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Sample records for healthy canine cornea

  1. Management of chemical burns of the canine cornea

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    Christmas, Richard

    1991-01-01

    Significant clinical signs and general principles of treatment for chemical burns of the canine cornea are presented using three typical case studies for illustration. Alkali burns are more common in dogs than acid burns. The sources of alkali in this study were soap, cement, and mortar dust. Common signs of chemical burns are ocular pain, corneal ulceration, tear film inadequacy, corneal edema, and marked corneal neovascularity. Successful treatment requires thorough ocular lavage, treatment...

  2. Effects of radiofrequency hyperthermia on the healthy canine cornea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glaze, M.B.; Turk, M.A.

    1986-04-01

    Radiofrequency hyperthermia was used to induce axial corneal lesions in the eyes of 10 dogs. Clinical observations were continued for up to 6 months, using biomicroscopy and indirect ophthalmoscopy. Eyes were harvested at intervals for light and electron microscopic evaluation. Clinical alterations included immediate corneal opacification and epithelial disruption at the site of electrode contact. Ulcerative keratitis persisted for 4 to 6 days, accompanied by anterior uveitis. Additional corneal changes included stromal thinning, edema, and vascularization. Final evaluation revealed negligible alterations in corneal contour or clarity 6 months after treatment. Microscopically, epithelial and superficial stromal necrosis preceded epithelial loss. Stromal alterations included edema (associated with focal endothelial detachments), vascularization, and inflammatory cell infiltration. Recovery was characterized by keratocytic hyperplasia and hypertrophy, epithelial proliferation, and stromal condensation.

  3. Distribution changes of epithelial dendritic cells in canine cornea and mucous membranes related to hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

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    Killian, Doreen; Reichard, Maria; Knueppel, Anne; Lange, Sandra; Sekora, Anett; Knuebel, Gudrun; Murua Escobar, Hugo; Guthoff, Rudolf; Stachs, Oliver; Junghanss, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are important immune mediators following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). We screened for DC frequency in the cornea and oral mucous membranes after HSCT by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) in a canine model. In vivo CLSM images of the epithelia were taken the day before and on days 28, 56 and 112 following HSCT. Peripheral blood counts and chimerism were determined. An increase of DCs after HSCT was detected in each animal in both investigated tissue types. Highest DC numbers in the flew and the gingiva were detected on day 28 and in the corneal epithelium on day 56 after HSCT, respectively. Changes of DCs in ocular and non-ocular mucous membranes can be monitored by CLSM in vivo. The DC frequency in the cornea and mucosa changes following HSCT. DC recovery is rapid and their numbers correlate with the development of chimerism of peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

  4. Biomechanical responses of healthy and keratoconic corneas measured using a noncontact scheimpflug-based tonometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Noor Q; Patel, Dipika V; McGhee, Charles N J

    2014-05-15

    To examine the repeatability of measurements obtained using a noncontact Scheimpflug-based tonometer (Corvis ST) and investigate potential differences in these parameters between healthy and keratoconic (KC) corneas. Forty-five keratoconic eyes and 103 healthy eyes were examined using biomicroscopy, corneal tomography and the Corvis ST (CST). Intraocular pressure and central corneal thickness (CCT) were highly repeatable (intraclass correlation [ICC] > 0.70, coefficient of variation [CV] 0.60, CV age, sex, or ethnicity in healthy eyes. There was a greater mean DA in the KC group compared with 46 age-matched healthy eyes (KC 1.37 ± 0.21 mm, healthy 1.05 ± 0.11 mm, P corneas. Copyright 2014 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.

  5. Microstructure and glycosaminoglycan ratio of canine cornea after reconstructive transplantation with glycerin-preserved porcine amniotic membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuzuki, Keiko; Yamashita, Kazuto; Izumisawa, Yasuharu; Kotani, Tadao

    2008-01-01

    Although amniotic membranes of canine, feline, and equine species have some advantages as corneal transplantation material in many canine ocular diseases, their softness, thinness, and low availability can pose problems. As an alternative, the more abundant porcine amniotic membranes may be used. This paper describes the use of glycerin-preserved porcine amniotic membranes in corneal transplantation in eight normal dogs. A 0.4-mm deep recipient bed in the axial cornea of the OS of all dogs was created using an 8-mm Barron radial vacuum trephine. The recipient bed was then filled with amnion, and the entire cornea was covered with another piece of the glycerin-preserved membrane. The ocular signs evaluated were corneal opacity and corneal vascularization. The dogs were euthanized on days 5, 10, 20, or 40 after surgery, and samples were collected to evaluate corneal thickness, parenchymal cell number, mean collagen fibril diameter, collagen fibril content and the glycosaminoglycan (GAG) ratio. Corneal opacity was observed immediately after surgery. Restoration of corneal transparency, regression of corneal vascularization, and visualization of the pupil and iris were noted on day 40. The clinical observations were supported histologically by regained corneal thickness, parenchymal cell number, mean collagen fibril diameter, collagen fibril content, and GAG ratio, suggesting that this technique may be a novel method for the treatment of ocular surface disorders.

  6. Biomechanical Properties of the Cornea Measured With the Dynamic Scheimpflug Analyzer in Young Healthy Adults.

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    Lee, Hun; Kang, David Sung Yong; Ha, Byoung Jin; Choi, Jin Young; Kim, Eung Kweon; Seo, Kyoung Yul; Kim, Ha Yan; Kim, Tae-Im

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the biomechanical properties of the cornea using the dynamic Scheimpflug analyzer in young healthy adults. This prospective cross-sectional population study included 944 eyes of 472 participants aged 20 to 40 years. Participants underwent ophthalmic investigations, including evaluation of biomechanical properties of the cornea using the dynamic Scheimpflug analyzer, manifest refraction, and measurements of keratometric values by autokeratometry, intraocular pressure (IOP) by noncontact tonometer, central corneal thickness (CCT) by ultrasound, and white-to-white distance by Scheimpflug tomography. Statistical analyses included determination of the reference interval with a bootstrapping method, linear quantile mixed-effects model, and Spearman correlation analysis between the corneal biomechanical parameters and other variables (age, manifest refraction spherical equivalent, CCT, IOP, white-to-white, and keratometric values). The 90% CIs of all corneal biomechanical parameters demonstrated that the ranges of the 90% CIs for the reference data were almost identical with and without bootstrapping. Quantile regression to determine the fifth, 50th, and 95th percentiles of each corneal biomechanical parameter supported the findings from the nonparametric method with the 90% CIs. Correlation analysis showed significant correlations between the parameters and variables, but there was a relatively high Spearman correlation coefficient in the case of the correlations with the CCT and IOP. Using data from a large population of young healthy adults, we developed a database of normal values for multiple corneal biomechanical parameters obtained from the dynamic Scheimpflug analyzer. We conclude that the biomechanical properties of the cornea are influenced by the CCT and IOP.

  7. Quantitative analysis of immunogold labellings of collagen types I, III, IV and VI in healthy and pathological human corneas.

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    Delaigue, O; Arbeille, B; Rossazza, C; Lemesle, M; Roingeard, P

    1995-06-01

    We studied the distribution of collagen types I, III, IV and VI in one healthy human cornea and in seven pathological human corneas, in which the disorders were three cases of pseudophakic bullous keratopathy (two severe, one moderate) and one case each of stage IV keratoconus, chronic ulcer, vascularized cornea and disciform keratitis. Transmission electron microscopy examinations were performed on post-embedding immunogold-labelled sections. The staining was evaluated by gold particle count in the different tissues. The presence or absence of a given antigen was determined by statistical analysis, using a d-value test. Our results on healthy corneal tissues corroborate the data available from previous studies, except for collagen type VI, which we found to be absent in Bowman's layer. In pathological corneas with a collagenous layer posterior to Descemet's membrane, collagen types I, III and especially IV were detected in this collagenous layer. Collagen types I, III and VI were detected in the anterior healed stroma of other pathological corneas, except for the keratoconus cornea, in which intense collagen III staining was observed. The presence of collagen types I and III in the posterior collagenous layer of our pseudophakic bullous keratopathy corneas suggests that this layer corresponds to scar tissue secreted by stimulated endothelial cells.

  8. Two-photon autofluorescence lifetime and SHG imaging of healthy and diseased human corneas

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    Batista, Ana; Breunig, Hans Georg; Uchugonova, Aisada; Seitz, Berthold; Morgado, António Miguel; König, Karsten

    2015-03-01

    Corneal function can be drastically affected by several degenerations and dystrophies, leading to blindness. Early diagnosis of corneal disease is of major importance and it may be accomplished by monitoring changes of the metabolic state and structural organization, the first detectable pathological signs, by two-photon excitation autofluorescence lifetime and second-harmonic generation imaging. In this study, we propose to use these imaging techniques to differentiate between healthy and pathological corneas. Images were acquired using a laser-scanning microscope with a broadband sub-15 femtosecond near-infrared pulsed laser and a 16-channel photomultiplier tube detector for signal collection. This setup allows the simultaneous excitation of metabolic co-factors and to identify them based on their fluorescence spectra. We were able to discriminate between healthy and pathological corneas using two-photon excitation autofluorescence lifetime and second-harmonic generation imaging from corneal epithelium and stroma. Furthermore, differences between different pathologies were observed. Alterations in the metabolic state of corneal epithelial cells were observed using the autofluorescence lifetime of the metabolic co-factors. In the corneal stroma, we observed not only alterations in the collagen fibril structural organization but also alterations in the autofluorescence lifetime. Further tests are required as the number of pathological samples must be increased. In the future, we intend to establish a correlation between the metabolic and structural changes and the disease stage. This can be a step forward in achieving early diagnosis.

  9. Global and local contributions to surface curva- ture of healthy corneas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Rubin

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper demonstrates for several healthy eyes the application of a simple model to understanding local and global contributions to short-term variation in anterior and posterior corneal curvature. Multiple axial anterior and posterior corneal radii and central corneal thicknesses for the right eyes of 10 young subjects were determined over time using a rotating Scheimpflug camera (Oculus Pentacam. The axial radii were transformed to corneal powers, and also to curvatures that were referred to a mid-corneal surface such that local and global contributions to short-term variation could be analyzed quantitatively.When variation of the anterior and posterior corneal surfaces of several healthy eyes are studied in terms of curvatures (rather than powers it is the posterior surfaces that are more variable withthe global or macroscopic rather than local effects dominating. (Harris and Gillan found the same for an eye with mild keratoconus. This finding is opposite to that when variation is considered in terms of dioptric power where the anterior corneal surface usually appears more variable. Possible reasons for this finding includes firstly that the posterior corneal surface has to be measured through the air-tear interface and anterior corneal surface,and thus some uncertainty in measurements of the posterior surface may relate to this limitation. Secondly, no attempt was made here to mathematically align the multiple surfaces as determined per eye and thus we cannot be certain that precisely the same central corneal region was measured each time.Investigators need to carefully consider whether they are more interested in the optical or physical nature of variation in surfaces such as the cornea since studies of the optical effects require theanalysis to be performed in terms of dioptric powers and  symmetric dioptric power space whereas studies of physical variation in the topography of the cornea and the possible reasons for such variability

  10. Corneal biomechanical evaluation in healthy thin corneas compared with matched keratoconus cases.

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    Fontes, Bruno Machado; Ambrósio Jr, Renato; Velarde, Guillermo Coca; Nosé, Walton

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate and compare corneal hysteresis (CH) and corneal resistance factor (CRF) in healthy eyes with a central corneal thickness (CCT) age-, and CCT-matched keratoconus cases, and to estimate the sensitivity and specificity of these parameters for discriminating between the two groups. Prospective, comparative case series. In total 46 eyes from 30 healthy patients with CCT age-matched keratoconus cases were enrolled. Biomechanical metrics (CH and CRF) were measured using the Ocular Response Analyzer (ORA) and then compared. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to identify cut-off points to maximize the sensitivity and specificity for discriminating between the groups. The CCT was 485.96 ± 17.61 µm (range, 438 - 505) in healthy thin corneas and 483.64 ± 16.19 µm (range, 452 - 505) in keratoconus; p=0.5225. CH was 8.63 ± 1.23 mmHg (range, 5.95 - 12.2) and 8.07 ± 1.17 mmHg (range, 4.9 - 9.85), respectively; p=0.0312. CRF was 8.43 ± 1.29 mmHg (range, 5.45 - 11.10) and 7.22 ± 1.34 mmHg (range, 4.7 - 9.45), respectively; pcorneas. However, CH and CRF offered very low sensitivity and specificity for discriminating the groups.

  11. Age-related changes in biomechanical parameters of the cornea and intraocular pressure in a healthy Turkish population

    OpenAIRE

    ŞEN, Emine; ELGİN, Kadriye Ufuk; YÜKSEKKAYA, Pınar; TIRHIŞ, Mehmet Hakan

    2014-01-01

    To investigate age-related changes in intraocular pressure (IOP) and biomechanical parameters of the cornea in healthy subjects. Materials and methods: There were 404 healthy subjects included prospectively in this study. The subjects were divided into 3 groups (Group 1: 93 subjects aged 60). Corneal compensated IOP (IOPcc), Goldmann correlated IOP (IOPg), corneal hysteresis (CH), and corneal resistance factor (CRF) were measured by the Ocular Response Analyzer. Results: When all the study...

  12. Cornea Transplant

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    ... Swelling of the cornea Signs and symptoms of cornea rejection In some cases, your body's immune system ... the risks of the procedure. Finding a donor cornea Most corneas used in cornea transplants come from ...

  13. The relationship of Central Corneal Thickness (CCT) to Thinnest Central Cornea (TCC) in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashwin, Pammal T; Shah, Sunil; Pushpoth, Sreekumari; Wehbeh, Louai; Ilango, Balasubramaniam

    2009-04-01

    The aim of the study was to precisely quantify the relationship between the central corneal points, namely the pupillary centre and the thinnest point in the central cornea, in terms of their thickness and location in healthy adults. 120 eyes of 60 healthy adult volunteers underwent pachymetry with a Scheimpflug imaging system (Pentacam). The thickness at the pupillary centre (Central Corneal Thickness, CCT) and the thickness at the Thinnest Central Corneal (TCC) point were measured. One eye of each patient was used to analyse the mean difference between CCT and TCC. Unpaired t-test (one tailed) was used to test significance and 95% confidence limits were used. The precise location of the TCC in relation to the corneal apex was measured using vector algebraic and trigonometric calculations. The mean CCT was 520+/-33microm and the TCC was 515+/-36microm. The difference between CCT and TCC was found to be 5.57microm (0-15.9microm, 95% CI; P=0.1909). The TCC location was inferotemporal to the corneal apex in 58/60 (96.7%) of the right eyes and in 49/60 (81.7%) of the left eyes. The average vector location of TCC of both eyes was inferotemporal. This coordinate was found to lie 0.62mm (right eye) and 0.79mm (left eye) from the corneal apex subtending and angle of 45.5 degrees (right eye) and -10.9 degrees (left eye) from the horizontal. The study has identified the parameters of TCC and its relationship to CCT in terms of the location and thickness. For clinical usage, they can be interchangeable as there is no significant difference between the two. The consistency in the (inferotemporal) location of the TCC merits further research in this regard to the development of corneal ectasia.

  14. Ability of corneal biomechanical metrics and anterior segment data in the differentiation of keratoconus and healthy corneas.

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    Fontes, Bruno Machado; Ambrósio Junior, Renato; Jardim, Daniela; Velarde, Guillermo Coca; Nosé, Walton

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the sensitivity, specificity, and test accuracy of corneal biomechanical metrics and anterior segment data in differentiating keratoconus from healthy corneas. Comparative case series. Patients with and without keratoconus (gender and age-matched) were submitted for complete eye examinations including corneal hysteresis (CH) and corneal resistance factor (CRF) as measured by the Ocular Response Analyzer and anterior segment data as gathered through Pentacam assessments. The anterior segment data measurement included average central keratometric readings (K-Ave), corneal astigmatism (CA), central corneal thickness (CCT), anterior chamber depth (AC depth) and corneal volume (CV). All parameters were assessed, compared and analyzed. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to identify the best cutoff point by which to maximize the sensitivity and specificity of discriminating keratoconus from normal corneas for each data category. Seventy seven eyes from forty three patients (24 male, 19 female) with keratoconus and eighty six eyes from forty three (24 male, 19 female) healthy controls were enrolled. ROC curve analysis showed poor overall predictive accuracy for all studied parameters in differentiating keratoconus from normal corneas. The highest sensitivity (79.2%) was obtained for both AC depth and CH (cutoff points 3.22 mm and 9.39 mmHg respectively). The best specificity (89.5%) and test accuracy (80.34%) were obtained for CA (cutoff point of 2.2 D). When considered together, studied parameters showed statistical differences between groups. However, when considered independently they presented low sensitivity, specificity and test accuracy in differentiating keratoconus from healthy corneas.

  15. Descemet membrane adhesion strength is greater in diabetics with advanced disease compared to healthy donor corneas.

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    Schwarz, Chaid; Aldrich, Benjamin T; Burckart, Kimberlee A; Schmidt, Gregory A; Zimmerman, M Bridget; Reed, Cynthia R; Greiner, Mark A; Sander, Edward A

    2016-12-01

    Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty (DMEK) is an increasingly popular surgical procedure for treating ocular diseases that require a corneal transplant. Previous studies have found that tissue tearing during surgical preparation is more likely elevated in eyes from donors with a history of diabetes mellitus. To quantify these potential differences, we established an experimental technique for quantifying the force required to separate the endothelium-Descemet membrane complex (EDM) from stroma in human donor corneal tissue, and we assessed differences in adhesion strength between diabetic and non-diabetic donor corneas. Transplant suitable corneas were obtained from 23 donors 50-75 years old with an average preservation to assay time of 11.5 days. Corneas were classified from a medical records review as non-diabetic (ND, n = 9), diabetic without evidence of advanced disease (NAD, n = 8), or diabetic with evidence of advanced disease (AD, n = 10). Corneas were sectioned into 3 mm wide strips and the EDM peeled from the stroma. Using the force-extension data obtained from mechanical peel testing, EDM elastic peel tension (TE), elastic stiffness (SE), average delamination tension (TD), and maximum tension (TMAX) were calculated. Mean TE, SE, TD, and TMAX values for ND corneas were 0.78 ± 0.07 mN/mm, 0.37 ± 0.05 mN/mm/mm, 0.78 ± 0.08 mN/mm, and 0.94 ± 0.17 mN/mm, respectively. NAD values did not differ significantly. However, AD values for TE (1.01 ± 0.18 mN/mm), TD (1.09 ± 0.21 mN/mm), and TMAX (1.37 ± 0.24 mN/mm) were greater than ND and NAD corneas (P donor corneal tissue. Results of this study provide a foundation for further investigations into the impact of diabetes on the posterior cornea, eye banking, and keratoplasty. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Age-related changes in biomechanical parameters of the cornea and intraocular pressure in a healthy Turkish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Emine; Elgin, Kadriye Ufuk; Yüksekkaya, Pinar; Tirhiş, Mehmet Hakan; Aksakal, Fatma Nur Baran; Teke, Mehmet Yasin; Oztürk, Faruk

    2014-01-01

    To investigate age-related changes in intraocular pressure (IOP) and biomechanical parameters of the cornea in healthy subjects. There were 404 healthy subjects included prospectively in this study. The subjects were divided into 3 groups (Group 1:93 subjects aged aged between 18 and 59, and Group 3:122 subjects aged ≥ 60). Corneal compensated IOP (IOPCC), Goldmann correlated IOP (IOPg), corneal hysteresis (CH), and corneal resistance factor (CRF) were measured by the Ocular Response Analyzer. When all the study groups were evaluated, a moderately significant negative correlation was found between age and CH and between age and CRF (Spearman's rho = -0.372 and -0.353, respectively; P age-related differences among the 3 groups in terms of IOPg, CH, CRF, and central corneal thickness (P = 0.002, P = 0.000, P = 0.000, P = 0.006). There was no confirmation of any difference of IOPcc among the groups (P = 0.427). The mean values of IOPg, CH, and CRF were lower than the other parameters in Group 3 but no significant differences were determined in IOPcc values in the age groups.

  17. Microscopia confocal en córneas de cien ojos sanos Confocal microscopy results of one hundred healthy eye corneas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulema Gómez Castillo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Analizar las estructuras celulares por microscopia confocal, Confoscan 4, en córneas sanas en nuestro medio. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio prospectivo longitudinal a 100 ojos sanos de médicos que trabajan en nuestra institución, y pacientes que asistieron al servicio de córnea. Esta investigación fue desde mayo de 2007 a mayo 2008, en el Instituto Cubano de Oftalmología "Ramón Pando Ferrer", La Habana. En los médicos se examinaron ambos ojos y en los pacientes el ojo no afectado. Se recopilaron un total de 50 casos sin afección corneal. Resultados: De los 100 ojos estudiados, 64 tenían paquimetrías por encima del valor medio. Estuvieron presentes los tres tipos de células epiteliales en casi la totalidad de los pacientes; así como los queratocitos en las diferentes profundidades del estroma corneal. La mayoría de los ojos tenían un conteo celular endotelial por encima de 2 500, cifra comprendida dentro de los valores normales. Se encontraron fibras nerviosas en cada una de sus capas. Conclusiones: La microscopia confocal se presenta como una nueva herramienta que permite observar en vivo la histología corneal y complementar las observaciones de la biomicroscopia convencional. Esto constituye un reto para el mejor entendimiento de la histopatología corneal. De esta manera podemos actuar de forma profiláctica y terapéutica, en el seguimiento y evolución de patologías corneales.Objective: This paper is aimed at analyzing the corneal cellular structures through Confoscan S4-aided confocal microscopy in apparently healthy corneas. Methods: A prospective longitudinal study of 100 healthy eyes from practicing doctors, and from patients who had attended the corneal service at “Ramón Pando Ferrer” Cuban Institute of Ophthalmology in Havana since May 2007 was conducted. Both eyes of participating doctors were examined whereas the non-affected eye was examined in the patients. A total of 50 cases with no corneal

  18. Anterior, posterior and biomechanical parameters of cornea during pregnancy in healthy eyes: a cohort study.

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    Naderan, Mohammad; Jahanrad, Ali

    2017-07-29

    To investigate the effect of pregnancy on anterior, posterior and biomechanical corneal parameters of healthy eyes. In this prospective cohort study, 70 pregnant participants with clinically healthy eyes underwent corneal topographic imaging evaluation by Pentacam and biomechanical assessment by Ocular Response Analyzer (ORA) before pregnancy, at the third trimester of pregnancy (34th week of pregnancy) and 12 months after delivery. The same number of age-matched non-pregnant females was evaluated at the corresponding appointments as the control group. Assessment of the tomographic, topographic and ORA measurements before pregnancy, at the third trimester of pregnancy and 12 months post partum revealed no statistically significant changes in anterior and posterior corneal flat, steep and mean keratometry, anterior and posterior elevation measurements, central and thinnest corneal thickness, corneal hysteresis, corneal resistance factor and intraocular pressure measurements (p>0.05, repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA)). All of the study parameters returned to their baseline levels 1 year after delivery. The ophthalmic parameters of the non-pregnant group remained significantly unchanged during the study period (p>0.05, all comparisons, repeated measures ANOVA). Moreover, no statistically significant differences were found between pregnant and non-pregnant groups in the second (34th week of pregnancy) and third (post partum) appointments (p>0.05, all comparisons, one-way ANOVA). Our findings may suggest a physiological nature for ocular changes during pregnancy that these changes return to baseline values after delivery. The differences between tomographic, topographic and biomechanical corneal parameters before pregnancy, during pregnancy and post partum were not statistically or clinically significant. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is

  19. Comparative expression analysis of aquaporin-5 (AQP5) in keratoconic and healthy corneas.

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    Garfias, Yonathan; Navas, Alejandro; Pérez-Cano, Hector J; Quevedo, Jonathan; Villalvazo, Leonardo; Zenteno, Juan Carlos

    2008-04-25

    Keratoconus (KC) is a common progressive corneal disease characterized by excessive stromal thinning, central or paracentral conical protrusion, and disruptions in Bowman's layer. The etiology of KC is largely unknown, and a combination of genetic and environmental factors is believed to play a role in the origin of the disease. Recently, the absence of transcripts of the water channel, aquaporin-5 (AQP5), was demonstrated by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in KC tissues and was proposed as a possible marker for KC. In this study, we sought to evaluate AQP5 mRNA and protein expression in KC and non-KC corneal tissues using a combination of techniques. A total of 69 samples of corneal tissue were analyzed including 39 corneal buttons from patients with advanced KC, 16 samples of non-KC corneal epithelium belonging to patients who underwent surface refractive surgery, 12 sclerocorneal rims obtained from healthy donor subjects, and two healthy corneal buttons. Determination of AQP5 transcript and protein expression patterns was performed by means of real time RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry, immunocytochemistry, and flow cytometry methods. Cell culture was performed to identify AQP5 protein expression in KC epithelial cells. AQP5 mRNA was expressed with no significant differences between KC and non-KC tissues. Moreover, AQP5 protein expression analysis did not reveal differences in protein levels and/or cell location among KC and non-KC tissues. Interestingly, AQP5 expression continues for up to 21 days in the isolated KC corneal epithelial cells. Our results do not support a role for AQP5 in KC etiopathogeny or as a disease marker. Genetic background differences or a distinct pathogenetic KC cascade specific to the analyzed population could account for the dissimilarities observed in KC-related AQP5 expression.

  20. Synbiotic administration of canine-derived strain Lactobacillus fermentum CCM 7421 and inulin to healthy dogs.

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    Strompfová, Viola; Lauková, Andrea; Cilik, Dušan

    2013-05-01

    The canine-derived strain Lactobacillus fermentum CCM 7421 has been demonstrated to exert certain health benefits as a probiotic in dogs. Synbiotic combinations are widely used but are rarely studied in dogs. In this study the prebiotic inulin in combination with L. fermentum CCM 7421 was tested for its effects on faecal microbial populations, faecal characteristics, and blood biochemistry in canine experiments. Healthy adult dogs (n = 36) were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatment groups (12 dogs/treatment): (i) the control group (C), (ii) the probiotic group (LF group: L. fermentum CCM 7421, 10(8) CFU/mL of Ringer buffer, 0.1 mL/kg of body mass), and (iii) the synbiotic group (LF+I group: L. fermentum CCM 7421 + inulin (I; Raftifeed IPS) added as 1% of diet). The experiment lasted for 7 weeks with a 2-week treatment period. We detected a significant increase of lactic acid bacteria (LF versus C, day 7; LF versus C and LF versus LF+I, days 28 and 49), a decrease of clostridia (LF versus C, day 14), a lower pH value (LF versus LF+I, day 28), and a higher ammonia concentration (LF versus LF+I, days 14 and 49) in faecal samples. The synbiotic LF+I combination did not intensify the probiotic L. fermentum CCM 7421 efficacy, but its slight laxative effect can be useful to prevent constipation, e.g., in senior dogs.

  1. Faecal shedding of canine parvovirus after modified-live vaccination in healthy adult dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freisl, M; Speck, S; Truyen, U; Reese, S; Proksch, A-L; Hartmann, K

    2017-01-01

    Since little is known about the persistence and faecal shedding of canine parvovirus (CPV) in dogs after modified-live vaccination, diagnostic tests for CPV can be difficult to interpret in the post-vaccination period. The primary aim of this study was to determine the incidence, duration and extent of CPV vaccine virus shedding in adult dogs and to investigate related factors, including the presence of protective antibodies, increase in anti-CPV antibody titres and development of any gastrointestinal side-effects. A secondary objective was to assess prevalence of CPV field virus shedding in clinically healthy dogs due to subclinical infections. One hundred adult, healthy privately owned dogs were vaccinated with a commercial CPV-2 modified-live vaccine (MLV). Faeces were tested for the presence of CPV DNA on days 0 (prior to vaccination), 3, 7, 14, 21 and 28 by quantitative real-time PCR. Pre- and post-vaccination serum titres were determined by haemagglutination inhibition on days 0, 7 and 28. Transient excretion of CPV DNA was detected in 2.0% of dogs before vaccination. About one quarter of dogs (23.0%) shed CPV DNA during the post-vaccination period, but field and vaccine virus differentiation by VP2 gene sequencing was only successful in few samples. Faecal CPV excretion occurred despite protective serum antibody titres. Post-vaccination CPV shedding was not related to adequate antibody response after vaccination or to the occurrence of gastrointestinal side-effects. Despite individual differences, CPV DNA was detectable for up to 28 days after vaccination, although the faecal CPV DNA load in these clinically healthy dogs was very low. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Prevalence of antibodies to canine parvovirus and reaction to vaccination in client-owned, healthy dogs.

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    Riedl, M; Truyen, U; Reese, S; Hartmann, K

    2015-12-12

    The purpose of this population-based cohort study was to assess current prevalence of antibodies to canine parvovirus (CPV) in adult, healthy dogs, including risk factors associated with lack of antibodies, and reaction to revaccination with a modified live vaccine (MLV). One hundred dogs routinely presented for vaccination were included in the study and vaccinated with a single dose of a combined MLV. Information was collected on signalment, origin, environment, vaccination history and side effects. Prevaccination and postvaccination antibodies were detected by haemagglutination inhibition. Univariate analysis, followed by multivariate logistic regression, was used to investigate association between different variables and presence of antibodies as well as titre increase. Protective CPV antibodies were present in 86.0 per cent of dogs. Intervals of more than four years since the last vaccination and rare contacts with other dogs were determined as main risk factors for the absence of antibodies. An increase in titres only occurred in 17.0 per cent of dogs. Dogs without protective titres before vaccination or with bodyweight <10 kg were more likely to have an adequate titre increase. Based on these findings, antibody status should be determined instead of periodic vaccinations to ensure reliable protection without unnecessary vaccinations in adult dogs. British Veterinary Association.

  3. [Nerve distribution and density in the canine hip joint capsule. Comparison of healthy and dysplastic hip joints].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giebels, Felix; Prescher, Andreas; Wagenpfeil, Stefan; Bücker, Arno; Kinzel, Sylvia

    2017-04-19

    The hip-joint capsule is exposed to increased tension forces during canine hip dysplasia, resulting in inflammation of the capsular tissue. It has been postulated that inflammation is associated with an increased nerve-distribution density. Therefore, it could be supposed that the nerve-distribution density in the hip-joint capsule is higher in dogs with dysplastic hip compared to healthy dogs. In 16 Labrador Retriever dogs that had been euthanised due to unrelated reasons, the hip joints were classified as normoplastic (group 1, n = 18) or dysplastic (group 2, n = 14) based on radiography. Following staining of the capsular nerve fibres by the Sihler method, histological specimens of the hip-joint capsules were scanned. By subdividing each specimen into 10 quadrants numbered from dorsomedial (Q01) to craniodorsolateral (Q10), the ratio of black to white pixels was calculated digitally for each specimen and each quadrant by using a semiautomatic image analysis. Statistical analysis was performed using an independent t-test. Comparison of the mean values of each quadrant showed a significantly higher (p hip-joint capsule in dogs with dysplastic hip could be the result of increased tension forces on this area following hip-joint dysplasia. The craniodorsal region of the hip-joint capsule is an important origin of pain and coxarthrosis in canine hip dysplasia. The results provide the pathophysiological basis for the efficacy of hip-joint denervation. Denervation of the cranial region of the acetabular rim is essential to reduce capsular inflammation and joint-related pain in canine hip dysplasia.

  4. Hematological, Biochemical, and Serological Findings in Healthy Canine Blood Donors after the Administration of CaniLeish® Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starita, Chiara; Gavazza, Alessandra; Lubas, George

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate hematological, biochemical, and serological findings in healthy canine blood donors after the administration of CaniLeish® vaccine. Twenty-seven client-owned dogs were included in the study and arranged into 3 groups according to the vaccination stage. Complete blood count (CBC) with blood smear examination, serum biochemical profile (SBP), serum protein electrophoresis (SPE), and serological tests for L. infantum were performed at different times. Additionally, in a subgroup of dogs IgA, IgM, and IgG were quantified. No statistical significance for CBC and SBP was found. In 10.7% of cases slight hyperproteinemia occurred. In SPE absolute values β-1-globulins (Group 2 and Group 2-3) and β-2-globulins (Group 3) were found modified (P < 0.05). IgG values were statistically different (P < 0.05) 6-8 months after the third immunisation (Group 2) and IgM and IgG values were statistically different after 2 months (Group 3). IFAT positive samples were 20.8% (Group 1), 15.0% (Group 2), and 52.8% (Group 3). Speed Leish K™ tests were always negative. The modifications found were probably attributed to the development of immune or inflammatory response due to the vaccine. Administration of CaniLeish vaccine in canine blood donors could be a safe practice and did not affect their health status.

  5. Hematological, Biochemical, and Serological Findings in Healthy Canine Blood Donors after the Administration of CaniLeish® Vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Starita

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate hematological, biochemical, and serological findings in healthy canine blood donors after the administration of CaniLeish® vaccine. Twenty-seven client-owned dogs were included in the study and arranged into 3 groups according to the vaccination stage. Complete blood count (CBC with blood smear examination, serum biochemical profile (SBP, serum protein electrophoresis (SPE, and serological tests for L. infantum were performed at different times. Additionally, in a subgroup of dogs IgA, IgM, and IgG were quantified. No statistical significance for CBC and SBP was found. In 10.7% of cases slight hyperproteinemia occurred. In SPE absolute values β-1-globulins (Group 2 and Group 2-3 and β-2-globulins (Group 3 were found modified (P<0.05. IgG values were statistically different (P<0.05 6–8 months after the third immunisation (Group 2 and IgM and IgG values were statistically different after 2 months (Group 3. IFAT positive samples were 20.8% (Group 1, 15.0% (Group 2, and 52.8% (Group 3. Speed Leish K™ tests were always negative. The modifications found were probably attributed to the development of immune or inflammatory response due to the vaccine. Administration of CaniLeish vaccine in canine blood donors could be a safe practice and did not affect their health status.

  6. Biomechanical characterization of keratoconus corneas ex vivo with Brillouin microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarcelli, Giuliano; Besner, Sebastien; Pineda, Roberto; Yun, Seok Hyun

    2014-06-17

    Loss of corneal strength is a central feature of keratoconus progression. However, it is currently difficult to measure corneal mechanical changes noninvasively. The objective of this study is to evaluate if Brillouin optical microscopy can differentiate the mechanical properties of keratoconic corneas versus healthy corneas ex vivo. We obtained eight tissue samples from healthy donor corneas used in Descemet's stripping endothelial keratoplasty (DSEK) and 10 advanced keratoconic corneas from patients undergoing deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty (DALK). Within 2 hours after surgery, a confocal Brillouin microscope using a monochromatic laser at 532 nm was used to map the Brillouin frequency shifts of the corneas. The mean Brillouin shift in the anterior 200 μm of the keratoconic corneas at the cone was measured to be 7.99 ± 0.10 GHz, significantly lower than 8.17 ± 0.06 GHz of the healthy corneas (P < 0.001). The Brillouin shift in the keratoconic corneas decreased with depth from the anterior toward posterior regions with a steeper slope than in the healthy corneas (P < 0.001). Within keratoconic corneas, the Brillouin shift in regions away from the apex of the cone was significantly higher than within the cone region (P < 0.001). Brillouin measurements revealed notable differences between healthy and keratoconic corneas. Importantly, Brillouin imaging showed that the mechanical loss is primarily concentrated within the area of the keratoconic cone. Outside the cone, the Brillouin shift was comparable with that of healthy corneas. The results demonstrate the potential of Brillouin microscopy for diagnosis and treatment monitoring of keratoconus. Copyright 2014 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.

  7. Expression of SFRP Family Proteins in Human Keratoconus Corneas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjing You

    Full Text Available We investigated the expression of the secreted frizzled-related proteins (SFRPs in keratoconus (KC and control corneas. KC buttons (∼8 mm diameter (n = 15 and whole control corneas (n = 7 were fixed in 10% formalin or 2% paraformaldehyde and subsequently paraffin embedded and sectioned. Sections for histopathology were stained with hematoxylin and eosin, or Periodic Acid Schiff's reagent. A series of sections was also immunolabelled with SFRP 1 to 5 antibodies, visualised using immunofluorescence, and examined with a Zeiss LSM700 scanning laser confocal microscope. Semi-quantitative grading was used to compare SFRP immunostaining in KC and control corneas. Overall, KC corneas showed increased immunostaining for SFRP1 to 5, compared to controls. Corneal epithelium in all KC corneas displayed heterogeneous moderate to strong immunoreactivity for SFRP1 to 4, particularly in the basal epithelium adjacent to cone area. SFRP3 and 5 were localised to epithelial cell membranes in KC and control corneas, with increased SFRP3 cytoplasmic expression observed in KC. Strong stromal expression of SFRP5, including extracellular matrix, was seen in both KC and control corneas. In control corneas we observed differential expression of SFRP family proteins in the limbus compared to more central cornea. Taken together, our results support a role for SFRPs in maintaining a healthy cornea and in the pathogenesis of epithelial and anterior stromal disruption observed in KC.

  8. Expression of SFRP Family Proteins in Human Keratoconus Corneas

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Jingjing; Wen, Li; Roufas, Athena; Madigan, Michele C.; Sutton, Gerard

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the expression of the secreted frizzled-related proteins (SFRPs) in keratoconus (KC) and control corneas. KC buttons (∼8 mm diameter) (n = 15) and whole control corneas (n = 7) were fixed in 10% formalin or 2% paraformaldehyde and subsequently paraffin embedded and sectioned. Sections for histopathology were stained with hematoxylin and eosin, or Periodic Acid Schiff’s reagent. A series of sections was also immunolabelled with SFRP 1 to 5 antibodies, visualised using immunofluorescence, and examined with a Zeiss LSM700 scanning laser confocal microscope. Semi-quantitative grading was used to compare SFRP immunostaining in KC and control corneas. Overall, KC corneas showed increased immunostaining for SFRP1 to 5, compared to controls. Corneal epithelium in all KC corneas displayed heterogeneous moderate to strong immunoreactivity for SFRP1 to 4, particularly in the basal epithelium adjacent to cone area. SFRP3 and 5 were localised to epithelial cell membranes in KC and control corneas, with increased SFRP3 cytoplasmic expression observed in KC. Strong stromal expression of SFRP5, including extracellular matrix, was seen in both KC and control corneas. In control corneas we observed differential expression of SFRP family proteins in the limbus compared to more central cornea. Taken together, our results support a role for SFRPs in maintaining a healthy cornea and in the pathogenesis of epithelial and anterior stromal disruption observed in KC. PMID:23825088

  9. Circulating cornea-specific antibodies in corneal disease and cornea transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jager, M. J.; Vos, A.; Pasmans, S.; Hoekzema, R.; Broersma, L.; van der Gaag, R.

    1994-01-01

    In order to establish the significance of circulating cornea-specific antibodies, we determined the presence of anti-corneal antibodies in the serum of 100 patients with corneal disease and in 50 healthy controls, and subsequently followed the pattern of antibody reactivity in 46 patients who

  10. Facts about the Cornea and Corneal Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the Cornea and Corneal Disease Facts About the Cornea and Corneal Disease What is the cornea? The cornea is the eye’s outermost layer. It ... your vision. What are the parts of the cornea? Although the cornea may look clear and seem ...

  11. The cornea in measles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.W.H.M. Dekkers (Nico)

    1981-01-01

    textabstractThe involvement of the cornea in the acute stage of measles is the subject of the present study. The best study on the measles-keratitis now available is still the one by Trantas in 1903. It seems wo.:thwhile therefore to study this self-limiting keratitis with the investigative tools

  12. CORNEA AND ANTERIOR SEGMENT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-11-04

    Nov 4, 2016 ... 24. Nigerian Journal of Ophthalmology / Supplement 1 - 2014 - Volume 22. S24. CORNEA AND ANTERIOR SEGMENT. A Comparison of Visual Outcomes after Extracapsular Cataract. Surgery and Phacoemulsification in Eye Foundation Hospital. Lagos Nigeria. Oderinlo O. O., Hassan A. O., Oluyadi F. O., ...

  13. Biomechanical analysis of the keratoconic cornea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gefen, Amit; Shalom, Ran; Elad, David; Mandel, Yossi

    2009-07-01

    Keratoconus is a non-inflammatory disease characterized by irregular thinning and gradual bulging of the cornea, which results in distortion of the corneal surface that causes blurred vision. We conducted three-dimensional finite element (FE) simulations to analyze the biomechanical factors contributing to the distorted shape of a keratoconic cornea. We assumed orthotropic linear elastic tissue mechanical properties, and simulated localized tissue thinning (reduction from 0.5 mm to 0.35 or 0.2 mm). We analyzed tissue deformations, stresses and theoretical dioptric power maps predicted by the models, for intraocular pressure (IOP) of 10, 15 20 and 25 mmHg. The analyses revealed that three factors affect the shape distortion of keratoconic corneas: (i) localized thinning, and (ii) reduction in the tissue's meridian elastic modulus or (iii) reduction in the shear modulus perpendicular to the corneal surface, whereas thinning showed the most predominant effect. Maximal stress levels occurred at the centers of the bulged regions, at the thinnest points. The IOP levels had little influence on dioptric power in the healthy cornea, but a substantial influence in keratoconic conditions. The present FE studies allowed characterization of the biomechanical interactions in keratoconus, toward understanding the aetiology of this poorly studied malady.

  14. Cellular structure of the healthy and keratoconic human cornea imaged in-vivo with sub-micrometer axial resolution OCT(Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizheva, Kostadinka; Tan, Bingyao; Mason, Erik; Carter, Kirsten; Haines, Lacey; Sorbara, Luigina

    2017-02-01

    Keratoconus causes progressive morphological changes in the corneal epithelium (EPI), Bowman's membrane (BM) and anterior stroma. However, it is still not well understood if KC originates in the corneal epithelium and propagates to the anterior stroma through disruptions of the BM, or vice versa. In this study we used a sub-micrometer axial resolution OCT system to image in-vivo the cellular structure of the EPI layer and the fibrous structure of the BM and the anterior stroma in mild to advanced keratoconics, as well as healthy subjects. The imaging study was approved by the University of Waterloo Human Research Ethics Committee. The OCT system operates in the 800 nm spectral region at 34 kHz image acquisition rate and provides 0.95 um axial and < 2 um lateral resolution in corneal tissue, which is sufficient to visualize the cellular structure of the corneal epithelium and the fibrous structure of the BM. In some subjects, localized thinning and thickening of the EPI layer was observed, while there was no visible damage to the BM or anterior stroma. In other subjects, localized breakage of the stromal collagen fibrils was observed with no significant morphological changes of the corneal EPI.

  15. Reliability of manual measurements of corneal thickness obtained from healthy canine eyes using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alario, Anthony F; Pirie, Christopher G

    2014-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to manually measure corneal thickness in canine eyes using a spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) device and to assess intra- and inter-observer reliability of this technique. Twenty healthy dogs with a mean age of 4.7 y were examined. A 6-mm corneal pachymetry protocol was carried out by 1 operator using 1 SD-OCT device in both eyes of each animal. Measurements were obtained manually and in duplicate by 2 independent investigators (> 24 h apart), using the built-in caliper function. Measurements included epithelial thickness (ET), non-epithelial thickness (NET), and central corneal thickness (CCT). The overall mean ET, NET, and CCT for all eyes examined were 72.3 ± 4.6 μm, 538.9 ± 42.5 μm, and 611.2 ± 40.3 μm, respectively. There was no significant difference in ET, NET, or CCT based on the eye examined [oculus dexter (OD) versus oculus sinister (OS)], age, or gender of the animal. There was no significant difference in replicate measurements of ET, NET, or CCT done by the same operator, although a small but significant difference was noted between operators for ET measurements only. The mean difference in ET between operators was 0.6 μm (P = 0.03). The coefficient of variation ranged from 0.5% to 9.27% and intraclass correlation coefficient ranged from 0.35 to 0.97. Based on these results, manual measurements of corneal thickness in canine eyes using a portable SD-OCT device provided ET, NET, and CCT measurements with clinically acceptable intra- and inter-observer reliability.

  16. Serological and molecular prevalence of selected canine vector borne pathogens in blood donor candidates, clinically healthy volunteers, and stray dogs in North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakrishnan, Nandhakumar; Musulin, Sarah; Varanat, Mrudula; Bradley, Julie M; Breitschwerdt, Edward B

    2014-03-24

    Canine vector borne diseases (CVBDs) comprise illnesses caused by a spectrum of pathogens that are transmitted by arthropod vectors. Some dogs have persistent infections without apparent clinical, hematological or biochemical abnormalities, whereas other dogs develop acute illnesses, persistent subclinical infections, or chronic debilitating diseases. The primary objective of this study was to screen healthy dogs for serological and molecular evidence of regionally important CVBDs. Clinically healthy dogs (n = 118), comprising three different groups: Gp I blood donor candidates (n = 47), Gp II healthy dog volunteers (n = 50), and Gp III stray dogs (n = 21) were included in the study. Serum and ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) anti-coagulated blood specimens collected from each dog were tested for CVBD pathogens. Of the 118 dogs tested, 97 (82%) dogs had been exposed to or were infected with one or more CVBD pathogens. By IFA testing, 9% of Gp I, 42% of Gp II and 19% of Gp III dogs were seroreactive to one or more CVBD pathogens. Using the SNAP 4DX assay, Gp I dogs were seronegative for Anaplasma spp., Ehrlichia spp., and B. burgdorferi (Lyme disease) antibodies and D. immitis antigen. In Gp II, 8 dogs were Ehrlichia spp. seroreactive, 2 were infected with D. immitis and 1 was B. burgdorferi (Lyme disease) seroreactive. In Gp III, 6 dogs were infected with D. immitis and 4 were Ehrlichia spp. seroreactive. Using the BAPGM diagnostic platform, Bartonella DNA was PCR amplified and sequenced from 19% of Gp I, 20% of Gp II and 10% of Gp III dogs. Using PCR and DNA sequencing, 6% of Gps I and II and 19% of Gp III dogs were infected with other CVBD pathogens. The development and validation of specific diagnostic testing modalities has facilitated more accurate detection of CVBDs. Once identified, exposure to vectors should be limited and flea and tick prevention enforced.

  17. Regenerative approaches for the cornea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, M; Alarcon, E I; Brunette, I

    2016-09-01

    The cornea is the transparent front part of the eye that transmits light to the back of the eye to generate vision. Loss of corneal transparency, if irreversible, leads to severe vision loss or blindness. For decades, corneal transplantation using human donor corneas has been the only option for treating corneal blindness. Despite recent improvement in surgical techniques, donor cornea transplantation remains plagued by risks of suboptimal optical results and visual acuity, immune rejection and eventually graft failure. Furthermore, the demand for suitable donor corneas is increasing faster than the number of donors, leaving thousands of curable patients untreated worldwide. Here, we critically review the state of the art of biomaterials for corneal regeneration. However, the lessons learned from the use of the cornea as a disease model will allow for extension of the biomaterials and techniques for regeneration of more complex organs such as the heart. © 2016 The Association for the Publication of the Journal of Internal Medicine.

  18. Nerves and Neovessels Inhibit Each Other in the Cornea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Giulio; Hajrasouliha, Amir R.; Sadrai, Zahra; Ueno, Hiroki; Chauhan, Sunil K.; Dana, Reza

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate the regulatory cross-talk of the vascular and neural networks in the cornea. Methods. b-FGF micropellets (80 ng) were implanted in the temporal side of the cornea of healthy C57Bl/6 mice. On day 7, blood vessels (hemangiogenesis) and nerves were observed by immunofluorescence staining of corneal flat mounts. The next group of mice underwent either trigeminal stereotactic electrolysis (TSE), or sham operation, to ablate the ophthalmic branch of the trigeminal nerve. Blood vessel growth was detected by immunohistochemistry for PECAM-1 (CD31) following surgery. In another set of mice following TSE or sham operation, corneas were harvested for ELISA (VEGFR3 and pigment epithelium-derived factor [PEDF]) and for quantitative RT-PCR (VEGFR3, PEDF, and CD45). PEDF, VEGFR3, beta-3 tubulin, CD45, CD11b, and F4/80 expression in the cornea were evaluated using immunostaining. Results. No nerves were detected in the areas subject to corneal neovascularization, whereas they persisted in the areas that were neovessel-free. Conversely, 7 days after denervation, significant angiogenesis was detected in the cornea, and this was associated with a significant decrease in VEGFR3 (57.5% reduction, P = 0.001) and PEDF protein expression (64% reduction, P cornea. When vessel growth is stimulated, nerves disappear and, conversely, denervation induces angiogenesis. This phenomenon, here described in the eye, may have far-reaching implications in understanding angiogenesis. PMID:23307967

  19. In vivo confocal microscopy in the normal corneas of cats, dogs and birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafarnik, Christiane; Fritsche, Jens; Reese, Sven

    2007-01-01

    To evaluate the applicability of in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM) in veterinary ophthalmology and analyze the morphology of living, healthy cornea. ANIMALS EXAMINED: Thirty-seven dogs, 34 cats and five birds. Various corneal sublayers were visualized in the central region using an in vivo confocal corneal microscope (HRTII/RCM). An investigation method was developed and adapted for use on animals with varying skull forms and eye positions. Real-time images of the epithelial cells, the corneal stroma and the endothelial layer were obtained. The corneal stromal nerve trunks and the subepithelial and basal epithelial nerve plexus were visualized. In dogs, full corneal thickness (FCT) was 585 +/- 79 microm (mean +/- SD) and endothelial cell density (ECD) 3175 +/- 776 cells/mm(2) (mean +/- SD). In cats, FCT was 592 +/- 80 microm and ECD 2846 +/- 403 cells/mm(2). There were no significant differences between canine and feline FCT and ECD and no morphologic differences could be seen between dogs and cats. The bird images revealed a number of structural differences. Noninvasive IVCM allows accurate detection of corneal sublayers, corneal pachymetry, endothelial cell density and corneal innervation in various animal species. For clinical usage, patients must be under general anesthesia. The confocal images provided anatomic reference images of various healthy corneal structures in dogs, cats and birds.

  20. Biomechanical properties of the keratoconic cornea: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vellara, Hans R; Patel, Dipika V

    2015-01-01

    There has been a recent surge of interest in assessing corneal biomechanical properties due to potential clinical applications, particularly in the early detection of keratoconus (KC). This review discusses the effects of keratoconus on the biomechanical properties of the cornea and the current techniques used to detect these changes both in the laboratory and clinical setting. Specific structural changes occurring in the corneal stroma as part of the disease process can be linked to alterations in the viscous and elastic properties of the cornea in keratoconus. Although there are extensive ex vivo studies using techniques such as extensometry and inflation testing to analyse the biomechanical properties of the normal cornea, few have investigated the keratoconic cornea using the same methods. There are a number of ex vivo studies that confirm the effectiveness of collagen cross-linking in increasing Young's modulus in healthy corneas. Recently, research has focussed on measuring corneal biomechanical parameters in vivo using two commercially available instruments: the Ocular Response Analyser (ORA) and the CorVis ST (CST). Both instruments analyse the dynamic behaviour of the cornea, when temporarily deformed by an air puff; however, the outputs of these instruments are not directly comparable due to differences in the characteristics of the air puff and output parameters. Studies using these instruments have reported significant differences between keratoconic and healthy corneas; however, neither instrument can currently be used in isolation to reliably diagnose keratoconus. Further research analysing the outputs of these instruments may enhance their diagnostic capabilities. © 2014 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Optometry © 2014 Optometry Australia.

  1. Successful treatment of Fusarium keratitis with cornea transplantation and topical and systemic voriconazole.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klont, R.R.; Eggink, C.A.; Rijs, A.J.M.M.; Wesseling, P.; Verweij, P.E.

    2005-01-01

    A case of invasive Fusarium keratitis in a previously healthy male patient was treated successfully with cornea transplantation and systemic and topical voriconazole after treatment failure with topical amphotericin B and systemic itraconazole. Topical voriconazole was well tolerated, and, in

  2. Spheroidal Degeneration of the Cornea

    OpenAIRE

    Erdem Dinç; Ufuk Ad›güzel; Bahri Ayd›n; İdil Göksel; Özlem Y›ld›r›m

    2011-01-01

    A thirty-one-year-old male patient presented with bilateral epiphora and stinging sensation in the cornea. Detailed history revealed that a bilateral corneal scraping had been made regarding the initial diagnosis of fungal keratitis. His bestcorrected visual acuities were 20/20 and 20/30 in right and left eyes, respectively. Biomicroscopy showed bilateral amber colored spherules in the anterior stroma of the central cornea. The diagnosis of spheroidal corneal degeneration was esta...

  3. Role of canine circovirus in dogs with acute haemorrhagic diarrhoea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, A; Hartmann, K; Leutenegger, C M; Proksch, A L; Mueller, R S; Unterer, S

    2017-06-03

    Canine circovirus (CanineCV) has been detected in some dogs with severe haemorrhagic diarrhoea, but its pathogenic role is unclear. This study evaluated a suspected association between the presence of CanineCV and acute haemorrhagic diarrhoea syndrome (AHDS) in dogs. The prevalence of CanineCV in dogs with AHDS was compared with that in healthy dogs and those infected with canine parvovirus (CPV). Additionally, time to recovery and mortality rate were compared between CanineCV-positive and CanineCV-negative dogs. Faecal samples of dogs with AHDS (n=55), healthy dogs (n=66) and dogs infected with CPV (n=54) were examined by two real-time TaqMan PCR assays targeting the replicase and capsid genes of CanineCV. CanineCV was detected in faecal samples of two dogs with AHDS, three healthy controls and seven dogs infected with CPV. Among the three groups, there was no significant difference in prevalence of CanineCV. CPV-infected animals that were coinfected with CanineCV had a significantly higher mortality rate compared with those negative for CanineCV. CanineCV does not appear to be the primary causative agent of AHDS in dogs, but might play a role as a negative co-factor in disease outcome in dogs with CPV infection. British Veterinary Association.

  4. In vitro evaluation of the effect of tobacco smoke on rat cornea function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzec, Ewa; Olszewski, Jan; Piątek, Jacek; Samborski, Włodzimierz; Sosnowski, Przemysław; Oleśków, Beata; Zawadziński, Jarosław; Florek, Ewa

    2012-01-01

    The influence of tobacco smoke on the dielectric properties of rat cornea were measured in vitro over the frequency range of the electric field of 500Hz-100kHz and in temperatures of the air from 25 to 150°C. The temperature dependencies of the loss tangent for both healthy and smoky cornea represent the relation between the energy lost and the energy stored in the epithelium-stromal-endothelium systems of the cornea. The differences between the healthy and the smoky cornea concerned the temperature ranges in which there appeared the decomposition of loosely-bound water and β-relaxation associated with polar side-chains relaxations on protein molecules of this tissue. The effect of smoke is manifested as a shift of the loss tangent peaks of these two processes towards higher temperatures, when compared with the control. The results are interpreted as caused by the toxic compounds of the tobacco smoke leading to higher ion transport in the nonhomogeneous structure of the cornea when compared to that of the control tissue. The activation energy of conductivity were similar for the healthy and smoky cornea as a consequence of the braking of hydrogen and Van der Waals bonds between loosely bound water, and the proteins of channels in the epithelium and endothelium. Recognition of the effect of frequency and temperature on the dielectric behaviour of the smoky cornea may be of interest for disease characterization of this tissue.

  5. Canine pyometra

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Melanie HAAS; Franz-Josef KAUP; Stephan NEUMANN

    2016-01-01

    .... Thus, we used naturally occurring canine pyometra as a model of inflammation, in order to examine the behavior of serum CXCL8 in relation to the disease intensity and commonly analyzed inflammatory mediators...

  6. Keratoprosthesis. Implantation of artificial corneas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berta, A

    1997-01-01

    Keratoprosthesis (implantation of artificial, plastic cornea) is indicated in severe cases with corneal leucoma (non-transparent, cicatrized cornea) in which keratoplasty (corneal transplantation) is not possible or has repeatedly failed. In the past 40 years we implanted 37 artificial corneas (7 Cardona type, 29 Konstantinov type, 1 Fjodorov type). The visual acuity increase was temporary (lasting from a few weeks to a few months) in 25 patients. The visual acuity was at least 0.2 three years following the implantation of keratoprosthesis in 12 patients. One patient had 1.0 vision 10 years after surgery. Our results indicate that the implantation of artificial corneal is still an "ultimum refugium", an operation that can be justified only in monocular patients, in eyes that cannot be and/or had unsuccessfully been operated on with repeated keratoplasties. The visual improvement is temporary, but in some cases may last for several years. Still this is the only procedure by which useful vision can be provided, for shorter or longer time intervals, for patients suffering from corneal blindness (nontransparent cornea in otherwise functioning eye) whose only eye cannot be treated with corneal transplantation. Keratoprosthesis with better biocompatibility, better fixation techniques, and wider visual fields have to be developed before the implantation of artificial cornea can be looked upon as a surgical procedure with which full optical rehabilitation can be achieved.

  7. Artificial corneas versus donor corneas for repeat corneal transplants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akpek, Esen K; Alkharashi, Majed; Hwang, Frank S; Ng, Sueko M; Lindsley, Kristina

    2014-11-05

    Individuals who have failed one or more full thickness penetrating keratoplasties (PKs) may be offered repeat corneal surgery using an artificial or donor cornea. An artificial or prosthetic cornea is known as a keratoprosthesis. Both donor and artificial corneal transplantations involve removal of the diseased and opaque recipient cornea (or the previously failed cornea) and replacement with another donor or prosthetic cornea. To assess the effectiveness of artificial versus donor corneas in individuals who have had one or more failed donor corneal transplantations. We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group Trials Register) (2013, Issue 10), Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE Daily, Ovid OLDMEDLINE (January 1946 to November 2013), EMBASE (January 1980 to November 2013), Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature Database (LILACS) (January 1982 to November 2013), the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) (www.controlled-trials.com), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov) and the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en). We did not use any date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. We last searched the electronic databases on 27 November 2013. Two review authors independently assessed reports from the electronic searches to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) or controlled clinical trials (CCTs). We resolved discrepancies by discussion or consultation with a third review author. For discussion purposes, we assessed findings from observational cohort studies and non-comparative case series. No data synthesis was performed. We did not identify any RCTs or CCTs comparing artificial corneas with donor corneas for repeat corneal transplantations. The optimal management for those individuals who have failed a conventional corneal transplantation is not known

  8. Artificial corneas versus donor corneas for repeat corneal transplants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akpek, Esen K; Alkharashi, Majed; Hwang, Frank S; Ng, Sueko M; Lindsley, Kristina

    2014-01-01

    Background Individuals who have failed one or more full thickness penetrating keratoplasties (PKs) may be offered repeat corneal surgery using an artificial or donor cornea. An artificial or prosthetic cornea is known as a keratoprosthesis. Both donor and artificial corneal transplantations involve removal of the diseased and opaque recipient cornea (or the previously failed cornea) and replacement with another donor or prosthetic cornea. Objectives To assess the effectiveness of artificial versus donor corneas in individuals who have had one or more failed donor corneal transplantations. Search methods We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group Trials Register) (2013, Issue 10), Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE Daily, Ovid OLDMEDLINE (January 1946 to November 2013), EMBASE (January 1980 to November 2013), Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature Database (LILACS) (January 1982 to November 2013), the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) (www.controlled-trials.com), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov) and the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en). We did not use any date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. We last searched the electronic databases on 27 November 2013. Selection criteria Two review authors independently assessed reports from the electronic searches to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) or controlled clinical trials (CCTs). We resolved discrepancies by discussion or consultation with a third review author. Data collection and analysis For discussion purposes, we assessed findings from observational cohort studies and non-comparative case series. No data synthesis was performed. Main results We did not identify any RCTs or CCTs comparing artificial corneas with donor corneas for repeat corneal transplantations. Authors

  9. Effect of crude canine pituitary extract (cCPE) on the in vitro ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. NJ TONUKARI

    2012-01-20

    Jan 20, 2012 ... We examined the effect of crude canine pituitary extract (cCPE) on the in vitro nuclear maturation of canine oocytes and ... Cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs) were harvested from anestrus cycle ovaries and matured in ... Canine pituitary glands were obtained from healthy female canines within 1 h of ...

  10. The filtering, clear-cornea diathermal keratostomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Svend Vedel; Nissen, Ole I; Thygesen, John

    2012-01-01

    Is the new micropenetrating, clear-cornea procedure, intrastromal diathermal keratostomy (IDK), an alternative to the intricate "modern trabeculectomy"?......Is the new micropenetrating, clear-cornea procedure, intrastromal diathermal keratostomy (IDK), an alternative to the intricate "modern trabeculectomy"?...

  11. Mechanical Modeling of a Keratoconic Cornea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perone, Jean Marc; Conart, Jean Baptiste; Bertaux, Pierre-Jean; Sujet-Perone, Nicolas; Ouamara, Nadia; Sot, Maxime; Henry, Jean Jacques

    2017-10-01

    We created a laboratory model of a cornea that was subjected to various pressures and thermal and mechanical factors to better understand the genesis of keratoconus deformation. A steel base allowed for fixation of circular multilaminated patches of araldite (10 cm in diameter, 5 mm thick) in which the corneal anatomy was modeled. The model was plunged into a steam room (374°F/3 bars of pressure for 1 h) to ensure thermal homogeneity and was subjected to pressure using compressed air. Three models were assessed: a fault-free model with no lesion (model 1), and 2 models with a defect. The first of the defective models (model 2) had an external crack-type lesion (1 cm long; 1 mm deep). The second defective model (model 3) had one quarter thinned down using abrasive sandpaper (thickness reduced by 30%-40%). For model 1, which represented a healthy cornea, homogeneous modification was noted when examined under polarized light. In model 2, no excessive deformation was noticed, but there were stress lines at the edge of the lesion. Model 3 had a deformity, similar to keratoconic deformation. Our findings suggest that the disease progresses under environmental stresses, but only when there is an initial defect, and especially when there is a thinning down defect. This thinning down defect may be induced by continual eye rubbing.

  12. Construction of tissue-engineered cornea composed of amniotic epithelial cells and acellular porcine cornea for treating corneal alkali burn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Hailang; Lu, Yongbo; Wu, Tiantian; Zhang, Mi; Zhang, Yongjie; Jin, Yan

    2013-09-01

    Although acellular corneas have been reported to be a potential substitute for allogeneic cornea transplantation to treat corneal injury, severe corneal injury is hard to repair due to inflammation and neovascularization. The use of the amniotic membrane as a graft in ocular surface reconstruction has become widespread because of the anti-inflammatory and anti-angiogenic properties of amniotic epithelial cells (AECs). Our objective was to construct a tissue-engineered cornea (TEC) composed of an acellular porcine cornea (APC) and AECs to repair severe corneal injury. Corneal cells were completely removed from the prepared APC, and the microstructure, mechanical properties, and stability of a natural porcine cornea (NPC) was maintained. In vitro, MTT and flow cytometry analyses showed that the APC did not negatively affect cell viability and apoptosis. In vivo, corneal pocket and subcutaneous transplantation demonstrated that the APC was incapable of trigging accepted immune response. AECs isolated from the human amniotic membrane have proliferation potential and present healthy morphology before 6 passages. After 7 days of culture on the surface of the APC, the AECs were stratified into 5-6 layers. We found that the AECs reconstituted the basement membrane that had been disrupted by the decellularization process. ELISA results showed that after culturing the TEC, the culture medium contained anti-inflammatory and anti-angiogenic growth factors, such as MIF, IL6, Fas-L, and PDEF. Finally, the results of lamellar keratoplasty to treat an alkali burn showed that the transplanted TEC was transparent and completely inoculated into the host cornea. However, the transplanted APC was degraded due to host rejection. Therefore, we conclude that a TEC composed of AECs and an APC holds great potential for the repair of severe corneal injury. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Canine gastritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Craig; Twedt, David C

    2003-09-01

    Gastritis--inflammation of the stomach--is a frequently cited differential yet rarely characterized diagnosis in cases of canine anorexia and vomiting. Although the list of rule-outs for acute or chronic gastritis is extensive, a review of the veterinary literature reveals fewer than 15 articles that have focused on clinical cases of canine gastritis over the last 25 years. The dog frequently appears in the human literature as an experimentally manipulated model for the study of endoscopic techniques or the effect of medications on gastric mucosa. In the veterinary patient, cases of acute gastritis are rarely pursued with the complete diagnostic armamentarium, and cases of chronic gastritis are rarely found to occur as an entity isolated from the rest of the gastrointestinal tract. This article focuses on those findings most clinically relevant to cases of canine gastritis in veterinary medicine.

  14. Ability of corneal biomechanical metrics and anterior segment data in the differentiation of keratoconus and healthy corneas Estudo da performance diagnóstica de parâmetros biomecânicos e dados anatômicos da câmara anterior na diferenciação de córneas saudáveis e com ceratocone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Machado Fontes

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the sensitivity, specificity, and test accuracy of corneal biomechanical metrics and anterior segment data in differentiating keratoconus from healthy corneas. METHODS: Comparative case series. Patients with and without keratoconus (gender and age-matched were submitted for complete eye examinations including corneal hysteresis (CH and corneal resistance factor (CRF as measured by the Ocular Response Analyzer and anterior segment data as gathered through Pentacam assessments. The anterior segment data measurement included average central keratometric readings (K-Ave, corneal astigmatism (CA, central corneal thickness (CCT, anterior chamber depth (AC depth and corneal volume (CV. All parameters were assessed, compared and analyzed. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve was used to identify the best cutoff point by which to maximize the sensitivity and specificity of discriminating keratoconus from normal corneas for each data category. RESULTS: Seventy seven eyes from forty three patients (24 male, 19 female with keratoconus and eighty six eyes from forty three (24 male, 19 female healthy controls were enrolled. ROC curve analysis showed poor overall predictive accuracy for all studied parameters in differentiating keratoconus from normal corneas. The highest sensitivity (79.2% was obtained for both AC depth and CH (cutoff points 3.22 mm and 9.39 mmHg respectively. The best specificity (89.5% and test accuracy (80.34% were obtained for CA (cutoff point of 2.2 D. CONCLUSION: When considered together, studied parameters showed statistical differences between groups. However, when considered independently they presented low sensitivity, specificity and test accuracy in differentiating keratoconus from healthy corneas.OBJETIVO: Avaliar a sensibilidade, especificidade e acurácia de parâmetros biomecânicos e anatômicos do segmento anterior isolados na diferenciação de córneas saudáveis e com ceratocone. M

  15. Spheroidal Degeneration of the Cornea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdem Dinç

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A thirty-one-year-old male patient presented with bilateral epiphora and stinging sensation in the cornea. Detailed history revealed that a bilateral corneal scraping had been made regarding the initial diagnosis of fungal keratitis. His bestcorrected visual acuities were 20/20 and 20/30 in right and left eyes, respectively. Biomicroscopy showed bilateral amber colored spherules in the anterior stroma of the central cornea. The diagnosis of spheroidal corneal degeneration was established and symptomatic therapy with artificial tear drops was prescribed. Ultraviolet light is widely accepted to be the main etiological factor in the pathogenesis of spheroidal degeneration. Because of difficulties in the early stages of the diagnostic process of the disease, incorrect diagnoses can be made with inappropriate interventions. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2011; 41: 264-6

  16. Cornea and ocular surface treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Miguel, Maria P; Alio, Jorge L; Arnalich-Montiel, Francisco; Fuentes-Julian, Sherezade; de Benito-Llopis, Laura; Amparo, Francisco; Bataille, Laurent

    2010-06-01

    In addition to being a protective shield, the cornea represents two thirds of the eye's refractive power. Corneal pathology can affect one or all of the corneal layers, producing corneal opacity. Although full corneal thickness keratoplasty has been the standard procedure, the ideal strategy would be to replace only the damaged layer. Current difficulties in corneal transplantation, mainly immune rejection and shortage of organ supply, place more emphasis on the development of artificial corneas. Bioengineered corneas range from prosthetic devices that solely address the replacement of the corneal function, to tissue-engineered hydrogels that allow regeneration of the tissue. Recently, major advances in the biology of corneal stem cells have been achieved. However, the therapeutic use of these stem cell types has the disadvantage of needing an intact stem cell compartment, which is usually damaged. In addition, long ex vivo culture is needed to generate enough cell numbers for transplantation. In the near future, combination of advanced biomaterials with cells from abundant outer sources will allow advances in the field. For the former, magnetically aligned collagen is one of the most promising ones. For the latter, different cell types will be optimal: 1) for epithelial replacement: oral mucosal epithelium, ear epidermis, or bone marrow- mesenchymal stem cells, 2) for stromal regeneration: adipose-derived stem cells and 3) for endothelial replacement, the possibility of in vitro directed differentiation of adipose-derived stem cells towards endothelial cells provides an exciting new approach.

  17. Evaluation of chemokines CXCL8 and CCL2, serotonin, and vascular endothelial growth factor serum concentrations in healthy dogs from seven breeds with variable predisposition for canine idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roels, E; Krafft, E; Antoine, N; Farnir, F; Laurila, H P; Holopainen, S; Rajamäki, M M; Clercx, C

    2015-08-01

    The West Highland white terrier (WHWT) is particularly prone to canine idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (CIPF). We hypothesized that higher circulating concentrations of chemokines CXCL8, CCL2, serotonin (5-HT), or vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) could serve as predisposing factors for CIPF development in the WHWT breed. Serum samples from 103 healthy dogs of seven different breeds variably predisposed to CIPF were collected. Serum CXCL8 concentrations were higher in healthy WHWT compared with each of the other groups of healthy dogs. Serum CCL2 concentrations were higher in healthy WHWT and Maltese compared with King Charles spaniels and Malinois Belgian shepherds. No relevant inter-breed differences were observed for serum 5-HT concentrations regarding CIPF predisposition. VEGF values from 89.3% of samples tested were below the kit detection limit. In conclusion, high CXCL8 blood concentrations and possibly CCL2 concentrations might be related to the breed predisposition of the WHWT for CIPF and warrants further investigations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. [An experience of dried cornea transplantation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundorova, R A; Chentsova, E V; Makarov, P V; Kugusheva, A É; Rakova, A V

    2011-01-01

    Sometimes an urgent lamellar keratoplasty remains the only treatment option for corneal defect closure. When fresh donor tissue is absent as it is regular in recent years dried cornea transplantation becomes reasonable. In recent years in ocular trauma department 320 transplantations of dried on silicagel cornea were performed. Analysis of results allows to conclude that use of dried cornea is a promising surgical procedure to preserve the globe and in some cases to prepare the eye with severe trauma for subsequent optic surgery.

  19. Time-dependent fracture toughness of cornea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonsomboon, Khaow; Koh, Ching Theng; Oyen, Michelle L

    2014-06-01

    The fracture and time-dependent properties of cornea are very important for the development of corneal scaffolds and prostheses. However, there has been no systematic study of cornea fracture; time-dependent behavior of cornea has never been investigated in a fracture context. In this work, fracture toughness of cornea was characterized by trouser tear tests, and time-dependent properties of cornea were examined by stress-relaxation and uniaxial tensile tests. Control experiments were performed on a photoelastic rubber sheet. Corneal fracture resistance was found to be strain-rate dependent, with values ranging from 3.39±0.57 to 5.40±0.48kJm(-2) over strain rates from 3 to 300mmmin(-1). Results from stress-relaxation tests confirmed that cornea is a nonlinear viscoelastic material. The cornea behaved closer to a viscous fluid at small strain but became relatively more elastic at larger strain. Although cornea properties are greatly dependent on time, the stress-strain responses of cornea were found to be insensitive to the strain rate when subjected to tensile loading. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Invasive melanoma in vivo can be distinguished from basal cell carcinoma, benign naevi and healthy skin by canine olfaction: a proof-of-principle study of differential volatile organic compound emission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, C M; Britton, L E; Swindells, M A; Jones, E M; Kemp, A E; Muirhead, N L; Gul, A; Matin, R N; Knutsson, L; Ali, M

    2016-11-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are continuously released by the body during normal metabolic processes, but their profiles change in the presence of cancer. Robust evidence that invasive melanoma in vivo emits a characteristic VOC signature is lacking. To conduct a canine olfactory, proof-of-principle study to investigate whether VOCs from invasive melanoma are distinguishable from those of basal cell carcinoma (BCC), benign naevi and healthy skin in vivo. After a 13-month training period, the dog's ability to discriminate melanoma was evaluated in 20 double-blind tests, each requiring selection of one melanoma sample from nine controls (three each of BCC, naevi and healthy skin; all samples new to the dog). The dog correctly selected the melanoma sample on nine (45%) occasions (95% confidence interval 0·23-0·68) vs. 10% expected by chance alone. A one-sided exact binomial test gave a P-value of melanoma samples significantly increased the probability of their detection. Use of a discrete-choice model confirmed melanoma as the most influential of the recorded medical/personal covariates in determining the dog's choice of sample. Accuracy rates based on familiar samples during training were not a reliable indicator of the dog's ability to distinguish melanoma, when confronted with new, unknown samples. Invasive melanoma in vivo releases odorous VOCs distinct from those of BCC, benign naevi and healthy skin, adding to the evidence that the volatile metabolome of melanoma contains diagnostically useful biomarkers. © 2016 British Association of Dermatologists.

  1. Synthetic cornea: biocompatibility and optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parel, Jean-Marie A.; Kaminski, Stefan; Fernandez, Viviana; Alfonso, E.; Lamar, Peggy; Lacombe, Emmanuel; Duchesne, Bernard; Dubovy, Sander; Manns, Fabrice; Rol, Pascal O.

    2002-06-01

    Purpose. Experimentally find a method to provide a safe surgical technique and an inexpensive and long lasting mesoplant for the restoration of vision in patients with bilateral corneal blindness due to ocular surface and stromal diseases. Methods. Identify the least invasive and the safest surgical technique for synthetic cornea implantation. Identify the most compatible biomaterials and the optimal shape a synthetic cornea must have to last a long time when implanted in vivo. Results. Penetrating procedures were deemed too invasive, time consuming, difficult and prone to long term complications. Therefore a non-penetrating delamination technique with central trephination was developed to preserve the integrity of Descemet's membrane and the anterior segment. Even though this approach limits the number of indications, it is acceptable since the majority of patients only have opacities in the stroma. The prosthesis was designed to fit in the removed tissue plane with its skirt fitted under the delaminated stroma. To improve retention, the trephination wall was made conical with the smallest opening on the anterior surface and a hat-shaped mesoplant was made to fit. The skirt was perforated in its perimeter to allow passage of nutrients and tissues ingrowths. To simplify the fabrication procedure, the haptic and optic were made of the same polymer. The intrastromal biocompatibility of several hydrogels was found superior to current clinically used PMMA and PTFE materials. Monobloc mesoplants made of 4 different materials were implanted in rabbits and followed weekly until extrusion occurred. Some remained optically clear allowing for fundus photography. Conclusions. Hydrogel synthetic corneas can be made to survive for periods longer than 1 year. ArF excimer laser photoablation studies are needed to determine the refractive correction potential of these mesoplants. A pilot FDA clinical trial is needed to assess the mesoplant efficacy and very long-term stability.

  2. Epikeratophakia on pediatric traumatized corneas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vila-Coro, A A; Goosey, J D; Mazow, M L; Martin, D I

    1987-01-01

    Four children ranging from 4 to 6 years of age with unilateral aphakia and corneal scarring secondary to penetrating injuries were treated with epikeratophakia. One child had undergone a rotational penetrating keratoplasty to displace the corneal scar from the visual axis prior to the epikeratophakia procedure. In all of the cases, nonlyophilized donor tissue was utilized. The procedure was successful in all four cases. The average best corrected postoperative visual acuity was 20/45. These results confirm prior studies suggesting that epikeratophakia can be performed successfully on partially opaque and scarred corneas in pediatric aphakic eyes.

  3. Cytochrome P450 Activity in Ex Vivo Cornea Models and a Human Cornea Construct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kölln, Christian; Reichl, Stephan

    2016-07-01

    The pharmacokinetic behaviors of novel ophthalmic drugs are often preliminarily investigated in preclinical studies using ex vivo animal cornea or corneal cell culture models. During transcorneal passage, topically applied drugs may be affected by drug metabolizing enzymes. The knowledge regarding the functional expression of metabolic enzymes in corneal tissue is marginal; thus, the aim of this study was to investigate cytochrome P450 activity in an organotypic three-dimensional human cornea construct and to compare it with porcine and rabbit corneas, which are commonly used ex vivo cornea models. The total cytochrome P450 activity was determined by measuring the transformation of 7-ethoxycoumarin. Furthermore, the expression of the cytochrome P450 enzyme 2D6 (CYP2D6) was investigated at the protein level using immunohistochemistry and western blotting. CYP2D6 activity measurements were performed using a d-luciferin-based assay. In summary, similar levels of the total cytochrome P450 activity were identified in all 3 cornea models. The protein expression of CYP2D6 was confirmed in the human cornea construct and porcine cornea, whereas the signals in the rabbit cornea were weak. The analysis of the CYP2D6 activity indicated similar values for the human cornea construct and porcine cornea; however, a distinctly lower activity was observed in the rabbit cornea. Copyright © 2016 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Femtosecond laser lenticule transplantation in rabbit cornea: experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huiying; Zhu, Wenqing; Jiang, Alice C; Sprecher, Alicia J; Zhou, Xingtao

    2012-12-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of femtosecond laser-induced lenticule transplantation in the rabbit cornea and to observe the relative histologic characteristics of corneal tissue and nerve repair after transplantation. Eight healthy, purebred, New Zealand white rabbits underwent femtosecond laser small-incision lenticule extraction (SMILE) surgery in the right eye. Lenticules were inserted into a femtosecond laser-created corneal stromal pocket in the left eye, which was defined as femtosecond laser corneal lenticule transplantation. Postoperative observation and examination were completed to evaluate the surgery. In the early postoperative period, inflammation of the cornea was noted, tissue around the lenticule was edematous, and cells were activated. Tissue edema remained at postoperative day 10. By 1 month, edema had resolved, activated cells gradually became quiescent, and nerve fiber regeneration was observed. By 3 months, the lenticule integrated into the recipient cornea, extracellular matrix gradually cleared, and thicker nerve fibers were noted. By 6 months postoperative, morphology and distribution of the corneal stromal fibers were close to normal, and the number of nerve fibers was reduced. Femtosecond laser corneal lenticule transplantation in rabbits is feasible, as the lenticule was shown to thrive and integrate with the recipient stroma. Nerve regeneration begins after 1 month. Copyright 2012, SLACK Incorporated.

  5. Shape of the anterior cornea : Comparison of height data from 4 corneal topographers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Tim; Sheehan, Matthew T.; Dubbelman, Michiel; Koopmans, Steven A.; Jansonius, Nomdo M.

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: To compare the ability of clinical corneal topographers to describe the shape of the anterior cornea for optical modeling. SETTING: University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, Netherlands. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. METHODS: The anterior corneal shape of healthy subjects was

  6. Bioengineered Corneas Grafted as Alternatives to Human Donor Corneas in Three High‐Risk Patients

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Buznyk, Oleksiy; Pasyechnikova, Nataliya; Islam, M. Mirazul; Iakymenko, Stanislav; Fagerholm, Per; Griffith, May

    2015-01-01

    .... In this early observational study, we grafted bioengineered corneal implants made from recombinant human collagen and synthetic phosphorylcholine polymer into three patients for whom donor cornea...

  7. Suggested Guidelines for Reporting Keratoprosthesis Results: Consensus Opinion of the Cornea Society, Asia Cornea Society, EuCornea, PanCornea, and the KPRO Study Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belin, Michael W; Güell, Jose L; Grabner, Günther

    2016-02-01

    To propose a series of standardized guidelines for reporting keratoprosthesis (KPRO) results. At the most recent KPRO Study Group Meeting (Barcelona, 2015), representatives of the 4 multinational corneal societies (Cornea Society, Asia Cornea Society, EuCornea, and PanCornea) and the KPRO Study Group agreed to propose consistent terminology for reporting KPRO results, especially in describing the length of follow-up and in the description of the KPRO itself. Consensus was reached for minimal reporting guidelines. The 4 multinational corneal societies and the KPRO Study Group agreed to standardized terminology for reporting the length of follow-up, preoperative diagnosis grouping, and data stratification based on the KPRO type used. Guidelines suggesting minimal reporting standards will assist in both data collection and reporting and will allow for better comparative analysis and pooling of the available data.

  8. Effect of diabetes mellitus on biomechanical parameters of the cornea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldich, Yakov; Barkana, Yaniv; Gerber, Yariv; Rasko, Adi; Morad, Yair; Harstein, Morris; Avni, Isaac; Zadok, David

    2009-04-01

    To compare parameters of biomechanical response of the human cornea measured as corneal hysteresis (CH) and corneal resistance factor (CRF) in patients with diabetes mellitus and healthy control subjects. Department of Ophthalmology, Assaf Harofeh Medical Center, Zerifin, Israel. In the right eye of each participant, the CH, CRF, Goldmann-correlated intraocular pressure (IOPg), and corneal-compensated intraocular pressure (IOPcc) were measured with the Ocular Response Analyzer. Central corneal thickness (CCT) was measured by ultrasonic pachymetry and intraocular pressure by Goldmann applanation tonometry (IOP GAT). Findings were compared between the 2 groups (control and diabetic). Forty diabetic patients (17 women, 23 men) and 40 healthy subjects (19 women, 21 men) were prospectively recruited. The mean CH was 9.3 mm Hg +/- 1.4 (SD) and 10.7 +/- 1.6 mm Hg and the mean CRF was 9.6 +/- 1.6 mm Hg and 10.9 +/- 1.7 mm Hg in the control group and diabetic group, respectively (both P corneas were significantly thicker (P = .019); the mean CCT was 530.3 +/- 35.9 microm in the control group and 548.7 +/- 33.0 microm in the diabetic group. The CH and CRF remained significantly different in multivariate analysis that included CCT. There was no statistically significant difference between the 2 groups in IOPcc, IOPg, or IOP GAT measurements. Diabetes mellitus affected biomechanical parameters of the human corneas, including increased CH, CRF, and CCT. Whether this observation has implications in the clinical management and understanding of corneal ectasia and glaucoma requires further study.

  9. Interactions between bovine cornea proteoglycans and collagen.

    OpenAIRE

    Speziale, P.; Bardoni, A; Balduini, C.

    1980-01-01

    Two types of proteoglycan subunits were obtained from bovine cornea, the first mainly composed of proteochondroitin sulphate and the second of proteokeratan sulphate. These two fractions can be obtained from the tissue as an aggregate, and are able to recombine each other after separation, to re-form the original structure. In order to investigate collagen-proteoglycan interactions, type-I collagen was isolated from bovine cornea by pepsin digestion followed by 3.5% (w/v) NaCl precipitation, ...

  10. Corneal Biomechanics Determination in Healthy Myopic Subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Kunliang Qiu; Xuehui Lu; Riping Zhang; Geng Wang; Mingzhi Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To determine the corneal biomechanical properties by using the Ocular Response Analyzer? and to investigate potential factors associated with the corneal biomechanics in healthy myopic subjects. Methods. 135 eyes from 135 healthy myopic subjects were included in this cross-sectional observational study. Cornea hysteresis (CH), corneal resistance factor (CRF), cornea-compensated intraocular pressure (IOPcc), and Goldmann-correlated intraocular pressure (IOPg) were determined with the ...

  11. Genetic and Biochemical Biomarkers in Canine Glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, K L; McCowan, C; White, A

    2017-03-01

    In many health-related fields, there is great interest in the identification of biomarkers that distinguish diseased from healthy individuals. In addition to identifying the diseased state, biomarkers have potential use in predicting disease risk, monitoring disease progression, evaluating treatment efficacy, and informing pathogenesis. This review details the genetic and biochemical markers associated with canine primary glaucoma. While there are numerous molecular markers (biochemical and genetic) associated with glaucoma in dogs, there is no ideal biomarker that allows early diagnosis and/or identification of disease progression. Genetic mutations associated with canine glaucoma include those affecting ADAMTS10, ADAMTS17, Myocilin, Nebulin, COL1A2, RAB22A, and SRBD1. With the exception of Myocilin, there is very limited crossover in genetic biomarkers identified between human and canine glaucomas. Mutations associated with canine glaucoma vary between and within canine breeds, and gene discoveries therefore have limited overall effects as a screening tool in the general canine population. Biochemical markers of glaucoma include indicators of inflammation, oxidative stress, serum autoantibodies, matrix metalloproteinases, tumor necrosis factor-α, and transforming growth factor-β. These markers include those that indicate an adaptive or protective response, as well as those that reflect the damage arising from oxidative stress.

  12. Thermal and biomechanical parameters of porcine cornea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampmeier, J; Radt, B; Birngruber, R; Brinkmann, R

    2000-05-01

    New methods in refractive surgery require a considerable understanding of the material "cornea" and are often studied by theoretical modeling in order to gain insight into the procedure and an optimized approach to the technique. The quality of these models is highly dependent on the preciseness of its input parameters. Porcine cornea often is used as a model in preclinical studies because of its similarity to man and its availability. The important physical parameters for biomechanical deformation, heat conduction, and collagen denaturation kinetics have been determined for porcine cornea. Experimental methods include densitometry, calorimetry, turbidimetry, tensile tests, stress relaxation, and hydrothermal isometric tension measurements. The density of porcine cornea was measured as p = 1062+/-5 kg/m3, the heat capacity gave c = 3.74+/-0.05 J/gK. The stress-strain relation for corneal strips is represented by a third order approximation where the secant modulus yields about Esec approximately equal to 0.4 MPa for small strains less than 2%. The normalized stress relaxation is described by an exponential fit over time. The denaturation process of cornea is characterized by specific temperatures which can be related to the change of the mechanical properties. Denaturation kinetics are described according to the model of Arrhenius yielding the activation energy deltaEa = 106 kJ/mol and the phase transition entropy deltaS = 39 J/(mol x K). The established set of parameters characterizes the porcine cornea in a reliable way that creates a basis for corneal models. It furthermore gives direct hints of how to treat cornea in certain refractive techniques.

  13. Introduction to biomechanics of the cornea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzard, K A

    1992-01-01

    As refractive procedures involving the cornea have proliferated, concerns over the long-term stability and predictability of these procedures have occupied a more prominent role. Procedures and principles of mechanical engineering to mathematically model the cornea can provide valuable insight into the biomechanics of the cornea, and this approach can be used to predict corneal behavior. In order to utilize these advanced methods, some basic knowledge concerning limitations, assumptions, and techniques regarding the finite element method is needed. The principles of mechanical measurement of deformable bodies are discussed, as are the quantities stress, strain, Poisson's ratio, and creep as they are measured and used in the modeling of biologic systems. The finite element modeling procedure is discussed in a simplified geometric system. While work remains to be done in this area, it is seen that useful and predictive models can be created which significantly improve our understanding and predictability of corneal procedures.

  14. Tectonic Lamellar Keratoplasty Using Cryopreserved Cornea in a Large Descemetocele.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kang Yoon; Jung, Ji Won; Kim, Eung Kweon; Seo, Kyoung Yul; Kim, Tae Im

    2016-01-01

    We describe herein a case of an impending corneal perforation with a large descemetocele in a patient with previous penetrating keratoplasty (PKP) that subsequently was treated with an emergent lamellar keratoplasty using frozen preserved cornea. A 76-year-old male patient, who had a PKP, presented with a completely whitish and edematous graft accompanied by large epithelial defects. Although antibiotics and antiviral agents were tried for three days, the corneal stroma abruptly melted, except for the Descemet's membrane and endothelium. Cryopreserved corneal tissue that was kept at -80°C was thawed and sutured on top of the remaining Descemet's membrane and endothelium. Pathological and microbiological tests were conducted using the remaining donor and recipient corneal tissues. After tectonic corneal transplantation on top of a large descemetocele, a healthy graft and relatively clear interfaces between graft-host junctions were maintained without serious adverse reactions throughout 6 month follow-up period. Microbiological evaluations of donor tissue at the time of thawing and tissue preparation were done, and the results were all negative. Tissue that was taken intraoperatively from the recipient cornea also showed negative microbiological results. In conclusion, tectonic lamellar keratoplasty, using cryopreserved corneal tissue, only onto the remaining Descemet's membrane and endothelium in an emergent condition, was a safe and effective treatment.

  15. Antibody titers for canine parvovirus type-2, canine distemper virus, and canine adenovirus type-1 in adult household dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taguchi, Masayuki; Namikawa, Kazuhiko; Maruo, Takuya; Orito, Kensuke; Lynch, Jonathan; Sahara, Hiroeki

    2011-09-01

    Serum antibody titers for canine parvovirus type-2 (CPV-2), canine distemper virus (CDV) and canine adenovirus type-1 (CAV-1) were investigated in 1031 healthy adult household dogs (2 to 18 years old) given an annual inoculation in the previous 11 to 13 months. The number of dogs retaining significant titers of antibodies against CPV-2, CDV, and CAV-1 were 888 (86%), 744 (72%), and 732 (71%), respectively. There were no differences between males and females in antibody titers against the 3 viruses. Antibody titer for CPV-2 was significantly higher in younger dogs than in older dogs, CDV antibody was significantly higher in older dogs than in younger dogs, and CAV titer was not associated with age.

  16. Validation of commercially available automated canine-specific immunoturbidimetric method for measuring canine C-reactive protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hillström, Anna; Hagman, Ragnvi; Tvedten, Harold

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Measurement of C-reactive protein (CRP) is used for diagnosing and monitoring systemic inflammatory disease in canine patients. An automated human immunoturbidimetric assay has been validated for measuring canine CRP, but cross-reactivity with canine CRP is unpredictable. OBJECTIVE......: The purpose of the study was to validate a new automated canine-specific immunoturbidimetric CRP method (Gentian cCRP). METHODS: Studies of imprecision, accuracy, prozone effect, interference, limit of quantification, and stability under different storage conditions were performed. The new method was compared...... with a human CRP assay previously validated for canine CRP determination. Samples from 40 healthy dogs were analyzed to establish a reference interval. RESULTS: Total imprecision was

  17. Engineering copolymeric artificial cornea with salt porogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zellander, Amelia; Wardlow, Melissa; Djalilian, Ali; Zhao, Chenlin; Abiade, Jeremiah; Cho, Michael

    2014-06-01

    Artificial corneas or keratoprostheses (KPros) are designed to replace diseased or damaged cornea. Although many synthetic KPros have been developed, current products are often inappropriate or inadequate for long term use due to ineffective host integration. This study presents an alternative approach of engineering a KPro that comprises a combination of poly (2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PHEMA), poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), and sodium chloride (NaCl) as porogen. Based on the core-skirt model for KPro, the porous outer portion of artificial cornea (skirt) was engineered by combining NaCl with HEMA and MMA monomers to promote tissue ingrowth from the host. The central optic (core) was designed to provide >85% light transmission in the visible wavelength range and securely attached to the skirt. Mechanical tensile data indicated that our KPro (referred to as salt porogen KPro) is mechanically stable to maintain its structure in the ocular environment and during implantation. Using human corneal fibroblasts (HCFs), we demonstrate that the cells grew into the pores of the skirt and proliferated, suggesting biointegration is adequately achieved. This novel PHEMA-PMMA copolymeric salt porogen KPro may offer a cornea replacement option that leads to minimal risk of corneal melting by permitting sufficient tissue ingrowth and mass transport. Copyright © 2013 Society of Plastics Engineers.

  18. Biomechanics and Wound Healing in the Cornea

    OpenAIRE

    Dupps, William J.; Wilson, Steven E.

    2006-01-01

    The biomechanical and wound healing properties of the cornea undermine the predictability and stability of refractive surgery and contribute to discrepancies between attempted and achieved visual outcomes after LASIK, surface ablation and other keratorefractive procedures. Furthermore, patients predisposed to biomechanical failure or abnormal wound healing can experience serious complications such as keratectasia or clinically significant corneal haze, and more effective means for the identif...

  19. [Structural analysis of normal corneas and diseased corneas by applying second harmonic generation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morishige, Naoyuki

    2011-11-01

    We have established a second harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy system for imaging of the human cornea with a mode-locked femtosecond laser and a laser confocal microscope. This SHG microscopy system has allowed us to scan corneal tissue noninvasively ex vivo and to obtain three-dimensional images of corneal collagen lamellae. Such three-dimensional imaging of the normal anterior cornea revealed that collagen lamellae at the anterior stroma are inter-woven and adhere to Bowman membrane with these adherent lamellae being designated "sutural lamellae." Sutural lamellae adhere to Bowman membrane at an angle of approximately 19 degrees, whereas the angle of lamellae in the mid-stroma relative to Bowman membrane is smaller. We hypothesize that the structural unit consisting of both Bowman membrane and the sutural lamellae contributes to the rigidity and anterior curvature of the cornea. SHG imaging of keratoconic corneas revealed an either abnormal or a total lack of structure of the sutural lamellae, suggesting that this abnormality might be related to that of the corneal anterior curvature in such corneas. Furthermore, SHG imaging of corneas affected by stromal edema showed that the structure of the sutural lamellae was maintained, although abnormal collagen signals both above and below Bowman membrane were detected in corneas affected by clinical stromal edema for more than 12 months. SHG imaging of the structure of collagen lamellae in normal and diseased corneas thus has the potential to provide insight both into the mechanism for maintenance of corneal curvature as well as into the pathophysiology of corneal diseases.

  20. Tissue Engineering the Cornea: The Evolution of RAFT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah J. Levis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Corneal blindness affects over 10 million people worldwide and current treatment strategies often involve replacement of the defective layer with healthy tissue. Due to a worldwide donor cornea shortage and the absence of suitable biological scaffolds, recent research has focused on the development of tissue engineering techniques to create alternative therapies. This review will detail how we have refined the simple engineering technique of plastic compression of collagen to a process we now call Real Architecture for 3D Tissues (RAFT. The RAFT production process has been standardised, and steps have been taken to consider Good Manufacturing Practice compliance. The evolution of this process has allowed us to create biomimetic epithelial and endothelial tissue equivalents suitable for transplantation and ideal for studying cell-cell interactions in vitro.

  1. Impact of the Cornea Donor Study (CDS) on Acceptance of Corneas from Older Donors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugar, Alan; Montoya, Monty M.; Beck, Roy; Cowden, John W.; Dontchev, Mariya; Gal, Robin L.; Kollman, Craig; Malling, Jackie; Mannis, Mark J.; Tennant, Bradley

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Evaluate retrospectively whether findings from the Cornea Donor Study (CDS) led to changes in the transplantation of corneas from older donors. Methods United States eye banks provided complete data on donor age and placement (domestic or international) for 86,273 corneas from 1998 to 2009. The data were analyzed by 3 time periods: preceding CDS (1998–1999), during CDS (2000–2007) and after publication of CDS 5 year results (2008–2009), and separately for corneas placed within vs. outside the United States. Results For corneal tissues transplanted in the United States, the percentage of donors ≥66 years old increased from 19% before CDS to 21% during CDS and 25% after CDS (pcorneas distributed outside the United States with the percentage of donors ≥66 years old decreasing from 56% to 42% to 34%, respectively. Donor age trends over time varied by eye bank. Conclusions There was a modest overall increase in the donor age of corneas transplanted in the United States from 1998 to 2009, but the retrospective nature of the study limits our ability to attribute this change to the CDS. The modest increases in the donor age of corneas transplanted is a positive finding, but wider acceptance of older corneal donor tissue should be encouraged based on the five-year evidence generated by the CDS. PMID:22262218

  2. Impact of the cornea donor study on acceptance of corneas from older donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugar, Alan; Montoya, Monty M; Beck, Roy; Cowden, John W; Dontchev, Mariya; Gal, Robin L; Kollman, Craig; Malling, Jackie; Mannis, Mark J; Tennant, Bradley

    2012-12-01

    To evaluate retrospectively whether the findings from the Cornea Donor Study (CDS) led to changes in the transplantation of corneas from older donors. Eye banks in United States provided complete data on donor age and placement (domestic or international) for 86,273 corneas from 1998 to 2009. The data were analyzed by 3 periods, preceding CDS (1998-1999), during CDS (2000-2007), and after publication of CDS 5-year results (2008-2009), and separately for corneas placed within versus outside the United States. For corneal tissues transplanted in the United States, the percentage of donors who were 66 years or older increased from 19% before CDS to 21% during CDS and 25% after CDS (Pcorneas distributed outside the United States, with the percentage of donors 66 years and older decreasing from 56% to 42% to 34%, respectively. Donor age trends over time varied by eye bank. There was a modest overall increase in the donor age of corneas transplanted in the United States from 1998 to 2009, but the retrospective nature of the study limits our ability to attribute this change to the CDS. The modest increases in the donor age of corneas transplanted is a positive finding, but wider acceptance of older corneal donor tissue should be encouraged based on the 5-year evidence generated by the CDS.

  3. Canine pulmonary angiostrongylosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Jørgen; Willesen, Jakob Lundgren

    2009-01-01

    larvae may not reflect what happens under field conditions. There is insufficient understanding of the spread of infection and the dynamic consequences of this parasite in the canine population. This review discusses the biology, epidemiology, clinical aspects and management of canine pulmonary...

  4. Ocular biomechanical measurements on post-keratoplasty corneas using a Scheimpflug-based noncontact device

    OpenAIRE

    Laszlo Modis Jr.; Ziad Hassan; Eszter Szalai; Zsuzsanna Flaskó; Andras Berta; Gabor Nemeth

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To analyse ocular biomechanical properties, central corneal thickness (CCT) and intraocular pressure (IOP) in post-keratoplasty eyes, as compared to normal subjects, with a new Scheimpflug-based technology. Moreover, biomechanical data were correlated with the size and age of the donor and recipient corneas. METHODS: Measurements were conducted on 46 eyes of 46 healthy patients without any corneal pathology (age: 53.83±20.8y) and 30 eyes of 28 patients after penetrating keratoplasty (...

  5. Transplante de membrana amniótica canina criopreservada para cicatrização de córnea com deficiência de células límbicas em coelhos Transplantation of cryopreserved canine amniotic membrane for cicatrisation in cornea with limbal stem cells deficiency in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.N. Cremonini

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se as alterações relacionadas à deficiência das células límbicas precursoras do epitélio corneano de coelhos e o efeito da membrana amniótica sobre sua cicatrização. A lesão, induzida com n-heptanol associado à peritomia conjuntival em 360°, foi recoberta com membrana amniótica canina, suturada à episclera perilímbica, criopreservada em meio para congelação de embrião ou em meio próprio, ambos com glicerol a 50% e mantida a -80°C. O grupo-controle não foi tratado com a membrana. As avaliações histológicas foram realizadas ao sétimo, 15º e 30º dias. Todos desenvolveram deficiência de células germinativas do limbo, denominada conjuntivalização, com presença de neovascularização, inflamação e defeitos epiteliais recorrentes, caracterizada na histopatologia pela presença de neovasos, edema, leucócitos e células caliciformes. O transplante de membrana amniótica não foi eficiente para o tratamento desta deficiência, entretanto auxiliou o processo de cicatrização da córnea.Changes related to limbal stem cells deficiency in corneal epithelium in rabbits, as well as the results of amniotic membrane transplant on the cicatrisation were evaluated. The ulcer was induced with n-heptanol associated to 360° conjunctival peritomy; the corneal surface was covered with canine amniotic membrane, sutured to perilimbal episclera, cryopreserved in embryo solution or own medium, both with 50% glycerol and stored at -80°C. The control group was not treated with membrane. Histological evaluations were performed at seven, 15, and 30 days. All of them developed limbal stem cells deficiency, named conjunctivalization, with neovascularization, inflammation and recurrent epithelial defects, observed in histopathology by the occurrence of neovascularization, edema, leukocytes and goblet cells. Thus amniotic membrane transplantation was not efficient in the treatment of limbal stem cells deficiency, however it helped in

  6. Visualization of Immune Responses in the Cornea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Victor L

    2017-11-01

    The eye has become a useful site for the investigation and understanding of local and systemic immune responses. The ease of access and transparency of the cornea permits direct visualization of ocular structures, blood vessels, and lymphatic vessels, allowing for the tracking of normal and pathological biological processes in real time. As a window to the immune system, we have used the eye to dissect the mechanisms of corneal inflammatory reactions that include innate and adaptive immune responses. We have identified that the ocular microenvironment regulates these immune responses by recruiting different populations of inflammatory cells to the cornea through local production of selected chemokines. Moreover, crosstalk between T cells and macrophages is a common and crucial step in the development of ocular immune responses to corneal alloantigens. This review summarizes the data generated by our group using intravital fluorescent confocal microscopy to capture the tempo, magnitude, and function of innate and adaptive corneal immune responses.

  7. Decorin and biglycan of normal and pathologic human corneas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funderburgh, J. L.; Hevelone, N. D.; Roth, M. R.; Funderburgh, M. L.; Rodrigues, M. R.; Nirankari, V. S.; Conrad, G. W.

    1998-01-01

    PURPOSE: Corneas with scars and certain chronic pathologic conditions contain highly sulfated dermatan sulfate, but little is known of the core proteins that carry these atypical glycosaminoglycans. In this study the proteoglycan proteins attached to dermatan sulfate in normal and pathologic human corneas were examined to identify primary genes involved in the pathobiology of corneal scarring. METHODS: Proteoglycans from human corneas with chronic edema, bullous keratopathy, and keratoconus and from normal corneas were analyzed using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), quantitative immunoblotting, and immunohistology with peptide antibodies to decorin and biglycan. RESULTS: Proteoglycans from pathologic corneas exhibit increased size heterogeneity and binding of the cationic dye alcian blue compared with those in normal corneas. Decorin and biglycan extracted from normal and diseased corneas exhibited similar molecular size distribution patterns. In approximately half of the pathologic corneas, the level of biglycan was elevated an average of seven times above normal, and decorin was elevated approximately three times above normal. The increases were associated with highly charged molecular forms of decorin and biglycan, indicating modification of the proteins with dermatan sulfate chains of increased sulfation. Immunostaining of corneal sections showed an abnormal stromal localization of biglycan in pathologic corneas. CONCLUSIONS: The increased dermatan sulfate associated with chronic corneal pathologic conditions results from stromal accumulation of decorin and particularly of biglycan in the affected corneas. These proteins bear dermatan sulfate chains with increased sulfation compared with normal stromal proteoglycans.

  8. Tuna cornea as biomaterial for cardiac applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parravicini, Roberto; Cocconcelli, Flavio; Verona, Alessandro; Parravicini, Valeriano; Giuliani, Enrico; Barbieri, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    Among available biomaterials, cornea is almost completely devoid of cells and is composed only of collagen fibers oriented in an orderly pattern, which contributes to low antigenicity. Thunnus thynnus, the Atlantic bluefin tuna, is a fish with large eyes that can withstand pressures of approximately 10 MPa. We evaluated the potential of this tuna cornea in cardiac bioimplantation. Eyes from freshly caught Atlantic bluefin tuna were harvested and preserved in a fixative solution. Sterilized samples of corneal stroma were embedded in paraffin and stained with hematoxylin and eosin, and the histologic features were studied. Physical and mechanical resistance tests were performed in comparison with bovine pericardial strips and porcine mitral valves. Corneal material was implanted subcutaneously in 7 rats, to evaluate in vivo calcification rates. Mitral valves made from tuna corneal leaflets were implanted in 9 sheep. We found that the corneal tissue consisted only of parallel collagen fibers without evidence of vascular or neural structures. In tensile strength, the tuna corneal specimens were substantially similar to bovine pericardium. After 23 days, the rat-implanted samples showed no calcium or calcium salt deposition. Hydrodynamic and fatigue testing of valve prototypes yielded acceptable functional and long-term behavioral results. In the sheep, valvular performance was stable during the 180-day follow-up period, with no instrumental sign of calcification at the end of observation. We conclude that low antigenicity and favorable physical properties qualify tuna cornea as a potential material for durable bioimplantation. Further study is warranted.

  9. The collagens of the developing bovine cornea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, R E; Davison, P F

    1984-11-01

    The morphology of the developing bovine eye has been examined and the collagens in fetal bovine eyes from three months' gestation to maturity have been solubilized by pepsin treatment and analyzed to determine the ratios of the predominant types of collagen. The type I collagen decreased, while the type V collagen increased with age. Type III collagen comprised less than 1% of all the corneas, except for the three-month fetal calf. The anterior to posterior thickness of the paraffin-embedded fetal calf cornea increased from the third to the seventh month, decreased from the seventh month to birth, and then increased after birth. Descemet's membrane increased in thickness with age. Analysis of dissected regions of the calf cornea showed a uniform distribution of the collagen populations from the center to the limbus (89% type I, 10% type V and less than 1% type III collagen) and uniformity through the depth of the stroma, except that type III was concentrated around Bowman's layer, and type IV in Descement's membrane. The localization of the different collagens was consistent with the immunofluorescent staining studies with anticollagen antibodies, but the ratios of the intensities of the fluorescence did not correspond to the quantitative analyses. These results are concordant with other studies that have shown that antibody binding may be masked or diminished in certain tissues and therefore immunofluorescence cannot be used reliably for quantitative measurements.

  10. Transepithelial riboflavin/ultraviolet. a corneal cross-linking in keratoconus: morphologic studies on human corneas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mencucci, Rita; Paladini, Iacopo; Sarchielli, Erica; Favuzza, Eleonora; Vannelli, Gabriella Barbara; Marini, Mirca

    2013-11-01

    To evaluate histologic and molecular changes in human keratoconic corneas after the procedure of transepithelial collagen cross-linking (CXL), without the removal of corneal epithelium. Experimental laboratory investigation. Thirty corneal buttons were examined, 18 of which were from patients affected by severe keratoconus and submitted to penetrating keratoplasty (PK). Among these, 8 were analyzed without any treatment, 4 were treated with transepithelial CXL 2 hours before PK, and 6 were treated with transepithelial CXL 3 months before PK. Twelve normal corneal buttons from healthy donors were used as controls. The corneal buttons were then evaluated by hematoxylin-eosin staining and by immunostaining with markers of epithelial junction proteins (ß-catenin and connexin 43), of stromal keratocytes (CD34), of apoptosis (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling [TUNEL] assay), and of collagen type I fibers. The analysis of epithelial markers showed a clear defective expression in keratoconic corneas before and soon after the transepithelial CXL treatment, returning to normal in corneas analyzed 3 months after transepithelial CXL. The analysis of stroma components indicated a loss of keratocytes in the upper stroma of keratoconic corneas and a trend toward a normal situation 3 months after transepithelial CXL; similarly, collagen fibers appeared disorganized in keratoconus, while their pattern appears to be close to normal 3 months after treatment. Histologic and immunohistochemical findings on human keratoconic corneas showed the presence of biochemical and morphologic alterations in the epithelium and the upper stroma that are significantly improved 3 months after transepithelial CXL. However, further studies are necessary to assess to what extent these results correlate with measurable biomechanical effects. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Changes in lysyl oxidase (LOX) distribution and its decreased activity in keratoconus corneas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudakova, Lubica; Liskova, Petra; Trojek, Tomas; Palos, Michalis; Kalasova, Sarka; Jirsova, Katerina

    2012-11-01

    samples (2.60 ± 2.23 nM H(2)O(2)/μg of total protein) was more than 2.5-fold lower than in control tissue (6.83 ± 2.53 nM H(2)O(2)/μg of total protein), and the decrease was statistically significant (p = 0.0178). The location of lysyl oxidase in the healthy cornea, limbus and perilimbal conjunctiva was described. We hypothesize that the restricted lysyl oxidase distribution in keratoconic corneas, and particularly the decrease of total lysyl oxidase activity in cultured keratoconic fibroblasts, is one potential reason for the inadequate collagen cross-linking that is a hallmark of this disease. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Canine hearing loss management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheifele, Lesa; Clark, John Greer; Scheifele, Peter M

    2012-11-01

    Dog owners and handlers are naturally concerned when suspicion of hearing loss arises for their dogs. Questions frequently asked of the veterinarian center on warning signs of canine hearing loss and what can be done for the dog if hearing loss is confirmed. This article addresses warning signs of canine hearing loss, communication training and safety awareness issues, and the feasibility of hearing aid amplification for dogs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Age-related thinning of Bowman's layer in the human cornea in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germundsson, Johan; Karanis, Georgios; Fagerholm, Per; Lagali, Neil

    2013-09-11

    To determine the thickness of Bowman's layer (BL) in vivo in a healthy population and to determine its variation with age. Eighty-two subjects aged 15 to 88 years with clear, healthy corneas were examined bilaterally with laser scanning in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM). Bowman's layer thickness was determined from IVCM images of anterior and posterior BL boundaries. For a given eye, BL thickness was averaged across four central locations by two independent observers. In addition, central corneal thickness was measured by time-domain optical coherence tomography. A significant negative correlation of BL thickness with age was found in right eyes (Pearson r = -0.579, P corneal thickness with age or of BL thickness with corneal thickness was observed. Strong intereye correlations in BL thickness (r = 0.771, P corneal thickness (r = 0.969, P < 0.001) were found. Bowman's layer thins with age in the normal cornea, losing one-third of its thickness between the ages of 20 and 80 years. In vivo measurement of BL thickness by IVCM could aid in clinical assessment and planned treatments of the anterior cornea.

  14. DISTRIBUTION OF REFRACTIVE INDEX AND CHROMATIC DISPERSION OF THE CORNEA

    OpenAIRE

    渡邉, 千博

    1999-01-01

    Many refractive surgeries of the cornea (radial keratotomy RK, photore- fractive keratectomy PRK, laser in situ keratomileusis LASIK) are done routinely in an increasing number of patients in many countries. However, few analyses of the cornea related to the corneal configuration change and refractive index distribution, which affect the postoperative visual outcomes, have been reported. We have analyzed the refractive index and chromatic dispersion of the cornea as a function of the temperat...

  15. Effects of pterygium on the biomechanical properties of the cornea: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gros-Otero, J; Pérez-Rico, C; Montes-Mollón, M A; Gutiérrez-Ortiz, C; Benítez-Herreros, J; Teus, M A

    2013-04-01

    To investigate the changes induced by a pterygium or its surgical removal on the biomechanical properties of the cornea and to determine factors that might affect these parameters. This prospective pilot interventional, non-randomized, observer-masked study included 20 eyes of 20 patients with a unilateral primary pterygium (pterygium group) and 19 fellow healthy eyes (control group). The bare sclera technique with one-minute application of 0.02% mitomycin C intraoperatively was performed in all cases. The follow-up period was one month. The preoperative and postoperative biomechanical properties of the cornea were measured using the Reichert ocular response analyzer (ORA). The corneal hysteresis (CH) decreased significantly (Pbiomechanical features. Further studies are needed in populations, with longer follow-ups and bigger pterygium that may involve wider keratectomy to confirm our results. Copyright © 2011 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  16. Altered organization of collagen in the apex of keratoconus corneas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radner, W; Zehetmayer, M; Skorpik, C; Mallinger, R

    1998-01-01

    In 15 keratoconus corneas, the three-dimensional arrangement of collagen lamellae was investigated by means of scanning electron microscopy. Keratoconus corneas without visible scars were obtained during perforating keratoplasty. The noncollagenous matrix of the stroma was removed with sodium hydroxide. Descemet's membrane was removed mechanically and deeper layers of the stroma were exposed by cutting the tissue tangentially to the corneal surface with an ultramicrotome. The apical and the para-apical regions of keratoconus were compared the central regions of normal corneas. In the apical regions of 11 out of the 15 keratoconus corneas (73%), the arrangement of the collagen lamellae differs from those of the para-apical regions and normal corneas. Their collagen fibrils from uniform layers and no delimited collagen lamellae can be differentiated. Interlacing between adjacent layers in extremely decreased or even absent. In the para-apical region of keratoconus corneas the three-dimensional arrangement of collagen lamellae does not differ from that in normal corneas. Stromal thinning and conical ectasia in the apex of keratoconus corneas alters the organization of collagen. This will certainly affect the biomechanical properties of the cornea and further lead to a progression of keratoconus irrespective of its primary pathogenesis.

  17. Ultrastructure features of camel cornea--collagen fibril and proteoglycans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almubrad, Turki; Akhtar, Saeed

    2012-01-01

      The uniform distribution of collagen fibrils and proteoglycans maintain the transparency of normal cornea. We describe the ultrastructural features of camel cornea including collagen fibrils and proteoglycans (PGs).   Camel corneas (of 6-, 8-, and 10-month-old animals) were fixed in 2.5% glutaraldehyde containing cuprolinic blue in sodium acetate buffer and processed for electron microscopy. The 'AnalySIS LS Professional' program was used to analyze the collagen fibril diameter.   The camel cornea consists of four layers: the epithelium (227 μm), stroma (388 μm), Descemet's membrane (DM), and endothelium. The epithelium constituted 36% of the camel cornea, whereas corneal stroma constituted 62% of the corneal thickness (629 μm). The PGs in the posterior stroma were significantly larger in number and size compared with the anterior and middle stroma. The collagen fibril diameter was 25 nm and interfibrillar spacing 40 nm. Fibrillar structures are present throughout the DM.   The structure of the camel cornea is very different from human and other animals. The unique structure of the cornea might be an adaptation to help the camel to survive in a hot and dry climate. The camel cornea may also be a good model to study the effect of hot and dry climates on the cornea. © 2011 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  18. Measurement of an Elasticity Map in the Human Cornea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikula, Eric R; Jester, James V; Juhasz, Tibor

    2016-06-01

    The biomechanical properties of the cornea have an important role in determining the shape of the cornea and visual acuity. Since the cornea is a nonhomogeneous tissue, it is thought that the elastic properties vary throughout the cornea. We aim to measure a map of corneal elasticity across the cornea. An acoustic radiation force elasticity microscope (ARFEM) was used to create a map of corneal elasticity in the human cornea. This ARFEM uses a low frequency, high intensity acoustic force to displace a femtosecond laser-generated microbubble, while using a high frequency, low intensity ultrasound to monitor the position of the microbubble within the cornea. From the displacement of the bubble and the magnitude of the acoustic radiation force, the local value of corneal elasticity is calculated in the direction of the displacement. Measurements were conducted at 6 locations, ranging from the central to peripheral cornea at anterior and posterior depths. The mean anterior elastic moduli were 4.2 ± 1.2, 3.4 ± 0.7, and 1.9 ± 0.7 kPa in the central, mid, and peripheral regions, respectively, while the posterior elastic moduli were 2.3 ± 0.7, 1.6 ± 0.3, and 2.9 ± 1.2 kPa in the same radial locations. We found that there is a unique distribution of elasticity axially and radially throughout the cornea.

  19. Gamma-Irradiated Sterile Cornea for Use in Corneal Transplants in a Rabbit Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Junko; Heflin, Thomas; Zambrano, Andrea; Pan, Qing; Meng, Huan; Wang, Jiangxia; Stark, Walter J; Daoud, Yassine J

    2015-01-01

    Gamma irradiated corneas in which the donor keratocytes and endothelial cells are eliminated are effective as corneal lamellar and glaucoma patch grafts. In addition, gamma irradiation causes collagen cross inking, which stiffens collagen fibrils. This study evaluated gamma irradiated corneas for use in corneal transplantations in a rabbit model comparing graft clarity, corneal neovascularization, and edema. Penetrating keratoplasty was performed on rabbits using four types of corneal grafts: Fresh cornea with endothelium, gamma irradiated cornea, cryopreserved cornea, and fresh cornea without endothelium. Slit lamp examination was performed at postoperative week (POW) one, two, and four. Corneal clarity, edema, and vascularization were graded. Confocal microscopy and histopathological evaluation were performed. A P cornea with endothelium compared to the other three groups (P cornea scored better than the cryopreserved and fresh cornea without endothelium groups in clarity (0.9 vs. 1.5 and 2.6, respectively), and edema (0.6 vs. 0.8 and 2.0, respectively). The gamma irradiated corneas, cryopreserved corneas and the fresh corneas without endothelium, developed haze and edema after POW 2. Gamma irradiated cornea remained statistically significantly clearer than cryopreserved and fresh cornea without endothelium during the observation period (P cornea. Gamma irradiated corneas remained clearer and thinner than the cryopreserved cornea and fresh cornea without endothelium. However, this outcome is transient. Gamma irradiated corneas are useful for lamellar and patch grafts, but cannot be used for penetrating keratoplasty.

  20. Cornea Optical Topographical Scan System (COTSS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    The Cornea Optical Topographical Scan System (COTSS) is an instrument designed for use by opthalmologist to aid in performing surgical procedures such as radial keratotomy and to provide quick accurate data to aid in prescribing contact lenses and eyeglasses. A breadboard of the system was built and demonstrated in June of 1984. Additional refinements to the breadboard are needed to meet systems requirements prior to proceeding with prototype development. The present status of the COTSS instrument is given and the areas in which system refinements are required, are defined.

  1. Clinical and serological response of wild dogs (Lycaon pictus to vaccination against canine distemper, canine parvovirus infection and rabies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Van Heerden

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Wild dogs Lycaon pictus (n = 8 were vaccinated 4 times against canine distemper (n = 8 (initially with inactivated and subsequently with live attenuated strains of canine distemper and canine parvovirus infection (n = 8 over a period of 360 days. Four of the wild dogs were also vaccinated 3 times against rabies using a live oral vaccine and 4 with an inactivated parenteral vaccine. Commercially-available canine distemper, canine parvovirus and parenteral rabies vaccines, intended for use in domestic dogs, were used. None of the vaccinated dogs showed any untoward clinical signs. The inactivated canine distemper vaccine did not result in seroconversion whereas the attenuated live vaccine resulted in seroconversion in all wild dogs. Presumably protective concentrations of antibodies to canine distemper virus were present in all wild dogs for at least 451 days. Canine parvovirus haemagglutination inhibition titres were present in all wild dogs prior to the administration of vaccine and protective concentrations persisted for at least 451 days. Vaccination against parvovirus infection resulted in a temporary increase in canine parvovirus haemagglutination inhibition titres in most dogs. Administration of both inactivated parenteral and live oral rabies vaccine initially resulted in seroconversion in 7 of 8 dogs. These titres, however, dropped to very low concentrations within 100 days. Booster administrations resulted in increased antibody concentrations in all dogs. It was concluded that the vaccines were safe to use in healthy subadult wild dogs and that a vaccination protocol in free-ranging wild dogs should at least incorporate booster vaccinations against rabies 3-6 months after the first inoculation.

  2. Investigation of Friction-induced Damage to the Pig Cornea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    da Cruz Barros, Raquel; Van Kooten, Theo G.; Veeregowda, Deepak Halenahally

    2015-01-01

    Mechanical friction causes damage to the cornea. A friction measurement device with minimal intervention with the pig cornea tear film revealed a low friction coefficient of 0.011 in glycerine solution. Glycerine molecules presumably bind to water, mucins, and epithelial cells and therewith improve

  3. Biomechanics and wound healing in the cornea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupps, William J; Wilson, Steven E

    2006-10-01

    The biomechanical and wound healing properties of the cornea undermine the predictability and stability of refractive surgery and contribute to discrepancies between attempted and achieved visual outcomes after LASIK, surface ablation and other keratorefractive procedures. Furthermore, patients predisposed to biomechanical failure or abnormal wound healing can experience serious complications such as keratectasia or clinically significant corneal haze, and more effective means for the identification of such patients prior to surgery are needed. In this review, we describe the cornea as a complex structural composite material with pronounced anisotropy and heterogeneity, summarize current understanding of major biomechanical and reparative pathways that contribute to the corneal response to laser vision correction, and review the role of these processes in ectasia, intraocular pressure measurement artifact, diffuse lamellar keratitis (DLK) and corneal haze. The current understanding of differences in the corneal response after photorefractive keratectomy (PRK), LASIK and femtosecond-assisted LASIK are reviewed. Surgical and disease models that integrate corneal geometric data, substructural anatomy, elastic and viscoelastic material properties and wound healing behavior have the potential to improve clinical outcomes and minimize complications but depend on the identification of preoperative predictors of biomechanical and wound healing responses in individual patients.

  4. Biomechanical properties of axially myopic cornea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altan, Cigdem; Demirel, Berna; Azman, Engin; Satana, Banu; Bozkurt, Ercüment; Demirok, Ahmet; Yilmaz, Omer Faruk

    2012-01-01

    To investigate biomechanical parameters of the cornea measured with ocular response analyzer (ORA) in myopic eyes with high axial length and the relationship between these parameters and axial length (AL). A total of 165 eyes of 165 consecutive patients were included. Eyes with AL greater than 26 mm were named group 1 and eyes with AL shorter than 26 mm were named group 2. Axial length and keratometric values were measured by intraocular lens (IOL) Master optical biometry. Metrics of corneal biomechanical properties, including corneal hysteresis (CH) and corneal resistance factor (CRF), were measured with the ORA. The ORA also determined the values of intraocular pressure (IOPg) and corneal compensated IOP (IOPcc). The mean age of total subjects was 43.0 ± 15.6 years. Eighty-three eyes were included in group 1; 82 eyes were included in group 2. The CH and CRF of group 1 were significantly lower than group 2. The IOPcc was significantly higher in group 1 than group 2. When group 1 and group 2 were combined for analysis, CH was negatively correlated with age. Both CH and CRF were significantly correlated with SE. However, CH and CRF were negatively correlated with AL. Also, there was significant correlation between AL and IOPcc (pbiomechanical properties of the cornea change with elongation of the eye and this may have an impact on IOP measurement.

  5. Electrolytes in the cornea: a therapeutic challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrage, N F; Flick, S; Redbrake, C; Reim, M

    1996-12-01

    Reported here are the results of electrolyte measurements in different layers of 70 apparently normal human corneas. Samples were examined by energy-dispersive X-ray analysis under calibrated conditions in a scanning electron microscope. The method allows the simultaneous quantitative analysis of, among others, sodium (Na), chloride (Cl), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K). The results are related to the dry weight of the analyzed samples. Four distinct layers, subepithelium, middle stroma, posterior stroma and Descemet's membrane, were analysed in each cornea. In the middle stroma we found concentrations of: sodium 0.609 +/- 0.13, chloride 0.557 +/- 0.115, potassium 0.058 +/- 0.02 and phosphorus 0.038 +/- 0.01 (mol/kg dry weight) [corrected]. The collation of normal electrolyte concentrations provides reference values for future studies on changes of the corneal electrolyte composition in diseased or injured eyes. The electrolyte composition of rinsing fluids or eye drops should be adjusted to that of the corneal stroma. Phosphate buffer, for example, is not a good vehicle for topical eye treatments and should be replaced by organic buffering systems.

  6. Selenoprotein P controls oxidative stress in cornea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akihiro Higuchi

    Full Text Available The ocular surface is always attacked by oxidative stress, and cornea epithelial cells are supposed to have their own recovery system against oxidative stress. Therefore we hypothesized that tears supply key molecules for preventing oxidative stress in cornea. The potential target key molecule we focused is selenoprotein P (SeP. SeP is a carrier of selenium, which is an essential trace element for many animals, for oxidative stress metabolism in the organism, and was extremely expressed in lacrimal gland. An experiment was performed with SeP eye drops in a rat dry eye model, prepared by removing the lacrimal glands. The anticipated improvement in corneal dry eye index and the suppression of oxidative stress markers were observed in SeP eye drop group. Furthermore, the concentration of SeP was significantly higher in dry eye patients compared with normal volunteers. Collectively, we concluded that tear SeP is a key molecule to protect the ocular surface cells against environmental oxidative stress.

  7. Biomechanics and Wound Healing in the Cornea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupps, William J.; Wilson, Steven E.

    2009-01-01

    The biomechanical and wound healing properties of the cornea undermine the predictability and stability of refractive surgery and contribute to discrepancies between attempted and achieved visual outcomes after LASIK, surface ablation and other keratorefractive procedures. Furthermore, patients predisposed to biomechanical failure or abnormal wound healing can experience serious complications such as keratectasia or clinically significant corneal haze, and more effective means for the identification of such patients prior to surgery are needed. In this review, we describe the cornea as a complex structural composite material with pronounced anisotropy and heterogeneity, summarize current understanding of major biomechanical and reparative pathways that contribute to the corneal response to laser vision correction, and review the role of these processes in ectasia, intraocular pressure measurement artifact, diffuse lamellar keratitis (DLK) and corneal haze. The current understanding of differences in the corneal response after photorefractive keratectomy (PRK), LASIK and femtosecond-assisted LASIK are reviewed. Surgical and disease models that integrate corneal geometric data, substructural anatomy, elastic and viscoelastic material properties and wound healing behavior have the potential to improve clinical outcomes and minimize complications but depend on the identification of preoperative predictors of biomechanical and wound healing responses in individual patients. PMID:16720023

  8. Topographic and biomechanical evaluation of cornea in patients with acromegaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altinkaynak, Hasan; Duru, Necati; Ersoy, Reyhan; Kalkan Akcay, Emine; Ugurlu, Nagihan; Cagil, Nurullah; Cakir, Bekir

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare topographic and biomechanical properties of corneas in patients with acromegaly with those of healthy individuals. Thirty-five patients with acromegaly (study group) and 35 healthy individuals (control group) were enrolled in this prospective study. Topographic measurements, including central corneal thickness (CCT), mean keratometry (K) value, K1, K2, surface asymmetry index, corneal volume (CV), and anterior chamber depth in the right eye of each participant were obtained using a Scheimpflug camera with a Placido disc topographer (Sirius; Costruzione Strumenti Oftalmici). Corneal hysteresis (CH), corneal resistance factor (CRF), corneal-compensated intraocular pressure (IOP), and Goldmann-corelated intraocular pressure (IOPg) were measured using Reichert Ocular Response Analyzer (Reichert Ophthalmic Instruments). Mean CCT, CV, CH, CRF, and IOPg values were higher in acromegalic eyes (549.3 ± 30.2 μm, 59.1 ± 3.1 μm, 11.3 ± 1.2 mm Hg, 11.3 ± 1.2 mm Hg, and 17.5 ± 2.9 mm Hg, respectively) than in healthy eyes (531.4 ± 33.6 μm, 57.4 ± 2.7 μm, 10.4 ± 1.2 mm Hg, 10.2 ± 1.6 mm Hg, and 14.8 ± 3.1 mm Hg, respectively; CCT, P = 0.042; CV, P = 0.032; CH, P = 0.044; CRF, P = 0.035; IOPg, P < 0.001). CCT, CV, CH, CRF, IOPg, and IOP with Goldmann applanation tonometry were significantly higher in acromegalic eyes. These corneal topographic and biomechanical properties, disease duration, and disease status should be considered when planning corneal refractive surgery and determining accurate intraocular pressure in patients with acromegaly.

  9. Finite element modelling of cornea mechanics: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nejad, Talisa Mohammad; Foster, Craig; Gongal, Dipika

    2014-01-01

    The cornea is a transparent tissue in front of the eye that refracts light and facilitates vision. A slight change in the geometry of the cornea remarkably affects the optical power. Because of this sensitivity, biomechanical study of the cornea can reveal much about its performance and function. In vivo and in vitro studies have been conducted to investigate the mechanics of the cornea and determine its characteristics. Numerical techniques such as the finite element method (FEM) have been extensively implemented as effective and noninvasive methods for analyzing corneal mechanics and possible disorders. This article reviews the use of FEM for assessing the mechanical behavior of the cornea. Different applications of FEM in corneal disease studies, surgical predictions, impact simulations, and clinical applications have been reviewed. Some suggestions for the future of this type of modeling in the area of corneal mechanics are also discussed.

  10. [The 2009 performance report of the German cornea banks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrage, N; Reinhard, T; Seitz, B; Hermel, M; Böhringer, D; Reinshagen, H

    2011-03-01

    In Germany, human tissue for corneal and amniotic transplantation is supplied by 27 cornea banks. The Section for Tissue Transplantation and Biotechnology of the German Ophthalmological Society records the cornea banks' activities by means of an annual questionnaire. In 2009, a total of 4,818 corneal grafts were processed by 21 responding cornea banks, and 57% were deemed suitable for transplantation. This ratio is slightly higher than the European average. In addition, German cornea banks released 1,257 amniotic grafts in 2009. German cornea banks are currently facing new regulatory issues due to updated legislation regarding tissue transplantation. Recent updates in European law have limited the cutoff time for postmortem blood sampling to 24 h, and this regulation may lead to a significant reduction in potential donors.

  11. Finite element modelling of cornea mechanics: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talisa Mohammad Nejad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The cornea is a transparent tissue in front of the eye that refracts light and facilitates vision. A slight change in the geometry of the cornea remarkably affects the optical power. Because of this sensitivity, biomechanical study of the cornea can reveal much about its performance and function. In vivo and in vitro studies have been conducted to investigate the mechanics of the cornea and determine its characteristics. Numerical techniques such as the finite element method (FEM have been extensively implemented as effective and noninvasive methods for analyzing corneal mechanics and possible disorders. This article reviews the use of FEM for assessing the mechanical behavior of the cornea. Different applications of FEM in corneal disease studies, surgical predictions, impact simulations, and clinical applications have been reviewed. Some suggestions for the future of this type of modeling in the area of corneal mechanics are also discussed.

  12. Extracellular matrix alterations in human corneas with bullous keratopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljubimov, A V; Burgeson, R E; Butkowski, R J

    1996-01-01

    PURPOSE. To uncover abnormalities of extracellular matrix (ECM) distribution in human corneas with pseudophakic and aphakic bullous keratopathy (PBK/ABK). METHODS. Indirect immunofluorescence with antibodies to 27 ECM components was used on frozen sections of 14 normal and 20 PBK/ABK corneas....... RESULTS. Fibrillar deposits of an antiadhesive glycoprotein tenascin in the anterior and posterior stroma, epithelial basement membrane (BM), bullae and subepithelial fibrosis (SEF) areas, and posterior collagenous layer (PCL) were revealed in disease corneas. Tenascin in midstroma, which was observed...... in some cases, correlated with decreased visual acuity. In normal central corneas, tenascin was never found. Other major ECM abnormalities in PBK/ABK corneas compared to normals included: discontinuous epithelial BM straining for laminin-1 (alpha 1 beta 1 gamma 1), entactin/nidogen and fibronectin...

  13. Effects of riboflavin/UVA corneal cross-linking on keratocytes and collagen fibres in human cornea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mencucci, Rita; Marini, Mirca; Paladini, Iacopo; Sarchielli, Erica; Sgambati, Eleonora; Menchini, Ugo; Vannelli, Gabriella B

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of corneal cross-linking on keratocytes and collagen fibres in human corneas. Fifteen corneal buttons were examined. Ten were from patients with keratoconus submitted to penetrating keratoplasty and five of them were treated with cross-linking 6 months before penetrating keratoplasty. Five normal corneal buttons from healthy donors were used as controls. All samples were prepared for TUNEL assay and Western blot analysis for the detection of keratocyte apoptosis and immunohistochemical analysis for the morphological evaluation of keratocytes and collagen fibre diameter. Normal corneas exhibited no TUNEL-positive keratocytes and keratoconic and cross-linked corneas showed moderate apoptotic cells mainly in the anterior part of the stroma. This apoptotic trend was confirmed by the cleavage of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase assessed using Western blot. The Ki-67 staining showed a significant increase in the keratocyte proliferation in cross-linked corneas compared with normal and keratoconus. In cross-linked corneas CD34-positive keratocytes were regularly distributed throughout the whole corneal stroma as in the control, and keratoconus was associated with patchy loss of immunoreactivity. The immunohistochemical analysis of collagen type I showed a significant increase in fibre diameter of cross-linked corneas compared with control and keratoconus. Corneal cross-linking leads to keratocyte damage; after 6 months a repopulation by proliferating cells, a distribution of CD34-positive keratocytes as in control and an increase in collagen fibre diameter were observed. These modifications are the morphological correlate of the process leading to an increase in biomechanical stability.

  14. Subconjunctival injection of antagomir-21 alleviates corneal neovascularization in a mouse model of alkali-burned cornea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yun; Zhang, Ting; Ma, Xiaoyun; Zou, Jun

    2017-02-14

    Corneal neovascularization may result in loss of corneal transparency and blindness. However, developing successful and inexpensive medical treatments for corneal neovascularization remains an unresolved issue. Recently, several studies have implicated miRNA functions in the regulation of cornea homeostasis. This study aimed to identify the miRNA expression profile in the neovascularized cornea after an alkali burn and to investigate the related underlying mechanisms. Here, alkali-burned corneas and matched normal tissues were pooled to perform miRNA sequencing. MiR-21 in alkali-burned cornea showed the greatest increment of abundance at 4 and 7 d after injury compared to the healthy cornea. The miR-21 expression was positively correlated with both the mRNA and protein level of key angiogenic factors including vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α). At 2 and 8 d after alkali burn, the mice received subconjunctival injections of antagomir-21 (1 or 5 nmol per injection). The injection of antagomir-21 (5 nmol) inactivated miR-21 and attenuated neovascularization progression by inhibiting the expression of VEGF-A and HIF-1α. Western blot analysis of the corneas demonstrated that antagomir-21 restored Sprouty 2/4 expression and silenced p-ERK activation. Therefore, these data reveal that antagomir-21 ameliorates the progression of corneal neovascularization likely via Sprouty 2/4-mediated inactivation of p-ERK. Delivery of antagomir-21 might be a potential therapeutic approach to prevent or treat visual loss caused by corneal neovascularization.

  15. Vaccines for canine leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foroughi-Parvar, Faeze; Hatam, Gholamreza

    2014-01-01

    Leishmania infantum is the obligatory intracellular parasite of mammalian macrophages and causes zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (ZVL). The presence of infected dogs as the main reservoir host of ZVL is regarded as the most important potential risk for human infection. Thus the prevention of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) is essential to stop the current increase of the Mediterranean visceral leishmaniasis. Recently considerable advances in achieving protective immunization of dogs and several important attempts for achieving an effective vaccine against CVL lead to attracting the scientists trust in its important role for eradication of ZVL. This paper highlights the recent advances in vaccination against canine visceral leishmaniasis from 2007 until now.

  16. Vaccines for Canine Leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faeze Foroughi-Parvar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Leishmania infantum is the obligatory intracellular parasite of mammalian macrophages and causes zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (ZVL. The presence of infected dogs as the main reservoir host of ZVL is regarded as the most important potential risk for human infection. Thus the prevention of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL is essential to stop the current increase of the Mediterranean visceral leishmaniasis. Recently considerable advances in achieving protective immunization of dogs and several important attempts for achieving an effective vaccine against CVL lead to attracting the scientists trust in its important role for eradication of ZVL. This paper highlights the recent advances in vaccination against canine visceral leishmaniasis from 2007 until now.

  17. UV Crosslinking of Donor Corneas Confers Resistance to Keratolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arafat, Samer N.; Robert, Marie-Claude; Shukla, Anita N.; Dohlman, Claes H.; Chodosh, James; Ciolino, Joseph B.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To develop a modified ex vivo corneal crosslinking method that increases stromal resistance to enzymatic degradation for use as a carrier for the Boston keratoprosthesis. Methods Ex vivo crosslinking of human corneas was performed using Barron® artificial anterior chambers. The corneas were de-epithelialized, pre-treated with riboflavin solution (0.1% riboflavin/20% dextran) and irradiated with ultraviolet A (UVA) light (λ=370nm, irradiance=3mW/cm2) for various durations. The combined effect of UVA and gamma (γ) irradiation was also assessed using the commercially available γ-irradiated corneal donors. The corneas were then trephined and incubated at 37 degrees Celsius with 0.3% collagenase A solution. The time to dissolution of each cornea was compared across treatments. Results De-epithelialized corneas (no UV light, no riboflavin) dissolved in 5.8 ± 0.6 hours. Crosslinked corneas demonstrated increased resistance to dissolution, with a time to dissolution of 17.8 +/− 2.6 hours (p corneas did not provide added resistance when compared to crosslinking the anterior corneas only (p>0.05). γ-irradiated corneas dissolved as readily as de-epithelialized controls regardless of whether they were further crosslinked (5.6 ± 1.2 hours) or not (6.1 ± 0.6 hours) (p=0.43) Conclusions Collagen crosslinking of the de-epithelialized anterior cornea surface for 30 minutes conferred optimal resistance to in vitro keratolysis by collagenase A. PMID:25014151

  18. In vivo ocular imaging of the cornea of the normal female laboratory beagle using confocal microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strom, Ann R; Cortés, Dennis E; Thomasy, Sara M; Kass, Philip H; Mannis, Mark J; Murphy, Christopher J

    2016-01-01

    To obtain normative data for the normal laboratory beagle cornea using high-resolution in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM). Sixteen eyes of eight healthy young female intact beagles. The central cornea was imaged using IVCM. Mixed effects linear regression was used for statistical analysis. in vivo confocal microscopy allowed detailed visualization and quantification of epithelial cells (superficial epithelial cell diameter: 43.25 ± 6.64 μm, basal cell diameter: 4.43 ± 0.67 μm), and nerve fibers (subepithelial nerve fiber diameter: 2.38 ± 0.69 μm, anterior stromal nerve fiber diameter: 16.93 ± 4.55 μm). Keratocyte density (anterior stroma 993.38 ± 134.24 cells/mm(2) , posterior stroma 789.38 ± 87.13 cells/mm(2) ) and endothelial cell density (2815.18 ± 212.59 cells/mm(2) ) were also measured. High-resolution IVCM provides detailed noninvasive evaluation of the cornea in the normal laboratory beagle. © 2015 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  19. Rudolf Virchow's medical school dissertation on rheumatism and the cornea: overlooked tribute to the cornea in biomedical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margo, Curtis E; Harman, Lynn E

    2015-02-01

    To critique Rudolf Virchow's medical school dissertation on rheumatism and the cornea and to determine whether it might have anticipated his remarkable career in medicine. Review of the English translation of Rudolf Virchow's de Rheumate Praesertim Corneae written in 1843. The dissertation was more than 7000 words long. Virchow considered rheumatism as an irritant disorder not induced by acid as traditionally thought but by albumin. He concluded that inflammation was secondary to a primary irritant and that the "seat" of rheumatism was "gelatinous" (connective) tissues, which included the cornea. He divided kerato-rheumatism into different varieties. The prognosis of keratitis was variable, and would eventually lapse into "scrofulosis, syphilis, or arthritis of the cornea." Virchow's dissertation characterizes rheumatism in terms of chemical and tissue interactions that make little sense in the context of today's knowledge of rheumatic disease and keratitis. Ironically, many of these concepts were made obsolete by the cellular model of disease that Virchow championed. Virchow decided to pursue the study of rheumatism through the cornea because he thought that the cornea was an ideal tissue to study disease. This discernment was passed on to his students whose seminal contributions to general pathology were based on research with the cornea. It is debatable whether Virchow's insight into the importance of the cornea in biomedical research at such an early stage of his career could have predicted his monumental contributions to medicine.

  20. Unerupted canine without median diastema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaoka, M; Furusawa, K; Tanaka, M; Tanaka, H

    1997-06-01

    The eruption of the canine is known to be a factor for diastema closure. In this study the relative changes in the orientation of the unerupted canine were assessed using the orthopantomographs of 9854 patients who sought consultation between April 1984 and March 1993. A total of 38 canines in 32 patients, all aged 11 years or older, were identified as unerupted canines. The features of the patients with unerupted canine showed no significant relation to diastema closure status, but some patients had unerupted horizontal or inverted canine without diastema even in the absence of a history of orthodontic treatment, suggesting the presence of a mechanical force due to some phenomenon other than canine eruption as a factor in diastema closure.

  1. Biomechanical properties of the cornea in high myopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Meixiao; Fan, Fan; Xue, Anquan; Wang, Jianhua; Zhou, Xiangtian; Lu, Fan

    2008-09-01

    To determine corneal biomechanical properties in patients with high myopia. Observational study. High myopia patients (n=45, age: 37.0+/-12.6 years) with refractive errors of spherical equivalent (SE) greater than -9.00D were recruited in this study along with healthy subjects (n=90, age: 33.7+/-12.4 years) with refractive errors of SE ranging from 0D to -3.00D. Only the right eye was studied. Central corneal thickness (CCT) was measured by optical coherence tomography (OCT). Metrics of corneal biomechanical properties, including corneal hysteresis (CH) and corneal resistance factor (CRF), were measured with the Ocular Response Analyzer (ORA). The ORA also determined the values of intraocular pressure (IOP(g)) and corneal compensated IOP (IOP(cc)). No significant differences of CCT and CRF were present between the two groups (P=.15 and 0.35 for CCT and CRF, respectively); however, CH in the high myope group was lower than that in the controls (Page in either the control group or the high myope group (P>.05). There was a significant correlation between CH and SE when the two groups were combined for analysis. CH, but not CRF, was significantly lower in high myopia patients compared to that in normal subjects. The results indicate that some compromised aspects of the biomechanical properties of cornea may exist in people with high myopia.

  2. In vivo confocal microscopy for the detection of canine fungal keratitis and monitoring of therapeutic response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledbetter, Eric C; Norman, Mary L; Starr, Jennifer K

    2016-05-01

    To describe in vivo corneal confocal microscopy of dogs during the clinical course of fungal keratitis and correlate findings with clinical evaluations and an ex vivo experimental canine fungal keratitis model. Seven dogs with naturally acquired fungal keratitis and ex vivo canine corneas experimentally infected with clinical fungal isolates. Dogs with naturally acquired fungal keratitis were examined by in vivo laser scanning confocal microscopy. Initial confocal microscopic examinations were performed to assist in establishing the diagnosis of fungal keratitis. Serial confocal microscopic examinations were performed to guide antifungal chemotherapy. Confocal microscopy images of canine corneal fungal isolates were obtained by examination of experimentally infected ex vivo canine corneas to corroborate in vivo findings. Fungi cultured and detected by PCR from canine corneal samples included Candida albicans, Fusarium incarnatum-equiseti, Malassezia pachydermatis, and a Rhodotorula sp. Linear, branching, interlocking, hyperreflective structures were detected by confocal microscopy in dogs with filamentous fungal keratitis and round to oval hyperreflective structures were detected in dogs with yeast fungal keratitis. Antifungal chemotherapy was associated with a progressive reduction in the distribution and density of corneal fungal elements, alterations to fungal morphology, decreased leukocyte numbers, restoration of epithelial layers, and an increased number of visible keratocyte nuclei. No dogs had a recurrence of fungal keratitis following medication discontinuation. Confocal microscopic fungal morphologies were similar between in vivo and ex vivo examinations. In vivo corneal confocal microscopy is a rapid method of diagnosing fungal keratitis in dogs and provides a noninvasive mechanism for monitoring therapeutic response. © 2015 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  3. Canine cutaneous leishmaniasis

    OpenAIRE

    Sasani, F.; Javanbakht, J.; Samani, R.; Shirani, D.

    2014-01-01

    Canine cutaneous leishmaniasis (CCL) is a significant veterinary problem. Infected dogs also serve as parasite reservoirs and contribute to human transmission of cutaneous leishmaniasis. Histologically, the lesions were nodular to diffuse interstitial granulomatous dermatitis with histiocytic pseudorosettes together with numerous amastigotes within macrophages and occasionally within the interstitium. Organisms were often contained within clear and intracellular vacuoles. The other inflammato...

  4. Canine lymphoma : a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zandvliet, M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304829285

    Canine lymphoma (cL) is a common type of neoplasia in dogs with an estimated incidence rate of 20-100 cases per 100,000 dogs and is in many respects comparable to non-Hodgkin lymphoma in humans. Although the exact cause is unknown, environmental factors and genetic susceptibility are thought to play

  5. Nodular Epiescleritis Granulomatous Canine. Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo Guarín Patarroyo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Granulomatous epiescleritis nodular disease in canines is a very unusual presentation that affects or external fibrous tunic of the eyeball and conjunctiva, which was an increase similar to a unilateral or bilateral tumor. Suspected immune-mediated disease due to lack of identification of an etiologic agent and the response to treatment with immunosuppressive drugs (Couto, 1992. The ideal therapy is the application of steroids via intralesional, topical or systemic, or other immunosuppressants such as cyclosporine and azathioprine; it is still advisable to apply antibiotic is the ideal combination of tetracycline and neomycin (Gilger & Whitley, 1999. The diagnostic method of episcleritis is made by histopathology, which is evident in changes similar to chronic granulomatous inflammation. Are claiming a racial bias in Alsatian, Shepherd Collie Shetland Shepherd, Coker Spaniel, Rottweiler and Labrador Retriever (Gough & Thomas, 2004. The following case is a report of a nodular epiescleritis affecting the cornea, sclera, and the corneoscleral limbus, which describes the diagnosis, signology and treatment.

  6. The cornea and disorders of lipid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barchiesi, B J; Eckel, R H; Ellis, P P

    1991-01-01

    Disorders of lipid metabolism, either hyperlipidemia or hypolipidemia, are associated with the formation of corneal opacities. Corneal arcus, the most commonly encountered peripheral corneal opacity, is frequently associated with abnormal serum lipid levels, but may occur without any predisposing factors. Reports also have linked corneal arcus with alcoholism, diabetes mellitus and atherosclerotic heart disease. Unilateral arcus is a rare entity that is associated with carotid artery disease or ocular hypotony. Diffuse corneal opacities associated with hypolipidemic disorders such as LCAT deficiency, fish eye disease and Tangier disease, may be the initial manifestation of these disorders and puts the ophthalmologist in a position to make an early diagnosis. Corneal arcus, along with a central corneal opacity, is seen in Schnyder's crystalline stromal distrophy. The association of the disorder with a dyslipidemia remains controversial. A review of lipid metabolism, corneal arcus and several disorders of lipid metabolism that affect the cornea are presented.

  7. Comparison of Scheimpflug imaging parameters between steep and keratoconic corneas of Caucasian eyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huseynova T

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Tukezban Huseynova,1 Farah Abdulaliyeva,2 Michele Lanza3 1Briz-L Eye Clinic, 2National Ophthalmology Center, Baku, Azerbaijan; 3Second University of Naples, Caserta, Campania, Italy Purpose: To compare the keratometric and pachymetric parameters of healthy eyes with those affected by steep cornea and keratoconus (KC using Scheimpflug camera.Setting: Briz-L Eye Clinic, Baku, Azerbaijan.Design: A cross-sectional study.Methods: In this study, 49 KC (Amsler–Krumeich stage 1 eyes and 36 healthy eyes were enrolled. A complete ophthalmic evaluation and a Scheimpflug camera scan were performed in every eye included in the study. Tomographic parameters such as parameters from the front and back cornea, maximum keratometry reading (Kmax, corneal volume (CV, anterior chamber volume (ChV, anterior chamber depth (ACD, anterior chamber angle (AC angle, keratometric power deviation (KPD, maximum front elevation (Max FE, and maximum back elevation (Max BE, as well as pachymetric progression indices (PPI, Ambrosio relational thickness (ART, index of surface variance (ISV, index of vertical asymmetry (IVA, center keratoconus index (CKI, index of height asymmetry (IHA, index of height decentration (IHD, and radius minimum (RM were collected and statistically compared between the two groups.Results: PPI, ART, ISV, IVA, CKI, IHA, IHD, and RM parameter values were significantly different (P<0.05 between the KC and healthy eyes. There were no significant differences in K mean and Q values of the frontal corneal parameters, as well as in Kmax, AC angle, RM, back, and front astigmatism, between stage 1 keratoconic and normal Caucasian eyes with steep cornea. All other parameters such as K mean and Q values of the back corneal parameters, Max FE, Max BE, ACD, ChV, and CV showed significant differences between the groups (P<0.05 for all. Conclusion: Scheimpflug imaging is able to detect corneal morphological differences between stage 1 KC eyes and healthy eyes with

  8. Customized Finite Element Modelling of the Human Cornea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonini, Irene; Pandolfi, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Aim To construct patient-specific solid models of human cornea from ocular topographer data, to increase the accuracy of the biomechanical and optical estimate of the changes in refractive power and stress caused by photorefractive keratectomy (PRK). Method Corneal elevation maps of five human eyes were taken with a rotating Scheimpflug camera combined with a Placido disk before and after refractive surgery. Patient-specific solid models were created and discretized in finite elements to estimate the corneal strain and stress fields in preoperative and postoperative configurations and derive the refractive parameters of the cornea. Results Patient-specific geometrical models of the cornea allow for the creation of personalized refractive maps at different levels of IOP. Thinned postoperative corneas show a higher stress gradient across the thickness and higher sensitivity of all geometrical and refractive parameters to the fluctuation of the IOP. Conclusion Patient-specific numerical models of the cornea can provide accurate quantitative information on the refractive properties of the cornea under different levels of IOP and describe the change of the stress state of the cornea due to refractive surgery (PRK). Patient-specific models can be used as indicators of feasibility before performing the surgery. PMID:26098104

  9. Customized Finite Element Modelling of the Human Cornea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Simonini

    Full Text Available To construct patient-specific solid models of human cornea from ocular topographer data, to increase the accuracy of the biomechanical and optical estimate of the changes in refractive power and stress caused by photorefractive keratectomy (PRK.Corneal elevation maps of five human eyes were taken with a rotating Scheimpflug camera combined with a Placido disk before and after refractive surgery. Patient-specific solid models were created and discretized in finite elements to estimate the corneal strain and stress fields in preoperative and postoperative configurations and derive the refractive parameters of the cornea.Patient-specific geometrical models of the cornea allow for the creation of personalized refractive maps at different levels of IOP. Thinned postoperative corneas show a higher stress gradient across the thickness and higher sensitivity of all geometrical and refractive parameters to the fluctuation of the IOP.Patient-specific numerical models of the cornea can provide accurate quantitative information on the refractive properties of the cornea under different levels of IOP and describe the change of the stress state of the cornea due to refractive surgery (PRK. Patient-specific models can be used as indicators of feasibility before performing the surgery.

  10. Customized Finite Element Modelling of the Human Cornea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonini, Irene; Pandolfi, Anna

    2015-01-01

    To construct patient-specific solid models of human cornea from ocular topographer data, to increase the accuracy of the biomechanical and optical estimate of the changes in refractive power and stress caused by photorefractive keratectomy (PRK). Corneal elevation maps of five human eyes were taken with a rotating Scheimpflug camera combined with a Placido disk before and after refractive surgery. Patient-specific solid models were created and discretized in finite elements to estimate the corneal strain and stress fields in preoperative and postoperative configurations and derive the refractive parameters of the cornea. Patient-specific geometrical models of the cornea allow for the creation of personalized refractive maps at different levels of IOP. Thinned postoperative corneas show a higher stress gradient across the thickness and higher sensitivity of all geometrical and refractive parameters to the fluctuation of the IOP. Patient-specific numerical models of the cornea can provide accurate quantitative information on the refractive properties of the cornea under different levels of IOP and describe the change of the stress state of the cornea due to refractive surgery (PRK). Patient-specific models can be used as indicators of feasibility before performing the surgery.

  11. Vaccines for canine leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palatnik-de-Sousa, Clarisa B

    2012-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is the third most important vector-borne disease worldwide. Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a severe and frequently lethal protozoan disease of increasing incidence and severity due to infected human and dog migration, new geographical distribution of the insect due to global warming, coinfection with immunosuppressive diseases, and poverty. The disease is an anthroponosis in India and Central Africa and a canid zoonosis (ZVL) in the Americas, the Middle East, Central Asia, China, and the Mediterranean. The ZVL epidemic has been controlled by one or more measures including the culling of infected dogs, treatment of human cases, and insecticidal treatment of homes and dogs. However, the use of vaccines is considered the most cost-effective control tool for human and canine disease. Since the severity of the disease is related to the generation of T-cell immunosuppression, effective vaccines should be capable of sustaining or enhancing the T-cell immunity. In this review we summarize the clinical and parasitological characteristics of ZVL with special focus on the cellular and humoral canine immune response and review state-of-the-art vaccine development against human and canine VL. Experimental vaccination against leishmaniasis has evolved from the practice of leishmanization with living parasites to vaccination with crude lysates, native parasite extracts to recombinant and DNA vaccination. Although more than 30 defined vaccines have been studied in laboratory models no human formulation has been licensed so far; however three second-generation canine vaccines have already been registered. As expected for a zoonotic disease, the recent preventive vaccination of dogs in Brazil has led to a reduction in the incidence of canine and human disease. The recent identification of several Leishmania proteins with T-cell epitopes anticipates development of a multiprotein vaccine that will be capable of protecting both humans and dogs against VL.

  12. Vaccines for canine leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarisa B. Palatnik-De-Sousa

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis is the third most important vector-borne disease worldwide. Visceral leishmaniasis (VL is a severe and frequently lethal protozoan disease of increasing incidence and severity due to infected human and dog migration, new geographical distribution of the insect due to global-warming, co-infection with immunosuppressive diseases and poverty. The disease is an anthroponosis in India and Central Africa and a canid zoonosis (ZVL in the Americas, the Middle East, Central Asia, China and the Mediterranean. The ZVL epidemic has been controlled by one or more measures including the culling of infected dogs, treatment of human cases and insecticidal treatment of homes and dogs. However, the use of vaccines is considered the most cost-effective control tool for human and canine disease. Since the severity of the disease is related to the generation of T-cell immunosuppression, effective vaccines should be capable of sustaining or enhancing the T-cell immunity. In this review we summarize the clinical and parasitological characteristics of ZVL with special focus on the cellular and humoral canine immune response and review state-of-the-art vaccine development against human and canine visceral leishmaniasis. Experimental vaccination against leishmaniasis has evolved from the practice of leishmanization with living parasites to vaccination with crude lysates, native parasite extracts to recombinant and DNA vaccination. Although more than 30 defined vaccines have been studied in laboratory models no human formulation has been licensed so far; however three second-generation canine vaccines have already been registered. As expected for a zoonotic disease, the recent preventive vaccination of dogs in Brazil has led to a reduction in the incidence of canine and human disease. The recent identification of several Leishmania proteins with T-cell epitopes anticipates development of a multiprotein vaccine that will be capable of protecting both humans

  13. Canine epilepsy genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekenstedt, Kari J; Patterson, Edward E; Mickelson, James R

    2012-02-01

    There has been much interest in utilizing the dog as a genetic model for common human diseases. Both dogs and humans suffer from naturally occurring epilepsies that share many clinical characteristics. Investigations of inherited human epilepsies have led to the discovery of several mutated genes involved in this disease; however, the vast majority of human epilepsies remain unexplained. Mouse models of epilepsy exist, including single-gene spontaneous and knockout models, but, similar to humans, other, polygenic models have been more difficult to discern. This appears to also be the case in canine epilepsy genetics. There are two forms of canine epilepsies for which gene mutations have been described to date: the progressive myoclonic epilepsies (PMEs) and idiopathic epilepsy (IE). Gene discovery in the PMEs has been more successful, with eight known genes; six of these are orthologous to corresponding human disorders, while two are novel genes that can now be used as candidates for human studies. Only one IE gene has been described in dogs, an LGI2 mutation in Lagotto Romagnolos with a focal, juvenile remitting epilepsy. This gene is also a novel candidate for human remitting childhood epilepsy studies. The majority of studies of dog breeds with IE, however, have either failed to identify any genes or loci of interest, or, as in complex mouse and human IEs, have identified multiple QTLs. There is still tremendous promise in the ongoing canine epilepsy studies, but if canine IEs prove to be as genetically complex as human and murine IEs, then deciphering the bases of these canine epilepsies will continue to be challenging.

  14. Vaccines for Canine Leishmaniasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palatnik-de-Sousa, Clarisa B.

    2012-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is the third most important vector-borne disease worldwide. Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a severe and frequently lethal protozoan disease of increasing incidence and severity due to infected human and dog migration, new geographical distribution of the insect due to global warming, coinfection with immunosuppressive diseases, and poverty. The disease is an anthroponosis in India and Central Africa and a canid zoonosis (ZVL) in the Americas, the Middle East, Central Asia, China, and the Mediterranean. The ZVL epidemic has been controlled by one or more measures including the culling of infected dogs, treatment of human cases, and insecticidal treatment of homes and dogs. However, the use of vaccines is considered the most cost–effective control tool for human and canine disease. Since the severity of the disease is related to the generation of T-cell immunosuppression, effective vaccines should be capable of sustaining or enhancing the T-cell immunity. In this review we summarize the clinical and parasitological characteristics of ZVL with special focus on the cellular and humoral canine immune response and review state-of-the-art vaccine development against human and canine VL. Experimental vaccination against leishmaniasis has evolved from the practice of leishmanization with living parasites to vaccination with crude lysates, native parasite extracts to recombinant and DNA vaccination. Although more than 30 defined vaccines have been studied in laboratory models no human formulation has been licensed so far; however three second-generation canine vaccines have already been registered. As expected for a zoonotic disease, the recent preventive vaccination of dogs in Brazil has led to a reduction in the incidence of canine and human disease. The recent identification of several Leishmania proteins with T-cell epitopes anticipates development of a multiprotein vaccine that will be capable of protecting both humans and dogs against VL. PMID:22566950

  15. [The macrophage contribution for maintaining lymphatic vessel in cornea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruyama, Kazuichi

    2014-11-01

    The presence of antigen-presenting cells and hem- and lymphangiogenesis in the cornea are risk factors for the rejection of corneal transplants. We previously reported that antigen-presenting cells such as macrophages (MPs) play an important role in the induction of lymphatic endothelial cells during inflammation. This prompted us to inquire whether the existence of lymphatic vessels in the cornea is associated with the activation of MPs during inflammation. To investigate this question, we performed suture placement on the cornea to induce inflammation. We found that a large number of MPs were recruited and that lymphatic vessels were formed in response. Next, as C57BL/6 mice have a higher rejection rate after corneal transplantation than BALB/c mice, we compared the corneas of C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice under normal and inflamed conditions. We found that the number of spontaneously formed lymphatic vessels in the C57BL/6 corneas was significantly greater than in the BALB/c corneas, and that there were more activated MPs in the C57BL/6 corneas than in the BALB/c corneas. Additionally, to confirm that activated MPs induced and maintained lymphatic vessels in the cornea, we depleted the number of MPs in C57BL/6 mice via clodronate liposomes. We found that MP depletion reduced the spontaneous formation of lymphatic vessels and reduced inflammation-induced lymphangiogenesis relative to control mice. Finally, we found that mice deficient in MP markers had fewer spontaneously formed lymphatic vessels and less lymphangiogenesis than control C57BL/6 mice. The evidence gathered in this study leads us to conclude that activated MPs appear to play an important role in the formation of new lymphatic vessels and in their maintenance.

  16. Effects on collagen orientation in the cornea after trephine injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamma-Lorger, Christina S; Hayes, Sally; Boote, Craig; Burghammer, Manfred; Boulton, Michael E; Meek, Keith M

    2009-01-01

    Structural changes are well known to occur in the cornea after injury. The aim of this study was to investigate collagen orientation changes in the cornea during a short-term wound healing process. Seven bovine corneas were injured using a penetrating 5 mm biopsy punch and were subsequently organ cultured for up to two weeks. Six uninjured corneas acted as controls. The trephine wounded samples were snap frozen in liquid nitrogen either immediately after injury (0 h) or after 1 or 2 weeks in culture. Control/uninjured samples were snap frozen on arrival (0 h) or after 1 or 2 weeks in culture. Wide angle X-ray diffraction data were collected from each cornea at the UK Synchrotron Radiation Source or at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility. Data analysis revealed information about collagen orientation and distribution in the corneal stroma during wound healing. For histology, two trephine wounded corneas at 0 h and 1 week and one control/uninjured cornea at 0 h were fixed in 10% neutral buffered formalin and processed for wax embedding. Wax sections were subsequently counterstained with haematoxylin and eosin to observe tissue morphology and the time course of complete re-epithelialization. Immediately after injury, collagen organization was altered in a small area inside the wound but remained similar to the control/uninjured sample in the remainder of the tissue. After one week, the trephine wounded corneas showed complete re-epithelialization and evidence of swelling while collagen adopted a radial arrangement inside and outside the wound. Remarkable changes in collagen fibril orientation were observed in trephine wounded corneas. Orientation changes immediately after wounding are likely to be due to the mechanical deformation of the tissue during the wounding process. However, tissue swelling and changes in collagen orientation at later stages probably reflect the processes of tissue repair. These differences will determine corneal stability and strength

  17. Simulation analysis of the transparency of cornea and sclera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chih-Yao; Tseng, Snow H.

    2017-02-01

    Both consist of collagen fibrils, sclera is opaque whereas cornea is transparent for optical wavelengths. By employing the pseudospectral time-domain (PSTD) simulation technique, we model light impinging upon cornea and sclera, respectively. To analyze the scattering characteristics of light, the cornea and sclera are modeled by different sizes and arrangements of the non-absorbing collagen fibrils. Various factors are analyzed, including the wavelength of incident light, the thickness of the scattering media, position of the collagen fibrils, size distribution of the fibrils.

  18. Biomechanical properties of the keratoconic cornea: a review

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vellara, Hans R; Patel, Dipika V

    2015-01-01

    ... ). This review discusses the effects of keratoconus on the biomechanical properties of the cornea and the current techniques used to detect these changes both in the laboratory and clinical setting...

  19. ANALYSIS OF DONOR CORNEA RETRIEVAL DATA- HOSPITAL AND RESIDENCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rekha Gyanchand

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The voluntary eye donation is still the most popular methods of eye donation in our country. Since last three decades, the voluntary eye donation is promoted by a number of NGOs and Government of India. The meaning of voluntary eye donation is that an individual has prior knowledge about eye donation and also has the contact number of the eye bank. When they come across any death in their community, they will contact the eye bank for eye donation. As per Eye Bank Association of India, the incidence of total blindness is 8.9 million and 1% of this is corneal blindness. Each year, 25,000 to 30,000/new corneal blind patients are added. The voluntary eye donation is not sufficient in providing transplantable corneas to the corneal blind. As our concentration is mainly on voluntary eye collections, this is one of the main reasons that we are unable reach our target of sight restoration in the management of corneal blindness. In this study, we have analysed the voluntary eye donations procured from residence and hospital. The aim of the study is to compare corneas procured by hospital eye donations and residence eye donations to look into all factors that contribute to a transplantable cornea. MATERIALS AND METHODS The donor corneas retrieved from the year 2005-2010 were analysed. The hospital eye donations and residential eye donations were divided into two study groups. The factors analysed were number of corneas collected, donor age and gender, serology test result, death to preservation time (DPT, optical grade cornea, utilisation of corneas for transplantation and role of pledging in eye donation. Study Type- Retrospective study. Study Done- At Lions International Eye Bank, Bangalore. RESULTS The total number of donor eyes collected from the year 2005-2010 were 7362 of which residence collections was 50.73% and hospital collections was 49.26%. The 5-year period between from 2005 to 2010 in spite of not conducting a Hospital Cornea

  20. Fibronectin promotes epithelial migration of cultured rabbit cornea in situ

    OpenAIRE

    1983-01-01

    We investigated the effect of fibronectin on epithelial migration onto the stroma in cultured rabbit cornea. Rabbit plasma fibronectin was purified by affinity chromatography using gelatin-Sepharose 4B, and its purity was confirmed by SDS polyacrylamide slab gel electrophoresis. Antibody against rabbit plasma fibronectin raised in guinea pigs formed a single precipitin line against rabbit plasma and purified rabbit plasma fibronectin by Ouchterlony double diffusion test. When rabbit cornea wa...

  1. Biomechanical Measurement of Rabbit Cornea by a Modified Scheimpflug Device

    OpenAIRE

    Bo Zhang; Jianjun Gu; Xiaoxiao Zhang; Bin Yang; Zheng Wang; Danying Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To explore the probability and variation in biomechanical measurements of rabbit cornea by a modified Scheimpflug device. Methods. A modified Scheimpflug device was developed by imaging anterior segment of the model imitating the intact eye at various posterior pressures. The eight isolated rabbit corneas were mounted on the Barron artificial chamber and images of the anterior segment were taken at posterior pressures of 15, 30, 45, 60, and 75 mmHg by the device. The repeatability an...

  2. Cryopreservation of canine embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Yasuyuki; Suwa, Yoshinori; Asano, Tomoyoshi; Ueta, Yoshiko Yanagimoto; Kobayashi, Nanae; Ohshima, Natsumi; Shirasuna, Saori; Abdel-Ghani, Mohammed Ali; Oi, Maya; Kobayashi, Yoshiyasu; Miyoshi, Masafumi; Miyahara, Kazuro; Suzuki, Hiroshi

    2011-02-01

    The assisted reproductive techniques (ARTs) such as in vitro fertilization, embryo transfer, and cryopreservation of gametes have contributed considerably to the development of biomedical sciences in addition to improving infertility treatments in humans as well as the breeding of domestic animals. However, ARTs used in canine species have strictly limited utility when compared with other mammalian species, including humans. Although successful somatic cell cloning has been reported, artificial insemination by frozen semen to date is only available for the improved breeding and reproduction for companion and working dogs as well as guide dogs for the blind. We describe here the successful cryopreservation of embryos and subsequent embryo transfer in dogs. Canine embryos were collected from excised reproductive organs after artificial insemination and subsequently cryopreserved by a vitrification method. When the 4-cell to morula stage of cryopreserved embryos were nonsurgically transferred into the uteri of nine recipient bitches using a cystoscope, five recipients became pregnant and four of them delivered a total of seven pups. The cryopreservation of embryos in canine species will facilitate the transportation and storage of genetic materials and will aid in the elimination of vertically transmitted diseases in dogs. In addition, this technique will contribute to the improved breeding of companion and working dogs such as guide dogs, drug-detecting dogs, and quarantine dogs.

  3. Experimental allogenic transplantation of cornea endothelial cells in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiełbowicz, Z; Kuryszko, J; Strzadała, L

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study was assessing the possibility of experimental allogenic transplantation of cat cornea endothelial cells, multiplied in vitro, into the anterior chamber of the eyeball in recipient cats. The reason for undertaking the research is the need to develop a method that would help in the cornea treatment in animals with corneal opacification following cataract surgery, as well as lens dislocation, injuries and endothelium degeneration. Cats aged 10-12 months were used in the experiment. Cornea fragments consisting of the posterior limiting membrane and posterior epithelium were placed in Iscove's medium with addition of 10% foetal calf serum. Multiplied in vitro cells were injected into the anterior chamber of recipient cats. The cornea was subject to histological, histometric and SEM examination on the 3rd, 7th, 20th and 30th day after the surgery. Micromorphological examination of the cornea showed full restitution of its endothelium 30 days after transplantation. Complete regeneration of structures indispensable for normal functioning of the posterior epithelium occurred as a result of implantation. In this study the results show that implantation of the cells of posterior corneal epithelium of donor cats, multiplied into vitro and injected into the anterior chamber of recipient cats. The cornea regained its full function, the layer of the posterior epithelium was regenerated and the stroma stabilized, presenting the image of full and proper corneal translucency.

  4. Extracellular matrix alterations in human corneas with bullous keratopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ljubimov, A V; Burgeson, R E; Butkowski, R J; Couchman, J R; Wu, R R; Ninomiya, Y; Sado, Y; Maguen, E; Nesburn, A B; Kenney, M C

    1996-05-01

    To uncover abnormalities of extracellular matrix (ECM) distribution in human corneas with pseudophakic and aphakic bullous keratopathy (PBK/ABK). Indirect immunofluorescence with antibodies to 27 ECM components was used on frozen sections of 14 normal and 20 PBK/ABK corneas. Fibrillar deposits of an antiadhesive glycoprotein tenascin in the anterior and posterior stroma, epithelial basement membrane (BM), bullae and subepithelial fibrosis (SEF) areas, and posterior collagenous layer (PCL) were revealed in disease corneas. Tenascin in midstroma, which was observed in some cases, correlated with decreased visual acuity. In normal central corneas, tenascin was never found. Other major ECM abnormalities in PBK/ABK corneas compared to normals included: discontinuous epithelial BM straining for laminin-1 (alpha 1 beta 1 gamma 1), entactin/nidogen and fibronectin; accumulation of fibronectin and alpha 1-alpha 2 type IV collagen on the endothelial face of the Descemet's membrane; and abnormal deposition of stromal ECM (tenascin, fibronectin, decorin, types I, III, V, VI, VIII, XII, XIV collagen) and BM components (type IV, collagen, perlecan, bamacan, laminin-1, entactin-nidogen, fibronectin) in SEF areas and in PCL. The study provides a molecular description of an ongoing fibrosis on the epithelial, stomal, and endothelial levels in PBK/ABK corneas. These fibrotic changes may follow initial endothelial damage after cataract surgery, may be caused by the upregulation of fibrogenic cytokines, and may play a significant role in the progression of bullous keratopathy.

  5. Biocompatibility of a fish scale-derived artificial cornea: Cytotoxicity, cellular adhesion and phenotype, and in vivo immunogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Essen, T H; van Zijl, L; Possemiers, T; Mulder, A A; Zwart, S J; Chou, C-H; Lin, C C; Lai, H J; Luyten, G P M; Tassignon, M J; Zakaria, N; El Ghalbzouri, A; Jager, M J

    2016-03-01

    To determine whether a fish scale-derived collagen matrix (FSCM) meets the basic criteria to serve as an artificial cornea, as determined with in vitro and in vivo tests. Primary corneal epithelial and stromal cells were obtained from human donor corneas and used to examine the (in)direct cytotoxicity effects of the scaffold. Cytotoxicity was assessed by an MTT assay, while cellular proliferation, corneal cell phenotype and adhesion markers were assessed using an EdU-assay and immunofluorescence. For in vivo-testing, FSCMs were implanted subcutaneously in rats. Ologen(®) Collagen Matrices were used as controls. A second implant was implanted as an immunological challenge. The FSCM was implanted in a corneal pocket of seven New Zealand White rabbits, and compared to sham surgery. The FSCM was used as a scaffold to grow corneal epithelial and stromal cells, and displayed no cytotoxicity to these cells. Corneal epithelial cells displayed their normal phenotypical markers (CK3/12 and E-cadherin), as well as cell-matrix adhesion molecules: integrin-α6 and β4, laminin 332, and hemi-desmosomes. Corneal stromal cells similarly expressed adhesion molecules (integrin-α6 and β1). A subcutaneous implant of the FSCM in rats did not induce inflammation or sensitization; the response was comparable to the response against the Ologen(®) Collagen Matrix. Implantation of the FSCM in a corneal stromal pocket in rabbits led to a transparent cornea, healthy epithelium, and, on histology, hardly any infiltrating immune cells. The FSCM allows excellent cell growth, is not immunogenic and is well-tolerated in the cornea, and thus meets the basic criteria to serve as a scaffold to reconstitute the cornea. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Collagen cross-linking in thin corneas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prema Padmanabhan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Collagen cross-linking (CXL has become the standard of care for progressive keratoconus, after numerous clinical studies have established its efficacy and safety in suitably selected eyes. The standard protocol is applicable in eyes which have a minimum corneal thickness of 400 μm after epithelial debridement. This prerequisite was stipulated to protect the corneal endothelium and intraocular tissues from the deleterious effect of ultraviolet-A (UVA radiation. However, patients with keratoconus often present with corneal thickness of less than 400 μm and could have otherwise benefited from this procedure. A few modifications of the standard procedure have been suggested to benefit these patients without a compromise in safety. Transepithelial cross-linking, pachymetry-guided epithelial debridement before cross-linking, and the use of hypoosmolar riboflavin are some of the techniques that have been attempted. Although clinical data is limited at the present time, these techniques are worth considering in patients with thin corneas. Further studies are needed to scientifically establish their efficacy and safety.

  7. Collagen cross-linking in thin corneas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padmanabhan, Prema; Dave, Abhishek

    2013-01-01

    Collagen cross-linking (CXL) has become the standard of care for progressive keratoconus, after numerous clinical studies have established its efficacy and safety in suitably selected eyes. The standard protocol is applicable in eyes which have a minimum corneal thickness of 400 μm after epithelial debridement. This prerequisite was stipulated to protect the corneal endothelium and intraocular tissues from the deleterious effect of ultraviolet-A (UVA) radiation. However, patients with keratoconus often present with corneal thickness of less than 400 μm and could have otherwise benefited from this procedure. A few modifications of the standard procedure have been suggested to benefit these patients without a compromise in safety. Transepithelial cross-linking, pachymetry-guided epithelial debridement before cross-linking, and the use of hypoosmolar riboflavin are some of the techniques that have been attempted. Although clinical data is limited at the present time, these techniques are worth considering in patients with thin corneas. Further studies are needed to scientifically establish their efficacy and safety. PMID:23925328

  8. Comparative Gene Expression Profiling Identifies Common Molecular Signatures of NF-κB Activation in Canine and Human Diffuse Large B Cell Lymphoma (DLBCL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudaliar, Manikhandan A. V.; Haggart, Ross D.; Miele, Gino; Sellar, Grant; Tan, Karen A. L.; Goodlad, John R.; Milne, Elspeth; Vail, David M.; Kurzman, Ilene

    2013-01-01

    We present the first comparison of global transcriptional changes in canine and human diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), with particular reference to the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) pathway. Microarray data generated from canine DLBCL and normal lymph nodes were used for differential expression, co-expression and pathway analyses, and compared with analysis of microarray data from human healthy and DLBCL lymph nodes. The comparisons at gene level were performed by mapping the probesets in canine microarrays to orthologous genes in humans and vice versa. A considerable number of differentially expressed genes between canine lymphoma and healthy lymph node samples were also found differentially expressed between human DLBCL and healthy lymph node samples. Principal component analysis using a literature-derived NF-κB target gene set mapped to orthologous canine array probesets and human array probesets clearly separated the healthy and cancer samples in both datasets. The analysis demonstrated that for both human and canine DLBCL there is activation of the NF-κB/p65 canonical pathway, indicating that canine lymphoma could be used as a model to study NF-κB-targeted therapeutics for human lymphoma. To validate this, tissue arrays were generated for canine and human NHL and immunohistochemistry was employed to assess NF-κB activation status. In addition, human and canine B-cell lymphoma lines were assessed for NF-κB activity and the effects of NF-κB inhibition. PMID:24023754

  9. Comparative gene expression profiling identifies common molecular signatures of NF-κB activation in canine and human diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manikhandan A V Mudaliar

    Full Text Available We present the first comparison of global transcriptional changes in canine and human diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL, with particular reference to the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB pathway. Microarray data generated from canine DLBCL and normal lymph nodes were used for differential expression, co-expression and pathway analyses, and compared with analysis of microarray data from human healthy and DLBCL lymph nodes. The comparisons at gene level were performed by mapping the probesets in canine microarrays to orthologous genes in humans and vice versa. A considerable number of differentially expressed genes between canine lymphoma and healthy lymph node samples were also found differentially expressed between human DLBCL and healthy lymph node samples. Principal component analysis using a literature-derived NF-κB target gene set mapped to orthologous canine array probesets and human array probesets clearly separated the healthy and cancer samples in both datasets. The analysis demonstrated that for both human and canine DLBCL there is activation of the NF-κB/p65 canonical pathway, indicating that canine lymphoma could be used as a model to study NF-κB-targeted therapeutics for human lymphoma. To validate this, tissue arrays were generated for canine and human NHL and immunohistochemistry was employed to assess NF-κB activation status. In addition, human and canine B-cell lymphoma lines were assessed for NF-κB activity and the effects of NF-κB inhibition.

  10. Bilateral supernumerary primary maxillary canines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santanu Mukhopadhyay

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Supernumerary teeth are more common in the permanent than in primary dentition. In the primary dentition, the anomaly is most frequently observed in the maxillary lateral incisor region, followed by the maxillary midline where they are termed as mesiodens. Supernumerary teeth in the primary canine region are rare. This paper describes a rare case of nonsyndromic supernumerary primary maxillary canine distributed bilaterally in a 4-year-old boy. Both the supernumeraries resembled size and shape of normal primary canine. The right supplemental canine is high labially placed, whereas the left one is seen normally aligned in the dental arch distal to lateral incisor. One of the most significant sequelae of primary supernumerary teeth is their duplication in the permanent series. Radiographic examination of supernumerary primary canine did not indicate any such anomaly in the permanent dentition. The patient was kept under observation.

  11. Portable light transmission measuring system for preserved corneas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Jesus Gabriel

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The authors have developed a small portable device for the objective measurement of the transparency of corneas stored in preservative medium, for use by eye banks in evaluation prior to transplantation. Methods The optical system consists of a white light, lenses, and pinholes that collimate the white light beams and illuminate the cornea in its preservative medium, and an optical filter (400–700 nm that selects the range of the wavelength of interest. A sensor detects the light that passes through the cornea, and the average corneal transparency is displayed. In order to obtain only the tissue transparency, an electronic circuit was built to detect a baseline input of the preservative medium prior to the measurement of corneal transparency. The operation of the system involves three steps: adjusting the "0 %" transmittance of the instrument, determining the "100 %" transmittance of the system, and finally measuring the transparency of the preserved cornea inside the storage medium. Results Fifty selected corneas were evaluated. Each cornea was submitted to three evaluation methods: subjective classification of transparency through a slit lamp, quantification of the transmittance of light using a corneal spectrophotometer previously developed, and measurement of transparency with the portable device. Conclusion By comparing the three methods and using the expertise of eye bank trained personnel, a table for quantifying corneal transparency with the new device has been developed. The correlation factor between the corneal spectrophotometer and the new device is 0,99813, leading to a system that is able to standardize transparency measurements of preserved corneas, which is currently done subjectively.

  12. [Investigation of the biomechanical properties of the cornea in patients with normotensive and primary open-angle glaucoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avetisov, S E; Bubnova, I A; Antonov, A A

    2008-01-01

    The biomechanical properties of the cornea were studied by bidirectional applanation in a control group of healthy individuals and in patients with normotensive and primary open-angle glaucoma. The studies were performed before and after use of antihypertensive drugs. Static perimetric findings were used to evaluate the stabilization of a glaucomatous process. Elevated intraocular pressure was found to be attended by a lower corneal hysteresis-corneal resistance factor ratio. Lowered intraocular pressure resulted in increases in corneal hysteresis and the ratio up to the normal values, which was accompanied by visual field stabilization. An investigation of the biomechanical properties of the cornea and keratopachymetrium should be included into a complex of examination and monitoring of patients with normotensive and primary open-angle glaucoma since hypodiagnosis of elevated intraocular pressure may be due to the possible effect of corneal properties on tonometric parameters.

  13. Tarsorrhaphy: clinical experience from a cornea practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosar, C B; Cohen, E J; Rapuano, C J; Maus, M; Penne, R P; Flanagan, J C; Laibson, P R

    2001-11-01

    To evaluate indications, success rate, and complications of tarsorrhaphy in a cohort of cornea and external disease patients. In this study, charts of patients who underwent tarsorrhaphies from January 1, 1995, to September 30, 2000, were retrospectively evaluated. Information reviewed included patient age and sex, indication for tarsorrhaphy, duration of signs and symptoms before tarsorrhaphy, time to epithelial healing after tarsorrhaphy, type of tarsorrhaphy (temporary/permanent), complications, timing of tarsorrhaphy removal, recurrence of signs and symptoms after complete or partial opening of the tarsorrhaphy, number of tarsorrhaphies needed to be replaced or extended, and duration of follow up. Seventy-seven patients were included in this study. Indications for a tarsorrhaphy were persistent epithelial defects or other ocular surface problems associated with neurotrophic ulcers, penetrating keratoplasty (PK), postinfection, exposure keratopathy, surgery other than PK, dry eye syndrome, radiation keratopathy, ocular cicatricial pemphigoid, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, entropion, and application of tissue adhesive. The epithelial defects in 70 (90.9%) of the 77 eyes completely resolved. Overall, the mean duration of signs and symptoms before tarsorrhaphy was 89.8 +/- 27.8 days, and time-to-healing after tarsorrhaphy was 18.0 +/- 2.0 days. The difference between the duration of the signs and symptoms before tarsorrhaphy and time-to-healing after tarsorrhaphy was statistically significant ( p = 0.01). Of the 77 tarsorrhaphies, 24 (31.2%) were temporary and 53 (68.8%) were permanent. Complications after tarsorrhaphy included trichiasis, adhesion between upper and lower lids after tarsorrhaphy lysis, premature opening of the temporary tarsorrhaphy, pyogenic granuloma, and keloid formation of the eyelid. Tarsorrhaphy is a very effective and safe procedure in the management of nonhealing epithelial defects and other surface problems, with a 90.9% success rate and only

  14. Effect of genipin collagen crosslinking on porcine corneas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila, Marcel Y; Navia, José L

    2010-04-01

    To evaluate the effect of genipin, a natural crosslinker, on porcine corneas. Department of Ophthalmology, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogota, Colombia. Corneal strips (12.0 mm x 2.3 mm) were harvested from porcine eyes and treated by incubation with genipin at concentrations of 1.00%, 0.25%, and 0.10%. Parallel corneal strips from the same eye were used as untreated controls. After treatment at 20 degrees C for 40 minutes, tensile strain measurements were performed in a biomaterial tester. Porcine button corneas were treated with genipin 0.25% for 15 minutes and then digested by bacterial collagenase. Treated and untreated corneas were evaluated by light microscopy. Young modulus and stiffness in treated corneas increased in a concentration-dependent manner. Genipin increased resistance to corneal collagenase 5-fold in comparison with the controls. A decrease in the interlamellar space in treated corneas was also observed. Corneal collagen crosslinking induced with genipin produced a significant increase in biomechanical strength and resistance to bacterial collagenase. This crosslinker could be useful in treating corneal ectasia and corneal infectious and noninfectious diseases involving corneal melting. Copyright (c) 2010 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. A study on the prevalence of dog erythrocyte antigen 1.1 and detection of canine Babesia by polymerase chain reaction from apparently healthy dogs in a selected rural community in Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhliwayo, Solomon; Makonese, Tariro A; Whittall, Belinda; Chikerema, Silvester M; Pfukenyi, Davies M; Tivapasi, Musavenga T

    2016-10-26

    A study was carried out to determine the prevalence of blood group antigen dog erythrocyte antigen (DEA) 1.1 in mixed breed dogs in rural Chinamhora, Zimbabwe. DEA 1.1 is clinically the most important canine blood group as it is the most antigenic blood type; hence, DEA 1.1 antibodies are capable of causing acute haemolytic, potentially life-threatening transfusion reactions. In this study, blood samples were collected from 100 dogs in Chinamhora, and blood typing was carried out using standardised DEA 1.1 typing strips with monoclonal anti-DEA 1.1 antibodies (Alvedia® LAB DEA 1.1 test kits). Polymerase chain reaction for detecting Babesia spp. antigen was carried out on 58 of the samples. Of the 100 dogs, 78% were DEA 1.1 positive and 22% were DEA 1.1 negative. A significantly (p = 0.02) higher proportion of females (90.5%) were DEA 1.1 positive than males (69.0%). The probability of sensitisation of recipient dogs following first-time transfusion of untyped or unmatched blood was 17.2%, and an approximately 3% (2.95%) probability of an acute haemolytic reaction following a second incompatible transfusion was found. Babesia spp. antigen was found in 6.9% of the samples. No significant relationship (χ2 = 0.56, p = 0.45) was found between DEA 1.1 positivity and Babesia spp. antigen presence. Despite a low probability of haemolysis after a second incompatibility transfusion, the risk remains present and should not be ignored. Hence, where possible, blood typing for DEA 1.1 is recommended. A survey of DEA 3, 4, 5 and 7 in various breeds is also recommended.

  16. A study on the prevalence of dog erythrocyte antigen 1.1 and detection of canine Babesia by polymerase chain reaction from apparently healthy dogs in a selected rural community in Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solomon Dhliwayo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A study was carried out to determine the prevalence of blood group antigen dog erythrocyte antigen (DEA 1.1 in mixed breed dogs in rural Chinamhora, Zimbabwe. DEA 1.1 is clinically the most important canine blood group as it is the most antigenic blood type; hence, DEA 1.1 antibodies are capable of causing acute haemolytic, potentially life-threatening transfusion reactions. In this study, blood samples were collected from 100 dogs in Chinamhora, and blood typing was carried out using standardised DEA 1.1 typing strips with monoclonal anti–DEA 1.1 antibodies (Alvedia® LAB DEA 1.1 test kits. Polymerase chain reaction for detecting Babesia spp. antigen was carried out on 58 of the samples. Of the 100 dogs, 78% were DEA 1.1 positive and 22% were DEA 1.1 negative. A significantly (p = 0.02 higher proportion of females (90.5% were DEA 1.1 positive than males (69.0%. The probability of sensitisation of recipient dogs following first-time transfusion of untyped or unmatched blood was 17.2%, and an approximately 3% (2.95% probability of an acute haemolytic reaction following a second incompatible transfusion was found. Babesia spp. antigen was found in 6.9% of the samples. No significant relationship (χ2 = 0.56, p = 0.45 was found between DEA 1.1 positivity and Babesia spp. antigen presence. Despite a low probability of haemolysis after a second incompatibility transfusion, the risk remains present and should not be ignored. Hence, where possible, blood typing for DEA 1.1 is recommended. A survey of DEA 3, 4, 5 and 7 in various breeds is also recommended.

  17. Canine spinal cord glioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rissi, Daniel R; Barber, Renee; Burnum, Annabelle; Miller, Andrew D

    2017-01-01

    Spinal cord glioma is uncommonly reported in dogs. We describe the clinicopathologic and diagnostic features of 7 cases of canine spinal cord glioma and briefly review the veterinary literature on this topic. The median age at presentation was 7.2 y. Six females and 1 male were affected and 4 dogs were brachycephalic. The clinical course lasted from 3 d to 12 wk, and clinical signs were progressive and associated with multiple suspected neuroanatomic locations in the spinal cord. Magnetic resonance imaging of 6 cases revealed T2-weighted hyperintense lesions with variable contrast enhancement in the spinal cord. All dogs had a presumptive clinical diagnosis of intraparenchymal neoplasia or myelitis based on history, advanced imaging, and cerebrospinal fluid analysis. Euthanasia was elected in all cases because of poor outcome despite anti-inflammatory or immunosuppressive treatment or because of poor prognosis at the time of diagnosis. Tumor location during autopsy ranged from C1 to L6, with no clear predilection for a specific spinal cord segment. The diagnosis was based on histopathology and the immunohistochemistry expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein, oligodendrocyte lineage transcription factor 2, 2',3'-cyclic-nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase, neuron-specific enolase, synaptophysin, and Ki-67. Diagnoses consisted of 4 cases of oligodendroglioma, 2 cases of gliomatosis cerebri, and 1 astrocytoma. This case series further defines the clinicopathologic features of canine spinal glioma and highlights the need for comprehensive immunohistochemistry in addition to routine histopathology to confirm the diagnosis of these tumors.

  18. Risk factors for donor cornea contamination: retrospective analysis of 4546 procured corneas in a single eye bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linke, Stephan J; Fricke, Otto H; Eddy, Mau-Thek; Bednarz, Jürgen; Druchkiv, Vasyl; Kaulfers, Paul-Michael; Wulff, Birgit; Püschel, Klaus; Richard, Gisbert; Hellwinkel, Olaf J C

    2013-02-01

    Microbiological contamination is a common cause for elimination of organ-cultured donor corneas. The aims of the present study were to analyze contamination rates and identify risk factors for contamination. Retrospectively, the contamination rates of 4546 organ-cultured corneas and the causative species were studied. The impact of sex, age, death-to-explantation interval, explantation technique, cause of death, and mean monthly temperature on contamination rate was analyzed. The median annual contamination rate was 5.3% (range: 3%-19%). Most contaminations were of fungal origin (61.9%), with Candida species (45%) being predominant. Bacterial contaminations (34.4%) were dominated by Staphylococcus species (12.8%). Sex, donor age, and mean monthly temperature had no statistically significant influence on the contamination rate. The median death-to-explantation interval of contaminated corneas (44 hours) was longer than that of sterile corneas (39 hours; P < 0.001; n = 4437). Cardiopulmonary failure was associated with the highest contamination rate (13.6%) of all death causes. The switch from whole globe to in situ excision was followed by a temporary increase in contamination rate (12.5%-19.4%). Although the genesis of donor cornea contamination seems to be multifactorial, resident species from physiological skin flora are the main contaminants indicating that the donor corpses could be the main source of microbiological contamination. A change in the explantation technique was followed by an increase in the contamination rate.

  19. Estimation of surface wave propagation in mouse cornea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manapuram, Ravi Kiran; Menodiado, Floredes M.; Truong, Phiet; Aglyamov, Salavat; Emelianov, Stanislav; Twa, Michael; Larin, Kirill V.

    2012-03-01

    In this paper, we report the use of phase stabilized swept source optical coherence tomography (PhSSSOCT) for the measurement of surface mechanical wave propagation in ocular tissue in-situ. Mechanical wave propagation was measured in the mouse cornea for both young and older mice to assess tissue properties as a function of age. The measurements were performed by inducing low amplitude (cornea and 0.37 μm/mm for 9 month old mice (and presumably of different stiffness for 1 month and 9 months old). Results also suggest that PhS-SSOCT is capable of measuring the changes in the wave amplitude as small as 0.03 μm (limited by the phase stability of the system) that allowed the measurements with a very low amplitude excitation wave, thus making the method minimally invasive. Therefore, this method could potentially be used to assess tissue biomechanical properties and to reconstruct stiffness maps of the cornea.

  20. Coryneform bacteria associated with canine otitis externa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aalbæk, Bent; Bemis, David A; Schjærff, Mette; Kania, Stephen A; Frank, Linda A; Guardabassi, Luca

    2010-10-26

    This study aims to investigate the occurrence of coryneform bacteria in canine otitis externa. A combined case series and case-control study was carried out to improve the current knowledge on frequency and clinical significance of coryneform bacteria in samples from canine otitis externa. A total of 16 cases of otitis externa with involvement of coryneform bacteria were recorded at two referral veterinary hospitals in Denmark and the US, respectively. Coryneform bacteria were identified by partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Corynebacterium auriscanis was the most common coryneform species (10 cases). Small colony variants of this species were also observed. Other coryneform isolates were identified as Corynebacterium amycolatum (3 cases), Corynebacterium freneyi (2 cases) and an Arcanobacterium-like species (1 case). The coryneform bacteria were in all cases isolated together with other bacteria, mainly Staphylococcus pseudintermedius alone (n=5) or in combination with Malassezia pachydermatis (n=5). Some coryneform isolates displayed resistance to fusidic acid or enrofloxacin, two antimicrobial agents commonly used for the treatment of otitis externa in dogs. The frequency of isolation of coryneform bacteria was 16% among 55 cases of canine otitis externa examined at the Danish hospital during 2007. In contrast, detectable levels of coryneform bacteria were not demonstrated in samples from the acustic meatus of 35 dogs with apparently healthy ears, attending the hospital during the same year. On basis of the current knowledge, these coryneform bacteria should be regarded as potential secondary pathogens able to proliferate in the environment of an inflamed ear canal. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Optimal use of donor corneal tissue: one cornea for two recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Namrata; Agarwal, Prakashchand; Titiyal, Jeewan S; Kumar, Chandrashekhar; Sinha, Rajesh; Vajpayee, Rasik B

    2011-10-01

    To evaluate the feasibility, safety, and efficacy of the use of 1 donor cornea for 2 recipients who required anterior lamellar and posterior lamellar keratoplasties, respectively. Twelve eyes with anterior corneal stromal pathology and 12 eyes with irreversible endothelial dysfunction were evaluated for transplant surgery at a tertiary eye care referral center. Twelve healthy donor corneas were split into 2 parts, that is, anterior lamellar button (350-μm-thick) and posterior lamellar button (150-μm-thick) using a microkeratome (Moria, Antony, France). The anterior lamellar button was used to perform automated lamellar therapeutic keratoplasty in 12 eyes, and the posterior lamellar button was used to undertake Descemet stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty in 12 eyes. The parameters evaluated were feasibility of the procedure, intraoperative and postoperative complications, if any, and visual outcome. It was possible to use 12 donor tissues for 24 patients as envisaged. No intraoperative or postoperative complications were observed. In the automated lamellar therapeutic keratoplasty group, 83.3% (10 of 12) of patients achieved a best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) of >20/60, and in the Descemet stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty group 75% (9 of 12) of patients achieved a BCVA of >20/60. Our study demonstrates that 1 donor corneal tissue can be successfully used for 2 patients as a routine practice with appropriate and optimal case selection. Such techniques may help to reduce the magnitude of corneal blindness in developing countries where there are shortages of donor corneal tissue.

  2. The biomechanical properties of the cornea in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazici, A T; Kara, N; Yüksel, K; Altinkaynak, H; Baz, O; Bozkurt, E; Demirok, A

    2011-08-01

    PUPOSE: The purpose of this study was to compare the biomechanical properties of the cornea and intraocular pressure (IOP) between patients with systemic lupus erythematosis (SLE) and age-matched controls. In this prospective study, 30 healthy individuals (control group) and 30 patients with SLE (study group) underwent Reichert ocular response analyzer (ORA) measurements. In the right eye of each participant, the corneal hysteresis (CH), corneal resistance factor (CRF), and Goldman-related IOP (IOPg) were recorded using the ORA. Mean CH, CRF, IOPg were significantly different between groups. Mean CH was 10.2 ± 0.6 mm Hg in the study group and 11.3 ± 1.3 in the control group (P=0.02); mean CRF was 9.7 ± 1.1 mm Hg and 11.9 ± 1.5 mm Hg, respectively (P=0.001). Mean IOP(g) was 13.9 ± 2.9 mm Hg in the study group and 16.9 ± 2.6 mm Hg in the control group (P=0.001). The biomechanical properties of the cornea are altered in patients with SLE compared with normal controls. These findings should be taken into account when measuring IOP values in patients with SLE as IOP readings may be underestimated in SLE eyes.

  3. NCR1 Expression Identifies Canine Natural Killer Cell Subsets with Phenotypic Similarity to Human Natural Killer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Ann Foltz

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Canines spontaneously develop many cancers similar to humans - including osteosarcoma, leukemia, and lymphoma - offering the opportunity to study immune therapies in a genetically heterogeneous and immunocompetent environment. However, a lack of antibodies recognizing canine NK cell markers has resulted in suboptimal characterization and unknown purity of NK cell products, hindering the development of canine models of NK cell adoptive immunotherapy. To this end, we generated a novel antibody to canine NCR1 (NKp46, the putative species-wide marker of NK cells, enabling purification of NK cells for further characterization. We demonstrate that CD3-/NKp46+ cells in healthy and osteosarcoma-bearing canines have phenotypic similarity to human CD3-/NKp46+ NK cells, expressing mRNA for CD16 and the natural cytotoxicity receptors NKp30, NKp44, and NKp80. Functionally, we demonstrate with the calcein release assay that canine CD3-/NKp46+ cells kill canine tumor cell lines without prior sensitization and secrete IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-8, IL-10, and GM-CSF as measured by Luminex. Like human NK cells, CD3-/NKp46+ cells expand rapidly on feeder cells expressing 4-1BBL and membrane-bound IL-21 (median= 20,283-fold in 21 days. Further, we identify a minor Null population (CD3-/CD21-/CD14-/NKp46- with reduced cytotoxicity against osteosarcoma cells, but similar cytokine secretion as CD3-/NKp46+ cells. Null cells in canines and humans have reduced expression of NKG2D, NKp44, and CD16 compared to NKp46+ NK cells, and can be induced to express NKp46 with further expansion on feeder cells. In conclusion, we have identified and characterized canine NK cells, including an NKp46- subset of canine and human NK cells, using a novel anti-canine NKp46 antibody, and report robust ex vivo expansion of canine NK cells sufficient for adoptive immunotherapy.

  4. Morphological and Biochemical Analysis of Intact and Opaque Cornea in Dogs

    OpenAIRE

    HIROOKA, Masamitsu; Igarashi, Osamu; NAGAYASU, Aya; MINAGUCHI, Jyun; HOSAKA, , Yoshinao Z.; UEDA, Hiromi; TANGKAWATTANA, Prasarn; TAKEHANA, Kazushige

    2010-01-01

    The arrangement of collagen fibrils and glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) in substantia propria are important for maintaining transparency of the cornea. Interferences in collagen fibrils and GAG production could be adversative to corneal integrity. In this study, six dogs consisting of four Beagles with normal cornea (normal), one Beagles with opaque cornea (sample No.1) and one Shih Tzu with neovascularization opaque cornea (sample No.2) were used. All samples were observed morphologically by light...

  5. Localization of collagen type VIII in normal and pathological human cornea

    OpenAIRE

    Zenklová, Kateřina

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this work was to localize collagen type VIII in different layers of the cornea and to compare it's localization in normal corneas with pathological corneas obtained from patients with Fuchs endothelial dystrophy, posterior polymorphous dystrophy or keratoconus.The only comercially available antibody did not proove sufficient specifiky for collagen type VIII. With use of the antibody 9H3 anti alCVIII was collagen VIII evidenced in the cornea. This antibody can be used for detection ...

  6. Eating Healthy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Topics Eating Healthy Eating Healthy Contact Us Resources Eating Healthy Eating healthy is part of living a healthy life. Healthy eating is a responsibility of our communities, schools, clinics, ...

  7. Novel micelle carriers for cyclosporin A topical ocular delivery: in vivo cornea penetration, ocular distribution and efficacy studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Tommaso, Claudia; Bourges, Jean-Louis; Valamanesh, Fatemeh; Trubitsyn, Gregory; Torriglia, Alicia; Jeanny, Jean-Claude; Behar-Cohen, Francine; Gurny, Robert; Möller, Michael

    2012-06-01

    animals. The success rate of cornea graft transplantation was 73% in treated animals against 25% for the control group. This result was as good as observed for a systemic CsA treatment in the same animal model. This new formulation has the same efficacy like a systemic treatment but without the serious CsA systemic side effects. Ocular drug levels of transplanted and healthy rat eyes were dosed by UPLC/MS and showed a high CsA value in the cornea (11710 ± 7530 ng(CsA)/g(tissue) and 6470 ± 1730 ng(CsA)/g(tissue), respectively). In conclusion, the applied formulation has the capacity to overcome the ocular surface barriers, the micelles formed a drug reservoir in the cornea from, where a sustained release of CsA can take place. This novel formulation for topical application of CsA is clearly an effective and well-tolerated alternative to the systemic treatment for the prevention of corneal graft rejection. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. File list: ALL.Oth.05.AllAg.Cornea [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Oth.05.AllAg.Cornea mm9 All antigens Others Cornea SRX437637,SRX437636,SRX24830...2,SRX248301,SRX437638 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Oth.05.AllAg.Cornea.bed ...

  9. File list: ALL.Oth.20.AllAg.Cornea [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Oth.20.AllAg.Cornea mm9 All antigens Others Cornea SRX437637,SRX437636,SRX24830...2,SRX248301,SRX437638 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Oth.20.AllAg.Cornea.bed ...

  10. File list: ALL.Oth.50.AllAg.Cornea [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Oth.50.AllAg.Cornea mm9 All antigens Others Cornea SRX437637,SRX437636,SRX24830...2,SRX248301,SRX437638 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Oth.50.AllAg.Cornea.bed ...

  11. File list: ALL.Oth.10.AllAg.Cornea [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Oth.10.AllAg.Cornea mm9 All antigens Others Cornea SRX437637,SRX248302,SRX43763...6,SRX248301,SRX437638 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Oth.10.AllAg.Cornea.bed ...

  12. Canine cutaneous leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasani, F; Javanbakht, J; Samani, R; Shirani, D

    2016-03-01

    Canine cutaneous leishmaniasis (CCL) is a significant veterinary problem. Infected dogs also serve as parasite reservoirs and contribute to human transmission of cutaneous leishmaniasis. Histologically, the lesions were nodular to diffuse interstitial granulomatous dermatitis with histiocytic pseudorosettes together with numerous amastigotes within macrophages and occasionally within the interstitium. Organisms were often contained within clear and intracellular vacuoles. The other inflammatory cells, which were present in the biopsies of the Leishmania-infected dog, were lymphocytes and plasma cells. The histopathology results emphasized the role of dog, particularly asymptomatic dog, as reservoirs for CCL because of the high cutaneous parasite loads. These results may help to explain the maintenance of high transmission rates and numbers of CCL cases in endemic urban regions.

  13. Root Length and Anatomy of Impacted Maxillary Canines in Patients with Unilateral Maxillary Canine Impaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostfa Shahabi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Canine impaction is a common occurrence. In this study, we sought to investigate the root anatomy and length of impacted canines and lateral incisor adjacent to impacted maxillary canine. Materials and Methods: In this retrospective study, three-dimensional tomographic imaging was performed on 26 patients with unilateral maxillary canine impaction. In this study, we evaluated root length and anatomy of impacted canines, in terms of resorption intensity and curvature, with Planmeca Romexis Viewer 4.0. Furthermore, crown shape as well as root length and anatomy of the lateral incisors adjacent to impacted canines were investigated and compared with the other side on the dental arch, where canine eruption was normal. Results: Root length of impacted canines was significantly lower than that of normal canines (P=0.011. There were no significant differences between root length of lateral incisors adjacent to impacted canines and root length of lateral incisors adjacent to normal canines (P=0.221. Moreover, the resorption intensity of the adjacent lateral incisors was higher than that of the impacted canines. No significant differences were noted in root resorption intensity between the lateral incisors adjacent to the imacted canines and the lateral incisors adjacent to normal canines (P=0.36. In addition, resorption intensity was significantly higher in impacted canines than in normal canines (P=0.024. Root anatomy of impacted canines was not significantly different from that of normal canines (P=0.055. The crown shape of the lateral incisors adjacent to impacted canines was not significantly different from that of the lateral incisors adjacent to normal canines (P=0.052. Conclusion: Impaction can probably affect root length and canine resorption severity. However, root and crown shape of lateral incisors cannot always be associated with canine impaction.

  14. Surfactant protein C in canine pulmonary fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, M; von Euler, H; Ekman, E; Nordling, K; Häggström, J; Johansson, J

    2009-01-01

    Canine pulmonary fibrosis (CPF) occurs most commonly in West Highland White Terriers. The differing incidences of CPF among dog breeds suggest that genetic factors contribute to its pathophysiology. Pulmonary fibrosis in humans is associated with mutations in the gene coding for lung surfactant protein C (SP-C) (SFTPC). To investigate the histopathologic changes and SP-C composition and genetic structure in dogs with CPF. Five dogs with PF, 2 dogs with other lung diseases, and 3 healthy dogs. Lung tissue from dogs with clinically suspected CPF and 5 control cases was analyzed histopathologically. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) collected postmortem from 3 terriers with histopathologically confirmed pulmonary fibrosis and the 5 controls were analyzed by Western blots, and the exons of SFTPC were sequenced for 2 dogs with PF and 1 dog with other lung disease. SP-C could not be detected in BALF of 1 dog with PF, although SP-B was present. A mutation was detected in SFTPC exon 5 of this dog. From 2 dogs with PF and in all 5 control dogs SP-B and SP-C were detected in BALF. Taken together, the results indicate that canine and human lung fibrosis share histopathologic features and that analysis of SP-C and its gene in a larger set of dogs with PF is warranted.

  15. Canine parvovirus in asymptomatic feline carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clegg, S R; Coyne, K P; Dawson, S; Spibey, N; Gaskell, R M; Radford, A D

    2012-05-25

    Canine parvovirus (CPV) and feline panleukopaenia virus (FPLV) are two closely related viruses, which are known to cause severe disease in younger unvaccinated animals. As well as causing disease in their respective hosts, CPV has recently acquired the feline host range, allowing it to infect both cats and dogs. As well as causing disease in dogs, there is evidence that under some circumstances CPV may also cause disease in cats. This study has investigated the prevalence of parvoviruses in the faeces of clinically healthy cats and dogs in two rescue shelters. Canine parvovirus was demonstrated in 32.5% (13/50) of faecal samples in a cross sectional study of 50 cats from a feline only shelter, and 33.9% (61/180) of faecal samples in a longitudinal study of 74 cats at a mixed canine and feline shelter. Virus was isolated in cell cultures of both canine and feline origin from all PCR-positive samples suggesting they contained viable, infectious virus. In contrast to the high CPV prevalence in cats, no FPLV was found, and none of 122 faecal samples from dogs, or 160 samples collected from the kennel environment, tested positive for parvovirus by PCR. Sequence analysis of major capsid VP2 gene from all positive samples, as well as the non-structural gene from 18 randomly selected positive samples, showed that all positive cats were shedding CPV2a or 2b, rather than FPLV. Longitudinally sampling in one shelter showed that all cats appeared to shed the same virus sequence type at each date they were positive (up to six weeks), despite a lack of clinical signs. Fifty percent of the sequences obtained here were shown to be similar to those recently obtained in a study of sick dogs in the UK (Clegg et al., 2011). These results suggest that in some circumstances, clinically normal cats may be able to shed CPV for prolonged periods of time, and raises the possibility that such cats may be important reservoirs for the maintenance of infection in both the cat and the dog

  16. [Expression and function of microRNAs in the cornea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ru, Yusha; Zhang, Yan; Zhao, Shaozhen

    2015-03-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small (21-2i nucleotictes), single-stranded, noncoding RNA molecules that regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional or translational level by binding to the 3'-untranslated region of the target mRNAs. miRNAs ubiquitously exist in the genome of an organism. More than two hundred miRNA species are expressed in the eye, of which 25% are found in the cornea. miRNAs play important roles in corneal development, differentiation, glycogen metabolism, post-injury regeneration, and maintenance of homeostasis. On the other hand, miRNAs are involved in the regulation of pathological processes in the cornea, such as keratoconus, corneal neovascularization caused by corneal transplantation, herpes simplex virus infection and alkali burns. Therefore, miRNAs are expressed in a tissue-specific manner and regulate physiological and pathological processes in the cornea. The study of miRNA expression and regulation in the cornea would provide a theoretical basis for exploring pathogenic mechanisms and novel therapeutic targets for corneal diseases.

  17. Human cornea modeling using artificial collagen

    OpenAIRE

    Bukanina, V.; Khokhlov, A.; Lovetskiy, K.

    2011-01-01

    This article focuses on spectrophotometric analysis of thin films of synthetic collagen with subsequent use of the received data to recover the optical properties of collagen and modeling a multilayer optical structure similar to the properties of human cornea.

  18. Giant inclusion cyst of the cornea following filtering surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kothari Mihir

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Various trans-conjunctival ophthalmic procedures are reported to cause inclusion cyst of conjunctiva, due to the accidental inclusion of viable conjunctival epithelium, under intact conjunctiva. We report a case of histopathologically confirmed inclusion cyst of the cornea following filtering surgery. There was no recurrence in 24 months of postoperative period.

  19. Advanced Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Cornea in a Child with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tumors such as squamous cell carcinomas, (SCCs) basal cell carcinoma, malignant melanoma, fibrosarcoma, etc.,. The pathogenesis in a majority of these cases involve. Advanced Squamous Cell Carcinoma of. Cornea in a Child with Xeroderma Pigmentosa. Misra Somen, Bhandari Akshay Jawahirlal, Neeta Misra, Dipti ...

  20. Mechanical Interferometry Imaging for Creep Modeling of the Cornea

    OpenAIRE

    Yoo, Lawrence; Reed, Jason; Gimzewski, James K; Demer, Joseph L.

    2011-01-01

    Nanoindentation by magnetic microspheres imaged by optical interferometry permits determination of the viscoelastic properties of fine local regions of each layer of the cornea. This approach provides robust biomechanical data on corneal creep behavior that scales reliably with the magnitude of applied force throughout the tissue.

  1. Biomechanical Measurement of Rabbit Cornea by a Modified Scheimpflug Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To explore the probability and variation in biomechanical measurements of rabbit cornea by a modified Scheimpflug device. Methods. A modified Scheimpflug device was developed by imaging anterior segment of the model imitating the intact eye at various posterior pressures. The eight isolated rabbit corneas were mounted on the Barron artificial chamber and images of the anterior segment were taken at posterior pressures of 15, 30, 45, 60, and 75 mmHg by the device. The repeatability and reliability of the parameters including CCT, ACD, ACV, and CV were evaluated at each posterior pressure. All the variations of the parameters at the different posterior pressures were calculated. Results. All parameters showed good intraobserver reliability (Cronbach’s alpha; intraclass correlation coefficient, α, ICC > 0.96 and repeatability in the modified Scheimpflug device. With the increase of posterior pressures, the ratio of CCT decreased linearly and the bulk modulus gradually reduced to a platform. The increase of ACD was almost linear with the posterior pressures elevated. Conclusions. The modified Scheimpflug device was a valuable tool to investigate the biomechanics of the cornea. The posterior pressure 15–75 mmHg range produced small viscoelastic deformations and nearly linear pressure-deformation response in the rabbit cornea.

  2. Three-Dimensional Ultrasonic Imaging Of The Cornea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyser, Rrichar C.; Rooney, James A.

    1988-01-01

    Proposed technique generates pictures of curved surfaces. Object ultrasonically scanned in raster pattern generated by scanning transmitter/receiver. Receiver turned on at frequent intervals to measure depth variations of scanned object. Used for medical diagnoses by giving images of small curved objects as cornea. Adaptable to other types of reflection measurementsystems such as sonar and radar.

  3. Gender and Age Related Variation in Cornea Power | Azonobi | East ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the mean cornea power for this population and how it varies with gender and age. Design: A retrospective study. Setting: The eye clinic of the Niger Delta University Teaching Hospital. Subjects: All patients referred to the Optometric unit by the duty optometrist using a Carl Zeiss 599 ...

  4. Riboflavin/ultraviolet a crosslinking of the paracentral cornea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koller, Tobias; Schumacher, Silvia; Fankhauser, Franz; Seiler, Theo

    2013-02-01

    The depth of corneal crosslinking (CXL) does not seem homogeneous within the treatment area but shows a reduction toward the periphery of the cornea. This study was undertaken to investigate this reduction effect and to look for possible solutions. Ten corneas were investigated by means of an optical coherence tomography system (SS-100; Tomey, Nagoya, Japan) 1 month after standard CXL (epithelium off, 0.1% riboflavin for 30 minutes, ultraviolet A radiation 365 nm, 3 mW/cm). The depth of the demarcation line was measured as a function of the radial distance from the apex. These curves were compared with a theoretical curve derived from a standard model of photopolymerization. The CXL depth 3 mm away from the center decreases on average to 65% of the central depth (range: 52%-78%). Polymerization theory predicts this decay, however, underestimates the effect. The intended depth of CXL using current light sources is achieved only within the central area of the cornea. To provide CXL to the peripheral cornea, the ultraviolet beam either should have an improved intensity profile or may have to be decentered.

  5. GENDER AND AGE RELATED VARIATION IN CORNEA POWER

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-05-01

    May 1, 2014 ... Objective: To determine the mean cornea power for this population and how it varies with gender and age. Design: A retrospective study. Setting: The eye clinic of the Niger Delta University. Teaching Hospital. Subjects: All patients referred to the Optometric unit by the duty optometrist using a. Carl Zeiss ...

  6. Milk C-reactive protein in canine mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasiu, Iosif; Dąbrowski, Roman; Martinez-Subiela, Silvia; Ceron, Jose J; Wdowiak, Anna; Pop, Raul Alexandru; Brudaşcă, Florinel Gheorghe; Pastor, Josep; Tvarijonaviciute, Asta

    2017-04-01

    Presence of mastitis in lactating bitches can become life threatening for both the bitch and pups. The aim of the present study was to evaluate a possible utility of C-reactive protein (CRP) in both milk and serum for canine mastitis diagnosis. Our study showed that milk CRP levels ranged between 0.1 and 4.9μg/mL and from 0.3 to 40.0μg/mL in healthy and diseased bitches (Pmastitis when compared with healthy controls (Pmastitis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. 9 CFR 113.305 - Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Type 2 Vaccine. 113.305 Section 113.305 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Live Virus Vaccines § 113.305 Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine. Canine Hepatitis Vaccine and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell...

  8. Long-term effectiveness of canine-to-canine bonded flexible spiral wire lingual retainers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renkema, Anne-Marie; Renkema, Alianne; Bronkhorst, Ewald; Katsaros, Christos

    Introduction: The flexible spiral wire (FSW) canine-to-canine lingual retainer bonded to all 6 anterior teeth is a frequently used type of mandibular fixed retainer. This study aimed to assess the long-term effectiveness of FSW canine-to-canine lingual retainers in maintaining the alignment of the

  9. Correlation between epithelial thickness in normal corneas, untreated ectatic corneas, and ectatic corneas previously treated with CXL; is overall epithelial thickness a very early ectasia prognostic factor?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanellopoulos AJ

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Anastasios John Kanellopoulos,1,2 Ioannis M Aslanides,3 George Asimellis11Laservision Eye Institute, Athens, 2Emmetropia Mediterranean Eye Clinic, Crete, Greece, 3New York University School of Medicine, NY, USAPurpose: To determine and correlate epithelial corneal thickness (pachymetric measurements taken with a digital arc scanning very high frequency ultrasound biomicroscopy (HF UBM imaging system (Artemis-II, and compare mean and central epithelial thickness among normal eyes, untreated keratoconic eyes, and keratoconic eyes previously treated with collagen crosslinking (CXL.Methods: Epithelial pachymetry measurements (topographic mapping were conducted on 100 subjects via HF UBM. Three groups of patients were included: patients with normal eyes (controls, patients with untreated keratoconic eyes, and patients with keratoconic eyes treated with CXL. Central, mean, and peripheral corneal epithelial thickness was examined for each group, and a statistical study was conducted.Results: Mean, central, and peripheral corneal epithelial thickness was compared between the three groups of patients. Epithelium thickness varied substantially in the keratoconic group, and in some cases there was a difference of up to 20 µm between various points of the same eye, and often a thinner epithelium coincided with a thinner cornea. However, on average, data from the keratoconic group suggested an overall thickening of the epithelium, particularly over the pupil center of the order of +3 µm, while the mean epithelium thickness was on average +1.1 µm, compared to the control population (P = 0.005. This overall thickening was more pronounced in younger patients in the keratoconic group. Keratoconic eyes previously treated with CXL showed, on average, virtually the same average epithelium thickness (mean –0.7 µm, –0.2 µm over the pupil center, –0.9 µm over the peripheral zone as the control group. This finding further reinforces our novel theory of the

  10. Thermomechanical behavior of collagen-cross-linked porcine cornea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spoerl, Eberhard; Wollensak, Gregor; Dittert, Dag-Daniel; Seiler, Theo

    2004-01-01

    Collagen cross-linking using combined riboflavin/UVA treatment has been shown to increase the biomechanical rigidity of the cornea and has been used successfully for the treatment of progressive keratoconus. From morphological and biochemical investigations, a different degree of cross-linking for the anterior and posterior stroma by the treatment is suggested. The present study was undertaken to better evaluate this effect by testing the thermomechanical behavior. Ten 10 x 5 mm corneal strips from porcine cadaver eyes enucleated within 5 h post mortem were cross-linked using the photosensitizer riboflavin and UVA irradiation (370 nm, irradiance = 3 mW/cm(2)) for 30 min and compared to ten untreated corneal strips and ten corneal strips cross-linked with 0.1% glutaraldehyde. The temperature in a water bath was raised from 60 to 95 degrees C with temperature increments of 1 degrees C per minute. The hydrothermal shrinkage of the corneal strips was measured in 2.5 degrees C steps using a micrometer. In addition, six 10-mm whole corneal buttons were cross-linked with riboflavin/UVA and immersed into water at 70 or 75 degrees C. The maximal hydrothermal shrinkage for the untreated control specimens and the posterior portion of the riboflavin/UVA-treated corneas was at 70 degrees C, for the anterior portion of the cornea cross-linked by riboflavin/UVA at 75 degrees C and for glutaraldehyde-cross-linked cornea at 90 degrees C. In the cross-linked corneal buttons, a typical mushroom-like shape was observed at 70 degrees C and a cylinder shape at 75 degrees C. The different degree of collagen cross-linking in the corneal stroma after riboflavin/UVA treatment is reflected by the differences in the maximal shrinkage temperature of the anterior and posterior portion. Therefore, in the corneas cross-linked with riboflavin/UVA a higher shrinkage temperature was observed for the anterior portion of the cornea (75 degrees C) compared to the posterior stroma (70 degrees C) due to

  11. Topographic and biomechanical evaluation of corneas in patients with ocular rosacea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildirim, Yusuf; Olcucu, Onur; Agca, Alper; Karakucuk, Yalcin; Alagoz, Nese; Mutaf, Cagri; Demirok, Ahmet; Kutlubay, Zekayi

    2015-03-01

    To compare the topographic and biomechanical properties of corneas in the eyes of patients with ocular rosacea (OR) with those of healthy individuals. Thirty-four healthy individuals (control group) and 34 patients with OR (study group) were evaluated in this study. Topographic measurements including keratometry values, irregularity, and surface asymmetry index in the right eye of each participant were obtained using a Scheimpflug camera with a Placido disc topographer (Sirius). Corneal hysteresis (CH), corneal resistance factor (CRF), corneal-compensated intraocular pressure (IOP), and Goldmann-related IOP were measured using the Reichert Ocular Response Analyzer. Central corneal thickness was also measured using ultrasonic pachymetry and the Sirius corneal topography system. Topographic parameters were not significantly different between the groups (P > 0.05). Mean CH and CRF were significantly lower in patients with OR (P = 0.003 and 0.001, respectively). Central corneal thickness was significantly lower in patients with OR compared with healthy controls (P biomechanical measurements (CH and CRF) were significantly lower in patients with OR. These results need to be considered when planning corneal refractive surgery in patients with OR.

  12. Topographic and biomechanical evaluation of cornea in patients with ichthyosis vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kara, Necip; Yildirim, Yusuf; Demircan, Ali; Cankaya, Ilker; Kutlubay, Zekayi; Engin, Burhan; Serdaroglu, Server

    2012-10-01

    To compare the topographic and biomechanical properties of corneas in eyes of patients with ichthyosis vulgaris (IV) and eyes of healthy individuals. Thirty healthy individuals (control group) and 30 patients with IV (study group) were enrolled in this prospective study. Topographic measurements, including keratometry values, irregularity, and surface asymmetry index in the right eye of each participant were obtained using Scheimpflug camera with a Placido disc topographer (Sirius). Corneal hysteresis (CH), corneal resistance factor (CRF), corneal-compensated intraocular pressure (IOPcc) and Goldman-related intraocular pressure (IOPg) were measured using the Reichert Ocular Response Analyzer (ORA). Central corneal thickness (CCT) was also measured with ultrasonic pachymetry and the Sirius corneal topography system. Topographic parameters were not significantly different between both groups (p>0.05). Although mean CH was not significantly different between the groups, the CRF was significantly lower in patients with IV (p=0.249 and p=0.005, respectively). The CCT was significantly lower in patients with IV compared to healthy controls (pbiomechanical properties such CRF and CCT and IOP values such as IOPg and IOPcc were significantly lower in patients with IV. These results should be taken into account when planning a corneal refractive surgery and glaucoma screening for patients with IV. Copyright © 2012 British Contact Lens Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Canine spinal cord neuron and axon myelin sheath morphometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Francischini Carvalho, A C; Pacheco, M R; Baraldi Artoni, S M; Mateus, O

    2006-10-01

    This inedited morphometric study has been developed from healthy canine spinal cord neuron cytoplasm and nucleus, and white matter axonal myelin sheath, from cervical, thoracic and lumbar regions. For the morphometric study, the parameters were area, perimeter, maximum and minimum diameters and roundness for neurons and myelin thickness for axon. For each parameter, 300 neurons were analysed. The results revealed that lumbar neurons had the highest mean values for the analysed parameters, indicating the presence of large neurons in this region, with large axons as a result of myelin thickness, which is proportional to axon calibre. We conclude that these morphometric results can contribute for the establishment of normal patterns, for canine spinal cord cervical, thoracic and lumbar segments.

  14. EYE CLINICAL STUDY IN SWINE CORNEA IMPLANT DOGS TREATED WITH 2-1 BETAMETHASONE DISSODIC FOSPHATE AND DISSODIC FOSPHATED/ACETATE DEXAMETHASONE ESTUDO CLÍNICO NOS OLHOS DOS CÃES, TRATADOS COM 2-1 FOSFATO DISSÓDICO DE BETAMETASONA E FOSFATO DISSÓDICO/ACETATO DE DEXAMETASONA, QUE RECEBERAM IMPLANTES COM CÓRNEAS DE SUÍNOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilo Sérgio Troncoso Chaves

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Ten mixed breed dogs, with a 10 kg average weight, were selected at Centro de Zoonoses de Goiânia. After being examined and considered healthy the dogs were enumerated from 11 to 20 on their collars. Each animal had swine cornea implanted into the left eye. The swine cornea was obtained at Casa de Banha Caçula, a slaughterhouse, and conserved in humid chamber for a maximum 6 hour period. Before surgery, each animal received 4 mg dissodic fosphate/acetate dexamethasone IM and was instilled one drop of betamethasone dissodic fosphate and one drop of gentamicin sulphate, maintaining the ocular medication 4 times/day and the intramuscular medication once a week, until euthanasia. After xenografts being realized, each cornea was examined every 7 days using direct ophthalmoscope to analyse transparency, vessels new formation, episcleral and conjunctival vessels reaction, cornea thickness, depth and presence or absence of deposits into the anterior chamber. On day 7 clinical evaluation, all cornea xenotransplant eyes (100% had lost transparency (++,+++, there was episcleral vessels reaction (P, anterior chamber depth was preserved (N, there wasn’t edema, as well as deposits (A on anterior chamber. On day 14, with the loss of two corneas by “self-trauma”, the other dogs had their implanted corneas (80% completely opaque (+++, with important ciliary reaction (P, edema (A; however, the anterior chamber integrity was preserved (N, without presence of deposits (A. With three more dogs euthanized between days 14 and 21, due to corticosteroids side-effects, the remaining dogs (50% preserved their implants with the day 14 alterations until the end of this experience.

    Foram utilizados 10 cães, sem ra

  15. Correlation between epithelial thickness in normal corneas, untreated ectatic corneas, and ectatic corneas previously treated with CXL; is overall epithelial thickness a very early ectasia prognostic factor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanellopoulos, Anastasios John; Aslanides, Ioannis M; Asimellis, George

    2012-01-01

    To determine and correlate epithelial corneal thickness (pachymetric) measurements taken with a digital arc scanning very high frequency ultrasound biomicroscopy (HF UBM) imaging system (Artemis-II), and compare mean and central epithelial thickness among normal eyes, untreated keratoconic eyes, and keratoconic eyes previously treated with collagen crosslinking (CXL). Epithelial pachymetry measurements (topographic mapping) were conducted on 100 subjects via HF UBM. Three groups of patients were included: patients with normal eyes (controls), patients with untreated keratoconic eyes, and patients with keratoconic eyes treated with CXL. Central, mean, and peripheral corneal epithelial thickness was examined for each group, and a statistical study was conducted. Mean, central, and peripheral corneal epithelial thickness was compared between the three groups of patients. Epithelium thickness varied substantially in the keratoconic group, and in some cases there was a difference of up to 20 μm between various points of the same eye, and often a thinner epithelium coincided with a thinner cornea. However, on average, data from the keratoconic group suggested an overall thickening of the epithelium, particularly over the pupil center of the order of +3 μm, while the mean epithelium thickness was on average +1.1 μm, compared to the control population (P = 0.005). This overall thickening was more pronounced in younger patients in the keratoconic group. Keratoconic eyes previously treated with CXL showed, on average, virtually the same average epithelium thickness (mean -0.7 μm, -0.2 μm over the pupil center, -0.9 μm over the peripheral zone) as the control group. This finding further reinforces our novel theory of the "reactive" component of epithelial thickening in corneas that are biomechanically unstable, becoming stable when biomechanical rigidity is accomplished despite persistence of cornea topographic irregularity. A highly irregular epithelium may be

  16. Evaluation of corneal cell growth on tissue engineering materials as artificial cornea scaffolds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-Yan Wang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The keratoprosthesis (KPro; artificial cornea is a special refractive device to replace human cornea by using heterogeneous forming materials for the implantation into the damaged eyes in order to obtain a certain vision. The main problems of artificial cornea are the biocompatibility and stability of the tissue particularly in penetrating keratoplasty. The current studies of tissue-engineered scaffold materials through comprising composites of natural and synthetic biopolymers together have developed a new way to artificial cornea. Although a wide agreement that the long-term stability of these devices would be greatly improved by the presence of cornea cells, modification of keratoprosthesis to support cornea cells remains elusive. Most of the studies on corneal substrate materials and surface modification of composites have tried to improve the growth and biocompatibility of cornea cells which can not only reduce the stimulus of heterogeneous materials, but also more importantly continuous and stable cornea cells can prevent the destruction of collagenase. The necrosis of stroma and spontaneous extrusion of the device, allow for maintenance of a precorneal tear layer, and play the role of ensuring a good optical surface and resisting bacterial infection. As a result, improvement in corneal cells has been the main aim of several recent investigations; some effort has focused on biomaterial for its well biological properties such as promoting the growth of cornea cells. The purpose of this review is to summary the growth status of the corneal cells after the implantation of several artificial corneas.

  17. Evaluation of corneal cell growth on tissue engineering materials as artificial cornea scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hai-Yan; Wei, Rui-Hua; Zhao, Shao-Zhen

    2013-12-18

    The keratoprosthesis (KPro; artificial cornea) is a special refractive device to replace human cornea by using heterogeneous forming materials for the implantation into the damaged eyes in order to obtain a certain vision. The main problems of artificial cornea are the biocompatibility and stability of the tissue particularly in penetrating keratoplasty. The current studies of tissue-engineered scaffold materials through comprising composites of natural and synthetic biopolymers together have developed a new way to artificial cornea. Although a wide agreement that the long-term stability of these devices would be greatly improved by the presence of cornea cells, modification of keratoprosthesis to support cornea cells remains elusive. Most of the studies on corneal substrate materials and surface modification of composites have tried to improve the growth and biocompatibility of cornea cells which can not only reduce the stimulus of heterogeneous materials, but also more importantly continuous and stable cornea cells can prevent the destruction of collagenase. The necrosis of stroma and spontaneous extrusion of the device, allow for maintenance of a precorneal tear layer, and play the role of ensuring a good optical surface and resisting bacterial infection. As a result, improvement in corneal cells has been the main aim of several recent investigations; some effort has focused on biomaterial for its well biological properties such as promoting the growth of cornea cells. The purpose of this review is to summary the growth status of the corneal cells after the implantation of several artificial corneas.

  18. Collagen Fibrils and Proteoglycans of Macular Dystrophy Cornea: Ultrastructure and 3D Transmission Electron Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Saeed; Alkatan, Hind M; Kirat, Omar; Khan, Adnan A; Almubrad, Turki

    2015-06-01

    We report the ultrastructure and 3D transmission electron tomography of collagen fibrils (CFs), proteoglycans (PGs), and microfibrils within the CF of corneas of patients with macular corneal dystrophy (MCD). Three normal corneas and three MCD corneas from three Saudi patients (aged 25, 31, and 49 years, respectively) were used for this study. The corneas were processed for light and electron microscopy studies. 3D images were composed from a set of 120 ultrastructural images using the program "Composer" and visualized using the program "Visuliser Kai". 3D image analysis of MCD cornea showed a clear organization of PGs around the CF at very high magnification and degeneration of the microfibrils within the CF. Within the MCD cornea, the PG area in the anterior stroma was significantly larger than in the middle and posterior stroma. The PG area in the MCD cornea was significantly larger compared with the PG area in the normal cornea. The CF diameter and inter-fibrillar spacing of the MCD cornea were significantly smaller compared with those of the normal cornea. Ultrastructural 3D imaging showed that the production of unsulfated keratin sulfate (KS) may lead to the degeneration of micro-CFs within the CFs. The effect of the unsulfated KS was higher in the anterior stroma compared with the posterior stroma.

  19. Donor risk factors for graft failure in the cornea donor study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugar, Joel; Montoya, Monty; Dontchev, Mariya; Tanner, Jean Paul; Beck, Roy; Gal, Robin; Gallagher, Shawn; Gaster, Ronald; Heck, Ellen; Holland, Edward J; Kollman, Craig; Malling, Jackie; Mannis, Mark J; Woody, Jason

    2009-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between donor factors and 5-year corneal graft survival in the Cornea Donor Study. Donor corneas met criteria established by the Eye Bank Association of America, had an endothelial cell density of 2300 to 3300/mm, and were determined to be of good to excellent quality by the eye banks. Donor corneas were assigned using a random approach and surgeons were masked to information about the donor cornea including donor age. Surgery and postoperative care were performed according to the surgeons' usual routines and subjects were followed for 5 years. Donor and donor cornea factors were evaluated for their association with graft failure, which was defined as a regraft or a cloudy cornea that was sufficiently opaque to compromise vision for a minimum of 3 consecutive months. Graft failure was not significantly associated with the type of tissue retrieval (enucleation versus in situ), processing factors, timing of use of the cornea, or characteristics of the donor or the donor cornea. Adjusting for donor age did not affect the results. Donor and donor cornea characteristics do not impact graft survival rates for corneas comparable in quality to those used in this study.

  20. Customized finite element modelling of the human cornea

    OpenAIRE

    Irene Simonini; Anna Pandolfi

    2015-01-01

    Aim To construct patient-specific solid models of human cornea from ocular topographer data, to increase the accuracy of the biomechanical and optical estimate of the changes in refractive power and stress caused by photorefractive keratectomy (PRK). Method Corneal elevation maps of five human eyes were taken with a rotating Scheimpflug camera combined with a Placido disk before and after refractive surgery. Patient-specific solid models were created and discretized in finite elements to esti...

  1. The biomechanical properties of the cornea and anterior segment parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Hwang, Ho Sik; Park, Seh Kwang; Kim, Man Soo

    2013-01-01

    Background To investigate the biomechanical properties of the cornea measured with the Ocular Response Analyzer (ORA) and their association with the anterior segment parameters representing the geometric dimensions including the corneal volume and anterior chamber volume. Methods A retrospective review of 1020 patients who visited the BGN Eye Clinic was done. The mean radius of the corneal curvature, corneal astigmatism, corneal volume, anterior chamber depth, and anterior chamber volume were...

  2. [The glaucoma pharmacological treatment and biomechanical properties of the cornea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liehneová, I; Karlovská, S

    2014-10-01

    To evaluate and compare the impact of long-term use of intraocular pressure lowering medication on the biomechanical properties of the cornea. Group of 305 eyes of 154 patients newly diagnosed with primary open angle glaucoma (POAG, n = 68) or ocular hypertension (OH, n = 6) was enrolled in prospective cohort study. The control group was established of 80 untreated eyes of 40 patients with ocular hypertension and 80 eyes of 40 patients with no ocular pathology. Following parameters were evaluated: intraocular pressure (IOPg,IOPcc), hysteresis (CH), corneal resistance factor (CRF) and central corneal thickness (CCT). The parameters were evaluated at baseline (untreated) and in follow up periods of 3, 6, 9 and 12 months. The same schedule was used for eyes in the control group. Eyes with POAG or OH were sorted into two groups depending on the type of applied medication: prostaglandin analogues, carboanhydrase inhibitors alone or combined with betablockers. We did not prove any statistically significant difference in hysteresis in patients with newly diagnosed POAG (yet untreated) in comparison with normal eyes in control group (p = 0.238). We proved significantly higher values of CRF (p = 0.032) and CCT (p = 0.013) in the control group of untreated patients with ocular hypertension. This result confirms higher number of patients with stiffer and thicker corneas. Statistically significant difference of CH and CRF was proved (p eyes treated by prostaglandin analogues during follow up period. In these eyes we also demonstrated reduction of CCT (p < 0.001). We did not record any other statistically significant change in remaining followed parameters. Increase of CH and CRF can show change of biomechanical properties of the cornea after long-term use of prostaglandin analogues. The biomechanical properties of the cornea were not impacted by carboanhydrase inhibitors. Further studies are required to establish the effect of long-term use prostaglandin analogues on accuracy

  3. Polymicrobial Infection of the Cornea Due to Contact Lens Wear

    OpenAIRE

    Selçuk Sızmaz; Filiz Kibar; Soner Koltaş

    2016-01-01

    A 38-year-old male presented with pain and redness in his left eye. He had a history of wearing contact lenses. His ophthalmic examination revealed a large corneal ulcer with surrounding infiltrate. Cultures were isolated from the contact lenses, lens solutions, storage cases, and conjunctivae of both eyes and also corneal scrapings of the left eye. Fortified vancomycin and amikacin drops were started hourly. Culture results of conjunctivae of each eye and left cornea were positive f...

  4. Acellular ostrich corneal stroma used as scaffold for construction of tissue-engineered cornea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xian-Ning Liu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To assess acellular ostrich corneal matrix used as a scaffold to reconstruct a damaged cornea. METHODS: A hypertonic saline solution combined with a digestion method was used to decellularize the ostrich cornea. The microstructure of the acellular corneal matrix was observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM and hematoxylin and eosin (H&E staining. The mechanical properties were detected by a rheometer and a tension machine. The acellular corneal matrix was also transplanted into a rabbit cornea and cytokeratin 3 was used to check the immune phenotype. RESULTS: The microstructure and mechanical properties of the ostrich cornea were well preserved after the decellularization process. In vitro, the methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium results revealed that extracts of the acellular ostrich corneas (AOCs had no inhibitory effects on the proliferation of the corneal epithelial or endothelial cells or on the keratocytes. The rabbit lamellar keratoplasty showed that the transplanted AOCs were transparent and completely incorporated into the host cornea while corneal turbidity and graft dissolution occurred in the acellular porcine cornea (APC transplantation. The phenotype of the reconstructed cornea was similar to a normal rabbit cornea with a high expression of cytokeratin 3 in the superficial epithelial cell layer. CONCLUSION: We first used AOCs as scaffolds to reconstruct damaged corneas. Compared with porcine corneas, the anatomical structures of ostrich corneas are closer to those of human corneas. In accordance with the principle that structure determines function, a xenograft lamellar keratoplasty also confirmed that the AOC transplantation generated a superior outcome compared to that of the APC graft.

  5. Nerve Repulsion by the Lens and Cornea during Cornea Innervation is Dependent on Robo-Slit Signaling and Diminishes with Neuron Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwend, Tyler; Lwigale, Peter Y.; Conrad, Gary W.

    2012-01-01

    The cornea, the most densely innervated tissue on the surface of the body, becomes innervated in a series of highly coordinated developmental events. During cornea development, chick trigeminal nerve growth cones reach the cornea margin at embryonic day (E)5, where they are initially repelled for days from E5-8, instead encircling the corneal periphery in a nerve ring prior to entering on E9. The molecular events coordinating growth cone guidance during cornea development are poorly understood. Here we evaluated a potential role for the Robo-Slit nerve guidance family. We found that Slit 1, 2 and 3 expression in the cornea and lens persisted during all stages of cornea innervation examined. Robo1 expression was developmentally regulated in trigeminal cell bodies, expressed robustly during nerve ring formation (E5-8), then later declining concurrent with projection of growth cones into the cornea. In this study we provide in vivo and in vitro evidence that Robo-Slit signaling guides trigeminal nerves during cornea innervation. Transient, localized inhibition of Robo-Slit signaling, by means of beads loaded with inhibitory Robo-Fc protein implanted into the developing eyefield in vivo, led to disorganized nerve ring formation and premature cornea innervation. Additionally, when trigeminal explants (source of neurons) were oriented adjacent to lens vesicles or corneas (source of repellant molecules) in organotypic tissue culture both lens and cornea tissues strongly repelled E7 trigeminal neurites, except in the presence of inhibitory Robo-Fc protein. In contrast, E10 trigeminal neurites were not as strongly repelled by cornea, and presence of Robo-Slit inhibitory protein had no effect. In full, these findings suggest that nerve repulsion from the lens and cornea during nerve ring formation is mediated by Robo-Slit signaling. Later, a shift in nerve guidance behavior occurs, in part due to molecular changes in trigeminal neurons, including Robo1 downregulation, thus

  6. Several early interventions for ectopic maxillary canines.

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    Carlos Astorga

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Maxillary canine impactation is often encountered in orthodontic clinical practice and the aetiology is associated to genetic factors as well as local space factors. If preventive treatment is not started in ectopic maxillary canines, some possible consequences may occur, such as resorption of the roots of the neighboring permanent teeth, cysts, ankylosis and expensive surgical and orthodontic treatment. The aim of this review was to preset several early treatment modalities for ectopic maxillary canines based on recent scientific evidence. Four are the most important: Only extractions intervention, extraction of deciduous canines with cervical pull headgear, active intervention in late mixed dentition and active intervention in early mixed dentition. These different modalities showed a greater increasing the rate of normal eruption of ectopic canines ( 80-97%. The extraction of primary canine alone is still an effective method to prevent canine impactation, whose success rate would be increased if some other method interceptive is added.

  7. Determination of the modulus of elasticity of the human cornea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsheikh, Ahmed; Wang, Defu; Pye, David

    2007-10-01

    To determine the material behavior of the human cornea in the form of simple relationships between the modulus of elasticity and intraocular pressure (IOP) and to establish the effect of age on the material behavior. Human corneal specimens with age between 50 and 95 years were tested under inflation conditions to determine their behavior. The corneas were subjected to two extreme load rates to represent dynamic and static loading conditions. The pressure-deformation results were analyzed using shell theory to derive the relationship between the modulus of elasticity and IOP. The corneas demonstrated a nonlinear hyperelastic behavior pattern with an initial low stiffness stage and a final high stiffness stage. Despite the nonlinearity of the pressure deformation results, the relationship between the modulus of elasticity and the applied pressure was almost linear. A considerable increase was noted in the values of the modulus of elasticity associated with both age and load rate. General equations were derived to calculate the values of the secant and tangent moduli of elasticity in terms of IOP for any age greater than 50 years, and these equations are presented in a simple form suitable for use in numerical simulations. Adequate representation of corneal material behavior is essential for the accurate predictive modeling of corneal biomechanics. The material models developed in this work could be implemented in numerical simulations of refractive surgery procedures, corneal shape changes due to contact lens wear, and other applications.

  8. Ultrastructural changes in the developing chicken cornea following caffeine administration.

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    Bartel Hieronim

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Caffeine is one of the most frequently consumed psychoactive substances. It has been known for many years that caffeine at high concentrations exerts harmful effects on both women's and laboratory animals' fertility, moreover it may impair normal development of many organs in the prenatal period. So far there have been few studies performed that demonstrate teratogenic effects of caffeine on structures of the developing eye, particularly the cornea. The aim of the study was to show ultrastructural changes in the developing cornea, as the effect of caffeine administration to chicken embryos. The experimental materials were 26 chicken embryos from incubated breeding eggs. Eggs were divided into two groups: control (n=30 in which Ringer liquid was administrated, and experimental (n=30 in which teratogenic dose of caffeine 3.5mg/egg was given. In 36th hour of incubation solutions were given with cannula through hole in an egg shell directly onto amniotic membrane. After closing the hole with a glass plate and paraffine, eggs were put back to incubator. In 10th and 19th day of incubation corneas were taken for morphological analysis with a use of electron microscopy. Administration of caffeine during chicken development causes changes of collagen fibers of Bowman's membrane patterns and of the corneal stroma but it also changes proportion of amount of collagen fibers and of the stromal cells.

  9. Stratification of Antigen-presenting Cells within the Normal Cornea

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    Jared E. Knickelbein

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The composition and location of professional antigen presenting cells (APC varies in different mucosal surfaces. The cornea, long considered an immune-privileged tissue devoid of APCs, is now known to host a heterogeneous network of bone marrow-derived cells. Here, we utilized transgenic mice that express enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP from the CD11c promoter (pCD11c in conjunction with immunohistochemical staining to demonstrate an interesting stratification of APCs within non-inflamed murine corneas. pCD11c+ dendritic cells (DCs reside in the basal epithelium, seemingly embedded in the basement membrane. Most DCs express MHC class II on at least some dendrites, which extend up to 50 µm in length and traverse up 20 µm tangentially towards the apical surface of the epithelium. The DC density diminishes from peripheral to central cornea. Beneath the DCs and adjacent to the stromal side of the basement membrane reside pCD11c-CD11b+ putative macrophages that express low levels of MHC class II. Finally, MHC class IIpCD11c-CD11b+ cells form a network throughout the remainder of the stroma. This highly reproducible stratification of bone marrow-derived cells is suggestive of a progression from an APC function at the exposed corneal surface to an innate immune barrier function deeper in the stroma.

  10. Importance of accurately assessing biomechanics of the cornea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Cynthia J

    2016-07-01

    This article summarizes the state-of-the-art in clinical corneal biomechanics, including procedures in which biomechanics play a role, and the clinical consequences in terms of error in estimating intraocular pressure (IOP). Corneal biomechanical response to refractive surgery can be categorized into either stable alteration of surface shape and thus visual outcome, or unstable biomechanical decompensation. The stable response is characterized by central flattening and peripheral steepening that is potentiated in a stiffer cornea. Two clinical devices for assessing corneal biomechanics do not yet measure classic biomechanical properties, but rather provide assessment of corneal deformation response. Biomechanical parameters are a function of IOP, and both the cornea and sclera become stiffer as IOP increases. Any assessment of biomechanical parameters must include IOP, and one value of stiffness does not adequately characterize a cornea. Corneal biomechanics plays a role in the outcomes of any procedure in which lamellae are transected. Once the corneal structure has been altered in a manner that includes central thinning, IOP measurements with applanation tonometry are likely not valid, and other technologies should be used.

  11. First complete genome sequence of canine bocavirus 2 in mainland China

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    S.-L. Zhai

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available We obtained the first full-length genome sequence of canine bocavirus 2 (CBoV2 from the faeces of a healthy dog in Guangzhou city, Guangdong province, mainland China. The genome of GZHD15 consisted of 5059 nucleotides. Sequence analysis suggested that GZHD15 was close to a previously circulated Hong Kong isolate.

  12. Lack of evidence for a role of islet autoimmunity in the aetiology of canine diabetes mellitus.

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    Kerstin M Ahlgren

    Full Text Available AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Diabetes mellitus is one of the most common endocrine disorders in dogs and is commonly proposed to be of autoimmune origin. Although the clinical presentation of human type 1 diabetes (T1D and canine diabetes are similar, the aetiologies may differ. The aim of this study was to investigate if autoimmune aetiology resembling human T1D is as prevalent in dogs as previously reported. METHODS: Sera from 121 diabetic dogs representing 40 different breeds were tested for islet cell antibodies (ICA and GAD65 autoantibodies (GADA and compared with sera from 133 healthy dogs. ICA was detected by indirect immunofluorescence using both canine and human frozen sections. GADA was detected by in vitro transcription and translation (ITT of human and canine GAD65, followed by immune precipitation. Sections of pancreata from five diabetic dogs and two control dogs were examined histopathologically including immunostaining for insulin, glucagon, somatostatin and pancreas polypeptide. RESULTS: None of the canine sera analysed tested positive for ICA on sections of frozen canine or human ICA pancreas. However, serum from one diabetic dog was weakly positive in the canine GADA assay and serum from one healthy dog was weakly positive in the human GADA assay. Histopathology showed marked degenerative changes in endocrine islets, including vacuolisation and variable loss of immune-staining for insulin. No sign of inflammation was noted. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATIONS: Contrary to previous observations, based on results from tests for humoral autoreactivity towards islet proteins using four different assays, and histopathological examinations, we do not find any support for an islet autoimmune aetiology in canine diabetes mellitus.

  13. Healthy Places for Healthy People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Describes the Healthy Places for Healthy People technical assistance program that helps communities create walkable, healthy, economically vibrant places by engaging with local health care facility partners

  14. Coupled biomechanical response of the cornea assessed by non-contact tonometry. A simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariza-Gracia, Miguel Á; Zurita, Jesús F; Piñero, David P; Rodriguez-Matas, José F; Calvo, Begoña

    2015-01-01

    The mechanical response of the cornea subjected to a non-contact air-jet tonometry diagnostic test represents an interplay between its geometry, the corneal material behavior and the loading. The objective is to study this interplay to better understand and interpret the results obtained with a non-contact tonometry test. A patient-specific finite element model of a healthy eye, accounting for the load free configuration, was used. The corneal tissue was modeled as an anisotropic hyperelastic material with two preferential directions. Three different sets of parameters within the human experimental range obtained from inflation tests were considered. The influence of the IOP was studied by considering four pressure levels (10-28 mmHg) whereas the influence of corneal thickness was studied by inducing a uniform variation (300-600 microns). A Computer Fluid Dynamics (CFD) air-jet simulation determined pressure loading exerted on the anterior corneal surface. The maximum apex displacement showed a linear variation with IOP for all materials examined. On the contrary, the maximum apex displacement followed a cubic relation with corneal thickness. In addition, a significant sensitivity of the apical displacement to the corneal stiffness was also obtained. Explanation to this behavior was found in the fact that the cornea experiences bending when subjected to an air-puff loading, causing the anterior surface to work in compression whereas the posterior surface works in tension. Hence, collagen fibers located at the anterior surface do not contribute to load bearing. Non-contact tonometry devices give useful information that could be misleading since the corneal deformation is the result of the interaction between the mechanical properties, IOP, and geometry. Therefore, a non-contact tonometry test is not sufficient to evaluate their individual contribution and a complete in-vivo characterization would require more than one test to independently determine the membrane and

  15. Riboflavin and ultraviolet a collagen crosslinking of the cornea for the treatment of keratitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morén, Håkan; Malmsjö, Malin; Mortensen, Jes; Ohrström, Arne

    2010-01-01

    To describe riboflavin and ultraviolet light (UV) collagen crosslinking as an effective treatment for infectious keratitis. A 25-year-old previously healthy female contact lens user was diagnosed with unilateral severe keratitis with unclear pathogenesis, although the clinical presentation suggested acanthamoeba as the infectious agent. A 4-mm diameter, annular, semi-opaque infiltrate was found on the paracentral parts of the cornea in the left eye (OS). Laboratory examinations for bacteria, herpes simplex, and acanthamoeba were performed, but no specific pathogen could be detected. Best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) at presentation was 20/1000. Treatment was initialized with broad-spectrum antibiotics also covering acanthamoeba. During the first month of treatment the keratitis progressed and the corneal thickness diminished. Therefore, treatment with riboflavin and UV collagen crosslinking was initiated. After riboflavin and UV collagen crosslinking therapy, there was a rapid decrease of pain and necrotic material. Reepithelialization of the cornea started within a few days and was complete within a month. After 2 months, the wound had healed completely. Nine months after the UV treatment, BCVA was 20/30. This case illustrates the positive effects of riboflavin and UV collagen crosslinking on presumed infectious keratitis with a satisfactory final visual outcome. This may be a promising new treatment for keratitis, although this remains to be elucidated in detail in future studies. Until more data are available this treatment should only be considered in therapy-refractive keratitis or ulceration and not in the first line of defence since it may have cytotoxic side effects.

  16. Coupled biomechanical response of the cornea assessed by non-contact tonometry. A simulation study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Á Ariza-Gracia

    Full Text Available The mechanical response of the cornea subjected to a non-contact air-jet tonometry diagnostic test represents an interplay between its geometry, the corneal material behavior and the loading. The objective is to study this interplay to better understand and interpret the results obtained with a non-contact tonometry test. A patient-specific finite element model of a healthy eye, accounting for the load free configuration, was used. The corneal tissue was modeled as an anisotropic hyperelastic material with two preferential directions. Three different sets of parameters within the human experimental range obtained from inflation tests were considered. The influence of the IOP was studied by considering four pressure levels (10-28 mmHg whereas the influence of corneal thickness was studied by inducing a uniform variation (300-600 microns. A Computer Fluid Dynamics (CFD air-jet simulation determined pressure loading exerted on the anterior corneal surface. The maximum apex displacement showed a linear variation with IOP for all materials examined. On the contrary, the maximum apex displacement followed a cubic relation with corneal thickness. In addition, a significant sensitivity of the apical displacement to the corneal stiffness was also obtained. Explanation to this behavior was found in the fact that the cornea experiences bending when subjected to an air-puff loading, causing the anterior surface to work in compression whereas the posterior surface works in tension. Hence, collagen fibers located at the anterior surface do not contribute to load bearing. Non-contact tonometry devices give useful information that could be misleading since the corneal deformation is the result of the interaction between the mechanical properties, IOP, and geometry. Therefore, a non-contact tonometry test is not sufficient to evaluate their individual contribution and a complete in-vivo characterization would require more than one test to independently determine

  17. Cornea preservation time study: methods and potential impact on the cornea donor pool in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lass, Jonathan H; Szczotka-Flynn, Loretta B; Ayala, Allison R; Benetz, Beth A; Gal, Robin L; Aldave, Anthony J; Corrigan, Michelle M; Dunn, Steven P; McCall, Ty L; Pramanik, Sudeep; Rosenwasser, George O; Ross, Kevin W; Terry, Mark A; Verdier, David D

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the aims, methods, donor and recipient cohort characteristics, and potential impact of the Cornea Preservation Time Study (CPTS). The CPTS is a randomized clinical trial conducted at 40 clinical sites (70 surgeons) designed to assess the effect of donor cornea preservation time (PT) on graft survival 3 years after Descemet stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (DSAEK). Eyes undergoing surgery for Fuchs endothelial corneal dystrophy or pseudophakic/aphakic corneal edema were randomized to receive donor corneas stored ≤7 days or 8 to 14 days. Donor and patient characteristics, tissue preparation and surgical parameters, recipient and donor corneal stroma clarity, central corneal thickness, intraocular pressure, complications, and a reading center-determined central endothelial cell density were collected. Surveys were conducted to evaluate pre-CPTS PT practices. The 1330 CPTS donors were: 49% >60 years old, 27% diabetic, had a median eye bank-determined screening endothelial cell density of 2688 cells/mm, and 74% eye bank prepared for DSAEK. A total of 1090 recipients (1330 eyes including 240 bilateral cases) had: median age of 70 years, were 60% female, 90% white, 18% diabetic, 52% phakic, and 94% had Fuchs endothelial corneal dystrophy. Before the CPTS, 19 eye banks provided PT data on 20,852 corneas domestically placed for DSAEK in 2010 to 2011; 96% were preserved ≤7 days. Of 305 American Academy of Ophthalmology members responding to a pre-CPTS survey, 233 (76%) set their maximum PT preference at 8 days or less. The CPTS will increase understanding of factors related to DSAEK success and, if noninferiority of longer PT is shown, will have great potential to extend the available pool of endothelial keratoplasty donors.Clinical Trial Registration-URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01537393.

  18. The biomechanical properties of the cornea and anterior segment parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Ho Sik; Park, Seh Kwang; Kim, Man Soo

    2013-10-02

    To investigate the biomechanical properties of the cornea measured with the Ocular Response Analyzer (ORA) and their association with the anterior segment parameters representing the geometric dimensions including the corneal volume and anterior chamber volume. A retrospective review of 1020 patients who visited the BGN Eye Clinic was done. The mean radius of the corneal curvature, corneal astigmatism, corneal volume, anterior chamber depth, and anterior chamber volume were measured with an anterior segment tomographer. The central corneal thickness (CCT) was measured with an ultrasonic pachymeter. The corneal diameter was measured with an Orbscan as White to White. Cornea hysteresis (CH), corneal resistance factor (CRF), Goldmann correlated intraocular pressure (IOPg), and cornea-compensated IOP (IOPcc) were measured with an ORA. Multiple linear regression models were constructed with CH and CRF as the dependent variables and age, gender, and the anterior segment parameters as the covariates. 958 eyes from 958 patients (mean age 26.7 years; male 43.4%) were included in this study after excluding some eyes according to the exclusion criteria. The mean CH and CRF were 10.1 and 9.9 mmHg, respectively. The mean IOPg and IOPcc were 14.8 and 15.8 mmHg. The multivariate analysis showed that CH was negatively associated with the mean radius of the cornea curvature (regression coefficient = -0.481, p = 0.023) and positively associated with CCT (regression coefficient = 0.015, p corneal volume (regression coefficient =0.059, p = 0.014). The association between CH and the corneal diameter, anterior chamber depth, and anterior chamber volume were not statistically significant. The evaluation of CRF showed that CRF was negatively associated with the mean radius of the cornea curvature (regression coefficient = -0.540, p = 0.013), and positively associated with CCT (β = 0.026, p corneal diameter, corneal volume, anterior chamber depth, and anterior chamber volume were not

  19. Characterization of Inhibitor of differentiation (Id) proteins in human cornea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Rajiv R; Morgan, Brandie R; Anumanthan, Govindaraj; Sharma, Ajay; Chaurasia, Shyam S; Rieger, Frank G

    2016-05-01

    Inhibitor of differentiation (Id) proteins are DNA-binding transcription factors involved in cellular proliferation, migration, inflammation, angiogenesis and fibrosis. However, their expression and role in the cornea is unknown. The present study was undertaken to characterize the expression of Id proteins and their interactions with the pro-fibrotic cytokine Transforming Growth Factor β1 (TGFβ1) and anti-fibrotic cytokine, bone morphogenic protein 7 (BMP7) in human cornea. Human donor corneas procured from Eye Bank were used. Id proteins were localized in human corneal sections using immunofluorescence. Primary cultures of human corneal fibroblasts (HCF) were established and treated with either TGFβ1 (5 ng/ml) or BMP7 (10 ng/ml) for 24 h in serum free medium. Expression of Id's in response to TGFβ1, BMP7 and TGFβ1 + BMP7 was analyzed by quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR) and western blot analysis. Id1 and Id2 proteins were ubiquitously expressed in the epithelial cells and stromal keratocytes in human cornea. The Id1 was localized to the basal epithelial cells as seen by immunohistochemistry. HCF expressed all known mammalian Id genes (Id1-Id4). In addition, Id1 and Id2 are selectively expressed in HCF. Treatment of human recombinant TGFβ1 (5 ng/ml) to serum-starved HCF showed a significant increase in Id genes (Id1, Id2 and Id4) at 2 h time point compared to BMP7 treatment, which showed time dependent increase in the expression of Id1-Id3 at 24-48 h. Combined treatment with TGFβ1 + BMP7 to HCF showed a significant increase in Id1 transcript and an increasing trend in Id3 and Id4 expression. The results of this study suggest that Id family of genes (Id1-Id4) are localized in the human cornea and expressed in the corneal fibroblasts. Also, Id's were differentially regulated with TGFβ1 and/or BMP7 in a time dependent manner and might serve as a therapeutic target in corneal fibrosis. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. [Three-dimensional localization and assessment of maxillary palatal impacted canines with cone-beam computed tomography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jian-Nan; Gu, Yue-Guang; Zhao, Chun-Yang; Liu, Ke; Mo, Shi-Cheng; Li, Hu; Pan, Cheng-Qiong; Wang, Lin

    2015-02-01

    To evaluate the location of maxillary palatal impacted canines and resorption of neighboring incisors with cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). Twenty-two healthy adolescent patients who had received orthodontic treatments at Stomatological Hospital of Nanjing Medical University were selected and scanned by CBCT. Palatal impacted maxillary canines were reconstructed by Dolphin imaging 11.0 software. The impactions, spatial relationships and classification relative to adjacent structures and incisor resorption were assessed. Most of the maxillary palatal impacted canines inclinated mesially and palatally. Mesial malpositions were more significantly prevalent in Class I and IV, and the prevalence rates were 30.8% and 38.5% respectively. Mesial inclinations of the impacted canines to occlusal plane were mostly between 53.8° and 68.5°, and the distances from the impacted canines to median sagittal plane were between 5.4 and 8.4 mm. Older the patient was, further the impacted canines mesiopalatal displaced and mesial inclined. The roots of 84.6% of lateral incisors and 19.2% of central incisors contacted impacted canines; Root resorption occurred in 50% of lateral incisors and 15.4% of central incisors, which predominantly located in apical third of the lateral incisors and middle third of the central incisors. A inverse correlation was found between the resorption rates of adjacent incisors and minimum distances from impacted canines to adjacent incisors. CBCT allows three dimensional evaluation of impaction and spatial relationships relative to adjacent structures. In addition, 3 dimensional measurement contributes to more accurate exhibition of the adjacent root resorptions, inclinations and depths of the impacted canines, which leads to more efficient guidance of maxillary palatal impacted canines treatment.

  1. Current developments in canine genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marschall, Yvonne; Distl, Ottmar

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, canine genetics had made huge progress. In 1999 the first complete karyotype and ideogram of the dog was published. Several linkage and RH maps followed. Using these maps, sets of microsatellite markers for whole genome scans were compiled. In 2003 the sequencing of the DNA of a female Boxer began. Now the second version of the dog genome assembly has been put online, and recently, a microchip SNP array became available. Parallel to these developments, some causal mutations for different traits have been identified. Most of the identified mutations were responsible for monogenic canine hereditary diseases. With the tools available now, it is possible to use the advantages of the population structure of the various dog breeds to unravel complex genetic traits. Furthermore, the dog is a suitable model for the research of a large number of human hereditary diseases and particularly for cancer genetics, heart and neurodegenerative diseases. There are some examples where it was possible to benefit from the knowledge of canine genetics for human research. The search for quantitative trait loci (QTL), the testing of candidate genes and genome-wide association studies can now be performed in dogs. QTL for skeletal size variations and for canine hip dysplasia have been already identified and for these complex traits the responsible genes and their possible interactions can now be identified.

  2. Surgical innovations in canine gonadectomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Goethem, Bart

    2016-01-01

    In this thesis some recent technological developments in human surgery are evaluated for their potential use in veterinary medicine by introducing them as surgical innovations for canine gonadectomy. Barbed sutures achieve wound apposition without surgical knot tying and thus avoid knot-associated

  3. Clinical and epidemiological aspects of cornea transplant patients of a reference hospital

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    Giovanna Karinny Pereira Cruz

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: clinically characterizing cornea transplant patients and their distribution according to indicated and post-operative conditions of cornea transplantation, as well as estimating the average waiting time. Method: a cross-sectional, descriptive and analytical study performed for all cornea transplants performed at a reference service (n=258. Data were analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences, version 20.0. Results: the main indicator for cornea transplant was keratoconus. The mean waiting time for the transplant was approximately 5 months and 3 weeks for elective transplants and 9 days for urgent cases. An association between the type of corneal disorder with gender, age, previous surgery, eye classification, glaucoma and anterior graft failure were found. Conclusion: keratoconus was the main indicator for cornea transplant. Factors such as age, previous corneal graft failure (retransplantation, glaucoma, cases of surgeries prior to cornea transplant (especially cataract surgery may be related to the onset corneal endothelium disorders.

  4. [Nondestructive applanation technique to measure the elasticity moduli and creep properties of ocular cornea in vivo].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xueyong; Liu, Dong; Tang, Zhen; Liao, Rongfeng; Ma, Jianguo

    2015-02-01

    Due to lack of the practical technique to measure the biomechanical properties of the ocular cornea in vivo, clinical ophthalmologists have some difficulties in understanding the deformation mechanism of the cornea under the action of physiological intraocular pressures. Using Young's theory analysis of the corneal deformation during applanation tonometry, the relation between the elasticity moduli of the cornea and the applanated corneal area and the measured and true intraocular pressures can be obtained. A new applanation technique has been developed for measuring the biomechanical properties of the ocular cornea tissue in vivo, which can simultaneously acquire the data of the applanation area and displacement of the corneal deformation as well as the exerted applanation force on the cornea. Experimental results on a rabbit's eyeball demonstrated that the present technique could be used to measure the elasticity moduli and creep properties of the ocular cornea nondestructively in vivo.

  5. Canine ocular thelaziosis caused by Thelazia callipaeda in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimenta, Paulo; Cardoso, Luís; Pereira, Maria J; Maltez, Luís; Coutinho, Teresa; Alves, Maria S; Otranto, Domenico

    2013-07-01

    Ocular thelaziosis caused by Thelazia callipaeda is a vector-borne disease affecting dogs and humans. We report a case of thelaziosis in a 10-year-old German Shepherd dog from Vila Real city (Portugal). Ophthalmological examination revealed bulbar and nictitating membrane conjunctival hyperemia with serous discharge noted at the left medial canthus and blepharitis. Schirmer tear test value and intraocular pressure were within the reference ranges in both eyes, and biomicroscopy showed a transparent cornea without lesions or edema and no inflammatory reaction in the anterior chamber. No funduscopic alterations were detected by direct and indirect ophthalmoscopic examination. When testing the nasolacrimal patency, two white worms were observed on the caruncle conjunctival surface with undulating movements that increased with light intensity. In total, eight worms were collected and morphologically identified as T. callipaeda (seven mature females and one male). PCR amplification of a 689 sequence of partial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 target gene confirmed the nematodes were T. callipaeda, haplotype 1. The dog was treated with a single subcutaneous injection of ivermectin combined with additional topical application of ophthalmic fusidic acid drops and oral milbemycin oxime. One week after treatment, no worms were detected and the ocular clinical signs resolved. The most recent reports of canine thelaziosis in the Iberian Peninsula should alert local health authorities to the zoonotic potential of infestation with T. callipaeda, which should be included in the differential diagnosis of conjunctivitis in dogs and humans. © 2012 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  6. Wound healing in rabbit corneas after photorefractive keratectomy and laser in situ keratomileusis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Takeshi; Saika, Shizuya; Yamanaka, Akio; Kawashima, Yoshiji; Suzuki, Yoshitaka; Ohnishi, Yoshitaka

    2003-01-01

    To compare the wound-healing process in the rabbit cornea after photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) and laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) with the same refractive correction. Department of Ophthalmology, Wakayama Medical University, Wakayama, Japan. Adult albino rabbits (N = 24) were used. One eye of each animal had PRK or LASIK with the same refractive correction. Each animal was killed after an interval of up to 6 months. The expression pattern of corneal stromal injury-related molecules with the 2 treatments were compared. Paraffin sections of the cornea were processed immunohistochemically for alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA), collagen type IV [alpha1(IV)](2),alpha2(IV), and heat shock protein (HSP) 47 as well as other HSPs. Sections were also examined after hematoxylin and eosin or periodic acid-Schiff staining. Hematoxylin and eosin staining showed the central epithelium to be thick in PRK-treated corneas. The thick epithelium was restricted to the area around the corneal flap edge adhesion in LASIK-treated corneas at 3 months. Periodic acid-Schiff staining showed an absence of or interruption in the epithelial basement membrane in PRK-treated corneas for up to 6 months. Heat shock protein 47 was detected in keratocytes on day 3 but not after that in PRK-treated corneas. There was no difference in the expression of other HSPs. Alpha-smooth muscle actin was expressed in keratocytes repopulated in the central anterior cornea of PRK-treated corneas at 28 days. Keratocytes with immunoreactivity for these 2 proteins were not seen in LASIK-treated corneas. Collagen IV [alpha1(IV)](2),alpha2(IV) was not detected in either group of corneas. The central epithelium became transiently thicker in PRK-treated corneas. Keratocyte responses to laser stromal ablation were more marked in corneas treated with PRK than in those treated with LASIK.

  7. Cultivation and characterization of a bovine in vitro model of the cornea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tegtmeyer, S; Reichl, S; Müller-Goymann, C C

    2004-06-01

    The aim of this study was to develop an in vitro model of the cornea of bovine cells, to characterise the model by histochemical methods and to investigate permeation of ophthalmic drugs through the model. As in the in vivo situation, an in vitro model of the cornea should consist of all three different types of cells. In the current study, the construction of the in vitro cornea was performed using cells prepared from primary cultures. To investigate the state of the cells in the cultures, growth curves were established. Immunocytochemical determination of keratin and vimentin was performed for all three isolated and sub-cultivated cell types of the bovine cornea. To further simulate the in vivo conditions, corneal epithelial cells were seeded onto the collagen-gel base containing the stromal cells with an underlying sheet of endothelium. Permeation experiments were performed with pilocarpine hydrochloride and timolol hydrogen maleate as model drugs and excised bovine cornea and the in vitro cornea as permeation barriers. The immunohistochemical investigations show that excised bovine cornea and the in vitro model of the cornea are comparable with respect to the expression of keratin K3, indicating that the primarily isolated cells correspond to the different cell types of the cornea. Culturing of the epithelial cells on the complex basis has led to the formation of a corneal epithelium with several layers, closely resembling the morphology of the in vivo epithelium. Although the permeation rates of the drug through the in vitro cornea were always higher, the sequence in which the drugs permeate through the two types of barriers was the same. The drug permeation through the in vitro cornea may therefore be a useful predictive tool to estimate the permeability coefficients of drugs through excised cornea.

  8. Physical and Biological Characterization of the Gamma-Irradiated Human Cornea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, J Jeremy; Choi, Joseph S; Lee, Justin D; Lu, Qiaozhi; Stark, Walter J; Kuo, Irene C; Elisseeff, Jennifer H

    2015-10-01

    To compare the physical and biological characteristics of commercial gamma-irradiated corneas with those of fresh human corneas and to determine suitability for transplantation. The physical properties of gamma-irradiated and fresh corneas were evaluated with respect to light transmittance, hydration (swelling ratio), elastic modulus (compressive modulus by the indentation method), matrix organization (differential scanning calorimetry), and morphology (light and transmission electron microscopy). The biological properties of the gamma-irradiated cornea, including residual cell content and cellular biocompatibility, were evaluated by quantifying DNA content and measuring the proliferation rate of human corneal epithelial cells, respectively. The hydration, light transmittance, elastic modulus, and proliferation rate of human corneal epithelial cells were not significantly different between fresh and gamma-irradiated corneas. However, differences were observed in tissue morphology, DNA content, and thermal properties. The density of collagen fibrils of the gamma-irradiated corneal sample (160.6 ± 33.2 fibrils/μm) was significantly lower than that of the fresh corneal sample (310.0 ± 44.7 fibrils/μm). Additionally, in the gamma-irradiated corneas, cell fragments-but not viable cells-were observed, supported by lower DNA content of the gamma-irradiated cornea (1.0 ± 0.1 μg/mg) than in fresh corneas (1.9 μg/mg). Moreover, the denaturation temperature of gamma-irradiated corneas (61.8 ± 1.1 °C) was significantly lower than that of fresh corneas (66.1 ± 1.9 °C). Despite structural changes due to irradiation, the physical and biological properties of the gamma-irradiated cornea remain similar to the fresh cornea. These factors, combined with a decreased risk of rejection and longer shelf life, make the gamma-irradiated tissue a viable and clinically desired option in various ophthalmic procedures.

  9. The Ets Transcription Factor EHF as a Regulator of Cornea Epithelial Cell Identity*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Denise N.; Klein, Rachel Herndon; Salmans, Michael L.; Gordon, William; Ho, Hsiang; Andersen, Bogi

    2013-01-01

    The cornea is the clear, outermost portion of the eye composed of three layers: an epithelium that provides a protective barrier while allowing transmission of light into the eye, a collagen-rich stroma, and an endothelium monolayer. How cornea development and aging is controlled is poorly understood. Here we characterize the mouse cornea transcriptome from early embryogenesis through aging and compare it with transcriptomes of other epithelial tissues, identifying cornea-enriched genes, pathways, and transcriptional regulators. Additionally, we profiled cornea epithelium and stroma, defining genes enriched in these layers. Over 10,000 genes are differentially regulated in the mouse cornea across the time course, showing dynamic expression during development and modest expression changes in fewer genes during aging. A striking transition time point for gene expression between postnatal days 14 and 28 corresponds with completion of cornea development at the transcriptional level. Clustering classifies co-expressed, and potentially co-regulated, genes into biologically informative categories, including groups that exhibit epithelial or stromal enriched expression. Based on these findings, and through loss of function studies and ChIP-seq, we show that the Ets transcription factor EHF promotes cornea epithelial fate through complementary gene activating and repressing activities. Furthermore, we identify potential interactions between EHF, KLF4, and KLF5 in promoting cornea epithelial differentiation. These data provide insights into the mechanisms underlying epithelial development and aging, identifying EHF as a regulator of cornea epithelial identity and pointing to interactions between Ets and KLF factors in promoting epithelial fate. Furthermore, this comprehensive gene expression data set for the cornea is a powerful tool for discovery of novel cornea regulators and pathways. PMID:24142692

  10. Cartilage integrity and proteoglycan turnover are comparable in canine experimentally induced and human joint degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Femke Intema

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The value of experimental models of osteoarthritis (OA largely depends on the ability to translate observations to human OA. Surprisingly, direct comparison of characteristics of human and experimental OA is scarce. In the present study, cartilage integrity and matrix turnover in a canine model of joint degeneration were compared to human clinical OA. In 23 Beagle dogs, joint degeneration was induced in one knee, the contra-lateral knee served as a control. For comparison, human osteoarthritic and healthy knee cartilage were obtained at arthroplasty (n=14 and post-mortem (n=13. Cartilage was analyzed by histology and biochemistry. Values for cartilage integrity and proteoglycan (PG synthesis showed species specific differences; GAG content of healthy cartilage was 2-fold higher in canine cartilage and PG synthesis even 8-fold. However, the relative decrease in PG content between healthy and OA cartilage was similar for humans and canines (-17% vs. -15%, respectively, as was the histological damage (+7.0 vs. +6.1, respectively and the increase of PG synthesis (+100% vs. +70%, respectively. Remarkably, the percentage release of total and of newly formed PGs in human and canine controls was similar, as was the increase due to degeneration (+65% vs. +81% and +91% vs. +52%, respectively. Despite differences in control conditions, the observed changes in characteristics of cartilage integrity and matrix turnover are similar in a canine model of joint degeneration and human clinical OA. The canine Groove model shows that its characteristics reflect those of human OA which makes the model appropriate for studying human OA.

  11. Research of cornea section's shape ablated by 193-nm ArF laser spots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhiqiang; Yu, Yinshan; Deng, Guoqing

    2005-11-01

    The ablation theory of cornea and biology effect by 193-nm ArF excimer laser are introduced. The ablation tracks model is put forward to make laser spots scan around cornea by many steps and many areas to change cornea curvature. The corneal average ablation curve is calculated by software so as to explain the feasibility of the ablation tracks model. By analyzing the actual ablation shapes of many arbitrary cornea sections, the optimal ablation method for deciding the random position of every laser spot in every ablation track is obtained. Experiments combining the ablation model with the device testify the energy stability of laser spots and the accuracy of rectifying anisometropia.

  12. Influx of immunoglobulins from the vascular compartment into a grafted cornea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Veen, G; Broersma, L; Bruyne, I; Verhagen, C; Ruijter, J; Van Rij, G; Van der Gaag, R

    1997-04-01

    To determine the effect of a fresh corneal wound or a healed corneal scar on the immunodiffusion of immunoglobulins into the cornea. F344 rats were immunized with human serum albumin (HSA) 1 week before an autologous rotational keratoplasty of the right cornea or 1 year after an autograft was performed. One group of rats also was treated with gentamicin-dexamethasone ointment in the grafted eye for 1 week after transplantation to reduce the postsurgical inflammatory signs. A serum sample was drawn every week and booster injections with HSA were given after 2 and 3 weeks. At various times after immunization, groups of rats were killed, blood and aqueous humor samples were taken, and the corneas of both eyes were removed. The corneas were divided into the graft or a 3-mm central button and the peripheral rim and weighed. The anti-HSA titer was determined in serum, aqueous humor, and both parts of the corneas. Up to 5 weeks after transplantation, the grafted cornea contained more anti-HSA immunoglobulins than did the control eye. One year postgrafting, no difference was seen. In the first weeks after keratoplasty, influx of anti-HSA from the peripheral into the central cornea was, however, neither obstructed nor enhanced. Surgical trauma in itself causes increased influx of anti-HSA immunoglobulins into the cornea. Within the cornea, a wound or a scar does not appear to be a barrier for centripetal immunoglobulin diffusion.

  13. Mid-term clinical outcomes of collagen-phosphorylcholine cornea substitutes for therapeutic anterior lamellar keratoplasty

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    O Buznyk; MM Islam; S Iakymenko; N Pasyechnikova; M Griffith

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To assess safety and efficacy of biosynthetic collagen-phosphorylcholine implants as corneal substitutes in patients with severe pathologies for whom human donor cornea transplantation carries...

  14. Distribution of specific collagen types and fibronectin in normal and keratoconus corneas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchiya, S; Tanaka, M; Konomi, H; Hayashi, T

    1986-01-01

    The distribution of five types of collagen and fibronectin in 6 normal and 9 keratoconus corneas was examined, using immunofluorescent staining and the enzyme-labeled antibody method. Types I, III and V collagens were detected in the corneal stroma. There was essentially no difference between normal and keratoconus corneas in their distribution. Type IV collagen and fibronectin were detected in the basement membrane of the normal corneal epithelium, while in the keratoconus corneas the disruption of the basement membrane as well as the excrescence of basement membrane materials was observed. The abnormal distribution of the type IV collagen and fibronectin was also observed in the anterior stromal area of keratoconus corneas.

  15. Expression of glutathione transferases in corneal cell lines, corneal tissues and a human cornea construct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kölln, Christian; Reichl, Stephan

    2016-06-15

    Glutathione transferase (GST) expression and activity were examined in a three-dimensional human cornea construct and were compared to those of excised animal corneas. The objective of this study was to characterize phase II enzyme expression in the cornea construct with respect to its utility as an alternative to animal cornea models. The expression of the GSTO1-1 and GSTP1-1 enzymes was investigated using immunofluorescence staining and western blotting. The level of total glutathione transferase activity was determined using 1-chloro-2,4- dinitrobenzene as the substrate. Furthermore, the levels of GSTO1-1 and GSTP1-1 activity were examined using S-(4-nitrophenacyl)glutathione and ethacrynic acid, respectively, as the specific substrates. The expression and activity levels of these enzymes were examined in the epithelium, stroma and endothelium, the three main cellular layers of the cornea. In summary, the investigated enzymes were detected at both the protein and functional levels in the cornea construct and the excised animal corneas. However, the enzymatic activity levels of the human cornea construct were lower than those of the animal corneas. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Dual illumination for cornea and retina imaging using spectral domain optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirazi, Muhammad Faizan; Wijesinghe, Ruchire Eranga; Ravichandran, Naresh Kumar; Jeon, Mansik; Kim, Jeehyun

    2017-04-01

    A dual illumination system is proposed for cornea and retina imaging using spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). The system is designed to acquire cornea and retina imaging with dual illumination with limited optics and using a single spectrometer. The beam propagation for cornea and retina imaging in dual illumination enables to acquire the images of different segments. This approach will reduce the imaging time for separate corneal and retinal imaging. The in vivo imaging of both the cornea and retina of a health volunteer shows the feasibility of the system for clinical applications

  17. Corneal biomechanical data and biometric parameters measured with Scheimpflug-based devices on normal corneas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemeth, Gabor; Szalai, Eszter; Hassan, Ziad; Lipecz, Agnes; Flasko, Zsuzsa; Modis, Laszlo

    2017-01-01

    To analyze the correlations between ocular biomechanical and biometric data of the eye, measured by Scheimpflug-based devices on healthy subjects. Three consecutive measurements were carried out using the corneal visualization Scheimpflug technology (CorVis ST) device on healthy eyes and the 10 device-specific parameters were recorded. Pentacam HR-derived parameters (corneal curvature radii on the anterior and posterior surfaces; apical pachymetry; corneal volume; corneal aberration data; depth, volume and angle of the anterior chamber) and axial length (AL) from IOLMaster were correlated with the 10 specific CorVis ST parameters. Measurements were conducted in 43 eyes of 43 volunteers (age 61.24±15.72y). The 10 specific CorVis ST data showed significant relationships with corneal curvature radii both on the anterior and posterior surface, pachymetric data, root mean square (RMS) data of lower-order aberrations, and posterior RMS of higher-order aberrations and spherical aberration of the posterior cornea. Anterior chamber depth showed a significant relationship, but there were no significant correlations between corneal volume, anterior chamber volume, mean chamber angle or AL and the 10 specific CorVis ST parameters. CorVis ST-generated parameters are influenced by corneal curvature radii, some corneal RMS data, but corneal volume, anterior chamber volume, chamber angle and AL have no correlation with the biomechanical parameters. The parameters measured by CorVis ST seem to refer mostly to corneal properties of the eye.

  18. Corneal biomechanical data and biometric parameters measured with Scheimpflug-based devices on normal corneas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemeth, Gabor; Szalai, Eszter; Hassan, Ziad; Lipecz, Agnes; Flasko, Zsuzsa; Modis, Laszlo

    2017-01-01

    AIM To analyze the correlations between ocular biomechanical and biometric data of the eye, measured by Scheimpflug-based devices on healthy subjects. METHODS Three consecutive measurements were carried out using the corneal visualization Scheimpflug technology (CorVis ST) device on healthy eyes and the 10 device-specific parameters were recorded. Pentacam HR-derived parameters (corneal curvature radii on the anterior and posterior surfaces; apical pachymetry; corneal volume; corneal aberration data; depth, volume and angle of the anterior chamber) and axial length (AL) from IOLMaster were correlated with the 10 specific CorVis ST parameters. RESULTS Measurements were conducted in 43 eyes of 43 volunteers (age 61.24±15.72y). The 10 specific CorVis ST data showed significant relationships with corneal curvature radii both on the anterior and posterior surface, pachymetric data, root mean square (RMS) data of lower-order aberrations, and posterior RMS of higher-order aberrations and spherical aberration of the posterior cornea. Anterior chamber depth showed a significant relationship, but there were no significant correlations between corneal volume, anterior chamber volume, mean chamber angle or AL and the 10 specific CorVis ST parameters. CONCLUSIONS CorVis ST-generated parameters are influenced by corneal curvature radii, some corneal RMS data, but corneal volume, anterior chamber volume, chamber angle and AL have no correlation with the biomechanical parameters. The parameters measured by CorVis ST seem to refer mostly to corneal properties of the eye. PMID:28251079

  19. Evaluation of hypoxic swelling of human cornea with high speed ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizheva, Kostadinka; Hyun, Chulho; Eichel, Justin; Hariri, Sepideh; Mishra, Akshaya; Clausi, David; Fieguth, Paul; Simpson, Trefford; Hutchings, Natalie

    2009-02-01

    Hypoxia induced corneal swelling was observed and evaluated in healthy human volunteers by use of high speed, ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography (UHROCT). Two dimensional corneal images were acquired at a speed of 47,000 A-scans/s with 3µm x 10µm (axial x lateral) resolution in corneal tissue. The UHROCT tomograms showed clear visualization of all corneal layers, including the Bowman's layer and the Descemet's membrane - Endothelium complex. A segmentation algorithm was developed and used for automatic detection of the boundaries of the different corneal layers and evaluation the individual layer thickness as a function of location. Corneal hypoxia was induced by wear of a soft contact lens (SCL) and an eye patch by 2 healthy volunteers for duration of 3 hours. The thickness of all corneal layers was measured as a function of time, prior to, with and after removal of the SCL. Results from the hypoxia study showed different rates of swelling and de-swelling of the individual corneal layers. About 10% increase in the total cornea thickness was observed, similar to the changes in the stroma, the Bowman's membrane swelled by 20%, while no significant change in the thickness was observed in the Descemet's - Endothelium complex.

  20. Altered oxidative stress and carbohydrate metabolism in canine mammary tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Jayasri

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Mammary tumors are the most prevalent type of neoplasms in canines. Even though cancer induced metabolic alterations are well established, the clinical data describing the metabolic profiles of animal tumors is not available. Hence, our present investigation was carried out with the aim of studying changes in carbohydrate metabolism along with the level of oxidative stress in canine mammary tumors. Materials and Methods: Fresh mammary tumor tissues along with the adjacent healthy tissues were collected from the college surgical ward. The levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS, glutathione, protein, hexose, hexokinase, glucose-6-phosphatase, fructose-1, 6-bisphosphatase, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD were analyzed in all the tissues. The results were analyzed statistically. Results: More than two-fold increase in TBARS and three-fold increase in glutathione levels were observed in neoplastic tissues. Hexokinase activity and hexose concentration (175% was found to be increased, whereas glucose-6-phosphatase (33%, fructose-1, 6-bisphosphatase (42%, and G6PD (5 fold activities were reduced in tumor mass compared to control. Conclusion: Finally, it was revealed that lipid peroxidation was increased with differentially altered carbohydrate metabolism in canine mammary tumors.

  1. Isolation and characterization of canine natural killer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Helen T; Ito, Daisuke; McCullar, Valarie; Zhang, Bin; Miller, Jeffrey S; Modiano, Jaime F

    2013-09-15

    NK cells are non-T, non-B lymphocytes that kill target cells without previous activation. The immunophenotype and function of these cells in humans and mice are well defined, but canine NK cells remain incompletely characterized. Our objectives were to isolate and culture canine peripheral blood NK cells, and to define their immunophenotype and killing capability. PBMC were obtained from healthy dogs and T cells were depleted by immunomagnetic separation. The residual cells were cultured in media supplemented with IL-2, IL-15 or both, or with mouse embryonic liver (EL) feeder cells. Non-T, non-B lymphocytes survived and expanded in these cultures. IL-2 was necessary and sufficient for survival; the addition of IL-15 was necessary for expansion, but IL-15 alone did not support survival. Culture with EL cells and IL-2 also fostered survival and expansion. The non-T, non-B lymphocytes uniformly expressed CD45, MHC I, and showed significant cytotoxic activity against CTAC targets. Expression of MHC II, CD11/18 was restricted to subsets of these cells. The data show that cells meeting the criteria for NK cells in other species, i.e., non-T, non-B lymphocytes with cytotoxic activity, can be expanded from canine PBMC by T-cell depletion and culture with cytokines or feeder cells. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Inflammatory Processes Associated with Canine Intervertebral Disc Herniation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Monchaux

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Intervertebral disc herniation (IVDH is an important pathology in humans and also in dogs. While the molecular disease mechanisms are well investigated in humans, little is known about the inflammatory mediators in naturally occurring canine IVDH. The objective of this study was to investigate whether the involved proinflammatory cytokines in human IVDH are also key cytokines in canine IVDH and thus to elucidate the suitability of the dog as a model for human trials. 59 samples from 25 dogs with surgically confirmed thoracolumbar IVDH were collected and classified in three subgroups: herniated (H, affected non-herniated (NH disc, and adjacent non-affected (NA disc. Discs from 11 healthy dogs acted as controls (C. Samples were analyzed for IL-1, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α expression (qPCR/ELISA as well as cell infiltration and activation of the MAP kinase pathways (immunohistochemistry. Gene and protein expression of all key cytokines could be detected in IVDH affected dogs. Canine IVDH was significantly associated with a higher gene expression of IL-6 (H > C, NH > C and TNF-α (H > C, NH > C, NA > C and a significant down-regulation of IL-1β (H < C. Dogs with spontaneous pain had significantly higher IL-6 mRNA compared to those with pain arising only upon palpation. An inter-donor comparison (H and HN relative to NA revealed a significant increase of IL-6 gene expression (H > NA, NH > NA. IL-8 (H > C, NA > C and TNF-α (NH > C protein levels were significantly increased in diseased dogs while inversely, IL-6 protein levels were significantly higher in patients with better clinical outcome. Aside from resident IVD cells, mostly monocytes and macrophages were found in extruded material, with concomitant activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase p38 in the majority of samples. Dogs with spontaneous IVDH might provide a useful model for human disc diseases. Although the expression of key cytokines

  3. Aberrant hepatic lipid storage and metabolism in canine portosystemic shunts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay Van den Bossche

    Full Text Available Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is a poorly understood multifactorial pandemic disorder. One of the hallmarks of NAFLD, hepatic steatosis, is a common feature in canine congenital portosystemic shunts. The aim of this study was to gain detailed insight into the pathogenesis of steatosis in this large animal model. Hepatic lipid accumulation, gene-expression analysis and HPLC-MS of neutral lipids and phospholipids in extrahepatic (EHPSS and intrahepatic portosystemic shunts (IHPSS was compared to healthy control dogs. Liver organoids of diseased dogs and healthy control dogs were incubated with palmitic- and oleic-acid, and lipid accumulation was quantified using LD540. In histological slides of shunt livers, a 12-fold increase of lipid content was detected compared to the control dogs (EHPSS P<0.01; IHPSS P = 0.042. Involvement of lipid-related genes to steatosis in portosystemic shunting was corroborated using gene-expression profiling. Lipid analysis demonstrated different triglyceride composition and a shift towards short chain and omega-3 fatty acids in shunt versus healthy dogs, with no difference in lipid species composition between shunt types. All organoids showed a similar increase in triacylglycerols after free fatty acids enrichment. This study demonstrates that steatosis is probably secondary to canine portosystemic shunts. Unravelling the pathogenesis of this hepatic steatosis might contribute to a better understanding of steatosis in NAFLD.

  4. Serosurvey for canine distemper virus exposure in dogs in communal lands in Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.J. Kelly

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Sera from 173 apparently healthy, unvaccinated dogs from 4 widely separated communal lands in Zimbabwe were tested by ELISA for antibodies against canine distemper virus. Overall, 82 % were positive with high prevalences found in each communal land. The highest seroprevalence was in dogs between 1 and 2 years of age (91 %; 49/54. These results show dogs in the communal lands of Zimbabwe are commonly exposed to canine distemper virus and that a substantial number survive infection. The role that the virus might play in the high mortality rate of the dog population on communal land warrants further investigation.

  5. Fitting the post-keratoplasty cornea with hydrogel lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsoulos, Costas; Nick, Vasileiou; Lefteris, Karageorgiadis; Theodore, Mousafeiropoulos

    2009-02-01

    We report two cases who have undergone penetrating keratoplasty (three eyes total), and who were fitted with hydrogel lenses. In the first case, a 28-year-old male presented with an interest in contact lens fitting. He had undergone corneal transplantation in both eyes, about 5 years ago. After topographies and trial fitting were performed, it was decided to be fitted with reverse geometry hydrogel lenses, due to the globular geometry of the cornea, the resultant instability of RGPs, and personal preference. In the second case, a 26-year-old female who had also penetrating keratoplasty was fitted with a hydrogel toric lens of high cylinder in the right eye. The final hydrogel lenses for the first subject incorporated a custom tricurve design, in which the second curve was steeper than the base curve and the third curve flatter than the second but still steeper than the first. Visual acuity was 6/7.5 RE and a mediocre 6/15 LE (OU 6/7.5). The second subject achieved 6/4.5 acuity RE with the high cylinder hydrogel toric lens. In corneas exhibiting extreme protrusion, such as keratoglobus and some cases after penetrating keratoplasty, curvatures are so extreme and the cornea so globular leading to specific fitting options: sclerals, small diameter RGPs and reverse geometry hydrogel lenses, in order to improve lens and optical stability. In selected cases such as the above, large diameter inverse geometry RGP may be fitted only if the eyelid shape and tension permits so. The first case demonstrates that the option of hydrogel lenses is viable when the patient has no interest in RGPs and in certain cases can improve vision to satisfactory levels. In other cases, graft toricity might be so high that the practitioner will need to employ hydrogel torics with large amounts of cylinder in order to correct vision. In such cases, the patient should be closely monitored in order to avoid complications from hypoxia.

  6. Axial Lengths in Children with Recessive Cornea Plana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Hazimi, Amro; Khan, Arif O

    2015-06-01

    While flat keratometry contributes to the hyperopia and associated refractive accommodative esotropia that is part of recessive cornea plana, whether or not axial lengths are abnormally short in the disease is unclear. In this study we assess this possibility. Prospective (2010-2012) axial length measurement (IOLmaster; Carl Zeiss, Oberkochen, Germany) of affected right eyes and comparison to right eyes with refractive accommodative esotropia only. Keratometry and refraction were also performed. For eight affected right eyes (age 10-12 years; seven families) axial length ranged from 21.46-24.80 mm (mean 23.34). Best corrected visual acuity ranged from 20/25 to 20/50, keratometry from 25.33-39.80 diopters (D) [mean 31.80], and refraction from +2.00 to +14.00 D (mean +7.22). For 50 control right eyes (age 4-12 years), axial length ranged from 19.87-23.66 mm (mean 21.6). Best-corrected visual acuity was 20/25 or better, keratometry ranged from 39.81-46.25 D (mean 42.42), and refraction from +2.25 to +8.00 D (mean 4.71). Axial lengths were longer in the affected group (2-tailed unpaired t-test p value 0.000005) despite greater hyperopia (2-tailed unpaired t-test p value 0.001). Despite greater hyperopia, axial lengths were longer in eyes with recessive cornea plana, evidence that axial lengths are not shortened by the disease. Keratometry in children with cornea plana was below the range of controls and was the major factor underlying the phenotype's hyperopia.

  7. Effects of polysialic acid on sensory innervation of the cornea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Xiuli; Zhang, Yuntao; Schwend, Tyler; Conrad, Gary W

    2015-02-15

    Sensory trigeminal growth cones innervate the cornea in a coordinated fashion during embryonic development. Polysialic acid (polySia) is known for its important roles during nerve development and regeneration. The purpose of this work is to determine whether polySia, present in developing eyefronts and on the surface of sensory nerves, may provide guidance cues to nerves during corneal innervation. Expression and localization of polySia in embryonic day (E)5-14 chick eyefronts and E9 trigeminal ganglia were identified using Western blotting and immunostaining. Effects of polySia removal on trigeminal nerve growth behavior were determined in vivo, using exogenous endoneuraminidase (endoN) treatments to remove polySia substrates during chick cornea development, and in vitro, using neuronal explant cultures. PolySia substrates, made by the physical adsorption of colominic acid to a surface coated with poly-d-lysine (PDL), were used as a model to investigate functions of the polySia expressed in axonal environments. PolySia was localized within developing eyefronts and on trigeminal sensory nerves. Distributions of PolySia in corneas and pericorneal regions are developmentally regulated. PolySia removal caused defasciculation of the limbal nerve trunk in vivo from E7 to E10. Removal of polySia on trigeminal neurites inhibited neurite outgrowth and caused axon defasciculation, but did not affect Neural Cell Adhesion Molecule (NCAM) expression or Schwann cell migration in vitro. PolySia substrates in vitro inhibited outgrowth of trigeminal neurites and promoted their fasciculation. In conclusion, polySia is localized on corneal nerves and in their targeting environment during early developing stages of chick embryos. PolySias promote fasciculation of trigeminal axons in vivo and in vitro, whereas, in contrast, their removal promotes defasciculation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Ocular manifestation in canine leishmaniasis

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    Ralić Marjan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a case of ocular changes in leishmaniasis in a dog brought in for examination because of visible changes in the eyes. An ocular manifestation in leishmaniasis can be bilateral or unilateral. Changes most often occur on the conjunctive and the front segment of the eye, the cornea and iris. From 70 to 80% of dogs diseased with leishmaniasis exhibit frontal uveitis, and dry eye, keratoconjunctivitis sicca, is also a frequent finding. Based on the clinical picture and the positive immunochromatographic rapid test it was established that the dog was diseased with leishmaniasis.

  9. Complete canine papillomavirus life cycle in pigmented lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Christian E; Tobler, Kurt; Schraner, Elisabeth M; Vetsch, Elisabeth; Fischer, Nina M; Ackermann, Mathias; Favrot, Claude

    2013-03-23

    Canine papillomaviruses (CPVs) have been identified in various benign and malignant neoplastic skin disorders. The most frequent manifestations of CPV infections are classical warts and pigmented plaques. Although the etiology of canine oral papillomatosis is well established, knowledge about CPVs role in the development of pigmented plaques remains vague. Indeed, as CPV DNA may frequently be found on clinically healthy canine skin, its mere detection in lesions cannot be regarded as a sufficient indicator of causality. Whether CPVs are actually active in pigmented plaques, a requirement for any conceivable involvement, is consequently an open question. To inquire such viral activity, two distinct clinical cases of canine pigmented lesions were evaluated in greater detail. The histological findings in the two cases supported the clinical diagnosis of pigmented viral plaques. Sequencing of amplified DNA from these lesions revealed the genomes of two novel CPV types, i.e. CPV9 and CPV14, both putatively belonging to the genus Chi. Furthermore, transcription and splicing of corresponding CPV mRNA could be shown by RT-PCR in the respective lesions. Finally, viral particles were detected by electron microscopy in homogenates as well as in nuclei of keratinocytes in pigmented lesions. In conclusion, the results link clinical signs of pigmented plaques to histological changes, the presence of CPV specific DNA, viral gene transcription, and the presence of viral particles in and from the lesions. Thus, the findings outline the entire replicative cycle of CPVs in pigmented plaques, which might help understanding the relationship between these viruses and the associated disorders. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Comparison of the physiological properties of human periodontal-masseteric reflex evoked by incisor and canine stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroko eOhmori

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The present study was designed to clarify whether the bilateral cooperation in the human periodontal-masseteric reflex (PMR differs between central incisors and canines. Methods: Surface array electrodes were placed on the bilateral masseter muscles to simultaneously record the firing activities of single motor units from both sides in 7 healthy adults. During light clenching, mechanical stimulation was applied to the right maxillary central incisor and canine to evoke the PMR. Unitary activity was plotted with respect to the background activity and firing frequency. The slope of the regression line (sRL and the correlation coefficient (CC between the central incisor and canine and the lateral differences between these values were compared. Results: There were significant differences in the sRL and CC, as well as lateral differences, between the central incisor- and canine-driven PMR. Discussion: These results suggest that the PMR differs depending on both the tooth position and laterality.

  11. [Comparing cryopreserved with fresh corneas on clinical application in penetrating keratoplasty].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, L; Chen, J; Hung, T

    2001-06-01

    To evaluate the role of cryopreserved corneas on penetrating keratoplasty (PKP) by comparing them with fresh corneas on clinical application. Third-six excellent condition patients were chosen and randomly divided into two groups. They were performed PKP by using fresh and cryopreserved corneas respectively. The graft transparency, epithelial healing speed of graft, tear membrane, graft thickness, endothelium density and visual acurity were emphasized respectively. When fresh and cryopreserved corneas were used on PKP as the donor respectively, postoperative time to recover normal break-up time (BUT) was two to six months average (4.7 +/- 0.3) months and two to eight months, average (5.6 +/- 0.4) months and time to recover normal Schirmer's test was one to four months average (2.1 +/- 0.3) months and 1-3.5 months, average (1.7 +/- 0.5) months. The graft's thickness, stabilized visual acurity and graft's rejective rate were 0.56-0.68 mm (average 0.62 mm) vs 0.54-0.62 mm (average 0.59 mm), (0.46 +/- 0.03) vs (0.44 +/- 0.05) and 20% vs 19% respectively when fresh vs cryoperserved corneas. No statistical significance between fresh and cryopreserved corneas (P > 0.05). But the grafts behaved intact epithelium and continuing transparency when fresh corneas as donors, while the graft's epithelial defects healed after three to five days of the operation and edematous grafts were reclear after two to three weeks of the operation when cryopreserved corneas as donors. Graft's endothelium density in fresh corneas group 2,043-2,210 cells/mm2 (average 2,135 cells/mm2) was high than in cryopreserved corneas 1,240-1,860 cells/mm2 (average 1,672 cells/mm2) (P healing was delayed and endothelium density was lower when cryopreserved corneas as donors.

  12. The lens regenerative competency of limbal vs. central regions of mature Xenopus cornea epithelium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Paul W.; Henry, Jonathan J.

    2016-01-01

    The frog, Xenopus laevis, is capable of completely regenerating a lens from the cornea epithelium. Because this ability appears to be limited to the larval stages of Xenopus, virtually all the work to understand the mechanisms regulating this process has been limited to pre-metamorphic tadpoles. It has been reported that the post-metamorphic cornea is competent to regenerate under experimental conditions, despite the fact that the in vivo capacity to regenerate is lost; however, that work didn’t examine the regenerative potential of different regions of the cornea. A new model suggests that cornea-lens regeneration in Xenopus may be driven by oligopotent stem cells, and not by transdifferentiation of mature cornea cells. We investigated the regenerative potential of the limbal region in post-metamorphic cornea, where the stem cells of the cornea are thought to reside. Using EdU (5-Ethynyl-2’-deoxyuridine), we identified long-term label retaining cells in the basal cells of peripheral post-metamorphic Xenopus cornea, consistent with slow-cycling stem cells of the limbus that have been described in other vertebrates. Using this data to identify putative stem cells of the limbal region in Xenopus, we tested the regenerative competency of limbal regions and central cornea. All three regions showed a similarly high ability for the cells of the basal epithelium to express lens proteins when cultured in proximity to larval retina. Thus, the regenerative competency in post-metamorphic cornea is not restricted to stem cells of the limbal region, but also occurs in the transit amplifying cells throughout the basal layer of the cornea epithelium. PMID:27569373

  13. Cost Minimization Analysis of Precut Cornea Grafts in Descemet Stripping Automated Endothelial Keratoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Kai-Ling; Nguyen, Hai V; Cajucom-Uy, Howard Y; Foo, Valencia; Tan, Donald; Finkelstein, Eric A; Mehta, Jodhbir S

    2016-02-01

    Descemet stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (DSAEK) is the most common corneal transplant procedure. A key step in the procedure is preparing the donor cornea for transplantation. This can be accomplished via 1 of 3 alternatives: surgeon cuts the cornea on the day of surgery, the cornea is precut ahead of time in an offsite facility by a trained technician, or a precut cornea is purchased from an eye bank. Currently, there is little evidence on the costs and effectiveness of these 3 strategies to allow healthcare providers decide upon the preferred method to prepare grafts.The aim of this study was to compare the costs and relative effectiveness of each strategy.The Singapore National Eye Centre and Singapore Eye Bank performed both precut cornea and surgeon-cut cornea transplant services between 2009 and 2013.This study included 110 subjects who received precut cornea and 140 who received surgeon-cut cornea. Clinical outcomes and surgical duration were compared across the strategies using the propensity score matching. The cost of each strategy was estimated using the microcosting and consisted of facility costs and procedural costs including surgical duration. One-way sensitivity analysis and threshold analysis were performed.The cost for DSAEK was highest for the surgeon-cut approach ($13,965 per procedure), followed by purchasing precut corneas ($12,659) and then setting up precutting ($12,421). The higher procedural cost of the surgeon-cut approach was largely due to the longer duration of the procedure (surgeon-cut = 72.54 minutes, precut = 59.45 minutes, P cornea from eye bank. If there were more than 290 cases annually, the cheapest option would be to setup precutting facility.Our findings suggest that it is more efficient for centers that are performing a large number of cornea transplants (more than 290 cases) to set up their own facility to conduct precutting.

  14. Cryopreservation of microencapsulated canine sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Shambhu; Otsuki, Tsubasa; Fujimura, Chika; Yamamoto, Naoki; Yamashita, Yasuhisa; Higaki, Shogo; Hishinuma, Mitsugu

    2011-03-01

    The objective was to develop a method for cryopreserving microencapsulated canine sperm. Pooled ejaculates from three beagle dogs were extended in egg yolk tris extender and encapsulated using alginate and poly-L-lysine at room temperature. The microcapsules were cooled at 4 °C, immersed in pre-cooled extender (equivalent in volume to the microcapsules) to reach final concentration of 7% (v/v) glycerol and 0.75% (v/v) Equex STM paste, and equilibrated for 5, 30 and 60 min at 4 °C. Thereafter, microcapsules were loaded into 0.5 mL plastic straws and frozen in liquid nitrogen. In Experiment 1, characteristics of microencapsulated canine sperm were evaluated after glycerol addition at 4 °C. Glycerol exposure for 5, 30 and 60 min did not significantly affect progressive motility, viability, or acrosomal integrity of microencapsulated sperm compared with pre-cooled unencapsulated sperm (control). In Experiment 2, characteristics of frozen-thawed canine microencapsulated sperm were evaluated at 0, 3, 6, and 9 h of culture at 38.5 °C. Pre-freeze glycerol exposure for 5, 30, and 60 min at 4 °C did not influence post-thaw quality in unencapsulated sperm. Post-thaw motility and acrosomal integrity of microencapsulated sperm decreased more than those of unencapsulated sperm (P < 0.05) following glycerol exposure for 5 min. However, motility, viability and acrosomal integrity of microencapsulated sperm after 30 and 60 min glycerol exposure were higher than unencapsulated sperm cultured for 6 or 9 h (P < 0.05). In conclusion, since microencapsulated canine sperm were successfully cryopreserved, this could be a viable alternative to convention sperm cryopreservation in this species. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Healthy pets, healthy people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, S K; Feinstein, L H; Heidmann, P

    1999-08-01

    Zoonoses, diseases that can be transmitted from animals to humans, can pose serious health risks to immunocompromised people. Although pets can carry zoonoses, owning and caring for animals can benefit human health. Information exists about preventing transmission of zoonoses, but not all physicians and veterinarians provide adequate and accurate information to immunocompromised pet owners. This disease prevention/health promotion project provides physicians and veterinarians with information, created specifically to share with patients and clients, about the health risks and benefits of pet ownership. Further, "Healthy Pets, Healthy People" encourages communication between veterinarians, physicians, clients, and patients and can serve as a model program for a nation-wide effort to aid health professionals in making recommendations about pet ownership for immunocompromised people.

  16. Healthy Living

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... changes to your lifestyle. By taking steps toward healthy living, you can help reduce your risk of ... Get the screening tests you need Maintain a healthy weight Eat a variety of healthy foods, and ...

  17. Canine epilepsy: an underutilized model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Edward E

    2014-01-01

    The mainstay of comparative research for epilepsy has been rodent models of induced epilepsy. This rodent basic science is essential, but it does not always translate to similar results in people, likely because induced epilepsy is not always similar enough to naturally occurring epilepsy. A good large animal, intermediate model would be very helpful to potentially bridge this translational gap. Epilepsy is the most common medical neurologic disease of dogs. It has been proposed since the 1970s that dogs with naturally occurring epilepsy could potentially be used as a comparative model for people of the underlying basis and therapy of epilepsy. There have been sporadic studies in the decades since then, with a relative surge in the last 10 years. These canine studies in the areas of genetics, drug therapy, dietary therapy, electroencelphalogram research, and devices for epilepsy show proof of concept that canine epilepsy can be a very good model for comparative research for many, but not all, facets of epilepsy. Results of research in canine epilepsy can and have benefited the improvement of treatment for both people and dogs. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Institute for Laboratory Animal Research. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Prevalence and clinical consequences of herpes simplex virus type 1 DNA in human cornea tissues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Remeijer (Lies); R. Duan (Rui); J.M. van Dun (Jessica); M.A.W. Bettink; A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); G.M.G.M. Verjans (George)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractBackground. We determined the prevalence and clinical consequences of herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1 (HSV-1), HSV type 2 (HSV-2), and varicella-zoster virus (VZV) in cornea tissues obtained after penetrating keratoplasty (PKP) was performed. Methods. The excised corneas of 83 patients

  19. [Biomechanical condition of the cornea as a new indicator for pathological and structural changes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spörl, E; Terai, N; Haustein, M; Böhm, A G; Raiskup-Wolf, F; Pillunat, L E

    2009-06-01

    Several methods permit the measurement of geometric parameters of the cornea, but until now biomechanical conditions of the cornea have been ignored (e.g. in refractive corneal surgery). Besides the geometric condition, biomechanical properties of the cornea have been shown to influence applanation measurement of intra-ocular pressure (IOP) and epidemiological studies have identified corneal thickness as an independent risk factor for the development and progression of glaucoma. The aim of this investigation was to characterize the biomechanical properties of the cornea using the ocular response analyzer (ORA). The ocular response analyzer (ORA) is a new method available for non-contact measurement of the biomechanical properties of the cornea. We evaluated the reproducibility of measurements, the difference between static and dynamic factors and the impact of independent factors (e.g. IOP, age, CCT, swelling of the cornea) on 2,500 measurements of corneal hysteresis (CH) and corneal resistance factor (CRF). In a large sample size we observed changes in CH and CRF after refractive surgery procedures (LASIK, UV-A cross-linking, keratoplasty) and in other corneal disorders (keratoconus, corneal dystrophies). CRF and CH changes may reflect structural changes of the cornea. Thus, the ORA provides valuable information for a better understanding and characterization of the biomechanical condition of the cornea, especially with regard to diseases such as keratoconus and glaucoma.

  20. Identification of biomechanical properties of the cornea: the ocular response analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terai, Naim; Raiskup, Frederik; Haustein, Michael; Pillunat, Lutz E; Spoerl, Eberhard

    2012-07-01

    Several methods have been devised for measuring geometric parameters of the cornea but, until now, the biomechanics of the cornea have been largely ignored. The relatively new Ocular Response Analyzer (ORA) provides such biomechanical information. In order to correctly interpret the underlying biomechanics of ORA data, we review reported ORA measurements and provide a compendium of factors influencing these measurements, with discussion of possible explanations for ORA measurement results. This review comprised a literature search using "ocular response analyzer" and "ocular response analyser" as keywords. We reviewed and compared reported results from recent ORA studies so obtained, with an eye to understanding corneal biomechanics. Several ORA biomechanical parameters of the cornea - corneal hysteresis (CH) and corneal resistant factor (CRF) - characterize the viscoelastic properties of the cornea, especially those of the ground substance. The impact on CH and CRF values of various independent factors, e.g. intraocular pressure (IOP), age, central corneal thickness (CCT), and corneal swelling, are discussed. The impact on CH and CRF of treatment-related structural changes of the cornea, i.e. those occurring after refractive surgical procedures, placement of intracorneal rings, and collagen crosslinking (CXL), as well as pathological changes of the cornea, e.g. those resulting from keratoconus, edema, and glaucoma, are discussed. Changes in CRF and CH may be reflective of structural changes in the ground substance of the cornea. Thus, ORA provides invaluable information for delineating biomechanical conditions pertaining to the cornea, with special regard to ocular diseases, e.g. keratoconus and glaucoma.

  1. Molecular cloning of a new angiopoietinlike factor from the human cornea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peek, R; van Gelderen, BE; Bruinenberg, M; Kijlstra, A

    PURPOSE. To isolate tissue-specific gene products that contribute to corneal integrity. METHODS. A cDNA library was constructed and differentially hybridized. Cornea-specific clones were purified and further characterized. RESULTS. In this study cornea-specific gene products were isolated by

  2. Xanthelasmata, arcus corneae, and ischaemic vascular disease and death in general population: prospective cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Mette; Frikke-Schmidt, Ruth; Schnohr, Peter

    2011-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that xanthelasmata and arcus corneae, individually and combined, predict risk of ischaemic vascular disease and death in the general population.......To test the hypothesis that xanthelasmata and arcus corneae, individually and combined, predict risk of ischaemic vascular disease and death in the general population....

  3. In silico investigation of cornea deformation during irrigation/aspiration in phacoemulsification in cataract surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayatpour, Dariush; Abouali, Omid; Ghaffarieh, Alireza; Ahmadi, Goodarz

    2017-05-01

    To analyze the stress, strain and displacement of the human cornea under the action of negative intraocular pressure, which occurs during phacoemulsification in cataract surgery, a multidisciplinary approach including biomedical engineering, solid mechanics, numerical analysis, and fluid dynamics was used. Fluid-structure interaction method was implemented using 3-dimensional nonlinear finite element analysis of cornea tissue in conjunction with CFD analysis of anterior chamber fluid flow to study the deformation of the cornea under negative gage pressure during irrigation and aspiration (I/A). The computational model of the eye includes both cornea and sclera. To increase the accuracy of the computational model, both cornea hyperelasticity and thickness variation were included in the analysis. The simulation was performed for both coaxial and bimanual I/A systems with different flow rates. The cornea deformations for various flow rates were evaluated, and the possibility of an unstable anterior chamber was assessed. The results show that the critical pressure in the anterior chamber, which may lead to the surge condition due to buckling of the cornea, is sub-ambient (below zero gauge pressure). Anterior chamber instability occurs at higher volume flow rates for coaxial I/A system compared with that for bimanual system, but the deformation of the cornea is more intense for the bimanual system. Copyright © 2017 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Method for optical coherence elastography of the cornea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Matthew R.; Dupps, William J.; Rollins, Andrew M.; Roy, Abhijit Sinha; Hu, Zhilin

    2011-01-01

    The material properties of the cornea are important determinants of corneal shape and refractive power. Corneal ectatic diseases, such as keratoconus, are characterized by material property abnormalities, are associated with progressive thinning and distortion of the cornea, and represent a leading indication for corneal transplantation. We describe a corneal elastography technique based on optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging, in which displacement of intracorneal optical features is tracked with a 2-D cross-correlation algorithm as a step toward nondestructive estimation of local and directional corneal material properties. Phantom experiments are performed to measure the effects of image noise and out-of-plane displacement on effectiveness of displacement tracking and demonstrated accuracy within the tolerance of a micromechanical translation stage. Tissue experiments demonstrate the ability to produce 2-D maps of heterogeneous intracorneal displacement with OCT. The ability of a nondestructive optical method to assess tissue under in situ mechanical conditions with physiologic-range stress levels provides a framework for in vivo quantification of 3-D corneal elastic and viscoelastic resistance, including analogs of shear deformation and Poisson's ratio that may be relevant in the early diagnosis of corneal ectatic disease.

  5. Biomechanical model of human cornea based on stromal microstructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studer, H; Larrea, X; Riedwyl, H; Büchler, P

    2010-03-22

    The optical characteristics of the human cornea depends on the mechanical balance between the intra-ocular pressure and intrinsic tissue stiffness. A wide range of ophthalmic surgical procedures alter corneal biomechanics to induce local or global curvature changes for the correction of visual acuity. Due to the large number of surgical interventions performed every day, a deeper understanding of corneal biomechanics is needed to improve the safety of these procedures and medical devices. The aim of this study is to propose a biomechanical model of the human cornea, based on stromal microstructure. The constitutive mechanical law includes collagen fiber distribution based on X-ray scattering analysis, collagen cross-linking, and fiber uncrimping. Our results showed that the proposed model reproduced inflation and extensiometry experimental data [Elsheikh et al., Curr. Eye Res., 2007; Elsheikh et al., Exp. Eye Res., 2008] successfully. The mechanical properties obtained for different age groups demonstrated an increase in collagen cross-linking for older specimens. In future work such a model could be used to simulate non-symmetric interventions, and provide better surgical planning. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Flattening of the cornea after collagen crosslinking for keratoconus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koller, Tobias; Pajic, Bojan; Vinciguerra, Paolo; Seiler, Theo

    2011-08-01

    To identify preoperative parameters that may predict flattening of the keratoconic cornea after collagen crosslinking (CXL). Institut für Refraktive und Ophthalmo-Chirurgie (IROC), Zurich, Switzerland. Cohort study. Patients with verified progressive primary keratectasia received standard corneal CXL. Factors such as corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA) and Scheimpflug tomography (Pentacam) were used to follow the evolution from preoperatively to 12 months after CXL. Statistical analysis included U tests and Spearman rank correlation tests to detect risk factors for flattening of the keratoconus. The study enrolled 151 eyes of 151 patients; more than 80% completed the 12-month follow-up. The flattening rate (flattening of the maximum curvature >1.00 diopter [D]) was 37.7%. A preoperative maximum keratometry (K) reading of more than 54.00 D was identified as the only significant risk factor for this effect (odds ratio, 1.88; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-3.51). A restriction to corneas with a maximum K value greater than 54.00 D would have resulted in a significant flattening in 51% of the cases. Statistically significant flattening occurred during 1 year after CXL in more than 50% of cases when the preoperative maximum K reading was more than 54.00 D. None of the other preoperative parameters evaluated (eg, age, sex, diagnosis, CDVA, corneal shape factors) had a statistically significant impact on corneal flattening after CXL. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Laser thermokeratoplasty: determination of biomechanical properties of the cornea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampmeier, Juergen; Brinkmann, Ralf; Birngruber, Reginald

    1996-01-01

    Laser thermokeratoplasty (LTK) is a minimally invasive method to correct hyperopia and astigmatism. The alteration in refractive power of the eye is achieved by thermally induced shrinkage of stromal collagen in the corneal periphery with a mid-IR laser system ((lambda) equals 1.4 - 2.5 micrometers ) and thereby mechanically increasing the central corneal curvature. In order to evaluate the best choice of laser parameters and exposure geometry a mechanical model of the cornea, which is highly dependent on the material parameters of the corneal tissue, is to be developed. For this reason uniaxial tensile tests were performed on specimens of porcine cornea to determine their nonlinear stress-strain relations and their viscoelastic behavior. Laser induced stress has been measured while corneal stripes were being exposed to a pulsed Cr:Tm:Ho:YAG laser ((lambda) equals 2.12 micrometers ) system. The stresses observed correlated just beyond the threshold qualitatively well with the number of applied pulses. For larger pulse energies the stress stabilized after a few pulses, which means further laser application could neither increase nor decrease the level of stress. After the end of the last laser pulse the specimens relaxed within several minutes down to a level of residual stress, which is probably to be held responsible for the refractive change in LTK.

  8. Spectral optical coherence tomography: a novel technique for cornea imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaluzny, Bartłomiej J; Kaluzy, Bartłomiej J; Kałuzny, Jakub J; Szkulmowska, Anna; Gorczyńska, Iwona; Szkulmowski, Maciej; Bajraszewski, Tomasz; Wojtkowski, Maciej; Targowski, Piotr

    2006-09-01

    Spectral optical coherence tomography (SOCT) is a new, noninvasive, noncontact, high-resolution technique that provides cross-sectional images of the objects that weakly absorb and scatter light. SOCT, because of very short acquisition time and high sensitivity, is capable of providing tomograms of substantially better quality than the conventional OCT. The aim of this paper is to show the application of the SOCT to cross-sectional imaging of the cornea and its pathologies. Eleven eyes with different corneal pathologies were examined with a slit lamp and the use of a prototype SOCT instrument constructed in the Institute of Physics, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Toruń, Poland. Our SOCT system provides high-resolution (4 microm axial, 10 microm transversal) tomograms composed of 3000-5000 A-scans with an acquisition time of 120-200 ms. The quality of the images is adequate for detailed cross-sectional evaluation of various corneal pathologies. Objective assessment of the localization, size, shape, and light-scattering properties of the changed tissue is possible. Corneal and epithelial thickness and the depth and width of lesions can be estimated. SOCT technique allows acquiring clinically valuable cross-sectional optical biopsy of the cornea and its pathologies.

  9. A study of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in dogs as a disease model for canine necrotizing encephalitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Jong-Hyun; Jung, Hae-Won; Lee, Hee-Chun; Jeon, Joon-Hyeok; Kim, Na-Hyun; Sur, Jung-Hyang; Ha, Jeongim

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, the use of dogs with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) as a disease model for necrotizing encephalitis (NE) was assessed. Twelve healthy dogs were included in this study. Canine forebrain tissues (8 g), including white and grey matter, were homogenized with 4 mL of phosphate-buffered saline for 5 min in an ice bath. The suspension was emulsified with the same volume of Freund's complete adjuvant containing 1 mg/mL of killed Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Ra. Under sedation, each dog was injected subcutaneously with canine brain homogenate at four sites: two in the inguinal and two in the axillary regions. A second injection (booster) was administered to all the dogs using the same procedure 7 days after the first injection. Clinical assessment, magnetic resonance imaging, cerebrospinal fluid analyses, necropsies, and histopathological and immunohistochemical examinations were performed for the dogs with EAE. Out of the 12 animals, seven (58%) developed clinically manifest EAE at various times after immunization. Characteristics of canine EAE models were very similar to canine NE, suggesting that canine EAE can be a disease model for NE in dogs. PMID:25269720

  10. Ultrastructural analysis of the decellularized cornea after interlamellar keratoplasty and microkeratome-assisted anterior lamellar keratoplasty in a rabbit model

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshihide Hashimoto; Shinya Hattori; Shuji Sasaki; Takako Honda; Tsuyoshi Kimura; Seiichi Funamoto; Hisatoshi Kobayashi; Akio Kishida

    2016-01-01

    The decellularized cornea has received considerable attention for use as an artificial cornea. The decellularized cornea is free from cellular components and other immunogens, but maintains the integrity of the extracellular matrix. However, the ultrastructure of the decellularized cornea has yet to be demonstrated in detail. We investigated the influence of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) on the decellularization of the corneal ultrastructure and its involvement in transparency, and assessed...

  11. Aqueous humour dynamics in anterior chamber under influence of cornea indentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuhaila, I.; Jiann, L. Y.; Sharidan, S.; Fitt, A.

    2017-04-01

    The existing temperature different between the cornea and the pupil induces the aqueous humour (AH) to circulate in the anterior chamber (AC). The buoyancy forces produced by the temperature gradient has driven the AH to flow. Previous studies have shown that cornea indentation changes the structure of the AC. This imply that the cornea indentation may change the fluid flow behaviour in the AC. A mathematical model of AH flow has been developed in order to analyse the fluid mechanics concerning the indentation of the cornea. Naiver-Stokes equations is used to describe the flow of AH in the AC. The governing equations have been solved numerically using finite element method. The results show that the cornea indentation has slow down the circulation the AH in the AC.

  12. Investigation of nanodiamonds interactions in canine blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    WÄ sowicz, Michał; Marek, Kulka; Cićkiewicz, Maciej; Cymerman, Magdalena

    2017-02-01

    The whole blood contains red cells, white cells, and platelets suspended in plasma. In the following study we investigated an impact of nanodiamond particles on blood elements over various periods of time.The material used in the study consisted of samples taken from ten healthy canines (Canis lupus f. domestica) of various age, different blood types and both sexes. The markings were conducted by adding to the blood unmodified diamonds (SND), modified O2 (SO2) suspended in 0,9% NaCl. The blood was put under an impact of two diamond concentrations: 20μl and 100μl. The amount of abnormal cells increased with time. The percentage of echinocytes as a result of interaction with nanodiamonds in various time periods for individual specimens was scarce. In the examined microscopic image a summary was made for 100 white blood cells. Following cells were included in said group: band neutrophils, segmented neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, lymphocytes with granulates, stimulated lymphocytes, lymphocytes with vacuoles, metamielocytes and smudge cells. The impact of the three diamond types had no clinical importance on red blood cells. After the diamonds mixed with white blood cells, atypical cells came into being, in the range of agranulocytes in stimulated form or with granulates and/or vacuoles. It is supposed that as a result of longlasting exposure a stimulation and vacuolisation takes place, because of the function of the cells.

  13. Evaluation of the efficacy of excimer laser ablation of cross-linked porcine cornea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shihao Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Combination of riboflavin/UVA cross-linking (CXL and excimer laser ablation is a promising therapy for treating corneal ectasia. The cornea is strengthened by cross-linking, while the irregular astigmatism is reduced by laser ablation. This study aims to compare the efficacy of excimer laser ablation on porcine corneas with and without cross-linking. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The porcine cornea was de-epithelialized and treated with 0.1% riboflavin solution for 30 minutes. A half of the cornea was exposed to UVA-radiation for another 30 minutes while the controlled half of the cornea was protected from the UVA using a metal shield. Photo therapeutic keratectomy (PTK was then performed on the central cornea. Corneal thickness of 5 paired locations on the horizontal line, ± 0.5, ± 1.0, ± 1.5, ± 2.0, and ± 2.5 mm from the central spot, were measured using optical coherence tomography prior to and after PTK. The ablation depth was then determined by the corneal thickness. There was a 9% difference (P<0.001 in the overall ablation depth between the CXL-half corneas (158 ± 22 µm and the control-half corneas (174 ± 26 µm. The ablation depths of all 5 correspondent locations on the CXL-half were significantly smaller (P<0.001. CONCLUSION: The efficacy of the laser ablation seems to be lower in cross-linked cornea. Current ablation algorithms may need to be modified for cross-linked corneas.

  14. The location- and depth-dependent mechanical response of the human cornea under shear loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloan, Stephen R; Khalifa, Yousuf M; Buckley, Mark R

    2014-10-30

    To characterize the depth-dependent shear modulus of the central and peripheral human cornea along the superior-inferior and nasal-temporal directions with a high spatial resolution. Cylindrical explants from the central and peripheral corneas of 10 human donors were subjected to a 5% shear strain along the superior-inferior and nasal-temporal directions using a microscope-mounted mechanical testing device. Depth-dependent shear strain and shear modulus were computed through force measurements and displacement tracking. The shear modulus G of the human cornea varied continuously with depth, with a maximum occurring roughly 25% of the way from the anterior surface to the posterior surface. G also varied with direction in the superior region and (at some depths) was significantly higher for superior-inferior shear loading. In the anterior half of the cornea, the shear modulus along the nasal-temporal direction (GNT) did not vary with location; however, the superior region had significantly higher GNT in posterior cornea. In contrast, the shear modulus along the superior-inferior direction (GSI) was independent of location at all depths. This study demonstrates that the peak shear modulus of the human cornea occurs at a substantial distance within the corneal stroma. Depth-dependent differences between central and peripheral cornea possibly reflect the location-dependent mechanical environment of the cornea. Moreover, the cornea is not a transverse isotropic material, and must be characterized by more than a single shear modulus due to its dependence on loading direction. The material properties measured in this study are critical for developing accurate mechanical models to predict the vision-threatening morphological changes that can occur in the cornea. Copyright 2014 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.

  15. Comparison of iCare tonometer and Goldmann applanation tonometry in normal corneas and in eyes with automated lamellar and penetrating keratoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvetat, M L; Zeppieri, M; Miani, F; Tosoni, C; Parisi, L; Brusini, P

    2011-05-01

    To compare intraocular pressure (IOP) measurements with Goldmann applanation tonometry (GAT) and iCare tonometry in normal and post-keratoplasty corneas and to assess the influence of central corneal thickness (CCT), corneal curvature (CC), and corneal astigmatism (CA) on IOP. This prospective cross-sectional study included one eye of 101 subjects with normal corneas (58 healthy subjects, 43 glaucoma); and 90 post-keratoplasty patients: 34 penetrating keratoplasties (PK); 20 automated-lamellar-therapeutic keratoplasties (ALTK); 19 Descemet-stripping-automated-endothelial keratoplasties (DSAEK); 17 edematous grafts. All subjects underwent GAT and iCare IOP measurements in random order, and CCT, CC, and CA evaluation. The Bland-Altman method and multivariate regression analysis were used to assess inter-tonometer agreement and the influence of CCT, CC, and CA on IOP. iCare significantly underestimated IOP in all groups compared with GAT (GAT minus iCare of 3.5±3.5 mm Hg, Pkeratoplasty eyes, except between CC and iCare measurements for PK eyes. The agreement between GAT and iCare was clinically acceptable in control, ALTK and DSAEK groups, and poor in PK and edematous grafts eyes. In normal corneas, GAT was significantly affected by CCT; iCare was influenced by CCT and CC. The iCare appeared less influenced by corneal edema when compared with GAT. High IOP readings taken with both tonometers in grafts should raise suspicion of true elevated IOP.

  16. ISOLATES OF CANINE DIS TEMPER VIRUS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three groups of dogs aged three months each were used in an experiment to assess efficacy of imported Canine distemper vaccine (Ondersteport strain) and measles vaccine in protecting Nigerian dogs against local isolates of Canine distemper virus. Each group consisted of four randomly selected puppies. One group ...

  17. ISOLATES OF CANINE DIS T EMPER VIRUS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    disease in France. Most commercial canine distemper vaccines are made of the Onderstepoort virus strain isolated from South Africa. Ondersteport vaccine was incubated with equal volume of a local of canine distemper virus (titre .... safe to both dogs and zoo camivores. (Kock er al., 1985). However outbreak in three week ...

  18. Canine specific ELISA for coagulation factor VII

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Tom; Kjelgaard-Hansen, Mads; Tranholm, Mikael

    2011-01-01

    Canine coagulation factor VII (FVII) deficiency can be hereditary or acquired and may cause life threatening bleeding episodes if untreated. FVII procoagulant activity can be measured by FVII activity (FVII:C), but assays for measurement of canine specific FVII antigen (FVII:Ag) have not been...

  19. Recovery of canine retina and optic nerve function after acute elevation of intraocular pressure: implications for canine glaucoma treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grozdanic, Sinisa D; Matic, Milan; Betts, Daniel M; Sakaguchi, Donald S; Kardon, Randy H

    2007-01-01

    To characterize the timing and extent of functional recovery in healthy canine eyes exposed to acute elevation of intraocular pressure (IOP). Acute elevation of IOP was induced in 14 healthy Beagles by elevating IOP above the levels of systolic blood pressure for 60 min (average elevation was between 100 and 160 mmHg). Menace, dazzle and pupillary light reflexes (PLR) were tested at 1, 7, 14 and 28 days post elevation. Optical coherence tomography was used to evaluate retinal thickness preoperatively and at 15 and 30 days post elevation. One day post elevation all animals were blind in the operated eye (no positive menace), 5/14 had positive PLR and 10/14 had positive dazzle response. Seven days post elevation 4/14 animals had positive menace response and all animals (14/14) had positive dazzle and PLR responses. Fourteen and 28 days post elevation all animals had positive menace, PLR and dazzle responses. Optical coherence tomography analysis revealed significant thinning of the inferior retina (pre elevation: 156.3 +/- 4.8 microm; 15 days post elevation: 125 +/- 10.4 microm; 30 days post elevation 123 +/- 11.9 microm; P information about retinal damage after acute elevation of IOP. Canine retina has the capacity to recover at least some visual function even at 14 days after acute elevation of the IOP. More aggressive medical and surgical treatment of canine glaucomatous patients may be indicated despite complete loss of visual function, PLR and dazzle responses in early days after development of an acute glaucomatous attack.

  20. Canine scent detection of canine cancer: a feasibility study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorman DC

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available David C Dorman,1 Melanie L Foster,2 Katherine E Fernhoff,1 Paul R Hess2 1Department of Molecular and Biomedical Sciences, 2Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, USA Abstract: The scent detection prowess of dogs has prompted interest in their ability to detect cancer. The purpose of this study was to determine whether dogs could use olfactory cues to discriminate urine samples collected from dogs that did or did not have urinary tract transitional cell carcinoma (TCC, at a rate greater than chance. Dogs with previous scent training (n=4 were initially trained to distinguish between a single control and a single TCC-positive urine sample. All dogs acquired this task (mean =15±7.9 sessions; 20 trials/session. The next training phase used four additional control urine samples (n=5 while maintaining the one original TCC-positive urine sample. All dogs quickly acquired this task (mean =5.3±1.5 sessions. The last training phase used multiple control (n=4 and TCC-positive (n=6 urine samples to promote categorical training by the dogs. Only one dog was able to correctly distinguish multiple combinations of TCC-positive and control urine samples suggesting that it mastered categorical learning. The final study phase evaluated whether this dog would generalize this behavior to novel urine samples. However, during double-blind tests using two novel TCC-positive and six novel TCC-negative urine samples, this dog did not indicate canine TCC-positive cancer samples more frequently than expected by chance. Our study illustrates the need to consider canine olfactory memory and the use of double-blind methods to avoid erroneous conclusions regarding the ability of dogs to alert on specimens from canine cancer patients. Our results also suggest that sample storage, confounding odors, and other factors need to be considered in the design of future studies that evaluate the detection of

  1. Rabies, canine distemper, and canine parvovirus exposure in large carnivore communities from two Zambian ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berentsen, Are R; Dunbar, Mike R; Becker, Matthew S; M'soka, Jassiel; Droge, Egil; Sakuya, Nicholas M; Matandiko, Wigganson; McRobb, Rachel; Hanlon, Cathleen A

    2013-09-01

    Disease transmission within and among wild and domestic carnivores can have significant impacts on populations, particularly for threatened and endangered species. We used serology to evaluate potential exposure to rabies virus, canine distemper virus (CDV), and canine parvovirus (CPV) for populations of African lions (Panthera leo), African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus), and spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta) in Zambia's South Luangwa National Park (SLNP) and Liuwa Plain National Park (LPNP) as well as community lands bordering these areas. In addition, domestic dogs in the study region were evaluated for exposure to CDV and rabies. We provide the first comprehensive disease exposure data for these species in these ecosystems. Twenty-one lions, 20 hyenas, 13 wild dogs, and 38 domestic dogs were sampled across both regions from 2009 to 2011. Laboratory results show 10.5% of domestic dogs, 5.0% of hyenas, and 7.7% of wild dogs sampled were positive for CDV exposure. All lions were negative. Exposure to CPV was 10.0% and 4.8% for hyenas and lions, respectively. All wild dogs were negative, and domestic dogs were not tested due to insufficient serum samples. All species sampled were negative for rabies virus neutralizing antibodies except lions. Forty percent of lions tested positive for rabies virus neutralizing antibodies. Because these lions appeared clinically healthy, this finding is consistent with seroconversion following exposure to rabies antigen. To our knowledge, this finding represents the first ever documentation of rabies virus neutralizing antibodies consistent with rabies exposure that did not lead to clinical disease in free-ranging African lions from this region. With ever-increasing human pressure on these ecosystems, understanding disease transmission dynamics is essential for proper management and conservation of these carnivore species.

  2. Canine and feline parasitic zoonoses in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Jia

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Canine and feline parasitic zoonoses have not been given high priority in China, although the role of companion animals as reservoirs for zoonotic parasitic diseases has been recognized worldwide. With an increasing number of dogs and cats under unregulated conditions in China, the canine and feline parasitic zoonoses are showing a trend towards being gradually uncontrolled. Currently, canine and feline parasitic zoonoses threaten human health, and cause death and serious diseases in China. This article comprehensively reviews the current status of major canine and feline parasitic zoonoses in mainland China, discusses the risks dogs and cats pose with regard to zoonotic transmission of canine and feline parasites, and proposes control strategies and measures.

  3. Alterations in biomechanical properties of the cornea among patients with polycystic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serefoglu Cabuk, Kubra; Esen, Bennur; Atalay, Kursat; Kirgiz, Ahmet; Aydin, Rukiye

    2017-06-29

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the corneal biomechanical features in polycystic kidney disease (PKD) patients and compare them with the healthy individuals. Totally 81 patients with a mean age of 48.46 ± 14.51 years and 60 control cases with a mean age of 44.68 ± 12.69 years were included in the study. All of the subjects underwent a complete ophthalmological examination, including visual acuity testing, biomicroscopic anterior and posterior segment examinations. Corneal hysteresis (CH), corneal resistance factor (CRF), Goldmann-correlated intraocular pressure (IOPg) and corneal-compensated intraocular pressure (IOPcc) were evaluated with the ocular response analyzer, and the central corneal thickness was evaluated with Sirius(®) corneal topography. PKD patients had significantly increased CH values, without any alterations in IOP or CCT values, compared with the control cases (p:0.001). Among PKD patients, 23 were having liver cysts accompanying renal cysts. There was not any statistically significant difference between PKD patients with or without liver cysts regarding biomechanical properties of the cornea. However, both patient groups had statistically significantly increased CH values compared with the control cases. Patients with PKD present with higher CH values than age-matched controls. Larger studies are warranted to elucidate the alterations in corneal biomechanical properties and their clinical relevance in PKD patients.

  4. New and emerging pathogens in canine infectious respiratory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priestnall, S L; Mitchell, J A; Walker, C A; Erles, K; Brownlie, J

    2014-03-01

    Canine infectious respiratory disease is a common, worldwide disease syndrome of multifactorial etiology. This review presents a summary of 6 viruses (canine respiratory coronavirus, canine pneumovirus, canine influenza virus, pantropic canine coronavirus, canine bocavirus, and canine hepacivirus) and 2 bacteria (Streptococcus zooepidemicus and Mycoplasma cynos) that have been associated with respiratory disease in dogs. For some pathogens a causal role is clear, whereas for others, ongoing research aims to uncover their pathogenesis and contribution to this complex syndrome. Etiology, clinical disease, pathogenesis, and epidemiology are described for each pathogen, with an emphasis on recent discoveries or novel findings.

  5. A review of canine pseudocyesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobello, C; de la Sota, R L; Goya, R G

    2001-12-01

    The purpose of this article is to review the most relevant features of the physiology, clinical signs, diagnosis, treatment and prevention of canine pseudocyesis (PSC). This is a physiological syndrome, characterized by clinical signs such as: nesting, weight gain, mammary enlargement, lactation and maternal behaviour, which appears in non-pregnant bitches at the end of metaoestrus. PSC is a frequent finding in domestic dogs. Although it is generally admitted that prolactin (PRL) plays a central role in the appearance of PSC, its precise aetiophysiology is not completely understood yet. A number of clinical studies suggest that at some point of metaoestrus circulating PRL levels rise in overtly pseudopregnant bitches. Individual differences in sensitivity to PRL as well as the existence of molecular variants of canine PRL with different bioactivity versus immunoreactivity ratios may help clarify the aetiopathology of PSC. Diagnosis of PSC is based on the presence of typical clinical signs in metaoestrous non-pregnant bitches. Considering that PSC is a self limiting physiological state, mild cases usually need no treatment. Discouraging maternal behaviour and sometimes fitting Elizabethan collars to prevent licking of the mammary glands may suffice in these cases. Sex steroids (oestrogens, progestins and androgens) have been traditionally used to treat PSC but the side-effects usually outweigh the benefits of these medications. Inhibition of PRL release by ergot derivatives [bromocriptine (10-100 microg/kg per day for 10-14 days], cabergoline (5 microg/kg per day during 5-10 days), metergoline (0.2 mg/kg per day during 8-10 days) has proved to be effective for the treatment of canine PSC. Although some of these ergot derivatives present some untoward side-effects, they are transient and can usually be managed. Predisposed bitches not intended for breeding should be spayed as ovariectomy is the only permanent preventive measure.

  6. Early eruption of permanent canines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Madhu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Systemic and local factors can modify the eruption time of teeth. Generalized eruption time changes could be due to some systemic diseases like hyperthyroidism, hypophosphatasia, precocious puberty, Proteus syndrome, etc. Localized early eruption of permanent teeth could be due to early extraction of deciduous teeth. Presented here is an extremely rare case of early eruption of permanent canines in a 7-year old female child. Though the number of such cases is very limited, the clinician should poses adequate knowledge and keeps an open eye to identify such cases.

  7. Hard contact lens-induced metabolic changes in rabbit corneas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsubota, K; Kenyon, K R; Cheng, H M

    1989-11-01

    The biochemistry of contact lens-cornea interaction is not well understood, although previous studies have suggested that corneal metabolic changes may be the underlying factor in morphological alterations. Using a rabbit model, this interaction has been examined with 31P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, which detects signals principally from the epithelium. The examination was supplemented with electron microscopy and histochemistry. Polymethylmethacrylate lenses caused reversible changes, including activation of anaerobic glycolysis and disturbance of membrane metabolite levels. These changes were far more severe than those occurring during prolonged eye closure. There appears to be an association between cellular deterioration and loss of membrane metabolites. On the other hand, oxygen-permeable silicone lenses allowed maintenance of nearly normal metabolic patterns. These results show multifaceted corneal response to hard contact lens wear.

  8. Polymicrobial Infection of the Cornea Due to Contact Lens Wear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sızmaz, Selçuk; Bingöllü, Sibel; Erdem, Elif; Kibar, Filiz; Koltaş, Soner; Yağmur, Meltem; Ersöz, Reha

    2016-04-01

    A 38-year-old male presented with pain and redness in his left eye. He had a history of wearing contact lenses. His ophthalmic examination revealed a large corneal ulcer with surrounding infiltrate. Cultures were isolated from the contact lenses, lens solutions, storage cases, and conjunctivae of both eyes and also corneal scrapings of the left eye. Fortified vancomycin and amikacin drops were started hourly. Culture results of conjunctivae of each eye and left cornea were positive for Pseudomonas aeruginosa; cultures from the contact lenses, lens solution and storage case of both eyes revealed Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Alcaligenes xylosoxidans. Polymerase chain reaction of the corneal scraping was positive for Acanthameoba. The topical antibiotics were changed with ones that both bacteria were sensitive to and anti-amoebic therapy was added. The patient had two recurrences following initial presentation despite intensive therapy. Keratitis occurred due to multiple pathogens; the relapsing course despite adequate therapy is potentially associated with this polymicrobial etiology.

  9. Cornea donors who have had prior refractive surgery: data from the Eye Bank Association of America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fargione, Robert A; Channa, Prabjot

    2016-07-01

    Millions of Americans have undergone refractive surgeries, including radial keratotomy, photorefractive keratectomy, and laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis. Eye Bank Association of America medical standards do not permit corneas from patients who have undergone refractive procedures to be used in penetrating keratoplasty, anterior lamellar keratoplasty, or tectonic grafting procedures. Such corneas, can, however, be used for endothelial corneal transplantation. The objective of this article is to provide an update on current trends for the screening and usage of corneas that have undergone refractive surgery. Several case reports have highlighted the difficulty in using postrefractive surgery corneas in penetrating keratoplasty. However, tissue with anterior stromal flaws, including a history of refractive surgery, has been used in endothelial keratoplasty with equivalent outcomes in topography, endothelial cell count, and visual acuity. Many modalities for proper identification of postmortem donor corneas that have undergone refractive surgery have been studied. Corneas with a history of refractive surgery have found use in endothelial keratoplasty. Multiple objective methods of tissue identification have been investigated to avoid the use of these corneas in penetrating or anterior keratoplasty surgeries.

  10. Development and characterization of a full-thickness acellular porcine cornea matrix for tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Liqun; Wu, Xinyi

    2011-07-01

    Our aim was to produce a natural, acellular matrix from porcine cornea for use as a scaffold in developing a tissue-engineered cornea replacement. Full-thickness, intact porcine corneas were decellularized by immersion in 0.5% (wt/vol) sodium dodecyl sulfate. The resulting acellular matrices were then characterized and examined specifically for completeness of the decellularization process. Histological analyses of decellularized corneal stromas showed that complete cell and α-Gal removal was achieved, while the major structural proteins including collagen type I and IV, laminin, and fibronectin were retained. DAPI staining did not detect any residual DNA within the matrix, and the DNA contents, which reflect the presence of cellular materials, were significantly diminished in the decellularized cornea. The collagen content of the decellularized cornea was well maintained compared with native tissues. Uniaxial tensile testing indicated that decellularization did not significantly compromise the ultimate tensile strength of the tissue (P > 0.05). In vitro cytotoxicity assays using rabbit corneal fibroblast cultures excluded the presence of soluble toxins in the biomaterial. In vivo implantation to rabbit interlamellar stromal pockets showed good biocompability. In summary, a full-thickness natural acellular matrix retaining the major structural components and strength of the cornea has been successfully developed. The matrix is biocompatible with cornea-derived cells and has potential for use in corneal transplantation and tissue-engineering applications. © 2011, Copyright the Authors. Artificial Organs © 2011, International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. [Relationship between corneal neovascularization and various relevant biological factors in surrounding cornea stroma of rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ting; Shi, Wei-yun; Li, Su-xia; Liu, Ming-na

    2009-02-01

    To study the relationship between corneal neovascularization and various biological factors in corneal stroma of rats. It was an experimental study. Corneal neovascularization was induced by alkali burn in 40 rats. Transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1), alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA) and fibroblast activation protein (FAP) in the stroma surrounding corneal neovascularization were detected by immunohistochemical studies on day 1, 3 and 7 after chemical burn. Platelet-endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (CD31) was used to identify the vascular endothelial cells. RT-PCR was used to identify FAP in the cornea 3 and 7 days after chemical burn. Picrosirius staining and polarization microscopy were used to detect changes of collagen types I and III in the cornea. After alkali burn, TGF-beta1 was first expressed in the cornea stroma. Then, some stroma cells expressed both alpha-SMA and FAP. The FAP(+) keratocytes were found surrounding the CD31(+) endothelium of angiogenesis. RT-PCR study showed that FAP mRNA was only present in neovascularized cornea and not in normal cornea. Polarization microscopy revealed that the collagen types I and III were rearranged in neovascularized cornea. Various biological factors in corneal stroma are changed when the cornea shows neovascularization. FAP(+) keratocytes are present in the stroma, and the appearance of these cells parallels the growth of vascular endothelial cells. Collagen types I and III are rearranged during the process of angiogenesis.

  12. Preliminary study on the effect of stiffness on lamb wave propagation in bovine corneas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin-Yu; Yin, Yin; Guo, Yan-Rong; Diao, Xian-Fen; Chen, Xin

    2013-01-01

    The viscoelastic properties of human cornea could provide valuable information for various clinical applications. Particularly, it will be helpful to achieve a patient-specific biomechanical optimization in LASIK refractive surgery, early detection of corneal ecstatic disease or improved accuracy of intraocular pressure (IOP) measurement. However, there are few techniques that are capable of accurately assessing the corneal elasticity in situ in a nondestructive fashion. In order to develop a quantitative method for assessing both elasticity and viscosity of the cornea, we use ultrasound radiation force to excite Lamb waves in cornea, and a pulse echo transducer to track the tissue vibration. The fresh postmortem bovine eyes were treated via collagen cross-linking to make the cornea stiff. The effect of stiffness was studied by comparing the propagation of Lamb waves in normal and treated corneas. It was found that the waveform of generated Lamb waves changed significantly due to the increase in higher modes in treated corneas. This result indicated that the generated waveform was a complex of multiple harmonics and the varied stiffness will affect the energy distribution over different components. Therefore, it is important for assessing the viscoelastic properties of the cornea to know the components of Lamb wave and calculate the phase velocity appropriately.

  13. Histological evaluation and biomechanical characterisation of an acellular porcine cornea scaffold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Liqun; Wu, Xinyi; Pang, Kunpeng; Yang, Yongmei

    2011-03-01

    To optimise a protocol to produce an acellular porcine cornea scaffold and investigate its mechanical integrity and biocompatibility. Fresh porcine corneas were decellularised with different detergents over a range of concentrations. Morphological and histological examinations were carried out to detect the major structure of the cornea. Completely acellular cornea scaffolds were subjected to uniaxial tensile testing and reseeding assay. Most protocols resulted in the retention of large numbers of whole cells and cell fragments. Only sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS; 0.5% or 1%) resulted in total decellularisation at 24h. Histological analysis of the acellular matrix showed that the corneal stromal cells had been completely removed, collagen fibres were arranged in an orderly fashion, and Bowman's layer and Descemet's membrane were both intact after decellularisation. The ultimate tensile strength of acellular matrix treated with 0.5% SDS for 24h was not affected significantly compared with that of fresh cornea (p>0.05), whereas there was a significant difference between fresh cornea and cornea treated with 1% SDS (pcornea decellularisation. Biomechanical analysis and recellularisation showed that treatment with 0.5% SDS for 24h was optimal.

  14. Expression of cholecystokinin, gastrin, and their receptors in the mouse cornea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Coto, Ana F; Alonso-Ron, Carlos; Alcalde, Ignacio; Gallar, Juana; Meana, Álvaro; Merayo-Lloves, Jesús; Belmonte, Carlos

    2014-03-28

    Cholecystokinin (CCK) is a neuropeptide that has been identified in trigeminal ganglion neurons. Gastrin (GAST) is a related peptide never explored in the cornea. The presence and role of both gastrointestinal peptides in the cornea and corneal sensory neurons remain to be established. We explored here in mice whether CCK, GAST, and their receptors CCK1R and CCK2R are expressed in the corneal epithelium and trigeminal ganglion neurons innervating the cornea. We used RT-PCR analysis to detect mRNAs of CCK, GAST, CCK1R, and CCK2R in mouse cornea epithelium, trigeminal ganglia, and primary cultured corneal epithelial cells. Immunofluorescence microscopy was used to localize these peptides and their receptors in the cornea, cultured corneal epithelial cells, and corneal nerves, as well as in the cell bodies of corneal trigeminal ganglion neurons identified by retrograde labeling with Fast Blue. Mouse corneal epithelial cells in the cornea in situ and in cell cultures expressed CCK and GAST. Only the receptor CCK2R was found in the corneal epithelium. In addition, mouse corneal afferent sensory neurons expressed CCK and GAST, and the CCK1R receptors. The presence of CCK, GAST, and their receptors in the mouse corneal epithelium, and in trigeminal ganglion neurons supplying sensory innervation to the cornea, opens the possibility that these neuropeptides are involved in corneal neurogenic inflammation and in the modulation of repairing/remodeling processes following corneal injury.

  15. HSP47 expression in cornea after excimer laser photoablation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasagi, Yasuo; Yamashita, Hidetoshi

    2002-01-01

    The expression of heat shock protein 47 (HSP47) was observed histologically to investigate the spatial and chronological effects of excimer laser photoablation. HSP47 expression after radial keratotomy (RK) was also investigated and compared with the effects after excimer laser photoablation. Twenty-eight male rabbits were used. The rabbits were divided with two groups and treated with either excimer laser photoablation or four radial incisions to simulate corneal refractive surgery. The chronological and spatial changes in the expression of HSP47 were observed immunohistochemically. In eyes that underwent excimer laser photoablation, HSP47 was detected in the basal layer of the epithelial cells and in the superficial stromal layer 3 days after surgery. After 5 and 7 days, HSP47 expression extended to the deep layer of the stroma and to the endothelial cells. After 14 days, HSP47 was detected only in the deep layer of the stroma and in the endothelial cells. After 28 days, HSP47 expression was reduced. In eyes that underwent RK, HSP47 was detected in the basal layer of the epithelial cells and in the stroma surrounding the wound 1 day after surgery. After 3 and 7 days, HSP47 expression did not expand further. After 28 days, HSP47 expression diminished. Excimer laser photoablation affects the whole layer of the cornea, and may be caused by the shock wave that occurs as a result of photoablation. In addition, interaction among the keratocytes may propagate the stress-induced response to the whole layer of the cornea. With RK, the wound is smaller and deeper. HSP47 expression occurs earlier, but is limited to the area surrounding the wound.

  16. PROSE for irregular corneas at a tertiary eye care center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arumugam, Amudha Oli; Rajan, Rajni; Subramanian, Madhumathi; Mahadevan, Rajeswari

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to report and discuss the clinical experience with PROSE (Prosthetic Replacement of Ocular Surface Ecosystem) practice at a tertiary eye care hospital. Retrospective data of patients who were prescribed PROSE during April 2011 to March 2012 in a tertiary eye care center in south India were analyzed. Data collected include patient demographics, indications of scleral lens fitting, previous correction modality, PROSE parameters, best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) with spectacles, and BCVA with PROSE at initial assessment and few hours of wear. The BCVA before (with glasses) and after PROSE fitting was recorded in logMAR units. The age of the patients ranged between 13 and 68 years (male:female 60:25) with a mean age of 32.44±13.45 years. Mean BCVA improved by 0.3 logMAR units (3 lines) after fitting with PROSE. There was a statistically significant difference between pre- and post-PROSE BCVA (P=0.0001). Failure of rigid gas-permeable lens fitting or intolerance was the common indication for PROSE in corneas with irregular astigmatism (refractive conditions). The other reasons for which PROSE was prescribed were pain, photophobia, comfort, ghosting of images, and frequent loss of smaller lenses. Toric scleral haptic was indicated in 62 eyes. The diameter, vault, and haptic measurements of PROSE in ocular surface disorders were much less and flatter than that of refractive conditions. PROSE device is a very useful alternative for irregular corneas to improve visual acuity, to improve comfort, and for symptomatic relief.

  17. Extracellular matrix changes in human corneas after radial keratotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ljubimov, A V; Alba, S A; Burgeson, R E; Ninomiya, Y; Sado, Y; Sun, T T; Nesburn, A B; Kenney, M C; Maguen, E

    1998-09-01

    Extracellular matrix and basement membrane alterations were identified in human corneas after radial keratotomy. Ten normal and five radial keratotomy autopsy corneas (two at 6 months post surgery, and three at 3 years post surgery) were studied by immunofluorescence with antibodies to 28 extracellular matrix and basement membrane components. Outside of radial keratotomy scars, all studied components had a normal distribution. Of stromal extracellular matrix, only type III collagen accumulated around the scars. The basement membrane around epithelial plugs had a normal composition except for type IV collagen. Its alpha1-alpha2 chains, normally present only in the limbal basement membrane, appeared around all plugs. alpha3 and alpha4 chains were very weak or absent in these areas, contrary to nonscarred areas. This basement membrane pattern was similar to the normal limbal but not to the central corneal pattern. Keratin 3 also had a limbal-like, suprabasal expression in the plug epithelium. The stroma around the scars accumulated tenascin-C, fibrillin-1, types VIII and XIV collagen, all of which were absent from normal corneal basement membrane and extracellular matrix. Only tenascin-C showed less staining in anterior scars 3 years post surgery than 6 months post surgery, but still persisted in posterior scars. Incomplete scar healing was evident even 3 years post radial keratotomy. It was manifested by the accumulation of abnormal extracellular matrix in the anterior and posterior scars and by the limbal-like pattern of type IV collagen isoforms in the basement membrane around epithelial plugs. Copyright 1998 Academic Press.

  18. Transepithelial corneal collagen cross-linking in ultrathin keratoconic corneas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spadea L

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Leopoldo Spadea,1 Rita Mencucci21University of L'Aquila, Department of Biotechnological and Applied Clinical Sciences, Eye Clinic, L'Aquila, 2University of Florence, Department of Oto-Neuro-Ophthalmological Surgical Sciences, Eye Clinic, Florence, ItalyBackground: The purpose of this paper was to report the results of transepithelial corneal collagen cross-linking (CXL with modified riboflavin and ultraviolet A irradiation in patients affected by keratoconus, each with thinnest pachymetry values of less than 400 µm (with epithelium and not treatable using standard de-epithelialization techniques.Methods: Sixteen patients affected by progressive keratoconus with thinnest pachymetry values ranging from 331 µm to 389 µm underwent transepithelial CXL in one eye using a riboflavin 0.1% solution in 15% Dextran T500 containing ethylenediamine tetra-acetic acid 0.01% and trometamol to enhance epithelial penetration. The patients underwent complete ophthalmological examination, including endothelial cell density measurements and computerized videokeratography, before CXL and at one day, one week, and one, 6, and 12 months thereafter.Results: Epithelial healing was complete in all patients after one day of use of a soft bandage contact lens. No side effects or damage to the limbal region was observed during the follow-up period. All patients showed slightly improved uncorrected and spectacle-corrected visual acuity; keratometric astigmatism showed reductions (up to 5.3 D and apical ectasia power decreased (Kmax values reduced up to 4.3 D. Endothelial cell density was unchanged.Conclusion: Application of transepithelial CXL using riboflavin with substances added to enhance epithelial permeability was safe, seemed to be moderately effective in keratoconic eyes with ultrathin corneas, and applications of the procedure could be extended to patients with advanced keratoconus.Keywords: keratoconus, pachymetry, topography, transepithelial corneal collagen

  19. Collagen synthesized in fluorocarbon polymer implant in the rabbit cornea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drubaix, I; Legeais, J M; Malek-Chehire, N; Savoldelli, M; Ménasche, M; Robert, L; Renard, G; Pouliquen, Y

    1996-04-01

    The integration of microporous polymer into tissues is of great interest for the production of keratoprosthetic devices. Our previous studies showed functional differentiated cells and collagen synthesis in the pore of an expanded polytetrafluoroethylene implant. This study identifies and quantifies collagen types synthesized in the implant. Expanded polytetrafluoroethylene polymers were implanted in the rabbit corneas. The collagen extracted from the polymer and implanted stroma after 1, 3 and 6 months was quantified by measuring hydroxyproline. The relative proportions of collagen types were determined by densitometric analysis after SDS-PAGE. The collagen-to-protein ratio in the polymer increased from 0.22 to 0.70 between the first and third month after implantation becoming similar to control cornea. So that of the protein and collagen densities in the polymer and implanted stroma were similar to the control from the third month. The collagen synthesized in the polymer was mainly type I (87%) plus a small amount of type III (8%) 1 month after implantation. The collagen distribution from the third month after implantation was similar to that of the controls and remained constant thereafter in the polymer implant and in the implanted stroma. Immunogold labelling techniques confirmed these results. Implantation of this PTFE disc induced no obvious modification of the corneal stroma, confirming that this polymer is a good interface that is compatible with the native corneal stroma. The keratocytes in this polymer rapidly adopted a corneal phenotype, distinct from the dermal or scaring phenotype as shown by the collagen types produced in the implant.

  20. Irregular Corneas: Improve Visual Function With Scleral Contact Lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Luis Eguileor, Beatriz; Etxebarria Ecenarro, Jaime; Santamaria Carro, Alaitz; Feijoo Lera, Raquel

    2016-10-20

    To assess visual function in patients with irregular cornea who do not tolerate gas permeable (GP) corneal contact lenses and are fitted with GP scleral contact lenses (Rose K2 XL). In this prospective study, we analyzed 15 eyes of 15 patients who did not tolerate GP corneal contact lenses and were fitted with scleral contact lenses (Rose K2 XL). We assessed visual function using visual acuity and the visual function index (VF-14); we used the VF-14 as an indicator of patient satisfaction. The measurements were taken with the optical correction used before and 1 month after the fitting of the Rose K2 XL contact lenses. We also recorded the number of hours lenses had been worn over the first month. Using Rose K2 XL contact lenses, visual acuity was 0.06±0.07 logMAR. In all cases, visual acuity had improved compared with the measurement before fitting the lenses (0.31±0.18 logMAR; P=0.001). VF-14 scores were 72.74±12.38 before fitting of the scleral lenses, and 89.31±10.87 after 1 month of lens use (P=0.003). Patients used these scleral lenses for 9.33±2.99 comfortable hours of wear. Both visual acuity and VF-14 may improve after fitting Rose K2 XL contact lenses in patients with irregular corneas. In addition, in our patients, these lenses can be worn for a longer period than GP corneal contact lenses.

  1. Optically Sectioning Ocular Fluorometer Microscope: Applications To The Cornea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masters, Barry R.

    1988-06-01

    An optically sectioning ocular fluorometer microscope is described with the capability of measuring the emission spectra of molecules in planes along the microscope axis. Its unique feature is that the objective is attached to a piezoelectric driver and scans from the tear film to the aqueous humor. This permits measurements on living animals and adoption for clinical use. The excitation light from a laser (nitrogen, dye, argon or helium cadmium) couples to the microscope via a quartz optical fiber. The light is projected through a 100 PM slit on the excitation side, through one half of the objective. The emitted light is collected by the second half of the objective and passes a second 100 pm slit in the conjugate plane of the eyepiece. The depth resolution is 6 um with an 100x objective, and 18 PM with a 50 power objective. The fluorescence is coupled by a quartz fiber to an optical spectrum analyzer. It consists of a monochromator with two microchannel plates attached to a linear diode array. The photocathode of the detector is gated for use with pulsed lasers or it can operate in the continuous mode. The applications include fluorescence measurements on thin layered structures. The present study involves the noninvasive measurement of oxidative metabolism of the component layers of the in vivo cornea. This is based on fluorescence measurements of the reduced pyridine nucleotide in the cornea. The fluorescence signals from the corneal epithelial (30 μm) and endothelial (4 μm) are clearly defined. Other applications to ophthalmology include studies of the fluorescence form the component layers of the ocular lens. Support from N.I.I. EY06958.

  2. OCULAR MICROBIAL POPULATION AS A 2-1 BETAMETHASONE DISSODIC FOSPHATE AND DISSODIC FOSPHATE/ACETATE DEXAMETHASONE MONITOR IN SWINE CORNEA TRANSPLANTED DOGS ESTUDO DA MICROBIOTA OCULAR COMO MONITOR DO 2-1 FOSFATO DISSÓDICO DE BETAMETASONA E DO FOSFATO DISSÓDICO/ACETATO DE DEXAMETASONA, EM CÃES QUE RECEBERAM TRANSPLANTES COM CÓRNEAS DE SUÍNOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilo Sérgio Troncoso Chaves

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Ten mixed breed dogs, with a 10 kg average weight, were selected at Centro de Zoonoses de Goiânia. After being examined and considered healthy, the dogs were enumerated from 11 to 20 on their collars. Each animal had swine cornea implanted into the left eye. The swine cornea was obtained at Casa de Banha Caçula, a slaughterhouse, and conserved in a humid chamber during a maximum 6 hour period. Before surgery, each animal received 4 mg dissodic fosphate/acetate of dexamethasone IM and one drop of betamethasone dissodic fosphate and gentamycin sulphate. This medication was kept until euthanasia. Each dog had a superior fornix sample collected, the sample was immersed in 0.1% peptonized water, so that tests for aerobic bacteria and fungus could be realized. Each test was repeated with samples collected on days 7, 14, 21 and 28, after graft, and compared with those from day 0. The 12.8% Staphylococcus epidermidis on initial samples was caused by contamination during collection because it wasn’t found on the 28th day samples. This fact suggests that, although corticosteroids had caused systemic imunocellular supression, they didn’t make easier the bacterial development into the grafted eye.

    KEY-WORDS: Microbial population; corticosteroids; xenotranplants; cornea; canine; swine.

    Foram utilizados dez cães, sem raça definida, com peso médio de 10kg, selecionados no Centro de Zoonoses da Prefeitura de Goiânia. Após examinados e considerados sadios, foram numerados de 11 a 20 na respectiva coleira. Cada cão, a seu tempo, teve implantada no olho esquerdo córnea de suíno, este abatido no frigorífico Casa de Banha Caçula. A córnea foi conservada em câmara úmida pelo

  3. ESTUDO DO LEUCOGRAMA COMO MONITOR DO 2-1 FOSFATO DISSÓDICO DE BETAMETASONA DO FOSFATO DISSÓDICO/ACETATO DE DEXAMETASONA, EM CÃES QUE RECEBERAM TRANSPLANTES COM CÓRNEAS DE SUÍNOS WHITE BLOOD COUNT AS A 2-1 BETAMETHASONE DISSODIC FOSFHATE AND DEXAMETHASONE DISSODIC FOSPHATE/ACETATE MONITOR IN SWINE CORNEA TRANSPLANTED DOGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Franco de Araújo

    2007-09-01

    . Each animal had swine cornea implanted into the left eye. The swine cornea was obtained at Casa de Banha Caçula, a slaughterhouse, and conserved in a humid chamber during a maximum 6 hour period. Each animal received 4 mg dissodic fosphate/acetate dexamethasone IM and was instilled one drop of gentamycin sulphate/betametbasone dissodic fosphate, maintaining ocular medication 4 times/day and intramuscular medication once a week until euthanasia. Each animal had blood samples collected on day 0, before surgery, and on day 14 and 28 to analyse white blood count as a monitor of corticosteroids, imunocellular supressor drugs. From ten blood samples collected on day 0, 80% didn’t present any alterations, 10% presented leukocytosis with neutrophilia and 10% weren’t submitted to analysis. Due to the fact that three animals had been euthanized between days 14 and 21, these samples (40%, were analyzed and compared with these collected on day 0. Five animals (50% had their samples examined on day 28. On both days 14 and 28, there were 100% neutrophilia, 100% eosinophilia and 44.4% lymphocytopenia, indicating imunocellular supression.

    KEY-WORDS: Corticosteroids; xenotransplants; cornea; canine; swine.

  4. Melatonin Entrains PER2::LUC Bioluminescence Circadian Rhythm in the Mouse Cornea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, Kenkichi; Davidson, Alec J; Tosini, Gianluca

    2015-07-01

    Previous studies have reported the presence of a circadian rhythm in PERIOD2::LUCIFERASE (PER2::LUC) bioluminescence in mouse photoreceptors, retina, RPE, and cornea. Melatonin (MLT) modulates many physiological functions in the eye and it is believed to be one of the key circadian signals within the eye. The aim of the present study was to investigate the regulation of the PER2::LUC circadian rhythm in mouse cornea and to determine the role played by MLT. Corneas were obtained from PER2::LUC mice and cultured to measure bioluminescence rhythmicity in isolated tissue using a Lumicycle or CCD camera. To determine the time-dependent resetting of the corneal circadian clocks in response to MLT or IIK7 (a melatonin type 2 receptor, MT2, agonist) was added to the cultured corneas at different times of the day. We also defined the location of the MT2 receptor within different corneal layers using immunohistochemistry. A long-lasting bioluminescence rhythm was recorded from cultured PER2::LUC cornea and PER2::LUC signal was localized to the corneal epithelium and endothelium. MLT administration in the early night delayed the cornea rhythm, whereas administration of MLT at late night to early morning advanced the cornea rhythm. Treatment with IIK7 mimicked the MLT phase-shifting effect. Consistent with these results, MT2 immunoreactivity was localized to the corneal epithelium and endothelium. Our work demonstrates that MLT entrains the PER2::LUC bioluminescence rhythm in the cornea. Our data indicate that the cornea may represent a model to study the molecular mechanisms by which MLT affects the circadian clock.

  5. Angiopoietin 2 expression in the cornea and its control of corneal neovascularisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Giulio; Giacomini, Chiara; Bignami, Fabio; Moi, Davide; Ranghetti, Anna; Doglioni, Claudio; Naldini, Luigi; Rama, Paolo; Mazzieri, Roberta

    2016-07-01

    To define proangiogenic angiopoietin 2 (ANG2) expression and role(s) in human and mouse vascularised corneas. Further, to evaluate the effect of ANG2 inhibition on corneal neovascularisation (CNV). CNV was induced in FVB mice by means of intrastromal suture placement. One group of animals was sacrificed 10 days later; corneas were immunostained for ANG2 and compared with (i) mouse non-vascularised corneas and (ii) human vascularised and non-vascularised corneas. A second group of CNV animals was treated systemically with an anti-ANG2 antibody. After 10 days, the corneas were whole-mounted, stained for CD31 and LYVE1 and lymphatic/blood vessels quantified. In another set of experiments, the corneal basal Bowman membrane was either (i) removed or (ii) left in place. After 2 or 10 days the corneas were removed and immunostained for collagen IV, ANG2, CD31, LYVE1, CD11b and MRC1 markers. In human beings and mice, ANG2 is expressed only in the epithelium, and, mildly, in the endothelium, of the avascular cornea. Instead, it is expressed in the epithelium, endothelium and stroma of vascularised corneas. Disruption of the Bowman membrane is associated with a significant increase of (i) ANG2 stromal expression and (ii) proangiogenic macrophage infiltration in the corneal stroma. Finally, blocking ANG2 significantly reduced hemangiogenesis, lymphangiogenesis and macrophage infiltration. Balancing proper healing and good vision is crucial in the cornea, constantly exposed to potential injuries. In this paper, we suggest the existence of a mechanism regulating the onset of inflammation (and associated CNV) depending on injury severity. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  6. Dual-path handheld system for cornea and retina imaging using optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirazi, Muhammad Faizan; Wijesinghe, Ruchire Eranga; Ravichandran, Naresh Kumar; Kim, Pilun; Jeon, Mansik; Kim, Jeehyun

    2017-04-01

    A dual-path handheld system is proposed for cornea and retina imaging using spectral domain optical coherence tomography. The handheld sample arm is designed to acquire two images simultaneously. Both eyes of a person can be imaged at the same time to obtain the images of the cornea of one eye and the retina of the other eye. Cornea, retina, and optic disc images are acquired with the proposed sample arm. Experimental results demonstrate the usefulness of this system for imaging of different eye segments. This system reduces the time required for imaging of the two eyes and is cost effective.

  7. Prognostic markers of canine pyometra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.C. Sant'Anna

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The pyometra is a disease that affects middle age and elderly female dogs during diestrus. Hormonal, microbiological, biochemical and hematological aspects are well described. However, few studies have evaluated the role of each in the prognosis of canine pyometra. The aim of this study was to identify markers associated with clinical worsening of dogs with pyometra. We prospectively evaluated 80 dogs with pyometra treated surgically. Group 1 consisted of dogs that were discharged within 48 hours after surgery and Group 2 consisted of those who required prolonged hospitalization or died. The findings of hematological, biochemical and blood lactate levels were compared between groups and variables such as bacterial multidrug resistance, systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS, hyperlactatemia and increased creatinine were analyzed through the dispersion of frequencies between groups. Among the variables studied, the presence of SIRS and elevated serum creatinine >2.5mg/mL were effective in predicting the worsening of the disease and can be used as prognostic markers of canine pyometra.

  8. Altered expression of type XIII collagen in keratoconus and scarred human cornea: Increased expression in scarred cornea is associated with myofibroblast transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Määttä, Marko; Väisänen, Timo; Väisänen, Marja-Riitta; Pihlajaniemi, Taina; Tervo, Timo

    2006-05-01

    Type XIII collagen (ColXIII) is a transmembrane protein thought to be involved in cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. We report here on its presence in the normal human cornea and compare the results for keratoconus and scarred corneas. Immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization were applied to human corneal samples obtained by penetrating keratoplasty. In the normal human cornea, ColXIII was immunolocalized to the corneal epithelial cells, and to a lesser degree to the stromal keratocytes. The keratoconus cases showed otherwise similar results, but in areas containing Bowman membrane disruptions showed thinned epithelial cells reduced immunostaining for ColXIII, whereas occasionally pronounced immunoreactivity was seen in the stromal keratocytes. The corneal scar samples contained highly increased ColXIII immunostaining by stromal cells in the fibrotic foci, whereas the peripheral areas showed less intense immunostaining. In situ hybridization confirmed that the corneal epithelium and keratocytes actively synthesize the transcript. Immunostaining with alphaSMA revealed that a substantial proportion of the ColXIII mRNA-expressing cells in the stromal scar tissues was myofibroblasts and that these areas lack CD34 immunoreactivity. The results indicate that ColXIII, which is predominantly confined to the basal corneal cells in the normal cornea, may have a role in the adhesion of corneal epithelial cells to each other and to the underlying basement membrane. Additionally, highly increased expression in scarred corneas suggests that it participates in the corneal wound healing process.

  9. Healthy Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Weight Gain Losing Weight Getting Started Improving Your Eating Habits Keeping It Off Healthy Eating for a Healthy ... or "program". It's about lifestyle changes in daily eating and exercise habits. Success Stories They did it. So can you! ...

  10. Healthy Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... recreational water activities like swimming, also helps promote healthy living. Often, water’s vital role is most apparent during an emergency or disaster. We launched the Healthy Water website to provide answers to your water- ...

  11. Resident Macrophages and Lymphocytes in the Canine Endometrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, M A; Payan-Carreira, R

    2015-10-01

    Resident immune cells play a major role in endometrial immunity and in tissue homoeostasis. This study aimed to analyse the distribution of macrophages, B and T lymphocytes (respectively, Mø, B-Lym and T-Lym) in the canine endometrium throughout the oestrous cycle and in late involution (at the proestrus stage post-parturition). An immunohistochemistry technique was used on samples from 50 post-pubertal healthy female dogs, of which five in late post-partum. The distribution of resident immune cells was analysed in three endometrial layers (superficial, intermediate and basal areas). Mø, B-Lym and T-Lym were demonstrated to reside in the endometrium in all the stages of the canine cycle; their numbers being considerably higher during late involution. T-Lym were scattered in the stroma or amidst the glandular epithelium, constituting the predominant immune cell population in anestrus and proestrus, but decreased in number at all other stages. Endometrial B-Lym remained fairly constant during the canine cycle, although its numbers were higher in late involution. Mø counts were higher during anestrus compared to the other stages, the cells being displaced into the superficial endometrial layer. Mø demonstrated the highest level in late involution samples, forming small aggregates below the surface epithelium. The number of immune cells was not normally distributed, suggesting the influence of individual factors, such as age or parity, not explored herein due to limited sample availability. Still, this study provides important information for the interpretation of endometrial biopsies in dogs and for the understanding of the increased susceptibility to uterine infection during dioestrus found in the bitch. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  12. First record of autochthonous canine leishmaniasis in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tánczos, Balázs; Balogh, Nándor; Király, László; Biksi, Imre; Szeredi, Levente; Gyurkovsky, Monika; Scalone, Aldo; Fiorentino, Eleonora; Gramiccia, Marina; Farkas, Róbert

    2012-07-01

    Hungary is traditionally regarded as a leishmaniasis-free country, and human or canine cases diagnosed locally have been recorded as imported. However, recent entomological surveys have verified the presence in Hungary of Phlebotomus neglectus and Phlebotomus perfiliewi perfiliewi, which have been incriminated as competent vectors of Leishmania infantum elsewhere in Europe. Following the occurrence in October 2007 of an undisputable clinical case of L. infantum canine leishmaniasis (CanL) in a 4-year-old female pug in a kennel of 20 dogs in Tolna province, an investigation was performed to assess the infection status in that canine population and to search for putative phlebotomine vectors. Another female pug became sick during the study period (May-November 2008) and L. infantum was confirmed as the causative agent. The other animals appeared clinically healthy; however, 4 additional dogs were found positive by indirect fluorescent antibody test (2 dogs), or by buffy-coat PCR (1 dog), or by both methods (1 dog). Hence the overall Leishmania infection prevalence in the kennel was 30% (6/20). All dogs were born in the same place and had been always kept outdoors. They had neither been abroad nor received a blood transfusion. No sand flies were collected with CDC Standard Miniature Light traps, Mosquito Magnet(®) X (MMX) dry ice-baited traps, or sticky traps placed either in or around the kennel and at nearby chicken yards during July and August of 2008 and 2009. Considering the dogs' historical background and the failure to trap any sand fly vectors in the kennel area, the origin of CanL in this site remains unexplained.

  13. Genetic Mapping of Novel Loci Affecting Canine Blood Phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Michelle E; Hayward, Jessica J; Stokol, Tracy; Boyko, Adam R

    2015-01-01

    Since the publication of the dog genome and the construction of high-quality genome-wide SNP arrays, thousands of dogs have been genotyped for disease studies. For many of these dogs, additional clinical phenotypes are available, such as hematological and clinical chemistry results collected during routine veterinary care. Little is known about the genetic basis of variation in blood phenotypes, but this variation may play an important role in the etiology and progression of many diseases. From a cohort of dogs that had been previously genotyped on a semi-custom Illumina CanineHD array for various genome-wide association studies (GWAS) at Cornell University Hospital for Animals, we chose 353 clinically healthy, adult dogs for our analysis of clinical pathologic test results (14 hematological tests and 25 clinical chemistry tests). After correcting for age, body weight and sex, genetic associations were identified for amylase, segmented neutrophils, urea nitrogen, glucose, and mean corpuscular hemoglobin. Additionally, a strong genetic association (P = 8.1×10-13) was evident between a region of canine chromosome 13 (CFA13) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT), explaining 23% of the variation in ALT levels. This region of CFA13 encompasses the GPT gene that encodes the transferase. Dogs homozygous for the derived allele exhibit lower ALT activity, making increased ALT activity a less useful marker of hepatic injury in these individuals. Overall, these associations provide a roadmap for identifying causal variants that could improve interpretation of clinical blood tests and understanding of genetic risk factors associated with diseases such as canine diabetes and anemia, and demonstrate the utility of holistic phenotyping of dogs genotyped for disease mapping studies.

  14. Genetic Mapping of Novel Loci Affecting Canine Blood Phenotypes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle E White

    Full Text Available Since the publication of the dog genome and the construction of high-quality genome-wide SNP arrays, thousands of dogs have been genotyped for disease studies. For many of these dogs, additional clinical phenotypes are available, such as hematological and clinical chemistry results collected during routine veterinary care. Little is known about the genetic basis of variation in blood phenotypes, but this variation may play an important role in the etiology and progression of many diseases. From a cohort of dogs that had been previously genotyped on a semi-custom Illumina CanineHD array for various genome-wide association studies (GWAS at Cornell University Hospital for Animals, we chose 353 clinically healthy, adult dogs for our analysis of clinical pathologic test results (14 hematological tests and 25 clinical chemistry tests. After correcting for age, body weight and sex, genetic associations were identified for amylase, segmented neutrophils, urea nitrogen, glucose, and mean corpuscular hemoglobin. Additionally, a strong genetic association (P = 8.1×10-13 was evident between a region of canine chromosome 13 (CFA13 and alanine aminotransferase (ALT, explaining 23% of the variation in ALT levels. This region of CFA13 encompasses the GPT gene that encodes the transferase. Dogs homozygous for the derived allele exhibit lower ALT activity, making increased ALT activity a less useful marker of hepatic injury in these individuals. Overall, these associations provide a roadmap for identifying causal variants that could improve interpretation of clinical blood tests and understanding of genetic risk factors associated with diseases such as canine diabetes and anemia, and demonstrate the utility of holistic phenotyping of dogs genotyped for disease mapping studies.

  15. New strategy to study corneal endothelial cell transplantation: the chick cornea model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangioris, Georgios; Chiodini, Florence; Dosso, Andre

    2011-12-01

    To set up a culture assay of chick corneal endothelial cells (CECs) for transplantation into host corneas. Histology sections were performed at 6, 9, 12, 15, and 18 embryonic days of development of the chick embryo. Visualization of the gross morphology of CECs and of epithelium, stroma, and Descemet membrane was performed. Transplantation of CECs at 18 embryonic days of development into explanted, denuded from endothelial cell, host corneas of the same stage was attempted. The results from the histological sections clearly indicate that after embryonic day 12, the endothelial cells are well differentiated and the proliferation is complete. Transplanted CECs were able to migrate and integrate into the denuded host corneas. This study demonstrated its feasibility using an easy accessible model of chick cornea. With this technique, sufficient CECs may be obtained for biochemical and functional investigations using only nonhatched chickens that are easily accessible and easy to manipulate.

  16. Air-puff OCE for assessment of mouse cornea in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiasong; Wang, Shang; Singh, Manmohan; Aglyamov, Salavat; Emelianov, Stanislav; Twa, Michael; Larin, Kirill V.

    2014-02-01

    We characterize the relaxation rates of deformations created by focused air puffs with the use of phasestabilized swept source optical coherence elastography (PhS-SSOCE) in tissue-mimicking gelatin phantoms of various concentrations and mouse corneas of different ages in vivo. The results indicate that gelatin of varying concentrations and corneas from different aged mice have different relaxation rates. In addition, the results show that phantoms with higher concentration gelatin and corneas of older mice have higher relaxation rates, which can be attributed to stiffer material. Because this method is non-contact, noninvasive, and utilizes a minimal force which induces a deformation on the scale of μm, this method can be used to study the biomechanical properties of sensitive tissues, such as the cornea.

  17. Second Harmonic Generation Imaging Analysis of Collagen Arrangement in Human Cornea

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Choul Yong; Lee, Jimmy K.; Chuck, Roy S.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we imaged human cornea using a second harmonic generation imaging technique. The horizontal collagen bundle arrangement of corneal stroma as a function of depth and location was analyzed.

  18. Constructing an in vitro cornea from cultures of the three specific corneal cell types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, A I; Maier-Reif, K; Graeve, T

    1999-10-01

    This paper presents a reliable method for establishing pure cultures of the three types of corneal cells. This is believed to be the first time, corneal cells have been cultured from fetal pig corneas. Cell growth studies were performed in different media. Subcultures of the three corneal cell types were passaged until the 30th generation without their showing signs of senescence. For engineering an in vitro cornea, corneal epithelial cells were cultured over corneal stromal cells in an artificial biomatrix of collagen with an underlying layer of corneal endothelial cells. The morphology, histology, and differentiation of the in vitro cornea were investigated to determine the degree of comparability to the cornea in vivo. The in vitro construct displayed signs of transition to an organotypic phenotype of which the most prominent was the formation of two basement membranes.

  19. Keratan sulfate and dermatan sulfate proteoglycans associate with type VI collagen in fetal rabbit cornea

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Takahashi, T; Cho, HI; Kublin, CL; Cintron, C

    1993-01-01

    .... Because certain cytochemical data suggested that proteoglycans are associated with type VI collagen in the fetal rabbit cornea, we developed polyclonal antibodies specific to the core proteins of rabbit corneal KSPG...

  20. Accelerating repaired basement membrane after bevacizumab treatment on alkali-burned mouse cornea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koon-Ja Lee

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available To understand the corneal regeneration induced by bevacizumab,we investigated the structure changes of stroma andbasement membrane regeneration. A Stick soaked in 0.5 NNaOH onto the mouse cornea and 2.5 mg/ml of bevacizumabwas delivered into an alkali-burned cornea (2 μl by subconjunctivalinjections at 1 hour and 4 days after injury. At 7 daysafter injury, basement membrane regeneration was observedby transmission electron microscope. Uneven and thin epithelialbasement membrane, light density of hemidesmosomes,and edematous collagen fibril bundles are shown in thealkali-burned cornea. Injured epithelial basement membraneand hemidesmosomes and edematous collagen fibril bundlesresulting from alkali-burned mouse cornea was repaired bybevacizumab treatment. This study demonstrates that bevacizumabcan play an important role in wound healing in thecornea by accelerating the reestablishment of basementmembrane integrity that leads to barriers for scar formation.[BMB Reports 2013; 46(4: 195-200

  1. Damage Threshold of In Vivo Rabbit Cornea by 2 micron Laser Irradiation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chen, Bo; Oliver, Jeffery; Dutta, Soumak; Rylander, III, Grady H; Thomsen, Sharon L; Welch, Ashley J

    2007-01-01

    To support refinement of the Maximum Permissible Exposure (MPE) safety limits, a series of experiments were conducted in vivo on Dutch Belted rabbit corneas to determine corneal minimum visible lesion thresholds...

  2. The filtering, clear-cornea diathermal keratostomy: a minor Danish multicenter study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, S.V.; Nissen, O.I.; Thygesen, J.

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE: Is the new micropenetrating, clear-cornea procedure, intrastromal diathermal keratostomy (IDK), an alternative to the intricate "modern trabeculectomy"? METHODS: Prospective multicenter study. Four surgeons from 4 Danish eye departments attended an IDK course and subsequently decided when...

  3. Mottled cyan opacification of the posterior cornea in contact lens wearers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, E J; Lee, R M; Bucci, F A; Janda, A M; Doughman, D J; Harris, J K; Krachmer, J H

    1995-05-01

    We studied patients who had mottled cyan-colored opacities of the cornea to better understand the cause and prognosis of this entity. We reviewed examinations of patients who had a mottled cyan opacification of the cornea. Risk factors, including contact lens wear and exposure to heavy metals, were analyzed. Clinical findings, pachymetry specular microscopy, and progression of the abnormality were noted. Six patients who had a mottled cyan opacification at the level of Descemet's membrane were identified. These opacities were located in the peripheral and midperipheral cornea. All patients had bilateral findings, had visual acuities of 20/20 or better, and were asymptomatic. All patients had worn soft contact lenses bilaterally for periods ranging from seven to 14 years. All patients had the similar clinical appearance of a mottled cyan opacification at the level of Descemet's membrane in the peripheral cornea. Long-term contact lens wear appears to be associated; however, the exact cause is unclear.

  4. Structure of corneal layers, collagen fibrils, and proteoglycans of tree shrew cornea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almubrad, Turki; Akhtar, Saeed

    2011-01-01

    The stroma is the major part of the cornea, in which collagen fibrils and proteoglycans are distributed uniformly. We describe the ultrastructure of corneal layers, collagen fibrils (CF), and proteoglycans (PGs) in the tree shrew cornea. Tree shrew corneas (5, 6, and 10 week old animals) and normal human corneas (24, 25, and 54 years old) were fixed in 2.5% glutaraldehyde containing cuprolinic blue in a sodium acetate buffer. The tissue was processed for electron microscopy. The 'iTEM Olympus Soft Imaging Solutions GmbH' program was used to measure the corneal layers, collagen fibril diameters and proteoglycan areas. The tree shrew cornea consists of 5 layers: the epithelium, Bowman's layer, stroma, Descemet's membrane, and endothelium. The epithelium was composed of squamous cells, wing cells and basal cells. The Bowman's layer was 5.5±1.0 µm thick and very similar to a normal human Bowman's layer. The stroma was 258±7.00 µm thick and consisted of collagen fibril lamellae. The lamellae were interlaced with one another in the anterior stroma, but ran parallel to one another in the middle and posterior stroma. Collagen fibrils were decorated with proteoglycan filaments with an area size of 390 ±438 nm(2). The collagen fibril had a minimum diameter of 39±4.25 nm. The interfibrillar spacing was 52.91±6.07 nm. Within the collagen fibrils, very small electron-dense particles were present. The structure of the tree shrew cornea is very similar to that of the normal human cornea. As is the case with the human cornea, the tree shrew cornea had a Bowman's layer, lamellar interlacing in the anterior stroma and electron-dense particles within the collagen fibrils. The similarities of the tree shrew cornea with the human cornea suggest that it could be a good structural model to use when studying changes in collagen fibrils and proteoglycans in non-genetic corneal diseases, such as ectasia caused after LASIK (laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis).

  5. Structure of corneal layers, collagen fibrils, and proteoglycans of tree shrew cornea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almubrad, Turki

    2011-01-01

    Purpose The stroma is the major part of the cornea, in which collagen fibrils and proteoglycans are distributed uniformly. We describe the ultrastructure of corneal layers, collagen fibrils (CF), and proteoglycans (PGs) in the tree shrew cornea. Methods Tree shrew corneas (5, 6, and 10 week old animals) and normal human corneas (24, 25, and 54 years old) were fixed in 2.5% glutaraldehyde containing cuprolinic blue in a sodium acetate buffer. The tissue was processed for electron microscopy. The ‘iTEM Olympus Soft Imaging Solutions GmbH’ program was used to measure the corneal layers, collagen fibril diameters and proteoglycan areas. Results The tree shrew cornea consists of 5 layers: the epithelium, Bowman’s layer, stroma, Descemet’s membrane, and endothelium. The epithelium was composed of squamous cells, wing cells and basal cells. The Bowman’s layer was 5.5±1.0 µm thick and very similar to a normal human Bowman’s layer. The stroma was 258±7.00 µm thick and consisted of collagen fibril lamellae. The lamellae were interlaced with one another in the anterior stroma, but ran parallel to one another in the middle and posterior stroma. Collagen fibrils were decorated with proteoglycan filaments with an area size of 390 ±438 nm2. The collagen fibril had a minimum diameter of 39±4.25 nm. The interfibrillar spacing was 52.91±6.07 nm. Within the collagen fibrils, very small electron-dense particles were present. Conclusions The structure of the tree shrew cornea is very similar to that of the normal human cornea. As is the case with the human cornea, the tree shrew cornea had a Bowman's layer, lamellar interlacing in the anterior stroma and electron-dense particles within the collagen fibrils. The similarities of the tree shrew cornea with the human cornea suggest that it could be a good structural model to use when studying changes in collagen fibrils and proteoglycans in non-genetic corneal diseases, such as ectasia caused after LASIK (laser

  6. Extrusion processing : effects on dry canine diets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tran, Q.D.

    2008-01-01

    Keywords: Extrusion, Canine diet, Protein, Lysine, Starch gelatinization, Palatability, Drying. Extrusion cooking is a useful and economical tool for processing animal feed. This high temperature, short time processing technology causes chemical and physical changes that alter the nutritional and

  7. Comparison of different methods of glycerol preservation for deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty eligible corneas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinyang; Shi, Shuai; Zhang, Xin; Ni, Shouxiang; Wang, Yu; Curcio, Christine A; Chen, Wei

    2012-08-17

    To compare different methods of glycerol-preserved corneas intended for deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty (DALK). We analyzed transparency, transmittance, thickness, biomechanics, morphology, and antigenicity of donor corneas preserved by four different glycerol-based methods (n = 6 per group) for 3 months, as follows: tissues in anhydrous glycerol without aluminosilicate molecular sieves at room temperature (GRT); tissues in anhydrous glycerol with aluminosilicate molecular sieves at room temperature (SRT); tissues in anhydrous glycerol without aluminosilicate molecular sieves at -78°C (G78); and tissues in anhydrous glycerol without aluminosilicate molecular sieves at -20°C (G20). Slit lamp images and transmittance curves obtained by spectrophotometer show that the G78 cornea was the most transparent tissue. Stress-strain behavior indicated that corneas in the G78 group were the most pliable, and SRT corneas were the stiffest. Electron microscopy analysis indicated that corneal cytoarchitecture and keratocyte integrity was destroyed in all glycerol-preserved corneas. Disorganized stromal collagen fibers were evident in groups stored at RT. Especially in SRT corneas, parallelism was lost, fibrils were extremely tortuous and discontinuous, and widespread fibril degeneration could be found. Antigenicity of tissue, assessed via immunohistochemistry for CD45-positive cells, HLA-ABC and HLA-DR, was lowered after glycerol preservation relative to fresh cornea tissues, and immunoreactivity was located mainly on corneal epithelium and limbus rather than stroma. Anhydrous glycerol preservation without molecular sieves in a -78°C freezer was the best method to obtain DALK-eligible tissues that were both transparent and pliable.

  8. Autologous conjunctiva transplantation with stem cells on edge of cornea for recurrent pterygium

    OpenAIRE

    Yun Wang

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To observe the clinical effectiveness and practicality the autologous conjunctiva transplantation with stem cells on edge of cornea for recurrent pterygium.METHODS: Of the 53 recurrent pterygium patients(57 eyes), after all pathological tissues were removed, underwent the autologous conjunctiva transplantation with stem cells on edge of cornea which were locked above conjunctival transplantation of the operated eye.RESULTS: Postopretive follow-up was 1-12 months for all 57 eyes, of which...

  9. Visualizing Micro-anatomical Structures of the Posterior Cornea with Micro-optical Coherence Tomography

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Si; Liu, Xinyu; Wang, Nanshuo; Wang, Xianghong; Xiong, Qiaozhou; Bo, En; Yu, Xiaojun; Chen, Shufen; Liu, Linbo

    2017-01-01

    Diagnosis of corneal disease and challenges in corneal transplantation require comprehensive understanding of corneal anatomy, particularly that of the posterior cornea. Micro-optical coherence tomography (?OCT) is a potentially suitable tool to meet this need, owing to its ultrahigh isotropic spatial resolution, high image acquisition rate and depth priority scanning mode. In this study, we explored the ability of ?OCT to visualize micro-anatomical structures of the posterior cornea ex vivo ...

  10. Hyperglycemia-induced abnormalities in rat and human corneas: the potential of second harmonic generation microscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaël Latour

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Second Harmonic Generation (SHG microscopy recently appeared as an efficient optical imaging technique to probe unstained collagen-rich tissues like cornea. Moreover, corneal remodeling occurs in many diseases and precise characterization requires overcoming the limitations of conventional techniques. In this work, we focus on diabetes, which affects hundreds of million people worldwide and most often leads to diabetic retinopathy, with no early diagnostic tool. This study then aims to establish the potential of SHG microscopy for in situ detection and characterization of hyperglycemia-induced abnormalities in the Descemet's membrane, in the posterior cornea. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We studied corneas from age-matched control and Goto-Kakizaki rats, a spontaneous model of type 2 diabetes, and corneas from human donors with type 2 diabetes and without any diabetes. SHG imaging was compared to confocal microscopy, to histology characterization using conventional staining and transmitted light microscopy and to transmission electron microscopy. SHG imaging revealed collagen deposits in the Descemet's membrane of unstained corneas in a unique way compared to these gold standard techniques in ophthalmology. It provided background-free images of the three-dimensional interwoven distribution of the collagen deposits, with improved contrast compared to confocal microscopy. It also provided structural capability in intact corneas because of its high specificity to fibrillar collagen, with substantially larger field of view than transmission electron microscopy. Moreover, in vivo SHG imaging was demonstrated in Goto-Kakizaki rats. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study shows unambiguously the high potential of SHG microscopy for three-dimensional characterization of structural abnormalities in unstained corneas. Furthermore, our demonstration of in vivo SHG imaging opens the way to long-term dynamical studies. This method should be easily

  11. Abnormalities of stromal structure in the bullous keratopathy cornea identified by second harmonic generation imaging microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morishige, Naoyuki; Yamada, Norihiro; Zhang, Xu; Morita, Yukiko; Yamada, Naoyuki; Kimura, Kazuhiro; Takahara, Atsushi; Sonoda, Koh-Hei

    2012-07-27

    To identify structural alterations in collagen lamellae and the transdifferentiation of keratocytes into myofibroblasts in the corneal stroma of bullous keratopathy (BK) patients and to examine the relation of such changes to the duration of stromal edema or the underlying cause of BK. Six normal human corneas and 16 BK corneas were subjected to second harmonic generation (SHG) imaging microscopy to allow three-dimensional (3-D) reconstruction of collagen lamellae. Expression of α-smooth muscle actin (αSMA) was examined by immunofluorescence analysis and conventional laser confocal microscopy. Collagen lamellae were interwoven at the anterior stroma and uniformly aligned at the posterior stroma, whereas αSMA was not detected throughout the entire stroma of the normal cornea. Nine (56%) and 7 (44%) of the 16 BK corneas showed abnormal collagen structure at the anterior and posterior stroma, respectively. Expression of αSMA was detected in the anterior or posterior stroma of 7 (44%) and 6 (38%) of the 16 BK corneas, respectively. Disorganization of collagen lamellae and myofibroblastic transdifferentiation were detected only in corneas with a duration of stromal edema of at least 12 months. Corneas with BK as a result of birth injury showed abnormal collagen structure at the posterior stroma, whereas those with BK resulting from laser iridotomy did not. Changes in the structure of the entire stroma were detected in BK corneas with a duration of stromal edema of at least 12 months, suggesting that such changes may be progressive. In addition, the underlying cause of BK may influence structural changes at the posterior stroma.

  12. Increased Biomechanical Efficacy of Corneal Cross-linking in Thin Corneas Due to Higher Oxygen Availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kling, Sabine; Richoz, Olivier; Hammer, Arthur; Tabibian, David; Jacob, Soosan; Agarwal, Amar; Hafezi, Farhad

    2015-12-01

    To compare the currently available ultraviolet-A (UV-A) corneal cross-linking (CXL) treatment protocols for thin corneas with respect to oxygen, UV fluence, and osmotic pressure. Freshly enucleated murine (n = 16) and porcine (n = 16) eyes were used. The dependency on oxygen and the amount of UV absorption were evaluated using different CXL protocols, including standard CXL, contact lens-assisted CXL (caCXL), and CXL after corneal swelling. The CXL protocol was adapted from the treatment parameters of the human cornea to fit the thickness of murine and porcine corneas. Immediately after CXL, the corneas were subjected to biomechanical testing, including preconditioning, stress relaxation at 0.6 MPa, and stress-strain extensiometry. A two-element Prony series was fitted to the relaxation curves for viscoelastic characterization. Standard CXL was most efficient; prior corneal swelling reduced the long-term modulus by 6% and caCXL by 15% to 20%. Oxygen reduction decreased the long-term modulus G∞ by 14% to 15% and the instantaneous modulus G0 by 2% to 5%, and increased the short-term modulus G2 by 22% to 31%. Reducing the amount of absorbed UV energy decreased the long-term modulus G∞ by 5% to 34%, the instantaneous modulus G0 by 7% to 29%, and the short-term modulus G2 by 17% to 20%. The amount of absorbed UV light was more important in porcine than in murine corneas. The higher oxygen availability in thin corneas potentially increases the overall efficacy of riboflavin UV-A CXL compared to corneas of standard thickness. Clinical protocols for thin corneas should be revised to implement these findings. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.

  13. Gamma-irradiated sterile cornea for use in corneal transplants in a rabbit model

    OpenAIRE

    Junko Yoshida; Thomas Heflin; Andrea Zambrano; Qing Pan; Huan Meng; Jiangxia Wang; Stark, Walter J.; Daoud, Yassine J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Gamma irradiated corneas in which the donor keratocytes and endothelial cells are eliminated are effective as corneal lamellar and glaucoma patch grafts. In addition, gamma irradiation causes collagen cross inking, which stiffens collagen fibrils. This study evaluated gamma irradiated corneas for use in corneal transplantations in a rabbit model comparing graft clarity, corneal neovascularization, and edema. Methods: Penetrating keratoplasty was performed on rabbits using four ty...

  14. Differential gene expression patterns of the developing and adult cornea compared to the lens and tendon

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Feng; Lee, Seakwoo; Schumacher, Michael; Jun, Albert; Chakravarti, Shukti

    2008-01-01

    The cornea continues to mature after birth to develop a fully functional, refractive and protective barrier tissue. Here we investigated the complex biological events underlying this process by profiling global genome-wide gene expression patterns of the immature postnatal day 10 and seven week-old adult mouse cornea. The lens and tendon were included in the study to increase the specificity of genes identified as up regulated in the corneal samples. Notable similarities in gene expression be...

  15. Distribution of non-gal antigens in pig cornea: relevance to corneal xenotransplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, David; Miyagawa, Yuko; Mehra, Ruhina; Lee, Whayoung; Isse, Kumiko; Long, Cassandra; Ayares, David L; Cooper, David K C; Hara, Hidetaka

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the distribution of antigens other than galactose-α-1,3-galactose (Gal) (non-Gal) recognized by human and rhesus monkey serum antibodies in the α-1,3-galactosyltransferase gene-knockout (GTKO) pig cornea. The distribution of non-Gal, specifically N-glycolylneuraminic acid (NeuGc), in the corneas from wild-type (WT) and GTKO pigs was identified. Corneal sections from WT and GTKO pigs were incubated with human or rhesus monkey serum to determine immunoglobulin (Ig)M and IgG binding to corneal tissue by means of fluorescent microscopy. Strong expression of NeuGc was found in all layers of both WT and GTKO pig corneas. In both humans and monkeys, antibody binding (IgG > IgM) to GTKO was found to be weaker than that to entire WT pig corneas, but in both, most antibody binding, especially IgG, was to the epithelium. There was weak diffuse antibody binding, especially of IgG, to the corneal stroma, suggesting binding to antigens expressed on collagen. There was no or minimal binding of IgM/IgG to the corneal endothelium. Although the cornea is avascular, antibodies in primate serum can bind to pig antigens, especially on epithelial cells and stromal collagen. Although the binding to entire GTKO corneas was weaker than that to WT corneas, deletion of the expression of NeuGc and expression of human complement-regulatory proteins in the pig cornea will be important if prolonged clinical corneal xenograft survival is to be achieved.

  16. Two-Photon Microscopy of the Mouse Peripheral Cornea Ex Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jun Ho; Kim, Ki Hean; Lee, Seunghun; Jeong, Hyerin; Kim, Myoung Joon

    2016-11-01

    To investigate the 3-dimensional (3D) cell and extracellular matrix (ECM) structure of mouse peripheral corneas in normal and corneal neovascularization tissues using 2-photon microscopy (TPM) based on both intrinsic and extrinsic moxifloxacin contrasts. Peripheral corneas in freshly enucleated mouse eyes were imaged by TPM based on both intrinsic and extrinsic contrasts. Intrinsic autofluorescence and second harmonic generation were used to image cells and ECM collagen, respectively. Moxifloxacin ophthalmic solution was applied to image cells. The peripheral cornea, limbus, and sclera were imaged in 3D. In addition to normal mice, mouse models of suture-induced corneal neovascularization were imaged to visualize changes in the microstructure. Complex 3D cell and ECM structures in the cornea, limbus, and sclera were visualized by TPM. TPM images based on intrinsic contrasts visualized both cell and ECM structures, and TPM images based on moxifloxacin visualized cell structures with enhanced contrast. On the limbus side of the mouse peripheral cornea, TPM images visualized the vasculature in the limbus, the trabecular meshwork/Schlemm canal, iris, and ciliary body. On the scleral side, TPM images visualized cell and ECM structures in the sclera and multiple cell layers below the sclera. TPM images of the peripheral cornea in the corneal neovascularization condition visualized the extension of vasculature from the limbus to the cornea. TPM imaging based on both intrinsic and external moxifloxacin contrasts visualized detailed 3D cell and ECM microstructures in the mouse peripheral cornea. TPM based on moxifloxacin might be advantageous for studying cell structures by enhancing image contrast.

  17. Outcome of transplanted donor corneas with more than 6 h of death-to-preservation time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashik Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: In tropical countries, physicians are skeptic in using corneas with death-to-preservation time (DTPT >6 h, concerns being endothelial cell viability and microbial contamination on prolonged DTPT. The objective of the study was to investigate these concerns by analyzing the outcomes of corneal transplants performed using donor corneas with DTPT >6 h. Materials and Methods: The study was a retrospective case series of 65 transplants performed in 2013 with donor corneas that had DTPT >6 h (range, 6.1–9.8 h. The information on donor cornea tissues and the recipient details were collected from the eye bank and the medical records department of our tertiary eye care center. The main outcome measures were slit lamp assessment of the donor corneas, primary graft failure, graft survival, and postoperative adverse reactions, especially infections, if any. Results: Median DTPT was 7 h. Forty-four (67.7% corneas were evaluated as optical grade and 21 (32.3% were deemed as therapeutic grade; 36 (55.4% were used for optical indications. There was no relationship between DTPT and the tissue grading of corneas or endothelial cell density. Of the 23 keratoplasties for purely optical indications with a minimum follow-up of 3 months, 15 (65.2% remained clear whereas 7 (30.4% failed (mean follow-up 15.1 ± 6.7 months. The causes of failure were primary graft failure (n = 1 and secondary graft failure (n = 6. Conclusion: The donor corneas with DTPT 6 h to 10 h can be utilized for optical indications provided that they meet the criteria of tissue acceptance for optical use.

  18. Outcome of transplanted donor corneas with more than 6 h of death-to-preservation time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Ashik; Chaurasia, Sunita; Garg, Prashant

    2016-09-01

    In tropical countries, physicians are skeptic in using corneas with death-to-preservation time (DTPT) >6 h, concerns being endothelial cell viability and microbial contamination on prolonged DTPT. The objective of the study was to investigate these concerns by analyzing the outcomes of corneal transplants performed using donor corneas with DTPT >6 h. The study was a retrospective case series of 65 transplants performed in 2013 with donor corneas that had DTPT >6 h (range, 6.1-9.8 h). The information on donor cornea tissues and the recipient details were collected from the eye bank and the medical records department of our tertiary eye care center. The main outcome measures were slit lamp assessment of the donor corneas, primary graft failure, graft survival, and postoperative adverse reactions, especially infections, if any. Median DTPT was 7 h. Forty-four (67.7%) corneas were evaluated as optical grade and 21 (32.3%) were deemed as therapeutic grade; 36 (55.4%) were used for optical indications. There was no relationship between DTPT and the tissue grading of corneas or endothelial cell density. Of the 23 keratoplasties for purely optical indications with a minimum follow-up of 3 months, 15 (65.2%) remained clear whereas 7 (30.4%) failed (mean follow-up 15.1 ± 6.7 months). The causes of failure were primary graft failure (n = 1) and secondary graft failure (n = 6). The donor corneas with DTPT 6 h to 10 h can be utilized for optical indications provided that they meet the criteria of tissue acceptance for optical use.

  19. A role for smoothened during murine lens and cornea development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet J Y Choi

    Full Text Available Various studies suggest that Hedgehog (Hh signalling plays roles in human and zebrafish ocular development. Recent studies (Kerr et al., Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2012; 53, 3316-30 showed that conditionally activating Hh signals promotes murine lens epithelial cell proliferation and disrupts fibre differentiation. In this study we examined the expression of the Hh pathway and the requirement for the Smoothened gene in murine lens development. Expression of Hh pathway components in developing lens was examined by RT-PCR, immunofluorescence and in situ hybridisation. The requirement of Smo in lens development was determined by conditional loss-of-function mutations, using LeCre and MLR10 Cre transgenic mice. The phenotype of mutant mice was examined by immunofluorescence for various markers of cell cycle, lens and cornea differentiation. Hh pathway components (Ptch1, Smo, Gli2, Gli3 were detected in lens epithelium from E12.5. Gli2 was particularly localised to mitotic nuclei and, at E13.5, Gli3 exhibited a shift from cytosol to nucleus, suggesting distinct roles for these transcription factors. Conditional deletion of Smo, from ∼E12.5 (MLR10 Cre did not affect ocular development, whereas deletion from ∼E9.5 (LeCre resulted in lens and corneal defects from E14.5. Mutant lenses were smaller and showed normal expression of p57Kip2, c-Maf, E-cadherin and Pax6, reduced expression of FoxE3 and Ptch1 and decreased nuclear Hes1. There was normal G1-S phase but decreased G2-M phase transition at E16.5 and epithelial cell death from E14.5-E16.5. Mutant corneas were thicker due to aberrant migration of Nrp2+ cells from the extraocular mesenchyme, resulting in delayed corneal endothelial but normal epithelial differentiation. These results indicate the Hh pathway is required during a discrete period (E9.5-E12.5 in lens development to regulate lens epithelial cell proliferation, survival and FoxE3 expression. Defective corneal development occurs

  20. In situ cornea harvesting through the Red Cross Organization: a new approach to relieving severe cornea donor shortage in Chinese eye banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su-Xia Li

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Corneal diseases are currently the second main cause of blindness in China. Although most of the corneal blindness could be treated by corneal transplantation, only about 10 000 operations were carried out each year owing to the severe shortage of corneal donors and limited eye bank programs. A feasible cornea donation program was established through the organization of the Red Cross, and in situ corneal removal techniques were developed to avoid conflicts with Chinese traditions of keeping the deceased intact. The number of donated corneas, which had a safe and secure quality, increased significantly year by year.

  1. In situ cornea harvesting through the Red Cross Organization: a new approach to relieving severe cornea donor shortage in Chinese eye banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Su-Xia; Wang, Fu-Hua; Wang, Ting; Han, Sha-Sha; Shi, Wei-Yun

    2017-01-01

    Corneal diseases are currently the second main cause of blindness in China. Although most of the corneal blindness could be treated by corneal transplantation, only about 10 000 operations were carried out each year owing to the severe shortage of corneal donors and limited eye bank programs. A feasible cornea donation program was established through the organization of the Red Cross, and in situ corneal removal techniques were developed to avoid conflicts with Chinese traditions of keeping the deceased intact. The number of donated corneas, which had a safe and secure quality, increased significantly year by year.

  2. Use of Fish Scale-Derived BioCornea to Seal Full-Thickness Corneal Perforations in Pig Models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Cheng Chen

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to test the use of BioCornea, a fish scale-derived collagen matrix for sealing full-thickness corneal perforations in mini-pigs. Two series of experiments were carried out in 8 Lan-Yu and 3 Göttingen mini-pigs, respectively. A 2mm central full thickness corneal perforation was made with surgical scissors and 2mm trephines. The perforations were sealed immediately by suturing BioCornea to the wounded cornea. The conditions of each patched cornea were followed-up daily for 3 or 4 days. Status of operated eyes was assessed with slit lamp examination or optical coherence tomography (OCT. Animals were sacrificed after the study period and the corneas operated were fixated for histological examination. Both OCT imaging and handheld slit lamp observations indicated that a stable ocular integrity of the perforated corneas was maintained, showing no leakage of aqueous humor, normal depth of anterior chamber and only mild swelling of the wounded cornea. Hematoxylin and eosin staining of the patched cornea showed no epithelial ingrowths to the perforated wounds and no severe leucocyte infiltration of the stroma. The fish scale-derived BioCornea is capable to seal full-thickness corneal perforation and stabilize the integrity of ocular anterior chamber in pre-clinic mini-pig models. BioCornea seems to be a safe and effective alternative for emergency treatment of corneal perforations.

  3. [Nonsurgical endodontic treatment of an invaginated canine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández Guerrero, F; Miñana Laliga, R; Bullon Fernandez, P

    1989-01-01

    We present a case of a maxillary canine with a dens invaginatus treated successfully. The patient had pain, swelling and a sinus tract coming from the inmature apex of the canine. The canals were enlarged and cleaned and the main canal was filled with Calcium Hydroxide to allow the root development. Seven months later, the patient was asymptomatic and the tooth was obturated with guttapercha. One year later it was confirm the success in the treatment.

  4. Overexpression of vimentin in canine prostatic carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodrigues, M M P; Rema, A; Gärtner, F

    2011-01-01

    is associated with the invasive phenotype of human prostate cancer cells. The aim of the present study was to characterize immunohistochemically the expression of vimentin by canine prostatic carcinomas. Primary carcinomas and metastatic tumour foci both showed vimentin expression. This finding suggests...... that the acquisition of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition phenotype in canine prostatic carcinoma may be characterized by the presence of mesenchymal intermediate filament (vimentin) that could lead to a higher likelihood of metastasis....

  5. Canine babesiosis: from molecular taxonomy to control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irwin Peter J

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Canine babesiosis is a clinically significant emerging vector-borne disease caused by protozoan haemoparasites. This review article considers recent literature pertaining to the taxonomic classification of Babesia and Theileria species affecting dogs and the geographical distribution of these parasites. The diagnosis of canine babesiosis by traditional, molecular and serological methods is reviewed, together with recent advances in our understanding of the pathophysiology of piroplasmosis, and of the treatment and prevention of this disease.

  6. CANINE: a robotic mine dog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stancil, Brian A.; Hyams, Jeffrey; Shelley, Jordan; Babu, Kartik; Badino, Hernán.; Bansal, Aayush; Huber, Daniel; Batavia, Parag

    2013-01-01

    Neya Systems, LLC competed in the CANINE program sponsored by the U.S. Army Tank Automotive Research Development and Engineering Center (TARDEC) which culminated in a competition held at Fort Benning as part of the 2012 Robotics Rodeo. As part of this program, we developed a robot with the capability to learn and recognize the appearance of target objects, conduct an area search amid distractor objects and obstacles, and relocate the target object in the same way that Mine dogs and Sentry dogs are used within military contexts for exploration and threat detection. Neya teamed with the Robotics Institute at Carnegie Mellon University to develop vision-based solutions for probabilistic target learning and recognition. In addition, we used a Mission Planning and Management System (MPMS) to orchestrate complex search and retrieval tasks using a general set of modular autonomous services relating to robot mobility, perception and grasping.

  7. Biomechanical and optical behavior of human corneas before and after photorefractive keratectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Paolo; Moutsouris, Kyros; Pandolfi, Anna

    2014-06-01

    To evaluate numerically the biomechanical and optical behavior of human corneas and quantitatively estimate the changes in refractive power and stress caused by photorefractive keratectomy (PRK). Athineum Refractive Center, Athens, Greece, and Politecnico di Milano, Milan, Italy. Retrospective comparative interventional cohort study. Corneal topographies of 10 human eyes were taken with a scanning-slit corneal topographer (Orbscan II) before and after PRK. Ten patient-specific finite element models were created to estimate the strain and stress fields in the cornea in preoperative and postoperative configurations. The biomechanical response in postoperative eyes was computed by directly modeling the postoperative geometry from the topographer and by reproducing the corneal ablation planned for the PRK with a numerical reprofiling procedure. Postoperative corneas were more compliant than preoperative corneas. In the optical zone, corneal thinning decreased the mechanical stiffness, causing local resteepening and making the central refractive power more sensitive to variations in intraocular pressure (IOP). At physiologic IOP, the postoperative corneas had a mean 7% forward increase in apical displacement and a mean 20% increase in the stress components at the center of the anterior surface over the preoperative condition. Patient-specific numerical models of the cornea can provide quantitative information on the changes in refractive power and in the stress field caused by refractive surgery. No author has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned. Copyright © 2014 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Assessment of the ex vivo biomechanical properties of porcine cornea with inflation test for corneal xenotransplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, F; Jiang, L; Wang, X; Zhang, D; Wang, Q; Zeng, Y

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to obtain the biomechanical properties of porcine cornea so as to provide necessary biomechanical experimental basis for pig-to-human corneal xenotransplantation. Seventeen fresh porcine corneal specimens obtained from pigs aged 4-6 months were examined under inflation conditions to determine the constitutive relationships of the material through dynamic loading conditions (pressure range: 1.47-42.66 mmHg). The forward deflection of porcine anterior corneal apex was measured by the laser displacement sensor. The pressure deformation results were analysed on the basis of shell theory to estimate Young's modulus of the cornea and derive its relationship with intraocular pressure (IOP). The porcine corneas showed a nonlinear corneal forward displacement/IOP and stress/strain relationship with an initial low stiffness stage and a later high stiffness stage. In spite of the nonlinearity between the internal pressure and apex forward deflection, the relationship between the Young's modulus and the IOP was almost linear. Compared with human corneas, porcine corneas exhibited a similar nonlinear behaviour but lower stiffness values. The biomechanical parameters of porcine cornea obtained from this test could be applied to numerical simulations of refractive surgery procedures and lay a foundation for pig-to-human corneal xenotransplantation. Copyright © 2012 Informa UK, Ltd.

  9. A microscopy study of the structural features of post-LASIK human corneas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Abahussin

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To study the structural features of human post-LASIK corneas. METHODS: A pair of post-mortem donor corneas, from a 55-year old patient who underwent uncomplicated LASIK surgery five years previously, were bisected and fixed in 4% paraformaldehyde. The right cornea and one half of the left cornea were processed for light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. One half of the right cornea was also examined by transmission electron microscopy. RESULTS: The flap-bed interface could be easily detected several years after LASIK and, although the flap appeared to be in close association with the stromal bed, there was a noticeable absence of reconnection between adjacent severed lamellae. Tissue gaps were evident at the flap margin, which once free of cellular components revealed the presence of a few bridging fibres. CONCLUSION: Examination of corneas five years after LASIK revealed evidence of primitive reparative scar development at the wound interface, but no reconnection of severed collagen lamellae. Such findings may explain the occurrence of flap dislocation following trauma in some patients months or years after surgery.

  10. Dendritic cells in the cornea during Herpes simplex viral infection and inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Min S; Carnt, Nicole A; Truong, Naomi R; Pattamatta, Ushasree; White, Andrew J; Samarawickrama, Chameen; Cunningham, Anthony L

    2017-11-10

    Herpes simplex keratitis is commonly caused by Herpes simplex virus type 1, which primarily infects eyelids, corneas, or conjunctiva. Herpes simplex virus type 1-through sophisticated interactions with dendritic cells (DCs), a type of antigen-presenting cell)-initiates proinflammatory responses in the cornea. Corneas were once thought to be an immune-privileged region; however, with the recent discovery of DCs that reside in the cornea, this long-held conjecture has been overturned. Therefore, evaluating the clinical, preclinical, and cell-based studies that investigate the roles of DCs in corneas infected with Herpes simplex virus is critical. With in vivo confocal microscopy, animal models, and cell culture experiments, we may further the understanding of the sophisticated interactions of Herpes simplex virus with DCs in the cornea and the molecular mechanism associated with it. It has been shown that specific differentiation of DCs using immunohistochemistry, flow cytometry, and polymerase chain reaction analysis in both human and mice tissues and viral tissue infections are integral to increasing understanding. As for in vivo confocal microscopy, it holds promise as it is the least invasive and a real-time investigation. These tools will facilitate the discovery of various targets to develop new treatments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. In Vitro Corneal Tomography of Donor Cornea Using Anterior Segment OCT.

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    Janunts, Edgar; Langenbucher, Achim; Seitz, Berthold

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to establish a tomographic screening method for revealing potential pathologies in corneal donors before keratoplasty so they may be excluded as candidates for corneal transplantation. Donor corneal tomographies were measured in a viewing chamber filled with preservation medium and with the use of a clinical optical coherence tomography (OCT) device. Custom-written software was developed to extract corneal surfaces from the raw data, which were analyzed in the central and peripheral regions. An adaptive nonlinear edge-enhancement algorithm was used to observe scars within the corneal volume. The thickness distribution map was analyzed to detect keratoconus and corneas with extreme topographic irregularities. Measurements were repeated 5 times to assess reproducibility. Eight corneas were investigated: 6 randomly selected intact donors, unsuitable for implantation because of low endothelial cell densities, and 2 keratoconus corneas, excised from patients during corneal transplantation. A major thickness abnormality was detected in one of the intact donor corneas, so it was excluded from further analysis. The keratoconus corneas were clearly evident in optical coherence tomography cross-sectional images, and similarly, they could easily be identified by analyzing the thickness map. Overall, the measurements were reliable and had a Cronbach's alpha coefficient greater than 0.8. Donor corneal examination using sterile viewing chambers was found to be suitable as a pre-keratoplasty advanced screening routine. A proof of concept was demonstrated, which could identify both irregular corneas and those affected by keratoconus.

  12. Biomechanical simulation of needle insertion into cornea based on distortion energy failure criterion.

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    Su, Peng; Yang, Yang; Zhang, Leiyu; Huang, Long

    2016-01-01

    This paper is mainly about biomechanical behavior of needle insertion into cornea, and proposes a failure criterion to simulate the insertion process which has attracted considerable attention due to its importance for the minimally invasive treatment. In the process of needle insertion into cornea, tiny and complex insertion force is generated due to contact between needle and soft tissue. Based on the distortion energy theory, there is proposed a failure criterion of corneal material that can solve contact problem between rigid body and biological tissue in insertion simulation, where Cauchy stress of corneal material is the key to numerical calculation. A finite element model of in vivo cornea is built, and the cornea constrained by sclera is simplified to two layers containing epithelium and stroma. Considering the hyper-viscoelastic property of corneal material, insertion simulation is carried out. By insertion experiment, the insertion force increases with insertion depth accompanying obvious fluctuations. Different insertion forces are generated at different speeds. The punctured locations are obvious in the force-displacement curves. The results of insertion simulation are generally consistent with experimental data. Maps of von Mises stress reflect the tissue injury of the cornea during insertion process, and punctured status corresponds to the point in the curves. The ability of this study to reproduce the behavior of needle insertion into cornea opens a promising perspective for the control of robotic surgery operation as well as the real-time simulation of corneal suture surgery.

  13. Intrastromal Injection of China Painting Ink in Corneas of Male Rabbits: Clinical and Histological Study

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    Alahmady Hamad Alsmman Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Many patients with corneal opacity or complicated cataract in blind eye ask for cosmoses. In this study we tried to investigate the staining of corneas of male rabbits by Rotring China painting ink and to study the histological changes. Method. 10 eyes of 10 male Baladi Egyptian rabbits were injected (0.1 mL intrastromally in the cornea by the use of China painting ink (Rotring Tinta China through insulin syringe (27-gauge needle by single injection; clinical follow-up is for 6 months and lastly the rabbits were scarified and the stained eyes were enucleated for histological analysis. Results. Clinically the stain was stable in color and distribution in corneas with no major complications. Histological results of the stained rabbit corneas showed blackish pigmentation in the corneal stroma without any inflammatory cellular infiltration. Some fibroblast cells had pigment granules in their cytoplasm in the adjacent layers. Conclusion. Corneal staining by China painting ink is effective and safe in staining of male rabbits cornea; however further study in human corneas with longer follow-up period is advisable.

  14. Effect of glaucoma tube shunt parameters on cornea endothelial cells in patients with Ahmed valve implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Euna B; Hou, Jing; Han, Ying; Keenan, Jeremy D; Stamper, Robert L; Jeng, Bennie H

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of various tube parameters on corneal endothelial cell density (ECD) after insertion of Ahmed valves. Thirty-nine eyes of 33 patients with previous superotemporal (ST) Ahmed valve implantation and 20 eyes of 13 participants with previous uncomplicated phacoemulsification and intraocular lens implantation but no history of glaucoma surgery were evaluated. Various tube parameters were measured with anterior segment optical coherence tomography. ST, central, and inferonasal (IN) ECD and pachymetry were measured. Endothelial cell loss and corneal thickness in the ST cornea was compared with those in the IN cornea. The mean age of the operated patients was 58 ± 22 years, and the mean time since glaucoma surgery was 2.5 ± 2.6 years. Thirty-two of the 39 study eyes were pseudophakic. The ECD was significantly lower in the ST endothelium than in the IN endothelium in eyes with glaucoma tube surgery (P cornea and distance from the tip of the tube to the cornea were significant risk factors for decreased ST endothelial cell loss when assessed relative to the IN ECD (P = 0.01 and P = 0.02, respectively). In multivariate analysis, only the distance of the tube tip to the cornea remained significantly associated with ST endothelial cell loss. Although this was a retrospective study with inherent limitations, tubes that are closer to the cornea seem to lead to increased loss of adjacent endothelial cells.

  15. Actionable mutations in canine hemangiosarcoma.

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    Guannan Wang

    Full Text Available Angiosarcomas (AS are rare in humans, but they are a deadly subtype of soft tissue sarcoma. Discovery sequencing in AS, especially the visceral form, is hampered by the rarity of cases. Most diagnostic material exists as archival formalin fixed, paraffin embedded tissue which serves as a poor source of high quality DNA for genome-wide sequencing. We approached this problem through comparative genomics. We hypothesized that exome sequencing a histologically similar tumor, hemangiosarcoma (HSA, that occurs in approximately 50,000 dogs per year, may lead to the identification of potential oncogenic drivers and druggable targets that could also occur in angiosarcoma.Splenic hemangiosarcomas are common in dogs, which allowed us to collect a cohort of archived matched tumor and normal tissue samples suitable for whole exome sequencing. Mapping of the reads to the latest canine reference genome (Canfam3 demonstrated that >99% of the targeted exomal regions were covered, with >80% at 20X coverage and >90% at 10X coverage.Sequence analysis of 20 samples identified somatic mutations in PIK3CA, TP53, PTEN, and PLCG1, all of which correspond to well-known tumor drivers in human cancer, in more than half of the cases. In one case, we identified a mutation in PLCG1 identical to a mutation observed previously in this gene in human visceral AS. Activating PIK3CA mutations present novel therapeutic targets, and clinical trials of targeted inhibitors are underway in human cancers. Our results lay a foundation for similar clinical trials in canine HSA, enabling a precision medicine approach to this disease.

  16. Actionable mutations in canine hemangiosarcoma.

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    Wang, Guannan; Wu, Ming; Maloneyhuss, Martha A; Wojcik, John; Durham, Amy C; Mason, Nicola J; Roth, David B

    2017-01-01

    Angiosarcomas (AS) are rare in humans, but they are a deadly subtype of soft tissue sarcoma. Discovery sequencing in AS, especially the visceral form, is hampered by the rarity of cases. Most diagnostic material exists as archival formalin fixed, paraffin embedded tissue which serves as a poor source of high quality DNA for genome-wide sequencing. We approached this problem through comparative genomics. We hypothesized that exome sequencing a histologically similar tumor, hemangiosarcoma (HSA), that occurs in approximately 50,000 dogs per year, may lead to the identification of potential oncogenic drivers and druggable targets that could also occur in angiosarcoma. Splenic hemangiosarcomas are common in dogs, which allowed us to collect a cohort of archived matched tumor and normal tissue samples suitable for whole exome sequencing. Mapping of the reads to the latest canine reference genome (Canfam3) demonstrated that >99% of the targeted exomal regions were covered, with >80% at 20X coverage and >90% at 10X coverage. Sequence analysis of 20 samples identified somatic mutations in PIK3CA, TP53, PTEN, and PLCG1, all of which correspond to well-known tumor drivers in human cancer, in more than half of the cases. In one case, we identified a mutation in PLCG1 identical to a mutation observed previously in this gene in human visceral AS. Activating PIK3CA mutations present novel therapeutic targets, and clinical trials of targeted inhibitors are underway in human cancers. Our results lay a foundation for similar clinical trials in canine HSA, enabling a precision medicine approach to this disease.

  17. A new method for rapid Canine retraction

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    "Khavari A

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Distraction osteogenesis method (Do in bone lengthening and rapid midpalatal expansion have shown the great ability of osteognic tissues for rapid bone formation under distraction force and special protocol with optimum rate of one millimeter per day. Periodontal membrane of teeth (PDM is the extension of periostium in the alveolar socked. Orthodontic force distracts PDM fibers in the tension side and then bone formation will begin.Objects: Rapid retraction of canine tooth into extraction space of first premolar by DO protocol in order to show the ability of the PDM in rapid bone formation. The other objective was reducing total orthodontic treatment time of extraction cases.Patients and Methods: Tweleve maxillary canines in six patients were retracted rapidly in three weeks by a custom-made tooth-born appliance. Radiographic records were taken to evaluate the effects of heavy applied force on canine and anchorage teeth.Results: Average retraction was 7.05 mm in three weeks (2.35 mm/week. Canines rotated distal- in by mean 3.5 degrees.Anchorage loss was from 0 to 0.8 mm with average of 0.3 mm.Root resorption of canines was negligible, and was not significant clinically. Periodontium was normal after rapid retraction. No hazard for pulp vitality was observed.Discussion: PDM responded well to heavy distraction force by Do protocol. Rapid canine retraction seems to be a safe method and can considerabely reduce orthodontic time.

  18. Clinical and Statistical Study on Canine Impaction

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    Adina-Simona Coșarcă

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to perform a clinical and statistical research on permanent impacted canine patients among those with dental impaction referred to and treated at the Oral and Maxillo-Facial Surgery Clinic of Tîrgu Mureș, over a four years period (2009-2012. Materials and methods: The study included 858 patients having dental impaction, and upon clinical records, different parameters, like frequency, gender, age, quadrant involvement, patient residence, associated complications, referring specialist and type of treatment, related to canine impaction, were assessed. Results: The study revealed: about 10% frequency of canine impaction among dental impactions; more frequent in women, in the first quadrant (tooth 13; most cases diagnosed between the age of 10-19 years; patients under 20 were referred by an orthodontist, those over 20 by a dentist; surgical exposure was more often performed than odontectomy. Conclusions: Canine impaction is the second-most frequent dental impaction in dental arch after third molars; it occurs especially in women. Due to its important role, canine recovery within dental arch is a goal to be achieved, whenever possible. Therefore, diagnose and treatment of canine impaction requires an interdisciplinary approach (surgical and orthodontic

  19. Serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid endothelin-1 concentrations as diagnostic biomarkers of canine idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

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    Krafft, E; Heikkilä, H P; Jespers, P; Peeters, D; Day, M J; Rajamäki, M M; Mc Entee, K; Clercx, C

    2011-01-01

    Diagnosis of canine idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is challenging. Endothelin-1 (ET1) is a biomarker of IPF in humans, but whether ET1 can detect and differentiate IPF from other canine respiratory diseases is unknown. To evaluate whether measurement of the concentration of ET1 in serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) can be used to distinguish canine IPF from chronic bronchitis (CB) and eosinophilic bronchopneumopathy (EBP). Twelve dogs with IPF, 10 dogs with CB, 6 dogs with EBP, 13 privately owned healthy West Highland White Terriers (WHWT), and 9 healthy Beagle dogs. Prospective, case control study. ET1 concentration was determined by ELISA in serum and in BALF. No significant difference in serum ET1 concentration was detected between healthy Beagle dogs and WHWT. Serum ET1 concentration was higher in dogs with IPF (median interquartile range; 2.32 pg/mL, 2.05-3.38) than healthy Beagle dogs (1.28, 1.07-1.53; P < .001), healthy WHWT (1.56, 1.25-1.85; P < .001), dogs with EBP (0.94 0.68-1.01; P = .001), and dogs with CB (1.54 0.74-1.82; P = .005). BALF ET1 concentration was below the detection limit in healthy WHWT and in dogs with CB, whereas it was measurable in all dogs with IPF. A cut-off serum concentration of 1.8 pg/mL had a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 81.2% for detection of IPF, with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.818. Serum ET1 can differentiate dogs with IPF from dogs with EBP or CB. ET1 can be detected in BALF of dogs with IPF. Copyright © 2011 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  20. Polymicrobial Infection of the Cornea Due to Contact Lens Wear

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    Selçuk Sızmaz

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A 38-year-old male presented with pain and redness in his left eye. He had a history of wearing contact lenses. His ophthalmic examination revealed a large corneal ulcer with surrounding infiltrate. Cultures were isolated from the contact lenses, lens solutions, storage cases, and conjunctivae of both eyes and also corneal scrapings of the left eye. Fortified vancomycin and amikacin drops were started hourly. Culture results of conjunctivae of each eye and left cornea were positive for Pseudomonas aeruginosa; cultures from the contact lenses, lens solution and storage case of both eyes revealed Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Alcaligenes xylosoxidans. Polymerase chain reaction of the corneal scraping was positive for Acanthameoba. The topical antibiotics were changed with ones that both bacteria were sensitive to and anti-amoebic therapy was added. The patient had two recurrences following initial presentation despite intensive therapy. Keratitis occurred due to multiple pathogens; the relapsing course despite adequate therapy is potentially associated with this polymicrobial etiology.

  1. Cornea Society nomenclature for ocular surface rehabilitative procedures.

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    Daya, Sheraz M; Chan, Clara C; Holland, Edward J

    2011-10-01

    In the past 20 years, there has been tremendous development in ocular surface rehabilitation and, through better understanding and improvements in analytic and culture techniques, a variety of new procedures have been developed. Differing techniques have been used internationally and often similar terminology is used when procedures could be considered to be quite different or vice versa. To communicate clearly and to compare techniques and outcomes, it was determined that an agreed international nomenclature was necessary. A subcommittee was established by The Cornea Society. An initial steering group of international experts with special interest in ocular surface was assembled and established broad principles for the nomenclature based on a previous nomenclature. The nomenclature for procedures was based on several parameters, including a) anatomic source of tissue transplanted, for example conjunctival, keratolimbal or mucosal, b) whether the source was autologous or allogeneic (cadaveric or living related), and c) cell culture techniques. For example, an expanded cell culture of cadaveric limbal tissue was named ex-vivo cultivated cadaveric limbal allograft (EvC-LAL). Agreed nomenclature for transplantation procedures used in ocular surface rehabilitation has been developed, and use of this common terminology should help communication among those involved in this field.

  2. Changes of extracellular matrix of the cornea in diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hager, A; Wegscheider, K; Wiegand, W

    2009-10-01

    Differences in corneal viscoelasticity due to diabetes have been reported to have a protective effect on the progression of glaucoma and the development and progression of keratoconus. Due to longterm changes of tissue in diabetes mellitus, biomechanical changes of the cornea because of glycation and modified extracellular matrix may be detectable. The purpose of the study was to determine whether there is a difference in corneal biomechanical properties, characterized by corneal hysteresis (CH) and central corneal thickness (CCT), between diabetic and normal subjects, and relate these to the duration of diabetes. In a cross sectional study, a group of 484 eyes including 99 eyes of diabetic individuals was evaluated. CH as measured with the Ocular Response Analyzer, CCT (Orbscan II), Goldmann applanation tonometry (GAT) and slit-lamp examination were obtained from each patient. Linear mixed models were applied for statistical evaluation. CH showed a significant decrease with age (-0.036 mmHg/year, p age, IOP and CCT). This was not related to the duration of diabetes (mean 12.6 +/- 9.0y, p = 0.522). CCT did not differ with regard to diabetes. Intraclass correlation coefficients were 81% and 50% for CCT and CH respectively. CH is assumed to be an indicator for acquired changes of tissue such as diabetes-mediated. CCT is a more characteristic parameter for the individual patient. CH may provide more information about changes of the extracellular matrix in diabetes, and therefore offer a new monitoring parameter.

  3. Cross-linking da cornea: protocolo padrão

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    Marcony R. Santhiago

    Full Text Available RESUMO O objetivo desta revisão é de determinar as indicações e eficácia da cirurgia que promove novas ligações covalentes entre as fibras de colágeno da córnea, conhecida como Cross-Linking (CXL, assim como esclarecer seus objetivos. O ceratocone é uma doença ectasica da córnea, bilateral, assimétrica, que, principalmente, cursa com encurvamento e afinamentos progressivo, e se inicia em geral na segunda década de vida. O uso primário do CXL tem sido na interrupção da progressão do Ceratocone. Apesar do conhecido encurvamento no estroma da córnea ocorrer nesses pacientes, a fisiopatologia por trás do ceratocone ainda é desconhecida e parece ser multifatorial. Pela evidencia literária disponível até o momento, o CXL da córnea esta, portanto indicado nos pacientes com doença em progressão. Concluímos que existe evidencia suficiente para afirmar que o CXL da córnea é eficaz na estabilização da doença ectásica da cornea.

  4. Collagen cross-linking: Strengthening the unstable cornea

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    Oren Tomkins

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Oren Tomkins, Hanna J GarzoziDepartment of Ophthalmology, Bnai Zion Medical Center, Haifa, IsraelAbstract: Corneal ectasia, a weakening of corneal integrity, occurs both due to acquired and congenital conditions such as keratoconus. It is a progressing condition that affects both visual acuity, and corneal stability. Various methods exist for correcting this impairment, however none address the inherit pathology, an increase laxity of the corneal stroma. Collagen crosslinking, a new, minimally invasive method, aims to strengthen the stroma by inducing cross links between neighboring collagen fibers. This method results in an increase in corneal tensile strength, with no medium term adverse effects on its normal architecture. Clinically, treated patients display improvement in both visual acuity and keratometric readings. This method may provide clinicians with easily accessible tools to stop the progression, and even correct visual deterioration due to corneal ectasia. Here we review the current information regarding this new method, as well as discuss its potential benefits and downfalls.Keywords: corneal cross-linking, corneal ectasia, keratoconus, stroma, cornea

  5. Three-dimensional canine loop for management of buccally erupted canines

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    Praveen Mehrotra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Maxillary canines are known as the cornerstones of mouth. They are considered to be important for esthetics and for functional occlusion. Any disturbance in the eruption process leading to an aberrant position will hamper esthetics as well as function. Orthodontic tooth movement of total buccally blocked-out canine is usually difficult as it is related with the problems of severe crowding, midline deviation, involvement of long root movement and risk of gingival recession. Such conditions can be treated orthodontically in various ways, but this clinical innovation helps to correct the buccally placed canines into the arch with a precise control of the canine in all the Three-dimensions (3D of space as well as providing maximum comfort to the patient by placing the canine loop on the palatal surface of the tooth, reducing soreness on the labial mucosa. It can be easily fabricated and activated at chairside for either simultaneous or sequential control in 3D.

  6. Corneal Biomechanics Determination in Healthy Myopic Subjects

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    Qiu, Kunliang; Lu, Xuehui; Zhang, Riping; Wang, Geng

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To determine the corneal biomechanical properties by using the Ocular Response Analyzer™ and to investigate potential factors associated with the corneal biomechanics in healthy myopic subjects. Methods. 135 eyes from 135 healthy myopic subjects were included in this cross-sectional observational study. Cornea hysteresis (CH), corneal resistance factor (CRF), cornea-compensated intraocular pressure (IOPcc), and Goldmann-correlated intraocular pressure (IOPg) were determined with the Reichert Ocular Response Analyzer (ORA). Univariate and multivariate regression analyses were performed to investigate factors associated with corneal biomechanics. Results. The mean CH and CRF were 9.82 ± 1.34 mmHg and 9.64 ± 1.57 mmHg, respectively. In univariate regression analysis, CH was significantly correlated with axial length, refraction, central corneal thickness (CCT), and IOPg (r = −0.27, 0.23, 0.45, and 0.21, resp.; all with p ≤ 0.015), but not with corneal curvature or age; CRF was significantly correlated with CCT and IOPg (r = 0.52 and 0.70, resp.; all with p corneal curvature, or age. In multivariate regression analysis, axial length, IOPcc, and CCT were found to be independently associated with CH, while CCT and IOPg were associated with CRF. Conclusions. Both CH and CRF were positively correlated with CCT. Lower CH but not CRF was associated with increasing degree of myopia. Evaluation of corneal biomechanical properties should take CCT and myopic status into consideration. PMID:27525109

  7. Ocular biomechanical measurements on post-keratoplasty corneas using a Scheimpflug-based noncontact device.

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    Modis, Laszlo; Hassan, Ziad; Szalai, Eszter; Flaskó, Zsuzsanna; Berta, Andras; Nemeth, Gabor

    2016-01-01

    To analyse ocular biomechanical properties, central corneal thickness (CCT) and intraocular pressure (IOP) in post-keratoplasty eyes, as compared to normal subjects, with a new Scheimpflug-based technology. Moreover, biomechanical data were correlated with the size and age of the donor and recipient corneas. Measurements were conducted on 46 eyes of 46 healthy patients without any corneal pathology (age: 53.83±20.8y) and 30 eyes of 28 patients after penetrating keratoplasty (age: 49.43±21.34y). Ten biomechanical parameters, the CCT and IOP were recorded by corneal visualization scheimpflug technology (CorVis ST) using high-speed Scheimpflug imaging. Keratometry values were also recorded using Pentacam HR system. Scheimpflug measurements were performed after 43.41±40.17mo (range: 11-128mo) after the keratoplasty and after 7.64±2.34mo (range: 5-14mo) of suture removal. Regarding the device-specific biomechanical parameters, the highest concavity time and radius values showed a significant decrease between these two groups (P=0.01 and Pbiomechanical parameters disclosed a significant difference. The CCT showed a significant difference between post-keratoplasty eyes as compared to normal subjects (P=0.003) using the CorVis ST device. The IOP was within the normal range in both groups (P=0.84). There were no significant relationships between the keratometric data, the size of the donor and recipient, age of the donor and recipient and biomechanical properties obtained by CorVis ST. The ocular biomechanics remain stable after penetrating keratoplasty according to the CorVis ST measurements. Only two from the ten device-specific parameters have importance in the follow-up period after penetrating keratoplasty.

  8. Biomechanical evaluation of cornea in topographically normal relatives of patients with keratoconus.

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    Kara, Necip; Altinkaynak, Hasan; Baz, Okkes; Goker, Yasin

    2013-03-01

    To compare the biomechanical properties of the cornea between topographically normal relatives of patients with keratoconus and age-matched controls. Thirty healthy individuals (control group) and 30 topographically normal relatives of patients with keratoconus (study group) were enrolled in this prospective, cross-sectional comparative study. Topographical measurements including pachymetric values, keratometry values, irregularity, and inferior-superior dioptric asymmetry difference values in the right eye of each participant were obtained using Orbscan II (Bausch & Lomb Laboratories, Inc, Rochester, NY). Corneal hysteresis (CH), corneal resistance factor (CRF), corneal compensated intraocular pressure, and Goldmann-related intraocular pressure were also measured using the Reichert Ocular Response Analyzer (ORA). Topographic parameters were not significantly different between both groups (P > 0.05). Mean CH was 9.9 ± 1.6 mm Hg in the study group and 11.3 ± 1.0 mm Hg in the control group (P = 0.001); mean CRF was 9.8 ± 1.6 mm Hg and 11.2 ± 2.1 mm Hg in the study and control groups, respectively (P = 0.013). Mean Goldmann-related intraocular pressure was 15.0 ± 4.3 mm Hg in the study group and 15.8 ± 6.7 mm Hg in the control group (P = 0.603); mean corneal compensated intraocular pressure was 16.2 ± 4.7 mm Hg in the study group and 15.4 ± 5.8 mm Hg in the control group (P = 0.595). The CH and CRF values were significantly lower in the relatives of patients with keratoconus than in the controls. Future studies including monitoring of these participants with topographical and biomechanical measurements may indicate the role of this study in detection of early corneal changes in relatives of patients with keratoconus.

  9. Ocular biomechanical measurements on post-keratoplasty corneas using a Scheimpflug-based noncontact device

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    Laszlo Modis Jr.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To analyse ocular biomechanical properties, central corneal thickness (CCT and intraocular pressure (IOP in post-keratoplasty eyes, as compared to normal subjects, with a new Scheimpflug-based technology. Moreover, biomechanical data were correlated with the size and age of the donor and recipient corneas. METHODS: Measurements were conducted on 46 eyes of 46 healthy patients without any corneal pathology (age: 53.83±20.8y and 30 eyes of 28 patients after penetrating keratoplasty (age: 49.43±21.34y. Ten biomechanical parameters, the CCT and IOP were recorded by corneal visualization scheimpflug technology (CorVis ST using high-speed Scheimpflug imaging. Keratometry values were also recorded using Pentacam HR system. Scheimpflug measurements were performed after 43.41±40.17mo (range: 11-128mo after the keratoplasty and after 7.64±2.34mo (range: 5-14mo of suture removal. RESULTS: Regarding the device-specific biomechanical parameters, the highest concavity time and radius values showed a significant decrease between these two groups (P=0.01 and P<0.001. None of other biomechanical parameters disclosed a significant difference. The CCT showed a significant difference between post-keratoplasty eyes as compared to normal subjects (P=0.003 using the CorVis ST device. The IOP was within the normal range in both groups (P=0.84. There were no significant relationships between the keratometric data, the size of the donor and recipient, age of the donor and recipient and biomechanical properties obtained by CorVis ST. CONCLUSION: The ocular biomechanics remain stable after penetrating keratoplasty according to the CorVis ST measurements. Only two from the ten device-specific parameters have importance in the follow-up period after penetrating keratoplasty.

  10. Low-Field Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Canine Hydrocephalus

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    Z. Adamiak* and M. Jaskólska and A. Pomianowski1

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of presented study was to evaluate selected surface spine coil, and low-field magnetic resonance (MR selected sequences in diagnosing hydrocephalus in dogs. This paper discusses 19 dogs (14 canine patients with hydrocephalus and 5 healthy dogs, of five breeds, subjected to low-field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of hydrocephalus. Area of the lateral ventricles and brain were examined in dogs with hydrocephalus using low-field MRI (at 0.25 Tesla. The MRI of FSE REL, SE, FLAIR, STIR, 3D HYCE, T3DT1, GE STIR 3D and 3D SHARC sequences with an indication of the most effective sequences are described. Additionally, coils for MR were compared, and models for infusion anesthesia were described. As a result of performed study all estimated sequences were diagnostically useful. However, spinal coil No. 2 (ESAOTE was the most optimal for examining and positioning the cranium.

  11. Biomechanical properties of human corneas following low- and high-intensity collagen cross-linking determined with scanning acoustic microscopy.

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    Beshtawi, Ithar M; Akhtar, Riaz; Hillarby, M Chantal; O'Donnell, Clare; Zhao, Xuegen; Brahma, Arun; Carley, Fiona; Derby, Brian; Radhakrishnan, Hema

    2013-08-07

    To assess and compare changes in the biomechanical properties of the cornea following different corneal collagen cross-linking protocols using scanning acoustic microscopy (SAM). Ten donor human corneal pairs were divided into two groups consisting of five corneal pairs in each group. In group A, five corneas were treated with low-fluence (370 nm, 3 mW/cm(2)) cross-linking (CXL) for 30 minutes. In group B, five corneas were treated with high-fluence (370 nm, 9 mW/cm(2)) CXL for 10 minutes. The contralateral control corneas in both groups had similar treatment but without ultraviolet A. The biomechanical properties of all corneas were tested using SAM. In group A, the mean speed of sound in the treated corneas was 1677.38 ± 10.70 ms(-1) anteriorly and 1603.90 ± 9.82 ms(-1) posteriorly, while it was 1595.23 ± 9.66 ms(-1) anteriorly and 1577.13 ± 8.16 ms(-1) posteriorly in the control corneas. In group B, the mean speed of sound of the treated corneas was 1665.06 ± 9.54 ms(-1) anteriorly and 1589.89 ± 9.73 ms(-1) posteriorly, while it was 1583.55 ± 8.22 ms(-1) anteriorly and 1565.46 ± 8.13 ms(-1) posteriorly in the untreated control corneas. The increase in stiffness between the cross-linked and control corneas in both groups was by a factor of 1.051×. SAM successfully detected changes in the corneal stiffness after application of collagen cross-linking. A higher speed-of-sound value was found in the treated corneas when compared with the controls. No significant difference was found in corneal stiffness between the corneas cross-linked with low- and high-intensity protocols.

  12. Biomechanical Properties of Human Corneas Following Low- and High-Intensity Collagen Cross-Linking Determined With Scanning Acoustic Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beshtawi, Ithar M.; Akhtar, Riaz; Hillarby, M. Chantal; O'Donnell, Clare; Zhao, Xuegen; Brahma, Arun; Carley, Fiona; Derby, Brian; Radhakrishnan, Hema

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. To assess and compare changes in the biomechanical properties of the cornea following different corneal collagen cross-linking protocols using scanning acoustic microscopy (SAM). Methods. Ten donor human corneal pairs were divided into two groups consisting of five corneal pairs in each group. In group A, five corneas were treated with low-fluence (370 nm, 3 mW/cm2) cross-linking (CXL) for 30 minutes. In group B, five corneas were treated with high-fluence (370 nm, 9 mW/cm2) CXL for 10 minutes. The contralateral control corneas in both groups had similar treatment but without ultraviolet A. The biomechanical properties of all corneas were tested using SAM. Results. In group A, the mean speed of sound in the treated corneas was 1677.38 ± 10.70 ms−1 anteriorly and 1603.90 ± 9.82 ms−1 posteriorly, while it was 1595.23 ± 9.66 ms−1 anteriorly and 1577.13 ± 8.16 ms−1 posteriorly in the control corneas. In group B, the mean speed of sound of the treated corneas was 1665.06 ± 9.54 ms−1 anteriorly and 1589.89 ± 9.73 ms−1 posteriorly, while it was 1583.55 ± 8.22 ms−1 anteriorly and 1565.46 ± 8.13 ms−1 posteriorly in the untreated control corneas. The increase in stiffness between the cross-linked and control corneas in both groups was by a factor of 1.051×. Conclusions. SAM successfully detected changes in the corneal stiffness after application of collagen cross-linking. A higher speed-of-sound value was found in the treated corneas when compared with the controls. No significant difference was found in corneal stiffness between the corneas cross-linked with low- and high-intensity protocols. PMID:23847309

  13. [Investigation of the biomechanical properties of the cornea by bidirectional applanation: new approaches to interpreting the results].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avetisov, S E; Novikov, I A; Bubnova, I A; Antonov, A A; Siplivyĭ, V I

    2008-01-01

    This study deals with the biomechanical properties of the cornea, which is essential in solving different problems of clinical ophthalmology, specifically in predicting the potential complications of keratorefraction operations, in early diagnosing keratoconus, and interpreting the measurements of intraocular pressure. The investigations confirmed the efficiency of using bidirectional applanation of the cornea to define its strength characteristics. A procedure has been also developed to estimate the elasticity coefficient which reflects the elastic properties of the cornea irrespective of intraocular pressure values.

  14. Healthy Eating

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for the Flu Vaccine? Eating Disorders Arrhythmias Healthy Eating KidsHealth > For Parents > Healthy Eating Print A A A What's in this article? ... best strategies to improve nutrition and encourage smart eating habits: Have regular family meals . Serve a variety ...

  15. Healthy Coping

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... there are many healthy ways to cope with stress. A diabetes educator will help you find healthy ways to ... you figure out a plan for coping with stress, here: English Version Spanish Version In This Section Living with Diabetes How a Diabetes Educator Can Help You Been ...

  16. Mandibular canine: A tool for sex identification in forensic odontology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumawat, Ramniwas M; Dindgire, Sarika L; Gadhari, Mangesh; Khobragade, Pratima G; Kadoo, Priyanka S; Yadav, Pradeep

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the accuracy of mandibular canine index (MCI) and mandibular mesiodistal odontometrics in sex identification in the age group of 17-25 years in central Indian population. The study sample comprised total 300 individuals (150 males and 150 females) of an age group ranging from 17 to 25 years of central Indian population. The maximum mesiodistal diameter of mandibular canines, the linear distance between the tips of mandibular canines, was measured using digital vernier caliper on the study models. Overall sex could be predicted accurately in 79.66% (81.33% males and 78% females) of the population by MCI. Whereas, considering the mandibular canine width for sex identification, the overall accuracy was 75% for the right mandibular canine and 73% for the left mandibular canine observed. Sexual dimorphism of canine is population specific, and among the Indian population, MCI and mesiodistal dimension of mandibular canine can aid in sex determination.

  17. Sexual Dimorphism in Human Mandibular Canine Teeth: A Radiomorphometric Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K S Nagesh

    2011-01-01

    Conclusion: The present study establishes a statistically significant sexual dimorphism in mandibular canines- It can be concluded that the standard mandibular canine index is a quick and easy method for sex determination.

  18. Serological detection of infection with canine distemper virus, canine parvovirus and canine adenovirus in communal dogs from Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna McRee

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Domestic dogs are common amongst communities in sub-Saharan Africa and may serve as important reservoirs for infectious agents that may cause diseases in wildlife. Two agents of concern are canine parvovirus (CPV and canine distemper virus (CDV, which may infect and cause disease in large carnivore species such as African wild dogs and African lions, respectively. The impact of domestic dogs and their diseases on wildlife conservation is increasing in Zimbabwe, necessitating thorough assessment and implementation of control measures. In this study, domestic dogs in north-western Zimbabwe were evaluated for antibodies to CDV, CPV, and canine adenovirus (CAV. These dogs were communal and had no vaccination history. Two hundred and twenty-five blood samples were collected and tested using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA for antibodies to CPV, CDV, and CAV. Of these dogs, 75 (34% had detectable antibodies to CDV, whilst 191 (84% had antibodies to CPV. Antibodies to canine adenovirus were present in 28 (13% dogs. Canine parvovirus had high prevalence in all six geographic areas tested. These results indicate that CPV is circulating widely amongst domestic dogs in the region. In addition, CDV is present at high levels. Both pathogens can infect wildlife species. Efforts for conservation of large carnivores in Zimbabwe must address the role of domestic dogs in disease transmission.

  19. Serological detection of infection with canine distemper virus, canine parvovirus and canine adenovirus in communal dogs from Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McRee, Anna; Wilkes, Rebecca P; Dawson, Jessica; Parry, Roger; Foggin, Chris; Adams, Hayley; Odoi, Agricola; Kennedy, Melissa A

    2014-09-05

    Domestic dogs are common amongst communities in sub-Saharan Africa and may serve as important reservoirs for infectious agents that may cause diseases in wildlife. Two agents of concern are canine parvovirus (CPV) and canine distemper virus (CDV), which may infect and cause disease in large carnivore species such as African wild dogs and African lions, respectively. The impact of domestic dogs and their diseases on wildlife conservation is increasing in Zimbabwe, necessitating thorough assessment and implementation of control measures. In this study, domestic dogs in north-western Zimbabwe were evaluated for antibodies to CDV, CPV, and canine adenovirus (CAV). These dogs were communal and had no vaccination history. Two hundred and twenty-five blood samples were collected and tested using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for antibodies to CPV, CDV, and CAV. Of these dogs, 75 (34%) had detectable antibodies to CDV, whilst 191 (84%) had antibodies to CPV. Antibodies to canine adenovirus were present in 28 (13%) dogs. Canine parvovirus had high prevalence in all six geographic areas tested. These results indicate that CPV is circulating widely amongst domestic dogs in the region. In addition, CDV is present at high levels. Both pathogens can infect wildlife species. Efforts for conservation of large carnivores in Zimbabwe must address the role of domestic dogs in disease transmission.

  20. The maintenance of lymphatic vessels in the cornea is dependent on the presence of macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruyama, Kazuichi; Nakazawa, Toru; Cursiefen, Claus; Maruyama, Yuko; Van Rooijen, Nico; D'Amore, Patricia A; Kinoshita, Shigeru

    2012-05-31

    It has been shown previously that the presence in the cornea of antigen-presenting cells (APC), such as macrophages (MPS) and lymphangiogenesis, is a risk for corneal transplantation. We sought to determine whether the existence of lymphatic vessels in the non-inflamed cornea is associated with the presence of MPS. Flat mounts were prepared from corneas of untreated C57BL/6, CD11b(-/-), F4/80(-/-), and BALB/c mice, and after suture placement or corneal transplantation, observed by immunofluorescence for the presence of lymphatic vessels using LYVE-1 as a marker of lymphatic endothelium. Innate immune cells were detected in normal mouse corneas using CD11b, F4/80, CD40, as well as MHC-class II. Digital images of the flat mounts were taken using a spot image analysis system, and the area covered by lymphatic vessels was measured using NIH Image software. The number of spontaneous lymphatic vessels in C57BL/6 corneas was significantly greater than in BALB/c corneas (P = 0.03). There were more CD11b(+) (P lymphatic vessels and reduced inflammation-induced lymphangiogenesis relative to control mice. Mice deficient in CD11b or F4/80 had fewer spontaneous lymphatic vessels and less lymphangiogenesis than control C57BL/6 mice. C57BL/6 mouse corneas have more endogenous CD11b(+) cells and lymphatic vessels. The endogenous lymphatic vessels, along with pro-inflammatory MPS, account for the high risk of corneal graft rejection in C57BL/6 mice. CD11b(+) and F4/80(+) MPS appear to have an important role in of the formation of new lymphatic vessels.

  1. Oestrogen-induced changes in biomechanics in the cornea as a possible reason for keratectasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spoerl, Eberhard; Zubaty, Viktoria; Raiskup-Wolf, Frederik; Pillunat, Lutz E

    2007-11-01

    The risk of regression after photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) and the tendency to develop keratectasia after laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) procedure is higher in women than men. Currently, interest is focused on the influence of oestrogen on corneal stability after corneal refractive surgery. The aim of this experimental study was to investigate the change in biomechanical properties of the cornea induced by oestrogen. The influence of oestrogen was investigated in 12 fresh porcine corneas incubated in culture medium with 10 micromol/l beta-oestradiol for 7 days. A group of 12 porcine corneas incubated in culture medium without oestradiol for the same time served as a control group. Strips of cornea were cut and the stress-strain was measured in a biomaterial tester. The Young's modulus was calculated. During incubation the thickness of the cornea changed in the control group by only 6.4% and in the oestradiol group by 12%. However, the difference in the biomechanical stress values at 10% strain was significantly larger. In the control group the stress value was 120.18+/-28.93 kPa and in the oestradiol group 76.87+/-34.63 kPa (p = 0.002), representing a reduction of the corneal stiffness by 36% due to the oestradiol treatment. Oestrogen is a modulating factor of the biomechanical properties of the cornea that is not explainable only by an increased swelling. The significance of the hormone status of patients and its influence on the biomechanical stability of the cornea, a determining factor after refractive surgery, have been underestimated and may contribute to the development of keratectasia.

  2. Organization of fibrillar collagen in the human and bovine cornea: collagen types V and III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, J; Werkmeister, J A; Ramshaw, J A; Birk, D E

    1997-01-01

    The localization and fibrillar organization of collagen types V and III in the human and bovine corneal stromas were studied. In the chicken cornea, type V co-assembles with type I collagen as heterotypic fibrils and this interaction is involved in the regulation of fibril diameter necessary for corneal transparency. To determine whether this is a regulatory mechanism common to the corneas of different species the human and bovine corneal stroma were studied. Collagen type V was found in the epithelium and Bowman's membrane in the untreated adult human and bovine cornea using immunofluorescence microscopy. In the absence of any treatment, there was no type V reactivity within the stroma. However, type V collagen was detected homogeneously throughout the corneal stroma after treatments that partially disrupt fibril structure. The reactivity was strongest in the cornea, weaker in the limbus and weakest in the sclera. Fetal corneas showed similar reactivity for type V collagen, but unlike the adult, the stroma was slightly reactive. Immunoelectron microscopy demonstrated that type V collagen was associated with disrupted, but not with intact, fibrils in both human and bovine corneal stroma. Type III collagen reactivity was not detected in the cornea, but was present subepithelially in the limbus and in the scleral stroma. These data indicate that type V collagen is a component of striated collagen fibrils throughout the human and bovine corneal stromas. The interaction of type I and V collagen as heterotypic fibrils masks the helical epitope recognized by the monoclonal antibody against type V collagen. The heterotypic interactions of collagen type V indicate a role in the regulation of fibril diameter analogous to that described in the avian cornea.

  3. Elastic modulus and collagen organization of the rabbit cornea: epithelium to endothelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomasy, Sara M; Raghunathan, Vijay Krishna; Winkler, Moritz; Reilly, Christopher M; Sadeli, Adeline R; Russell, Paul; Jester, James V; Murphy, Christopher J

    2014-02-01

    The rabbit is commonly used to evaluate new corneal prosthetics and study corneal wound healing. Knowledge of the stiffness of the rabbit cornea would better inform the design and fabrication of keratoprosthetics and substrates with relevant mechanical properties for in vitro investigations of corneal cellular behavior. This study determined the elastic modulus of the rabbit corneal epithelium, anterior basement membrane (ABM), anterior and posterior stroma, Descemet's membrane (DM) and endothelium using atomic force microscopy (AFM). In addition, three-dimensional collagen fiber organization of the rabbit cornea was determined using nonlinear optical high-resolution macroscopy. The elastic modulus as determined by AFM for each corneal layer was: epithelium, 0.57 ± 0.29 kPa (mean ± SD); ABM, 4.5 ± 1.2 kPa, anterior stroma, 1.1 ± 0.6 kPa; posterior stroma, 0.38 ± 0.22 kPa; DM, 11.7 ± 7.4 kPa; and endothelium, 4.1 ± 1.7 kPa. The biophysical properties, including the elastic modulus, are unique for each layer of the rabbit cornea and are dramatically softer in comparison to the corresponding regions of the human cornea. Collagen fiber organization is also dramatically different between the two species, with markedly less intertwining observed in the rabbit vs. human cornea. Given that the substratum stiffness considerably alters the corneal cell behavior, keratoprosthetics that incorporate mechanical properties simulating the native human cornea may not elicit optimal cellular performance in rabbit corneas that have dramatically different elastic moduli. These data should allow for the design of substrates that better mimic the biomechanical properties of the corneal cellular environment. Copyright © 2013 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Modelling with a meshfree approach the cornea-aqueous humor interaction during the air puff test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montanino, Andrea; Angelillo, Maurizio; Pandolfi, Anna

    2018-01-01

    The air puff test is an in-vivo investigative procedure commonly utilized in ophthalmology to estimate the intraocular pressure. Potentially the test, quick and painless, could be combined with inverse analysis methods to characterize the patient-specific mechanical properties of the human cornea. A rapid localized air jet applied on the anterior surface induces the inward motion of the cornea, that interacts with aqueous humor-the fluid filling the narrow space between cornea and iris-with a strong influence on the dynamics of the cornea. While models of human cornea reproduce accurately patient-specific geometries and have reached a considerable level of complexity in the description of the material, yet scant attention has been paid to the aqueous humor, and no eye models accounting for the physically correct fluid-solid interaction are currently available. The present study addresses this gap by proposing a fluid-structure interaction approach based on a simplified two-dimensional axis-symmetric geometry to simulate the anterior chamber of the eye undergoing the air puff test. We regard the cornea as a membrane described through an analytical model and discretize the fluid with a mesh-free particle approach. The membrane is assumed to be nonlinear elastic and isotropic, and the fluid weakly compressible Newtonian. Numerical analyses reveal a marked influence of the fluid on the dynamics of the cornea. We perform a parametric analysis to assess the quantitative influence of geometrical and material parameters on the mechanical response of the model. Additionally, we investigate the possibility to use the dynamics of the test to estimate the intraocular pressure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Detection of differentially expressed genes in healing mouse corneas, using cDNA microarrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Zhiyi; Wu, Helen K; Bruce, Amenda; Wollenberg, Kurt; Panjwani, Noorjahan

    2002-09-01

    To identify differentially expressed genes in healing mouse corneas by using cDNA microarrays. Transepithelial excimer laser ablations were performed on mouse corneas, and the wounds were allowed to heal partially in vivo for 18 to 22 hours. Total RNA was isolated from both normal and healing corneas and was used for synthesis of cDNA probes. 33P-labeled exponential cDNA probes were hybridized to mouse cDNA nylon arrays. Of the 1176 genes on the nylon arrays, the expression of 37 was upregulated and that of 27 was downregulated more than fivefold in the healing corneas compared with the normal, uninjured corneas. Interleukin (IL)-1beta, laminin-5, and thrombospondin-1, which have been shown to be upregulated in healing corneas, were all found to be induced in the corneas in response to excimer laser treatment. Many genes were identified for the first time to be differentially regulated during corneal wound healing. Among the upregulated genes were intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1, macrophage inflammatory proteins, suppressors of cytokine signaling proteins (SOCS), IL-10 receptor, and galectin-7. Among the downregulated genes were connexin-31, a gap junction protein; ZO1 and occludin, tight junction proteins; and Smad2, a key component in the TGFbeta signaling pathway. Microarray data were validated on a limited number of genes by semiquantitative RT-PCR and Western blot analyses. Gene array technology was used to identify for the first time many genes that are differentially regulated during corneal wound healing. These differentially expressed genes have not previously been investigated in the context of wound healing and represent novel factors for further study of the mechanism of wound healing.

  6. Evaluation of the shape symmetry of bilateral normal corneas in a Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Fangjun; Chen, Hao; Yu, Ye; Yu, Jiguo; Zhou, Shi; Wang, Jing; Wang, QinMei; Elsheikh, Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the bilateral symmetry of the global corneal topography in normal corneas with a wide range of curvature, astigmatism and thickness values. Cross-Sectional Study. Topography images were recorded for the anterior and posterior surfaces of 342 participants using a Pentacam. Elevation data were fitted to a general quadratic model that considered both translational and rotational displacements. Comparisons between fellow corneas of estimates of corneal shape parameters (elevation, radius in two main directions, Rx and Ry, and corresponding shape factors, Qx and Qy) and corneal position parameters (translational displacements: x0, y0 and z0, and rotational displacements: α, β and γ) were statistically analyzed. The general quadratic model provided average RMS of fit errors with the topography data of 1.7±0.6 µm and 5.7±1.3 µm in anterior and posterior corneal surfaces. The comparisons showed highly significant bilateral correlations with the differences between fellow corneas in Rx, Ry, Qx and Qy of anterior and posterior surfaces remaining insignificantly different from zero. Bilateral differences in elevation measurements at randomly-selected points in both corneal central and peripheral areas indicated strong mirror symmetry between fellow corneas. The mean geometric center (x0, y0, z0) of both right and left corneas was located on the temporal side and inferior-temporal side of the apex in anterior and posterior topography map, respectively. Rotational displacement angle α along X axis had similar distributions in bilateral corneas, while rotation angle β along Y axis showed both eyes tilting towards the nasal side. Further, rotation angle γ along Z axis, which is related to corneal astigmatism, showed clear mirror symmetry. Analysis of corneal topography demonstrated strong and statistically-significant mirror symmetry between bilateral corneas. This characteristic could help in detection of pathological abnormalities, disease diagnosis

  7. MRI cross sectional atlas of normal canine cervical musculoskeletal structure

    OpenAIRE

    Alizadeh, M.; Zindl, Claudia; Allen, Matthew James; Knapik, GG; FItzpatrick, N; Marras, WS

    2016-01-01

    Although magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been increasingly used as a diagnostic tool for cervical spine injuries in canines, a comprehensive normal MRI anatomy of the canine cervical spine muscles is lacking. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to build a magnetic resonance imaging atlas of the normal cross sectional anatomy of the muscles of the canine cervical spine. MRI scans were performed on a canine cadaver using a combination of T1 and T2-weighted images in the transverse, sa...

  8. Clinical transplantation of individualized recipient serum-adapted cornea reduces the risk of graft rejection after keratoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanos, Solon; Gatzioufas, Zissis; Schallenberg, Maurice; König, Simone; Meyer-Rüsenberg, Hans-Werner; Busse, Holger

    2013-01-01

    Corneal diseases cause severe visual impairment that necessitates corneal transplantation and frequently repetitive procedures due to graft rejection. We tested the hypothesis that exposure of donor corneas to recipient serum-derived factors during eye banking triggers a preoperative adaptation that is beneficial for postoperative tolerance. Donor corneas were incubated in a medium containing human serum (HS) obtained in each case from the prospective graft recipient in order to individually expose the donor cornea to the recipient's serum. All recipient serum-adapted corneas (RSACs) fulfilled the clinical criteria required by the national law and were transplanted successfully. The postoperative ophthalmological examination extended up to 8 years. All RSACs were tolerated by their recipients and did not cause postoperative complications and no rejection. Proteomic analysis of corneas cultivated in culture medium containing either fetal calf serum (FCS) that is routinely used for cornea banking or HS revealed different patterns of proteins. HS-cultured corneas showed a greater proteomic similarity with native human corneas than did the FCS-cultured corneas, indicating a differential nutrification of the cultured corneal tissue by HS-derived factors. The clinical results show for the first time that postoperative complications such as tissue intolerance and graft rejection might be managed if the corneal tissue is individually adapted to the recipient's serum trophic factors. This new donor tissue treatment procedure offers incontrovertible advantages and could be adapted for low-risk eyes as well as other transplantable tissues.

  9. 3D collagen orientation study of the human cornea using X-ray diffraction and femtosecond laser technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abahussin, Mohammad; Hayes, Sally; Knox Cartwright, Nathaniel E; Kamma-Lorger, Christina S; Khan, Yasir; Marshall, John; Meek, Keith M

    2009-11-01

    To study the distribution and predominant orientations of fibrillar collagen at different depths throughout the entire thickness of the human cornea. This information will form the basis of a full three-dimensional reconstruction of the preferred orientations of corneal lamellae. Femtosecond laser technology was used to delaminate the central zones of five human corneas into three separate layers (anterior, mid, and posterior stroma), each with predetermined thicknesses. Wide-angle x-ray diffraction was used to study the gross collagen fibril orientation and distribution within each layer. The middle and posterior parts of the human cornea demonstrated a preferential orthogonal arrangement of collagen fibrils, directed along the superior-inferior and nasal-temporal meridians, with an increase in the number of lamellae toward the periphery. However, the anterior cornea (33% of total corneal thickness) showed no systematic preferred lamellar orientation. In the posterior two thirds of the human cornea, collagen lies predominantly in the vertical and horizontal meridians (directed toward the four major rectus muscles), whereas collagen in the anterior third of the cornea is more isotropic. The predominantly orthogonal arrangement of collagen in the mid and posterior stroma may help to distribute strain in the cornea by allowing it to withstand the pull of the extraocular muscles, whereas the more isotropic arrangement in the anterior cornea may play an important role in the biomechanics of the cornea by resisting intraocular pressure while at the same time maintaining corneal curvature.

  10. Case report: a novel KERA mutation associated with cornea plana and its predicted effect on protein function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roos, Laura; Bertelsen, Birgitte; Harris, Pernille

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cornea plana (CNA) is a hereditary congenital abnormality of the cornea characterized by reduced corneal curvature, extreme hypermetropia, corneal clouding and hazy corneal limbus. The recessive form, CNA2, is associated with homozygous or compound heterozygous mutations...... of the keratocan gene (KERA) on chromosome 12q22. To date, only nine different disease-associated KERA mutations, including four missense mutations, have been described. Case presentation: In this report, we present clinical data from a Turkish family with autosomal recessive cornea plana. In some of the affected......, and this knowledge will ease the interpretation of future findings of mutations in these areas in other families with cornea plana....

  11. In vitro evaluation of canine leukocytes radiolabeled in whole blood with {sup 99m}Tc stannous colloid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abushhiwa, Mohamed H. [Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Melbourne, Werribee, Victoria 3030 (Australia)], E-mail: m.abushhiwa@pgrad.unimelb.edu.au; Salehi, Nouria S. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Royal Melbourne Hospital, Parkville, Victoria 3052 (Australia); Whitton, Robert C.; Charles, Jennifer A.; Finnin, Peter J.; Lording, Peter M.; Caple, Ivan W.; Parry, Bruce W. [Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Melbourne, Werribee, Victoria 3030 (Australia)

    2008-08-15

    Introduction: Technetium-99m stannous colloid ({sup 99m}TcSnC)-labeled leukocytes are used to investigate a variety of inflammatory diseases in human medicine. The present study investigates the in vitro behavior of canine leukocytes labeled in whole blood with {sup 99m}TcSnC. Methods: Blood samples from 10 healthy dogs were labeled with {sup 99m}TcSnC using a standard procedure. The distribution of radioactivity among blood components (plasma, leukocyte layers and erythrocytes) was measured following separation of the radiolabeled samples across Histopaque density gradients. Phagocytic function of labeled and unlabeled leukocytes was estimated using zymosan particles. Labeling retention by leukocytes was determined at 1, 3, 4 and 7 h postlabeling. Results: The mean{+-}standard error percentage of radioactivity associated with plasma, erythrocyte and leukocyte fractions was 2.0{+-}0.21%, 55.5{+-}0.60% and 42.5{+-}0.54%, respectively (the last comprising 70.2{+-}0.83% in polymorphonuclear leukocytes and 29.8{+-}0.83% in mononuclear leukocytes). Labeled canine leukocytes had a phagocytic activity of 91.3{+-}0.28% (control, 91.7{+-}0.26%). The radiolabeled canine leukocytes retained 94.1{+-}0.30% of radioactivity at 7 h postlabeling. Conclusions: Radiolabeling of canine leukocytes in whole blood with {sup 99m}TcSnC has minor adverse effect on their phagocytic function. The radiolabeled canine leukocytes retained a large percentage of radioactivity for at least 7 h postlabeling.

  12. Light and electron microscopic evaluation of canine corneal endothelium following CO2 photokeratotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Allison; Ownby, Charlotte; Lehenbauer, Terry W; Samuelson, Don; Gilmour, Margi; Bartels, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    To determine using light and scanning electron microscopy if treatment with CO2 photokeratotomy alters the corneal endothelium in healthy dogs. Eight surgery laboratory dogs were determined to be free of ocular abnormalities. Under general anesthesia, the left eye of each dog was treated in a quadrant from 12 to 3 o'clock with the CO(2) laser in a defocused mode. The right eye served as a control. There were four treatment groups, each with 2 dogs: group 1 (2 W, 0.1 J/s, 0.8 mm tip), group 2 (3 W, 0.3 J/s, 0.8 mm tip), group 3 (2 W, 0.04 J/s NovaScan), group 4 (3 W, 0.06 J/s, NovaScan). The 0.8 mm tip delivered a power density of 382 W/cm(2) or 573 W/cm(2), at 2 or 3 watts respectively. The NovaScan handpiece delivered a power density of 30 W/cm(2) or 40 W/cm(2), at 2 or 3 Watts respectively. Following euthanasia, right and left corneas including a 2-mm scleral rim were harvested and fixed in commercial grade Karnovsky's fixative. One piece of cornea was processed routinely, embedded in Embed 812 resin, sectioned at 1 um, stained with toluidine blue and evaluated with the light microscope. A separate piece of each cornea was routinely processed and examined with a JEOL 6400 scanning electron microscope (SEM) at 20 KV. No changes in endothelial cell morphology were detected by light microscopy in the sections examined. SEM indicated normal endothelial cell morphology in control eyes with presumed artifactual changes at the corneal free margin (4/8 eyes). Multiple punctate to linear regions of endothelial cell destruction were observed in 6/8 laser-treated corneas. A significant increase in corneal thickness ranging from 1.90 to 37.28% was observed in all laser treated corneas. This increase in thickness correlated linearly with the degree of endothelial damage. Ultrastructural findings also correlated with postoperative clinical findings. CO2 laser photokeratotomy alters corneal endothelial cell morphology and thickness.

  13. Adhesion complex formation after small keratectomy wounds in the cornea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, E L; Kurpakus, M A; Sambol, B; Jones, J C

    1992-02-01

    The adhesion complex of the corneal epithelium consists of the hemidesmosome and its associated structures, such as anchoring filaments, lamina densa of the basement membrane, and anchoring fibrils. It contributes to the adhesion of the corneal epithelium to Bowman's layer. To understand the adhesion complex better, an electron microscopic and immunofluorescence analysis was done of the reformation of the adhesion complex in small (1 mm) keratectomy wounds in the guinea pig cornea. In these wounds, the epithelium, hemidesmosomes, basal lamina, anchoring fibrils, and anterior stroma were removed. The wound bed was epithelialized completely by 24 hr after wounding. Immunofluorescence analyses involved the use of antibodies against plaque components of the hemidesmosome, an antibody against laminin, and an antibody against the collagen VII component of anchoring fibrils. At 18 hr after wounding, there was no morphologic evidence of hemidesmosomes at the epithelial-stromal interface. At 24 hr, hemidesmosomes were observed, with or without subjacent lamina densa. Furthermore, plaque components were detected by immunofluorescence in those cells in contact with the wound bed. In contrast, no type VII collagen was detected. On day 7, collagen VII, laminin, and bullous pemphigoid autoantibody markers colocalized along the wound bed as determined by immunofluorescence. However, at the ultrastructural level, even though the lamina densa of the basal lamina was observed primarily where hemidesmosomes were present, it remained incomplete. In this study, the precise temporal sequence in which components are incorporated into the assembling adhesion complex was described during wound healing. Furthermore, the possibility that the hemidesmosomal plaque nucleates the formation of the underlying basal lamina was discussed.

  14. Biomechanical profile of the cornea in primary congenital glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatzioufas, Zisis; Labiris, Georgios; Stachs, Oliver; Hovakimyan, Marine; Schnaidt, Arnulf; Viestenz, Arne; Käsmann-Kellner, Barbara; Seitz, Berthold

    2013-02-01

    The aim of our study was to investigate the biomechanical properties of the cornea in primary congenital glaucoma (PCG) and to identify the potential ocular determinants, which affect the corneal biomechanical metrics. Corneal hysteresis (CH), corneal resistance factor (CRF) and central corneal thickness (CCT) were measured in 26 patients with PCG (40 eyes) with the aid of ocular response analyser. In vivo laser-scanning confocal microscopy was used for the estimation of stromal keratocyte density (KD) and the evaluation of corneal endothelium. Twenty normal subjects (40 eyes) served as controls. Student's t-test and Pearson's correlation coefficients were used for statistical analysis. p Values Corneal hysteresis, CRF and CCT were significantly reduced in patients with PCG (all p Corneal hysteresis and CRF negatively correlated with the corneal diameter in both groups (r(1) = -0.53, r(2) = -0.66, p corneal stroma in patients with PCG (764 ± 162 and 362 ± 112 cells/mm(2) , respectively) compared with controls (979 ± 208 and 581 ± 131 cells/mm(2) , respectively) (p corneal endothelium of patients with PCG.   Our results showed a significant reduction in CH and CRF in PCG. Both CH and CRF were negatively correlated with corneal diameter. A significant correlation of CH and CRF with CCT was identified in both groups. Keratocyte density was decreased in PCG, but did not have a significant impact on CH and CRF. Mean endothelial density was also decreased in PCG. Our results suggest that reduced CCT and increased corneal diameter are major ocular determinants for the modified corneal biomechanical profile in PCG, while cellular alterations in corneal stroma and endothelium have no significant biomechanical impact. © 2012 The Authors. Acta Ophthalmologica © 2012 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation.

  15. Use of glycerol-preserved corneas for corneal transplants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeti Gupta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study was carried out to see the results of glycerol-preserved cornea (GPC in emergency situation when fresh corneal tissue was not available. The aim was to study the outcome of corneal transplantation using GPC. Methods: This was a retrospective study. The medical records of all the patients were reviewed, who underwent keratoplasty using “GPC” during the period from October 2011 to December 2015. The indication of keratoplasty, duration of preservation of the GPC, and its outcome were analyzed. Descriptive statistics were applied. Results: Out of the 222 penetrating keratoplasty (PKP performed over the study period, the GPC was used in 34 patients (males = 31, 91.2% aged 15–74 years. Therapeutic keratoplasty was performed in all cases in this cohort except one in which tectonic keratoplasty was done. The primary indication of PKP (91.2% was infectious keratitis. Of these, 20 (64.5% patients presented with perforated corneal ulcers. Post-PKP, ocular anatomy was preserved in 91.2%, and visual acuity of perception of light positive and accurate projection of rays in all the quadrants was obtained in 76.5% cases. Complications included glaucoma (n = 12, 35.1%, phthisis bulbi (n = 2, 5.9%, and graft reinfection and endophthalmitis after PKP (n = 1, 2.9%. The secondary procedure post-GPC and PKP were trabeculectomy with mitomycin C (n = 7, 58.3% in patients not controlled on topical antiglaucoma medication. Optical keratoplasty was performed in (n = 3 8.8% patients and triple procedure in (n = 2 5.8% patients with good visual acuity postprocedure. Conclusions: Acellular GPCs are useful in emergency keratoplasty to avoid loss of vision and can save the eye.

  16. The nitroblue tetrazolium reduction test in canine leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Ochoa, Pablo; Lara, Ana; Couto, Guillermo; Marcen, Jose Miguel; Peris, Ana; Gascón, Manuel; Castillo, Juan Antonio

    2010-08-27

    The nitroblue tetrazolium reduction test (NBT) is a quick, easy and cheap assay based on the activation percentage of neutrophils in peripheral blood. The aim of this study was to evaluate the NBT on healthy dogs and in dogs affected by different degrees of leishmaniasis (Stages I and IV). Forty healthy dogs, 20 dogs in Stage I and 20 dogs in Stage IV were included in the study. Three millilitres of blood were extracted from all the dogs via jugular venipuncture in tubes with EDTA. Incubation with NBT was performed depositing 0.05 ml of the leukocyte suspension in the same quantity of 0.1% concentration NBT. The results of the test were reported as NBT reduction rate which represents the percentage of the total of neutrophils evaluated that presented cytoplasmatic accumulations of formazan, meaning a positive NBT reduction. The mean NBT reduction rate for the healthy dogs group was 4.57%, 34% for Stage I dogs (mild disease) and 3.7% for dogs in Stage IV (severe disease), showing that dogs affected with leishmaniasis but with no clinical development of disease have a significantly higher neutrophil reactivity (pNBT with other tests prior to and during treatment are needed, NBT could be a good assay in canine leishmaniasis evaluation. (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Prevalence of protective antibody titers for canine distemper virus and canine parvovirus in dogs entering a Florida animal shelter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechner, Elizabeth S; Crawford, P Cynda; Levy, Julie K; Edinboro, Charlotte H; Dubovi, Edward J; Caligiuri, Randy

    2010-06-15

    To determine the proportion of dogs entering an animal shelter with protective antibody titers (PATs) for canine distemper virus (CDV) and canine parvovirus (CPV) and identify factors associated with having a PAT. Cross-sectional study. 431 dogs admitted to an open-admission municipal animal shelter in north central Florida with a history of infectious disease outbreaks. Blood was collected from dogs on the day of admission to the shelter. Antibody titers for CDV and CPV were measured by virus neutralization and hemagglutination inhibition, respectively. Age, sex, neuter status, address of origin, source (stray or previously owned), health status (healthy or not healthy), and outcome (adoption, euthanasia, or reclaimed by owner) data were also collected. Overall, 64.5% (278/431) of dogs had insufficient titers for antibodies against CDV, CPV, or both. A total of 153 (35.5%) dogs had PATs for both CDV and CPV, 33 (7.7%) had PATs for CDV but not CPV, 136 (31.5%) had PATs for CPV but not CDV, and 109 (25.3%) did not have PATs for either virus. Older dogs were more likely to have PATs for CDV and CPV. Neutered dogs were more likely to have PATs for CDV. Factors not associated with having a PAT included source, health status, and type of community from which the dog originated. Most dogs had insufficient antibody titers for CDV, CPV, or both at the time of admission to the animal shelter. Findings support current guidelines recommending vaccination of all dogs immediately upon admission to shelters, regardless of source or physical condition.

  18. 9 CFR 113.316 - Canine Parainfluenza Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Canine Parainfluenza Vaccine. 113.316... Virus Vaccines § 113.316 Canine Parainfluenza Vaccine. Canine Parainfluenza Vaccine shall be prepared... immunogenic shall be used for preparing seeds for vaccine production. All serials of vaccine shall be prepared...

  19. 9 CFR 113.306 - Canine Distemper Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Canine Distemper Vaccine. 113.306... Virus Vaccines § 113.306 Canine Distemper Vaccine. Canine Distemper Vaccine shall be prepared from virus... as pure, safe, and immunogenic shall be used for preparing the production seed virus for vaccine...

  20. Esthetics with prosthetics in case of maxillary canine transposition: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Scrupulous treatment planning to esthetically contour transposed teeth according to their normal positions, i.e., transposed left canine to lateral incisor and transposed left lateral incisor to canine with replacement of missing tooth, was a challenge. Keywords: Canine transposition, composite veneers, smile design. Nigerian ...

  1. Booster effect of canine distemper, canine parvovirus infection and infectious canine hepatitis combination vaccine in domesticated adult dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taguchi, Masayuki; Namikawa, Kazuhiko; Maruo, Takuya; Orito, Kensuke; Lynch, Jonathan; Tsuchiya, Ryo; Sahara, Hiroeki

    2012-08-01

    Domesticated adult dogs with antibody titer classified as below 'high' to one or more of canine distemper virus (CDV), canine parvovirus type-2 (CPV-2) and canine adenovirus type-1 (CAdV-1) were then given an additional inoculation, and the effectiveness of this booster evaluated 2 months later. Consequently, CDV and CAdV-1 antibody titer experienced a significant increase, but the same effect was not observed in the antibody titer of CPV-2. These findings suggest that with additional inoculation, a booster effect may be expected in increasing antibody titers for CDV and CAdV-1, but it is unlikely to give an increase in CPV-2 antibody titer. © 2012 The Societies and Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  2. Empowering international canine inherited disorder management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Bethany J; Wade, Claire M

    2012-02-01

    The mapping of the canine genome and the study of canine breed genomic architecture has revolutionized the discovery of genetic tests for inherited disorders in dogs. As the genetics underlying complex disorders are revealed, canine breeders and their registering organisations will be required to understand genetics in a much more sophisticated way. To facilitate the management of genetic disorders in the era of new complex information, we consider how best to apply the results of new research and analytical techniques to benefit the wider canine breeding community with the aims of improving canine health and maintaining benevolent genetic diversity. If this is not done, there is a serious risk that expensive and valuable genetic research will remain unused or be misused to the detriment of breeds. In this review, we make a case for the formation of an international organisation that will exist as a central repository for breed-based genetic analysis and information sharing. This organisation ("Inter-Dog") could be modelled on a similar organisation that is monitoring genetic improvement of dairy cattle. The formation of such an organisation will require the collaboration of international kennel management organisations, researchers, and agencies offering genetic testing services.

  3. Purification and characterization of canine intestinal motilin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poitras, P; Reeve, J R; Hunkapiller, M W; Hood, L E; Walsh, J H

    1983-02-01

    A 22 amino acid peptide with motilin-like immunoreactivity was purified from acetic acid extracts of small intestinal mucosa from mongrel dogs. Sequential chromatography on carboxymethyl-cellulose, Sephadex G-50, CM cellulose, Biogel P6, and two steps of high-performance liquid chromatography were used for purification. Microsequence analysis of the purified product permitted unambiguous identification of residues 2-22 as -VPIFTHSELQKIREKERNKGQ. The sequence of porcine intestinal motilin is FVPIFTYGELQRMQEKERNKGQ. The amino terminal residue of the canine peptide could not be assigned with certainty since Phe, Lys, and Ser all were identified by analysis of PTH derivatives on the first sequencing cycle. Definite amino acid differences between canine and porcine motilin thus were identified in positions 7, 8, 12, 13 and 14. These differences did not alter immunoreactivity of canine motilin with antibodies specific for the carboxyl-terminal portion of porcine motilin, but probably explain markedly diminished immunoreactivity with antibodies to the amino or mid-portion of porcine motilin. Synthetic Phe1 canine motilin was prepared by a solid phase method. The synthetic peptide had the same pattern of immunoreactivity as natural canine motilin and was biologically active with a potency similar to synthetic porcine motilin for induction of premature activity fronts of the interdigestive motor complex in the small intestine of fasting dogs.

  4. In Vitro Influence of Mycophenolic Acid on Selected Parameters of Stimulated Peripheral Canine Lymphocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Guzera

    Full Text Available Mycophenolic acid (MPA is an active metabolite of mycophenolate mofetil, a new immunosuppressive drug effective in the treatment of canine autoimmune diseases. The impact of MPA on immunity is ambiguous and its influence on the canine immune system is unknown. The aim of the study was to determine markers of changes in stimulated peripheral canine lymphocytes after treatment with MPA in vitro. Twenty nine healthy dogs were studied. Phenotypic and functional analysis of lymphocytes was performed on peripheral blood mononuclear cells cultured with mitogens and different MPA concentrations- 1 μM (10-3 mol/m3, 10 μM or 100 μM. Apoptotic cells were detected by Annexin V and 7-aminoactinomycin D (7-AAD. The expression of antigens (CD3, CD4, CD8, CD21, CD25, forkhead box P3 [FoxP3] and proliferating cell nuclear antigen [PCNA] was assessed with monoclonal antibodies. The proliferation indices were analyzed in carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester (CFSE-labeled cells. All analyses were performed using flow cytometry. The influence of MPA on apoptosis was dependent on the mechanism of cell activation and MPA concentration. MPA caused a decrease in the expression of lymphocyte surface antigens, CD3, CD8 and CD25. Its impact on the expression of CD4 and CD21 was negligible. Its negative influence on the expression of FoxP3 was dependent on cell stimulation. MPA inhibited lymphocyte proliferation. In conclusion, MPA inhibited the activity of stimulated canine lymphocytes by blocking lymphocyte activation and proliferation. The influence of MPA on the development of immune tolerance-expansion of Treg cells and lymphocyte apoptosis-was ambiguous and was dependent on the mechanism of cellular activation. The concentration that MPA reaches in the blood may lead to inhibition of the functions of the canine immune system. The applied panel of markers can be used for evaluation of the effects of immunosuppressive compounds in the dog.

  5. Distribution of superoxide dismutase 1 and glutathione peroxidase 1 in the cyclic canine endometrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Celso; Pires, Maria Dos Anjos; Santos, Dario; Payan-Carreira, Rita

    2016-08-01

    Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) are two important antioxidant enzymes involved in tissue homeostasis by protecting cells and tissues from an accumulation of reactive oxygen species. Information concerning antioxidant enzymes in the canine uterus is almost inexistent. This work intends to establish the pattern of distribution of SOD1 and GPx1 immunoreaction in canine endometrium throughout the estrous cycle, using 46 endometrium samples of healthy dogs representing different cycle stages (anestrus-10, proestrus-10, estrus-10, early diestrus-7, and diestrus-9). SOD1 distribution in canine endometrium showed cyclic variations (P ≤ 0.001), with higher immunoscores in the progesterone-associated stages. Changing immunoreaction also concerned the different epithelial structures considered (surface epithelium, superficial glandular epithelium, and deep glandular epithelium) (P ≤ 0.001), but it was always higher than in the stroma (P ≤ 0.001). Deep glandular epithelial cells usually showed higher scores of immunoreaction compared with the other epithelial cells. Interestingly, in epithelial cells, distinct subcellular patterns for SOD1 were seen: the nuclear labeling was observed in estrus and early diestrus (P ≤ 0.001), whereas an apical reinforcement was observed in estrus (P = 0.011) in the glandular epithelia but not in the surface epithelia. In general, GPx1 distribution in canine endometrium remained relatively unchanged throughout the estrous cycle (P = 0.169) despite the slight decrease observed from proestrus to early diestrus. The highest scores were found in anestrus and diestrus (P canine endometrium. The cyclic changes registered for both molecules suggest that they may play important roles in endometrial physiology, probably in apoptosis and proliferation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Endothelial protein C receptor-dependent antichemotactic effects of canine protein C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Valerie M; Côté, Olivier; Bienzle, Dorothee; Hayes, M Anthony; Wood, R Darren

    2017-02-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine whether canine protein C (CnPC) had antichemotactic effects on canine neutrophils, whether endothelial protein C receptor (EPCR) was expressed on canine neutrophils, and the role of EPCR in neutrophil chemotaxis. SAMPLE Neutrophils isolated from blood samples from healthy dogs (n = 6) and sick dogs with (2) or without (3) an inflammatory leukogram. PROCEDURES Neutrophils were analyzed by reverse transcriptase PCR assay and flow cytometry for detection of EPCR mRNA and protein expression, respectively. Neutrophils were incubated with CnPC zymogen or canine activated protein C (CnAPC), with or without RCR-379 (an anti-human EPCR antibody). Neutrophils were then allowed to migrate through a filter membrane toward a chemokine. Untreated neutrophils served as positive control samples. Migration was quantified by fluorescence measurement, and chemotaxis index (Chx) values (fluorescence of test sample/fluorescence of positive control sample) were computed. RESULTS The cDNA for EPCR was amplified, and EPCR expression was detected on neutrophil surfaces. Obtained Chx values were significantly higher in cells treated with RCR-379 than in cells treated with CnPC or CnAPC alone. The Chx values for neutrophils treated with RCR-379 were not significantly different from 1, whereas those for neutrophils treated without RCR-379 were significantly less than 1. The effects of RCR-379 on neutrophil migration were independent of concentration or activation status of protein C. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Canine neutrophils expressed EPCR, and inhibition of neutrophil chemotaxis by CnPC and CnAPC depended on EPCR. Interventions with EPCR signaling may have therapeutic application in dogs.

  7. Canine mammary tumors - clinical survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Atanaskova Petrov

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Mammary tumours are the second most frequent neoplasia in dogs, mainly affecting older female patients. Approximately 50% of the mammary tumours are malignant with high percentage of mortality if not treated in time. The aim of this study was to analyze the data of canine patients with mammary tumours, to evaluate the type of tumours, as well as the relationship between tumour incidence and dogs’ age, reproductive cycle and sterilization. The survey was used to retrieve the information in the period of two years from the patient data base of the University Veterinary Hospital at the Faculty of Veterinary medicine in Skopje. Patients included in this survey were subjected to routine clinical investigation and additional laboratory tests (cytological examination, x-rays imaging, CBC and biochemical profile, histopathology of the tumor samples. Aged female patients (12 – 13 years are the most susceptible category for development of mammary tumours. The reproductive history showed that five of the patients with malignant mammary tumourshave never whelped and were not treated with any exogenous hormones. Malignant tumours (adenocarcinoma were diagnosed in 90% of the patients. Three patients died due to lung metastasis. Late diagnosis is one of the major problems that results in lethal outcome due to lung metastases. Since ovarian steroids play an important role in the aetiology, the most effective prevention of mammary tumoursis elective ovariectomy of the bitch at an early age.

  8. Canine pyometra: What is new?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagman, R

    2017-04-01

    Pyometra is a common disease in countries where elective spaying is not routinely performed. Hormonal and bacterial factors are fundamental in the pathogenesis of the disease, which manifests itself as a potentially life-threatening bacterial infection of the uterus. Surgical ovariohysterectomy is the safest and most effective treatment for pyometra, and it has recently been shown that laparoscopically assisted methods for surgical treatment are feasible to use in selected cases. New protocols for improved medical treatment alternatives have also been tested with promising results. To be able to predict outcome and presence of complications early would be valuable in clinical practice for optimizing therapy and increasing survival. Results of commonly investigated clinical and laboratory investigations have been shown to be useful as predictive markers, with leucopenia being associated with increased risk of peritonitis as well as prolonged post-operative hospitalization after surgical treatment. A cage-side rapid and cost-effective diagnostic test would be highly valuable in clinical practice, and detection of pyometra-specific upregulated genes in the uterus and the corresponding products is a potential start in identifying novel markers suitable for such as test. The focus of the present review is to highlight recent findings on pathogenesis, prediction of outcome, diagnosis and treatment. Additionally, central research questions and suggestions for future investigations about several aspects of canine pyometra will be addressed. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  9. Sleep fragmentation in canine narcolepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaitin, K I; Kilduff, T S; Dement, W C

    1986-01-01

    Genetically narcoleptic dogs were recorded continuously for 24 h to examine their sleep-wake patterns and to evaluate the extent of sleep fragmentation. Three narcoleptic and three control dogs from each of two affected breeds (Labrador retrievers and Doberman pinschers) were surgically implanted with electrodes for recording standard sleep parameters. Recordings were scored in 30-s epochs for the states of active waking, drowsiness, light sleep, deep slow wave sleep, REM sleep, and cataplexy. All affected dogs displayed marked fragmentation and disruption of the sleep-wake cycle characterized by repeated awakenings, frequent shifts in sleep stages, numerous attacks of cataplexy occurring from active waking, and a disturbance of the normal REM-NREM periodicity. This sleep disruption was reflected in significantly greater numbers of episodes of each behavioral state as well as in a 38% increase in the total number of all states. These results demonstrate a severe disturbance of the normal sleep pattern in canine narcoleptics. The possibility of a general dysfunction of circadian organization is discussed.

  10. Canine pododermatitis and idiopathic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breathnach, Rory M; Fanning, Shay; Mulcahy, Grace; Bassett, Hugh F; Jones, Boyd R

    2008-05-01

    Pododermatitis is a common inflammatory skin disease of dogs. As pedal lesions are reported in many canine dermatoses, a methodical series of diagnostic tests is required to establish the underlying aetiology. However, laboratory/ancillary investigations may prove unrewarding, prompting a diagnosis of idiopathic disease. Various hypotheses have been proposed to explain the pathogenesis of idiopathic pododermatitis including pedal conformation, trauma, immunosuppression, bacterial infection, furunculosis and dermal granuloma formation. Idiopathic pododermatitis accounts for 0.5% of all dermatology referrals to the authors' clinic. A sub-group within this population is characterised histopathologically by epidermal hyperplasia, hyperkeratosis, spongiosis, dermal oedema and perivascular aggregates of lymphocytes and plasma cells. The term lymphocytic-plasmacytic pododermatitis (LPP) has previously been proposed to reflect the histological appearance of such lesions. Affected dogs, although systemically well, characteristically have pruritus, erythema, swelling, pain and alopecia of the feet. Although non-responsive to antimicrobial therapy, antiparasitic agents and elimination diets, these dogs typically respond well to immunomodulatory therapy.

  11. Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis in Wild Canines (Fox, Jackal, and Wolf) in Northeastern Iran Using Parasitological, Serological, and Molecular Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Mohebali, Mehdi; Arzamani, Kourosh; Zarei, Zabiholah; Akhoundi, Behnaz; Hajjaran, Homa; Raeghi, Saber; Heidari, Zahra; Motavalli-Haghi, Seyed Mousa; Elikaee, Samira; Mousazadeh-Mojarrad, Ahmad; Kakoei, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Background: Although many studies had been conducted on various aspects of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) in domestic dogs in the endemic areas of Iran, investigations on CVL in wild canines are rare.Methods: This is a cross-sectional study was conducted from December 2012 to 2013 in northeast of Iran where human VL is endemic. Wild canines were trapped around the areas where human VL cases had been previously identified. Wild canines were collected and examined both clinically and serol...

  12. Ex vivo rabbit and human corneas as models for bacterial and fungal keratitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinnock, Abigail; Shivshetty, Nagaveni; Roy, Sanhita; Rimmer, Stephen; Douglas, Ian; MacNeil, Sheila; Garg, Prashant

    2017-02-01

    In the study of microbial keratitis, in vivo animal models often require a large number of animals, and in vitro monolayer cell culture does not maintain the three-dimensional structure of the tissues or cell-to-cell communication of in vivo models. Here, we propose reproducible ex vivo models of single- and dual-infection keratitis as an alternative to in vivo and in vitro models. Excised rabbit and human corneoscleral rims maintained in organ culture were infected using 108 cells of Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans or Fusarium solani. The infection was introduced by wounding with a scalpel and exposing corneas to the microbial suspension or by intrastromal injection. Post-inoculation, corneas were maintained for 24 and 48 h at 37 °C. After incubation, corneas were either homogenised to determine colony-forming units (CFU)/cornea or processed for histological examination using routine staining methods. Single- and mixed-species infections were compared. We observed a significant increase in CFU after 48 h compared to 24 h with S. aureus and P. aeruginosa. However, no such increase was observed in corneas infected with C. albicans or F. solani. The injection method yielded an approximately two- to 100-fold increase (p keratitis, particularly when this might be due to two infective organisms.

  13. Cornea nerve fiber quantification and construction of phenotypes in patients with fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oudejans, Linda; He, Xuan; Niesters, Marieke; Dahan, Albert; Brines, Michael; van Velzen, Monique

    2016-03-23

    Cornea confocal microscopy (CCM) is a novel non-invasive method to detect small nerve fiber pathology. CCM generally correlates with outcomes of skin biopsies in patients with small fiber pathology. The aim of this study was to quantify the morphology of small nerve fibers of the cornea of patients with fibromyalgia in terms of density, length and branching and further phenotype these patients using standardized quantitative sensory testing (QST). Small fiber pathology was detected in the cornea of 51% of patients: nerve fiber length was significantly decreased in 44% of patients compared to age- and sex-matched reference values; nerve fiber density and branching were significantly decreased in 10% and 28% of patients. The combination of the CCM parameters and sensory tests for central sensitization, (cold pain threshold, mechanical pain threshold, mechanical pain sensitivity, allodynia and/or windup), yielded four phenotypes of fibromyalgia patients in a subgroup analysis: one group with normal cornea morphology without and with signs of central sensitization, and a group with abnormal cornea morphology parameters without and with signs of central sensitization. In conclusion, half of the tested fibromyalgia population demonstrates signs of small fiber pathology as measured by CCM. The four distinct phenotypes suggest possible differences in disease mechanisms and may require different treatment approaches.

  14. Expression of HGF and c-Met Proteins in Human Keratoconus Corneas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjing You

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Keratoconus (KC is a progressive degenerative inflammatory-related disease of the human cornea leading to decreased visual function. The pathogenesis of KC remains to be understood. Recent genetic studies indicate that gene variants of an inflammation-related molecule, hepatocyte growth factor (HGF, are associated with an increased susceptibility for developing KC. However HGF protein expression in KC has not been explored. In this initial study, we investigated late-stage KC and control corneas for the expression of HGF and its receptor mesenchymal-epithelial transition factor (c-Met/Met. KC buttons (~8 mm diameter (n=10 and whole control corneas (n=6 were fixed in 10% formalin or 2% paraformaldehyde, paraffin embedded and sectioned. Sections were immunolabelled with HGF and c-Met antibodies, visualised using immunofluorescence, and examined with scanning laser confocal microscopy. Semiquantitative grading was used to compare HGF and c-Met immunostaining in KC and control corneas. Overall, KC corneas showed increased HGF and c-Met immunostaining compared to controls. KC corneal epithelium displayed heterogeneous moderate-to-strong immunoreactivity for HGF and c-Met, particularly in the basal epithelium adjacent to the cone area. Taken together with the recent genetic studies, our results further support a possible role for HGF/c-Met in the pathogenesis of KC.

  15. Expression of HGF and c-Met Proteins in Human Keratoconus Corneas

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Jingjing; Wen, Li; Roufas, Athena; Hodge, Chris; Sutton, Gerard; Madigan, Michele C.

    2015-01-01

    Keratoconus (KC) is a progressive degenerative inflammatory-related disease of the human cornea leading to decreased visual function. The pathogenesis of KC remains to be understood. Recent genetic studies indicate that gene variants of an inflammation-related molecule, hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), are associated with an increased susceptibility for developing KC. However HGF protein expression in KC has not been explored. In this initial study, we investigated late-stage KC and control corneas for the expression of HGF and its receptor mesenchymal-epithelial transition factor (c-Met/Met). KC buttons (~8 mm diameter) (n = 10) and whole control corneas (n = 6) were fixed in 10% formalin or 2% paraformaldehyde, paraffin embedded and sectioned. Sections were immunolabelled with HGF and c-Met antibodies, visualised using immunofluorescence, and examined with scanning laser confocal microscopy. Semiquantitative grading was used to compare HGF and c-Met immunostaining in KC and control corneas. Overall, KC corneas showed increased HGF and c-Met immunostaining compared to controls. KC corneal epithelium displayed heterogeneous moderate-to-strong immunoreactivity for HGF and c-Met, particularly in the basal epithelium adjacent to the cone area. Taken together with the recent genetic studies, our results further support a possible role for HGF/c-Met in the pathogenesis of KC. PMID:26697215

  16. The structural response of the cornea to changes in stromal hydration

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Tomas; Boote, Craig; Kamma-Lorger, Christina S.; Bell, James; Sorenson, Thomas; Terrill, Nick; Shebanova, Olga; Meek, Keith M.

    2017-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to quantify the relationship between corneal structure and hydration in humans and pigs. X-ray scattering data were collected from human and porcine corneas equilibrated with polyethylene glycol (PEG) to varying levels of hydration, to obtain measurements of collagen fibril diameter, interfibrillar spacing (IFS) and intermolecular spacing. Both species showed a strong positive linear correlation between hydration and IFS2 and a nonlinear, bi-phasic relationship between hydration and fibril diameter, whereby fibril diameter increased up to approximately physiological hydration, H = 3.0, with little change thereafter. Above H = 3.0, porcine corneas exhibited a larger fibril diameter than human corneas (p hydration in a bi-phasic manner but reached a maximum value at a lower hydration (H = 1.5) than fibril diameter. Human corneas displayed a higher intermolecular spacing than porcine corneas at all hydrations (p hydration, suggesting that the total fixed charge that gives rise to the swelling pressure is the same. The difference in their structural responses to hydration can be explained by variations in molecular cross-linking and intra/interfibrillar water partitioning. PMID:28592658

  17. Distribution of types I, II, III, IV and V collagen in normal and keratoconus corneas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayasu, K; Tanaka, M; Konomi, H; Hayashi, T

    1986-01-01

    By using type-specific antibodies to types I, II, III, IV and V collagens, distribution of distinct types of collagen in normal human cornea as well as keratoconus cornea were examined by indirect immunofluorescence microscopy. In normal human cornea, immunohistochemical evidence supported the previous biochemical finding that type I collagen was the major type of collagen in human corneal stroma. No reaction was observed to anti-type II collagen antibody in the whole cornea. Anti-type III collagen antibody reacted with the corneal stroma in a similar fashion as that of anti-type I collagen antibody. Type IV collagen was observed in the basement membrane of the corneal epithelium and in Descemet's membrane. Anti-type V collagen antibody also reacted with the corneal stroma diffusely. Bowman's membrane was strongly stained only with he anti-type V collagen antibody. For further details of the distribution of type I, type III and V collagens in human corneal stroma, immunoelectron microscopic study was undertaken. The positive reaction products of anti-type I and anti-type III collagen antibodies were located on the collagen fibrils, while that of anti-type V collagen antibody was either on or close to collagen fibrils. In keratoconus cornea, no difference was observed in terms of the distribution of type I, III and V collagens, while the disruptive and excrescent distribution of type IV collagen was noted in the basement membrane of the corneal epithelium.

  18. Development of a reconstructed cornea from collagen-chondroitin sulfate foams and human cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrana, N Engin; Builles, Nicolas; Justin, Virginie; Bednarz, Jurgen; Pellegrini, Graziella; Ferrari, Barbara; Damour, Odile; Hulmes, David J S; Hasirci, Vasif

    2008-12-01

    To develop an artificial cornea, the ability to coculture the different cell types present in the cornea is essential. Here the goal was to develop a full-thickness artificial cornea using an optimized collagen-chondroitin sulfate foam, with a thickness close to that of human cornea, by coculturing human corneal epithelial and stromal cells and transfected human endothelial cells. Corneal extracellular matrix was simulated by a porous collagen/glycosaminoglycan-based scaffold seeded with stromal keratocytes and then, successively, epithelial and endothelial cells. Scaffolds were characterized for bulk porosity and pore size distribution. The performance of the three-dimensional construct was studied by histology, immunofluorescence, and immunohistochemistry. The scaffold had 85% porosity and an average pore size of 62.1 microm. Keratocytes populated the scaffold and produced a newly synthesized extracellular matrix as characterized by immunohistochemistry. Even though the keratocytes lost their CD34 phenotype marker, the absence of smooth muscle actin fibers showed that these cells had not differentiated into myofibroblasts. The epithelial cells formed a stratified epithelium and began basement membrane deposition. An endothelial cell monolayer beneath the foam was also apparent. These results demonstrate that collagen-chondroitin sulfate scaffolds are good substrates for artificial cornea construction with good resilience, long-term culture capability, and handling properties.

  19. Corneal collagen cross-linking: a confocal, electron, and light microscopy study of eye bank corneas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhaliwal, Jasmeet S; Kaufman, Stephen C

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate morphological changes induced by corneal collagen cross-linking in a human ex vivo cornea, using confocal, electron, and light microscopy. The central epithelium was partially removed from ex vivo human corneal buttons. Riboflavin 0.1% solution was applied before ultraviolet A light treatment and then for every 2 minutes for 30 minutes while the corneas were exposed to ultraviolet A light at a wavelength of 370 nm and intensity of 3 mW/cm(2). Each cornea was evaluated using confocal, electron, and light microscopy. Confocal microscopy demonstrated normal-appearing corneas on their initial pretreatment examination, with reduced stromal detail. After treatment, a superficial layer of highly reflective spherical structures (4-10 microm) was observed. Many of these hyperreflective structures appeared up to a depth of 300 microm. The remainder of the corneal stroma and endothelium appeared normal. Electron microscopy showed keratocyte apoptotic changes to a depth of 300 microm. No observable pathologic changes were seen on histology. Based on clinical studies, corneal cross-linking is a promising treatment that appears to be safe and to halt ectatic corneal disease progression. Initial European studies used animal models to extrapolate human protocols. In conjunction with clinical studies, we believe that human ex vivo corneal studies provide a means to evaluate the structural and morphological changes associated with this procedure, within human corneas, in a manner that cannot be accomplished in vivo.

  20. Prevalence and Associations of Steep Cornea/Keratoconus in Greater Beijing. The Beijing Eye Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Liang; Wang, Ya Xing; Guo, Yin; You, Qi Sheng; Jonas, Jost B.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the prevalence and associated factors of steep cornea/keratoconus in the adult Chinese population. Methods The population-based Beijing Eye Study 2011 included 3468 individuals with a mean age of 64.6±9.8 years (range: 50–93 years). A detailed ophthalmic examination was performed including optical low-coherence reflectometry. Steep cornea/keratoconus were defined as an anterior corneal refractive power exceeding 48 diopters. Results Mean refractive power of the cornea was 43.16±1.45 diopters (range: 36.51 to 48.46 diopters; flattest meridian) and 43.98±1.52 diopters (range: 37.00 to 52.88 diopters; steepest meridian). A steep cornea/keratoconus defined as corneal refractive power of ≥48 diopters and ≥49 diopters was detected in 27 subjects (prevalence rate: 0.9±0.2%) and 6 (0.2± 0.1%) subjects, respectively. Presence of steep cornea/keratoconus was associated with shorter axial length (Pkeratoconus defined as corneal refractive power of 48+ diopters has a prevalence of 0.9±0.2% among Chinese aged 50 years and above. Its prevalence was significantly associated with the ocular parameters of shorter axial length, smaller interpupillary distance, higher cylindrical and myopic refractive error and lower best corrected visual acuity, however, with none of the systemic parameters tested. PMID:22792169

  1. Quantification of collagen organization in the peripheral human cornea at micron-scale resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boote, Craig; Kamma-Lorger, Christina S; Hayes, Sally; Harris, Jonathan; Burghammer, Manfred; Hiller, Jennifer; Terrill, Nicholas J; Meek, Keith M

    2011-07-06

    The collagen microstructure of the peripheral cornea is important in stabilizing corneal curvature and refractive status. However, the manner in which the predominantly orthogonal collagen fibrils of the central cornea integrate with the circumferential limbal collagen is unknown. We used microfocus wide-angle x-ray scattering to quantify the relative proportion and orientation of collagen fibrils over the human corneolimbal interface at intervals of 50 μm. Orthogonal fibrils changed direction 1-1.5 mm before the limbus to integrate with the circumferential limbal fibrils. Outside the central 6 mm, additional preferentially aligned collagen was found to reinforce the cornea and limbus. The manner of integration and degree of reinforcement varied significantly depending on the direction along which the limbus was approached. We also employed small-angle x-ray scattering to measure the average collagen fibril diameter from central cornea to limbus at 0.5 mm intervals. Fibril diameter was constant across the central 6 mm. More peripherally, fibril diameter increased, indicative of a merging of corneal and scleral collagen. The point of increase varied with direction, consistent with a scheme in which the oblique corneal periphery is reinforced by chords of scleral collagen. The results have implications for the cornea's biomechanical response to ocular surgeries involving peripheral incision. Copyright © 2011 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Quantification of Collagen Organization in the Peripheral Human Cornea at Micron-Scale Resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boote, Craig; Kamma-Lorger, Christina S.; Hayes, Sally; Harris, Jonathan; Burghammer, Manfred; Hiller, Jennifer; Terrill, Nicholas J.; Meek, Keith M.

    2011-01-01

    The collagen microstructure of the peripheral cornea is important in stabilizing corneal curvature and refractive status. However, the manner in which the predominantly orthogonal collagen fibrils of the central cornea integrate with the circumferential limbal collagen is unknown. We used microfocus wide-angle x-ray scattering to quantify the relative proportion and orientation of collagen fibrils over the human corneolimbal interface at intervals of 50 μm. Orthogonal fibrils changed direction 1–1.5 mm before the limbus to integrate with the circumferential limbal fibrils. Outside the central 6 mm, additional preferentially aligned collagen was found to reinforce the cornea and limbus. The manner of integration and degree of reinforcement varied significantly depending on the direction along which the limbus was approached. We also employed small-angle x-ray scattering to measure the average collagen fibril diameter from central cornea to limbus at 0.5 mm intervals. Fibril diameter was constant across the central 6 mm. More peripherally, fibril diameter increased, indicative of a merging of corneal and scleral collagen. The point of increase varied with direction, consistent with a scheme in which the oblique corneal periphery is reinforced by chords of scleral collagen. The results have implications for the cornea's biomechanical response to ocular surgeries involving peripheral incision. PMID:21723812

  3. Localization of type XII collagen in normal and healing rabbit cornea by in situ hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Q; Burrows, R; Cintron, C

    1995-05-01

    To identify the cell types responsible for type XII collagen synthesis in normal and healing rabbit cornea, a partial cDNA sequence of rabbit type XII collagen, obtained from an adult rabbit cornea cDNA library, was used to develop highly specific oligonucleotide probes for Northern blot analysis and in situ hybridization. Approximately 2000 bases of a type XII collagen 2.2 kb cDNA clone were sequenced. Comparative sequence analysis of the bases showed a 74% identity with chick alpha 1 (XII) chain of type XII collagen. The deduced amino acid sequence indicated a 72% identity with chick type XII collagen. Northern blot analysis showed that cultures of cornea stromal and endothelial cells each contain two RNA species, greater than 10 kb, that hybridize to rabbit type XII collagen oligonucleotide probes. Although normal stromal cells failed to show type XII collagen mRNA, normal endothelial cells contain mRNA for this collagen. These results indicate that endothelium of normal rabbit cornea has a potential to synthesize type XII collagen. During corneal wound healing, both endothelium-derived and stroma-derived cells in the developing scar tissue contained type XII mRNA. In view of the known presence of type XII collagen in corneal stromas from chick and mouse, the distribution of mRNA in normal cornea is puzzling.

  4. Cholesterol biosynthesis by the cornea. Comparison of rates of sterol synthesis with accumulation during early development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cenedella, R.J.; Fleschner, C.R. (Kirksville College of Osteopathic Medicine, MO (USA))

    1989-07-01

    The origin of the cholesterol needed by the cornea for growth and cell turnover was addressed by comparing absolute rates of sterol synthesis with rates of sterol accumulation during early development of the rabbit. Linearity of incorporation of {sup 3}H{sub 2}O and ({sup 14}C)mevalonate into digitonin-precipitable sterols with time of incubation in vitro and a lack of accumulation of {sup 14}C in intermediates of sterol biosynthesis indicated that tritiated water can validly be used to measure rates of sterol synthesis by the cornea. The rate of sterol synthesis per unit weight of rabbit cornea was constant between 14 and 60 days of age at an average 1.03 nmol of {sup 3}H of {sup 3}H{sub 2}O incorporated/mg dry cornea per 8 h. Essentially all of the synthesized cholesterol and most of the cholesterol mass was present in corneal epithelium. The cumulative sterol synthesized over the 46-day period studied exceeded the observed rate of cholesterol accumulation by sixfold. Cholesterol synthesized in excess of the growth requirement was likely used to support turnover of the epithelium which was estimated at 9 days. Removal of cholesterol from the cornea by excretion into tear fluid and clearance by high density lipoproteins are also considered.

  5. Transient Ingrowth of Lymphatic Vessels into the Physiologically Avascular Cornea Regulates Corneal Edema and Transparency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hos, Deniz; Bukowiecki, Anne; Horstmann, Jens; Bock, Felix; Bucher, Franziska; Heindl, Ludwig M; Siebelmann, Sebastian; Steven, Philipp; Dana, Reza; Eming, Sabine A; Cursiefen, Claus

    2017-08-03

    Lymphangiogenesis is essential for fluid homeostasis in vascularized tissues. In the normally avascular cornea, however, pathological lymphangiogenesis mediates diseases like corneal transplant rejection, dry eye disease, and allergy. So far, a physiological role for lymphangiogenesis in a primarily avascular site such as the cornea has not been described. Using a mouse model of perforating corneal injury that causes acute and severe fluid accumulation in the cornea, we show that lymphatics transiently and selectively invade the cornea and regulate the resolution of corneal edema. Pharmacological blockade of lymphangiogenesis via VEGFR-3 inhibition results in increased corneal thickness due to delayed drainage of corneal edema and a trend towards prolonged corneal opacification. Notably, lymphatics are also detectable in the cornea of a patient with acute edema due to spontaneous Descemet´s (basement) membrane rupture in keratoconus, mimicking this animal model and highlighting the clinical relevance of lymphangiogenesis in corneal fluid homeostasis. Together, our findings provide evidence that lymphangiogenesis plays an unexpectedly beneficial role in the regulation of corneal edema and transparency. This might open new treatment options in blinding diseases associated with corneal edema and transparency loss. Furthermore, we demonstrate for the first time that physiological lymphangiogenesis also occurs in primarily avascular sites.

  6. Biomechanical Changes of Collagen Cross-Linking on Human Keratoconic Corneas Using Scanning Acoustic Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beshtawi, Ithar M; Akhtar, Riaz; Hillarby, M Chantal; O'Donnell, Clare; Zhao, Xuegen; Brahma, Arun; Carley, Fiona; Derby, Brian; Radhakrishnan, Hema

    2016-05-01

    To assess the biomechanical changes of collagen cross-linking on keratoconic corneas in vitro. Six keratoconic corneal buttons were included in this study. Each cornea was divided into two halves, where one half was cross-linked and the other half was treated with riboflavin only and served as control. The biomechanical changes of the corneal tissue were measured across the stroma using scanning acoustic microscopy (SAM). In the cross-linked corneas, there was a steady decrease in the magnitude of speed of sound from the anterior region through to the posterior regions of the stroma. The speed of sound was found to decrease slightly across the corneal thickness in the control corneas. The increase in speed of sound between the cross-linked and control corneas in the anterior region was by a factor of 1.039×. A higher speed of sound was detected in cross-linked keratoconic corneal tissue when compared with their controls, using SAM. This in vitro model can be used to compare to the cross-linking results obtained in vivo, as well as comparing the results obtained with different protocols.

  7. Sorption of sodium hydroxide by type I collagen and bovine corneas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whikehart, D R; Edwards, W C; Pfister, R R

    1991-01-01

    There are no quantitative studies on the uptake of alkali into corneal tissues. To study this phenomenon, both type I collagen and bovine corneas were incubated in sodium hydroxide (NaOH) under varying conditions for periods up to 27.5 h. The sorption (absorption or adsorption) of the alkali to protein and tissue was measured as the quantity of NaOH no longer available for titration to neutrality with hydrochloric acid. Sorption was found to be dependent on the concentration of NaOH (0.01-1 N) but independent of the incubation temperature (4-35 degrees C). In whole cornea, sorption of 1 N NaOH began immediately and increased with time up to 6 h. After 6 h, sorption decreased, together with the observed degradation and solubilization of the tissue. Stripping of the corneal endothelium alone or of the endothelium and epithelium increased sorption in a similar manner when compared to whole corneas for periods up to 4 h. These observations are compatible with ionic and nonionic bonding of hydroxide ions to collagen (including that of the cornea) and the subsequent release of hydroxide ions during hydrolysis of the protein itself. Indirect evidence also suggests the inclusion of quantities of unbound hydroxide ions in hydrated gels of glycosaminoglycans. It is proposed that in a chemical burn of the cornea, alkali is both stored in the tissue (by sorption) and reacted with it (by hydrolysis), without any net consumption of alkali taking place.

  8. Keratoconus prediction using a finite element model of the cornea with local biomechanical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Luis Alberto; Prado, Marcelo; Cunha, Rodivaldo H; Costa Neto, Alvaro; Paranhos, Augusto; Schor, Paulo; Chamon, Wallace

    2009-01-01

    The ability to predict and understand which biomechanical properties of the cornea are responsible for the stability or progression of keratoconus may be an important clinical and surgical tool for the eye-care professional. We have developed a finite element model of the cornea, that tries to predict keratoconus-like behavior and its evolution based on material properties of the corneal tissue. Corneal material properties were modeled using bibliographic data and corneal topography was based on literature values from a schematic eye model. Commercial software was used to simulate mechanical and surface properties when the cornea was subject to different local parameters, such as elasticity. The simulation has shown that, depending on the corneal initial surface shape, changes in local material properties and also different intraocular pressures values induce a localized protuberance and increase in curvature when compared to the remaining portion of the cornea. This technique provides a quantitative and accurate approach to the problem of understanding the biomechanical nature of keratoconus. The implemented model has shown that changes in local material properties of the cornea and intraocular pressure are intrinsically related to keratoconus pathology and its shape/curvature.

  9. The influence of the geometry of the porcine cornea on the biomechanical response of inflation tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandolfi, Anna; Boschetti, Federica

    2015-01-01

    To withstand the high probability of success, the growing diffusion of laser surgery for the correction of visual defects, corneal surgeons are regarding with interest numerical tools able to provide reliable predictions of the intervention outcomes. The main obstacle to the definition of a predictive numerical instrument is the objective difficulty in evaluating the in vivo mechanical properties of the human cornea. In this study, we assess the ability of a parametrised numerical model of the cornea (Pandolfi and Manganiello 2006) to describe individual pressurisation tests on whole porcine corneas once the mechanical parameters of the model have been calibrated over average data. We also aim at estimating the sensitivity of the mechanical response with the variation of basic geometrical parameters, such as the central corneal thickness, the curvature and the in-plane diameter. We conclude that the actual geometry of a cornea has a minor role in the overall mechanical response, and therefore the material properties must be considered carefully and individually in any numerical application. This study makes use of the data obtained from a wide experimental program, where a set of 21 porcine corneas has been fully characterised in terms of mechanical and geometrical properties (Boschetti et al. 2012).

  10. Optical coherence tomography analysis of hydrofluoric acid decontamination of human cornea by mannitol solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosé, Ricardo M; Daga, Fabio B; Nosé, Walton; Kasahara, Niro

    2017-03-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of mannitol solution as a decontamination agent on the chemical burn of the human corneas. Eight donor corneas from an eye bank were exposed to 25μl of 2.5% hydrofluoric acid (HF) solution on a filter paper for 20s. Three eyes were rinsed with 1000ml of mannitol 20% for 15min immediately after removal of the filter paper, 3 other were rinsed with sodium chloride (NaCl) 0.9% (1000ml for 15min) and two eyes were not rinsed. Microstructural changes were monitored in the time domain by optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging for 75min. NaCl reduced the penetration depth to approximately half the thickness of the cornea at 15min; scattering within the anterior cornea was higher than that for the unrinsed eye. With mannitol, no increased scattering was observed in the posterior part of the corneal stroma within a time period of 1h after rinsing. OCT images revealed low-scattering intensity within the anterior stroma at the end of the rinsing period. In eye bank human corneas, mannitol proved to be an efficient agent to decontaminate HF burn. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  11. Raman Microscopy: A Noninvasive Method to Visualize the Localizations of Biomolecules in the Cornea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaji, Yuichi; Akiyama, Toshihiro; Segawa, Hiroki; Oshika, Tetsuro; Kano, Hideaki

    2017-11-01

    In vivo and in situ visualization of biomolecules without pretreatment will be important for diagnosis and treatment of ocular disorders in the future. Recently, multiphoton microscopy, based on the nonlinear interactions between molecules and photons, has been applied to reveal the localizations of various molecules in tissues. We aimed to use multimodal multiphoton microscopy to visualize the localizations of specific biomolecules in rat corneas. Multiphoton images of the corneas were obtained from nonlinear signals of coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering, third-order sum frequency generation, and second-harmonic generation. The localizations of the adhesion complex-containing basement membrane and Bowman layer were clearly visible in the third-order sum frequency generation images. The fine structure of type I collagen was observed in the corneal stroma in the second-harmonic generation images. The localizations of lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids (DNA/RNA) was obtained in the coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering images. Imaging technologies have progressed significantly and been applied in medical fields. Optical coherence tomography and confocal microscopy are widely used but do not provide information on the molecular structure of the cornea. By contrast, multiphoton microscopy provides information on the molecular structure of living tissues. Using this technique, we successfully visualized the localizations of various biomolecules including lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids in the cornea. We speculate that multiphoton microscopy will provide essential information on the physiological and pathological conditions of the cornea, as well as molecular localizations in tissues without pretreatment.

  12. Inhibition of matrix metalloproteins 9 attenuated Candida albicans induced inflammation in mouse cornea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, C; Yang, M G

    2016-10-31

    Since the severe corneal ulceration of mouse cornea is known to occur with inflammation. As one of imperative matrix metalloproteinase, the potential roles of matrix metalloproteins 9 (MMP9) in corneal ulceration and keratitis are still unveiled caused by fungal invasion. In this study, Candida albicans (CA) inoculated wild-type KM mice cornea was used as a model pathogen in corneal inflammation.  CA invasion significantly stimulated the expression of collagen IV and MMP9 detected by RT-PCR, Real-time PCR and Immunofluorescent staining in mouse cornea as soon as 6 hours post infection, and relatively decreased at 1 day post infection. For examining the role of MMP9 in fungal keratitis, the mice corneas were subconjunctivally injected MMP9 antibody or recombinant MMP9 protein 6 hours prior to CA inoculation, using rabbit IgG as control. Subconjunctival injection of recombinant MMP9 protein prior to CA inoculation enhanced, whereas MMP9 antibody attenuated corneal ulceration and inflammation, examining basement membrane, fungal load, myeloperoxidase (MPO) and proinflammatory cytokines including Macrophage inflammatory protein 2 (MIP2), Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). Inhibition of MMP9 could potentially attenuate Candida albicans induced inflammation in mouse cornea.

  13. Comparable change in stromal refractive index of cat and human corneas following blue-IRIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wozniak, Kaitlin T.; Gearhart, Sara M.; Savage, Daniel E.; Ellis, Jonathan D.; Knox, Wayne H.; Huxlin, Krystel R.

    2017-05-01

    Blue intratissue refractive index shaping (blue-IRIS) is a method with potential to correct ocular refraction noninvasively in humans. To date, blue-IRIS has only ever been applied to cat corneas and hydrogels. To test the comparability of refractive index change achievable in cat and human tissues, we used blue-IRIS to write identical phase gratings in ex vivo feline and human corneas. Femtosecond pulses (400 nm) were focused ˜300 μm below the epithelial surface of excised cat and human corneas and scanned to write phase gratings with lines ˜1 μm wide, spaced 5 μm apart, using a scan speed of 5 mm/s. Additional cat corneas were used to test writing at 3 and 7 mm/s in order to document speed dependence of the refractive index change magnitude. The first-order diffraction efficiency was immediately measured and used to calculate the refractive index change attained. Our data show that blue-IRIS induces comparable refractive index changes in feline and human corneas, an essential requirement for further developing its use as a clinical vision correction technique.

  14. Healthy Ageing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dr. C.P. van der Schans

    2015-01-01

    Presentatie gehouden bij de bijeenkomst voor het Regionaal Genootschap Fysiotherapie Het Noorden op 10 februari te Marum, over het belang van fysieke activiteit voor healthy ageing en de rol van de fysiotherapeut hierin

  15. Force of infection and evolution of lesions of canine tegumentary leishmaniasis in Northwestern Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Diego Marco

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available A clinical-serological follow-up was carried out in a canine population in endemic foci of Leishmania braziliensis spread in northwestern Argentina. Each dog was studied in at least two visits, 309±15 days (X±SE apart. Some initially healthy dogs (n=52 developed seroconversion or lesions. The clinical evolution of the disease in dogs resembles in many aspects the human disease. Similarities include the long duration of most ulcers with occasional healing or appearance of new ones and the late appearance of erosive snout lesions in some animals. Yearly incidence rates of 22.7% for seroconversion and of 13.5% for disease were calculated as indicators of the force of infection by this parasite upon the canine population.

  16. Management of an extremely displaced maxillary canine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grande, Torsten; Stolze, Annemarie; Goldbecher, Heiko

    2005-07-01

    Aligning a displaced maxillary canine into the dental arch is one of the most complicated problems in orthodontics. In cases of extremely high displacement, the tooth is frequently removed surgically. Because of the upper canines' significance to dental esthetics and functional occlusion, such a decision is a very serious one. This case report illustrates the treatment of an extremely high displaced maxillary canine. The main diagnosis was the displacement and the retention of tooth 13 (in nearly horizontal position, apical to the neighboring teeth); further diagnoses were: transversal maxillary deficiency with frontal crowding and a distal bite of one premolar in width, a deep bite of 6 mm with contact in the palatal mucosa, mandibular midline deviation of 2.5 mm to the right, lingual eruption of teeth 32 and 42, retroinclination of the maxillary incisors, and retarded eruption of the permanent teeth. Initial treatment with active and functional appliances to correct the distal bite, midline deviation and deep bite. Surgical exposure of the high displaced canine at the age of 14. Onset of cuspid elongation with removable appliances and elastics, further movement with a transpalatinal bar and welded arm, and full alignment of the upper and lower arches with fixed appliances in both jaws. Stabilization of the orthodontic treatment results with retention devices. Duration of treatment: 5 years and 8 months. For the alignment of tooth 13, 2 years and 10 months were required; 1 year and 4 months were necessary with complete fixed appliance. The aim of this case report was to demonstrate the potential of aligning an extremely displaced canine. Because of the esthetic and functional importance of the upper canines, therapeutic alignment should be initiated, provided there are no indications to the contrary.

  17. Medical Treatment of Primary Canine Glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alario, Anthony F; Strong, Travis D; Pizzirani, Stefano

    2015-11-01

    Glaucoma is a painful and often blinding group of ocular diseases for which there is no cure. Although the definition of glaucoma is rapidly evolving, elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) remains the most consistent risk factor of glaucoma in the canine patient. Therapy should be aimed at neuroprotection. The mainstay of therapy focuses on reducing IOP and maintaining a visual and comfortable eye. This article discusses the most current ocular hypotensive agents, focusing on their basic pharmacology, efficacy at lowering IOP, and recommended use in the treatment of idiopathic canine glaucoma. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Interferometric technique to measure biomechanical changes in the cornea induced by refractive surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaycock, Philip David; Lobo, Leon; Ibrahim, Jamal; Tyrer, John; Marshall, John

    2005-01-01

    To develop a technique to quantify biomechanical changes in the cornea after microkeratome incisions as would be performed in laser in situ keratomileusis. St Thomas' Hospital, London, and the Wolfson School of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Loughborough University, Loughborough, United Kingdom. Corneal displacements of whole sheep eyes were studied under hydrostatic loading using electronic speckle pattern interferometry before and after microkeratome incisions. After hydrostatic loading, there was a 20.7% increase in corneal displacement in corneas with microkeratome incisions compared to unoperated corneas; this was statistically significant (P=.0068, unpaired t test). Results show that in the formation of the microkeratome flap, collagen fibers are severed and minimal biomechanical loading is distributed through the flap. Corneal biomechanical integrity is compromised after microkeratome incisions.

  19. Air-pulse OCE for assessment of age-related changes in mouse cornea in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiasong; Wang, Shang; Singh, M.; Aglyamov, S.; Emelianov, S.; Twa, M. D.; Larin, K. V.

    2014-06-01

    We demonstrate the use of phase-stabilized swept source optical coherence elastography (PhS-SSOCE) to assess the relaxation rate of deformation created by a focused air-pulse in tissue-mimicking gelatin phantoms of various concentrations and mouse corneas of different ages in vivo. The results show that the relaxation rate can be quantified and is different for gels with varying concentrations of gelatin and mouse corneas of different ages. The results indicate that gel phantoms with higher concentrations of gelatin as well as older mouse corneas have faster relaxation rates indicating stiffer material. This non-contact and non-invasive measurement technique utilizes low surface displacement amplitude (in µm scale) for tissue excitation and, therefore, can be potentially used to study the biomechanical properties of ocular and other sensitive tissues.

  20. The monoclonal antibody GRC1 produced against human cornea recognizes a common determinant of collagen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez Nevot, M A; Cardona, L; Doblaré, E; Muñoz, C; Ruiz-Cabello, F; Garrido, F

    1990-02-01

    The monoclonal antibody GRC1 was obtained by immunizing BALB/c mice with human cornea. Screening was performed by indirect immunofluorescence in cryostatic sections of several tissues: cornea, skin, placenta, hyaline cartilage, blood vessels, and nerves. GRC1 was seen to recognize fibrillar structures in all of these tissues. The pattern of reaction was interstitial and membranous. On cornea, GRC1 reacts definitely with Bowman's membrane and diffusely with the stroma, while on skin it shows strongly positive reactivity with the papillary dermis and with the basement membrane. It also reacts on hyaline cartilage at the periphery of the condrocytic lacunae. These immunohistologic results suggest that GRC1 recognized human collagen. In order to investigate further the subtype of collagen defined by GRC1, an ELISA was performed with purified collagens of several types: I, II, III, IV, and V. The monoclonal antibody GRC1 defines a common determinant in types III, IV, and V.

  1. Intra-Ocular Pressure Measurement in a Patient with a Thin, Thick or Abnormal Cornea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Colin I.; Parker, Douglas G.A.; Goldberg, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Accurate measurement of intra-ocular pressure is a fundamental component of the ocular examination. The most common method of measuring IOP is by Goldmann applanation tonometry, the accuracy of which is influenced by the thickness and biomechanical properties of the cornea. Algorithms devised to correct for corneal thickness to estimate IOP oversimplify the effects of corneal biomechanics. The viscous and elastic properties of the cornea influence IOP measurements in unpredictable ways, a finding borne out in studies of patients with inherently abnormal and surgically altered corneal biomechanics. Dynamic contour tonometry, rebound tonometry and the ocular response analyzer provide useful alternatives to GAT in patients with abnormal corneas, such as those who have undergone laser vision correction or keratoplasty. This article reviews the various methods of intra-ocular pressure measurement available to the clinician and the ways in which their utility is influenced by variations in corneal thickness and biomechanics. PMID:27014386

  2. Second Harmonic Generation Imaging Analysis of Collagen Arrangement in Human Cornea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Choul Yong; Lee, Jimmy K; Chuck, Roy S

    2015-08-01

    To describe the horizontal arrangement of human corneal collagen bundles by using second harmonic generation (SHG) imaging. Human corneas were imaged with an inverted two photon excitation fluorescence microscope. The excitation laser (Ti:Sapphire) was tuned to 850 nm. Backscatter signals of SHG were collected through a 425/30-nm bandpass emission filter. Multiple, consecutive, and overlapping image stacks (z-stacks) were acquired to generate three dimensional data sets. ImageJ software was used to analyze the arrangement pattern (irregularity) of collagen bundles at each image plane. Collagen bundles in the corneal lamellae demonstrated a complex layout merging and splitting within a single lamellar plane. The patterns were significantly different in the superficial and limbal cornea when compared with deep and central regions. Collagen bundles were smaller in the superficial layer and larger in deep lamellae. By using SHG imaging, the horizontal arrangement of corneal collagen bundles was elucidated at different depths and focal regions of the human cornea.

  3. Analysis of holographic interferograms of the expanded cornea after refractive surgery procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasprzak, Henryk T.; Jaronski, Jaroslaw W.; Foerster, Werner; von Bally, Gert

    1994-12-01

    The paper presents results of holographic experiments of expanding bovine cornea in vitro, after different refractive surgery procedure (keratoplasty). The corneas of fresh, enucleated bovine eyes were subjected to different refractive procedures, such as: radial and tangential incisions, mechanical ablation of the corneal layers as well as ablation by means of excimer laser. After keratoplasty, the eyeball was placed into the holographic set-up and the needle connected to a pressure meter was inserted into the anterior chamber of the eye. Double exposure, as well as real time holographic interferograms of expanding corneas were recorded by means of photothermoplastic camera, due to small intraocular pressure differences in order of a few Pa. The holographic interferograms were stored and processed in the computer memory by use of CCD camera and the image processing board. Quantitative results are presented in the form of a 3-D surface plot of the displacement vectors of the corneal surface and respective changes of the corneal curvature.

  4. Utility of Assessing Nerve Morphology in Central Cornea Versus Whorl Area for Diagnosing Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard, Nicola; Dehghani, Cirous; Edwards, Katie; Burgin, Edward; Cheang, Nick; Kim, Hannah; Mikhaiel, Merna; Stanton, Gemma; Russell, Anthony W; Malik, Rayaz A; Efron, Nathan

    2015-07-01

    To compare small nerve fiber damage in the central cornea and whorl area in participants with diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) and to examine the accuracy of evaluating these 2 anatomical sites for the diagnosis of DPN. A cohort of 187 participants (107 with type 1 diabetes and 80 controls) was enrolled. The neuropathy disability score (NDS) was used for the identification of DPN. The corneal nerve fiber length at the central cornea (CNFLcenter) and whorl (CNFLwhorl) was quantified using corneal confocal microscopy and a fully automated morphometric technique and compared according to the DPN status. Receiver operating characteristic analyses were used to compare the accuracy of the 2 corneal locations for the diagnosis of DPN. CNFLcenter and CNFLwhorl were able to differentiate all 3 groups (diabetic participants with and without DPN and controls) (P cornea. Quantification of CNFL from the corneal center is as accurate as CNFL quantification of the whorl area for the diagnosis of DPN.

  5. Study of noncontact air-puff applanation tonometry IOP measurement on irregularly-shaped corneas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wai W.; Wang, Kuo-Jen; Tsai, Che-Liang; Wang, I.-Jong

    2017-04-01

    Abnormal corneas with corneal tissue defects like ulceration, melting, laceration, thinning scar, keratoconus etc., poses special challenges for ophthalmologist to measure intraocular pressure (IOP) correctly using air-puff noncontact applanation tonometry. Here, we propose an novel model, Abnormal Applanation IOP Model (AAIOP), to simulate IOP in these abnormal corneas on an air-puff noncontact applanation tonometry system, and the simulated IOP results are correctly fit in those of IOP measured database on human eyes of 91,024 patients (174,666 eyes)1). Our simulated IOP indicates that every 10 μm of central corneal thickness change results in 0.36 mmHg of IOP change. Using our simulation model, the IOP on abnormal eyes with irregularly-shaped corneas can be correctly expected and reported.

  6. Systematic assessment of microneedle injection into the mouse cornea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthaei Mario

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Corneal intrastromal injection is an important mode of gene-vector application to subepithelial layers. In a mouse model, this procedure is substantially complicated by the reduced corneal dimensions. Furthermore, it may be difficult to estimate the corneal area reached by the volume of a single injection. This study aimed to investigate intrastromal injections into the mouse cornea using different microneedles and to quantify the effect of injecting varying volumes. A reproducible injection technique is described. Methods Forty eyes of 20 129 Sv/J mice were tested. India ink was intrastromally injected using 30° beveled 33 G needles, tri-surface 25° beveled 35 G needles, or hand-pulled and 25° beveled glass needles. Each eye received a single injection of a volume of 1 or 2 μL. Corneoscleral buttons were fixed and flat mounted for computer-assisted quantification of the affected corneal area. Histological assessment was performed to investigate the intrastromal location of the injected dye. Results A mean corneal area of 5.0 ±1.4 mm2 (mean ± SD and 7.7 ±1.4 mm2 was covered by intrastromal injections of 1 and 2 μL, respectively. The mean percentage of total corneal area reached ranged from 39% to 53% for 1 μL injections, and from 65% to 81% for 2 μL injections. Injections using the 33 G needles tended to provide the highest distribution area. Perforation rates were 8% for 30° beveled 33 G needles and 44% for tri-surface beveled 35 G needles. No perforation was observed with glass needle; however, intrastromal breakage of needle tips was noted in 25% of these cases. Conclusions Intracorneal injection using a 30° beveled 33 G needle was safe and effective. The use of tri-surface beveled 35 G needles substantially increased the number of corneal perforations. Glass needles may break inside the corneal stroma. Injections of 1 μL and 2 μL resulted in an overall mean of 49% and 73% respectively

  7. [Cornea bank of Lyon: from quality diagnosis to ISO 9001 certification].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascal, P; Chalochet, A; Damour, O

    2001-12-01

    The tissue and cell bank of the HCL (Hospices Civils de Lyon) has, since 10 June 1999, consisted of two sections with related activities: cell culture for the Skin Substitutes Laboratory (Laboratoire des Substituts Cutanés, LSC) and preservation of corneas at 31 degrees C for the Cornea Bank. As the LSC had been ISO 9001 certified since March 1997 our aim, since merger, was to raise the Cornea Bank to the same level of quality as the LSC, so as to coincide with the renewal of the LSC certificate in February 2000. The methods we used (project, quality control, analysis and process optimization) led us to receive official certification only nine months after the merger. The procedure started with a program of quality control at the Cornea Bank from February 1999 onwards, in order to list the work and equipment required, evaluate its documentation system and what was needed to incorporate this new activity into the existing system of quality assurance at the LSC. On the 7th March 2000, the Tissue and Cell Bank of the HCL obtained an ISO 9001 certificate for its combined functions. As well as achieving our objectives and the strong points highlighted by the auditor during the renewal process, this quality assessment revealed many advantages: improvements in the conservation of corneas, economies in staff replacement and reductions in both the cost of maintaining quality, the cost of the corneas themselves, etc. The decree 'Banque' no. 99-741 of 30th August 1999, which put in place the system of authorization of tissue banks in France, demands quality control. Our application for certification which started in early 1999 had anticipated this regulation. This helped us enormously when compiling the dossier accompanying the official request and was an essential element in obtaining the favourable response of the ASSAPS on 21 June 2000.

  8. Split cornea transplantation for 2 recipients - review of the first 100 consecutive patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heindl, Ludwig M; Riss, Stephan; Laaser, Kathrin; Bachmann, Bjoern O; Kruse, Friedrich E; Cursiefen, Claus

    2011-10-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of split cornea transplantation for 2 recipients by combining deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty (DALK) and Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty (DMEK). Interventional case series. Fifty consecutive eyes with anterior stromal disease suitable for DALK and 50 eyes with endothelial disease suitable for DMEK were scheduled for split cornea transplantation combining both procedures within 72 hours. Main outcome measures included success of using a single donor cornea for 2 recipients, best spectacle-corrected visual acuity (BSCVA), and complication rates within 6 months' follow-up. A single donor cornea could be used for 2 recipients in 47 cases (94%). In 3 eyes (6%), the DALK procedure had to be converted to penetrating keratoplasty (PK) requiring a full-thickness corneal graft. Thereby, 47 donor corneas (47%) could be saved. Six months after surgery, mean BSCVA was 20/36 in the 47 eyes that underwent successful DALK, 20/50 in the 3 eyes that underwent conversion from DALK to PK, and 20/29 in the 50 eyes that underwent DMEK. Postoperative complications after DALK included Descemet folds in 5 eyes (11%) and epitheliopathy in 3 eyes (6%). After DMEK, partial graft detachment occurred in 26 eyes (52%) and was managed successfully with intracameral air reinjection. All corneas remained clear up to 6 months after surgery. No intraocular infections occurred. Split use of donor corneal tissue for combined DALK and DMEK procedures in 2 recipients within 3 subsequent days is a feasible approach to reduce donor shortage in corneal transplantation in the future. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Elastic microfibril distribution in the cornea: Differences between normal and keratoconic stroma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Tomas L; Lewis, Philip N; Young, Robert D; Kitazawa, Koji; Inatomi, Tsutomu; Kinoshita, Shigeru; Meek, Keith M

    2017-06-01

    The optical and biomechanical properties of the cornea are largely governed by the collagen-rich stroma, a layer that represents approximately 90% of the total thickness. Within the stroma, the specific arrangement of superimposed lamellae provides the tissue with tensile strength, whilst the spatial arrangement of individual collagen fibrils within the lamellae confers transparency. In keratoconus, this precise stromal arrangement is lost, resulting in ectasia and visual impairment. In the normal cornea, we previously characterised the three-dimensional arrangement of an elastic fiber network spanning the posterior stroma from limbus-to-limbus. In the peripheral cornea/limbus there are elastin-containing sheets or broad fibers, most of which become microfibril bundles (MBs) with little or no elastin component when reaching the central cornea. The purpose of the current study was to compare this network with the elastic fiber distribution in post-surgical keratoconic corneal buttons, using serial block face scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. We have demonstrated that the MB distribution is very different in keratoconus. MBs are absent from a region of stroma anterior to Descemet's membrane, an area that is densely populated in normal cornea, whilst being concentrated below the epithelium, an area in which they are absent in normal cornea. We contend that these latter microfibrils are produced as a biomechanical response to provide additional strength to the anterior stroma in order to prevent tissue rupture at the apex of the cone. A lack of MBs anterior to Descemet's membrane in keratoconus would alter the biomechanical properties of the tissue, potentially contributing to the pathogenesis of the disease. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Influence of glucocorticosteroids on the biomechanical properties of in-vivo rabbit cornea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ji-guo; Bao, Fang-jun; Joda, Akram; Fu, Xun-an; Zhou, Shi; Wang, Jing; Hu, Xiu-li; Wang, Qin-mei; Elsheikh, Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Understanding corneal biomechanical responses during long-term glucocorticosteroids administration is important in clinical practice. The purpose of this study is to investigate the biomechanical influence of fluorometholone 0.1% eye drops on rabbit cornea. Thirty-eight Japanese white rabbits were randomly divided into three groups; a fluorometholone group, a supernatant group and a blank control group. For each rabbit in fluorometholone group, one cornea was treated with fluorometholone 0.1% eye drops four times a day for 8 weeks, while corneas of rabbits in supernatant group were treated in the same frequency with supernatant fraction centrifuged from fluorometholone 0.1% eye drops. The rabbits in the blank control group were not given any treatment. At the end of the 8 week observation period, the rabbits were euthanized and the eyes immediately enucleated and prepared for inflation testing. The experimental pressure-deformation data was used to derive the stress-strain behavior of each eye using an inverse modeling procedure. Comparisons of mechanical stiffness of corneas were conducted among the three groups to determine the influence of fluorometholone. The results showed that corneal stiffness decreased as the fluorometholone administration time prolonged. Comparisons of tangent modulus indicated average stiffness reductions of 34.2% and 33.5% in the fluorometholone group compared to the supernatant and control groups, respectively, at the end of the observation period. The stiffness-reduction effect of fluorometholone on the cornea should be considered in clinical management, especially when administrating it to biomechanically weakened corneas, such as after refractive surgeries and in cases of keratoconus. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Optical system and image processing of endothelial cells of donated cornea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, Liliane; Caetano, Cesar A. C.; Faria de Sousa, Sidney J.; Lotufo, Roberto A.

    1999-06-01

    A magnifying optical system (250-400X) attached to a Slit Lamp has been developed in order to evaluate the endothelium of donated corneas. The images from the endothelium are captured by a CCD and displayed in a PC monitor. The cost of the system is relatively low compared to the specular microscopes that are on the market for donated corneas (66% less expensive). The system offers two kinds of computer evaluation: interactive and automatic. The interactive counting of the endothelial cells provides a window of any shape and size desired by the clinician, where the cells are clicked by the mouse and the developed software estimates the number of endothelial cells in the cornea as a whole. The automatic counting of the cells is done by an image processing, where the cells are recognized by the developed software, without any interference of the clinician, and counted automatically. The most important features of this system compared to most that are on the market are: there are two ways for the clinical to count the cells and both can be used simultaneously (the automatic provides a quick counting of the cells and the interactive provides a wanted clinical interference on the result); many parts of the cornea can be evaluated and an average counting is provided (usually just the central part of the cornea is analyzed); real time image is provided instead of just a static image, which allows the clinician to have more information about the cornea such as the evaluation of the cells in the snail tracks.

  12. Morphological and biochemical analysis of intact and opaque cornea in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirooka, Masamitsu; Igarashi, Osamu; Nagayasu, Aya; Minaguchi, Jun; Hosaka, Yoshinao Z; Ueda, Hiromi; Tangkawattana, Prasarn; Takehana, Kazushige

    2010-08-01

    The arrangement of collagen fibrils and glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) in substantia propria are important for maintaining transparency of the cornea. Interferences in collagen fibrils and GAG production could be adversative to corneal integrity. In this study, six dogs consisting of four Beagles with normal cornea (normal), one Beagles with opaque cornea (sample No. 1) and one Shih Tzu with neovascularization opaque cornea (sample No.2) were used. All samples were observed morphologically by light and electron microscopes to obtain diameter and distribution of collagen fibrils in substantia propria and were performed biochemically to investigate into GAGs and collagen types. The average diameter of collagen fibrils in the intact cornea of normal, sample No.1 and No.2 was 33.2, 35.0 and 25.0 nm, respectively. The percentage of matrix per unit area was 67% in normal, 87% in sample No.1 and 28.3% in sample No.2. The type III collagen ratio was 25.3% in normal, 21.3% in sample No.1 and 35.8% in sample No.2. The relative amount of heparan sulfate, chondroitin sulfate, dermatan sulfate and keratin sulfate was 1.5, 9.7, 51.1 and 37.7% in normal, 3.3, 26.0, 45.7 and 23.7% in sample No.1 and 1.2, 18.0, 16.6 and 54.1% in sample No.2. Hyaluronic acid was found only in sample No.1 with a relative amount of 1.3%. Since there was some relationship between collagen formation and GAGs composition, it might be speculated that disturbance in arrangement of collagen fibrils and GAG metabolism especially in substantia propria would bring up opacity of the cornea.

  13. Age-related changes and diseases of the ocular surface and cornea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gipson, Ilene K

    2013-12-13

    Aging of the ocular surface and corneal tissues, major components of the visual system, causes major eye disease and results in substantial cost in medical and social terms. These diseases include the highly prevalent dry eye disease that affects the ocular surface and its glands, leading to tear film alterations, discomfort, and decreased vision. Studies show that 14.4% of the population in the United States older than 50 years have dry eye disease and demonstrate that it is particularly prevalent among women. Annual medical costs per patient with dry eye in the United States are estimated at $783 per year, with an overall medical cost adjusted to prevalence of $3.84 billion per year. Societal costs, which include loss of productivity, are estimated per patient at $11,302 per year, with overall costs adjusted to prevalence of $55.4 billion per year. Because there are few effective treatments for the disease, more research on its etiology and mechanisms is warranted and needed. Increased public education about risk factors for the disease is also required. Another major age-related eye disease of the cornea that leads to vision impairment and potentially blindness if left untreated is Fuchs' endothelial corneal dystrophy. This disease leads to loss of the endothelial cells on the internal side of the cornea that are responsible for keeping the cornea in the proper hydration state to ensure its transparency to light. The mechanism of cell loss is unknown, and the only treatment available to date is surgical transplantation of the cornea or inner part of the cornea. These medically costly procedures require donor corneas, eye banking, and medical follow-up, with accrued costs. Fuchs' endothelial corneal dystrophy is a major cause of corneal transplantation in the United States; therefore, research support is needed to determine the mechanism of this age-related disease, to develop medical, nonsurgical methods for treatment.

  14. Factors involved in the occurrence of bleeding complications after enucleation for cornea donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wijk, Marja J; Nijenhuis, Matthijs V; Dorrepaal, Caroline A; Bokhorst, Arlinke G

    2009-10-01

    To identify risk factors for the occurrence of bleeding complications after enucleation for cornea donation, in order to develop preventive activities to reduce the occurrence of bleeding complications and especially the development of ocular hematomas. From all Dutch cornea donors deceased in the year 2006, donor characteristics, retrieval characteristics, and bleeding complication data were collected. First, univariate relations between donor and retrieval factors and bleeding complications were determined. Then, multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors significantly associated with bleeding complications. In 114 of the 1173 cornea donors (9.7%), bleeding complications occurred, with ocular hematomas developing in 39 (3.3% of all cornea donors). Donor factors significantly associated with bleeding complications were age [odds ratio (OR) 0.96 (95% CI 0.94-0.97)], weight [OR 1.03 (1.02-1.04)], heart failure [OR 2.10 (1.12-3.94)], thrombocyte aggregation inhibitor use [OR 1.64 (1.02-2.64)], and chronic alcoholic liver disease [OR 2.85 (1.11-7.31)]. The most significant factor associated with bleeding complications was the retrieval sequence. If cornea donation was followed by any other tissue retrieval, the risk of bleeding complications was strongly increased. : This study shows that the tissue retrieval sequence in multitissue donors is the most important factor associated with the occurrence of bleeding complications. The risk of bleeding and ocular hematoma is lower if cornea donation is performed after all other retrievals. However, if the tissue retrieval sequence is altered, the effect of prolonged postmortem time on corneal quality must be taken into account.

  15. Differentially expressed wound healing-related microRNAs in the human diabetic cornea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent A Funari

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs are powerful gene expression regulators, but their corneal repertoire and potential changes in corneal diseases remain unknown. Our purpose was to identify miRNAs altered in the human diabetic cornea by microarray analysis, and to examine their effects on wound healing in cultured telomerase-immortalized human corneal epithelial cells (HCEC in vitro. Total RNA was extracted from age-matched human autopsy normal (n=6 and diabetic (n=6 central corneas, Flash Tag end-labeled, and hybridized to Affymetrix® GeneChip® miRNA Arrays. Select miRNAs associated with diabetic cornea were validated by quantitative RT-PCR (Q-PCR and by in situ hybridization (ISH in independent samples. HCEC were transfected with human pre-miR™miRNA precursors (h-miR or their inhibitors (antagomirs using Lipofectamine 2000. Confluent transfected cultures were scratch-wounded with P200 pipette tip. Wound closure was monitored by digital photography. Expression of signaling proteins was detected by immunostaining and Western blot. Using microarrays, 29 miRNAs were identified as differentially expressed in diabetic samples. Two miRNA candidates showing the highest fold increased in expression in the diabetic cornea were confirmed by Q-PCR and further characterized. HCEC transfection with h-miR-146a or h-miR-424 significantly retarded wound closure, but their respective antagomirs significantly enhanced wound healing vs. controls. Cells treated with h-miR-146a or h-miR-424 had decreased p-p38 and p-EGFR staining, but these increased over control levels close to the wound edge upon antagomir treatment. In conclusion, several miRNAs with increased expression in human diabetic central corneas were found. Two such miRNAs inhibited cultured corneal epithelial cell wound healing. Dysregulation of miRNA expression in human diabetic cornea may be an important mediator of abnormal wound healing.

  16. SiRNA knockdown of the DEK nuclear protein mRNA enhances apoptosis and chemosensitivity of canine transitional cell carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Hiroki; Iwano, Tomomi; Otsuka, Saori; Kagawa, Yumiko; Hoshino, Yuki; Hosoya, Kenji; Okumura, Masahiro; Takagi, Satoshi

    2015-04-01

    Transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) in dogs is an aggressive malignant neoplasm, originating in the epithelium of the urinary bladder. The DEK nuclear protein is overexpressed in several types of human bladder cancer, where it is involved in chromatin reconstruction, gene transcription and apoptosis. Since DEK represents a potential therapeutic target for canine TCC, this study was designed to investigate DEK expression in canine TCC and to determine the effects of DEK mRNA silencing on TCC cells in vitro. The gene expression profiles of seven selected cancer-associated genes was assessed in four canine TCC cell lines and expression of DEK protein was evaluated in bladder tissue biopsies from healthy dogs and those affected with cystitis or TCC. After transfection of four canine TCC cell lines with DEK-specific or scrambled siRNA, annexin V staining was performed to evaluate apoptosis, and methylthiazole tetrazolium assays were performed to assess both cell viability and sensitivity to carboplatin. DEK mRNA expression was relatively high in canine TCC cells and expression of the DEK protein was significantly greater in TCC tumours compared with the other tissue samples. After transfection with DEK-specific siRNA, apoptosis, cell growth inhibition, and enhanced sensitivity to carboplatin were observed in all TCC cells assessed. These research findings suggest that DEK could be a potential therapeutic target for canine TCC. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Canine parvovirus enteritis, canine distemper, and major histocompatibility complex genetic variation in Mexican wolves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedrick, Philip W; Lee, Rhonda N; Buchanan, Colleen

    2003-10-01

    The endangered Mexican wolf (Canis lupus baileyi) was recently reintroduced into Arizona and New Mexico (USA). In 1999 and 2000, pups from three litters that were part of the reintroduction program died of either canine parvovirus or canine distemper. Overall, half (seven of 14) of the pups died of either canine parvovirus or canine distemper. The parents and their litters were analyzed for variation at the class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC) gene DRB1. Similar MHC genes are related to disease resistance in other species. All six of the surviving pups genotyped for the MHC gene were heterozygous while five of the pups that died were heterozygous and one was homozygous. Resistance to pathogens is an important aspect of the management and long-term survival of endangered taxa, such as the Mexican wolf.

  18. Differential expression and processing of transforming growth factor beta induced protein (TGFBIp) in the normal human cornea during postnatal development and aging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karring, Henrik; Runager, Kasper; Valnickova, Zuzana

    2010-01-01

    Transforming growth factor beta induced protein (TGFBIp, also named keratoepithelin) is an extracellular matrix protein abundant in the cornea. The purpose of this study was to determine the expression and processing of TGFBIp in the normal human cornea during postnatal development and aging....... TGFBIp in corneas from individuals ranging from six months to 86 years of age was detected and quantified by immunoblotting. The level of TGFBIp in the cornea increases about 30% between 6 and 14 years of age, and adult corneas contain 0.7-0.8 microg TGFBIp per mg wet tissue. Two-dimensional (2-D...... and that the processing of TGFBIp changes during postnatal development of the cornea. In addition, TGFBIp appears to be degraded in a highly orchestrated manner in the normal human cornea with the resulting C-terminal fragments being retained in the cornea. The age-related changes in the expression and processing...

  19. Optics of the human cornea influence the accuracy of stereo eye-tracking methods: a simulation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barsingerhorn, A.D.; Boonstra, F.N.; Goossens, H.H.L.M.

    2017-01-01

    Current stereo eye-tracking methods model the cornea as a sphere with one refractive surface. However, the human cornea is slightly aspheric and has two refractive surfaces. Here we used ray-tracing and the Navarro eye-model to study how these optical properties affect the accuracy of different

  20. Morphological characterization of keratoconus-affected human corneas by SHG imaging and correlation analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercatelli, R.; Ratto, F.; Tatini, F.; Rossi, F.; Menabuoni, L.; Nicoletti, R.; Pini, R.; Pavone, Frederick; Cicchi, R.

    2016-03-01

    Keratoconus is an ophthalmic disease in which the cornea acquires an abnormal conical shape that prevents the correct focusing on the retina, causing visual impairment. The late diagnosis of keratoconus is among the principal causes of corneal transplantation surgery. In this study, we characterize the morphology of keratoconic corneas by means of the correlation of SHG images, finding that keratoconus can be diagnosed by analyzing the inclination of lamellae below Bowman's membrane. In addition, imaging performed with both sagittal and "en face" geometry demonstrated that this morphological features can be highlighted both ex vivo and in vivo.

  1. Split cornea transplantation for 2 recipients: a new strategy to reduce corneal tissue cost and shortage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heindl, Ludwig M; Riss, Stephan; Bachmann, Bjoern O; Laaser, Kathrin; Kruse, Friedrich E; Cursiefen, Claus

    2011-02-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of using a single donor cornea for 2 recipients by combining deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty (DALK) and Descemet's membrane endothelial keratoplasty (DMEK) surgeries on the same day. Single-center, nonrandomized, prospective, interventional case series. Twelve consecutive donor corneas were scheduled for split cornea transplantation combining DALK for a keratoconus patient and DMEK for a Fuchs' endothelial dystrophy patient on the same surgery day. First, a big-bubble DALK procedure was performed for the keratoconus eye. When bare Descemet's membrane was prepared successfully requiring no conversion to penetrating keratoplasty (PK), then during surgery the donor, endothelium-Descemet's membrane layer was removed and stored for subsequent DMEK in a second patient, and the remaining anterior lamella of the donor cornea was used to complete the DALK surgery. Afterward, a DMEK procedure was performed on the second patient with Fuchs' endothelial dystrophy, grafting the stored endothelium-Descemet's membrane layer of the original donor button. Success of using a single donor cornea for 2 recipient eyes, best spectacle-corrected visual acuity (BSCVA), and complication rates within 6 months follow-up. A single donor cornea could be used for 2 recipients in 10 of 12 donor buttons (83%). In 2 cases (17%), the DALK procedure had to be converted to PK requiring a full-thickness corneal graft. Therefore, 10 donor corneas (45%) could be saved. Six months after surgery, mean BSCVA was 20/35 (range, 20/50-20/25) in 10 eyes that underwent successful DALK, 20/50 (range, 20/63-20/40) in 2 eyes that underwent conversion from DALK to PK, and 20/31 (range, 20/50-20/16) in 10 eyes that underwent DMEK. Postoperative complications after DALK included Descemet's folds in 3 eyes (30%) and epitheliopathy in 2 eyes (20%). After DMEK, partial graft detachment occurred in 5 eyes (50%) and was managed successfully with intracameral air reinjection. All corneas

  2. [A new principle in the investigation of the biomechanical properties of the cornea (a preliminary communication)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avetisov, S E; Bubnova, I A; Novikov, I A; Antonov, A A; Siplivyĭ, V I

    2008-01-01

    A new principle in the determination of mechanical stress distribution in the cornea is proposed on the basis of estimation of the polarization of light emitted by luminescence of strained collagen. It has been found, collagen fiber stress is inversely proportional to corneal stress on the intact cornea of a rabbit, and absolute values are determined by intraocular pressure values. After applying keratotomic incisions, the stress distribution map changes, at the same time, the major stress falls on the residual thickness of the stroma at the bottom of a keratotomic scar and close to this area and the central corneal region is subject to the least pressure.

  3. Multiparameter thermo-mechanical OCT-based characterization of laser-induced cornea reshaping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaitsev, Vladimir Yu.; Matveyev, Alexandr L.; Matveev, Lev A.; Gelikonov, Grigory V.; Vitkin, Alex; Omelchenko, Alexander I.; Baum, Olga I.; Shabanov, Dmitry V.; Sovetsky, Alexander A.; Sobol, Emil N.

    2017-02-01

    Phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography (OCT) is used for visualizing dynamic and cumulative strains and corneashape changes during laser-produced tissue heating. Such non-destructive (non-ablative) cornea reshaping can be used as a basis of emerging technologies of laser vision correction. In experiments with cartilaginous samples, polyacrilamide phantoms and excised rabbit eyes we demonstrate ability of the developed OCT system to simultaneously characterize transient and cumulated strain distributions, surface displacements, scattering tissue properties and possibility of temperature estimation via thermal-expansion measurements. The proposed approach can be implemented in perspective real-time OCT systems for ensuring safety of new methods of laser reshaping of cornea.

  4. Computer driven optical keratometer and method of evaluating the shape of the cornea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baroth, Edmund C. (Inventor); Mouneimme, Samih A. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    An apparatus and method for measuring the shape of the cornea utilize only one reticle to generate a pattern of rings projected onto the surface of a subject's eye. The reflected pattern is focused onto an imaging device such as a video camera and a computer compares the reflected pattern with a reference pattern stored in the computer's memory. The differences between the reflected and stored patterns are used to calculate the deformation of the cornea which may be useful for pre-and post-operative evaluation of the eye by surgeons.

  5. Brittle Cornea Syndrome Associated with a Missense Mutation in the Zinc-Finger 469 Gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Anne Elisabeth; Knappskog, Per Morten; Midtbø, Marit

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the diverse clinical manifestations, identify the causative mutation and explain the association with red hair in a family with brittle cornea syndrome (BCS). Methods: Eight family members in three generations underwent ophthalmic, dental, and general medical examination...... mapping with SNP markers, DNA sequencing, and MC1R genotyping. Results: At 42 and 48 years of age, respectively, both affected individuals were blind due to retinal detachment and secondary glaucoma. They had extremely thin and bulging corneas, velvety skin, chestnut colored hair, scoliosis, reduced BMD...

  6. Laser-assisted correction of eye cornea refraction with ring-shaped laser beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Olga; Yuzhakov, Aleksey; Omelchenko, Alexander; Bolshunov, Andrey; Siplivy, Vladimir; Sobol, Emil

    2017-07-01

    A new method for non-ablative correction of cornea shape is based on thermo-mechanical effect of laser radiation with ring-shaped laser beam. The results obtained demonstrated that the new method for correction of eye refraction yields a significant alteration in the eye refraction and the ring-shaped laser beam with various ring diameters for correction of the eye refraction allows obtaining controllable alterations of the eye refraction with axial symmetry without any pathological changes in central part of cornea.

  7. Optical properties of an anterior lamellar human cornea model based on fibrin-agarose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionescu, Ana M.; Cardona, Juan de la Cruz; Ghinea, Razvan; Garzón, Ingrid; González-Andrades, Miguel; Alaminos, Miguel; Pérez, Maria del Mar

    2017-08-01

    The optical evaluation carried out using the Inverse Adding-Doubling (IAD) method to determine the scattering and the absorption coefficients of the bioengineered human corneal stromas showed that this type of artificial biomaterials shared many similarities with native control cornea after four weeks of development in culture. Their absorption and reduced scattering coefficients values were higher than the ones of the control cornea, but their spectral behaviors of both coefficients were similar. Time of development in culture was an influencing factor on the results.

  8. [Biomechanical properties of the cornea in primary open-angle glaucoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eremina, M V

    2008-01-01

    The paper discusses the impact of some properties of corneal tissue (central corneal thickness, curvature radius, elasticity, etc.). The dynamic bilateral applanation process underlying the ocular analyzer provides exact information on the index determining the viscoelastic properties of the cornea - corneal hysteresis. The author presents the results of detecting corneal hysteresis in individuals without oculopathy and in patients with glaucoma, as well as the association of this index with the central thickness of the cornea, the levels of corneal compensated pressure, and the intraocular value equated to the Goldman tonometric index.

  9. [Adenovirus-mediated canine interferon-gamma expression and its antiviral activity against canine parvovirus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kao; Jin, Huijun; Zhong, Fei; Li, Xiujin; Neng, Changai; Chen, Huihui; Li, Wenyan; Wen, Jiexia

    2012-11-04

    To construct recombinant adenovirus containing canine interferon-gamma (cIFN-gamma) gene and to investigate its antiviral activity against canine parvovirus in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells (MDCK). [Methods] The cIFN-gamma gene was inserted into adenovirus shuttle plasmid to construct pShuttle3-cIFN-gamma expression vector, from which the cIFN-gamma expression cassette was transferred into the adenovirus genomic plasmid pAdeno-X by specific restriction sites to generate recombinant adenovirus genomic plasmid pAd-cIFN-gamma. The pAd-cIFN-gamma plasmid was linearized by digestion and transfected into human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293T cells to generate the replication-defective cIFN-gamma recombinant adenovirus (Ad-cIFN-gamma). To analyze its anti-canine parvovirus activity, the MDCK cells were pre-infected by Ad-cIFN-gamma recombinant adenovirus, and then infected by canine parvovirus. The antiviral activity of the Ad-cIFN-gamma recombinant adenovirus against parvovirus was analyzed. The recombinant adenovirus containing cIFN-gamma gene was constructed by the ligation method. The recombinant adenovirus could mediates recombinant cIFN-gamma secretory expression in MDCK cells. The Ad-cIFN-gamma recombinant adenovirus could significantly inhibit canine parvovirus replication in MDCK cells pre-infected with the recombinant adenovirus. These results indicate that the Ad-cIFN-gamma recombinant adenovirus has the potent antiviral activity against canine parvovirus. The Ad-cIFN-gamma recombinant adenovirus was successfully constructed by the ligation method and possessed a powerful antiviral activity against canine parvovirus.

  10. Differential gene expression patterns of the developing and adult mouse cornea compared to the lens and tendon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Feng; Lee, Seakwoo; Schumacher, Michael; Jun, Albert; Chakravarti, Shukti

    2008-09-01

    The cornea continues to mature after birth to develop a fully functional, refractive and protective barrier tissue. Here we investigated the complex biological events underlying this process by profiling global genome-wide gene expression patterns of the immature postnatal day 10 and 7-week old adult mouse cornea. The lens and tendon were included in the study to increase the specificity of genes identified as upregulated in the corneal samples. Notable similarities in gene expression between the cornea and the tendon were in the mesenchymal extracellular matrix collagen (types I, III, V, VI) and proteoglycan (lumican, decorin and biglycan) genes. Expression similarities in the cornea and lens were limited to certain epithelial genes and the crystallins. Approximately 76 genes were over expressed in the cornea samples that showed basal expression levels in the lens and tendon. Thirty-two of these were novel with no known functions in the cornea. These include genes with a potential role in protection against oxidative stress (Dhcr24, Cdo1, Akr1b7, Prdx6), inflammation (Ltb4dh, Wdr1), ion transport (Pdzk1ip1, Slc12a2, Slc25a17) and transcription (Zfp36l3, Pdzk1ip1). Direct comparison of the cornea of two ages showed selective upregulation of 50 and 12 genes in the P10 and adult cornea, respectively. Of the upregulated P10 genes several encode extracellular matrix collagens and proteoglycans that are stable components of the adult cornea and their high transcriptional activity at P10 indicate a period of actie corneal growth and matrix deposition in the young cornea. Much less is known about the genes selectively over expressed in the adult cornea; some relate to immune response and innervations (Npy), and possibly to electron transport (Cyp24a1, Cyp2f2) and others of yet unknown functions in the cornea (Rgs10, Psmb8, Xlr4). This study detected expression of genes with known functions in the cornea, providing additional validation of the microarray experiments

  11. Healthy Places

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-04-10

    Every person has a stake in environmental public health. As the environment deteriorates, so does the physical and mental health of the people within it. Healthy places are those designed and built to improve the quality of life for all people who live, work, worship, learn, and play within their borders -- where every person is free to make choices amid a variety of healthy, available, accessible, and affordable options. The CDC recognizes significant health issues and places that are vital in developing the Healthy Places program and provides examples in this report.  Created: 4/10/2007 by CDC National Center for Environmental Health.   Date Released: 4/13/2007.

  12. Doppler ultrasonographic assessment of uterine arteries during normal canine puerperium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, P R; Gobello, C; Corrada, Y; Pons, E; Arias, D O; Blanco, P G

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to describe Doppler ultrasonographic changes of uterine arteries during normal canine puerperium. Eight healthy, pure-bred bitches, were ultrasonographically assessed during the postpartum period on Days -3, 3, 10, 17, 24, 38, 52 and 80 (Day 0 defined as the day of parturition). Total horn diameters (TD) and endometrium thickness (E) were evaluated. Color Doppler was used to localize uterine arteries at both sides of the body and pulsed-wave Doppler was performed to obtain the waveforms. Peak systolic velocity (PSV) and end diastolic velocity (EDV) were measured. Resistance index [(PSV-EDV)/PSV] was automatically calculated. Values of TD, E, PSV, EDV and RI were analyzed by repeated measures ANOVA followed by LSD test (SPSS 18.0; SPSS, Chicago, IL, USA). A correlation analysis was also carried out between RI and TD. A progressive decrease of TD (P<0.01) and E (P<0.01) was found in the course of the study. A gradual diminution of PSV (P<0.01) and EDV (P<0.01) and an increase of RI (P<0.01) were also found throughout the study period. The resistance index negatively correlated with TD (r=-0.46; P<0.01) and E (r=-0.44; P<0.01) while the ultrasonographic and vascular changes in this period are concurrent with regenerative changes in the glandular and epithelial structures of the uterus. It is concluded that uterine artery RI progressively increased during normal canine puerperium, associated to the two-dimensional ultrasonographic regression of the organ. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Canine trypanosomosis: Clinical observations and morphological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Clinical and pathological aspects of canine trypanosomosis were determined in naturally infected dogs presented to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, at different times between 2012 and 2013. The breeds, sexes, ages and body weights of the dogs were recorded. Clinical signs ...

  14. Molecular Epidemiology of Canine Parvovirus, Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desario, Costantina; Addie, Diane D.; Martella, Vito; Vieira, Maria João; Elia, Gabriella; Zicola, Angelique; Davis, Christopher; Thompson, Gertrude; Thiry, Ethienne; Truyen, Uwe; Buonavoglia, Canio

    2007-01-01

    Canine parvovirus (CPV), which causes hemorrhagic enteritis in dogs, has 3 antigenic variants: types 2a, 2b, and 2c. Molecular method assessment of the distribution of the CPV variants in Europe showed that the new variant CPV-2c is widespread in Europe and that the viruses are distributed in different countries. PMID:17953097

  15. Antioxidant status in canine cancer patients

    OpenAIRE

    Plavec Tanja; Nemec-Svete Alenka; Butinar J.; Tozon Nataša; Prezelj Marija; Kandel Bettina; Kessler M

    2008-01-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the antioxidant status in canine cancer patients. Patients with multicentric lymphoma, oral fibrosarcoma, mast cell tumor, malignant melanoma, appendicular osteosarcoma, nasal tumors and peripheral ameloblastoma were selected. Each group consisted of 6 patients. Total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and enzyme antioxidants: glutathione peroxidase (GPX), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were measured in serum and whole blood, respectively,...

  16. Galanin - Immunoreactive Nerve Fibers in the Mucosal Layer of the Canine Gastrointestinal Tract During Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rychlik Andrzej

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The effect of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD on the density of galanin - immunoreactive (GAL-IR nerve fibers was determined in the mucosa of canine duodenum, jejunum, and descending colon. Fiber density was evaluated by a single immunofluorescence method in biopsy specimens obtained from healthy dogs and patients with variable severity of the disease. The density of GAL-IR nerve fibers was determined by the semi-quantitative method by counting fibers in the field of view (0.l mm2. Fiber density was higher in dogs with moderate and severe IBD than in healthy animals. The results of the study suggest that GAL present in intestinal nerve fibers could play a role in the pathogenesis and development of canine IBD.

  17. The use of human cornea organotypic cultures to study herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1)-induced inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drevets, Peter; Chucair-Elliott, Ana; Shrestha, Priyadarsini; Jinkins, Jeremy; Karamichos, Dimitrios; Carr, Daniel J J

    2015-10-01

    To determine the utility of human organotypic cornea cultures as a model to study herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1)-induced inflammation and neovascularization. Human organotypic cornea cultures were established from corneas with an intact limbus that were retrieved from donated whole globes. One cornea culture was infected with HSV-1 (10(4) plaque-forming units), while the other cornea from the same donor was mock-infected. Supernatants were collected at intervals post-culture with and without infection to determine viral titer (by plaque assay) and pro-angiogenic and proinflammatory cytokine concentration by suspension array analysis. In some experiments, the cultured corneas were collected and evaluated for HSV-1 antigens by immunohistochemical means. Another set of experiments measured susceptibility of human three-dimensional cornea fibroblast constructs, in the presence and absence of TGF-β1, to HSV-1 infection in terms of viral replication and the inflammatory response to infection as a comparison to the organotypic cornea cultures. Organotypic cornea cultures and three-dimensional fibroblast constructs exhibited varying degrees of susceptibility to HSV-1. Fibroblast constructs were more susceptible to infection in terms of infectious virus recovered in a shorter period of time. There were changes in the levels of select pro-angiogenic or proinflammatory cytokines that were dictated as much by the cultures producing them as by whether they were infected with HSV-1 or treated with TGF-β1. Organotypic cornea and three-dimensional fibroblast cultures are likely useful for the identification and short-term study of novel antiviral compounds and virus replication, but are limited in the study of the local immune response to infection.

  18. Transient downregulation of microRNA-206 protects alkali burn injury in mouse cornea by regulating connexin 43.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoyan; Zhou, Huanfen; Tang, Weiqiang; Guo, Qing; Zhang, Yan

    2015-01-01

    Chemical burn in cornea may cause permanent visual problem or complete blindness. In the present study, we investigated the role of microRNA 206 (miR-206) in relieving chemical burn in mouse cornea. An alkali burn model was established in C57BL/6 mice to induce chemical corneal injury. Within 72 hours, the transient inflammatory responses in alkali-treated corneas were measured by opacity and corneal neovascularization (CNV) levels, and the gene expression profile of miR-206 was measured by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). Inhibitory oligonucleotides of miR-206, miR-206-I, were intrastromally injected into alkali-burned corneas. The possible protective effects of down-regulating miR-206 were assessed by both in vivo measurements of inflammatory responses and in vitro histochemical examinations of corneal epithelium sections. The possible binding of miR-206 on its molecular target, connexin43 (Cx43), was assessed by luciferase reporter (LR) and western blot (WB) assays. Cx43 was silenced by siRNA to examine its effect on regulating miR-206 modulation in alkali-burned cornea. Opacity and CNV levels, along with gene expression of miR-206, were all transiently elevated within 72 hours of alkali-burned mouse cornea. Intrastromal injection of miR-206-I into alkali-burned cornea down-regulated miR-206 and ameliorated inflammatory responses both in vivo and in vitro. LR and WB assays confirmed that Cx43 was directly targeted by miR-206 in mouse cornea. Genetic silencing of Cx43 reversed the protective effect of miR-206 down-regulation in alkali-burned cornea. miR-206, associated with Cx43, is a novel molecular modulator in alkali burn in mouse cornea.

  19. Duration of serological response to canine parvovirus-type 2, canine distemper virus, canine adenovirus type 1 and canine parainfluenza virus in client-owned dogs in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, S A; Zwijnenberg, R J; Huang, J; Hodge, A; Day, M J

    2012-12-01

    To determine whether client-owned dogs in Australia, last vaccinated with Canvac(®) vaccines containing canine parvovirus-type 2 (CPV-2), canine distemper virus (CDV), canine adenovirus type 2 (CAV-2) ± canine parainfluenza virus (CPiV) at least 18 months ago, were seropositive or responded serologically to revaccination. A total of 235 dogs were recruited from 23 veterinary clinics, representing a variety of breeds, ages and time since last vaccination (TSLV: range 1.5-9 years, mean 2.8 years). Dogs had a blood sample taken and were revaccinated on day 0. A second blood sample was taken 7-14 days later. Blood samples were assessed for antibody titres to CPV-2 (by haemagglutination inhibition) and CDV, CAV type 1 (CAV-1) and CPiV (by virus neutralisation). Dogs with a day 0 titre >10 or a four-fold increase in titre following revaccination were considered to be serological responders. The overall percentage of dogs classified as serological responders was 98.7% for CPV-2, 96.6% for CDV, 99.6% for CAV-1 and 90.3% for CPiV. These results suggest that the duration of serological response induced by modified-live vaccines against CPV-2, CDV, CAV-1 and CPiV, including Canvac(®) vaccines, is beyond 18 months and may extend up to 9 years. Accordingly, these vaccines may be considered for use in extended revaccination interval protocols as recommended by current canine vaccine guidelines. © 2012 The Authors. Australian Veterinary Journal © 2012 Australian Veterinary Association.

  20. Ocular Biometry and Cornea Biomechanics in Hypermetropic Anisometropia

    OpenAIRE

    Ebru Demet Aygıt; Zeynep Alkın; Birsen Gökyiğit; Hülya Güngel; Ahmet Demirok

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate ocular biometric parameters including anterior chamber depth (ACD), corneal curvature (CC), central corneal thickness (CCT), horizontal corneal diameter, and corneal biomechanical properties using ocular response analyzer (ORA) in eyes with hypermetropic anisometropia and to compare the results with those obtained for the healthy eyes of the patients. Materials and Methods: Sixty-four eyes of 32 patients followed with the diagnosis of hypermetropic anisometrop...

  1. Mandibular canine dimensions as an aid in gender estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajarathnam, Basetty Neelakantam; David, Maria Priscilla; Indira, Annamalai Ponnuswamy

    2016-01-01

    All humans have an identity in life; compassionate societies require this identity to be recognized even after death. To measure the dimensions of the mandibular canine and assess the usefulness of the mandibular canine as an aid in gender estimation. The study population comprised 200 subjects inclusive of 100 males and 100 females with an age range of 18-25 years. Measurements made in mm at the contact point were of mesiodistal width of the right and left canines and intercanine distance both intraorally and on casts, and the mandibular canine index (MCI) was calculated. The obtained data were subjected to t-test/Mann-Whitney test and discriminant function analysis. All parameters of mandibular canines, namely, intercanine distance, canine width, and canine index were greater in males compared to females suggesting significant sexual dimorphism of mandibular canines. On subjecting the data to discriminant function analysis, it classified sex correctly in 73% of the samples. The result of our study establishes the existence of significant sexual dimorphism in mandibular canines. We can therefore, recommend the use of mandibular canine dimensions as an applicable and additional method for gender determination in human identification.

  2. Comparison of effects of uncomplicated canine babesiosis and canine normovolaemic anaemia on abdominal splanchnic Doppler characteristics - a preliminary investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.M. Koma

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available A preliminary study was conducted to compare uncomplicated canine babesiosis (CB and experimentally induced normovolaemic anaemia (EA using Doppler ultrasonography of abdominal splanchnic vessels. Fourteen dogs with uncomplicated CB were investigated together with 11 healthy Beagles during severe EA, moderate EA and the physiological state as a control group. Canine babesiosis was compared with severe EA, moderate EA and the physiological state using Doppler variables of the abdominal aorta, cranial mesenteric artery (CMA, coeliac, left renal and interlobar, and hilar splenic arteries, and the main portal vein. Patterns of haemodynamic changes during CB and EA were broadly similar and were characterised by elevations in velocities and reductions in resistance indices in all vessels except the renal arteries when compared with the physiological state. Aortic and CMA peak systolic velocities and CMA end diastolic and time-averaged mean velocities in CB were significantly lower (P < 0.023 than those in severe EA. Patterns of renal haemodynamic changes during CB and EA were similar. However, the renal patterns differed from those of aortic and gastrointestinal arteries, having elevations in vascular resistance indices, a reduction in end diastolic velocity and unchanged time-averaged mean velocity. The left renal artery resistive index in CB was significantly higher (P < 0.025 than those in EA and the physiological state. Renal interlobar artery resistive and pulsatility indices in CB were significantly higher (P < 0.016 than those of moderate EA and the physiological state. The similar haemodynamic patterns in CB and EA are attributable to anaemia, while significant differencesmayadditionally be attributed to pathophysiological factors peculiar to CB.

  3. Model of Mass and Heat Transfer during Vacuum Freeze-Drying for Cornea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zou Huifen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cornea is the important apparatus of organism, which has complex cell structure. Heat and mass transfer and thermal parameters during vacuum freeze-drying of keeping corneal activity are studied. The freeze-drying cornea experiments were operated in the homemade vacuum freeze dryer. Pressure of the freeze-drying box was about 50 Pa and temperature was about −10°C by controlled, and operating like this could guarantee survival ratio of the corneal endothelium over the grafting normal. Theory analyzing of corneal freeze-drying, mathematical model of describing heat and mass transfer during vacuum freeze-drying of cornea was established. The analogy computation for the freeze-drying of cornea was made by using finite-element computational software. When pressure of the freeze-drying box was about 50 Pa and temperature was about −10°C, time of double-side drying was 170 min. In this paper, a moving-grid finite-element method was used. The sublimation interface was tracked continuously. The finite-element mesh is moved continuously such that the interface position always coincides with an element node. Computational precision was guaranteed. The computational results were agreed with the experimental results. It proved that the mathematical model was reasonable. The finite-element software is adapted for calculating the heat and mass transfer of corneal freeze-drying.

  4. Hydro cone lens visual performance and impact on quality of life in irregular corneas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozek, Dilay; Kemer, Ozlem Evren; Bayraktar, Neslihan

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the visual performance (efficiency) of HydroCone (Toris K) soft silicon hydrogel lenses in patients with irregular corneas. Copyright © 2016 British Contact Lens Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Plume emission, shock wave and surface wave formation during excimer laser ablation of the cornea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bor, Z; Hopp, B; Rácz, B; Szabó, G; Ratkay, I; Süveges, I; Füst, A; Mohay, J

    1993-01-01

    Excimer lasers are now used for corneal surgery; however, the physical processes occurring during photoablation of the cornea are incompletely understood. High speed laser-based photographic arrangement was constructed. The temporal resolution was better than 1 ns. The setup could work as a Schlieren arrangement, which is sensitive to the refractive index change caused by the shock wave propagating in the air above the eye. With minor changes the setup was converted into a shadowgraph, which could detect the ablation plume and the waves propagating on the surface of the eye. Due to the impact of the excimer laser pulse onto the surface of the cornea, a shock wave was generated in the air. The shadowgraph clearly showed the ejection of the ablated cornea. The ejection velocity of the plume was found to be over 600 m/s. It was shown for the first time that the recoil forces of the plume are generating a wave on the surface of the eye. The laser-based high speed photographic arrangement is a powerful arrangement in the study of physical effects occurring during photoablation of the cornea.

  6. Age-related differences in the elasticity of the human cornea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox Cartwright, Nathaniel E; Tyrer, John R; Marshall, John

    2011-06-17

    The goal of this study was to determine age-related variation in the elasticity of the human cornea using nondestructive means. Organ cultured human corneoscleral buttons were studied. Changes in strain were measured with a radial shearing speckle pattern interferometer after an increase in intraocular pressure from 15.0 to 15.5 mm Hg. Changes in central corneal displacement were calculated by integration, and a bulk corneal Young's modulus was derived by mathematical analysis. Fifty corneas, including 17 pairs, were studied. Donors were aged between 24 and 102 years (mean, 73.1); 29 (58%) specimens were from male donors and 21 from female donors. Young's modulus of the cornea increased with age, with the line of best fit indicating an approximate doubling from 0.27 MPa at age 20 years (95% confidence interval, 0.22-0.31) to 0.52 (0.50-0.54) MPa at age 100 years (R² = 0.70). The stiffness of the human cornea increases by a factor of approximately two between the ages of 20 and 100 years. This variation is relevant to the algorithms used to predict the response to incisional and ablative refractive surgery and will also affect the formulas used to calculate intraocular pressure by applanation.

  7. Effect of glucose on the stress-strain behavior of ex-vivo rabbit cornea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Shouxiang; Yu, Jiguo; Bao, Fangjun; Li, Jinyang; Elsheikh, Ahmed; Wang, Qinmei

    2011-05-01

    The biomechanical changes in rabbit cornea preserved in storage media with different glucose concentrations are experimentally assessed. Two groups of eight fresh rabbit corneas were preserved for 10 days in storage medium Optisol-GS with glucose concentrations of 14 and 28 mM, respectively. Eight additional corneas preserved, glucose-free, in the same medium served as the control group. All specimens were tested under inflation conditions up to 45 mmHg posterior pressure, and the pressure-deformation data obtained experimentally were analyzed using shell theory to derive the stress-strain behavior. Comparisons were held between the three specimen groups in order to determine the effect of glucose concentration on corneal biomechanical behavior and thickness. After storage, the mean central corneal thickness in the control, low-glucose and high-glucose groups underwent statistically significant increases of 38.7 ± 11.3%, 45.4 ± 7.6% and 50.6 ± 8.6%, respectively. The corneas also demonstrated consistent stiffness increases with higher glucose concentrations. The tangent modulus values determined at different pressure levels between 10 and 40 mmHg underwent statistically significant increases with glucose level (P refractive surgery. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Excimer laser absorption on PMMA plate and on cornea: a practical approach using volume luminance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Digulescu, Petre P.; Carstocea, Benone D.; Sterian, Livia

    2001-04-01

    Excimer laser refractive surgery used in Ophthalmology in order to treat the human eye refraction problems has been performed over 10 years around the world. However a systematic approach of the physical phenomena and especially of the absorption on the cornea during the laser treatment is missing in the literature and the doctors are usually using empiric nomograms in order to achieve good results. The theoretical approach is difficult because of the complexity of the phenomena interconnected each to the others. The UV excimer laser beam used to controllably ablate the cornea is highly absorbed in the air and also is supplementary absorbed in the plume generated almost instantaneous as consequence of the ablation on the cornea. Because of this non-linear proces the energy of the laser beam delivered to the eye must be calibrated before each intervention on a patient. The purpose of the present work is to develop a mathematical model of the excimer laser absorption on PMMA and on human cornea based on a new physical notion, the Volume Luminance. The Volume Luminance is defined as volume density of the intensity of laser radiation. A brief theory of the Volume Luminance is also presented.

  9. Influx of immunoglobulins from the vascular compartment into a grafted cornea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VanDerVeen, G; Broersma, L; Bruyne, [No Value; Verhagen, C; VanRij, G; VanDerGaag, R; Ruijter, J

    Purpose. To determine the effect of a fresh corneal wound or a healed corneal Methods. F344 rats were immunized with human serum albumin (HSA) 1 week before an autologous rotational keratoplasty of the right cornea or 1 year after an autograft was performed. One group of rats also was treated with

  10. A donor cornea with metastatic cells from a cutaneous malignant melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campanelli, Marino; Mistò, Raffaela; Limongelli, Anna; Valente, Maria G; Cuttin, Maria S; D'Amato Tóthová, Jana

    2013-12-01

    To describe the case of a donor cornea that showed hematogenous metastatic spread of cutaneous melanoma to the sclerocorneal limbus. Corneal tissue obtained from a donor with cutaneous malignant melanoma was evaluated for endothelial cell density, corneal transparency, and epithelial morphology. Subsequently, hematoxylin and eosin staining and immunohistochemical characterization using S100, HMB45, Melan-A, and CD34 antibodies were performed on the corneal sections. The corneal tissue was transparent with high endothelial cell density; it was graded as being suitable for transplantation according to the current eye bank criteria. However, the aggressiveness of the donor's cancer and the diffuse melanosis of the sclera led to the suspicion of malignant melanoma metastasis to the cornea. Histochemical analysis of the corneoscleral rim showed small aggregates rich in pigmented cells that were localized in cleft-like structures in the sclera, at the sclerocorneal interface and in the peripheral avascular portion of the cornea. The aggregates were positive for the melanocytic tumor markers S100, HMB45, and Melan-A; the rims of the clefts expressed the panvascular CD34 antigen, which was suggestive of neovascularization. Corneal tissue from a donor with malignant cutaneous melanoma displayed neoplastic lesions of melanocytic origin that had spread from a primitive melanoma through hematogenous routes to the sclerocorneal limbus. On the basis of this finding, we believe that having a metastatic cutaneous malignant melanoma could in some cases be reviewed as an exclusionary criterion for undergoing cornea transplantation.

  11. Path antigen recognition and immune response after orthotopic transplantation cornea in a mouse model

    OpenAIRE

    Netuková, Magdaléna

    2008-01-01

    The present work deals with analysis of cell subpopulations in normal mouse cornea and the expression of specific markers of these cells. Another goal of this work was to monitor the origin and function of immune cells infiltrating fibrin mesh in the anterior chamber after orthotopic corneal transplantation.

  12. Ex vivo rabbit cornea diffusion studies with a soluble insert of moxifloxacin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastián-Morelló, María; Calatayud-Pascual, María Aracely; Rodilla, Vicent; Balaguer-Fernández, Cristina; López-Castellano, Alicia

    2018-02-01

    The objective of this research was to develop and evaluate an ocular insert for the controlled drug delivery of moxifloxacin which could perhaps be used in the treatment of corneal keratitis or even bacterial endophthalmitis. We have evaluated the ex vivo ocular diffusion of moxifloxacin through rabbit cornea, both fresh and preserved under different conditions. Histological studies were also carried out. Subsequently, drug matrix inserts were prepared using bioadhesive polymers. The inserts were evaluated for their physicochemical parameters. Ophthalmic ex vivo permeation of moxifloxacin was carried out with the most promising insert. The formulate insert was thin and provided higher ocular diffusion than commercial formulations. Ocular diffusion studies revealed significant differences between fresh and frozen corneas. Histological examinations also showed differences in the thickness of stroma between fresh and frozen corneas. The ophthalmic insert we have developed allows a larger quantity of moxifloxacin to permeate through the cornea than existing commercial formulations of the drug. Ocular delivery of moxifloxacin with this insert could be a new approach for the treatment of eye diseases.

  13. Biomechanical and refractive behaviors of keratoconic cornea based on three-dimensional anisotropic hyperelastic models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Zhaolong; Sui, Xiaohong; Zhou, Dai; Zhou, Chuanqing; Ren, Qiushi

    2013-04-01

    To investigate the biomechanical and refractive behaviors of normal and keratoconic corneas based on three-dimensional anisotropic hyperelastic corneal models with two layers. Based on an anisotropic hyperelastic formula, the finite element method was employed to develop normal and keratoconic corneal models in which the fiber orientations and the biomechanical differences between corneal layers were taken into account. The displacements for normal and keratoconic corneal models were studied, as well as changes in corneal refractive power with intraocular pressure (IOP). There were different displacements for keratoconic and normal corneas. Positive correlations were found in the keratoconic cornea between IOP and apical displacement, as well as between IOP and corneal refractive power. Under normal IOP, both the corneal shape and refractive power map were affected by the stiffness distributions of the corneal layers. Finite element analysis can be used to demonstrate the biomechanical and refractive behavior of a