate change, soil health) and the need to improve farming livelihoods. Collaborative efforts by a variety of stakeholders are needed to ensure that future generations have access to healthy and sustainable diets. Food will play an increasingly important role in the global discourse on health. These topics were explored during Nestlé's second international conference on 'Planting Seeds for the Future of Food: The Agriculture, Nutrition and Sustainability Nexus', which took place in July 2017. This article discusses some of the key issues from the perspective of three major stakeholder groups, namely farming/agriculture, the food industry and consumers. © 2018 The Authors. Journal of The Science of Food and Agriculture published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry. © 2018 The Authors. Journal of The Science of Food and Agriculture published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry.
Casanovas, Ma del Carmen; Lutter, Chessa K; Mangasaryan, Nune; Mwadime, Robert; Hajeebhoy, Nemat; Aguilar, Ana Maria; Kopp, Ciro; Rico, Luis; Ibiett, Gonzalo; Andia, Doris; Onyango, Adelheid W
The risk of stunted growth and development is affected by the context in which a child is born and grows. This includes such interdependent influences as the political economy, health and health care, education, society and culture, agriculture and food systems, water and sanitation, and the environment. Here, we briefly review how factors linked with the key sectors can contribute to healthy growth and reduced childhood stunting. Emphasis is placed on the role of agriculture/food security, especially family farming; education, particularly of girls and women; water, sanitation, and hygiene and their integration in stunting reduction strategies; social protection including cash transfers, bearing in mind that success in this regard is linked to reducing the gap between rich and poor; economic investment in stunting reduction including the work with the for-profit commercial sector balancing risks linked to marketing foods that can displace affordable and more sustainable alternatives; health with emphasis on implementing comprehensive and effective health care interventions and building the capacity of health care providers. We complete the review with examples of national and subnational multi-sectoral interventions that illustrate how critical it is for sectors to work together to reduce stunting. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Herwig, Uwe; Dhum, Matthias; Hittmeyer, Anna; Opialla, Sarah; Scherpiet, Sigrid; Keller, Carmen; Brühl, Annette B; Siegrist, Michael
The ability to differentiate healthy from unhealthy foods is important in order to promote good health. Food, however, may have an emotional connotation, which could be inversely related to healthiness. The neurobiological background of differentiating healthy and unhealthy food and its relations to emotion processing are not yet well understood. We addressed the neural activations, particularly considering the single subject level, when one evaluates a food item to be of a higher, compared to a lower grade of healthiness with a particular view on emotion processing brain regions. Thirty-seven healthy subjects underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while evaluating the healthiness of food presented as photographs with a subsequent rating on a visual analog scale. We compared individual evaluations of high and low healthiness of food items and also considered gender differences. We found increased activation when food was evaluated to be healthy in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and precuneus in whole brain analyses. In ROI analyses, perceived and rated higher healthiness was associated with lower amygdala activity and higher ventral striatal and orbitofrontal cortex activity. Females exerted a higher activation in midbrain areas when rating food items as being healthy. Our results underline the close relationship between food and emotion processing, which makes sense considering evolutionary aspects. Actively evaluating and deciding whether food is healthy is accompanied by neural signaling associated with reward and self-relevance, which could promote salutary nutrition behavior. The involved brain regions may be amenable to mechanisms of emotion regulation in the context of psychotherapeutic regulation of food intake.
Wong, D M; Witty, D; Alcott, C J; Sponseller, B A; Wang, C; Hepworth, K
Renal replacement therapy (RRT) has been implemented extensively in people to facilitate recovery from acute renal failure (ARF). RRT has not been explored in horses, but might provide a further treatment option in horses with ARF. To investigate efficacy and safety of RRT in horses. Five healthy adult horses. A prospective study was performed on horses restrained in stocks and intravenously connected to a commercial RRT machine to allow continuous venovenous hemodiafiltration to be performed for 6 hours. The RRT machine was set at the following flow rates: blood flow rate 250 mL/min; dialysate rate 3,000 mL/h; prefilter replacement pump 3,000 mL/h; and postfilter replacement pump rate 2,000 mL/h. Balanced electrolyte solution was used as dialysate and replacement fluid. Heart rate, respiratory rate, body temperature, direct arterial blood pressure, urine output, and various clinicopathologic parameters were measured over the study period. Renal replacement therapy was successfully performed in horses, resulting in a mean creatinine clearance of 0.127 mL/kg/min (68.9 mL/min) and urea reduction ratio of 24%. No adverse effects were detected although a significant decrease in rectal temperature was observed (P ≤ .007). A significant increase in serum phosphorus (P ≤ .001) and decrease in BUN (P replacement therapy can safely and effectively be used in adult horses. Copyright © 2013 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.
Batt-Rawden, Kari; Tellnes, Gunnar
Using music to promote healthy behaviour may enhance coping mechanisms in spite of illness. 1) To explore the role and significance of music and musicking in the life of men and women with long-term illnesses in or through different life phases, situations, events, issues and contexts. 2) To increase knowledge on how participants, through exposure to and exchange of new musical materials and practices, may learn to use music as a ''technology of self '' in relation to health promotion and rehabilitation. This exploratory study sought to instigate narratives about music's role in supporting health through a pragmatic synthesis of elements of action-research, ethnography and grounded theory. Music CDs were conceived as an interactive and dialectical tool. This longitudinal study involved eight in-depth ethnographic interviews per participant, involving nine men and 13 women, aged between 35 and 65 with long-term illnesses. Music is a motivational device for moving our bodies, releasing anger or aggression and even transcending pain. Personal preferences in music seemed to be important for these participants while exercising, substantiated in the importance of well-being and pleasure in everyday activities and situations. This study has contributed to an increase in self-awareness and consciousness, well-being and health for the majority of the participants in the study. It has brought to the level of consciousness forms of ''expert'' practice that may otherwise have occurred tacitly. Implementation of future health promotion and rehabilitation programmes ought to strengthen their focus on musical, cultural and physical activity both at an individual level and within local communities.
Full Text Available Abstract Background A large international literature has found a positive association between social capital and measures of physical and mental health. However, there is a paucity of research on the links between social capital and healthy ageing in a developing country environment, where universal social security coverage is absent and health infrastructure is poor. Method In this paper, we develop and empirically test a model of the linkages between social capital and the health outcomes for older adults in Indonesia, using data from the Indonesian Family Life Survey-East (IFLS-East, conducted in 2012. Using multivariate regression analysis, we examine whether social capital plays a role in mitigating poor health among older individuals aged 50 years and above in Indonesia’s most vulnerable provinces. We test the robustness of these social capital variables across different health measures (self-assessed health, Activities of Daily Living (ADL, measures of chronic illness and mental health measures, as well as across different demographic groups, after controlling for an array of socio-economic, demographic and geographic characteristics. Results Our findings show that access to better social capital (using measures of neighbourhood trust and community participation is associated with a higher degree of physical mobility, independence, and mental well-being among older individuals but has no influence on chronic illnesses. These results are consistent when we estimate samples disaggregated by gender, rural/urban residence, and by age categories. Conclusion From a policy perspective these results point to the importance of social capital measures in moderating the influence of poor health, particularly in the Activities of Daily Living.
Cao, Junran; Rammohan, Anu
A large international literature has found a positive association between social capital and measures of physical and mental health. However, there is a paucity of research on the links between social capital and healthy ageing in a developing country environment, where universal social security coverage is absent and health infrastructure is poor. In this paper, we develop and empirically test a model of the linkages between social capital and the health outcomes for older adults in Indonesia, using data from the Indonesian Family Life Survey-East (IFLS-East), conducted in 2012. Using multivariate regression analysis, we examine whether social capital plays a role in mitigating poor health among older individuals aged 50 years and above in Indonesia's most vulnerable provinces. We test the robustness of these social capital variables across different health measures (self-assessed health, Activities of Daily Living (ADL), measures of chronic illness and mental health measures), as well as across different demographic groups, after controlling for an array of socio-economic, demographic and geographic characteristics. Our findings show that access to better social capital (using measures of neighbourhood trust and community participation) is associated with a higher degree of physical mobility, independence, and mental well-being among older individuals but has no influence on chronic illnesses. These results are consistent when we estimate samples disaggregated by gender, rural/urban residence, and by age categories. From a policy perspective these results point to the importance of social capital measures in moderating the influence of poor health, particularly in the Activities of Daily Living.
Jones, Meaghan J; Goodman, Sarah J; Kobor, Michael S
The process of aging results in a host of changes at the cellular and molecular levels, which include senescence, telomere shortening, and changes in gene expression. Epigenetic patterns also change over the lifespan, suggesting that epigenetic changes may constitute an important component of the aging process. The epigenetic mark that has been most highly studied is DNA methylation, the presence of methyl groups at CpG dinucleotides. These dinucleotides are often located near gene promoters and associate with gene expression levels. Early studies indicated that global levels of DNA methylation increase over the first few years of life and then decrease beginning in late adulthood. Recently, with the advent of microarray and next-generation sequencing technologies, increases in variability of DNA methylation with age have been observed, and a number of site-specific patterns have been identified. It has also been shown that certain CpG sites are highly associated with age, to the extent that prediction models using a small number of these sites can accurately predict the chronological age of the donor. Together, these observations point to the existence of two phenomena that both contribute to age-related DNA methylation changes: epigenetic drift and the epigenetic clock. In this review, we focus on healthy human aging throughout the lifetime and discuss the dynamics of DNA methylation as well as how interactions between the genome, environment, and the epigenome influence aging rates. We also discuss the impact of determining 'epigenetic age' for human health and outline some important caveats to existing and future studies. © 2015 The Authors. Aging Cell published by the Anatomical Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Carhart-Harris, R L; Kaelen, M; Whalley, M G; Bolstridge, M; Feilding, A; Nutt, D J
Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) has a history of use as a psychotherapeutic aid in the treatment of mood disorders and addiction, and it was also explored as an enhancer of mind control. The present study sought to test the effect of LSD on suggestibility in a modern research study. Ten healthy volunteers were administered with intravenous (i.v.) LSD (40-80 μg) in a within-subject placebo-controlled design. Suggestibility and cued mental imagery were assessed using the Creative Imagination Scale (CIS) and a mental imagery test (MIT). CIS and MIT items were split into two versions (A and B), balanced for 'efficacy' (i.e. A ≈ B) and counterbalanced across conditions (i.e. 50 % completed version 'A' under LSD). The MIT and CIS were issued 110 and 140 min, respectively, post-infusion, corresponding with the peak drug effects. Volunteers gave significantly higher ratings for the CIS (p = 0.018), but not the MIT (p = 0.11), after LSD than placebo. The magnitude of suggestibility enhancement under LSD was positively correlated with trait conscientiousness measured at baseline (p = 0.0005). These results imply that the influence of suggestion is enhanced by LSD. Enhanced suggestibility under LSD may have implications for its use as an adjunct to psychotherapy, where suggestibility plays a major role. That cued imagery was unaffected by LSD implies that suggestions must be of a sufficient duration and level of detail to be enhanced by the drug. The results also imply that individuals with high trait conscientiousness are especially sensitive to the suggestibility-enhancing effects of LSD.
Jain, V; Kurpad, A V; Kumar, B; Devi, S; Sreenivas, V; Paul, V K
Previous anthropometry-based studies have suggested that in Indian newborns fat mass is conserved at the expense of lean tissue. This study was undertaken to assess the body composition of Indian newborns and to evaluate its relation with parents' anthropometry, birth weight and early postnatal weight gain. Body composition of healthy term singleton newborns was assessed by the deuterium dilution method in the second week of life. Anthropometry was carried out at birth and on the day of study. Data from 127 babies were analyzed. Birth weight was 2969±383 g. Body composition was assessed at a mean age of 12.7±3.1 days. Fat and fat-free mass were 354±246 and 2764±402 g, respectively, and fat mass percentage (FM%) was 11.3±7.3%. Birth weight and fat-free mass were higher among boys, but no gender difference was noted in FM%. Birth weight was positively correlated with fat as well as fat-free mass but not FM%. FM% showed positive correlation with gain in weight from birth to the day of assessment. This is the first study from India to report body composition in newborns using deuterium dilution. FM% was comparable to that reported for Western populations for babies of similar age. Our results suggest that the percentage of fat and fat-free mass is relatively constant over the range of birth weights included in this study, and greater weight gain during early postnatal period results in greater increase in FM%.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Selenium (Se status in non-deficient subjects is typically assessed by the Se contents of plasma/serum. That pool comprises two functional, specific selenoprotein components and at least one non-functional, non-specific components which respond differently to changes in Se intake. A more informative means of characterizing Se status in non-deficient individuals is needed. Methods Multiple biomarkers of Se status (plasma Se, serum selenoprotein P [SEPP1], plasma glutathione peroxidase activity [GPX3], buccal cell Se, urinary Se were evaluated in relation to selenoprotein genotypes (GPX1, GPX3, SEPP1, SEP15, dietary Se intake, and parameters of single-carbon metabolism in a cohort of healthy, non-Se-deficient men (n = 106 and women (n = 155. Conclusions Plasma Se concentration was 142.0 ± 23.5 ng/ml, with GPX3 and serum-derived SEPP1 calculated to comprise 20% and 34%, respectively, of that total. The balance, comprised of non-specific components, accounted for virtually all of the interindividual variation in total plasma Se. Buccal cell Se was associated with age and plasma homocysteine (hCys, but not plasma Se. SEPP1 showed a quadratic relationship with body mass index, peaking at BMI 25-30. Urinary Se was greater in women than men, and was associated with metabolic body weight (kg0.75, plasma folate, vitamin B12 and hCys (negatively. One GPX1 genotype (679T/T was associated with significantly lower plasma Se levels than other allelic variants. Selenium intake, estimated from food frequency questionnaires, did not predict Se status as indicated by any biomarker. These results show that genotype, methyl-group status and BMI contribute to variation in Se biomarkers in Se-adequate individuals.
changes. Another contributing factor reducing the recovery potential is that protected zones are not completely closed to all forms of fishing. Certainly, it is necessary to include additional effort, in terms of human and/or financial resources, in the future management actions if we want to achieve visible conservation effectiveness within this protected area. Further, it is necessary to establish the valuation and branding of fish caught in this protected area in order to make further action more visible and comprehensible to the wider community, as well as cost-effective for local inhabitants. Promoting a healthy product from a protected area on the Croatian and European fish markets is certainly one way of achieving this goal.
Most babies in the United States are born perfectly healthy. However, a small percentage are born with birth defects, and these conditions account for one of every five infant deaths in the United States. In this podcast, Dr. Sarah Tinker discusses ways for women to improve their chances of having a healthy baby.
Fazelzadeh, P.; Hangelbroek, R.W.J.; Tieland, M.; de Groot, C.P.G.M.; Verdijk, L.B.; van Loon, L.J.C.; Smilde, A.K.; Alves, R.D.A.M.; Vervoort, J.; Müller, M.; van Duynhoven, J.P.M.; Boekschoten, M.V.
Populations around the world are aging rapidly. Age-related loss of physiological functions negatively affects quality of life. A major contributor to the frailty syndrome of aging is loss of skeletal muscle. In this study we assessed the skeletal muscle biopsy metabolome of healthy young, healthy
Wilkinson, Carol; Pennington, Todd; Barney, David; Lockhart, Barbara; Hager, Ron; Prusak, Keven
Participants were male and female students (n = 12) in a physical education teacher education (PETE) program with a healthy and active lifestyle management (HALM) focus, at a university in the Intermountain West. The purpose of the study was to examine PETE students' perceptions of a healthy and active lifestyle (HAL). Following inductive content…
Krause, Neal; Shaw, Benjamin; Liang, Jersey
The purpose of this study is to see if encouragement from fellow church members helps older people develop and maintain healthy lifestyles. The findings indicate that informal church-based support is associated with healthy lifestyles among older African Americans but not older Whites. In addition, the influence of support from fellow church…
... obesity. Carbohydrates are an essential part of a healthy diet, and provide many important nutrients. Still, not all carbs are created equal. Here's how to make healthy carbohydrates work in a balanced diet: Emphasize fiber-rich fruits and vegetables. Aim for ...
Seffrin, John R.; Torabi, Mohammad R.
The nature of a healthy lifestyle and its significance to quality of life is examined. Following a discussion on what is involved in a healthy lifestyle, major health problems are described: (1) smoking; (2) alcohol and drug abuse; (3) sexually transmitted diseases; (4) diet and obesity; (5) stress; and (6) inadequate sleep. Recommendations are…
Thunström, Linda; Nordström, Leif Jonas
on a field experiment in a lunch restaurant and our results imply that sales of the healthy labelled meal, and its market share, is greatly impacted by its taste. Nudging, as in order of display on the menu, does not impact sales of the healthy labelled meal in our experiment. We conclude that supplying...
Oswald, Frank; Wahl, Hans-Werner; Schilling, Oliver; Nygren, Carita; Fange, Agneta; Sixsmith, Andrew; Sixsmith, Judith; Szeman, Zsuzsa; Tomsone, Signe; Iwarsson, Susanne
Purpose: The aim of this work is to examine the relationship between aspects of objective and perceived housing and aspects of healthy aging, defined as independence in daily activities and subjective well-being. Furthermore, this research examined the comparability of relationships between housing and healthy aging in the five European countries.…
Silver, Henry; Bilker, Warren B
Social cognition is impaired in schizophrenia but it is not clear whether this is specific for the illness and whether emotion perception is selectively affected. To study this we examined the perception of emotional and non-emotional clues in facial expressions, a key social cognitive skill, in schizophrenia patients and old healthy individuals using young healthy individuals as reference. Tests of object recognition, visual orientation, psychomotor speed, and working memory were included to allow multivariate analysis taking into account other cognitive functions Schizophrenia patients showed impairments in recognition of identity and emotional facial clues compared to young and old healthy groups. Severity was similar to that for object recognition and visuospatial processing. Older and younger healthy groups did not differ from each other on these tests. Schizophrenia patients and old healthy individuals were similarly impaired in the ability to automatically learn new faces during the testing procedure (measured by the CSTFAC index) compared to young healthy individuals. Social cognition is distinctly impaired in schizophrenia compared to healthy aging. Further study is needed to identify the mechanisms of automatic social cognitive learning impairment in schizophrenia patients and healthy aging individuals and determine whether similar neural systems are affected. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
A middle school student is making healthy changes in his life, like eating less junk food, thanks to healthy changes at his school. Created: 6/7/2013 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP). Date Released: 6/7/2013.
Kappelgaard, Per; Hansen, Katrine B; Vilsbøll, Tina
.011) and post-prandial glycemia (P = 0.023). We conclude that prednisolone had no detectable effect on the ffERG in healthy lean men in this study. Retinal function may be less sensitive to changes in glycemia in healthy subjects than in people with diabetes, a characteristic that was unchanged by a short...
Metabolite characterization in serum samples from normal healthy human subjects by 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy. D Misra, U Bajpai. Abstract. One and two dimensional NMR spectroscopy has been employed to characterize the various metabolites of serum control healthy samples. Two dimensional heteronuclear ...
Trapp, Georgina S. A.; Hickling, Siobhan; Christian, Hayley E.; Bull, Fiona; Timperio, Anna F.; Boruff, Bryan; Shrestha, Damber; Giles-Corti, Billie
Background: Few studies use comprehensive ecological approaches considering multilevel factors to understand correlates of healthy (and unhealthy) dietary intake. The aim of this study was to examine the association between individual, social, and environmental factors on composite measures of healthy and unhealthy dietary intake in adults.…
Andric, Sanja; Maric, Nadja P.; Knezevic, Goran; Mihaljevic, Marina; Mirjanic, Tijana; Velthorst, Eva; van Os, Jim
The aim of the present study was to examine whether healthy individuals with higher levels of neuroticism, a robust independent predictor of psychopathology, exhibit altered facial emotion recognition performance. Facial emotion recognition accuracy was investigated in 104 healthy adults using the
Izumi-Taylor, Satomi; Morris, Vivian Gunn; Meredith, Cathy D.; Hicks, Claire
Young children enjoy moving around when they hear music. Children take pleasure in physical activities that contribute to their healthy development. Physical activities are vital to retain healthy bodies, and inactivity is one cause of obesity in young children (Dow, 2010; Izumi-Taylor & Morris, 2007). This article describes how teachers and…
Adams, Alexandra K.; LaRowe, Tara L.; Cronin, Kate A.; Prince, Ronald J.; Wubben, Deborah P.; Parker, Tassy; Jobe, Jared B.
Healthy Children, Strong Families (HCSF) is a 2-year, community-driven, family-based randomized controlled trial of a healthy lifestyles intervention conducted in partnership with four Wisconsin American Indian tribes. HCSF is composed of 1 year of targeted home visits to deliver nutritional and physical activity curricula. During Year 1, trained…
Pappas-Rogich, Maria; King, Michalene
One innovative community-based setting to promote health is the faith community, where care is provided by a faith community nurse (FCN). This descriptive study describes the practice of FCNs, FCN functions and standards, identifies Healthy People 220 Leading Health Indicators being addressed by FCNs, and explores how the FCN model of community-based practice can support implementation of Healthy People 2020.
Make sure your kids brush for 2 minutes, twice a day. En Español facebook twitter instagram Kids’ Healthy Mouths Health Watch & Brush! Watch ... About Kids’ Teeth Teeth Helpful Resources Links Keep Kids’ Mouths Healthy Roll over or click the time ...
The aim of this study is to determine the serum lipid profile of apparently healthy staff of University of Benin Teaching Hospital (UBTH), Benin City. Consenting staff of UBTH who were apparently healthy were recruited for the study. Data extracted included the patient's age, sex, body mass index, weight, height, waist ...
... kids to be active. When it comes to food and physical activity, what you say and do around your children can have a lasting effect. Work ... Choices Help Kids Form Healthy Habits Be a role model. Eat healthy family meals together. Walk or ride ...
In this podcast, the speakers will discuss how to create healthy changes that benefit residents and businesses in local communities, as well as provide inspiration for other communities to make healthy living a priority. Created: 4/15/2012 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP). Date Released: 8/28/2012.
Full Text Available Colonizing commensal bacteria after birth are required for the proper development of the gastrointestinal tract. It is believed that bacterial colonization pattern in neonatal gut affects gut barrier function and immune system maturation. Studies on the development of faecal microbiota in infants showed that the neonatal gut was first colonized with enterococci followed by other microbiota such as Bifidobacterium. Other studies showed that babies who developed allergy were less often colonized with Enterococcus during the first month of life as compared to healthy infants. Many studies have been conducted to elucidate how bifidobacteria or lactobacilli, some of which are considered probiotic, regulate infant gut immunity. However, fewer studies have been focused on enterococi. In our study, we demonstrate that E. faecalis, isolated from healthy newborns, suppress inflammatory responses activated in vivo and in vitro. We found E. faecalis attenuates proinflammatory cytokine secretions, especially IL-8, through JNK and p38 signaling pathways. This finding shed light on how the first colonizer, E.faecalis, regulates inflammatory responses in the host.
Sowa, Agnieszka; Tobiasz-Adamczyk, Beata; Topór-Mądry, Roman; Poscia, Andrea; la Milia, Daniele Ignazio
The public health policy agenda oriented towards healthy ageing becomes the highest priority for the European countries. The article discusses the healthy ageing concept and its possible determinants with an aim to identify behavioral patterns related to healthy ageing in selected European countries. The healthy ageing is assessed based on a composite indicator of self-assessed health, functional capabilities and life meaningfulness. The logistic regression models are used to assess the impact of the healthy lifestyle index, psycho-social index and socio-economic status on the probability of healthy ageing (i.e. being healthy at older age). The lifestyle and psychosocial indexes are created as a sum of behaviors that might be important for healthy ageing. Models are analyzed for three age groups of older people: 60-67, 68-79 and 80+ as well as for three groups of countries representing Western, Southern and Central-Eastern Europe. The lifestyle index covering vigorous and moderate physical activity, consumption of vegetables and fruits, regular consumption of meals and adequate consumption of liquids is positively related to healthy ageing, increasing the likelihood of being healthy at older age with each of the items specified in the index. The score of the index is found to be significantly higher (on average by 1 point for men and 1.1 for women) for individuals ageing healthily. The psychosocial index covering employment, outdoor social participation, indoor activities and life satisfaction is also found to be significantly related to health increasing the likelihood of healthy ageing with each point of the index score. There is an educational gradient in healthy ageing in the population below the age of 68 and in Southern and Central-Eastern European countries. In Western European countries, income is positively related to healthy ageing for females. Stimulation physical activity and adequate nutrition are crucial domains for a well-defined public health policy
Hang, I.; Heilmann, R.M.; Grützner, N.; Suchodolski, J.S.; Steiner, J.M.; Atroshi, F.; Sankari, S.; Kettunen, A.; Vos, de W.M.; Zentek, J.; Spillmann, T.
BACKGROUND: Research suggests that dietary composition influences gastrointestinal function and bacteria-derived metabolic products in the dog colon. We previously reported that dietary composition impacts upon the faecal microbiota of healthy dogs. This study aims at evaluating the dietary
Riza Akhmedzakievich Kasimov
Full Text Available The formation of a healthy lifestyle among the educational process subjects is one of the main functions of health-saving educational space. This function can be implemented effectively only if the executive bodies in the sphere of education, other agencies, the public and the subjects of the educational process take active part in this process. Such cooperation requires a common understanding in the issues to promote health of all pedagogical process participants, but to date the concept “healthy lifestyle” has not been clearly defined and the effective and optimized pedagogical models for its formation, according to the cross-cutting principle, have not been elaborated. The article analyzes different points of view on this issue. A healthy lifestyle is considered as a complex pedagogical technology to create health culture. Taking into account the scholars’ attitudes to the concept “healthy lifestyle” the author identifies three main components of a healthy lifestyle: health culture, health-saving activity and conditions that ensure a healthy lifestyle. The article argues that health saving needs of a person predetermine his/her health-saving activities. It reveals the main strategic sub-components of a healthy lifestyle: physical, environmental, medical, psychological and spiritual-moral activities. The work presents the normative model of a healthy lifestyle and its structure. It defines a healthy lifestyle as a model of health-saving behavior model. The author proves that the proposed normative model of a healthy lifestyle can be successfully used for the formation of health-saving educational space on the principles of inter-sectoral collaboration
Tavares, Aida Isabel
People who decide to lose weight by dieting often do so without participating in any associated physical activity. Although some people who participate in sports are unconcerned about their diet, it is generally believed that people who exercise tend to eat a healthy diet and those who do not exercise eat a less healthy diet. There is no clear relationship between the decisions regarding participation in physical activity and eating a healthy diet when choices are taken freely and not influenced by policy factors promoting healthy behaviour. However, these decisions may reveal some common explanatory factors and an implicit link. As such the aim of this study was to identify the common explanatory factors and investigate the existence of an implicit relationship. Econometric estimate - bivariate probit estimation. Using data from the Portuguese National Health Survey, a bivariate probit was undertaken for decisions regarding participation in physical activity and eating a healthy diet. The correlation between the residuals gives information on the implicit relationship between the healthy choices. Common explanatory factors were found between the decisions to eat healthy snacks and participate in physical activity, such as being married. However, holding voluntary private health insurance, smoking, getting older, living alone and unemployment were found to dissuade people from making healthy choices. Positive correlation was found between the residuals of the probit estimations, indicating that other unmeasurable variables have a similar influence on both decisions, such as peer pressure, cultural values, fashion, advertising and risk aversion. Further research is needed to improve understanding of decision making related to participation in physical activity and eating a healthy diet. This will facilitate the design of policies that will make a greater contribution to healthy lifestyles. Copyright © 2014 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier
El Oufir, L; Flourié, B; Bruley des Varannes, S; Barry, J L; Cloarec, D; Bornet, F; Galmiche, J P
BACKGROUND/AIMS: To investigate whether transit time could influence H2 consuming flora and certain indices of colonic bacterial fermentation. METHODS: Eight healthy volunteers (four methane excretors and four non-methane excretors) were studied for three, three week periods during which they received a controlled diet alone (control period), and then the same diet with cisapride or loperamide. At the end of each period, mean transit time (MTT) was estimated, an H2 lactulose breath test was p...
Wang, H. Echo; Lee, Matthew; Hart, Adante; Summers, Amber C.; Steeves, Elizabeth Anderson; Gittelsohn, Joel
Soaring obesity rates in the United States demand comprehensive health intervention strategies that simultaneously address dietary patterns, physical activity, psychosocial factors and the food environment. Healthy Bodies, Healthy Souls (HBHS) is a church-based, community-participatory, cluster-randomized health intervention trial conducted in…
Katayama, Naomi; Yamashita, Masamichi; Kok, Robert; Space Agriculture Task Force, J.
Providing foods to space crew is the important requirements to support long term manned space exploration. Foods fill not only physiological requirements to sustain life, but psychological needs for refreshment and joy during the long and hard mission to extraterrestrial planets. We designed joyful and healthy recipe with materials (plants, insects, fish et.cet. la.), which can be produced by the bio-regenerative agricultural system operated at limited resources available in spaceship or on Moon and Mars. And we need to get the storage method of the food without the problem of food poisoning. The consideration about the food allergy is necessary, too. Nutritional analysis on the basic vegetable menu consisting of rice, barley, soybean, sweet potato cassava, quinoa and green reveals a shortage of vitamins D and B12, cholesterol and sodium salt. Since vitamin D deficiency results in demineralization of bone. Vitamin B12 is essential to prevent pernicious anemia. Fish contains both vitamins D and B12. The pupa of the silkworm becomes the important nourishment source as protein and lipid. The silk thread uses it as clothing and cosmetics and medical supplies. However, we can use the silk thread as food as protein. A law of nature shakes high quality oils and fats included in termite for cooking. I use the bee as food after having used it for the pollination of the plant. Of course the honey becomes the important food, too. The snail and mud snail become the food as protein. We decided to use the menu consisting of the basic vegetarian menu plus insect and loach for further conceptual design of space agriculture. We succeeded to develop joyful and nutritious space recipe at the end. Since energy consumption for physical exercise activities under micro-or sub-gravity is less than the terrestrial case, choice of our space foods is essential to suppress blood sugar level, and prevent the metabolic syndrome. Because of less need of agricultural resources at choosing
Girsowicz, Elie; Georg, Yannick; Lefebvre, François; Lejay, Anne; Thaveau, Fabien; Roy, Catherine; Ohana, Mickael; Chakfe, Nabil
With the steady increase of endovascular procedures involving the aortic arch (AA), an actual depiction of its anatomy has become mandatory. It has also become necessary to evaluate the natural evolution of the AA morphology as part of the evaluation of endovascular devices durability. The objective of this study was to perform a morphological and anatomical study of the AA and of the supra aortic trunks (SAT) in healthy patients, with an evaluation of their evolution with time, with a specific orientation applied to endovascular therapies of the AA. Sixty-one patients (31 men, mean age 50.8 [18-82]) with a normal anatomy were included in the study. Measurements included the diameters of the AA and SAT in 17 locations, their distance and angulation based on computed tomography angiography data. Statistical analysis focused on descriptive statistics, differences between genders, as well as correlations with age. Aortic diameters (mean ± SD) were 29.5 ± 3.9 mm at the ascending aorta, 28.6 ± 3.9 mm at the innominate artery (IA), 27.1 ± 3.2 mm at the left common carotid artery (LCCA), 25.3 ± 3.0 mm at the left subclavian artery (LSCA), 23.9 ± 3.3 mm at the descending aorta. Mean angulation of the AA was 82° (95% confidence interval [CI]: 78.95-85.19°), mean angulation between LSCA/LCCA was -5.7° (95% CI: -0.9 to 18.7°) and -1.8° (95% CI: 5.4-26.4°) between LCCA/IA. Mean distance between the LSCA and the LCCA was 14.3 mm (95% CI: 13-15.6 mm) and 21.8 mm (95% CI: 20.3-23.4 mm) between LCCA and IA. All diameters of the AA increased with age (P Men had diameters statistically (P women except at the LCCA ostium level. A statistically significant increase of the distances between the LSCA and the LCCA, between the LSCA and the IA and between the IA and the LCCA was found with age, P = 0.027, better understanding of the three-dimensional aspects of the AA, confirmed the variability and heterogeneity of the SAT disposition, and discussed the principles of vascular
Every economic institution finds itself caught on the horns of a dilemma: Competing sets of values strike a conflict between social good and economic wealth, regardless of whether organizations articulate it. The struggle in U.S. health care, however, is both more acute and poignant. On the one hand, ethical and cultural values require societal commitments to the well-being of the individual. Who among us would want to refuse help to someone sick or injured? On the other hand, market forces require an economic accounting of health care. Social trends emphasize a mission to provide care for all, while managed care promotes the industry's fidelity to a balanced ledger. U.S. health care is thus defined by paradox. The nation spends more than $1.3 trillion annually on health care--a national line-item larger than the economies of all other nations except two (Germany and Japan). A new study by the Health Care Financing Administration warns that health care spending may nearly double to $2.1 trillion by 2007. Yet the industry is perceived to be too "resource-constrained" to assure health care services for all citizens. This poses a key question: Are there too few resources, or are we simply not allocating them in the best ways possible? Health care's "double bottom line"--social and economic accountability--typifies the social and economic milieu of health care as the final pages turn on the 20th Century. And, it is this duality that forms the underlying theme for the landmark study--Leadership for a Healthy 21st Century--conducted over the course of the past year by Arthur Andersen and The Healthcare Forum Foundation, with primary research support from DYG, Inc. and Baruch Lev, professor at the Stern School of Business, New York University. The study was designed to investigate a new economic model emerging in the information economy and its impact on health care; the evolving values of consumers in relation to business, health and health care; and the values of
Leme, Ana Carolina Barco; Philippi, Sonia Tucunduva
The purpose of this article is to describe the study design, protocol, and baseline results of the "Healthy Habits, Healthy Girls" program. The intervention is being evaluated through a randomized controlled trial in 10 public schools in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. Data on the following variables were collected and assessed at baseline and will be reevaluated at 7 and 12 months: body mass index, waist circumference, dietary intake, nutrition, physical activity, social cognitive mediators, physical activity level, sedentary behaviors, self-rated physical status, and overall self-esteem. According to the baseline results, 32.4% and 23.4% of girls were overweight in the intervention and control groups, respectively, and in both groups a higher percentage failed to meet daily recommendations for moderate and vigorous physical activity and maximum screen time (TV, computer, mobile devices). There were no significant differences between the groups for most of the variables, except age (p = 0.000) and waist circumference (p = 0.014). The study showed a gap in the Brazilian literature on protocols for randomized controlled trials to prevent obesity among youth. The current study may thus be an important initial contribution to the field.
Full Text Available Healthy food baskets have been used around the world for a variety of purposes, including: examining the difference in cost between healthy and unhealthy food; mapping the availability of healthy foods in different locations; calculating the minimum cost of an adequate diet for social policy planning; developing educational material on low cost eating and examining trends on food costs over time. In Australia, the Illawarra Healthy Food Basket was developed in 2000 to monitor trends in the affordability of healthy food compared to average weekly wages and social welfare benefits for the unemployed. It consists of 57 items selected to meet the nutritional requirements of a reference family of five. Bi-annual costing from 2000–2009 has shown that the basket costs have increased by 38.4% in the 10-year period, but that affordability has remained relatively constant at around 30% of average household incomes.
Healthy food baskets have been used around the world for a variety of purposes, including: examining the difference in cost between healthy and unhealthy food; mapping the availability of healthy foods in different locations; calculating the minimum cost of an adequate diet for social policy planning; developing educational material on low cost eating and examining trends on food costs over time. In Australia, the Illawarra Healthy Food Basket was developed in 2000 to monitor trends in the affordability of healthy food compared to average weekly wages and social welfare benefits for the unemployed. It consists of 57 items selected to meet the nutritional requirements of a reference family of five. Bi-annual costing from 2000-2009 has shown that the basket costs have increased by 38.4% in the 10-year period, but that affordability has remained relatively constant at around 30% of average household incomes.
Thanakwang, Kattika; Soonthorndhada, Kusol; Mongkolprasoet, Jiraporn
In this qualitative study, we provide an in-depth understanding of the views of healthy aging among Thai elderly and explore the ways that contribute to healthy aging. Data were collected using focus groups and in-depth interviews in four selected provinces of Thailand, and were analyzed using content analysis. The results revealed that Thai elderly described being healthy as the result of multiple components involving physical, mental, and social well-being. Healthy aging was viewed as an absence of serious diseases, having functional independence, a positive psycho-emotional outlook, and making a social contribution. The factors considered to contribute to healthy aging included activities promoting physical and psychological health, as well as active engagement in social activities. Understanding how the elderly define healthy aging and identifying the most important components and factors that contribute to being healthy provides insight into possible policy implications and interventions to promote health and well-being among Thai elderly. © 2012 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
He, Ka; Kramer, Ellen; Houser, Robert F; Chomitz, Virginia R; Hacker, Karen A
To: (a) establish criteria for defining positive health behaviors and lifestyle; and (b) identify characteristics of adolescents who practice a healthy lifestyle. Responses from a 1998 survey via questionnaire, of 1487 students, from a public high school, Cambridge, Massachusetts, were used to assess correlates of healthy lifestyle choices. Strict and broad assessments of healthy behaviors were defined for students: use of alcohol, tobacco, and illegal drugs; sexual behavior; attempted suicide. Whereas the "strict" criteria included only those adolescents who did not practice any of the behaviors in question, the broad criteria reflected experimentation and moderate risk-taking. The prevalence of positive behaviors was assessed by demographic and student characteristics. In addition, logistic regression models were created to predict determinants of teenagers' healthy lifestyles using both strict and broad definitions. Using strict criteria of healthy lifestyle, significant predictors were being female, born outside the United States, higher academic performance, and fewer stressful life events. Using a broad definition of a healthy lifestyle, significant predictors were being non-Caucasian, in the lower grade levels at the school, higher academic performance, and fewer stressful life events. In both models, peers' approval of risky behaviors negatively influenced teens' lifestyles, whereas parents' disapproval of risky behaviors was a positive influence. These results reinforce the importance of school, peer, and parent support of positive behaviors. It is important for public health workers and families to understand and define healthy lifestyles choices for adolescents.
Full Text Available Ketosis is a metabolic disorder closely associated with liver lipidosis. Numerous tests have been developed to detect hepatic dysfunction in dairy cows. Bromosulfophthalein (BSP clearance is established as a sensitive index of hepatic function. The objective of this study was to examine the difference of biliary excretion of BSP between ketotic and healthy Holstein cows and to correlate this excretion with other indicators of liver dysfunction. Twenty puerperal Holstein cows divided in two groups (10 cows each were involved in the study. The first group included healthy and the second group ketotic cows. Blood samples were taken 10 days after parturition. Concentrations of total protein, albumin, total bilirubin, Ca, P, total lipids, urea and glucose were determined. Immediately after blood sampling, BSP test was performed. Blood samples were taken 5 and 45 minutes after injection, and the percentage of retained pigment in the sample obtained at minute 45 was calculated. Blood albumin and glucose concentrations were significantly higher in healthy then ketotic cows. Total bilirubin concentration was significantly higher in ketotic than healthy cows. BSP excretion was significantly higher in ketotic compared to healthy cows. There was a significant positive correlation between BSP values and total bilirubin concentrartions in both healthy and ketotic cows and a significant negative correlation between BSP values and glucose concentrartions in both healthy and ketotic cows. In conclusion, biliary clearance of BSP may be used as a reliable method for the detection of hepatic dysfunction associated with clinical symptoms of ketosis in dairy cows.
Thomas, Heather M; Irwin, Jennifer D
A qualitative assessment was completed of overweight/obese youths' perceptions of the meaning of "healthy body weight," barriers and facilitators to healthy body weight attainment, and what would effectively enhance and support their healthy body weight behaviours. This qualitative study targeted a sample of overweight and obese youth, aged 14 to 16 years. An experienced interviewer conducted 11 in-depth interviews. Interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Three qualitative researchers conducted independent and simultaneous inductive content analysis to facilitate confirmability. Data trustworthiness was supported via member checking, peer debriefing, and reflexive journalling. Most participants characterized healthy body weight as a combination of healthy eating and regular physical activity. Some included a psychological dimension in the definition. Perceived facilitators of a healthy body weight included family support, access to nutritious food at home, physical activity encouragement, and a physical activity environment at school. Perceived barriers included lack of family support, a poor nutrition environment, an unsupportive school environment, time, self-esteem, and bullying. Participants identified preferences for an intervention that would include opportunities for unstructured coeducational recreational activities, coeducational nutrition education sessions, and a gender-specific discussion forum. Participants provided a wealth of information to form the foundation of future youth-focused efficacious healthy body weight interventions.
Han, KyungHun; Lee, YunJung; Gu, JaSung; Oh, Hee; Han, JongHee; Kim, KwuyBun
Healthy aging includes physical, psychological, social, and spiritual well-being in later years. The purpose of this study is to identify the psychosocial factors influencing healthy aging and examining their socio-demographic characteristics. Perceived health status, depression, self-esteem, self-achievement, ego-integrity, participation in leisure activities, and loneliness were identified as influential factors in healthy aging. 171 Korean adults aged between 45 and 77 years-old participated in the study. Self-reporting questionnaires were used, followed by descriptive statistics and multiple regressions as inferential statistical analyses. There were significant differences between participants' general characteristics: age, education, religion, housing, hobby, and economic status. The factors related to healthy aging had positive correlation with perceived health status, self-esteem, self-achievements, and leisure activities, and negative correlation with depression and loneliness. The factors influencing healthy aging were depression, leisure activities, perceived health status, ego integrity, and self-achievements. These factors were able to explain 51.9%. According to the results, depression is the factor with the greatest influence on healthy aging. Perceived health status, ego integrity, self-achievement, self-esteem, participation of leisure activities were also influential on healthy aging as beneficial factors.
Biloukha, O; Utermohlen, V
To identify the major perceived influences on food choice, to examine the use of and trust in information sources concerning healthy eating, and to assess attitudes towards and barriers to adopting healthy eating practices in a post-USSR country (Ukraine). A survey of an urban adult population. The questions were adopted from the Pan-European Union (EU) Survey of Consumer Attitudes to Food, Nutrition and Health (1995-1996). Lviv city, Ukraine. The survey included 296 adults (84 males, 212 females) aged 18-55 years; they were primarily college students and subjects with tertiary education--the groups most likely to be both interested in healthy eating and affected by current socioeconomic downturns. The major factors in food choice were: 'quality/freshness' (cited by 80%), 'price' (58%) and 'taste' (47%); only 34% cited 'trying to eat healthily'. More older people cited 'price' than 'quality/freshness', and men were more likely than women to cite 'taste'. Sources of healthy eating information included: 'relatives/friends' (cited by 65%, trusted by 85%) and health professionals (trusted by 92%, but used by only 35%); while advertising was the least trusted source (cited by 28%). Fifty-three per cent of respondents considered their diet to be healthy enough without further changes; 50% thought of the nutritional aspects of the food they ate; fewer women than men considered their diet healthy, and more women than men thought about nutrition. Barriers to healthy eating included: 'cost' (cited by 65%), 'lack of time' (55%), 'self-control' (54%), 'selection influences' (41%), 'lack of knowledge' (32%), 'unpleasant foods' and 'resistance to change' (both 30%). Strategies to encourage healthy eating in this population should involve word-of-mouth nutrition education concerning low-cost healthy alternatives.
Tyas, Suzanne L; Snowdon, David A; Desrosiers, Mark F; Riley, Kathryn P; Markesbery, William R
Although the concept of healthy ageing has stimulated considerable interest, no generally accepted definition has been developed nor has its biological basis been determined. To develop a definition of healthy ageing and investigate its association with longevity and neuropathology. Analyses were based on cognitive, physical, and post-mortem assessments from 1991 to 1998 in the Nun Study, a longitudinal study of ageing in participants 75+ years at baseline. We defined three mutually exclusive levels of healthy ageing (excellent, very good, and good) based on measures of global cognitive function, short-term memory, basic and instrumental activities of daily living, and self-rated function. Mortality analyses were based on 636 participants; neuropathologic analyses were restricted to 221 who had died and were autopsied. Only 11% of those meeting criteria for the excellent level of healthy ageing at baseline subsequently died, compared with 24% for the very good, 39% for the good, and 60% for the remaining participants. Survival curves showed significantly greater longevity with higher levels of healthy ageing. The risk of not attaining healthy ageing, adjusted for age, increased two-fold in participants with brain infarcts alone, six-fold in those with Alzheimer neuropathology alone, and more than thirteen-fold in those with both brain infarcts and Alzheimer neuropathology. The biological validity of our definition of healthy ageing is supported by its strong association with mortality and longevity. Avoiding Alzheimer and stroke neuropathology is critical to the maintenance of healthy ageing, and the presence of both pathologies dramatically decreases the likelihood of healthy ageing.
Sabia, Séverine; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Hagger-Johnson, Gareth; Cambois, Emmanuelle; Brunner, Eric J; Kivimaki, Mika
Increases in life expectancy make it important to remain healthy for as long as possible. Our objective was to examine the extent to which healthy behaviours in midlife, separately and in combination, predict successful aging. We used a prospective cohort design involving 5100 men and women aged 42-63 years. Participants were free of cancer, coronary artery disease and stroke when their health behaviours were assessed in 1991-1994 as part of the Whitehall II study. We defined healthy behaviours as never smoking, moderate alcohol consumption, physical activity (≥ 2.5 h/wk moderate physical activity or ≥ 1 h/wk vigorous physical activity), and eating fruits and vegetables daily. We defined successful aging, measured over a median 16.3-year follow-up, as good cognitive, physical, respiratory and cardiovascular functioning, in addition to the absence of disability, mental health problems and chronic disease (coronary artery disease, stroke, cancer and diabetes). At the end of follow-up, 549 participants had died and 953 qualified as aging successfully. Compared with participants who engaged in no healthy behaviours, participants engaging in all 4 healthy behaviours had 3.3 times greater odds of successful aging (95% confidence interval [CI] 2.1-5.1). The association with successful aging was linear, with the odds ratio (OR) per increment of healthy behaviour being 1.3 (95% CI 1.2-1.4; population-attributable risk for 1-4 v. 0 healthy behaviours 47%). When missing data were considered in the analysis, the results were similar to those of our main analysis. Although individual healthy behaviours are moderately associated with successful aging, their combined impact is substantial. We did not investigate the mechanisms underlying these associations, but we saw clear evidence of the importance of healthy behaviours for successful aging.
Moms are often worried if theyâll be up to the task of caring for a newborn baby. However, women can increase their chances of giving birth to a healthy infant and avoiding birth defects by taking several healthy steps during pregnancy. In this podcast, Dr. Cara Mai discusses ways to improve your chances of giving birth to a healthy baby. Created: 1/22/2015 by MMWR. Date Released: 1/22/2015.
Fortenberry, J Dennis
This chapter is organized around the question "How do adolescents learn to have healthy sex?" The chapter assumes that sexual learning derives from a broad range of both informal and formal sources that contribute to learning within the context of neurocognitive brain systems that modulate sexual motivations and self-regulation. The overall objective is to consider how adolescents become sexually functional and healthy and to provide a conceptual basis for expansion of sexual learning to better support healthy sexual functioning. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
This podcast highlights the efforts of one educational organization, Los Angeles Universal Preschool (LAUP), to keep kids healthy at an early age. Childhood obesity now affects about one in six kids and disproportionately affects low-income and minority populations. LAUP teaches kids healthy habits and is incorporating small, healthy changes that can be made in any classroomâlike teaching fun dances and providing nutritious snacks. Created: 9/19/2012 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP). Date Released: 10/1/2012.
Childhood obesity now affects about one in six kids and disproportionately affects low-income and minority populations. This podcast highlights one preschool teacher who teaches kids about healthy eating and is incorporating small, healthy changes that can be made in any classroomâlike planting a classroom garden and eating healthy snacks. Created: 3/5/2013 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP). Date Released: 3/5/2013.
Javier Contel Ballesteros
Full Text Available The article discusses the interrelation between urban planning, or rather, the planned development of cities, and public health, from a historical perspective, and focusses on the dimensions of the dialectic between two different social realities, which must play an essential role in the future. In a first analysis we defined milestones that have marked the last health perspective of urban design, from its initial conception to the current organizational design ecosystem, which involves the concepts of sustainable development and environmental health. With the basis on the above analysis, we have defined the dimensions of the so called 'healthy planning', which should focus the effort, both of experts on public health and of urban planning, as administration over the coming years: a assessing the effects of urban development on health as a key feature of the work of territorial and urban planning, b focus on social equity issues in cities, as a factor for improving health populations; c the mainstreaming of risk prevention of mental illness as a determinant of territorial and urban planning, d the mainstreaming of mitigation of climate change, also as a factor determining territorial and urban planning.El artículo aborda el examen de la interrelación entre el urbanismo —o mejor, el desarrollo planificado de las ciudades— y la salud pública, desde una perspectiva histórica, para enfocar las dimensiones de la dialéctica entre ambas realidades sociales distintas, que han de jugar un papel esencial en el futuro. En un primer análisis se definen los hitos que han jalonado en el pasado la perspectiva sanitaria del urbanismo, desde su concepción inicial orgánica a la actual concepción ecosistémica, que involucra los conceptos de desarrollo sostenible y salud ambiental. Se definen, a partir del anterior análisis, las dimensiones del denominado urbanismo saludable, en las que debería centrarse el esfuerzo, tanto de los expertos en materia
Jefferson, Tom; Rivetti, Alessandro; Di Pietrantonj, Carlo; Demicheli, Vittorio
The consequences of influenza in children and adults are mainly absenteeism from school and work. However, the risk of complications is greatest in children and people over 65 years of age. This is an update of a review published in 2011. Future updates of this review will be made only when new trials or vaccines become available. Observational data included in previous versions of the review have been retained for historical reasons but have not been updated because of their lack of influence on the review conclusions. To assess the effects (efficacy, effectiveness, and harm) of vaccines against influenza in healthy children. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (the Cochrane Library 2016, Issue 12), which includes the Cochrane Acute Respiratory Infections Group Specialised Register, MEDLINE (1966 to 31 December 2016), Embase (1974 to 31 December 2016), WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP; 1 July 2017), and ClinicalTrials.gov (1 July 2017). Randomised controlled trials comparing influenza vaccines with placebo or no intervention in naturally occurring influenza in healthy children under 16 years. Previous versions of this review included 19 cohort and 11 case-control studies. We are no longer updating the searches for these study designs but have retained the observational studies for historical purposes. Review authors independently assessed risk of bias and extracted data. We used GRADE to rate the certainty of evidence for the key outcomes of influenza, influenza-like illness (ILI), complications (hospitalisation, ear infection), and adverse events. Due to variation in control group risks for influenza and ILI, absolute effects are reported as the median control group risk, and numbers needed to vaccinate (NNVs) are reported accordingly. For other outcomes aggregate control group risks are used. We included 41 clinical trials (> 200,000 children). Most of the studies were conducted in children over the
Pasma, J. H.; Schouten, A. C.; Aarts, R. G. K. M.; Meskers, C. G. M.; Maier, A. B.; van der Kooij, H.
Standing balance requires multijoint coordination between the ankles and hips. We investigated how humans adapt their multijoint coordination to adjust to various conditions and whether the adaptation differed between healthy young participants and healthy elderly. Balance was disturbed by push/pull rods, applying two continuous and independent force disturbances at the level of the hip and between the shoulder blades. In addition, external force fields were applied, represented by an external stiffness at the hip, either stabilizing or destabilizing the participants' balance. Multivariate closed-loop system-identification techniques were used to describe the neuromuscular control mechanisms by quantifying the corrective joint torques as a response to body sway, represented by frequency response functions (FRFs). Model fits on the FRFs resulted in an estimation of time delays, intrinsic stiffness, reflexive stiffness, and reflexive damping of both the ankle and hip joint. The elderly generated similar corrective joint torques but had reduced body sway compared with the young participants, corresponding to the increased FRF magnitude with age. When a stabilizing or destabilizing external force field was applied at the hip, both young and elderly participants adapted their multijoint coordination by lowering or respectively increasing their neuromuscular control actions around the ankles, expressed in a change of FRF magnitude. However, the elderly adapted less compared with the young participants. Model fits on the FRFs showed that elderly had higher intrinsic and reflexive stiffness of the ankle, together with higher time delays of the hip. Furthermore, the elderly adapted their reflexive stiffness around the ankle joint less compared with young participants. These results imply that elderly were stiffer and were less able to adapt to external force fields. PMID:26719084
S. pneumoniae isolados da nasofaringe de crianças sadias e com pneumonia: taxa de colonização e suscetibilidade aos antimicrobianos Nasopharyngeal isolates of S. pneumoniae from healthy carriers and children with pneumonia: colonization rates and antimicrobial susceptibility
Luís C. Rey
Full Text Available Objetivos: comparar as taxas de colonização e a resistência antimicrobiana de pneumococos em nasofaringe de crianças sadias e com pneumonia. Métodos: estudo de tipo transversal. As crianças sadias foram recrutadas em centros de vacinação (CV e creches públicas (CP, selecionados aleatoriamente, e aquelas com pneumonia em emergências pediátricas. Foram utilizados swabs flexíveis de alginato para a colheita do material de nasofaringe. O isolamento e a identificação dos pneumococos seguiram procedimentos padronizados. As concentrações inibitórias mínimas (CIM foram determinadas por microdiluição em placas. Resultados: foram estudadas 911 crianças, 429 sadias (60% portadoras de pneumococo, sendo 72% destas recrutadas em CP e 49% em CV e 482 com pneumonia (50% de portadoras (p=0,002. De 441 isolados com CIM determinadas, 198 (45% apresentavam resistência intermediária, e 16 (4% apresentavam resistência plena à penicilina. As taxas de resistência dos pneumococos isolados de portadores sadios e com pneumonia, respectivamente, foram: penicilina 48% (CV 37% e CP 55% e 50% (p>0,05; eritromicina: 28% e 19% (p=0,05; cotrimoxazol 81% e 76% (p>0,05; cloranfenicol 6% e 7% (p>0,05, rifampicina 5% e 3% (p>0,05, ceftriaxone 2 e 4% (p>0,05 e vancomicina 0%, para ambos grupos. Foi constatada associação entre as resistências do pneumococo à penicilina, eritromicina e ao cotrimoxazol. Conclusões: a taxa de portador de pneumococos foi maior em crianças sadias do que naquelas com pneumonia. As resistências dos pneumococos à penicilina e ao cotrimoxazol foram elevadas, sobretudo entre os usuários de creches públicas.Objectives: to compare colonization rates and antimicrobial resistance of nasopharyngeal pneumococci in healthy carriers and children with pneumonia. Methods: a cross-sectional study. Healthy subjects of this study were selected from randomly chosen immunization centers and day-care centers, and those with pneumonia were
... Nutrition Celebrate the Beauty of Youth Changing Your Habits for Better Health Healthy Meals & Snacks for Teens ... Make half of your plate fruits and vegetables. Power up with lean meats, chicken, seafood, eggs, beans, ...
... methods works for you: The plate method. The American Diabetes Association offers a simple seven-step method of meal ... complications. Diabetes meal plans and a healthy diet. American Diabetes Association. http://www.diabetes.org/food-and-fitness/food/ ...
Bousquet, J; Kuh, D; Bewick, M
Health is a multi-dimensional concept, capturing how people feel and function. The broad concept of Active and Healthy Ageing was proposed by the World Health Organisation (WHO) as the process of optimizing opportunities for health to enhance quality of life as people age. It applies to both...... individuals and population groups. A universal Active and Healthy Ageing definition is not available and it may differ depending on the purpose of the definition and/or the questions raised. While the European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing (EIP on AHA) has had a major impact......, a definition of Active and Healthy Ageing is urgently needed. A meeting was organised in Montpellier, France, October 20-21, 2014 as the annual conference of the EIP on AHA Reference Site MACVIA-LR (Contre les Maladies Chroniques pour un Vieillissement Actif en Languedoc Roussillon) to propose an operational...
Keywords: Healthy child, herpes zoster ophthalmicus, ocular complications. INTRODUCTION. Herpes ... that the same virus in children cause varicella and may be giving .... performed to confirm the diagnosis promptly by identifying. VZV DNA ...
... really fast when a relationship turns into a power struggle, with one person fighting to get his or her way all the time. Separate identities. In a healthy relationship, everyone needs to make compromises. But that ...
Fukushima, M; Shimanouchi, S; Kamei, T; Takagai, E; Hoshino, Y; Sugiyama, I
The purpose of this study is to develop "assessment guideline of family power for healthy life" aiming at expanding self-care power of family in community nursing practice. The subjects of this study covered those families in one hundred and fifty six instances that we had seized as subject for nursing care and study. The method of this study had constructed assessment guideline inductively out of each case, and modified it by applying to cases of families with health problems and others. As a result, we had formed nine items of "family power for healthy life" and three items of "conditions influencing family power for healthy life" for "assessment guideline of family power for healthy life".
All parents want their children to grow up happy and healthy. But, did you know that smoking during pregnancy has been linked to a higher chance of having a baby with certain birth defects and health problems?
Healthy China 2020 : Policy and Technology Evaluation ... aimed at providing a blueprint for universal basic healthcare coverage for all by 2020. ... Implementing clinical pathway management and reforming compensation mechanism in rural ...
Birth defects are common, costly, and critical. If you're pregnant or planning to get pregnant, you can take steps to improve your chances of giving birth to a healthy child. This podcast discusses ways to prevent birth defects.
School-aged children spend a great deal of time inside school buildings. Parents can play an important role in creating healthy indoor school environments. Parents and students alike can make a powerful case for protecting health in schools.
Jun 2, 2018 ... Thyroid function in healthy and unhealthy preterm newborns. Gökten Korkmaz1 ... disruptions of this system can cause permanent damage. Unrecognized early .... hypoglycemia, hypocalcemia and malnutrition. Some rare.
Christensen, Mark Schram; Kristiansen, Lasse; Rowe, James B.
Clinical cases of blindsight have shown that visually guided movements can be accomplished without conscious visual perception. Here, we show that blindsight can be induced in healthy subjects by using transcranial magnetic stimulation over the visual cortex. Transcranial magnetic stimulation...
The author uses all the old hackneyed anti-eholesterol ... recommends that people stop smoking and use alcohol moderately. Stress management is heavily emphasised, but not the need for aerobic fitness as part of a healthy Iffesty1e.
Haarmark, Christian; Graff, Claus; Andersen, Mads P
Reference values for T-wave morphology analysis and evaluation of the relationship with age, sex, and heart rate are lacking in the literature. In this study, we characterized T-wave morphology in a large sample of healthy individuals....
He, Chen; Mikkelsen, Bent Egberg
become one of the preferred organizational tools to frame these efforts. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the association between having a local food & nutrition policy and indicators of healthy eating at school. It is based results from a web survey among food service coordinators in 179......The increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity has resulted in more focus on the role that public settings such as school for children can play in promoting healthy lifestyle. As a consequence increasingly organizational efforts have been directed towards this issue and policy instruments have......, the attitude of school respondents regarding promoting organic food and healthy eating habits through school environment, the existing policies concerning healthy school food and the development of school food serving practice, were analyzed by using statistic tools. The results indicate a strong relationship...
... on. Feature: Reducing Childhood Obesity 4 Top Healthy Snacks Past Issues / Spring - Summer 2010 Table of Contents ... vegetables. Always watch your toddler during meals and snacks. —Source: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and ...
Heart disease continues to be the leading cause of death for both men and women in the U.S. This podcast discusses the importance of decreasing the chances of developing heart disease via a healthy lifestyle.
This podcast is an interview with Dr. Stephanie Jilcott Pitts, Associate Professor in the Department of Public Health at East Carolina University. Dr. Pitts answers questions about her study involving a healthy corner store initiative in North Carolina.
Committee on Leading Health Indicators for Healthy People 2020; Institute of Medicine; Institute of Medicine
...) established the Committee on Leading Health Indicators for Healthy People 2020 to develop and recommend 12 indicators and 24 objectives for consideration by HHS for guiding a national health agenda...
... School Students Using Medline Plus Kids Create Healthy Comics Past Issues / Fall 2015 Table of Contents Fresh, ... use of reliable health information resources." The Four Comic Books Are: The Expert Investigator explores the impact ...
Mohammad, Ausaf F
A 54-year-old previously healthy white man presented to hospital with fever, right parasternal pain and swelling over the right second and third costochondral joints. The symptoms had developed 1 week earlier.
Nov 2, 2015 ... pulps, which is due to pulpitis in comparison to healthy dental pulp. Key words: .... human dental pulp cells by Porphyromonas endodontalis lipopolysaccharide. J Endod ... Biology of disease: Free radicals and tissue injury.
Individuals affected with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have increased susceptibility to adverse health effects from exposure to particulate air pollution. The dosimetry of ultrafine aerosols (diameter # 0.1 :m) is not well characterized in the healthy or diseas...
Mainous, Arch G.; Diaz, Vanessa A.; Geesey, Mark E.
PURPOSE Latinos have a high prevalence of diabetes and disproportionately experience diabetic complications. We sought to examine the association of acculturation on healthy lifestyle habits among the Latino population in the United States with diabetes.
... Share Facebook Twitter Pinterest Email Print How does physical activity help build healthy bones? Bones are living tissue. Weight-bearing physical activity causes new bone tissue to form, and this ...
... November 2017 Print this issue Healthy Body, Happy Heart Improve Your Heart Health En español Send us your comments Every moment of the day, your heart is pumping blood throughout your body. In silent ...
Walling, Dennis M.; Brown, Abigail L.; Etienne, Wiguins; Keitel, Wendy A.; Ling, Paul D.; Butel, J. S. (Principal Investigator)
We employed a newly developed genotyping technique with direct representational detection of LMP-1 gene sequences to study the molecular epidemiology of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection in healthy individuals. Infections with up to five different EBV genotypes were found in two of nine individuals studied. These results support the hypothesis that multiple EBV infections of healthy individuals are common. The implications for the development of an EBV vaccine are discussed.
Wright, Bernice AL; Peters, Emmanuelle R; Ettinger, Ulrich; Kuipers, Elizabeth; Kumari, Veena
Environmental noise causes cognitive impairment, particularly in executive function and episodic memory domains, in healthy populations. However, the possible moderating influences on this relationship are less clear. This study assessed 54 healthy participants (24 men) on a cognitive battery (measuring psychomotor speed, attention, executive function, working memory, and verbal learning and memory) under three (quiet, urban, and social) noise conditions. IQ, subjective noise sensitivity, sle...
Most babies in the United States are born perfectly healthy. However, a small percentage are born with birth defects, and these conditions account for one of every five infant deaths in the United States. In this podcast, Dr. Sarah Tinker discusses ways for women to improve their chances of having a healthy baby. Created: 1/19/2017 by MMWR. Date Released: 1/19/2017.
Belza, Basia; Altpeter, Mary; Smith, Matthew Lee; Ory, Marcia G
As the first Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Prevention Research Centers Program thematic network, the Healthy Aging Research Network was established to better understand the determinants of healthy aging within older adult populations, identify interventions that promote healthy aging, and assist in translating research into sustainable community-based programs throughout the nation. To achieve these goals requires concerted efforts of a collaborative network of academic, community, and public health organizational partnerships. For the 2001-2014 Prevention Research Center funding cycles, the Healthy Aging Research Network conducted prevention research and promoted the wide use of practices known to foster optimal health. Organized around components necessary for successful collaborations (i.e., governance and infrastructure, shaping focus, community involvement, and evaluation and improvement), this commentary highlights exemplars that demonstrate the Healthy Aging Research Network's unique contributions to the field. The Healthy Aging Research Network's collaboration provided a means to collectively build capacity for practice and policy, reduce fragmentation and duplication in health promotion and aging research efforts, maximize the efficient use of existing resources and generate additional resources, and ultimately, create synergies for advancing the healthy aging agenda. This collaborative model was built upon a backbone organization (coordinating center); setting of common agendas and mutually reinforcing activities; and continuous communications. Given its successes, the Healthy Aging Research Network model could be used to create new and evaluate existing thematic networks to guide the translation of research into policy and practice. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Rosenmeier, Jesper G.; Strathe, Anders Bjerring; Andersen, Pia Haubro
To measure coronary band temperature (CBT) in healthy horses fed high-fructan or low-carbohydrate diets and to analyze the association of CBT with diet, time of day, and ambient temperature.......To measure coronary band temperature (CBT) in healthy horses fed high-fructan or low-carbohydrate diets and to analyze the association of CBT with diet, time of day, and ambient temperature....
Scott K. Holland
Conclusions: Examination of neurocognitive and biometric data from a decade-long, longitudinal fMRI study of normal language development in this small, longitudinal sample of healthy children in the age range of 5 to 18 years, who received up to 10 MRI scans, provides scientific evidence to support the belief that MRI poses minimal risk for use in research with healthy children.
Public Health Agency
This booklet is part of the Work Well aimed at promoting health in the workplace. It outlines to employers the benefits of promoting healthy eating at work, what action can be taken, the range of healthier food options that can be provided in a canteen or by using external caterers, ways of promoting healthy eating among employees that do not have to be expensive or time consuming, and key steps for action.
Matheson, Eric M; King, Dana E; Everett, Charles J
Though the benefits of healthy lifestyle choices are well-established among the general population, less is known about how developing and adhering to healthy lifestyle habits benefits obese versus normal weight or overweight individuals. The purpose of this study was to determine the association between healthy lifestyle habits (eating 5 or more fruits and vegetables daily, exercising regularly, consuming alcohol in moderation, and not smoking) and mortality in a large, population-based sample stratified by body mass index (BMI). We examined the association between healthy lifestyle habits and mortality in a sample of 11,761 men and women from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III; subjects were ages 21 and older and fell at various points along the BMI scale, from normal weight to obese. Subjects were enrolled between October 1988 and October 1994 and were followed for an average of 170 months. After multivariable adjustment for age, sex, race, education, and marital status, the hazard ratios (95% CIs) for all-cause mortality for individuals who adhered to 0, 1, 2, or 3 healthy habits were 3.27 (2.36-4.54), 2.59 (2.06-3.25), 1.74 (1.51-2.02), and 1.29 (1.09-1.53), respectively, relative to individuals who adhered to all 4 healthy habits. When stratified into normal weight, overweight, and obese groups, all groups benefited from the adoption of healthy habits, with the greatest benefit seen within the obese group. Healthy lifestyle habits are associated with a significant decrease in mortality regardless of baseline body mass index.
Erikson, Galina A.; Bodian, Dale L.; Rueda, Manuel; Molparia, Bhuvan; Scott, Erick R.; Scott-Van Zeeland, Ashley A.; Topol, Sarah E.; Wineinger, Nathan E.; Niederhuber, John E.; Topol, Eric J.; Torkamani, Ali
Studies of long-lived individuals have revealed few genetic mechanisms for protection against age-associated disease. Therefore, we pursued genome sequencing of a related phenotype – healthy aging – to understand the genetics of disease-free aging without medical intervention. In contrast with studies of exceptional longevity, usually focused on centenarians, healthy aging is not associated with known longevity variants but is associated with reduced genetic susceptibility to Alzheimer and co...
Pedersen, Line Kjeldgaard; Ghasemi, Habib; Rahbek, Ole
Title: Normal distribution of standing balance for healthy Danish children – Reproducibility of parameters of balance. Authors Line Kjeldgaard Pedersen Habib Ghasemi Ole Rahbek Bjarne Møller-Madsen 1800 characters incl. spaces Background Pedobarographic measurements are increasingly used in child......Title: Normal distribution of standing balance for healthy Danish children – Reproducibility of parameters of balance. Authors Line Kjeldgaard Pedersen Habib Ghasemi Ole Rahbek Bjarne Møller-Madsen 1800 characters incl. spaces Background Pedobarographic measurements are increasingly used...
Vizireanu, Mariya; Hruschka, Daniel
This study examined perceptions of healthy eating styles among US respondents to determine whether eating styles are defined as a distinct set of people's healthy eating beliefs and how different aspects of eating styles are perceived to affect health. In-person pile sort activities were used to identify key dimensions of healthy eating beliefs, and online surveys were used to confirm these dimensions and examine perceived health benefits of healthy eating styles. The pile-sorting activity recruited 48 US participants in the Phoenix metropolitan area via social media and snowball sampling. Online surveys recruited US participants via Amazon Mechanical Turk (survey 1, n = 70; survey 2, n = 283). The researchers used an exploratory visualizing technique (multidimensional scaling) to analyze pile sort data; Property Filling (PROFIT) analysis was used to analyze online survey 1; paired sample t test and repeated-measures ANOVA were used to analyze online survey 2. Eating styles are a distinct set of beliefs within lay models of healthful diets (P management. In addition to educating the public about choosing healthy food characteristics, health and nutrition professionals may need to address people's beliefs regarding healthy eating styles to identify gaps and misconceptions. Future research is needed to examine the relationships between such beliefs and corresponding behaviors, as well as whether these behaviors result in any health benefits. Copyright © 2018 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hanks, Andrew S; Just, David R; Smith, Laura E; Wansink, Brian
In the context of food, convenience is generally associated with less healthy foods. Given the reality of present-biased preferences, if convenience was associated with healthier foods and less healthy foods were less convenient, people would likely consume healthier foods. This study examines the application of this principle in a school lunchroom where healthier foods were made more convenient relative to less healthy foods. One of two lunch lines in a cafeteria was arranged so as to display only healthier foods and flavored milk. Trained field researchers collected purchase and consumption data before and after the conversion. Mean comparisons were used to identify differences in selection and consumption of healthier foods, less healthy foods and chocolate milk. Sales of healthier foods increased by 18% and grams of less healthy foods consumed decreased by nearly 28%. Also, healthier foods' share of total consumption increased from 33 to 36%. Lastly, we find that students increased their consumption of flavored milk, but flavored milk's share of total consumption did not increase. In a school lunchroom, a convenience line that offered only healthier food options nudged students to consume fewer unhealthy foods. This result has key implications for encouraging healthy behavior in public schools nation wide, cafeterias and other food establishments.
Mihaela Teodora TARCZA
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to propose a brief introspection in the literature review in an attempt to highlight the peculiarities of traditional foodstuffs that enable them to be promoted as the primary food for a healthy diet. The trend of healthy eating is gaining ground not only for experts and researchers, but also for consumers on a daily basis. Traditional foodstuffs are brought back into the consumers’ attention in a market full of highly-processed foodstuffs. Marketing specialists noticed the link between the two concepts and they elaborated promotional strategies for traditional foodstuffs, having the ‘healthy diet’ as insight. Throughout the paper we will present theoretical considerations such as the concept of ‘traditional food product’, ‘promotion’, and ‘healthy diet’ from a marketing perspective followed by several examples of traditional food products perceived as healthy, and lastly, we will highlight the benefits of promoting a healthy diet by consuming traditional food products.
Shirey, Maria R
Implementation of authentic leadership can affect not only the nursing workforce and the profession but the healthcare delivery system and society as a whole. Creating a healthy work environment for nursing practice is crucial to maintain an adequate nursing workforce; the stressful nature of the profession often leads to burnout, disability, and high absenteeism and ultimately contributes to the escalating shortage of nurses. Leaders play a pivotal role in retention of nurses by shaping the healthcare practice environment to produce quality outcomes for staff nurses and patients. Few guidelines are available, however, for creating and sustaining the critical elements of a healthy work environment. In 2005, the American Association of Critical-Care Nurses released a landmark publication specifying 6 standards (skilled communication, true collaboration, effective decision making, appropriate staffing, meaningful recognition, and authentic leadership) necessary to establish and sustain healthy work environments in healthcare. Authentic leadership was described as the "glue" needed to hold together a healthy work environment. Now, the roles and relationships of authentic leaders in the healthy work environment are clarified as follows: An expanded definition of authentic leadership and its attributes (eg, genuineness, trustworthiness, reliability, compassion, and believability) is presented. Mechanisms by which authentic leaders can create healthy work environments for practice (eg, engaging employees in the work environment to promote positive behaviors) are described. A practical guide on how to become an authentic leader is advanced. A research agenda to advance the study of authentic leadership in nursing practice through collaboration between nursing and business is proposed.
Spalletta, Gianfranco; Piras, Fabrizio; Caltagirone, Carlo; Fagioli, Sabrina
Several neuroimaging studies report reduced hippocampal volume in depressed patients. However, it is still unclear if hippocampal changes in healthy individuals can be considered a risk factor for progression to clinical depression. Here, we investigated subclinical depression and its hippocampal correlates in a non-clinical sample of healthy individuals, with particular regard to gender differences. One-hundred-two participants underwent a comprehensive clinical assessment, a high-resolution T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging protocol using a 3T MRI scanner. Data of macro-(volume) and micro-(mean diffusivity, MD) structural changes of the hippocampus were analyzed with reference to the Beck Depression Inventory score. Results of multivariate regression analyses revealed reduced bilateral volume, along with increased bilateral MD in hippocampal formation predicting subclinical depressive phenomenology only in healthy males. Conversely, subclinical depressive phenomenology in healthy female was accounted for by only lower educational level, in the absence of any hippocampal structure variations. To date, this is the only evidence reporting a relationship between subclinical depressive phenomenology and changes in hippocampal formation in healthy individuals. Our findings demonstrated that reduced volume, along with increased MD in hippocampal formation, is significantly associated with subclinical depressive phenomenology in healthy males. This encourages to study the hypothesis that early macro- and microstructural changes in hippocampi associated with subclinical depression may constitute a risk factor of developing depressive disorders in males. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Annamaria Di Fabio
This contribution deals with the concept of healthy organizations and starts with a definition of healthy organizations and healthy business. In healthy organizations, culture, climate, and practices create an environment conducive to employee health and safety as well as organizational effectiveness (Lowe, 2010). A healthy organization thus leads to a healthy and successful business (De Smet et al., 2007; Grawitch and Ballard, 2016), underlining the strong link between organizational profita...
Barufaldi, Laura Augusta; Abreu, Gabriela de Azevedo; Oliveira, Juliana Souza; dos Santos, Debora França; Fujimori, Elizabeth; Vasconcelos, Sandra Mary Lima; de Vasconcelos, Francisco de Assis Guedes; Tavares, Bruno Mendes
OBJECTIVE To describe the prevalence of eating habits considered healthy in adolescents according to sex, age, education level of the mother, school type, session of study, and geographic region. METHODS The assessed data come from the Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA), a cross-sectional, national and school-based study. Adolescents of 1,247 schools of 124 Brazilian municipalities were evaluated using a self-administered questionnaire with a section on aspects related to eating behaviors. The following eating behaviors were considered healthy: consuming breakfast, drinking water, and having meals accompanied by parents or legal guardians. All prevalence estimates were presented proportionally, with their respective 95% confidence intervals. The Chi-square test was used to evaluate the differences in healthy eating habits prevalences according to other variables. The module survey of the Stata program version 13.0 was used to analyze complex data. RESULTS We evaluated 74,589 adolescents (72.9% of the eligible students). Of these, 55.2% were female, average age being 14.6 years (SD = 1.6). Among Brazilian adolescents, approximately half of them showed healthy eating habits when consuming breakfast, drinking five or more glasses of water a day, and having meals with parents or legal guardians. All analyzed healthy eating habits showed statistically significant differences by sex, age, type of school, session of study, or geographic region . CONCLUSIONS We suggest that specific actions of intersectoral approach are implemented for the dissemination of the benefits of healthy eating habits. Older female adolescents (15 to 17 years old) who studied in public schools, resided in the Southeast region, and whose mothers had lower education levels, should be the focus of these actions since they present lower frequencies concerning the evaluated healthy habits.
Intersectoral collaboration (ISC) is important in the health field because the complexity of determinants of health makes it difficult for one institution to resolve all health issues. Promotion of physical activity can especially benefit from a multi-sectoral approach. Despite so much emphasis on its importance in both primary health and health promotion, ISC has been underachieved in the field. This study aimed to examine the characteristics and level of ISC among physical activity programs in Healthy Cities as compared to non-Healthy Cities. I conducted a postal survey where 24 people from Healthy Cities and 72 people from non-Healthy Cities participated. The survey included questions to measure the level of ISC as well as to determine ISC partners and activities. Among the entire 393 physical activity programs, 336 (85.5%) had some kind of collaboration with one or more partners. The percentage having one or more partners was greater in Healthy Cities than in non-Healthy Cities. However, there were no statistical differences between the two groups in terms of the level of ISC within a municipal organization. Collaboration activities of the other departments were mostly supportive, such as providing a venue, recruiting participants and publicizing, and other kinds of administrative support. To strengthen ISC in Korean Healthy Cities, various actions including providing a legal basis, specific and substantive supports, financial incentives, and organizational recognitions will be helpful as well as the development of partnerships with other departments in urban planning, transport, urban design, and communication. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Aline Rodrigues Hoffmann
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Changes in the microbial populations on the skin of animals have traditionally been evaluated using conventional microbiology techniques. The sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA genes has revealed that the human skin is inhabited by a highly diverse and variable microbiome that had previously not been demonstrated by culture-based methods. The goals of this study were to describe the microbiome inhabiting different areas of the canine skin, and to compare the skin microbiome of healthy and allergic dogs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: DNA extracted from superficial skin swabs from healthy (n = 12 and allergic dogs (n = 6 from different regions of haired skin and mucosal surfaces were used for 454-pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Principal coordinates analysis revealed clustering for the different skin sites across all dogs, with some mucosal sites and the perianal regions clustering separately from the haired skin sites. The rarefaction analysis revealed high individual variability between samples collected from healthy dogs and between the different skin sites. Higher species richness and microbial diversity were observed in the samples from haired skin when compared to mucosal surfaces or mucocutaneous junctions. In all examined regions, the most abundant phylum and family identified in the different regions of skin and mucosal surfaces were Proteobacteria and Oxalobacteriaceae. The skin of allergic dogs had lower species richness when compared to the healthy dogs. The allergic dogs had lower proportions of the Betaproteobacteria Ralstonia spp. when compared to the healthy dogs. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The study demonstrates that the skin of dogs is inhabited by much more rich and diverse microbial communities than previously thought using culture-based methods. Our sequence data reveal high individual variability between samples collected from different patients. Differences in species richness was also seen between
Full Text Available Background: Haemophilus influenza (HI is the most commonly found pathogenic bacteria in pediatric otitis media and lower respiratory tract infections. Bacterial attachment to pharyngeal cells and proliferation may be necessary for infection. In the presence of human milk, attachment of HI to pharyngeal cells and colonization may be inhibited. To evaluate the protecting role of breast milk, we investigated the incidence of HI isolated from the throat of healthy infants with different feeding methods. Methods: Between August 2002 and March 2003, 210 healthy infants (70 purely breast-fed, 70 purely formula-fed, 70 mixed-fed, aged 1-6 months were enrolled into the study and a throat culture was taken in all of them. The incidence of HI was evaluated using Haemophilus Test Agar Bose (HTAB plates. Results: The incidence of HI in purely breast-fed, mixed-fed and purely formula-fed infants was 2.9%, 42.9% and 75.7% respectively (P = 0.000. The mean age and weight of cases in the three groups were not statistically different. Conclusion: These data suggest that human milk protects the throat of healthy infants from HI colonization especially in purely breast-fed cases. Keywords: Breast milk, Haemophilus influenza, Throat culture
Pacheco, Joseph A.; Pacheco, Christina M.; Lewis, Charley; Williams, Chandler; Barnes, Charles; Rosenwasser, Lanny; Choi, Won S.; Daley, Christine M.
American Indians (AI) have the highest rate of severe physical housing problems in the U.S. (3.9%). Little information exists about the environmental hazards in AI homes. The purposes of this paper are to discuss challenges that were encountered when recruiting AI for a home-and employment-based environmental health assessments, highlight major successes, and propose recommendations for future indoor environmental health studies. The Center for American Indian Community Health (CAICH) and Children’s Mercy Hospital’s Center for Environmental Health and Allergy and Immunology Research Lab collaborated to provide educational sessions and healthy home assessments for AI. Through educational trainings, more than 240 AI were trained on the primary causes of health problems in homes. A total of 72 homes and places of employment were assessed by AI environmental health specialists. The top three categories with the most concerns observed in the homes/places of employment were allergens/dust (98%), safety/injury (89%) and chemical exposure (82%). While some information on smoking inside the home was collected, these numbers may have been underreported due to stigma. This was CAICH’s first endeavor in environmental health and although challenges arose, many more successes were achieved. PMID:25749318
Ward, David D; Summers, Mathew J; Saunders, Nichole L; Vickers, James C
Cognitive reserve (CR) is a protective factor that supports cognition by increasing the resilience of an individual's cognitive function to the deleterious effects of cerebral lesions. A single environmental proxy indicator is often used to estimate CR (e.g. education), possibly resulting in a loss of the accuracy and predictive power of the investigation. Furthermore, while estimates of an individual's prior CR can be made, no operational measure exists to estimate dynamic change in CR resulting from exposure to new life experiences. We aimed to develop two latent measures of CR through factor analysis: prior and current, in a sample of 467 healthy older adults. The prior CR measure combined proxy measures traditionally associated with CR, while the current CR measure combined variables that had the potential to reflect dynamic change in CR due to new life experiences. Our main finding was that the analyses uncovered latent variables in hypothesized prior and current models of CR. The prior CR model supports multivariate estimation of pre-existing CR and may be applied to more accurately estimate CR in the absence of neuropathological data. The current CR model may be applied to evaluate and explore the potential benefits of CR-based interventions prior to dementia onset.
McNaughton Sarah A
Full Text Available Abstract Background Social norms are theoretically hypothesized to influence health-related behaviors such as physical activity and eating behaviors. However, empirical evidence relating social norms to these behaviors, independently of other more commonly-investigated social constructs such as social support, is scarce and findings equivocal, perhaps due to limitations in the ways in which social norms have been conceptualized and assessed. This study investigated associations between clearly-defined social norms and a range of physical activity and eating behaviors amongst women, adjusting for the effects of social support. Methods Self-report survey data about particular physical activity (leisure-time moderate-vigorous activity; volitional walking; cycling for transport and eating behaviors (fast food, soft drink and fruit and vegetable consumption, and social norms and support for these, were provided by 3,610 women aged 18-46 years living in socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhoods in Victoria, Australia. Results Results of regression analyses showed that social norms for physical activity and eating behaviors predicted these respective behaviors relatively consistently; these associations generally remained significant after adjustment for social support. Conclusions Acknowledging the cross-sectional study design, these data confirm theoretical accounts of the importance of social norms for physical activity and eating behaviors, and suggest that this is independent from social support. Intervention strategies aimed at promoting physical activity and healthy eating could incorporate strategies aimed at modifying social norms relating to these behaviors.
Full Text Available This paper deals with global trends of healthy food market growth, Serbian export potential as well as with the importance and role of positioning and other marketing strategies in this field. Secondary data will be used for identifying characteristics and range of healthy food market on a global level and key segments. In that context, the economic importance and export potential of this sector in Serbia will be discussed. Food sector accounts for high percentage of total Serbian export. Yet, those products are of low added value, neither branded nor packed. In order to position producers of healthy food on an international market successfully, strength and weaknesses of domestic production and export will be identified as well as measures for its promotion. In this paper, literature review in field of food positioning and marketing will be presented. Various positioning strategies of healthy food will be discussed from the aspect of branding, country of origin image, marketing mix instruments, with special emphasis on promotion and product labelling. Special part of paper will be dedicated to specific aspects of buying and food consumption behaviour. This behaviour is under the influence of numerous factors, both personal and sociodemographic, which will be analyzed in order to identify adequate positioning strategies. At the end, recommendations for successfully healthy food positioning on an international market will be given. We will present ways of improving marketing strategies regarding exploiting identified chances on an international market.
Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Waeber, Gérard; Vollenweider, Peter; Bochud, Murielle; Stringhini, Silvia; Guessous, Idris
The determinants of a healthy diet have not been studied in Switzerland. This study aimed at assessing the individual and behavioural factors associated with a healthy diet in a Swiss city. Cross-sectional, population-based study conducted between 2009 and 2013 (n = 4,439, 2,383 women, mean age 57.5 ± 10.3 years) in Lausanne. Food consumption was assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Two Mediterranean diet scores (classic score and specific for Switzerland) and the Harvard School of Public Health alternate healthy eating index were computed. For all three dietary scores considered, living in couple or having a high education were associated with a healthier diet. An unhealthy lifestyle (smoking, sedentary behaviour) or a high body mass index were associated with an unhealthier diet. Participants born in Italy, Portugal and Spain had healthier diets than participants born in France or Switzerland. Women and elderly participants had healthier diets than men and young participants according to 2 scores, while no differences were found for the Swiss-specific Mediterranean score. In Switzerland, healthy eating is associated with high education, a healthy lifestyle, marital status and country of origin. The associations with gender and age depend on the dietary score considered. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Erikson, Galina A; Bodian, Dale L; Rueda, Manuel; Molparia, Bhuvan; Scott, Erick R; Scott-Van Zeeland, Ashley A; Topol, Sarah E; Wineinger, Nathan E; Niederhuber, John E; Topol, Eric J; Torkamani, Ali
Studies of long-lived individuals have revealed few genetic mechanisms for protection against age-associated disease. Therefore, we pursued genome sequencing of a related phenotype-healthy aging-to understand the genetics of disease-free aging without medical intervention. In contrast with studies of exceptional longevity, usually focused on centenarians, healthy aging is not associated with known longevity variants, but is associated with reduced genetic susceptibility to Alzheimer and coronary artery disease. Additionally, healthy aging is not associated with a decreased rate of rare pathogenic variants, potentially indicating the presence of disease-resistance factors. In keeping with this possibility, we identify suggestive common and rare variant genetic associations implying that protection against cognitive decline is a genetic component of healthy aging. These findings, based on a relatively small cohort, require independent replication. Overall, our results suggest healthy aging is an overlapping but distinct phenotype from exceptional longevity that may be enriched with disease-protective genetic factors. VIDEO ABSTRACT. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Valerie J. Young
Full Text Available Background This study merges two theoretical paradigms: self-determination theory and interdependence theory. The primary objective was to examine whether people in relationships are motivated to enact healthy or unhealthy behaviors based on personal (i.e., autonomous or interpersonal (controlled motives. Participants and procedure We tested the sources of healthy and unhealthy motivation in a cross-sectional, dyadic survey, collecting data from 243 couples in romantic relationships. Survey items assessed sources of healthy and unhealthy motivational influence, including the self, partner, and relationship, in conjunction with relationship satisfaction and well-being. Data were analyzed according to the Actor Partner Interdependence Model to examine intrapersonal and interpersonal associations between variables. Results Healthy and unhealthy behavior motivation appears to be a relational, rather than individual construct. Partner healthy motivation was positively associated with individuals’ relationship satisfaction. For individuals who reported more unhealthy relationship motivations, relationship satisfaction and well-being were lower. There were no significant associations for self motivations. Conclusions The findings suggest that relational partners and the romantic relationship itself are important in understanding the dimensions of health motivation for people in relationships. We conclude that the romantic relationship context impacts health maintenance, supporting the merging of personal and interpersonal motivations for health behaviors.
Pedersen, Susanne; Grønhøj, Alice; Thøgersen, John
It is commonly believed that during adolescence children become increasingly influenced by peers at the expense of parents. To test the strength of this tendency with regards to healthy eating (fruit and vegetable intake), a survey was completed by 757 adolescent-parent dyads. Our theoretical framework builds on social cognitive theory and the focus theory of normative conduct, and data are analysed by means of confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modelling. The study reveals that when it comes to adolescents' fruit and vegetable intake, parents remain the main influencer, with what they do (descriptive norms) being more important than what they say (injunctive norms). The study contributes to a more comprehensive understanding of what influences adolescent healthy eating, including the social influence of parents and friends, while also taking adolescent self-efficacy and outcome expectations into account. No previous studies have included all these factors in the same analysis. The study has a number of important implications: (1) healthy eating interventions should aim at strengthening self-efficacy and positive outcome expectations among adolescents, (2) the family context should be included when implementing healthy eating interventions and (3) parents' awareness of their influence on their children's healthy eating should be reinforced. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sutanto, Erik; Junadi, Purnawan
A good city setting can create a healthy environment. One of the structuring of cities that can create a healthy environment is the development of public space like Green Open Space (RTH) and Child-Friendly Integrated Public Space (RPTRA) such as in Kalijodo, Jakarta, Indonesia. The objective of building a public space in Kalijodo is to restore the functioning of the green zone in the area that previously used for housing residents and prostitution businesses to increase public space in Jakarta. The purpose of this study is to describe the formation of a healthy environment and the impact felt by users of this public space. The research method used in this research is descriptive qualitative with a phenomenological approach through interview, observation and documentation. There are three types of community activities in the public sphere, such as sports, children’s playground, and relaxation. The results show that the decline in crime rates and the presence of facilities and infrastructure in time to establish a healthy environment. The construction of facilities in the public spaces changes the image of Kalijodo from the previous place that has a negative image then turned into a positive image because the environment of Kalijodo became healthy. We also find that this changing image creates a positive spirit of the surrounding community and people are generally healthier and happier.
Lindberg, Per; Vingård, Eva
The purpose of this study was to systematically review the scientific literature and search for indicators of healthy work environments. A number of major national and international databases for scientific publication were searched for research addressing indicators of healthy work environments. Altogether 19,768 publications were found. After excluding duplicates, non-relevant publications, or publications that did not comply with the inclusion criteria 24 peer-reviewed publications remained to be included in this systematic review. Only one study explicitly addressing indicators of healthy work environments was found. That study suggested that the presence of stress management programs in an organization might serve as indicator of a 'good place to work', as these organizations were more likely to offer programs that encouraged employee well-being, safety and skill development than those without stress management programs. The other 23 studies either investigated employee's views of what constitute a healthy workplace or were guidelines for how to create such a workplace. Summarizing, the nine most pronounced factors considered as important for a healthy workplace that emerged from these studies were, in descending order: collaboration/teamwork: growth and development of the individual; recognition; employee involvement; positive, accessible and fair leader; autonomy and empowerment; appropriate staffing; skilled communication; and safe physical work.
Studies in healthy volunteers have been legalized since December 20th 1988 in France. The healthy volunteer is employed for a variety of studies in phases I and IV of drug development. This type of research can equally be called nontherapeutic in nature. Every experiment involving healthy volunteers should be approved by the Ethics Committee. Using volunteers within the department, company or other organisation, while offering advantages for the investigator should be prohibited as freedom of concept might not be safeguarded. As well, financial incentives may over-persuade individuals, including students, who have low incomes and promote the "professional volunteer". To avoid this problem, French law planned a national register. The potential benefits of such a disposition are still unknown. Having been given appropriate information concerning the drug trial, his obligations and rights, the healthy volunteer gives his written consent. Specific recommendations for nontherapeutic assessments of drug effects are given concerning prisoners, the mentally handicapped, women with a risk of frequency, children. Ethical considerations concerning research on a healthy population must go beyond the law recently promulgated in France.
Lallukka, T; Laaksonen, M; Rahkonen, O; Roos, E; Lahelma, E
To examine associations between seven indicators of socio-economic circumstances and healthy food habits, while taking into account assumed temporal order between these socio-economic indicators. Data were derived from cross-sectional postal questionnaires in 2000-2002. Socio-economic circumstances were assessed by parental education, childhood economic difficulties, own education, occupational class, household income, home ownership and current economic difficulties. Healthy food habits were measured by an index consisting of consumption of fresh vegetables, fruit or berries, rye bread, fish and choosing vegetable fats on bread and oil in cooking. Sequential logistic regression models were used, adjusting for age and marital status. Employees of the City of Helsinki, Finland (n=8960, aged 40-60 years). Healthy food habits were reported by 28% of women and by 17% of men. Own education, occupational class, household income, home ownership and current economic difficulties were associated with healthy food habits. These associations were attenuated but mainly remained after mutual adjustments for the socio-economic indicators. Among women, a pathway was found suggesting that part of the effects of education on food habits were mediated through occupational class. Employees in higher and lower socio-economic positions differ in their food habits, and those in lower positions and economically disadvantaged are less likely to report healthy food habits. Health promotion programmes and food policies should encourage healthier food choices among those in lower socio-economic positions and among those with economic difficulties in particular.
30 years of organized ambulatory heart sport in Luxembourg Promoter of health sports. For more than 30 years both mortality and morbidity due to coronary artery disease (CAD) are significantly decreasing (> 70%) in the western world. This achievement is due to multiple interventions in the direct treatment of CAD and, especially, in fighting its risk factors: smoking, high blood pressure, hypercholesterolemia and physical inactivity. In 1984 the first ambulatory heart sport group (phase 3 of cardiac reeducation) was founded in Luxembourg City, followed in 1991 by a section in Esch/Alzette and in 2002 by a 3ème section in Ettelbrück. These phase 3 cardiac sport groups (= chronic phase) are organized by some committed patients working on a voluntary basis and performing a professional job. Paradoxically these phase 3 groups preceded the phases 1 and 2 (= "in hospital" and subacute) of cardiac rehabilitation. However, in a parallel way ambulatory phase 2 physical activity (PA) was started in the main hospitals in Luxembourg City (Centrum), Esch/Alzette (South) and Ettelbrück ( North). In 2002 a cornerstone study by Myers et al proved that physical fitness is the most determinant of survival both for healthy people and for cardiac patients: The better the fitness, quantified in METs, the better the prognosis and this fact is the basis for the application of sports therapy in cardiac and most other patients. An important epidemiological study published in 2012 by Lee et al in Lancet analyzed the effects of physical inactivity (PI) all over the world: 4 important diseases were studied: CAD, breast cancer, colon cancer and type 2 diabetes. The effects of PI are most pronounced in colon cancer followed by diabetes 2, breast cancer and then CAD. As a mean about 9% of all deaths -5.9 million in 57 million deaths/year worldwide- are caused by PI and for Luxembourg 12.9%. This cornerstone study can serve as rationale for physical therapy (PT) intervention in oncology
Pharis, Meagan L; Colby, Lisa; Wagner, Amanda; Mallya, Giridhar
We examined outcomes following the implementation of employer-wide vending standards, designed to increase healthy snack and beverage options, on the proportion of healthy v. less healthy sales, sales volume and revenue for snack and beverage vending machines. A single-arm evaluation of a policy utilizing monthly sales volume and revenue data provided by the contracted vendor during baseline, machine conversion and post-conversion time periods. Study time periods are full calendar years unless otherwise noted. Property owned or leased by the City of Philadelphia, USA. Approximately 250 vending machines over a 4-year period (2010-2013). At post-conversion, the proportion of sales attributable to healthy items was 40 % for snacks and 46 % for beverages. Healthy snack sales were 323 % higher (38·4 to 162·5 items sold per machine per month) and total snack sales were 17 % lower (486·8 to 402·1 items sold per machine per month). Healthy beverage sales were 33 % higher (68·2 to 90·6 items sold per machine per month) and there was no significant change in total beverage sales (213·2 to 209·6 items sold per machine per month). Revenue was 11 % lower for snacks ($US 468·30 to $US 415·70 per machine per month) and 21 % lower for beverages ($US 344·00 to $US 270·70 per machine per month). Sales of healthy vending items were significantly higher following the implementation of employer-wide vending standards for snack and beverage vending machines. Entities receiving revenue-based commission payments from vending machines should employ strategies to minimize potential revenue losses.
Maharjan, Anjila; Bhetwal, Anjeela; Shakya, Shreena; Satyal, Deepa; Shah, Shashikala; Joshi, Govardhan; Khanal, Puspa Raj; Parajuli, Narayan Prasad
Fecal carriage of multidrug-resistant and extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae is one of the important risk factors for infection with antibiotic-resistant bacteria. In this report, we examined the prevalence of multidrug-resistant and ESBL-producing common enterobacterial strains colonizing the intestinal tract of apparently healthy adults in Kathmandu, Nepal. During a 6-month period (February-July 2016), a total of 510 stool specimens were obtained from apparently healthy students of Manmohan Memorial Institute of Health Sciences, Kathmandu, Nepal. Stool specimens were cultured, and the most common enterobacterial isolates ( Escherichia coli and Klebsiella species) were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility tests according to the standard microbiologic guidelines. Multidrug-resistant isolates were selected for ESBL confirmation by combined disk test and E-test methods. Molecular characterization of plasmid-borne ESBL genes was performed by using specific primers of cefotaximase Munich (CTX-M), sulfhydryl variant (SHV), and temoniera (TEM) by polymerase chain reaction. Among 510 bacterial strains, E. coli (432, 84.71%) was the predominant organism followed by Klebsiella oxytoca (48, 9.41%) and K. pneumoniae (30, 5.88%). ESBLs were isolated in 9.8% of the total isolates including K. oxytoca (29.17%), E. coli (7.87%), and K. pneumoniae (6.67%). Among ESBLs, bla -TEM was the predominant type (92%) followed by bla -CTX-M (60%) and bla -SHV (4%). Multidrug-resistant and ESBL-producing enterobacterial commensal strains among healthy individuals are of serious concern. Persistent carriage of ESBL organisms in healthy individuals suggests the possibility of sustained ESBL carriage among the diseased and hospitalized patients. We recommend similar types of epidemiologic surveys in larger communities and in hospital settings to ascertain the extent of ESBL resistance.
Paul, Narayan Chandra
low in the Copenhagen area. This finding may explain why MRSP is rarely isolated from canine clinical at our diagnostic laboratory. Differently from S. aureus in humans, the perineum and the mouth are the body sites most frequently colonized with S. pseudintermedius in dogs. This information is highly......Introduction: Methicillin-resistant S. pseudintermedius (MRSP) is an emerging threat to pet animals due to its characteristic multidrug resistance profile. The current knowledge of the frequency of MRSP in the dog population is limited to few countries. Prior to this study, no information...... was available about the frequency of MRSP healthy dog carriers in Denmark. Objectives: The objectives of this study were i) to estimate the prevalence of MRSP and methicillin-susceptible S. pseudintermedius (MSSP) among healthy dogs in the area of Copenhagen, and ii) to compare the carriage rates at different...
Full Text Available After nearly three years of intensive consultations, 2015 has been declared the International Year of Soils by the 68th UN General Assembly (A/RES/68/232. The International Years of Soil is to be a major platform for raising awareness of the importance of soils for food security and nutrition and essential eco-system functions. Key objectives of the International Years of Soil have been identified as follows: to create full awareness of all stakeholders about the fundamental roles of soils for human life; to achieve full recognition of the prominent contributions of soils to food security and nutrition, climate change adaptation and mitigation, essential ecosystem services, poverty alleviation and sustainable development; to promote effective policies and actions for the sustainable management and protection of soil resources; to sensitize decision-makers about the need for robust investment in sustainable soil management activities, to ensure healthy soils for different land users and population groups; to catalyze initiatives in connection with the Sustainable Development Goal process and Post-2015 agenda; to advocate rapid enhancement of capacities and systems for soil information collection and monitoring at all levels (global, regional and national (http://www.fao.org/soils-2015. Applying a proper management of the recovery and conservation of soil resources is a major goal for every nation. The development of a country depends on the production potential of own soil resources. Soil degradation is a serious problem in Europe an also in Romania. It is caused or exacerbated by human activity such as inadequate agricultural and forestry practices, industrial activities, tourism, urban and industrial expansion etc. Soil Quality Monitoring in Romania revealed a number of problems concerning land use in Romania following the manifestation of one or more limiting factors such as: moisture deficit, salinization and alkalization, soil erosion
Conflicting messages about diet in the media, including publicity for "fad" diets, tend to distort the public's understanding of healthy eating. Several myths also persist, such as "skipping meals is a good way to lose weight," "all fats are bad" or "carbohydrates should be limited when trying to lose weight" Food labels, including the "traffic light" system, may also be confusing for some people. Food preferences vary between individuals, but health professionals can help guide individuals and towards a varied, balanced diet. This will include foods the individual and family enjoy, but based on appropriate proportions of all the five food groups, cooked in healthy ways. Some simple healthy eating tips are given to pass on to clients.
Mouritsen, Annette; Johansen, Marie Lindhardt; Wohlfahrt-Veje, Christine
, to estimate adrenal size in healthy children and to evaluate determinants of adrenal volume such as age, gender, body size, pubic hair stage and serum levels of adrenal androgens. DESIGN: Two hundred and thirty-five healthy children (116 girls and 119 boys) (age range 10.0-14.8 years) were examined by MRI......% of healthy children aged 10-15 years. Adrenal volume increased with age and Tanner stage of pubic hair. Future studies will unravel whether adrenal MRI is useful when evaluating children with adrenal diseases....... (estimate B = 0.34 ml/year, P = 0.03), age (estimate B = 0.05 ml/year, P = 0.021) and pubic hair stage (estimate B = 0.05 ml/stage, P = 0.075). No associations between adrenal size and serum levels of adrenal androgens were observed. CONCLUSION: It was possible to determine adrenal volume by MRI in only 50...
Sjöstrand, K.; Wess, G.; Ljungvall, I.
BACKGROUND: Measurement of plasma concentration of natriuretic peptides (NPs) is suggested to be of value in diagnosis of cardiac disease in dogs, but many factors other than cardiac status may influence their concentrations. Dog breed potentially is 1 such factor. OBJECTIVE: To investigate breed...... variation in plasma concentrations of pro-atrial natriuretic peptide 31-67 (proANP 31-67) and N-terminal B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) in healthy dogs. ANIMALS: 535 healthy, privately owned dogs of 9 breeds were examined at 5 centers as part of the European Union (EU) LUPA project. METHODS: Absence...... the median concentration in Doberman Pinschers. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL IMPORTANCE: Considerable interbreed variation in plasma NP concentrations was found in healthy dogs. Intrabreed variation was large in several breeds, especially for NT-proBNP. Additional studies are needed to establish breed...
He, Chen; Mikkelsen, Bent Egberg
School food in Denmark has unlike many other European countries traditionally been the responsibility of parents. However publically driven healthy school food and nutrition strategies is increasingly being applied as a measure to counteract the growing prevalence of obesity among young people. I...... for studying this shaping process and thus has the potential to give valuable insight into the further development of healthy and organic school meals in Denmark.......School food in Denmark has unlike many other European countries traditionally been the responsibility of parents. However publically driven healthy school food and nutrition strategies is increasingly being applied as a measure to counteract the growing prevalence of obesity among young people....... In addition school food has become a major focus for public organic procurement strategies that seeks to create more sustainable public service provision. Since there are no national regulation of school food provision the school and its food supply in Denmark has become an arena for development...
Andersen, Stine; Burkal, Anna; Falster Olsen, Malene
strong connection between the healthy, organic meals offered at school and class room activities related to health and ecology. The pupils did not feel that they had been involved in the decision to establish organic and healthy food procurement. As a result they held that they did not feel very...... committed or engaged in the school provision initiative, and the organic and healthy food procurement was not highly sought after on the part of the pupils. This appears to justify a distinction between the perspective that front stage actors have, including pupils, and the perspective of politicians....... The main aim of the study was to shed light on primary and lower secondary school pupils´ everyday experience with food, nutrition, ecology and health in connection to public organic school food, using the municipality of Copenhagen as a case. We have examined how a procurement and provision strategy...
Park, Hyeon Seon; Kwak, Byung Kook; Choi, Chi Hoon; Yang, Keun Mung; Lee, Chang Joon; Joo, Dong Il; Kim, Yang Soo
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the lung changes in healthy smokers, as seen on inspiratory and expiratory high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT). Twenty-seven healthy smokers (light smokers, below 20 pack-years, n=16; heavy smokers, above 20 pack-years, n=11) and 25 nonsmokers underwent inspiratory and expiratory HRCT. All healthy smokers had normal pulmonary function and chest radiography. Parenchymal and subpleural micronodules, ground-glass attenuation, centrilobular and paraseptal emphysema, bronchial wall thickening, bronchiectasis and septal line were evaluated on inspiratory scan and by air-trapping on expiratory scan. According to the findings of HRCT, heavy smokers and higher frequency of parenchymal micronodules, ground-glass attenuation, centrilobular and paraseptal emphysema, and air-trapping than nonsmokers and light smokers. (author). 13 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs
Simovska, Venka; Dadaczynski, Kevin; Woynarowska, Barbara
at developing and implementing an effective tool for supporting the development of national policies on healthy eating and physical activity in schools across Europe. For this purpose, a package of publications (HEPS Toolkit) was produced and disseminated within the Schools for Health in Europe (SHE) network......Purpose: In this paper we introduce the HEPS project (Healthy Eating and Physical Activity in Schools) and discuss initial steps of the project implementation within EU countries. On the basis of the Health Promoting School approach as a conceptual foundation for the project, HEPS aimed...... recommendations are suggested for optimizing the further implementation of this, and other similar projects. Originality/ value: THE HEPS toolkit is the first attempt to support all EU member states in the development and implementation of a national policy on healthy eating and physical activity in schools...
Full Text Available Healthy behaviors in pregnant women have a major effect on pregnancy outcomes; however, only few studies have explored the relationship of multiple psychosocial factors with healthy lifestyles during pregnancy. The objective of this study was to investigate whether the five psychosocial factors of anxiety, stress, depression, marital dissatisfaction, and social support are associated with six domains of healthy lifestyles in pregnant women, including nutrition, physical activity, health responsibility, stress management, interpersonal relationships, and self-actualization. In this cross-sectional study, 445 pregnant women from the obstetrics clinics of the teaching hospitals of Babol University of Medical Sciences were included. The subjects answered six questionnaires, including the Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile, Beck Depression Inventory, Prenatal Distress Questionnaire, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Social Support Questionnaire, and Marital Satisfaction Scale. We developed a series of simple linear regression models based on each subscale of lifestyle (nutrition, physical activity, health responsibility, stress management, interpersonal relationships, and self-actualization as the dependent variables and the five psychological variables (anxiety, stress, depression, marital dissatisfaction, and social support as the independent variables. State and trait anxieties were the strongest negative predictors of all aspects of a healthy lifestyle. Furthermore, depression was negatively associated with all of the six subscales of a healthy lifestyle. Pregnancy-specific stress was the only negative predictor of stress management and self-actualization. Marital dissatisfaction was negatively associated with nutrition, stress management, health responsibility, and self-actualization. Social support had negative and positive associations with healthy behaviors. The study suggests that more attention should be paid to identifying the psychological
Fazelzadeh, Parastoo; Hangelbroek, Roland W J; Tieland, Michael; de Groot, Lisette C P G M; Verdijk, Lex B; van Loon, Luc J C; Smilde, Age K; Alves, Rodrigo D A M; Vervoort, Jacques; Müller, Michael; van Duynhoven, John P M; Boekschoten, Mark V
Populations around the world are aging rapidly. Age-related loss of physiological functions negatively affects quality of life. A major contributor to the frailty syndrome of aging is loss of skeletal muscle. In this study we assessed the skeletal muscle biopsy metabolome of healthy young, healthy older and frail older subjects to determine the effect of age and frailty on the metabolic signature of skeletal muscle tissue. In addition, the effects of prolonged whole-body resistance-type exercise training on the muscle metabolome of older subjects were examined. The baseline metabolome was measured in muscle biopsies collected from 30 young, 66 healthy older subjects, and 43 frail older subjects. Follow-up samples from frail older (24 samples) and healthy older subjects (38 samples) were collected after 6 months of prolonged resistance-type exercise training. Young subjects were included as a reference group. Primary differences in skeletal muscle metabolite levels between young and healthy older subjects were related to mitochondrial function, muscle fiber type, and tissue turnover. Similar differences were observed when comparing frail older subjects with healthy older subjects at baseline. Prolonged resistance-type exercise training resulted in an adaptive response of amino acid metabolism, especially reflected in branched chain amino acids and genes related to tissue remodeling. The effect of exercise training on branched-chain amino acid-derived acylcarnitines in older subjects points to a downward shift in branched-chain amino acid catabolism upon training. We observed only modest correlations between muscle and plasma metabolite levels, which pleads against the use of plasma metabolites as a direct read-out of muscle metabolism and stresses the need for direct assessment of metabolites in muscle tissue biopsies.
Hajian-Tilak, Karimallah; Nasiri Amiri, Fatemeh
Healthy behaviors in pregnant women have a major effect on pregnancy outcomes; however, only few studies have explored the relationship of multiple psychosocial factors with healthy lifestyles during pregnancy. The objective of this study was to investigate whether the five psychosocial factors of anxiety, stress, depression, marital dissatisfaction, and social support are associated with six domains of healthy lifestyles in pregnant women, including nutrition, physical activity, health responsibility, stress management, interpersonal relationships, and self-actualization. In this cross-sectional study, 445 pregnant women from the obstetrics clinics of the teaching hospitals of Babol University of Medical Sciences were included. The subjects answered six questionnaires, including the Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile, Beck Depression Inventory, Prenatal Distress Questionnaire, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Social Support Questionnaire, and Marital Satisfaction Scale. We developed a series of simple linear regression models based on each subscale of lifestyle (nutrition, physical activity, health responsibility, stress management, interpersonal relationships, and self-actualization) as the dependent variables and the five psychological variables (anxiety, stress, depression, marital dissatisfaction, and social support) as the independent variables. State and trait anxieties were the strongest negative predictors of all aspects of a healthy lifestyle. Furthermore, depression was negatively associated with all of the six subscales of a healthy lifestyle. Pregnancy-specific stress was the only negative predictor of stress management and self-actualization. Marital dissatisfaction was negatively associated with nutrition, stress management, health responsibility, and self-actualization. Social support had negative and positive associations with healthy behaviors. The study suggests that more attention should be paid to identifying the psychological risk factors in
Temple, Norman J; Steyn, Nelia P
Energy-dense foods are relatively cheap sources of energy but typically have a low nutrient density. People with a low income may therefore select a relatively less healthy diet. The high energy density of such diets helps explain the association between obesity and low socioeconomic status. Most studies have been carried out in highly developed countries. We have extended this research to South Africa. Some foods, such as oats, beans, carrots, and apples, are moderately priced sources of energy and are healthy (i.e., they have a low energy density and are nutrient dense). However, such foods are likely to be less desired than many other foods, such as candy, cookies, jam, and chocolate, that have a similar cost (in terms of food energy) but are less healthy. We compared the cost of a typical South African diet with a healthier one. On average, the healthier diet costs 69% more, but this estimate is greatly affected by food choices. For a family whose household income is exceeded by one-third of the population, this increased expenditure represents about 30% of total household income. This could be decreased to about 10% to 15% if a healthy diet is carefully designed. Overall, a healthy diet is unaffordable for most South Africans. This shows the importance of not only educating people in developing countries to the importance of a healthy diet but also explaining how to make such a diet affordable. A more effective strategy is government intervention that manipulates food prices. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Brandstetter, Susanne; Curbach, Janina; Lindacher, Verena; Rueter, Jana; Warrelmann, Berit; Loss, Julika
Empowerment is seen as a key strategy for sustainable health promotion efforts. However, there is only limited research on how to link the empowerment approach to the promotion of healthy eating, which is a major current public health issue. The article presents the development of a study framework for implementing and evaluating an empowerment intervention for healthy nutrition. This framework was created for a community intervention study meaning to involve elderly citizens in Bavaria, Germany. The study protocol was developed in an iterative process basing on (i) literature reviews on the topics empowerment in relation to healthy nutrition and mixed-methods evaluation, (ii) workshops with empowerment and public health experts and (iii) consultations with local community representatives. Through these measures we identified good practice criteria as well as specific challenges of integrating empowerment and healthy nutrition, e.g. engaging people in healthy nutrition, reconciling participants' nutrition preferences with public health nutrition priorities and evaluating bottom-up activities in the community. Consequences for the study design were deducted from the literature and the consultations, e.g. practical recommendations as to how power could be gradually assigned to group members. A qualitative mixed-method evaluation design was chosen to capture emergent empowerment processes. The study framework presented here is the first on empowerment and nutrition to provide explicit guidance on how empowerment may be applied to healthy nutrition and implemented and evaluated in the community context. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Full Text Available Background The purpose of this study was to determine how to do parenting role's tasks as parents of healthy and disabled children younger than 7 years old in Iran (Arak. Materials and Methods In this cross-sectional study, the parenting role tasks questionnaire was completed for 120 parents of healthy children and 120 parents of disabled children with at least one child with disability and the parents were selected by convenience sampling method. T-test, Mann-Whitney test and analysis of variances was used to compare the scores between parents of healthy and disabled children based on studied variables including child age, parent age, child gender, parent education, family economic status, history of trauma and seizure in children was applied to perform the role of parents. Results: There was a significant difference of parent role in both groups of parents. There was observed a significant relationship between role of healthy children's parents and age of child (r=0.21, P=0.016, but not observed in disabled children's parents. In healthy children, there was no significant correlation between parent's role and maternal age. In contrast, in disabled children, there was found a significant difference (P= 0.04 with correlation coefficient of -0.18 representing the inverse relationship. Moreover, no relationship was found between history of seizure and performance of parenting role's tasks in the group of disabled children (P>0.05. Conclusion The performance of tasks of parenting role in two groups of parents of healthy children and disabled ones in four areas of primary care, education, leisure and improving cognitive level had significant difference. This difference in the area of improving the cognitive level was higher. Due to complications of disability, parents of these children pay more attention to other areas of care except of improving cognitive level. Therefore presence of disabled child has negative effect on the balance of the
Cleland, Verity J; Dwyer, Terence; Venn, Alison J
The objective of this study was to determine whether change in physical activity was associated with maintaining a healthy weight from childhood to adulthood. This prospective cohort study examined 1,594 young Australian adults (48.9% female) aged 27-36 years who were first examined at age 9-15 years as part of a national health and fitness survey. BMI was calculated from measured height and weight, and physical activity was self-reported at both time points; pedometers were also used at follow-up. Change in physical activity was characterized by calculating the difference between baseline and follow-up z-scores. Change scores were categorized as decreasing (large, moderate), stable, or increasing (large, moderate). Healthy weight was defined in childhood as a BMI less than international overweight cutoff points, and in adulthood as BMIdecreases in physical activity, females in all other groups were 25-37% more likely to be healthy weight maintainers, although associations differed according to the physical activity measure used at follow-up and few reached statistical significance. Although younger males whose relative physical activity moderately or largely increased were 27-34% more likely to be healthy weight maintainers than those whose relative physical activity largely decreased, differences were not statistically significant. In conclusion, relatively increasing and stable physical activity from childhood to adulthood was only weakly associated with healthy weight maintenance. Examining personal, social, and environmental factors associated with healthy weight maintenance will be an important next step in understanding why some groups avoid becoming overweight.
Gil, Angel; Ruiz-Lopez, Maria Dolores; Fernandez-Gonzalez, Miguel; Martinez de Victoria, Emilio
The WHO has proposed that health be promoted and protected through the development of an environment that enables sustainable actions at individual, community, national, and global levels. Indeed, food-based dietary guidelines, i.e., food pyramids, have been developed in numerous countries to disseminate nutritional information to the general population. However, wider recommendations are needed, with information on an active healthy lifestyle, not just healthy eating. The objective of the present work is to propose a three-dimensional pyramid as a new strategy for promoting adequate nutrition and active healthy lifestyles in a sustainable way. Indeed, the Iberoamerican Nutrition Foundation (FINUT) pyramid of healthy lifestyles has been designed as a tetrahedron, with its 3 lateral faces corresponding to the facets of food and nutrition, physical activity and rest, and education and hygiene. Each lateral face is divided into 2 triangles. These faces show the following: 1) food-based guidelines and healthy eating habits as related to a sustainable environment; 2) recommendations for rest and physical activity and educational, social, and cultural issues; and 3) selected hygiene and educational guidelines that, in conjunction with the other 2 faces, would contribute to better health for people in a sustainable planet. The new FINUT pyramid is addressed to the general population of all ages and should serve as a guide for living a healthy lifestyle within a defined social and cultural context. It includes an environmental and sustainability dimension providing measures that should contribute to the prevention of noncommunicable chronic diseases. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.
Gil, Angel; Ruiz-Lopez, Maria Dolores; Fernandez-Gonzalez, Miguel; Martinez de Victoria, Emilio
The World Health Organization has proposed that health be promoted and protected through the development of an environment that enables sustainable actions at individual, community, national and global levels. Indeed, food-based dietary guidelines, i.e., food pyramids, have been developed in numerous countries to disseminate nutritional information to the general population. However, wider recommendations are needed, with information on an active, healthy lifestyle, not just healthy eating. The objective of the present work is to propose a three-dimensional pyramid as a new strategy for promoting adequate nutrition and active healthy lifestyles in a sustainable way. Indeed, the Iberomerican Nutrition Foundation (FINUT) pyramid of healthy lifestyles has been designed as a tetrahedron, its three lateral faces corresponding to the binomials food and nutrition, physical activity and rest, and education and hygiene. Each lateral face is divided into two triangles. These faces show the following: 1. food-based guidelines and healthy eating habits as related to a sustainable environment; 2. recommendations for rest and physical activity and educational, social and cultural issues; 3. selected hygiene and educational guidelines that, in conjunction with the other two faces, would contribute to better health and provide measures to promote environmental sustainability. The new FINUT pyramid is addressed to the general population of all ages and should serve as a guide for living a healthy lifestyle within a defined social and cultural context. It includes an environmental and sustainability dimension providing measures that should contribute to the prevention of non-communicable chronic diseases. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.
Bal, L V; Mikhailov, A N; Gundarov, I A
There was studied the motivation of modern adolescents to promote healthy lifestyle. There were observed two arrays, including adolescent-schoolchildren aged 16-17 and 13-14 years in Moscow. The results showed that health occupied one of the first places among the positive motivations, being stable dominant in the period of 13-17 years. The real motivation for a healthy lifestyle coincides with the perspective and informed choice coincides with the life goals. In this, almost all of the identified negative motivation are "manageable", available to be modified or eliminated.
Astrup, Birgitte Schmidt; Lykkebo, Annemette Wildfang
, a single study of adolescent women, and none regarding post-menopausal women. Larger lesions requiring treatment are described casuistically. The purpose of this article is to provide a short, easy-to-read review of the literature regarding the prevalence and nature of female genital injury following......Female genital injury following penile sexual intercourse in healthy women is a matter of importance and debate in many parts of society. However, the literature on the subject is sparse. There are a few studies regarding minor injury that does not require treatment in adult, pre-menopausal women...... consensual sexual intercourse in otherwise healthy women. Clin. Anat., 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc....
Full Text Available The objectives of this experiment were to analyze the endo- or exo-chitinase activities of healthy and Sclerotium rolfsii infected peanuts. The experiment analyzed 24 different peanut genotypes. Results of the experiment showed chromogenic dimer was the most suitable substrate for analysing chitinase activities. Both endo- and exo-chitinases activities were detected in leaf, stem, and crown tissues. Increased in chitinase activities were detected in S. rolfsii infected peanut tissues than in healthy plant. Regression analysis showed negative slope between disease intensity and chitinase activity in S. rolfsii infected peanut tissue (R2= 0.45.
Balasubramaniam, M; Sivapalan, K; Thuvarathipan, R
To establish reference norms of lung function parameters for healthy Sri Lankan Tamil young adults. Cross sectional study of Tamil students at the Faculty of Medicine, Jaffna. Healthy non smoking students of Sri Lankan Tamil ethnic group were enrolled. Age, height, weight, BMI and spirometric measurements (Micro Quark) were recorded in 267 participants (137 females and 130 males). Height was significantly correlated with (pTamils. When mean values were compared, these parameters were significantly higher in Tamil males (pTamil females (pTamils. However, our study sample was confined to medical students of 20-28 years which may explain the differences with Sinhalese.
Pérez-Cueto, Federico JA; Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica; Shankar, Bhavani
Objective: To identify and assess healthy eating policies at national level which have been evaluated in terms of their impact on awareness of healthy eating, food consumption, health outcome or cost/benefit. Design: Review of policy documents and their evaluations when available. Setting: European...... an evaluation of health impact, while three actions specifically measured any cost/benefit ratio. The indicators used in these evaluations were in most cases not comparable. Evaluation was more often found for public information campaigns, regulation of meals at schools/canteens and nutrition education...
Arıcı, Ceyhun; Arslan, Osman Sevki; Dikkaya, Funda
Purpose. To describe the normative values of corneal endothelial cell density, morphology, and central corneal thickness in healthy Turkish eyes. Methods. Specular microscopy was performed in 252 eyes of 126 healthy volunteers (M : F, 42 : 84). Parameters studied included mean endothelial cell density (MCD), mean cell area (MCA), coefficient of variation (CV) in cell size, percentage of hexagonal cells, and central corneal thickness (CCT). Results. The mean age of volunteers was 44.3 ± 13.5 (range, 20 to 70) years. There was a statistically significant decrease in MCD (P Filipino eyes and higher than that described in Indian, Thai, and Iranian eyes.
Koefoed-Nielsen, P.B.; Karamperis, N.; Jørgensen, Kaj Anker
The calcineurin inhibitors cyclosporine and tacrolimus are the cornerstone immunosuppressants used in solid organ transplantation. Studies investigating calcineurin (CaN) activity in renal transplanted patients have been published, but basic properties of the enzyme activity in healthy subjects...... remain to be described. The aim of this study was to investigate whether CaN displays circadian variation or sex difference is present in healthy subjects. Twenty subjects had blood samples drawn every 4 h for a 24-h period. CaN activity was determined in whole blood as the release of 32P from...
Damsbo-Svendsen, Signe; Rønsholdt, Mia Dybkjær; Lauritzen, Lotte
Marine n-3 fatty acids are hypothesized to have beneficial effects on obesity and cancer cachexia possibly via an effect on appetite. The aim of this study was to investigate, if fish oil-supplementation affects appetite in healthy individuals. In a randomized cross-over study, 20 normal-weight s......Marine n-3 fatty acids are hypothesized to have beneficial effects on obesity and cancer cachexia possibly via an effect on appetite. The aim of this study was to investigate, if fish oil-supplementation affects appetite in healthy individuals. In a randomized cross-over study, 20 normal...
Marschang, R E; Heckers, K O; Heynol, V; Weider, K; Behncke, H
First description of a herpesvirus in West African mud turtles. A herpesvirus was detected in two clinically healthy West African mud turtles (Pelusios castaneus) by PCR during a quarantine exam. The animals had been imported from Togo, West Africa to Germany for the pet trade. Analysis of a portion of the genome of the detected virus showed that it is a previously unknown virus related to other chelonid herpesviruses. The virus was named pelomedusid herpesvirus 1. This case highlights the importance of testing for infectious agents during quarantine, even in clinically healthy animals.
Gachet Páez, Diego; de Buenaga Rodríguez, Manuel; Puertas Sánz, Enrique; Villalba, María Teresa; Muñoz Gil, Rafael
The aging population and economic crisis specially in developed countries have as a consequence the reduction in funds dedicated to health care; it is then desirable to optimize the costs of public and private healthcare systems, reducing the affluence of chronic and dependent people to care centers; promoting healthy lifestyle and activities can allow people to avoid chronic diseases as for example hypertension. In this article, we describe a system for promoting an active and healthy lifestyle for people and to recommend with guidelines and valuable information about their habits. The proposed system is being developed around the Big Data paradigm using bio-signal sensors and machine-learning algorithms for recommendations.
Full Text Available 10 healthy Indian Jersey/Red Sindhi crossbred nonpregnant cows were subjected to transabdominal ultrasonography to develop baseline topographical data of the rumen. The wall of the rumen could be identified as a thick echogenic line adjacent to the left abdominal wall from left flank to 8th intercostal space. The motility pattern of rumen was characterized by approximately 1 contraction every minute. The mean amplitude of the ruminal contraction was 3.2 cm. Ultrasonography of the rumen in healthy cows is a useful adjunct to the noninvasive diagnostic investigation of the rumen.
Aanerud, Joel; Borghammer, Per; Chakravarty, M Mallar
Cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen consumption (CMRO(2)), cerebral blood flow (CBF), and oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) are important indices of healthy aging of the brain. Although a frequent topic of study, changes of CBF and CMRO(2) during normal aging are still controversial, as some authors......, and in the temporal cortex. Because of the inverse relation between OEF and capillary oxygen tension, increased OEF can compromise oxygen delivery to neurons, with possible perturbation of energy turnover. The results establish a possible mechanism of progression from healthy to unhealthy brain aging, as the regions...
Kuskonmaz, Baris; Kara, Ates; Ozen, Maide; Cengiz, A Bülent; Ozen, Metehan; Seçmeer, Gülten; Gürgey, Aytemiz
Haemophagocytic syndromes are the clinical manifestation of an increased macrophagic activity with haemophagocytosis. Infection-associated HS was originally described by Risdall in 1979, in viral disease. Since the initial description HS has also been documented in patients with bacterial, parasitic or fungal infections. We describe a case of Micrococcus sedentarius bacteraemia in a previously healthy 10-y-old boy with haemophagocytic syndrome. Species of micrococci are generally considered as non-pathogenic commensals that colonize the skin, mucosae and oropharynx. We report the first case of Microccoccus sedentarius bacteraemia in an immunocompetent host and first case of HS associated with Micrococcus species.
Villesen, Hanne H.; Kristensen, Kim; Hansen, Steen Honoré
After oral administration, morphine-6-glucuronide (M6G) displays an atypical absorption profile with two peak plasma concentrations. A proposed explanation is that M6G is hydrolysed to morphine in the colon, which is then absorbed and subsequently undergoes metabolism in the liver to morphine-3-g......-glucuronide (M3G) and M6G. The aims of this study were to confirm and elucidate the biphasic absorption profile as well as clarify the conversion of M6G to morphine after a single oral administration of M6G in healthy volunteers....
Choi, Hojoon; Reid, Leonard N
Fast food restaurants have increasingly turned to healthier choices to counter criticisms of nutritionally poor menu offerings and to differentiate themselves from the competition. However, research has yet to specifically investigate how consumers respond to advertisements for these healthier foods. To address this knowledge gap, two experiments were conducted to examine how perceived brand healthiness, brand commitment, and health consciousness influence responses to nutrient-content claimed print advertisements for healthy foods. Findings indicate that consumer responsiveness varies across the three factors but is more positive for advertisements placed by perceivably healthy restaurant brands, and that brand commitment and health consciousness play significant roles in affecting how consumer respond to such advertising. Several theoretical and managerial implications of the findings are discussed.
Rotmensch, S.; Avigad, I.; Soffer, E.E.; Horowitz, A.; Bar-Meir, S.; Confino, R.; Czerniak, A.; Wolfstein, I.
Three healthy teenagers were exposed to a single pelvic x-ray irradiation as part of sterilization experiments performed in the Auschwitz concentration camp in 1943. Single and multiple carcinomas of the colon and rectum developed 40 years later in the radiation field. Histologic examination of surgical specimens revealed severe radiation-induced changes in all layers of tumor-adjacent areas. In contrast to previous reports of radiation-induced large bowel cancers, these women had not undergone repeated courses of radiation, had no known co-existing disease that might raise the risk for colonic and rectal malignancies, and had an extremely long and remarkably similar latency period. These cases emphasize the need for long-term surveillance in previously radiated patients. Since thousands of teenagers were subjected to similar sterilization experiments, awareness of this association might help in the early diagnosis of additional cases
Meason-Smith, Courtney; Diesel, Alison; Patterson, Adam P; Older, Caitlin E; Johnson, Timothy J; Mansell, Joanne M; Suchodolski, Jan S; Rodrigues Hoffmann, Aline
Next generation sequencing (NGS) studies have demonstrated a diverse skin-associated microbiota and microbial dysbiosis associated with atopic dermatitis in people and in dogs. The skin of cats has yet to be investigated using NGS techniques. We hypothesized that the fungal microbiota of healthy feline skin would be similar to that of dogs, with a predominance of environmental fungi, and that fungal dysbiosis would be present on the skin of allergic cats. Eleven healthy cats and nine cats diagnosed with one or more cutaneous hypersensitivity disorders, including flea bite, food-induced and nonflea nonfood-induced hypersensitivity. Healthy cats were sampled at twelve body sites and allergic cats at six sites. DNA was isolated and Illumina sequencing was performed targeting the internal transcribed spacer region of fungi. Sequences were processed using the bioinformatics software QIIME. The most abundant fungal sequences from the skin of all cats were classified as Cladosporium and Alternaria. The mucosal sites, including nostril, conjunctiva and reproductive tracts, had the fewest number of fungi, whereas the pre-aural space had the most. Allergic feline skin had significantly greater amounts of Agaricomycetes and Sordariomycetes, and significantly less Epicoccum compared to healthy feline skin. The skin of healthy cats appears to have a more diverse fungal microbiota compared to previous studies, and a fungal dysbiosis is noted in the skin of allergic cats. Future studies assessing the temporal stability of the skin microbiota in cats will be useful in determining whether the microbiota sequenced using NGS are colonizers or transient microbes. © 2016 ESVD and ACVD.
Pomarol-Clotet, E.; Honey, G. D.; Murray, G. K.; Corlett, P. R.; Absalom, A. R.; Lee, M.; McKenna, P. J.; Bullmore, E. T.; Fletcher, P. C.
Background: The psychosis-inducing effect of ketamine is important evidence supporting the glutamate hypothesis of schizophrenia. However, the symptoms the drug produces have not been described systematically. Aim: To examine the effects of ketamine in healthy people using a structured psychiatric
Brandsma, Rick; Spits, Anne H.; Kuiper, Marieke J.; Lunsing, Roelinka J.; Burger, Huibert; Kremer, Hubertus P.; Sival, Deborah A.
AIM: To investigate ataxia rating scales in children for reliability and the effect of age and sex. METHOD: Three independent neuropaediatric observers cross-sectionally scored a set of paediatric ataxia rating scales in a group of 52 healthy children (26 males, 26 females) aged 4 to 16 years (mean
May 20, 2011 ... Mobile Phone No: +2348034670349. Abstract ... significant relationships between maternal health literacy and antenatal care. (r = .445, df = 229, ... health literacy include knowledge and use of a healthy diet, taking actions to ... it is especially problematic among those of modest financial means, many of.
Ramos-Estebanez, Ciro; Gokhale, Sankalp; Goddeau, Richard; Kumar, Sandeep
A 36-year-old healthy man presented with sudden onset speech difficulty. Thorough clinical examination revealed interesting deficits suggestive of apraxia of speech. He was found to have an infarct in his frontal region explaining the deficits. We have undertaken clinical evaluation and differential diagnoses of this condition. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Gehrels, H.; Meulen, S. vsn der; Schasfoort, F.; Bosch, P.R.; Brolsma, R.; Dinter, D. van; Geerling, G.J.; Goossen, M.; Jacobs, C.; Jong, M. de; Kok, S.; Massop, H.; Oste, L.; Perez-Soba, M.; Rovers, V.; Smit, A.; Verweij, P.; Vries, B. de; Weijers, E.
There is a growing awareness in cities throughout the world that green and blue infrastructure can offer a wide range of ecosystem services to support a healthy urban environment. For example, landscape architects explore possibilities in their design of the urban landscape to use the potential of
Gehrels, H.; Meulen, van der Suzanne; Schasfoort, F.; Bosch, Peter; Brolsma, R.; Dinther, van D.; Geerling, G.J.; Goossens, M.; Jacobs, C.M.J.; jong, de Merijn; Kok, Sien; Massop, H.T.L.
This report focuses on developing concepts and design principles for blue and green infrastructure that not only support climate resilience but also contribute to a healthy and liveable urban environment. We will first assess the effectiveness of blue and green infrastructure on the basis of
Lee, van L.
The Dutch Healthy Diet index – Development, Evaluation, and Application
Linde van Lee
Background: Dietary indices evaluate the conformity of an individual’s diet with pre-defined standards. Generally, dietary
Muckian, Jean; Snethen, Julia; Buseh, Aaron
School nurses provide health promotion and health services within schools, as healthy children have a greater potential for optimal learning. One of the school nurses' role is in encouraging healthy eating and increasing the availability of fruits and vegetables in the school. The purpose of this study was to explore and describe school nurses' perceptions of their role in promoting increased fruit and vegetable consumption in the school setting. One avenue to increased availability of fruits and vegetables in schools is Farm to School programs mandated by the Federal government to improve the health of school children. School nurses are optimally positioned to work with Farm to School programs to promote healthy eating. A secondary aim was to explore school nurses' knowledge, experiences and/or perceptions of the Farm to School program to promote fruit and vegetable consumption in the school setting. Three themes emerged from the focus groups: If There Were More of Me, I Could Do More; Food Environment in Schools; School Nurses Promote Health. School nurses reported that they addressed health issues more broadly in their roles as educator, collaborator, advocate and modeling healthy behaviors. Most of the participants knew of Farm to School programs, but only two school nurses worked in schools that participated in the program. Consequently, the participants reported having little or no experiences with the Farm to School programs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Bisogni, Carole A.; Jastran, Margaret; Seligson, Marc; Thompson, Alyssa
Objective: To identify how qualitative research has contributed to understanding the ways people in developed countries interpret healthy eating. Design: Bibliographic database searches identified reports of qualitative, empirical studies published in English, peer-reviewed journals since 1995. Data Analysis: Authors coded, discussed, recoded, and…
Pettigrew, Simone; Talati, Zenobia; Henriques, Isla; Morley, Belinda; Ball, Kylie
High rates of population obesity have resulted in the dissemination of mass media campaigns that focus on achieving and maintaining a healthy weight. The aim of the present study was to analyse advertising techniques used in such campaigns to identify common and differential approaches in three countries with similar cultures and rates of obesity (Australia, the United Kingdom and the United States). An Internet search was conducted to identify healthy weight television advertisements aired in the three countries. Seventy-two advertisements were located and coded according to the advertising techniques employed. Despite the cultural similarity and comparable obesity rates of the three countries, there were few consistencies in advertising techniques employed. A main focus of the ads was diet, but disparate approaches were used to convey the message in each country. The identified wide variation in advertising techniques may suggest that campaign managers would benefit from greater certainty about which advertising approaches are most effective in encouraging lifestyle behaviours associated with a healthy weight. Implications for public health: A more robust evidence base would be useful to guide the development of healthy weight campaigns. © 2017 The Authors.
Ropele, Stefan; Wattjes, Mike P; Langkammer, Christian
structures. METHODS: R2* mapping was performed in 81 healthy subjects in seven centers using different 3 T systems. R2* was calculated from a dual-echo gradient echo sequence and was assessed in several deep gray matter structures. The inter-scanner and inter-subject variability of R2* was calculated...
Nakano, Takahiro; Kasuga, Kosho; Murase, Tomohiko; Suzuki, Kazuhiro
Background: Unhealthy lifestyles during childhood constitute a public health problem in Japan. However, current health education in Japan is ineffective in counteracting them. Previous studies contend that healthy lifestyles in children vary by academic grade and sex. This study examined changes throughout childhood suggests some intervention…
The present study investigated the influence of maternal health literacy on healthy pregnancy and pregnancy outcomes. It was carried out among 231 pregnant women and nursing mothers using the descriptive survey research design of the expost-facto type. Three hypotheses were tested by using pearson product moment ...
Nutritionists need to understand the willingness of restaurateurs to prepare and sell healthy foods, as Canadians frequently eat meals at food services. The lunch trade restaurants under the jurisdiction of a rural and semi-rural Alberta health unit were surveyed by telephone. Two thirds of the restaurants were family-style and had 100 seats or fewer. Five of 20 healthy foods were rated as difficult to serve, due to: lack of customer demand; lack of food availability; and the need to maintain the quality of fresh vegetables, fruits and milk products. Many restaurateurs are willing to change internally by training staff (88%) and by trying new recipes (84%). Staff education materials perceived to be helpful by 80% of restaurateurs included video/audio tapes, information sheets and posters. Restaurateurs were most willing to use menu inserts (76%), table tents (68%) and door decals (72%) to promote healthy foods. Nutrition services should focus on how restaurants can make changes to include healthy foods through food preparation and menu items.