WorldWideScience

Sample records for healthy children imaging

  1. Primary bacterial peritonitis in otherwise healthy children: imaging findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dann, Phoebe H.; Amodio, John B.; Rivera, Rafael; Fefferman, Nancy R. [New York University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, New York (United States)

    2005-02-01

    We report the imaging findings of two recent cases of primary bacterial peritonitis in otherwise healthy children with a clinical presentation mimicking acute appendicitis. Primary bacterial peritonitis is rare in the absence of underlying systemic disease. Although it has been described in the pediatric literature, the imaging findings have not been described in the radiological literature to the best of our knowledge. With imaging playing an increasing role in the evaluation of appendicitis in children, it is important for the radiologist to be familiar with this inflammatory process. (orig.)

  2. Ecological Strategies to Promote Healthy Body Image among Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Retta R.; Roy, Jane; Geiger, Brian F.; Werner, Karen A.; Burnett, Donna

    2008-01-01

    Background: Personal habits of children and adolescents related to healthy body image (BI) are influenced by various determinants in the micro- and macroenvironment. These include attitudes and behaviors about eating; exercise and physical appearance modeled by parents, teachers, and peers; as well as opportunities to learn new habits and social…

  3. Healthy Lifestyle: Children's Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Children's health You want your child to eat healthy foods, but do you know which nutrients are ... 2017 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/childrens-health/in-depth/nutrition-for-kids/art- ...

  4. Magnetic resonance imaging volumetric findings in children with Asperger syndrome, nonverbal learning disability, or healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semrud-Clikeman, Margaret; Fine, Jodene Goldenring; Bledsoe, Jesse; Zhu, David C

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate selected regions of interest in children and adolescents with nonverbal learning disabilities (NVLD), Asperger syndrome (AS), and age-matched healthy controls using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). It was hypothesized that children with AS would show larger volumes of the amygdala and hippocampal regions than the other groups. It was also hypothesized that both clinical groups would show differences in the caudate and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). There were a total of 89 children in the final sample (31 controls, 29 NVLD, 29 AS). Each child completed a MRI scan as well as basic cognitive screening measures. High-resolution T1-weighted MR volumetric images were acquired. The volume of gray matter, white matter, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), amygdala, hippocampus, and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) was obtained. The hypothesis that the AS group would show larger hippocampal and amygdala volumes than the other groups was confirmed. For the AS and NVLD groups, the ACC was found to be significantly smaller than that of the control group. These results suggest that the ACC and amygdala/hippocampal regions are deficient in children with AS, likely contributing to difficulty with modulating of emotional reactivity.

  5. Dietary Recommendations for Healthy Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Preschoolers Infographic How to Make a Healthy Home Dietary Recommendations for Healthy Children Top 10 Tips to Help Children Develop Healthy Habits Fruit and Veggie Toolkit for Kids Healthy Foods ...

  6. Body image of children and adolescents with chronic illness: a meta-analytic comparison with healthy peers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinquart, M

    2013-03-01

    This meta-analysis integrates results from 330 studies on differences between body image of children and adolescents with and without chronic physical illness. Young people with a chronic illness had a less positive body image than their healthy peers although the average size of differences was small (g=-.30 standard deviation units). A comparison of diseases showed that young people with obesity (g=-.79), cystic fibrosis (g=-.50), scoliosis (g=-.41), asthma (g=-.37), growth hormone deficits (g=-.35), spina bifida (g=-.23), cancer (g=-.20), and diabetes (g=-.17) evaluated their body less positively than their healthy peers. Furthermore, levels of body dissatisfaction varied by age at onset of the disease, method for assessing body image, ethnicity, year of publication, and comparison group. Recommendations are stated for reducing effects of chronic illness on the body image of people with chronic illness. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. High signal in bone marrow at diffusion-weighted imaging with body background suppression (DWIBS) in healthy children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ording Mueller, Lil-Sofie; Avenarius, Derk [University Hospital North Norway, Department of Radiology, Tromsoe (Norway); Olsen, Oeystein E. [Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, Department of Radiology, London (United Kingdom)

    2011-02-15

    In our experience, diffusion-weighted imaging with body background suppression (DWIBS) is hard to interpret in children who commonly have foci of restricted diffusion in their skeletons unrelated to pathology, sometimes in an asymmetrical pattern. This raises serious concern about the accuracy of DWIBS in cancer staging in children. To describe the signal distribution at DWIBS in the normal developing lumbar spine and pelvic skeleton. Forty-two healthy children underwent an MR DWIBS sequence of the abdomen and pelvis. An axial short-tau inversion-recovery (STIR) echo-planar imaging (EPI) pulse sequence was used. Two radiologists did a primary review of the images and based on these preliminary observations, separate scoring systems for the lumbar spine, pelvis and proximal femoral epiphyses/femoral heads were devised. Visual evaluation of the images was then performed by the two radiologists in consensus. The scoring was repeated separately 2 months later by a third radiologist. Restricted diffusion was defined as areas of high signal compared to the background. Coronal maximum intensity projection (MIP) reformats were used to assess the vertebral bodies. For the pelvis, the extension of high signal for each bone was given a score of 0 to 4. Cohen's Kappa interobserver agreement coefficients of signal distribution and asymmetry were calculated. All children had areas of high signal, both within the lumbar vertebral bodies and within the pelvic skeleton. Three patterns of signal distribution were seen in the lumbar spine, but no specific pattern was seen in the pelvis. There was a tendency toward a reduction of relative area of high signal within each bone with age, but also a widespread interindividual variation. Restricted diffusion is a normal finding in the pelvic skeleton and lumbar spine in children with an asymmetrical distribution seen in 48% of normal children in this study. DWIBS should be used with caution for cancer staging in children as this could

  8. Difference between healthy children and ADHD based on wavelet spectral analysis of nuclear magnetic resonance images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    González Gómez Dulce, I., E-mail: isabeldgg@hotmail.com, E-mail: emoreno@fcfm.buap.mx, E-mail: mim@fcfm.buap.mx, E-mail: joserm84@gmail.com; Moreno Barbosa, E., E-mail: isabeldgg@hotmail.com, E-mail: emoreno@fcfm.buap.mx, E-mail: mim@fcfm.buap.mx, E-mail: joserm84@gmail.com; Hernández, Mario Iván Martínez, E-mail: isabeldgg@hotmail.com, E-mail: emoreno@fcfm.buap.mx, E-mail: mim@fcfm.buap.mx, E-mail: joserm84@gmail.com; Méndez, José Ramos, E-mail: isabeldgg@hotmail.com, E-mail: emoreno@fcfm.buap.mx, E-mail: mim@fcfm.buap.mx, E-mail: joserm84@gmail.com [Faculty of Physics and Mathematics, BUAP, Puebla, Pue. (Mexico); Silvia, Hidalgo Tobón [Hospital Infantil de México, Federico Gómez, Mexico DF. Mexico and Physics Department, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana. Iztapalapa, Mexico DF. (Mexico); Pilar, Dies Suarez, E-mail: pilydies@yahoo.com, E-mail: neurodoc@prodigy.net.mx; Eduardo, Barragán Pérez, E-mail: pilydies@yahoo.com, E-mail: neurodoc@prodigy.net.mx [Hospital Infantil de México, Federico Gómez, Mexico DF. (Mexico); Benito, De Celis Alonso, E-mail: benileon@yahoo.com [Faculty of Physics and Mathematics, BUAP, Puebla, Pue. Mexico and Fundación para el Desarrollo Carlos Sigüenza. Puebla, Pue (Mexico)

    2014-11-07

    The main goal of this project was to create a computer algorithm based on wavelet analysis of region of homogeneity images obtained during resting state studies. Ideally it would automatically diagnose ADHD. Because the cerebellum is an area known to be affected by ADHD, this study specifically analysed this region. Male right handed volunteers (infants with ages between 7 and 11 years old) were studied and compared with age matched controls. Statistical differences between the values of the absolute integrated wavelet spectrum were found and showed significant differences (p<0.0015) between groups. This difference might help in the future to distinguish healthy from ADHD patients and therefore diagnose ADHD. Even if results were statistically significant, the small size of the sample limits the applicability of this methods as it is presented here, and further work with larger samples and using freely available datasets must be done.

  9. Difference between healthy children and ADHD based on wavelet spectral analysis of nuclear magnetic resonance images

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Gómez, Dulce I.; Moreno Barbosa, E.; Martínez Hernández, Mario Iván; Ramos Méndez, José; Hidalgo Tobón, Silvia; Dies Suarez, Pilar; Barragán Pérez, Eduardo; De Celis Alonso, Benito

    2014-11-01

    The main goal of this project was to create a computer algorithm based on wavelet analysis of region of homogeneity images obtained during resting state studies. Ideally it would automatically diagnose ADHD. Because the cerebellum is an area known to be affected by ADHD, this study specifically analysed this region. Male right handed volunteers (infants with ages between 7 and 11 years old) were studied and compared with age matched controls. Statistical differences between the values of the absolute integrated wavelet spectrum were found and showed significant differences (pADHD patients and therefore diagnose ADHD. Even if results were statistically significant, the small size of the sample limits the applicability of this methods as it is presented here, and further work with larger samples and using freely available datasets must be done.

  10. Feasibility, tolerability and safety of pediatric hyperpolarized {sup 129}Xe magnetic resonance imaging in healthy volunteers and children with cystic fibrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walkup, Laura L.; Watters, Erin; Ruppert, Kai [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Center for Pulmonary Imaging Research, Division of Pulmonary Medicine and Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Thomen, Robert P.; Woods, Jason C. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Center for Pulmonary Imaging Research, Division of Pulmonary Medicine and Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Washington University in St. Louis, Department of Physics, St. Louis, MO (United States); Akinyi, Teckla G.; Cleveland, Zackary I. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Center for Pulmonary Imaging Research, Division of Pulmonary Medicine and Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); University of Cincinnati, Biomedical Engineering Program, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Clancy, John P. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Division of Pulmonary Medicine, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2016-11-15

    Hyperpolarized {sup 129}Xe is a promising contrast agent for MRI of pediatric lung function, but its safety and tolerability in children have not been rigorously assessed. To assess the feasibility, safety and tolerability of hyperpolarized {sup 129}Xe gas as an inhaled contrast agent for pediatric pulmonary MRI in healthy control subjects and in children with cystic fibrosis. Seventeen healthy control subjects (ages 6-15 years, 11 boys) and 11 children with cystic fibrosis (ages 8-16 years, 4 boys) underwent {sup 129}Xe MRI, receiving up to three doses of {sup 129}Xe gas prepared by either a commercially available or a homebuilt {sup 129}Xe polarizer. Subject heart rate and SpO{sub 2} were monitored for 2 min post inhalation and compared to resting baseline values. Adverse events were reported via follow-up phone call at days 1 and 30 (range ±7 days) post-MRI. All children tolerated multiple doses of {sup 129}Xe, and no children withdrew from the study. Relative to baseline, most children who received a full dose of gas for imaging (10 of 12 controls and 8 of 11 children with cystic fibrosis) experienced a nadir in SpO{sub 2} (mean -6.0 ± standard deviation 7.2%, P≤0.001); however within 2 min post inhalation SpO{sub 2} values showed no significant difference from baseline (P=0.11). There was a slight elevation in heart rate (mean +6.6 ± 13.9 beats per minute [bpm], P=0.021), which returned from baseline within 2 min post inhalation (P=0.35). Brief side effects related to the anesthetic properties of xenon were mild and quickly resolved without intervention. No serious or severe adverse events were observed; in total, four minor adverse events (14.3%) were reported following {sup 129}Xe MRI, but all were deemed unrelated to the study. The feasibility, safety and tolerability of {sup 129}Xe MRI has been assessed in a small group of children as young as 6 years. SpO{sub 2} changes were consistent with the expected physiological effects of a short anoxic breath

  11. Healthy Children, Healthy Minds: Creating a Brighter Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebrun, Marcel

    2015-01-01

    Children struggle with life today. Being children in the 21st century is both taxing and exciting, and yet trying to cope with all of the technology and media that surrounds them. How do we as adults provide good models? Mindfulness, exercise, focus and attention, and healthy living strategies need to play a role in shaping healthy children.…

  12. Confident body, confident child: A randomized controlled trial evaluation of a parenting resource for promoting healthy body image and eating patterns in 2- to 6-year old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Laura M; Damiano, Stephanie R; Paxton, Susan J

    2016-05-01

    Body image and eating patterns develop in early childhood and are influenced by the family environment. This research evaluated Confident Body, Confident Child (CBCC), an intervention for parents of 2- to 6-year-old children, designed to promote body satisfaction, healthy eating, and weight management in early childhood. A randomized controlled trial compared four groups: (A) received the CBCC resource pack and a workshop, (B) received the CBCC resource pack only, (C) received a nutrition-only resource and (D) received no interventions until all questionnaires were completed (i.e., functioned as waitlist control). Measures of parenting variables relevant to child body image and eating patterns, parent-report of child weight, and evaluation questions about the resource, were implemented pre- and post-intervention. At 6-weeks post-intervention, the CBCC resource was associated with significant reductions in parents' intentions to use behaviors that increase the risk of negative body attitudes or unhealthy eating in their children, in parents' use of feeding practices associated with childhood overweight, and in television watching during family meals. Significant increases in parents' intentions to use positive behaviors and knowledge of child body image and healthy eating patterns were also found. Superior results were found for the CBCC resource + workshop condition, suggesting it is the preferred delivery method. CBCC positively impacts parenting variables associated with childhood risk for body dissatisfaction, unhealthy eating and weight. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. (Int J Eat Disord 2016; 49:458-472). © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Normal values of liver shear wave velocity in healthy children assessed by acoustic radiation force impulse imaging using a convex probe and a linear probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontanilla, Teresa; Cañas, Teresa; Macia, Araceli; Alfageme, Marta; Gutierrez Junquera, Carolina; Malalana, Ana; Luz Cilleruelo, Maria; Roman, Enriqueta; Miralles, Maria

    2014-03-01

    Acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) is an image-guided ultrasound elastography method that allows quantification of liver stiffness by measurement of shear wave velocity. One purpose of the work described in this article was to determine the normal liver stiffness values of healthy children using ARFI with two different probes, 4 C1 and 9 L4. Another purpose was to evaluate the effects of site of measurement, age, gender and body mass index on liver stiffness values. This prospective study included 60 healthy children (newborn to 14 y) divided into four age groups. One thousand two hundred ARFI measurements were performed, that is, 20 measurements per patient (5 measurements in each lobe, with each probe). Means, standard deviations (SD) and confidence intervals for velocity were calculated for each hepatic lobe and each probe in each age group and for the whole group. Mean shear wave velocity measured in the right lobe was 1.19 ± 0.04 m/s (SD = 0.13) with the 4 C1 transducer and 1.15 ± 0.04 m/s (SD = 0.15) with the 9 L4 transducer. Age had a small effect on shear wave measurements. Body mass index and sex had no significant effects on ARFI values, whereas site of measurement had a significant effect, with lower ARFI values in the right hepatic lobe. ARFI is a non-invasive technique that is feasible to perform in children with both the 4 C1 and 9 L4 probes. The aforementioned velocity values obtained in the right lobe may be used as reference values for normal liver stiffness in children. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Promoting Healthy Body Image in Middle School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akos, Patrick; Levitt, Dana Heller

    2002-01-01

    Provides advice for school counselors on promoting healthy body image among middle school students. Interventions for the promotion of healthy body image at individual, group, and systemic levels can offer students a protective factor for common disruptions associated with puberty and the transition into middle school. Outlines issues for…

  15. Tips for Healthy Children and Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... will help you make smart choices for your family. Children imitate their parents, so it’s important to set a good example. The tips below can help your family be healthy and happy.Path to improved healthEating better (for children and families)Start the day with a healthy ...

  16. Recombinant Poliovirus circulation among healthy children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Recombinant Poliovirus circulation among healthy children immunized with oral polio vaccine in Abidjan. ... African Journal of Biotechnology ... In order to assess the level of polio virus with natural recombinant genome and wild polio virus circulating in the environment of healthy children aged 0 to 5 years in Abidjan, 130 ...

  17. Oxygen uptake efficiency slope in healthy children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akkerman, Moniek; Van Brussel, Marco; Bongers, Bart C.; Hulzebos, Erik; Helders, Paul J.M.; Takken, Tim

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the characteristics of the submaximal Oxygen Uptake Efficiency Slope (OUES) in a healthy pediatric population. Bicycle ergometry exercise tests with gas-analyses were performed in 46 healthy children aged 7–17 years. Maximal OUES, submaximal OUES,

  18. Body image distortions in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Christina T; Longo, Matthew R; Haggard, Patrick

    2013-10-01

    Distortions of body image have often been investigated in clinical disorders. Much of this literature implicitly assumes healthy adults maintain an accurate body image. We recently developed a novel, implicit, and quantitative measure of body image - the Body Image Task (BIT). Here, we report a large-scale analysis of performance on this task by healthy adults. In both an in-person and an online version of the BIT, participants were presented with an image of a head as an anchoring stimulus on a computer screen, and told to imagine that the head was part of a mirror image of themselves in a standing position. They were then instructed to judge where, relative to the head, each of several parts of their body would be located. The relative positions of each landmark can be used to construct an implicit perceptual map of bodily structure. We could thus measure the internally-stored body image, although we cannot exclude contributions from other representations. Our results show several distortions of body image. First, we found a large and systematic over-estimation of width relative to height. These distortions were similar for both males and females, and did not closely track the idiosyncrasies of individual participant's own bodies. Comparisons of individual body parts showed that participants overestimated the width of their shoulders and the length of their upper arms, relative to their height, while underestimating the lengths of their lower arms and legs. Principal components analysis showed a clear spatial structure to the distortions, suggesting spatial organisation and segmentation of the body image into upper and lower limb components that are bilaterally integrated. These results provide new insight into the body image of healthy adults, and have implications for the study and rehabilitation of clinical populations. © 2013.

  19. Keeping children with congenital heart disease healthy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, Cathy S

    2011-01-01

    Keeping children with congenital heart disease healthy is vital to their long-term survival and quality of life. Nurse practitioners are in an excellent position to keep these sometimes fragile children healthy before, between, and after their cardiac surgeries. Primary care visits should address developmental morbidity. Referral for in-depth evaluations and intervention should be initiated for children with hemodynamically significant heart disease. Infants may also experience poor feeding. Nutritional guidance may include fortifying formulas or enteral tube feedings. Attention to immunization status and prevention of winter illnesses and endocarditis may reduce complications in this high-risk group of children. Copyright © 2011 National Association of Pediatric Nurse Practitioners. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Recombinant Poliovirus circulation among healthy children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    In order to assess the level of polio virus with natural recombinant genome and wild polio virus circulating in the environment of healthy children aged 0 to 5 years in Abidjan, 130 polio viruses made up of 26 polio type 1, 55 type 2 and 49 type 3 were identified by neutralisation test with monoclonal antibodies and restriction ...

  1. Etic aspects of childrens body image

    OpenAIRE

    Bokaová, Katarína

    2010-01-01

    This bachelor thesis deals with marketing communication focused on children, particulary with the impact on children's body image. It reflects the regulation of advertising in terms of legal and ethical issues. It seeks to examine the manipulability of children in decision-making process and the impact of advertising and media on their healthy development. The role of the thesis is to highlight the importance of careful monitoring of the marketing development and its negative impact on childr...

  2. [Structural Brain Development in Healthy Children and Adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsudaira, Izumi; Kawashima, Ryuta; Taki, Yasuyuki

    2017-05-01

    Brain maturation progresses throughout childhood into adolescence. Investigating the mechanism of brain development during these periods in healthy people is necessary for some clinical purposes. For example, these mechanisms are needed to investigate the mechanism of impaired brain maturation in neurodevelopmental disorders-such as autism spectrum disorders or attention-deficit hyper disorder-and improve early prevention of psychiatric or neurodegenerative diseases like depression or Alzheimer's disease. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) is an effective way to analyze brain magnetic resonance images (MRI) of children and adolescents, as the brain structures of children and adolescents vary widely depending on their age, sex, and several other factors. In this article, information from studies using VBM about the relationship between structural brain development in healthy children and adolescents and age, life style, parenting, and genetic variations is discussed.

  3. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... through blood vessels. Ultrasound imaging is a noninvasive medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. Children's (pediatric) abdominal ultrasound imaging produces pictures ...

  4. Children's (Pediatric) Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... techniques that time the imaging based on the electrical activity of the heart, such as electrocardiography (ECG). ... Resonance, Functional (fMRI) - Brain Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography) Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Safety Contrast Materials Children ...

  5. Healthy Diet in Children: Facts and Keys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholam Hasan Khodaee

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Consuming a healthy diet throughout the lifecourse helps prevent malnutrition in all its forms as well as a range of Non-communicable diseases (NCDs and conditions. But the increased production of processed food, rapid urbanization and changing lifestyles have led to a shift in dietary patterns. People are now consuming more foods high in energy, fats, free sugars or salt/sodium, and many do not eat enough fruit, vegetables and dietary fibre such as whole grains. In the first 2 years of a child’s life, optimal nutrition fosters healthy growth and improves cognitive development. It also reduces the risk of becoming overweight or obese and developing NCDs later in life. Nutrition for kids is based on the same principles as nutrition for adults. Everyone needs the same types of nutrients; such as vitamins, minerals, carbohydrates, protein and fat. Children, however, need different amounts of specific nutrients at different ages

  6. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) Ultrasound - Abdomen Children’s (pediatric) ultrasound imaging of the abdomen ... limitations of Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging? What is Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging? Ultrasound is safe and painless, and produces ...

  7. Evaluating Preschool Children Knowledge about Healthy Lifestyle: Preliminary Examination of the Healthy Lifestyle Evaluation Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grammatikopoulos, Vasilis; Konstantinidou, Elisavet; Tsigilis, Nikolaos; Zachopoulou, Evridiki; Tsangaridou, Niki; Liukkonen, Jarmo

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop an instrument to evaluate the knowledge of preschool children about healthy lifestyle behavior. The innovation was that the instrument was designed to get direct evidence about healthy lifestyle from children aged 4-6 years old. Usually, children knowledge is estimated indirectly (parents, teachers), but the…

  8. Children's reaction to depictions of healthy foods in fast-food television advertisements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhardt, Amy M; Wilking, Cara; Gottlieb, Mark; Emond, Jennifer; Sargent, James D

    2014-05-01

    Since 2009, quick-service restaurant chains, or fast-food companies, have agreed to depict healthy foods in their advertising targeted at children. To determine how children interpreted depictions of milk and apples in television advertisements for children's meals by McDonald's and Burger King (BK) restaurants. Descriptive qualitative study in a rural pediatric practice setting in Northern New England. A convenience sample of 99 children (age range, 3-7 years) was shown depictions of healthy foods in fast-food advertisements that aired from July 1, 2010, through June 30, 2011. The images from McDonald's and BK showed milk and apples. Children were asked what they saw and not prompted to respond specifically to any aspect of the images. Two still images drawn from advertisements for healthy meals at McDonald's and BK. Children's responses were independently content coded to food category by 2 researchers. Among the 99 children participating, only 51 (52%) and 69 (70%) correctly identified milk from the McDonald's and BK images, respectively, with a significantly greater percentage correct (P = .02 for both) among older children. The children's recall of apples was significantly different by restaurant, with 79 (80%) mentioning apples when describing the McDonald's image and only 10 (10%) for the BK image (P children (81%) recalled french fries after viewing the BK advertisement. Of the 4 healthy food images, only depiction of apples by McDonald's was communicated adequately to the target audience. Representations of milk were inadequately communicated to preliterate children. Televised depictions of apple slices by BK misled the children in this study, although no action was taken by government or self-regulatory bodies.

  9. Interstitial Fluid Colloid Osmotic Pressure in Healthy Children

    OpenAIRE

    Hans Jørgen Timm Guthe; Marianne Indrebø; Torbjørn Nedrebø; Gunnar Norgård; Helge Wiig; Ansgar Berg

    2015-01-01

    Objective The colloid osmotic pressure (COP) of plasma and interstitial fluid play important roles in transvascular fluid exchange. COP values for monitoring fluid balance in healthy and sick children have not been established. This study set out to determine reference values of COP in healthy children. Materials and Methods COP in plasma and interstitial fluid harvested from nylon wicks was measured in 99 healthy children from 2 to 10 years of age. Nylon wicks were implanted subcutaneously i...

  10. Children's (Pediatric) Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Functional (fMRI) - Brain Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography) Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Safety Contrast Materials Children and Radiation Safety Videos related to Children’s ( ...

  11. Ultrasound of the joints and entheses in healthy children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauvin, Nancy A; Ho-Fung, Victor; Jaramillo, Diego; Edgar, J Christopher; Weiss, Pamela F

    2015-08-01

    Tendon insertion pathologies such as enthesitis and apophysitis in children can result from trauma, overuse syndrome and arthritis. Knowledge of the US appearance of normal joints by age might aid diagnosis of pathologies. We describe the age-related sonographic features of the elbows, knees and feet in healthy children, providing a reference for the normal appearance of tendon insertions, apophyseal cartilage and bursae. This is a prospective cross-sectional study of 30 healthy children. Children were grouped according to age: group 1 (4-9 years, n = 11), group 2 (10-13 years, n = 9) and group 3 (14-18 years, n = 10). Children completed pain and function questionnaires and underwent a standardized joint examination by a pediatric rheumatologist. The common extensor, common flexor, quadriceps, patellar and Achilles tendons and plantar fascia insertions were evaluated with gray-scale and power Doppler ultrasound. The anterior elbow, suprapatellar and retrocalcaneal bursae were evaluated for fluid. We measured the apophyseal cartilage thickness at the enthesis. Correlation analyses examined associations between age and tendon thickness. We used ANOVA, with location as a repeated measure, to test for gender differences in cartilage thickness. Children had a median age of 12.4 years and 55% were boys. All 360 entheses appeared normal on gray-scale imaging. There was a strong linear relationship between tendon thickness and age. Tendon vascularity was only present in young children (group 1), in 7/22 (32%) quadriceps tendons. Peri-tendinous power Doppler signal was seen at seven sites: two patellar, four quadriceps and one common flexor tendon, and all these children were in group 2. Suprapatellar bursal fluid <3 mm was detected in 9/60 (15%) knees. Of the children in group 1, boys had thicker apophyseal cartilage than girls at the medial epicondyle, patellar poles and os calcis (P < 0.05). Tendon vascularity may be a normal finding in young

  12. Healthy Children, Healthy Lives: The Wellness Guide for Early Childhood Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergen, Sharon; Robertson, Rachel

    2013-01-01

    Early childhood is a critical time in human development. Understanding and supporting children's wellness early on can make the greatest impact on physical, social and emotional, and cognitive health throughout childhood and adulthood. "Healthy Children, Healthy Lives" provides a comprehensive collection of checklists and research ­based…

  13. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) Ultrasound - ... computer or television monitor. The image is created based on the amplitude (loudness), frequency (pitch) and time ...

  14. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ultrasound images are captured in real-time, they can show the structure and movement of the body's ... kidneys bladder testicles ovaries uterus Abdominal ultrasound images can be used to help diagnose appendicitis in children. ...

  15. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... abdomen, arms, legs, neck and/or brain (in infants and children) or within various body organs such ... abdomen help determine causes of vomiting in young infants Because ultrasound provides real-time images, images that ...

  16. Children's (Pediatric) Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the same effect. A very irregular heartbeat may affect the quality of images obtained using techniques that ... and Media Catheter Angiography Magnetic Resonance, Functional (fMRI) - Brain Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography) Magnetic Resonance Imaging ( ...

  17. Caribbean health: Healthy children, healthy nation — tackling the ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The health problem in Caribbean children has recently shifted to one of overweight instead of underweight and stunting. • Approximately 25% of school aged children in St. Kitts-Nevis and Trinidad and Tobago are overweight or obese. • The cost to the Caribbean economy of diseases linked to obesity, such as diabetes and ...

  18. Healthy children, healthy nation — tackling the obesity problem ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    26 avr. 2016 ... The high and growing incidence of obesity among young children and adolescents is an alarming trend throughout the Caribbean. Influencing eating behaviours in early childhood to tackle poor diets and inadequate physical activity, however, can have a huge impact on children's health well into adulthood ...

  19. Healthy children, healthy nation — tackling the obesity problem ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-04-26

    Apr 26, 2016 ... The high and growing incidence of obesity among young children and adolescents is an alarming trend throughout the Caribbean. Influencing eating behaviours in early childhood to tackle poor diets and inadequate physical activity, however, can have a huge impact on children's health well into adulthood ...

  20. Immunophenotyping of lymphocytes in healthy and immunodeficient children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. de Vries (Esther)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis describes the use of immunophenotyping of lymphocytes in healthy as well as immunodeficient children. Part I describes the applied techniques (Chapters 2 and 3). The experimental work in healthy children is described in Part II (Chapters 4-7) and Part III describes the

  1. Healthy child, healthy future: speech and language therapy for children

    OpenAIRE

    Public Health Agency

    2011-01-01

    This resource is designed to reinforce a collaborative approach between speech and language therapists, referrers and parents in the identification and management of children with developmental speech and language and communication needs (including children with feeding and/or swallowing difficulties). It includes a comprehensive key skills section, which provides details on the communication-related skills a child should have acquired at each stage in his/her early years development. It al...

  2. Healthy nutrition and eating habits of children in kindergarten.

    OpenAIRE

    KRBCOVÁ, Jana

    2011-01-01

    The bachelor thesis is aimed to the important question relevant to the provision of the healthy lifestyle of the pre-school children. It is about the implementation of the healthy nutrition principles in the nursery school. The topic of the thesis is the children?s nutrition in terms of their healthy growth; nutrition value analysis for various food; how some food can improve the health condition of the child; connection between the healthy nutrition and immunity. Attention is also paid to th...

  3. Recovery Responses to Maximal Exercise in Healthy-Weight Children and Children with Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easley, Elizabeth A.; Black, W. Scott; Bailey, Alison L.; Lennie, Terry A.; Sims, Wilma J.; Clasey, Jody L.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine differences in heart rate recovery (HRRec) and oxygen consumption recovery (VO2 recovery) between young healthy-weight children and children with obesity following a maximal volitional graded exercise test (GXTmax). Method: Twenty healthy-weight children and 13 children with obesity completed body…

  4. Promoting Healthy Weight among Children with Developmental Delays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natale, Ruby R.; Camejo, Stephanie T.; Asfour, Lila; Uhlhorn, Susan B.; Delamater, Alan; Messiah, Sarah E.

    2017-01-01

    An extensive body of research demonstrates a higher prevalence of obesity among children with developmental delays (DD) versus children without delays. This analysis examined the effectiveness of a randomized controlled trial to promote healthy weight in a subsample of preschool-age children with DD (n = 71) on the adoption of quality nutrition…

  5. Parenting Role's Tasks as Parents of Healthy and Disabled Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azade Riyahi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background The purpose of this study was to determine how to do parenting role's tasks as parents of healthy and disabled children younger than 7 years old in Iran (Arak. Materials and Methods In this cross-sectional study, the parenting role tasks questionnaire was completed for 120 parents of healthy children and 120 parents of disabled children with at least one child with disability and the parents were selected by convenience sampling method. T-test, Mann-Whitney test and analysis of variances was used to compare the scores between parents of healthy and disabled children based on studied variables including child age, parent age, child gender, parent education, family economic status, history of trauma and seizure in children was applied to perform the role of parents. Results: There was a significant difference of parent role in both groups of parents. There was observed a significant relationship between role of healthy children's parents and age of child (r=0.21, P=0.016, but not observed in disabled children's parents. In healthy children, there was no significant correlation between parent's role and maternal age. In contrast, in disabled children, there was found a significant difference (P= 0.04 with correlation coefficient of -0.18 representing the inverse relationship. Moreover, no relationship was found between history of seizure and performance of parenting role's tasks in the group of disabled children (P>0.05. Conclusion The performance of tasks of parenting role in two groups of parents of healthy children and disabled ones in four areas of primary care, education, leisure and improving cognitive level had significant difference. This difference in the area of improving the cognitive level was higher. Due to complications of disability, parents of these children pay more attention to other areas of care except of improving cognitive level. Therefore presence of disabled child has negative effect on the balance of the

  6. Children's (Pediatric) Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... information on the chemicals present in the body's cells, may also be performed during the MRI exam ... and Media Catheter Angiography Magnetic Resonance, Functional (fMRI) - Brain Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography) Magnetic Resonance Imaging ( ...

  7. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) Ultrasound - Abdomen Children’s (pediatric) ultrasound imaging of ... 30 minutes. top of page What will my child experience during and after the procedure? Ultrasound examinations ...

  8. Children's (Pediatric) Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... wide range of conditions in children due to injury, illness or congenital abnormalities. When imaging of a child’s brain and spinal cord is needed, MRI is useful because of ...

  9. Children's (Pediatric) Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... wide range of conditions in children due to injury, illness or congenital abnormalities. When imaging of a ... detect damage to the brain caused by an injury or a stroke diagnose infectious or autoimmune diseases ...

  10. Children's (Pediatric) Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is often the best choice for imaging the joints and bones, where it can help: diagnose sports- ... an otherwise hidden tumor or infection in a joint diagnose developmental joint abnormalities in children detect bone ...

  11. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... children. It is also valuable for evaluating the brain, spinal cord and hip joints in newborns ... Imaging? Ultrasound waves are disrupted by air or gas; therefore ultrasound ...

  12. Children's (Pediatric) Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... wide range of conditions in children due to injury, illness or congenital abnormalities. When imaging of a child’s brain and spinal cord is needed, MRI is useful because of its ...

  13. Barriers to healthy eating: Findings from the focus groups with older people and children/adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazbare, Laura; Bech-Larsen, Tino

    , absence of observable direct immediate results, social impact (for older people - the impact of family members and social image; for children and adolescents - the influence of parents and peers). For children and adolescents, availability and temptation of unhealthy foods and unavailability of good...... and palatable healthy foods appeared to be significant implementation barriers. Older people tended to emphasize that their eating habits, craving for unhealthy food and practical issues hindered healthy eating. In general, in the absence of health problems (and, in some cases, in the presence of illnesses......), "liking" remains the main food choice criterion, including the healthy foods. Conclusion: The study presented a number of barriers to healthy eating identified by older people and children/adolescents. Based on the results of the study, further investigations should be undertaken in this area...

  14. Levels of serum immunoglobulins in apparently healthy children and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Levels of serum immunoglobulins in apparently healthy children and adults in Port Harcourt, Nigeria. ... Nigerian Journal of Physiological Sciences ... Serum levels of the immunoglobulins: IgG, IgA and IgM were determined by the single radial immunodiffusion technique of Mancini in a total of 122 apparently healthy ...

  15. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) Ultrasound - Abdomen Children’s (pediatric) ultrasound imaging of ...

  16. Children's (Pediatric) Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of which shows a thin slice of the body. The images can then be studied from different angles by ... about radiology? Share your patient story here Images ... Articles and Media Catheter Angiography Magnetic Resonance, Functional (fMRI) - Brain Children's ( ...

  17. Children's (Pediatric) Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... examination poses almost no risk to the average patient when appropriate safety guidelines are followed. If sedation is used, there ... Imaging (MRI) Safety Contrast Materials Children and Radiation Safety ... or other physician. To locate a medical imaging or radiation oncology provider in your community, you can search the ...

  18. Children's (Pediatric) Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... examination poses almost no risk to the average patient when appropriate safety guidelines are followed. If sedation is used, there ... Imaging (MRI) Safety Contrast Materials Children and Radiation Safety ... or other physician. To locate a medical imaging or radiation oncology provider in your community, you can search the ...

  19. New reference values for echocardiographic dimensions of healthy Dutch children.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overbeek, L.I.H.; Kapusta, L.; Peer, P.G.M.; Korte, C.L. de; Thijssen, J.M.; Daniëls, O.

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To renew the echocardiographic reference values of heart dimensions in healthy children. METHODS AND RESULTS: Group 1 consisted of 587 children, of which 361 boys and 226 girls, age from birth to 18 years, body weight over 2500 g, who visited the Pediatric Cardiology outclinic during the period

  20. Ataxia rating scales are age-dependent in healthy children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brandsma, Rick; Spits, Anne H.; Kuiper, Marieke J.; Lunsing, Roelinka J.; Burger, Huibert; Kremer, Hubertus P.; Sival, Deborah A.

    AIM: To investigate ataxia rating scales in children for reliability and the effect of age and sex. METHOD: Three independent neuropaediatric observers cross-sectionally scored a set of paediatric ataxia rating scales in a group of 52 healthy children (26 males, 26 females) aged 4 to 16 years (mean

  1. Early Sprouts: Cultivating Healthy Food Choices in Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalich, Karrie; Bauer, Dottie; McPartlin, Deirdre

    2009-01-01

    Plant lifelong healthy eating concepts in young children and counteract the prevalence of childhood obesity with "Early Sprouts." A research-based early childhood curriculum, this "seed-to-table" approach gets children interested in and enjoying nutritious fruits and vegetables. The "Early Sprouts" model engages…

  2. Modern Aspects of Healthy Lifestyle Formation in Preschool Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalya V. Mirza

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers topical issues of healthy lifestyle formation in preschool children. Physical training socializes children. Solving the problems of physical training contributes to the comprehensive education of a child, aimed at physical, intellectual, spiritual and emotional development, as well as psychophysical preparedness for work and study at school.

  3. Association between Sleep Duration and Intelligence Scores in Healthy Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiger, Anja; Achermann, Peter; Jenni, Oskar G.

    2010-01-01

    We examined the association between sleep behavior and cognitive functioning in 60 healthy children between 7 and 11 years of age under nonexperimental conditions. Intellectual abilities were assessed by the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (4th edition) and sleep variables by questionnaires, actigraphy, and sleep diaries. Correlation…

  4. Hypoxic challenge test applied to healthy children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kobbernagel, Helene Elgaard; Nielsen, Kim Gjerum; Hanel, Birgitte

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Commercial aircraft are pressurised to ~2438 m (8000 ft) above sea level that equates breathing 15% oxygen at sea level. A preflight hypoxic challenge test (HCT) is therefore recommended for children with cystic fibrosis or other chronic lung diseases and inflight oxygen is advised...... if pulse oximetric saturation (SpO2) decreases children during flight, with a view to challenge the evidence of the current cut-off. METHODS: Oxygenation...... cut-off of 90% for children with chronic lung disease reflects clinical oxygen dependence during flights....

  5. Normal distribution of standing balance for healthy Danish children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Line Kjeldgaard; Ghasemi, Habib; Rahbek, Ole

    2013-01-01

    in children with orthopedic disabilities undergoing surgical procedures. Recent technology provides extremely usable sway analysis of balance parameters but a normal material for the standing balance of healthy children is lacking. Purpose/Aim of Study First, to assess standing balance in healthy Danish...... children using pedobarographic sway analysis. Second, to establish a reference for comparison of balance in children with orthopedic disorders. Materials and Methods 66 children aged 7-14 years from the 1 th , 3 th, 5th and 7th grade were included at a Danish public school after informed consent...... was obtained. The Tekscan F-scan Research was used and the pedobarographic measurements were analyzed with original Sway Analysis Module software. We did triple measurements on both standing pedobarograms with eyes open and eyes closed and averaged the results for each of the 5 parameters of balance...

  6. BCG skin reaction in Mantoux-negative healthy children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sodhi Sukhbir

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tuberculosis poses a great challenge, especially in children. The response of BCG Test may be different in previously vaccinated children and needs to be considered before interpreting positivity for TB. This study has been carried out to determine the pattern of BCG reaction comparing previously vaccinated with non-vaccinated children. Methods The study was conducted in the healthy school children aged 4–6 years. The BCG skin reaction in Mantoux-negative children was compared between children with and without previous BCG scar. After the Mantoux and BCG Test, the analysis of variance was done as per protocol. Results Out of 50 children previously BCG vaccinated, 39(78% showed exaggerated BCG test responses while out of another 50 children who were not vaccinated for TB, only 9(18% showed exaggerated BCG Test response (p-value Conclusion The present study indicates that normal healthy children may have a mild exaggerated BCG Test response i.e. induration up to 8 mm because of prior BCG vaccination. Therefore, BCG Test, though important should not be the only criteria for start of chemotherapy for TB in children as the side effects of drugs may cause much morbidity. An induration up to 8 mm after the BCG Test can be normal in Indian settings due to exposure to Mycobacterium in environment and/or BCG vaccine.

  7. Providing a Healthy Environment for Interracial Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladner, Joyce

    1984-01-01

    Children of intermarriages have special needs. They often encounter prejudice from other family members such as grandparents, and, in general, society does not know how to regard them. A bicultural approach to childbearing is necessary; it is most important that a child learn about the culture of the parent of color. (KH)

  8. Constipation is associated with incomplete bladder emptying in healthy children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shang-Jen; Hsieh, Cheng-Hsing; Yang, Stephen Shei-Dei

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the association between constipation and the results of uroflowmetry with post-void residual urine (PVR) tests in healthy children. We enrolled healthy children aged between 4 and 12 years for evaluation of voiding and defecation function. A parent of children completed the questionnaire, and the children were asked to do uroflowmetry and PVR. Constipation is defined as defecation frequency ≤ 2 times/week or type 1-2 stool forms on Bristol stool scale. Uroflowmetry curve and PVR were eligible for analysis if voided volume was between 50 ml and expected capacity for age. Totally, 778 children (415 boys and 363 girls) with a mean age of 7.2 ± 2.2 years were eligible for analysis. The prevalence of constipation was 10.9% by low defecation frequency, and 28.4% by Bristol stool scale, respectively. Regarding the rate of constipation, there were no statistically significant differences between genders. Compared to children without low defecation frequency, constipated children had higher PVR (9.0 vs. 5.9 ml, P = 0.01), higher rate of PVR > 20 ml (17.7% vs. 7.1%, P = 0.01) and lower voiding efficiency (93.2% vs. 94.9%, P = 0.04). Compared to children without type 1-2 Bristol stool, constipated children did not have higher PVR (7.2 ml vs. 5.8 ml, P = 0.10), nor lower voiding efficiency (94.0% vs. 95.0%, P = 0.11). Urgency symptom score and rate of abnormal flow patterns were comparable between children with or without constipation. Constipation defined as low defecation frequency was associated with incomplete bladder emptying in healthy children. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Children's (Pediatric) Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... conditions in children due to injury, illness or congenital abnormalities. When imaging of a child’s brain and spinal cord is needed, MRI is useful because of its ability to see through the skull and the bones of the skull and spine without radiation. MRI of the brain and spine ...

  10. Children's (Pediatric) Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... MRI scanners are air-conditioned and well-lit. Music may be played through the headphones to help ... and Media Catheter Angiography Magnetic Resonance, Functional (fMRI) - Brain Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography) Magnetic Resonance Imaging ( ...

  11. Children's (Pediatric) Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... conditions in children due to injury, illness or congenital abnormalities. When imaging of a child’s brain and spinal ... discs evaluate the bones of the spine for congenital or acquired abnormalities determine the condition of nerve tissue within the ...

  12. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) Ultrasound - Abdomen ...

  13. Imaging neuroblastoma in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Kamini; Haller, Jack O; Legasto, Alan C

    2003-01-01

    Neuroblastoma is a common solid tumor of childhood that can involve the abdomen, thorax, pelvis, or the head and neck. The clinical manifestations are dependent on the widespread distribution of neural crest tissue and the length of the sympathetic chain involvement. Abdominal pain and hypertension may occur as a result of renal vasculature compression; respiratory distress may be evident in thoracic tumors; and Homer's syndrome or heterochromia of the iris may manifest from neuroblastoma of the head and neck. In addition, symptoms of cord compression and back pain may result from spinal cord compromise due to epidural invasion. Metastatic involvement of the liver, skin, periorbital regions, or bone may cause hepatomegaly, skin nodules, proptosis, or bone marrow failure, respectively. Clinical findings along with tumor metastasis may be studied by various imaging modalities to assess the nature and extent of the tumor. Diagnostic tests include plain radiography, ultrasonography, CT scanning, and MR imaging. Bone marrow studies, bone scans, and scintigraphy with 131I-metaiodobenzylmandelic may be utilized for metastatic evaluation. By using these imaging studies to detect the nature and behavior of neuroblastoma, early intervention may indeed improve patient survival.

  14. Ambulatory blood pressure values in healthy children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paripović Dušan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM is an important tool in the diagnosis and management of childhood hypertension. Normal ambulatory blood pressure (ABP values in children with body heights between 100 and 120 cm have not been reported. The aim of the study was to establish the normal range of values for ABPM in these children. 24-hour ABPM was performed in 40 normotensive (auscultatory casual blood pressure was obtained before ABPM subjects, aged from 4 to 6 years (26 males, 14 females with body heights between 95 and 125 cm. ABPM was carried out on non-dominant arm using the oscillometric device (SpaceLab 90207 with appropriate cuff size. The monitor was programmed to measure BP every 15 min. during the day (6 a.m. to 10 p.m. and every 30 min. during the night (10 p.m. to 6 a.m.. The mean daytime SBP/DBP in boys and girls was 108+/-6/67+/-5 and 105+/-5/66+/-1, respectively. The mean nighttime SBP/DBP in boys and girls was 98+/-6/56+/-5 and 97+/-7/56+/-4, respectively. There was a significant difference between day and night readings of SBP, DBP and heart rate (nocturnal fall was observed. The distribution of ABP noted in this study could serve as preliminary reference. A multicenter study should be performed to provide normal ranges of ABP.

  15. Investigating Young Children's Perceptions of Body Size and Healthy Habits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tingting; Nerren, Jannah S.

    2017-01-01

    Attitudes and biases toward body size perceived as fat and body size perceived as thin are present in young children (Cramer and Steinwert in "J Appl Dev Psychol" 19(3):429-451, 1998; Worobey and Worobey in "Body Image" 11:171-174, 2014). However, the information children have regarding body size and ways to modify body size…

  16. Common genetic determinants of glucose homeostasis in healthy children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelliny, Clara; Ekelund, Ulf; Andersen, Lars Bo

    2009-01-01

    ) were genotyped in 2,025 healthy European children aged 9-11 and 14-16 years. Associations with fasting glucose, insulin, homeostasis model assessment (HOMA)-insulin resistance (IR) and HOMA-B were investigated along with those observed for type 2 diabetes variants available in this study (CDKN2A/B, IGF...

  17. The "healthy lifestyle guide pyramid" for children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Gross, M; Gómez-Lorente, J J; Valtueña, J; Ortiz, J C; Meléndez, A

    2008-01-01

    Increasing evidence demonstrates that risk factors for chronic diseases are established during childhood and adolescence. Consensus about the need to increase prevention efforts makes the adoption of a healthy lifestyle seem desirable from early childhood onwards. After reviewing educational tools for children and adolescents aimed at promoting a healthy lifestyle, it was recognized that there was a need to develop a simple educational tool specifically designed for these age groups. Development of the healthy lifestyle pyramid for children and adolescents. We propose a three-dimensional, truncated and staggered pyramid with 4 faces and a base, which introduces a completely new concept that goes beyond other published pyramids. Each of the faces is oriented towards achieving a different goal. Two faces (faces 1 and 2) are formulated around achieving a goal on a daily basis (daily food intake, face 1, and daily activities, face 2). Face 3 is an adaptation of the traditional food guide pyramid, adapted to children's energy, nutritional and hydration needs. Face 4 deals with both daily and life-long habits. On the base of the pyramid, there is advice about adequate nutrition alternating with advice about physical activity and sports. The Healthy Lifestyle Pyramid is specifically developed for children and adolescents according to current scientific knowledge and evidence-based data and includes easy-to-follow advice and full colour pictures. Following these guidelines should improve health and reduce risk factors, promoting enjoyable and appropriate development towards adulthood.

  18. in_focus - Healthy Lives for Vulnerable Women and Children ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    24 oct. 2017 ... Tremendous challenges remain to ensure that the most vulnerable populations, including women, children, and adolescents, are able to enjoy the healthy lives and well-being promised in the Sustainable Development Goals. Much of their poor health is caused by poverty, gender, lack of education, and ...

  19. in_focus - Healthy Lives for Vulnerable Women and Children ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2017-10-24

    Oct 24, 2017 ... Tremendous challenges remain to ensure that the most vulnerable populations, including women, children, and adolescents, are able to enjoy the healthy lives and well-being promised in the Sustainable Development Goals. Much of their poor health is caused by poverty, gender, lack of education, and ...

  20. Induced sputum in young healthy children with cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forton, Julian

    2015-10-01

    Young children with CF are often asymptomatic and non-productive, yet CF lung disease occurs early in life. Cough swabs are used routinely to sample bacteria from the CF respiratory tract in non-productive healthy children; bronchoscopy is used to definitively sample the lower airway, but is an invasive procedure. Induced sputum is a non-invasive approach to sampling the lower airway. The article concentrates on how well it is tolerated in children, how successful it is in identifying respiratory pathogens, and how it may be important in routine surveillance if 16S technology is to be used in the clinical forum. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Data on circulating leukocyte subpopulations and inflammatory proteins in children with familial hypercholesterolemia and healthy children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob J. Christensen

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The data in this relies on a previous publication: “Altered leukocyte distribution under hypercholesterolemia: a cross-sectional study in children with familial hypercholesterolemia” (Christensen et al. 2016 [1]. In the present paper, whole blood leukocyte distribution and plasma inflammatory proteins were measured for association with cholesterol concentration and CRP in children with familial hypercholesterolemia (FH and healthy children.

  2. Nurturing healthy dietary habits among children and youth in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiu, Letty Kwok Chong; Loke, Wong Mun; Vijaya, K; Sandhu, Nimrta Kaur

    2012-01-01

    Healthy diet is a key tenet in the prevention of many chronic diseases. Nurturing healthy dietary habits is especially important in childhood as this is a critical period of growth and development. Furthermore, dietary habits are shaped from an early age with many of them forming even below the age of 5 years. Therefore, the importance of nurturing healthy dietary habits during a child's formative years cannot be underestimated. Reducing fat, salt and sugar intake and at the same time, advocating the consumption of adequate whole-grains, fruit and vegetables among the population remain the cornerstone of the Singapore Health Promotion Board's (HPB) key nutrition initiatives. To achieve this, HPB adopts a multi-pronged approach comprising various strategies to promote healthy eating among children and youth in Singapore. This article provides an overview of these strategies and the broad range of nutrition education efforts targeted at the young.

  3. Sleep spindle activity and cognitive performance in healthy children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatburn, Alex; Coussens, Scott; Lushington, Kurt; Kennedy, Declan; Baumert, Mathias; Kohler, Mark

    2013-02-01

    To investigate the association between indices of sleep spindle activity and cognitive performance in a sample of healthy children. Correlational. Intelligence (Stanford-Binet) and neurocognitive functioning (NEPSY) were assessed, with sleep variables being measured during overnight polysomnography. Hospital sleep laboratory. Twenty-seven healthy children (mean age 8.19 y; 14 female, 13 male). N/A. Participants underwent a single night of overnight polysomnography after completing measures of intelligence and neurocognitive functioning. Sleep spindles were visually identified by an experienced sleep scoring technician and separated algorithmically into fast (> 13 Hz) and slow spindle (sleep spindle activity is associated with different aspects of cognitive performance in children. To the extent that these associations in a pediatric population are different from what is known in adult sleep may play an important role in development.

  4. The Body-Image of Blind Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cratty, Bryant J.; Sams, Theressa A.

    To develop an assessment device for the evaluation of body image, to evaluate the body image of blind children, to make comparisons between subgroups (sex, age, IQ) and to derive sequences of tasks related to body image training, 91 children (mean age 10.06 years, mean IQ 88.32) were evaluated by a body image survey form. Analysis of the data…

  5. Galactose oxidation using 13C in healthy and galactosemic children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.R. Resende-Campanholi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Galactosemia is an inborn error of galactose metabolism that occurs mainly as the outcome of galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALT deficiency. The ability to assess galactose oxidation following administration of a galactose-labeled isotope (1-13C-galactose allows the determination of galactose metabolism in a practical manner. We aimed to assess the level of galactose oxidation in both healthy and galactosemic Brazilian children. Twenty-one healthy children and seven children with galactosemia ranging from 1 to 7 years of age were studied. A breath test was used to quantitate 13CO2 enrichment in exhaled air before and at 30, 60, and 120 min after the oral administration of 7 mg/kg of an aqueous solution of 1-13C-galactose to all children. The molar ratios of 13CO2 and 12CO2 were quantified by the mass/charge ratio (m/z of stable isotopes in each air sample by gas-isotope-ratio mass spectrometry. In sick children, the cumulative percentage of 13C from labeled galactose (CUMPCD in the exhaled air ranged from 0.03% at 30 min to 1.67% at 120 min. In contrast, healthy subjects showed a much broader range in CUMPCD, with values from 0.4% at 30 min to 5.58% at 120 min. The study found a significant difference in galactose oxidation between children with and without galactosemia, demonstrating that the breath test is useful in discriminating children with GALT deficiencies.

  6. Galactose oxidation using 13C in healthy and galactosemic children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resende-Campanholi, D.R.; Porta, G.; Ferrioli, E.; Pfrimer, K.; Ciampo, L.A. Del; Junior, J.S. Camelo

    2015-01-01

    Galactosemia is an inborn error of galactose metabolism that occurs mainly as the outcome of galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALT) deficiency. The ability to assess galactose oxidation following administration of a galactose-labeled isotope (1-13C-galactose) allows the determination of galactose metabolism in a practical manner. We aimed to assess the level of galactose oxidation in both healthy and galactosemic Brazilian children. Twenty-one healthy children and seven children with galactosemia ranging from 1 to 7 years of age were studied. A breath test was used to quantitate 13CO2 enrichment in exhaled air before and at 30, 60, and 120 min after the oral administration of 7 mg/kg of an aqueous solution of 1-13C-galactose to all children. The molar ratios of 13CO2 and 12CO2 were quantified by the mass/charge ratio (m/z) of stable isotopes in each air sample by gas-isotope-ratio mass spectrometry. In sick children, the cumulative percentage of 13C from labeled galactose (CUMPCD) in the exhaled air ranged from 0.03% at 30 min to 1.67% at 120 min. In contrast, healthy subjects showed a much broader range in CUMPCD, with values from 0.4% at 30 min to 5.58% at 120 min. The study found a significant difference in galactose oxidation between children with and without galactosemia, demonstrating that the breath test is useful in discriminating children with GALT deficiencies. PMID:25608239

  7. Different healthy habits between northern and southern Spanish school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arriscado, Daniel; Knox, Emily; Zabala, Mikel; Zurita-Ortega, Félix; Dalmau, Jose Maria; Muros, Jose Joaquin

    2017-01-01

    Healthy habits are influenced by several factors such as geographical location. The aims of this study were to describe and compare healthy habits within two populations of sixth-grade primary school children (aged 11-12 years) from northern and southern Spain. A cross-sectional study using two representative samples of school children was conducted. Participants came from Logroño (n = 329) in the north and Granada (n = 284) in the south of Spain. Socio-demographic and anthropometric variables, adherence to the Mediterranean diet, aerobic fitness, and healthy lifestyles were recorded. Boys reported a higher level of physical activity and aerobic fitness than girls (p = 0.000). Southern school children reported significantly higher adherence to the Mediterranean diet (♀: p = 0.041; ♂: p = 0.008), lower aerobic fitness (♀: p = 0.000; ♂: p = 0.042) and hours of nightly sleep (♀: p = 0.008, ♂: p = 0.007) than northern school children. Southern boys also reported lower levels of physical activity (p = 0.013). There were slight or moderate correlations among all habits measured (physical activity, diet, screen and sleep time). Additionally, the physical activity level was inversely related to weight status. Overweight and obese northern boys reported less physical activity than healthy-weight northern boys (p = 0.020) and overweight and obese southern girls reported less physical activity than healthy-weight southern girls (p = 0.024). Results showed differences in physical activity, eating and sleep habits, and aerobic fitness according to geographical location. The relationships found among lifestyle habits indicate the need for health promotion interventions nationally and considering the differences discussed here.

  8. Erosion or normal variant? 4-year MRI follow-up of the wrists in healthy children

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    Avenarius, Derk F.M. [University of Tromsoe, Faculty of Health Sciences, Tromsoe (Norway); University Hospital of North Norway, Department of Radiology, Tromsoe (Norway); Ording Mueller, Lil-Sofie [Oslo University Hospital, Department for Radiology and Intervention, Oslo (Norway); Rosendahl, Karen [Haukeland University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Bergen (Norway); University of Bergen, Department of Clinical Medicine K1, Bergen (Norway)

    2016-03-15

    A large proportion of healthy children have wrist changes on MRI, namely carpal depressions, findings that have been described as pathological in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis. We performed follow-up imaging in a cohort of healthy children to evaluate carpal surface depressions over time, focusing on the presence of overlying cartilage as a potential discriminator between normal variants and true erosions. 74 of the initial cohort of 89 healthy children (83%) had a re-scan of their wrists using the same protocol, including coronal T1 and fat-saturated T2 sequences. A cartilage-selective sequence was added for this study. We registered number and location of bony depressions and presence of overlying cartilage. The total number of carpal depressions increased by age group and over time; their location was unchanged in 370 of 487 (76%) carpal sites and 91 of 117 (78%) metacarpal sites. In total, 426 of the 1,087 (39.2%) bony depressions were covered by cartilage, with a decreasing percentage by age (P = 0.001). Normal appearances during growth, such as bony depressions, should not be mistaken for pathology. There must be additional findings to support a diagnosis of disease. A cartilage sequence may add to the diagnostic image analysis. (orig.)

  9. Shear wave velocity of the healthy thyroid gland in children with acoustic radiation force impulse elastography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceyhan Bilgici, Meltem; Sağlam, Dilek; Delibalta, Semra; Yücel, Serap; Tomak, Leman; Elmalı, Muzaffer

    2018-01-01

    Acoustic radiation force impulse imaging is a kind of shear wave elastography that can be used in children for differentiating thyroid pathologies. Possible changes in the healthy thyroid gland in children may create difficulties in the use of shear wave velocities (SWV) in thyroid pathologies. The aim of this study was to define the normal values of SWV for the healthy thyroid gland in children, elucidate the correlation of the SWV values with potential influencing factors, and evaluate intra-operator reproducibility of the SWV. Between January 2015 and December 2015, a total of 145 healthy children (81 girls, 64 boys; mean age, 10.5 ± 3.14 years; range 6-17 years) were enrolled in the study. The SWV and volume of the thyroid gland were determined. The mean shear wave velocity of the thyroid gland was 1.22 ± 0.20 m/s. There was no correlation between age and the mean SWV of the thyroid gland (Spearman Rho = 0.049, p = 0.556). There was also no correlation between the thyroid gland volume or BSA and the mean SWV. The only correlation detected was between BSA and total thyroid gland volume (p thyroid gland in children was determined. There was no correlation between the SWV of the thyroid gland and age, BSA, or thyroid gland volume.

  10. Herpes Zoster in Healthy Children: A Retrospective Study

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    Birgül Tepe

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Herpes zoster is an acute dermatomal viral infection caused by the reactivation of varicella zoster virus. While it is commonly seen among elderly and immunocompromised individuals, it is rare in healthy children. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical features, treatment and complications of healthy children with herpes zoster. Methods: Thirty one patients aged between 0-16 years who were admitted to our clinic with the diagnosis of herpes zoster, between January 2014 and December 2014, were evaluated retrospectively for age, gender, month of admission, complaint, history of chickenpox infection or varicella vaccination, triggering factors, dermatomal involvement, complications and treatment. Results: Among 31 patients with diagnosis of herpes zoster, 19 were boys (61.3% and 12 were girls (38.7%. The mean of age was 9.12±4.4 years. Twenty patients had thoracic (64.5%, six had lumbar (19.4% and five had cervical involvements (16.2%. The most frequent symptoms were pruritus and pain, respectively. Six patients were administered topical treatment and 25 patients were treated with both systemic and topical treatments. Complication was not observed. Conclusion: Herpes zoster is also being encountered increasingly in healthy children nowadays. It is benign and generally no complications are observed. Incidence can vary because of geographic and socioeconomic differences like vaccination programs.

  11. The Rate of Addiction in Parents of Children with Congenital Heart Disease Compared with Healthy Children

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    Tahereh Boryri

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundCongenital heart diseases (CHD are the most common congenital anomaly in children and also the leading cause of mortality from congenital anomalies. Various factors including smoking, drinking alcohol and addiction play role in development of congenital heart diseases. This study was conducted with the aim of investigation of the prevalence of addiction in parents of children with congenital heart disease compared with healthy children.Materials and MethodsThis was a case-control study conducted on 320 children with congenital heart disease aged 6 months to 16 years and 320 healthy children as control group. Children referring to Ali Asghar hospital or who were hospitalized in Imam Ali Hospital were included in the study and their demographic characteristics and their parents were collected. Data were analyzed using SPSS 20.ResultsAverage age of diseased and healthy children was 4.08 ± 4.11 and 3.59 ± 2.36, respectively. The rate of addiction of father, mother and parents of children with congenital heart disease was higher than those of children in control group. The most common congenital heart disease was ventricular septal defect (VSD.ConclusionIn overall, this study showed addiction rate of parents in children with congenital heart disease was higher.

  12. Haemophilic magnetic resonance imaging score in healthy controls playing sports.

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    Foppen, W; Sluiter, D; Witkamp, T D; Mali, W P T M; Fischer, K

    2013-11-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the most sensitive imaging modality to assess joint lesions, but the clinical relevance of subtle joint changes in haemophilic patients playing sports is unknown. A haemophilia specific MRI score is available, but was never evaluated in physically active healthy controls. It is not known if unexpected MRI changes in young active haemophilic patients are due to sports participation. The aim of this study was to evaluate knees and ankles in a cohort of young active healthy men using a haemophilia specific MRI score to provide context for joint evaluation by MRI in young haemophilic patients. Three Tesla MRI of knees and ankles were performed in 30 healthy men aged 18-26 years, regularly active in sports. MR images were scored by a single independent radiologist, using the International Prophylaxis Study Group additive MRI score. One physiotherapist assessed clinical function using the Haemophilia joint health scores (HJHS). History of complaints or injuries affecting knees and/or ankles, very intensive sports and current sports activities were documented. Median age was 24.3 years (range 19.0-26.4) and median number of sports activities per week was 3 (range 1-4). Six joints (five knees, one ankle) had a history of a sports-related injury. The median HJHS per joint was 0 out of 20 (range 0-1). All joints had a MRI score of 0. These results suggest that regular sports participation or very low HJHS scores are not associated with haemophilia specific MRI changes in knees and ankles. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Comparison of Serum Apolipoprotein Levels of Diabetic Children and Healthy Children with or without Diabetic Parents

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    Mohammad Hashemi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The association of diabetes and atherosclerosis with disorders of lipids and lipoproteins, notably high apolipoprotein B (apoB and low apolipoprotein A1(apoA1 is well established. Because of the beginning of the atherosclerosis' process from early life, in this study, the plasma levels of apoA1 and apoB were compared in diabetic children with type I diabetes mellitus(DM, healthy children with diabetic parents (HDPs,and healthy children with nondiabetic parents (HNDPs. Methods. This case-control study was conducted among 90 children aged 9–18 years. Serum levels of apoA and apoB were compared among 30 diabetic children (DM, 30 healthy children with diabetic parents (HDPs, and 30 healthy children with nondiabetic parents (HNDP. Results. The mean serum apoA1 was higher in DM (153±69 mg/dL followed by HNDPs (138±58 mg/dL and HDPs (128±56 mg/dl, but the difference was not statistically significant. The mean apoB value in HNDPs was significantly lower than DM and HDPs (90±21 mg/dL versus 127±47 and 128±38 mg/dL, P0.05. Conclusions. Diabetic children and healthy children with diabetic parent(s are at higher risk of dyslipidemia and atherosclerosis. Thus for primordial and primary prevention of atherosclerosis, we suggest screening these children for low plasma apoA1 and high plasma apoB levels.

  14. Correlation among body height, intelligence, and brain gray matter volume in healthy children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taki, Yasuyuki; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Sassa, Yuko; Takeuchi, Hikaru; Asano, Michiko; Asano, Kohei; Kotozaki, Yuka; Nouchi, Rui; Wu, Kai; Fukuda, Hiroshi; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2012-01-16

    A significant positive correlation between height and intelligence has been demonstrated in children. Additionally, intelligence has been associated with the volume of gray matter in the brains of children. Based on these correlations, we analyzed the correlation among height, full-scale intelligence quotient (IQ) and gray matter volume applying voxel-based morphometry using data from the brain magnetic resonance images of 160 healthy children aged 5-18 years of age. As a result, body height was significantly positively correlated with brain gray matter volume. Additionally, the regional gray matter volume of several regions such as the bilateral prefrontal cortices, temporoparietal region, and cerebellum was significantly positively correlated with body height and that the gray matter volume of several of these regions was also significantly positively correlated with full-scale intelligence quotient (IQ) scores after adjusting for age, sex, and socioeconomic status. Our results demonstrate that gray and white matter volume may mediate the correlation between body height and intelligence in healthy children. Additionally, the correlations among gray and white matter volume, height, and intelligence may be at least partially explained by the effect of insulin-like growth factor-1 and growth hormones. Given the importance of the effect of environmental factors, especially nutrition, on height, IQ, and gray matter volume, the present results stress the importance of nutrition during childhood for the healthy maturation of body and brain. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Preparation of Young Healthy Children for Possible Hospitalization: The Issues. Monograph No. 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azarnoff, Pat, Ed.

    Ten authors' viewpoints about preparing healthy children for possible hospitalization are presented. Selected topics include (1) the fallacy of "preparing" young healthy children for possible hospitalization, (2) parents as the best preparers of young children, (3) preparing young children for unplanned hospital admissions, (4) anxiety…

  16. Determination of adrenal volume by MRI in healthy children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouritsen, Annette; Johansen, Marie Lindhardt; Wohlfahrt-Veje, Christine

    2014-01-01

    , to estimate adrenal size in healthy children and to evaluate determinants of adrenal volume such as age, gender, body size, pubic hair stage and serum levels of adrenal androgens. DESIGN: Two hundred and thirty-five healthy children (116 girls and 119 boys) (age range 10.0-14.8 years) were examined by MRI...... not measurable in 51% of children due to breathing and moving artefacts. The median volume of the right adrenal gland was 0.46 ml in girls and 0.46 ml in boys. The median volume of the left adrenal gland was 0.34 ml in girls and 0.40 ml in boys. Adrenal size was positively associated with body surface area...... (estimate B = 0.34 ml/year, P = 0.03), age (estimate B = 0.05 ml/year, P = 0.021) and pubic hair stage (estimate B = 0.05 ml/stage, P = 0.075). No associations between adrenal size and serum levels of adrenal androgens were observed. CONCLUSION: It was possible to determine adrenal volume by MRI in only 50...

  17. Urinary calcium excretion in healthy children and children with primary monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamperis, Konstantinos; Hagstrøm, Søren; Rittig, Søren

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE: We investigated the role of urinary Ca excretion in monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis, and defined normality and intra-individual variability in Ca excretion in healthy children. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We included 46 Danish children with desmopressin resistant nocturnal enuresis and 96...... healthy controls. We performed fractional urine collections at home during 2 days in controls or during hospitalization in children with enuresis. Urine volume, osmolality, and Ca and creatinine measurements were performed and Ca-to-creatinine ratios were calculated and compared between groups. Based...... on nocturnal urine output children with enuresis were characterized as having polyuria (nocturnal urine volume greater than 130% of expected bladder capacity) or not having polyuria. RESULTS: We did not find any differences in controls compared with children with enuresis who did not and did have nocturnal...

  18. Vitamin A status of healthy children in Manisa, Turkey

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    Tansuğ Nermin

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vitamin A deficiency is a major public health nutrition problem in the developing world. Even subclinical Vitamin A deficiency is associated with increased childhood mortality. Severe maternal vitamin A deficiency may cause increased mortality in the first months of life. There have been a limited number of studies regarding vitamin A status in Turkey. The aim of this study was to assess vitamin A status of healthy children in Manisa, Turkey. Methods Vitamin A status of 100 healthy children aged 36-48 months is evaluated. The children were seen during routine examination. Serum retinol concentrations were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. Duration of breast feeding, age solid foods introduced, use of supplementary vitamins, weight and height, and intake of specific groups of nutrients on a daily, weekly and monthly basis were collected from a questionnaire completed by the mothers. Height and weight z-scores were calculated according to national standards. Mothers of 20 of the 100 children were known to have normal serum and breast milk retinol concentrations. Children with normal serum retinol concentration were compared with the children with VAD. Student's t-test and Mann-Whitney test were used to compare independent variables. The Pearson correlation analysis test was used to test relation between numeric variables. Results Mean retinol concentration was 0.98 ± 0.32 μmol/L in the whole study group. Serum retinol concentrations were normal (>0.70 μmol/L in 89% of the children. When children with normal serum retinol concentrations were compared with those with retinol concentrations lower than 0.70 μmol/L, there was no difference in terms of age, gender, weight and height at the time of study, z-scores, birth weight, birth length, duration of breast feeding, time to begin solid food, rate of supplementary vitamin use, and rate of infections (P > 0.05. There was not any relation between vitamin A

  19. [Parental smoking and lung function in healthy children and adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Barcala, Francisco Javier; Takkouche, Bahi; Valdés, Luis; Temes, Enrique; Leis, Rosaura; Cabanas, Rodrigo; Rodríguez Suárez, José Ramón; Tojo, Rafael

    2007-02-01

    The debate continues on the effect of passive smoking on nonsmokers. The effect of parental smoking on the lung function of children varies considerably according to geographic area, source of passive smoking, and sex. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of parental smoking on the lung function of children. A cross-sectional study was performed on a sample of the population of healthy children and adolescents between 6 and 18 years of age in Galicia. Subjects were selected by means of 2-stage cluster sampling grouped by sex and age. Approximately 56% of the children were exposed to the tobacco smoke of one of their parents. Children whose fathers were smokers presented a 40% higher risk of reduced forced expiratory flow at 75% of forced vital capacity (FEF75%) and a 30% higher risk of reduced FEF25%-75%. Children whose mothers were smokers presented a 30% higher risk of reduced forced expiratory volume in the first second and a 40% higher risk of reduced FEF50%. There was a 60% increase in risk of reduced FEF75%. The fact that both parents smoked did not appear to increase the risk of reduced lung function. Parental smoking has a considerable effect on the lung function of children and adolescents. Smoking by either the mother or the father has a decisive influence. The fact that this effect is independent of the growth of the child and that the obstructive effect is located principally in the distal airways appears to confirm the hypothesis that this effect is produced after birth.

  20. Psychosocial Characteristics of Children with Central Disorders of Hypersomnolence Versus Matched Healthy Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avis, Kristin T; Shen, Jiabin; Weaver, Patrick; Schwebel, David C

    2015-11-15

    Hypersomnia of central origin from narcolepsy or idiopathic hypersomnia (IHS) is characterized by pathological levels of excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS). Central hypersomnia has historically been underdiagnosed and poorly understood, especially with respect to its impact on daytime functioning and quality of life in children. Describe the psychosocial adjustment of children treated for narcolepsy or IHS on school performance, quality of life, and physical/extracurricular activities. Using a matched case control design, we compared child self- and parent-reported data from thirty-three 8- to 16-year-olds with an established diagnosis of narcolepsy or IHS, according to ICSD-2 criteria, to that of 33 healthy children matched by age, race/ethnicity, gender, and household income. Assessments evaluated academic performance, quality of life and wellness, sleepiness, and participation in extracurricular activities. Compared to healthy controls, children with central hypersomnia had poorer daytime functioning in multiple domains. Children with hypersomnia missed more days of school and had lower grades than healthy controls. Children with hypersomnia had poorer quality of life by both parent and child report. Children with hypersomnia were significantly sleepier, had higher BMI, and were more likely to report a history of recent injury. Finally, children with hypersomnia engaged in fewer after-school activities than healthy controls. A range of significant psychosocial consequences are reported in children with hypersomnia even after a diagnosis has been made and treatments initiated. Health care professionals should be mindful of the psychosocial problems that may present in children with hypersomnia over the course of treatment. © 2015 American Academy of Sleep Medicine.

  1. Children with Congenital Hypothyroidism Have Similar Neuroradiological Abnormal Findings as Healthy Ones

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    Marianna Rachmiel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To assess the neuroradiological findings of children with congenital hypothyroidism (CHT compared to healthy controls (HC. Patients and Methods. Thirty children with CHT, mean age 12.5 ± 1.6 years, 14 (44.8% males, were compared with 38 HC mean age 11.7 ± 1.7 years, 16 (45.7% males. Clinical data were collected from medical charts and questionnaires seeking information on family history, birth and perinatal period events, medications, and overall health history. Neurocognitive function was assessed for global intelligence, visual and verbal memory, and executive functioning using standardized tests. Neuroimaging was performed using 1.5 T magnetic resonance imaging and assessed by two pediatric radiologists. Results. Children with CHT had a similar proportion of incidental findings as did the children in the HC group, at 43.3% and 39.5%, respectively, . Abnormalities of the sellar region were reported in 13.3% of CHT group and 7.9% of HC group, . Other incidental findings included cerebellar ectopia, choroidal fissure and pineal cysts, and multiple increased signal intensity foci. Neuroradiological findings were not associated with clinical and neurocognitive abnormalities. Conclusion. Neuroimaging of children with CHT demonstrated a similar incidence of structural abnormalities as in the healthy population. There is no association between those findings and neurocognitive function.

  2. Cortical correlates of neuromotor development in healthy children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garvey, M A; Ziemann, U; Bartko, J J; Denckla, M B; Barker, C A; Wassermann, E M

    2003-09-01

    To examine the relationship between acquisition of fine motor skills in childhood and development of the motor cortex. We measured finger tapping speed and mirror movements in 43 healthy right-handed subjects (6-26 years of age). While recording surface electromyographic activity from right and left first dorsal interosseus, we delivered focal transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) over the hand areas of each motor cortex. We measured motor evoked potential (MEP) threshold, and ipsilateral (iSP) and contralateral (CSP) silent periods. As children got older, finger speeds got faster, MEP threshold decreased, iSP duration increased and latency decreased. Finger tapping speed got faster as motor thresholds and iSP latency decreased, but was unrelated to CSP duration. In all subjects right hemisphere MEP thresholds were higher than those on the left and duration of right hemisphere CSP was longer than that on the left. Children under 10 years of age had higher left hand mirror movement scores, and fewer left hemisphere iSPs which were of longer duration. Maturation of finger tapping skills is closely related to developmental changes in the motor threshold and iSP latency. Studies are warranted to explore the relationship between these measures and other neuromotor skills in children with motor disorders. TMS can provide important insights into certain functional aspects of neurodevelopment in children.

  3. Ataxia rating scales are age-dependent in healthy children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandsma, Rick; Spits, Anne H; Kuiper, Marieke J; Lunsing, Roelinka J; Burger, Huibert; Kremer, Hubertus P; Sival, Deborah A

    2014-06-01

    To investigate ataxia rating scales in children for reliability and the effect of age and sex. Three independent neuropaediatric observers cross-sectionally scored a set of paediatric ataxia rating scales in a group of 52 healthy children (26 males, 26 females) aged 4 to 16 years (mean age 10y 5mo SD 3y 11mo). The investigated scales involved the commonly applied International Cooperative Ataxia Rating Scale (ICARS), the Scale for Assessment and Rating of Ataxia (SARA), the Brief Ataxia Rating Scale (BARS), and PEG-board tests. We investigated the interrelatedness between individual ataxia scales, the influence of age and sex, inter- and intra-observer agreement, and test-retest reliability. Spearman's rank correlations revealed strong correlations between ICARS, SARA BARS, and PEG-board test (all pataxia rating scales are reliable, but should include age-dependent interpretation in children up to 12 years of age. To enable longitudinal interpretation of quantitative ataxia rating scales in children, European paediatric normative values are necessary. © 2014 Mac Keith Press.

  4. Regional outbreak of staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome in healthy children

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    Hyun Jeong Do

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : Staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome (SSSS is a relatively uncommon superficial blistering skin disease that is due to Staphylococcus aureus. We had experienced a regional outbreak of SSSS over 3 years in healthy children. Methods : We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of those patients diagnosed as SSSS. Most of neonatal cases were nosocomial infections and excluded from the analysis. The clinical features, laboratory findings, the isolation and antibiotic resistance of S. aureus, the antibiotic management and other supportive treatments were analyzed. Results : Fifty-five patients with SSSS were admitted to our hospital from October 2001 to September 2004. The median age of patients was 3.0 years. Of the 55 patients, 9 were the generalized type, 13 were the intermediate type and 33 were the scarletiniform rash. All the patients were living in neighborhood of the Jinju area. S. aureus were isolated from 9 of the patients and all of the isolated S. aureus were methicillin resistant. All the patients except two were treated with intravenous flocloxacillin or nafcillin and/or cefotaxime. All the patients recovered during the follow-up period of 2 to 3 weeks. Conclusion : We experienced a regional outbreak of SSSS in previous healthy children. Further study for finding the carriers of S. aureus caused SSSS and preventing the spread of this disease is needed. Additionally, guidelines for treating SSSS due to methicillin resistant S. aureus should be established.

  5. Children's (Pediatric) Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... patient story here Images × Image Gallery Radiologist prepping patient for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) exam. View full size with caption Pediatric Content Some imaging tests and treatments have special ...

  6. Psychological adjustment of children with cancer as compared with healthy children: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wechsler, A M; Sánchez-Iglesias, I

    2013-05-01

    Childhood cancer is a life-threatening disease and the cause of great stress for children who suffer from its diagnosis and treatment. The aim of this study was to verify, through meta-analytical tools, whether children in active treatment for cancer differ in their psychological adjustment from healthy children. Ten studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria for the meta-analytic approach. A fixed effects model did not yield significant results, suggesting that there is no evidence for a difference in psychological adjustment between ill and healthy children, inasmuch as the former seem to adjust as well as the latter. Some methodological aspects are also considered, including issues related to the definition of psychological adjustment and its operationalisation and to the relative scarcity of published articles in this particular realm. Moreover, suggestions for future studies are discussed. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. Thymopoiesis and regulatory T cells in healthy children and adolescents

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    Maria Izabel Arismendi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between T cell receptor excision circle levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and regulatory T cells that co-express CD25 and Foxp3 in healthy children and adolescents of different ages. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The quantification of signal-joint T-cell receptor excision circle levels in the genomic DNA of peripheral blood mononuclear cells was performed using real-time quantitative PCR. The analysis of CD4, CD8, CD25, and Foxp3 expression was performed using flow cytometry. RESULTS: Ninety-five healthy controls (46 females and 49 males ranging in age from 1 to 18 years were analyzed. The mean T-cell receptor excision circle count in all individuals was 89.095¡36.790 T-cell receptor excision circles per microgram of DNA. There was an inverse correlation between T-cell receptor excision circles counts and age (r = -0.846; p<0.001 as well as between the proportion of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ T cells and age (r = -0.467; p = 0.04. In addition, we observed a positive correlation between the amount of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ T cells and the amount of Tcell receptor excision circles per microgram of DNA in individuals of all ages (r = -0.529; p = 0.02. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we observed a decrease in the thymic function with age based on the fact that the level of T-cell receptor excision circles in the peripheral blood positively correlated with the proportion of regulatory T cells in healthy children and adolescents. These findings indicate that although T-cell receptor excision circles and regulatory T cells levels decrease with age, homeostasis of the immune system and relative regulatory T cells population levels are maintained in the peripheral blood.

  8. Prospective evaluation of rhinovirus infection in healthy young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Principi, Nicola; Zampiero, Alberto; Gambino, Monia; Scala, Alessia; Senatore, Laura; Lelii, Mara; Ascolese, Beatrice; Pelucchi, Claudio; Esposito, Susanna

    2015-05-01

    Although the incidence of human rhinovirus (HRV) infection is highest in young, no study has yet been published concerning the types of HRV circulating in this population, the incidence of symptomatic infections due to the different types, or duration of shedding This prospective study evaluated the circulation of HRV species and types, and established the incidence of asymptomatic and symptomatic infections in young children. The study enrolled 93 healthy children aged <2 years, 88 of whom completed the follow-up of weekly household visits from November 2013 to February 2014. At each visit, a record was made of any signs and symptoms of acute infection, and a nasopharyngeal (NP) swab was taken in order to identify the HRVs by means of RT-polymerase chain reaction and to construct the phylogenetic tree of the HRV-positive cases. A total of 1408 NP samples were obtained and 326 HRV infections were diagnosed (23.1%), leading to a mean number of 3.7 ± 2.3 infections per child: HRV-A in 72 cases (22.1%), HRV-B in 29 (8.9%), HRV-C in 122 (37.4%), and non-typeable HRV in 103 (31.6%). Shedding was significantly longer for HRV-A (14 days) and HRV-B (14 days) than HRV-C (7 days; p = 0.002 and p = 0.012). Most of the HRV infections (209/326, 64.1%) remained asymptomatic and, when symptomatic, were of marginal clinical relevance. In healthy young children, HRV infection is extremely frequent, generally asymptomatic or with a mild clinical presentation, and viral shedding is limited in time. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Muscle development in healthy children evaluated by bioelectrical impedance analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchiyama, Tomoka; Nakayama, Takahiro; Kuru, Satoshi

    2017-02-01

    This study aimed to use bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) to generate a new muscle density index (MDI), the MDI_BIA, to evaluate muscle development, and to demonstrate the changes that occur in the BIA-based muscle cross-sectional area index (MCAI_BIA) that accompany growth. We also sought to determine the traceability of chronological changes in the MDI_BIA and MCAI_BIA. Healthy children (n=112) aged 8.68±3.16years (0.33-14.00years) underwent bioelectrical impedance (BI) measurements of their upper arms, thighs, and lower legs. The MDI_BIA and MCAI_BIA were calculated, and cross-sectional investigations were conducted into the changes in these indices that accompanied growth. Data collected after 1.10±0.08years from 45 participants determined the traceability of the chronological changes in the MDI_BIA and MCAI_BIA. The MDI_BIA and MCAI_BIA were significantly positively correlated with age and height at all locations (P<0.01). The relationships between the locations and the MDI_BIA and MCAI_BIA differed, indicating that these indices evaluated the muscles from different perspectives. Except for the upper arm MDI_BIA, both indices at all locations regardless of age, showed significant chronological increases after an average period of 1.10years. The MDI_BIA and MCAI_BIA were significantly correlated with age and height in healthy children, and they showed significant chronological increases. Hence, these indices could be used to represent muscle development and muscle mass increases. BIA is non-invasive, convenient, and economical and it may be useful in evaluating muscle development and muscle cross-sectional areas in children. Copyright © 2016 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Ultrasonic Density of Kidneys in Healthy Children and Children with Pyelonephritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.I. Vakulenko

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research — development of quantitative standard indices of ultrasonic density of a kidney in healthy children and definition of its changes at pyelonephritis. Ultrasonic research of kidneys with the subsequent computer processing of ultrasonic scans and determination of coefficients of ultrasonic density of kidneys of 90 healthy children from 1 to 16 years is conducted. Age ranges of ultrasonic density of a kidney and its structures in healthy children are determined, these age ranges were used further as standards. It is revealed that the tendency to decrease in ultrasonic density of renal capsule and pelvis is observed with age from the parenchyma at children from 6 to 12 years. The assessment of indicators of ultrasonic density of a kidney at 40 children with pyelonephritis is carried out. At children with acute pyelonephritis moderate increase of ultrasonic density of a capsule and sharp increase of coefficient of ultrasonic density of the renal pelvis was registered. The ultrasonic density of cortical substance at acute pyelonephritis decreased in 86.4 % of cases, and medullary substance — in 61.1 % of cases. The ultrasonic density of tubules decreased slightly, but in 72 % of cases. At chronic pyelonephritis in the period of the exacerbation the changes of ultrasonic density were similar: moderate increase of ultrasonic density of renal capsule and pelvis that was accompanied by moderate decrease in ultrasonic density of cortical and medullar substance.

  11. Dietary adequacy of Egyptian children with autism spectrum disorder compared to healthy developing children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meguid, Nagwa A; Anwar, Mona; Bjørklund, Geir; Hashish, Adel; Chirumbolo, Salvatore; Hemimi, Maha; Sultan, Eman

    2017-04-01

    Although the etiology and pathology of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is still poorly understood, a number of environmental, anthropological, neurobiological and genetic factors have been related to the pathophysiology of ASD, even the impact of oxidative stress response related to the environment and nutrition intake. Usual recommended dietary habits are based on the combination of behavioral and dietary or nutraceutical interventions together with pharmacotherapy. Investigations about a reliable relationship between diet and ASD are still lacking. The present study aimed at comparing dietary regimens and habits of normally developing apparently healthy children, without diagnosed ASD, with a pediatric population of individuals affected by autistic disorder. Assessments of nutritional and anthropometric data, in addition to biochemical evaluation for nutrient deficiencies, were performed. A total of 80 children with autistic disorder and 80 healthy, normally developing pediatric individuals were enrolled in the study. Parents were asked to complete the standardized questionnaire regarding the different types of food and the proportion of a serving for their children. Biochemical analysis of micro- and macronutrients were also done. Plotting on the Egyptian sex-specific anthropometric growth (auximetric) chart, absolute weights as well as weight-related for age classes, were significantly higher in cases than healthy controls. No differences between groups were observed in regard to total kilocalories (kcal), carbohydrates, and fat intake. A total of 23.8% of children with autistic disorder vs. 11.3% in the healthy control group had a nutrient intake with features below the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) of protein. Children with autistic disorder showed low dietary intake of some micronutrients; calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), iron (Fe), selenium (Se) and sodium (Na), also they had significantly high intake of potassium (K) and vitamin C compared to healthy

  12. Oral Biofilm Sampling for Microbiome Analysis in Healthy Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santigli, Elisabeth; Koller, Martin; Klug, Barbara

    2017-12-31

    Oral biofilm and its molecular analysis provide a basis for investigating various dental research and clinical questions. Knowledge of biofilm composition leads to a better understanding of cariogenic and periopathogenic mechanisms. Microbial changes taking place in the oral cavity during childhood are of interest for several reasons. The evolution of the child oral microbiota and shifts in its composition need to be analyzed further to understand and possibly prevent the onset of disease. At the same time, advanced knowledge of the natural composition of oral biofilm is needed. Early stages of caries-free permanent dentition with healthy gums provide a widely unaffected subgingival habitat that can serve as an in situ baseline for studying features of oral health and disease. Analysis of children's oral biofilm during different stages in life is thus an important theme in the field. Modern molecular analysis methods can provide comprehensive information about the bacterial diversity of such biofilms. To enable microbiota data comparison, it is important to standardize each step in the procedure for molecular data generation. This procedure spans from clinical sampling, Next Generation Sequencing (NGS), bioinformatic data processing, to taxonomic interpretation. One of the most critical factors here is biofilm sampling. Sampling in children is even more challenging in particular due to limited space in subgingival areas. We thus focus on the use of paper points for subgingival sampling. This article provides a detailed protocol for oral biofilm sampling of the subgingival sulcus, the mucosa, and saliva in children.

  13. High frequency oscillations after median nerve stimulations in healthy children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanini, Sergio; Del Piero, Ivana; Martucci, Lucia; Restuccia, Domenico

    2017-10-01

    The aim of the present research was to address somatosensory high frequency oscillations (400-800Hz) in healthy children and adolescents in comparison with healthy adults. We recorded somatosensory evoked potentials following median nerve stimulation in nineteen resting healthy children/adolescents and in nineteen resting healthy adults with eyes closed. We administered six consecutive stimulation blocks (500 sweeps each). The presynaptic component of high frequency oscillations amplitudes was smaller in healthy children/adolescents than in healthy adults (no difference between groups was found as far as the postsynaptic component was concerned). Healthy children/adolescents had smaller presynaptic component than the postsynaptic one (the postsynaptic component amplitude was 145% of the presynaptic one), while healthy adults showed the opposite (reduction of the postsynaptic component to 80% of the presynaptic one). No habituation phenomena concerning high frequency oscillation amplitudes were registered in neither healthy children/adolescents nor healthy adults. These findings suggest that healthy children/adolescents present with significantly different pattern of somatosensory high frequency oscillations compared with healthy adults' ones. This different pattern is reasonably expression of higher cortical excitability of the developing brain cortex. Copyright © 2017 ISDN. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... the patient. Because ultrasound images are captured in real-time, they can show the structure and movement ... of vomiting in young infants Because ultrasound provides real-time images, images that are renewed continuously, it ...

  15. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... patient. Because ultrasound images are captured in real-time, they can show the structure and movement of ... vomiting in young infants Because ultrasound provides real-time images, images that are renewed continuously, it also ...

  16. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... are the limitations of Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging? What is Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging? Ultrasound is safe and painless, ... top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? Abdominal ultrasound imaging is performed to ...

  17. Children's (Pediatric) Magnetic Resonance Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... story about radiology? Share your patient story here Images × Image Gallery Radiologist prepping patient for magnetic resonance imaging ( ... possible charges you will incur. Web page review process: This Web page is reviewed regularly by a ...

  18. Comparison of six-minute walk test in children with moderate/severe asthma with reference values for healthy children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia Barboza de Andrade

    2014-05-01

    Conclusions: asthmatic children's performance in the 6MWT evaluated through distance walked is significantly lower than the predicted values for healthy children of the same age, and is directly influenced by sedentary life style.

  19. ATTITUDES OF HEALTHY CHILDREN PARENTS TOWARDS HANDICAPPED CHILDREN AT THE PRE-SCHOOL AGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruzica KERAMICIEVA

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1970-ties, in the USA and Western and Eastern Europe, the model of segregated education has been abandoned, and nowadays the handicapped children attend regular schools all together with other healthy pupils. This , so called Integrative Pedagogy, proceeds from the mental hygiene aspects according to which the restrictive environment in special schools has not been a favorable one for the development of those children.The integrational process of these children in preschool institutions and schools has rather been difficult due to a number of reasons. As one of them, already mentioned and found in literature , has been the negative attitude of non-handicapped children parents towards those handicapped in their development.The problem of this research is to check and test the attitude of healthy children parents towards handicapped children at preschool age. This research shall also tend to analyze the origin of the such attitudes i. e. , whether they have been a result of an insufficient information and ignorance of the obstacles during development, or been produced by imitation of the environment, or due to an empathy, or even because of the fear that “ such a thing better never enter their home”, etc.We sincerely believe that, revealing the above parents’ attitudes and their origin, would certainly bring finding ways of their successful socialization and making the integrational process of handicapped children with their normal mates in preschool institutions easier.

  20. Vitamin B12 absorption capacity in healthy children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hjelt, K.; Krasilnikoff, P.A.

    1986-03-01

    B12 absorption was investigated in 47 healthy children aged 7 months to 15.8 years (median 4.9 years). The patients had either recovered from giardiasis, the post-gastroenteritis syndrome, or had celiac disease in remission (treated with a gluten-free diet). The B12 absorption was measured by a double-isotope technique using /sup 57/CoB12 and /sup 51/CrCl/sub 3/, the latter being the inabsorbable marker. The radiation dose was minimal. The results were presented as fractional absorption of B12 (FAB12). Within the different age groups, the absorption test was performed by means of the following oral amounts of B12: 0- less than 1 year, 0.5 microgram; 1-3 years: 1.7 micrograms, 4-6 years, 2.5 micrograms; 7-10 years; 3.3 micrograms; and 11-15 years, 4.5 micrograms. When using these oral amounts of B12, the medians (and ranges) of FAB12 were found to be: 1-3 years (n = 18), 37% (16-80%); 4-6 years (n = 10), 27% (19-40%); 7-10 years (n = 9), 32% (21-44%); and 11-15 years (n = 8), 27% (19-59%). The FAB12 in two children aged 7 and 11 months was 31% and 32%, respectively. These results may be interpretated as reference values for B12 absorption in children. Further absorption tests were performed in seven children representing the four age groups from 1 to 15 years. When a high oral amount of B12 was given (i.e., three times the saturation dose), the FAB12 ranged from 0 to 20% (median 9%), whereas a low amount (i.e., one-ninth of the saturation dose) produced fractional absorptions from 65 to 82% (median 74%).

  1. Plasma leptin levels in healthy children and adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blum, W F; Englaro, P; Hanitsch, S

    1997-01-01

    Leptin, the product of the ob gene, is thought to play a key role in the regulation of body fat mass. Beyond this function, it appears to be an integral component of various hypothalamo-pituitary-endocrine feedback loops. Because childhood and puberty are periods of major metabolic and endocrine...... changes, leptin levels and various hormonal parameters were investigated in a large cohort of healthy children and adolescents (312 males, 401 females, age 5.8-19.9 yr). For this purpose, a specific and sensitive RIA was developed that allowed the accurate measurement of low leptin levels in young lean...... line of the form leptin = a*e(b*BMI) and stratifying ranges according to gender and pubertal stage. In conclusion, these data suggest that 1) plasma leptin levels increase in girls and decrease in boys after Tanner stage 2 as the pubertal development proceeds; 2) they show a significant gender...

  2. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... in the abdomen, arms, legs, neck and/or brain (in infants and children) or within various body ... children. It is also valuable for evaluating the brain, spinal cord and hip joints in newborns and ...

  3. Children's (Pediatric) Magnetic Resonance Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... used. In general, children who have recently been ill will not be sedated or anesthetized. If this ... home. In general, children who have recently been ill will not be sedated or anesthetized. If this ...

  4. Urinary growth hormone excretion in 657 healthy children and adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Main, K; Philips, M; Jørgensen, M

    1991-01-01

    .0001) with maximum values in Tanner stage 3 for girls and 4 for boys. This corresponded to a peak in u-GH excretion between 11.5-14.5 years in girls and 12.5-16 years in boys. Additionally, u-GH excretion in adults was significantly higher than in prepubertal children (p less than 0.001). The day/night ratio of u......-GH excretion (pg/h) was significantly higher in females than in males (p less than 0.01). In Tanner stages 1-4, u-GH excretion during the day was lower than that at night, whereas the opposite was true in late puberty and in adult women. The interindividual variation of u-GH excretion within the same Tanner......Urinary growth hormone (u-GH) excretion was measured in 547 healthy children and 110 adults by ELISA with a detection limit of 1.1 ng/l u-GH after prior concentration of the urine samples (20- to 30-fold). u-GH excretion values were significantly dependent on the pubertal stage (p less than 0...

  5. A comparison of the gingival health of children with Down syndrome to healthy children residing in an institution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morinushi, Takanobu; Lopatin, Dennis E; Nakao, Rie; Kinjyo, Sachiko

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the onset and severity of gingivitis in children with Down syndrome, when compared to a healthy control group of children. The subjects included 41 children with Down syndrome ages two to 14 years (mean age: 7.6 years) and 112 age-matched healthy controls. We assessed the gingival health of all subjects using the gingival inflammation (M-PMA) index and periodontal probing depth (PD). Children were divided into three age categories: children showed an age-related increase (F = 10.369, p syndrome were significantly higher than those for healthy children (p children with Down syndrome showed an age-related increase in the BANA test score (F = 3.452, p children was not age-related but was significantly higher than that in the children with Down syndrome (p < 0.02, p < 0.05).

  6. Non-pharmacological Management of Fever in Otherwise Healthy Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Robin; Robertson, Jeanette

    2012-01-01

    Fever is a common childhood problem faced in both hospital and community settings. In many cases the fever is associated with mild to moderate self-limiting illnesses. There has been a rapid increase in antipyretic use as the means of managing or treating this adaptive physiological response to infection. The use of alternative means of caring for a febrile child could minimise the amount of antipyretics administered to children and thereby reduce the potential risks. The objective of this systematic review was to establish what non-pharmacological practices are effective in managing fever in children, three months to 12 years of age, who are otherwise healthy. Interventions for inclusion were physiological e.g. maintenance of hydration and rest, and external cooling, either direct e.g. sponging, clothing, or environmental e.g. fans, ambient temperature. Outcomes of interest were effect on fever, increase in comfort, decrease in parental anxiety and reduction in unnecessary use of health services. The search sought English, Spanish, Portuguese, Mandarin and Italian language studies, published 2001-2011 in 12 major databases. Critical appraisal of and data extraction from eligible studies were undertaken using standardised tools developed by the Joanna Briggs Institute. As statistical pooling of data was precluded, the findings are presented in narrative form. Twelve randomised controlled trials were included, involving 986 children in total. Only one intervention identified in the review protocol - direct external cooling measures - was addressed by the studies. Eleven studies included sponging as an intervention while one also included clothing (unwrapping). No studies investigated physiological interventions, (e.g. hydration or rest), or environmental cooling measures, (e.g. fans or ambient temperature) as separate interventions. Three of these interventions (encouragement of fluid intake, rest and fans) were reported as part of the standard care provided to

  7. Validating Reference Equations for Impulse Oscillometry in Healthy Mexican Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gochicoa-Rangel, Laura; Del Río-Hidalgo, Rodrigo; Hernández-Ruiz, Juana; Rodríguez-Moreno, Luis; Martínez-Briseño, David; Mora-Romero, Uri; Cid-Juárez, Silvia; García-Sancho, Cecilia; Torre-Bouscoulet, Luis

    2017-09-01

    The impulse oscillometry system (IOS) measures the impedance (Z) of the respiratory system, but proper interpretation of its results requires adequate reference values. The objectives of this work were: (1) to validate the reference equations for the IOS published previously by our group and (2) to compare the adjustment of new available reference equations for the IOS from different countries in a sample of healthy children. Subjects were healthy 4-15-y-old children from the metropolitan area of Mexico City, who performed an IOS test. The functional IOS parameters obtained were compared with the predicted values from 12 reference equations determined in studies of different ethnic groups. The validation methods applied were: analysis of the differences between measured and predicted values for each reference equation; correlation and concordance coefficients; adjustment by Z-score values; percentage of predicted value; and the percentage of patients below the lower limit of normality or above the upper limit of normality. Of the 224 participants, 117 (52.3%) were girls, and the mean age was 8.6 ± 2.3 y. The equations that showed the best adjustment for the different parameters were those from the studies by Nowowiejska et al (2008) and Gochicoa et al (2015). The equations proposed by Frei et al (2005), Hellinckx et al (1998), Kalhoff et al (2011), Klug and Bisgaard (1998), de Assumpção et al (2016), and Dencker et al (2006) overestimated the airway resistance of the children in our sample, whereas the equation of Amra et al (2008) underestimated it. In the analysis of the lower and upper limits of normality, Gochicoa et al equation was the closest, since 5% of subjects were below or above percentiles 5 and 95, respectively. The study found that, in general, all of the equations showed greater error at the extremes of the age distribution. Because of the robust adjustment of the present study reference equations for the IOS, it can be recommended for both

  8. Sleep promotes consolidation of emotional memory in healthy children but not in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Prehn-Kristensen

    Full Text Available Fronto-limbic brain activity during sleep is believed to support the consolidation of emotional memories in healthy adults. Attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is accompanied by emotional deficits coincidently caused by dysfunctional interplay of fronto-limbic circuits. This study aimed to examine the role of sleep in the consolidation of emotional memory in ADHD in the context of healthy development. 16 children with ADHD, 16 healthy children, and 20 healthy adults participated in this study. Participants completed an emotional picture recognition paradigm in sleep and wake control conditions. Each condition had an immediate (baseline and delayed (target retrieval session. The emotional memory bias was baseline-corrected, and groups were compared in terms of sleep-dependent memory consolidation (sleep vs. wake. We observed an increased sleep-dependent emotional memory bias in healthy children compared to children with ADHD and healthy adults. Frontal oscillatory EEG activity (slow oscillations, theta during sleep correlated negatively with emotional memory performance in children with ADHD. When combining data of healthy children and adults, correlation coefficients were positive and differed from those in children with ADHD. Since children displayed a higher frontal EEG activity than adults these data indicate a decline in sleep-related consolidation of emotional memory in healthy development. In addition, it is suggested that deficits in sleep-related selection between emotional and non-emotional memories in ADHD exacerbate emotional problems during daytime as they are often reported in ADHD.

  9. Sleep promotes consolidation of emotional memory in healthy children but not in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prehn-Kristensen, Alexander; Munz, Manuel; Molzow, Ina; Wilhelm, Ines; Wiesner, Christian D; Baving, Lioba

    2013-01-01

    Fronto-limbic brain activity during sleep is believed to support the consolidation of emotional memories in healthy adults. Attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is accompanied by emotional deficits coincidently caused by dysfunctional interplay of fronto-limbic circuits. This study aimed to examine the role of sleep in the consolidation of emotional memory in ADHD in the context of healthy development. 16 children with ADHD, 16 healthy children, and 20 healthy adults participated in this study. Participants completed an emotional picture recognition paradigm in sleep and wake control conditions. Each condition had an immediate (baseline) and delayed (target) retrieval session. The emotional memory bias was baseline-corrected, and groups were compared in terms of sleep-dependent memory consolidation (sleep vs. wake). We observed an increased sleep-dependent emotional memory bias in healthy children compared to children with ADHD and healthy adults. Frontal oscillatory EEG activity (slow oscillations, theta) during sleep correlated negatively with emotional memory performance in children with ADHD. When combining data of healthy children and adults, correlation coefficients were positive and differed from those in children with ADHD. Since children displayed a higher frontal EEG activity than adults these data indicate a decline in sleep-related consolidation of emotional memory in healthy development. In addition, it is suggested that deficits in sleep-related selection between emotional and non-emotional memories in ADHD exacerbate emotional problems during daytime as they are often reported in ADHD.

  10. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... you! Do you have a personal story about radiology? Share your patient story here Images × Image Gallery ... reviewed by committees from the American College of Radiology (ACR) and the Radiological Society of North America ( ...

  11. Children's (Pediatric) Magnetic Resonance Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... you! Do you have a personal story about radiology? Share your patient story here Images × Image Gallery ... reviewed by committees from the American College of Radiology (ACR) and the Radiological Society of North America ( ...

  12. Children's (Pediatric) Magnetic Resonance Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Children’s (Pediatric) Magnetic Resonance Imaging Children’s magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) uses a powerful magnetic field, radio waves ...

  13. Children's (Pediatric) Magnetic Resonance Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... information, consult your radiologist. The computer workstation that processes the imaging information is located in a separate ... in contact with the patient. A computer then processes the signals and generates a series of images, ...

  14. Children's (Pediatric) Magnetic Resonance Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... determine the presence of certain diseases. The images can then be examined on a computer monitor, transmitted ... for imaging the joints and bones, where it can help: diagnose sports-related injuries detect the presence ...

  15. Children's (Pediatric) Magnetic Resonance Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Children’s (Pediatric) Magnetic Resonance Imaging Children’s magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) uses a powerful magnetic field, radio ...

  16. Children's (Pediatric) Magnetic Resonance Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... Detailed MR images allow physicians to evaluate various parts of the body and determine the presence of ... machine and in some cases, placed around the part of the body being imaged, send and receive ...

  17. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... What are the limitations of Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging? What is Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging? Ultrasound is safe and painless, and produces pictures of the inside of the body using ...

  18. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... real-time images, images that are renewed continuously, it also can be used to guide procedures such ... of a testicle limiting proper blood flow into it. top of page How should we prepare for ...

  19. Children's (Pediatric) Magnetic Resonance Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... monitors so that your child may watch a movie or TV show during the exam. It is ... patient for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) exam. View full size with caption Pediatric Content Some imaging tests ...

  20. Children's (Pediatric) Magnetic Resonance Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... older open MRI units may not provide this same image quality. Certain types of exams cannot be ... obtain clear images. Patient movement can have the same effect. A very irregular heartbeat may affect the ...

  1. Children's (Pediatric) Magnetic Resonance Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... imaging (MRI) uses a powerful magnetic field, radio waves and a computer to produce detailed pictures of ... the body being imaged, send and receive radio waves, producing signals that are detected by the coils. ...

  2. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... What are the limitations of Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging? What is Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging? Ultrasound is safe and ... as the liver or kidneys. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? Abdominal ...

  3. Children's (Pediatric) Magnetic Resonance Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... clarification with additional views or a special imaging technique. A follow-up examination may also be necessary ... vs. risks? Benefits MRI is a noninvasive imaging technique that does not involve exposure to ionizing radiation. ...

  4. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... story about radiology? Share your patient story here Images × Image Gallery Pediatric radiologist scanning a boy's abdomen using ... possible charges you will incur. Web page review process: This Web page is reviewed regularly by a ...

  5. Children's (Pediatric) Magnetic Resonance Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... claustrophobia. Newer open MRI units provide very high quality images for many types of exams; however, older ... MRI units may not provide this same image quality. Certain types of exams cannot be performed using ...

  6. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... to-use and less expensive than other imaging methods. Ultrasound imaging is extremely safe and does not ... barium exams, CT scanning , and MRI are the methods of choice in such a setting. Large patients ...

  7. Children's (Pediatric) Magnetic Resonance Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... identify and accurately characterize diseases than other imaging methods. This detail makes MRI an invaluable tool in ... might be obscured by bone with other imaging methods. The contrast material used in MRI exams is ...

  8. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... ultrasound. top of page How does the procedure work? Ultrasound imaging is based on the same principles ... improve the quality of the images. A clear water-based gel is applied to the area of ...

  9. Children's (Pediatric) Magnetic Resonance Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... images in case additional images are needed. Your child’s intravenous line will be removed. MRI exams generally include multiple runs (sequences), some of which may last several ...

  10. Children's (Pediatric) Magnetic Resonance Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Children’s (Pediatric) Magnetic Resonance Imaging Children’s magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) uses a powerful ... of Children’s (Pediatric) MRI? What is Children’s (Pediatric) MRI? Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a noninvasive medical ...

  11. Children's (Pediatric) Magnetic Resonance Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Children’s (Pediatric) Magnetic Resonance Imaging Children’s magnetic resonance imaging ( ... the limitations of Children’s (Pediatric) MRI? What is Children’s (Pediatric) MRI? Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a ...

  12. Children's (Pediatric) Magnetic Resonance Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... of which shows a thin slice of the body. The images can then be studied from different angles by ... is normal for the area of your child’s body being imaged to feel slightly ... still while the images are being obtained, which is typically only a ...

  13. Children's (Pediatric) Magnetic Resonance Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Children’s (Pediatric) Magnetic Resonance Imaging Children’s magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) ... limitations of Children’s (Pediatric) MRI? What is Children’s (Pediatric) MRI? Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a noninvasive ...

  14. Cyprus Children's Images of Scientists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjikyriacou, Ritsa Maria

    1998-01-01

    Describes an attempt to determine if there were gender or age differences in the images that 11- to 14-year-old students have of scientists. Results indicate that as female students get older they adopt and project a more stereotypic image of scientists, whereas male students seem to harbor a less stereotypic image of scientists as they age.…

  15. Child perceptions of parental care and overprotection in children with cancer and healthy children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillery, Rachel; Long, Alanna; Phipps, Sean

    2014-06-01

    The primary aims of this study were to: (a) examine child perceptions of overprotection; and (b) explore how these perceptions relate to child health and adjustment. Children with a prior diagnosis of cancer (n = 205) and children without a history of serious illness (n = 76) reported on parental overprotective and caring behaviors. Children with cancer were recruited from one of four strata based on the elapsed time since their cancer diagnosis (1-6 months; 6-24 months; 2-5 years; >5 years) Children also reported on symptoms of depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress. Children with cancer did not differ from healthy children in their perceptions of parental care or overprotection. Child distress was more strongly related to perceptions of care and overprotection than child's health status. Children with cancer do not report their parents approach to care and protection differently than children without a cancer history. These findings mirror prior research examining parental perceptions of overprotection and suggest that, despite the challenges of parenting a child with serious illness, parental protection is not significantly altered.

  16. Neural Activation During Cognitive Emotion Regulation in Previously Depressed Compared to Healthy Children: Evidence of Specific Alterations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belden, Andy C; Pagliaccio, David; Murphy, Eric R; Luby, Joan L; Barch, Deanna M

    2015-09-01

    Impairments in cognitive emotion regulation (CER) have been linked to functional neural abnormalities and the pathogenesis of major depressive disorder (MDD). Few functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have investigated the neural underpinnings of CER in samples with depression. As CER develops in childhood, understanding dysfunctional CER-related alterations in brain function during this period could advance knowledge of the developmental psychopathology of MDD. This study tested whether neural activity in brain regions known to support cognitive reappraisal differed between healthy 7- to 15-year-old children and same-age peers with a history of MDD (MDD-ever). A total of 64 children participated in this event-related fMRI study, which used a developmentally appropriate and validated fMRI reappraisal task. Children were instructed to passively view sad or neutral images and to decrease negative emotions using cognitive reappraisal. MDD-ever and healthy children showed similar patterns of cortical activation during reappraisal, but with a significant difference found in 1 key CER region, the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG). In addition, individual differences in CER were associated with left IFG activity during reappraisal. Alterations in the neurocircuitry of reappraisal are evident in children with a depression history compared to healthy controls. The finding that MDD-ever children showed reappraisal-related neural responses in many regions similar to healthy controls has clinical implications. Findings suggest that identification of alterations in reappraisal in children with remitted depression, for whom much, although not all, of the neural circuitry remains intact, may be an important window of opportunity for intervention. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Cardiorespiratory and Biomechanical Responses to Simulated Recreational Horseback Riding in Healthy Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigby, Brandon R.; Papadakis, Zacharias; Bane, Annie A.; Park, Jin K.; Grandjean, Peter W.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the reliability of cardiorespiratory and pelvic kinematic responses to simulated horseback riding (SHBR) and to characterize responses to SHBR relative to walking in apparently healthy children. Method: Fifteen healthy children (Mage = 9.5 ± 2.6 years) completed SHBR on a commercially available…

  18. Encouraging Lifelong Healthy Habits for a Positive Body Image in Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Christine

    This article discusses issues related to body image in adolescents, explaining what school practitioners can do to encourage lifelong healthy habits that enhance body image. Body image is the picture of physical self carried in the mind's eye. This impression can have little resemblance to how a teen actually looks. Body image culturalization is…

  19. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... effects, and is particularly valuable for evaluating abdominal, pelvic or scrotal pain in children. Preparation will depend on the type ... aspiration. Ultrasound is particularly valuable for evaluating abdominal, pelvic or scrotal pain in young children. It is also valuable for ...

  20. Imaging of constipation in infants and children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fotter, R. [Division of Pediatric Radiology, Department of Radiology, University Hospital Graz (Austria)

    1998-03-01

    The aims of this review article are to present epidemiology, important definitions, clinical considerations, and etiologic and pathogenetic aspects of constipation in infants and children. Anatomy, physiology, and pathophysiology of the the anorectum are described. Special attention is given to the indications for diagnostic imaging, imaging techniques, and imaging findings with different causes of constipation. Other diagnostic modalities, such as anorectal manometry, electromyography, and biopsy techniques are briefly discussed. The central question as to whether diagnostic imaging is needed for the diagnostic workup of infants and children suffering from constipation can be answered affirmatively. Especially the combination of barium enema or defecography and anorectal manometry allows definition of those infants and children who do not need biopsy and surgery for Hirschsprung`s disease. The special role of defecography in this context is underlined. (orig.) With 8 figs., 1 tab., 73 refs.

  1. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... appendix stomach/ pylorus liver gallbladder spleen pancreas intestines kidneys bladder testicles ovaries uterus Abdominal ultrasound images can be used to help diagnose appendicitis ...

  2. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... internal organs, as well as blood flowing through blood vessels. Ultrasound imaging is a noninvasive medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. ...

  3. Children's (Pediatric) Magnetic Resonance Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... monitor infectious or inflammatory disorders monitor response to cancer treatment MRI is often the best choice for ... diagnose developmental joint abnormalities in children detect bone cancer inspect the marrow for leukemia and other diseases ...

  4. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... not use ionizing radiation, has no known harmful effects, and is particularly valuable for evaluating abdominal, pelvic or scrotal pain in children. Preparation will depend on the type of examination. ...

  5. Children's (Pediatric) Magnetic Resonance Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... Children will be given appropriately sized earplugs or headphones during the exam. MRI scanners are air-conditioned ... well-lit. Music may be played through the headphones to help your child pass the time. Some ...

  6. Children's (Pediatric) Magnetic Resonance Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... or thyroid problems. Any of these conditions may influence the decision on whether contrast material will be ... bear denotes child-specific content. Related Articles and Media Catheter Angiography Magnetic Resonance, Functional (fMRI) - Brain Children's ( ...

  7. Children's (Pediatric) Magnetic Resonance Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... x-ray contrast material, drugs, food, or the environment, or if your child has asthma. The contrast ... are also screened for safety in the magnetic environment. Children will be given appropriately sized earplugs or ...

  8. Children's (Pediatric) Magnetic Resonance Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... Jewelry and other accessories should be left at home if possible, or removed prior to the MRI ... she is sufficiently awake to be safely sent home. In general, children who have recently been ill ...

  9. Children's (Pediatric) Magnetic Resonance Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... scanner. top of page How does the procedure work? Unlike conventional x-ray examinations and computed tomography ( ... as long as they are also screened for safety in the magnetic environment. Children will be given ...

  10. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... particularly valuable for evaluating abdominal, pelvic or scrotal pain in children. Preparation will depend on the type ... help a physician determine the source of abdominal pain, such as gallstones, kidney stones, abscesses or an ...

  11. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... arteries and veins in the abdomen, arms, legs, neck and/or brain (in infants and children) or ... type your comment or suggestion into the following text box: Comment: E-mail: Area code: Phone no: ...

  12. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... arteries and veins in the abdomen, arms, legs, neck and/or brain (in infants and children) or ... help a physician determine the source of abdominal pain, such as gallstones, kidney stones, abscesses or an ...

  13. Children's (Pediatric) Magnetic Resonance Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... bones of the skull and spine without radiation. MRI of the brain and spine is used to: detect a variety ... and Media Catheter Angiography Magnetic Resonance, Functional (fMRI) - Brain Children's (Pediatric) CT ... and Radiation Safety ...

  14. Children's (Pediatric) Magnetic Resonance Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... children detect bone cancer inspect the marrow for leukemia and other diseases assess bone loss examine complex fractures top of page How should I prepare my child for the MRI? Your child may be asked ...

  15. Children's (Pediatric) Magnetic Resonance Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... scanner. top of page How does the procedure work? Unlike conventional x-ray examinations and computed tomography ( ... are also screened for safety in the magnetic environment. Children will be given appropriately sized earplugs or ...

  16. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

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    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician ... imaging of the abdomen is a safe, noninvasive test that uses sound waves to produce a clear ...

  17. Children's (Pediatric) Magnetic Resonance Imaging

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    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician ... Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a noninvasive medical test that physicians use to diagnose medical conditions. MRI ...

  18. Children's (Pediatric) Magnetic Resonance Imaging

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    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos ... the body and determine the presence of certain diseases. The images can then be examined on a ...

  19. Children's (Pediatric) Magnetic Resonance Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... effect. A very irregular heartbeat may affect the quality of images obtained using techniques that time the imaging based on the electrical activity of the heart, such as electrocardiography (ECG). MRI typically costs more and may take more time to perform ...

  20. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... do not use ionizing radiation (as used in x-rays ), thus there is no radiation exposure to the ... tissues that do not show up well on x-ray images. Ultrasound provides real-time imaging, making it ...

  1. Children's (Pediatric) Magnetic Resonance Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... it difficult to lie still during imaging. A person who is very large may not fit into the opening of certain types of MRI machines. The presence of an implant or other metallic object sometimes makes it difficult to obtain clear images. Patient movement ...

  2. Children's (Pediatric) Magnetic Resonance Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... other internal body structures. MRI does not use ionizing radiation (x-rays). Detailed MR images allow physicians to evaluate various parts of the ... open MRI units may not provide this same image quality. Certain types of exams ... ionizing radiation. Instead, radiofrequency pulses re-align hydrogen atoms that ...

  3. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... then uses those sound waves to create an image. Ultrasound examinations do not use ionizing radiation (as used in x-rays ), thus there is no radiation exposure to the patient. Because ultrasound images are captured in real-time, they can show ...

  4. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... pictures are typically captured as still images. Short video loops of the images may also be saved. Doppler ultrasound, a special application of ultrasound, measures the direction and speed of blood cells as they move through vessels. The movement of blood cells causes a change in pitch ...

  5. Children's (Pediatric) Magnetic Resonance Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... of which shows a thin slice of the body. The images can then be studied from different angles by ... object sometimes makes it difficult to obtain clear images. Patient movement can have the same effect. A very irregular heartbeat may affect the quality ...

  6. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... the amplitude (loudness), frequency (pitch) and time it takes for the ultrasound signal to return from the ... like sounds that change in pitch as the blood flow is monitored and measured. Once the imaging ... The costs for specific medical imaging tests, treatments and procedures may vary by geographic region. ...

  7. Abdominal fat and blood pressure in healthy young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Maria A C; Uiterwaal, Cuno S P M; Visseren, Frank L J; van der Ent, Cornelis K; Grobbee, Diederick E; Dalmeijer, Geertje W

    2016-09-01

    High blood pressure (BP) and obesity are well known risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. Both risk factors exert an influence early in life, and BP is related to body weight. However, the effect of abdominal fat accumulation on BP in childhood is still unclear. We aimed to determine the relation between visceral adipose tissue (VAT), subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and BP in young children. In 862 healthy 5-year-old children of the Wheezing-Illnesses-Study-Leidsche-Rijn birth cohort, VAT and SAT were measured ultrasonographically. SBP and DBP were measured in sitting and supine postures using a semi-automatic oscillometric device. General linear regression analyses were performed to assess associations between abdominal fat and BP adjusted for confounders. Further explanatory models were run to explore if associations with localized abdominal fat distributions were independent of measures of overall body adiposity. Each millimeter increase in VAT was related to 0.17 mmHg (95% confidence interval: 0.08; 0.3) and 0.11 mmHg (0.02; 0.2) higher sitting SBP and DBP, respectively. These associations remained after additional adjustment for BMI (SBP: 0.14 mmHg/mm, 0.05; 0.2; DBP: 0.11 mmHg/mm, 0.02; 0.2), waist circumference (SBP: 0.16 mmHg/mm, 0.06; 0.3; DBP: 0.12 mmHg/mm, 0.03; 0.2) or early life growth (SBP: 0.16 mmHg/mm, 0.07; 0.3; DBP: 0.115 mmHg/mm, 0.03; 0.2). Associations between VAT and supine SBP and DBP were, respectively, 0.14 mmHg/mm (0.06; 0.2) and 0.08 mmHg/mm (0.004; 0.2), which remained after further explanatory analyses. SAT was not associated to SBP or DBP. Independent of body size, children with more VAT have higher BP, especially when measured in sitting posture.

  8. Chlamydia pneumoniae infection among healthy children and children hospitalised with pneumonia in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triga, M G; Anthracopoulos, M B; Saikku, P; Syrogiannopoulos, G A

    2002-04-01

    Chlamydia pneumoniae has been recognized as a cause of respiratory tract infection in humans, and its prevalence has been shown to vary among different age groups and populations. The prevalence of Chlamydia pneumoniae antibody was determined by serological investigation in 343 healthy children and in 77 children consecutively hospitalised for pneumonia in southwestern Greece. Seventy-eight (22.7%) healthy children had IgG Chlamydia pneumoniae titers > or =1/8. The prevalence of Chlamydia pneumoniae antibody in the age groups 6 months-5 years, 6-9 years and 10-15 years was 7.9%, 11.4% and 36%, respectively. One child hospitalised for pneumonia had serological results consistent with acute Chlamydia pneumoniae infection. The results of the present study suggest a low prevalence of Chlamydia pneumoniae antibody among preschoolers in Greece, followed by a steep rise in children 10-15 years of age. Chlamydia pneumoniae is not a common etiologic agent of childhood pneumonia requiring hospitalisation.

  9. Cortical maturation and myelination in healthy toddlers and young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deoni, Sean C L; Dean, Douglas C; Remer, Justin; Dirks, Holly; O'Muircheartaigh, Jonathan

    2015-07-15

    The maturation of cortical structures, and the establishment of their connectivity, are critical neurodevelopmental processes that support and enable cognitive and behavioral functioning. Measures of cortical development, including thickness, curvature, and gyrification have been extensively studied in older children, adolescents, and adults, revealing regional associations with cognitive performance, and alterations with disease or pathology. In addition to these gross morphometric measures, increased attention has recently focused on quantifying more specific indices of cortical structure, in particular intracortical myelination, and their relationship to cognitive skills, including IQ, executive functioning, and language performance. Here we analyze the progression of cortical myelination across early childhood, from 1 to 6 years of age, in vivo for the first time. Using two quantitative imaging techniques, namely T1 relaxation time and myelin water fraction (MWF) imaging, we characterize myelination throughout the cortex, examine developmental trends, and investigate hemispheric and gender-based differences. We present a pattern of cortical myelination that broadly mirrors established histological timelines, with somatosensory, motor and visual cortices myelinating by 1 year of age; and frontal and temporal cortices exhibiting more protracted myelination. Developmental trajectories, defined by logarithmic functions (increasing for MWF, decreasing for T1), were characterized for each of 68 cortical regions. Comparisons of trajectories between hemispheres and gender revealed no significant differences. Results illustrate the ability to quantitatively map cortical myelination throughout early neurodevelopment, and may provide an important new tool for investigating typical and atypical development. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Catching-up: Children with developmental coordination disorder compared to healthy children before and after sensorimotor therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niklasson, Mats; Norlander, Torsten; Niklasson, Irene; Rasmussen, Peder

    2017-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to (a) compare healthy children in terms of sensorimotor maturity to untreated children diagnosed with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) and (b) compare healthy children to diagnosed children following completed treatment with sensorimotor therapy. Participants were 298 children, 196 boys and 102 girls, distributed into a Norm group of healthy children (n = 99) and a group of children diagnosed with DCD (n = 199) with a total mean age of 8.77 years (SD = 2.88). Participants in both groups were assessed on instruments aimed to detect sensorimotor deviations. The children in the DCD group completed, during on average 36 months, sensorimotor therapy which comprised stereotypical fetal- and infant movements, vestibular stimulation, tactile stimulation, auditory stimulation, complementary play exercises, gross motor milestones, and sports-related gross motor skills. At the final visit a full assessment was once more performed. Results showed that the Norm group performed better on all sensorimotor tests as compared to the untreated children from the DCD group, with the exception of an audiometric test where both groups performed at the same level. Girls performed better on tests assessing proprioceptive and balance abilities. Results also showed, after controls for natural maturing effects, that the children from the DCD group after sensorimotor therapy did catch up with the healthy children. The concept of "catching-up" is used within developmental medicine but has not earlier been documented with regard to children and youth in connection with DCD.

  11. Catching-up: Children with developmental coordination disorder compared to healthy children before and after sensorimotor therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mats Niklasson

    Full Text Available The aims of the present study were to (a compare healthy children in terms of sensorimotor maturity to untreated children diagnosed with developmental coordination disorder (DCD and (b compare healthy children to diagnosed children following completed treatment with sensorimotor therapy. Participants were 298 children, 196 boys and 102 girls, distributed into a Norm group of healthy children (n = 99 and a group of children diagnosed with DCD (n = 199 with a total mean age of 8.77 years (SD = 2.88. Participants in both groups were assessed on instruments aimed to detect sensorimotor deviations. The children in the DCD group completed, during on average 36 months, sensorimotor therapy which comprised stereotypical fetal- and infant movements, vestibular stimulation, tactile stimulation, auditory stimulation, complementary play exercises, gross motor milestones, and sports-related gross motor skills. At the final visit a full assessment was once more performed. Results showed that the Norm group performed better on all sensorimotor tests as compared to the untreated children from the DCD group, with the exception of an audiometric test where both groups performed at the same level. Girls performed better on tests assessing proprioceptive and balance abilities. Results also showed, after controls for natural maturing effects, that the children from the DCD group after sensorimotor therapy did catch up with the healthy children. The concept of "catching-up" is used within developmental medicine but has not earlier been documented with regard to children and youth in connection with DCD.

  12. Fractional exhaled nitric oxide and multiple breath nitrogen washout in preschool healthy and asthmatic children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilmann, Lea; Buchvald, Frederik; Green, Kent

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Objectively assessing pulmonary disease is challenging in preschool children with asthma. We evaluated the feasibility of measuring fractional exhaled nitrogen oxide (FeNO) and multiple breath nitrogen washout (N2MBW) in children. We compared their capacities for discriminating between...... children with asthma and healthy controls. Methods We measured FeNO and N2MBW-derived indices of lung clearance (LCI2.5) and conductive and acinar ventilation heterogeneity (Scond and Sacin) in 65 preschool children; 35 with physician-diagnosed asthma and 30 healthy. FeNO was measured with a portable.......023), but similar FeNO, LCI2.5 and Sacinvalues. Conclusion The feasibility of measuring FeNO was highly age-dependent and not applicable in children under age 4. N2MBW was feasible in the majority of preschool children. Scond, but not FeNO, could discriminate between children with asthma and healthy controls....

  13. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... various body organs such as the liver or kidneys. top of page What are some common uses ... appendix stomach/ pylorus liver gallbladder spleen pancreas intestines kidneys bladder testicles ovaries uterus Abdominal ultrasound images can ...

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    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician Resources Professions Site ...

  15. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... time imaging, making it a good tool for guiding minimally invasive procedures such as needle biopsies and ... radiologist scanning a boy's abdomen using ultrasound. View full size with caption Related Articles and Media Appendicitis ...

  16. Children's (Pediatric) Magnetic Resonance Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... be removed. MRI exams generally include multiple runs (sequences), some of which may last several minutes. MR ... child will be able to relax between imaging sequences, but will be asked to maintain his/her ...

  17. Children's (Pediatric) Magnetic Resonance Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... treatment for a variety of conditions within the brain, chest, abdomen, pelvis and extremities. Tell your doctor ... or congenital abnormalities. When imaging of a child’s brain and spinal cord is needed, MRI is useful ...

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    Full Text Available ... child has a history of kidney disease or liver transplant, it will be necessary to perform a blood ... imaging modalities such as x-ray, CT and ultrasound. top of page How is the procedure performed? ...

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    Full Text Available ... used in a complementary role to echocardiography (heart ultrasound), computed tomography and catheter angiography to provide information ... imaging modalities such as x-ray, CT and ultrasound. top of page How is the procedure performed? ...

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    Full Text Available ... metallic items, which can distort MRI images removable dental work pens, pocket knives and eyeglasses body piercings ... from the contrast material, including nausea and local pain. Very rarely, patients are allergic to the contrast ...

  1. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... kidneys. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? Abdominal ultrasound imaging is performed ... the scanner by a cord. Some exams may use different transducers (with different capabilities) during a single ...

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    Full Text Available ... necessary and your child may resume their usual activities and normal diet immediately after the exam. A ... that time the imaging based on the electrical activity of the heart, such as electrocardiography (ECG). MRI ...

  4. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... and produces pictures of the inside of the body using sound waves. Ultrasound imaging, also called ultrasound ... from the probe through the gel into the body. The transducer collects the sounds that bounce back ...

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    Full Text Available ... the body while other areas, especially air-filled lungs, are poorly suited for ultrasound. top of page How does the procedure work? Ultrasound imaging is based on the same principles involved in the ...

  6. Children's (Pediatric) Magnetic Resonance Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... necessary, and your doctor will explain the exact reason why another exam is needed. Sometimes a follow- ... it difficult to lie still during imaging. A person who is very large may not fit into ...

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    Full Text Available ... ultrasound. top of page How does the procedure work? Ultrasound imaging is based on the same principles ... will share the results with you. In some cases, the radiologist may discuss results with you at ...

  8. Children's (Pediatric) Magnetic Resonance Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... examinations may require your child to receive an injection of contrast material into the bloodstream. The radiologist , ... images will be taken during or following the injection. When the examination is complete, you and your ...

  9. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... the returning echoes from the tissues in the body. The principles are similar to sonar used by boats and submarines. The ultrasound image is immediately visible on a video display screen ...

  10. Children's (Pediatric) Magnetic Resonance Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... joints and bones, where it can help: diagnose sports-related injuries detect the presence of an otherwise ... is because traction devices and many types of life support equipment may distort the MR images and ...

  11. Children's (Pediatric) Magnetic Resonance Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... to cancer treatment MRI is often the best choice for imaging the joints and bones, where it ... This detail makes MRI an invaluable tool in early diagnosis and evaluation of many focal lesions and ...

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    Full Text Available ... magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) uses a powerful magnetic field, radio waves and a computer to produce detailed ... problems, medications, recent surgeries and allergies. The magnetic field is not harmful, but it may cause some ...

  13. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... display screen that looks like a computer or television monitor. The image is created based on the ... and processes the sounds and creates graphs or color pictures that represent the flow of blood through ...

  14. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... display screen that looks like a computer or television monitor. The image is created based on the ... and processes the sounds and creates graphs or color pictures that represent the flow of blood through ...

  15. Children's (Pediatric) Magnetic Resonance Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... of another imaging procedure. If there is any question of their presence, an x-ray may be ... facility. Please contact your physician with specific medical questions or for a referral to a radiologist or ...

  16. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... The principles are similar to sonar used by boats and submarines. The ultrasound image is immediately visible ... principles involved in the sonar used by bats, ships and fishermen. When a sound wave strikes an ...

  17. Children's (Pediatric) Magnetic Resonance Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... after the exam. A few patients experience side effects from the contrast material, including nausea and local ... clear images. Patient movement can have the same effect. A very irregular heartbeat may affect the quality ...

  18. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... proper blood flow into it. top of page How should we prepare for an abdominal ultrasound exam? ... are poorly suited for ultrasound. top of page How does the procedure work? Ultrasound imaging is based ...

  19. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... safe and painless, and produces pictures of the inside of the body using sound waves. Ultrasound imaging, ... capabilities) during a single exam. The transducer sends out high-frequency sound waves (that the human ear ...

  20. Children's (Pediatric) Magnetic Resonance Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... scanned and should not enter the MRI scanning area: cochlear (ear) implant some types of clips used ... but they may distort images of the facial area or brain, so the radiologist should be aware ...

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    Full Text Available ... that your child may watch a movie or TV show during the exam. It is normal for ... are the limitations of Children’s (Pediatric) MRI? High-quality images are assured only if your child is ...

  2. Children's (Pediatric) Magnetic Resonance Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... child’s regular daily routine and have him/her take food and medications as usual. Some MRI examinations ... of abnormal (diseased) tissue from normal tissues is better with MRI than with other imaging modalities such ...

  3. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... of page What are some common uses of the procedure? Abdominal ultrasound imaging is performed to evaluate ... flow into it. top of page How should we prepare for an abdominal ultrasound exam? Your child ...

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    Full Text Available ... If your child has claustrophobia (fear of enclosed spaces) or anxiety, you may want to talk to ... imaging tests, treatments and procedures may vary by geographic region. Discuss the fees associated with your prescribed ...

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    Full Text Available ... Send us your feedback Did you find the information you were looking for? Yes No Please type ... facilities database . This website does not provide cost information. The costs for specific medical imaging tests, treatments ...

  6. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... abdomen is a safe, noninvasive test that uses sound waves to produce a clear picture of the ... pictures of the inside of the body using sound waves. Ultrasound imaging, also called ultrasound scanning or ...

  7. Children's (Pediatric) Magnetic Resonance Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... patient. A computer then processes the signals and generates a series of images, each of which shows ... tapping or thumping sounds when the coils that generate the radiofrequency pulses are activated. Your child will ...

  8. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... examination is complete, you may be asked to dress and wait while the ultrasound images are reviewed. ... the following text box: Comment: E-mail: Area code: Phone no: Thank you! Do you have a ...

  9. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... The image is created based on the amplitude (loudness), frequency (pitch) and time it takes for the ... transducer for analysis. top of page This page was reviewed on February 17, 2017 Send us your ...

  10. Children's (Pediatric) Magnetic Resonance Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... with claustrophobia. Newer open MRI units provide very high quality images for many types of exams; however, ... believed to be caused by the injection of high doses of gadolinium-based contrast material in patients ...

  11. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... ultrasound. top of page How does the procedure work? Ultrasound imaging is based on the same principles ... In most cases, barium exams, CT scanning , and MRI are the methods of choice in such a ...

  12. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... images and send a signed report to your primary care physician, or to the physician or other healthcare provider who requested the exam. Usually, the referring physician or health care provider will share the results with you. ...

  13. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... that uses sound waves to produce a clear picture of the internal organs and blood vessels within ... Imaging? Ultrasound is safe and painless, and produces pictures of the inside of the body using sound ...

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    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index ...

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    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index ...

  16. Children's (Pediatric) Magnetic Resonance Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... images removable dental work pens, pocket knives and eyeglasses body piercings In most cases, an MRI exam ... Foreign bodies near and especially lodged in the eyes are particularly important. Tooth fillings and braces usually ...

  17. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... appendicitis is the most common reason for emergency abdominal surgery. Ultrasound imaging can also: help a physician determine the source of abdominal pain, such as gallstones, kidney stones, abscesses or ...

  18. Children's (Pediatric) Magnetic Resonance Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... quality images for many types of exams; however, older open MRI units may not provide this same ... child may resume their usual activities and normal diet immediately after the exam. A few patients experience ...

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    Full Text Available ... imaging tests, treatments and procedures may vary by geographic region. Discuss the fees associated with your prescribed ... Us | FAQ | Privacy | Terms of Use | Links | Site Map Copyright © 2018 Radiological Society of North America, Inc. ( ...

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    Full Text Available ... to cancer treatment MRI is often the best choice for imaging the joints and bones, where it ... regular daily routine and have him/her take food and medications as usual. Some MRI examinations may ...

  2. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... object is solid or filled with fluid). In medicine, ultrasound is used to detect changes ... specific medical imaging tests, treatments and procedures may vary by geographic region. ...

  3. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... not use ionizing radiation, has no known harmful effects, and is particularly valuable for evaluating abdominal, pelvic ... in x-rays ), thus there is no radiation exposure to the patient. Because ultrasound images are captured ...

  4. Children's (Pediatric) Magnetic Resonance Imaging

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    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z ...

  5. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

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    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z ...

  6. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... procedure work? Ultrasound imaging is based on the same principles involved in the sonar used by bats, ... of concern. Doppler sonography is performed using the same transducer. When the examination is complete, you may ...

  7. Children's (Pediatric) Magnetic Resonance Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... is because traction devices and many types of life support equipment may distort the MR images and ... and is further reviewed by committees from the American College of Radiology (ACR) and the Radiological Society ...

  8. Children's (Pediatric) Magnetic Resonance Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... other internal body structures. MRI does not use ionizing radiation (x-rays). Detailed MR images allow physicians ... computed tomography (CT) scans, MRI does not utilize ionizing radiation. Instead, radiofrequency pulses re-align hydrogen atoms ...

  9. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... is a safe, noninvasive test that uses sound waves to produce a clear picture of the internal ... of the inside of the body using sound waves. Ultrasound imaging, also called ultrasound scanning or sonography , ...

  10. Children's (Pediatric) Magnetic Resonance Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... exam. top of page What does the MRI equipment look like? The traditional MRI unit is a ... traction devices and many types of life support equipment may distort the MR images and as a ...

  11. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... called color Doppler ultrasonography, is a special ultrasound technique that allows the physician to see and evaluate ... evaluation with additional views or a special imaging technique. A follow-up examination may also be necessary ...

  12. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... needed for ultrasound examinations. top of page What does the ultrasound equipment look like? Ultrasound scanners consist ... poorly suited for ultrasound. top of page How does the procedure work? Ultrasound imaging is based on ...

  13. Children's (Pediatric) Magnetic Resonance Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... examination poses almost no risk to the average patient when appropriate safety guidelines are followed. If sedation is used, there ... patient story here Images × ... and Radiation Safety Videos related ...

  14. Children's (Pediatric) Magnetic Resonance Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... gadolinium-based contrast agents, please consult the ACR Manual on Contrast Media . Tell the radiologist if your ... clarification with additional views or a special imaging technique. A follow-up examination may also be necessary ...

  15. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... a clear picture of the internal organs and blood vessels within your child’s abdomen. Ultrasound does not ... of the body's internal organs, as well as blood flowing through blood vessels. Ultrasound imaging is a ...

  16. Children's (Pediatric) Magnetic Resonance Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... resonance imaging (MRI) uses a powerful magnetic field, radio waves and a computer to produce detailed pictures ... medical conditions. MRI uses a powerful magnetic field, radio frequency pulses and a computer to produce detailed ...

  17. Children's (Pediatric) Magnetic Resonance Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... be asked to maintain his/her position without movement as much as possible. In some cases, intravenous ... makes it difficult to obtain clear images. Patient movement can have the same effect. A very irregular ...

  18. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... echoes from the tissues in the body. The principles are similar to sonar used by boats and ... work? Ultrasound imaging is based on the same principles involved in the sonar used by bats, ships ...

  19. Children's (Pediatric) Magnetic Resonance Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... before an MRI exam vary with the specific exam and also with the imaging facility. Unless you are told otherwise, follow your child’s regular daily routine and have him/her take food and ...

  20. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... to have your child drink several glasses of water, depending on the child's size, two hours prior ... improve the quality of the images. A clear water-based gel is applied to the area of ...

  1. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... screen that looks like a computer or television monitor. The image is created based on the amplitude ( ... turn creates a real-time picture on the monitor. One or more frames of the moving pictures ...

  2. Children's (Pediatric) Magnetic Resonance Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... MRI may be used to help diagnose or monitor treatment for a variety of conditions within the ... images can then be examined on a computer monitor, transmitted electronically, printed or copied to a CD ...

  3. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... your child’s abdomen. Ultrasound does not use ionizing radiation, has no known harmful effects, and is particularly ... an image. Ultrasound examinations do not use ionizing radiation (as used in x-rays ), thus there is ...

  4. Children's (Pediatric) Magnetic Resonance Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... internal body structures. MRI does not use ionizing radiation (x-rays). Detailed MR images allow physicians to ... the bones of the skull and spine without radiation. MRI of the brain and spine is used ...

  5. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... over time. Follow-up examinations are sometimes the best way to see if treatment is working or ... methods of choice in such a setting. Large patients are more difficult to image by ultrasound because ...

  6. Children's (Pediatric) Magnetic Resonance Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... response to cancer treatment MRI is often the best choice for imaging the joints and bones, where ... over time. Follow-up examinations are sometimes the best way to see if treatment is working or ...

  7. Children's (Pediatric) Magnetic Resonance Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... When imaging of a child’s brain and spinal cord is needed, MRI is useful because of its ... the condition of nerve tissue within the spinal cord In the heart, MRI is often used in ...

  8. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... stomach/ pylorus liver gallbladder spleen pancreas intestines kidneys bladder testicles ovaries uterus Abdominal ultrasound images can be ... and avoid urinating so that his or her bladder is reasonably full when the scan begins. Sedation ...

  9. Children's (Pediatric) Magnetic Resonance Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... atoms return to their usual alignment, they emit different amounts of energy that vary according to the ... body. The images can then be studied from different angles by the interpreting radiologist. Frequently, the differentiation ...

  10. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... ultrasound. top of page How does the procedure work? Ultrasound imaging is based on the same principles ... creates a real-time picture on the monitor. One or more frames of the moving pictures are ...

  11. Children's (Pediatric) Magnetic Resonance Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... top of page What are the benefits vs. risks? Benefits MRI is a noninvasive imaging technique that ... used for conventional x-rays and CT scanning. Risks The MRI examination poses almost no risk to ...

  12. Children's (Pediatric) Magnetic Resonance Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... MRI scanners are air-conditioned and well-lit. Music may be played through the headphones to help ... the same effect. A very irregular heartbeat may affect the quality of images obtained using techniques that ...

  13. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... of page What are some common uses of the procedure? Abdominal ultrasound imaging is performed to evaluate ... for ultrasound examinations. top of page What does the ultrasound equipment look like? Ultrasound scanners consist of ...

  14. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... console containing a computer and electronics, a video display screen and a transducer that is used to ... ultrasound image is immediately visible on a video display screen that looks like a computer or television ...

  15. Children's (Pediatric) Magnetic Resonance Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... metallic items, which can distort MRI images removable dental work pens, pocket knives and eyeglasses body piercings ... there is any question of their presence, an x-ray may be taken to detect and identify any ...

  16. Children's (Pediatric) Magnetic Resonance Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... patients who have been acutely injured; however, this decision is based on clinical judgment. This is because traction devices and many types of life support equipment may distort the MR images and as ...

  17. Children's (Pediatric) Magnetic Resonance Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... the heart, such as electrocardiography (ECG). MRI typically costs more and may take more time to perform ... accredited facilities database . This website does not provide cost information. The costs for specific medical imaging tests, ...

  18. Children's (Pediatric) Magnetic Resonance Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... and may add approximately 15 minutes to the total exam time. top of page What will my ... are the limitations of Children’s (Pediatric) MRI? High-quality images are assured only if your child is ...

  19. Children's (Pediatric) Magnetic Resonance Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... transplant, it will be necessary to perform a blood test to determine whether the kidneys are functioning adequately. ... electrocardiography (ECG). MRI typically costs more and may take more time to perform than other imaging modalities. ...

  20. Parental Encouragement of Healthy Lifestyles for Their Children and Personally Caring about Healthy Lifestyles Is Positively Associated with Children Using Vitamin D Supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munasinghe, Lalani L; Yuan, Yan; Faught, Erin L; Willows, Noreen D; Veugelers, Paul J

    2016-09-24

    Supplement users have better vitamin D status, and parenting is key to promoting a child's healthy behaviours. We examined the association of parental encouragement of and caring about healthy lifestyles with children's use of vitamin D supplements and multivitamins. A provincially representative sample of grade 5 students (n = 2686; 10-11 years) and their parents across the province of Alberta, Canada, was surveyed in 2014. Students were asked about use of multivitamins and/or vitamin D supplements. Parents were asked whether they cared about and encouraged healthy lifestyles. Mixed effect multiple logistic regression identified the association of parental responses with children's use of supplements; 29% and 54% of children took vitamin D supplements and multivitamins, respectively. They were more likely to take vitamin D supplements if their parents cared 'very much' vs. 'not at all/a little bit' about eating healthy foods (OR = 1.43; 95% CI = 1.08, 1.89), cared 'quite a lot' (OR = 1.55; 95% CI = 1.17, 2.04) and 'very much' (OR = 1.67; 95% CI = 1.26, 2.21) vs. 'not at all/a little bit' about physical activity, and encouraged 'very much' vs. 'not at all/a little bit' their children to eat healthy foods (OR = 1.51; 95% CI = 1.05, 2.17). Children whose parents personally cared for eating healthy foods were more likely to take multivitamins ('quite a lot' and 'very much' compared to 'not at all/a little bit' (OR = 1.60; 95% CI = 1.13, 2.28 and OR = 1.46; 95% CI = 1.04, 2.06, respectively). Education and parental encouragement of healthy lifestyles should be part of the public health initiatives to promote supplementation of vitamin D among children.

  1. Emerald Dragon Bites vs Veggie Beans: Fun Food Names Increase Children's Consumption of Novel Healthy Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musher-Eizenman, Dara R.; Oehlhof, Marissa Wagner; Young, Kathleen M.; Hauser, Jessica C.; Galliger, Courtney; Sommer, Alyssa

    2011-01-01

    Caregivers often struggle with food neophobia on the part of young children. This study examined whether labeling novel healthy foods with fun names would increase children's willingness to try those foods and encourage them to eat more of those foods in a child care setting. Thirty-nine toddler and preschool age children (mean age = 3.9 years)…

  2. Towards Healthy Schools 2015: Progress on America's Environmental Health Crisis for Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Schools Network, Inc., 2013

    2013-01-01

    States compel children to attend school; in fact, 98% of all school-age children attend schools--irrespective of conditions. Yet the environmental conditions of decayed facilities or facilities close to hazards can damage children's health and ability to learn. At the same time, it is well documented that healthy school facilities can help…

  3. Salivary glands of healthy children versus sialorrhea children, is there an anatomical difference? An ultrasonographic biometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardona, Isabel; Saint-Martin, Christine; Daniel, Sam J

    2015-05-01

    There is no literature about the average size of the salivary glands in the pediatric population with drooling (sialorrhea). Studies have shown that some pathologies affect the functionality of the salivary glands. We assessed via ultrasonography the sizes of the submandibular and parotid glands in 9 healthy children who were not suffering from local or systemic diseases that could affect the salivary glands. We also compared this group with a group of 9 patients with sialorrhea. Volunteers were matched based on age, gender, and BMI. Body weight did not differ more than 20% from ideal weight. The parotid and submandibular glands of 9 patients with sialorrhea without any previous treatment were measured via ultrasound and matched to a healthy control. Children with various causes for drooling were included (neurological disorders, neuromuscular disorders, lack of oral motor control). Dimensions of the parotid glands in drooling and healthy patients were: surface area 2.96 cm(2) (SD ±0.90) and 2.81 cm(2) (SD ±0.54); in depth 1.68 cm (SD ±0.24) and 1.61 cm (SD ±0.27); in the axis longitudinal to the horizontal mandibular ramus 3.18 cm (±0.46) and 3.15 cm (SD ±0.45) in drooling and healthy groups respectively. The means of submandibular glands of drooling and healthy patients measured in surface area: 3.20 cm(2) (SD ±0.66) and 3.08 cm(2) (SD ±0.65); anterior-posterior length 1.55 cm (SD ±0.23) and 1.46 cm (SD ±0.23), medio-lateral length 3.07 cm (SD ±0.39) and 3.07 cm (SD ±0.32). There was no statistical significance in comparison with the healthy group control. The parotid and submandibular salivary glands in the pediatric population do not differ in size in children with or without drooling. Measuring the glands at baseline and post treatment with botulinum toxin injections allows one to evaluate if there are changes in the gland related to the treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... your child’s abdomen. Ultrasound does not use ionizing radiation, has no known harmful effects, and is particularly valuable for evaluating abdominal, pelvic or scrotal pain in children. Preparation will depend on the type of examination. Ask your doctor if there are ...

  5. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... children. It is also valuable for evaluating the brain, spinal cord and hip joints in newborns and infants. Risks For standard diagnostic ultrasound , there are no known harmful effects on humans. top of page What are the limitations of ...

  6. Children's (Pediatric) Magnetic Resonance Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... joints and bones, where it can help: diagnose sports-related injuries detect the presence of an otherwise hidden tumor or infection in a joint diagnose developmental joint abnormalities in children detect bone cancer inspect the marrow for leukemia ...

  7. Children's (Pediatric) Magnetic Resonance Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... diagnose developmental joint abnormalities in children detect bone cancer inspect the marrow for leukemia and other diseases assess bone loss examine complex fractures top of page How should I prepare my child for the MRI? Your child may be asked ...

  8. Imaging fungal infections in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ankrah, Alfred O.; Sathekge, Mike M; Dierckx, Rudi A.J.O.; Glaudemans, Andor W.J.M.

    Fungal infections in children rarely occur, but continue to have a high morbidity and mortality despite the development of newer antifungal agents. It is essential for these infections to be diagnosed at the earliest possible stage so appropriate treatment can be initiated promptly. The addition of

  9. Children's (Pediatric) Magnetic Resonance Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... injuries detect the presence of an otherwise hidden tumor or infection in a joint diagnose developmental joint abnormalities in children detect bone cancer inspect the marrow for leukemia and other diseases assess bone loss examine complex fractures top of page How should I prepare my ...

  10. Supporting parents of preschool children in adopting a healthy lifestyle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lemelin Lucie

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Childhood obesity is a public health epidemic. In Canada 21.5% of children aged 2–5 are overweight, with psychological and physical consequences for the child and economic consequences for society. Parents often do not view their children as overweight. One way to prevent overweight is to adopt a healthy lifestyle (HL. Nurses with direct access to young families could assess overweight and support parents in adopting HL. But what is the best way to support them if they do not view their child as overweight? A better understanding of parents’ representation of children’s overweight might guide the development of solutions tailored to their needs. Methods/design This study uses an action research design, a participatory approach mobilizing all stakeholders around a problem to be solved. The general objective is to identify, with nurses working with families, ways to promote HL among parents of preschoolers. Specific objectives are to: 1 describe the prevalence of overweight in preschoolers at vaccination time; 2 describe the representation of overweight and HL, as reported by preschoolers’ parents; 3 explore the views of nurses working with young families regarding possible solutions that could become a clinical tool to promote HL; and 4 try to identify a direction concerning the proposed strategies that could be used by nurses working with this population. First, an epidemiological study will be conducted in vaccination clinics: 288 4–5-year-olds will be weighed and measured. Next, semi-structured interviews will be conducted with 20 parents to describe their representation of HL and their child’s weight. Based on the results from these two steps, by means of a focus group nurses will identify possible strategies to the problem. Finally, focus groups of parents, then nurses and finally experts will give their opinions of these strategies in order to find a direction for these strategies. Descriptive and

  11. Growing Healthy Kids: A School Enrichment Nutrition Education Program to Promote Healthy Behaviors for Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vierregger, Alyssa; Hall, Johnna; Sehi, Natalie; Abbott, Mary; Wobig, Karen; Albrecht, Julie A.; Anderson-Knott, Mindy; Koszewski, Wanda

    2015-01-01

    The Growing Healthy Kids Program is a school-based nutrition education program that teaches students in Kindergarten through 2nd grade about healthy eating, physical activity, and how their body uses food. Pre- and post-knowledge data is collected from the students to measure changes in nutrition knowledge. In the first 2 years of the program,…

  12. Early effects of the healthy steps for young children program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minkovitz, C; Strobino, D; Hughart, N; Scharfstein, D; Guyer, B

    2001-04-01

    The Healthy Steps for Young Children Program (HS) incorporates early child development specialists and enhanced developmental services into routine pediatric care. An evaluation of HS is being conducted at 6 randomization and 9 quasi-experimental sites. Services received, satisfaction with services, and parent practices were assessed when infants were aged 2 to 4 months. Telephone interviews with mothers were conducted for 2631 intervention (response rate, 89%) and 2265 control (response rate, 87%) families. Analyses were conducted separately for randomization and quasi-experimental sites and adjusted for baseline differences between intervention and control groups. Hierarchical linear models assessed overall adjusted effects, while accounting for within-site correlation of outcomes. Intervention families were considerably more likely than controls to report receiving 4 or more developmental services and home visits and discussing 5 infant development topics. They also were more likely to be satisfied and less likely to be dissatisfied with care from their pediatric provider and were less likely to place babies in the prone sleep position or feed them water. The program did not affect breastfeeding continuation. Differences in the percentage of parents who showed picture books to their infants, fed them cereal, followed routines, and played with them daily were found only at the quasi-experimental sites and may reflect factors unrelated to HS. Intervention families received more developmental services during the first 2 to 4 months of their child's life and were happier with care received than were control families. Future surveys and medical record reviews will address whether these findings persist and translate into improved language development, better utilization of well-child care, and an effect on costs.

  13. Pinch Strengths in Healthy Iranian Children and Young Adult Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iman Dianat

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Data on the physical strength capabilities are essential for design-ing safe and usable products and are useful in a wide range of clinical settings especially during treatment of disease affecting the function of the hand. The purpose of this study was to determine peak lateral pinch strength, key pinch strength, tip-to-tip pinch strength and three-jaw pinch strength exertions in a healthy Iranian children and young adult population.Methods: The study was conducted among 511 participants (242 males and 269 females aged 7-30 years. Measurements were carried out with both dominant and non-dominant hands in standard sitting posture using a B&L pinch gauge. Two repetitions of each strength measurement were recorded for each condition and the average value of the two trials was used in the subsequent analysis.Results: The results showed significant differences in the pinch strength data in terms of the age, gender and hand dominance. The lateral pinch strength, key pinch strength, tip-to-tip pinch strength and three-jaw pinch strength exertions by females were 68.4%, 68.8%, 78.8% and 81.8% of those exerted by males, respectively. Strength exertions with the non-dominant hand were 6.4%, 5.2%, 6.6% and 5.1% lower than strength exertions of the dominant hand for the lat-eral pinch strength, key pinch strength, tip-to-tip pinch strength and three-jaw pinch strength exertions, respectively.Conclusion: These findings can be used to fill the gaps in strength data for Iranian population.

  14. Incidental findings are frequent in young healthy individuals undergoing magnetic resonance imaging in brain research imaging studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartwigsen, Gesa; Siebner, Hartwig R; Deuschl, Günther

    2010-01-01

    There is an ongoing debate about how to handle incidental findings (IF) detected in healthy individuals who participate in research-driven magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies. There are currently no established guidelines regarding their management.......There is an ongoing debate about how to handle incidental findings (IF) detected in healthy individuals who participate in research-driven magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies. There are currently no established guidelines regarding their management....

  15. Lymphatic imaging in unsedated infants and children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, John C.; Balaguru, Duraisamy; Douglas, William I.; Breinholt, John P.; Greives, Matthew R.; Aldrich, Melissa B.; Sevick-Muraca, Eva M.

    2017-02-01

    Primary lymphedema and lymphatic malformations in the pediatric population remains poorly diagnosed and misunderstood due to a lack of information on the underlying anatomy and function of the lymphatic system. Diagnostics for the lymphatic vasculature are limited, consisting of lymphoscintigraphy or invasive lymphangiography, both of which require sedation that can restrict use in infants and children. As a result, therapeutic protocols for pediatric patients with lymphatic disorders remain sparse and with little evidence to support them. Because near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) imaging enables image acquisition on the order of tenths of seconds with trace administration of fluorescent dye, sedation is not necessary. The lack of harmful radiation and radioactive contrast agents further facilitates imaging. Herein we summarize our experiences in imaging infants and children who are suspected to have disorders of the lymphatic vascular system using indocyanine green (ICG) and who have developed chylothorax following surgery for congenital heart defects. The results show both anatomical as well as functional lymphatic deficits in children with congenital disease. In the future, NIRF lymphatic imaging could provide new opportunities to tailor effective therapies and monitor responses. The opportunity to use expand NIRF imaging for pediatric diagnostics beyond the lymphatic vasculature is also afforded by the rapid acquisition following trace administration of NIRF contrast agent.

  16. Children's (Pediatric) Magnetic Resonance Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Children’s (Pediatric) Magnetic ... patient to have an allergy to a gadolinium-based contrast agent used for MRI than the iodine- ...

  17. Children's (Pediatric) Magnetic Resonance Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... body structures. MRI does not use ionizing radiation (x-rays). Detailed MR images allow physicians to evaluate various ... kind, such as an allergy to iodine or x-ray contrast material, drugs, food, or the environment, or ...

  18. Children's (Pediatric) Magnetic Resonance Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... If your child has a history of kidney disease or liver transplant, it will be necessary to perform a ... structures of the body—such as the heart, liver and many other organs—is ... characterize diseases than other imaging methods. This detail makes MRI ...

  19. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... transducer sends out high-frequency sound waves (that the human ear cannot hear) into the body and then ... ultrasound , there are no known harmful effects on humans. top of page What are the limitations of Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging? Ultrasound waves are ...

  20. Children's (Pediatric) Magnetic Resonance Imaging

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    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us ... Us | FAQ | Privacy | Terms of Use | Links | Site Map Copyright © 2017 Radiological Society of North America, Inc. ( ...

  1. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

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    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us ... Us | FAQ | Privacy | Terms of Use | Links | Site Map Copyright © 2017 Radiological Society of North America, Inc. ( ...

  2. Children's (Pediatric) Magnetic Resonance Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... the brain caused by an injury or a stroke diagnose infectious or autoimmune diseases like encephalopathy or ... broad range of conditions, including cancer, heart and vascular disease, and muscular and bone ... (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography) Magnetic Resonance Imaging ( ...

  3. Children's (Pediatric) Magnetic Resonance Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... after trauma diagnose and monitor infectious or inflammatory disorders monitor response to cancer treatment MRI is often the best choice for imaging the joints and bones, where it can help: diagnose sports-related injuries detect the presence of an otherwise ...

  4. Children's (Pediatric) Magnetic Resonance Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... MRI scanners are air-conditioned and well-lit. Music may be played through the headphones to help ... ionizing radiation. MR imaging of the soft-tissue structures of the body—such as the heart, liver ...

  5. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... is done because a potential abnormality needs further evaluation with additional views or a special imaging technique. A follow-up examination may also be necessary so that any change in a known abnormality can be monitored over ...

  6. Children's (Pediatric) Magnetic Resonance Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... are the limitations of Children’s (Pediatric) MRI? What is Children’s (Pediatric) MRI? Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is ... top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? MRI is used to help diagnose ...

  7. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... be turned to either side to improve the quality of the images. A clear water-based gel is applied to the area of the body being studied to help the transducer make secure contact with the body and eliminate air pockets between the transducer and the skin that ...

  8. Children's (Pediatric) Magnetic Resonance Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... zippers and similar metallic items, which can distort MRI images removable dental work pens, pocket knives and eyeglasses body piercings In ... scanner. top of page How does the procedure work? Unlike ... (CT) scans, MRI does not utilize ionizing radiation. Instead, radiofrequency pulses ...

  9. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us ... medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical ... a catheter or other drainage device and helps assure safe and accurate placement and ...

  10. Children's (Pediatric) Magnetic Resonance Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... there is a history of heart disease, asthma, diabetes, kidney disease or thyroid problems. Any of these ... information you were looking for? Yes No Please type your comment or suggestion into the following text ... Pediatric Content Some imaging tests and treatments have special pediatric considerations. The teddy bear denotes ...

  11. Children's (Pediatric) Magnetic Resonance Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... What are the limitations of Children’s (Pediatric) MRI? What is Children’s (Pediatric) MRI? Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) ... to a digital cloud server. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? MRI ...

  12. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... hip joints in newborns and infants. Risks For standard diagnostic ultrasound , there are no known harmful effects on humans. top of page What are the limitations of Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging? Ultrasound waves are disrupted by air or gas; therefore ultrasound is not an ideal ...

  13. Children's (Pediatric) Magnetic Resonance Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us ... prior to sedation and the examination. For the safety of your child during the sedation, it is ...

  14. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... medicine, ultrasound is used to detect changes in appearance, size or contour of organs, tissues, and vessels ... either side to improve the quality of the images. A clear water-based gel is applied to the area of the body being studied to help the transducer make secure ...

  15. Children's (Pediatric) Magnetic Resonance Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... imaging (MRI) uses a powerful magnetic field, radio waves and a computer to produce detailed pictures of the inside of your child’s body. MRI may be used to help diagnose or monitor treatment for a variety of conditions within the brain, chest, abdomen, pelvis and extremities. Tell your doctor ...

  16. Children's (Pediatric) Magnetic Resonance Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... interprets the results and how do we get them? A radiologist, a physician specifically trained to supervise and interpret radiology examinations, will analyze the images and send a signed report to your primary care or referring physician, who will share the results ...

  17. Children's (Pediatric) Magnetic Resonance Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... or headphones during the exam. MRI scanners are air-conditioned and well-lit. Music may be played ... are the limitations of Children’s (Pediatric) MRI? High-quality images are assured only if your child is ...

  18. Children's (Pediatric) Magnetic Resonance Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... may sense a temporary metallic taste in their mouth after the contrast injection. If sedation has not ... acutely injured; however, this decision is based on clinical judgment. This ... the examination takes longer than other imaging modalities (typically x- ...

  19. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... radiation exposure to the patient. Because ultrasound images are captured in real-time, they can show the structure and movement of ... if a finding is stable or changed over time. top of page What are the benefits vs. risks? Benefits Most ultrasound scanning ...

  20. Children's (Pediatric) Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Children’s magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) uses a powerful magnetic field, radio waves and a computer to produce detailed ... health problems, medications, recent surgeries and allergies. The magnetic field is not harmful, but it may cause some ...

  1. Children's (Pediatric) Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... metallic items, which can distort MRI images removable dental work pens, pocket knives and eyeglasses body piercings In most cases, an MRI exam is safe for patients with metal implants, except for a few types. People with the ...

  2. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... an area of tenderness, your child may feel pressure or minor pain from the procedure. If a Doppler ultrasound study is performed, your child may actually hear pulse-like sounds that change in pitch as the blood flow is monitored and measured. Once the imaging ...

  3. Breakfast staple types affect brain gray matter volume and cognitive function in healthy children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taki, Yasuyuki; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Sassa, Yuko; Takeuchi, Hikaru; Asano, Michiko; Asano, Kohei; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2010-12-08

    Childhood diet is important for brain development. Furthermore, the quality of breakfast is thought to affect the cognitive functioning of well-nourished children. To analyze the relationship among breakfast staple type, gray matter volume, and intelligence quotient (IQ) in 290 healthy children, we used magnetic resonance images and applied voxel-based morphometry. We divided subjects into rice, bread, and both groups according to their breakfast staple. We showed that the rice group had a significantly larger gray matter ratio (gray matter volume percentage divided by intracranial volume) and significantly larger regional gray matter volumes of several regions, including the left superior temporal gyrus. The bread group had significantly larger regional gray and white matter volumes of several regions, including the right frontoparietal region. The perceptual organization index (POI; IQ subcomponent) of the rice group was significantly higher than that of the bread group. All analyses were adjusted for age, gender, intracranial volume, socioeconomic status, average weekly frequency of having breakfast, and number of side dishes eaten for breakfast. Although several factors may have affected the results, one possible mechanism underlying the difference between the bread and the rice groups may be the difference in the glycemic index (GI) of these two substances; foods with a low GI are associated with less blood-glucose fluctuation than are those with a high GI. Our study suggests that breakfast staple type affects brain gray and white matter volumes and cognitive function in healthy children; therefore, a diet of optimal nutrition is important for brain maturation during childhood and adolescence.

  4. Breakfast staple types affect brain gray matter volume and cognitive function in healthy children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuyuki Taki

    Full Text Available Childhood diet is important for brain development. Furthermore, the quality of breakfast is thought to affect the cognitive functioning of well-nourished children. To analyze the relationship among breakfast staple type, gray matter volume, and intelligence quotient (IQ in 290 healthy children, we used magnetic resonance images and applied voxel-based morphometry. We divided subjects into rice, bread, and both groups according to their breakfast staple. We showed that the rice group had a significantly larger gray matter ratio (gray matter volume percentage divided by intracranial volume and significantly larger regional gray matter volumes of several regions, including the left superior temporal gyrus. The bread group had significantly larger regional gray and white matter volumes of several regions, including the right frontoparietal region. The perceptual organization index (POI; IQ subcomponent of the rice group was significantly higher than that of the bread group. All analyses were adjusted for age, gender, intracranial volume, socioeconomic status, average weekly frequency of having breakfast, and number of side dishes eaten for breakfast. Although several factors may have affected the results, one possible mechanism underlying the difference between the bread and the rice groups may be the difference in the glycemic index (GI of these two substances; foods with a low GI are associated with less blood-glucose fluctuation than are those with a high GI. Our study suggests that breakfast staple type affects brain gray and white matter volumes and cognitive function in healthy children; therefore, a diet of optimal nutrition is important for brain maturation during childhood and adolescence.

  5. Pubertal development in healthy children is mirrored by DNA methylation patterns in peripheral blood

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Almstrup, Kristian; Lindhardt Johansen, Marie; Busch, Alexander S; Hagen, Casper P; Nielsen, John E; Petersen, Jørgen Holm; Juul, Anders

    2016-01-01

    ...) obtained from 51 healthy children before and after pubertal onset. We show that changes in single methylation sites are tightly associated with physiological pubertal transition and altered reproductive hormone levels...

  6. Dynamic pattern and genotypic diversity of Staphylococcus aureus nasopharyngeal carriage in healthy pre-school children

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Blumental, S; Deplano, A; Jourdain, S; De Mendonça, R; Hallin, M; Nonhoff, C; Rottiers, S; Vergison, A; Denis, O

    2013-01-01

    .... The objectives of this study were to assess the S. aureus temporal carriage pattern among a healthy community of pre-school children, with concomitant description of genotype diversity, toxin-encoding genes and antibiotic resistance...

  7. Effects of Wheat Bran Extract Containing Arabinoxylan Oligosaccharides on Gastrointestinal Parameters in Healthy Preadolescent Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Francois, Isabelle E. J. A.; Lescroart, Olivier; Veraverbeke, Wim S.; Marzorati, Massimo; Possemiers, Sam; Hamer, Henrike; Windey, Karen; Welling, Gjalt W.; Delcour, Jan A.; Courtin, Christophe M.; Verbeke, Kristin; Broekaert, Willem F.

    Objectives: We assessed whether wheat bran extract (WBE) containing arabinoxylan-oligosaccharides (AXOS) elicited a prebiotic effect and modulated gastrointestinal (GI) parameters in healthy preadolescent children upon consumption in a beverage. Methods: This double-blind randomized

  8. Prevalence of hepatitis-C antibody seropositivity in healthy Egyptian children and four high risk groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    el-Nanawy, A A; el Azzouni, O F; Soliman, A T; Amer, A E; Demian, R S; el-Sayed, H M

    1995-12-01

    We studied the prevalence of HCV antibody seropositivity and serum alanine concentrations in a random sample of healthy Egyptian children (n = 110) as well as in four high risk groups of children. Group 1 included 18 children with thalassemia major, group 2 included 17 children with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM), group 3 included 21 children with schistosomal hepatic fibrosis (SHF), and group 4 included 20 children with chronic rheumatic heart disease (RHD). The prevalence rate of HCV seropositivity was 12 per cent in normal children, 44 per cent in thalassemic children, 29 per cent in children with IDDM, 38 per cent in children with SHF and 0 per cent in patients with RHD. The liver size was significantly larger in HCV seropositive normal children as well as in HCV seropositive children with thalassemia and SHF compared to the seronegative children in each group respectively (P antibody seropositivity in healthy Egyptian children compared to reports from other countries, and a significantly high prevalence of HCV seropositivity in children with thalassemia, IDDM, and SHF which carries a considerably high risk for development of chronic liver disease in these patients.

  9. Using Visual Images To Support Young Children's Number Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gervasoni, Ann

    1999-01-01

    Provides opportunities for children to develop visual images of the number situations they are exploring in order to develop powerful number sense. Illustrates two visual teaching aids to help young children develop number images. (ASK)

  10. Healthy, Happy, and Old: Children Learn about the Elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seefeldt, Carol; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Explored the effectiveness of a curriculum in fostering children's positive attitudes toward the elderly and their own aging. Children (N=108) received the curriculum and were given the Children's Attitudes Toward the Elderly test. Results indicated the curriculum was effective in fostering positive attitudes and in changing stereotyped thinking.…

  11. Examining opportunities for promotion of healthy eating at children's sports clubs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Bridget; Baur, Louise A; Bauman, Adrian E; King, Lesley; Chapman, Kathy; Smith, Ben J

    2010-12-01

    Australian data indicate that 63% of children participated in sport in 2009, a 4% increase since 2000. Children's high participation in sport, and the association between sport and health, means that these settings provide an opportunity to promote other aspects of health, such as healthy eating, to children. This study aimed to determine healthy eating practices and policies at children's sports clubs. Sports clubs (n=108) for the nine most popular sports for children aged 5 to 14 were randomly sampled from three large geographical areas across one state and one territory in Australia. A purpose-designed telephone questionnaire for sports club officials was developed to determine the food and beverages sold, provided and promoted at sports clubs and the availability of healthy-eating policies. The most frequently sold item at canteens was water, followed by sports drinks, chocolate/confectionery and soft drink. Only 20% of canteens promoted healthy food. Thirty-nine per cent of clubs made recommendations on the food and beverages to be consumed during sport, mostly relating to water consumption. The majority (76%) engaged in fundraising; many in collaboration with chocolate/confectionery companies. Only three clubs had a written policy on healthy eating. Addressing the low uptake of healthy eating policies would be a useful strategy to improve the healthiness of sports clubs. Policies could seek to reduce the availability and promotion of unhealthy food and beverages through canteens, vending machines and fundraising. © 2010 The Authors. ANZJPH © 2010 Public Health Association of Australia.

  12. Preschool Children's Healthy Lifestyles: South African Parents' and Preschool Staff Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Karen; Forinder, Ulla; Clarke, Marina; Snyman, Stefanus; Ringsberg, Karin C.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The worldwide growth of non-communicable diseases requires important lifestyle adaptations. The earlier a healthy lifestyle is adopted, the better. Enabling a healthy lifestyle for children during the preschool years ideally involves the cooperation of parents and teachers. Health promotion with parents and teachers is most effective…

  13. Healthy Children, Healthy Families: Parents Making a Difference! A Curriculum Integrating Key Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Parenting Practices to Help Prevent Childhood Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lent, Megan; Hill, Tisa F.; Dollahite, Jamie S.; Wolfe, Wendy S.; Dickin, Katherine L.

    2012-01-01

    A new dialogue-based curriculum combines nutrition, active play and parenting practices to help parents and caregivers gain skills that promote healthy habits for themselves and their families and to create healthy environments where children live, learn, and play. Graduates report significant improvements in behaviors that promote healthy weights…

  14. The 'Healthy Dads, Healthy Kids' community effectiveness trial: study protocol of a community-based healthy lifestyle program for fathers and their children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgan Philip J

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The 'Healthy Dads, Healthy Kids' program was designed to help overweight fathers lose weight and positively influence the health behaviors of their children. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the previously established program in a community setting, in a large effectiveness trial. Methods/Design The Healthy Dads, Healthy Kids community trial consists of three stages: (i Stage 1 - program refinement and resource development (ii Stage 2 - community randomized controlled trial (iii Stage 3 - community effectiveness trial. The program will be evaluated in five Local Government Areas in the Hunter Valley Region of NSW, Australia. For the community randomized controlled trial, 50 overweight/obese men (aged 18-65 years from one Local Government Area with a child aged between 5-12 years of age will be recruited. Families will be randomized to either the program or a 6-month wait-list control group. Fathers and their children will be assessed at baseline, post-intervention (3-months and 6-months. Inclusion criteria are: body mass index 25-40 kg/m2; no participation in other weight loss programs during the study; pass a health-screening questionnaire; and access to a computer with Internet facilities. In the community trial, the program will be evaluated using a non-randomized, prospective design in five Local Government Areas. The exclusion criteria is body mass index 2 or lack of doctor's approval. Measures will be collected at baseline, 3-, 6- and 12-months. The program involves fathers attending seven face-to-face group sessions (three with children over 3-months. Measures: The primary outcome is fathers' weight. Secondary outcomes for both fathers and children include: waist circumference, blood pressure, resting heart rate, physical activity, sedentary behaviors and dietary intake. Father-only measures include portion size, alcohol consumption, parenting for physical activity and nutrition and parental engagement

  15. Comparing memory and meta-memory abilities between children with acquired brain injury and healthy peers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kizony, Rachel; Tau, Shoshi; Bar, Orly; Engel Yeger, Batya

    2014-07-01

    This study compared visual memory and meta-memory abilities of children with ABI to that of healthy peers. Participants included 16 children (aged 13.55 ± 3.29 years) with moderate or severe ABI and 16 healthy children (aged 12.44 ± 3.24 years) with typical development. Children completed the Contextual Memory Test for Children (CMT-CH). The study group showed significantly lower immediate and delayed recall abilities. While the controls used the context for better memorizing, most of the children with ABI used rehearsals. In both groups better delayed recall correlated with the use of a more efficient strategy. Meta-memory should be an integral part of the assessment for children with ABI. Therapists should enhance child's self-awareness to his/her abilities and encourage the use of strategies (e.g. context) for memorizing in daily life. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Efficacy of a compulsory homework programme for increasing physical activity and healthy eating in children: the healthy homework pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duncan Scott

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most physical activity and nutrition interventions in children focus on the school setting; however, evidence suggests that children are less active and have greater access to unhealthy food at home. The aim of this pilot study was to examine the efficacy of a compulsory homework programme for increasing physical activity and healthy eating in children. Methods The six-week 'Healthy Homework' programme and complementary teaching resource was developed under the guidance of an intersectoral steering group. Eight senior classes (year levels 5-6 from two diverse Auckland primary schools were randomly assigned into intervention and control groups. A total of 97 children (57 intervention, 40 control aged 9-11 years participated in the evaluation of the intervention. Daily step counts were monitored immediately before and after the intervention using sealed multiday memory pedometers. Screen time, sports participation, active transport to and from school, and the consumption of fruits, vegetables, unhealthy foods and drinks were recorded concurrently in a 4-day food and activity diary. Results Healthy Homework resulted in a significant intervention effect of 2,830 steps.day-1 (95% CI: 560, 5,300, P = 0.013. This effect was consistent between sexes, schools, and day types (weekdays and weekend days. In addition, significant intervention effects were observed for vegetable consumption (0.83 servings.day-1, 95% CI: 0.24, 1.43, P = 0.007 and unhealthy food consumption (-0.56 servings.day-1, 95% CI: -1.05, -0.07, P = 0.027 on weekends but not weekdays, with no interactions with sex or school. Effects for all other variables were not statistically significant regardless of day type. Conclusions Compulsory health-related homework appears to be an effective approach for increasing physical activity and improving vegetable and unhealthy food consumption in children. Further research in a larger study is required to confirm these initial

  17. Efficacy of a compulsory homework programme for increasing physical activity and healthy eating in children: the healthy homework pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Scott; McPhee, Julia C; Schluter, Philip J; Zinn, Caryn; Smith, Richard; Schofield, Grant

    2011-11-15

    Most physical activity and nutrition interventions in children focus on the school setting; however, evidence suggests that children are less active and have greater access to unhealthy food at home. The aim of this pilot study was to examine the efficacy of a compulsory homework programme for increasing physical activity and healthy eating in children. The six-week 'Healthy Homework' programme and complementary teaching resource was developed under the guidance of an intersectoral steering group. Eight senior classes (year levels 5-6) from two diverse Auckland primary schools were randomly assigned into intervention and control groups. A total of 97 children (57 intervention, 40 control) aged 9-11 years participated in the evaluation of the intervention. Daily step counts were monitored immediately before and after the intervention using sealed multiday memory pedometers. Screen time, sports participation, active transport to and from school, and the consumption of fruits, vegetables, unhealthy foods and drinks were recorded concurrently in a 4-day food and activity diary. Healthy Homework resulted in a significant intervention effect of 2,830 steps.day-1 (95% CI: 560, 5,300, P = 0.013). This effect was consistent between sexes, schools, and day types (weekdays and weekend days). In addition, significant intervention effects were observed for vegetable consumption (0.83 servings.day-1, 95% CI: 0.24, 1.43, P = 0.007) and unhealthy food consumption (-0.56 servings.day-1, 95% CI: -1.05, -0.07, P = 0.027) on weekends but not weekdays, with no interactions with sex or school. Effects for all other variables were not statistically significant regardless of day type. Compulsory health-related homework appears to be an effective approach for increasing physical activity and improving vegetable and unhealthy food consumption in children. Further research in a larger study is required to confirm these initial results.

  18. Healthy eating decisions require efficient dietary self-control in children: A mouse-tracking food decision study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Oh-Ryeong; Bruce, Amanda S; Pruitt, Stephen W; Cherry, J Bradley C; Smith, T Ryan; Burkart, Dominic; Bruce, Jared M; Lim, Seung-Lark

    2016-10-01

    Learning how to make healthy eating decisions, (i.e., resisting unhealthy foods and consuming healthy foods), enhances physical development and reduces health risks in children. Although healthy eating decisions are known to be challenging for children, the mechanisms of children's food choice processes are not fully understood. The present study recorded mouse movement trajectories while eighteen children aged 8-13 years were choosing between eating and rejecting foods. Children were inclined to choose to eat rather than to reject foods, and preferred unhealthy foods over healthy foods, implying that rejecting unhealthy foods could be a demanding choice. When children rejected unhealthy foods, mouse trajectories were characterized by large curvature toward an eating choice in the beginning, late decision shifting time toward a rejecting choice, and slowed response times. These results suggested that children exercised greater cognitive efforts with longer decision times to resist unhealthy foods, providing evidence that children require dietary self-control to make healthy eating-decisions by resisting the temptation of unhealthy foods. Developmentally, older children attempted to exercise greater cognitive efforts for consuming healthy foods than younger children, suggesting that development of dietary self-control contributes to healthy eating-decisions. The study also documents that healthy weight children with higher BMIs were more likely to choose to reject healthy foods. Overall, findings have important implications for how children make healthy eating choices and the role of dietary self-control in eating decisions. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Infants and Toddlers (Ages 0-3) - Raising Healthy Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Conditions Safety in the Home & Community Raising Healthy Teens Risk Behaviors Engaging Parents in School Health Other Resources Information for Health Care Professionals & Researchers Browse All Parent Topics Social Media Tools Get Email Updates To receive email updates ...

  20. The Children Should Lead Us: Diane Ehrensaft's "Gender Born, Gender Made--Raising Healthy Gender-Nonconforming Children"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beemyn, Genny

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews Diane Ehrensaft's "Gender Born, Gender Made: Raising Healthy Gender-Nonconforming Children", a thoughtful and practical guide that can help parents, other family members, and therapists better understand and support children and youth whom the author refers to as "gender creative." Ehrensaft's work is at the forefront of a…

  1. Enterobius vermicularis and risk factors in healthy Norwegian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bøås, Håkon; Tapia, German; Sødahl, John A; Rasmussen, Trond; Rønningen, Kjersti S

    2012-09-01

    The prevalence of Enterobius vermicularis in neighboring countries of Norway show large variation. The goal of this study was to investigate the prevalence among Norwegian children and possible risk factors. The children were participants in "Environmental Triggers of Type 1 Diabetes: the MIDIA study." The study involved 2 groups with different genetic risks of type 1 diabetes: A high-risk group carries the Human Leukocyte Antigen genotype conferring the highest risk for type 1 diabetes and a nonhigh-risk group consisting of children without this genotype. Scotch tape samples were collected on 3 consecutive days and examined by light microscopy. A total of 18% (72/395) of children were positive for E. vermicularis. The highest prevalence (34%) was in children 6-11 years of age. Only 2 children were prior known positives. Increased number of siblings was linked to more infections, and there were fewer infections in the children with the high-risk genotype. E. vermicularis is a common parasite in Norwegian children. The likelihood of E. vermicularis infection depends on family size and prevalence increases with age. The reduced number of infections in the children carrying the high-risk genotype for type 1 diabetes is intriguing and should be investigated further.

  2. Forming of healthy way of life for the children of preschool age.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pehareva S.V.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The basic problems of forming of culture of healthy way of life for the children of preschool age are considered. The theoretical analysis of criteria, forms and methods of constituents of healthy way of life is given. The features of introduction of health technologies are certain in a pedagogical process. Maintenance is analysed to athletic-health-improvement activity and work on forming of bases of healthy way of life for children. Going is exposed near organization educational educational process on forming for the under-fives of the valued attitude toward an own health, competence in his physical, psychical and social spheres.

  3. Prevalence of contact allergy in children suffering from atopic dermatitis, seborrhoeic dermatitis and in healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silny, Wojciech; Bartoszak, Leszek; Jenerowicz, Dorota; Żukiewicz-Sobczak, Wioletta; Goździewska, Małgorzata

    2013-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis is one of the most common skin disorders in children. There is only scarce literature data on the prevalence of contact allergy in children with atopic dermatitis. To assess the prevalence of contact allergy among children with atopic dermatitis, seborrhoeic dermatitis and in a population of healthy children. Patch tests were performed in 104 children aged 1-20 years treated for atopic dermatitis in the Department of Dermatology, University of Medical Sciences, Poznań, and also in 2 control groups: 15 subjects with seborrhoeic dermatitis (15-20 years) and 36 healthy children (1-20 years). In children with atopic dermatitis, contact allergy was observed in 47/104 patients (45.2%). With regards to the 3 age subgroups, positive patch test results were detected in 30/43 in children aged 1-5 years (69.8%), 13/36 in children aged 6-14 years (36.1%) and in 4/25 adolescents 15-20 years of age (16%). The highest proportion of positive patch tests was detected in the youngest subgroup of healthy children. Comparative analysis revealed type IV hypersensitivity statistically significantly more frequent in children with atopic dermatitis than in the 2 control groups. The statistically significant positive results in the highest proportion of patch tests in the youngest age subpopulation of children with atopic dermatitis, and detection of contact allergy most commonly in the youngest subgroup of healthy children, may suggest nonspecifically positive results associated with the immaturity of the epidermal barrier during the first years of life. Concentrations of contact allergens included in current pediatric sets of patch tests seems to be too high and should be verified.

  4. Differences in Home Food and Activity Environments between Obese and Healthy Weight Families of Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boles, Richard E.; Scharf, Cynthia; Filigno, Stephanie S.; Saelens, Brian E.; Stark, Lori J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To develop and test a home food and activity instrument to discriminate between the home environments of obese and healthy weight preschool children. Design: A modified questionnaire about home environments was tested as an observation tool. Setting: Family homes. Participants: A total of 35 obese children with at least 1 obese…

  5. Do Healthy Preterm Children Need Neuropsychological Follow-Up? Preschool Outcomes Compared with Term Peers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dall'Oglio, Anna M.; Rossiello, Barbara; Coletti, Maria F.; Bultrini, Massimiliano; De Marchis, Chiara; Rava, Lucilla; Caselli, Cristina; Paris, Silvana; Cuttini, Marina

    2010-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to determine neuropsychological performance (possibly predictive of academic difficulties) and its relationship with cognitive development and maternal education in healthy preterm children of preschool age and age-matched comparison children born at term. Method : A total of 35 infants who were born at less than 33…

  6. Parents' Agreement to Purchase Healthy Snack Foods Requested by Their Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Diane E.; Reiboldt, Wendy

    2010-01-01

    Research shows that parents agree to purchase their children's food requests 45% to 65% of the time. This study examined an after-school nutrition education intervention in terms of its effects on parents' agreement to purchase healthy snack foods requested by their children. Survey data from 755 parents were analyzed. Of the 67% of parents asked…

  7. Parenting clinically anxious versus healthy control children aged 4-12 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Sluis, C.M.; van Steensel, F.J.A.; Bögels, S.M.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated whether parenting behaviors differed between parents of 68 clinically anxious children and 106 healthy control children aged 4-12 years. The effects of parent gender, child gender and child age on parenting were explored. Mothers and fathers completed a questionnaire to

  8. The steep ramp test in healthy children and adolescents: reliability and validity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bongers, B.C.; Vries, S.I. de; Helders, P.J.M.; Takken, T.

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: This study aimed to examine the reliability and validity of the steep ramp test (SRT), a feasible, maximal exercise test on a cycle ergometer that does not require the use of respiratory gas analysis, in healthy children and adolescents.METHODS: Seventy-five children were randomly divided

  9. Teaching Healthy Habits to Young Children: Handwashing, Toileting and Toothbrushing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshikanlu, Seyi

    2006-01-01

    Teaching children habits is a routine part of many early childhood program curricula, with teachers never really stopping to think about what or how teaching is affecting their students. Habits are formed with consistent practice. Habits can be taught to children easily when teachers have some creativity to the actions. In this article, the author…

  10. Interracial Children: Growing Up Healthy in an Unhealthy Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shackford, Kate

    1984-01-01

    Summarizes a conference which addressed the needs of children of interracial families. Reports that the lack of support, materials, and information for interracial families was a major concern. Recommends that interracial children be allowed to choose the racial identity they find most comfortable, and presents suggestions for starting a support…

  11. Detection of putative periodontopathic bacteria in type 1 diabetic and healthy children: A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ponnudurai Arangannal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to compare and assess the risk of periodontitis due to the presence of four putative periodontopathic bacteria (Porphyromonas gingivalis, Treponema denticola, Tannerella forsythia, and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans in type 1 diabetic and healthy children. Materials and Methods: Fifty type 1 diabetic and 50 healthy children in the age group of 7-14 years were recruited for the study. Subgingival plaque samples collected from permanent first molars were subjected to polymerase chain reaction assay to detect 16S rRNA gene of P. gingivalis, T. forsythia, T. denticola and A. actinomycetemcomitans. The data were analyzed using Fisher exact test. The P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The prevalence of subgingival periodontal pathogens in diabetic and healthy children was 2% and 4% for P. gingivalis, 34% and 34% for T. denticola, 20% and 18% for A. actinomycetemcomitans and for T. forsythia, 4% and 34%, respectively. Significant statistical difference was not observed with regard to the prevalence of P. gingivalis, T. denticola, and A. actinomycetemcomitans among type 1 diabetic and healthy children (P = 1.00. Conversely, T. forsythia was less prevalent in diabetic children compared to healthy children. Conclusion: Statistical significance was not observed for the prevalence of periodontopathic bacteria in type 1 diabetic subjects. The results of the present study thus reveal the absence of risk of periodontitis by these bacterial species in type 1 diabetic subjects.

  12. Diet qualities: healthy and unhealthy aspects of diet quality in preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Sarah E; Ramsden, Megan; Kaye, Gail

    2016-06-01

    Diet quality indexes combine the healthy and unhealthy aspects of diet within a single construct, but few studies have evaluated their association. Emerging evidence suggests that predictors differ for the more and less healthy components of children's diets. Our objectives were to determine whether preschool-aged children's frequency of eating healthy foods was inversely related to their intake of unhealthy foods and to determine whether this differed by household income, maternal education, or child race-ethnicity. We analyzed data from a representative sample of 8900 US children (mean age: 52.5 mo) who were born in 2001 and participated in the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort. Primary caregivers reported the frequency with which children consumed fruit, vegetables, milk, juice, sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), fast food, sweets, and salty snacks in the past week. Response options ranged from none to ≥4 times/d. We created healthy (fruit, vegetables, milk) and unhealthy (SSBs, fast food, sweets, salty snacks) diet scores. Healthy diet behaviors were defined as ≥2 daily servings of fruit, vegetables, and milk. The prevalence of consuming fruit, vegetables, and milk ≥2 times/d (i.e., having 3 healthy diet behaviors) was 18.5%, and a similar proportion (17.6%) of children had none of these healthy behaviors. Contrary to our hypotheses, children with more healthy diet behaviors did not have lower unhealthy diet scores. The intake of healthy foods was not inversely associated with unhealthy foods overall or within any subgroup. Overall, the Spearman rank correlation between healthy and unhealthy diet scores was positive (r = 0.09). From the lowest to the highest strata of household income, these correlations were 0.12, 0.14, 0.14, 0.05, and 0.00, respectively. No evidence was found in US preschool-aged children of an inverse association between eating healthy and unhealthy foods. The implications of combining healthy and unhealthy aspects of diet

  13. Psychosocial correlates of physical activity in healthy children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, R S; Rodzilsky, D; Burack, G; Colin, M

    2001-08-01

    Understanding the determinants of physical activity in children is critical for the treatment and prevention of childhood obesity. Social-cognitive theory has been used to understand behavioral patterns in children. To explore the relationship between health beliefs, self-efficacy, social support, and sedentary activities and physical activity levels in children and to examine the relationship between physical activity and children's self-esteem. Ninety-two children aged 10 to 16 years completed the study. Physical activity was monitored for 1 week with a motion detector (Actitrac; IM Systems, Baltimore, Md). Moderate-level activity and high-level activity were defined based on the results of treadmill testing. Health beliefs, self-efficacy, social influences, and time spent in sedentary behaviors were determined through questionnaires. Self-esteem was measured using the Piers-Harris Children's Self-Concept Scale. Chronic anxiety was measured with the Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale. There was a significant decline in physical activity levels between ages 10 and 16 years, particularly in girls. Preteen girls spent approximately 35% more time in low- and high-level activity than did teenage girls (Pactivity. Time spent in sedentary behaviors was inversely correlated with the amount of moderate-level activity (Plevel activity. In contrast, time spent in high-level activity correlated with self-efficacy scores (Plevel physical activity was also associated with improved self-esteem (Pphysical activity levels. Children and adolescents are largely sedentary. Correlates of high- and low-level physical activity are different. Time spent on sedentary activities is inversely correlated with moderate-level activity, while self-efficacy and social influences are positively correlated with more intense physical activity. In addition, increased high-level physical activity is an important component in the development of self-esteem in children.

  14. Right anterior cingulate cortical thickness and bilateral striatal volume correlate with child behavior checklist aggressive behavior scores in healthy children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducharme, Simon; Hudziak, James J; Botteron, Kelly N; Ganjavi, Hooman; Lepage, Claude; Collins, D Louis; Albaugh, Matthew D; Evans, Alan C; Karama, Sherif

    2011-08-01

    The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), and basal ganglia have been implicated in pathological aggression. This study aimed at identifying neuroanatomical correlates of impulsive aggression in healthy children. Data from 193 representative 6- to 18-year-old healthy children were obtained from the National Institutes of Health Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study of Normal Brain Development after a blinded quality control. Cortical thickness and subcortical volumes were obtained with automated software. Aggression levels were measured with the Aggressive Behavior scale (AGG) of the Child Behavior Checklist. AGG scores were regressed against cortical thickness and basal ganglia volumes using first- and second-order linear models while controlling for age, gender, scanner site, and total brain volume. Gender by AGG interactions were analyzed. There were positive associations between bilateral striatal volumes and AGG scores (right: r = .238, p = .001; left: r = .188, p = .01). A significant association was found with right ACC and subgenual ACC cortical thickness in a second-order linear model (p right ACC cortex. An AGG by gender interaction trend was found in bilateral OFC and ACC associations with AGG scores. This study shows the existence of relationships between impulsive aggression in healthy children and the structure of the striatum and right ACC. It also suggests the existence of gender-specific patterns of association in OFC/ACC gray matter. These results may guide research on oppositional-defiant and conduct disorders. Copyright © 2011 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Respiratory Cycle-Related Electroencephalographic Changes during Sleep in Healthy Children and in Children with Sleep Disordered Breathing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immanuel, Sarah A.; Pamula, Yvonne; Kohler, Mark; Martin, James; Kennedy, Declan; Saint, David A.; Baumert, Mathias

    2014-01-01

    Study Objective: To investigate respiratory cycle-related electroencephalographic changes (RCREC) in healthy children and in children with sleep disordered breathing (SDB) during scored event-free (SEF) breathing periods of sleep. Design: Interventional case-control repeated measurements design. Setting: Paediatric sleep laboratory in a hospital setting. Participants: Forty children with SDB and 40 healthy, age- and sex-matched children. Interventions: Adenotonsillectomy in children with SDB and no intervention in controls. Measurements and Results: Overnight polysomnography; electroencephalography (EEG) power variations within SEF respiratory cycles in the overall and frequency band-specific EEG within stage 2 nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep, slow wave sleep (SWS), and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Within both groups there was a decrease in EEG power during inspiration compared to expiration across all sleep stages. Compared to controls, RCREC in children with SDB in the overall EEG were significantly higher during REM and frequency band specific RCRECs were higher in the theta band of stage 2 and REM sleep, alpha band of SWS and REM sleep, and sigma band of REM sleep. This between-group difference was not significant postadenotonsillectomy. Conclusion: The presence of nonrandom respiratory cycle-related electroencephalographic changes (RCREC) in both healthy children and in children with sleep disordered breathing (SDB) during NREM and REM sleep has been demonstrated. The RCREC values were higher in children with SDB, predominantly in REM sleep and this difference reduced after adenotonsillectomy. Citation: Immanuel SA, Pamula Y, Kohler M, Martin J, Kennedy D, Saint DA, Baumert M. Respiratory cycle-related electroencephalographic changes during sleep in healthy children and in children with sleep disordered breathing. SLEEP 2014;37(8):1353-1361. PMID:25083016

  16. Respiratory cycle-related electroencephalographic changes during sleep in healthy children and in children with sleep disordered breathing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immanuel, Sarah A; Pamula, Yvonne; Kohler, Mark; Martin, James; Kennedy, Declan; Saint, David A; Baumert, Mathias

    2014-08-01

    To investigate respiratory cycle-related electroencephalographic changes (RCREC) in healthy children and in children with sleep disordered breathing (SDB) during scored event-free (SEF) breathing periods of sleep. Interventional case-control repeated measurements design. Paediatric sleep laboratory in a hospital setting. Forty children with SDB and 40 healthy, age- and sex-matched children. Adenotonsillectomy in children with SDB and no intervention in controls. Overnight polysomnography; electroencephalography (EEG) power variations within SEF respiratory cycles in the overall and frequency band-specific EEG within stage 2 nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep, slow wave sleep (SWS), and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Within both groups there was a decrease in EEG power during inspiration compared to expiration across all sleep stages. Compared to controls, RCREC in children with SDB in the overall EEG were significantly higher during REM and frequency band specific RCRECs were higher in the theta band of stage 2 and REM sleep, alpha band of SWS and REM sleep, and sigma band of REM sleep. This between-group difference was not significant postadenotonsillectomy. The presence of nonrandom respiratory cycle-related electroencephalographic changes (RCREC) in both healthy children and in children with sleep disordered breathing (SDB) during NREM and REM sleep has been demonstrated. The RCREC values were higher in children with SDB, predominantly in REM sleep and this difference reduced after adenotonsillectomy. Immanuel SA, Pamula Y, Kohler M, Martin J, Kennedy D, Saint DA, Baumert M. Respiratory cycle-related electroencephalographic changes during sleep in healthy children and in children with sleep disordered breathing.

  17. Assessment of mastication in healthy children and children with cerebral palsy: a validity and consistency study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remijn, L; Speyer, R; Groen, B E; Holtus, P C M; van Limbeek, J; Nijhuis-van der Sanden, M W G

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study was to develop the Mastication Observation and Evaluation instrument for observing and assessing the chewing ability of children eating solid and lumpy foods. This study describes the process of item definition and item selection and reports the content validity, reproducibility and consistency of the instrument. In the developmental phase, 15 experienced speech therapists assessed item relevance and descriptions over three Delphi rounds. Potential items were selected based on the results from a literature review. At the initial Delphi round, 17 potential items were included. After three Delphi rounds, 14 items that regarded as providing distinctive value in assessment of mastication (consensus >75%) were included in the Mastication Observation and Evaluation instrument. To test item reproducibility and consistency, two experts and five students evaluated video recordings of 20 children (10 children with cerebral palsy aged 29-65 months and 10 healthy children aged 11-42 months) eating bread and a biscuit. Reproducibility was estimated by means of the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). With the exception of one item concerning chewing duration, all items showed good to excellent intra-observer agreement (ICC students: 0.73-1.0). With the exception of chewing duration and number of swallows, inter-observer agreement was fair to excellent for all items (ICC experts: 0.68-1.0 and ICC students: 0.42-1.0). Results indicate that this tool is a feasible instrument and could be used in clinical practice after further research is completed on the reliability of the tool. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Task positive and default mode networks during a working memory in children with primary monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kaihua; Ma, Jun; Lei, Du; Wang, Mengxing; Zhang, Jilei; Du, Xiaoxia

    2015-10-01

    Nocturnal enuresis is a common developmental disorder in children, and primary monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis (PMNE) is the dominant subtype. This study investigated brain functional abnormalities that are specifically related to working memory in children with PMNE using function magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in combination with an n-back task. Twenty children with PMNE and 20 healthy children, group-matched for age and sex, participated in this experiment. Several brain regions exhibited reduced activation during the n-back task in children with PMNE, including the right precentral gyrus and the right inferior parietal lobule extending to the postcentral gyrus. Children with PMNE exhibited decreased cerebral activation in the task-positive network, increased task-related cerebral deactivation during a working memory task, and longer response times. Patients exhibited different brain response patterns to different levels of working memory and tended to compensate by greater default mode network deactivation to sustain normal working memory function. Our results suggest that children with PMNE have potential working memory dysfunction.

  19. Fresh Food Program Promotes Healthy Eating Habits among Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kish, Stacy

    2008-01-01

    Communities across the nation are fighting the increased incidence of childhood obesity and Type II diabetes. With funding from USDA's Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension Service (CSREES), a group in Illinois is promoting environmental sustainability and healthy eating habits in young Americans. Seven Generations Ahead's…

  20. Healthy Environment for Children: The Nigerian Situation | Aghaji ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The theme for the World Health Day 2003 is “Healthy Environment for Children”. As a follow-up action, this article reviews the state of the environment in Nigeria and the health indices for the Nigerian child. Methods: Information was extracted from records and survey reports published by government units, ...

  1. Swedish nurses encounter barriers when promoting healthy habits in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ljungkrona-Falk, Lena; Brekke, Hilde; Nyholm, Maria

    2014-12-01

    To increase the understanding of difficulties in promoting healthy habits to parents, we explore barriers in health-care provision. The aim of this study is to describe nurses' perceived barriers when discussing with parents regarding healthy food habits, physical activity and their child's body weight. A mixed method approach was chosen. Nurses (n = 76) working at 29 different Child Health Care Centers' in an area in west Sweden were included in the study. Three focus group interviews were conducted and 17 nurses were selected according to maximum variation. Data were categorized and qualitative content analysis was the chosen analysis method. In the second method, data were obtained from a questionnaire distributed to all 76 nurses. The latent content was formulated into a theme: even with encouragement and support, the nurses perceive barriers of both an external and internal nature. The results identified four main barriers: experienced barriers in the workplace-internal and external; the nurse's own fear and uncertainty; perceived obstacles in nurse-parent interactions and modern society impedes parents' ability to promote healthy habits. The nurses' perceived barriers were confirmed by the results from 62 of the nurses who completed the questionnaire. Despite education and professional support, the health professionals perceived both external and internal barriers in promoting healthy habits to parents when implementing a new method of health promotion in primary care. Further qualitative studies are needed to gain deeper understanding of the perceived barriers when promoting healthy habits to parents. © The Author (2013). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Imaging of American football injuries in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podberesky, Daniel J; Unsell, Bryan J; Anton, Christopher G

    2009-12-01

    It is estimated that 3.2 million children ages 6 to 14 years participated in organized youth football in the United States in 2007. Approximately 240,000 children play football in the nation's largest youth football organization, with tackle divisions starting at age 5 years. The number of children playing unsupervised football is much higher, and the overall number of children participating in American football is increasing. Sports are the leading cause of injury-related emergency room visits for teenagers, and football is a leading precipitating athletic activity for these visits. Football is also the most hazardous organized sports in the United States. Though most pediatric football-related injuries are minor, such as abrasions, sprains, and strains of the extremities, football accounts for more major and catastrophic injuries than any other sport. Given football's popularity with children in the United States, combined with the high rate of injury associated with participation in this activity, radiologists should be familiar with the imaging features and injury patterns seen in this patient population.

  3. Imaging of American football injuries in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Podberesky, Daniel J.; Anton, Christopher G. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Unsell, Bryan J. [Wilford Hall Medical Center, Lackland Air Force Base, Department of Radiology, San Antonio, TX (United States)

    2009-12-15

    It is estimated that 3.2 million children ages 6 to 14 years participated in organized youth football in the United States in 2007. Approximately 240,000 children play football in the nation's largest youth football organization, with tackle divisions starting at age 5 years. The number of children playing unsupervised football is much higher, and the overall number of children participating in American football is increasing. Sports are the leading cause of injury-related emergency room visits for teenagers, and football is a leading precipitating athletic activity for these visits. Football is also the most hazardous organized sports in the United States. Though most pediatric football-related injuries are minor, such as abrasions, sprains, and strains of the extremities, football accounts for more major and catastrophic injuries than any other sport. Given football's popularity with children in the United States, combined with the high rate of injury associated with participation in this activity, radiologists should be familiar with the imaging features and injury patterns seen in this patient population. (orig.)

  4. The 'Healthy Dads, Healthy Kids' community randomized controlled trial: a community-based healthy lifestyle program for fathers and their children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Philip J; Collins, Clare E; Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Callister, Robin; Burrows, Tracy; Fletcher, Richard; Okely, Anthony D; Young, Myles D; Miller, Andrew; Lloyd, Adam B; Cook, Alyce T; Cruickshank, Joel; Saunders, Kristen L; Lubans, David R

    2014-04-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of the 'Healthy Dads, Healthy Kids (HDHK)' program when delivered by trained facilitators in community settings. A two-arm randomized controlled trial of 93 overweight/obese fathers (mean [SD] age=40.3 [5.3] years; BMI=32.5 [3.8] kg/m(2)) and their primary school-aged children (n=132) from the Hunter Region, Australia. In 2010-2011, families were randomized to either: (i) HDHK intervention (n=48 fathers, n=72 children) or (ii) wait-list control group. The 7-week intervention included seven sessions and resources (booklets, pedometers). Assessments were held at baseline and 14-weeks with fathers' weight (kg) as the primary outcome. Secondary outcomes for fathers and children included waist, BMI, blood pressure, resting heart rate, physical activity (pedometry), and self-reported dietary intake and sedentary behaviors. Linear mixed models (intention-to-treat) revealed significant between-group differences for fathers' weight (Pfathers losing more weight (-3.3 kg; 95%CI, -4.3, -2.4) than control fathers (0.1 kg; 95%CI, -0.9,1.0). Significant treatment effects (Pfathers' waist (d=0.41), BMI (d=0.26), resting heart rate (d=0.59), energy intake (d=0.49) and physical activity (d=0.46) and for children's physical activity (d=0.50) and adiposity (d=0.07). HDHK significantly improved health outcomes and behaviors in fathers and children, providing evidence for program effectiveness when delivered in a community setting. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Healthy children's identification and risk perception of medicines in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whatley, Ben; Williams, Sian E; Gard, Paul R; MacAdam, Angela B

    2012-01-01

    Children's understanding of medicines has an impact on their behavior toward those medicines, and yet there has been a paucity of studies exploring this area. To assess children's ability to identify and to explore their risk perceptions of medicines. One hundred eighty-two children aged 4 to 11 years at 2 primary schools in England completed a worksheet containing photos of foods and pharmaceutical products. Children were asked to identify what the picture showed and classify it as "good for them," "bad for them," or "sometimes good/sometimes bad for them." Responses were marked as correct if they identified an item without the need for exact identification. Where an item was correctly identified, risk perception was analyzed. Children correctly identified 5 of the 7 pictures as a form of medicine (mean=5.10, standard deviation=1.51), and identification was positively correlated with age (ρ=0.59, Pwhite (71.4% correct, 95% CI=64.9-78) or pink tablets (33.5% correct, 95% CI=26.7-40.4). There was a significant shift with age in the perceptions of the children as they changed from reporting that medicines were good for them to reporting that they were sometimes good and sometimes bad for them. This held for all medicines (χ(2) tests, P<.05) except for the cream and the inhaler. As children get older, they become better at identifying medicines, and they become more likely to see their potential risks. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The effects of healthy lifestyle behaviors of mothers on obesity in preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inal, Sevil; Canbulat, Nejla; Bozkurt, Gulcin

    2015-10-01

    To determine the relationship between healthy lifestyle behaviours of mothers and obesity in their pre-school children. The cross-sectional study was performed in a district of Istanbul, Turkey, between April and June 2011, and comprised children aged 4-6 years attending public pre-schools and their mothers.. Data was obtained using a questionnaire and Healthy Lifestyle Behaviours Scale-II. Number Cruncher Statistical System 2007 was used for statistical analysis. Of the 531 children in the study, 246(46.3%) were girls. Overall prevalence of overweight was 136(25.6%), obesity 77(14.5%)Overweight mothers were 126(23.7%), and obese mothers were 31(5.8%). The mothers of obese children obtained lower scores in the physical activity (pobesity among preschool children. Strategies should be developed to improve the physical activity and eating habits of mothers.

  7. Heart rate recovery time in metabolically healthy and metabolically unhealthy obese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjelakovic, Ljiljana; Vukovic, Vladimir; Jovic, Marko; Bankovic, Sanja; Kostic, Tomislav; Radovanovic, Dragan; Pantelic, Sasa; Zivkovic, Mladen; Stojanovic, Sanja; Bjelakovic, Bojko

    2017-11-01

    Autonomic dysfunction is an emerging non-traditional cardiovascular risk factor that correlates with obesity, components of metabolic syndrome, as well as cardiorespiratory fitness. As a simple and validated index of autonomic balance, heart rate recovery (HRR) has been reported as a useful biomarker for predicting cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to compare HRR in metabolically healthy vs. metabolically unhealthy obese children. A total of 56 obese children of whom 31 had metabolic syndrome were examined. All the participants underwent the multistage submaximal cycle ergometer test and HRR was determined one minute after the test. The HRR was significantly lower (18.9 ± 3.7) in a group of metabolically unhealthy obese children compared to metabolically healthy obese children (24 ± 4.1) p heart rate recovery (HRR) in obese children with metabolic syndrome.

  8. The role of computer games in measuring spirometry in healthy and "asthmatic" preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilozni, Daphna; Barak, Asher; Efrati, Ori; Augarten, Arie; Springer, Chaim; Yahav, Yacov; Bentur, Lea

    2005-09-01

    To explore the role of respiratory interactive computer games in teaching spirometry to preschool children, and to examine whether the spirometry data achieved are compatible with acceptable criteria for adults and with published data for healthy preschool children, and whether spirometry at this age can assess airway obstruction. Feasibility study. Community kindergartens around Israel and a tertiary pediatric pulmonary clinic. Healthy and asthmatic preschool children (age range, 2.0 to 6.5 years). Multi-target interactive spirometry games including three targets: full inspiration before expiration, instant forced expiration, and long expiration to residual volume. One hundred nine healthy and 157 asthmatic children succeeded in performing adequate spirometry using a multi-target interactive spirometry game. American Thoracic Society (ATS)/European Respiratory Society spirometry criteria for adults for the start of the test, and repeatability were met. Expiration time increased with age (1.3 +/- 0.3 s at 3 years to 1.9 +/- 0.3 s at 6 years [+/- SD], p 1.5 SD for forced expiratory flow at 50% of vital capacity [FEF50] and forced expiratory flow at 75% of vital capacity [FEF75], p games can facilitate spirometry in very young children, yielding results that conform to most of the ATS criteria established for adults and published data for healthy preschool children. Spirometric indexes correlated with degree of asthma severity.

  9. Parental Encouragement of Healthy Lifestyles for Their Children and Personally Caring about Healthy Lifestyles Is Positively Associated with Children Using Vitamin D Supplements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalani L. Munasinghe

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Supplement users have better vitamin D status, and parenting is key to promoting a child’s healthy behaviours. We examined the association of parental encouragement of and caring about healthy lifestyles with children’s use of vitamin D supplements and multivitamins. A provincially representative sample of grade 5 students (n = 2686; 10–11 years and their parents across the province of Alberta, Canada, was surveyed in 2014. Students were asked about use of multivitamins and/or vitamin D supplements. Parents were asked whether they cared about and encouraged healthy lifestyles. Mixed effect multiple logistic regression identified the association of parental responses with children’s use of supplements; 29% and 54% of children took vitamin D supplements and multivitamins, respectively. They were more likely to take vitamin D supplements if their parents cared ‘very much’ vs. ‘not at all/a little bit’ about eating healthy foods (OR = 1.43; 95% CI = 1.08, 1.89, cared ‘quite a lot’ (OR = 1.55; 95% CI = 1.17, 2.04 and ‘very much’ (OR = 1.67; 95% CI = 1.26, 2.21 vs. ‘not at all/a little bit’ about physical activity, and encouraged ‘very much’ vs. ‘not at all/a little bit’ their children to eat healthy foods (OR = 1.51; 95% CI = 1.05, 2.17. Children whose parents personally cared for eating healthy foods were more likely to take multivitamins (‘quite a lot’ and ‘very much’ compared to ‘not at all/a little bit’ (OR = 1.60; 95% CI = 1.13, 2.28 and OR = 1.46; 95% CI = 1.04, 2.06, respectively. Education and parental encouragement of healthy lifestyles should be part of the public health initiatives to promote supplementation of vitamin D among children.

  10. Hydrogen peroxide in exhaled air of healthy children: reference values

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Q. Jobsis (Quirijn); R.H. Raatgeep (Rolien); S.L. Schellekens; W.C.J. Hop (Wim); P.W.M. Hermans (Peter); J.C. de Jongste (Johan)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractAn increased content of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), a marker of inflammation, has been described in the condensate of exhaled air from adults and children with inflammatory lung disorders, including asthma. However, the normal range of [H2O2] in the exhaled

  11. "Early Sprouts" Establishing Healthy Food Choices for Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalich, Karrie A.; Bauer, Dottie; McPartlin, Deirdre

    2009-01-01

    The preschool years are a critical period for the development of food preferences and lifelong eating habits. Between the ages of 2 and 5, children become increasingly responsive to external cues, such as television commercials that use popular cartoon characters to advertise foods, candy in supermarket checkout aisles, and fast-food restaurants…

  12. PERCEIVED DISCOMFORT LEVELS IN HEALTHY CHILDREN PARTICIPATING IN VACCINE RESEARCH

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westra, Anna E.; van Gils, Elske J. M.; Aarts, Fenne; Rodenburg, Gerwin D.; Veenhoven, Reinier H.; Hak, Eelko; Scharloo, Margreet; Sukhai, Ram N.; Wit, Jan M.; de Beaufort, Inez; Sanders, Elisabeth (Lieke) A. M.

    WHEN ASSESSING THE RISKS OF A research protocol, review boards need to consider not only the possible harms but also the expected discomfort levels caused by the various study procedures. However, data on how children experience various study procedures are scarce. This study assessed perceived

  13. 77 FR 26019 - Healthy Tomorrows Partnership for Children Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-02

    ... Resource Center also offers consultation to HTPCP program participants to ensure successful implementation... sector partners in HTPCP projects to promote successful implementation of community-based maternal and... to direct services for pregnant women, infants, children and youth and promote prevention initiatives...

  14. Promoting Children's Healthy Social-Emotional Growth: Dialogue Journal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konishi, Chiaki; Park, Sol

    2017-01-01

    Dialogue journals are a form of writing in which a student and a teacher carry on a conversation over time. This paper addresses the benefits of using dialogue journals for promoting a positive social-emotional learning (SEL) environment for children in school settings. Educators and researchers have increasingly acknowledged the importance of SEL…

  15. Gymnastics injuries and imaging in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, Marc S. [Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2009-12-15

    Injuries of children participating in gymnastics are seen less often than in more popular sports. Patterns of injury are predictable based upon sex, age and level of intensity of training and competition. More injuries are seen in girls than in boys, and the great majority of early adolescents who compete have wrist pain. Some otherwise quiescent congenital spine anomalies may be uncovered by the stress of gymnastics maneuvers and present with low back pain. In addition to diagnosis of injuries, imaging can be used to guide analgesic and anti-inflammatory therapy in some injured athletes. Parents whose children wish to participate in gymnastics should understand that fewer injuries occur in the child enjoying recreational gymnastics than in competing gymnasts. More gymnastics injuries are found in very competitive athletes training at higher levels. (orig.)

  16. Nutrition: basis for healthy children and mothers in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faruque, A S G; Ahmed, A M Shamsir; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Islam, M Munirul; Hossain, Md Iqbal; Roy, S K; Alam, Nurul; Kabir, Iqbal; Sack, David A

    2008-09-01

    Recent data from the World Health Organization showed that about 60% of all deaths, occurring among children aged less than five years (under-five children) in developing countries, could be attributed to malnutrition. It has been estimated that nearly 50.6 million under-five children are malnourished, and almost 90% of these children are from developing countries. Bangladesh is one of the countries with the highest rate of malnutrition. The recent baseline survey by the National Nutrition Programme (NNP) showed high rates of stunting, underweight, and wasting. However, data from the nutrition surveillance at the ICDDR,B hospital showed that the proportion of children with stunting, underweight, and wasting has actually reduced during 1984-2005. Inappropriate infant and young child-feeding practices (breastfeeding and complementary feeding) have been identified as a major cause of malnutrition. In Bangladesh, although the median duration of breastfeeding is about 30 months, the rate of exclusive breastfeeding until the first six months of life is low, and practice of appropriate complementary feeding is not satisfactory. Different surveys done by the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey, United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), and Bangladesh Breastfeeding Foundation (BBF) showed a rate of exclusive breastfeeding to be around 32-52%, which have actually remained same or declined over time. The NNP baseline survey using a strict definition of exclusive breastfeeding showed a rate of exclusive breastfeeding (12.8%) until six months of age. Another study from the Abhoynagar field site of ICDDR,B reported the prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding to be 15% only. Considerable efforts have been made to improve the rates of exclusive breastfeeding. Nationally, initiation of breastfeeding within one hour of birth, feeding colostrum, and exclusive breastfeeding have been promoted through the Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative (BFHI) implemented and supported by BBF and

  17. Children suffering from separation anxiety disorder (SAD) show increased HPA axis activity compared to healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Serge; Wilhelm, Frank H; Kossowsky, Joe; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Schneider, Silvia

    2011-04-01

    Separation anxiety disorder (SAD) is one of the most common mental disorders in childhood, and one of the earliest emerging. Little is known about the association between SAD and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis activity. Therefore, the present study aimed at investigating this association in children suffering from separation anxiety compared to healthy controls. A total of 31 children with diagnosed SAD (mean age: 8.45; 17 females, 14 males) and 25 healthy controls (HC; mean age: 9.74; 12 females, 13 males) took part in the study. All participants underwent psycho-physiological testing for HPA axis challenge. Testing consisted of a separation and a social exposure paradigm. Saliva samples to assess HPA axis-related cortisol secretion were gathered in parallel. Compared to healthy controls, children with SAD showed greatly increased HPA axis activity, as reflected by an increased cortisol secretion throughout the entire period of investigation. The rise of cortisol was already observed in anticipation of, but not following the separation paradigm. No gender-related differences of cortisol secretion were observed. Separation anxiety disorder (SAD) in children is reflected in greatly increased HPA axis activity. Compared to healthy controls, children with SAD showed increased cortisol values from the beginning of, and throughout, the entire investigation. This pattern of results suggests that both the anticipation of a separation and a persistent hyperactivity of the HPA axis system leads to an increased cortisol secretion. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Neck Circumference as a Predictor of Adiposity among Healthy and Obese Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Nayera E; Atef, Abeer; El-Masry, Sahar A; Ibrahim, Amany; Shady, Mones M Abu; Al-Tohamy, Muhammad; Kamel, Iman H; Elashry, Galal Ismail Ahmed

    2015-12-15

    Obesity, particularly in the upper part of body, is a major health problem. Because body mass index (BMI) does not adequately describe regional adiposity, other indices of body fatness are being explored. To determine if neck circumference is a valid measure of adiposity (fat distribution) among group of Egyptian children. This is a cross sectional study, included 50 obese subjects, aged 7 - 12 years recruited from Endocrine, obesity and Metabolism Pediatric Unit at Children Hospital, Cairo University and 50 healthy children, age and sex matched. All children were subjected to blood pressure assessment (systolic SBP and diastolic DBP), and anthropometric assessment (body weight, height, neck circumference (NC), waist (WC) and hip (HC) circumferences, and skin fold thicknesses at three sites: biceps, triceps and sub scapular. BMI [weight (kg)/height (m2)] was calculated. In healthy females, significant associations were detected between NC and SBP, DBP and all anthropometric measurements. However, in healthy males NC was not significantly associated with BMI, SBP and DBP. In the obese group; both sexes; insignificant association was found between NC and SBP, DBP, BMI and skinfold thickness. NC is related to fat distribution among normal healthy female children. However, this relation disappears with increasing adiposity. The results do not support the use of NC as a useful screening tool for childhood obesity.

  19. Neck Circumference as a Predictor of Adiposity among Healthy and Obese Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayera E. Hassan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obesity, particularly in the upper part of body, is a major health problem. Because body mass index (BMI does not adequately describe regional adiposity, other indices of body fatness are being explored. OBJECTIVES: To determine if neck circumference is a valid measure of adiposity (fat distribution among group of Egyptian children. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: This is a cross sectional study, included 50 obese subjects, aged 7 - 12 years recruited from Endocrine, obesity and Metabolism Pediatric Unit at Children Hospital, Cairo University and 50 healthy children, age and sex matched. All children were subjected to blood pressure assessment (systolic SBP and diastolic DBP, and anthropometric assessment (body weight, height, neck circumference (NC, waist (WC and hip (HC circumferences, and skin fold thicknesses at three sites: biceps, triceps and sub scapular. BMI [weight (kg/height (m2] was calculated. RESULTS: In healthy females, significant associations were detected between NC and SBP, DBP and all anthropometric measurements. However, in healthy males NC was not significantly associated with BMI, SBP and DBP. In the obese group; both sexes; insignificant association was found between NC and SBP, DBP, BMI and skinfold thickness. CONCLUSION: NC is related to fat distribution among normal healthy female children. However, this relation disappears with increasing adiposity. The results do not support the use of NC as a useful screening tool for childhood obesity.

  20. The energy cost of playing active video games in children with obesity and children of a healthy weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donovan, C; Roche, E F; Hussey, J

    2014-08-01

    Increasing physical activity and reducing sedentary behaviour form a large part of the treatment of paediatric obesity. However, many children today spend prolonged periods of time playing sedentary video games. Active video games (AVGs) represent a novel and child friendly form of physical activity. To measure the energy cost of playing two AVGs in children with obesity and healthy age- and gender-matched children. The energy cost of gaming and heart rates achieved during gaming conditions were compared between groups. AVG play can result in light-to-moderate intensity physical activity (2.7-5.4 metabolic equivalents). When corrected for fat-free mass those with obesity expended significantly less energy than healthy weight peers playing Nintendo Wii Fit Free Jogging (P = 0.017). No significant difference was seen between groups in the energy cost of playing Boxing. Certain AVGs, particularly those that require lower limb movement, could be used to increase total energy expenditure, replace more sedentary activities, or achieve moderate intensity physical activity among children with obesity. There seems to be some differences in how children with obesity and children of a healthy weight play AVGs. This could result in those with obesity expending less energy than their lean peers during AVG play. © 2013 The Authors. Pediatric Obesity © 2013 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  1. Healthy caregivers-healthy children (HC2) phase 2: Integrating culturally sensitive childhood obesity prevention strategies into childcare center policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messiah, Sarah E; Lebron, Cynthia; Moise, Rhoda; Sunil Mathew, M; Sardinas, Krystal; Chang, Catherina; Palenzuela, Joanne; Walsh, Jennifer; Shelnutt, Karla P; Spector, Rachel; Altare, Fiorella; Natale, Ruby

    2017-02-01

    Despite the high prevalence of obesity among preschool-aged children, most states lack childcare center (CCC) nutrition and physical activity policies. The Healthy Caregivers, Healthy Children (HC) Phase 2 project is examining the relationship between the CCC nutrition and physical activity environment and child dietary intake/physical activity patterns and body mass index (BMI). A total of 24 "Quality Counts" (Miami Dade County, Florida's Quality Rating Improvement System [QRIS)]) CCCs serving low resource families with ≥50 2-to-5year olds attending have been randomized to either intervention (n=12) or control (n=12). The HC2 intervention arm CCCs receive implementation of a daily curricula for (1) teachers/parents; (2) children; (3) snack, beverage, physical activity, and screen time policies; and (4) technical assistance with menu modifications. Control arm schools receive an attention control safety curriculum. HC2 is delivered once a month in year 1, quarterly in year 2 and will be disseminated throughout the Quality Counts network in year 3. Primary outcome measures include the Environment and Policy Assessment and Observation tool (EPAO), standardized dietary intake and physical activity patterns surveys, and child BMI. The 'Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation, and Maintenance (RE-AIM)' framework will guide the interpretation of outcome measures. CCCs are in need of evidence-based standardized nutrition and physical activity policies. The intersection of RE-AIM and early childhood obesity prevention in the childcare setting could generate robust and new information to the field about potential barriers, facilitators, adoption, and sustainability in this setting. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Vibrio cholerae/mimicus in fecal microbiota of healthy children in a cholera endemic urban slum setting in Kolkata, India

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nair, Gopinath Balakrish; Ramamurthy, Thandavarayan; Sur, Dipika; Kurakawa, Takashi; Takahashi, Takuya; Nomoto, Koji; Takeda, Yoshifumi

    2012-01-01

    During a double‐blind, randomized, placebo‐controlled probiotic trial among 3758 children residing in an urban slum in Kolkata, India, Vibrio cholerae / mimicus was detected in fecal microbiota of healthy children...

  3. Healthy me: A gender-specific program to address body image concerns and risk factors among preadolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Marita P; Connaughton, Catherine; Tatangelo, Gemma; Mellor, David; Busija, Lucy

    2017-03-01

    This study evaluated a gender-specific, school-based program to promote positive body image and address risk factors for body dissatisfaction. In total, 652 children aged 8-10 years participated (335 intervention, 317 wait-list control). Children participated in four 60min sessions and a recap session at three months post-intervention. The broad content areas were body image, peer relationships, media awareness, healthy diet, and exercise. The activities and examples for each session were gender specific. The recap session was an overview of the four sessions. Assessment measures were completed at pre-intervention, post-intervention, and after the recap. Boys and girls in the intervention demonstrated higher muscle esteem and vegetable intake at post-intervention, compared to children in the control condition. Boys and girls demonstrated higher body esteem, muscle esteem and fruit and vegetable intake at the recap. Boys in the intervention demonstrated less investment in masculine gender norms at post-intervention and at recap. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Sampling Modification Effects in the Subgingival Microbiome Profile of Healthy Children

    OpenAIRE

    Santigli, Elisabeth; Trajanoski, Slave; Eberhard, Katharina; Klug, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    Background: Oral microbiota are considered major players in the development of periodontal diseases. Thorough knowledge of intact subgingival microbiomes is required to elucidate microbial shifts from health to disease. Aims: This comparative study investigated the subgingival microbiome of healthy children, possible inter- and intra-individual effects of modified sampling, and basic comparability of subgingival microprints. Methods: In five 10-year-old children, biofilm was collected from th...

  5. Nighttime Sleep Macrostructure Is Altered in Otherwise Healthy 10-Year-Old Overweight Children

    OpenAIRE

    Chamorro, Rodrigo; Algar?n, Cecilia; Garrido, Marcelo; Causa, Leonardo; Held, Claudio; Lozoff, Betsy; Peirano, Patricio

    2013-01-01

    Objective Epidemiological evidence shows an inverse relationship between sleep duration and overweight/obesity risk. However, there are few polysomnographic studies that relate the organization of sleep stages to pediatric overweight (OW). We compared sleep organization in otherwise healthy OW and normal weight (NW) 10-year-old children. Subjects Polysomnographic assessments were performed in 37 NW and 59 OW children drawn from a longitudinal study beginning in infancy. Weight and height were...

  6. Picture Yourself Healthy-How Users Select Mediated Images to Shape Health Intentions and Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Brianna; Knobloch-Westerwick, Silvia; Robinson, Melissa J

    2018-02-20

    Hypotheses on how selective viewing of mediated images may sustain eating habits and aid healthier eating were derived from the Selective Exposure Self- and Affect Management model. The model posits that individuals select to view media to manage their self-concepts-and that this exposure affects subsequent intentions and behaviors. Participants (N = 265) selectively viewed Instagram-like postings featuring healthy or unhealthy food imagery. Beforehand, participants reported habits and perceived expert recommendations regarding food intake. After viewing postings, participants chose gift cards representing healthy or unhealthy food purchases and indicated food intake intentions. Results show that existing eating behavior predicts selective exposure to healthy or unhealthy food imagery, which in turn shapes gift card choices and (both healthy and unhealthy) food intake intentions.

  7. Children with cerebral palsy do not achieve healthy physical activity levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratteby Tollerz, L U; Forslund, A H; Olsson, R M; Lidström, H; Holmbäck, U

    2015-11-01

    This study compared daily activity energy expenditure (AEE) in children with cerebral palsy with a control group and investigated whether the children achieved healthy levels of physical activity. We enrolled eight children with bilateral cerebral palsy, from eight to 10 years of age, and a group of controls matched for age and gender. For three days, physical activity was simultaneously measured by accelerometers and self-reports using a diary. The daily AEE results were compared between groups and methods. The number of children that achieved healthy physical activity levels in each group was explored. Children with cerebral palsy had significantly lower daily AEE, as measured by accelerometers, than the controls, and they did not achieve the healthy moderate to heavy physical activity level defined in the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations. Self-reports using the diaries resulted in an overestimation of physical activity compared with the ankle accelerometer measurements in both groups. Our investigation of physical activity in children with cerebral palsy and controls using accelerometers and a diary found low levels of daily AEE and physical activity, and these results were most prominent in the group with cerebral palsy. The diaries overestimated physical activity in both groups. ©2015 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Pulmonary diffusing capacity in healthy African-American and Caucasian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Jee; Christoph, Kathy; Yu, Zhangsheng; Eigen, Howard; Tepper, Robert S

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies of pulmonary diffusing capacity in healthy children primarily focused upon Caucasian (C) subjects. Since lung volumes in African-Americans (AA) are smaller than lung volumes in C subjects of the same height, diffusing capacity values in AA children might be interpreted as low or abnormal using currently available equations without adjusting for race. Healthy AA (N = 151) and C (N = 301) children between 5 and 18 years of age performed acceptable measurements of single breath pulmonary diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO ) and alveolar volume (VA ) according to current ATS/ERS guidelines. The natural log of DLCO and VA were associated with height, gender, age, and race; AA children had lower DLCO and VA compared to C children. Adjustment of DLCO for Hemoglobin (Hgb) resulted in no significant difference in DLCO among these healthy subjects with normal Hgb. In summary, we report prediction equations for DLCO and VA that include adjustment for race (C; AA) demonstrating that AA have lower DLCO and VA compared to C children for the same height, gender, and age. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Development of an educational intervention to promote healthy eating and physical activity in Mexican school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaya-Castellanos, Claudia; Shamah-Levy, Teresa; Escalante-Izeta, Ericka; Morales-Ruán, María Del Carmen; Jiménez-Aguilar, Alejandra; Salazar-Coronel, Araceli; Uribe-Carvajal, Rebeca; Amaya-Castellanos, Alejandra

    2015-10-01

    Mexico has the highest and most alarming rates of childhood obesity worldwide. A study conducted in the State of Mexico revealed that one of every three children presents overweight or obesity. The objective of this paper is to provide a step-by-step description of the design and implementation of an educational intervention to promote healthy eating and physical activity called "Healthy Recess". The educational intervention was designed using the six stages of the Health Communication Process. This methodological model allowed identifying the needs of school-age children on information and participation in activities. In order to improve the strategy, adjustments were made to the print and audiovisual materials as well as to assessment tools. Typography was modified as well as the color of the images in student's workbook and facilitator's; special effects of the videos were increased; the narration of the radio spots was improved and common words and phrases were included. The Health Communication Process is an effective tool for program planners to design interventions aimed at managing prevalent health problems such as overweight and obesity in school-age children. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Comparison of Dental Caries Experience and Associated Treatment Needs between Autistic and Healthy Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taraneh Movahhed

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There are few studies investigating the oral health condition of the autistic children, rendering conflicting results. Regarding this, the present study aimed to compare the autistic and normal children in terms the caries experience. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 70 children with autism and 70 healthy children with the age range of 8-12 years. The participants’ age, gender, and parental education level were recorded. The number of the decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT; both permanent and primary was determined. The data were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney U and Chi-square tests. P-value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: According to the results, the paternal education level of the autistic children was significantly higher than that of the normal children (P=0.002. However, there was no significant difference between the two groups regarding their maternal education level (P=0.051. Additionally, the autistic and normal children showed no significant difference regarding the DMFT index in the primary (P=0.53 and permanent (P=0.85 teeth. Moreover, the autistic children had more unmet dental needs in primary dentition, compared to their normal counterparts (P=0.002. Conclusion: As the findings of the study indicated, the autistic and normal children had comparable DMFT index. However, the unmet dental needs of the autistic children in the primary dentition were higher than those of the normal children.

  11. Review of diffusion tensor imaging and its application in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vorona, Gregory A. [Children' s Hospital of Richmond at Virginia Commonwealth University, Department of Radiology, Richmond, VA (United States); Berman, Jeffrey I. [Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2015-09-15

    Diffusion MRI is an imaging technique that uses the random motion of water to probe tissue microstructure. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) can quantitatively depict the organization and connectivity of white matter. Given the non-invasiveness of the technique, DTI has become a widely used tool for researchers and clinicians to examine the white matter of children. This review covers the basics of diffusion-weighted imaging and diffusion tensor imaging and discusses examples of their clinical application in children. (orig.)

  12. Establishing and explaining the impact of characters on young children's healthy food choices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Droog, S.M. de

    2013-01-01

    Worldwide the number of overweight children rises dramatically. One way to prevent overweight is by creating healthy eating habits from a very young age. This dissertation explores whether and how 4- to 6-year-olds’ fruit and vegetable choices can be stimulated by using an immensely popular

  13. Epidemiology of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus colonization in healthy Venezuelan children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quintero, B.; Araque, M.; Gaast-de Jongh, C.E. van der; Escalona, F.; Correa, M.; Morillo-Puente, S.; Vielma, S.; Hermans, P.W.M.

    2011-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus cause significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. We investigated both the colonization and co-colonization characteristics for these pathogens among 250 healthy children from 2 to 5 years of age in Merida, Venezuela, in 2007. The prevalence of

  14. The Academic and Psychological Benefits of Exercise in Healthy Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Martin; Laumann, Karin

    2013-01-01

    This review examines the psychological benefits exercise is connected to in healthy children and adolescents. Studies on the effect of exercise on academic performance, self-esteem, emotions, and mood were examined. Academic performance is found to be maintained when normal academic classes are reduced and replaced by an increase in exercise,…

  15. Examining the causal association of fasting glucose with blood pressure in healthy children and adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goharian, T S; Andersen, Lars Bo; Franks, P W

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine whether genetically raised fasting glucose (FG) levels are associated with blood pressure (BP) in healthy children and adolescents. We used 11 common genetic variants of FG discovered in genome-wide association studies (GWAS), including the rs560887 single...

  16. Nordic Children's Conceptualizations of Healthy Eating in Relation to School Lunch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berggren, Linda; Talvia, Sanna; Fossgard, Eldbjørg; Arnfjörð, Unnur Björk; Hörnell, Agneta; Ólafsdóttir, Anna Sigríður; Gunnarsdóttir, Ingibjörg; Wergedahl, Hege; Lagström, Hanna; Waling, Maria; Olsson, Cecilia

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Pupils' perspective should be better taken into account when developing nutrition education at school. The purpose of this paper is to explore Nordic children's perspectives on the healthiness of meals in the context of school lunches. Design/methodology/approach: In total, 78 focus group discussions were conducted with 10-11-year-old…

  17. Enfants en santé Ouganda - Healthy Children Uganda (HCU) | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Depuis 2003, le partenariat canado-ougandais Enfants en santé Ouganda - Healthy Children Uganda (HCU) a mis en oeuvre un programme de bénévolat en santé dans 175 villages. Des bénévoles ... Five world-class research teams are working to develop vaccines for neglected livestock diseases in the Global South.

  18. Quantitative muscle ultrasound and muscle force in healthy children: A 4-year follow-up study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, J.; Jansen, M; Janssen, H.; Raijmann, W.; Alfen, N. van; Pillen, S.

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: No longitudinal data on the normal development of muscle thickness (MT), quantitative muscle ultrasound echo intensity (EI), and muscle force (MF) in healthy children are yet available. METHODS: Reference values of MT, EI, and MF of 4 muscles from infancy to age 16 years were

  19. Epidemiology of nasopharyngeal carriage of Neisseria meningitidis in healthy Dutch children.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogaert, D.; Hermans, P.W.M.; Boelens, H.; Sluijter, M.; Luijendijk, A.; Rumke, H.C.; Koppen, S.; Belkum, A. van; Groot, R. de; Verbrugh, H.A.

    2005-01-01

    We investigated the prevalence and determinants of nasopharyngeal carriage of Neisseria meningitidis in 3200 healthy children aged 1-19 years. The incidence of meningococcal carriage was, on average, 1.5%. Peak incidences were seen at age 1 year and after age 15 years. The independent determinants

  20. Cardiopulmonary exercise testing in healthy children and adolescents at moderately high altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilarraza-Lomelí, Hermes; Castañeda-López, Javier; Myers, Jonathan; Miranda, Irma; Quiroga, Paula; Rius, María-Dolores; Lopez-de-la-Vega, César; Vallejo, Enrique; Calderón, Juan; Figueroa, Javier; Buendía, Alfonso

    2013-01-01

    Cardiopulmonary exercise testing is a tool that helps clinicians to establish diagnosis and calculate risk stratification in adults. However, the utility of this test among children with congenital heart disease has not been fully explored. The goal of this study was to describe reference values for cardiopulmonary performance of healthy children. This study included 103 apparently healthy children (aged from 4 to 18 years; 61 boys), who underwent cardiopulmonary test using a treadmill protocol. All tests took place at 2240m above sea level (Mexico City). Exercise time was 11±4min. There were no complications. Peak oxygen uptake correlated closely with height in both genders (girls r=0.84; boys r=0.84, p<0.001). A multivariable linear regression model showed that body surface area, exercise time, gender and heart rate reserve were significant predictors of peak oxygen uptake (R(2)=0.815, p<0.001). Peak oxygen uptake was strongly associated with age even among children younger than thirteen years (r=0.74, p<0.001). This study provides physiological values for the major cardiopulmonary variables obtained from exercise testing using a treadmill among healthy children. Cardiopulmonary exercise test can be safely and effectively performed in young children even as young as 4 years old. Variables including age, gender and height are strongly associated with exercise time, peak heart rate and peak oxygen uptake. Regression equations for predicting peak heart rate and peak oxygen uptake are presented as reference values that allow researchers to compare children with heart disease versus those who are healthy. Copyright © 2013 Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of organic school meals to promote healthy diet in 11–13 year old children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Chen; Breiting, Søren; Perez-Cueto, Armando

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether organic school meals can be an effective strategy to pro- vide healthy food to children and promote their healthy eating habits. Furthermore, the study aimed to examine pupils’ attitudes predicting intention and behaviours in relation to organic food...... to consume organic food but not on their behaviour. In addition, all participants were willing to adopt healthier eating habits in the future both at school and in the home. These findings suggest that children attending schools where meals include organic ingredients might be more aware of healthy foods...... selected pupils were invited to focus group interviews. More positive school lunch habits were observed in pupils in the organic schools than in the non-organic schools. Generally all the pupils had positive attitudes towards organic food and health and this had a significant impact on their intention...

  2. Can School Organic Food Policy Promote Healthy Behaviors in Danish Children?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Chen

    Schools are a well suited setting for learning and establishment of good habits of children and youth. Using schools in healthy eating strategies may play an important role in preventing children from becoming obese and overweight, and a growing number of schools and municipalities engage...... in initiatives which promote healthy foods and physical activity. Concurrently, municipalities and other public bodies increasingly recognize their responsibility to support sustainable food production methods, such as organic agriculture, by choosing this kind of foods in public institutions. The question...... therefore arises whether these two trends - healthier eating strategies for youth, and increased public consumption of organic food, interact. This paper investigates the interrelation between the two trends: healthy eating and organic consumption. In Denmark, public schools are utilised for public organic...

  3. Psychological findings in preterm children related to neurologic status and magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsén, P; Vainionpää, L; Pääkkö, E; Korkman, M; Pyhtinen, J; Järvelin, M R

    1998-08-01

    Preterm children experience learning disabilities more often than full-term children, but detailed information on their neuropsychological and neurologic determinants is lacking. We therefore examined these problems more closely and also studied if clinical neurologic examination and/or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can be used as tools to screen the preterm children at risk for these problems. In a population-based study, the psychological performance of 42 preterm children with a birth weight <1750 g and of their matched controls was assessed at 8 years of age and the findings were then related to clinical neurologic examination and MRI. Learning disabilities of these children, reported by the teachers, were also studied. The cognitive ability of the preterm children, although in the normal range, was significantly lower than that of the control children. They performed particularly poorly in tasks requiring spatial and visuoperceptual abilities, which were associated with the finding of periventricular leukomalacia in MRI, especially with posterior ventricular enlargement. The preterm children with minor neurodevelopmental dysfunction (MND) had the most problems in neuropsychological tests, whereas the clinically healthy preterm children and those with cerebral palsy had fewer problems. The problems of MND children emerged in the domain of attention. They also experienced the most problems at school. Visuospatial problems were associated with periventricular leukomalacia in MRI, but learning disabilities were most frequent among the preterm children with minor neurologic abnormalities. We recommend closer follow-up of preterm children with MND.

  4. Color perception in pediatric patient room design: healthy children vs. pediatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jin Gyu

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the value of color as a component of a healing environment for pediatric patient rooms. Color preferences from pediatric inpatient, pediatric outpatient, and healthy children groups were investigated and compared for group and gender differences. Positive environmental stimulation can promote patient well-being by reducing stress or negative feelings. If environmental colors can have positive influences, then those colors will make patients more comfortable, reducing their stress. Although previous color studies are suggestive, none has focused on pediatric healthcare environments. Patients' health status may affect their reaction to environmental stimulation. There was a gap in the body of knowledge regarding the consistency of color preferences with regard to patient health status. A simulation method was used because of its reliability and feasibility. It allowed for investigating the value of color in real contexts and controlling confounding variables. Previous color preference studies typically have been done with small colored squares of paper, which are visually different from seeing a color applied on wall surfaces. In addition, they failed to control confounding variables such as color attributes and light sources. Group differences were not significant. This refuted the hypothesis that the color preferences of pediatric patients are different from those of healthy children. However, overall color preferences showed that the healthy children group had higher mean scores of color preferences than both pediatric outpatients and inpatients groups. Gender effects were identified across all three groups. All three groups showed similar color preference patterns, except for yellow. Both pediatric outpatients and inpatients preferred yellow less than healthy children did. Healthy children's mean scores of color preferences were higher than the pediatric outpatients; the pediatric outpatients group had higher mean

  5. Distinct distal gut microbiome diversity and composition in healthy children from Bangladesh and the United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrie Lin

    Full Text Available Our current understanding of the composition and stability of the human distal gut microbiota is based largely on studies of infants and adults living in developed countries. In contrast, little is known about the gut microbiota and its variation over time in older children and adolescents, especially in developing countries.We compared the diversity, composition, and temporal stability of the fecal microbiota of healthy children, ages 9 to 14 years, living in an urban slum in Bangladesh with that of children of the same age range in an upper-middle class suburban community in the United States. We analyzed >8,000 near full-length 16S rRNA gene sequences and over 845,000 pyrosequencing reads of the 16S rRNA V1-V3 region. The distal gut of Bangladeshi children harbored significantly greater bacterial diversity than that of U.S. children, including novel lineages from several bacterial phyla. Bangladeshi and U.S. children had distinct fecal bacterial community membership and structure; the microbiota of Bangladeshi children was enriched in Prevotella, Butyrivibrio, and Oscillospira and depleted in Bacteroides relative to U.S. children (although similar to Bangladeshi adults. Furthermore, community membership and structure in Bangladeshi children was significantly less stable month-to-month than U.S. children.Together, these results suggest that differing environmental or genetic factors may shape the microbiota of healthy children in the two countries. Further investigation is necessary to understand the mechanisms and factors that underlie these differences, and to incorporate these findings into new strategies for the prevention and treatment of childhood and adolescent diseases.

  6. Validity of the Pediatric Running-Based Anaerobic Sprint Test to Determine Anaerobic Performance in Healthy Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bongers, Bart C.; Werkman, Maarten S.; Blokland, Donna; Eijsermans, Maria J. C.; van der Torre, Patrick; Bartels, Bart; Verschuren, Olaf; Takken, Tim

    Purpose: To determine criterion validity of the pediatric running-based anaerobic sprint test (RAST) as a nonsophisticated field test for evaluating anaerobic performance in healthy children and adolescents. Methods: Data from 65. healthy children (28 boys and 37 girls between 6 and 18 years of age,

  7. Technology prevention of addictive behavior in children as part of a healthy lifestyle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zolotova A.D.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : to develop a technology of social and educational prevention of addictive behavior in children as part of the organization of a healthy lifestyle. Material : a theoretical analysis and compilation of more than 50 sources of scientific and methodological literature. Applied methods of modeling and design of social and educational activities. Results : the technology of social and educational prevention of addictive behavior of children in the territorial community. The main components of addictive behavior prevention technologies children are: diagnostic levels of addictive behavior of children in the territorial community; goal-prevention technologies, the choice of technology development or prevention of addictive behavior in children, preparation and planning of prevention, the introduction of technology, expertise and evaluation of the effectiveness of the technology deployed, summing outcomes. Conclusions . prevention of addictive behavior is an integral part of the organization of a healthy lifestyle for children. Procedural embodiment prevention of addictive behavior of children in the life of the territorial community is represented as a developed social and educational technology.

  8. Healthy Weights Interventions in Aboriginal Children and Youth: A Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towns, Claire; Cooke, Martin; Rysdale, Lee; Wilk, Piotr

    2014-09-01

    There is evidence that Aboriginal children and youth in Canada and elsewhere are at higher risk of obesity and overweight than other children. However, there has been no review of healthy weights interventions specifically aimed at Aboriginal children. A structured search for peer-reviewed articles presenting and evaluating healthy weights interventions for Aboriginal children and youth was conducted. Seventeen articles, representing seven interventions, were reviewed to identify their main characteristics, evaluation design, and evaluation outcomes. Interventions included several large community-based programs as well as several more focused programs that all targeted First Nations or American Indians, rather than Métis or Inuit. Only 1 program served an urban Aboriginal population. None of the published evaluations reported significant reductions in obesity or overweight or sustained increases in physical activity, although some evaluations presented evidence of positive effects on children's diets or on nutrition knowledge or intentions. We conclude that broader structural factors affecting the health of Aboriginal children may limit the effectiveness of these interventions, and that more evidence is required regarding interventions for Aboriginal children in various geographic and cultural contexts in Canada including Inuit and Métis communities.

  9. Preliminary assessment of a school-based healthy lifestyle intervention among rural elementary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Jiying; King, Kristi M; Speck, Barbara J; Kim, Seongho; Wu, Dongfeng

    2014-04-01

    Childhood obesity has become a national public health crisis in America. Physical inactivity and unhealthy eating behaviors may contribute to the childhood obesity epidemic. School-based healthy lifestyle interventions play a promising role in preventing and controlling childhood obesity. A comprehensive school-based healthy lifestyle intervention was implemented in 4 rural elementary schools in Kentucky. The intervention included 4 goals: improving physical education, health education, family/community involvement, and school wellness policies. Children's physical activity was assessed by pedometer, and nutrition was assessed by a previous day recall survey in January (baseline), February (t1), March (t2), April (t3), and May (t4) of 2011. The intervention had significant effects on increasing the percentages of children meeting physical activity (1% vs 5%, p school, grade, and age of the children. There was an increasing linear trend of physical activity and an increasing quadratic trend of nutrition over time among children. The intervention had beneficial effects in improving healthy behaviors among children. Further studies are needed to assess its long-term effects and cost-effectiveness. © 2014, American School Health Association.

  10. Palmar abduction measurements: reliability and introduction of normative data in healthy children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Kraker, Marjolein; Selles, Ruud W; Molenaar, Ties M; Schreuders, Ton A; Hovius, Steven E; Stam, Henk J

    2009-11-01

    Previously, we studied normative and reliability data of palmar thumb abduction measurements (conventional goniometry, the Pollexograph thumb, the Pollexograph metacarpal, the Inter Metacarpal Distance, the American Society of Hand Therapists method, and the American Medical Association method) in healthy adults. Because many interventions aiming to improve palmar abduction are performed at an early age, the goal of this study was to assess normative and reliability data of these measurement methods in children. We performed measurements with the Pollexograph thumb, the Pollexograph metacarpal and Inter Metacarpal Distance in 100 healthy children to acquire normative data. A retest was performed in 63 children to assess intraobserver reliability. Mean active and passive palmar abduction measured with the Pollexograph thumb was 62 degrees (range, 40 degrees to 76 degrees). The range of motion of the Pollexograph metacarpal was smaller (mean 49 degrees, range, 32 degrees to 64 degrees). The mean Inter Metacarpal Distance was 50 mm (range, 36-70 mm). Intraclass correlation coefficients of the Pollexograph thumb, Pollexograph metacarpal, and Inter Metacarpal Distance indicated excellent reliability (intraclass correlation coefficients between 0.85 and 0.92). Normative Pollexograph thumb and Pollexograph metacarpal data showed that means measured in children are comparable to values found in healthy adults. Reliability data indicated that the Pollexograph thumb, the Pollexograph metacarpal, and Inter Metacarpal Distance are also reliable measurement methods in children.

  11. Specific airway resistance, interrupter resistance, and respiratory impedance in healthy children aged 2-7 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klug, B; Bisgaard, H

    1998-01-01

    in the range of 5-35 Hz. The techniques applied in this study require minimal cooperation and allow measurement of lung function in 80% of our population of awake young children. Further studies are needed to evaluate the potentials of the presently established reference values for clinical and epidemiological......We report data on respiratory function in healthy children aged 2-7 years in whom we measured respiratory resistance by the interrupter technique (Rint); total respiratory impedance (Zrs), respiratory resistance (Rrs), and reactance (Xrs) by the impulse oscillation technique; and specific airway...... resistance (sRaw) by a modified procedure method in the whole body plethysmograph. Measurements were attempted in 151 children and were successfully obtained in 121 children with a mean (SD) age of 5.3 (1.5) years; no measurements were possible in 30 children (mean age 3 (0.9) years). The repeatability...

  12. Assessment of Intima-Media Thickness in Healthy Children Aged 1 to 15 Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liz Andréa Villela Baroncini

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT has been shown to be increased in children and adolescents with traditional cardiovascular risk factors such as obesity, hypertension, and chronic kidney disease, compared with those of healthy children. Objective: To assess the influence of sex, age and body mass index (BMI on the CIMT in healthy children and adolescents aged 1 to 15 years. Methods: A total of 280 healthy children and adolescents (males, n=175; mean age, 7.49±3.57 years; mean BMI, 17.94±4.1 kg/m2 were screened for CIMT assessment. They were divided into 3 groups according to age: GI, 1 to 5 years [n=93 (33.2%; males, 57; mean BMI, 16±3 kg/m2]; GII, 6 to 10 years [n=127 (45.4%; males, 78; mean BMI, 17.9±3.7 kg/m2], and GIII, 11 to 15 years [n=60 (21.4%; males, 40; mean BMI, 20.9±4.5 kg/m2]. Results: There was no significant difference in CIMT values between male and female children and adolescents (0.43±0.06 mm vs. 0.42±0.05 mm, respectively; p=0.243. CIMT correlated with BMI neither in the total population nor in the 3 age groups according to Pearson correlation coefficient. Subjects aged 11 to 15 years had the highest CIMT values (GI vs. GII, p=0.615; GI vs. GIII, p=0.02; GII vs. GIII, p=0.004. Conclusions: CIMT is constant in healthy children younger than 10 years, regardless of sex or BMI. CIMT increases after the age of 10 years.

  13. Perceptions of weight and body image among preschool children: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Jacqulyn N; Broome, Marion E

    2012-01-01

    Obesity has become a significant problem in children younger than 5 years of age. The purpose of this pilot study was to examine the perceptions of preschool children about the body size of children who are overweight and those who are of normal weight. Seventeen children between 4 and 5 years of age were recruited from seven daycare programs. Each was interviewed using pictorial images representative of various body shapes and sizes, was weighed, and had his or her height measured to calculate actual Body Mass Index (BMI). Children were asked to indicate which image most closely reflected their beliefs about overweight and healthy children. Findings indicate that preschool children are able to correctly identify which body shapes depict someone who is overweight. A few children identified the body shape that accurately estimates their own BMI; yet, all reported "yes" when asked if they like the way they look. Using pictures of body shapes as well as various food items can be used with preschool children to develop prevention and intervention strategies that target overweight and obesity.

  14. Children's Images of Scientists: Does Grade Level Make a Difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozel, Murat

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess children's images of scientists by using the Draw-A-Scientist Test (DAST) and to determine if differences in these images exist between grade levels. The DAST was administered to 243 children who were enrolled in kindergarten (aged 6) and grade 3 and 5 (aged 9 and 11). Findings obtained from the study…

  15. Impact of Consumers’ Self-Image and Demographics on Preference for Healthy Labeled Foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savita Hanspal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Consumers are becoming more health conscious. Increasingly, products that are labeled “healthy” are being marketed as new retailers and new brands vie for the consumers’ share of wallet. This research identifies the self-image factors that constitute a health conscious image of the self and examines how self-image impacts consumer buying of foods that are labeled healthy. It also makes an effort to find out whether specific self-image factors are significantly associated with demographics. This study employs a scale consisting of 15 statements that included four statements from the Health Consciousness scale developed by Gould. The psychometric properties of the scale used in the study are reported. The study uses factor analysis to identify five factors of consumer self-image as they relate to health consciousness. Furthermore, the study explores the relationship between demographics such as age, gender, education, and relationship status with the self-image factors and reports results for consumer preferences for choosing healthy foods when hungry. This research has important implications for marketers in the health food industry and for such other companies that might use consumer health consciousness as a basis for market segmentation and strategy design.

  16. Relationships between Dietary Intake and Cognitive Function in Healthy Korean Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin Young; Kang, Seung Wan

    2017-01-01

    It has long been theorized that a relatively robust dietary intake impacts cognitive function. The aim of the study was to explore dietary intake and cognitive function in healthy Korean children and adolescents. Three hundred and seventeen healthy children with no previous diagnosis of neurologic or psychiatric disorders were evaluated (167 girls and 150 boys with a mean age of 11.8 ± 3.3 years). Analysis indicators including food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) consisting of 76 items and neurocognitive tests including symbol digit modalities (SDMT), verbal memory, visual memory, shift attention, reasoning, and digit span (forward and backward) tests were observed and recorded. The standard deviation in reaction time was significantly shorter in girls than in boys (p consumption of noodles showed negative correlation with verbal memory, SDMT, shift attention, and reasoning test results (p consumption of fast food showed negative correlation with SDMT and reasoning test results (p consumption of Coca-Cola showed negative correlation with the results of verbal memory tests (p consumption of mushrooms showed positive correlation with visual memory and reasoning test results (p consumption of nuts showed positive correlation with SDMT results (p consumption of rice and ramyeon (p consumption of snacks (p consumption of rice (p consumption of rice with mixed grains (p function is generally better observed in girls than in boys. The consumption of healthy foods is correlated with good cognitive function. These results suggest that diet is closely related to cognitive function, even in healthy children and adolescents.

  17. [Are children from resort spa healthy? The overweight and obesity in children from Kudowa-Zdrój].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Połubok, Joanna; Gonera, Aleksandra; Ubysz, Jakub; Wójcik, Maria; Kozicka, Marta; Barg, Ewa

    2015-12-15

    Overweight and obesity are becoming a more and more common problem among children and teenagers. . The aim of this study is to evaluate the development of children and teenagers from Kudowa-Zdroj and to assess the prevalence of overweight and obesity in this population. . The study included 545 children, aged 5-16 years from Kudowa-Zdroj. The following anthropometric parameters were assessed: body weight and height, BMI, Quetelet index, Rohrer's index, waist circumference, hip circumference and waist to height ratio (WHtR). . Overweight or obesity diagnosed by BMI SDS were observed in 26.7% of children from grades 0-3, 22.02% of children from grades 4-6 and 22.52% of Junior High School students. Students in grades 0-3 (mean 0.95 ± 2.17) achieved higher BMI SDS compared to students in grades 4-6 (mean 0.37 ± 1.71) and secondary school (mean 0.65 ± 1.61) (p= 0.023).Overweight or obesity diagnosed by Rohrer index SDS and Quetelet index SDS were observed in 22,84% and 17,13% children. Elevated value of the hip circumference SDS was found in 19.48% of children and waist circumference SDS was increased in 17.5% of children. In the group of children with overweight and obesity 59.4% had elevated waist circumference SDS and 53.4% waist circumference SDS. WHtR was elevated in 8.3% of children, more often in boys (p obesity. Overweight and obesity are common disorders among children from Kudowa-Zdroj. It is recommended to educate children, adolescence and their family about healthy lifestyle in order to reduce the prevalence of overweight and obesity. © Polish Society for Pediatric Endocrinology and Diabetology.

  18. Galactose oxidation using {sup 13}C in healthy and galactosemic children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Resende-Campanholi, D.R. [Departamento de Puericultura e Pediatria, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Porta, G. [Unidade de Hepatologia Pediátrica, Instituto da Criança Prof. Pedro de Alcântara, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Ferrioli, E.; Pfrimer, K. [Departamento de Clínica Médica, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Ciampo, L.A. Del; Junior, J.S. Camelo [Departamento de Puericultura e Pediatria, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil)

    2015-01-20

    Galactosemia is an inborn error of galactose metabolism that occurs mainly as the outcome of galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALT) deficiency. The ability to assess galactose oxidation following administration of a galactose-labeled isotope (1-{sup 13}C-galactose) allows the determination of galactose metabolism in a practical manner. We aimed to assess the level of galactose oxidation in both healthy and galactosemic Brazilian children. Twenty-one healthy children and seven children with galactosemia ranging from 1 to 7 years of age were studied. A breath test was used to quantitate {sup 13}CO{sub 2} enrichment in exhaled air before and at 30, 60, and 120 min after the oral administration of 7 mg/kg of an aqueous solution of 1-{sup 13}C-galactose to all children. The molar ratios of {sup 13}CO{sub 2} and {sup 12}CO{sub 2} were quantified by the mass/charge ratio (m/z) of stable isotopes in each air sample by gas-isotope-ratio mass spectrometry. In sick children, the cumulative percentage of {sup 13}C from labeled galactose (CUMPCD) in the exhaled air ranged from 0.03% at 30 min to 1.67% at 120 min. In contrast, healthy subjects showed a much broader range in CUMPCD, with values from 0.4% at 30 min to 5.58% at 120 min. The study found a significant difference in galactose oxidation between children with and without galactosemia, demonstrating that the breath test is useful in discriminating children with GALT deficiencies.

  19. Packaging as a vehicle of nutritional information for children: Enhancing children’s perceptions of healthy food

    OpenAIRE

    Vasques, Ana Luísa Freixial

    2013-01-01

    Field lab in marketing: Children consumer behaviour This research explores on-package nutrition claims as a way to transmit nutritional information and to promote children’s choice of healthy food. The influence of two formats of a nutrition claim - in verbal and visual form – and of a general claim assuring tastiness were analyzed on children and adults’ attention to the nutrition claim, attitude toward the product, perceived healthiness and purchase intention. A sample of 233 children ag...

  20. Targeted vaccination in healthy school children - Can primary school vaccination alone control influenza?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorrington, Dominic; Jit, Mark; Eames, Ken

    2015-10-05

    The UK commenced an extension to the seasonal influenza vaccination policy in autumn 2014 that will eventually see all healthy children between the ages of 2-16 years offered annual influenza vaccination. Models suggest that the new policy will be both highly effective at reducing the burden of influenza as well as cost-effective. We explore whether targeting vaccination at either primary or secondary schools would be more effective and/or cost-effective than the current strategy. An age-structured deterministic transmission dynamic SEIR-type mathematical model was used to simulate a national influenza outbreak in England. Costs including GP consultations, hospitalisations due to influenza and vaccinations were compared to potential gains in quality-adjusted life years achieved through vaccinating healthy children. Costs and benefits of the new JCVI vaccination policy were estimated over a single season, and compared to the hypothesised new policies of targeted and heterogeneous vaccination. All potential vaccination policies were highly cost-effective. Influenza transmission can be eliminated for a particular season by vaccinating both primary and secondary school children, but not by vaccinating only one group. The most cost-effective policy overall is heterogeneous vaccination coverage with 48% uptake in primary schools and 34% in secondary schools. The Joint Committee on Vaccination and Immunisation can consider a modification to their policy of offering seasonal influenza vaccinations to all healthy children of ages 2-16 years. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Predictive Regression Equations of Flowmetric and Spirometric Peak Expiratory Flow in Healthy Moroccan Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouti, Khalid; Benamor, Jouda; Bourkadi, Jamal Eddine

    2017-08-01

    Peak Expiratory Flow (PEF) has never been characterised among healthy Moroccan school children. To study the relationship between PEF and anthropometric parameters (sex, age, height and weight) in healthy Moroccan school children, to establish predictive equations of PEF; and to compare flowmetric and spirometric PEF with Forced Expiratory Volume in 1 second (FEV1). This cross-sectional study was conducted between April, 2016 and May, 2016. It involved 222 (122 boys and 100 girls) healthy school children living in Ksar el-Kebir, Morocco. We used mobile equipments for realisation of spirometry and peak expiratory flow measurements. SPSS (Version 22.0) was used to calculate Student's t-test, Pearson's correlation coefficient and linear regression. Significant linear correlation was seen between PEF, age and height in boys and girls. The equation for prediction of flowmetric PEF in boys was calculated as 'F-PEF = -187+ 24.4 Age + 1.61 Height' (p-valuePEF = -151 + 17Age + 1.59Height' (p-valuePEF in boys was calculated as 'S-PEF = -199+ 9.8Age + 2.67Height' (p-valuePEF = -181 + 8.5Age + 2.5Height' (p-valuePEF predictive equations in Moroccan children. Our results appeared to be reliable, as evident by the high correlation coefficient in this sample. PEF can be an alternative of FEV1 in centers without spirometry.

  2. Evaluation of the thyroid blood flow with Doppler ultrasonography in healthy school-aged children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yazici, Burhan [Department of Radiology, Duzce University School of Medicine, Konuralp, Duzce 81620 (Turkey)], E-mail: dryazici@yahoo.com; Simsek, Enver [Department of Pediatrics, Duzce University School of Medicine, Konuralp, Duzce (Turkey); Erdogmus, Besir [Department of Radiology, Duzce University School of Medicine, Konuralp, Duzce 81620 (Turkey); Bahcebasi, Talat [Department of Public Health, Duzce University School of Medicine, Konuralp, Duzce (Turkey); Aktas, Alev [Department of Pediatrics, Duzce University School of Medicine, Konuralp, Duzce (Turkey); Buyukkaya, Ramazan [Department of Radiology, Duzce University School of Medicine, Konuralp, Duzce 81620 (Turkey); Uzun, Hakan [Department of Pediatrics, Duzce University School of Medicine, Konuralp, Duzce (Turkey); Safak, Alp Alper [Department of Radiology, Duzce University School of Medicine, Konuralp, Duzce 81620 (Turkey)

    2007-08-15

    Objective: To determine the relationship between thyroid blood flow and anthropometric measurements, pubertal stage, and thyroid and gonadotropic hormones. Materials and methods: We examined 123 healthy school-aged children prospectively (69 boys (56.1%) and 54 girls (43.9%), 7-17 years old). Their sex, age, body weight, height, body mass index (BMI), and pubertal stage were determined. Serum thyrotropin, free thyroxine, luteinizing hormone, and follicle stimulating hormone were measured in both genders, along with testosterone in boys and estradiol in girls. The peak systolic velocity (PSV), resistance index (RI), and pulsatility index (PI) of the superior thyroid artery were determined. The correlations between the Doppler parameters and these factors were investigated. Results: There were no differences in age, weight, height, BMI, thyroid volume, PSV, RI, or PI between boys and girls (P > 0.05). The PSV and PI showed strong correlations with age, height, weight, puberty stage, thyroid volume, and BMI. The RI showed a strong inverse correlation with age, height, weight, puberty stage, and thyroid volume and a weak inverse correlation with the BMI. Conclusion: Determination of the thyroid arterial flow in normal healthy children is important during a Doppler ultrasound (US) examination. Doppler US parameters and their percentiles should be described in healthy children from different age groups, and these percentiles will aid in interpreting Doppler US in children.

  3. Alexithymia in food-allergic versus healthy children and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polloni, Laura; Gregori, Dario; Ferruzza, Emilia; Oricoli, Cristina; Lazzarotto, Francesca; Bonaguro, Roberta; Toniolo, Alice; Celegato, Nicolò; Muraro, Antonella

    2017-02-01

    Alexithymia is a multifaceted personality construct associated with several medical illnesses. However, no studies have focused on food allergy. We investigated alexithymia among food-allergic youths, compared to a matched healthy sample. A total of 220 participants aged 9-25 years were assessed using the Toronto Alexithymia Scale and the Alexithymia Questionnaire for Children. Food-allergic patients reported higher levels of alexithymia compared to a matched healthy sample. Furthermore, an association between alexithymia and a clinical history of anaphylaxis was found among patients. Some possible hypotheses have been discussed considering physiological, psychological, developmental, and cognitive/behavioral factors.

  4. Learned pleasure from eating: An opportunity to promote healthy eating in children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marty, Lucile; Chambaron, Stéphanie; Nicklaus, Sophie; Monnery-Patris, Sandrine

    2018-01-01

    Across the lifespan, eating is a common everyday act driven by the search for pleasure and reinforced by experienced pleasure. Pleasure is an innate indicator of the satisfaction of physiological needs, in addition to other attributes. Pleasure from eating is also learned and contributes to the development of children's eating habits, which remain mostly stable until adulthood. Based on classical models of determinants of food consumption behaviour, we identified three dimensions of pleasure from eating learned during childhood: 1/the sensory dimension, i.e., pleasure from sensory sensations during food consumption; 2/the interpersonal dimension, i.e., pleasure from the social context of food consumption; and 3/the psychosocial dimension, i.e., pleasure from cognitive representations of food. The objective of this narrative review is to explore whether these three dimensions may play a role in promotion of healthy eating behaviour among children. Up to now, it was assumed that providing nutritional information, pointing out which types of foods are "good" or "bad" for health, would drive healthier food choices in children. Today, we know that such strategies based on a cognitive approach toward eating have a limited impact on healthy choices and can even be counter-productive, leading children to avoid healthy foods. In the context of increasing rates of childhood obesity, new perspectives are needed to build efficient interventions that might help children adopt a healthy diet. This review suggests new directions for further research to test the efficacy of novel interventions that emphasize pleasure from eating. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Axial traction magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the glenohumeral joint in healthy volunteers: initial experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garwood, Elisabeth R; Souza, Richard B; Zhang, Amy; Zhang, Alan L; Ma, C Benjamin; Link, Thomas M; Motamedi, Daria

    Evaluate technical feasibility and potential applications of glenohumeral (GH) joint axial traction magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in healthy volunteers. Eleven shoulders were imaged in neutral and with 4kg axial traction at 3T. Quantitative measurements were assessed. Axial traction was well tolerated. There was statistically significant widening of the superior GH joint space (p=0.002) and acromial angle (p=0.017) with traction. Inter-rater agreement was high. GH joint axial traction MRI is technically feasible and well tolerated in volunteers. Traction of the capsule, widening of the superior GH joint space and acromial angle were observed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Salivary cortisol and melatonin levels in children with frequent episodic tension-type headache do not differ from healthy children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas-Martínez, Inés; Ambite-Quesada, Silvia; Fernández-de-las-Peñas, César; Arroyo-Morales, Manuel; Fernández-Mayoralas, Daniel M; Linares-García-Valdecasas, Rafael; Palomar-Gallego, Maria A

    2011-11-01

    To investigate the differences in cortisol and melatonin concentrations between children with frequent episodic tension-type headache (FETTH) and healthy children. Forty-four children, 12 boys/32 girls (age: 9 ± 2 years) with FETTH associated to peri-cranial tenderness and 44 age- and sex- matched healthy children participated. Both salivary cortisol and melatonin concentrations were collected from non-stimulated saliva following standardized guidelines. A headache diary for 4 weeks was used for collecting intensity, frequency and duration of headache. No significant differences for cortisol (t = -0.431; p = 0.668), and melatonin (z = -1.564; p = 0.118) concentrations and salivary flow rate (z = -1.190; p = 0.234) were found between both groups. No significant effect of age or gender was found. In addition, no significant association between cortisol-melatonin concentrations and between cortisol-melatonin concentrations and headache clinical parameters were found. These results suggest that children with FETTH, at first instance, do not present deficits in the secretion of these cortisol and melatonin. Prospective longitudinal studies are needed to further elucidate the direction of current findings, particularly the synchronism of cortisol and melatonin and the course of the headache. © 2011 The Author(s)/Acta Paediatrica © 2011 Foundation Acta Paediatrica.

  7. Brand name logo recognition of fast food and healthy food among children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arredondo, Elva; Castaneda, Diego; Elder, John P; Slymen, Donald; Dozier, David

    2009-02-01

    The fast food industry has been increasingly criticized for creating brand loyalty in young consumers. Food marketers are well versed in reaching children and youth given the importance of brand loyalty on future food purchasing behavior. In addition, food marketers are increasingly targeting the Hispanic population given their growing spending power. The fast food industry is among the leaders in reaching youth and ethnic minorities through their marketing efforts. The primary objective of this study was to determine if young children recognized fast food restaurant logos at a higher rate than other food brands. Methods Children (n = 155; 53% male; 87% Hispanic) ages 4-8 years were recruited from elementary schools and asked to match 10 logo cards to products depicted on a game board. Parents completed a survey assessing demographic and psychosocial characteristics associated with a healthy lifestyle in the home. Results Older children and children who were overweight were significantly more likely to recognize fast food restaurant logos than other food logos. Moreover, parents' psychosocial and socio-demographic characteristics were associated with the type of food logo recognized by the children. Conclusions Children's high recognition of fast food restaurant logos may reflect greater exposure to fast food advertisements. Families' socio-demographic characteristics play a role in children's recognition of food logos.

  8. Age-dependent lower or higher levels of hair mercury in autistic children than in healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majewska, Maria Dorota; Urbanowicz, Ewa; Rok-Bujko, Paulina; Namyslowska, Irena; Mierzejewski, Paweł

    2010-01-01

    An association between autism and early life exposure to mercury is a hotly debated issue. In this study, 91 autistic Polish children, male and female, 3-4 and 7-9 years old, were compared to 75 age- and sex-matched healthy children with respect to: demographic, perinatal, clinical and developmental measures, parental age, birth order, morphometric measures, vaccination history, and hair mercury content. In demographic and perinatal measures there were no consistent differences between the autistic and control groups. Autistic children had a significantly greater prevalence of adverse reactions after vaccinations and abnormal development than controls. Between 45 and 80% of autistic children experienced developmental regress. Autistic children significantly differed from healthy peers in the concentrations of mercury in hair: younger autistics had lower levels, while older - higher levels than their respective controls. The results suggest that autistic children differ from healthy children in metabolism of mercury, which seems to change with age.

  9. Very Young Children's Body Image: Bodies and Minds under Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birbeck, David; Drummond, Murray

    2006-01-01

    In recent years research has recognised that notions of body image, body image ideals and body dissatisfaction develop much earlier than was once thought. Forty-seven children (25 male; 22 female) aged between 5 and 6 years were interviewed on three occasions over 12 months regarding their perceptions of body image. The interviews revealed…

  10. Preserved insulin sensitivity predicts metabolically healthy obese phenotype in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vukovic, Rade; Milenkovic, Tatjana; Mitrovic, Katarina; Todorovic, Sladjana; Plavsic, Ljiljana; Vukovic, Ana; Zdravkovic, Dragan

    2015-12-01

    Available data on metabolically healthy obese (MHO) phenotype in children suggest that gender, puberty, waist circumference, insulin sensitivity, and other laboratory predictors have a role in distinguishing these children from metabolically unhealthy obese (MUO) youth. The goal of this study was to identify predictors of MHO phenotype and to analyze glucose and insulin metabolism during oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in MHO children. OGTT was performed in 244 obese children and adolescents aged 4.6-18.9 years. Subjects were classified as MHO in case of no fulfilled criterion of metabolic syndrome except anthropometry or as MUO (≥2 fulfilled criteria). Among the subjects, 21.7 % had MHO phenotype, and they were more likely to be female, younger, and in earlier stages of pubertal development, with lower degree of abdominal obesity. Insulin resistance was the only independent laboratory predictor of MUO phenotype (OR 1.59, CI 1.13-2.25), with 82 % sensitivity and 60 % specificity for diagnosing MUO using HOMA-IR cutoff point of ≥2.85. Although no significant differences were observed in glucose regulation, MUO children had higher insulin demand throughout OGTT, with 1.53 times higher total insulin secretion. Further research is needed to investigate the possibility of targeted treatment of insulin resistance to minimize pubertal cross-over to MUO in obese children. • Substantial proportion of the obese youth (21-68 %) displays a metabolically healthy (MHO) phenotype. • Gender, puberty, waist circumference, insulin sensitivity, and lower levels of uric acid and transaminases have a possible role in distinguishing MHO from metabolically unhealthy obese (MUO) children. • Insulin resistance was found to be the only significant laboratory predictor of MUO when adjusted for gender, puberty, and the degree of abdominal obesity. • Besides basal insulin resistance, MUO children were found to have a significantly higher insulin secretion throughout OGTT in

  11. Preventing Obesity among Preschool Children: How Can Child-Care Settings Promote Healthy Eating and Physical Activity? Research Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Nicole; Ward, Dianne; Neelon, Sara Benjamin; Story, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Child-care settings provide numerous opportunities to promote healthy eating and physical activity behaviors among preschool children. The majority of U.S. children are placed in some form of non-parental care during their preschool years. While approximately 15 percent of preschool children are primarily cared for by their relatives, most…

  12. Visual activation in infants and young children studied by functional magnetic resonance imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Born, Alfred Peter; Leth, H; Miranda Gimenez-Ricco, Maria Jo

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether visual stimulation in sleeping infants and young children can be examined by functional magnetic resonance imaging. We studied 17 children, aged 3 d to 48 mo, and three healthy adults. Visual stimulation was performed with 8-Hz flickering light...... through the sleeping childs' closed eyelids. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was performed with a gradient echoplanar sequence in a l.5-T magnetic resonance scanner. Six subjects were excluded because of movement artifacts; the youngest infant showed no response. In 10 children, we could demonstrate...... it was restricted to the anterior and medial part of the calcarine sulcus in the younger infants. This may reflect a different functional organization of the young child's visual cortex or the on-going retinal development....

  13. Cyberbullying Victimization as a Predictor of Cyberbullying Perpetration, Body Image Dissatisfaction, Healthy Eating and Dieting Behaviors, and Life Satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos Salazar, Leslie

    2017-08-01

    Cyberbullying victimization and perpetration continues to be a serious public health, criminal justice, victimology, and educational problem in middle schools in the United States. Adolescents are at a higher risk of experiencing cyberbullying as a victim and/or as a bully given the frequency of their use of the Internet via social networking sites such as Facebook and mobile devices such as cell phones and tablets. To address this important problem, the purpose of this investigation was to examine cyberbullying victimization through communication technology as a predictor of cyberbullying perpetration, body image, healthy eating and dieting behaviors, and life satisfaction of sixth-, seventh-, and eighth-grade-level middle school students. The World Health Organization recruited participants by using a Health Behavior in School-Aged Children (HBSC) survey. In this in-class questionnaire, 6,944 middle school students were asked about their cyberbullying experiences as a victim and as a bully via Internet, email, and mobile communication technologies to obtain their evaluations of their body image, eating and dieting habits, and perceptions of life satisfaction. After controlling for demographic factors such as sex, age, and class level, this study found that cyberbullying victimization was a predictor of cyberbullying perpetration, body image dissatisfaction, dieting behaviors, and life satisfaction. However, this study did not find a correlation between cyberbullying victimization and students' healthy eating behaviors. This study also discussed each of the findings in the context of previous research findings. In addition, the study provides the strengths, limitations, and future directions for the future examination of cyberbullying victimization in middle schools.

  14. Promoting children's healthy eating in obesogenic environments: Lessons learned from the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch, Leann L; Anzman-Frasca, Stephanie

    2011-09-26

    Current statistics on children's eating patterns and obesity rates are consistent with the idea that genetic taste predispositions, traditional feeding practices, and the obesogenic environment combine to increase the likelihood of unhealthy outcomes in many individuals. In this paper, we focus on one particular level of analysis through which this unhealthy combination of factors may begin to be disassembled: children's learning about food and flavors. Much of the research on children's learning about food and flavors has been inspired by the animal literature, which has a long history of carefully controlled studies elucidating the mechanisms through which rats and other animals learn to prefer and avoid foods and flavors. This literature provides many clues as to the processes by which learning paradigms may be used to encourage the intake of healthy foods, altering the implicit learning of obesogenic eating patterns that is likely to occur without intervention in the current environment. Overall, the implications of the literature are that children should be repeatedly exposed to a variety of flavors early in life, and that new flavors should be paired with already-liked flavors and positive contexts. This message is consistent with recent research results from our laboratory, showing that familiarization and associative learning paradigms may be used to increase young children's acceptance of, preference for, and intake of previously-unfamiliar, healthy foods. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. A study of the Healthy Growth Charter in socially disadvantaged children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Musicco

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The Healthy Growth Charter is an educational and health-promoting project aimed at an active involvement of the primary school children in health surveillance and protection. Being duly acquainted of the matter, scholars are asked to fill by their own a questionnaire on height, weight, sport attendance and other items of medical and demographic interest. According to the project, problems suitable of corrective measures, such as amblyopia, are signalled to the families and dealt individually. The project has been previously tested on about 1500 boys and girls from various Italian regions, showing that, despite the limits of self-reported data, it provides information in line with literature. Health inequalities in children remain an important problem also in Italy, and a second test of the Healthy Growth Charter was launched in a group of socially disadvantaged children. As reported in this paper, overweight, reduced physical activity, visual problems and other items markedly differed in this with respect to the previous study. These results provide some indication on the potential role of social disadvantage and poverty on health status of children. To better tackle the problem of health inequalities, the actual surveillance systems should be empowered, preferably with an active educational involvement of children, translating the information into public health intervention policies.

  16. Depression partially mediates the relationship between alexithymia and somatization in a sample of healthy children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Laura B.; Lu, Qian; Tsao, Jennie C. I.; Hayes, Loran P.; Zeltzer, Lonnie K.

    2011-01-01

    A link between alexithymia and somatization has been widely established, yet little is known about different factors that may influence this relationship. Evidence supporting the idea of psychopathology as a mediator has been presented but not widely tested, particularly in children. The present study examined depressive symptoms as a mediator of alexithymia and somatization in a sample of healthy children in order to better understand the alexithymia-somatization link from a developmental perspective. Results indicated that depression significantly partially mediated this relationship, at least for two facets of alexithymia (difficulty identifying and describing feelings). Possible mechanisms, implications, and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:21464112

  17. Antimicrobial resistance in the Bacteroides fragilis group in faecal microbiota from healthy Danish children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sydenham, Thomas Vognbjerg; Jensen, Betina Hebbelstrup; Petersen, Andreas Munk

    2017-01-01

    of relatively antibiotic-naive healthy Danish children. From 174 faecal samples collected from children attending day care, 359 non-duplicate isolates were screened for antimicrobial susceptibility. Of these, 0.0%, 1.9%, 5.0% and 21.2% of isolates were intermediate-susceptible or resistant to metronidazole......, meropenem, piperacillin/tazobactam and clindamycin, respectively. Eighteen additional studies reporting susceptibility rates in the B. fragilis group bacteria were identified by conducting a literature search. Heterogeneity among results from studies of B. fragilis group antimicrobial susceptibility rates...

  18. Reference values for serum total adiponectin in healthy non-obese children and adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lausten-Thomsen, Ulrik; Christiansen, Michael; Fonvig, Cilius Esmann

    2015-01-01

    : A total of 1193 healthy, non-obese Danish schoolchildren (730 girls, 463 boys) aged 6-18years (median 11.9) were examined by trained medical staff. Total serum adiponectin concentrations in venous fasting blood samples were quantitated by a DuoSet® ELISA human Adiponectin/Acrp30 (R&D Systems) following...... reference levels for total serum adiponectin in a sample of 1193 Danish children and adolescents aged 6-18years. A correlation with age was demonstrated in children, but no significant difference was seen between the sexes....

  19. Comparison of six-minute walk test in children with moderate/severe asthma with reference values for healthy children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia Barboza de Andrade

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to compare physical performance and cardiorespiratory responses in the six-minute walk test (6MWT in asthmatic children with reference values for healthy children in the same age group, and to correlate them with intervening variables. METHODS: this was a cross-sectional, prospective study that evaluated children with moderate/severe asthma, aged between 6 and 16 years, in outpatient follow-up. Demographic and spirometric test data were collected. All patients answered the pediatric asthma quality of life (QoL questionnaire (PAQLQ and level of basal physical activity. The 6MWT was performed, following the American Thoracic Society recommendations. Comparison of means was performed using Student's t-test and Pearson's correlation to analyze the 6MWT with study variables. The significance level was set at 5%. RESULTS: 40 children with moderate or severe asthma were included, 52.5% males, 70% with normal weight and sedentary. Mean age was 11.3 ± 2.1 years, mean height was 1.5 ± 0.1 m, and mean weight was 40.8 ± 12.6 Kg. The mean distance walked in the 6MWT was significantly lower, corresponding to 71.9% ± 19.7% of predicted values; sedentary children had the worst values. The difference between the distance walked on the test and the predicted values showed positive correlation with age (r = 0.373, p = 0.018 and negative correlation with cardiac rate at the end of the test (r = -0.518, p < 0.001. Regarding QoL assessment, the values in the question about physical activity limitations showed the worst scores, with a negative correlation with walked distance difference (r = -0.311, p = 0.051. CONCLUSIONS: asthmatic children's performance in the 6MWT evaluated through distance walked is significantly lower than the predicted values for healthy children of the same age, and is directly influenced by sedentary life style.

  20. Multilocus enzyme electrophoresis typing of Candida albicans populations isolated from healthy children according to socioeconomic background

    OpenAIRE

    Marcelo Fabiano Gomes Boriollo; Edvaldo Antônio Ribeiro Rosa; Wagner Luis de Carvalho Bernardo; Denise Madalena Palomari Spolidorio; Reginaldo Bruno Gonçalves; José Francisco Höfling

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this research was to evaluate the genetic diversity within and between C. albicans populations isolated from the oral cavity of healthy Brazilian children classified into five socioeconomic categories (A to E). Multilocus Enzyme Electrophoresis (MLEE) analysis was the method used to assess genetic diversity. High genetic diversity was observed in all populations that showed predominance of some C. albicans subtypes (Electrophoretic Types - ETs). However, no correlation was observed...

  1. Frequency of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage in healthy children

    OpenAIRE

    Nikfar, Roya; Shamsizadeh, Ahmad; Ziaei Kajbaf, Tahereh; Kamali Panah, Mohammad; Khaghani, Soheila; Moghddam, Mina

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objective: The prevalence of community acquired methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) is increasing around the world. It involves healthy people and causes a variety of diseases.Material and Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted from September 2010 - June 2011 on children less than 14 years of Ahvaz, southwest Iran. The participants were selected with two staged cluster sampling. A sterile cotton nasal swab was used to collect the samples from the 86...

  2. Two-photon autofluorescence lifetime and SHG imaging of healthy and diseased human corneas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, Ana; Breunig, Hans Georg; Uchugonova, Aisada; Seitz, Berthold; Morgado, António Miguel; König, Karsten

    2015-03-01

    Corneal function can be drastically affected by several degenerations and dystrophies, leading to blindness. Early diagnosis of corneal disease is of major importance and it may be accomplished by monitoring changes of the metabolic state and structural organization, the first detectable pathological signs, by two-photon excitation autofluorescence lifetime and second-harmonic generation imaging. In this study, we propose to use these imaging techniques to differentiate between healthy and pathological corneas. Images were acquired using a laser-scanning microscope with a broadband sub-15 femtosecond near-infrared pulsed laser and a 16-channel photomultiplier tube detector for signal collection. This setup allows the simultaneous excitation of metabolic co-factors and to identify them based on their fluorescence spectra. We were able to discriminate between healthy and pathological corneas using two-photon excitation autofluorescence lifetime and second-harmonic generation imaging from corneal epithelium and stroma. Furthermore, differences between different pathologies were observed. Alterations in the metabolic state of corneal epithelial cells were observed using the autofluorescence lifetime of the metabolic co-factors. In the corneal stroma, we observed not only alterations in the collagen fibril structural organization but also alterations in the autofluorescence lifetime. Further tests are required as the number of pathological samples must be increased. In the future, we intend to establish a correlation between the metabolic and structural changes and the disease stage. This can be a step forward in achieving early diagnosis.

  3. Near infrared hyperspectral dataset of healthy and infected apple tree leaves images for the early detection of apple scab disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maroua Nouri

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This dataset presents two series of hyperspectral images of healthy and infected apple tree leaves acquired daily, from two days after inoculation until an advanced stage of infection (11 days after inoculation. The hyperspectral images were calibrated by reflection correction and registered to match the geometry of one reference image. On the last experiment day, scab positions are provided.

  4. A systematic review of parent role modeling of healthy eating and physical activity for their young African American children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webber, Kashica J; Loescher, Lois J

    2013-07-01

    We systematically reviewed current literature on parent role modeling of healthy eating and physical activity as a strategy to influence healthy weight of middle school-age African American children. The evidence for parent role modeling is low to average. Most studies did not target African American participants or middle school-age children. Nurses can begin to remedy deficient knowledge of parent role modeling by assessing parent attitudes, beliefs, and healthy behaviors, as well as the children's. Existing dietary and physical activity guidelines are not specific to African Americans but can be a starting point for educating parents. © 2013, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Helicobacter pylori associated with breastfeeding, nutritional status and recurrent abdominal pain in healthy Nigerian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senbanjo, Idowu O; Oshikoya, Kazeem A; Njokanma, Olisamedua F

    2014-04-15

    There is limited knowledge about the associations of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infections in developing countries. This study aimed to determine the current prevalence and associations of H. pylori infection with breastfeeding practices, nutritional status, and recurrent abdominal pain (RAP) in a group of apparently healthy children and adolescents in Lagos, Nigeria. This was a prospective hospital-based study conducted at the Lagos State University Teaching Hospital that involved 118 children who came to the hospital for routine pediatric care. Seroprevalence status of the children was determined by measuring immunoglobulin G antibodies against H. pylori using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Seventy-five (63.6%) children were seropositive for H. pylori. The prevalence of H. pylori infection increased significantly from 40.4% in children less than five years of age to 85.1% at six to ten years of age (χ(2) = 20.9, p nutrition. The prevalence of H. pylori infection is high, particularly among children from low socioeconomic backgrounds in Lagos, Nigeria. It is associated with RAP. The effect of this infection on children's health requires further studies.

  6. Imaging Findings of Scrotal Tumors in Children: A Pictorial Essay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Myung Hee [Kang-Dong Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jee Eun [Gachon University, Gil Hospital, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ji Hye [Sungkyunkwan University, Samsung Medical Center, Changwon (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Dal Mo [Kyung Hee University Hospital at Gangdong, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-12-15

    The diagnosis of scrotal tumors in children can be challenging because of the rarity, vague symptoms, and varied imaging features of the tumors. The pathology and frequency of scrotal tumors that occur in children are different from tumors that arise in adults. In this pictorial essay, we illustrate the imaging findings of scrotal tumors in children with pathological correlations. In addition, we present the clinical manifestations that are valuable for a differential diagnosis. Familiarity with the imaging findings and clinical manifestations of pediatric scrotal tumors may be helpful in making an accurate diagnosis and providing proper patient management

  7. Dynamic pattern and genotypic diversity of Staphylococcus aureus nasopharyngeal carriage in healthy pre-school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumental, S; Deplano, A; Jourdain, S; De Mendonça, R; Hallin, M; Nonhoff, C; Rottiers, S; Vergison, A; Denis, O

    2013-07-01

    It is common wisdom that persistent carriage of Staphylococcus aureus is more frequent in young children than in adults. The objectives of this study were to assess the S. aureus temporal carriage pattern among a healthy community of pre-school children, with concomitant description of genotype diversity, toxin-encoding genes and antibiotic resistance. Among 333 children 3-6 years of age, S. aureus nasopharyngeal carriage was assessed over one school year by culture of three sequential nasopharyngeal aspirates. Identification, methicillin resistance and toxin production profile were determined by PCR. Genotyping was performed by spa sequencing and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Out of 830 samples collected, 286 (34%) yielded S. aureus from 185 carriers (55%). Based on consecutive genotype analysis, only 40/268 (15%) children could be classified as persistent carriers, and the remaining 118 (44%) showed intermittent carriage. spa typing revealed 82 types clustered into 13 spa clonal complexes (CCs). Fourteen strains isolated from 11 (3%) children were methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), half of these strains belonged to the commonly hospital-associated spa t008-ST8-SCCmec IV. Methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) were genotypically more diverse. Toxic shock syndrome toxin and egc1/2 complexes were highly prevalent (24%). Contrastingly, Panton-Valentine leucocidin (PVL) was carried only by three MSSA strains (0.6% of children). Exfoliative toxins were detected in 10 (3.5%) MSSA strains, of which 5 were related to the impetigo clone CC121. Although S. aureus nasopharyngeal carriage was high among healthy pre-school children, persistent carriage seems to be less frequent than previously reported. The prevalence of MRSA carriage was 3%, but was not associated with PVL.

  8. Streptococcus pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus carriage in healthy school-age children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Susanna; Terranova, Leonardo; Ruggiero, Luca; Ascolese, Beatrice; Montinaro, Valentina; Rios, Walter Peves; Galeone, Carlotta; Principi, Nicola

    2015-04-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus are common commensals of the upper respiratory tract in children and adolescents. Understanding the relationship between these two pathogens, including their potential for mutual interference, is needed to evaluate the epidemiology of the diseases they cause, the factors that condition acquisition and carriage, and the impact of related preventative measures. We obtained oropharyngeal and nasal swabs from 497 healthy subjects aged 6-17 years. S. pneumoniae detection and serotyping were performed using a real-time PCR and S. aureus detection was performed using the RIDAGENE MRSA system. We found that 136 (27.3%) of the children were carriers of both species, 121 (24.3%) of the children carried S. pneumoniae alone and 128 (25.7%) of the children carried S. aureus alone. S. aureus carriage was similar between children who carried S. pneumoniae (136/257, 52.9 %, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 46.8-58.9%) vs those who did not (128/240, 53.3%, 95% CI: 47.0 -59.5%) and was independent of age and vaccination with 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7). Vaccination with PCV7 did not affect S. aureus carriage [S. pneumoniae: 84/143 (58.7%, 95% CI: 50.5 -66.5%) vaccinated children vs 171/351 (48.7%, 95% CI: 43.5 -53.9%) unvaccinated children; S. aureus: 67/143 (46.9%, 95% CI: 38.9-55.0 %) vaccinated children vs 195/351 (55.6%, 95% CI: 50.3 -60.7%) unvaccinated children]. Pneumococcal serotype also did not appear to affect S. aureus carriage. These findings suggested that the carriage of S. pneumoniae did not affect that of S. aureus in older children and adolescents, regardless of age, PCV7 vaccination and pneumococcal serotype. © 2015 The Authors.

  9. MR imaging for detection of trampoline injuries in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauth, E; Jaeger, H; Luckey, P; Beer, M

    2017-01-18

    The recreational use of trampolines is an increasingly popular activity among children and adolescents. Several studies reported about radiological findings in trampoline related injuries in children. The following publication presents our experience with MRI for detection of trampoline injuries in children. 20 children (mean 9.2 years, range: 4-15 years) who had undergone an MRI study for detection of suspected trampoline injuries within one year were included. 9/20 (45%) children had a radiograph as the first imaging modality in conjunction with primary care. In 11/20 (55%) children MR imaging was performed as the first modality. MR imaging was performed on two 1.5 T scanners with 60 and 70 cm bore design respectively without sedation. In 9/20 (45%) children the injury mechanism was a collision with another child. 7/20 (35%) children experienced leg pain several hours to one day after using the trampoline without acute accident and 4/20 (20%) children described a fall from the trampoline to the ground. All plain radiographs were performed in facilities outside the study centre and all were classified as having no pathological findings. In contrast, MR imaging detected injuries in 15/20 (75%) children. Lower extremity injuries were the most common findings, observed in 12/15 (80%) children. Amongst these, injuries of the ankle and foot were diagnosed in 7/15 (47%) patients. Fractures of the proximal tibial metaphysis were observed in 3/15 children. One child had developed a thoracic vertebral fracture. The two remaining children experienced injuries to the sacrum and a soft tissue injury of the thumb respectively. Seven children described clinical symptoms without an overt accident. Here, fractures of the proximal tibia were observed in 2 children, a hip joint effusion in another 2, and an injury of the ankle and foot in 1 child. There were no associated spinal cord injuries, no fracture dislocations, no vascular injuries and no head and neck injuries. In the

  10. COMPARISON OF MACROMOLECULAR COMPONENT DISTRIBUTIONS IN OSTEOARTHRITIC AND HEALTHY CARTILAGES BY FOURIER TRANSFORM INFRARED IMAGING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JIANHUA YIN

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Fourier transform infrared imaging (FTIRI was used to examine the depth-dependent content variations of macromolecular components, collagen and proteoglycan (PG, in osteoarthritic and healthy cartilages. Dried 6 μm thick sections of canine knee cartilages were imaged at 6.25 μm pixel-size in FTIRI. By analyzing the infrared (IR images and spectra, the depth dependence of characteristic band (sugar intensity of PG show obvious difference between the cartilage sections of (OA and health. The result confirms that PG content decreases in the osteoarthritic cartilage. However, no clear change occurs to collagen, suggesting that the OA influences little on the collagen content at early stage of OA. This observation will be helpful to further understand PG loss associated with pathological conditions in OA, and demonstrates that FTIRI has the potential to become an important analytical tool to identify early clinical signs of tissue degradation, such as PG loss even collagen disruption.

  11. Visual activation in infants and young children studied by functional magnetic resonance imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Born, Alfred Peter; Leth, H; Miranda Gimenez-Ricco, Maria Jo

    1998-01-01

    flow during activation. The different response patterns in young children and adults can reflect developmental or behavioral differences. Localization of the activation seemed to be age-dependent. In the older children and the adults, it encompassed the whole length of the calcarine sulcus, whereas......The purpose of this study was to determine whether visual stimulation in sleeping infants and young children can be examined by functional magnetic resonance imaging. We studied 17 children, aged 3 d to 48 mo, and three healthy adults. Visual stimulation was performed with 8-Hz flickering light...... areas of signal decrease during visual stimulation in the occipital cortex (mean decrease 2.21%), contrary to the signal increase observed in the adult controls (mean increase 2.82%). This decrease may be due to a higher proportional increase in oxygen extraction compared with increase in cerebral blood...

  12. The stress-reducing effects of art in pediatric health care: art preferences of healthy children and hospitalized children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisen, Sarajane L; Ulrich, Roger S; Shepley, Mardelle M; Varni, James W; Sherman, Sandra

    2008-09-01

    Art is assumed to possess therapeutic benefits of healing for children, as part of patient-focused design in health care. Since the psychological and physiological well-being of children in health care settings is extremely important in contributing to the healing process, it is vitally important to identify what type of art supports stress reduction. Based on adult studies, nature art was anticipated to be the most preferred and to have stress-reducing effects on pediatric patients. Nature art refers to art images dominated by natural vegetation, flowers or water. The objective of this study was to investigate what type of art image children prefer, and what type of art image has potentially stress-reducing effects on children in hospitals. This study used a three-phase, multi-method approach with children aged 5-17 years: a focus group study (129 participants), a randomized study (48 participants), and a quasi-experimental study design (48 participants). Findings were evaluated from three phases.

  13. Paternal Lifestyle-Related Parenting Practices Mediate Changes in Children's Dietary and Physical Activity Behaviors: Findings From the Healthy Dads, Healthy Kids Community Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Adam B; Lubans, David R; Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Morgan, Philip J

    2015-09-01

    This study examined potential parenting-related mediators of children's physical activity and dietary behavior change in the Healthy Dads, Healthy Kids (HDHK) community program. A randomized controlled trial was conducted with 45 overweight/obese (mean [SD] age = 39.8 [5.4] years; BMI = 32.4 [3.8]) fathers and their children (n = 77; 58% boys; mean [SD] age = 7.7 [2.5] years). Families were randomized to either the HDHK program or wait-list control group. The program involved 7 sessions. Fathers and their children were assessed at baseline and at 14 weeks for physical activity (pedometery) and core food intake (Questionnaire). Fathers' lifestyle-related parenting practices included; self-efficacy, beliefs, modeling, logistic support, rules, cophysical activity, shared mealtime frequency and intentions. Significant intervention effects were found for cophysical activity and modeling physical activity. Cophysical activity mediated children's physical activity in the intervention ('mediated effect,' AB = 653, 95% CI = 4-2050) and was responsible for 59.5% of the intervention effect. Fathers' beliefs mediated children's percent energy from core foods (AB = 1.51, 95% CI = 0.05-5.55) and accounted for 72.9% of the intervention effect. Participation in the HDHK program positively impacted on fathers' cophysical activity with their child and beliefs about healthy eating which mediated changes in children's diet and physical activity behaviors.

  14. Evaluation of medical and psychological parameters of quality of life in supraventricular tachyarrhythmia children. A comparison with healthy children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szafran, Emilia; Baszko, Artur; Bukowska-Posadzy, Anna; Moszura, Tomasz; Werner, Bożena; Siwińska, Aldona; Banach, Maciej; Walkowiak, Jarosław; Bobkowski, Waldemar

    2016-10-01

    There are only a few available studies evaluating quality of life (QoL) in pediatric patients with cardiac arrhythmia. The aim of the study was to evaluate medical and psychological parameters of the QoL in children with a diagnosed supraventricular tachyarrhythmia (SVT) and to compare the obtained data with a group of healthy children (HC). Inclusion criteria: children aged 7-18 with SVT, treated at Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Department of Pediatric Cardiology. The evaluation tools were the WHOQOL-BREF instrument and a questionnaire related to the patient's feelings and observations concerning arrhythmia (Pediatric Arrhythmia Related Score - PARS), developed by the authors and adjusted to the group of arrhythmia patients. The study included 180 SVT children and 83 HC. On the basis of WHOQOL-BREF the SVT group was found to have lower assessment values of QoL within the physical domain (Phd) (mean ± SD: 65.7 ±15.8 vs. 81.6 ±12.8; p psychological domain (Psd) (mean ± SD: 75.8 ±15.2 vs. 81.3 ±14.1; p psychological parameters of the QoL in SVT children are significantly lower in comparison with HC. A diagnosis of SVT has no influence on the social and environmental areas of QoL. The PARS appears to be a useful tool to supplement the generic questionnaire for QoL evaluation in SVT children.

  15. Safety of Bifidobacterium animalis Subsp. Lactis (B. lactis) Strain BB-12-Supplemented Yogurt in Healthy Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Tina P; Ba, Zhaoyong; Sanders, Mary E; D'Amico, Frank J; Roberts, Robert F; Smith, Keisha H; Merenstein, Daniel J

    2017-02-01

    Probiotics are live microorganisms that may provide health benefits to the individual when consumed in sufficient quantities. For studies conducted on health or disease endpoints on probiotics in the United States, the Food and Administration has required those studies to be conducted as investigational new drugs. This phase I, double-blinded, randomized, controlled safety study represents the first requirement of this pathway. The purpose of the study was to determine the safety of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis (B lactis) strain BB-12 (BB-12)-supplemented yogurt when consumed by a generally healthy group of children. The secondary aim was to assess the effect of BB-12-supplemented yogurt on the gut microbiota of the children. Sixty children ages 1 to 5 years were randomly assigned to consume 4 ounces of either BB-12-supplemented yogurt or nonsupplemented control yogurt daily for 10 days. The primary outcome was to assess safety and tolerability, as determined by the number of reported adverse events. A total of 186 nonserious adverse events were reported, with no significant differences between the control and BB-12 groups. No significant changes due to probiotic treatment were observed in the gut microbiota of the study cohort. BB-12-supplemented yogurt is safe and well-tolerated when consumed by healthy children. The present study will form the basis for future randomized clinical trials investigating the potential effects of BB-12-supplemented yogurt in different disease states.

  16. Molecular Epidemiology and Antibacterial Susceptibility of Streptococci Isolated from Healthy Children Attending Day Care Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duygu Perçin

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aims of the study were to investigate antibacterial susceptibility and resistance mechanisms of streptococci isolated from healthy children attending day care units and to evaluate clonal relatedness of the strains. Material and Methods: Antimicrobial susceptibilities of streptococci isolated from 212 children attending 3 different day care units were evaluated using the agar dilution method. Polymerase chain reaction and sequencing were used to investigate resistance mechanisms. Clonal relatedness was evaluated using pulsed field gel electrophoresis. Results: Of 212 children, 11 (5.2% carried Streptococcus pneumoniae, 17 (8.0% S. pyogenes, and 42 (19.8% erythromycin resistant viridans group streptococci. All S. pyogenes were susceptible to penicillin G and macrolides. Ten of 11 clonally unique S. pneumoniae were resistant to penicillin G. Three of 11 S. pneumoniae were macrolide resistant and carried erm(B. Among clonally unique 42 erythromycin resistant viridans group streptococci, 2 (4.8% had erm(B, 33 (78.6% had mef(A and 7 (16.6% had both erm(B and mef(A genes. All S. pyogenes from the first centre and three strains from the second centre were pulse-type A. Conclusion: Among healthy children, colonization with penicillin resistant pneumococci and erythromycin resistant viridans group streptococci is quite high. Clonal spread of S. pyogenes is important for day care units.

  17. Healthy Living Behaviors Among Chinese-American Preschool-Aged Children: Results of a Parent Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chomitz, Virginia Rall; Brown, Alison; Lee, Victoria; Must, Aviva; Chui, Kenneth Kwan Ho

    2017-07-17

    Associations between diet, physical activity, parenting, and acculturation among Chinese-American children are understudied. Parents/caregivers of children attending child-care programs in Boston Chinatown completed a self-administered survey on demographics, child's diet, physical activities, anthropometrics, and parenting practices. Associations were evaluated in multivariable regression analysis, stratified by survey language preference, a proxy for acculturation. Responding Asian families = 132; 86.4% were immigrants; 75.8% completed the Chinese-version survey. Children (mean ± SD: 4.9 ± 1.1 years) did not eat vegetables (31.8%), or play actively outside (45.4%) daily, 64.8% watched television/screens daily; 32.6% were overweight/obese (based on parent report). Parenting practices associated with obesity were apparent. Although healthy-living behavioral outcomes were less prevalent among less acculturated parents; multivariable adjustment attenuated the observed significant differences. Findings suggest opportunities for improvement in study children's diet and healthy-living behaviors, and underscore the need for further research on acculturation, and parenting styles in this population.

  18. [Serum calcium and phosphorus concentration and alkaline phosphatase activity in healthy children during growth and development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savić, Ljiljana; Savić, Dejan

    2008-01-01

    Many changes happen during growth and development in an organism as a result of important hormon changes, especially biohumoral ones. These changes make a problem when interpreting biochemical results in pediatric population. The most important changes are intensive calcium and phosphorus metabolic turnover in bone tissue with changes in alkaline phosphatase activity as a result of osteoblast activity. The aim of this study was to follow the serum calcium and phosphorus concentration and alkaline phosphatase activity in children 1-15 years old in different growth and development period and of different sexes and to fortify the influence of growth and development dynamics on biohumoral status in healthy male and female children. We evaluated 117 healthy children of both sexes from 1-15 years of age and divided them into three age groups: 1-5, 6-10 and 11-15 years. We followed the serum calcium and phosphorus concentration and alkaline phosphatase activity in different groups and in different sexes. Our investigation found significantly higher values of serum calcium in boys than in girls with no important changes between the age groups and significantly higher values of serum phosphorus in the youngest age group in all children and in different sexes with no important sex differences. Alkaline phosphatase activity followed the growth spurt and was the biggest in 6-10 years group in girls and in 11-15 years group in boys.

  19. Total Breast-Feeding Duration and Dental Caries in Healthy Urban Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Peter D; Birken, Catherine S; Parkin, Patricia C; Venu, Isvarya; Chen, Yang; Schroth, Robert J; Maguire, Jonathon L

    2017-04-01

    To determine if there is an association between longer breast-feeding duration and dental caries in healthy urban children. We conducted a cross-sectional study of urban children aged 1 to 6 years recruited through The Applied Research Group for Kids (TARGet Kids!) practice-based research network between September 2011 and August 2013. The main outcome measure was parental report of dental caries. The adjusted predicted probability of dental caries was 7%, 8%, 11%, and 16% with total duration of breast-feeding duration of 12, 18, 24, and 36 months, respectively. In the adjusted logistic regression analyses, relative to breast-feeding 0 to 5 months, the odds of dental caries with total breast-feeding duration >24 months was 2.75 (95% confidence interval 1.61-4.72). Among healthy urban children, longer breast-feeding duration was associated with higher odds of dental caries. These findings support heightened awareness and enhanced anticipatory guidance for preventive dental care, particularly among children who breast-feed beyond 2 years of age. Copyright © 2016 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. A rehabilitative ultrasound imaging investigation of lateral abdominal muscle thickness in healthy aging adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stetts, Deborah M; Freund, Jane E; Allison, Stephen C; Carpenter, Gray

    2009-01-01

    Rehabilitative ultrasound imaging (RUSI) is used to evaluate lateral abdominal muscle size and function during the abdominal drawing-in maneuver (ADIM), an exercise used to improve lumbar spine stability. Little is known about the size and performance of these muscles in healthy aging adults. The purpose of this study was to investigate, using RUSI, the size and symmetry of the lateral abdominal muscles bilaterally at rest and during the ADIM in healthy older adults and the reliability of these measurements. Three ultrasound images of the right and left lateral abdominal muscles were taken at rest and during the ADIM in 12 healthy older adults. Thickness of the transversus abdominis muscles (TrA), internal oblique (IO), and external oblique (EO) were measured for all images. Intraclass correlation coefficients were computed using model 3, form 1 (ICC3,1). Two ratios of the abdominal muscles were calculated in the relaxed and contracted states. Paired t-tests were used to compare relaxed muscle thickness to contracted muscle thickness for all 3 muscles for each side. To test further for interactions of side and contractile state, 2 x 2 repeated measures ANOVAs were performed. Side-to-side differences in absolute and relative thickness were assessed with paired t-tests for the TrA and IO muscles. Absolute and relative side-to-side muscle symmetry indices were computed for each muscle at rest. There was a significant difference in muscle thickness between the contracted and relaxed states for both the TrA and IO. There was no significant difference between left/right muscle thickness for the TrA or IO at rest or during the ADIM. The TrA nearly doubled in size while thickness of the IO + EO stayed relatively constant during the ADIM. Reliability for absolute muscle thickness was generally excellent: ICCs3,1 ranged from 0.95 to 1.00 for intra-image reliability; 0.77 to 0.97 for inter-image reliability. These findings support symmetrical and preferential activation of

  1. Active Healthy Kids Canada's Position on Active Video Games for Children and Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Leblanc, Allana G; McFarlane, Allison; Colley, Rachel C; Thivel, David; Biddle, Stuart Jh; Maddison, Ralph; Leatherdale, Scott T; Tremblay, Mark S

    2013-12-01

    The effect of active video games (AVGs) on acute energy expenditure has previously been reported; however, the influence of AVGs on other health-related lifestyle indicators remains unclear. To address this knowledge gap, Active Healthy Kids Canada (AHKC) convened an international group of researchers to conduct a systematic review to understand whether AVGs should be promoted to increase physical activity and improve health indicators in children and youth (zero to 17 years of age). The present article outlines the process and outcomes of the development of the AHKC's position on active video games for children and youth. In light of the available evidence, AHKC does not recommend AVGs as a strategy to help children be more physically active. However, AVGs may exchange some sedentary time for light- to moderate-intensity physical activity, and there may be specific situations in which AVGs provide benefit (eg, motor skill development in special populations and rehabilitation).

  2. Height in healthy children in low- and middle-income countries: an assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karra, Mahesh; Subramanian, S V; Fink, Günther

    2017-01-01

    Despite rapid economic development and reductions in child mortality worldwide, continued high rates of early childhood stunting have put the global applicability of international child-height standards into question. We used population-based survey data to identify children growing up in healthy environments in low- and middle-income countries and compared the height distribution of these children to the height distribution of the reference sample established by the WHO. Height data were extracted from 169 Demographic and Health Surveys (DHSs) that were collected across 63 countries between 1990 and 2014. Children were classified as having grown up in ideal environments if they 1) had access to safe water and sanitation; 2) lived in households with finished floors, a television, and a car; 3) were born to highly educated mothers; 4) were single births; and 5) were delivered in hospitals. We compared the heights of children in ideal environments with those in the WHO reference sample. A total of 878,249 height records were extracted, and 1006 children (0.1%) were classified as having been raised in an ideal home environment. The mean height-for-age z score (HAZ) in this sample was not statistically different from zero (95% CI: -0.039, 0.125). The HAZ SD for the sample was estimated to be 1.3, and 5.3% of children in the sample were classified as being stunted (HAZ environments were used. The large current gaps in children's heights relative to those of the reference sample likely are not due to innate or genetic differences between children but, rather, reflect children's continued exposure to poverty, a lack of maternal education, and a lack of access to safe water and sanitation across populations. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  3. Quantitative Evaluation of Trabecular Bone Structure by Calcaneus MR Images Texture Analysis of Healthy Volunteers and Osteoporotic Subjects

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Herlidou, S

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate, in vivo, trabecular bone structure of the calcaneus of healthy volunteers and osteoporotic patients by texture analysis of MR images Automated methods of texture...

  4. Comparisons of Postural Habits, Body Image, and Peer Attachment for Adolescents with Idiopathic Scoliosis and Healthy Adolescents

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted to compare the postural habits, body image, and peer attachment of adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis and healthy adolescents, and to examine the correlation between body...

  5. Nighttime Sleep Macrostructure Is Altered in Otherwise Healthy 10-Year-Old Overweight Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamorro, Rodrigo; Algarín, Cecilia; Garrido, Marcelo; Causa, Leonardo; Held, Claudio; Lozoff, Betsy; Peirano, Patricio

    2014-01-01

    Objective Epidemiological evidence shows an inverse relationship between sleep duration and overweight/obesity risk. However, there are few polysomnographic studies that relate the organization of sleep stages to pediatric overweight (OW). We compared sleep organization in otherwise healthy OW and normal weight (NW) 10-year-old children. Subjects Polysomnographic assessments were performed in 37 NW and 59 OW children drawn from a longitudinal study beginning in infancy. Weight and height were used to evaluate body-mass index (BMI) according to international criteria. Non-REM (NREM) sleep (stages N1, N2 and N3), rapid eye movement (REM) sleep (stage R), and wakefulness (stage W) were visually scored. Sleep parameters were compared in NW and OW groups for the whole total sleep period (SPT) and for each successive third of it using independent student t-tests or non-parametric tests. The relationship between BMI and sleep variables was evaluated by correlation analyses controlling for relevant covariates. Results The groups were similar in timing of sleep onset and offset, and sleep period time. BMI was inversely related to total sleep time (TST) and sleep efficiency. OW children showed reduced TST, sleep efficiency, and stage R amount, but higher stage W amount. In analysis by thirds of the SPT, the duration of stage N3 episodes, was shorter in the first third and longer in the second third in OW children, compared with NW children. Conclusions Our results show reduced sleep amount and quality in otherwise healthy OW children. The lower stage R amount and changes involving stage N3 throughout the night suggest that OW in childhood is associated with modifications not only in sleep duration, but also in the ongoing nighttime patterns of NREM sleep and REM sleep stages. PMID:24352291

  6. Sleep Architecture Relates to Daytime Affect and Somatic Complaints in Clinically Anxious but Not Healthy Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Cara A; Alfano, Candice A

    2017-01-01

    It is increasingly clear that seminal sleep-affective relationships begin to take root in childhood, yet studies exploring how nighttime sleep characteristics relate to daytime affective symptoms, both in clinical and healthy populations of children, are lacking. The current study sought to explore these relationships by investigating whether trait-like and/or daily reports of affective and somatic symptoms of children with generalized anxiety disorder and matched controls relate to sleep architecture. Sixty-six children (ages 7-11; 54.4% female; 56.1% Caucasian; 18.2% biracial; 6.1% African American; 3% Asian; 16.7% Hispanic) participated including 29 with primary generalized anxiety disorder (without comorbid depression) and 37 healthy controls matched on age and race/ethnicity. Participants underwent structured diagnostic assessments including child-report measures and subsequently reported on their negative affect and somatic symptoms over the course of 1 week. Children also completed 1 night of polysomnography. Among children with generalized anxiety disorder only, greater amounts of slow wave sleep corresponded with less negative affect, and greater amounts of rapid eye movement sleep was related to more somatic complaints across the week. Similarly, for trait-like measures, more rapid eye movement sleep and shorter latency to rapid eye movement sleep were related to greater depressive symptoms in the anxious group only. The current findings suggest that physiologic sleep characteristics may contribute in direct ways to the symptom profiles of clinically anxious children. The functional relevance of such findings (e.g., how specific sleep characteristics serve to either increase or reduce long-term risk) is a vital direction for future research.

  7. Foods that are perceived as healthy or unhealthy differentially alter young women's state body image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Jacqueline F; D'Anci, Kristen E; Kanarek, Robin B

    2011-10-01

    Body image can be influenced by day-to-day events, including food intake. The present study investigated the effects of foods typically perceived as "healthy" or "unhealthy" on state body image and mood. College-aged women were told the experiment was designed to assess the effects of food on cognition. Using a between-subjects design, participants consumed isocaloric amounts of foods perceived to be healthy (banana) or unhealthy (donut) or ate nothing. Next, participants completed three cognitive tasks. Prior to eating and following the cognitive tests, participants completed the BISS, POMS, the Figure Rating Scale, and the Restraint Scale. Body satisfaction decreased following intake of a donut, but was not altered in the other conditions. Depression scores significantly decreased after intake of either a donut or banana, but did not decrease in the no-food condition. Tension scores decreased significantly after consumption of a banana and in the no-food condition, but did not decrease following consumption of a donut. These results indicate that intake of a food that is perceived as unhealthy negatively affects state body image. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Vibration Response Imaging: evaluation of rater agreement in healthy subjects and subjects with pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makris Demosthenes

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We evaluated pulmonologists variability in the interpretation of Vibration response imaging (VRI obtained from healthy subjects and patients hospitalized for community acquired pneumonia. Methods The present is a prospective study conducted in a tertiary university hospital. Twenty healthy subjects and twenty three pneumonia cases were included in this study. Six pulmonologists blindly analyzed images of normal subjects and pneumonia cases and evaluated different aspects of VRI images related to the quality of data aquisition, synchronization of the progression of breath sound distribution and agreement between the maximal energy frame (MEF of VRI (which is the maximal geographical area of lung vibrations produced at maximal inspiration and chest radiography. For qualitative assessment of VRI images, the raters' evaluations were analyzed by degree of consistency and agreement. Results The average value for overall identical evaluations of twelve features of the VRI image evaluation, ranged from 87% to 95% per rater (94% to 97% in control cases and from 79% to 93% per rater in pneumonia cases. Inter-rater median (IQR agreement was 91% (82-96. The level of agreement according to VRI feature evaluated was in most cases over 80%; intra-class correlation (ICC obtained by using a model of subject/rater for the averaged features was overall 0.86 (0.92 in normal and 0.73 in pneumonia cases. Conclusions Our findings suggest good agreement in the interpretation of VRI data between different raters. In this respect, VRI might be helpful as a radiation free diagnostic tool for the management of pneumonia.

  9. The impact of a healthy media use intervention on sleep in preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrison, Michelle M; Christakis, Dimitri A

    2012-09-01

    Although observational studies have consistently reported an association between media use and child sleep problems, it is unclear whether the relationship is causal or if an intervention targeting healthy media use can improve sleep in preschool-aged children. We conducted a randomized controlled trial of a healthy media use intervention in families of children aged 3 to 5 years. The intervention encouraged families to replace violent or age-inappropriate media content with quality educational and prosocial content, through an initial home visit and follow-up telephone calls over 6 months. Sleep measures were derived from the Child Sleep Habits Questionnaire and were collected at 6, 12, and 18 months after baseline; repeated-measures regression analyses were used. Among the 565 children analyzed, the most common sleep problem was delayed sleep-onset latency (38%). Children in the intervention group had significantly lower odds of "any sleep problem" at follow-up in the repeated-measures analysis (odds ratio = 0.36; 95% confidence interval: 0.16 to 0.83), with a trend toward a decrease in intervention effect over time (P = .07). Although there was no significant effect modification detected by baseline sleep or behavior problems, gender, or low-income status, there was a trend (P = .096) toward an increased effect among those with high levels of violence exposure at baseline. The significant effects of a healthy media use intervention on child sleep problems in the context of a randomized controlled trial suggest that the previously reported relationship between media use and child sleep problems is indeed causal in nature.

  10. Cognitive and mood effects in healthy children during 12 weeks' supplementation with multi-vitamin/minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haskell, Crystal F; Scholey, Andrew B; Jackson, Philippa A; Elliott, Jade M; Defeyter, Margaret A; Greer, Joanna; Robertson, Bernadette C; Buchanan, Tom; Tiplady, Brian; Kennedy, David O

    2008-11-01

    Adequate levels of vitamins and minerals are essential for optimal neural functioning. A high proportion of individuals, including children, suffer from deficiencies in one or more vitamins or minerals. This study investigated whether daily supplementation with vitamins/minerals could modulate cognitive performance and mood in healthy children. In this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel groups investigation, eighty-one healthy children aged from 8 to 14 years underwent laboratory assessments of their cognitive performance and mood pre-dose and at 1 and 3 h post-dose on the first and last days of 12 weeks' supplementation with a commercially available vitamins/mineral product (Pharmaton Kiddi). Interim assessments were also completed at home after 4 and 8 weeks at 3 h post-dose. Each assessment comprised completion of a cognitive battery, delivered over the Internet, which included tasks assessing mood and the speed and accuracy of attention and aspects of memory (secondary, semantic and spatial working memory). The vitamin/mineral group performed more accurately on two attention tasks: 'Arrows' choice reaction time task at 4 and 8 weeks; 'Arrow Flankers' choice reaction time task at 4, 8 and 12 weeks. A single task outcome (Picture Recognition errors) evinced significant decrements at 12 weeks. Mood was not modulated in any interpretable manner. Whilst it is possible that the significant improvements following treatment were due to non-significant numerical differences in performance at baseline, these results would seem to suggest that vitamin/mineral supplementation has the potential to improve brain function in healthy children. This proposition requires further investigation.

  11. Neurodevelopmental delay among HIV-infected preschool children receiving antiretroviral therapy and healthy preschool children in Soweto, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowick, Sarah; Sawry, Shobna; Meyers, Tammy

    2012-01-01

    Neurodevelopmental delay has been documented in up to 97.5% of HIV-infected children in Soweto who were not yet on antiretroviral treatment (ART). With growing numbers of children in South Africa being successfully treated with ART, the effects of ART on neurocognitive functioning in children require investigation. The objective of this study was to determine the extent of neurodevelopmental delay in stable HIV-infected preschool children (aged five to six years) receiving ART and compare it to an apparently healthy (unconfirmed HIV-status) group of preschool children. Thirty HIV-infected preschool children (virologically and immunologically stable on ART for more than one year) were conveniently sampled from 350 eligible children on ART at the Harriet Shezi Children's Clinic in Soweto, Johannesburg. The comparison group comprised 30 well-nourished preschool children attending the Lilian Ngoyi Primary Health Care Clinic in Soweto for routine immunizations. Each child was assessed using the Griffiths Mental Development Scales-Extended Revised Version (GMDS-ER), at a single point in time. The overall developmental z-scores on GMDS-ER were children in the HIV-infected group compared to 23 (76%) in the comparison group (p = 0.166). Mental handicap (overall GQ children in the HIV-infected group compared to 10% in the comparison group (p = 0.002). There was a 7.88-fold increased likelihood of severe delay in the HIV infected group. The HIV-infected group and comparison group had significantly different (p = 0.001) mean overall GQ scores of 70 (95% CI: 66.0-74.0) and 78 (95% CI: 75.6-80.5), respectively, with lower mean scores in the HIV-infected group in all individual domains. Early initiation of ART in HIV-infected infants may improve cognitive functioning among this group; however, intervention strategies which optimize early cognitive development for all children in the area need to be urgently considered.

  12. Draft Genome Sequences of Two Clinical Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Strains Isolated from Healthy Children in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, Suzi P.; de Almeida, Jéssica B.; de Freitas, Leandro M.; Guimaraes, Ana Marcia S.; do Nascimento, Naíla C.; dos Santos, Andrea P.; Messick, Joanne B.; Timenetsky, Jorge

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT We report here the draft genome sequences of two community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) strains, C18 and C80, isolated from healthy children from day care centers. To our knowledge, these are the first draft genome sequences of CA-MRSA ST398/CC398/SccmecV and CA-MRSA ST5/CC5/SccmecIVa isolated from healthy children in Brazil. PMID:28408675

  13. Body image, body dissatisfaction and weight status in south asian children: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duda Joan L

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Childhood obesity is a continuing problem in the UK and South Asian children represent a group that are particularly vulnerable to its health consequences. The relationship between body dissatisfaction and obesity is well documented in older children and adults, but is less clear in young children, particularly South Asians. A better understanding of this relationship in young South Asian children will inform the design and delivery of obesity intervention programmes. The aim of this study is to describe body image size perception and dissatisfaction, and their relationship to weight status in primary school aged UK South Asian children. Methods Objective measures of height and weight were undertaken on 574 predominantly South Asian children aged 5-7 (296 boys and 278 girls. BMI z-scores, and weight status (underweight, healthy weight, overweight or obese were calculated based on the UK 1990 BMI reference charts. Figure rating scales were used to assess perceived body image size (asking children to identify their perceived body size and dissatisfaction (difference between perceived current and ideal body size. The relationship between these and weight status were examined using multivariate analyses. Results Perceived body image size was positively associated with weight status (partial regression coefficient for overweight/obese vs. non-overweight/obese was 0.63 (95% CI 0.26-0.99 and for BMI z-score was 0.21 (95% CI 0.10-0.31, adjusted for sex, age and ethnicity. Body dissatisfaction was also associated with weight status, with overweight and obese children more likely to select thinner ideal body size than healthy weight children (adjusted partial regression coefficient for overweight/obese vs. non-overweight/obese was 1.47 (95% CI 0.99-1.96 and for BMI z-score was 0.54 (95% CI 0.40-0.67. Conclusions Awareness of body image size and increasing body dissatisfaction with higher weight status is established at a young age in

  14. Nasal Carriage and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus in healthy preschool children in Ujjain, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Megha

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is increasing evidence that community acquired S. aureus infections are spreading among healthy children. Nasal colonization with S. aureus plays pivotal role in the increasing prevalence of resistant community acquired S. aureus infections worldwide. A regular surveillance system is important in ensuring quality of patient care. The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of and the factors associated with nasal carriage of S. aureus and its antibiotic sensitivity pattern among healthy children in Ujjain, India. Methods A prospective study was done in paediatric outpatient clinics of R.D. Gardi medical college Ujjain, India. Healthy children from 1 month to 59 months of age were included. Information on previously known risk factors for nasal colonization was collected using a pre-tested questionnaire. Swabs from anterior nares were collected and transported in Amies transport media with charcoal and cultured on 5% sheep blood agar. Antibiotic sensitivity tests were performed using Kirby Bauer's disc diffusion method according to performance standards of Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute guidelines. Results Of the 1,562 children from 1-month up-to five years of age included in the study 98 children tested positive for nasal carriage of S. aureus. The prevalence of nasal carriage of S. aureus was 6.3% (95% CI 5.1-7.5 out of which 16.3% (95% CI 8.9-23.8 were methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA. The factors associated with nasal carriage were "child attending preschool" (OR 4.26, 95% CI 2.25-8.03; P = 0.007 or "school" (OR 3.02, 95% CI 1.27-7.18; P P = 0.03. The sensitivity pattern of isolated S. aureus showed resistance to commonly used oral antibiotics while resistance to glycopeptides was not noted. Conclusions We found a relatively low rate of nasal carriage of S. aureus in children below five years when compared to children of older age groups in India. Yet, prevalence of MRSA was relatively high.

  15. Nasal Carriage and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus in healthy preschool children in Ujjain, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background There is increasing evidence that community acquired S. aureus infections are spreading among healthy children. Nasal colonization with S. aureus plays pivotal role in the increasing prevalence of resistant community acquired S. aureus infections worldwide. A regular surveillance system is important in ensuring quality of patient care. The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of and the factors associated with nasal carriage of S. aureus and its antibiotic sensitivity pattern among healthy children in Ujjain, India. Methods A prospective study was done in paediatric outpatient clinics of R.D. Gardi medical college Ujjain, India. Healthy children from 1 month to 59 months of age were included. Information on previously known risk factors for nasal colonization was collected using a pre-tested questionnaire. Swabs from anterior nares were collected and transported in Amies transport media with charcoal and cultured on 5% sheep blood agar. Antibiotic sensitivity tests were performed using Kirby Bauer's disc diffusion method according to performance standards of Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute guidelines. Results Of the 1,562 children from 1-month up-to five years of age included in the study 98 children tested positive for nasal carriage of S. aureus. The prevalence of nasal carriage of S. aureus was 6.3% (95% CI 5.1-7.5) out of which 16.3% (95% CI 8.9-23.8) were methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). The factors associated with nasal carriage were "child attending preschool" (OR 4.26, 95% CI 2.25-8.03; P = 0.007) or "school" (OR 3.02, 95% CI 1.27-7.18; P < 0.001) and "family size more than 10 members" (OR 2.76 95% CI 1.06-7.15; P = 0.03). The sensitivity pattern of isolated S. aureus showed resistance to commonly used oral antibiotics while resistance to glycopeptides was not noted. Conclusions We found a relatively low rate of nasal carriage of S. aureus in children below five years when compared to children of older age groups in

  16. A Healthy Lifestyle Intervention Delivered by Aspiring Physical Education Teachers to Children from Social Disadvantage: Study Protocol and Preliminary Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breslin, Gavin; Brennan, Deirdre

    2012-01-01

    We describe the design of a school-based healthy lifestyle intervention for eight-year-old to nine-year-old school children from lower socio-economic backgrounds, intended to increase physical activity, decrease sedentary behaviours, reduce screen-time behaviours, encourage healthy attitudes and behaviours to nutrition, and reduce body mass index.…

  17. Healthy children get low scores too: prevalence of low scores on the NEPSY-II in preschoolers, children, and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Brian L; Sherman, Elisabeth M S; Iverson, Grant L

    2010-05-01

    Knowing the prevalence of low test scores in healthy people is valuable for clinical interpretation of neuropsychological performance because it reduces the likelihood of over-diagnosing cognitive deficits. Base-rate information on adult batteries has flourished recently but is relatively unknown for pediatric tests. The purpose of this paper is to present the base rates of low scores for a pediatric neuropsychological battery, the NEPSY-II. Participants included 1,200 healthy preschoolers, children, and adolescents between 3 and 16 years of age from the NEPSY-II standardization sample. Measures included subtests from the attention and executive functioning, language, learning and memory, and visuospatial processing domains, organized to yield a 1- and 2-hr battery with optimal reliability. Analyses were conducted for three age groups (3-4, 5-6, and 7-16 years) and stratified by the level of parental education (adolescents.

  18. Prevalence of hypopigmented maculae and café-au-lait spots in idiopathic epileptic and healthy children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabiber, Hamza; Sasmaz, Sezai; Turanli, Guzide; Yakinci, Cengiz

    2002-01-01

    The cutaneous lesions and findings related to the central nervous system are frequently seen concomitantly in many patients. Neurocutaneous syndromes are the most typical examples supporting this observation. The prevalences of hypopigmented maculae and café-au-lait spots were investigated in 210 idiopathic epileptic children between the ages of 2 and 17 years and 2754 healthy children between the ages of 5 and 15 years. In the group of epileptic children, hypopigmented maculae and café-au-lait spots were observed in 30 (14.3%) and 63 (30%) children, respectively. In the group of healthy children, the prevalence of hypopigmented maculae was 1.6% (44 children) and of café-au-lait spots was 2.83% (78 children). The difference between the two groups was very significant statistically (P < .0001).

  19. Cross-sectional assessment of exertional dyspnea in otherwise healthy children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahut, Bruno; Fuchs-Climent, Deborah; Plantier, Laurent; Karila, Chantal; Refabert, Luc; Chevalier-Bidaud, Brigitte; Beydon, Nicole; Peiffer, Claudine; Delclaux, Christophe

    2014-08-01

    Exertional dyspnea during sport at school in children with asthma or in otherwise healthy children is commonly attributed to exercise-induced asthma (EIA), but when a short-acting beta agonist (SABA) trial fails to improve symptoms the physician is often at a loose end. The aims were to prospectively assess the causes of exertional dyspnea in children/adolescents with or without asthma using a cardiopulmonary exercise test while receiving a SABA and to assess the effects of standardized breathing/reassurance therapy. Seventy-nine patients (12.2 ± 2.3 years, 41 girls, 49 with previously diagnosed asthma) with dyspnea unresponsive to SABA were prospectively included. Exercise test outcomes depicted normal or subnormal performance with normal ventilatory demand and capacity in 53/79 children (67%) defining a physiological response. The remaining 26 children had altered capacity (resistant EIA [n = 17, 9 with previous asthma diagnosis], vocal cord dysfunction [n = 2]) and/or increased demand (alveolar hyperventilation [n = 3], poor conditioning [n = 7]). Forty-two children who had similar characteristics than the remaining 37 children underwent the two sessions of standardized reassurance therapy. They all demonstrated an improvement that was rated "large." The degree of improvement correlated with % predicted peak V'O2 (r = -0.37, P = 0.015) and peak oxygen pulse (r = -0.45, P = 0.003), whatever the underlying dyspnea cause. It suggested a higher benefit in those with poorer conditioning condition. The most frequent finding in children/adolescents with mild exertional dyspnea unresponsive to preventive SABA is a physiological response to exercise, and standardized reassurance afforded early clinical improvement, irrespective of the dyspnea cause. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Fatality rates in published reports of RSV hospitalizations among high-risk and otherwise healthy children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welliver, Robert C; Checchia, Paul A; Bauman, Jay H; Fernandes, Ancilla W; Mahadevia, Parthiv J; Hall, Caroline B

    2010-09-01

    To review the fatalities among children hospitalized with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection, and identify factors leading to a fatal outcome. Review of literature identified from a structured search of PubMed (1966-2009) using the following Medical Subject Headings: respiratory syncytial virus infection; hospitalized; infants; and risk factors. Publications were restricted to: English language; full papers; inclusion of > or =10 subjects; children aged infection; and deaths reported. Case fatality rates were defined as number of deaths divided by number of children hospitalized for RSV and were calculated for each study. Thirty-six studies met the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Case fatality rates among children hospitalized for RSV ranged from 0 to 33%. In general, studies showed that subgroups of high-risk children (chronic lung disease [CLD] 3.5-23%, congenital heart disease [CHD] 2-37%, and prematurity 0-6.1%) had higher fatality rates than older or otherwise healthy children (consistently 1 year) children. Higher fatality rates were reported for infants receiving intensive unit care (1.1-8.6%), extracorporeal life support (33%) or for those who acquired nosocomial RSV infection (0-12.2%). The majority of studies did not report cause of death and clinical details of the fatal cases were often not provided. Other limitations of this review include our search limits, the possibility of inherent bias in our methodology that could result in an under or over estimation of case-fatality rates, and potential publication bias. Children at high risk for RSV (CLD, CHD and prematurity), those with severe underlying comorbidities, or those with nosocomial RSV appear to be at increased risk for death after RSV hospitalization. More data are needed on cause of death and how much is directly attributable to RSV.

  1. Transgenerational healing: Educating children in genesis of healthy children, with focus on nutrition, emotion, and epigenetic effects on brain development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    House, Simon H

    2013-01-01

    Although our continuing evolution can never achieve our perfection, we long for our children's birth and health to be near-perfect. Many children are born healthy, though fewer than is possible. Birthing and health rapidly improved generally due to modern housing, sanitation and medicine, as well as birth interventions. Arguably interventions have exceeded the optimal level, without enough regard for natural physical and intuitive resources. Conception, often too easy, receives too little personal preparation unless a couple has problems. Nurturing the health of sperm and ovum seems hard to focus on, yet is needed by both parents - and even by the four grandparents. What are the key factors? Positive: The fields of hormones/emotions and of nutrition/metabolism. Negative: stress, poor nutrition, toxins, diseases; much being due to poverty. Positive and negative both have structural and also epigenetic effects. Interventions, essential or inessential, are seldom without negative side effects. Health can best, and most economically, be generated at the beginning of life, through healthy conception, gestation and birth. Understanding prime needs improves initial health. It also informs therapy of any early-life problems. Healing is therefore more efficient when transgenerational, and much more powerful than individual healing. My vision of healing is safeguarding our evolution in progress. Children's choices - eating, exercise, emotional attitudes and relationships - are already profoundly affecting any children they may have, their mental and physical health. The most practical starting point seems to be educating boys as well as girls. Childhood is therefore the time to educate them in choices. The correction of often unnoticed problems- nutrient deficits, toxins, uro-genital disease - has enabled nearly nine out of ten couples to bear fully healthy babies, even following severe problems - infertility, miscarriages, stillbirths and malformations. Correcting problems

  2. Volumetric Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study of Brain and Cerebellum in Children with Cerebral Palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kułak, Piotr; Maciorkowska, Elżbieta; Gościk, Elżbieta

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies are rarely used in the diagnosis of patients with cerebral palsy. The aim of present study was to assess the relationships between the volumetric MRI and clinical findings in children with cerebral palsy compared to control subjects. Materials and Methods. Eighty-two children with cerebral palsy and 90 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were collected. Results. The dominant changes identified on MRI scans in children with cerebral palsy were periventricular leukomalacia (42%) and posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus (21%). The total brain and cerebellum volumes in children with cerebral palsy were significantly reduced in comparison to controls. Significant grey matter volume reduction was found in the total brain in children with cerebral palsy compared with the control subjects. Positive correlations between the age of the children of both groups and the grey matter volumes in the total brain were found. Negative relationship between width of third ventricle and speech development was found in the patients. Positive correlations were noted between the ventricles enlargement and motor dysfunction and mental retardation in children with cerebral palsy. Conclusions. By using the voxel-based morphometry, the total brain, cerebellum, and grey matter volumes were significantly reduced in children with cerebral palsy.

  3. Healthy-lifestyle behaviors associated with overweight and obesity in US rural children.

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    Tovar, Alison; Chui, Kenneth; Hyatt, Raymond R; Kuder, Julia; Kraak, Vivica I; Choumenkovitch, Silvina F; Hastings, Alia; Bloom, Julia; Economos, Christina D

    2012-07-18

    There are disproportionately higher rates of overweight and obesity in poor rural communities but studies exploring children's health-related behaviors that may assist in designing effective interventions are limited. We examined the association between overweight and obesity prevalence of 401 ethnically/racially diverse, rural school-aged children and healthy-lifestyle behaviors: improving diet quality, obtaining adequate sleep, limiting screen-time viewing, and consulting a physician about a child's weight. A cross-sectional analysis was conducted on a sample of school-aged children (6-11 years) in rural regions of California, Kentucky, Mississippi, and South Carolina participating in CHANGE (Creating Healthy, Active, and Nurturing Growing-up Environments) Program, created by Save the Children, an independent organization that works with communities to improve overall child health, with the objective to reduce unhealthy weight gain in these school-aged children (grades 1-6) in rural America. After measuring children's height and weight, we17 assessed overweight and obesity (BMI ≥ 85th percentile) associations with these behaviors: improving diet quality18 (≥ 2 servings of fruits and vegetables/day), reducing whole milk, sweetened beverage consumption/day; obtaining19 adequate night-time sleep on weekdays (≥ 10 hours/night); limiting screen-time (i.e., television, video, computer,20 videogame) viewing on weekdays (≤ 2 hours/day); and consulting a physician about weight. Analyses were adjusted 21 for state of residence, children's race/ethnicity, gender, age, and government assistance. Overweight or obesity prevalence was 37 percent in Mississippi and nearly 60 percent in Kentucky. Adjusting for covariates, obese children were twice as likely to eat ≥ 2 servings of vegetables per day (OR=2.0,95% CI 1.1-3.4), less likely to consume whole milk (OR=0.4,95% CI 0.2-0.70), Their parents are more likely to be told by their doctor that their child was obese (OR

  4. The influence of parental encouragement and caring about healthy eating on children's diet quality and body weights.

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    Faught, Erin; Vander Ploeg, Kerry; Chu, Yen Li; Storey, Kate; Veugelers, Paul J

    2016-04-01

    In order to mitigate childhood obesity, evidence on what influences children's health behaviours is needed to inform new health promotion strategies. The present study investigated the association between parental practices and their child's diet and body weight status. Grade 5 students and their parents completed health surveys. Parents were asked how much they 'encourage their child to eat healthy foods' and how much they 'personally care about healthy eating'. Children's diet quality and vegetable and fruit intake were assessed using an FFQ. Children's heights and weights were measured to determine body weight status. Mixed-effects regression models were used to determine the influence of parental responses on the outcomes of interest. Elementary schools across the province of Alberta, Canada. Grade 5 students (aged 10 and 11 years; n 8388) and their parent(s). Most parents reported caring about healthy eating and encouraging their child to eat healthy foods at least quite a lot. Children whose parents who cared or encouraged 'very much' compared with 'quite a lot' were more likely have better diet quality and were less likely to be overweight. Children whose parents both cared and encouraged 'very much' compared with 'quite a lot' scored an average of 2·06 points higher on the diet quality index (β=2·06; 95 % CI 1·45, 2·66). Health promotion strategies that aim for a high level of parental interest and encouragement of their children to eat healthy foods may improve diet quality and prevent overweight among children.

  5. Bioelectrical impedance vector analysis for evaluating zinc supplementation in prepubertal and healthy children

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    Márcia Marília Gomes Dantas

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of abnormal nutritional status has increased in children and adolescents. Nutritional assessment is important for monitoring the health and nutritional status. Bioelectrical impedance vector analysis (BIVA combines changes in tissue hydration and structure and body composition that can be assessed. Objectives: The objective of this study was to use BIVA to evaluate nutritional status in 60 prepubertal children, aged between 8 and 9 years, supplemented with zinc, to detect possible changes in body composition. Design: We performed a randomized, controlled, triple-blind study. The children were divided into the control group (CG; sorbitol 10%, n=29 or the experimental group (EG; 10 mg Zn/day, n=31, and the duration of the experiment was 3 months. Anthropometric assessments were performed for all of the children. Results: The body mass index-for-age increased after oral zinc supplementation in the EG (p=0.005. BIVA indicated that the CG demonstrated a tendency for dehydration and decreased soft tissue and the EG demonstrated a tendency for increased soft tissue, primarily the fat-free mass. After analyses of BIVA ellipses, we observed that this method could detect improvements in body composition in healthy children supplemented with zinc. Conclusions: These results suggest that BIVA could be an auxiliary method for studying a small population undergoing zinc intervention.

  6. [Reference values for the 6-minutes walking test in healthy Chilean children].

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    Gatica, Darwin; Puppo, Homero; Villarroel, Gregory; San Martín, Iván; Lagos, Rossana; Montecino, Juan José; Lara, Cristian; Zenteno, Daniel

    2012-08-01

    The 6-minutes walking test (6WT) is the ideal submaximal test for the evaluation and follow-up of patients with chronic respiratory diseases. There are no reference values (RV) for Chilean children using the American Thoracic Society guidelines. To generate 6WT reference values for Chilean children aged 6 to 14 years. 6MW was evaluated in 192 healthy children (100 women) aged between 6 and 14 years. The test was carried out in a 30 m long indoor flat surface. Children also answered a survey about health problems and their weight and height were recorded. The distance walked by women and men was 596.5 ± 57 and 625 ± 59.7 m respectively (p < 0.05). There was a significant correlation between the distance walked and height (r = 0.58), age (r = 0.56), weight (r = 0.54) and reserve heart rate (r = 0.21). These results can be used as reference values for the 6WT in Chilean children aged 6 to 14 years. They are similar to those reported abroad.

  7. Heart rate variability in patients with atrial septal defect and healthy children.

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    Bakari, Süleyman; Koca, Bülent; Oztunç, Funda; Abuhandan, Mahmut

    2013-06-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV) measures are altered in various cardiac and non-cardiac situations in children. The autonomic nervous system is assumed to have a role in the pathophysiology of atrial septal defect (ASD). In this study, we evaluated the autonomic system by measuring HRV in children with ASD. Twenty-eight patients with ASD and 32 healthy children (mean ages: 6.6±2.1 years and 6.4±2.2 years, respectively) were enrolled in the study. Twenty-four-hour ambulatory electrocardiographic recordings were obtained and the seven time-domain (SDNN, SDANN, rMSSD, SD, SDNN index, PNN50, and mean RR) and four frequency-domain (VLF, LF, HF, and LF/HF ratio) indices of HRV were analyzed. A significant decrease in calculated HRV variables was observed in children with ASD as compared to controls. The HRV alteration was found in both time-domain and frequency-domain parameters. Our results indicate that HRV is decreased in children with ASD, which implies parasympathetic withdrawal and sympathetic predominance. Copyright © 2013 Japanese College of Cardiology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Interventions to increase physical activity and healthy eating among overweight and obese children in Mexico.

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    Eisenberg, Christina M; Sánchez-Romero, Luz María; Rivera-Dommarco, Juan A; Holub, Christina K; Arredondo, Elva M; Elder, John P; Barquera, Simón

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to conduct a systematic literature review of obesity interventions that focused on increasing physical activity and healthy eating among overweight and obese children in Mexico. Data was taken from a larger literature review focused on obesity interventions for Latinos in Latin America and the United States. Study design suitability, quality of execution, and effect size were assessed for a subset of these articles. There were six intervention studies included in the present review. Five studies showed reductions in obesity-related outcomes, while one study reported gains in body mass index (BMI). Physical activity and healthy eating remain constant components in obesity treatment interventions, which highlights the importance of understanding evidence-based strategies to guide future research to reduce childhood obesity in Mexico.

  9. Body Image and Quality of Life in Female Patients with Breast Cancer and Healthy Women

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    Mozhgan Bagheri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim:  The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the relationship between body image and quality of life in female patients with breast cancer and healthy women. Methods:In the current descriptive, causal, comparative, cross-sectional study, 50 women with breast cancer, referring to the radiotherapy and oncology clinic of Imam Reza Hospital (Mashhad, Iran and 50 healthy women, referring to the same clinic, were selected via available sampling. Informed consent forms were obtained from the subjects. A demographic questionnaire, Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire (consisting of 46 items, and short-form health survey (SF-36 were used as the study tools. For data analysis, Pearson’s correlation test and t-test were performed to determine the differences between the two groups. Data were analyzed, using SPSS version 16. Results: The results showed a statistically significant difference between female patients with cancer and healthy women in terms of quality of life (t=-4.1, P

  10. Hunger and thirst numeric rating scales are not valid estimates for gastric content volumes: a prospective investigation in healthy children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buehrer, Sabin; Hanke, Ursula; Klaghofer, Richard; Fruehauf, Melanie; Weiss, Markus; Schmitz, Achim

    2014-03-01

    A rating scale for thirst and hunger was evaluated as a noninvasive, simple and commonly available tool to estimate preanesthetic gastric volume, a surrogate parameter for the risk of perioperative pulmonary aspiration, in healthy volunteer school age children. Numeric scales with scores from 0 to 10 combined with smileys to rate thirst and hunger were analyzed and compared with residual gastric volumes as measured by magnetic resonance imaging and fasting times in three settings: before and for 2 h after drinking clear fluid (group A, 7 ml/kg), before and for 4 vs 6 h after a light breakfast followed by clear fluid (7 ml/kg) after 2 vs 4 h (crossover, group B), and before and for 1 h after drinking clear fluid (crossover, group C, 7 vs 3 ml/kg). In 30 children aged 6.4-12.8 (median 9.8) years, participating on 1-5 (median two) study days, 496 sets of scores and gastric volumes were determined. Large inter- and intra-individual variations were seen at baseline and in response to fluid and food intake. Significant correlations were found between hunger and thirst ratings in all groups, with children generally being more hungry than thirsty. Correlations between scores and duration of fasting or gastric residual volumes were poor to moderate. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis revealed that thirst and hunger rating scales cannot predict gastric content. Hunger and thirst scores vary considerably inter- and intra-individually and cannot predict gastric volume, nor do they correlate with fasting times in school age children. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Food through the child's eye: An eye-tracking study on attentional bias for food in healthy-weight children and children with obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werthmann, Jessica; Jansen, Anita; Vreugdenhil, Anita C E; Nederkoorn, Chantal; Schyns, Ghislaine; Roefs, Anne

    2015-12-01

    Obesity prevalence among children is high and knowledge on cognitive factors that contribute to children's reactivity to the "obesogenic" food environment could help to design effective treatment and prevention campaigns. Empirical studies in adults suggest that attention bias for food could be a risk factor for overeating. Accordingly, the current study tested if children with obesity have an elevated attention bias for food when compared to healthy-weight children. Another aim was to explore whether attention biases for food predicted weight-change after 3 and 6 months in obese children. Obese children (n = 34) were recruited from an intervention program and tested prior to the start of this intervention. Healthy-weight children (n = 36) were recruited from local schools. First, attention biases for food were compared between children with obesity (n = 30) and matched healthy-weight children (n = 30). Second, regression analyses were conducted to test if food-related attention biases predicted weight changes after 3 and 6 months in children with obesity following a weight loss lifestyle intervention. Results showed that obese children did not differ from healthy-weight children in their attention bias to food. Yet automatically directing attention toward food (i.e., initial orientation bias) was related to a reduced weight loss (R² = .14, p = .032) after 6 months in children with obesity. High palatable food is a salient stimulus for all children, irrespective of their weight status. However, automatically directing attention to food cues might facilitate further weight gain in children with obesity. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Challenges of functional imaging research of pain in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sava Simona

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Functional imaging has revolutionized the neurosciences. In the pain field it has dramatically altered our understanding of how the brain undergoes significant functional, anatomical and chemical changes in patients with chronic pain. However, most studies have been performed in adults. Because functional imaging is non-invasive and can be performed in awake individuals, applications in children have become more prevalent, but only recently in the pain field. Measures of changes in the brains of children have important implications in understanding neural plasticity in response to acute and chronic pain in the developing brain. Such findings may have implications for treatments in children affected by chronic pain and provide novel insights into chronic pain syndromes in adults. In this review we summarize this potential and discuss specific concerns related to the imaging of pain in children.

  13. Imaging of back pain in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoury, Nabil J; Hourani, Mukbil H; Arabi, Mohammad M S; Abi-Fakher, Faysal; Haddad, Maurice C

    2006-01-01

    To present the imaging findings of the wide spectrum of musculoskeletal diseases causing back pain in children and adolescents. Back pain in children is a rare condition but may denote a serious health problem; hence, full clinical history, physical examination, and appropriate laboratory studies should be obtained. In this scientific exhibit, we present the imaging findings of the variable musculoskeletal diseases that are associated with back pain in children and adolescents. These disease processes include scoliosis of various causes; spondylolysis; spondylolisthesis; traumatic injuries; disc degeneration and herniation; Scheuermann's disease; spondylodiscitis; tumors (primary, secondary, hematogenous); and miscellaneous conditions (eg, metabolic disorders, sickle cell disease, osteoporosis). A wide spectrum of diseases causing back pain in children is presented. Radiologists should be aware of the imaging findings of this rather uncommon entity to help in reaching the appropriate diagnosis.

  14. Reference Equations for Impulse Oscillometry System Parameters in Healthy Brazilian Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Assumpção, Maíra S; Gonçalves, Renata M; Martins, Renata; Bobbio, Tatiana G; Schivinski, Camila Is

    2016-08-01

    The impulse oscillometry system is a noninvasive method of evaluating respiratory mechanics that is being increasingly used in the pediatric population. To date, no reference equations have been developed for healthy Brazilian children and adolescents. The purpose of the study was to determine the reference equations for impulse oscillometry system parameters in healthy children and adolescents. We undertook an observational cross-sectional analytical study with healthy students age 6-14 y from educational institutions in the Greater Florianópolis area. Biometric data were evaluated (weight, height, body mass index, and body surface area) as predictors and for sample characterization. All participants were submitted to evaluation of respiratory mechanics using an oscillometry system following American Thoracic Society standards. Three tests were recorded, with data acquisition for ≥20 s. For data normality verification, the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was applied, and Pearson's correlation test identified the relationship between the predicted values of height, age, and weight and the oscillometric variables of resistance at 5 and 20 Hz reactance; respiratory impedance at 5 Hz resonant frequency; and reactance area. Models were developed using simple linear regression and multiple analyses. After the recruitment of 864 children, 123 subjects with an average age of 10.0 ± 2.4 y for boys and 9.9 ± 2.4 y for girls (P = .94) were considered for final analysis. Correlations were identified between the dependent and predictor oscillometric variables, with height identified as having the greatest predictive power in the equations developed for boys in all oscillometric parameters, with a mean adjusted R(2) of 46.51%. Age had greater influence on resonant frequency (adjusted R(2) = 40.1%) and reactance area (adjusted R(2) = 48.8%) for girls. Reference equations were developed for males and females, and height was the most influential predictor variable for most impulse

  15. Increased oxidative stress in healthy children following an exercise program: a pilot study.

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    Nasca, Melita M; Zhang, Renliang; Super, Dennis M; Hazen, Stanley L; Hall, Howard R

    2010-06-01

    Exercise can induce oxidative stress or an imbalance between reactive oxygen species and cellular antioxidant defenses. We investigated the effect of a real-life exercise program on systemic oxidative stress measured by urinary concentrations of 8-isoprostaglandin F2alpha (8-iso-PGF2 alpha), a noninvasive index of lipid peroxidation, in a well-characterized pediatric group. Healthy but primarily sedentary, 8- to 10-year-old children (n = 6, mean age 8.8 +/- 0.9 years) of equally distributed healthy weight, overweight, and obese categories, participated in a 5-week exercise program (track and field summer camp, 2 hours/day, 1-2 days/week). By using high-performance liquid chromatography with online electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC/ESI/MS/MS), we found a significant (p = .028) increase in group mean urinary 8-iso-PGF2 alpha concentration from 8.163 +/- 6.919 ng/mg creatinine pre-exercise program to 32.320 +/- 16.970 ng/mg creatinine post-exercise program. The increase was also measured at each individual level. We found preliminary evidence that pre- and post-exercise program urinary 8-iso-PGF2 alpha concentrations selectively correlated with children's cardiometabolic characteristics and mood. Our results warrant further exploration of the relationships between pre/post-exercise oxidative stress marker 8-iso-PGF2 alpha and cardiometabolic characteristics, exercise habits, eating habits, and mood to determine whether increased post-exercise oxidative stress in healthy children is part of their normal adaptation to exercise or mediator of oxidative injury.

  16. Pineal gland volume in primary insomnia and healthy controls: a magnetic resonance imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bumb, Jan M; Schilling, Claudia; Enning, Frank; Haddad, Leila; Paul, Franc; Lederbogen, Florian; Deuschle, Michael; Schredl, Michael; Nolte, Ingo

    2014-06-01

    Little is known about the relation between pineal volume and insomnia. Melatonin promotes sleep processes and, administered as a drug, it is suitable to improve primary and secondary sleep disorders in humans. Recent magnetic resonance imaging studies suggest that human plasma and saliva melatonin levels are partially determined by the pineal gland volume. This study compares the pineal volume in a group of patients with primary insomnia to a group of healthy people without sleep disturbance. Pineal gland volume (PGV) was measured on the basis of high-resolution 3 Tesla MRI (T1-magnetization prepared rapid gradient echo) in 23 patients and 27 controls, matched for age, gender and educational status. Volume measurements were performed conventionally by manual delineation of the pineal borders in multi-planar reconstructed images. Pineal gland volume was significantly smaller (P Pineal volume appears to be reduced in patients with primary insomnia compared to healthy controls. Further studies are needed to clarify whether low pineal volume is the basis or the consequence of functional sleep changes to elucidate the molecular pathology for the pineal volume loss in primary insomnia. © 2014 European Sleep Research Society.

  17. Sleep and body mass index in depressed children and healthy controls.

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    Wojnar, Julita; Brower, Kirk J; Dopp, Richard; Wojnar, Marcin; Emslie, Graham; Rintelmann, Jeanne; Hoffmann, Robert F; Armitage, Roseanne

    2010-03-01

    Higher body mass index (BMI) has been associated with more sleep disturbance and depressive symptoms, but the combined effects of depression and BMI on sleep have not been studied in children. This study evaluated the relationship between BMI and polysomnography in children with major depressive disorder (MDD), compared to healthy controls (HCs). The sample of 104 subjects included 72 children, 8-17 years old, with MDD and 32 similarly aged HCs with no personal or family history of psychopathology. BMI was adjusted using the CDC formula for percentiles by age. Subjects were categorized as (1) normal weight (5-84th percentile) or (2) high weight, which included at risk of overweight and overweight (> or = 85th percentile). All analyses were adjusted for sex and Tanner maturational stage scores. In the MDD group only, higher BMI was significantly correlated with decreased sleep efficiency, decreased percentage of rapid eye movement sleep (REM%), and higher percentage of time spent awake and moving (TSPAM). In the HC group only, higher BMI correlated with higher total sleep time. Multivariate analyses revealed significant interactions between the BMI and diagnostic groups for several REM sleep parameters, such that high-weight children from the HC and MDD groups had increases and decreases in REM sleep, respectively. TSPAM increased in the high-weight MDD group, but decreased in the high-weight HC group. Although limited by small sample size, these findings suggest that children and adolescents with MDD and a high BMI have more fragmented sleep than other children. The increased REM sleep patterns observed with MDD in this and other studies normalized in high-weight children with MDD. Prevention and treatment strategies should target both sleep and weight as factors that can potentially influence the development and course of MDD. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Cocolonization of Pneumococcal Serotypes in Healthy Children Attending Day Care Centers: Molecular Versus Conventional Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjálmarsdóttir, Martha Á; Gumundsdóttir, Pálína Fanney; Erlendsdóttir, Helga; Kristinsson, Karl G; Haraldsson, Gunnsteinn

    2016-05-01

    Pneumococci are common colonizer, especially of children, and cocolonization of different serotypes is an important factor for intraspecies genetic exchange. The aim of this study was to analyze pneumococcal carriage and serotype distribution in unvaccinated healthy children in Iceland and compare conventional culture methods and molecular methods using DNA extracted directly from the samples. Nasopharyngeal swabs were obtained from 514 children aged 2-6 year attending day care centers in Reykjavik in 2009. The swabs were selectively cultured for pneumococci and the isolates serotyped using latex agglutination. DNA was also extracted directly from the swabs and serotyped using a multiplex PCR panel designed to detect vaccine serotypes and the most commonly carried non-vaccine serotypes. Pneumococcal carriage was detected in 391 (76.1%) of the children using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and in 371 (72.2%) using conventional methods. Cocolonization was detected in 92 (23.5%) of the carriers when PCR method was used and in 30 (8.1%) when conventional methods were used, detecting 500 and 401 strains, respectively (P < 0.0001). The most common serotypes were 23F, 19A, 6B, 6A and 19F, rates 13-8%. The number of isolates of serotypes included in the 10-valent and 13-valent vaccines and detected by PCR were 234 (58.4%) and 363 (90.5%), respectively and by conventional methods 186 (46.4%) and 293 (73.1%), respectively. Cocolonization was detected in a fourth of the children carrying pneumococci using DNA extracted directly from nasopharyngeal swabs. The rate of carriage was very high, but no serotype dominated, and the children were commonly colonized by vaccine serotypes, especially cocolonized children.

  19. Visual Imagery and False Memory for Pictures: A Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study in Healthy Participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephan-Otto, Christian; Siddi, Sara; Senior, Carl; Muñoz-Samons, Daniel; Ochoa, Susana; Sánchez-Laforga, Ana María; Brébion, Gildas

    2017-01-01

    Visual mental imagery might be critical in the ability to discriminate imagined from perceived pictures. Our aim was to investigate the neural bases of this specific type of reality-monitoring process in individuals with high visual imagery abilities. A reality-monitoring task was administered to twenty-six healthy participants using functional magnetic resonance imaging. During the encoding phase, 45 words designating common items, and 45 pictures of other common items, were presented in random order. During the recall phase, participants were required to remember whether a picture of the item had been presented, or only a word. Two subgroups of participants with a propensity for high vs. low visual imagery were contrasted. Activation of the amygdala, left inferior occipital gyrus, insula, and precuneus were observed when high visual imagers encoded words later remembered as pictures. At the recall phase, these same participants activated the middle frontal gyrus and inferior and superior parietal lobes when erroneously remembering pictures. The formation of visual mental images might activate visual brain areas as well as structures involved in emotional processing. High visual imagers demonstrate increased activation of a fronto-parietal source-monitoring network that enables distinction between imagined and perceived pictures.

  20. Visual Imagery and False Memory for Pictures: A Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study in Healthy Participants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Stephan-Otto

    Full Text Available Visual mental imagery might be critical in the ability to discriminate imagined from perceived pictures. Our aim was to investigate the neural bases of this specific type of reality-monitoring process in individuals with high visual imagery abilities.A reality-monitoring task was administered to twenty-six healthy participants using functional magnetic resonance imaging. During the encoding phase, 45 words designating common items, and 45 pictures of other common items, were presented in random order. During the recall phase, participants were required to remember whether a picture of the item had been presented, or only a word. Two subgroups of participants with a propensity for high vs. low visual imagery were contrasted.Activation of the amygdala, left inferior occipital gyrus, insula, and precuneus were observed when high visual imagers encoded words later remembered as pictures. At the recall phase, these same participants activated the middle frontal gyrus and inferior and superior parietal lobes when erroneously remembering pictures.The formation of visual mental images might activate visual brain areas as well as structures involved in emotional processing. High visual imagers demonstrate increased activation of a fronto-parietal source-monitoring network that enables distinction between imagined and perceived pictures.