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Sample records for healthy ageing perspective

  1. Perspectives on healthy aging among Thai elderly: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanakwang, Kattika; Soonthorndhada, Kusol; Mongkolprasoet, Jiraporn

    2012-12-01

    In this qualitative study, we provide an in-depth understanding of the views of healthy aging among Thai elderly and explore the ways that contribute to healthy aging. Data were collected using focus groups and in-depth interviews in four selected provinces of Thailand, and were analyzed using content analysis. The results revealed that Thai elderly described being healthy as the result of multiple components involving physical, mental, and social well-being. Healthy aging was viewed as an absence of serious diseases, having functional independence, a positive psycho-emotional outlook, and making a social contribution. The factors considered to contribute to healthy aging included activities promoting physical and psychological health, as well as active engagement in social activities. Understanding how the elderly define healthy aging and identifying the most important components and factors that contribute to being healthy provides insight into possible policy implications and interventions to promote health and well-being among Thai elderly. © 2012 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  2. Dancing for Healthy Aging: Functional and Metabolic Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues-Krause, Josianne; Krause, Mauricio; Reischak-Oliveira, Alvaro

    2018-02-10

    Context • Dancing has been used as a form of exercise to improve functional and metabolic outcomes during aging. The field lacks randomized, clinical trials (RCTs) evaluating metabolic outcomes related to dance interventions, but dancing may be a form of exercise that could induce positive effects on the metabolic health of older adults. However, primary studies seem very heterogonous regarding the trial designs, characteristics of the interventions, the methods for outcomes assessments, statistical powers, and methodological quality. Objective • The current research team intended to review the literature on the use of dance as a form of intervention to promote functional and metabolic health in older adults. Specifically, the research team aimed to identify and describe the characteristics of a large range of studies using dance as an intervention, summarizing them and putting them into perspective for further analysis. Design • The research team searched the following data sources-MEDLINE, Cochrane Wiley, Clinical Trials.gov, the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDRO), and the Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde (LILACS)-for RCTs, quasi-experimental studies, and observational trials that compared the benefits of any style of dancing, combined with other exercises or alone, to nonexercising controls and/or controls practicing other types of exercise. Setting • The study took place at the Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul (Porto Alegre, Brazil). Participants were aging individuals, >55 y, both with or without health conditions. Interventions • Interventions should be supervised, taking form as group classes, in a dance setting environment. Dance styles were divided into 5 categories for the review: (1) cultural dances developed by groups of people to reflect the roots of a certain region, such as Greek dance; (2) ballroom dance (ie, dances with partners performed socially or competitively in a ballroom, such as foxtrot

  3. Healthy Ageing in People with Intellectual Disabilities from Managers' Perspective: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Maria; Björne, Petra; Runesson, Ingrid; Ahlström, Gerd

    2017-08-18

    An increasing number of people with intellectual disability (ID) are reaching older ages today although they experience more health problems than the older population without ID. Leaders in intellectual disability services can greatly influence the conditions for a healthy ageing, and the aim of the present study was to explore healthy ageing in this group from the perspective of the leaders. Interviews with 20 leaders were subjected to qualitative content analysis. The findings gave rise to the overall theme ageing in dependence, which emerged from the following six categories: Supporting self-determination; Inaccessible activities after retirement; Signs of decline; Increased and specific needs for support and care; A non-question of gender; Aspects concerning the end of life and death. A prerequisite for healthy ageing in the case of people with ID is, according to the leaders, that they can live the life according to their preferences and make independent choices whilst at the same time receiving adequate support. With the shrinking of their social network after retirement, they become increasingly dependent on staff and leaders in the group home, who need to know what healthy ageing implies.

  4. Healthy ageing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrison, Adrian Paul; Brüggemann, Dagmar Adeline; Bartels, Else Marie

    2009-01-01

    The study employed mechanical stretching in vitro of sections of abdominal aorta of elderly mice to investigate any benefits of oral treatment with alpha-ketoglutarate (AKG) on arterial elasticity. Eighteen female mice (50-weeks-old) were assigned to a control (2% w/v) Na2-AKG or (2% w/v) a Ca-AK...... investigation as a candidate for therapies targeting arterial stiffening with age....

  5. Healthy ageing and home: the perspectives of very old people in five European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sixsmith, J; Sixsmith, A; Fänge, A Malmgren; Naumann, D; Kucsera, C; Tomsone, S; Haak, M; Dahlin-Ivanoff, S; Woolrych, R

    2014-04-01

    This paper reports on in-depth research, using a grounded theory approach, to examine the ways in which very old people perceive healthy ageing in the context of living alone at home within urban settings in five European countries. This qualitative study was part of a cross-national project entitled ENABLE-AGE which examined the relationship between home and healthy ageing. Interviews explored the notion of healthy ageing, the meaning and importance of home, conceptualisations of independence and autonomy and links between healthy ageing and home. Data analysis identified five ways in which older people constructed healthy ageing: home and keeping active; managing lifestyles, health and illness; balancing social life; and balancing material and financial circumstances. Older people reflected on their everyday lives at home in terms of being engaged in purposeful, meaningful action and evaluated healthy ageing in relation to the symbolic and practical affordances of the home, contextualised within constructions of their national context. The research suggests that older people perceive healthy ageing as an active achievement, created through individual, personal effort and supported through social ties despite the health, financial and social decline associated with growing older. The physicality and spatiality of home provided the context for establishing and evaluating the notion of healthy ageing, whilst the experienced relationship between home, life history and identity created a meaningful space within which healthy ageing was negotiated. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Aging Perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Theodore D Cosco; David Brehme; Nora Grigoruta; Lisa-Katrin Kaufmann; Liis Lemsalu; Ruth Meex; Angela Schuurmans; Neslihan Sener

    2014-01-01

    Despite the proliferation of successful ageing (SA) research, the literature is dominated by researcher-driven Anglophone conceptualisations. To date, lay perspectives of SA have not been examined in Europe or Turkey. The current study aims to conduct a mixed-methods examination of conceptualisations of SA in seven underrepresented countries. Using snowball sampling via social media sites, an online survey consisting of established closed-ended and open-ended items – translated into seven lan...

  7. Aging Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodore D Cosco

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Despite the proliferation of successful ageing (SA research, the literature is dominated by researcher-driven Anglophone conceptualisations. To date, lay perspectives of SA have not been examined in Europe or Turkey. The current study aims to conduct a mixed-methods examination of conceptualisations of SA in seven underrepresented countries. Using snowball sampling via social media sites, an online survey consisting of established closed-ended and open-ended items – translated into seven languages – was administered. Grounded theory methods and descriptive statistics were used to analyse qualitative and quantitative data, respectively.

  8. Healthy Family 2009: Assuring Healthy Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Healthy Family 2009 Assuring Healthy Aging Past Issues / Winter 2009 ... for steady, modest loss. Seek emotional support from family and friends. Expect setbacks; forgive yourself. Make physical ...

  9. Does Inflammation Determine Whether Obesity Is Metabolically Healthy or Unhealthy? The Aging Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iftikhar Alam

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a major health issue in developed as well as developing countries. While obesity is associated with relatively good health status in some individuals, it may become a health issue for others. Obesity in the context of inflammation has been studied extensively. However, whether obesity in its various forms has the same adverse effects is a matter of debate and requires further research. During its natural history, metabolically healthy obesity (MHO converts into metabolically unhealthy obesity (MUHO. What causes this transition to occur and what is the role of obesity-related mediators of inflammation during this transition is discussed in this paper.

  10. Healthy building environments for ageing adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kort, Helianthe S.M.

    2017-01-01

    A healthy building environment, when looking from a gerontechnology perspective, should facilitate ageing adults' functioning, self-esteem, and prosperity. Creating healthy environments is becoming more and more relevant in society. Older adults tend to stay more indoors when compared to younger

  11. Circulating miRNAs and miRNA shuttles as biomarkers: Perspective trajectories of healthy and unhealthy aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivieri, Fabiola; Capri, Miriam; Bonafè, Massimiliano; Morsiani, Cristina; Jung, Hwa Jin; Spazzafumo, Liana; Viña, Jose; Suh, Yousin

    2017-07-01

    Human aging is a lifelong process characterized by a continuous trade-off between pro-and anti-inflammatory responses, where the best-adapted and/or remodeled genetic/epigenetic profile may develop a longevity phenotype. Centenarians and their offspring represent such a phenotype and their comparison to patients with age-related diseases (ARDs) is expected to maximize the chance to unravel the genetic makeup that better associates with healthy aging trajectories. Seemingly, such comparison is expected to allow the discovery of new biomarkers of longevity together with risk factor for the most common ARDs. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) and their shuttles (extracellular vesicles in particular) are currently conceived as those endowed with the strongest ability to provide information about the trajectories of healthy and unhealthy aging. We review the available data on miRNAs in aging and underpin the evidence suggesting that circulating miRNAs (and cognate shuttles), especially those involved in the regulation of inflammation (inflamma-miRs) may constitute biomarkers capable of reliably depicting healthy and unhealthy aging trajectories. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Practical and Ethical Aspects of Advance Research Directives for Research on Healthy Aging: German and Israeli Professionals' Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Perla; Schicktanz, Silke

    2018-01-01

    Healthy aging is the development and maintenance of optimal cognitive, social and physical well-being, and function in older adults. Preventing or minimizing disease is one of the main ways of achieving healthy aging. Dementia is one of the most prevalent and life-changing diseases of old age. Thus, dementia prevention research is defined as one of the main priorities worldwide. However, conducting research with persons who lack the capacity to give consent is a major ethical issue. Our study attempts to explore if and how advance research directives (ARDs) may be used as a future tool to deal with the ethical and practical issues in dementia research. We conducted focus groups and in-depth interviews with German and Israeli professional stakeholders from the fields of gerontology, ethics, medical law, psychiatry, neurology and policy advice ( n  = 16), and analyzed the main topics discussed regarding cross-national similarities and controversies within the groups, as well as across the two national contexts. While both countries are in the midst of a developmental process and have recognized the importance and need for ARD as a tool for expanding healthy aging, Germany is in a more advanced stage than Israel because of the EU regulation process, which indicates the influence of international harmonization on these research-related ethical issues. Consensual themes within the qualitative material were identified: the need for a broader debate on ARD, the ethical importance of autonomy and risk-benefit assessment for ARD implementation, the role of the proxy and the need for the differentiation of types of dementia research. Controversies and dilemmas aroused around themes such as the current role of IRBs in each country, the need for limits, and how to guaranty safeguarding and control. Implementing a new tool is a step-by-step procedure requiring a thorough understanding of the current state of knowledge as well as of the challenges and hurdles ahead. As long

  13. Practical and Ethical Aspects of Advance Research Directives for Research on Healthy Aging: German and Israeli Professionals’ Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perla Werner

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundHealthy aging is the development and maintenance of optimal cognitive, social and physical well-being, and function in older adults. Preventing or minimizing disease is one of the main ways of achieving healthy aging. Dementia is one of the most prevalent and life-changing diseases of old age. Thus, dementia prevention research is defined as one of the main priorities worldwide. However, conducting research with persons who lack the capacity to give consent is a major ethical issue.ObjectiveOur study attempts to explore if and how advance research directives (ARDs may be used as a future tool to deal with the ethical and practical issues in dementia research.MethodWe conducted focus groups and in-depth interviews with German and Israeli professional stakeholders from the fields of gerontology, ethics, medical law, psychiatry, neurology and policy advice (n = 16, and analyzed the main topics discussed regarding cross-national similarities and controversies within the groups, as well as across the two national contexts.ResultsWhile both countries are in the midst of a developmental process and have recognized the importance and need for ARD as a tool for expanding healthy aging, Germany is in a more advanced stage than Israel because of the EU regulation process, which indicates the influence of international harmonization on these research-related ethical issues. Consensual themes within the qualitative material were identified: the need for a broader debate on ARD, the ethical importance of autonomy and risk–benefit assessment for ARD implementation, the role of the proxy and the need for the differentiation of types of dementia research. Controversies and dilemmas aroused around themes such as the current role of IRBs in each country, the need for limits, and how to guaranty safeguarding and control.DiscussionImplementing a new tool is a step-by-step procedure requiring a thorough understanding of the current state of knowledge

  14. Healthy ageing at work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Marlon; Jolij, Jacob; Lorist, Monicque

    2016-01-01

    Demographic ageing in the Western world means that the average age of the working population is increasing. This has major consequences for the labour process. Growing older is linked to physical and cognitive changes that can influence the performance of tasks. We are faced with an important

  15. Healthy ageing at work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Marlon; Jolij, Jacob; Lorist, Monicque

    2016-01-01

    Background Demographic ageing in the Western world means that the average age of the working population is increasing. This has major consequences for the labour process. Growing older is linked to physical and cognitive changes that can influence the performance of tasks. We are faced with an

  16. Healthy ageing at work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Marlon; Jolij, Jacob; Lorist, Monicque

    2015-01-01

    Demographic ageing in the Western world means that the average age of the working population is increasing. This has major consequences for the labour process. Growing older is linked to physical and cognitive changes which can influence performance of tasks. We are faced with an important

  17. Future perspective and healthy lifestyle choices in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasdemir-Ozdes, Aylin; Strickland-Hughes, Carla M; Bluck, Susan; Ebner, Natalie C

    2016-09-01

    Regardless of age, making healthy lifestyle choices is prudent. Despite that, individuals of all ages sometimes have difficulty choosing the healthy option. We argue that individuals' view of the future and position in the life span affects their current lifestyle choices. We capture the multidimensionality of future thinking by assessing 3 types of future perspective. Younger and older men and women (N = 127) reported global future time perspective, future health perspective, and perceived importance of future health-related events. They also rated their likelihood of making healthy lifestyle choices. As predicted, older participants indicated greater intention to make healthy choices in their current life than did younger participants. Compared to younger participants, older participants reported shorter global future time perspective and anticipated worse future health but perceived future health-related events as more important. Having a positive view of one's future health and seeing future health-related events as important were related to greater intention to make healthy lifestyle choices, but greater global future time perspective was not directly related to healthy choices. However, follow-up analyses suggested that greater global future time perspective indirectly affected healthy choices via a more positive view of future health. None of these relations were moderated by age. Individuals' perspective on the future is shown to be an important multidimensional construct affecting everyday healthy lifestyle choices for both younger and older adults. Implications for encouraging healthy choices across the adult life span are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Interdisciplinary Research on Healthy Aging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willekens, F.J.; Carey, James; Li, Qiang

    2018-01-01

    This Special Collection was edited by Frans Willekens, James R. Carey, and Qiang Li. The papers in this collection represent a small selection of papers presented at an international conference on healthy aging, held in October 2012 in Beijing and Hangzhou, China. The first part of the conference,

  19. From Survival to Healthy Aging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evron, Lotte Orr; Wind, Gitte

    2018-01-01

    and the spouses built their mutual and individual lives focusing on their relationship and strived to return to their usual everyday life. Within three to six months the couples went from “survival” where the diagnosis dominated to “wellbeing” where healthy aging/lifestyle dominated. All eight couples led...

  20. Healthy ageing, resilience and wellbeing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosco, T D; Howse, K; Brayne, C

    2017-12-01

    The extension of life does not appear to be slowing, representing a great achievement for mankind as well as a challenge for ageing populations. As we move towards an increasingly older population we will need to find novel ways for individuals to make the best of the challenges they face, as the likelihood of encountering some form of adversity increases with age. Resilience theories share a common idea that individuals who manage to navigate adversity and maintain high levels of functioning demonstrate resilience. Traditional models of healthy ageing suggest that having a high level of functioning across a number of domains is a requirement. The addition of adversity to the healthy ageing model via resilience makes this concept much more accessible and more amenable to the ageing population. Through asset-based approaches, such as the invoking of individual, social and environmental resources, it is hoped that greater resilience can be fostered at a population level. Interventions aimed at fostering greater resilience may take many forms; however, there is great potential to increase social and environmental resources through public policy interventions. The wellbeing of the individual must be the focus of these efforts; quality of life is an integral component to the enjoyment of additional years and should not be overlooked. Therefore, it will become increasingly important to use resilience as a public health concept and to intervene through policy to foster greater resilience by increasing resources available to older people. Fostering wellbeing in the face of increasing adversity has significant implications for ageing individuals and society as a whole.

  1. Evolutionary perspectives on ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichard, Martin

    2017-10-01

    From an evolutionary perspective, ageing is a decrease in fitness with chronological age - expressed by an increase in mortality risk and/or decline in reproductive success and mediated by deterioration of functional performance. While this makes ageing intuitively paradoxical - detrimental to individual fitness - evolutionary theory offers answers as to why ageing has evolved. In this review, I first briefly examine the classic evolutionary theories of ageing and their empirical tests, and highlight recent findings that have advanced our understanding of the evolution of ageing (condition-dependent survival, positive pleiotropy). I then provide an overview of recent theoretical extensions and modifications that accommodate those new discoveries. I discuss the role of indeterminate (asymptotic) growth for lifetime increases in fecundity and ageing trajectories. I outline alternative views that challenge a universal existence of senescence - namely the lack of a germ-soma distinction and the ability of tissue replacement and retrogression to younger developmental stages in modular organisms. I argue that rejuvenation at the organismal level is plausible, but includes a return to a simple developmental stage. This may exempt a particular genotype from somatic defects but, correspondingly, removes any information acquired during development. A resolution of the question of whether a rejuvenated individual is the same entity is central to the recognition of whether current evolutionary theories of ageing, with their extensions and modifications, can explain the patterns of ageing across the Tree of Life. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Changing course in ageing research: The healthy ageing phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Oscar H; Karnik, Kavita; Osborne, Gabrielle; Ordovas, Jose M; Catt, Michael; van der Ouderaa, Frans

    2009-05-20

    Ageing is often associated with the aged and the diseased, nevertheless ageing is a process that starts in-uterus and is characterised by a progressive functional loss but not necessarily by the presence of disease and poor quality of life. How to meander through life without crossing the confines of major chronic disease and cognitive and physical impairment remains one of the most relevant challenges for science and humankind. Delimiting that 'immaculate' trajectory - that we dub as the 'Healthy Ageing Phenotype' - and exploring solutions to help the population to stay or return to this trajectory should constitute the core focus of scientific research. Nevertheless, current efforts on ageing research are mainly focused on developing animal models to disentangle the human ageing process, and on age-related disorders often providing merely palliative solutions. Therefore, to identify alternative perspectives in ageing research, Unilever and the Medical Research Council (MRC) UK convened a Spark workshop entitled 'The Healthy Ageing Phenotype'. In this meeting, international specialists from complementary areas related to ageing research, gathered to find clear attributes and definitions of the 'Healthy Ageing Phenotype', to identify potential mechanisms and interventions to improve healthy life expectancy of the population; and to highlight areas within ageing research that should be prioritised in the future. General agreement was reached in recognising ageing research as a disaggregated field with little communication between basic, epidemiological and clinical areas of research and limited translation to society. A more holistic, multi-disciplinary approach emanating from a better understanding of healthy ageing trajectories and centred along human biological resilience, its maintenance and the reversibility from early deviations into pathological trajectories, is urgently required. Future research should concentrate on understanding the mechanisms that permit

  3. Healthy Aging with Go4Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Healthy Aging Healthy Aging with Go4Life ® Past Issues / Winter 2015 Table of ... is to make physical activity a cornerstone of healthy aging, for a simple reason. Being physically active is ...

  4. Healthy Aging: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Aging National Institute on Aging Also in Spanish Topic Image MedlinePlus Email Updates Get Healthy Aging updates ... 65 Health screening - women - over 65 Related Health Topics Exercise for Seniors Nutrition for Seniors Seniors' Health ...

  5. Interdisciplinary Research on Healthy Aging: Introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willekens, F.J.; Carey, James; Li, Qiang

    2018-01-01

    Background: This is an introduction to a Special Collection of Demographic Research on Interdisciplinary Research on Healthy Aging. The collection is an outcome of an international conference in China on biodemography and multistate modeling in healthy aging research. Causal analysis is the common

  6. The role of temporal structure in the investigation of sensory memory, auditory scene analysis, and speech perception: a healthy-aging perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimmele, Johanna Maria; Sussman, Elyse; Poeppel, David

    2015-02-01

    Listening situations with multiple talkers or background noise are common in everyday communication and are particularly demanding for older adults. Here we review current research on auditory perception in aging individuals in order to gain insights into the challenges of listening under noisy conditions. Informationally rich temporal structure in auditory signals--over a range of time scales from milliseconds to seconds--renders temporal processing central to perception in the auditory domain. We discuss the role of temporal structure in auditory processing, in particular from a perspective relevant for hearing in background noise, and focusing on sensory memory, auditory scene analysis, and speech perception. Interestingly, these auditory processes, usually studied in an independent manner, show considerable overlap of processing time scales, even though each has its own 'privileged' temporal regimes. By integrating perspectives on temporal structure processing in these three areas of investigation, we aim to highlight similarities typically not recognized. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Balneotherapy and healthy ageing - review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUNTEANU Constantin

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available “To be forever young doesn’t mean to be 20. It means to be optimist, to feel good, to have an ideal to fight for and to achieve it” said Prof. Ana Aslan. Human ageing and longevity are complex and multi-factorial traits that result from a combination of environmental, genetic, epigenetic and stochastic factors. Ageing refers to the time sequential deterioration - including weaness, susceptibility to disease, loss of mobility and agility.

  8. Adult height, dietary patterns, and healthy aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Wenjie; Hagan, Kaitlin A; Heianza, Yoriko; Sun, Qi; Rimm, Eric B; Qi, Lu

    2017-08-01

    Background: Adult height has shown directionally diverse associations with several age-related disorders, including cardiovascular disease, cancer, decline in cognitive function, and mortality. Objective: We investigated the associations of adult height with healthy aging measured by a full spectrum of health outcomes, including incidence of chronic diseases, memory, physical functioning, and mental health, among populations who have survived to older age, and whether lifestyle factors modified such relations. Design: We included 52,135 women (mean age: 44.2 y) from the Nurses' Health Study without chronic diseases in 1980 and whose health status was available in 2012. Healthy aging was defined as being free of 11 major chronic diseases and having no reported impairment of subjective memory, physical impairment, or mental health limitations. Results: Of all eligible study participants, 6877 (13.2%) were classified as healthy agers. After adjustment for demographic and lifestyle factors, we observed an 8% (95% CI: 6%, 11%) decrease in the odds of healthy aging per SD (0.062 m) increase in height. Compared with the lowest category of height (≤1.57 m), the OR of achieving healthy aging in the highest category (≥1.70 m) was 0.80 (95% CI: 0.73, 0.87; P -trend healthy aging ( P -interaction = 0.005), and among the individual dietary factors characterizing the prudent dietary pattern, fruit and vegetable intake showed the strongest effect modification ( P -interaction = 0.01). The association of greater height with reduced odds of healthy aging appeared to be more evident among women with higher adherence to the prudent dietary pattern rich in vegetable and fruit intake. Conclusions: Greater height was associated with a modest decrease in the likelihood of healthy aging. A prudent diet rich in fruit and vegetables might modify the relation. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  9. Social capital and healthy ageing in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junran Cao

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A large international literature has found a positive association between social capital and measures of physical and mental health. However, there is a paucity of research on the links between social capital and healthy ageing in a developing country environment, where universal social security coverage is absent and health infrastructure is poor. Method In this paper, we develop and empirically test a model of the linkages between social capital and the health outcomes for older adults in Indonesia, using data from the Indonesian Family Life Survey-East (IFLS-East, conducted in 2012. Using multivariate regression analysis, we examine whether social capital plays a role in mitigating poor health among older individuals aged 50 years and above in Indonesia’s most vulnerable provinces. We test the robustness of these social capital variables across different health measures (self-assessed health, Activities of Daily Living (ADL, measures of chronic illness and mental health measures, as well as across different demographic groups, after controlling for an array of socio-economic, demographic and geographic characteristics. Results Our findings show that access to better social capital (using measures of neighbourhood trust and community participation is associated with a higher degree of physical mobility, independence, and mental well-being among older individuals but has no influence on chronic illnesses. These results are consistent when we estimate samples disaggregated by gender, rural/urban residence, and by age categories. Conclusion From a policy perspective these results point to the importance of social capital measures in moderating the influence of poor health, particularly in the Activities of Daily Living.

  10. Social capital and healthy ageing in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Junran; Rammohan, Anu

    2016-07-22

    A large international literature has found a positive association between social capital and measures of physical and mental health. However, there is a paucity of research on the links between social capital and healthy ageing in a developing country environment, where universal social security coverage is absent and health infrastructure is poor. In this paper, we develop and empirically test a model of the linkages between social capital and the health outcomes for older adults in Indonesia, using data from the Indonesian Family Life Survey-East (IFLS-East), conducted in 2012. Using multivariate regression analysis, we examine whether social capital plays a role in mitigating poor health among older individuals aged 50 years and above in Indonesia's most vulnerable provinces. We test the robustness of these social capital variables across different health measures (self-assessed health, Activities of Daily Living (ADL), measures of chronic illness and mental health measures), as well as across different demographic groups, after controlling for an array of socio-economic, demographic and geographic characteristics. Our findings show that access to better social capital (using measures of neighbourhood trust and community participation) is associated with a higher degree of physical mobility, independence, and mental well-being among older individuals but has no influence on chronic illnesses. These results are consistent when we estimate samples disaggregated by gender, rural/urban residence, and by age categories. From a policy perspective these results point to the importance of social capital measures in moderating the influence of poor health, particularly in the Activities of Daily Living.

  11. Social environment and healthy ageing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Schalkwijk

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available growing numbers of people living to older ages, age-related diseases have become an increasing challenge for societies everywhere. Many age-related diseases however, should rather be considered lifestyle-related diseases since lifestyle plays an important role in the etiology and the treatment of cardiovascular disease, obesity, type 2I diabetes and many forms of cancer. This has led to a large body of literature investigating the possibility to change people’s lifestyle. Interventions with, for example, physiotherapists that engage in daily physical activity with older people have shown substantial benefits, even reversing type 2 diabetes and some characteristics of the ageing process (1,2. Most lifestyle interventions, however, struggle to achieve sustained, long-term behavioural change (3,4. Few individuals can maintain the effort to adopt a new diet or exercise regime themselves, without intensive coaching by professionals. These interventions are therefore expensive and this hinders the widespread and continued delivery to the growing number of older people with unhealthy lifestyle and (risk for age-related disease. Therefore, it is important to explore novel sustainable and cost-effective methods for lifestyle interventions to combat the burden of agerelated disease in ageing societies. One often overlooked influence on the health behaviour of older people is the effect of the social environment. We believe that peer coaching, in which older people coach each other in achieving lifestyle changes, is such a promising method to deliver health benefits in a sustainable, scalable way. Although there is substantial documentation of the effect of peers on adolescents and children, the influence of peers has been overlooked in older people. In peer coaching, the social environment is applied as a method to deliver an intervention. Peer coaching is a face-to-face intervention in which a group is led by a peer, a non-professional, who shares a

  12. Relationships between Housing and Healthy Aging in Very Old Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oswald, Frank; Wahl, Hans-Werner; Schilling, Oliver; Nygren, Carita; Fange, Agneta; Sixsmith, Andrew; Sixsmith, Judith; Szeman, Zsuzsa; Tomsone, Signe; Iwarsson, Susanne

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this work is to examine the relationship between aspects of objective and perceived housing and aspects of healthy aging, defined as independence in daily activities and subjective well-being. Furthermore, this research examined the comparability of relationships between housing and healthy aging in the five European countries.…

  13. Social activity and healthy aging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McGue, Matt; Christensen, Kaare

    2007-01-01

    with late-life physical functioning, cognitive functioning, and depression symptomatology using data from 1112 pairs of like-sex twins who participated in the Longitudinal Study of Aging Danish Twins. Consistent with previous research, we found that social activity was significantly correlated with overall...... activity did not predict change in functioning and in monozygotic twin pairs discordant on level of social activity, the more socially active twin was not less susceptible to age decreases in physical and cognitive functioning and increases in depression symptomatology than the less socially active twin......Although social and intellectual engagement have been consistently associated with late-life functioning, rather than true causation, these associations may reflect the experiential choices of high functioning individuals (i.e., selection effects). We investigated the association of social activity...

  14. Exercise Promotes Healthy Aging of Skeletal Muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cartee, Gregory D; Hepple, Russell T; Bamman, Marcas M

    2016-01-01

    caused by diseases and lifestyle factors. Secondary aging can exacerbate deficits in mitochondrial function and muscle mass, concomitant with the development of skeletal muscle insulin resistance. Exercise opposes deleterious effects of secondary aging by preventing the decline in mitochondrial...... respiration, mitigating aging-related loss of muscle mass and enhancing insulin sensitivity. This review focuses on mechanisms by which exercise promotes "healthy aging" by inducing modifications in skeletal muscle....

  15. Attentional neural networks impairment in healthy aging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vazquez-Marrufo, Manuel; Luisa Benitez, Maria; Rodriguez-Gomez, Guillermo; Galvao-Carmona, Alejandro; Fernandez-Del Olmo, Aaron; Vaquero-Casares, Encarnacion

    2011-01-01

    Introduction. Diverse evidences have shown that the process of natural aging causes a decline in different cognitive functions, including among them the attentional process. Aim. To determine how the healthy aging affects to the different attentional networks. Subjects and methods. Two groups: young

  16. Centenarians - a useful model for healthy aging?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, Henriette; Oksuzyan, Anna; Jeune, Bernard

    2009-01-01

    Centenarians surpass the current human life expectancy with about 20-25 years. However, whether centenarians represent healthy aging still remains an open question. Previous studies have been hampered by a number of methodological shortcomings such as a cross-sectional design and lack...... of an appropriate control group. In a longitudinal population-based cohort, it was examined whether the centenarian phenotype may be a useful model for healthy aging. The study was based on a completefollow up of 39 945 individuals alive in the Danish 1905 birth cohort on January 1, 1977 identified through...... with 68.4% among individuals who died in their early 80s. This trend was evident in both sexes. As a result of their lower hospitalization rates and length of stay in hospital compared with their contemporaries, who died at younger ages, Danish centenarians represent healthy agers. Centenarians constitute...

  17. Evolutionary perspectives on ageing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Reichard, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 70, SI (2017), s. 99-107 ISSN 1084-9521 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-00291S Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Gene-by-environment interactions * Germ-soma distinction * Intraspecific ageing rate * Modified mutation accumulation * Rejuvenation * Retrogression Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Developmental biology Impact factor: 6.614, year: 2016

  18. Genetics of healthy aging and longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks-Wilson, Angela R

    2013-12-01

    Longevity and healthy aging are among the most complex phenotypes studied to date. The heritability of age at death in adulthood is approximately 25 %. Studies of exceptionally long-lived individuals show that heritability is greatest at the oldest ages. Linkage studies of exceptionally long-lived families now support a longevity locus on chromosome 3; other putative longevity loci differ between studies. Candidate gene studies have identified variants at APOE and FOXO3A associated with longevity; other genes show inconsistent results. Genome-wide association scans (GWAS) of centenarians vs. younger controls reveal only APOE as achieving genome-wide significance (GWS); however, analyses of combinations of SNPs or genes represented among associations that do not reach GWS have identified pathways and signatures that converge upon genes and biological processes related to aging. The impact of these SNPs, which may exert joint effects, may be obscured by gene-environment interactions or inter-ethnic differences. GWAS and whole genome sequencing data both show that the risk alleles defined by GWAS of common complex diseases are, perhaps surprisingly, found in long-lived individuals, who may tolerate them by means of protective genetic factors. Such protective factors may 'buffer' the effects of specific risk alleles. Rare alleles are also likely to contribute to healthy aging and longevity. Epigenetics is quickly emerging as a critical aspect of aging and longevity. Centenarians delay age-related methylation changes, and they can pass this methylation preservation ability on to their offspring. Non-genetic factors, particularly lifestyle, clearly affect the development of age-related diseases and affect health and lifespan in the general population. To fully understand the desirable phenotypes of healthy aging and longevity, it will be necessary to examine whole genome data from large numbers of healthy long-lived individuals to look simultaneously at both common and

  19. Exercise Promotes Healthy Aging of Skeletal Muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartee, Gregory D; Hepple, Russell T; Bamman, Marcas M; Zierath, Juleen R

    2016-06-14

    Primary aging is the progressive and inevitable process of bodily deterioration during adulthood. In skeletal muscle, primary aging causes defective mitochondrial energetics and reduced muscle mass. Secondary aging refers to additional deleterious structural and functional age-related changes caused by diseases and lifestyle factors. Secondary aging can exacerbate deficits in mitochondrial function and muscle mass, concomitant with the development of skeletal muscle insulin resistance. Exercise opposes deleterious effects of secondary aging by preventing the decline in mitochondrial respiration, mitigating aging-related loss of muscle mass and enhancing insulin sensitivity. This review focuses on mechanisms by which exercise promotes "healthy aging" by inducing modifications in skeletal muscle. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Personality Plasticity, Healthy Aging, and Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mroczek, Daniel K.

    2014-01-01

    This commentary on the special section on conscientiousness and healthy aging focuses on several topics brought up in this collection of articles. One is the promise of personality interventions. Despite skepticism on the part of some, such interventions may ultimately prove successful. This is in part because of similarities between personality…

  1. Healthy aging: The ultimate preventative medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaeberlein, Matt; Rabinovitch, Peter S; Martin, George M

    2015-12-04

    Age is the greatest risk factor for nearly every major cause of mortality in developed nations. Despite this, most biomedical research focuses on individual disease processes without much consideration for the relationships between aging and disease. Recent discoveries in the field of geroscience, which aims to explain biological mechanisms of aging, have provided insights into molecular processes that underlie biological aging and, perhaps more importantly, potential interventions to delay aging and promote healthy longevity. Here we describe some of these advances, along with efforts to move geroscience from the bench to the clinic. We also propose that greater emphasis should be placed on research into basic aging processes, because interventions that slow aging will have a greater effect on quality of life compared with disease-specific approaches. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  2. Healthy ageing - from molecules to hormesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rattan, Suresh

    2012-01-01

    Ageing can be understood at various levels, from evolutionary and biological levels to psychological and sociological levels. At the molecular biological level ageing is characterized by the stochastic occurrence and progressive accumulation of molecular damage. Failure of homeodynamics, increased...... molecular heterogeneity, altered cellular functioning and reduced stress tolerance are the determinants of health status, probability of diseases and the duration of survival. The inefficiency and imperfection of the maintenance and repair systems underlie the biological basis of ageing. Two major issues...... life style alterations are examples of ageing interventions. A promising healthy-ageing approach is that of hormesis by strengthening the homeodynamic ability of self-maintenance through transient and repetitive mild stress-inducing hormetins. Achieving the goal of extended health-span will depend...

  3. Biology of Healthy Aging and Longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmona, Juan José; Michan, Shaday

    2016-01-01

    As human life expectancy is prolonged, age-related diseases are thriving. Aging is a complex multifactorial process of molecular and cellular decline that affects tissue function over time, rendering organisms frail and susceptible to disease and death. Over the last decades, a growing body of scientific literature across different biological models, ranging from yeast, worms, flies, and mice to primates, humans and other long-lived animals, has contributed greatly towards identifying conserved biological mechanisms that ward off structural and functional deterioration within living systems. Collectively, these data offer powerful insights into healthy aging and longevity. For example, molecular integrity of the genome, telomere length, epigenetic landscape stability, and protein homeostasis are all features linked to "youthful" states. These molecular hallmarks underlie cellular functions associated with aging like mitochondrial fitness, nutrient sensing, efficient intercellular communication, stem cell renewal, and regenerative capacity in tissues. At present, calorie restriction remains the most robust strategy for extending health and lifespan in most biological models tested. Thus, pathways that mediate the beneficial effects of calorie restriction by integrating metabolic signals to aging processes have received major attention, such as insulin/insulin growth factor-1, sirtuins, mammalian target of rapamycin, and 5' adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase. Consequently, small-molecule targets of these pathways have emerged in the impetuous search for calorie restriction mimetics, of which resveratrol, metformin, and rapamycin are the most extensively studied. A comprehensive understanding of the molecular and cellular mechanisms that underlie age-related deterioration and repair, and how these pathways interconnect, remains a major challenge for uncovering interventions to slow human aging while extending molecular and physiological youthfulness

  4. Perspectives on aging vestibular function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric eAnson

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Much is known about age related anatomical changes in the vestibular system. Knowledge regarding how vestibular anatomical changes impact behavior for older adults continues to grow, in line with advancements in diagnostic testing. However, despite advancements in clinical diagnostics, much remains unknown about the functional impact that an aging vestibular system has on daily life activities like standing and walking. Modern diagnostic tests are very good at characterizing neural activity of the isolated vestibular system, but the tests themselves are artificial and do not reflect the multi-sensory aspects of natural human behavior. Also, the majority of clinical diagnostic tests are passively applied because active behavior can enhance performance. In this perspective paper we review anatomical and behavioral changes associated with an aging vestibular system and highlight several areas where a more functionally relevant perspective can be taken. For postural control, a multi-sensory perturbation approach could be used to bring balance rehabilitation into the arena of precision medicine. For walking and complex gaze stability, this may result in less physiologically specific impairments, but the trade-off would be a greater understanding of how the aging vestibular system truly impacts the daily life of older adults.

  5. Nutrition and healthy ageing: the key ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiefte-de Jong, Jessica C; Mathers, John C; Franco, Oscar H

    2014-05-01

    Healthy longevity is a tangible possibility for many individuals and populations, with nutritional and other lifestyle factors playing a key role in modulating the likelihood of healthy ageing. Nevertheless, studies of effects of nutrients or single foods on ageing often show inconsistent results and ignore the overall framework of dietary habits. Therefore, the use of dietary patterns (e.g. a Mediterranean dietary pattern) and the specific dietary recommendations (e.g. dietary approaches to stop hypertension, Polymeal and the American Healthy Eating Index) are becoming more widespread in promoting lifelong health. A posteriori defined dietary patterns are described frequently in relation to age-related diseases but their generalisability is often a challenge since these are developed specifically for the population under study. Conversely, the dietary guidelines are often developed based on prevention of disease or nutrient deficiency, but often less attention is paid to how well these dietary guidelines promote health outcomes. In the present paper, we provide an overview of the state of the art of dietary patterns and dietary recommendations in relation to life expectancy and the risk of age-related disorders (with emphasis on cardiometabolic diseases and cognitive outcomes). According to both a posteriori and a priori dietary patterns, some key 'ingredients' can be identified that are associated consistently with longevity and better cardiometabolic and cognitive health. These include high intake of fruit, vegetables, fish, (whole) grains and legumes/pulses and potatoes, whereas dietary patterns rich in red meat and sugar-rich foods have been associated with an increased risk of mortality and cardiometabolic outcomes.

  6. DNA methylation and healthy human aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Meaghan J; Goodman, Sarah J; Kobor, Michael S

    2015-12-01

    The process of aging results in a host of changes at the cellular and molecular levels, which include senescence, telomere shortening, and changes in gene expression. Epigenetic patterns also change over the lifespan, suggesting that epigenetic changes may constitute an important component of the aging process. The epigenetic mark that has been most highly studied is DNA methylation, the presence of methyl groups at CpG dinucleotides. These dinucleotides are often located near gene promoters and associate with gene expression levels. Early studies indicated that global levels of DNA methylation increase over the first few years of life and then decrease beginning in late adulthood. Recently, with the advent of microarray and next-generation sequencing technologies, increases in variability of DNA methylation with age have been observed, and a number of site-specific patterns have been identified. It has also been shown that certain CpG sites are highly associated with age, to the extent that prediction models using a small number of these sites can accurately predict the chronological age of the donor. Together, these observations point to the existence of two phenomena that both contribute to age-related DNA methylation changes: epigenetic drift and the epigenetic clock. In this review, we focus on healthy human aging throughout the lifetime and discuss the dynamics of DNA methylation as well as how interactions between the genome, environment, and the epigenome influence aging rates. We also discuss the impact of determining 'epigenetic age' for human health and outline some important caveats to existing and future studies. © 2015 The Authors. Aging Cell published by the Anatomical Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Healthy Aging in Community for Older Lesbians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradford, Judith B; Putney, Jennifer M; Shepard, Bonnie L; Sass, Samantha E; Rudicel, Sally; Ladd, Holly; Cahill, Sean

    2016-04-01

    In Boston and Outer Cape, Massachusetts, we explored the expectations of lesbians 60 years and older regarding healthy aging and community importance. Focus groups were conducted with participants after completing an anonymous demographic questionnaire. Thematic analysis was used to generate themes and identify how they varied by urban versus rural settings. Group discussions focused on community, finances, housing, and healthcare. Primary concerns included continued access to supportive and lesbian communities as a source of resilience during aging. Concerns about discrimination and isolation mirror themes found in national research. The study findings suggest a need for more research into the housing and transportation needs of lesbians approaching later life, with a focus on how those needs relate to affordability, accessibility, and proximity to social support and healthcare. These findings also suggest the need for substantial investments in strengthening the LGBT-related cultural competence of providers of services for the elderly.

  8. Healthy aging profile in octogenarians in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Ana Cristina Viana; Ferreira, Efigênia Ferreira E; Vargas, Andréa Maria Duarte; Gonçalves, Lúcia Hisako Takase

    2016-08-29

    to identify the healthy aging profile in octogenarians in Brazil. this population-based epidemiological study was conducted using household interviews of 335 octogenarians in a Brazilian municipality. The decision-tree model was used to assess the healthy aging profile in relation to the socioeconomic characteristics evaluated at baseline. All of the tests used a p-value adultos mayores participantes, la mayoría eran mujeres (62,1%), edades comprendidas entre 80 y 84 años (50,4%), viudos (53,4%), analfabetos (59,1 %), con ingreso mensual inferior del salario mínimo (59,1%), jubilados (85,7%), viviendo con el cónyuge (63,8%), sin cuidador (60,3%), con dos o más hijos (82,7%), y dos o más nietos (78,8%). Los resultados indican tres grupos de edad con perfil de envejecimiento más saludable: adultos mayores de 80-84 años (55,6%), adultos mayores con 85 años o más y casados (64,9%), y adultos mayores con 85 años o más sin pareja y ni cuidador (54,2%). el perfil de envejecimiento saludable de octogenarios se puede explicar por el grupo etario, el estado civil y la presencia de un cuidador.

  9. Healthy aging – insights from Drosophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin G Iliadi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Human life expectancy has nearly doubled in the past century due, in part, to social and economic development, and a wide range of new medical technologies and treatments. As the number of elderly increase it becomes of vital importance to understand what factors contribute to healthy aging. Human longevity is a complex process that is affected by both environmental and genetic factors and interactions between them. Unfortunately, it is currently difficult to identify the role of genetic components in human longevity. In contrast, model organisms such as C. elegans, Drosophila and rodents have facilitated the search for specific genes that affect lifespan. Experimental evidence obtained from studies in model organisms suggests that mutations in a single gene may increase longevity and delay the onset of age-related symptoms including motor impairments, sexual and reproductive and immune dysfunction, cardiovascular disease and cognitive decline. Furthermore, the high degree of conservation between diverse species in the genes and pathways that regulate longevity suggests that work in model organisms can both expand our theoretical knowledge of aging and perhaps provide new therapeutic targets for the treatment of age-related disorders.

  10. Developmental aspects of a life course approach to healthy ageing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, C.; Aihie Sayer, A.; Eendebak, R. J.; Clough, G. F.; Beard, J. R.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We examine the mechanistic basis and wider implications of adopting a developmental perspective on human ageing. Previous models of ageing have concentrated on its genetic basis, or the detrimental effects of accumulated damage, but also have raised issues about whether ageing can be viewed as adaptive itself, or is a consequence of other adaptive processes, for example if maintenance and repair processes in the period up to reproduction are traded off against later decline in function. A life course model places ageing in the context of the attainment of peak capacity for a body system, starting in early development when plasticity permits changes in structure and function induced by a range of environmental stimuli, followed by a period of decline, the rate of which depends on the peak attained as well as the later life conditions. Such path dependency in the rate of ageing may offer new insights into its modification. Focusing on musculoskeletal and cardiovascular function, we discuss this model and the possible underlying mechanisms, including endothelial function, oxidative stress, stem cells and nutritional factors such as vitamin D status. Epigenetic changes induced during developmental plasticity, and immune function may provide a common mechanistic process underlying a life course model of ageing. The life course trajectory differs in high and low resource settings. New insights into the developmental components of the life course model of ageing may lead to the design of biomarkers of later chronic disease risk and to new interventions to promote healthy ageing, with important implications for public health. PMID:26518329

  11. Genetics of healthy aging in Europe: the EU-integrated project GEHA (GEnetics of Healthy Aging)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franceschi, Claudio; Bezrukov, Vladyslav; Blanché, Hélène

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the 5-year European Union (EU)-Integrated Project GEnetics of Healthy Aging (GEHA), constituted by 25 partners (24 from Europe plus the Beijing Genomics Institute from China), is to identify genes involved in healthy aging and longevity, which allow individuals to survive to advanced old......DNA). The genetic analysis will be performed by 9 high-throughput platforms, within the framework of centralized databases for phenotypic, genetic, and mtDNA data. Additional advanced approaches (bioinformatics, advanced statistics, mathematical modeling, functional genomics and proteomics, molecular biology...... age in good cognitive and physical function and in the absence of major age-related diseases. To achieve this aim a coherent, tightly integrated program of research that unites demographers, geriatricians, geneticists, genetic epidemiologists, molecular biologists, bioinfomaticians, and statisticians...

  12. Feast and famine: Adipose tissue adaptations for healthy aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lettieri Barbato, Daniele; Aquilano, Katia

    2016-07-01

    Proper adipose tissue function controls energy balance with favourable effects on metabolic health and longevity. The molecular and metabolic asset of adipose tissue quickly and dynamically readapts in response to nutrient fluctuations. Once delivered into cells, nutrients are managed by mitochondria that represent a key bioenergetics node. A persistent nutrient overload generates mitochondrial exhaustion and uncontrolled reactive oxygen species ((mt)ROS) production. In adipocytes, metabolic/molecular reorganization is triggered culminating in the acquirement of a hypertrophic and hypersecretory phenotype that accelerates aging. Conversely, dietary regimens such as caloric restriction or time-controlled fasting endorse mitochondrial functionality and (mt)ROS-mediated signalling, thus promoting geroprotection. In this perspective view, we argued some important molecular and metabolic aspects related to adipocyte response to nutrient stress. Finally we delineated hypothetical routes by which molecularly and metabolically readapted adipose tissue promotes healthy aging. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Number skills are maintained in healthy ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappelletti, Marinella; Didino, Daniele; Stoianov, Ivilin; Zorzi, Marco

    2014-03-01

    Numerical skills have been extensively studied in terms of their development and pathological decline, but whether they change in healthy ageing is not well known. Longer exposure to numbers and quantity-related problems may progressively refine numerical skills, similar to what happens to other cognitive abilities like verbal memory. Alternatively, number skills may be sensitive to ageing, reflecting either a decline of number processing itself or of more auxiliary cognitive abilities that are involved in number tasks. To distinguish between these possibilities we tested 30 older and 30 younger participants on an established numerosity discrimination task requiring to judge which of two sets of items is more numerous, and on arithmetical tasks. Older participants were remarkably accurate in performing arithmetical tasks although their numerosity discrimination (also known as 'number acuity') was impaired. Further analyses indicate that this impairment was limited to numerosity trials requiring inhibiting information incongruent to numerosity (e.g., fewer but larger items), and that this also correlated with poor inhibitory processes measured by standard tests. Therefore, rather than a numerical impairment, poor numerosity discrimination is likely to reflect elderly's impoverished inhibitory processes. This conclusion is supported by simulations with a recent neuro-computational model of numerosity perception, where only the specific degradation of inhibitory processes produced a pattern that closely resembled older participants' performance. Numeracy seems therefore resilient to ageing but it is influenced by the decline of inhibitory processes supporting number performance, consistent with the 'Inhibitory Deficit' Theory. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Life course vaccination and healthy aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusmano, Michael K; Michel, Jean-Pierre

    2009-06-01

    The authors notice the low vaccine coverage rate among European citizens and inventory the multiple reasons leading to the non-use of preventable infectious diseases vaccines in adults whose mortality consequences represent an important and unexpected burden of diseases. These facts are in close relation with the disruption of vaccine recommendations after the childhood vaccine program, the poor literacy knowledge concerning vaccines among the general population, but also unfortunately among physicians and other health care workers. Popular beliefs, fear of side-effects, fear of needles facilitated the constitution of active non-vaccine groups which conduct to the reappearance in non-vaccinated adults and with dramatic consequences of preventable childhood infectious diseases. This careful analysis of the current preventable infectious disease vaccine coverage in old adults leads to propose a life course vaccine programme including adult vaccinations as part of healthy aging as well as old adults' vaccine guidelines integrated in health prevention programs.

  15. Quantitative measures of healthy aging and biological age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sangkyu; Jazwinski, S. Michal

    2015-01-01

    Numerous genetic and non-genetic factors contribute to aging. To facilitate the study of these factors, various descriptors of biological aging, including ‘successful aging’ and ‘frailty’, have been put forth as integrative functional measures of aging. A separate but related quantitative approach is the ‘frailty index’, which has been operationalized and frequently used. Various frailty indices have been constructed. Although based on different numbers and types of health variables, frailty indices possess several common properties that make them useful across different studies. We have been using a frailty index termed FI34 based on 34 health variables. Like other frailty indices, FI34 increases non-linearly with advancing age and is a better indicator of biological aging than chronological age. FI34 has a substantial genetic basis. Using FI34, we found elevated levels of resting metabolic rate linked to declining health in nonagenarians. Using FI34 as a quantitative phenotype, we have also found a genomic region on chromosome 12 that is associated with healthy aging and longevity. PMID:26005669

  16. Perspectives on healthy eating among Appalachian residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenberg, Nancy E; Howell, Britteny M; Swanson, Mark; Grosh, Christopher; Bardach, Shoshana

    2013-08-01

    Extensive attention has been focused on improving the dietary intake of Americans. Such focus is warranted due to increasing rates of overweight, obesity, and other dietary-related disease. To address suboptimal dietary intake requires an improved, contextualized understanding of the multiple and intersecting influences on healthy eating, particularly among those populations at greatest risk of and from poor diet, including rural residents. During 8 focus groups (N = 99) and 6 group key informant interviews (N = 20), diverse Appalachian rural residents were queried about their perceptions of healthy eating, determinants of healthy food intake, and recommendations for improving the dietary intake of people in their communities. Participants included church members and other laypeople, public health officials, social service providers, health care professionals, and others. Participants offered insights on healthy eating consistent with the categories of individual, interpersonal, community, physical, environmental, and society-level influences described in the socioecological model. Although many participants identified gaps in dietary knowledge as a persistent problem, informants also identified extraindividual factors, including the influence of family, fellow church members, and schools, policy, advertising and media, and general societal trends, as challenges to healthy dietary intake. We highlight Appalachian residents' recommendations for promoting healthier diets, including support groups, educational workshops, cooking classes, and community gardening. We discuss the implications of these findings for programmatic development in the Appalachian context. © 2013 National Rural Health Association.

  17. Yogurt: role in healthy and active aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Abbadi, Naglaa Hani; Dao, Maria Carlota; Meydani, Simin Nikbin

    2014-05-01

    Yogurt consumption has been associated with health benefits in different populations. Limited information, however, is available on nutritional and health attributes of yogurt in older adults. Yogurt is abundant in calcium, zinc, B vitamins, and probiotics; it is a good source of protein; and it may be supplemented with vitamin D and additional probiotics associated with positive health outcomes. Aging is accompanied by a wide array of nutritional deficiencies and health complications associated with under- and overnutrition, including musculoskeletal impairment, immunosenescence, cardiometabolic diseases, and cognitive impairment. Furthermore, yogurt is accessible and convenient to consume by the older population, which makes yogurt consumption a feasible approach to enhance older adults' nutritional status. A limited number of studies have specifically addressed the impact of yogurt on the nutritional and health status of older adults, and most are observational. However, those reported thus far and reviewed here are encouraging and suggest that yogurt could play a role in improving the nutritional status and health of older adults. In addition, these reports support further investigation into the role of yogurt in healthy and active aging.

  18. Policy initiatives to promote healthy aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infeld, Donna Lind; Whitelaw, Nancy

    2002-08-01

    An overwhelming array of policies and programs can be used to help older people (and future older people) maintain healthy lifestyles. How can clinicians help ensure that their patients take advantage of these opportunities? How can these broad-scope policies, educational and information initiatives, and direct service programs be turned into tools to help older people maximize health and independence? First, physicians do not need to do it all themselves. They need to know where to send their patients. For example, case managers in local aging service organizations and social workers, nurses, and discharge planners in hospitals can help connect elderly patients to appropriate benefits and services. Physicians play a critical role in creating a bridge between patients and the array of programs and information that can help them change their individual patterns of behavior. A serious lack of integration exists between what is known about healthy behaviors and lifestyles and what is really happening and available to older people today. From the earlier articles in this issue we know that much can be done to prevent many types of age-related disease and disability. This article provides examples of mechanisms that can be used to broadly disseminate knowledge about effective behavior and treatment changes and create mechanisms to turn this knowledge into real and widespread client-level, practice-level, health system, and community-wide interventions. Second, physicians need to understand that they are not merely subject to these policies and initiatives. They can help formulate and shape them. This political involvement includes active participation in policy initiatives of professional associations, involvement in research and demonstration activities, keeping informed about policy proposals at the federal and state levels, and helping advance ideas for improving health behaviors by speaking up and working toward change. These changes go beyond health initiatives to

  19. Healthy eating behaviour - a social marketing perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazbare, Laura

    at population levels. Therefore, there is a call for additional research in order to identify the alternative ways of changing dietary behaviours. Healthy eating is a target behaviour of social marketing, which is a knowledge discipline and a practice that applies commercial marketing principles to achieve...... a voluntary behavioural change for personal welfare and/or the benefit of society. Even though social marketing is considered the most advanced framework for diet-related interventions, it has been criticised for a number of problems that can be grouped into: 1) lack of consumer orientation and research, 2......) lack of availability and application of theories that explain the process of specific behavioural change, 3) predominance of "downstream" approaches, and 4) ethical issues. The overall aim of this dissertation is to provide insights into healthy eating behaviour using the social marketing approach...

  20. Dietary quality, lifestile factors and healthy ageing in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haveman-Nies, A.

    2001-01-01

    Keywords: dietary quality, dietary patterns, lifestyle factors, smoking, physical activity, elderly, mortality, Mediterranean Diet Score, Healthy Diet Indicator, healthy ageing, self-rated health, functional status


    The contribution

  1. Creating healthy work environments: a strategic perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamson, Bonnie J

    2010-01-01

    Although I find Graham Lowe and Ben Chan's logic model and work environment metrics thought provoking, a healthy work environment framework must be more comprehensive and consider the addition of recommended diagnostic tools, vehicles to deliver the necessary change and a sustainability strategy that allows for the tweaking and refinement of ideas. Basic structure is required to frame and initiate an effective process, while allowing creativity and enhancements to be made by organizations as they learn. I support the construction of a suggested Canadian health sector framework for measuring the health of an organization, but I feel that organizations need to have some freedom in that design and the ability to incorporate their own indicators within the established proven drivers. Reflecting on my organization's experience with large-scale transformation efforts, I find that emotional intelligence along with formal leadership development and front-line engagement in Lean process improvement activities are essential for creating healthy work environments that produce the balanced set of outcomes listed in my hospital's Balanced Scorecard.

  2. Developmental aspects of a life course approach to healthy ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, M A; Cooper, C; Aihie Sayer, A; Eendebak, R J; Clough, G F; Beard, J R

    2016-04-15

    We examine the mechanistic basis and wider implications of adopting a developmental perspective on human ageing. Previous models of ageing have concentrated on its genetic basis, or the detrimental effects of accumulated damage, but also have raised issues about whether ageing can be viewed as adaptive itself, or is a consequence of other adaptive processes, for example if maintenance and repair processes in the period up to reproduction are traded off against later decline in function. A life course model places ageing in the context of the attainment of peak capacity for a body system, starting in early development when plasticity permits changes in structure and function induced by a range of environmental stimuli, followed by a period of decline, the rate of which depends on the peak attained as well as the later life conditions. Such path dependency in the rate of ageing may offer new insights into its modification. Focusing on musculoskeletal and cardiovascular function, we discuss this model and the possible underlying mechanisms, including endothelial function, oxidative stress, stem cells and nutritional factors such as vitamin D status. Epigenetic changes induced during developmental plasticity, and immune function may provide a common mechanistic process underlying a life course model of ageing. The life course trajectory differs in high and low resource settings. New insights into the developmental components of the life course model of ageing may lead to the design of biomarkers of later chronic disease risk and to new interventions to promote healthy ageing, with important implications for public health. © 2015 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2015 The Physiological Society.

  3. Conceptions of Healthy Aging Held by Relatives of Older Persons in Isan-Thai Culture: A Phenomenographic Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pornpun Manasatchakun

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In Thailand, family nurses are expected to provide support for older persons and their family members to promote healthy aging. Family bonds are strong, and relatives are expected to take care of their older family members. However, there is limited research on how older persons’ family members perceive healthy aging. This study aimed to describe the conceptions of healthy aging held by the children and grandchildren of older persons in northeast Thailand. In a phenomenographic study, 14 interviews were performed to qualitatively analyze different conceptions of healthy aging. Four descriptive categories emerged: being independent, not being afflicted by diseases or illnesses, being a giver and a receiver, and being wise. The conceptions of healthy aging entail both autonomy and interdependence. The relative’s perspective needs to be considered when policies relating to healthy aging are implemented in the community and when family nurses provide support to families to promote healthy aging.

  4. Conceptions of Healthy Aging Held by Relatives of Older Persons in Isan-Thai Culture: A Phenomenographic Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manasatchakun, Pornpun; Roxberg, Åsa; Asp, Margareta

    2018-01-01

    In Thailand, family nurses are expected to provide support for older persons and their family members to promote healthy aging. Family bonds are strong, and relatives are expected to take care of their older family members. However, there is limited research on how older persons' family members perceive healthy aging. This study aimed to describe the conceptions of healthy aging held by the children and grandchildren of older persons in northeast Thailand. In a phenomenographic study, 14 interviews were performed to qualitatively analyze different conceptions of healthy aging. Four descriptive categories emerged: being independent, not being afflicted by diseases or illnesses, being a giver and a receiver, and being wise. The conceptions of healthy aging entail both autonomy and interdependence. The relative's perspective needs to be considered when policies relating to healthy aging are implemented in the community and when family nurses provide support to families to promote healthy aging.

  5. The Role of Psychogeriatrics in Healthy Living and Active Ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinari, Enrico; Spatola, Chiara; Pietrabissa, Giada; Pagnini, Francesco; Castelnuovo, Gianluca

    2014-01-01

    A healthy and active life is a key issue for elderly citizens, above all when psychological complications such as depression and anxiety disorders, late delusion or loneliness can be observed. Moreover, medical pathologies in elderly patients often have a multi-factorial etiology and many psychopathological dimensions and psychosocial risk factors are underestimated. From the perspective of clinical health psychology, psychogeriatrics could play an important role in promoting active ageing and a healthy lifestyle in elderly persons through tailored clinical approaches based on specific research and advanced professional training in this area. More research is needed in order to study which determinants affect the process of an active and functional ageing. Possible research ageing areas are: 1) evaluation of psychosocial risk-protective factors related to the individual's biography and personality. 2) Evaluation of enrichment programs and clinical protocols focused on the management of different topics such as health system areas, behavioral areas, social and physical environment areas, psychological factors and economic determinants. The goal of Psychogeriatrics endeavors to develop and evaluate interventions designed to stimulate improvement in friendship, self-esteem and subjective well-being, as well as to reduce loneliness among older citizens. 3) Evaluation of self-management programs in chronic disease conditions (such as obesity, diabetes, hypertension, poor nutrition, physical inactivity, alcohol abuse and tobacco smoking), that could enhance risk factors for health in elderly citizens. Typical key elements of self-management, such as decision making, problem solving, motivation, self-efficacy, resource utilization, and citizen's empowerment have to be studied.

  6. Predictors of healthy ageing: public health policy targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowa, Agnieszka; Tobiasz-Adamczyk, Beata; Topór-Mądry, Roman; Poscia, Andrea; la Milia, Daniele Ignazio

    2016-09-05

    The public health policy agenda oriented towards healthy ageing becomes the highest priority for the European countries. The article discusses the healthy ageing concept and its possible determinants with an aim to identify behavioral patterns related to healthy ageing in selected European countries. The healthy ageing is assessed based on a composite indicator of self-assessed health, functional capabilities and life meaningfulness. The logistic regression models are used to assess the impact of the healthy lifestyle index, psycho-social index and socio-economic status on the probability of healthy ageing (i.e. being healthy at older age). The lifestyle and psychosocial indexes are created as a sum of behaviors that might be important for healthy ageing. Models are analyzed for three age groups of older people: 60-67, 68-79 and 80+ as well as for three groups of countries representing Western, Southern and Central-Eastern Europe. The lifestyle index covering vigorous and moderate physical activity, consumption of vegetables and fruits, regular consumption of meals and adequate consumption of liquids is positively related to healthy ageing, increasing the likelihood of being healthy at older age with each of the items specified in the index. The score of the index is found to be significantly higher (on average by 1 point for men and 1.1 for women) for individuals ageing healthily. The psychosocial index covering employment, outdoor social participation, indoor activities and life satisfaction is also found to be significantly related to health increasing the likelihood of healthy ageing with each point of the index score. There is an educational gradient in healthy ageing in the population below the age of 68 and in Southern and Central-Eastern European countries. In Western European countries, income is positively related to healthy ageing for females. Stimulation physical activity and adequate nutrition are crucial domains for a well-defined public health policy

  7. Whole Genome Sequencing of a Healthy Aging Cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Erikson, Galina A.; Bodian, Dale L.; Rueda, Manuel; Molparia, Bhuvan; Scott, Erick R.; Scott-Van Zeeland, Ashley A.; Topol, Sarah E.; Wineinger, Nathan E.; Niederhuber, John E.; Topol, Eric J.; Torkamani, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Studies of long-lived individuals have revealed few genetic mechanisms for protection against age-associated disease. Therefore, we pursued genome sequencing of a related phenotype – healthy aging – to understand the genetics of disease-free aging without medical intervention. In contrast with studies of exceptional longevity, usually focused on centenarians, healthy aging is not associated with known longevity variants but is associated with reduced genetic susceptibility to Alzheimer and co...

  8. Healthy ageing in Isan-Thai culture--A phenomenographic study based on older persons' lived experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manasatchakun, Pornpun; Chotiga, Pleumjit; Roxberg, Åsa; Asp, Margareta

    2016-01-01

    Healthy ageing is a concept that concerns older persons' quality of life and is a key factor in promoting well-being. The older population in Thailand is growing. Isan (a region of north-eastern Thailand) has been reported as having one of the most rapidly increasing older populations in the country. In order to care for and promote the health of older people, healthcare providers should understand how healthy ageing is perceived by this target group. Although healthy ageing has been studied in different contexts as well as perspectives, no studies have previously focused on older persons' experiences of healthy ageing from a lifeworld perspective in Isan-Thai. Therefore, the aim of this study is to describe older persons' qualitatively different conceptions of healthy ageing in Isan-Thai culture. A phenomenographic approach with an epistemological base in lifeworld theory was used to disclose the various ways to conceptualize healthy ageing. Individual, qualitative interviews were conducted with 17 people aged 60 and above who live in Isan-Thai. The findings of this study revealed three categories of descriptions: "being independent in dependence," "being at peace," and "being a valuable person." This study also found family members, friends, healthcare providers, and religion important to healthy ageing in the Isan-Thai culture. Understanding how older people conceptualize healthy ageing is valuable for healthcare providers. They can apply these findings regarding healthy ageing in their fieldwork when caring for older people.

  9. Psychosocial factors for influencing healthy aging in adults in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, KyungHun; Lee, YunJung; Gu, JaSung; Oh, Hee; Han, JongHee; Kim, KwuyBun

    2015-03-07

    Healthy aging includes physical, psychological, social, and spiritual well-being in later years. The purpose of this study is to identify the psychosocial factors influencing healthy aging and examining their socio-demographic characteristics. Perceived health status, depression, self-esteem, self-achievement, ego-integrity, participation in leisure activities, and loneliness were identified as influential factors in healthy aging. 171 Korean adults aged between 45 and 77 years-old participated in the study. Self-reporting questionnaires were used, followed by descriptive statistics and multiple regressions as inferential statistical analyses. There were significant differences between participants' general characteristics: age, education, religion, housing, hobby, and economic status. The factors related to healthy aging had positive correlation with perceived health status, self-esteem, self-achievements, and leisure activities, and negative correlation with depression and loneliness. The factors influencing healthy aging were depression, leisure activities, perceived health status, ego integrity, and self-achievements. These factors were able to explain 51.9%. According to the results, depression is the factor with the greatest influence on healthy aging. Perceived health status, ego integrity, self-achievement, self-esteem, participation of leisure activities were also influential on healthy aging as beneficial factors.

  10. Age-related perspectives and emotion processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynchard, Nicholas A; Radvansky, Gabriel A

    2012-12-01

    Emotion is processed differently in younger and older adults. Older adults show a positivity effect, whereas younger adults show a negativity effect. Socioemotional selectivity theory suggests that these effects can be elicited in any age group when age-related perspectives are manipulated. To examine this, younger and older adults were oriented to actual and age-contrasting possible selves. Emotion activations were assessed using lexical decision. In line with socioemotional selectivity theory, shifts in emotion orientation varied according to perspective, with both younger and older adults showing a negativity effect when a younger adult perspective was taken and a positivity effect when an older adult perspective was taken. 2013 APA, all rights reserved

  11. Perspective and Spatiality in the Modern Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fausto Fraisopi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available the domain of Art critique and becoming a philosophical argument. How can we think of Perspective as symbolic Form? Is Perspective really a symbolic form? Why is Perspective so important? Because at the beginning of the Modern Age, Perspective as spiritual figure grounds many symbolic or even many scientific constructions. We could we say that perspective open the foundation of modern science as such. The “Geometrization” of Vision, beginning with perspective, will be for us the interpretative key in order to understand the Modern Age as a whole.  This understanding will allow us to understand the anthropologic dimension arising from the Modern Age, called „Perspectivism“. Assuming that perspective was neither only an invention of painting nor of geometry nor of philosophy, taken as singular fields of human inquiry, we will try to sketch the genesis of “perspective” from an interdisciplinary point of view. By doing so, we will also try to fix its deep significance for the anthropology of the Modern Age. Living and feeling in a perspectival world is the real invention of the Modern Age, one that overcame the closed Cosmos of the Middle Ages in order to reveal to mankind its own potential. Our interdisciplinary approach will proceed from many points of view (history of art, science, theology, anthropology and converge on the idea of a new kind of human experience. Such an interdisciplinary approach will open new questions about our present time. Are we justified in thinking of our experience today as perspectival? What does it mean today to think from perspectives in the manifold dimensions of our living and to face to the complexity of our times?

  12. Healthy ageing in the Nun Study: definition and neuropathologic correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyas, Suzanne L; Snowdon, David A; Desrosiers, Mark F; Riley, Kathryn P; Markesbery, William R

    2007-11-01

    Although the concept of healthy ageing has stimulated considerable interest, no generally accepted definition has been developed nor has its biological basis been determined. To develop a definition of healthy ageing and investigate its association with longevity and neuropathology. Analyses were based on cognitive, physical, and post-mortem assessments from 1991 to 1998 in the Nun Study, a longitudinal study of ageing in participants 75+ years at baseline. We defined three mutually exclusive levels of healthy ageing (excellent, very good, and good) based on measures of global cognitive function, short-term memory, basic and instrumental activities of daily living, and self-rated function. Mortality analyses were based on 636 participants; neuropathologic analyses were restricted to 221 who had died and were autopsied. Only 11% of those meeting criteria for the excellent level of healthy ageing at baseline subsequently died, compared with 24% for the very good, 39% for the good, and 60% for the remaining participants. Survival curves showed significantly greater longevity with higher levels of healthy ageing. The risk of not attaining healthy ageing, adjusted for age, increased two-fold in participants with brain infarcts alone, six-fold in those with Alzheimer neuropathology alone, and more than thirteen-fold in those with both brain infarcts and Alzheimer neuropathology. The biological validity of our definition of healthy ageing is supported by its strong association with mortality and longevity. Avoiding Alzheimer and stroke neuropathology is critical to the maintenance of healthy ageing, and the presence of both pathologies dramatically decreases the likelihood of healthy ageing.

  13. [Perspectives of psychological aging research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, H-W; Diegelmann, M

    2015-12-01

    Psychological aging research (PAF) focuses on age-related changes and behavioral stability (e.g. structure of social relations), performance and competences (e.g. cognitive functioning) as well as experiences (e.g. well-being) in advanced age. Knowledge is based in particular on currently available longitudinal studies, which historically for the first time allow very long observational periods (nearly across the complete life span). Additionally, innovative statistical analytical methods co-developed in the PAF nowadays allow a better understanding of the dynamics of change than ever before. This results in a new picture of psychological aging that confirms the multifaceted strengths of human aging but also reveals new risks of the current "prolonged aging".

  14. Telomere biology in healthy aging and disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oeseburg, Hisko; de Boer, Rudolf A.; van Gilst, Wiek H.; van der Harst, Pim

    Aging is a biological process that affects most cells, organisms and species. Telomeres have been postulated as a universal biological clock that shortens in parallel with aging in cells. Telomeres are located at the end of the chromosomes and consist of an evolutionary conserved repetitive

  15. Operational Definition of Active and Healthy Ageing (AHA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bousquet, J; Kuh, D; Bewick, M

    2015-01-01

    Health is a multi-dimensional concept, capturing how people feel and function. The broad concept of Active and Healthy Ageing was proposed by the World Health Organisation (WHO) as the process of optimizing opportunities for health to enhance quality of life as people age. It applies to both...... individuals and population groups. A universal Active and Healthy Ageing definition is not available and it may differ depending on the purpose of the definition and/or the questions raised. While the European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing (EIP on AHA) has had a major impact......, a definition of Active and Healthy Ageing is urgently needed. A meeting was organised in Montpellier, France, October 20-21, 2014 as the annual conference of the EIP on AHA Reference Site MACVIA-LR (Contre les Maladies Chroniques pour un Vieillissement Actif en Languedoc Roussillon) to propose an operational...

  16. Features of gas exchange of healthy people of working age

    OpenAIRE

    Noreiko S.B.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to improve the accuracy of determining the basal metabolism of healthy people. Comparative studies of basal metabolism of healthy men and women on probation and respiratory physical factors are considered. Surveyed 30 healthy men and women aged 21-56 years. Determination of the volume of absorbed oxygen and produces carbon dioxide carried by the gas analyzer "Spirolit-2" were defined. Calculate the actual respiratory rate. It is established that the actual value ...

  17. Influence of individual and combined healthy behaviours on successful aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabia, Séverine; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Hagger-Johnson, Gareth; Cambois, Emmanuelle; Brunner, Eric J; Kivimaki, Mika

    2012-12-11

    Increases in life expectancy make it important to remain healthy for as long as possible. Our objective was to examine the extent to which healthy behaviours in midlife, separately and in combination, predict successful aging. We used a prospective cohort design involving 5100 men and women aged 42-63 years. Participants were free of cancer, coronary artery disease and stroke when their health behaviours were assessed in 1991-1994 as part of the Whitehall II study. We defined healthy behaviours as never smoking, moderate alcohol consumption, physical activity (≥ 2.5 h/wk moderate physical activity or ≥ 1 h/wk vigorous physical activity), and eating fruits and vegetables daily. We defined successful aging, measured over a median 16.3-year follow-up, as good cognitive, physical, respiratory and cardiovascular functioning, in addition to the absence of disability, mental health problems and chronic disease (coronary artery disease, stroke, cancer and diabetes). At the end of follow-up, 549 participants had died and 953 qualified as aging successfully. Compared with participants who engaged in no healthy behaviours, participants engaging in all 4 healthy behaviours had 3.3 times greater odds of successful aging (95% confidence interval [CI] 2.1-5.1). The association with successful aging was linear, with the odds ratio (OR) per increment of healthy behaviour being 1.3 (95% CI 1.2-1.4; population-attributable risk for 1-4 v. 0 healthy behaviours 47%). When missing data were considered in the analysis, the results were similar to those of our main analysis. Although individual healthy behaviours are moderately associated with successful aging, their combined impact is substantial. We did not investigate the mechanisms underlying these associations, but we saw clear evidence of the importance of healthy behaviours for successful aging.

  18. The Healthy Aging Research Network: Modeling Collaboration for Community Impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belza, Basia; Altpeter, Mary; Smith, Matthew Lee; Ory, Marcia G

    2017-03-01

    As the first Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Prevention Research Centers Program thematic network, the Healthy Aging Research Network was established to better understand the determinants of healthy aging within older adult populations, identify interventions that promote healthy aging, and assist in translating research into sustainable community-based programs throughout the nation. To achieve these goals requires concerted efforts of a collaborative network of academic, community, and public health organizational partnerships. For the 2001-2014 Prevention Research Center funding cycles, the Healthy Aging Research Network conducted prevention research and promoted the wide use of practices known to foster optimal health. Organized around components necessary for successful collaborations (i.e., governance and infrastructure, shaping focus, community involvement, and evaluation and improvement), this commentary highlights exemplars that demonstrate the Healthy Aging Research Network's unique contributions to the field. The Healthy Aging Research Network's collaboration provided a means to collectively build capacity for practice and policy, reduce fragmentation and duplication in health promotion and aging research efforts, maximize the efficient use of existing resources and generate additional resources, and ultimately, create synergies for advancing the healthy aging agenda. This collaborative model was built upon a backbone organization (coordinating center); setting of common agendas and mutually reinforcing activities; and continuous communications. Given its successes, the Healthy Aging Research Network model could be used to create new and evaluate existing thematic networks to guide the translation of research into policy and practice. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Healthy Aging After Age 65: A Life-Span Health Production Function Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferdows, Nasim B; Jensen, Gail A; Tarraf, Wassim

    2018-06-01

    This article examines the determinants of healthy aging using Grossman's framework of a health production function. Healthy aging, sometimes described as successful aging, is produced using a variety of inputs, determined in early life, young adulthood, midlife, and later life. A healthy aging production function is estimated using nationally representative data from the 2010 and 2012 Health and Retirement Study on 7,355 noninstitutionalized seniors. Using a simultaneous equation mediation model, we quantify how childhood factors contribute to healthy aging, both directly and indirectly through their effects on mediating adult outcomes. We find that favorable childhood conditions significantly improve healthy aging scores, both directly and indirectly, mediated through education, income, and wealth. We also find that good health habits have positive effects on healthy aging that are larger in magnitude than the effects of childhood factors. Our findings suggest that exercising, maintaining proper weight, and not smoking are likely to translate into healthier aging.

  20. Ataxia rating scales are age-dependent in healthy children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brandsma, Rick; Spits, Anne H.; Kuiper, Marieke J.; Lunsing, Roelinka J.; Burger, Huibert; Kremer, Hubertus P.; Sival, Deborah A.; Barisic, N.; Baxter, P.; Brankovic-Sreckovic, V.; Calabrò, G. E.; Catsman-Berrevoets, C.; de Coo, Ifm; Craiu, D.; Dan, B.; Gburek-Augustat, J.; Kammoun-Feki, F.; Kennedy, C.; Mancini, F.; Mirabelli-Badenier, M.; Nemeth, A.; Newton, R.; Poll-The, B. T.; Steinlin, M.; Synofzik, M.; Topcu, M.; Triki, C.; Valente, E. M.

    2014-01-01

    To investigate ataxia rating scales in children for reliability and the effect of age and sex. Three independent neuropaediatric observers cross-sectionally scored a set of paediatric ataxia rating scales in a group of 52 healthy children (26 males, 26 females) aged 4 to 16 years (mean age 10y 5mo

  1. What is a healthy body weight? Perspectives of overweight youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Heather M; Irwin, Jennifer D

    2009-01-01

    A qualitative assessment was completed of overweight/obese youths' perceptions of the meaning of "healthy body weight," barriers and facilitators to healthy body weight attainment, and what would effectively enhance and support their healthy body weight behaviours. This qualitative study targeted a sample of overweight and obese youth, aged 14 to 16 years. An experienced interviewer conducted 11 in-depth interviews. Interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Three qualitative researchers conducted independent and simultaneous inductive content analysis to facilitate confirmability. Data trustworthiness was supported via member checking, peer debriefing, and reflexive journalling. Most participants characterized healthy body weight as a combination of healthy eating and regular physical activity. Some included a psychological dimension in the definition. Perceived facilitators of a healthy body weight included family support, access to nutritious food at home, physical activity encouragement, and a physical activity environment at school. Perceived barriers included lack of family support, a poor nutrition environment, an unsupportive school environment, time, self-esteem, and bullying. Participants identified preferences for an intervention that would include opportunities for unstructured coeducational recreational activities, coeducational nutrition education sessions, and a gender-specific discussion forum. Participants provided a wealth of information to form the foundation of future youth-focused efficacious healthy body weight interventions.

  2. What factors influence healthy aging? A person-centered approach among older adults in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li-Fan; Su, Pei-Fang

    2017-05-01

    The present study aimed to identify the health profiles of older adults by using latent class analysis to investigate health heterogeneity and to determine what factors predicted healthy aging among an oldest-old sample cohort that was followed up for 14 years in Taiwan. Data were drawn from five waves (carried out in 1993, 1996, 1999, 2003 and 2007) of the Taiwan Longitudinal Study on Aging to examine the changes in health heterogeneity in a nationally representative oldest-old cohort of Taiwanese. Overall, data from a total of 11 145 observations of 3155 older adults were considered. The influential factors predicting health changes were analyzed by using a generalized estimating equation. The results showed that four health profiles were identified among the aging population observed in the Taiwan Longitudinal Study on Aging. With increasing age, the combined effects of the physical functioning, cognitive and emotional health, and comorbidities of older adults significantly impact their health changes. Apart from health deteriorating with age and sex disparities, educational and economic status, health behaviors, and social participation at the individual level were found to be the robust factors in predicting healthy aging. In considering what factors impact healthy aging, we suggest that a person-centered approach would be useful and critical for policy makers to understand the compositions of health profiles and the influencing factors in view of a life-course perspective. Based on the factors identified as influencing healthy aging at the individual level, it is imperative from a policy-making perspective to maximize opportunities for healthy aging. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; 17: 697-707. © 2016 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  3. Time Perspective and Age: A Review of Age Associated Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laureiro-Martinez, Daniella; Trujillo, Carlos A; Unda, Juliana

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the relationship between age and the five dimensions of time perspective measured by the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory (ZTPI) (past negative, past positive, present hedonistic, present fatalistic, and future). Time perspective is related to well-being, decision-making, level of development, and many other psychological issues. Hence, the existence of a systematic relationship between time perspective and age should be considered in all studies for which time is a relevant variable. However, no specific research about this has been conducted. We collected 407 papers that referenced the ZTPI between 2001 and 2015. From those, 72 studies met our inclusion criteria. They included 29,815 participants from 19 countries whose age spans most phases of adulthood (from 13.5 to 75.5 years, mean 28.7). We analyzed these studies adapting meta-analytical techniques. We found that present hedonistic and past negative dimensions are negatively related to aging with partial eta squared effect sizes of roughly 0.15. Our results have implications for the design of studies related to time as our findings highlight the importance of taking into account the differences associated with age.

  4. Perspective on Sleep and Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew A Monjan

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available There is a strong body of data directly interrelating sleep problems with mood disorders. There is a growing data base directly associating sleep disorders with attention and memory problems. Motor disorders, especially involving the dopaminergic system, may produce sleep problems, including a possible association between disordered sleep and nocturnal falls. Sleep disorders may be causal conditions for metabolic diseases and increased risk for morbidity and mortality. Sleep and health are directly interrelated. To further probe these issues, especially as related to the aging process, investigators need to utilize tools and concepts from genomics and epigenetics, proteomics, metabolomics, any future ...omics, molecular neuroimaging, and cognitive neuroscience.

  5. Whole-Genome Sequencing of a Healthy Aging Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erikson, Galina A; Bodian, Dale L; Rueda, Manuel; Molparia, Bhuvan; Scott, Erick R; Scott-Van Zeeland, Ashley A; Topol, Sarah E; Wineinger, Nathan E; Niederhuber, John E; Topol, Eric J; Torkamani, Ali

    2016-05-05

    Studies of long-lived individuals have revealed few genetic mechanisms for protection against age-associated disease. Therefore, we pursued genome sequencing of a related phenotype-healthy aging-to understand the genetics of disease-free aging without medical intervention. In contrast with studies of exceptional longevity, usually focused on centenarians, healthy aging is not associated with known longevity variants, but is associated with reduced genetic susceptibility to Alzheimer and coronary artery disease. Additionally, healthy aging is not associated with a decreased rate of rare pathogenic variants, potentially indicating the presence of disease-resistance factors. In keeping with this possibility, we identify suggestive common and rare variant genetic associations implying that protection against cognitive decline is a genetic component of healthy aging. These findings, based on a relatively small cohort, require independent replication. Overall, our results suggest healthy aging is an overlapping but distinct phenotype from exceptional longevity that may be enriched with disease-protective genetic factors. VIDEO ABSTRACT. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Fasting or caloric restriction for healthy aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton, Stephen; Leeuwenburgh, Christiaan

    2013-10-01

    Aging is associated with a host of biological changes that contribute to a progressive decline in cognitive and physical function, ultimately leading to a loss of independence, and increased risk of mortality. To date, prolonged caloric restriction (i.e., a reduction in caloric intake without malnutrition) is the only non-genetic intervention that has consistently been found to extend both mean and maximal life span across a variety of species. Most individuals have difficulty sustaining prolonged caloric restriction, which has led to a search for alternative approaches that can produce similar to benefits as caloric restriction. A growing body of evidence indicates that fasting periods and intermittent fasting regimens in particular can trigger similar biological pathways as caloric restriction. For this reason, there is increasing scientific interest in further exploring the biological and metabolic effects of intermittent fasting periods, as well as whether long-term compliance may be improved by this type of dietary approach. This special will highlight the latest scientific findings related to the effects of both caloric restriction and intermittent fasting across various species including yeast, fruit flies, worms, rodents, primates, and humans. A specific emphasis is placed on translational research with findings from basic bench to bedside reviewed and practical clinical implications discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. HEALTHY WORK IN THE AGEING EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Lekovic

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Workplace health promotion (WHP has been defined as the combined efforts of employers, employees and society to improve the health and well-being of people at work. This is achieved through a combination of: improving the work organization and the working environment , promoting the active participation of employees in health activities, encouraging personal development. In our country, this subject is still unpopular, and organized work on introduction and implementation of already existing directives of ENWHP still does not exist. As a result, the competitiveness of the European Union during the next few decades will depend on the contribution of older workers, especially in comparison with North America and Asia. The general aim, therefore, is to extend workability and health up to a higher age. The most important force for change is the workplace. There are different action plans and a host of tools with which the health, qualifications, motivation and therefore the work ability and employability of a company’s older workers both now and in the future can be fostered.

  8. Social cognition in schizophrenia and healthy aging: differences and similarities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, Henry; Bilker, Warren B

    2014-12-01

    Social cognition is impaired in schizophrenia but it is not clear whether this is specific for the illness and whether emotion perception is selectively affected. To study this we examined the perception of emotional and non-emotional clues in facial expressions, a key social cognitive skill, in schizophrenia patients and old healthy individuals using young healthy individuals as reference. Tests of object recognition, visual orientation, psychomotor speed, and working memory were included to allow multivariate analysis taking into account other cognitive functions Schizophrenia patients showed impairments in recognition of identity and emotional facial clues compared to young and old healthy groups. Severity was similar to that for object recognition and visuospatial processing. Older and younger healthy groups did not differ from each other on these tests. Schizophrenia patients and old healthy individuals were similarly impaired in the ability to automatically learn new faces during the testing procedure (measured by the CSTFAC index) compared to young healthy individuals. Social cognition is distinctly impaired in schizophrenia compared to healthy aging. Further study is needed to identify the mechanisms of automatic social cognitive learning impairment in schizophrenia patients and healthy aging individuals and determine whether similar neural systems are affected. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Ataxia rating scales are age-dependent in healthy children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brandsma, Rick; Spits, Anne H.; Kuiper, Marieke J.; Lunsing, Roelinka J.; Burger, Huibert; Kremer, Hubertus P.; Sival, Deborah A.

    AIM: To investigate ataxia rating scales in children for reliability and the effect of age and sex. METHOD: Three independent neuropaediatric observers cross-sectionally scored a set of paediatric ataxia rating scales in a group of 52 healthy children (26 males, 26 females) aged 4 to 16 years (mean

  10. Promoting Healthy Aging in Adults with Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Tamar; Sorensen, Amy

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews the research on health promotion for adults aging with developmental disabilities. First, it examines barriers to healthy aging, including health behaviors and access to health screenings and services. Second, it reviews the research on health promotion interventions, including physical activity interventions, health education…

  11. Brain energy metabolism and blood flow differences in healthy aging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aanerud, Joel; Borghammer, Per; Chakravarty, M Mallar

    2012-01-01

    Cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen consumption (CMRO(2)), cerebral blood flow (CBF), and oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) are important indices of healthy aging of the brain. Although a frequent topic of study, changes of CBF and CMRO(2) during normal aging are still controversial, as some authors......, and in the temporal cortex. Because of the inverse relation between OEF and capillary oxygen tension, increased OEF can compromise oxygen delivery to neurons, with possible perturbation of energy turnover. The results establish a possible mechanism of progression from healthy to unhealthy brain aging, as the regions...

  12. Building a healthy work environment: a nursing resource team perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Leslie; Slinger, Trisha

    2013-01-01

    Leadership and staff from the London Health Sciences Centre (LHSC) Nursing Resource Team (NRT), including members of their Continuous Quality Improvement (CQI) Council, attended the first Southern Ontario Nursing Resource Team Conference (SONRTC), held March 2012 in Toronto. The SONRTC highlighted healthy work environments (HWEs), noting vast differences among the province's various organizations. Conversely, CQI Council members anecdotally acknowledged similar inconsistencies in HWEs across the various inpatient departments at LHSC. In fact, the mobility of the NRT role allows these nurses to make an unbiased observation about the culture, behaviours and practices of specific units as well as cross-reference departments regarding HWEs. Studies have documented that HWEs have a direct impact on the quality of patient care. Furthermore, the literature supports a relationship between HWEs and nurse job satisfaction. Based on this heightened awareness, the NRT CQI Council aimed to investigate HWEs at LHSC. The American Association of Critical Care Nurses (AACN) Standards for Establishing and Sustaining Healthy Work Environments was adapted in developing a survey for measuring HWEs based on the perceptions of NRT staff. Each of the departments was evaluated in terms of the following indicators: skilled communication, true collaboration, effective decision-making, appropriate staffing, meaningful recognition and authentic leadership (AACN 2005). Ultimately, the Building a Healthy Work Environment: A Nursing Resource Team Perspective survey was employed with NRT nurses at LHSC, and data was collected for use by leadership and staff for creating HWE strategies aimed at improving the quality of patient care.

  13. The Old-Age Healthy Dependency Ratio in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muszyńska, Magdalena M; Rau, Roland

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study is to answer the question of whether improvements in the health of the elderly in European countries could compensate for population ageing on the supply side of the labour market. We propose a state-of-health-specific (additive) decomposition of the old-age dependency ratio into an old-age healthy dependency ratio and an old-age unhealthy dependency ratio in order to participate in a discussion of the significance of changes in population health to compensate for the ageing of the labour force. Applying the proposed indicators to the Eurostat's population projection for the years 2010-2050, and assuming there will be equal improvements in life expectancy and healthy life expectancy at birth, we discuss various scenarios concerning future of the European labour force. While improvements in population health are anticipated during the years 2010-2050, the growth in the number of elderly people in Europe may be expected to lead to a rise in both healthy and unhealthy dependency ratios. The healthy dependency ratio is, however, projected to make up the greater part of the old-age dependency ratio. In the European countries in 2006, the value of the old-age dependency ratio was 25. But in the year 2050, with a positive migration balance over the years 2010-2050, there would be 18 elderly people in poor health plus 34 in good health per 100 people in the current working age range of 15-64. In the scenarios developed in this study, we demonstrate that improvements in health and progress in preventing disability will not, by themselves, compensate for the ageing of the workforce. However, coupled with a positive migration balance, at the level and with the age structure assumed in the Eurostat's population projections, these developments could ease the effect of population ageing on the supply side of the European labour market.

  14. Allergy immunotherapy across the life cycle to promote active and healthy ageing: From research to policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calderon, M A; Demoly, P; Casale, T

    2016-01-01

    group of AIRWAYS integrated care pathways for airways diseases, the model of chronic respiratory diseases of the European Innovation Partnership on active and healthy ageing (DG CONNECT and DG Santé). It considered (1) the political background, (2) the rationale for allergen immunotherapy across...... the life cycle, (3) the unmet needs for the treatment, in particular in preschool children and old age adults, (4) the strategic framework and the practical approach to synergize current initiatives in allergen immunotherapy, its mechanisms and the concept of active and healthy ageing. © 2016 The Author(s).......Allergic diseases often occur early in life and persist throughout life. This life-course perspective should be considered in allergen immunotherapy. In particular it is essential to understand whether this al treatment may be used in old age adults. The current paper was developed by a working...

  15. Dietary flavonoid intake at midlife and healthy aging in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samieri, Cécilia; Sun, Qi; Townsend, Mary K; Rimm, Eric B; Grodstein, Francine

    2014-12-01

    Dietary flavonoids have been related to lower risks of various chronic diseases, but it is unclear whether flavonoid intake in midlife helps to maintain good health and wellbeing in aging. We examined the relation of flavonoid intake in midlife with the prevalence of healthy aging. We included 13,818 women from the Nurses' Health Study with dietary data and no major chronic diseases in 1984-1986 when they were aged in their late 50s (median age: 59 y); all women provided information on multiple aspects of aging an average of 15 y later. Intakes of 6 major flavonoid subclasses in midlife were ascertained on the basis of averaged intakes of flavonoid-rich foods from 2 food-frequency questionnaires (1984-1986). We defined healthy compared with usual aging as of age 70 y; healthy aging was based on survival to ≥70 y with maintenance of 4 health domains (no major chronic diseases or major impairments in cognitive or physical function or mental health). Of women who survived until ≥70 y of age, 1517 women (11.0%) met our criteria for healthy aging. Compared with women in the lowest quintile of intake, women in the highest quintile of intake of several flavonoid subclasses at midlife had greater odds of healthy aging. After multivariable adjustment, ORs were as follows: flavones, 1.32 (95% CI: 1.10, 1.58); flavanone, 1.28 (95% CI: 1.08, 1.53); anthocyanin, 1.25 (95% CI: 1.04, 1.50); and flavonol, 1.18 (95% CI: 0.98, 1.42) (all P-trend ≤ 0.02). Consistently, greater intakes of major sources of these flavonoids (i.e., oranges, berries, onions, and apples) were associated with increased odds of healthy aging. We showed no association with flavan-3-ol monomers (P-trend = 0.80) or polymers (P-trend = 0.63). Higher intake of flavonoids at midlife, specifically flavones, flavanones, anthocyanins, and flavonols, is associated with greater likelihood of health and wellbeing in individuals surviving to older ages. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  16. Perspective taking in older age revisited: a motivational perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin; Fung, Helene H; Stanley, Jennifer T; Isaacowitz, Derek M; Ho, Man Yee

    2013-10-01

    How perspective-taking ability changes with age (i.e., whether older adults are better at understanding others' behaviors and intentions and show greater empathy to others or not) is not clear, with prior empirical findings on this phenomenon yielding mixed results. In a series of experiments, we investigated the phenomenon from a motivational perspective. Perceived closeness between participants and the experimenter (Study 1) or the target in an emotion recognition task (Study 2) was manipulated to examine whether the closeness could influence participants' performance in faux pas recognition (Study 1) and emotion recognition (Study 2). It was found that the well-documented negative age effect (i.e., older adults performed worse than younger adults in faux pas and emotion recognition tasks) was only replicated in the control condition for both tasks. When closeness was experimentally increased, older adults enhanced their performance, and they now performed at a comparable level as younger adults. Findings from the 2 experiments suggest that the reported poorer performance of older adults in perspective-taking tasks might be attributable to a lack of motivation instead of ability to perform in laboratory settings. With the presence of strong motivation, older adults have the ability to perform equally well as younger adults.

  17. Emotional aging: a discrete emotions perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunzmann, Ute; Kappes, Cathleen; Wrosch, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    Perhaps the most important single finding in the field of emotional aging has been that the overall quality of affective experience steadily improves during adulthood and can be maintained into old age. Recent lifespan developmental theories have provided motivation- and experience-based explanations for this phenomenon. These theories suggest that, as individuals grow older, they become increasingly motivated and able to regulate their emotions, which could result in reduced negativity and enhanced positivity. The objective of this paper is to expand existing theories and empirical research on emotional aging by presenting a discrete emotions perspective. To illustrate the usefulness of this approach, we focus on a discussion of the literature examining age differences in anger and sadness. These two negative emotions have typically been subsumed under the singular concept of negative affect. From a discrete emotions perspective, however, they are highly distinct and show multidirectional age differences. We propose that such contrasting age differences in specific negative emotions have important implications for our understanding of long-term patterns of affective well-being across the adult lifespan.

  18. Healthy aging and dementia: findings from the Nun Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snowdon, David A

    2003-09-02

    The Nun Study is a longitudinal study of 678 Catholic sisters 75 to 107 years of age who are members of the School Sisters of Notre Dame congregation. Data collected for this study include early and middle-life risk factors from the convent archives, annual cognitive and physical function evaluations during old age, and postmortem neuropathologic evaluations of the participants' brains. The case histories presented include a centenarian who was a model of healthy aging, a 92-year-old with dementia and clinically significant Alzheimer disease neuropathology and vascular lesions, a cognitively and physically intact centenarian with almost no neuropathology, and an 85-year-old with well-preserved cognitive and physical function despite a genetic predisposition to Alzheimer disease and an abundance of Alzheimer disease lesions. These case histories provide examples of how healthy aging and dementia relate to the degree of pathology present in the brain and the level of resistance to the clinical expression of the neuropathology.

  19. Healthy Adult Ageing: Multitasking Abilities and the Impact of Interruptions

    OpenAIRE

    Nevay, Robyn

    2013-01-01

    The ability to multitask plays a significant role within everyday life. This experiment investigated whether multitasking abilities are impaired in healthy adult ageing. Neuropsychological literature has shown that patients with frontal lobe damage are impaired in their ability to multitask on tests designed to assess cognitive functions used in real-life multitasking situations. Age-related reductions in brain volume are most pronounced in the frontal lobes. Therefore, it’s assumed that olde...

  20. Enhancing healthy ageing through music | Ekong | UJAH: Unizik ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    UJAH: Unizik Journal of Arts and Humanities. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 16, No 2 (2015) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Enhancing healthy ageing through music.

  1. Study healthy ageing and intellectual disabilities : Recruitment and design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilgenkamp, Thessa I. M.; Bastiaanse, Luc P.; Hermans, Heidi; Penning, Corine; van Wijck, Ruud; Evenhuis, Heleen M.

    2011-01-01

    Problems encountered in epidemiologic health research in older adults with intellectual disabilities (ID) are how to recruit a large-scale sample of participants and how to measure a range of health variables in such a group. This cross-sectional study into healthy ageing started with founding a

  2. Exercise participation and diet monitoring in pursuit of healthy aging ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the level of exercise participation and diet monitoring in pursuit of healthy aging. Descriptive survey research design and self-structured questionnaire was used to elicit information from the respondents. Proportionate stratified and simple random sampling techniques were used to select two hundred ...

  3. Reading in Healthy Aging: Selective Use of Information Structuring Cues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Jessica M.; Sanford, Anthony J.

    2018-01-01

    Previous research has shown that information referring to a named character or to information in the main clause of a sentence is more accessible and facilitates the processing of anaphoric references. We investigated whether the use of such cues are maintained in healthy aging. We present two experiments investigating whether information…

  4. Impaired acquisition of goal-directed action in healthy aging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wit, S.; van de Vijver, I.; Ridderinkhof, K.R.

    2014-01-01

    According to dual-system theories, instrumental learning is supported by dissociable goal-directed and habitual systems. Previous investigations of the dual-system balance in healthy aging have yielded mixed results. To further investigate this issue, we compared performance of young (17-24 years)

  5. Decline of functional capacity in healthy aging workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soer, Remko; Brouwer, Sandra; Geertzen, Jan H; van der Schans, Cees; Groothoff, Johan W.; Reneman, Michiel F

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: (1) To study the natural decline in functional capacity (FC) of healthy aging workers; (2) to compare FC to categories of workload; and (3) to study the differences in decline between men and women. DESIGN: Cross-sectional design. SETTING: A rehabilitation center at a university medical

  6. Healthy Ageing and the importance of physical activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hobbelen, Hans

    2014-01-01

    Wereldwijd zien we de trend dat de bevolking vergrijst. Dit vraagt om verdieping in het verouderingsproces en in het voorkomen van gezondheidsproblemen. Deze dag van de summerschool Healthy Ageing van de Universiteit Utrecht richt zich met name op de praktische kennis en vaardigheden op het gebied

  7. Demographic Changes and the Challenge for a Healthy Ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossini, Paolo Maria; Marra, Camillo

    2014-01-01

    Demographic changes bring about a wide range of new research fields including policy topics, health, social welfare, work & productivity, urban & rural development, communication tools, and mobility. This new situation requires a new multi-disciplinary approach bringing together different research programs in order to provide solutions for the upcoming challenges. National Health services are now facing a huge shift in the population structure with a predominance of older generations in the total number of citizens. Good health is the most important factor to live independently in old age. A better understanding of ageing processes and the related "plasticity" of individual performance for environmental adaptation, the prevention for age-related illnesses and healthcare strategies are the basis for keeping very old people healthy and active throughout the course of their lives. We will face mainly the biological, cognitive and psychological dimensions of ageing. Afterwards, we will focus on the relationships linking various biological and lifestyle factors - such as nutrition - that are crucial to obtain a comprehensive picture of ageing and to promote preventing strategies against degenerative neurological diseases. Finally we will investigate which interventions - nutritional and physical - could help in keeping people healthy, in particular which factors could promote people's physical, social and psychological functional abilities and the systemic multilevel consequences induced by a healthy ageing.

  8. Development of the Thai healthy aging model: A grounded theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiamwong, Ladda; McManus, Michael S; Suwanno, Jom

    2013-06-01

    To develop a model of healthy aging from the perspective of Thais, a grounded theory approach, including in-depth interviews and focus groups, was used. A purposive sample of 39 community-dwelling adults aged 40-85 years old was interviewed. The Thai healthy aging model composed of three themes: normality, nature, and dharma. In Thai, they are called tham-ma-da, tham-ma-chat, and tham-ma, or "Thai 3Ts". The theme of normality encompasses subthemes of staying physically active by being involved in plenty of physical activities, and being mentally active with creative and thoughtful hobbies and work. The theme of nature encompasses subthemes of living simply and being careful with money. The theme of dharma encompasses subthemes of enjoyment through helping family and participating in community activities, staying away from stress and worries by talking openly and honestly with someone, making merit, and helping other people without expecting anything in return. A greater understanding of healthy aging is a benefit for older adults and healthcare providers in an intervention-design process. Research can contribute valuable information to shape policy for healthy aging as well. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  9. Emotional Aging: A Discrete Emotions Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ute eKunzmann

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Perhaps the most important single finding in the field of emotional aging has been that the overall quality of affective experience steadily improves during adulthood and can be maintained into old age. Recent lifespan developmental theories have provided motivation- and experience-based explanations for this phenomenon. These theories suggest that, as individuals grow older, they become increasingly motivated and able to regulate their emotions, which could result in reduced negativity and enhanced positivity. The objective of this paper is to expand existing theories and empirical research on emotional aging by presenting a discrete emotions perspective. To illustrate the usefulness of this approach, we focus on a discussion of the literature examining age differences in anger and sadness. These two negative emotions have been subsumed under the singular concept of negative affect. From a discrete emotions perspective, however, they are highly distinct. Sadness is elicited by an irreversible loss and associated with low situational control, high goal adjustment tendencies, and the motivation to search for social support. The experience of anger, by contrast, is typically triggered by other individuals who intentio

  10. Behavioral determinants of healthy aging: good news for the baby boomer generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman-Stein, Paula E; Potkanowicz, Edward S

    2003-01-01

    The first of the Baby Boomer generation will officially enter the beginning of old age in 2011 by turning 65. Recent research findings suggest that if the members of this cohort group engage in certain healthy behaviors and thought patterns in their middle years, they will experience a vital, satisfying life in their 70s and beyond. This article reviews the existing literature, including the results of longitudinal studies showing variables that predicted successful aging. Focusing on a lifespan psychology perspective of aging, the authors provide behavioral recommendations for middle age individuals that are likely to prevent disease-related disability, cognitive impairment, and late life depression. These include regular physical exercise, engaging in cognitively stimulating activities, maintaining an optimistic mental outlook, and finding meaning in life. The good news for the Baby Boomers is that there is increasing evidence that their behavior at age 50 will impact how they feel at age 80.

  11. Optimizing Tailored Health Promotion for Older Adults : Understanding Their Perspectives on Healthy Living

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marcus-Varwijk, Anne Esther; Koopmans, Marg; Visscher, Tommy L S; Seidell, Jacob C; Slaets, Joris P J; Smits, Carolien H M

    2017-01-01

    Objective: This study explores older adults' perspectives on healthy living, and their interactions with professionals regarding healthy living. This perspective is necessary for health professionals when they engage in tailored health promotion in their daily work routines. Method: In a qualitative

  12. A proposed panel of biomarkers of healthy ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara, Jose; Cooper, Rachel; Nissan, Jack; Ginty, Annie T; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Deary, Ian J; Lord, Janet M; Kuh, Diana; Mathers, John C

    2015-09-15

    There is no criterion reference for assessing healthy ageing and this creates difficulties when conducting and comparing research on ageing across studies. A cardinal feature of ageing is loss of function which translates into wide-ranging consequences for the individual and for family, carers and society. We undertook comprehensive reviews of the literature searching for biomarkers of ageing on five ageing-related domains including physical capability and cognitive, physiological and musculoskeletal, endocrine and immune functions. Where available, we used existing systematic reviews, meta-analyses and other authoritative reports such as the recently launched NIH Toolbox for assessment of neurological and behavioural function, which includes test batteries for cognitive and motor function (the latter described here as physical capability). We invited international experts to comment on our draft recommendations. In addition, we hosted an experts workshop in Newcastle, UK, on 22-23 October 2012, aiming to help capture the state-of-the-art in this complex area and to provide an opportunity for the wider ageing research community to critique the proposed panel of biomarkers. Here we have identified important biomarkers of healthy ageing classified as subdomains of the main areas proposed. Cardiovascular and lung function, glucose metabolism and musculoskeletal function are key subdomains of physiological function. Strength, locomotion, balance and dexterity are key physical capability subdomains. Memory, processing speed and executive function emerged as key subdomains of cognitive function. Markers of the HPA-axis, sex hormones and growth hormones were important biomarkers of endocrine function. Finally, inflammatory factors were identified as important biomarkers of immune function. We present recommendations for a panel of biomarkers that address these major areas of function which decline during ageing. This biomarker panel may have utility in epidemiological

  13. Ageing/Menopausal Status in Healthy Women and Ageing in Healthy Men Differently Affect Cardiometabolic Parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campesi, Ilaria; Occhioni, Stefano; Tonolo, Giancarlo; Cherchi, Sara; Basili, Stefania; Carru, Ciriaco; Zinellu, Angelo; Franconi, Flavia

    2016-01-01

    Gender medicine requires a global analysis of an individual's life. Menopause and ageing induce variations of some cardiometabolic parameters, but, it is unknown if this occurs in a sex-specific manner. Here, some markers of oxidative stress, systemic inflammation, and endothelial dysfunction are analysed in men younger and older than 45 years and in pre- and postmenopausal women. Serum and plasma sample were assayed for TNF-α and IL-6, malondialdehyde and protein carbonyls and for methylated arginines using ELISA kits, colorimetric methods and capillary electrophoresis. Before body weight correction, men overall had higher creatinine, red blood cells and haemoglobin and lower triglycerides than women. Men younger than 45 years had lower levels of TNF-α and malondialdehyde and higher levels of arginine than age-matched women, while postmenopausal women had higher IL-6 concentrations than men, and higher total cholesterol, triglycerides, creatinine and IL-6 levels than younger women. Men younger than 45 years had lower total cholesterol and malondialdehyde than older men. After correction, some differences remained, others were amplified, others disappeared and some new differences emerged. Moreover, some parameters showed a correlation with age, and some of them correlated with each other as functions of ageing and ageing/menopausal status. Ageing/menopausal status increased many more cardiovascular risk factors in women than ageing in men, confirming that postmenopausal women had increased vascular vulnerability and indicating the need of early cardiovascular prevention in women. Sex-gender differences are also influenced by body weight, indicating as a matter of debate whether body weight should be seen as a true confounder or as part of the causal pathway.

  14. Nutritional Cognitive Neuroscience: Innovations for Healthy Brain Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Karolina Zamroziewicz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Nutritional cognitive neuroscience is an emerging interdisciplinary field of research that seeks to understand nutrition’s impact on cognition and brain health across the life span. Research in this burgeoning field demonstrates that many aspects of nutrition – from entire diets to specific nutrients – affect brain structure and function, and therefore have profound implications for understanding the nature of healthy brain aging. The aim of this Focused Review is to examine recent advances in nutritional cognitive neuroscience, with an emphasis on methods that enable discovery of nutrient biomarkers that predict healthy brain aging. We propose an integrative framework that calls for the synthesis of research in nutritional epidemiology and cognitive neuroscience, incorporating: (i methods for the precise characterization of nutritional health based on the analysis of nutrient biomarker patterns, along with (ii modern indices of brain health derived from high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging. By integrating cutting-edge techniques from nutritional epidemiology and cognitive neuroscience, nutritional cognitive neuroscience will continue to advance our understanding of the beneficial effects of nutrition on the aging brain and establish effective nutritional interventions to promote healthy brain aging.

  15. Decreases in Human Semen Quality with Age Among Healthy Men

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eskenazi, B.; Wyrobek, A.J.; Kidd, S.A.; Moore, L.; Young, S.S.; Moore, D.

    2001-12-01

    The objective of this report is to characterize the associations between age and semen quality among healthy active men after controlling for identified covariates. Ninety-seven healthy, nonsmoking men between 22 and 80 years without known fertility problems who worked for or retired from a large research laboratory. There was a gradual decrease in all semen parameters from 22-80 years of age. After adjusting for covariates, volume decreased 0.03 ml per year (p = 0.001); sperm concentration decreased 2.5% per year (p = 0.005); total count decreased 3.6% per year of age (p < 0.001); motility decreased 0.7% per year (P < 0.001); progressive motility decreased 3.1% per year (p < 0.001); and total progressively motile sperm decreased 4.8% per year (p < 0.001). In a group of healthy active men, semen volume, sperm concentration, total sperm count, and sperm motility decrease continuously between 22-80 years of age, with no evidence of a threshold.

  16. Fat Replacement of Paraspinal Muscles with Aging in Healthy Adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlqvist, Julia R; Vissing, Christoffer R; Hedermann, Gitte

    2017-01-01

    also tested for association with sex, body mass index (BMI), physical activity, and lower back pain. RESULTS: Both paraspinal and leg fat fractions correlated directly with age (P ages, fat fraction was higher in paraspinal than leg muscles. The age-related increase in fat fraction...... was associated with lumbar paraspinal fat fraction (P activity or lower back pain. CONCLUSION: The paraspinal muscles were more susceptible to age-related changes than leg muscles. Further, men had......PURPOSE: The aims of this study were to investigate the age-related changes in fatty replacement and cross-sectional area (CSA) of cervical, thoracic, and lumbar paraspinal muscles versus leg muscles in healthy adults and to test for association between muscle fat fraction and lifestyle factors...

  17. Mobile Health Applications to Promote Active and Healthy Ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helbostad, Jorunn L; Vereijken, Beatrix; Becker, Clemens; Todd, Chris; Taraldsen, Kristin; Pijnappels, Mirjam; Aminian, Kamiar; Mellone, Sabato

    2017-03-18

    The European population is ageing, and there is a need for health solutions that keep older adults independent longer. With increasing access to mobile technology, such as smartphones and smartwatches, the development and use of mobile health applications is rapidly growing. To meet the societal challenge of changing demography, mobile health solutions are warranted that support older adults to stay healthy and active and that can prevent or delay functional decline. This paper reviews the literature on mobile technology, in particular wearable technology, such as smartphones, smartwatches, and wristbands, presenting new ideas on how this technology can be used to encourage an active lifestyle, and discusses the way forward in order further to advance development and practice in the field of mobile technology for active, healthy ageing.

  18. FROM SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT TO HEALTHY DEVELOPMENT. THE ECOLONOMIC PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin, POPESCU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Development represents an ecolonomic phenomenon whose fruitage falls within the exigencies of 'harmony of integrated live integers'. The current sustainable aspect of the development is incomplete and does not correspond to the requirements of live integer, as world realities present poverty within abundance, pollution in and from developed and undeveloped countries, inhuman social inequalities, a serious waste of ecolonomic esources because of their use especially in the cosmotechnic alarming field. The way from sustainable development to healthy development is conditioned by the replacement of the current institutional value 'no one is above law', with the wisdom 'no one is above love and truth'. Such long term, comprehensive process is favoured by the transition from the current competence-based educational model to the one of education in the cause of life, based on values. The methodology of approaching such subject is 'nestled' in recent trans-disciplinary, holistic research, to which there contribute quantum physics, holistic medicine, systemic biology, transpersonal psychology and new openings of economic approach considering life as a live organism. There is a fundamental, long term objective interpreting economic life from the perspective of the paradigm 'health of live integer' and sliding partial objectives related to reconstruction of current concepts, theories and policies and their integration in the criterion of people's happiness.

  19. Time perspective and exercise, obesity, and smoking: moderation of associations by age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthrie, Lori C; Butler, Stephen C; Lessl, Kristen; Ochi, Onyinyechukwu; Ward, Michael M

    2014-01-01

    Time perspective, a psychological construct denoting subjective orientation to either present or future concerns, has been inconsistently associated with healthy behaviors in adults. We hypothesized that associations would be stronger in young adults, who are first developing independent attitudes, than in older adults. Cross-sectional survey. The study was conducted in three cities in the Mid-Atlantic region. Subjects were 790 patrons of barber and beauty shops. Measures used were the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory future, present-fatalistic, and present-hedonistic subscales and current smoking, days per week of recreational exercise, and height and weight, by self-report. We tested if associations between time perspective and exercise, obesity, and current smoking differed by age group (18-24 years, 25-34 years, and 35 years and older) using analysis of variance and logistic regression. Higher future time perspective scores, indicating greater focus on future events, was associated with more frequent exercise, whereas higher present-fatalistic time perspective scores, indicating more hopelessness, was associated with less frequent exercise in 18- to 24-year-olds, but not in older individuals. Lower future time perspective scores, and higher present-hedonistic time perspective scores, indicating interest in pleasure-seeking, were also associated with obesity only in 18- to 24-year-olds. Current smoking was not related to time perspective in any age group. Time perspective has age-specific associations with exercise and obesity, suggesting stages when time perspective may influence health behavior decision making.

  20. Lipid and Alzheimer's disease genes associated with healthy aging and longevity in healthy oldest-old.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tindale, Lauren C; Leach, Stephen; Spinelli, John J; Brooks-Wilson, Angela R

    2017-03-28

    Several studies have found that long-lived individuals do not appear to carry lower numbers of common disease-associated variants than ordinary people; it has been hypothesized that they may instead carry protective variants. An intriguing type of protective variant is buffering variants that protect against variants that have deleterious effects. We genotyped 18 variants in 15 genes related to longevity or healthy aging that had been previously reported as having a gene-gene interaction or buffering effect. We compared a group of 446 healthy oldest-old 'Super-Seniors' (individuals 85 or older who have never been diagnosed with cancer, cardiovascular disease, dementia, diabetes or major pulmonary disease) to 421 random population-based midlife controls. Cases and controls were of European ancestry. Association tests of individual SNPs showed that Super-Seniors were less likely than controls to carry an APOEε4 allele or a haptoglobin HP2 allele. Interactions between APOE/FOXO3, APOE/CRYL1, and LPA/CRYL1 did not remain significant after multiple testing correction. In a network analysis of the candidate genes, lipid and cholesterol metabolism was a common theme. APOE, HP, and CRYL1 have all been associated with Alzheimer's Disease, the pathology of which involves lipid and cholesterol pathways. Age-related changes in lipid and cholesterol maintenance, particularly in the brain, may be central to healthy aging and longevity.

  1. Brain metabolism and memory in age differentiated healthy adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riege, W.H.; Metter, E.J.; Kuhl, D.E.; Phelps, M.E.

    1984-01-01

    The [F-18]-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) scan method with positron emission tomography was used to determine age differences in factors underlying both the performances on 18 multivariate memory tests and the rates of cerebral glucose utilization in 9 left and 9 right hemispheric regions of 23 healthy adults in the age range of 27-78 years. Young persons below age 42 had higher scores than middle-aged (age 48-65 yrs) or old (age 66-78 yrs) persons on two of seven factors, reflecting memory for sequences of words or events together with metabolic indices of Broca's (and its mirror region) and Thalamic areas. Reliable correlations (critical r = 0.48, p<0.02) indicated that persons with high Superior Frontal and low Caudate-Thalamic metabolic measures were the same who performed well in tests of memory for sentences, story, designs, and complex patterns; while metabolic indices of Occipital and Posterior Temporal regions were correlated with the decision criteria adopted in testing. The mean metabolic ratio (b = -0.033, F = 5.47, p<0.03) and those of bilateral Broca's regions (b = -0.002, F = 13.65, p<0.001) significantly declined with age. The functional interrelation of frontal-subcortical metabolic ratios with memory processing was more prominent in younger persons under study and implicates decreasing thalamo-frontal interaction with age

  2. Structural and Functional Changes in Human Kidneys with Healthy Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hommos, Musab S; Glassock, Richard J; Rule, Andrew D

    2017-10-01

    Aging is associated with significant changes in structure and function of the kidney, even in the absence of age-related comorbidities. On the macrostructural level, kidney cortical volume decreases, surface roughness increases, and the number and size of simple renal cysts increase with age. On the microstructural level, the histologic signs of nephrosclerosis (arteriosclerosis/arteriolosclerosis, global glomerulosclerosis, interstitial fibrosis, and tubular atrophy) all increase with age. The decline of nephron number is accompanied by a comparable reduction in measured whole-kidney GFR. However, single-nephron GFR remains relatively constant with healthy aging as does glomerular volume. Only when glomerulosclerosis and arteriosclerosis exceed that expected for age is there an increase in single-nephron GFR. In the absence of albuminuria, age-related reduction in GFR with the corresponding increase in CKD (defined by an eGFRage-standardized mortality risk or ESRD. These findings raise the question of whether disease labeling of an age-related decline in GFR is appropriate. These findings also emphasize the need for a different management approach for many elderly individuals considered to have CKD by current criteria. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  3. Healthy Aging Promotion through Neuroscientific Information-Based Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seinfeld, Sofia; Sanchez-Vives, Maria V

    2015-09-28

    To ensure the well-being of a rapidly growing elderly population, it is fundamental to find strategies to foster healthy brain aging. With this intention, we designed a program of scientific-based lectures aimed at dissemination by established neuroscientists about brain function, brain plasticity and how lifestyle influences the brain. We also carried out a pilot study on the impact of the lectures on attendees. The objective was to provide information to elderly people in order to encourage them to identify unhealthy and healthy daily habits, and more importantly, to promote behavioral changes towards healthy brain aging. Here we report on our experience. In order to determine the impact of the lectures in the daily routine of the attendees, we asked them to fill out questionnaires. Preliminary results indicate that neuroscientific information-based strategies can be a useful method to have a positive impact on the lives of elderly, increase their awareness on how to improve brain function and promote positive lifestyle modifications. Furthermore, based on self-reported data, we also found that through this strategy it is possible to promote behavioral changes related to nutrition, sleep, and realization of physical and cognitively stimulating activities. Finally, based on the results obtained, the importance of promoting self-efficacy and the empowerment of the older populations is highlighted.

  4. Healthy Aging Promotion through Neuroscientific Information-Based Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Seinfeld

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available To ensure the well-being of a rapidly growing elderly population, it is fundamental to find strategies to foster healthy brain aging. With this intention, we designed a program of scientific-based lectures aimed at dissemination by established neuroscientists about brain function, brain plasticity and how lifestyle influences the brain. We also carried out a pilot study on the impact of the lectures on attendees. The objective was to provide information to elderly people in order to encourage them to identify unhealthy and healthy daily habits, and more importantly, to promote behavioral changes towards healthy brain aging. Here we report on our experience. In order to determine the impact of the lectures in the daily routine of the attendees, we asked them to fill out questionnaires. Preliminary results indicate that neuroscientific information-based strategies can be a useful method to have a positive impact on the lives of elderly, increase their awareness on how to improve brain function and promote positive lifestyle modifications. Furthermore, based on self-reported data, we also found that through this strategy it is possible to promote behavioral changes related to nutrition, sleep, and realization of physical and cognitively stimulating activities. Finally, based on the results obtained, the importance of promoting self-efficacy and the empowerment of the older populations is highlighted.

  5. Perceptions of competence: age moderates views of healthy aging and Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Jane M; Williams, Helen L; Thomas, Kevin D; Blair, Jamie

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/STUDY CONTEXT: Older adults have more complex and differentiated views of aging than do younger adults, but less is known about age-related perceptions of Alzheimer's disease. This study investigated age-related perceptions of competence of an older adult labeled as "in good health" (healthy) or "has Alzheimer's disease" (AD), using a person-perception paradigm. It was predicted that older adults would provide more differentiated assessments of the two targets than would younger adults. Younger (n=86; 18-36 years) and older (n=66; 61-95 years) adults rated activities of daily living (ADL), instrumental activities of daily living (IADL), and memory abilities of a female target aged 75 years, described as healthy or with AD. Data on anxiety about aging, knowledge of and experience with aging and AD, knowledge of memory aging, and positive and negative biases toward aging and AD were also collected. Older adults perceived the healthy target as more capable of cognitively effortful activities (e.g., managing finances) and as possessing better memory abilities than the AD target. As predicted, these differences were greater than differences between targets perceived by younger adults. The interaction effect remained significant after statistically controlling for relevant variables, including education and gender. Additionally, exploratory analyses revealed that older adults held less positively biased views of AD than younger adults, but negatively biased views were equivalent between age groups. The results demonstrate that mere labels of "healthy" and "Alzheimer's disease" produce significant and subtle age differences in perceived competencies of older adults, and that biases towards AD vary by age group and valence. Our findings extend the person-perception paradigm to an integrative analysis of aging and AD, are consistent with models of adult development, and complement current research and theory on stereotypes of aging. Future directions for research

  6. Effects of ageing on serotonin transporters in healthy females

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuikka, J.T.; Tammela, L.; Karhunen, L.; Uusitupa, M.; Bergstroem, K.A.; Tiihonen, J.

    2001-01-01

    The effect of ageing on brain serotonin transporters was evaluated in 19 healthy female volunteers (age range 22-74 years) using single-photon emission tomography and [ 123 I] nor-β-CIT. The study subjects were scanned 0.3, 3, 6 and 23 h after injection of 185 MBq of [ 123 I] nor-β-CIT. The ratio of the distribution volume for tracer in the midbrain to that in the cerebellum minus 1 was used as an index for serotonin transporter binding. An age-related decline of 2% per decade (r=-0.47; P 123 I] nor-β-CIT binding in the serotonin transporter-rich area is much less than that in dopamine transporters in the striatum (6% per decade). (orig.)

  7. Trajectories of the healthy ageing phenotype among middle-aged and older Britons, 2004-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tampubolon, Gindo

    2016-06-01

    Since the ageing population demands a response to ensure older people remain healthy and active, we studied the dynamics of a recently proposed healthy ageing phenotype. We drew the phenotype's trajectories and tested whether their levels and rates of change are influenced by health behaviours, comorbidities and socioeconomic positions earlier in the life course. The English Longitudinal Ageing Study, a prospective, nationally representative sample of people aged ≥50 years, measured a set of eight biomarkers which make up the outcome of the healthy ageing phenotype three times over nearly a decade (N2004=5009, N2008=5301, N2013=4455). A cluster of health behaviours, comorbidities and socioeconomic positions were also measured repeatedly. We assessed the phenotype's distribution non-parametrically, then fitted linear mixed models to phenotypic change and further examined time interactions with gender and socioeconomic position. We ran additional analyses to test robustness. Women had a wider distribution of the healthy ageing phenotype than men had. The phenotype declined annually by -0.242 (95% confidence interval [CI]: -0.352, -0.131). However, there was considerable heterogeneity in the levels and rates of phenotypic change. Women started at higher levels, then declined more steeply by -0.293 (CI: -0.403, -0.183) annually, leading to crossover in the trajectories. Smoking and physical activity assessed on the Allied Dunbar scale were strongly associated with the trajectories. Though marked by secular decline, the trajectories of the healthy ageing phenotype showed distinct socioeconomic gradients. The trajectories were also susceptible to variations in health behaviours, strengthening the case for serial interventions to attain healthy and active ageing. Copyright © 2016 The Author. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Healthy Aging and Compensation of Sentence Comprehension Auditory Deficits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Lima Silagi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To analyze the effect of aging on sentence auditory comprehension and to study the relationship between this language skill and cognitive functions (attention, working memory, and executive functions. Methods. A total of 90 healthy subjects were divided into three groups: adults (50–59 years, young-old (60–69 years, and old-old (70–80 years. Subjects were assessed using the Revised Token Test. The measures used for performance analysis were number of correct answers (accuracy and execution time of commands on the different subtests. Results. Regarding accuracy, groups showed similar performance on the first blocks, but the young-old and old-old performed worse than adults on blocks 9 and 10. With respect to execution time, groups differed from block 2 (i.e., the groups differed for all blocks, except for block 1, with the worst performance observed in the old-old group, followed by that of the young-old group. Therefore, the elderly required more time to attain performance similar to that of adults, showing that time measurements are more sensitive for detecting the effects of age. Sentence comprehension ability is correlated with cognitive test performance, especially for global cognition and working memory tests. Conclusions. Healthy aging is characterized by the ability to compensate for difficulties in linguistic processing, which allows the elderly to maintain functional communication.

  9. Selfie Aging Index: An Index for the Self-assessment of Healthy and Active Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Judite; Gomes, Maria Isabel; Fonseca, Miguel; Teodoro, Tomás; Barros, Pedro Pita; Botelho, Maria-Amália

    2017-01-01

    Governments across Europe want to promote healthy and active aging, as a matter of both public health and economic sustainability. Designing policies focused on the most vulnerable groups requires information at the individual level. However, a measure of healthy and active aging at the individual level does not yet exist. This paper develops the Selfie Aging Index (SAI), an individual-level index of healthy and active aging. The SAI is developed thinking about a tool that would allow each person to take a selfie of her aging status. Therefore, it is based entirely on self-assessed indicators. This paper also illustrates how the SAI may look like in practice. The SAI is based on the Biopsychosocial Assessment Model (MAB), a tool for the multidimensional assessment of older adults along three domains: biological, psychological, and social. Indicators are selected and their weights determined based on an ordered probit model that relates the MAB indicators to self-assessed health, which proxies healthy and active aging. The ordered probit model predicts the SAI based on the estimated parameters. Finally, predictions are rescaled to the 0-1 interval. Data for the SAI development come from the Study of the Aging Profiles of the Portuguese Population and the Survey of Health, Aging, and Retirement in Europe. The selected indicators are BMI, having difficulties moving around indoors and performing the activities of daily living, feeling depressed, feeling nervous, lacking energy, time awareness score, marital status, having someone to confide in, education, type of job, exercise, and smoking status. The model also determines their weights. Results shed light on various factors that contribute significantly to healthy and active aging. Two examples are mental health and exercise, which deserve more attention from individuals themselves, health-care professionals, and public health policy. The SAI has the potential to put the individual at the center of the healthy and

  10. Theta power is reduced in healthy cognitive aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummins, Tarrant D R; Finnigan, Simon

    2007-10-01

    The effects of healthy cognitive aging on electroencephalographic (EEG) theta (4.9-6.8 Hz) power were examined during performance of a modified Sternberg, S., 1966. High-speed scanning in human memory. Science 153, 652-654.) word recognition task. In a sample of fourteen young (mean age 21.9 years, range=18-27) and fourteen older (mean age 68.4 years, range=60-80) participants, theta power was found to be significantly lower in older adults during both the retention and recognition intervals. This theta power difference was greatest at the fronto-central midline electrode and occurred in parallel with a small, non-significant decrease in recognition accuracy in the older sample. A significant decrease in older adults' mean theta power was also observed in resting EEG, however, it was of substantially smaller magnitude than the task-related theta difference. It is proposed that a neurophysiological measure(s), such as task-specific frontal midline theta (fmtheta) power, may be a more sensitive marker of cognitive aging than task performance measures. Furthermore, as recent research indicates that fmtheta is generated primarily in the anterior cingulate cortex, the current findings support evidence that the function of brain networks incorporating this structure may be affected in cognitive aging.

  11. Positive Technology for Healthy Living and Active Ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riva, Giuseppe; Gaggioli, Andrea; Villani, Daniela; Cipresso, Pietro; Repetto, Claudia; Serino, Silvia; Triberti, Stefano; Brivio, Eleonora; Galimberti, Carlo; Graffigna, Guendalina

    2014-01-01

    Information and communication technologies are widely and rapidly spreading in people's daily lives. But what is the possible role of the mass proliferation of digital devices in supporting healthy living and active ageing? Are they useful in fostering personal growth and individual integration of the elderly, by promoting satisfaction, opportunities for action, and self-expression? Rather, do they enhance automation, impose constraints on personal initiative, and result in compulsive consumption of information? In this chapter, we suggest that possible answers to these questions will be offered by the "Positive Technology" approach, i.e., the scientific and applied approach to using technology so that it improves the quality of our personal experiences through its structuring, augmentation, and/or replacement. First, we suggest that it is possible to use technology to manipulate the quality of experience with the goal of increasing wellness and generating strengths and resilience in individuals, organizations, and society. Then, we classify positive technologies according to their effects on these three features of personal experience - Hedonic: technologies used to induce positive and pleasant experiences; Eudaimonic: technologies used to support individuals in reaching engaging and self-actualizing experiences; Social/Interpersonal: technologies used to support and improve the connectedness between individuals, groups, and organizations. Finally, we discuss the possible role of positive technologies for healthy living and active ageing by presenting different practical applications of this approach.

  12. Healthy Aging: What's On Your Plate? | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Healthy Aging What's On Your Plate? Past Issues / Winter 2015 ... What's On Your Plate? Smart Food Choices for Healthy Aging www.nia.nih.gov/health/publication/whats-your- ...

  13. Community Nurses' Experiences Regarding the Meaning and Promotion of Healthy Aging in Northeastern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manasatchakun, Pornpun; Choowattanapakorn, Tassana; Roxberg, Åsa; Asp, Margareta

    2018-03-01

    Describe community nurses' experiences regarding the meaning and promotion of healthy aging in northeastern Thailand. Data were collected through five focus group interviews with 36 community nurses in northeastern Thailand. Latent content analysis was conducted to analyze the data. Healthy aging was characterized by the interconnection of older persons, older persons' family members, and the community. Healthy aging was associated with two themes: "being strong" and "being a supporter and feeling supported." The nurses' experiences in promoting healthy aging were described by the themes "providing health assessment," "sharing knowledge," and "having limited resources." The findings of this study provide a deeper understanding of the meaning of healthy aging from a holistic viewpoint. Community nurses must pay attention to older persons and their surroundings when planning how to promote healthy aging. Person-centeredness should be applied in practice to promote healthy aging. The current findings contribute useful information that should help policy makers develop healthy aging strategies in Thailand.

  14. Down with retirement: implications of embodied cognition for healthy aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhard Hommel

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive and neurocognitive approaches to human healthy aging attribute age-related decline to the biologically-caused loss of cognitive-control functions. However, an embodied-cognition approach to aging implies a more interactive view according to which cognitive control emerges from, and relies on a person’s active encounters with his or her physical and social environment. We argue that the availability of cognitive-control resources does not only rely on biological processes but also on the degree of active maintenance, that is, on the systematic use of the available control resources. Unfortunately, there is evidence that the degree of actual use might systematically underestimate resource availability, which implies that elderly individuals do not fully exploit their cognitive potential. We discuss evidence for this possibility from three aging-related issues: the reduction of dopaminergic supply, loneliness, and the loss of body strength. All three phenomena point to a downward spiral, in which losses of cognitive-control resources do not only directly impair performance but also more indirectly discourage individuals from making use of them, which in turn suggests underuse and a lack of maintenance—leading to further loss. On the positive side, the possibility of underuse points to not yet fully exploited reservoirs of cognitive control, which calls for more systematic theorizing and experimentation on how cognitive control can be enhanced, as well as for reconsiderations of societal practices that are likely to undermine the active maintenance of control resources—such as retirement laws.

  15. How does healthy aging impact on the circadian clock?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popa-Wagner, Aurel; Buga, Ana-Maria; Dumitrascu, Dinu Iuliu; Uzoni, Adriana; Thome, Johannes; Coogan, Andrew N

    2017-02-01

    Circadian rhythms are recurring patterns in a host of physiological and other parameters that recur with periods of near 24 h. These rhythms reflect the temporal organization of an organism's homeostatic control systems and as such are key processes in ensuring optimal physiological performance. Dysfunction of circadian processes is linked with adverse health conditions. In this review we highlight the evidence that normal, healthy aging is associated with changes in the circadian system; we examine the molecular mechanisms through which such changes may arise, discuss whether more robust circadian function is a predictor of longevity and highlight the role of circadian rhythms in age-related diseases. Overall, the literature shows that aging is associated with marked changes in circadian processes, both at the behavioral and molecular levels, and the molecular mechanisms through which such changes arise remain to be elucidated, but may involve inflammatory process, redox homeostasis and epigenetic modifications. Understanding the nature of age-related circadian dysfunction will allow for the design of chronotherapeutic intervention strategies to attenuate circadian dysfunction and thus improve health and quality of life.

  16. Biological effects of 2-oxoglutarate with particular emphasis on the regulation of protein, mineral and lipid absorption/metabolism, muscle performance, kidney function, bone formation and cancerogenesis, all viewed from a healthy ageing perspective state of the art

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrison, Adrian Paul; Pierzynowski, S.G.

    2008-01-01

    The fact that men and women are living longer than they have ever done before is something in which we can all rejoice. However, the process of ageing is associated with changes in skeletal, muscular, gastrointestinal, neural hormonal and metabolic processes that seriously affect an individual......'s performance and quality of life. Indeed, such changes can be contributory to a loss of independence in the elderly. This state- of-the art address highlights the main changes found to occur with ageing whilst simultaneously reporting findings of in vivo and in vitro studies designed to elucidate the potential...

  17. Ageing and healthy sexuality among women living with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narasimhan, Manjulaa; Payne, Caitlin; Caldas, Stephanie; Beard, John R; Kennedy, Caitlin E

    2016-11-01

    Populations around the world are rapidly ageing and effective treatment for HIV means women living with HIV (WLHIV) can live longer, healthier lives. HIV testing and screening programmes and safer sex initiatives often exclude older sexually active WLHIV. Systematically reviewing the literature to inform World Health Organization guidelines on the sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR) of WLHIV, identified four studies examining healthy sexuality among older WLHIV. In Uganda, WLHIV reported lower rates of sexual activity and rated sex as less important than men. In the United States, HIV stigma, disclosure, and body image concerns, among other issues, were described as inhibiting relationship formation and safer sexual practices. Sexual activity declined similarly over time for all women, including for WLHIV who reported more protected sex, while a significant minority of WLHIV reported unprotected sex. A single intervention, the "ROADMAP" intervention, demonstrated significant increases in HIV knowledge and decreases in HIV stigma and high risk sexual behaviour. WLHIV face ageist discrimination and other barriers to remaining sexually active and maintaining healthy sexual relationships, including challenges procuring condoms and seeking advice on safe sex practices, reduced ability to negotiate safer sex, physical and social changes associated with menopause, and sexual health challenges due to disability and comorbidities. Normative guidance does not adequately address the SRHR of older WLHIV, and while this systematic review highlights the paucity of data, it also calls for additional research and attention to this important area. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Nutritional Considerations for Healthy Aging and Reduction in Age-Related Chronic Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shlisky, Julie; Bloom, David E; Beaudreault, Amy R; Tucker, Katherine L; Keller, Heather H; Freund-Levi, Yvonne; Fielding, Roger A; Cheng, Feon W; Jensen, Gordon L; Wu, Dayong; Meydani, Simin N

    2017-01-01

    A projected doubling in the global population of people aged ≥60 y by the year 2050 has major health and economic implications, especially in developing regions. Burdens of unhealthy aging associated with chronic noncommunicable and other age-related diseases may be largely preventable with lifestyle modification, including diet. However, as adults age they become at risk of "nutritional frailty," which can compromise their ability to meet nutritional requirements at a time when specific nutrient needs may be high. This review highlights the role of nutrition science in promoting healthy aging and in improving the prognosis in cases of age-related diseases. It serves to identify key knowledge gaps and implementation challenges to support adequate nutrition for healthy aging, including applicability of metrics used in body-composition and diet adequacy for older adults and mechanisms to reduce nutritional frailty and to promote diet resilience. This review also discusses management recommendations for several leading chronic conditions common in aging populations, including cognitive decline and dementia, sarcopenia, and compromised immunity to infectious disease. The role of health systems in incorporating nutrition care routinely for those aged ≥60 y and living independently and current actions to address nutritional status before hospitalization and the development of disease are discussed. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  19. Nutritional Considerations for Healthy Aging and Reduction in Age-Related Chronic Disease12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shlisky, Julie; Bloom, David E; Beaudreault, Amy R; Tucker, Katherine L; Keller, Heather H; Freund-Levi, Yvonne; Fielding, Roger A; Cheng, Feon W; Jensen, Gordon L; Wu, Dayong; Meydani, Simin N

    2017-01-01

    A projected doubling in the global population of people aged ≥60 y by the year 2050 has major health and economic implications, especially in developing regions. Burdens of unhealthy aging associated with chronic noncommunicable and other age-related diseases may be largely preventable with lifestyle modification, including diet. However, as adults age they become at risk of “nutritional frailty,” which can compromise their ability to meet nutritional requirements at a time when specific nutrient needs may be high. This review highlights the role of nutrition science in promoting healthy aging and in improving the prognosis in cases of age-related diseases. It serves to identify key knowledge gaps and implementation challenges to support adequate nutrition for healthy aging, including applicability of metrics used in body-composition and diet adequacy for older adults and mechanisms to reduce nutritional frailty and to promote diet resilience. This review also discusses management recommendations for several leading chronic conditions common in aging populations, including cognitive decline and dementia, sarcopenia, and compromised immunity to infectious disease. The role of health systems in incorporating nutrition care routinely for those aged ≥60 y and living independently and current actions to address nutritional status before hospitalization and the development of disease are discussed. PMID:28096124

  20. Handwriting in healthy people aged 65 years and over.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Drempt, Nadege; McCluskey, Annie; Lannin, Natasha A

    2011-08-01

    Handwriting is an important activity that is commonly affected by neurological and orthopaedic conditions. Handwriting research has predominantly involved children. Little is known about handwriting behaviour in healthy older adults. This study aims to describe the handwriting practices of 30 unimpaired adults aged 65 years and over. In this cross-sectional observational study, data were collected from 30 older adults using a self-report questionnaire, digital pen recordings over three days and a handwriting log. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics. The mean age of participants was 75.1 years (standard deviation=6.9). Variations in handwriting were evident in letter size, slant and spacing. Participants wrote very little--a median of 18 words per occasion (interquartile range=10.5-26.9 words). Most handwriting involved self-generated text (85%), not copied or transcribed text. Participants stood while writing for 17% of handwriting occasions. The most common reasons for handwriting were note taking (23%) and puzzles (22%). Legibility may not depend exclusively on the handwriting script that a beginning writer is taught, but may be a result of other factors as the person ages. A comprehensive adult handwriting assessment and retraining programme should be relevant to older adults, including common handwriting activities, involving self-generated text and few words. © 2011 The Authors. Australian Occupational Therapy Journal © 2011 Occupational Therapy Australia.

  1. Active and Successful Aging: A European Policy Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Foster, Liam; Walker, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Over the past two decades, "active aging" has emerged in Europe as the foremost policy response to the challenges of population aging. This article examines the concept of active aging and how it differs from that of "successful aging." In particular, it shows how active aging presents a more holistic, life course-oriented approach than successful aging. We provide a critical perspective on active aging too by, first, tracing its emergence in Europe and then showing how, in practice, it has b...

  2. Employer and Promoter Perspectives on the Quality of Health Promotion Within the Healthy Workplace Accreditation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, Chen-Yin; Yin, Yun-Wen; Liu, Chia-Yun; Chang, Chia-Chen; Zhou, Yi-Ping

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To explore the employers’ and promoters’ perspective of health promotion quality according to the healthy workplace accreditation. Methods: We assessed the perspectives of 85 employers and 81 health promoters regarding the quality of health promotion at their workplaces. The method of measurement referenced the European Network for Workplace Health Promotion (ENWHP) quality criteria. Results: In the large workplaces, the accredited corporation employers had a higher impression (P workplace employers had a slightly higher perspective than non-accredited ones. Nevertheless, there were no differences between the perspectives of health promoters from different sized workplaces with or without accreditation (P > 0.05). Conclusions: It seems that employers’ perspectives of healthy workplace accreditation surpassed employers from non-accredited workplaces. Specifically, large accredited corporations could share their successful experiences to encourage a more involved workplace in small–medium workplaces. PMID:28691998

  3. Reprint of: Musculoskeletal system in the old age and the demand for healthy ageing biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collino, Sebastiano; Martin, François-Pierre; Karagounis, Leonidas G; Horcajada, Marie Noelle; Moco, Sofia; Franceschi, Claudio; Kussmann, Martin; Offord, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Population ageing has emerged as a major demographic trend worldwide due to improved health and longevity. This global ageing phenomenon will have a major impact on health-care systems worldwide due to increased morbidity and greater needs for hospitalization/institutionalization. As the ageing population increases worldwide, there is an increasing awareness not only of increased longevity but also of the importance of "healthy ageing" and "quality of life". Yet, the age related chronic inflammation is believed to be pathogenic with regards to its contribution to frailty and degenerative disorders. In particular, the frailty syndrome is increasingly being considered as a key risk indicator of adverse health outcomes. In addition, elderly may be also prone to be resistant to anabolic stimuli which is likely a key factor in the loss of skeletal muscle mass with ageing. Vital to understand these key biological processes is the development of biological markers, through system biology approaches, aiding at strategies for tailored therapeutic and personalized nutritional program. Overall aim is to prevent or attenuate decline of key physiological functions required to live an active, independent life. This review focus on core indicators of health and functions in older adults, where nutrition and tailored personalized programs could exhibit preventive roles, and where the aid of metabolomics technologies are increasingly displaying potential in revealing key molecular mechanisms/targets linked to specific ageing and/or healthy ageing processes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Musculoskeletal system in the old age and the demand for healthy ageing biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collino, Sebastiano; Martin, François-Pierre; Karagounis, Leonidas G; Horcajada, Marie Noelle; Moco, Sofia; Franceschi, Claudio; Kussmann, Martin; Offord, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Population ageing has emerged as a major demographic trend worldwide due to improved health and longevity. This global ageing phenomenon will have a major impact on health-care systems worldwide due to increased morbidity and greater needs for hospitalization/institutionalization. As the ageing population increases worldwide, there is an increasing awareness not only of increased longevity but also of the importance of "healthy ageing" and "quality of life". Yet, the age related chronic inflammation is believed to be pathogenic with regards to its contribution to frailty and degenerative disorders. In particular, the frailty syndrome is increasingly being considered as a key risk indicator of adverse health outcomes. In addition, elderly may be also prone to be resistant to anabolic stimuli which is likely a key factor in the loss of skeletal muscle mass with ageing. Vital to understand these key biological processes is the development of biological markers, through system biology approaches, aiding at strategies for tailored therapeutic and personalized nutritional program. Overall aim is to prevent or attenuate decline of key physiological functions required to live an active, independent life. This review focus on core indicators of health and functions in older adults, where nutrition and tailored personalized programs could exhibit preventive roles, and where the aid of metabolomics technologies are increasingly displaying potential in revealing key molecular mechanisms/targets linked to specific ageing and/or healthy ageing processes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Portal Vein Dopplerflowmetry in healthy sheep according to age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra F. Belotta

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Pulsed Doppler ultrasound was used to evaluate portal blood flow, portal velocity and portal congestion index in 24 healthy sheep divided into groups (lambs, yearlings and ewes, according to age. Measurements were performed at the 11th right intercostal space using ideal insonation angle and uniform insonation method. Mean values obtained in each group were compared with one-way ANOVA, followed by Tukey post-hoc test. Portal velocity and portal blood flow were statistically similar between the groups (P>0.05. Mean portal velocity were 17.75; 17.13 and 16.75; while mean portal blood flow were 26.65; 31.04 and 24.32 for lambs, yearlings and ewes, respectively. Portal congestion index was statistically distinct between the groups and values for lambs, yearlings and ewes were 0.009; 0.058 and 0.09, respectively (P<0.01. Statistical differences were observed in portal vein diameter, portal vein area and portal congestion index between the groups, presumably due to influence of weight and not to age.

  6. Healthy Aging Among Older Black and White Men: What Is the Role of Mastery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latham-Mintus, Kenzie; Vowels, Ashley; Huskins, Kyle

    2018-01-11

    This research explores black-white differences in healthy aging and investigates whether mastery acts as a buffer against poor health for older black and white men. Using data from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) (2008-2012), a series of binary logit models were created to assess healthy aging over a 2-year period. Healthy aging was defined as good subjective health and free of disability at both waves. Mastery was lagged, and analyses (n = 4,892) controlled for social and health factors. Black-white disparities in healthy aging were observed, where older black men had lower odds of healthy aging. Mastery was associated with higher odds of healthy aging, and race moderated the relationship between mastery and healthy aging. The predicted probability of healthy aging was relatively flat across all levels of mastery among black men, yet white men saw consistent gains in the probability of healthy aging with higher levels of mastery. In race-stratified models, mastery was not a significant predictor of healthy aging among black men. High levels of mastery are linked to positive health-often acting as a buffer against stressful life events. However, among older black men, higher levels of mastery did not necessarily equate to healthy aging. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Time perspective: its link to personality traits, age, and gender

    OpenAIRE

    Kairys, Antanas

    2010-01-01

    In Lithuania, as well as in other countries, psychological studies on time perspective are still making their first steps. Currently, no theoretical paradigm is extensive enough to serve well as a basis for further fundamental and applied research in this field. The goal of this study was to explore the link between time perspective and personality traits in different gender and age groups. To analyse time perspective and personality traits, two independent studies were carried out (N=636 in ...

  8. Global challenges and perspectives of marketing of healthy food products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitić Sanja

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with global trends of healthy food market growth, Serbian export potential as well as with the importance and role of positioning and other marketing strategies in this field. Secondary data will be used for identifying characteristics and range of healthy food market on a global level and key segments. In that context, the economic importance and export potential of this sector in Serbia will be discussed. Food sector accounts for high percentage of total Serbian export. Yet, those products are of low added value, neither branded nor packed. In order to position producers of healthy food on an international market successfully, strength and weaknesses of domestic production and export will be identified as well as measures for its promotion. In this paper, literature review in field of food positioning and marketing will be presented. Various positioning strategies of healthy food will be discussed from the aspect of branding, country of origin image, marketing mix instruments, with special emphasis on promotion and product labelling. Special part of paper will be dedicated to specific aspects of buying and food consumption behaviour. This behaviour is under the influence of numerous factors, both personal and sociodemographic, which will be analyzed in order to identify adequate positioning strategies. At the end, recommendations for successfully healthy food positioning on an international market will be given. We will present ways of improving marketing strategies regarding exploiting identified chances on an international market.

  9. Knowledge brokering for healthy aging: a scoping review of potential approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Eerd, Dwayne; Newman, Kristine; DeForge, Ryan; Urquhart, Robin; Cornelissen, Evelyn; Dainty, Katie N

    2016-10-19

    of KB approaches that could be conducted in healthy aging contexts focussed on acquiring, adapting, and disseminating knowledge and networking (linkage). The descriptions of the guiding conceptual frameworks (theories, models) focussed on linkage and exchange but varied across approaches. Future research should gather KB practitioner and stakeholder perspectives on effective practices to develop KB approaches for healthy aging.

  10. The cost of a healthy diet: a South African perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temple, Norman J; Steyn, Nelia P

    2011-05-01

    Energy-dense foods are relatively cheap sources of energy but typically have a low nutrient density. People with a low income may therefore select a relatively less healthy diet. The high energy density of such diets helps explain the association between obesity and low socioeconomic status. Most studies have been carried out in highly developed countries. We have extended this research to South Africa. Some foods, such as oats, beans, carrots, and apples, are moderately priced sources of energy and are healthy (i.e., they have a low energy density and are nutrient dense). However, such foods are likely to be less desired than many other foods, such as candy, cookies, jam, and chocolate, that have a similar cost (in terms of food energy) but are less healthy. We compared the cost of a typical South African diet with a healthier one. On average, the healthier diet costs 69% more, but this estimate is greatly affected by food choices. For a family whose household income is exceeded by one-third of the population, this increased expenditure represents about 30% of total household income. This could be decreased to about 10% to 15% if a healthy diet is carefully designed. Overall, a healthy diet is unaffordable for most South Africans. This shows the importance of not only educating people in developing countries to the importance of a healthy diet but also explaining how to make such a diet affordable. A more effective strategy is government intervention that manipulates food prices. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Intestinal Permeability Biomarker Zonulin is Elevated in Healthy Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, YanFei; Goel, Ruby; Kim, Seungbum; Richards, Elaine M; Carter, Christy S; Pepine, Carl J; Raizada, Mohan K; Buford, Thomas W

    2017-09-01

    Increased gut permeability ("leaky gut") has been proposed as a potential contributor to age-related inflammation and gut dysbiosis. However, information on the relationship between a leaky gut and inflammation and physical frailty during aging are limited. To investigate the hypothesis that an aging-associated leaky gut is linked to the age-related inflammation and frailty. Two cohorts of healthy adults were studied: young (18-30 years old, n = 19) and older (≥70 years old, n = 18). Serum concentrations of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-6, zonulin (a marker for leaky gut), and high-mobility group box protein (HMGB1, a nuclear protein triggering inflammation) were measured. Correlations of serum levels of zonulin and HMGB1 with strength of plantar flexor muscles and number of steps taken per day were analyzed. Serum concentration of zonulin and HMGB1 were 22% (P = .005) and 16% (P = .010) higher in the older versus young adults. Serum zonulin was positively associated with concentrations of TNF-α (r = 0.357, P = .032) and IL-6 (r = 0.345, P = .043). Importantly, both zonulin and HMGB1 were negatively correlated with skeletal muscle strength (zonulin: r = -0.332, P = .048; HMGB1: r = -0.383, P = .023), and habitual physical activity (zonulin: r = -0.410, P = .016; HMGB1: r = -0.483, P = .004). Serum zonulin was associated with both systemic inflammation and 2 key indices of physical frailty. These data suggest that a leaky gut may play a critical role in the development of age-related inflammation and frailty. Copyright © 2017 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Age differences in the motor control of speech: An fMRI study of healthy aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Pascale; Sato, Marc; Deschamps, Isabelle

    2017-05-01

    Healthy aging is associated with a decline in cognitive, executive, and motor processes that are concomitant with changes in brain activation patterns, particularly at high complexity levels. While speech production relies on all these processes, and is known to decline with age, the mechanisms that underlie these changes remain poorly understood, despite the importance of communication on everyday life. In this cross-sectional group study, we investigated age differences in the neuromotor control of speech production by combining behavioral and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data. Twenty-seven healthy adults underwent fMRI while performing a speech production task consisting in the articulation of nonwords of different sequential and motor complexity. Results demonstrate strong age differences in movement time (MT), with longer and more variable MT in older adults. The fMRI results revealed extensive age differences in the relationship between BOLD signal and MT, within and outside the sensorimotor system. Moreover, age differences were also found in relation to sequential complexity within the motor and attentional systems, reflecting both compensatory and de-differentiation mechanisms. At very high complexity level (high motor complexity and high sequence complexity), age differences were found in both MT data and BOLD response, which increased in several sensorimotor and executive control areas. Together, these results suggest that aging of motor and executive control mechanisms may contribute to age differences in speech production. These findings highlight the importance of studying functionally relevant behavior such as speech to understand the mechanisms of human brain aging. Hum Brain Mapp 38:2751-2771, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Defining and Estimating Healthy Aging in Spain: A Cross-sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Laso, Angel; McLaughlin, Sara J; Urdaneta, Elena; Yanguas, Javier

    2018-03-19

    Using an operational continuum of healthy aging developed by U.S. researchers, we sought to estimate the prevalence of healthy aging among older Spaniards, inform the development of a definition of healthy aging in Spain, and foster cross-national research on healthy aging. The ELES pilot study is a nationwide, cross-sectional survey of community-dwelling Spaniards 50 years and older. The prevalence of healthy aging was calculated for the 65 and over population using varying definitions. To evaluate their validity, we examined the association of healthy aging with the 8 foot up & go test, quality of life scores and self-perceived health using multiple linear and logistic regression. The estimated prevalence of healthy aging varied across the operational continuum, from 4.5% to 49.2%. Prevalence figures were greater for men and those aged 65 to 79 years and were higher than in the United States. Predicted mean physical performance scores were similar for 3 of the 4 definitions, suggesting that stringent definitions of healthy aging offer little advantage over a more moderate one. Similar to U.S. researchers, we recommend a definition of healthy aging that incorporates measures of functional health and limiting disease as opposed to definitions requiring the absence of all disease in studies designed to assess the effect of policy initiatives on healthy aging.

  14. The Healthy Aging Research Network: Resources for Building Capacity for Public Health and Aging Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Sara; Altpeter, Mary; Anderson, Lynda A.; Belza, Basia; Bryant, Lucinda; Jones, Dina L.; Leith, Katherine H.; Phelan, Elizabeth A.; Satariano, William A.

    2015-01-01

    There is an urgent need to translate science into practice and help enhance the capacity of professionals to deliver evidence-based programming. We describe contributions of the Healthy Aging Research Network in building professional capacity through online modules, issue briefs, monographs, and tools focused on health promotion practice, physical activity, mental health, and environment and policy. We also describe practice partnerships and research activities that helped inform product development and ways these products have been incorporated into real-world practice to illustrate possibilities for future applications. Our work aims to bridge the research-to-practice gap to meet the demands of an aging population. PMID:24000962

  15. Phenomenological perspectives on self-care in aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Söderhamn, Olle

    2013-01-01

    Self-care is a central concept in health care and may be considered as a means to maintain, restore, and improve one's health and well-being. When performed effectively, self-care contributes not only to human functioning but also to human structural integrity and human development (ie, to a dynamic and holistic state of health). Self-care as a clinical concept is relevant for health care professionals, and it should be meaningful to investigate it at a philosophical level and to further elaborate upon this concept. The aim of this article is to discuss and elaborate upon a phenomenological perspective on self-care in aging that is relevant for the health sciences. Self-care may be preliminarily regarded as a fundamental perspective for the conscious older individual, and as a way of being in the world with both the objective body and with the lived body. The lived body is the personal center of perception and the field of action, and it is also the center of self-care. The potentiality or ability for self-care activity and self-care activity itself are structures given to perception, with self-care ability as an integral part of the lived body. The actualization of self-care ability comes about through a certain meaning, which can be regarded as an important driving force. It is constituted by communication, a healthy lifestyle, and by building meaning and socializing. Successful self-care involves having contacts with the health care system, being conscious of a sound lifestyle, being physically and mentally active, being engaged, having social contacts with family and others, as well as being satisfied, positive, and being able to look forward. One fundamental cornerstone is serenity on behalf of the individual. Self-care can facilitate transitions, and it may also be an outcome of transitions.

  16. Basal body temperature as a biomarker of healthy aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonsick, Eleanor M; Meier, Helen C S; Shaffer, Nancy Chiles; Studenski, Stephanie A; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2016-12-01

    Scattered evidence indicates that a lower basal body temperature may be associated with prolonged health span, yet few studies have directly evaluated this relationship. We examined cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between early morning oral temperature (95.0-98.6 °F) and usual gait speed, endurance walk performance, fatigability, and grip strength in 762 non-frail men (52 %) and women aged 65-89 years participating in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging. Since excessive adiposity (body mass index ≥35 kg/m 2 or waist-to-height ratio ≥0.62) may alter temperature set point, associations were also examined within adiposity strata. Overall, controlling for age, race, sex, height, exercise, and adiposity, lower temperature was associated with faster gait speed, less time to walk 400 m quickly, and lower perceived exertion following 5-min of walking at 0.67 m/s (all p ≤ 0.02). In the non-adipose (N = 662), these associations were more robust (all p ≤ 0.006). Direction of association was reversed in the adipose (N = 100), but none attained significance (all p > 0.22). Over 2.2 years, basal temperature was not associated with functional change in the overall population or non-adipose. Among the adipose, lower baseline temperature was associated with greater decline in endurance walking performance (p = 0.006). In longitudinal analyses predicting future functional performance, low temperature in the non-adipose was associated with faster gait speed (p = 0.021) and less time to walk 400 m quickly (p = 0.003), whereas in the adipose, lower temperature was associated with slower gait speed (p = 0.05) and more time to walk 400 m (p = 0.008). In older adults, lower basal body temperature appears to be associated with healthy aging in the absence of excessive adiposity.

  17. Role of Landlords in Creating Healthy Homes: Section 8 Landlord Perspectives on Healthy Housing Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polletta, Valerie L; Reid, Margaret; Barros, Eugene; Duarte, Catherine; Donaher, Kevin; Wensley, Howard; Wolff, Lisa

    2017-11-01

    This article presents qualitative research findings of Section 8 landlord perceptions regarding healthy housing practices to inform landlord-focused initiatives. Approach or Design: Five focus groups were conducted with landlords. Boston, Massachusetts. Section 8 landlords participated in focus groups (n = 39). Focus group transcripts were coded for key themes using a grounded theory approach. Landlords' primary challenges to creating a healthy housing environment included tenant behavior, financial burden, and policy enforcement; tenant safety and cost savings were seen as primary benefits. Landlords play a critical role in implementing healthy housing practices. Several opportunities exist to reduce barriers and capitalize on perceived benefits of implementing these practices, including increasing access to educational and financial resources.

  18. Insufficient DNA methylation affects healthy aging and promotes age-related health problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liang; van Groen, Thomas; Kadish, Inga; Li, Yuanyuan; Wang, Deli; James, Smitha R; Karpf, Adam R; Tollefsbol, Trygve O

    2011-08-01

    DNA methylation plays an integral role in development and aging through epigenetic regulation of genome function. DNA methyltransferase 1 (Dnmt1) is the most prevalent DNA methyltransferase that maintains genomic methylation stability. To further elucidate the function of Dnmt1 in aging and age-related diseases, we exploited the Dnmt1+/- mouse model to investigate how Dnmt1 haploinsufficiency impacts the aging process by assessing the changes of several major aging phenotypes. We confirmed that Dnmt1 haploinsufficiency indeed decreases DNA methylation as a result of reduced Dnmt1 expression. To assess the effect of Dnmt1 haploinsufficiency on general body composition, we performed dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry analysis and showed that reduced Dnmt1 activity decreased bone mineral density and body weight, but with no significant impact on mortality or body fat content. Using behavioral tests, we demonstrated that Dnmt1 haploinsufficiency impairs learning and memory functions in an age-dependent manner. Taken together, our findings point to the interesting likelihood that reduced genomic methylation activity adversely affects the healthy aging process without altering survival and mortality. Our studies demonstrated that cognitive functions of the central nervous system are modulated by Dnmt1 activity and genomic methylation, highlighting the significance of the original epigenetic hypothesis underlying memory coding and function.

  19. 'Healthy Ageing' policies and anti-ageing ideologies and practices: on the exercise of responsibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardona, Beatriz

    2008-12-01

    This paper explores how the exercise of the ethics of 'responsibility' for health care advanced through 'healthy ageing' and 'successful ageing' narratives in Western countries animates an array of 'authorities', including the 'anti-ageing medicine' movement as a strategy to address the anxieties of growing old in Western societies and as a tool to exercise the ethos of 'responsibility'. The choice of this type of authority as a source of guidance for self-constitution and the exercise of the 'responsible self', this paper will argue, enables the enactment of a type of late modernity notion of citizenship for ageing individuals based on principles of agelessness, health, independence and consumption power. Through interviews with anti-ageing consumers, however, it is also possible to argue the existence of tensions and contradictions that such a rigid model of self-constitution in later life produces, and the potential forms of resistance and contestations that may emerge as a result. In this way the current 'war on anti-ageing medicine' (Vincent 2003) becomes also symptomatic of bigger 'wars' taking place not only between institutions competing for control over knowledge and management of ageing, but between those in favour and against the homogenisation of life under the language of universal science, reason and market rationality.

  20. Identifying transportation solutions that promote healthy aging for Texas : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    As the population of Texans who are aging continues to grow, the role that transportation plays in the promotion of healthy aging is useful information for policy makers to plan and provide for the safe and healthy aging of Texass population. Tran...

  1. Design, recruitment, logistics, and data management of the GEHA (Genetics of Healthy Ageing) project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skytthe, A; Valensin, S; Jeune, B

    2011-01-01

    In 2004, the integrated European project GEHA (Genetics of Healthy Ageing) was initiated with the aim of identifying genes involved in healthy ageing and longevity. The first step in the project was the recruitment of more than 2500 pairs of siblings aged 90years or more together with one younger...

  2. Operative definition of active and healthy ageing (AHA) : Meeting report. Montpellier October 20-21, 2014

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bousquet, J.; Kuh, D.; Bewick, M.; Strandberg, T.; Farrell, J.; Pengelly, R.; Joel, M. E.; Manas, L. Rodriguez; Mercier, J.; Bringer, J.; Camuzat, T.; Bourret, R.; Bedbrook, A.; Kowalski, M. L.; Samolinski, B.; Bonini, S.; Brayne, C.; Michel, J. P.; Venne, J.; Viriot-Durandal, P.; Alonso, J.; Avignon, A.; Bousquet, P. J.; Combe, B.; Cooper, R.; Hardy, R.; Iaccarino, G.; Keil, T.; Kesse-Guyot, E.; Momas, I.; Ritchie, K.; Robine, J. M.; Thijs, C.; Tischer, C.; Vellas, B.; Zaidi, A.; Alonso, F.; Ranberg, K. Andersen; Andreeva, V.; Ankri, J.; Arnavielhe, S.; Arshad, S. H.; Auge, P.; Berr, C.; Bertone, P.; Blain, H.; Blasimme, A.; Buijs, G. J.; Caimmi, D.; Carriazo, A.; Cesario, A.; Coletta, J.; Cosco, T.; Criton, M.; Cuisinier, F.; Demoly, P.; Fernandez-Nocelo, S.; Fougere, B.; Garcia-Aymerich, J.; Goldberg, M.; Guldemond, N.; Gutter, Z.; Harman, D.; Hendry, A.; Heve, D.; Illario, M.; Jeandel, C.; Krauss-Etschmann, S.; Krys, O.; Kula, D.; Laune, D.; Lehmann, S.; Maier, D.; Malva, J.; Matignon, P.; Melen, E.; Mercier, G.; Moda, G.; Nizinkska, A.; Nogues, M.; O'Neill, M.; Pelissier, J. Y.; Poethig, D.; Porta, D.; Postma, D.; Puisieux, F.; Richards, M.; Robalo-Cordeiro, C.; Romano, V.; Roubille, F.; Schulz, H.; Scott, A.; Senesse, P.; Slagter, S.; Smit, H. A.; Somekh, D.; Stafford, M.; Suanzes, J.; Todo-Bom, A.; Touchon, J.; Traver-Salcedo, V.; Van Beurden, M.; Varraso, R.; Vergara, I.; Villalba-Mora, E.; Wilson, N.; Wouters, E.; Zins, M.

    The broad concept of Active and Healthy Ageing was proposed by WHO as the process of optimizing opportunities for health to enhance quality of life as people age. It applies to both individuals and population groups. A universal active and healthy ageing definition is not available and may differ

  3. An examination of healthy aging across a conceptual continuum: prevalence estimates, demographic patterns, and validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Sara J; Jette, Alan M; Connell, Cathleen M

    2012-06-01

    Although the notion of healthy aging has gained wide acceptance in gerontology, measuring the phenomenon is challenging. Guided by a prominent conceptualization of healthy aging, we examined how shifting from a more to less stringent definition of healthy aging influences prevalence estimates, demographic patterns, and validity. Data are from adults aged 65 years and older who participated in the Health and Retirement Study. We examined four operational definitions of healthy aging. For each, we calculated prevalence estimates and examined the odds of healthy aging by age, education, gender, and race-ethnicity in 2006. We also examined the association between healthy aging and both self-rated health and death. Across definitions, the prevalence of healthy aging ranged from 3.3% to 35.5%. For all definitions, those classified as experiencing healthy aging had lower odds of fair or poor self-rated health and death over an 8-year period. The odds of being classified as "healthy" were lower among those of advanced age, those with less education, and women than for their corresponding counterparts across all definitions. Moving across the conceptual continuum--from a more to less rigid definition of healthy aging--markedly increases the measured prevalence of healthy aging. Importantly, results suggest that all examined definitions identified a subgroup of older adults who had substantially lower odds of reporting fair or poor health and dying over an 8-year period, providing evidence of the validity of our definitions. Conceptualizations that emphasize symptomatic disease and functional health may be particularly useful for public health purposes.

  4. Leisure and Aging: An International Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Max, Ed.

    This document contains an international collection of national position papers on leisure and aging. The following papers are included in the first section: "'Active' and 'Passive' Constructs of Elderly" (Max Kaplan); "Recreation and the Aged: A Review" (Helen J. Threlfall); "The Elderly in Bolivia"; "The Elderly…

  5. Employer and Promoter Perspectives on the Quality of Health Promotion Within the Healthy Workplace Accreditation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, Chen-Yin; Yin, Yun-Wen; Liu, Chia-Yun; Chang, Chia-Chen; Zhou, Yi-Ping

    2017-07-01

    To explore the employers' and promoters' perspective of health promotion quality according to the healthy workplace accreditation. We assessed the perspectives of 85 employers and 81 health promoters regarding the quality of health promotion at their workplaces. The method of measurement referenced the European Network for Workplace Health Promotion (ENWHP) quality criteria. In the large workplaces, the accredited corporation employers had a higher impression (P health promoters from different sized workplaces with or without accreditation (P > 0.05). It seems that employers' perspectives of healthy workplace accreditation surpassed employers from non-accredited workplaces. Specifically, large accredited corporations could share their successful experiences to encourage a more involved workplace in small-medium workplaces.

  6. Metabonomics of ageing - Towards understanding metabolism of a long and healthy life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Francois-Pierre J; Montoliu, Ivan; Kussmann, Martin

    2017-07-01

    Systems biology approaches have been increasingly employed in clinical studies to enhance our understanding of the role of genetics, environmental factors and their interactions on nutritional, health and disease status. Amongst the new omics technologies, metabonomics has emerged as a robust platform to capture metabolic and nutritional requirements by enabling, in a minimally invasive fashion, the monitoring of a wide range of biochemical compounds. Their variations reflect comprehensively the various molecular regulatory processes, which are tightly controlled and under the influence of genetics, diet, gut microbiota and other environmental factors. They are providing key insights into complex metabolic phenomena as well as into differences and specificities at individual and population level. The aim of this review is to evaluate promising metabolic insights towards understanding metabolism of a long and healthy life from pre-clinical and clinical metabonomics studies. We will also discuss analytical approaches to enable data integration, with an emphasis on the longitudinal component. Herein, we will illustrate current examples, challenges and perspectives in the applications of metabonomics monitoring and modelling approaches in the context of healthy ageing research. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Cognitive Functioning in Healthy Aging: The Role of Reserve and Lifestyle Factors Early in Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritsch, Thomas; McClendon, McKee J.; Smyth, Kathleen A.; Lerner, Alan J.; Friedland, Robert P.; Larsen, Janet D.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: According to the "reserve perspective" on cognitive aging, individuals are born with or can develop resources that help them resist normal and disease-related cognitive changes that occur in aging. The reserve perspective is becoming more sophisticated, but gaps in knowledge persist. In the present research, we considered three…

  8. Aging in comparative perspective: processes and policies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cook, Ian G; Halsall, Jamie

    2012-01-01

    .... This timely volume analyzes the aging process in various countries, with special focus on the stresses placed on their economies as the numbers of elders increase with fewer young people available...

  9. Intergenerational perspectives on ageing, economics and globalisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fine, Michael

    2014-12-01

    Evidence shows population ageing to be historically a product of economic development, closely associated with high living standards and national affluence. Nonetheless, fears that an aged population leads to economic stagnation and public bankruptcy are widespread. In justification for cuts to public programs and the transfer of costs and risks from the state to individuals and families, the projections of social expenditures, in particular those based on ageing, are frequently identified as overgenerous and unsustainable in many G20 countries such as Australia and New Zealand. Claims based on intergenerational research methodologies and frameworks, a relatively new and innovative approach to using data projections, have proven to be important in these policy debates. This paper explores the application of these new technologies to understanding the impact of ageing on the economy in the globalised world of the 21st century. © 2014 AJA Inc.

  10. Micronutrient Intake in Healthy Toddlers: A Multinational Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Hilger

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Adequate nutrient intake during early childhood is of particular importance for optimal growth and future health. However, cross-national comparative research on nutrient intake of toddlers is still limited. We conducted a literature review to examine the nutrient intake in healthy toddlers from some of the world’s most populous nations currently on different stages of socioeconomic development: Brazil, Germany, Russia and the United States. We aimed to identify national surveys reporting mean intakes of the following nutrients: vitamins A, D, E, folate, calcium, iron and zinc. To calculate the prevalence of inadequate nutrient intake, we used a modified version of the Estimated Average Requirement cut-point method. Overall, five studies with 6756 toddlers were eligible for inclusion in this review. In countries where data were available, a prevalence of inadequate intake higher than 20% was found for vitamins A, D, E and calcium. In Germany, folate intake also appeared to be inadequate. The results of our review indicate that inadequate micronutrient intake in toddlers might be a global challenge affecting also affluent countries. However, to explore the full scope of this important public health issue joint efforts of researchers worldwide are needed to combine existing data and fill in data gaps.

  11. Exercise Is Key to Healthy Aging | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page please turn JavaScript on. NIH Research Exercise Is Key to Healthy Aging Past Issues / Winter ... to exercise regularly—at any age! Why is exercise so important? Exercise is perhaps the best demonstrated ...

  12. Growth hormone secretory in healthy aged women and men of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This perturbation may be involved in aggravations of numerous abnormalities. In 64 healthy elderly, we determined the concentrations of GH in both sexes and its correlation with thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), the descriptive data, BMI, electrolytic assessment and some biochemical parameters. Collected data suggest ...

  13. Mitochondrial Dynamics: Coupling Mitochondrial Fitness with Healthy Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastián, David; Palacín, Manuel; Zorzano, Antonio

    2017-03-01

    Aging is associated with a decline in mitochondrial function and the accumulation of abnormal mitochondria. However, the precise mechanisms by which aging promotes these mitochondrial alterations and the role of the latter in aging are still not fully understood. Mitochondrial dynamics is a key process regulating mitochondrial function and quality. Altered expression of some mitochondrial dynamics proteins has been recently associated with aging and with age-related alterations in yeast, Caenorhabditis elegans, mice, and humans. Here, we review the link between alterations in mitochondrial dynamics, aging, and age-related impairment. We propose that the dysregulation of mitochondrial dynamics leads to age-induced accumulation of unhealthy mitochondria and contributes to alterations linked to aging, such as diabetes and neurodegeneration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Phenomenological perspectives on self-care in aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Söderhamn O

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Olle SöderhamnCenter for Caring Research- Southern Norway, Faculty of Health and Sport Sciences, University of Agder, Grimstad, NorwayAbstract: Self-care is a central concept in health care and may be considered as a means to maintain, restore, and improve one's health and well-being. When performed effectively, self-care contributes not only to human functioning but also to human structural integrity and human development (ie, to a dynamic and holistic state of health. Self-care as a clinical concept is relevant for health care professionals, and it should be meaningful to investigate it at a philosophical level and to further elaborate upon this concept. The aim of this article is to discuss and elaborate upon a phenomenological perspective on self-care in aging that is relevant for the health sciences. Self-care may be preliminarily regarded as a fundamental perspective for the conscious older individual, and as a way of being in the world with both the objective body and with the lived body. The lived body is the personal center of perception and the field of action, and it is also the center of self-care. The potentiality or ability for self-care activity and self-care activity itself are structures given to perception, with self-care ability as an integral part of the lived body. The actualization of self-care ability comes about through a certain meaning, which can be regarded as an important driving force. It is constituted by communication, a healthy lifestyle, and by building meaning and socializing. Successful self-care involves having contacts with the health care system, being conscious of a sound lifestyle, being physically and mentally active, being engaged, having social contacts with family and others, as well as being satisfied, positive, and being able to look forward. One fundamental cornerstone is serenity on behalf of the individual. Self-care can facilitate transitions, and it may also be an outcome of transitions

  15. Fragile X Syndrome: An Aging Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Andrea; Ligsay, Andrew; Hagerman, Randi J.

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive and behavioral correlates of molecular variations related to the FMR1 gene have been studied rather extensively, but research about the long-term outcome in individuals with fragile X spectrum disorders remains sparse. In this review, we present an overview of aging research and recent findings in regard to cellular and clinical…

  16. Evaluating aging in cats: How to determine what is healthy and what is disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellows, Jan; Center, Sharon; Daristotle, Leighann; Estrada, Amara H; Flickinger, Elizabeth A; Horwitz, Debra F; Lascelles, B Duncan X; Lepine, Allan; Perea, Sally; Scherk, Margie; Shoveller, Anna K

    2016-07-01

    Many of the changes that occur with aging are not considered pathologic and do not negatively affect overall wellness or quality of life. Ruling out disease is essential, however, when attempting to determine whether an aged cat can be considered 'healthy'. A clear understanding of the normal and abnormal changes that are associated with aging in cats can help practitioners make decisions regarding medical management, feeding interventions and additional testing procedures for their aged patients. It can be difficult to determine if a cat is displaying changes that are appropriate for age. For example, healthy aged cats may have hematologic or serum biochemistry changes that differ from those of the general feline population. Assessment of behavioral health and cognitive changes, as well as auditory, olfactory and visual changes, can also be challenging in the aged patient. This is the second of two review articles in a Special Issue devoted to feline healthy aging. The goals of the project culminating in these publications included developing a working definition for healthy aging in feline patients and identifying clinical methods that can be used to accurately classify healthy aged cats. This second review proposes criteria for assessing 'healthy aged cats'. There is a paucity of research in feline aging. The authors draw on expert opinion and available data in both the cat and other species. © The Author(s) 2016.

  17. Inspection of aging aircraft: A manufacturer's perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagemaier, Donald J.

    1992-01-01

    Douglas, in conjunction with operators and regulators, has established interrelated programs to identify and address issues regarding inspection of aging aircraft. These inspection programs consist of the following: Supplemental Inspection Documents; Corrosion Prevention and Control Documents; Repair Assessment Documents; and Service Bulletin Compliance Documents. In addition, airframe manufacturers perform extended airframe fatigue tests to deal with potential problems before they can develop in the fleet. Lastly, nondestructive inspection (NDI) plays a role in all these programs through the detection of cracks, corrosion, and disbonds. However, improved and more cost effective NDI methods are needed. Some methods such as magneto-optic imaging, electronic shearography, Diffractor-Sight, and multi-parameter eddy current testing appear viable for near-term improvements in NDI of aging aircraft.

  18. Effect of social leisure activities on object naming in healthy aging A multimodal approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyau, Elena; Gigleux, Marion; Cousin, Émilie; Fournet, Nathalie; Pichat, Cédric; Jaillard, Assia; Baciu, Monica

    2018-03-01

    Environmental factors contribute to the constitution and maintenance of the cognitive reserve and partially explain the variability of cognitive performance in older individuals. We assessed the role of leisure activities - social and individual - on the access to lexico-semantic representations evaluated through a task of object naming (ON). We hypothesize that compared to individual, social leisure activities explain better the ON performance in the older adults, which is explained by a mechanism of neural reserve. Our results in older adults indicate (a) a significant correlation between leisure social activities and the response time for ON, (b) a significant correlation between link the neural activity of the left superior and medial frontal (SmFG) for ON and leisure social activities. Interestingly, the activity of the left SmFG partially mediates the relationship between social activities and OD performance. We suggest that social leisure activities may contribute to maintain ON performances in healthy aging, through a neural reserve mechanism, in relation with left SmFG activity. This region is typically involved in the access to semantic representations, guided by the emotional state. These results open interesting perspectives on the role of social leisure activities on lexical production during aging.

  19. CT evaluation of cerebellar atrophy with aging in healthy persons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimiya, Jin

    1988-01-01

    In a retrospective analysis of CT scans available from 2,102 neurologically normal persons, dilatations of the cerebellar vermis fissures (CVF), cerebellar hemispheric fissures (CHF), subarachnoid space (SAS) around the cerebellum and the fourth ventricle (FV) were examined according the age groups of persons younger than one year, one to four, five to nine, 10 to 19, 20 to 29, 30 to 39, 40 to 49, 50 to 59, 60 to 69, and 70 years and older. An dilatation of both the CVF and CHF was associated with aging, with statistically significant differences among age groups of persons older than 20 years. This was especially noted in age groups of 60 years or older. There was a significant enlargement in the SAS around the cerebellum in age groups 60 years or more compared with age groups less than 60 years. For age groups of persons 20 years or older, both the FV transverse width and the radio of the FV transverse width to the inside diameter of the posterior fossa (PF) increased with aging. This was significant in age groups 60 years or older. For age groups younger than 10 years, however, there was inverse correlation between the ratio of the FV transverse width to the PF inside diameter and aging. Plotted curve of the ratio of the FV to the PF was U-shaped with smallest value in persons in their twenties. Since changes in the FV might reflect the volume of the cerebellar medullary substance, the cerebellar medullary substance should increase up to the age of 20. (Namekawa, K.)

  20. Perspectives on the Biodemography of Longevity and Aging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baudisch, Annette

    2015-01-01

    Biodemography is a timely and exciting area of research that has been emerging over the past 15–20 years and might arguably be the most quickly growing area of demography. From the perspective of longevity and aging, questions arise that touch on the biological foundation of aging. With a focus...... on mortality, this article offers a perspective on recent developments in evolutionary biodemography. These include new theories, methods, and data that have resulted in striking new findings on the diversity of life courses (including the option of escape from aging for some species) that is licensed...... by nature across the tree of life. As the human life course is rapidly changing due to unimpeded population aging, advances in development of biodemographic theories, methods and databases may prove useful and inspire advances in sociology....

  1. Inter-generational relationships at different ages: An attachment perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merz, E.M.; Schuengel, C.; Schulze, H.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the characteristics of parent-child relationships after childhood from a theoretical attachment perspective. It describes how relationships between adult children and their parents vary by age group of the child on three dimensions that were derived from attachment theory:

  2. Active and successful aging: a European policy perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Liam; Walker, Alan

    2015-02-01

    Over the past two decades, "active aging" has emerged in Europe as the foremost policy response to the challenges of population aging. This article examines the concept of active aging and how it differs from that of "successful aging." In particular, it shows how active aging presents a more holistic, life course-oriented approach than successful aging. We provide a critical perspective on active aging too by, first, tracing its emergence in Europe and then showing how, in practice, it has been dominated by a narrow economic or productivist perspective that prioritizes the extension of working life. It has also been gender blind. Nonetheless, it is argued that an active aging approach has the potential to enable countries to respond successfully to the challenges of population aging because of its comprehensive focus and emphasis on societal as well as individual responsibility. Finally, we set out the basic principles that need to be followed if the full potential of active aging is to be achieved. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Healthy aging and disease : role for telomere biology?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, Haidong; Belcher, Matthew; van der Harst, Pim

    Aging is a biological process that affects most cells, organisms and species. Human aging is associated with increased susceptibility to a variety of chronic diseases, including cardiovascular disease, Type 2 diabetes, neurological diseases and cancer. Despite the remarkable progress made during the

  4. Designing for healthy and active ageing with intelligent technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, Y.; Brankaert, R.G.A.; Ren, X.; Jia, P.; Offermans, S.A.M.; Nagtzaam, H.A.H.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Ageing is a very important societal problem that we are facing today. According to WHO, health refers to physical, mental and social well being while active ageing refers to the process of optimizing opportunities for health, social participation and security in order to enhance quality of

  5. Flor Yeast: New Perspectives Beyond Wine Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legras, Jean-Luc; Moreno-Garcia, Jaime; Zara, Severino; Zara, Giacomo; Garcia-Martinez, Teresa; Mauricio, Juan C.; Mannazzu, Ilaria; Coi, Anna L.; Bou Zeidan, Marc; Dequin, Sylvie; Moreno, Juan; Budroni, Marilena

    2016-01-01

    The most important dogma in white-wine production is the preservation of the wine aroma and the limitation of the oxidative action of oxygen. In contrast, the aging of Sherry and Sherry-like wines is an aerobic process that depends on the oxidative activity of flor strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Under depletion of nitrogen and fermentable carbon sources, these yeast produce aggregates of floating cells and form an air–liquid biofilm on the wine surface, which is also known as velum or flor. This behavior is due to genetic and metabolic peculiarities that differentiate flor yeast from other wine yeast. This review will focus first on the most updated data obtained through the analysis of flor yeast with -omic tools. Comparative genomics, proteomics, and metabolomics of flor and wine yeast strains are shedding new light on several features of these special yeast, and in particular, they have revealed the extent of proteome remodeling imposed by the biofilm life-style. Finally, new insights in terms of promotion and inhibition of biofilm formation through small molecules, amino acids, and di/tri-peptides, and novel possibilities for the exploitation of biofilm immobilization within a fungal hyphae framework, will be discussed. PMID:27148192

  6. Predicting healthy lifestyle patterns among retirement age older adults in the WELL study: a latent class analysis of sex differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Södergren, Marita; Wang, Wei Chun; Salmon, Jo; Ball, Kylie; Crawford, David; McNaughton, Sarah A

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify subgroups of retirement age older adults with respect to their lifestyle patterns of eating, drinking, smoking, physical activity and TV viewing behaviors, and to examine the association between these patterns and socio-demographic covariates. The sample consisted of 3133 older adults aged 55-65 years from the Wellbeing, Eating and Exercise for a Long Life (WELL) study, 2010. This study used latent class analysis (stratified by sex), with a set of lifestyle indicators and including socio-demographic covariates. Statistical analyses were performed by generalized linear latent and mixed models in Stata. Two classes of lifestyle patterns were identified: Healthy (53% men and 72% women) and less healthy lifestyles. Physical activity, TV-viewing time, and fruit intake were good indicators distinguishing the "Healthier" class, whereas consumption of vegetables, alcohol (men) and fast food (women) could not clearly discriminate older adults in the two classes. Class membership was associated with education, body mass index, and self-rated health. This study contributes to the literature on lifestyle behaviors among older adults, and provides evidence that there are meaningful sex differences in lifestyle behaviors between subgroups of older adults. From a policy perspective, understanding indicators or "markers" of healthy and less healthy lifestyle patterns is important for identifying target groups for interventions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Putting age-related task activation into large-scale brain networks: A meta-analysis of 114 fMRI studies on healthy aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui-Jie; Hou, Xiao-Hui; Liu, Han-Hui; Yue, Chun-Lin; Lu, Guang-Ming; Zuo, Xi-Nian

    2015-10-01

    Normal aging is associated with cognitive decline and underlying brain dysfunction. Previous studies concentrated less on brain network changes at a systems level. Our goal was to examine these age-related changes of fMRI-derived activation with a common network parcellation of the human brain function, offering a systems-neuroscience perspective of healthy aging. We conducted a series of meta-analyses on a total of 114 studies that included 2035 older adults and 1845 young adults. Voxels showing significant age-related changes in activation were then overlaid onto seven commonly referenced neuronal networks. Older adults present moderate cognitive decline in behavioral performance during fMRI scanning, and hypo-activate the visual network and hyper-activate both the frontoparietal control and default mode networks. The degree of increased activation in frontoparietal network was associated with behavioral performance in older adults. Age-related changes in activation present different network patterns across cognitive domains. The systems neuroscience approach used here may be useful for elucidating the underlying network mechanisms of various brain plasticity processes during healthy aging. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Healthy Aging Actions to Advance the National Prevention Strategy: Healthy Heart-- Powerpoint presentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The American Society on Aging is an association of professionals in the field of aging including practitioners, educators, administrators, policymakers, researchers and students. Attendees at this session will receive 1.5 Continuing educational credits and will have a better u...

  9. Nutrition and lifestyle in healthy aging: the telomerase challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boccardi, Virginia; Paolisso, Giuseppe; Mecocci, Patrizia

    2016-01-01

    Nutrition and lifestyle, known to modulate aging process and age-related diseases, might also affect telomerase activity. Short and dysfunctional telomeres rather than average telomere length are associated with longevity in animal models, and their rescue by telomerase maybe sufficient to restore cell and organismal viability. Improving telomerase activation in stem cells and potentially in other cells by diet and lifestyle interventions may represent an intriguing way to promote health-span in humans.

  10. [Construction of a psychological aging scale for healthy people].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Fei; Long, Yao; Zeng, Ni; Wu, Lei; Huang, Helang

    2017-04-28

    To construct a psychological aging scale, and to provide a tool and indexes for scientific evaluation on aging.
 Methods: The age-related psychological items were collected through literature screening and expert interview. The importance, feasibilityand the degree of authority for the psychological index system were graded by two rounds of Delphi method. Using analytic hierarchy process, the weight of dimensions and items were determined. The analysis for internal consistency reliability, correlation and exploratory factor was performed to evaluate the reliability and validity of the scales.
 Results: By two rounds of Delphi method, 17 experts offered the results as follows: the coefficient of expert authorities was 0.88±0.06, the coordination coefficients for the importance and feasibility in second round were 0.456 (Pemotion, personality and motivation. The weight coefficients for the 4 dimensions were 0.338, 0.250, 0.166 and 0.258, respectively. The Cronbach's α coefficient for the scale was 0.822, the reliability was 0.817, the content validity index (CVI) was 0.847, and the cumulative contribution rate for the 5 factors was51.42%.
 Conclusion: The psychological aging scale is satisfied, which can provide reference for the evaluation for aging. The indicators were representative and well-recognized.

  11. Lymphocyte maintenance during healthy aging requires no substantial alterations in cellular turnover

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westera, Liset; van Hoeven, Vera; Drylewicz, Julia; Spierenburg, Gerrit; van Velzen, Jeroen F.; de Boer, Rob J.; Tesselaar, Kiki; Borghans, José A M

    2015-01-01

    In healthy humans, lymphocyte populations are maintained at a relatively constant size throughout life, reflecting a balance between lymphocyte production and loss. Given the profound immunological changes that occur during healthy aging, including a significant decline in T-cell production by the

  12. Physical activity, healthy diet and good cognitive functioning: findings from the longitudinal aging study Amsterdam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Willemke; Jager-Wittenaar, Harriët; Visser, M.; Hobbelen, Hans

    2014-01-01

    Background. In an ageing society cognitive decline is expected to become an important health problem. Previous studies showed that a healthy lifestyle, i.e. sufficient physical activity and a healthy diet,can benefit cognitive function. In this study, we aimed to assess the (synergistic) association

  13. Promoting Cognitive Health: A Formative Research Collaboration of the Healthy Aging Research Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laditka, James N.; Beard, Renee L.; Bryant, Lucinda L.; Fetterman, David; Hunter, Rebecca; Ivey, Susan; Logsdon, Rebecca G.; Sharkey, Joseph R.; Wu, Bei

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Evidence suggests that healthy lifestyles may help maintain cognitive health. The Prevention Research Centers Healthy Aging Research Network, 9 universities collaborating with their communities and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, is conducting a multiyear research project, begun in 2005, to understand how to translate this…

  14. Healthy and Active Ageing: Social Capital in Health Promotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutsogeorgou, Eleni; Davies, John Kenneth; Aranda, Kay; Zissi, Anastasia; Chatzikou, Maria; Cerniauskaite, Milda; Quintas, Rui; Raggi, Alberto; Leonardi, Matilde

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: This paper examines the context of health promotion actions that are focused on/contributing to strengthening social capital by increasing community participation, reciprocal trust and support as the means to achieve better health and more active ageing. Method: The methodology employed was a literature review/research synthesis, and a…

  15. Examining Strategies to Build and Sustain Healthy Aging Programming Collaboratives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altpeter, Mary; Schneider, Ellen Caylor; Whitelaw, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    Background: Community collaboratives provide a means to build local capacity, reduce service fragmentation and duplication, maximize efficiency, and create synergies for "systems change". But what are the collaborative practices that aging services providers and other stakeholders employ for "system change" and…

  16. Mobile health applications to promote active and healthy ageing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helbostad, Jorunn L.; Vereijken, Beatrix; Becker, Clemens; Todd, Christop; Taraldsen, Kristin; Pijnappels, Mirjam; Aminian, Kamiar; Mellone, Sabato

    2017-01-01

    The European population is ageing, and there is a need for health solutions that keep older adults independent longer. With increasing access to mobile technology, such as smartphones and smartwatches, the development and use of mobile health applications is rapidly growing. To meet the societal

  17. Theories and Management of Aging: Modern and Ayurveda Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hema Sharma Datta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aging is a complex phenomenon, a sum total of changes that occur in a living organism with the passage of time and lead to decreasing ability to survive stress, increasing functional impairment and growing probability of death. There are many theories of aging and skin remains the largest organ of the study. Skin aging is described as a consequence of intrinsic and extrinsic factors. The most common amongst visible signs of skin aging are wrinkles and there are various therapies including antiaging cosmeceuticals, sunscreens, chemical peeling, injectable agents, such as botox, fibrel, autologous fat grafting as also few surgical procedures have been used. Ayurveda, the Indian traditional medicine, describes aging with great details. This review provides modern and Ayurvedic perspectives on theories and management of aging.

  18. Proteasome function is not impaired in healthy aging of the lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caniard, Anne; Ballweg, Korbinian; Lukas, Christina; Yildirim, Ali Ö; Eickelberg, Oliver; Meiners, Silke

    2015-10-01

    Aging is the progressive loss of cellular function which inevitably leads to death. Failure of proteostasis including the decrease in proteasome function is one hallmark of aging. In the lung, proteasome activity was shown to be impaired in age-related diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. However, little is known on proteasome function during healthy aging. Here, we comprehensively analyzed healthy lung aging and proteasome function in wildtype, proteasome reporter and immunoproteasome knockout mice. Wildtype mice spontaneously developed senile lung emphysema while expression and activity of proteasome complexes and turnover of ubiquitinated substrates was not grossly altered in lungs of aged mice. Immunoproteasome subunits were specifically upregulated in the aged lung and the caspase-like proteasome activity concomitantly decreased. Aged knockout mice for the LMP2 or LMP7 immunoproteasome subunits showed no alteration in proteasome activities but exhibited typical lung aging phenotypes suggesting that immunoproteasome function is dispensable for physiological lung aging in mice. Our results indicate that healthy aging of the lung does not involve impairment of proteasome function. Apparently, the reserve capacity of the proteostasis systems in the lung is sufficient to avoid severe proteostasis imbalance during healthy aging.

  19. The power of personality in discriminating between healthy aging and early-stage Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchek, Janet M; Balota, David A; Storandt, Martha; Larsen, Randy

    2007-11-01

    This study examined differences in personality in the earliest stages of dementia of the Alzheimer type (DAT) relative to healthy aging, and the power of personality in discriminating healthy aging from early-stage DAT. Four groups of participants (middle-aged controls, older controls, persons with very mild DAT, and persons with mild DAT) and their families were administered Costa and McCrae's NEO Five-Factor Inventory. On the basis of both self-report and informant report, there was an increase in neuroticism and a decrease in conscientiousness in persons with very mild DAT relative to healthy individuals without it, and in persons with mild DAT relative to those with very mild DAT. Moreover, informant reports of neuroticism and conscientiousness capture substantial unique variance in discriminating healthy aging and very mild DAT, above and beyond standard neuropsychological tests. Discussion focuses on the importance of personality traits as a noncognitive indicator of early-stage DAT.

  20. Old age and vulnerability between first, second and third person perspectives. Ethnographic explorations of aging in contemporary Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grøn, Lone

    2016-12-01

    This paper is based on an ethnographic fieldwork aimed at exploring ethnographically how vulnerability in old age is perceived and experienced in contemporary Denmark. The fieldwork showed remarkable differences between two phases of the fieldwork: the first addressing vulnerability from the "outside" through group interviews with professionals, leaders and older people who were not (yet) vulnerable; and the second from the "inside" through more in depth fieldwork with older people who in diverse ways could be seen as vulnerable. After a short introduction to anthropological and social gerontological literature on characteristics of "Western" aging: medicalization, successful, healthy and active aging, I present findings from both phases of this ethnographic fieldwork arguing that the ethnographic approach reveals the composite and complex nature of vulnerability in old age and the constant interactions between first, second and third person perspectives. Through these methodological and analytical moves a complex and empirically tenable understanding of vulnerability in old age has emerged which 1. moves beyond rigid dichotomies that have characterized the study of old age, 2. integrates individual experience, social interaction and the structural and discursive context into the analysis, and 3. reveals the complex interplay between vulnerability and agency in diverse situations and settings of old age. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Circadian rhythms, time-restricted feeding, and healthy aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoogian, Emily N C; Panda, Satchidananda

    2017-10-01

    Circadian rhythms optimize physiology and health by temporally coordinating cellular function, tissue function, and behavior. These endogenous rhythms dampen with age and thus compromise temporal coordination. Feeding-fasting patterns are an external cue that profoundly influence the robustness of daily biological rhythms. Erratic eating patterns can disrupt the temporal coordination of metabolism and physiology leading to chronic diseases that are also characteristic of aging. However, sustaining a robust feeding-fasting cycle, even without altering nutrition quality or quantity, can prevent or reverse these chronic diseases in experimental models. In humans, epidemiological studies have shown erratic eating patterns increase the risk of disease, whereas sustained feeding-fasting cycles, or prolonged overnight fasting, is correlated with protection from breast cancer. Therefore, optimizing the timing of external cues with defined eating patterns can sustain a robust circadian clock, which may prevent disease and improve prognosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Aging and health among migrants in a European perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Maria; Razum, Oliver; Tezcan-Güntekinc, Hürrem

    2016-01-01

    Population aging and the associated changes in demographic structures and healthcare needs is a key challenge across Europe. Healthy aging strategies focus on ensuring the ability to maintain health, quality of life and independent living at old age. Concurrent to the process of population aging......, the demographics of Europe are affected by increased migration resulting in substantial ethnic diversity. In this paper, we narratively review the health profile of the growing proportion of aging migrants in Europe, outline key factors shaping health among this diverse group and consider ways of addressing...... their healthcare needs. Although factors shaping aging processes are largely similar across populations, migrant-specific risk factors exist. These include exposure to health risks before and during migration; a more disadvantaged socioeconomic position; language barriers and low health literacy; cultural factors...

  3. [Age-related changes of sensory peripheral nerve system in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voitenkov, V B; Ekusheva, E V; Komancev, V N; Skripchenko, N V; Grigoryev, S G; Klimkin, A V; Aksenova, A I

    2017-01-01

    Our aim was to present and evaluate age-related changes of peripheral nerves of limbs on a huge population of healthy subjects of different ages. In 2009-2016 subjects aged from 1months to 90 years were studied by nerve conduction velocity studies (NCV). Data of those confirmed healthy was included in our study. In total there were 372 healthy subjects. NCV for nn. Medianus et Ulnaris was registered, with NCV and amplitude of compound sensory action potential (CSAP) being analyzed. There were significant differences on both these parameters between different age groups. Since the childhood the improvement of conduction (which was reflected in rising of CSAP amplitudes and NCV quickening) was registered; from 40-50 years steady decline of both these parameters were observed in both nerves. Conduction studies of peripheral nerves may be implemented in gerontology for early detection of neurophysiology patterns reflecting physiological aging. Also our results may be implemented for accelerated aging detection.

  4. Modeling cognitive reserve in healthy middle-aged and older adults: the Tasmanian Healthy Brain Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, David D; Summers, Mathew J; Saunders, Nichole L; Vickers, James C

    2015-04-01

    Cognitive reserve (CR) is a protective factor that supports cognition by increasing the resilience of an individual's cognitive function to the deleterious effects of cerebral lesions. A single environmental proxy indicator is often used to estimate CR (e.g. education), possibly resulting in a loss of the accuracy and predictive power of the investigation. Furthermore, while estimates of an individual's prior CR can be made, no operational measure exists to estimate dynamic change in CR resulting from exposure to new life experiences. We aimed to develop two latent measures of CR through factor analysis: prior and current, in a sample of 467 healthy older adults. The prior CR measure combined proxy measures traditionally associated with CR, while the current CR measure combined variables that had the potential to reflect dynamic change in CR due to new life experiences. Our main finding was that the analyses uncovered latent variables in hypothesized prior and current models of CR. The prior CR model supports multivariate estimation of pre-existing CR and may be applied to more accurately estimate CR in the absence of neuropathological data. The current CR model may be applied to evaluate and explore the potential benefits of CR-based interventions prior to dementia onset.

  5. Late-life factors associated with healthy aging in older men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Christina L; Chen, Randi; Masaki, Kamal; Yee, Priscilla; He, Qimei; Grove, John; Donlon, Timothy; Curb, J David; Willcox, D Craig; Poon, Leonard W; Willcox, Bradley J

    2014-05-01

    To identify potentially modifiable late-life biological, lifestyle, and sociodemographic factors associated with overall and healthy survival to age 85. Prospective longitudinal cohort study with 21 years of follow-up (1991-2012). Hawaii Lifespan Study. American men of Japanese ancestry (mean age 75.7, range 71-82) without baseline major clinical morbidity and functional impairments (N = 1,292). Overall survival and healthy survival (free from six major chronic diseases and without physical or cognitive impairment) to age 85. Factors were measured at late-life baseline examinations (1991-1993). Of 1,292 participants, 1,000 (77%) survived to 85 (34% healthy) and 309 (24%) to 95 (healthy). Late-life factors associated with survival and healthy survival included biological (body mass index, ankle-brachial index, cognitive score, blood pressure, inflammatory markers), lifestyle (smoking, alcohol use, physical activity), and sociodemographic factors (education, marital status). Cumulative late-life baseline risk factor models demonstrated that age-standardized (at 70) probability of survival to 95 ranged from 27% (no factors) to 7% (≥ 5 factors); probability of survival to 100 ranged from 4% (no factors) to 0.1% (≥ 5 factors). Age-standardized (at 70) probability of healthy survival to 90 ranged from 4% (no factors) to 0.01% (≥ 5 factors). There were nine healthy survivors at 95 and one healthy survivor at 100. Several potentially modifiable risk factors in men in late life (mean age 75.7) were associated with markedly greater probability of subsequent healthy survival and longevity. © 2014, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2014, The American Geriatrics Society.

  6. The nature of behavioural correlates of healthy ageing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McGue, Matt; Skytthe, Axel; Christensen, Kaare

    2014-01-01

    with ageing: smoking, drinking, diet and physical, social and intellectual activities. Standard biometric methods were used to analyse the twin data and determine the extent to which individual differences in each of the lifestyle factors are heritable. RESULTS: For each of the six lifestyle factors......, the estimate of heritability ranged from 32% (95% CI: 19-42%) for the diet scale to 69% (62-72%) for the smoking measure. Biometric estimates of the contribution of the twins' common rearing environment were uniformly small (≤6%). There was little evidence that standardized biometric estimates varied by gender...

  7. Preparing the Workforce for Healthy Aging Programs: The Skills for Healthy Aging Resources and Programs (SHARP) Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Janet C.; Altpeter, Mary; Damron-Rodriguez, JoAnn; Driggers, Joann; Lachenmayr, Susan; Manning, Colleen; Martinez, Dana M.; Price, Rachel M.; Robinson, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Current public health and aging service agency personnel have little training in gerontology, and virtually no training in evidence-based health promotion and disease management programs for older adults. These programs are rapidly becoming the future of our community-based long-term care support system. The purpose of this project was to develop…

  8. Age Effects on Upper Limb Kinematics Assessed by the REAplan Robot in Healthy School-Aged Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilliaux, Maxime; Dierckx, Floriane; Vanden Berghe, Lola; Lejeune, Thierry M; Sapin, Julien; Dehez, Bruno; Stoquart, Gaëtan; Detrembleur, Christine

    2015-05-01

    The use of kinematics is recommended to quantitatively evaluate upper limb movements. The aims of this study were to determine the age effects on upper limb kinematics and establish norms in healthy children. Ninety-three healthy children, aged 3-12 years, participated in this study. Twenty-eight kinematic indices were computed from four tasks. Each task was performed with the REAplan, a distal effector robotic device that allows upper limb displacements in the horizontal plane. Twenty-four of the 28 indices showed an improvement during childhood. Indeed, older children showed better upper limb movements. This study was the first to use a robotic device to show the age effects on upper limb kinematics and establish norms in healthy children.

  9. Correlation of liver stiffness measured by FibroScan with sex and age in healthy adults undergoing physical examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHAO Chongshan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo determine the reference range of liver stiffness in healthy population, and to investigate the influence of age and sex on liver stiffness. MethodsA total of 1794 healthy subjects who underwent physical examination in China National Petroleum Corporation Central Hospital from October 1, 2012 to October 31, 2014 were enrolled, and FibroScan was used to perform liver stiffness measurement (LSM. Since LSM value was not normally distributed, the Wilcoxon rank sum test was used to compare LSM value between male and female patients, the Kruskal-Wallis test was used to compare LSM value between different age groups, and the Spearman's rank correlation analysis was used to analyze the correlation between LSM value and age. The one-sided percentile method was used to determine the range of normal reference values in male and female subjects or in different age groups. ResultsLSM was successfully performed in 1590 patients, and the rate of successful measurement was 88.63%. A total of 107 patients were excluded due to abnormal liver enzymes. The analysis showed that LSM value showed a significant difference between male and female subjects (Z=-4.980, P<0.001, as well as between different age groups (χ2=16.983, P=0.001. Age was positively correlated with LSM value (r=0.087, P=0.001. The reference range was estimated to be ≤7.1 kPa in adults, ≤7.0 kPa in females, and ≤7.2 kPa in males. From the perspective of age, the reference range was estimated to be ≤6.8 kPa in persons aged 20-29 years, ≤6.7 kPa in persons aged 30-44 years, ≤7.8 kPa in persons aged 45-59 years, and ≤8.8 kPa in persons aged 60-74 years. ConclusionLiver stiffness value is influenced by sex and age. Sex and age should be taken into account while performing liver stiffness measurement in healthy subjects.

  10. Sex Hormones and Healthy Psychological Aging in Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esperanza Navarro-Pardo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Besides their key role in reproduction, estrogens have effects in several organs in the body, as confirmed by the identification of estrogen receptors (ER in multiple tissues. Experimental evidence has shown that estrogens have significant impacts on the central nervous system (CNS, and a key question is to what extent the fall in estrogen levels in the blood that occurs with increasing age, particularly around and following the menopause, has an impact on the cognitive function and psychological health of women, specifically regarding mood. This review will consider direct effects of menopausal changes in estrogens on the brain, including cognitive function and mood. Secondary pathways whereby health factors affected by changes in estrogens may interact with CNS functions, such as cardiovascular factors, will be reviewed as well insofar as they also have an impact on cognitive function. Finally, because decline in estrogens may induce changes in the CNS, there is interest in clarifying whether hormone therapy may offer a beneficial balance and the impact of hormone therapy on cognition will also be considered.

  11. A novel multi-tissue RNA diagnostic of healthy ageing relates to cognitive health status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sood, Sanjana; Gallagher, Iain J; Lunnon, Katie; Rullman, Eric; Keohane, Aoife; Crossland, Hannah; Phillips, Bethan E; Cederholm, Tommy; Jensen, Thomas; van Loon, Luc J C; Lannfelt, Lars; Kraus, William E; Atherton, Philip J; Howard, Robert; Gustafsson, Thomas; Hodges, Angela; Timmons, James A

    2015-09-07

    Diagnostics of the human ageing process may help predict future healthcare needs or guide preventative measures for tackling diseases of older age. We take a transcriptomics approach to build the first reproducible multi-tissue RNA expression signature by gene-chip profiling tissue from sedentary normal subjects who reached 65 years of age in good health. One hundred and fifty probe-sets form an accurate classifier of young versus older muscle tissue and this healthy ageing RNA classifier performed consistently in independent cohorts of human muscle, skin and brain tissue (n = 594, AUC = 0.83-0.96) and thus represents a biomarker for biological age. Using the Uppsala Longitudinal Study of Adult Men birth-cohort (n = 108) we demonstrate that the RNA classifier is insensitive to confounding lifestyle biomarkers, while greater gene score at age 70 years is independently associated with better renal function at age 82 years and longevity. The gene score is 'up-regulated' in healthy human hippocampus with age, and when applied to blood RNA profiles from two large independent age-matched dementia case-control data sets (n = 717) the healthy controls have significantly greater gene scores than those with cognitive impairment. Alone, or when combined with our previously described prototype Alzheimer disease (AD) RNA 'disease signature', the healthy ageing RNA classifier is diagnostic for AD. We identify a novel and statistically robust multi-tissue RNA signature of human healthy ageing that can act as a diagnostic of future health, using only a peripheral blood sample. This RNA signature has great potential to assist research aimed at finding treatments for and/or management of AD and other ageing-related conditions.

  12. Influence of the Self-Perception of Old Age on the Effect of a Healthy Aging Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Núñez, Víctor Manuel; Sarmiento-Salmorán, Elia; Marín-Cortés, Regulo; Martínez-Maldonado, María de la Luz; Ruiz-Ramos, Mirna

    2018-05-07

    It has been shown that health programs are useful for the prevention and control of chronic diseases in community-dwelling older people; however, a negative self-perception of old age could have an effect on the results. Therefore, our aim was to evaluate the effect of a healthy aging program linked to self-perception of old age in Mexican community-dwelling older people. A pre-test/post-test single-group design study was conducted in a convenience sample of 64 older people who undertook the entire healthy aging program workshop (five months’ duration). We measured self-perception of old age, efficacy of self-care, blood glucose concentration, anthropometric measures, and blood pressure before and after the workshop. A statistically significant decrease in blood glucose concentration was observed (baseline 136 ± 50 vs. post-intervention, 124 ± 45 ± 29 mg/dL, p self-perception, we found that this difference was only maintained in the subgroup of older adults with a positive self-perception of old age. Our findings suggest that the self-perception of old age influences the effect of healthy aging programs on the health of community-dwelling older people.

  13. Electroencephalographic Fractal Dimension in Healthy Ageing and Alzheimer’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottone, Carlo; Cancelli, Andrea; Rossini, Paolo Maria; Tecchio, Franca

    2016-01-01

    Brain activity is complex; a reflection of its structural and functional organization. Among other measures of complexity, the fractal dimension is emerging as being sensitive to neuronal damage secondary to neurological and psychiatric diseases. Here, we calculated Higuchi’s fractal dimension (HFD) in resting-state eyes-closed electroencephalography (EEG) recordings from 41 healthy controls (age: 20–89 years) and 67 Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) patients (age: 50–88 years), to investigate whether HFD is sensitive to brain activity changes typical in healthy aging and in AD. Additionally, we considered whether AD-accelerating effects of the copper fraction not bound to ceruloplasmin (also called “free” copper) are reflected in HFD fluctuations. The HFD measure showed an inverted U-shaped relationship with age in healthy people (R2 = .575, p < .001). Onset of HFD decline appeared around the age of 60, and was most evident in central-parietal regions. In this region, HFD decreased with aging stronger in the right than in the left hemisphere (p = .006). AD patients demonstrated reduced HFD compared to age- and education-matched healthy controls, especially in temporal-occipital regions. This was associated with decreasing cognitive status as assessed by mini-mental state examination, and with higher levels of non-ceruloplasmin copper. Taken together, our findings show that resting-state EEG complexity increases from youth to maturity and declines in healthy, aging individuals. In AD, brain activity complexity is further reduced in correlation with cognitive impairment. In addition, elevated levels of non-ceruloplasmin copper appear to accelerate the reduction of neural activity complexity. Overall, HDF appears to be a proper indicator for monitoring EEG-derived brain activity complexity in healthy and pathological aging. PMID:26872349

  14. Work, eat and sleep : towards a healthy ageing at work program offshore

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riethmeister, Vanessa; Brouwer, Sandra; van der Klink, Jac; Bültmann, Ute

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Health management tools need to be developed to foster healthy ageing at work and sustain employability of ageing work-forces. The objectives of this study were to 1) perform a needs assessment to identify the needs of offshore workers in the Dutch Continental Shelf with regard to

  15. Effects of Ageism on Individual and Health Care Providers' Responses to Healthy Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Lynda D.

    1996-01-01

    Reviews literature to support the contention that misconceptions about the aging process have a detrimental effect on healthy aging. Seeks to demonstrate how stereotyping can affect the shape and nature of programs for elderly people. Argues that for long-lasting change to occur, service providers need to target these negative attitudes in…

  16. Nutrition across the lifespan for healthy aging: proceedings of a workshop--in brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    On September 13-14, 2016, the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering & Medicine, and Medicine's Food Forum convened a workshop in Washington DC, to (1) examine trends and patterns in aging and factors related to healthy aging in the United States with a focus on nutrition; (2) examine how nutri...

  17. Parenting clinically anxious versus healthy control children aged 4-12 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Sluis, C.M.; van Steensel, F.J.A.; Bögels, S.M.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated whether parenting behaviors differed between parents of 68 clinically anxious children and 106 healthy control children aged 4-12 years. The effects of parent gender, child gender and child age on parenting were explored. Mothers and fathers completed a questionnaire to

  18. Dietary quality, lifestyle factors and healthy ageing in Europe: the SENECA study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haveman-Nies, A.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.; Staveren, van W.A.

    2003-01-01

    Objective: to identify dietary and lifestyle factors that contribute to healthy ageing. Subjects: for the analyses, data of the longitudinal SENECA study were used. The study population consisted of 1091 men and 1109 women aged 70-75 years from Belgium, France, Denmark, Italy, The Netherlands,

  19. Developmental Trajectories From Birth to School Age in Healthy Term-Born Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roze, E.; Meijer, Lisethe; Van Braeckel, K.N.J.A.; Ruiter, S.A.J.; Bruggink, J.L.M.; Bos, A.F.

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the stability of the scores obtained on tests of motor development from birth until school age in healthy, term singletons and to determine if early motor scores are associated with more complex cognitive functions at school age, such as attention and memory. PATIENTS AND

  20. Operational definition of Active and Healthy Ageing (AHA) : A conceptual framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bousquet, J.; Kuh, D.; Bewick, M.; Standberg, T.; Farrell, J.; Pengelly, R.; Joel, M. E.; Rodriguez Manas, L.; Mercier, J.; Bringer, J.; Camuzat, T.; Bourret, R.; Bedbrook, A.; Kowalski, M. L.; Samolinski, B.; Bonini, S.; Brayne, C.; Michel, J. P.; Venne, J.; Viriot-Durandal, P.; Alonso, J.; Avignon, A.; Ben-Shlomo, Y.; Bousquet, P. J.; Combe, B.; Cooper, R.; Hardy, R.; Iaccarino, G.; Keil, T.; Kesse-Guyot, E.; Momas, I.; Ritchie, K.; Robine, J. M.; Thijs, C.; Tischer, C.; Vellas, B.; Zaidi, A.; Alonso, F.; Ranberg, K. Andersen; Andreeva, V.; Ankri, J.; Arnavielhe, S.; Arshad, H.; Auge, P.; Berr, C.; Bertone, P.; Blain, H.; Blasimme, A.; Buijs, G. J.; Caimmi, D.; Carriazo, A.; Cesario, A.; Coletta, J.; Cosco, T.; Criton, M.; Cuisinier, F.; Demoly, P.; Fernandez-Nocelo, S.; Fougere, B.; Garcia-Aymerich, J.; Goldberg, M.; Guldemond, N.; Gutter, Z.; Harman, D.; Hendry, A.; Heve, D.; Illario, M.; Jeandel, C.; Krauss-Etschmann, S.; Krys, O.; Kula, D.; Laune, D.; Lehmann, S.; Maier, D.; Malva, J.; Matignon, P.; Melen, E.; Mercier, G.; Moda, G.; Nizinkska, A.; Nogues, M.; O'Neill, M.; Pelissier, J. Y.; Poethig, D.; Porta, D.; Postma, D.; Puisieux, F.; Richards, M.; Robalo-Cordeiro, C.; Romano, V.; Roubille, F.; Schulz, H.; Scott, A.; Senesse, P.; Slagter, S.; Smit, H. A.; Somekh, D.; Stafford, M.; Suanzes, J.; Todo-Bom, A.; Touchon, J.; Traver-Salcedo, V.; Van Beurden, M.; Varraso, R.; Vergara, I.; Villalba-Mora, E.; Wilson, N.; Wouters, E.; Zins, M.

    2015-01-01

    Health is a multi-dimensional concept, capturing how people feel and function. The broad concept of Active and Healthy Ageing was proposed by the World Health Organisation (WHO) as the process of optimizing opportunities for health to enhance quality of life as people age. It applies to both

  1. Serum profiling of healthy aging identifies phospho- and sphingolipid species as markers of human longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoliu, Ivan; Scherer, Max; Beguelin, Fiona; DaSilva, Laeticia; Mari, Daniela; Salvioli, Stefano; Martin, Francois-Pierre J; Capri, Miriam; Bucci, Laura; Ostan, Rita; Garagnani, Paolo; Monti, Daniela; Biagi, Elena; Brigidi, Patrizia; Kussmann, Martin; Rezzi, Serge; Franceschi, Claudio; Collino, Sebastiano

    2014-01-01

    As centenarians well represent the model of healthy aging, there are many important implications in revealing the underlying molecular mechanisms behind such successful aging. By combining NMR metabonomics and shot-gun lipidomics in serum we analyzed metabolome and lipidome composition of a group of centenarians with respect to elderly individuals. Specifically, NMR metabonomics profiling of serum revealed that centenarians are characterized by a metabolic phenotype distinct from that of elderly subjects, in particular regarding amino acids and lipid species. Shot- gun lipidomics approach displays unique changes in lipids biosynthesis in centenarians, with 41 differently abundant lipid species with respect to elderly subjects. These findings reveal phospho/sphingolipids as putative markers and biological modulators of healthy aging, in humans. Considering the particular actions of these metabolites, these data are suggestive of a better counteractive antioxidant capacity and a well-developed membrane lipid remodelling process in the healthy aging phenotype.

  2. Maintenance of ageing CANDU reactors. A regulatory perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunstan, T.

    1996-01-01

    The subject of this paper is, 'requirements for maintenance of ageing reactors from the perspective of a regulator', with a focus on the particular theme of; 'continuing safety assurance'. A major role of maintenance is to ensure the continuing reliability and effectiveness of safety related systems and equipment. Continuing safety assurance is an issue the Atomic Energy Control Board has been wrestling with for some time. From my perspective, much remains to be done before the AECB can be confident that Canadian nuclear plants have the necessary programs in place to achieve continuing safety assurance. To introduce the topic, it would be appropriate to say a few words about the AECB's position with respect to the situation at the Pickering NGS. Why did we blow the whistle last August and, what are we doing about it? (author)

  3. A Healthy Dietary Pattern at Midlife, Combined with a Regulated Energy Intake, Is Related to Increased Odds for Healthy Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assmann, Karen E; Lassale, Camille; Andreeva, Valentina A; Jeandel, Claude; Hercberg, Serge; Galan, Pilar; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle

    2015-09-01

    Few studies have investigated the long-term impact of overall dietary patterns (DPs) on healthy aging (HA), and current findings are inconsistent. Our study's objective was to investigate the association between empirically derived DPs in midlife and HA after 13 y of follow-up. Baseline dietary data from repeated 24-h dietary records (on average, 10 records per participant) of a subsample of the SU.VI.MAX (SUpplémentation en Vitamines et Minéraux AntioXydants) study allowed extraction of 2 DPs with the use of principal components analysis on 37 food groups. HA was assessed in 2007-2009 among 2796 participants of the SU.VI.MAX study aged 45-60 y at baseline (1994-1995), who were initially free of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. HA was defined as not developing any major chronic disease, good physical and cognitive functioning, no limitations in instrumental activities of daily living, no depressive symptoms, no health-related limitations in social life, good overall self-perceived health, and no function-limiting pain. The association between DPs (in tertiles) and HA was evaluated by using multivariable logistic regression, and a potential interaction with energy intake was investigated. A "Western" and a "healthy" DP were identified. After adjustment for a large number of potential confounders, there was no significant association between the Western DP and HA. Moreover, the healthy pattern was not associated with HA among subjects with high (i.e., greater than or equal to the median) energy intake. Among subjects with low (i.e., less than the median) energy intake, on the other hand, higher scores on the healthy DP were related to higher odds of HA (OR for tertile 3 vs. tertile 1: 1.49; 95% CI: 1.11, 2.00; P-trend = 0.01). Adherence to a healthy diet in midlife that provides micronutrients, fiber, and antioxidants while regulating energy intake may help to promote HA. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  4. Healthy adult aging and decision-making:Is it all downhill from here?

    OpenAIRE

    Hinvest, Neal

    2015-01-01

    As we age there are significant changes to our brain structure and cognitive functioning. There is a substantial body of literature exploring changes to memory and attention during healthy adult aging. There has been considerably less focus on the impact of aging on other areas of cognition, specifically, decision-making. This is surprising given that choices are ubiquitous in daily life across the lifespan. For example, older adults still face many significant decisions including those conce...

  5. Development of a Healthy Aging Score in the Population-Based Rotterdam Study: Evaluating Age and Sex Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaspers, Loes; Schoufour, Josje D; Erler, Nicole S; Darweesh, Sirwan K L; Portegies, Marileen L P; Sedaghat, Sanaz; Lahousse, Lies; Brusselle, Guy G; Stricker, Bruno H; Tiemeier, Henning; Ikram, M Arfan; Laven, Joop S E; Franco, Oscar H; Kavousi, Maryam

    2017-03-01

    To develop a healthy aging score (HAS), to assess age and sex differences in HAS, and to evaluate the association of the HAS with survival. Prospective population-based cohort. Inhabitants of Ommoord, Rotterdam, The Netherlands. A total of 1405 men and 2122 women, mean (standard deviation) age 75.9 (6.4) years. We included 7 domains in the total score of HAS: chronic diseases, mental health, cognitive function, physical function, pain, social support, and quality of life; each scored 0, 1, or 2 in each domain. A total score (range 0-14) was constructed and was assessed continuously and in tertiles (13-14: healthy aging, 11-12: intermediate aging, 0-10: poor aging). Sex-specific change in the mean HAS was computed for the age categories of 65-69, 70-74, 75-79, 80-84, and ≥85 years. The association between HAS and mortality was assessed with Cox proportional hazards models. Mean follow-up was 8.6 (3.4) years. Men had poorer scores in the chronic disease domain than women. However, women had poorer mental health, worse physical function, more pain, and lower quality of life compared with men. The prevalence of healthy aging was higher in men (n = 396, 28.2%), than in women (n = 526, 24.8%). The mean (standard deviation) HAS was 11.1 (2.2) in men and 10.7 (2.3) in women. Mean HAS was higher in men than in women for all age categories. The β for change in mean HAS across the 5 increasing age categories was -0.55 (-0.65 to -0.45) in men and -0.65 (-0.73 to -0.57) in women. The age-adjusted hazard ratio per unit increase in HAS with mortality was 0.86 (0.83-0.89) in men, and 0.89 (0.87-0.91) in women. Levels of HAS were lower in women compared with men, in all age categories. The HAS declined with increasing age for both sexes, albeit slightly steeper in women. The HAS was strongly associated with mortality in both sexes. A better understanding of population healthy aging and sex differences in this regard could aid to implement strategies for sustainable

  6. Association between age, critical skills and work perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Krüger

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this study is to report on the associations between age, critical skills and work perspectives (job satisfaction, career/organizational commitment and job characteristics as perceived by resort employees. It highlights that age and critical skills play an important role towards work perspectives. A descriptive research design approach was followed. Three hundred and eighteen fully completed questionnaires were included in the statistical analysis, which included exploratory factor analysis, Spearman's rho and a structural equation model. Resort employees of different ages do not experience job characteristics differently. Older employees are often more experienced in the work environment, which contributes to an increase in job satisfaction, while younger employees who start building a career in the hospitality sector experience less job satisfaction. Older employees are more committed to their careers than younger employees. Critical skills have no influence on participants' perception of job characteristics. However, resort employees who have a variety of critical skills experience an increase in job satisfaction.

  7. The rate of change in declining steroid hormones: a new parameter of healthy aging in men?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walther, Andreas; Philipp, Michel; Lozza, Niclà; Ehlert, Ulrike

    2016-09-20

    Research on healthy aging in men has increasingly focused on age-related hormonal changes. Testosterone (T) decline is primarily investigated, while age-related changes in other sex steroids (dehydroepiandrosterone [DHEA], estradiol [E2], progesterone [P]) are mostly neglected. An integrated hormone parameter reflecting aging processes in men has yet to be identified. 271 self-reporting healthy men between 40 and 75 provided both psychometric data and saliva samples for hormone analysis. Correlation analysis between age and sex steroids revealed negative associations for the four sex steroids (T, DHEA, E2, and P). Principal component analysis including ten salivary analytes identified a principal component mainly unifying the variance of the four sex steroid hormones. Subsequent principal component analysis including the four sex steroids extracted the principal component of declining steroid hormones (DSH). Moderation analysis of the association between age and DSH revealed significant moderation effects for psychosocial factors such as depression, chronic stress and perceived general health. In conclusion, these results provide further evidence that sex steroids decline in aging men and that the integrated hormone parameter DSH and its rate of change can be used as biomarkers for healthy aging in men. Furthermore, the negative association of age and DSH is moderated by psychosocial factors.

  8. Age Effects on Upper Limb Kinematics Assessed by the REAplan Robot in Healthy Subjects Aged 3 to 93 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilliaux, Maxime; Lejeune, Thierry M; Sapin, Julien; Dehez, Bruno; Stoquart, Gaëtan; Detrembleur, Christine

    2016-04-01

    Kinematics is recommended for the quantitative assessment of upper limb movements. The aims of this study were to determine the age effects on upper limb kinematics and establish normative values in healthy subjects. Three hundred and seventy healthy subjects, aged 3-93 years, participated in the study. They performed two unidirectional and two geometrical tasks ten consecutive times with the REAplan, a distal effector robotic device that allows upper limb displacements in the horizontal plane. Twenty-six kinematic indices were computed for the four tasks. For the four tasks, nineteen of the computed kinematic indices showed an age effect. Seventeen indices (the accuracy, speed and smoothness indices and the reproducibility of the accuracy, speed and smoothness) improved in young subjects aged 3-30 years, showed stabilization in adults aged 30-60 years and declined in elderly subjects aged 60-93 years. Additionally, for both geometrical tasks, the speed index exhibited a decrease throughout life. Finally, a principal component analysis provided the relations between the kinematic indices, tasks and subjects' age. This study is the first to assess age effects on upper limb kinematics and establish normative values in subjects aged 3-93 years.

  9. Lymphocyte maintenance during healthy aging requires no substantial alterations in cellular turnover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westera, Liset; van Hoeven, Vera; Drylewicz, Julia; Spierenburg, Gerrit; van Velzen, Jeroen F; de Boer, Rob J; Tesselaar, Kiki; Borghans, José A M

    2015-04-01

    In healthy humans, lymphocyte populations are maintained at a relatively constant size throughout life, reflecting a balance between lymphocyte production and loss. Given the profound immunological changes that occur during healthy aging, including a significant decline in T-cell production by the thymus, lymphocyte maintenance in the elderly is generally thought to require homeostatic alterations in lymphocyte dynamics. Surprisingly, using in vivo (2) H2 O labeling, we find similar dynamics of most lymphocyte subsets between young adult and elderly healthy individuals. As the contribution of thymic output to T-cell production is only minor from young adulthood onward, compensatory increases in peripheral T-cell division rates are not required to maintain the T-cell pool, despite a tenfold decline in thymic output. These fundamental insights will aid the interpretation of further research into aging and clinical conditions related to disturbed lymphocyte dynamics. © 2015 The Authors. Aging Cell published by the Anatomical Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Healthy aging diets other than the Mediterranean: a focus on the Okinawan diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willcox, Donald Craig; Scapagnini, Giovanni; Willcox, Bradley J

    2014-01-01

    The traditional diet in Okinawa is anchored by root vegetables (principally sweet potatoes), green and yellow vegetables, soybean-based foods, and medicinal plants. Marine foods, lean meats, fruit, medicinal garnishes and spices, tea, alcohol are also moderately consumed. Many characteristics of the traditional Okinawan diet are shared with other healthy dietary patterns, including the traditional Mediterranean diet, DASH diet, and Portfolio diet. All these dietary patterns are associated with reduced risk for cardiovascular disease, among other age-associated diseases. Overall, the important shared features of these healthy dietary patterns include: high intake of unrefined carbohydrates, moderate protein intake with emphasis on vegetables/legumes, fish, and lean meats as sources, and a healthy fat profile (higher in mono/polyunsaturated fats, lower in saturated fat; rich in omega-3). The healthy fat intake is likely one mechanism for reducing inflammation, optimizing cholesterol, and other risk factors. Additionally, the lower caloric density of plant-rich diets results in lower caloric intake with concomitant high intake of phytonutrients and antioxidants. Other shared features include low glycemic load, less inflammation and oxidative stress, and potential modulation of aging-related biological pathways. This may reduce risk for chronic age-associated diseases and promote healthy aging and longevity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Predictors of Long-Term Healthy Arterial Aging: Coronary Artery Calcium Nondevelopment in the MESA Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelton, Seamus P; Silverman, Michael G; McEvoy, John W; Budoff, Matthew J; Blankstein, Ron; Eng, John; Blumenthal, Roger S; Szklo, Moyses; Nasir, Khurram; Blaha, Michael J

    2015-12-01

    This study sought to determine the predictors of healthy arterial aging. Long-term nondevelopment of coronary artery calcification (persistent CAC = 0) is a marker of healthy arterial aging. The predictors of this phenotype are not known. We analyzed 1,850 participants from MESA (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis) with baseline CAC = 0 who underwent a follow-up CAC scan at visit 5 (median 9.6 years after baseline). We examined the proportion with persistent CAC = 0 and calculated multivariable relative risks and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for prediction of this healthy arterial aging phenotype. We found that 55% of participants (n = 1,000) had persistent CAC = 0, and these individuals were significantly more likely to be younger, female, and have fewer traditional risk factors (RF). Participants with an ASCVD (Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease Risk Score) risk score healthy arterial aging than were participants with an ASCVD score ≥7.5%. There was no significant association between the Healthy Lifestyle variables (body mass index, physical activity, Mediterranean diet, and never smoking) and persistent CAC = 0. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve incorporating age, sex, and ethnicity was 0.65, indicating fair to poor discrimination. No single traditional RF or combination of other risk factors increased the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve by more than 0.05. Whereas participants free of traditional cardiovascular disease RF were significantly more likely to have persistent CAC = 0, there was no single RF or specific low-risk RF phenotype that markedly improved the discrimination of persistent CAC = 0 over demographic variables. Therefore, we conclude that healthy arterial aging may be predominantly influenced by the long-term maintenance of a low cardiovascular disease risk profile or yet to be determined genetic factors rather than the absence of any specific RF cluster identified

  12. Structural hippocampal network alterations during healthy aging: A multi-modal MRI study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amandine ePelletier

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available While hippocampal atrophy has been described during healthy aging, few studies have examined its relationship with the integrity of White Matter (WM connecting tracts of the limbic system. This investigation examined WM structural damage specifically related to hippocampal atrophy in healthy aging subjects (n=129, using morphological MRI to assess hippocampal volume and Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI to assess WM integrity. Subjects with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI or dementia were excluded from the analysis. In our sample, increasing age was significantly associated with reduced hippocampal volume and reduced Fractional Anisotropy (FA at the level of the fornix and the cingulum bundle. The findings also demonstrate that hippocampal atrophy was specifically associated with reduced FA of the fornix bundle, but it was not related to alteration of the cingulum bundle. Our results indicate that the relationship between hippocampal atrophy and fornix FA values is not due to an independent effect of age on both structures. A recursive regression procedure was applied to evaluate sequential relationships between the alterations of these two brain structures. When both hippocampal atrophy and fornix FA values were included in the same model to predict age, fornix FA values remained significant whereas hippocampal atrophy was no longer significantly associated with age. According to this latter finding, hippocampal atrophy in healthy aging could be mediated by a loss of fornix connections. Structural alterations of this part of the limbic system, which have been associated with neurodegeneration in Alzheimer’s disease, result at least in part from the aging process.

  13. Similar verbal memory impairments in schizophrenia and healthy aging. Implications for understanding of neural mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, Henry; Bilker, Warren B

    2015-03-30

    Memory is impaired in schizophrenia patients but it is not clear whether this is specific to the illness and whether different types of memory (verbal and nonverbal) or memories in different cognitive domains (executive, object recognition) are similarly affected. To study relationships between memory impairments and schizophrenia we compared memory functions in 77 schizophrenia patients, 58 elderly healthy individuals and 41 young healthy individuals. Tests included verbal associative and logical memory and memory in executive and object recognition domains. We compared relationships of memory functions to each other and to other cognitive functions including psychomotor speed and verbal and spatial working memory. Compared to the young healthy group, schizophrenia patients and elderly healthy individuals showed similar severe impairment in logical memory and in the ability to learn new associations (NAL), and similar but less severe impairment in spatial working memory and executive and object memory. Verbal working memory was significantly more impaired in schizophrenia patients than in the healthy elderly. Verbal episodic memory impairment in schizophrenia may share common mechanisms with similar impairment in healthy aging. Impairment in verbal working memory in contrast may reflect mechanisms specific to schizophrenia. Study of verbal explicit memory impairment tapped by the NAL index may advance understanding of abnormal hippocampus dependent mechanisms common to schizophrenia and aging. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Nutritional Considerations for Healthy Aging and Reduction in Age-Related Chronic Disease12

    OpenAIRE

    Shlisky, Julie; Bloom, David E; Beaudreault, Amy R; Tucker, Katherine L; Keller, Heather H; Freund-Levi, Yvonne; Fielding, Roger A; Cheng, Feon W; Jensen, Gordon L; Wu, Dayong; Meydani, Simin N

    2017-01-01

    A projected doubling in the global population of people aged ≥60 y by the year 2050 has major health and economic implications, especially in developing regions. Burdens of unhealthy aging associated with chronic noncommunicable and other age-related diseases may be largely preventable with lifestyle modification, including diet. However, as adults age they become at risk of “nutritional frailty,” which can compromise their ability to meet nutritional requirements at a time when specific nutr...

  15. Towards a sustainable healthy working life : associations between chronological age, functional age and work outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koolhaas, Wendy; van der Klink, Jac J. L.; Groothoff, Johan W.; Brouwer, Sandra

    Background: The aims of this study were: (i) to determine the relation between chronological and functional age; (ii) to examine the association between chronological age and work outcomes; and (iii) to examine the association between functional age and work outcomes. An overview of the most

  16. Healthy eating habits among the population of Serbia: gender and age differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovičić, Ana Đ

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of the study is to examine healthy eating habits of the population of Serbia through three dimensions: knowledge, problems, and feelings as well as to determine whether there are any differences between genders and among different age-groups. The research instrument was an Eating Habits Questionnaire (EHQ) which consisted of 35 items. There were 382 respondents involved in the study. The reliability and factor structure of the questionnaire were verified by using factor analysis. The results of MANOVA showed that there is a significant difference in the habits concerning healthy eating between men and women [F (3,378)=4.26, p=0.006; Wilks' Lambda=0.97]. When the results for the dependent variables (knowledge, problems, and feelings) were considered separately, it was determined that there is no significant difference between men and women, which confirms the results of the t-test. The effect of age on the three dimensions of healthy eating habits was examined within three age-groups, by using ANOVA. The results showed that knowledge about healthy eating increases with age [F (2,379)=6.14, p=0.002] as well as positive feelings which occur as a result of healthy eating [F (2,379)=3.66, p=0.027]. Unlike ANOVA, MANOVA showed difference among the age-groups only when it came to the 'knowledge' variable. This study is important as it shows the current state of awareness on healthy eating habits in the researched populace and may be the basis for further research in this field in Serbia.

  17. Allergy immunotherapy across the life cycle to promote active and healthy ageing: From research to policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Calderon (Moises); P. Demoly; T.B. Casale (Thomas); C.A. Akdis; C. Bachert (Claus); Bewick, M.; Bilò, B.M.; B. Bohle (B.); S. Bonini (Sergio); A. Bush (Andrew); Caimmi, D.P.; G. Canonica (Gwalter); D. Cardona (Doris); A.M. Chiriac (A.); L. Cox (Linda); A. Custovic; F. de Blay; Devillier, P.; Didier, A.; Di Lorenzo, G.; G. Du Toit (George); S.R. Durham (Stephen); C. Eng (Charis); A. Fiocchi (Alessandro); Fox, A.T.; R. Gerth van Wijk (Roy); Gomez, R.M.; Haathela, T.; S. Halken (Susanne); P.W. Hellings (Peter); L. Jacobsen; P.M. Just; Tanno, L.K.; J. Kleine-Tebbe (Jörg); L. Klimek (Ludger); E.F. Knol (Edward Frank); P. Kuna; D. Larenas-Linnemann (Désirée); A. Linneberg (Allan); Matricardi, M.; H.-J. Malling; Moesges, R.; Mullol, J.; Muraro, A.; N. Papadopoulos; G. Passalacqua (Giovanni); Pastorello, E.; O. Pfaar (Oliver); D. Price (David); P.R. Del Rio (P. Rodriguez); Ruëff, R.; Samolinski, B.; G.K. Scadding; Senti, G.; Shamji, M.H.; A. Sheikh (Aziz); J.C. Sisul (J.); D. Solé (D.); G.J. Sturm; Tabar, A.; R. Van Ree; Ventura, M.T.; C. Vidal (Carmen); E.M. Varga; M. Worm (M.); T. Zuberbier (Torsten); J. Bousquet (Jean)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractAllergic diseases often occur early in life and persist throughout life. This life-course perspective should be considered in allergen immunotherapy. In particular it is essential to understand whether this al treatment may be used in old age adults. The current paper was developed by a

  18. Homeless Aging Veterans in Transition: A Life-Span Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla J. Thompson

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The need for counseling and career/educational services for homeless veterans has captured political and economic venues for more than 25 years. Veterans are three times more likely to become homeless than the general population if veterans live in poverty or are minority veterans. This mixed methods study emphasized a life-span perspective approach for exploring factors influencing normative aging and life-quality of 39 homeless veterans in Alabama and Florida. Seven descriptive quantitative and qualitative research questions framed the investigation. Study participants completed a quantitative survey reflecting their preferences and needs with a subset of the sample (N=12 also participating in individual qualitative interview sessions. Thirty-two service providers and stakeholders completed quantitative surveys. Empirical and qualitative data with appropriate triangulation procedures provided interpretive information relative to a life-span development perspective. Study findings provide evidence of the need for future research efforts to address strategies that focus on the health and economic challenges of veterans before they are threatened with the possibility of homelessness. Implications of the study findings provide important information associated with the premise that human development occurs throughout life with specific characteristics influencing the individual’s passage. Implications for aging/homelessness research are grounded in late-life transitioning and human development intervention considerations.

  19. Aging mind and brain: Is implicit learning spared in healthy aging?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James H Howard

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available It is often held that although explicit learning declines in the course of normal aging, implicit learning is relatively preserved. Here we summarize research from our group which leads us to argue that some forms of implicit learning do decline with adult age. In particular, we propose that there are age-related declines in implicit learning of probabilistic sequential relationships that occur across the adult lifespan, and that they reflect, at least in part, age-related striatal dysfunction. We first review behavioral evidence supporting this age-related decline and then evidence from patient groups, genetics, and neuroimaging supporting this striatal dysfunction hypothesis.

  20. Impaired information sampling in mild dementia of Alzheimer's type but not in healthy aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamarian, Laura; Benke, Thomas; Brand, Matthias; Djamshidian, Atbin; Delazer, Margarete

    2015-05-01

    It is unknown whether aging affects predecisional processing, that is, gathering information and evaluating options before making a decision. Here, we investigated information sampling in mild Dementia of Alzheimer's type (DAT) and healthy aging by using the Information Sampling Task (IST). In a first investigation, we compared patients with mild DAT (n = 20) with healthy controls (n = 20) on the IST and several neuropsychological background tests. In a second investigation, healthy older adults (n = 30) were compared with younger adults (n = 30) on the IST and executive-function tasks. Results of the first investigation demonstrated that, in the IST, patients gathered significantly less information, made riskier and less accurate decisions, and showed less reward sensitivity relative to controls. We found a significant correlation between performance on the IST and performance on tests of verbal fluency, working memory, and recognition in patients but not in controls. Results of the second investigation indicated a largely similar performance pattern between healthy older adults and younger adults. There were no significant correlations for both groups between the IST and executive-function tasks. There are no relevant changes with healthy aging in predecisional processing. In contrast, mild DAT significantly affects predecisional information sampling. Thus, the problems shown in patients with mild DAT in decision making might be related to the patients' difficulties in predecisional processing. Decision-making performance in mild DAT might be improved by helping the patients at a predecisional stage to gather sufficient information and evaluate options more accurately. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Early hospital discharge of the healthy term neonate: the Italian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrone, E; Mansi, G; Tosco, A; Capasso, L; Migliaro, F; Umbaldo, A; Romano, A; Paludetto, R; Raimondi, F

    2008-06-01

    An appropriate timing of hospital discharge of the healthy, term neonate represents a balance between birth medicalization and surveillance of immediate health hazards. In the absence of European recommendations, the authors have conducted a broad national survey on the current policies of neonatal discharge. A 13-item questionnaire was sent to 136 Italian birth centers. Quantitative variables were expressed as mean+/-range. Qualitative variables were expressed as frequencies. chi squared test was used for variables comparison. Mean age at discharge for a vaginally delivered neonate was 72 hours. Twelve percent of centres would not schedule a follow-up appointment. Neonates born after a cesarean section were discharged at a mean age of 97 hours. Almost all centres (95/98) would discharge an healthy infant without risk factors for hyperbilirubinemia with a total serum bilirubin (TSB) of 13 mg/dL at 72 hours but 14.7% of these centers would not recheck TSB. The same healthy neonate would be discharged at the age of 45 hours with a TSB=10 mg/dL in 67/98 centers and in 11.9% of cases would not be rechecked. Most Italian hospitals discharge healthy, term neonates born after spontaneous vaginal delivery (SVD) at over 72 hours of age. This policy should protect from missed diagnoses of clinical importance (e.g. hyperbilirubinemia). On the other hand, a prolonged hospitalization tends to increase maternal discomfort and medical costs. Implementing a protocol of home visits/clinic follow-up appointments after an earlier discharge may minimize health hazards and medical costs and optimizing the patient's feedback.

  2. Patterns of frontoparietal activation as a marker for unsuccessful visuospatial processing in healthy aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drag, Lauren L; Light, Sharee N; Langenecker, Scott A; Hazlett, Kathleen E; Wilde, Elisabeth A; Welsh, Robert; Steinberg, Brett A; Bieliauskas, Linas A

    2016-09-01

    Visuospatial abilities are sensitive to age-related decline, although the neural basis for this decline (and its everyday behavioral correlates) is as yet poorly understood. fMRI was employed to examine age-related differences in patterns of functional activation that underlie changes in visuospatial processing. All participants completed a brief neuropsychological battery and also a figure ground task (FGT) assessing visuospatial processing while fMRI was recorded. Participants included 16 healthy older adults (OA; aged 69-82 years) and 16 healthy younger adults (YA; aged 20-35 years). We examined age-related differences in behavioral performance on the FGT in relation to patterns of fMRI activation. OA demonstrated reduced performance on the FGT task and showed increased activation of supramarginal parietal cortex as well as increased activation of frontal and temporal regions compared to their younger counterparts. Performance on the FGT related to increased supramarginal gyrus activity and increased medial prefrontal activity in OAs, but not YAs. Our results are consistent with an anterior-posterior compensation model. Successful FGT performance requires the perception and integration of multiple stimuli and thus it is plausible that healthy aging may be accompanied by changes in visuospatial processing that mimic a subtle form of dorsal simultanagnosia. Overall, decreased visuospatial processing in OA relates to an altered frontoparietal neurobiological signature that may contribute to the general phenomenon of increasingly fragmented execution of behavior associated with normal aging.

  3. Comparing Volume Loss in Neuroanatomical Regions of Emotion versus Regions of Cognition in Healthy Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pressman, Peter S; Noniyeva, Yuliana; Bott, Nick; Dutt, Shubir; Sturm, Virginia; Miller, Bruce L; Kramer, Joel H

    2016-01-01

    Many emotional functions are relatively preserved in aging despite declines in several cognitive domains and physical health. High levels of happiness exist even among centenarians. To address the hypothesis of whether preservation of emotional function in healthy aging may relate to different rates of age-related volume loss across brain structures, we performed two volumetric analyses on structural magnetic resonance neuroimaging of a group of healthy aging research participants using Freesurfer version 5.1. Volumes selected as supporting cognition included bilateral midfrontal and lateral frontal gyri, lateral parietal and temporal cortex, and medial temporal lobes. Volumes supporting emotion included bilateral amygdala, rostral anterior cingulate, insula, orbitofrontal cortex, and nucleus accumbens. A cross-sectional analysis was performed using structural MRI scans from 258 subjects. We found no difference in proportional change between groups. A longitudinal mixed effects model was used to compare regional changes over time in a subset of 84 subjects. Again, there was no difference in proportional change over time. While our results suggest that aging does not collectively target cognitive brain regions more than emotional regions, subgroup analysis suggests relative preservation of the anterior cingulate cortex, with greater volume loss in the nucleus accumbens. Implications of these relative rates of age-related volume loss in healthy aging are discussed and merit further research.

  4. AGING ADULTS WITH INTELLECTUAL DISABILITIES: PERSPECTIVES ON EMERGING SERVICE CONCERNS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew P. JANICKI

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available With improved general health status many adults with intellectual disabilities (ID are living to old age, much like other adults. The World Health Organization has recognized the needs of this older population and identified the challenges they pose for governmental ministries and non-governmental organizations charged with planning, advocacy, financing, and delivery of specialty lifecare services and rehabilitation programs. These challenges include a range of issues normally confronting older adults, such as pensioning and financial security, changes in lifestyles associated with retirement and adaptations to living arrangements and housing, modifications in daily activities and community inclusion, changing physical and sensory abilities, and greater demands for support for aging families and other carers. As older adults with ID may also be affected by latelife or age-related conditions and begin to experience secondary impairments, these challenges may be more pronounced when encountered by NGOs located in countries with developing market economies. In these instances, the onus on promoting healthy aging will fall upon national entities which are responsible for targeting people with disabilities from infancy and childhood, and providing lifelong supports for adolescents, adults, and families. Ideally, if such efforts are undertaken early, they will lead to actions that can be undertaken to promote better health as people with ID age and ensure that the latter part of their lives are experienced as ‘quality of life years.’

  5. Aging Trajectories in Different Body Systems Share Common Environmental Etiology: The Healthy Aging Twin Study (HATS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moayyeri, Alireza; Hart, Deborah J; Snieder, Harold; Hammond, Christopher J; Spector, Timothy D; Steves, Claire J

    2016-02-01

    Little is known about the extent to which aging trajectories of different body systems share common sources of variance. We here present a large twin study investigating the trajectories of change in five systems: cardiovascular, respiratory, skeletal, morphometric, and metabolic. Longitudinal clinical data were collected on 3,508 female twins in the TwinsUK registry (complete pairs:740 monozygotic (MZ), 986 dizygotic (DZ), mean age at entry 48.9 ± 10.4, range 18-75 years; mean follow-up 10.2 ± 2.8 years, range 4-17.8 years). Panel data on multiple age-related variables were used to estimate biological ages for each individual at each time point, in linear mixed effects models. A weighted average approach was used to combine variables within predefined body system groups. Aging trajectories for each system in each individual were then constructed using linear modeling. Multivariate structural equation modeling of these aging trajectories showed low genetic effects (heritability), ranging from 2% in metabolic aging to 22% in cardiovascular aging. However, we found a significant effect of shared environmental factors on the variations in aging trajectories in cardiovascular (54%), skeletal (34%), morphometric (53%), and metabolic systems (53%). The remainder was due to environmental factors unique to each individual plus error. Multivariate Cholesky decomposition showed that among aging trajectories for various body systems there were significant and substantial correlations between the unique environmental latent factors as well as shared environmental factors. However, there was no evidence for a single common factor for aging. This study, the first of its kind in aging, suggests that diverse organ systems share non-genetic sources of variance for aging trajectories. Confirmatory studies are needed using population-based twin cohorts and alternative methods of handling missing data.

  6. Working memory in healthy aging and in Parkinson's disease: evidence of interference effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Rosa, Elisa; Pischedda, Doris; Cherubini, Paolo; Mapelli, Daniela; Tamburin, Stefano; Burigo, Michele

    2017-05-01

    Focusing on relevant information while suppressing the irrelevant one are critical abilities for different cognitive processes. However, their functioning has been scarcely investigated in the working memory (WM) domain, in both healthy and pathological conditions. The present research aimed to study these abilities in aging and Parkinson's disease (PD), testing three groups of healthy participants (young, older and elderly) and one of PD patients, employing a new experimental paradigm. Results showed that the transient storing of irrelevant information in WM causes substantial interference effects, which were remarkable in elderly individuals on both response latency and accuracy. Interestingly, PD patients responded faster and were equally accurate compared to a matched control group. Taken together, findings confirm the existence of similar mechanisms for orienting attention inwards to WM contents or outwards to perceptual stimuli, and suggest the suitability of our task to assess WM functioning in both healthy aging and PD.

  7. Hallucinations in Healthy Older Adults: An Overview of the Literature and Perspectives for Future Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna C. Badcock

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available KEY POINTS➢ Studies suggest a substantial minority of healthy older adults have hallucinatory experiences, in line with existing evidence on hallucinations in other age groups, though it is still unclear if hallucination prevalence increases or declines with age in older cohorts.➢ Stigma attached to both hallucinations and ageing leads to considerable under-reporting of these experiences in healthy older adults and may negatively bias how professionals, family members, and the public respond.➢ Why and when hallucinations in healthy older adults remit, persist, or progress to other clinical disorders remains poorly understood.➢ Current evidence points to a range of factors associated with hallucinations in older adults including decline in sensory or cognitive functioning, poor sleep, and psychosocial stressors (e.g., social isolation, loneliness, and bereavement, highlighting the need for accurate assessment and tailored interventions.Hallucinations, though common in youth and younger adults, are not the preserve of these age groups. Accumulating evidence shows that hallucinatory experiences are also present at surprisingly high rates in healthy older adults in the general community. Furthermore, stigma and misunderstanding of hallucinations, together with ageism, may lead to under-reporting of these experiences by older adults, and misdiagnosis or mismanagement by health and mental health practitioners. Consequently, improved public and professional knowledge is needed about the nature and significance of hallucinations with advancing age. The purpose of this review is to provide a comprehensive overview, and critical analysis, of research on the prevalence, psychosocial, and neurobiological factors associated with hallucinations in people aged 60 years and over. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first review of its kind in the literature. The evidence supports a dynamic conceptualization of hallucinations, in which the

  8. Exploring opportunities for healthy aging among older persons with a history of homelessness in Toronto, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldbrook, Natalie

    2015-03-01

    Within the areas of literature on both population aging and health and homelessness, little attention has been given to the opportunities and barriers to healthy aging among older persons with a history of homelessness. Set in the context of inner-city Toronto, Canada, this article reports on the findings from qualitative interviews with 29 formerly homeless older persons. The findings illustrate participants' experiences of positive health change since moving into a stable housing environment and the aspects of housing they perceive to have improved their health and wellbeing. The qualitative findings also draw attention to the ongoing barriers to healthy aging that can be experienced among older persons with a history of homelessness. Overall, this study draws on the lived experiences of formerly homeless older persons to offer a better understanding of the long-term effects of homelessness on health, wellbeing, and aging. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Peak expiratory flow rate in healthy children aged 6-17 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høst, A; Høst, A H; Ibsen, T

    1994-01-01

    Peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) was measured in a cross-sectional study in 861 healthy Danish schoolchildren aged 6-17 years using a Mini Wright peak flowmeter. We found a strong correlation between PEFR and height, age and sex. The results were comparable with those from previous studies using...... a Wright peak flowmeter. The equation for prediction of PEFR in boys was calculated as (3.8 x height) + (10.6 x age) - 313.2 (p age) - 143.9 (p ... coefficient in this large sample. Among healthy children without previous asthma, earlier episodes of recurrent wheezing were reported in 8.8% and a significantly lower PEFR was found in this group....

  10. Can Functional Cardiac Age be Predicted from ECG in a Normal Healthy Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlegel, Todd; Starc, Vito; Leban, Manja; Sinigoj, Petra; Vrhovec, Milos

    2011-01-01

    In a normal healthy population, we desired to determine the most age-dependent conventional and advanced ECG parameters. We hypothesized that changes in several ECG parameters might correlate with age and together reliably characterize the functional age of the heart. Methods: An initial study population of 313 apparently healthy subjects was ultimately reduced to 148 subjects (74 men, 84 women, in the range from 10 to 75 years of age) after exclusion criteria. In all subjects, ECG recordings (resting 5-minute 12-lead high frequency ECG) were evaluated via custom software programs to calculate up to 85 different conventional and advanced ECG parameters including beat-to-beat QT and RR variability, waveform complexity, and signal-averaged, high-frequency and spatial/spatiotemporal ECG parameters. The prediction of functional age was evaluated by multiple linear regression analysis using the best 5 univariate predictors. Results: Ignoring what were ultimately small differences between males and females, the functional age was found to be predicted (R2= 0.69, P ECGs, functional cardiac age can be estimated by multiple linear regression analysis of mostly advanced ECG results. Because some parameters in the regression formula, such as QTcorr, high frequency QRS amplitude and P-wave width also change with disease in the same direction as with increased age, increased functional age of the heart may reflect subtle age-related pathologies in cardiac electrical function that are usually hidden on conventional ECG.

  11. Resting-state slow wave power, healthy aging and cognitive performance

    OpenAIRE

    Eleni L. Vlahou; Franka Thurm; Iris-Tatjana Kolassa; Winfried Schlee

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive functions and spontaneous neural activity show significant changes over the life-span, but the interrelations between age, cognition and resting-state brain oscillations are not well understood. Here, we assessed performance on the Trail Making Test and resting-state magnetoencephalographic (MEG) recordings from 53 healthy adults (18–89 years old) to investigate associations between age-dependent changes in spontaneous oscillatory activity and cognitive performance. Results show tha...

  12. Lower-Extremity Function in Cognitively Healthy Aging, Mild Cognitive Impairment, and Alzheimer's Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eggermont, Laura H.; Gavett, Brandon E.; Volkers, Karin M.; Blankevoort, Christiaan G.; Scherder, Erik J.; Jefferson, Angela L.; Steinberg, Eric; Nair, Anil; Green, Robert C.; Stern, Robert A.

    Eggermont LH, Gavett BE, Volkers KM, Blankevoort CG, Scherder EJ, Jefferson AL, Steinberg E, Nair A, Green RC, Stern RA. Lower-extremity function in cognitively healthy aging, mild cognitive impairment, and Alzheimer's disease. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2010;91:584-8. Objective: To examine differences

  13. Distinguishing rhythmic from non-rhythmic brain activity during rest in healthy neurocognitive aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplan, Jeremy B; Bottomley, Monica; Kang, Pardeep; Dixon, Roger A

    2015-05-15

    Rhythmic brain activity at low frequencies (healthy neurocognitive aging are mixed. Here we address two reasons conventional spectral analyses may have led to inconsistent results. First, spectral-power measures are compared to a baseline condition; when resting activity is the signal of interest, it is unclear what the baseline should be. Second, conventional methods do not clearly differentiate power due to rhythmic versus non-rhythmic activity. The Better OSCillation detection method (BOSC; Caplan et al., 2001; Whitten et al., 2011) avoids these problems by using the signal's own spectral characteristics as a reference to detect elevations in power lasting a few cycles. We recorded electroencephalographic (EEG) signal during rest, alternating eyes open and closed, in healthy younger (18-25 years) and older (60-74 years) participants. Topographic plots suggested the conventional and BOSC analyses measured different sources of activity, particularly at frequencies, like delta (1-4Hz), at which rhythms are sporadic; topographies were more similar in the 8-12Hz alpha band. There was little theta-band activity meeting the BOSC method's criteria, suggesting prior findings of theta power in healthy aging may reflect non-rhythmic signal. In contrast, delta oscillations were present at higher levels than theta in both age groups. In summary, applying strict and standardized criteria for rhythmicity, slow rhythms appear present in the resting brain at delta and alpha, but not theta frequencies, and appear unchanged in healthy aging. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Myelin Breakdown Mediates Age-Related Slowing in Cognitive Processing Speed in Healthy Elderly Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Po H.; Lee, Grace J.; Tishler, Todd A.; Meghpara, Michael; Thompson, Paul M.; Bartzokis, George

    2013-01-01

    Background: To assess the hypothesis that in a sample of very healthy elderly men selected to minimize risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD) and cerebrovascular disease, myelin breakdown in late-myelinating regions mediates age-related slowing in cognitive processing speed (CPS). Materials and methods: The prefrontal lobe white matter and the genu of…

  15. Genome-Wide Association Study and Linkage Analysis of the Healthy Aging Index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minster, Ryan L; Sanders, Jason L; Singh, Jatinder

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Healthy Aging Index (HAI) is a tool for measuring the extent of health and disease across multiple systems. METHODS: We conducted a genome-wide association study and a genome-wide linkage analysis to map quantitative trait loci associated with the HAI and a modified HAI weighted...

  16. Older-Adult Playfulness: An Innovative Construct and Measurement for Healthy Aging Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarnal, Careen; Qian, Xinyi

    2011-01-01

    Few studies of adult playfulness exist, but limited research on older adults and playfulness suggests that playfulness in later life improves cognitive, emotional, social, and psychological functioning and healthy aging overall. Older adults represent a rapidly growing segment of the U.S. population, underscoring the need to understand the aging…

  17. Gait impairment in cervical spondylotic myelopathy: comparison with age- and gender-matched healthy controls.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Malone, Ailish

    2012-12-01

    Gait impairment is a primary symptom of cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM); however, little is known about specific kinetic and kinematic gait parameters. The objectives of the study were: (1) to compare gait patterns of people with untreated CSM to those of age- and gender-matched healthy controls; (2) to examine the effect of gait speed on kinematic and kinetic parameters.

  18. Gender- and Age-Specific REE and REE/FFM Distributions in Healthy Chinese Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Cheng

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Basic data on the resting energy expenditure (REE of healthy populations are currently rare, especially for developing countries. The aims of the present study were to describe gender- and age-specific REE distributions and to evaluate the relationships among glycolipid metabolism, eating behaviors, and REE in healthy Chinese adults. This cross-sectional survey included 540 subjects (343 women and 197 men, 20–79 years old. REE was measured by indirect calorimetry and expressed as kcal/day/kg total body weight. The data were presented as the means and percentiles for REE and the REE to fat-free mass (FFM ratio; differences were described by gender and age. Partial correlation analysis was used to analyze the correlations between REE, tertiles of REE/FFM, and glycolipid metabolism and eating behaviors. In this study, we confirmed a decline in REE with age in women (p = 0.000 and men (p = 0.000, and we found that men have a higher REE (p = 0.000 and lower REE/FFM (p = 0.021 than women. Furthermore, we observed no associations among glycolipid metabolism, eating behaviors, and REE in healthy Chinese adults. In conclusion, the results presented here may be useful to clinicians and nutritionists for comparing healthy and ill subjects and identifying changes in REE that are related to aging, malnutrition, and chronic diseases.

  19. Gender- and Age-Specific REE and REE/FFM Distributions in Healthy Chinese Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yu; Yang, Xue; Na, Li-Xin; Li, Ying; Sun, Chang-Hao

    2016-09-01

    Basic data on the resting energy expenditure (REE) of healthy populations are currently rare, especially for developing countries. The aims of the present study were to describe gender- and age-specific REE distributions and to evaluate the relationships among glycolipid metabolism, eating behaviors, and REE in healthy Chinese adults. This cross-sectional survey included 540 subjects (343 women and 197 men, 20-79 years old). REE was measured by indirect calorimetry and expressed as kcal/day/kg total body weight. The data were presented as the means and percentiles for REE and the REE to fat-free mass (FFM) ratio; differences were described by gender and age. Partial correlation analysis was used to analyze the correlations between REE, tertiles of REE/FFM, and glycolipid metabolism and eating behaviors. In this study, we confirmed a decline in REE with age in women (p = 0.000) and men (p = 0.000), and we found that men have a higher REE (p = 0.000) and lower REE/FFM (p = 0.021) than women. Furthermore, we observed no associations among glycolipid metabolism, eating behaviors, and REE in healthy Chinese adults. In conclusion, the results presented here may be useful to clinicians and nutritionists for comparing healthy and ill subjects and identifying changes in REE that are related to aging, malnutrition, and chronic diseases.

  20. Lifelong Learning and Healthy Ageing : The Significance of Music as an Agent of Change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smilde, Rineke; Bisschop Boele, Evert

    2016-01-01

    This chapter gives an overview on the Healthy Ageing research portfolio of the research group Lifelong Learning in Music (Hanze University of Applied Sciences Groningen, the Netherlands). Lifelong learning enables musicians to respond to the continuously changing context in which they are working

  1. DNA methylation age is elevated in breast tissue of healthy women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehl, Mary E; Henry, Jill E; Storniolo, Anna Maria; Ganz, Patricia A; Horvath, Steve

    2017-07-01

    Limited evidence suggests that female breast tissue ages faster than other parts of the body according to an epigenetic biomarker of aging known as the "epigenetic clock." However, it is unknown whether breast tissue samples from healthy women show a similar accelerated aging effect relative to other tissues, and what could drive this acceleration. The goal of this study is to validate our initial finding of advanced DNA methylation (DNAm) age in breast tissue, by directly comparing it to that of peripheral blood tissue from the same individuals, and to do a preliminary assessment of hormonal factors that could explain the difference. We utilized n = 80 breast and 80 matching blood tissue samples collected from 40 healthy female participants of the Susan G. Komen Tissue Bank at the Indiana University Simon Cancer Center who donated these samples at two time points spaced at least a year apart. DNA methylation levels (Illumina 450K platform) were used to estimate the DNAm age. DNAm age was highly correlated with chronological age in both peripheral blood (r = 0.94, p < 0.0001) and breast tissues (r = 0.86, p < 0.0001). A measure of epigenetic age acceleration (age-adjusted DNAm Age) was substantially increased in breast relative to peripheral blood tissue (p = 1.6 × 10 -11 ). The difference between DNAm age of breast and blood decreased with advancing chronologic age (r = -0.53, p = 4.4 × 10 -4 ). Our data clearly demonstrate that female breast tissue has a higher epigenetic age than blood collected from the same subject. We also observe that the degree of elevation in breast diminishes with advancing age. Future larger studies will be needed to examine associations between epigenetic age acceleration and cumulative hormone exposure.

  2. The effects of healthy aging on cerebral hemodynamic responses to posture change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edlow, Brian L; Greenberg, Joel H; Detre, John A; Kim, Meeri N; Durduran, Turgut; Zhou, Chao; Yodh, Arjun G; Putt, Mary E

    2010-01-01

    Aging is associated with an increased incidence of orthostatic hypotension, impairment of the baroreceptor reflex and lower baseline cerebral blood flow. The effect of aging on cerebrovascular autoregulation, however, remains to be fully elucidated. We used a novel optical instrument to assess microvascular cerebral hemodynamics in the frontal lobe cortex of 60 healthy subjects ranging from ages 20–78. Diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS) and near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) were used to measure relative cerebral blood flow (rCBF), total hemoglobin concentration (THC), oxyhemoglobin concentration (HbO 2 ) and deoxyhemoglobin concentration (Hb). Cerebral hemodynamics were monitored for 5 min at each of the following postures: head-of-bed 30°, supine, standing and supine. Supine-to-standing posture change caused significant declines in rCBF, THC and HbO 2 , and an increase in Hb, across the age continuum (p < 0.01). Healthy aging did not alter postural changes in frontal cortical rCBF (p = 0.23) and was associated with a smaller magnitude of decline in HbO 2 (p < 0.05) during supine-to-standing posture change. We conclude that healthy aging does not alter postural changes in frontal cortical perfusion

  3. Evaluation of the thyroid blood flow with Doppler ultrasonography in healthy school-aged children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yazici, Burhan; Simsek, Enver; Erdogmus, Besir; Bahcebasi, Talat; Aktas, Alev; Buyukkaya, Ramazan; Uzun, Hakan; Safak, Alp Alper

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To determine the relationship between thyroid blood flow and anthropometric measurements, pubertal stage, and thyroid and gonadotropic hormones. Materials and methods: We examined 123 healthy school-aged children prospectively (69 boys (56.1%) and 54 girls (43.9%), 7-17 years old). Their sex, age, body weight, height, body mass index (BMI), and pubertal stage were determined. Serum thyrotropin, free thyroxine, luteinizing hormone, and follicle stimulating hormone were measured in both genders, along with testosterone in boys and estradiol in girls. The peak systolic velocity (PSV), resistance index (RI), and pulsatility index (PI) of the superior thyroid artery were determined. The correlations between the Doppler parameters and these factors were investigated. Results: There were no differences in age, weight, height, BMI, thyroid volume, PSV, RI, or PI between boys and girls (P > 0.05). The PSV and PI showed strong correlations with age, height, weight, puberty stage, thyroid volume, and BMI. The RI showed a strong inverse correlation with age, height, weight, puberty stage, and thyroid volume and a weak inverse correlation with the BMI. Conclusion: Determination of the thyroid arterial flow in normal healthy children is important during a Doppler ultrasound (US) examination. Doppler US parameters and their percentiles should be described in healthy children from different age groups, and these percentiles will aid in interpreting Doppler US in children

  4. Evaluation of the thyroid blood flow with Doppler ultrasonography in healthy school-aged children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yazici, Burhan [Department of Radiology, Duzce University School of Medicine, Konuralp, Duzce 81620 (Turkey)], E-mail: dryazici@yahoo.com; Simsek, Enver [Department of Pediatrics, Duzce University School of Medicine, Konuralp, Duzce (Turkey); Erdogmus, Besir [Department of Radiology, Duzce University School of Medicine, Konuralp, Duzce 81620 (Turkey); Bahcebasi, Talat [Department of Public Health, Duzce University School of Medicine, Konuralp, Duzce (Turkey); Aktas, Alev [Department of Pediatrics, Duzce University School of Medicine, Konuralp, Duzce (Turkey); Buyukkaya, Ramazan [Department of Radiology, Duzce University School of Medicine, Konuralp, Duzce 81620 (Turkey); Uzun, Hakan [Department of Pediatrics, Duzce University School of Medicine, Konuralp, Duzce (Turkey); Safak, Alp Alper [Department of Radiology, Duzce University School of Medicine, Konuralp, Duzce 81620 (Turkey)

    2007-08-15

    Objective: To determine the relationship between thyroid blood flow and anthropometric measurements, pubertal stage, and thyroid and gonadotropic hormones. Materials and methods: We examined 123 healthy school-aged children prospectively (69 boys (56.1%) and 54 girls (43.9%), 7-17 years old). Their sex, age, body weight, height, body mass index (BMI), and pubertal stage were determined. Serum thyrotropin, free thyroxine, luteinizing hormone, and follicle stimulating hormone were measured in both genders, along with testosterone in boys and estradiol in girls. The peak systolic velocity (PSV), resistance index (RI), and pulsatility index (PI) of the superior thyroid artery were determined. The correlations between the Doppler parameters and these factors were investigated. Results: There were no differences in age, weight, height, BMI, thyroid volume, PSV, RI, or PI between boys and girls (P > 0.05). The PSV and PI showed strong correlations with age, height, weight, puberty stage, thyroid volume, and BMI. The RI showed a strong inverse correlation with age, height, weight, puberty stage, and thyroid volume and a weak inverse correlation with the BMI. Conclusion: Determination of the thyroid arterial flow in normal healthy children is important during a Doppler ultrasound (US) examination. Doppler US parameters and their percentiles should be described in healthy children from different age groups, and these percentiles will aid in interpreting Doppler US in children.

  5. Corneal clarity measurements in healthy volunteers across different age groups: Observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzahrani, Khaled; Carley, Fiona; Brahma, Arun; Morley, Debbie; Hillarby, M Chantal

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to standardize and investigate the changes in corneal clarity with age. Densitometry software for the Oculus Pentacam was used to examine corneal clarity at different age groups.A total of 192 eyes from 97 healthy participants were included in this cohort comparative nonrandomized, cross-sectional study. An Oculus Pentcam was used to image the cornea of healthy participants grouped by age (between 10 and 70 years old). Data from the densitometry output have been used to determine clarity in concentric zones and different depths of the cornea.Corneal densitometry (CD) across all ages showed significant differences between groups when divided into the following layers: anterior, central, and posterior or divided into 0 to 2, 2 to 6, and 6 to 10 mm concentric zones (P age in all 3 layers of the periphery (6-10 mm) (P age group had lower clarity than the 20 to 30-age group (P age is differed when the cornea is divided into layers and zones. This study suggests that there are other factors that may play an essential role in corneal clarity as well as age.

  6. Gastrointestinal mean transit times in young and middle-aged healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graff, J; Brinch, K; Madsen, Jan Lysgård

    2001-01-01

    To investigate the effects of age and gender on gastric, small intestinal and colonic mean transit times, a study was conducted in 32 healthy volunteers: eight young women (22-30 years), eight young men (20-28 years), eight middle-aged women (43-51 years) and eight middle-aged men (38-53 years......, small intestinal and colonic mean transit times were calculated. The gastric, small intestinal and colonic mean transit times were significantly longer in women. Ageing was shown to accelerate the gastric and small intestinal transit significantly. In the group of men the colonic mean transit time...... was unaffected by age, but middle-aged women had a significantly slower colonic transit than young women. We therefore conclude that both age and gender have to be considered when reference values for gastric, small intestinal and colonic mean transit times have to be established....

  7. Changes in healthy food habits after transition to old age retirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helldán, Anni; Lallukka, Tea; Rahkonen, Ossi; Lahelma, Eero

    2012-08-01

    Retirement is one of the major transitions in the life course. However, it is poorly understood how health behaviours, such as food habits, might change after retirement. This study aimed to examine whether healthy food habits change after the transition to old age retirement and whether socio-demographic or health-related factors explain the association between retirement, being continuously employed and healthy food habits at follow-up. The data were derived from the Helsinki Health Study cohort on the staff of the City of Helsinki, Finland. The baseline questionnaire survey data were collected in 2000-02 and the follow-up in 2007. We included only participants who were aged 55-60 years at baseline and entered old age retirement during the follow-up (n = 1156, 76% women) or remained continuously employed (n = 1269, 79% women). Food habits from a food frequency questionnaire included eight items formed according to the Finnish and Nordic dietary recommendations. Logistic regression models were fitted to examine the associations between retirement, being continuously employed and healthy food habits at follow-up. Healthy food habits increased more among retired women than those continuously employed (P = 0.03). At follow-up retired women had healthier food habits than continuously employed women after adjusting for baseline food habits [OR = 1.36 (1.12-1.65)]. Among men, healthy food habits were unassociated with retirement. Transition to old age retirement is likely to have beneficial effects on food habits among women. This helps prevent major diseases and supports better public health among ageing people.

  8. Cognitive Vulnerability in Aging May Be Modulated by Education and Reserve in Healthy People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María D. Roldán-Tapia

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Aging is related to a deterioration of cognitive performance and to multiple alterations in the brain. Even before the beginning of a noticeable cognitive decline, the framework which holds cognitive function experiences these alterations. From a system-vulnerability point of view of cognition, the deterioration associated with age would be the collection of repercussions during a life. Brain function and structure are modified in a multidimensional way, which could concern different aspects like structural integrity, functional activity, connectivity, or glucose metabolism. From this point of view, the effects of aging could affect the most brain systems and their functional activity. In this study, we analyze the functional development of three cognitive domains in relation to aging, educational level, and cognitive reserve (CR. A total of 172 healthy subjects were divided into two age groups (young and old, and completed a battery of classic neuropsychological tests. The tests were organized and analyzed according to three cognitive domains: working memory and flexibility, visuoconstructive functions, and declarative memory. Subjects also completed a questionnaire on CR. Results showed that the performance in all cognitive domains decreased with age. In particular, tests related to working memory, flexibility, and visuoconstructive abilities were influenced by age. Nevertheless, this effect was attenuated by effects of education, mainly in visuoconstructive domain. Surprisingly, visual as well as verbal memory tests were not affected either by aging, education, or CR. Brain plasticity plays a prominent role in the aging process, but, as other studies have shown, the plasticity mechanism is quite different in healthy vs. pathological brains. Moreover, this plasticity brain mechanism could be modulated by education and CR. Specially, cognitive domains as working memory, some executive functions and the visuoconstructive abilities seem to be

  9. MACVIA-LR (Fighting Chronic Diseases for Active and Healthy Ageing in Languedoc-Roussillon): A Success Story of the European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bousquet, J; Bourret, R; Camuzat, T; Augé, P; Bringer, J; Noguès, M; Jonquet, O; de la Coussaye, J E; Ankri, J; Cesari, M; Guérin, O; Vellas, B; Blain, H; Arnavielhe, S; Avignon, A; Combe, B; Canovas, G; Daien, C; Dray, G; Dupeyron, A; Jeandel, C; Laffont, I; Laune, D; Marion, C; Pastor, E; Pélissier, J Y; Galan, B; Reynes, J; Reuzeau, J C; Bedbrook, A; Granier, S; Adnet, P A; Amouyal, M; Alomène, B; Bernard, P L; Berr, C; Caimmi, D; Claret, P G; Costa, D J; Cristol, J P; Fesler, P; Hève, D; Millot-Keurinck, J; Morquin, D; Ninot, G; Picot, M C; Raffort, N; Roubille, F; Sultan, A; Touchon, J; Attalin, V; Azevedo, C; Badin, M; Bakhti, K; Bardy, B; Battesti, M P; Bobia, X; Boegner, C; Boichot, S; Bonnin, H Y; Bouly, S; Boubakri, C; Bourrain, J L; Bourrel, G; Bouix, V; Bruguière, V; Cade, S; Camu, W; Carre, V; Cavalli, G; Cayla, G; Chiron, R; Coignard, P; Coroian, F; Costa, P; Cottalorda, J; Coulet, B; Coupet, A L; Courrouy-Michel, M C; Courtet, P; Cros, V; Cuisinier, F; Danko, M; Dauenhauer, P; Dauzat, M; David, M; Davy, J M; Delignières, D; Demoly, P; Desplan, J; Dujols, P; Dupeyron, G; Engberink, O; Enjalbert, M; Fattal, C; Fernandes, J; Fouletier, M; Fraisse, P; Gabrion, P; Gellerat-Rogier, M; Gelis, A; Genis, C; Giraudeau, N; Goucham, A Y; Gouzi, F; Gressard, F; Gris, J C; Guillot, B; Guiraud, D; Handweiler, V; Hayot, M; Hérisson, C; Heroum, C; Hoa, D; Jacquemin, S; Jaber, S; Jakovenko, D; Jorgensen, C; Kouyoudjian, P; Lamoureux, R; Landreau, L; Lapierre, M; Larrey, D; Laurent, C; Léglise, M S; Lemaitre, J M; Le Quellec, A; Leclercq, F; Lehmann, S; Lognos, B; Lussert, Cj M; Makinson, A; Mandrick, K; Mares, P; Martin-Gousset, P; Matheron, A; Mathieu, G; Meissonnier, M; Mercier, G; Messner, P; Meunier, C; Mondain, M; Morales, R; Morel, J; Mottet, D; Nérin, P; Nicolas, P; Nouvel, F; Paccard, D; Pandraud, G; Pasdelou, M P; Pasquié, J L; Patte, K; Perrey, S; Pers, Y M; Portejoie, F; Pujol, J L E; Quantin, X; Quéré, I; Ramdani, S; Ribstein, J; Rédini-Martinez, I; Richard, S; Ritchie, K; Riso, J P; Rivier, F; Robine, J M; Rolland, C; Royère, E; Sablot, D; Savy, J L; Schifano, L; Senesse, P; Sicard, R; Stephan, Y; Strubel, D; Tallon, G; Tanfin, M; Tassery, H; Tavares, I; Torre, K; Tribout, V; Uziel, A; Van de Perre, P; Venail, F; Vergne-Richard, C; Vergotte, G; Vian, L; Vialla, F; Viart, F; Villain, M; Viollet, E; Ychou, M; Mercier, J

    2016-01-01

    The Région Languedoc Roussillon is the umbrella organisation for an interconnected and integrated project on active and healthy ageing (AHA). It covers the 3 pillars of the European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing (EIP on AHA): (A) Prevention and health promotion, (B) Care and cure, (C) and (D) Active and independent living of elderly people. All sub-activities (poly-pharmacy, falls prevention initiative, prevention of frailty, chronic respiratory diseases, chronic diseases with multimorbidities, chronic infectious diseases, active and independent living and disability) have been included in MACVIA-LR which has a strong political commitment and involves all stakeholders (public, private, patients, policy makers) including CARSAT-LR and the Eurobiomed cluster. It is a Reference Site of the EIP on AHA. The framework of MACVIA-LR has the vision that the prevention and management of chronic diseases is essential for the promotion of AHA and for the reduction of handicap. The main objectives of MACVIA-LR are: (i) to develop innovative solutions for a network of Living labs in order to reduce avoidable hospitalisations and loss of autonomy while improving quality of life, (ii) to disseminate the innovation. The three years of MACVIA-LR activities are reported in this paper.

  10. Differing Patterns of Altered Slow-5 Oscillations in Healthy Aging and Ischemic Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La, Christian; Mossahebi, Pouria; Nair, Veena A; Young, Brittany M; Stamm, Julie; Birn, Rasmus; Meyerand, Mary E; Prabhakaran, Vivek

    2016-01-01

    The 'default-mode' network (DMN) has been investigated in the presence of various disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease and Autism spectrum disorders. More recently, this investigation has expanded to include patients with ischemic injury. Here, we characterized the effects of ischemic injury in terms of its spectral distribution of resting-state low-frequency oscillations and further investigated whether those specific disruptions were unique to the DMN, or rather more general, affecting the global cortical system. With 43 young healthy adults, 42 older healthy adults, 14 stroke patients in their early stage (system disruption may differ between healthy aging and following the event of an ischemic stroke. The stroke group in the later stage demonstrated a global reduction in the amplitude of the slow-5 oscillations (0.01-0.027 Hz) in the DMN as well as in the primary visual and sensorimotor networks, two 'task-positive' networks. In comparison to the young healthy group, the older healthy subjects presented a decrease in the amplitude of the slow-5 oscillations specific to the components of the DMN, while exhibiting an increase in oscillation power in the task-positive networks. These two processes of a decrease DMN and an increase in 'task-positive' slow-5 oscillations may potentially be related, with a deficit in DMN inhibition, leading to an elevation of oscillations in non-DMN systems. These findings also suggest that disruptions of the slow-5 oscillations in healthy aging may be more specific to the DMN while the disruptions of those oscillations following a stroke through remote (diaschisis) effects may be more widespread, highlighting a non-specificity of disruption on the DMN in stroke population. The mechanisms underlying those differing modes of network disruption need to be further explored to better inform our understanding of brain function in healthy individuals and following injury.

  11. Spirituality, religiosity, aging and health in global perspective: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary Zimmer

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Persistent population aging worldwide is focusing attention on modifiable factors that can improve later life health. There is evidence that religiosity and spirituality are among such factors. Older people tend to have high rates of involvement in religious and/or spiritual endeavors and it is possible that population aging will be associated with increasing prevalence of religious and spiritual activity worldwide. Despite increasing research on religiosity, spirituality and health among older persons, population aging worldwide suggests the need for a globally integrated approach. As a step toward this, we review a subset of the literature on the impact of religiosity and spirituality on health in later life. We find that much of this has looked at the relationship between religiosity/spirituality and longevity as well as physical and mental health. Mechanisms include social support, health behaviors, stress and psychosocial factors. We identify a number of gaps in current knowledge. Many previous studies have taken place in the U.S. and Europe. Much data is cross-sectional, limiting ability to make causal inference. Religiosity and spirituality can be difficult to define and distinguish and the two concepts are often considered together, though on balance religiosity has received more attention than spirituality. The latter may however be equally important. Although there is evidence that religiosity is associated with longer life and better physical and mental health, these outcomes have been investigated separately rather than together such as in measures of health expectancy. In conclusion, there is a need for a unified and nuanced approach to understanding how religiosity and spirituality impact on health and longevity within a context of global aging, in particular whether they result in longer healthy life rather than just longer life. Keywords: Aging, Global aging, Health expectancy, Older adults, Mindfulness, Mortality, Religion

  12. Resting-state slow wave power, healthy aging and cognitive performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlahou, Eleni L; Thurm, Franka; Kolassa, Iris-Tatjana; Schlee, Winfried

    2014-05-29

    Cognitive functions and spontaneous neural activity show significant changes over the life-span, but the interrelations between age, cognition and resting-state brain oscillations are not well understood. Here, we assessed performance on the Trail Making Test and resting-state magnetoencephalographic (MEG) recordings from 53 healthy adults (18-89 years old) to investigate associations between age-dependent changes in spontaneous oscillatory activity and cognitive performance. Results show that healthy aging is accompanied by a marked and linear decrease of resting-state activity in the slow frequency range (0.5-6.5 Hz). The effects of slow wave power on cognitive performance were expressed as interactions with age: For older (>54 years), but not younger participants, enhanced delta and theta power in temporal and central regions was positively associated with perceptual speed and executive functioning. Consistent with previous work, these findings substantiate further the important role of slow wave oscillations in neurocognitive function during healthy aging.

  13. Coupling between skeletal muscle fiber size and capillarization is maintained during healthy aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnouin, Yoann; McPhee, Jamie S; Butler-Browne, Gillian; Bosutti, Alessandra; De Vito, Giuseppe; Jones, David A; Narici, Marco; Behin, Anthony; Hogrel, Jean-Yves; Degens, Hans

    2017-08-01

    As muscle capillarization is related to the oxidative capacity of the muscle and the size of muscle fibres, capillary rarefaction may contribute to sarcopenia and functional impairment in older adults. Therefore, it is important to assess how ageing affects muscle capillarization and the interrelationship between fibre capillary supply with the oxidative capacity and size of the fibres. Muscle biopsies from healthy recreationally active young (22 years; 14 men and 5 women) and older (74 years; 22 men and 6 women) people were assessed for muscle capillarization and the distribution of capillaries with the method of capillary domains. Oxidative capacity of muscle fibres was assessed with quantitative histochemistry for succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) activity. There was no significant age-related reduction in muscle fibre oxidative capacity. Despite 18% type II fibre atrophy (P = 0.019) and 23% fewer capillaries per fibre (P age and sex. Based on SDH, the maximal oxygen consumption supported by a capillary did not differ significantly between young and old people. The similar quantitative and qualitative distribution of capillaries within muscle from healthy recreationally active older people and young adults indicates that the age-related capillary rarefaction, which does occur, nevertheless maintains the coupling between skeletal muscle fibre size and capillarization during healthy ageing. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of the Society on Sarcopenia, Cachexia and Wasting Disorders.

  14. Technology of making healthy and correction of build of men of the first mature age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stroganov S.V.

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Directions of search of ways of making healthy of population of mature age are considered. In an experiment 30 men took part 21-35 years. The men of experimental group conducted training on the basis of 4th of the monthly program of correction and making healthy. There was statistically meaningful divergence in the capacity of men of experimental group by comparison to the men of control group. Also in the subjective estimation of own build, feel for a day, at the end of workweek and after training. Employment on the developed technology induced the men of experimental group a greater measure to give up harmful habits.

  15. The Influence of Age on Hemodynamic Parameters During Rest and Exercise in Healthy Individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolsk, Emil; Bakkestrøm, Rine; Thomsen, Jacob H

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The authors sought to obtain hemodynamic estimates across a wide age span and in both sexes for future reference and compare these estimates with current guideline diagnostic hemodynamic thresholds for abnormal filling pressure and pulmonary hypertension. BACKGROUND: At present....... METHODS: Sixty-two healthy participants, evenly distributed with respect to age (20 to 80 years) and sex (32 women/30 men), were prospectively enrolled in the study. Participants were all deemed healthy by medical history, echocardiography, exercise test, spirometry, blood tests, and electrocardiogram....... Participants had hemodynamic parameters measured using right heart catheterization during rest, passive leg raise, and incremental exercise. RESULTS: During rest, all hemodynamic parameters were similar between age groups, apart from blood pressure. During leg raise and incremental exercise...

  16. Kidney growth in 717 healthy children aged 0-18 months

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Ida M; Main, Katharina M; Damgaard, Ida N

    2004-01-01

    Kidney size is an important parameter in the evaluation of children with renal disease. However, reference materials for kidney size in healthy children have been limited beyond the neonatal period. We performed a longitudinal cohort study of 717 healthy children born at term with normal birth...... weight. Kidney size and shape were determined by ultrasonography and related to gender, age, and body size (weight, length, body surface area, skinfold thickness) at 0, 3, and 18 months of age. Gender-differentiated reference charts were established. Boys had significantly larger kidney volumes than...... girls ( Page. The best single predictor of gender-differentiated kidney volume was weight. Relative kidney volume changed with increasing age and height in a two-phase pattern: an initial...

  17. Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Expression in Individuals With Schizophrenia and Healthy Aging: Testing the Accelerated Aging Hypothesis of Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Farhana; Mulsant, Benoit H; Voineskos, Aristotle N; Rajji, Tarek K

    2017-07-01

    Schizophrenia has been hypothesized to be a syndrome of accelerated aging. Brain plasticity is vulnerable to the normal aging process and affected in schizophrenia: brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is an important neuroplasticity molecule. The present review explores the accelerated aging hypothesis of schizophrenia by comparing changes in BDNF expression in schizophrenia with aging-associated changes. Individuals with schizophrenia show patterns of increased overall mortality, metabolic abnormalities, and cognitive decline normally observed later in life in the healthy population. An overall decrease is observed in BDNF expression in schizophrenia compared to healthy controls and in older individuals compared to a younger cohort. There is a marked decrease in BDNF levels in the frontal regions and in the periphery among older individuals and those with schizophrenia; however, data for BDNF expression in the occipital, parietal, and temporal cortices and the hippocampus is inconclusive. Accelerated aging hypothesis is supported based on frontal regions and peripheral studies; however, further studies are needed in other brain regions.

  18. Age replacement models: A summary with new perspectives and methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Xufeng; Al-Khalifa, Khalifa N.; Magid Hamouda, Abdel; Nakagawa, Toshio

    2017-01-01

    Age replacement models are fundamental to maintenance theory. This paper summarizes our new perspectives and hods in age replacement models: First, we optimize the expected cost rate for a required availability level and vice versa. Second, an asymptotic model with simple calculation is proposed by using the cumulative hazard function skillfully. Third, we challenge the established theory such that preventive replacement should be non-random and only corrective replacement should be made for the unit with exponential failure. Fourth, three replacement policies with random working cycles are discussed, which are called overtime replacement, replacement first, and replacement last, respectively. Fifth, the policies of replacement first and last are formulated with general models. Sixth, age replacement is modified for the situation when the economical life cycle of the unit is a random variable with probability distribution. Finally, models of a parallel system with constant and random number of units are taken into considerations. The models of expected cost rates are obtained and optimal replacement times to minimize them are discussed analytically and computed numerically. Further studies and potential applications are also indicated at the end of discussions of the above models. - Highlights: • Optimization of cost rate for availability level is discussed and vice versa. • Asymptotic and random replacement models are discussed. • Overtime replacement, replacement first and replacement last are surveyed. • Replacement policy with random life cycle is given. • A parallel system with random number of units is modeled.

  19. Age-specific MRI brain and head templates for healthy adults from twenty through eighty-nine years of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul T Fillmore

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study created and tested a database of adult, age-specific MRI brain and head templates. The participants included healthy adults from 20 through 89 years of age. The templates were done in 5-year, 10-year, and multi-year intervals from 20 through 89 years, and consist of average T1W for the head and brain, and segmenting priors for GM, WM, and CSF. It was found that age-appropriate templates provided less biased tissue classification estimates than age-inappropriate reference data and reference data based on young adult templates. This database is available for use by other investigators and clinicians for their MRI studies, as well as other types of neuroimaging and electrophysiological research (http://jerlab.psych.sc.edu/NeurodevelopmentalMRIDatabase/.

  20. Sleep-dependent memory consolidation in healthy aging and mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pace-Schott, Edward F; Spencer, Rebecca M C

    2015-01-01

    Sleep quality and architecture as well as sleep's homeostatic and circadian controls change with healthy aging. Changes include reductions in slow-wave sleep's (SWS) percent and spectral power in the sleep electroencephalogram (EEG), number and amplitude of sleep spindles, rapid eye movement (REM) density and the amplitude of circadian rhythms, as well as a phase advance (moved earlier in time) of the brain's circadian clock. With mild cognitive impairment (MCI) there are further reductions of sleep quality, SWS, spindles, and percent REM, all of which further diminish, along with a profound disruption of circadian rhythmicity, with the conversion to Alzheimer's disease (AD). Sleep disorders may represent risk factors for dementias (e.g., REM Behavior Disorder presages Parkinson's disease) and sleep disorders are themselves extremely prevalent in neurodegenerative diseases. Working memory , formation of new episodic memories, and processing speed all decline with healthy aging whereas semantic, recognition, and emotional declarative memory are spared. In MCI, episodic and working memory further decline along with declines in semantic memory. In young adults, sleep-dependent memory consolidation (SDC) is widely observed for both declarative and procedural memory tasks. However, with healthy aging, although SDC for declarative memory is preserved, certain procedural tasks, such as motor-sequence learning, do not show SDC. In younger adults, fragmentation of sleep can reduce SDC, and a normative increase in sleep fragmentation may account for reduced SDC with healthy aging. Whereas sleep disorders such as insomnia, obstructive sleep apnea, and narcolepsy can impair SDC in the absence of neurodegenerative changes, the incidence of sleep disorders increases both with normal aging and, further, with neurodegenerative disease. Specific features of sleep architecture, such as sleep spindles and SWS are strongly linked to SDC. Diminution of these features with healthy aging

  1. Alpha-synuclein levels in blood plasma decline with healthy aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehler, Niklas K U; Stransky, Elke; Meyer, Mirjam; Gaertner, Susanne; Shing, Mona; Schnaidt, Martina; Celej, Maria S; Jovin, Thomas M; Leyhe, Thomas; Laske, Christoph; Batra, Anil; Buchkremer, Gerhard; Fallgatter, Andreas J; Wernet, Dorothee; Richartz-Salzburger, Elke

    2015-01-01

    There is unequivocal evidence that alpha-synuclein plays a pivotal pathophysiological role in neurodegenerative diseases, and in particular in synucleinopathies. These disorders present with a variable extent of cognitive impairment and alpha-synuclein is being explored as a biomarker in CSF, blood serum and plasma. Considering key events of aging that include proteostasis, alpha-synuclein may not only be useful as a marker for differential diagnosis but also for aging per se. To explore this hypothesis, we developed a highly specific ELISA to measure alpha-synuclein. In healthy males plasma alpha-synuclein levels correlated strongly with age, revealing much lower concentrations in older (avg. 58.1 years) compared to younger (avg. 27.6 years) individuals. This difference between the age groups was enhanced after acidification of the plasmas (phealthy aging. Thus, alpha-synuclein may be a novel biomarker of aging, a factor that should be considered when analyzing its presence in biological specimens.

  2. Life style and longevity among initially healthy middle-aged men: prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heir, Trond; Erikssen, Jan; Sandvik, Leiv

    2013-09-11

    Few studies have examined how various lifestyle factors in midlife predict longevity, and none of these studies have examined the impact of physical fitness. The present study aimed to examine longevity in relation to smoking, overweight and physical fitness. We prospectively studied longevity (defined as reaching at least 85 years of age) in relation to smoking status, body mass index and physical fitness in 821 healthy men between 51 and 59 years of age. Of these, 369 were smokers, 320 were overweight, and 31 were obese. The associations were adjusted for age, systolic blood pressure and cholesterol level, using multivariate logistic regression analysis. Deaths were registered until the 31st of December, 2006. Physical fitness was measured as the total work performed in a maximal exercise tolerance bicycle test. 252 men survived to the age of 85 years (30.7%). Smoking status was significantly and independently related to longevity; 37.2% of the non-smokers survived to the age of 85, and 22.8% of the smokers. Among non-smokers, overweight and physical fitness were significantly and independently related to longevity after adjustment for age, blood pressure and cholesterol level, but not among smokers. Among non-smokers with high physical fitness, 48.8% reached the age of 85 years, compared to 27.9% among non-smokers with low physical fitness. Lifestyle variables appear to be strong and independent predictors of longevity in initially healthy middle-aged men. The probability of longevity may be a useful concept when informing the general public about the benefits of a healthy lifestyle.

  3. Uncovering the Mechanisms Responsible for Why Language Learning May Promote Healthy Cognitive Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Antoniou

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the great challenges facing humankind in the 21st century is preserving healthy brain function in our aging population. Individuals over 60 are the fastest growing age group in the world, and by 2050, it is estimated that the number of people over the age of 60 will triple. The typical aging process involves cognitive decline related to brain atrophy, especially in frontal brain areas and regions that subserve declarative memory, loss of synaptic connections, and the emergence of neuropathological symptoms associated with dementia. The disease-state of this age-related cognitive decline is Alzheimer’s disease and other dementias, which may cause older adults to lose their independence and rely on others to live safely, burdening family members and health care systems in the process. However, there are two lines of research that offer hope to those seeking to promote healthy cognitive aging. First, it has been observed that lifestyle variables such as cognitive leisure activities can moderate the risk of Alzheimer’s disease, which has led to the development of plasticity-based interventions for older adults designed to protect against the adverse effects of cognitive decline. Second, there is evidence that lifelong bilingualism acts as a safeguard in preserving healthy brain function, possibly delaying the incidence of dementia by several years. In previous work, we have suggested that foreign language learning programs aimed at older populations are an optimal solution for building cognitive reserve because language learning engages an extensive brain network that is known to overlap with the regions negatively affected by the aging process. Here, we will outline potential future lines of research that may uncover the mechanism responsible for the emergence of language learning related brain advantages, such as language typology, bi- vs. multi-lingualism, age of acquisition, and the elements that are likely to result in the largest

  4. Uncovering the Mechanisms Responsible for Why Language Learning May Promote Healthy Cognitive Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoniou, Mark; Wright, Sarah M.

    2017-01-01

    One of the great challenges facing humankind in the 21st century is preserving healthy brain function in our aging population. Individuals over 60 are the fastest growing age group in the world, and by 2050, it is estimated that the number of people over the age of 60 will triple. The typical aging process involves cognitive decline related to brain atrophy, especially in frontal brain areas and regions that subserve declarative memory, loss of synaptic connections, and the emergence of neuropathological symptoms associated with dementia. The disease-state of this age-related cognitive decline is Alzheimer’s disease and other dementias, which may cause older adults to lose their independence and rely on others to live safely, burdening family members and health care systems in the process. However, there are two lines of research that offer hope to those seeking to promote healthy cognitive aging. First, it has been observed that lifestyle variables such as cognitive leisure activities can moderate the risk of Alzheimer’s disease, which has led to the development of plasticity-based interventions for older adults designed to protect against the adverse effects of cognitive decline. Second, there is evidence that lifelong bilingualism acts as a safeguard in preserving healthy brain function, possibly delaying the incidence of dementia by several years. In previous work, we have suggested that foreign language learning programs aimed at older populations are an optimal solution for building cognitive reserve because language learning engages an extensive brain network that is known to overlap with the regions negatively affected by the aging process. Here, we will outline potential future lines of research that may uncover the mechanism responsible for the emergence of language learning related brain advantages, such as language typology, bi- vs. multi-lingualism, age of acquisition, and the elements that are likely to result in the largest gains. PMID:29326636

  5. The relationship between age and brain response to visual erotic stimuli in healthy heterosexual males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Y; Jeong, B; Kim, J-W; Choi, J

    2010-01-01

    The various changes of sexuality, including decreased sexual desire and erectile dysfunction, are also accompanied with aging. To understand the effect of aging on sexuality, we explored the relationship between age and the visual erotic stimulation-related brain response in sexually active male subjects. Twelve healthy, heterosexual male subjects (age 22-47 years) were recorded the functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) signals of their brain activation elicited by passive viewing erotic (ERO), happy-faced (HA) couple, food and nature pictures. Mixed effect analysis and correlation analysis were performed to investigate the relationship between the age and the change of brain activity elicited by erotic stimuli. Our results showed age was positively correlated with the activation of right occipital fusiform gyrus and amygdala, and negatively correlated with the activation of right insula and inferior frontal gyrus. These findings suggest age might be related with functional decline in brain regions being involved in both interoceptive sensation and prefrontal modulation while it is related with the incremental activity of the brain region for early processing of visual emotional stimuli in sexually healthy men.

  6. Spatiotemporal and plantar pressure patterns of 1000 healthy individuals aged 3-101 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Marnee J; Baldwin, Jennifer N; Ferreira, Paulo; Simic, Milena; Vanicek, Natalie; Wojciechowski, Elizabeth; Mudge, Anita; Burns, Joshua

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish normative reference values for spatiotemporal and plantar pressure parameters, and to investigate the influence of demographic, anthropometric and physical characteristics. In 1000 healthy males and females aged 3-101 years, spatiotemporal and plantar pressure data were collected barefoot with the Zeno™ walkway and Emed ® platform. Correlograms were developed to visualise the relationships between widely reported spatiotemporal and pressure variables with demographic (age, gender), anthropometric (height, mass, waist circumference) and physical characteristics (ankle strength, ankle range of motion, vibration perception) in children aged 3-9 years, adolescents aged 10-19 years, adults aged 20-59 years and older adults aged over 60 years. A comprehensive catalogue of 31 spatiotemporal and pressure variables were generated from 1000 healthy individuals. The key findings were that gait velocity was stable during adolescence and adulthood, while children and older adults walked at a comparable slower speed. Peak pressures increased during childhood to older adulthood. Children demonstrated highest peak pressures beneath the rearfoot whilst adolescents, adults and older adults demonstrated highest pressures at the forefoot. Main factors influencing spatiotemporal and pressure parameters were: increased age, height, body mass and waist circumference, as well as ankle dorsiflexion and plantarflexion strength. This study has established whole of life normative reference values of widely used spatiotemporal and plantar pressure parameters, and revealed changes to be expected across the lifespan. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Influence of ageing on quantitative contrast-enhanced ultrasound of the kidneys in healthy cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Emmelie; Paepe, Dominique; Daminet, Sylvie; Duchateau, Luc; Saunders, Jimmy H; Vanderperren, Katrien

    2018-05-05

    The degenerative effects of ageing on the kidneys have been extensively studied in humans. However, only recently interest has been focused on renal ageing in veterinary medicine. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound allows non-invasive evaluation of renal perfusion in conscious cats. Renal perfusion parameters were obtained in 43 healthy cats aged 1-16 years old, and the cats were divided in four age categories: 1-3 years, 3-6 years, 6-10 years and over 10 years. Routine renal parameters as serum creatinine, serum urea, urine-specific gravity, urinary protein:creatinine ratio and systolic blood pressure were also measured. No significant differences in any of the perfusion parameters were observed among the different age categories. A trend towards a lower peak enhancement and wash-in area under the curve with increasing age, suggestive for a lower blood volume, was detected when comparing the cats over 10 years old with the cats of 1-3 years old. Additionally, no significant age-effect was observed for the serum and urine parameters, whereas a higher blood pressure was observed in healthy cats over 10 years old. © British Veterinary Association (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  8. Personality-Informed Interventions for Healthy Aging: Conclusions from a National Institute on Aging Work Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Benjamin P.; Hampson, Sarah; Clarkin, John

    2014-01-01

    We describe 2 frameworks in which personality dimensions relevant to health, such as Conscientiousness, can be used to inform interventions designed to promote health aging. First, contemporary data and theory do not suggest that personality is "immutable," but instead focus on questions of who changes, in what way, why, when, and how.…

  9. Aging Trajectories in Different Body Systems Share Common Environmental Etiology : The Healthy Aging Twin Study (HATS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moayyeri, Alireza; Hart, Deborah J.; Snieder, Harold; Hammond, Christopher J.; Spector, Timothy D.; Steves, Claire J.

    Little is known about the extent to which aging trajectories of different body systems share common sources of variance. We here present a large twin study investigating the trajectories of change in five systems: cardiovascular, respiratory, skeletal, morphometric, and metabolic. Longitudinal

  10. Pilot study protocol to inform a future longitudinal study of ageing using linked administrative data: Healthy AGeing in Scotland (HAGIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Elaine; Rutherford, Alasdair; Bell, David

    2018-01-10

    Population ageing is a welcome testament to improvements in the social, economic and health circumstances over the life course. However, these successes necessitate that we understand more about the pathways of ageing to plan and cost our health and social care services, to support our ageing population to live healthier for longer and to make adequate provisions for retirement. Longitudinal studies of ageing facilitate such understanding in many countries around the world. Scotland presently does not have a longitudinal study of ageing, despite dramatic increases to its ageing population and its poor health record. Healthy AGeing in Scotland (HAGIS) constitutes the launch of Scotland's first comprehensive longitudinal study of ageing. A sample of 1000 people aged 50+ years will be invited to take part in a household social survey. The innovative sampling procedure used administrative data to identify eligible households. Anonymised survey responses will be linked to administrative data. Ethics approval was obtained from the host institution for the study design and from the Public Benefits and Privacy Panel for administrative data linkage. Anonymised survey data will be deposited with the UK Data Service. A subset of survey data, harmonised with other global ageing studies, will be available via the Gateway to Global Aging platform. These data will enable powerful cross-country comparisons across the social, economic and health domains that will be relevant for national and international research.Research publications from the HAGIS team will be disseminated through journal articles and national and international conferences. The findings will support current and future research and policy debate on ageing populations. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  11. Positivity effect in healthy aging in observational but not active feedback-learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellebaum, Christian; Rustemeier, Martina; Daum, Irene

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated the impact of healthy aging on the bias to learn from positive or negative performance feedback in observational and active feedback learning. In active learning, a previous study had already shown a negative learning bias in healthy seniors older than 75 years, while no bias was found for younger seniors. However, healthy aging is accompanied by a 'positivity effect', a tendency to primarily attend to stimuli with positive valence. Based on recent findings of dissociable neural mechanisms in active and observational feedback learning, the positivity effect was hypothesized to influence older participants' observational feedback learning in particular. In two separate experiments, groups of young (mean age 27) and older participants (mean age 60 years) completed an observational or active learning task designed to differentially assess positive and negative learning. Older but not younger observational learners showed a significant bias to learn better from positive than negative feedback. In accordance with previous findings, no bias was found for active learning. This pattern of results is discussed in terms of differences in the neural underpinnings of active and observational learning from performance feedback.

  12. Do Aging and Tactile Noise Stimulation Affect Responses to Support Surface Translations in Healthy Adults?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Dettmer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Appropriate neuromuscular responses to support surface perturbations are crucial to prevent falls, but aging-related anatomical and physiological changes affect the appropriateness and efficiency of such responses. Low-level noise application to sensory receptors has shown to be effective for postural improvement in a variety of different balance tasks, but it is unknown whether this intervention may have value for improvement of corrective postural responses. Ten healthy younger and ten healthy older adults were exposed to sudden backward translations of the support surface. Low-level noise (mechanical vibration to the foot soles was added during random trials and temporal (response latency and spatial characteristics (maximum center-of-pressure excursion and anterior-posterior path length of postural responses were assessed. Mixed-model ANOVA was applied for analysis of postural response differences based on age and vibration condition. Age affected postural response characteristics, but older adults were well able to maintain balance when exposed to a postural perturbation. Low-level noise application did not affect any postural outcomes. Healthy aging affects some specific measures of postural stability, and in high-functioning older individuals, a low-level noise intervention may not be valuable. More research is needed to investigate if recurring fallers and neuropathy patients could benefit from the intervention in postural perturbation tasks.

  13. Acoustic radiation force impulse elastography of the spleen in healthy dogs of different ages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maronezi, M C; Feliciano, M A R; Crivellenti, L Z; Simões, A P R; Bartlewski, P M; Gill, I; Canola, J C C; Vicente, W R R

    2015-06-01

    To determine the elastographic characteristics of splenic parenchyma in clinically healthy dogs of various ages in order to establish preliminary qualitative and quantitative standards/reference intervals for this technique. Thirty three healthy dogs categorized as young, adult and elderly were used. Splenic echotexture, echogenicity, size and ages were assessed with B-mode ultrasonography. Using qualitative elastography, the spleen (head, body and tail) was examined for homogeneity and presence of deformities. Shear velocities in different splenic segments were then quantitatively evaluated. All splenic segments visualised with the B-mode ultrasonography appeared normal. Different splenic segments examined with qualitative elastography were free of any detectable malformations and the images appeared as homogeneous dark areas. The mean shear velocity values were 2 · 32 m/s for head, 2 · 16 m/s for body and 2 · 25 m/s for tail of the spleen (P = 0 · 40), and they did not vary between the different age groups (P > 0 · 05). Quantitative and qualitative ARFI elastography of the spleen in clinically healthy dogs differing in age could be easily performed, and it may aid in the diagnosis and evaluation of splenic abnormalities routinely assessed in veterinary practice with B-mode ultrasonography. © 2015 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  14. Cross-cultural comparison of perspectives on healthy eating among Chinese and American undergraduate students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinan C. Banna

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding views about what constitutes a healthy diet in diverse populations may inform design of culturally tailored behavior change interventions. The objective of this study was to describe perspectives on healthy eating among Chinese and American young adults and identify similarities and differences between these groups. Methods Chinese (n = 55 and American (n = 57 undergraduate students in Changsha, Hunan, China and Honolulu, Hawai’i, U.S.A. composed one- to two-paragraph responses to the following prompt: “What does the phrase ‘a healthy diet’ mean to you?” Researchers used content analysis to identify predominant themes using Dedoose (version 5.2.0, SocioCultural Research Consultants, LLC, Los Angeles, CA, 2015. Three researchers independently coded essays and grouped codes with similar content. The team then identified themes and sorted them in discussion. Two researchers then deductively coded the entire data set using eight codes developed from the initial coding and calculated total code counts for each group of participants. Results Chinese students mentioned physical outcomes, such as maintaining immunity and digestive health. Timing of eating, with regular meals and greater intake during day than night, was emphasized. American students described balancing among food groups and balancing consumption with exercise, with physical activity considered essential. Students also stated that food components such as sugar, salt and fat should be avoided in large quantities. Similarities included principles such as moderation and fruits and vegetables as nutritious, and differences included foods to be restricted and meal timing. While both groups emphasized specific foods and guiding dietary principles, several distinctions in viewpoints emerged. Conclusions The diverse views may reflect food-related messages to which participants are exposed both through the media and educational systems in their

  15. Cross-cultural comparison of perspectives on healthy eating among Chinese and American undergraduate students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banna, Jinan C; Gilliland, Betsy; Keefe, Margaret; Zheng, Dongping

    2016-09-26

    Understanding views about what constitutes a healthy diet in diverse populations may inform design of culturally tailored behavior change interventions. The objective of this study was to describe perspectives on healthy eating among Chinese and American young adults and identify similarities and differences between these groups. Chinese (n = 55) and American (n = 57) undergraduate students in Changsha, Hunan, China and Honolulu, Hawai'i, U.S.A. composed one- to two-paragraph responses to the following prompt: "What does the phrase 'a healthy diet' mean to you?" Researchers used content analysis to identify predominant themes using Dedoose (version 5.2.0, SocioCultural Research Consultants, LLC, Los Angeles, CA, 2015). Three researchers independently coded essays and grouped codes with similar content. The team then identified themes and sorted them in discussion. Two researchers then deductively coded the entire data set using eight codes developed from the initial coding and calculated total code counts for each group of participants. Chinese students mentioned physical outcomes, such as maintaining immunity and digestive health. Timing of eating, with regular meals and greater intake during day than night, was emphasized. American students described balancing among food groups and balancing consumption with exercise, with physical activity considered essential. Students also stated that food components such as sugar, salt and fat should be avoided in large quantities. Similarities included principles such as moderation and fruits and vegetables as nutritious, and differences included foods to be restricted and meal timing. While both groups emphasized specific foods and guiding dietary principles, several distinctions in viewpoints emerged. The diverse views may reflect food-related messages to which participants are exposed both through the media and educational systems in their respective countries. Future studies may further examine themes that may

  16. Cortical 11C-PIB Uptake is Associated with Age, APOE Genotype, and Gender in "Healthy Aging"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheinin, Noora M; Wikman, Kristina; Jula, Antti

    2014-01-01

    with the amyloid tracer 11C-PIB, in 64 cognitively healthy subjects (54-89 years). In addition to PET, magnetic resonance imaging, neuropsychological testing, and APOE genotyping was performed. The results were assessed with a statistical general linear model as well as with Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM......). Results: The effects of age (p gender (p = 0.001) on composite cortical 11C-PIB uptake were all significant. The effect of educational level was non-significant (p = 0.37). No significant interactions were found between any of the factors. Cortical 11C....... In this sample of cognitively healthy elderly individuals, men exhibited higher 11C-PIB uptake than women. Possible gender differences in Aβ accumulation have not been addressed in detail in previous studies, and deeper evaluation in the future is warranted....

  17. A holistic approach to healthy ageing: how can people live longer, healthier lives?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calder, P C; Carding, S R; Christopher, G; Kuh, D; Langley-Evans, S C; McNulty, H

    2018-06-03

    Although lifespan is increasing, there is no evidence to suggest that older people are experiencing better health in their later years than previous generations. Nutrition, at all stages of life, plays an important role in determining health and wellbeing. A roundtable meeting of UK experts on nutrition and ageing considered key aspects of the diet-ageing relationship and developed a consensus position on the main priorities for research and public health actions that are required to help people live healthier lives as they age. The group consensus highlighted the requirement for a life course approach, recognising the multifactorial nature of the impact of ageing. Environmental and lifestyle influences at any life stage are modified by genetic factors and early development. The response to the environment at each stage of life can determine the impact of lifestyle later on. There are no key factors that act in isolation to determine patterns of ageing and it is a combination of environmental and social factors that drives healthy or unhealthy ageing. Too little is known about how contemporary dietary patterns and sedentary lifestyles will impact upon healthy ageing in future generations and this is a priority for future research. There is good evidence to support change to lifestyle (i.e. diet, nutrition and physical) activity in relation to maintaining or improving body composition, cognitive health and emotional intelligence, immune function and vascular health. Lifestyle change at any stage of life may extend healthy lifespan, although the impact of early changes appears to be greatest. © 2018 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  18. Maximising the Opportunity for Healthy Ageing: Online Mental Health Measurement and Targeted Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iasiello, Matthew; Bartholomaeus, Jonathan; Jarden, Aaron; van Agteren, Joseph

    2018-01-01

    Longevity is a valuable resource for society, as older people are increasingly looking for new ways to contribute after retirement. Their contribution is however dependent upon their physical health, mental health and wellbeing. The potential role that mental health and wellbeing, two separate but interrelated constructs, play often are both under-recognised and insufficiently targeted. Positive ageing is a positive and constructive view of ageing, where older people actively work on maintaining a positive attitude, work towards keeping fit and healthy, and strive to maximize their wellbeing. Interventions stimulating positive ageing show promising results for both mental health and wellbeing, and telehealth can play an important role in improving the reach and effectiveness of positive ageing interventions. Telehealth solutions can also help researchers reliably measure and better understand the drivers of wellbeing at individual and population levels; results that can both form the basis for advancing the field of positive ageing and help inform public policy.

  19. Spirituality, religiosity, aging and health in global perspective: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer, Zachary; Jagger, Carol; Chiu, Chi-Tsun; Ofstedal, Mary Beth; Rojo, Florencia; Saito, Yasuhiko

    2016-12-01

    Persistent population aging worldwide is focusing attention on modifiable factors that can improve later life health. There is evidence that religiosity and spirituality are among such factors. Older people tend to have high rates of involvement in religious and/or spiritual endeavors and it is possible that population aging will be associated with increasing prevalence of religious and spiritual activity worldwide. Despite increasing research on religiosity, spirituality and health among older persons, population aging worldwide suggests the need for a globally integrated approach. As a step toward this, we review a subset of the literature on the impact of religiosity and spirituality on health in later life. We find that much of this has looked at the relationship between religiosity/spirituality and longevity as well as physical and mental health. Mechanisms include social support, health behaviors, stress and psychosocial factors. We identify a number of gaps in current knowledge. Many previous studies have taken place in the U.S. and Europe. Much data is cross-sectional, limiting ability to make causal inference. Religiosity and spirituality can be difficult to define and distinguish and the two concepts are often considered together, though on balance religiosity has received more attention than spirituality. The latter may however be equally important. Although there is evidence that religiosity is associated with longer life and better physical and mental health, these outcomes have been investigated separately rather than together such as in measures of health expectancy. In conclusion, there is a need for a unified and nuanced approach to understanding how religiosity and spirituality impact on health and longevity within a context of global aging, in particular whether they result in longer healthy life rather than just longer life.

  20. Alpha-synuclein levels in blood plasma decline with healthy aging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niklas K U Koehler

    Full Text Available There is unequivocal evidence that alpha-synuclein plays a pivotal pathophysiological role in neurodegenerative diseases, and in particular in synucleinopathies. These disorders present with a variable extent of cognitive impairment and alpha-synuclein is being explored as a biomarker in CSF, blood serum and plasma. Considering key events of aging that include proteostasis, alpha-synuclein may not only be useful as a marker for differential diagnosis but also for aging per se. To explore this hypothesis, we developed a highly specific ELISA to measure alpha-synuclein. In healthy males plasma alpha-synuclein levels correlated strongly with age, revealing much lower concentrations in older (avg. 58.1 years compared to younger (avg. 27.6 years individuals. This difference between the age groups was enhanced after acidification of the plasmas (p<0.0001, possibly reflecting a decrease of alpha-synuclein-antibody complexes or chaperone activity in older individuals. Our results support the concept that alpha-synuclein homeostasis may be impaired early on, possibly due to disturbance of the proteostasis network, a key component of healthy aging. Thus, alpha-synuclein may be a novel biomarker of aging, a factor that should be considered when analyzing its presence in biological specimens.

  1. Changes in the Muscle strength and functional performance of healthy women with aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roghayeh Mousavikhatir

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Lower limbs antigravity muscles weakness and decreased functional ability have significant role in falling. The aim of this study was to find the effects of aging on muscle strength and functional ability, determining the range of decreasing strength and functional ability and relationship between them in healthy women. Methods: Across-section study was performed on 101 healthy women aged 21-80 years. The participants were divided into six age groups. The maximum isometric strength of four muscle groups was measured using a hand-held dynamometer bilaterally. The functional ability was measured with functional reach (FR, timed get up and go (TGUG, single leg stance (SLS, and stairs walking (SW tests. Results: Muscle strength changes were not significant between 21-40 years of age, but decreased significantly thereafter. Also, there was a significant relationship between muscle strength and functional ability in age groups. Conclusion: Both muscle strength and functional ability is reduced as a result of aging, but the decrease in functional ability can be detected earlier.

  2. The Mediterranean Lifestyle as a Non-Pharmacological and Natural Antioxidant for Healthy Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyriazoula Chatzianagnostou

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress has been suggested to affect age-associated physiological dysfunction. Therefore, it is speculated that antioxidant supplements could have a potential role in preventing age-related diseases and death. Among different dietary habits, the highly antioxidant Mediterranean dietary pattern, which includes high vegetable and fruit intake, consumption of legumes, cereals, and fish, low intake of meat and dairy derivatives, moderate red wine consumption, and use of extra-virgin olive oil, is characterized by other aspects than food, such as conviviality, sensory stimulation, socialization, biodiversity, and seasonality that can reinforce the Mediterranean diet’s (MeD beneficial effects on wellbeing, quality of life, and healthy aging. The present review aims to discuss available data on the relationship between oxidative stress and aging, biomarkers of oxidative stress status, protective effects of the MeD, and the adoption of the Mediterranean lifestyle as a non-pharmacological and natural tool to cope with oxidative stress damage for a longer life span, and—even more important—healthy aging beyond the biological, psychological, and social challenges that old age entails.

  3. Parental perspectives regarding primary-care weight-management strategies for school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turer, Christy Boling; Mehta, Megha; Durante, Richard; Wazni, Fatima; Flores, Glenn

    2016-04-01

    To identify parental perspectives regarding weight-management strategies for school-age children, focus groups were conducted of parents of overweight and obese (body mass index ≥ 85th percentile) 6-12-year-old children recruited from primary-care clinics. Questions focused on the role of the primary-care provider, effective components of weight-management strategies and feasibility of specific dietary strategies. Focus groups were recorded, transcribed and analysed using margin coding and grounded theory. Six focus groups were held. The mean age (in years) for parents was 32, and for children, eight; 44% of participants were Latino, 33%, African-American and 23%, white. Parents' recommendations on the primary-care provider's role in weight management included monitoring weight, providing guidance regarding health risks and lifestyle changes, consistent follow-up and using discretion during weight discussions. Weight-management components identified as key included emphasising healthy lifestyles and enjoyment, small changes to routines and parental role modelling. Parents prefer guidance regarding healthy dietary practices rather than specific weight-loss diets, but identified principles that could enhance the acceptability of these diets. For dietary guidance to be feasible, parents recommended easy-to-follow instructions and emphasising servings over counting calories. Effective weight-management strategies identified by parents include primary-care provider engagement in weight management, simple instructions regarding healthy lifestyle changes, parental involvement and deemphasising specific weight-loss diets. These findings may prove useful in developing primary-care weight-management strategies for children that maximise parental acceptance. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Allergy immunotherapy across the life cycle to promote active and healthy ageing: from research to policies: An AIRWAYS Integrated Care Pathways (ICPs) programme item (Action Plan B3 of the European Innovation Partnership on active and healthy ageing) and the Global Alliance against Chronic Respiratory Diseases (GARD), a World Health Organization GARD research demonstration project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderon, M A; Demoly, P; Casale, T; Akdis, C A; Bachert, C; Bewick, M; Bilò, B M; Bohle, B; Bonini, S; Bush, A; Caimmi, D P; Canonica, G W; Cardona, V; Chiriac, A M; Cox, L; Custovic, A; De Blay, F; Devillier, P; Didier, A; Di Lorenzo, G; Du Toit, G; Durham, S R; Eng, P; Fiocchi, A; Fox, A T; van Wijk, R Gerth; Gomez, R M; Haathela, T; Halken, S; Hellings, P W; Jacobsen, L; Just, J; Tanno, L K; Kleine-Tebbe, J; Klimek, L; Knol, E F; Kuna, P; Larenas-Linnemann, D E; Linneberg, A; Matricardi, M; Malling, H J; Moesges, R; Mullol, J; Muraro, A; Papadopoulos, N; Passalacqua, G; Pastorello, E; Pfaar, O; Price, D; Del Rio, P Rodriguez; Ruëff, R; Samolinski, B; Scadding, G K; Senti, G; Shamji, M H; Sheikh, A; Sisul, J C; Sole, D; Sturm, G J; Tabar, A; Van Ree, R; Ventura, M T; Vidal, C; Varga, E M; Worm, M; Zuberbier, T; Bousquet, J

    2016-01-01

    Allergic diseases often occur early in life and persist throughout life. This life-course perspective should be considered in allergen immunotherapy. In particular it is essential to understand whether this al treatment may be used in old age adults. The current paper was developed by a working group of AIRWAYS integrated care pathways for airways diseases, the model of chronic respiratory diseases of the European Innovation Partnership on active and healthy ageing (DG CONNECT and DG Santé). It considered (1) the political background, (2) the rationale for allergen immunotherapy across the life cycle, (3) the unmet needs for the treatment, in particular in preschool children and old age adults, (4) the strategic framework and the practical approach to synergize current initiatives in allergen immunotherapy, its mechanisms and the concept of active and healthy ageing.

  5. How music and social engagement provides healthy aging and prevents behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridder, Hanne Mette Ochsner

    2018-01-01

    engagement and learning, and further affects cognitive reserve and the way we age. Music and musical elements affect listeners differently but seem to regulate our body and brain at a much deeper level than we are aware of. When music touches and engages us, a release of the neurotransmitter Norepinephrine....... In addition, through musical interaction, meaningful expression of psychosocial needs may indirectly lead to a reduction of behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia. For the person with severe dementia, with sensory and cognitive decline, this offers a healthy means of remaining active, autonomous...... follows. This process involves the brain stem (more precisely the locus coeruleus) and a compensatory effect is observed. By engaging in music from early childhood, preventive mechanisms add to healthy aging and may even slow down the development of dementia symptoms, although it cannot prevent dementia...

  6. Taste at first (person) sight: Visual perspective modulates brain activity implicitly associated with viewing unhealthy but not healthy foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basso, Frédéric; Petit, Olivia; Le Bellu, Sophie; Lahlou, Saadi; Cancel, Aïda; Anton, Jean-Luc

    2018-06-12

    Every day, people are exposed to images of appetizing foods that can lead to high-calorie intake and contribute to overweight and obesity. Research has documented that manipulating the visual perspective from which eating is viewed helps resist temptation by altering the appraisal of unhealthy foods. However, the neural basis of this effect has not yet been examined using neuroimaging methods. Moreover, it is not known whether the benefits of this strategy can be observed when people, especially overweight, are not explicitly asked to imagine themselves eating. Last, it remains to be investigated if visual perspective could be used to promote healthy foods. The present work manipulated camera angles and tested whether visual perspective modulates activity in brain regions associated with taste and reward processing while participants watch videos featuring a hand grasping (unhealthy or healthy) foods from a plate during functional magnetic resonance imagining (fMRI). The plate was filmed from the perspective of the participant (first-person perspective; 1PP), or from a frontal view as if watching someone else eating (third-person perspective; 3PP). Our findings reveal that merely viewing unhealthy food cues from a 1PP (vs. 3PP) increases activity in brain regions that underlie representations of rewarding (appetitive) experiences (amygdala) and food intake (superior parietal gyrus). Additionally, our results show that ventral striatal activity is positively correlated with body mass index (BMI) during exposure to unhealthy foods from a 1PP (vs. 3PP). These findings suggest that unhealthy foods should be promoted through third-person (video) images to weaken the reward associated with their simulated consumption, especially amongst overweight people. It appears however that, as such, manipulating visual perspective fails to enhance the perception of healthy foods. Their promotion thus requires complementary solutions. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Towards measurement of the Healthy Ageing Phenotype in lifestyle-based intervention studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara, Jose; Godfrey, Alan; Evans, Elizabeth; Heaven, Ben; Brown, Laura J E; Barron, Evelyn; Rochester, Lynn; Meyer, Thomas D; Mathers, John C

    2013-10-01

    Given the biological complexity of the ageing process, there is no single, simple and reliable measure of how healthily someone is ageing. Intervention studies need a panel of measures which capture key features of healthy ageing. To help guide our research in this area, we have adopted the concept of the "Healthy Ageing Phenotype" (HAP) and this study aimed to (i) identify the most important features of the HAP and (ii) identify/develop tools for measurement of those features. After a comprehensive assessment of the literature we selected the following domains: physiological and metabolic health, physical capability, cognitive function, social wellbeing, and psychological wellbeing which we hoped would provide a reasonably holistic characterisation of the HAP. We reviewed the literature and identified systematic reviews and/or meta-analysis of cohort studies, and clinical guidelines on outcome measures of these domains relevant to the HAP. Selection criteria for these measures included: frequent use in longitudinal studies of ageing; expected to change with age; evidence for strong association with/prediction of ageing-related phenotypes such as morbidity, mortality and lifespan; whenever possible, focus on studies measuring these outcomes in populations rather than on individuals selected on the basis of a particular disease; (bio)markers that respond to (lifestyle-based) intervention. Proposed markers were exposed to critique in a Workshop held in Newcastle, UK in October 2012. We have selected a tentative panel of (bio)markers of physiological and metabolic health, physical capability, cognitive function, social wellbeing, and psychological wellbeing which we propose may be useful in characterising the HAP and which may have utility as outcome measures in intervention studies. In addition, we have identified a number of tools which could be applied in community-based intervention studies designed to enhance healthy ageing. We have proposed, tentatively, a panel

  8. Hypercapnic evaluation of vascular reactivity in healthy aging and acute stroke via functional MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raut, Ryan V; Nair, Veena A; Sattin, Justin A; Prabhakaran, Vivek

    2016-01-01

    Functional MRI (fMRI) is well-established for the study of brain function in healthy populations, although its clinical application has proven more challenging. Specifically, cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR), which allows the assessment of the vascular response that serves as the basis for fMRI, has been shown to be reduced in healthy aging as well as in a range of diseases, including chronic stroke. However, the timing of when this occurs relative to the stroke event is unclear. We used a breath-hold fMRI task to evaluate CVR across gray matter in a group of acute stroke patients (< 10 days from stroke; N = 22) to address this question. These estimates were compared with those from both age-matched (N = 22) and younger (N = 22) healthy controls. As expected, young controls had the greatest mean CVR, as indicated by magnitude and extent of fMRI activation; however, stroke patients did not differ from age-matched controls. Moreover, the ipsilesional and contralesional hemispheres of stroke patients did not differ with respect to any of these measures. These findings suggest that fMRI remains a valid tool within the first few days of a stroke, particularly for group fMRI studies in which findings are compared with healthy subjects of similar age. However, given the relatively high variability in CVR observed in our stroke sample, caution is warranted when interpreting fMRI data from individual patients or a small cohort. We conclude that a breath-hold task can be a useful addition to functional imaging protocols for stroke patients.

  9. Hypercapnic evaluation of vascular reactivity in healthy aging and acute stroke via functional MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan V. Raut

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Functional MRI (fMRI is well-established for the study of brain function in healthy populations, although its clinical application has proven more challenging. Specifically, cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR, which allows the assessment of the vascular response that serves as the basis for fMRI, has been shown to be reduced in healthy aging as well as in a range of diseases, including chronic stroke. However, the timing of when this occurs relative to the stroke event is unclear. We used a breath-hold fMRI task to evaluate CVR across gray matter in a group of acute stroke patients (<10 days from stroke; N = 22 to address this question. These estimates were compared with those from both age-matched (N = 22 and younger (N = 22 healthy controls. As expected, young controls had the greatest mean CVR, as indicated by magnitude and extent of fMRI activation; however, stroke patients did not differ from age-matched controls. Moreover, the ipsilesional and contralesional hemispheres of stroke patients did not differ with respect to any of these measures. These findings suggest that fMRI remains a valid tool within the first few days of a stroke, particularly for group fMRI studies in which findings are compared with healthy subjects of similar age. However, given the relatively high variability in CVR observed in our stroke sample, caution is warranted when interpreting fMRI data from individual patients or a small cohort. We conclude that a breath-hold task can be a useful addition to functional imaging protocols for stroke patients.

  10. Healthy Eating Habits among the Population of Serbia: Gender and Age Differences

    OpenAIRE

    Jovi?i?, Ana ?.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The purpose of the study is to examine healthy eating habits of the population of Serbia through three dimensions: knowledge, problems, and feelings as well as to determine whether there are any differences between genders and among different age-groups. The research instrument was an Eating Habits Questionnaire (EHQ) which consisted of 35 items. There were 382 respondents involved in the study. The reliability and factor structure of the questionnaire were verified by using factor a...

  11. Preserved memory-based orienting of attention with impaired explicit memory in healthy ageing.

    OpenAIRE

    Salvato, G; Patai, EZ; Nobre, AC

    2015-01-01

    It is increasingly recognised that spatial contextual long-term memory (LTM) prepares neural activity for guiding visuo-spatial attention in a proactive manner. In the current study, we investigated whether the decline in explicit memory observed in healthy ageing would compromise this mechanism. We compared the behavioural performance of younger and older participants on learning new contextual memories, on orienting visual attention based on these learnt contextual associations, and on expl...

  12. NutrimiRAging: Micromanaging Nutrient Sensing Pathways through Nutrition to Promote Healthy Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micó, Víctor; Berninches, Laura; Tapia, Javier; Daimiel, Lidia

    2017-04-26

    Current sociodemographic predictions point to a demographic shift in developed and developing countries that will result in an unprecedented increase of the elderly population. This will be accompanied by an increase in age-related conditions that will strongly impair human health and quality of life. For this reason, aging is a major concern worldwide. Healthy aging depends on a combination of individual genetic factors and external environmental factors. Diet has been proved to be a powerful tool to modulate aging and caloric restriction has emerged as a valuable intervention in this regard. However, many questions about how a controlled caloric restriction intervention affects aging-related processes are still unanswered. Nutrient sensing pathways become deregulated with age and lose effectiveness with age. These pathways are a link between diet and aging. Thus, fully understanding this link is a mandatory step before bringing caloric restriction into practice. MicroRNAs have emerged as important regulators of cellular functions and can be modified by diet. Some microRNAs target genes encoding proteins and enzymes belonging to the nutrient sensing pathways and, therefore, may play key roles in the modulation of the aging process. In this review, we aimed to show the relationship between diet, nutrient sensing pathways and microRNAs in the context of aging.

  13. NutrimiRAging: Micromanaging Nutrient Sensing Pathways through Nutrition to Promote Healthy Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Micó

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Current sociodemographic predictions point to a demographic shift in developed and developing countries that will result in an unprecedented increase of the elderly population. This will be accompanied by an increase in age-related conditions that will strongly impair human health and quality of life. For this reason, aging is a major concern worldwide. Healthy aging depends on a combination of individual genetic factors and external environmental factors. Diet has been proved to be a powerful tool to modulate aging and caloric restriction has emerged as a valuable intervention in this regard. However, many questions about how a controlled caloric restriction intervention affects aging-related processes are still unanswered. Nutrient sensing pathways become deregulated with age and lose effectiveness with age. These pathways are a link between diet and aging. Thus, fully understanding this link is a mandatory step before bringing caloric restriction into practice. MicroRNAs have emerged as important regulators of cellular functions and can be modified by diet. Some microRNAs target genes encoding proteins and enzymes belonging to the nutrient sensing pathways and, therefore, may play key roles in the modulation of the aging process. In this review, we aimed to show the relationship between diet, nutrient sensing pathways and microRNAs in the context of aging.

  14. Developmental trajectories for attention and working memory in healthy Japanese school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egami, Chiyomi; Yamashita, Yushiro; Tada, Yasuhiro; Anai, Chiduru; Mukasa, Akiko; Yuge, Kotaro; Nagamitsu, Shinichiro; Matsuishi, Toyojiro

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the developmental trajectories of attention, short-term memory, and working memory in school-aged children using a 10 min test battery of cognitive function. Participants comprised 144 typically developing children (TDC) aged 7-12 years and 24 healthy adults, divided according to age into seven groups (12 males and 12 females for each age group). Participants were assessed using CogHealth, which is a computer-based measure composed of five tasks. We measured attention, short-term memory, and working memory (WM) with visual stimulation. Each task was analyzed for age-related differences in reaction time and accuracy rate. Attention tasks were faster in stages from the age of 7-10 years. Accuracy rate of short-term memory gradually increased from 12 years of age and suddenly increased and continued to increase at 22 years of age. Accuracy rate of working memory increased until 12 years of age. Correlations were found between the ages and reaction time, and between ages and accuracy rate of the tasks. These results indicate that there were rapid improvements in attention, short-term memory, and WM performance between 7 and 10 years of age followed by gradual improvement until 12 years of age. Increase in short-term memory continued until 22 years of age. In our experience CogHealth was an easy and useful measure for the evaluation of cognitive function in school-age children. Copyright © 2015 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Clinical and laboratory characteristics of active and healthy aging (AHA) in octogenarian men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rantanen, Kirsi K; Strandberg, Timo E; Stenholm, Sari S; Strandberg, Arto Y; Pitkälä, Kaisu H; Salomaa, Veikko V; Tilvis, Reijo S

    2015-10-01

    To investigate clinical and laboratory variables associated with good subjective and objective health ("active and healthy aging", AHA) in a cohort of octogenarian men. Cross-sectional analyses of a longitudinal study. The Helsinki Businessmen Study in Finland. A socioeconomically homogenous cohort of men (baseline n = 3293), born in 1919-1934, has been followed up from the 1960s. From 2000, the men have been regularly sent mailed questionnaires and mortality has been retrieved from national registers. In 2010 survey, AHA was defined as independently responding to the mailed survey, feeling happy without cognitive or functional impairments and without major diseases. In 2010/11, a random subgroup men was clinically investigated and survivors with healthy and nonhealthy aging were compared. By 2010, 1788 men of the baseline cohort had died, and 894 men responded to the mailed survey. 154 (17.2 %) of those fulfilled the present AHA criteria. Increasing number of criteria were negatively (P active and healthy aging over their life course, which was significantly related to markers of frailty but not to the traditional vascular risk factors.

  16. Cranberry interacts with dietary macronutrients to promote healthy aging in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cecilia; Yolitz, Jason; Alberico, Thomas; Laslo, Mara; Sun, Yaning; Wheeler, Charles T; Sun, Xiaoping; Zou, Sige

    2014-08-01

    Botanicals possess numerous bioactivities, and some promote healthy aging. Dietary macronutrients are major determinants of life span. The interaction between botanicals and macronutrients that modulates life span is not well understood. Here, we investigated the effect of a cranberry-containing botanical on life span and the influence of macronutrients on the longevity-related effect of cranberry in Drosophila. Flies were supplemented with cranberry on three dietary conditions: standard, high sugar-low protein, and low sugar-high protein diets. We found that cranberry slightly extended life span in males fed with the low sugar-high protein diet but not with other diets. Cranberry extended life span in females fed with the standard diet and more prominently the high sugar-low protein diet but not with the low sugar-high protein diet. Life-span extension was associated with increased reproduction and higher expression of oxidative stress and heat shock response genes. Moreover, cranberry improved survival of sod1 knockdown and dfoxo mutant flies but did not increase wild-type fly's resistance to acute oxidative stress. Cranberry slightly extended life span in flies fed with a high-fat diet. These findings suggest that cranberry promotes healthy aging by increasing stress responsiveness. Our study reveals an interaction of cranberry with dietary macronutrients and stresses the importance of considering diet composition in designing interventions for promoting healthy aging. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Gerontological Society of America 2013.

  17. Dissociating Effects of Global SWS Disruption and Healthy Aging on Waking Performance and Daytime Sleepiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groeger, John A.; Stanley, Neil; Deacon, Stephen; Dijk, Derk-Jan

    2014-01-01

    Study Objective: To contrast the effects of slow wave sleep (SWS) disruption and age on daytime functioning. Design: Daytime functioning was contrasted in three age cohorts, across two parallel 4-night randomized groups (baseline, two nights of SWS disruption or control, recovery sleep). Setting: Sleep research laboratory. Participants: 44 healthy young (20-30 y), 35 middle-aged (40-55 y), and 31 older (66-83 y) men and women. Interventions: Acoustic stimulation contingent on appearance of slow waves. Measurements and Results: Cognitive performance was assessed before sleep latency tests at five daily time-points. SWS disruption resulted in less positive affect, slower or impaired information processing and sustained attention, less precise motor control, and erroneous implementation, rather than inhibition, of well-practiced actions. These performance impairments had far smaller effect sizes than the increase in daytime sleepiness and differed from baseline to the same extent for each age group. At baseline, younger participants performed better than older participants across many cognitive domains, with largest effects on executive function, response time, sustained attention, and motor control. At baseline, the young were sleepier than other age groups. Conclusions: SWS has been considered a potential mediator of age-related decline in performance, although the effects of SWS disruption on daytime functioning have not been quantified across different cognitive domains nor directly compared to age-related changes in performance. The data imply that two nights of SWS disruption primarily leads to an increase in sleepiness with minor effects on other aspects of daytime functioning, which are different from the substantial effects of age. Citation: Groeger JA, Stanley N, Deacon S, Dijk DJ. Dissociating effects of global sws disruption and healthy aging on waking performance and daytime sleepiness. SLEEP 2014;37(6):1127-1142. PMID:24882908

  18. Age- and gender-dependent values of skeletal muscle mass in healthy children and adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Webber, Colin E.; Barr, Ronald D.

    2011-01-01

    Background Skeletal muscle mass (SMM) can be extracted from whole-body scans obtained by X-ray-based dual-photon absorptiometry (DXA). There is a need to establish expected age-dependent values for children and adolescents. Methods Appendicular lean tissue mass (ALM) was extracted from whole-body DXA scans in 140 healthy children and adolescents (68 females and 72 males). Whole-body SMM was calculated from ALM using equations developed by Kim et al. (Am J Clin Nutr 84:1014–1020, 2006). Age-de...

  19. Motor excitability measurements: the influence of gender, body mass index, age and temperature in healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casanova, I; Diaz, A; Pinto, S; de Carvalho, M

    2014-04-01

    The technique of threshold tracking to test axonal excitability gives information about nodal and internodal ion channel function. We aimed to investigate variability of the motor excitability measurements in healthy controls, taking into account age, gender, body mass index (BMI) and small changes in skin temperature. We examined the left median nerve of 47 healthy controls using the automated threshold-tacking program, QTRAC. Statistical multiple regression analysis was applied to test relationship between nerve excitability measurements and subject variables. Comparisons between genders did not find any significant difference (P>0.2 for all comparisons). Multiple regression analysis showed that motor amplitude decreases with age and temperature, stimulus-response slope decreases with age and BMI, and that accommodation half-time decrease with age and temperature. The changes related to demographic features on TRONDE protocol parameters are small and less important than in conventional nerve conduction studies. Nonetheless, our results underscore the relevance of careful temperature control, and indicate that interpretation of stimulus-response slope and accommodation half-time should take into account age and BMI. In contrast, gender is not of major relevance to axonal threshold findings in motor nerves. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Failing to Focus on Healthy Aging: A Frailty of Our Discipline?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Susan M; Shah, Krupa; Hall, William J

    2015-07-01

    The academic geriatrics community has provided outstanding leadership in addressing frailty and complexity in older adults, but a minority of older adults are frail. Although resources to treat older adults are limited, and it is appropriate to focus clinical efforts on those with frailty and multimorbidity, there is also important expertise that can be brought to bear on the health of ALL older adults. A review of the literature suggests that attention to healthy or successful aging has failed to keep pace with the focus on frailty. By providing leadership to promote successful aging, the quality of life of older adults across the spectrum can be improved and transitions to frailty reduced. The template that leaders have established in understanding frailty-defining and operationalizing it, understanding outcomes, identifying pathophysiology-can be used as an approach to successful aging. Several community-based programs have been successful in promoting successful aging. These are potentially highly scalable and could have a substantial effect on the aging population, but their essential components need to be better understood. The geriatrics community is uniquely positioned to take on this role. This is a critical time to work together to make the lives of all older adults as healthy and fulfilling as possible. © 2015, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2015, The American Geriatrics Society.

  1. Age dependent white matter lesions and brain volume changes in healthy volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, P; Larsson, H B; Thomsen, C

    1994-01-01

    The brain of 142 healthy volunteers aged 21 to 80 years were investigated using MR imaging. The number and size of the white matter hyperintensity lesions (WMHL) in the cerebral hemispheres were determined. Furthermore, the volume of the cerebral hemispheres and of the lateral ventricles was meas......The brain of 142 healthy volunteers aged 21 to 80 years were investigated using MR imaging. The number and size of the white matter hyperintensity lesions (WMHL) in the cerebral hemispheres were determined. Furthermore, the volume of the cerebral hemispheres and of the lateral ventricles...... was measured. An almost linear increase in the number of volunteers with WMHL was seen with aging for males and females. With aging a significant decrease in the volume of the cerebral hemispheres was found for males, and a significant increase in the volume of the lateral ventricles was seen for both males...... and females. Our results suggest that with aging central atrophy increases more (relatively) than cortical atrophy. No correlation was found between the decreasing volume of the cerebral hemispheres and the increasing number and size of WMHL, nor between the increasing volume of the lateral ventricles...

  2. Systemic klotho is associated with KLOTHO variation and predicts intrinsic cortical connectivity in healthy human aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Jennifer S; Marx, Gabe; Brown, Jesse A; Bonham, Luke W; Wang, Dan; Coppola, Giovanni; Seeley, William W; Rosen, Howard J; Miller, Bruce L; Kramer, Joel H; Dubal, Dena B

    2017-04-01

    Cognitive decline is a major biomedical challenge as the global population ages. Elevated levels of the longevity factor klotho suppress aging, enhance cognition, and promote synaptic plasticity and neural resilience against aging and Alzheimer's disease (AD)-related pathogenic proteins. Here, we examined the relationship between human genetic variants of KLOTHO and systemic klotho levels - and assessed neuroanatomic correlates of serum klotho in a cohort of healthy older adults. Serum klotho levels were increased with KL-VS heterozygosity, as anticipated. We report, for the first time, that serum klotho levels were paradoxically decreased with KL-VS homozygosity. Further, we found that higher serum klotho levels were associated with measures of greater intrinsic connectivity in key functional networks of the brain vulnerable to aging and AD such as the fronto-parietal and default mode networks. Our findings suggest that elevated klotho promotes a resilient brain, possibly through increased network connectivity of critical brain regions.

  3. Aging of immune system: Immune signature from peripheral blood lymphocyte subsets in 1068 healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Ling; Jing, Xie; Qiu, Zhifeng; Cao, Wei; Jiao, Yang; Routy, Jean-Pierre; Li, Taisheng

    2016-05-01

    Aging is a major risk factor for several conditions including neurodegenerative, cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Functional impairments in cellular pathways controlling genomic stability, and immune control have been identified. Biomarker of immune senescence is needed to improve vaccine response and to develop therapy to improve immune control. To identify phenotypic signature of circulating immune cells with aging, we enrolled 1068 Chinese healthy volunteers ranging from 18 to 80 years old. The decreased naïve CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, increased memory CD4+ or CD8+ T cells, loss of CD28 expression on T cells and reverse trend of CD38 and HLA-DR, were significant for aging of immune system. Conversely, the absolute counts and percentage of NK cells and CD19+B cells maintained stable in aging individuals. The Chinese reference ranges of absolute counts and percentage of peripheral lymphocyte in this study might be useful for future clinical evaluation.

  4. Dual regression physiological modeling of resting-state EPI power spectra: Effects of healthy aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viessmann, Olivia; Möller, Harald E; Jezzard, Peter

    2018-02-02

    Aging and disease-related changes in the arteriovasculature have been linked to elevated levels of cardiac cycle-induced pulsatility in the cerebral microcirculation. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), acquired fast enough to unalias the cardiac frequency contributions, can be used to study these physiological signals in the brain. Here, we propose an iterative dual regression analysis in the frequency domain to model single voxel power spectra of echo planar imaging (EPI) data using external recordings of the cardiac and respiratory cycles as input. We further show that a data-driven variant, without external physiological traces, produces comparable results. We use this framework to map and quantify cardiac and respiratory contributions in healthy aging. We found a significant increase in the spatial extent of cardiac modulated white matter voxels with age, whereas the overall strength of cardiac-related EPI power did not show an age effect. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Gastrointestinal mean transit times in young and middle-aged healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graff, J; Brinch, K; Madsen, Jan Lysgård

    2001-01-01

    To investigate the effects of age and gender on gastric, small intestinal and colonic mean transit times, a study was conducted in 32 healthy volunteers: eight young women (22-30 years), eight young men (20-28 years), eight middle-aged women (43-51 years) and eight middle-aged men (38-53 years......). After ingestion of a meal containing 111Indium-labelled water and 99mTechnetium-labelled omelette imaging of the abdomen was performed at intervals of 30 min until all radioactivity was located in the colon and henceforth at intervals of 24 h until all radioactivity had cleared from the colon. Gastric......, small intestinal and colonic mean transit times were calculated. The gastric, small intestinal and colonic mean transit times were significantly longer in women. Ageing was shown to accelerate the gastric and small intestinal transit significantly. In the group of men the colonic mean transit time...

  6. Effects of combined healthy lifestyle factors on functional vascular aging: the Rotterdam Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Leila; Mattace-Raso, Francesco U S; van Rosmalen, Joost; van Rooij, Frank; Hofman, Albert; Franco, Oscar H

    2016-05-01

    To evaluate whether components of a healthy lifestyle, combined and individually, are associated with arterial stiffness as a marker of functional vascular aging. We included 3235 participants aged 61-96 years from the Rotterdam Study. Measures of arterial stiffness included: aortic pulse wave velocity and carotid distensibility coefficient. Participants were scored one point for each of healthy lifestyle factors: consumption of five or more of fruits and/or vegetables per day, 75 min or more vigorous physical activity per week, 18.5 ≤ BMI ≤ 24. 9, never smoked and light-to-moderate alcohol intake (maximum seven glasses for women and 14 glasses for men) per week. Also a combined score (0-5) was computed by adding the five factors. Linear regression analysis was used to evaluate the association of healthy lifestyle and measures of arterial stiffness adjusting for confounders. Participants had -0.113 [95% confidence interval (CI): -0.196, -0.029] difference in mean aortic pulse wave velocity m/s per unit increment of the lifestyle factors score, independent of cardiovascular risk factors. Higher fruit and vegetable consumption -0.221 (95% CI: -0.409, -0.034) and physical activity -0.239 (95% CI: -0.433, -0.044) were also significantly associated with reduced aortic pulse wave velocity. The corresponding estimates in carotid distensibility coefficient lacked statistical significance when we adjusted for cardiovascular risk factors. Combining multiple healthy lifestyle factors is associated with reduced aortic stiffness, a measure of functional vascular aging and independent of cardiovascular risk factors.

  7. The Role of Age and Occupational Future Time Perspective in Workers' Motivation to Learn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochoian, Nané; Raemdonck, Isabel; Frenay, Mariane; Zacher, Hannes

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to better understand the relationship between employees' chronological age and their motivation to learn, by adopting a lifespan perspective. Based on socioemotional selectivity theory, we suggest that occupational future time perspective mediates the relationship between age and motivation to learn. In accordance with…

  8. Differing Patterns of Altered Slow-5 Oscillations in Healthy Aging and Ischemic Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian eLa

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The ‘default-mode’ network (DMN has been investigated in the presence of various disorders, such as Alzheimer’s disease and Autism spectrum disorders. More recently, this investigation has expanded to include patients with ischemic injury. Here, we characterized the effects of ischemic injury in terms of its spectral distribution of resting-state low-frequency oscillations and further investigated whether those specific disruptions were unique to the DMN, or rather more general, affecting the global cortical system. With 43 young healthy adults, 42 older healthy adults, 14 stroke patients in their early stage (< 7 days after stroke onset, and 16 stroke patients in their later stage (between 1-6 months after stroke onset, this study showed that patterns of cortical system disruption may differ between healthy aging and following the event of an ischemic stroke. The stroke group in the later stage demonstrated a global reduction in the amplitude of the slow-5 oscillations (0.01-0.027 Hz in the DMN as well as in the primary visual and sensorimotor networks, two ‘task-positive’ networks. In comparison to the young healthy group, the older healthy subjects presented a decrease in the amplitude of the slow-5 oscillations specific to the components of the DMN, while exhibiting an increase in oscillation power in the task-positive networks. These two processes of a decrease DMN and an increase in ‘task-positive’ slow-5 oscillations may potentially be related, with a deficit in DMN inhibition, leading to an elevation of oscillations in non-DMN systems. These findings also suggest that disruptions of the slow-5 oscillations in healthy aging may be more specific to the DMN while the disruptions of those oscillations following a stroke through remote (diaschisis effects may be more widespread, highlighting a non-specificity of disruption on the DMN in stroke population. The mechanisms underlying those differing modes of network disruption need

  9. Food as people: Teenagers' perspectives on food personalities and implications for healthy eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Charlene

    2014-11-01

    In light of its influence on food preferences, purchase requests and consumption patterns, food marketing-particularly for unhealthy foods-has been increasingly recognized as a problem that affects the health of young people. This has prompted both a scrutiny of the nutritional quality of food products and various interventions to promote healthy eating. Frequently overlooked by the public health community, however, is the symbolic and social meaning of food for teenagers. Food has nutritive value, but it has symbolic value as well-and this qualitative study explores the meaning of non-branded foods for teenagers. Inspired by the construct of brand personality, we conduct focus groups with 12-14 year olds in to probe their perspectives on the "food personalities" of unbranded/commodity products and categories of food. Despite the lack of targeted marketing/promotional campaigns for the foods discussed, the focus groups found a remarkable consensus regarding the characteristics and qualities of foods for young people. Teenagers stigmatize particular foods (such as broccoli) and valorize others (such as junk food), although their discussions equally reveal the need to consider questions beyond that of social positioning/social status. We suggest that public health initiatives need to focus greater attention on the symbolic aspects of food, since a focus on nutritional qualities does not unveil the other significant factors that may make foods appealing, or distasteful, to young people. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. MRI of the brain in neurologically healthy middle-aged and elderly individuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salonen, O.; Autti, T.; Raininko, R.; Ylikoski, A.; Erkinjuntti, T.

    1997-01-01

    Our purpose was to document the MRI appearances of the brain in healthy middle-aged to elderly subjects. T2- and proton density-weighted axial slices were obtained in 61 volunteers, 30-86 years of age. After visual inspection, signal intensities of brain structures were measured on T2-weighted images. Age-related changes became increasingly apparent after age 50. The main findings were that signal intensity of the white matter increased concomitantly with widening of the cerebrospinal fluid spaces; that basal ganglia remained stable; that high-signal foci in white matter increased in number and size after the age of 50 years; that periventricular high-signal foci were constant after the age of 65 years. Our visual impression of a decrease in signal intensity of the central grey matter with age seems to be mistaken. Pathological processes should be suspected if periventricular foci are found in middle-aged or young subjects. (orig.). With 9 figs., 1 tab

  11. Age-Modulated Associations between KIBRA, Brain Volume, and Verbal Memory among Healthy Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariana Stickel

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The resource modulation hypothesis suggests that the influence of genes on cognitive functioning increases with age. The KIBRA single nucleotide polymorphism rs17070145, associated with episodic memory and working memory, has been suggested to follow such a pattern, but few studies have tested this assertion directly. The present study investigated the relationship between KIBRA alleles (T carriers vs. CC homozygotes, cognitive performance, and brain volumes in three groups of cognitively healthy adults—middle aged (ages 52–64, n = 38, young old (ages 65–72, n = 45, and older old (ages 73–92, n = 62—who were carefully matched on potentially confounding variables including apolipoprotein ε4 status and hypertension. Consistent with our prediction, T carriers maintained verbal memory performance with increasing age while CC homozygotes declined. Voxel-based morphometric analysis of magnetic resonance images showed an advantage for T carriers in frontal white matter volume that increased with age. Focusing on the older old group, this advantage for T carriers was also evident in left lingual gyrus gray matter and several additional frontal white matter regions. Contrary to expectations, neither KIBRA nor the interaction between KIBRA and age predicted hippocampal volumes. None of the brain regions investigated showed a CC homozygote advantage. Taken together, these data suggest that KIBRA results in decreased verbal memory performance and lower brain volumes in CC homozygotes compared to T carriers, particularly among the oldest old, consistent with the resource modulation hypothesis.

  12. EFFECTS OF AGE AND ACUTE MUSCLE FATIGUE ON REACTIVE POSTURAL CONTROL IN HEALTHY ADULTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papa, Evan V.; Foreman, K. Bo; Dibble, Lee E.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Falls can cause moderate to severe injuries such as hip fractures and head trauma in older adults. While declines in muscle strength and sensory function contribute to increased falls in older adults, skeletal muscle fatigue is often overlooked as an additional contributor to fall risk. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the effects of acute lower extremity muscle fatigue and age on reactive postural control in healthy adults. METHODS A sample of 16 individuals participated in this study (8 healthy older adults and 8 healthy young persons). Whole body kinematic and kinetic data were collected during anterior and posterior reproducible fall tests before (T0) and immediately after (T1) eccentric muscle fatiguing exercise, as well as after 15-minutes (T15) and 30-minutes (T30) of rest. FINDINGS Lower extremity joint kinematics of the stepping limb during the support (landing) phase of the anterior fall were significantly altered by the presence of acute muscle fatigue. Step velocity was significantly decreased during the anterior falls. Statistically significant main effects of age were found for step length in both fall directions. Effect sizes for all outcomes were small. No statistically significant interaction effects were found. INTERPRETATION Muscle fatigue has a measurable effect on lower extremity joint kinematics during simulated falls. These alterations appear to resolve within 15 minutes of recovery. The above deficits, coupled with a reduced step length, may help explain the increased fall risk in older adults. PMID:26351001

  13. Diet-microbiota-health interactions in older subjects: implications for healthy aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, D B; Jeffery, I B; Cusack, S; O'Connor, E M; O'Toole, P W

    2015-01-01

    With modern medicine and an awareness of healthy lifestyle practices, people are living longer and generally healthier lives than their ancestors. These successes of modern medicine have resulted in an increasing proportion of elderly in society. Research groups around the world have investigated the contribution of gut microbial communities to human health and well-being. It was established that the microbiota composition of the human gut is modulated by lifestyle factors, especially diet. The microbiota composition and function, acting in concert with direct and indirect effects of habitual diet, is of great importance in remaining healthy and active. This is not a new concept, but until now the scale of the potential microbiota contribution was not appreciated. There are an estimated ten times more bacteria in an individual than human cells. The bacterial population is relatively stable in adults, but the age-related changes that occur later in life can have a negative impact on host health. This loss of the adult-associated microbiota correlates with measures of markers of inflammation, frailty, co-morbidity and nutritional status. This effect may be greater than that of diet or in some cases genetics alone. Collectively, the recent studies show the importance of the microbiota and associated metabolites in healthy aging and the importance of diet in its modulation. 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Effects of age and acute muscle fatigue on reactive postural control in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papa, Evan V; Foreman, K Bo; Dibble, Leland E

    2015-12-01

    Falls can cause moderate to severe injuries such as hip fractures and head trauma in older adults. While declines in muscle strength and sensory function contribute to increased falls in older adults, skeletal muscle fatigue is often overlooked as an additional contributor to fall risk. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the effects of acute lower extremity muscle fatigue and age on reactive postural control in healthy adults. A sample of 16 individuals participated in this study (8 healthy older adults and 8 healthy young persons). Whole body kinematic and kinetic data were collected during anterior and posterior reproducible fall tests before (T0) and immediately after (T1) eccentric muscle fatiguing exercise, as well as after 15-min (T15) and 30-min (T30) of rest. Lower extremity joint kinematics of the stepping limb during the support (landing) phase of the anterior fall were significantly altered by the presence of acute muscle fatigue. Step velocity was significantly decreased during the anterior falls. Statistically significant main effects of age were found for step length in both fall directions. Effect sizes for all outcomes were small. No statistically significant interaction effects were found. Muscle fatigue has a measurable effect on lower extremity joint kinematics during simulated falls. These alterations appear to resolve within 15 min of recovery. The above deficits, coupled with a reduced step length, may help explain the increased fall risk in older adults. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Diverse effects of a low dose supplement of lipidated curcumin in healthy middle aged people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DiSilvestro Robert A

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Curcumin extracts of turmeric are proposed to produce health benefits. To date, human intervention studies have focused mainly on people with existing health problems given high doses of poorly absorbed curcumin. The purpose of the current study was to check whether in healthy people, a low dose of a lipidated curcumin extract could alter wellness-related measures. Methods The present study was conducted in healthy middle aged people (40–60 years old with a low dose of curcumin (80 mg/day in a lipidated form expected to have good absorption. Subjects were given either curcumin (N = 19 or placebo (N = 19 for 4 wk. Blood and saliva samples were taken before and after the 4 weeks and analyzed for a variety of blood and saliva measures relevant to health promotion. Results Curcumin, but not placebo, produced the following statistically significant changes: lowering of plasma triglyceride values, lowering of salivary amylase levels, raising of salivary radical scavenging capacities, raising of plasma catalase activities, lowering of plasma beta amyloid protein concentrations, lowering of plasma sICAM readings, increased plasma myeloperoxidase without increased c-reactive protein levels, increased plasma nitric oxide, and decreased plasma alanine amino transferase activities. Conclusion Collectively, these results demonstrate that a low dose of a curcumin-lipid preparation can produce a variety of potentially health promoting effects in healthy middle aged people.

  16. Measurements of exhaled nitric oxide in healthy subjects age 4 to 17 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchvald, Frederik; Baraldi, Eugenio; Carraro, Silvia

    2005-01-01

    to almost 100% from the age of 10 years. The repeatability of 3 approved measurements was 1.6 ppb (95% CI, 1.49-1.64 ppb). CONCLUSION: FE NO in healthy children is below 15 to 25 ppb depending on age and self-reported atopy. Measurement of FE NO by NIOX is simple and safe and has a good repeatability...... NO was measured in healthy subjects of 4 to 17 years according to American Thoracic Society guidelines (single breath online, exhalation flow 50 mL/s) with a chemiluminescence analyzer (NIOX Exhaled Nitric Oxide Monitoring System, Aerocrine, Sweden) in 3 European and 2 US centers. Each child performed 3...... NO in 405 children was 9.7 ppb, and the upper 95% confidence limit was 25.2 ppb. FE NO increased significantly with age, and higher FE NO was seen in children with self-reported rhinitis/conjunctivitis or hay fever. The success rate was age-dependent and improved from 40% in the children 4 years old...

  17. On the preservation of vigilant attention to semantic information in healthy aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, David R; Hasher, Lynn

    2017-07-01

    Despite decades of research on younger adults, little is known about the way in which vigilant attention is affected by healthy aging, and the small body of work that does exist has yielded mixed findings. Prior examinations of aging and vigilant attention have focused almost exclusively on sensory/perceptual tasks despite the fact that many real-world vigilance tasks are semantic in nature and it has been shown that older adults exhibit memory and attention deficits in semantic tasks in other domains. Here, we present the first empirical investigation of vigilant attention to verbal stimuli in healthy normal aging. In Experiment 1 we find that older adults are just as able as younger adults to identify critical targets defined by category membership (both overall and over time). In Experiment 2, we increase the difficulty of the task by changing the target category from one block to the next, but again find no age-group effects in accuracy. Response time data, however, show that older adults respond more slowly and subjective ratings indicate that older adults experience higher workload and arousal compared to their younger counterparts. The practical as well as theoretical implications of these findings are discussed.

  18. [Elaboration of Criteria and Indicators to Develop and Evaluate Programs of Healthy Aging in the Workplace].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateo Rodríguez, Inmaculada; Daponte Codina, Antonio; Bernal Solano, Mariola; Sánchez Pérez, M José

    2015-10-01

    In the actual context of population ageing and extension of working age, programs for health promotion at the workplace are a key and necessary tool to promote an active and healthy ageing. This work presents the methodological process followed to elaborate a checklist tool, within the framework of the European project Progress, that contributes to orientate planning, implementation and evaluation of good practices in this field, to be applicable to a variety of programs, countries and workplaces. A Delphi technique has been applied in three rounds in which experts in the area from five European countries participated. A questionnaire created from a list of criteria and indicators was adapted throughout the rounds, with the use of webmail, to the evaluation of interventions in the field of interest. Through processes of assessment and consensus, criteria and indicators most relevant were prioritized. From the nine starting criteria and after the implementation of the technique, four key criteria were prioritized: relevance: 62, adequacy to objective: 57, innovation: 50 and guarantee of quality: 41. Using this group of criteria and indicators, a checklist was designed containing the key information that should be collected for planning, implementation and evaluation of good practices in interventions in this field. The checklist tool helps to systematize the global methodology for the implementation of interventions which could be very useful for persons responsible of programmes to promote active and healthy ageing in the workplace.

  19. [Construction of a physiological aging scale for healthy people based on a modified Delphi method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Yao; Zhou, Xuan; Deng, Pengfei; Liao, Xiong; Wu, Lei; Zhou, Jianming; Huang, Helang

    2016-04-01

    To build a physiological aging scale for healthy people.
 We collected age-related physiologic items through literature screening and expert interview. Two rounds of Delphi were implemented. The importance, feasibility and the degree of authority for the physiological index system were graded. Using analytic hierarchy process, we determined the weight of dimensions and items.
 Using Delphy mothod, 17 physiological and other professional experts offered the results as follow: coefficient of expert authorities Cr was 0.86±0.03, coordination coefficients for the first and second round were 0.264(χ2=229.691, Paging scale for healthy people included 3 dimensions, namely physical form, feeling movement and functional status. Each dimension had 8 items. The weight coefficients for the 3 dimensions were 0.54, 0.16, and 0.30, respectively. The Cronbach's α coefficient of the scale was 0.893, the reliability was 0.796, and the variance of the common factor was 58.17%.
 The improved Delphi method or physiological aging scale is satisfied, which can provide reference for the evaluation of aging.

  20. Brain volumes in healthy adults aged 40 years and over: a voxel-based morphometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riello, Roberta; Sabattoli, Francesca; Beltramello, Alberto; Bonetti, Matteo; Bono, Giorgio; Falini, Andrea; Magnani, Giuseppe; Minonzio, Giorgio; Piovan, Enrico; Alaimo, Giuseppina; Ettori, Monica; Galluzzi, Samantha; Locatelli, Enrico; Noiszewska, Malgorzata; Testa, Cristina; Frisoni, Giovanni B

    2005-08-01

    Gender and age effect on brain morphology have been extensively investigated. However, the great variety in methods applied to morphology partly explain the conflicting results of linear patterns of tissue changes and lateral asymmetry in men and women. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of age, gender and laterality on the volumes of gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) in a large group of healthy adults by means of voxel-based morphometry. This technique, based on observer-independent algorithms, automatically segments the 3 types of tissue and computes the amount of tissue in each single voxel. Subjects were 229 healthy subjects of 40 years of age or older, who underwent magnetic resonance (MR) for reasons other than cognitive impairment. MR images were reoriented following the AC-PC line and, after removing the voxels below the cerebellum, were processed by Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM99). GM and WM volumes were normalized for intracranial volume. Women had more fractional GM and WM volumes than men. Age was negatively correlated with both fractional GM and WM, and a gender x age interaction effect was found for WM, men having greater WM loss with advancing age. Pairwise differences between left and right GM were negative (greater GM in right hemisphere) in men, and positive (greater GM in left hemisphere) in women (-0.56+/-4.2 vs 0.99+/-4.8; p=0.019). These results support side-specific accelerated WM loss in men, and may help our better understanding of changes in regional brain structures associated with pathological aging.

  1. Age-related changes assessed by peripheral QCT in healthy Italian women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guglielmi, G.; Serio, A. de; Cammisa, M.; Fusilli, S.; Scillitani, A.; Chiodini, I.; Torlontano, M.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the normal cross-sectional pattern of radial bone loss associated with aging in healthy women and to generate a normative database using peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT). Subjects with suspected conditions affecting bone metabolism or receiving any drugs affecting bone mineralization were excluded. The trabecular bone mineral density (BMD) and the total bone density of the ultradistal radius at the nondominant forearm was measured using the Norland-Stratec XCT-960 pQCT scanner in 386 healthy pre-, peri-, and postmenopausal females aged 15-81 years. The long-term in vivo precision error was 1.6% CV (coefficient of variation) for trabecular and 0.8% CV for total BMD measurements. The highest value of trabecular and total BMD measured was observed at the age group 15-39 years. Beyond these ages both trabecular and total BMD showed a linear decline with aging, decreasing by an overall slope of -1.28 and -0.55 mg/cm 3 per year for total and trabecular BMD measurements, respectively. The test of parallelism between the regression slopes of the peri- and postmenopausal women showed a statistically significant difference for total BMD measurement (p=0.003). Measurement of total and trabecular BMD was not influenced by weight, height or body mass index, but it was correlated with natural logarithm of years since menopause. We conclude that pQCT of the ultradistal radius is a precise method for measuring the true volumetric BMD and for detecting age-related bone loss in the trabecular and total bone of female subjects encompassing the adult age range and menopausal status. (orig.)

  2. Age-related changes assessed by peripheral QCT in healthy Italian women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guglielmi, G.; Serio, A. de; Cammisa, M. [Scientific Institute Hospital ' ' Casa Sollievo della Sofferenza' ' , San Giovanni Rotondo (Italy). Dept. of Radiology; Fusilli, S. [Scientific Institute Hospital ' ' Casa Sollievo della Sofferenza' ' , San Giovanni Rotondo (Italy). Dept. of Clinical Pathology; Scillitani, A.; Chiodini, I.; Torlontano, M. [Scientific Institute Hospital ' ' Casa Sollievo della Sofferenza' ' , San Giovanni Rotondo (Italy). Division of Endocrinology

    2000-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the normal cross-sectional pattern of radial bone loss associated with aging in healthy women and to generate a normative database using peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT). Subjects with suspected conditions affecting bone metabolism or receiving any drugs affecting bone mineralization were excluded. The trabecular bone mineral density (BMD) and the total bone density of the ultradistal radius at the nondominant forearm was measured using the Norland-Stratec XCT-960 pQCT scanner in 386 healthy pre-, peri-, and postmenopausal females aged 15-81 years. The long-term in vivo precision error was 1.6% CV (coefficient of variation) for trabecular and 0.8% CV for total BMD measurements. The highest value of trabecular and total BMD measured was observed at the age group 15-39 years. Beyond these ages both trabecular and total BMD showed a linear decline with aging, decreasing by an overall slope of -1.28 and -0.55 mg/cm{sup 3} per year for total and trabecular BMD measurements, respectively. The test of parallelism between the regression slopes of the peri- and postmenopausal women showed a statistically significant difference for total BMD measurement (p=0.003). Measurement of total and trabecular BMD was not influenced by weight, height or body mass index, but it was correlated with natural logarithm of years since menopause. We conclude that pQCT of the ultradistal radius is a precise method for measuring the true volumetric BMD and for detecting age-related bone loss in the trabecular and total bone of female subjects encompassing the adult age range and menopausal status. (orig.)

  3. Environmental, Behavioral, and Cultural Factors That Influence Healthy Eating in Rural Women of Childbearing Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Mabry

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite increasing recognition of the role nutrition plays in the health of current and future generations, many women struggle to eat healthy. We used the PhotoVoice method to engage 10 rural women in identifying perceived barriers and facilitators to healthy eating in their homes and community. They took 354 photographs, selected and wrote captions for 62 images, and explored influential factors through group conversation. Using field notes and participant-generated captions, the research team categorized images into factors at the individual, relational, community/organizational, and societal levels of a socioecological model. Barriers included limited time, exposure to marketing, and the high cost of food. Facilitators included preparing food in advance and support from non-partners; opportunities to hunt, forage, and garden were also facilitators, which may be amplified in this rural environment. Nutritional interventions for rural women of childbearing age should be multi-component and focus on removing barriers at multiple socioecological levels.

  4. [European innovation partnership on active and healthy aging: moving from policy to action].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Lizana, Francisca

    2013-01-01

    Demographic change and aging are a common challenge in Europe. The rising number of elderly people will need support at home, and will consume more healthcare services, putting further pressure on the welfare system. Collaborative, integrated and people-centered care provision, whether in hospitals, homes or in the community, is a way forward to sustainable and efficient care systems. Innovative treatments to address chronic diseases and the functional decline of older people will enable them to live longer in better health and with a better quality of life. To fully unleash the potential of aging in the European Union, the European Commission -within its Innovation Union policy- launched the first European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing (EIP AHA). Promoting engagement and partnerships among all stakeholders in the healthcare chain is essential. This article describes the theoretical foundations, the development and expectations of the initiative, and its first actions. Copyright © 2012 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  5. Paternal Age Explains a Major Portion of De Novo Germline Mutation Rate Variability in Healthy Individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon L Girard

    Full Text Available De novo mutations (DNM are an important source of rare variants and are increasingly being linked to the development of many diseases. Recently, the paternal age effect has been the focus of a number of studies that attempt to explain the observation that increasing paternal age increases the risk for a number of diseases. Using disease-free familial quartets we show that there is a strong positive correlation between paternal age and germline DNM in healthy subjects. We also observed that germline CNVs do not follow the same trend, suggesting a different mechanism. Finally, we observed that DNM were not evenly distributed across the genome, which adds support to the existence of DNM hotspots.

  6. Health and Aging Policy Fellows Program: Shaping a Healthy Future for Older Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pincus, Harold Alan; Pike, Kathleen M; Spaeth-Rublee, Brigitta; Elinson, Lynn

    2017-09-01

    As the size of the elderly population increases, so do the challenges of and barriers to high-quality, affordable health care. The Health and Aging Policy Fellows (HAPF) Program is designed to provide health and aging professionals with the skills and experience to help lead the effort in reducing these barriers and shaping a healthy and productive future for older Americans. Since its inception in 2008, the program has affected not only the fellows who participate, but also the field of health and aging policy. Work needs to be done to sustain this program so that more fellows can participate and sound policies for the elderly population can continue to be shaped and improved. This report describes the HAPF Program, including its background (rationale, description, partners, progress, effect), lessons learned, challenges and solutions, and policy implications. © 2017, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2017, The American Geriatrics Society.

  7. NF-κB Immunity in the Brain Determines Fly Lifespan in Healthy Aging and Age-Related Neurodegeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kounatidis, Ilias; Chtarbanova, Stanislava; Cao, Yang; Hayne, Margaret; Jayanth, Dhruv; Ganetzky, Barry; Ligoxygakis, Petros

    2017-04-25

    During aging, innate immunity progresses to a chronically active state. However, what distinguishes those that "age well" from those developing age-related neurological conditions is unclear. We used Drosophila to explore the cost of immunity in the aging brain. We show that mutations in intracellular negative regulators of the IMD/NF-κB pathway predisposed flies to toxic levels of antimicrobial peptides, resulting in early locomotor defects, extensive neurodegeneration, and reduced lifespan. These phenotypes were rescued when immunity was suppressed in glia. In healthy flies, suppressing immunity in glial cells resulted in increased adipokinetic hormonal signaling with high nutrient levels in later life and an extension of active lifespan. Thus, when levels of IMD/NF-κB deviate from normal, two mechanisms are at play: lower levels derepress an immune-endocrine axis, which mobilizes nutrients, leading to lifespan extension, whereas higher levels increase antimicrobial peptides, causing neurodegeneration. Immunity in the fly brain is therefore a key lifespan determinant. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. NF-κB Immunity in the Brain Determines Fly Lifespan in Healthy Aging and Age-Related Neurodegeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilias Kounatidis

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available During aging, innate immunity progresses to a chronically active state. However, what distinguishes those that “age well” from those developing age-related neurological conditions is unclear. We used Drosophila to explore the cost of immunity in the aging brain. We show that mutations in intracellular negative regulators of the IMD/NF-κB pathway predisposed flies to toxic levels of antimicrobial peptides, resulting in early locomotor defects, extensive neurodegeneration, and reduced lifespan. These phenotypes were rescued when immunity was suppressed in glia. In healthy flies, suppressing immunity in glial cells resulted in increased adipokinetic hormonal signaling with high nutrient levels in later life and an extension of active lifespan. Thus, when levels of IMD/NF-κB deviate from normal, two mechanisms are at play: lower levels derepress an immune-endocrine axis, which mobilizes nutrients, leading to lifespan extension, whereas higher levels increase antimicrobial peptides, causing neurodegeneration. Immunity in the fly brain is therefore a key lifespan determinant.

  9. High Cardiorespiratory Fitness Is Negatively Associated with Daily Cortisol Output in Healthy Aging Men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Lucertini

    Full Text Available Physical fitness has salutary psychological and physical effects in older adults by promoting neuroplasticity and adaptation to stress. In aging, however, the effects of fitness on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis are mixed. We investigated the association between cardiorespiratory fitness and HPA activity in healthy elderly men (n = 22, mean age 68 y; smokers, obese subjects, those taking drugs or reporting recent stressful events were excluded, by measuring in saliva: i daily pattern of cortisol secretion (6 samples: 30' post-awakening, and at 12.00, 15.00, 18.00, 21.00, 24.00 h; and ii the cortisol response to a mental challenge. Cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2max was estimated using the Rockport Walking Test and the participants were assigned to high-fit (HF, ≥60°, n = 10 and low-fit (LF, ≤35°, n = 12 groups according to age-specific percentiles of VO2max distribution in the general population. At all daytimes, basal cortisol levels were lower in the HF than the LF group, most notably in the evening and midnight samples, with a significant main effect of physical fitness for cortisol levels overall; the area-under-the-curve for total daily cortisol output was significantly smaller in the HF group. Among the subjects who responded to mental stress (baseline-to-peak increment >1.5 nmol/L; n = 13, 5 LF, 8 HF, the amplitude of cortisol response and the steepness of recovery decline displayed an increasing trend in the HF subjects, although between-group differences failed to reach the threshold for significance. In conclusion, cardiorespiratory fitness in healthy aging men is negatively correlated with daily cortisol output and contributes to buffering the HPA dysregulation that occurs with advancing age, thus possibly playing a beneficial role in contrasting age-related cognitive and physical decline.

  10. The roles of chronological age and time perspective in memory positivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Irene P; Garrison, Shaina L; Drummey, Anna B; Emmert, Brian E; Rogers, Leeland L

    2018-07-01

    The observation that older adults show enhanced cognition for emotionally positive information has been labeled the positivity effect (Reed, Chan, & Mikels, 2014). According to the Socioemotional Selectivity Theory (SST, Carstensen, 1991), a prominent lifespan development theory, cognition is strongly influenced by motivational goals, and these goals are impacted by subjective time perspective. Although the positivity effect is most commonly observed in older adults, as age usually co-varies with time perspective, the SST posits that time perspective, not age, is the key explanatory factor of positivity. We examined the effects of these predictors on positivity in an episodic memory task in younger and older adults and found that age, not time perspective, was a key predictor of memory positivity. Our results add to the growing literature that challenge the notion that time perspective is the driving force behind age-related differences in emotional processing and functioning.

  11. Genotype by sex and genotype by age interactions with sedentary behavior: the Portuguese Healthy Family Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel M V Santos

    Full Text Available Sedentary behavior (SB expression and its underlying causal factors have been progressively studied, as it is a major determinant of decreased health quality. In the present study we applied Genotype x Age (GxAge and Genotype x Sex (GxSex interaction methods to determine if the phenotypic expression of different SB traits is influenced by an interaction between genetic architecture and both age and sex. A total of 1345 subjects, comprising 249 fathers, 327 mothers, 334 sons and 325 daughters, from 339 families of The Portuguese Healthy Family Study were included in the analysis. SB traits were assessed by means of a 3-d physical activity recall, the Baecke and IPAQ questionnaires. GxAge and GxSex interactions were analyzed using SOLAR 4.0 software. Sedentary behaviour heritability estimates were not always statistically significant (p>0.05 and ranged from 3% to 27%. The GxSex and GxAge interaction models were significantly better than the single polygenic models for TV (min/day, EEsed (kcal/day, personal computer (PC usage and physical activty (PA tertiles. The GxAge model is also significantly better than the polygenic model for Sed (min/day. For EEsed, PA tertiles, PC and Sed, the GxAge interaction was significant because the genetic correlation between SB environments was significantly different from 1. Further, PC and Sed variance heterogeneity among distinct ages were observed. The GxSex interaction was significant for EEsed due to genetic variance heterogeneity between genders and for PC due to a genetic correlation less than 1 across both sexes. Our results suggest that SB expression may be influenced by the interactions between genotype with both sex and age. Further, different sedentary behaviors seem to have distinct genetic architectures and are differentially affected by age and sex.

  12. Static postural balance in healthy individuals: Comparisons between three age groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanne Salviano Pereira

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to compare static postural balance of healthy individuals of three age groups in different conditions of support and vision. Seventy one individuals, divided into 3 groups, were analyzed: young group (YG: 22.2 ± 2.1 years, middle aged group (MAG: 50.7 ± 5.7 years and older individuals group (EG: 66.8 ± 5.4 years. Their balance was tested on a force platform, under 3 support and 3 visual conditions. Measures included: total (TD, anterior-posterior (APD and mediolateral displacement (MLD of the center of pressure (CoP. ANOVA revealed significant differences for interactions between group X support conditions and group X visual conditions for the 3 variables (p<0.01, with greater displacements for the MAG and EG groups during single-leg stance with partial and occluded vision (p<0.05. Static postural balance decreased over time in healthy individuals, and conditions of support and visual negatively affected balance with the increment of age.

  13. Gait adaptations with aging in healthy participants and people with knee-joint osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffell, Lynsey D; Jordan, Stevan J; Cobb, Justin P; McGregor, Alison H

    2017-09-01

    The relationship between age and gait characteristics in people with and without medial compartment osteoarthritis (OA) remains unclear. We aimed to characterize this relationship and to relate biomechanical and structural parameters in a subset of OA patients. Twenty five participants with diagnosed unilateral medial knee OA and 84 healthy participants, with no known knee pathology were recruited. 3D motion capture was used to analyse sagittal and coronal plane gait parameters while participants walked at a comfortable speed. Participants were categorized according to age (18-30, 31-59 and 60+ years), and those with and without OA were compared between and within age groups. In a subset of OA patients, clinically available Computed Tomography images were used to assess joint structure. Differences in coronal plane kinematics at the hip and knee were noted in participants with OA particularly those who were older compared with our healthy controls, as well as increased knee moments. Knee adduction moment correlated with structural parameters in the subset of OA patients. Increased knee moments and altered kinematics were observed in older participants presenting with OA only, which seem to be related to morphological changes in the joint due to OA, as opposed to being related to the initial cause of medial knee OA. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Eating a Balanced Diet: A Healthy Life through a Balanced Diet in the Age of Longevity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo Lim

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Recently, trends in the Korean diet have favored westernized and unbalanced meals that mainly provide a single nutrient. To stop this unfavorable trend, the Committee of the Ten Guidelines for a Health Life: Korean Medical Association released three best practices to follow for the healthy and balanced diet in 2017. The purpose of these guidelines is to encourage people to eat a balanced diet that meets the recommended caloric intake, thereby reducing the risk of obesity and obesity-related diseases. First, eat a carbohydrate:protein:fat ratio of 55:20:25. Middle-aged and elderly Koreans consume a high proportion of carbohydrates as part of their total caloric intake, and those ≥65 years consume a low proportion of fat as part of the total caloric intake. Second, reduce consumption of soda and sugar-sweetened beverages. The recent World Health Organization recommendation for added sugar is less than 10% of a person’s total daily energy intake (<50 g/day. Koreans currently consume 72.1 g of added sugar per day. Koreans between the ages of 6 and 29 years consume sugar mostly through sodas, and those ≥30 years consume sugar mostly through coffee. Third, maintain the recommended caloric intake for a healthy diet. Rapid weight gain increases blood sugar levels and blood pressure, which can lead to diabetes and hypertension, as well as increasing the risk of cardiovascular disease, stroke, and colorectal cancer. To help prevent these conditions, people should maintain a healthy weight by avoiding overeating and being physically active starting at a young age.

  15. Comparison of body composition between professional sportswomen and apparently healthy age- and sex-matched controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raman K Marwaha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In view of the relationship between physical activity and nutrition on body composition, we assessed lean and fat mass and BMC (total and regional in professional Indian sportswomen and compared it with apparently healthy age- and sex-matched females. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study included 104 sportswomen and an equal number of age-matched normal healthy females (controls. They were evaluated for anthropometry and body composition (fat, lean mass, and bone mineral content (BMC by DXA. Results: Mean age (19.1 ± 1.3 vs. 19.4 ± 1.5 years and body mass index (21.34 ± 3.02 vs. 21.26 ± 4.05 kg/m 2 were comparable in both groups. Sportswomen had higher intake of energy, macronutrients, calcium, phosphorus and magnesium. Total lean mass (33.67 ± 3.49 vs. 31.14 ± 3.52 kg, P < 0.0001, appendicular skeletal muscle index (5.84 ± 0.57 vs. 5.46 ± 0.63 kg/m 2 ; P < 0.0001 and BMC (2.27 ± 0.32 vs. 2.13 ± 0.34 kg, P < 0.002 was significantly higher and percentage fat mass was significantly lower (33.1 ± 7.5 vs. 37.0 ± 8.3; P < 0.0001 among sportswomen when compared to controls. Conclusions: Indian sportswomen have a higher total and regional lean mass, BMC, and lower percentage fat mass when compared with healthy females. Physical activity, energy, protein and calcium intake were positively associated with lean mass and BMC.

  16. Impact of age and gender interaction on circulating endothelial progenitor cells in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseau, Alexandra; Ayoubi, Fida; Deveaux, Christel; Charbit, Beny; Delmau, Catherine; Christin-Maitre, Sophie; Jaillon, Patrice; Uzan, Georges; Simon, Tabassome

    2010-02-01

    To assess the level of circulating endothelial progenitor cells (CEPC) in cycling women compared with men and menopausal women. Controlled clinical study. Healthy, nonsmoking volunteers. Twelve women, aged 18-40 years, with regular menstrual cycles, 12 menopausal women, and two groups of 12 age-matched men were recruited. Women did not receive any hormone therapy. Collection of 20 mL of peripheral blood. The number of CEPC, defined as (Lin-/7AAD-/CD34+/CD133+/KDR+) cells per 10(6) mononuclear cells (MNC), was measured by flow cytometry. The number of CEPC was significantly higher in cycling women than in age-matched men and menopausal women (26.5 per 10(6) MNC vs. 10.5 per 10(6) MNC vs. 10 per 10(6) MNC, respectively). The number of CEPC was similar in menopausal women, age-matched, and young men. The number of CEPC is influenced by an age-gender interaction. This phenomenon may explain in part the better vascular repair and relative cardiovascular protection in younger women as compared with age-matched men. Copyright 2010 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. New noninvasive index for evaluation of the vascular age of healthy and sick people

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fine, Ilya; Kuznik, Boris I.; Kaminsky, Alexander V.; Shenkman, Louis; Kustovsjya, Evgeniya M.; Maximova, Olga G.

    2012-08-01

    We conducted a study on 861 healthy and sick subjects and demonstrated that some calculated parameters based on measurement of the dynamic light scattering (DLS) signal from the finger correlate highly with chronological age ranging from 1.5 to 85 years old. Measurements of DLS signals were obtained during both occlusion and nonocclusion of blood flow in the finger. For the nonocclusion case we found that the low-frequency component of the DLS signal significantly correlates with the biological age while the high-frequency component of the DLS signal resembles the arterial pulse-wave and does correlate with age. However, the most prominent correlation between the DLS characteristics and age was noted with the stasis stage measurements. We propose that the observed age-related phenomena are caused by alterations in local blood viscosity and interactions of the endothelial cells with erythrocytes. Further, a new noninvasive index based on the age-related optical characteristics was introduced. This noninvasive index may be used as a research and diagnostic tool to examine the endothelial and thrombolytic properties of the vascular system.

  18. Age-dependent alterations of monocyte subsets and monocyte-related chemokine pathways in healthy adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trautwein Christian

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent experimental approaches have unraveled essential migratory and functional differences of monocyte subpopulations in mice. In order to possibly translate these findings into human physiology and pathophysiology, human monocyte subsets need to be carefully revisited in health and disease. In analogy to murine studies, we hypothesized that human monocyte subsets dynamically change during ageing, potentially influencing their functionality and contributing to immunosenescence. Results Circulating monocyte subsets, surface marker and chemokine receptor expression were analyzed in 181 healthy volunteers (median age 42, range 18-88. Unlike the unaffected total leukocyte or total monocyte counts, non-classical CD14+CD16+ monocytes significantly increased with age, but displayed reduced HLA-DR and CX3CR1 surface expression in the elderly. Classical CD14++CD16- monocyte counts did not vary dependent on age. Serum MCP-1 (CCL2, but not MIP1α (CCL3, MIP1β (CCL4 or fractalkine (CX3CL1 concentrations increased with age. Monocyte-derived macrophages from old or young individuals did not differ with respect to cytokine release in vitro at steady state or upon LPS stimulation. Conclusions Our study demonstrates dynamic changes of circulating monocytes during ageing in humans. The expansion of the non-classical CD14+CD16+ subtype, alterations of surface protein and chemokine receptor expression as well as circulating monocyte-related chemokines possibly contribute to the preserved functionality of the monocyte pool throughout adulthood.

  19. Health economic choices in old age: interdisciplinary perspectives on economic decisions and the aging mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Lisbeth; Phillips, John W R

    2008-01-01

    This chapter offers an integrative review of psychological and neurobiological differences between younger and older adults that might impact economic behavior. Focusing on key health economic challenges facing the elderly, it offers perspectives on how these psychological and neurobiological factors may influence decision-making over the life course and considers future interdisciplinary research directions. We review relevant literature from three domains that are essential for developing a comprehensive science of decision-making and economic behavior in aging (psychology, neuroscience, and economics), consider implications for prescription drug coverage and long-term care (LTC) insurance, and highlight future research directions. Older adults face many complex economic decisions that directly affect their health and well-being, including LTC insurance, prescription drug plans, and end of life care. Economic research suggests that many older Americans are not making cost-effective and economically rational decisions. While economic models provide insight into some of the financial incentives associated with these decisions, they typically do not consider the roles of cognition and affect in decision-making. Research has established that older age is associated with predictable declines in many cognitive functions and evidence is accumulating that distinct social motives and affect-processing profiles emerge in older age. It is unknown how these age differences impact the economic behaviors of older people and implies opportunities for path-breaking interdisciplinary research. Our chapter looks to develop interdisciplinary research to better understand the causes and consequences of age-related changes in economic decision-making and guide interventions to improve public programs and overall social welfare.

  20. Cardiovascular function is better in veteran football players than age-matched untrained elderly healthy men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Jakob Friis; Andersen, Thomas Rostgaard; Andersen, Lars Juel

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine whether lifelong football training may improve cardiovascular function, physical fitness, and body composition. Our subjects were 17 male veteran football players (VPG; 68.1 ± 2.1 years) and 26 healthy age-matched untrained men who served as a control group (CG......, RHI was 21% higher (P training is associated with better LV systolic function, physical fitness......, microvascular function, and a healthier body composition. Overall, VPG have better cardiovascular function compared with CG, which may reduce their cardiovascular morbidity and mortality....

  1. A healthy aging program for older adults: effects on self-efficacy and morale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scult, Matthew; Haime, Vivian; Jacquart, Jolene; Takahashi, Jonathan; Moscowitz, Barbara; Webster, Ann; Denninger, John W; Mehta, Darshan H

    2015-01-01

    As of 2012, 810 million people worldwide were older than 60 y, accounting for 11% of the population. That number is expected to rise to 2 billion by 2050 or to 22% of the overall population. As a result, a growing need exists to understand the factors that promote mental and physical health in older populations. The purpose of this study was to develop a healthy aging program for older adults and to measure the changes from baseline to the end of the program in participants' relevant psychosocial outcomes (ie, self-efficacy and morale). The study's healthy aging mind-body intervention (MBI) was adapted from the Relaxation Response Resiliency Program (3RP) at the Benson-Henry Institute for Mind Body Medicine, which incorporates elements from the fields of stress management, cognitive behavioral therapy, and positive psychology. That program was modified with examples and exercises targeted to an older population and evaluated in the current single-arm pilot study. The program took place at the Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH). The 9-wk healthy aging MBI was developed for participants aged 65 y and older. Fifty-one older adults from the surrounding community participated in the study's groups. A new intervention group began the program every 3 mo, with a maximum of 12 individuals per group. For each group, the MBI consisted of weekly 90-min sessions for 9 consecutive wk, directed by a psychologist. The program included sessions that taught participants (1) a variety of methods to elicit the relaxation response (RR), (2) the practice of adaptive coping and cognitions, (3) behaviors necessary to create a healthy lifestyle, and (4) methods of building social support. The research team chose to focus on 2 psychological variables of interest for aging populations: morale and self-efficacy. The study used 2 questionnaires to measure those outcomes, the Philadelphia Geriatric Center Morale Scale (PGCMS), a multidimensional measure of the psychological state of older

  2. Alteration of retinal layers in healthy subjects over 60 years of age until nonagenarians

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    Altay L

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Lebriz Altay,1 Cheryl Jahn,1 Mücella Arikan Yorgun,1 Albert Caramoy,1 Tina Schick,1 Carel B Hoyng,2 Anneke I den Hollander,2 Sascha Fauser1 1Department of Ophthalmology, University Hospital of Cologne, Cologne, Germany; 2Department of Ophthalmology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen, the Netherlands Purpose: To assess alterations of retinal layers in healthy subjects over 60 years old. Methods: Retinal layers of 160 healthy subjects (aged 60–100 years without any retinal pathology were imaged using spectral domain optical coherence tomography. Mean thickness of retinal nerve fiber layer, ganglion cell/inner plexiform layer (GCLIPL, inner nuclear layer, outer plexiform layer/outer nuclear layer, photoreceptor complex (PR and retinal thickness (RT were measured in a 3.45 mm grid. Correlations between age and layers were estimated and linear regression equations were calculated. Different age-groups (60–69, 70–79, 80–89 years and nonagenarians, each group with 40 participants were compared. Results: Significant age-thickness correlations were observed for GCLIPL (P<0.001, r=-0.394, PR (P<0.001, r=-0.370 and RT (P<0.001, r=-0.290. A comparison between age groups 60–69 years and nonagenarians showed no significant thickness alteration of retinal nerve fiber layer (21.80±2.18 µm vs 22.82±2.97 µm, P=0.163, inner nuclear layer (37.23±3.02 µm vs 36.01±3.24 µm, P=0.07 and outer plexiform layer/outer nuclear layer (104.95±6.56 µm vs 104.23±7.59 µm, P=0.567, while GCLIPL (83.35±7.35 µm vs 74.38±9.09 µm, PR (83.03±3.31 µm vs 79.34±2.09 µm and RT (330.64±12.63 µm vs 316.83±18.35 µm showed a significant decrease (P<0.001 for all. Conclusion: Our study provides normative data of alterations of retinal layers for persons aged 60 years to nonagenarians and indicates a continuous decrease of RT, PR, and GCLIPL. This data may be useful for clinical trials investigating macular diseases in older patients

  3. [Modern directions of scientific and practical research of the policy of active and healthy longevity: experience and perspectives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golubeva, E Yu

    Modern terminology on active and healthy aging used in scientific and project activities is discussed. There have been analyzed the WHO conception on active aging, which has no precise universally agreed definition, its main determinants. The directions of scientific expertise in the major European projects INNOVAGE - assessment of potentially profitable social innovations relating to the welfare and quality of life and health in old age; MOPACT - the interference between the demographic development and the main dimensions of economic and social contribution of older persons is defined. The approach to implement the policy of active and healthy longevity as a valuable asset of the modern society is underlined.

  4. Evaluation of the Mental Healthiness Aging Initiative: community program to promote awareness about mental health and aging issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanjani, Faika; Kruger, Tina; Murray, Deborah

    2012-04-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the Mental Healthiness Aging Initiative, designed to promote community awareness and knowledge about mental health and aging issues. This study occurred during 2007-2009 in 67 of 120 counties in Kentucky. A rural region (11 counties) received the intervention, consisting of focus groups, Extension Agent training, and television-based social marketing campaign. Partial-intervention counties (29 counties) received only the television-based social marketing campaign. The control counties (27 counties) received no intervention activities. Results indicated that the intervention counties agreed more with being able to assist elder adults with a potential mental illness. Also, the intervention counties understood the risk of consuming alcohol and medications better, but had a poorer recognition of drinking problems in elder adults. These findings need to be considered within study limitations, such as measurement error, degree of intervention exposure, and regional differences across intervention groups. The study demonstrates that community interventions on mental health awareness and knowledge are feasible within majority rural regions, with Extension Agents being gatekeepers, for promoting positive messages about mental health and aging issues.

  5. Age related changes in T cell mediated immune response and effector memory to Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV in healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campoccia Giuseppe

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV is the major pathogen causing respiratory disease in young infants and it is an important cause of serious illness in the elderly since the infection provides limited immune protection against reinfection. In order to explain this phenomenon, we investigated whether healthy adults of different age (20-40; 41-60 and > 60 years, have differences in central and effector memory, RSV-specific CD8+ T cell memory immune response and regulatory T cell expression status. In the peripheral blood of these donors, we were unable to detect any age related difference in term of central (CD45RA-CCR7+ and effector (CD45RA-CCR7- memory T cell frequency. On the contrary, we found a significant increase in immunosuppressive regulatory (CD4+25+FoxP3+ T cells (Treg in the elderly. An immunocytofluorimetric RSV pentamer analysis performed on these donors' peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs, in vitro sensitized against RSV antigen, revealed a marked decline in long-lasting RSV specific CD8+ memory T cell precursors expressing interleukin 7 receptor α (IL-7Rα, in the elderly. This effect was paralleled by a progressive switch from a Th1 (IFN-γ and TNF-α to a Th2 (IL-10 functional phenotype. On the contrary, an increase in Treg was observed with aging. The finding of Treg over-expression status, a prominent Th2 response and an inefficient RSV-specific effector memory CD8+ T cell expansion in older donors could explain the poor protection against RSV reinfection and the increased risk to develop an RSV-related severe illness in this population. Our finding also lays the basis for new therapeutic perspectives that could limit or prevent severe RSV infection in elderly.

  6. Free and protein-bound cobalamin absorption in healthy middle-aged and older subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Asselt, D Z; van den Broek, W J; Lamers, C B; Corstens, F H; Hoefnagels, W H

    1996-08-01

    To study free- and protein-bound cobalamin absorption and the correlation with atrophic gastritis in healthy middle-aged and older subjects. A cross-sectional study. Fifty-two healthy subjects, aged 26 to 87 years, apparently free from conditions known to influence the cobalamin status. Middle-aged subjects were defined as those younger than 65 years of age (median age 57 years) and older subjects as those 65 years and older (median age 75 years). Protein-bound cobalamin absorption was assessed by 48-hour urinary excretion method following oral administration of scrambled egg yolk, labeled in vivo with 57 Co-cobalamin by injecting a hen with 57 Co-cyanocobalamin. The percentage of 57 Co-cobalamin bound to protein was 65%. Free cobalamin absorption was assessed by 48-hour urinary excretion method following oral administration of crystalline 57 Co-cyanocobalamin. Plasma cobalamin, folate and fasting plasma gastrin, and pepsinogen A and C concentrations were determined. The median urinary excretion of egg yolk 57 Co-cobalamin in middle-aged subjects was 12.3% (25th and 75th percentiles 10.5%-14.5%) compared with 11.7% (25th and 75th percentiles 9.8%-13.6%) in older subjects (P = .283). The median urinary excretion after administration of free 57 Co-cobalamin in middle-aged subjects was 25.7% (25th and 75th percentiles 20.6%-30.7%) compared with 27.9% (25th and 75th percentiles 21.4%-34.5%) in older subjects (P = .694). Neither egg yolk nor free 57 Co-cobalamin excretion correlated with age. A ratio of pepsinogen A to pepsinogen C less than 1.6, indicating atrophic gastritis, was found in 13 subjects. Within the atrophic gastritis group, 11 subjects had a pepsinogen A concentration greater than or equal to 17 micrograms/L, indicating mild to moderate atrophic gastritis, and two subjects had a pepsinogen A concentration less than 17 micrograms/L, indicating severe atrophic gastritis or gastric atrophy. All subjects had normal fasting plasma gastrin concentrations. Free

  7. Physical Aspects of Healthy Aging: Assessments of Three Measures of Balance for Studies in Middle-Aged and Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clementina D. Ceria-Ulep

    2010-01-01

    Results. The EPESE and NHANES batteries of tests were not sufficiently challenging to allow successful discrimination among subjects in good health, even older subjects. The GBPS allowed objective quantitative measurements, but the test-retest correlations generally were not high. The GBPS variables correlated with age only when subjects stood on a foam pad; they also were correlated with anthropometric variables. Conclusion. Both EPESE and NHANES balance tests were too easy for healthy subjects. The GBPS had generally low reliability coefficients except for the most difficult testing condition (foam pad, eyes closed. Both height and body fat were associated with GBPS scores, necessitating adjusting for these variables if using balance as a predictor of future health.

  8. Body mass index, chronological age and hormonal status are better predictors of biological skin age than arm skin autofluorescence in healthy women who have never smoked

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Randag, A. C.; Graaff, R.; Dreise, M. M.; Vierkoetter, A.; Werker, P. M. N.; Stenekes, M. W.

    Background As life expectancy is increasing and healthy ageing becomes more and more important, skin ageing is a growing topic of interest from both a medical and a commercial point of view. The urgency to unravel the causes of skin ageing is rising. However, there is a lack of objective, simple,

  9. Assessment of bone age in prepubertal healthy Korean children: Comparison among the Korean standard bone age chart, Greulich-Pyle method, and Tanner-Whitehouse method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim Jeong Rye; Lee, Young Seok; Yu, Jee Suk

    2015-01-01

    To compare the reliability of the Greulich-Pyle (GP) method, Tanner-Whitehouse 3 (TW3) method and Korean standard bone age chart (KS) in the evaluation of bone age of prepubertal healthy Korean children. Left hand-wrist radiographs of 212 prepubertal healthy Korean children aged 7 to 12 years, obtained for the evaluation of the traumatic injury in emergency department, were analyzed by two observers. Bone age was estimated using the GP method, TW3 method and KS, and was calculated in months. The correlation between bone age measured by each method and chronological age of each child was analyzed using Pearson correlation coefficient, scatterplot. The three methods were compared using one-way analysis of variance. Significant correlations were found between chronological age and bone age estimated by all three methods in whole group and in each gender (R2 ranged from 0.87 to 0.9, p < 0.01). Although bone age estimated by KS was slightly closer to chronological age than those estimated by the GP and TW3 methods, the difference between three methods was not statistically significant (p > 0.01). The KS, GP, and TW3 methods show good reliability in the evaluation of bone age of prepubertal healthy Korean children without significant difference between them. Any are useful for evaluation of bone age in prepubertal healthy Korean children.

  10. Body mass index, chronological age and hormonal status are better predictors of biological skin age than arm skin autofluorescence in healthy women who have never smoked

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Randag, A. C.; Graaff, R.; Dreise, M. M.; Vierkoetter, A.; Werker, P. M. N.; Stenekes, M. W.

    2015-01-01

    Background As life expectancy is increasing and healthy ageing becomes more and more important, skin ageing is a growing topic of interest from both a medical and a commercial point of view. The urgency to unravel the causes of skin ageing is rising. However, there is a lack of objective, simple,

  11. Impact of age, sex and body mass index on cortisol secretion in 143 healthy adults

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    Ferdinand Roelfsema

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Context: Studies on 24-h cortisol secretion are rare. The impact of sex, age and adiposity on cortisol levels, often restricted to one or a few samples, are well recognized, but conflicting. Objective: To investigate cortisol dynamics in 143 healthy men and women, spanning 7 decades and with a 2-fold body mass index (BMI range with different analytic tools. Setting: Clinical Research Unit. Design: Cortisol concentrations in 10-min samples collected for 24 h. Outcomes were mean levels, deconvolution parameters, approximate entropy (ApEn, regularity statistic and 24-h rhythms. Results: Total 24-h cortisol secretion rates estimated by deconvolution analysis were sex, age and BMI independent. Mean 24-h cortisol concentrations were lower in premenopausal women than those in men of comparable age (176 ± 8.2 vs 217 ± 9.4 nmol/L, P = 0.02, but not in subjects older than 50 years. This was due to lower daytime levels in women, albeit similar in the quiescent overnight period. Aging increased mean cortisol by 10 nmol/L per decade during the quiescent secretory phase and advanced the acrophase of the diurnal rhythm by 24 min/decade. However, total 24-h cortisol secretion rates estimated by deconvolution analysis were sex, age and BMI independent. ApEn of 24-h profiles was higher (more random in premenopausal women than those in men (1.048 ± 0.025 vs 0.933 ± 0.023, P = 0.001, but not in subjects older than 50 years. ApEn peaked during the daytime. Conclusion: Sex and age jointly determine the 24-h cortisol secretory profile. Sex effects are largely restricted to age <50 years, whereas age effects elevate concentrations in the late evening and early night and advance the timing of the peak diurnal rhythm.

  12. Patterns of cognitive performance in healthy ageing in Northern Portugal: a cross-sectional analysis.

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    Ana Cristina Paulo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Minho Integrative Neuroscience Database (MIND-Ageing project aims to identify predictors of healthy cognitive ageing, including socio-demographic factors. In this exploratory analysis we sought to establish baseline cohorts for longitudinal assessment of age-related changes in cognition. METHODS: The population sample (472 individuals was strictly a convenient one, but similar to the Portuguese population in the age profile. Participants older than 55 years of age were included if they did not present defined disabling pathologies or dementia. A standardized clinical interview was conducted to assess medical history and a battery of neuropsychological tests was administered to characterize global cognition (Mini Mental State Examination, memory and executive functions (Selective Reminding Test; Stroop Color and Word Test; and Block Design subtest of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale. Cross-sectional analysis of the neuropsychological performance with individual characteristics such as age, gender, educational level and setting (retirement home, senior university, day care center or community, allowed the establishment of baseline clusters for subsequent longitudinal studies. RESULTS: Based on different socio-demographic characteristics, four main clusters that group distinctive patterns of cognitive performance were identified. The type of institution where the elders were sampled from, together with the level of formal education, were the major hierarchal factors for individual distribution in the four clusters. Of notice, education seems to delay the cognitive decline that is associated with age in all clusters. CONCLUSIONS: Social-inclusion/engagement and education seem to have a protective effect on mental ageing, although this effect may not be effective in the eldest elders.

  13. Zingiber officinale Improves Cognitive Function of the Middle-Aged Healthy Women

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    Naritsara Saenghong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of cognitive enhancers from plants possessing antioxidants has gained much attention due to the role of oxidative stress-induced cognitive impairment. Thus, this study aimed to determine the effect of ginger extract, or Zingiber officinale, on the cognitive function of middle-aged, healthy women. Sixty participants were randomly assigned to receive a placebo or standardized plant extract at doses of 400 and 800 mg once daily for 2 months. They were evaluated for working memory and cognitive function using computerized battery tests and the auditory oddball paradigm of event-related potentials at three different time periods: before receiving the intervention, one month, and two months. We found that the ginger-treated groups had significantly decreased P300 latencies, increased N100 and P300 amplitudes, and exhibited enhanced working memory. Therefore, ginger is a potential cognitive enhancer for middle-aged women.

  14. Zingiber officinale Improves Cognitive Function of the Middle-Aged Healthy Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saenghong, Naritsara; Wattanathorn, Jintanaporn; Muchimapura, Supaporn; Tongun, Terdthai; Piyavhatkul, Nawanant; Banchonglikitkul, Chuleratana; Kajsongkram, Tanwarat

    2012-01-01

    The development of cognitive enhancers from plants possessing antioxidants has gained much attention due to the role of oxidative stress-induced cognitive impairment. Thus, this study aimed to determine the effect of ginger extract, or Zingiber officinale, on the cognitive function of middle-aged, healthy women. Sixty participants were randomly assigned to receive a placebo or standardized plant extract at doses of 400 and 800 mg once daily for 2 months. They were evaluated for working memory and cognitive function using computerized battery tests and the auditory oddball paradigm of event-related potentials at three different time periods: before receiving the intervention, one month, and two months. We found that the ginger-treated groups had significantly decreased P300 latencies, increased N100 and P300 amplitudes, and exhibited enhanced working memory. Therefore, ginger is a potential cognitive enhancer for middle-aged women. PMID:22235230

  15. Neural changes associated with semantic processing in healthy aging despite intact behavioral performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacombe, Jacinthe; Jolicoeur, Pierre; Grimault, Stephan; Pineault, Jessica; Joubert, Sven

    2015-10-01

    Semantic memory recruits an extensive neural network including the left inferior prefrontal cortex (IPC) and the left temporoparietal region, which are involved in semantic control processes, as well as the anterior temporal lobe region (ATL) which is considered to be involved in processing semantic information at a central level. However, little is known about the underlying neuronal integrity of the semantic network in normal aging. Young and older healthy adults carried out a semantic judgment task while their cortical activity was recorded using magnetoencephalography (MEG). Despite equivalent behavioral performance, young adults activated the left IPC to a greater extent than older adults, while the latter group recruited the temporoparietal region bilaterally and the left ATL to a greater extent than younger adults. Results indicate that significant neuronal changes occur in normal aging, mainly in regions underlying semantic control processes, despite an apparent stability in performance at the behavioral level. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Circadian rhythms in healthy aging--effects downstream from the pacemaker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monk, T. H.; Kupfer, D. J.

    2000-01-01

    Using both previously published findings and entirely new data, we present evidence in support of the argument that the circadian dysfunction of advancing age in the healthy human is primarily one of failing to transduce the circadian signal from the circadian timing system (CTS) to rhythms "downstream" from the pacemaker rather than one of failing to generate the circadian signal itself. Two downstream rhythms are considered: subjective alertness and objective performance. For subjective alertness, we show that in both normal nychthemeral (24 h routine, sleeping at night) and unmasking (36 h of constant wakeful bed rest) conditions, advancing age, especially in men, leads to flattening of subjective alertness rhythms, even when circadian temperature rhythms are relatively robust. For objective performance, an unmasking experiment involving manual dexterity, visual search, and visual vigilance tasks was used to demonstrate that the relationship between temperature and performance is strong in the young, but not in older subjects (and especially not in older men).

  17. The control of translational accuracy is a determinant of healthy ageing in yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von der Haar, Tobias; Leadsham, Jane E; Sauvadet, Aimie; Tarrant, Daniel; Adam, Ilectra S; Saromi, Kofo; Laun, Peter; Rinnerthaler, Mark; Breitenbach-Koller, Hannelore; Breitenbach, Michael; Tuite, Mick F; Gourlay, Campbell W

    2017-01-01

    Life requires the maintenance of molecular function in the face of stochastic processes that tend to adversely affect macromolecular integrity. This is particularly relevant during ageing, as many cellular functions decline with age, including growth, mitochondrial function and energy metabolism. Protein synthesis must deliver functional proteins at all times, implying that the effects of protein synthesis errors like amino acid misincorporation and stop-codon read-through must be minimized during ageing. Here we show that loss of translational accuracy accelerates the loss of viability in stationary phase yeast. Since reduced translational accuracy also reduces the folding competence of at least some proteins, we hypothesize that negative interactions between translational errors and age-related protein damage together overwhelm the cellular chaperone network. We further show that multiple cellular signalling networks control basal error rates in yeast cells, including a ROS signal controlled by mitochondrial activity, and the Ras pathway. Together, our findings indicate that signalling pathways regulating growth, protein homeostasis and energy metabolism may jointly safeguard accurate protein synthesis during healthy ageing. © 2017 The Authors.

  18. Prevalence of Candida spp. among healthy denture and nondenture wearers with respect to hygiene and age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharathi Prakash

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dentures are inert and nonshading surfaces and therefore get easily colonized by Candida species. Subsequent biofilm produced by them lead to denture stomatitis and candidiasis. This study was aimed to understand the prevalence of Candida species among healthy denture and nondenture wearers with respect to their age and hygiene status. Swabs were collected from 50 complete dentures and 50 non-denture wearers and processed on Sabouraud′s dextrose agar. Identification of Candida species was done by staining and a battery of biochemical tests. Data obtained was correlated with age & oral hygiene and statistical analysis was performed. Candida was isolated from both denture and nondenture wearers. Prevalence of different Candida species was significantly higher in denture wearers and found predominated by C. albicans, C. tropicalis, C. dubliensis and C. glabrata. Among nondenture wearers, C. albicans and C. tropicalis were isolated. Prevalence of Candida increased with increasing age among denture wearers. Men presented declining denture hygiene compared to women with increasing age. In comparison to nondenture wearers, multispecies of Candida colonized the dentures thus presenting higher risk of candidiasis especially with increasing age.

  19. Differential Impact of Genetic Loci on Age at Thelarche and Menarche in Healthy Girls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busch, Alexander S; Hagen, Casper P; Assens, Maria

    2018-01-01

    ) were followed through puberty and genotyped for FSHB c.-211G>T (rs10835638), FSHR c.-29G>A (rs1394205), FSHR c.2039A>G (rs6116), LIN28B (rs7759938), INHA (rs4141153), MKRN3 (rs12148769), TMEM38B (rs10453225), and ZNF483 (rs10980921). Main Outcome Measures: Clinical pubertal staging and anthropometric...... data. Results: We observed an association of LIN28B (rs7759938) with age at thelarche (P year, 95% confidence interval: 0.12 to 0.42) and age at menarche (P = 0.005, 0.17 year, 0.05 to 0.29). FSHB c.-211G>T (rs10835638) and FSHR c.-29G>A (rs1394205) minor allele count...... was associated with age at thelarche (P = 0.004, 0.19 year, 0.06 to 0.31) but not with age at menarche (P = 0.97; all adjusted for body mass index z scores). Conclusion: Our results indicate a differential impact of specific genetic loci on age at thelarche and menarche in healthy girls....

  20. White matter tracts associated with set-shifting in healthy aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Michele E; McDonald, Carrie R; Hagler, Donald J; Gharapetian, Lusineh; Kuperman, Joshua M; Koyama, Alain K; Dale, Anders M; McEvoy, Linda K

    2009-11-01

    Attentional set-shifting ability, commonly assessed with the Trail Making Test (TMT), decreases with increasing age in adults. Since set-shifting performance relies on activity in widespread brain regions, deterioration of the white matter tracts that connect these regions may underlie the age-related decrease in performance. We used an automated fiber tracking method to investigate the relationship between white matter integrity in several cortical association tracts and TMT performance in a sample of 24 healthy adults, 21-80 years. Diffusion tensor images were used to compute average fractional anisotropy (FA) for five cortical association tracts, the corpus callosum (CC), and the corticospinal tract (CST), which served as a control. Results showed that advancing age was associated with declines in set-shifting performance and with decreased FA in the CC and in association tracts that connect frontal cortex to more posterior brain regions, including the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus (IFOF), uncinate fasciculus (UF), and superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF). Declines in average FA in these tracts, and in average FA of the right inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF), were associated with increased time to completion on the set-shifting subtask of the TMT but not with the simple sequencing subtask. FA values in these tracts were strong mediators of the effect of age on set-shifting performance. Automated tractography methods can enhance our understanding of the fiber systems involved in performance of specific cognitive tasks and of the functional consequences of age-related changes in those systems.

  1. Aerobic exercise and other healthy lifestyle factors that influence vascular aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Parker, Jessica R.; LaRocca, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) remain the leading cause of death in the United States and other modern societies. Advancing age is the major risk factor for CVD, primarily due to stiffening of the large elastic arteries and the development of vascular endothelial dysfunction. In contrast, regular aerobic exercise protects against the development of large elastic artery stiffness and vascular endothelial dysfunction with advancing age. Moreover, aerobic exercise interventions reduce arterial stiffness and restore vascular endothelial function in previously sedentary middle-aged/older adults. Aerobic exercise exerts its beneficial effects on arterial function by modulating structural proteins, reducing oxidative stress and inflammation, and restoring nitric oxide bioavailability. Aerobic exercise may also promote “resistance” against factors that reduce vascular function and increase CVD risk with age. Preventing excessive increases in abdominal adiposity, following healthy dietary practices, maintaining a low CVD risk factor profile, and, possibly, selective use of pharmaceuticals and nutraceuticals also play a major role in preserving vascular function with aging. PMID:25434012

  2. Aerobic exercise and other healthy lifestyle factors that influence vascular aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Parker, Jessica R; LaRocca, Thomas J; Seals, Douglas R

    2014-12-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) remain the leading cause of death in the United States and other modern societies. Advancing age is the major risk factor for CVD, primarily due to stiffening of the large elastic arteries and the development of vascular endothelial dysfunction. In contrast, regular aerobic exercise protects against the development of large elastic artery stiffness and vascular endothelial dysfunction with advancing age. Moreover, aerobic exercise interventions reduce arterial stiffness and restore vascular endothelial function in previously sedentary middle-aged/older adults. Aerobic exercise exerts its beneficial effects on arterial function by modulating structural proteins, reducing oxidative stress and inflammation, and restoring nitric oxide bioavailability. Aerobic exercise may also promote "resistance" against factors that reduce vascular function and increase CVD risk with age. Preventing excessive increases in abdominal adiposity, following healthy dietary practices, maintaining a low CVD risk factor profile, and, possibly, selective use of pharmaceuticals and nutraceuticals also play a major role in preserving vascular function with aging. Copyright © 2014 The American Physiological Society.

  3. Daily Marital Interaction Quality and Carotid Artery Intima Medial Thickness in Healthy Middle Aged Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Nataria T.; Kamarck, Thomas W.; Muldoon, Matthew F.; Manuck, Stephen B.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine the association between marital interaction quality during daily life and subclinical cardiovascular disease (CVD). Studies have shown that marital status and quality of marriage are associated with cardiovascular health. However, little is known about the role of marital interaction quality during daily life in contributing to these effects. Methods The sample consisted of 281 healthy, employed middle-aged adults who were married or living with a partner in a marital-like relationship (mean age = 42.0 years, 88% white, 52% men). Marital interaction quality was assessed using hourly real-time Ecological Momentary Assessments (EMAs) for 4 days, with participants rating their current or recent partner interactions on positive and negative characteristics (e.g., agreeableness and conflict). Carotid artery intima medial thickness (IMT) was assessed using ultrasound imaging. Results Adjusting for demographics, positive marital interaction was inversely associated with IMT, [b = −.02 F(1, 275) = 9.18, p = .002], and negative marital interaction was positively associated with IMT, [b = .02 F(1, 275) = 10.29, p = .001]. These associations were not accounted for by behavioral and biological cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors and were consistent across age, sex, race, and education. The associations were also independent of marital interaction frequency, nonmarital social interaction quality, and personality factors. Global reports of marital quality, in contrast, were not associated with IMT. Conclusions Marital quality as measured during real-time interactions between partners was associated with subclinical cardiovascular disease in healthy middle-aged adults. This study supports the utility of real-time social interaction assessment for characterizing links between social relationships and cardiovascular health. PMID:24915293

  4. Independent effects of age and levodopa on reversal learning in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vo, Andrew; Seergobin, Ken N; MacDonald, Penny A

    2018-05-18

    The dopamine overdose hypothesis has provided an important theoretical framework for understanding cognition in Parkinson's disease. It posits that effects of dopaminergic therapy on cognition in Parkinson's disease depend on baseline dopamine levels in brain regions that support different functions. Although functions performed by more severely dopamine-depleted brain regions improve with medication, those associated with less dopamine deficient areas are actually worsened. It is presumed that medication-related worsening of cognition owes to dopamine overdose. We investigated whether age-related changes in baseline dopamine levels would modulate effects of dopaminergic therapy on reward learning in healthy volunteers. In a double-blind, crossover design, healthy younger and older adults completed a probabilistic reversal learning task after treatment with 100/25 mg of levodopa/carbidopa versus placebo. Older adults learned more poorly than younger adults at baseline, being more likely to shift responses after misleading punishment. Levodopa worsened stimulus-reward learning relative to placebo to the same extent in both groups, irrespective of differences in baseline performance and expected dopamine levels. When order effects were eliminated, levodopa induced response shifts after reward more often than placebo. Our results reveal independent deleterious effects of age group and exogenous dopamine on reward learning, suggesting a more complex scenario than predicted by the dopamine overdose hypothesis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Modeling practice effects in healthy middle-aged participants of the Alzheimer and Families parent cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Benavides, Gonzalo; Gispert, Juan D; Fauria, Karine; Molinuevo, José Luis; Gramunt, Nina

    2016-01-01

    Repetitive administration of neuropsychological tests can lead to performance improvement merely due to previous exposure. The magnitude of such practice effects (PEs) may be used as a marker of subtle cognitive impairment because they are diminished in healthy individuals subsequently developing Alzheimer's disease (AD). To explore the relationship between sociodemographic factors, AD family history (FH), and APOE ε4 status, and the magnitude of PE, four subtests of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-IV were administered twice to 400 middle-aged healthy individuals, most of them first-degree descendants of AD patients. PEs were observed in all measures. Sociodemographic variables did not show a uniform effect on PE. Baseline score was the strongest predictor of change, being inversely related to PE magnitude. Significant effects of the interaction term APOE ε4 ∗ Age in processing speed and working memory were observed. PEs exert a relevant effect in cognitive outcomes at retest and, accordingly, they must be taken into consideration in clinical trials. The magnitude of PE in processing speed and working memory could be of special interest for the development of cognitive markers of preclinical AD.

  6. Study designs to enhance identification of genetic factors in healthy aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manolio, Teri A

    2007-12-01

    The sequencing of the human genome and the growing understanding of its function are providing powerful new research tools for identifying genetic variants that are associated with complex diseases and traits. Somewhat less emphasis has been given to genes related to healthy aging, although the approaches for studying health-related traits are analogous to those used for disease-related studies. A critical step prior to the design of such studies is to define a healthy aging phenotype, which should be standardized to permit comparisons across studies and should involve more than simple longevity. Phenotypes of particular value for genetic research are those with high heritability and close relationships to gene products or pathways, preferably with minimal or at least measurable environmental influences. Appropriate study designs to identify genotype-phenotype associations include family-based linkage studies, candidate gene association analyses, and genome-wide association studies. Advances in genotyping and sequencing technologies, and the generation of the human haplotype map database, now permit the cost-effective investigation of the very large sample sizes needed for genome-wide association studies in unrelated individuals. Challenges in interpretation and translation of such studies include assessing the potential for bias and confounding, as well as determining the clinical validity and utility of findings proposed for wider application. Many such studies are currently supported or being planned across the National Institutes of Health (NIH), and lend themselves to the kind of coordinated clinical research envisioned in programs such as the NIH Roadmap.

  7. Sleep quality and cognitive function in healthy old age: the moderating role of subclinical depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutter, Christine; Zöllig, Jacqueline; Allemand, Mathias; Martin, Mike

    2012-11-01

    Previous research has yielded inconclusive results on the relationship between self-reported sleep quality and cognitive performance in healthy old age. Discrepant findings have been reported regarding processing speed and attention, executive functions, and episodic memory. However, sleep quality has also been found to be related to cognitive performance in patients with depression. Our aim was to clarify the relationship between sleep quality and cognitive performance in healthy older adults, and to evaluate the moderating role of subclinical depression on this relationship. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index was used to assess subjective sleep quality in 107 participants (age ≥ 61 years). A broad battery of neuropsychological tests measured basic cognitive processes, executive functions, and memory processes. Subclinical depression moderated the link between sleep quality and cognitive performance. More precisely, poorer sleep quality was associated with lower performance in reasoning, semantic fluency, and shifting in those with high versus low levels of subclinical depression. Our findings suggest that poor sleep quality might affect higher order cognitive processes, particularly in those reporting higher levels of subclinical depression. Findings on the relationships between sleep quality, cognitive functioning, and depressive symptomatology are discussed in relation to neurobehavioral theories of sleep. (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  8. Active and Healthy Ageing as a Wicked Problem: The Contribution of a Multidisciplinary Research University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riva, Giuseppe; Graffigna, Guendalina; Baitieri, Maddalena; Amato, Alessandra; Bonanomi, Maria Grazia; Valentini, Paolo; Castelli, Guido

    2014-01-01

    The quest for an active and healthy ageing can be considered a "wicked problem." It is a social and cultural problem, which is difficult to solve because of incomplete, changing, and contradictory requirements. These problems are tough to manage because of their social complexity. They are a group of linked problems embedded in the structure of the communities in which they occur. First, they require the knowledge of the social and cultural context in which they occur. They can be solved only by understanding of what people do and why they do it. Second, they require a multidisciplinary approach. Wicked problems can have different solutions, so it is critical to capture the full range of possibilities and interpretations. Thus, we suggest that Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore (UCSC) is well suited for accepting and managing this challenge because of its applied research orientation, multidisciplinary approach, and integrated vision. After presenting the research activity of UCSC, we describe a possible "systems thinking" strategy to consider the complexity and interdependence of active ageing and healthy living.

  9. Predictive Factors for Verbal Memory Performance Over Decades of Aging: Data from the Women's Healthy Ageing Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szoeke, Cassandra; Lehert, Philippe; Henderson, Victor W; Dennerstein, Lorraine; Desmond, Patricia; Campbell, Stephen

    2016-10-01

    Abnormalities in brain structure and function can occur several decades prior to the onset of cognitive decline. It is in the preceding decades that an intervention is most likely to be effective, when informed by an understanding of factors contributing to the disease prodrome. Few studies, however, have sufficient longitudinal data on relevant risks to determine the optimum targets for interventions to improve cognition in aging. In this article we examine the timing and exposure of factors contributing to verbal memory performance in later life. 387 participants from the population-based Women's Healthy Ageing Project, mean age at baseline of 49.6 years (range: 45-55 years), had complete neuropsychiatric assessments, clinical information, physical measures, and biomarkers collected at baseline, with at least three follow-up visits that included at least one cognitive reassessment. Mixed linear models were conducted to assess the significance of risk factors on later-life verbal memory. We explored the influence of early, contemporaneous, and cumulative exposures. Younger age and better education were associated with baseline memory test performance (CERAD). Over the 20 years of study follow-up, cumulative mid- to late-life physical activity had the strongest effect on better later life verbal memory (0.136 [0.058, 0.214]). The next most likely contributors to verbal memory in late life were the negative effect of cumulative hypertension (-0.033 [-0.047, -0.0.18] and the beneficial effect of HDL cholesterol (0.818 [0.042, 1.593]). Findings suggest that midlife interventions focused on physical activity, hypertension control, and achieving optimal levels of HDL cholesterol will help maintain later-life verbal memory skills. Copyright © 2016 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The Relationship of Time Perspective to Age, Gender, and Academic Achievement among Academically Talented Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mello, Zena R.; Worrell, Frank C.

    2006-01-01

    Time perspective is a useful psychological construct associated with educational outcomes (Phalet, Andriessen, & Lens, 2004) and may prove fruitful for research focusing on academically talented adolescents. Thus, the relationship of time perspective to age, gender, and academic achievement was examined among 722 academically talented middle and…

  11. Influence of schooling and age on cognitive performance in healthy older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.V.O. Bento-Torres

    Full Text Available Few studies have examined the influence of a low level of schooling on age-related cognitive decline in countries with wide social and economic inequalities by using the Cambridge Automated Neuropsychological Test Battery (CANTAB. The aim of the present study was to assess the influence of schooling on age-related cognitive decline using unbiased cognitive tests. CANTAB allows cognitive assessment across cultures and education levels with reduced interference of the examiner during data acquisition. Using two-way ANOVA, we assessed the influences of age and education on test scores of old adults (61–84 years of age. CANTAB tests included: Visual Sustained Attention, Reaction Time, Spatial Working Memory, Learning and Episodic Memory. All subjects had a minimum visual acuity of 20/30 (Snellen Test, no previous or current history of traumatic brain/head trauma, stroke, language impairment, chronic alcoholism, neurological diseases, memory problems or depressive symptoms, and normal scores on the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE. Subjects were grouped according to education level (1 to 7 and ≥8 years of schooling and age (60–69 and ≥70 years. Low schooling level was associated with significantly lower performance on visual sustained attention, learning and episodic memory, reaction time, and spatial working memory. Although reaction time was influenced by age, no significant results on post hoc analysis were detected. Our findings showed a significantly worse cognitive performance in volunteers with lower levels of schooling and suggested that formal education in early life must be included in the preventive public health agenda. In addition, we suggest that CANTAB may be useful to detect subtle cognitive changes in healthy aging.

  12. Genetics and pharmacology of longevity: the road to therapeutics for healthy aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo-Quan, Jorge Iván; Kinghorn, Kerri J; Bjedov, Ivana

    2015-01-01

    Aging can be defined as the progressive decline in tissue and organismal function and the ability to respond to stress that occurs in association with homeostatic failure and the accumulation of molecular damage. Aging is the biggest risk factor for human disease and results in a wide range of aging pathologies. Although we do not completely understand the underlying molecular basis that drives the aging process, we have gained exceptional insights into the plasticity of life span and healthspan from the use of model organisms such as the worm Caenorhabditis elegans and the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. Single-gene mutations in key cellular pathways that regulate environmental sensing, and the response to stress, have been identified that prolong life span across evolution from yeast to mammals. These genetic manipulations also correlate with a delay in the onset of tissue and organismal dysfunction. While the molecular genetics of aging will remain a prosperous and attractive area of research in biogerontology, we are moving towards an era defined by the search for therapeutic drugs that promote healthy aging. Translational biogerontology will require incorporation of both therapeutic and pharmacological concepts. The use of model organisms will remain central to the quest for drug discovery, but as we uncover molecular processes regulated by repurposed drugs and polypharmacy, studies of pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics, drug-drug interactions, drug toxicity, and therapeutic index will slowly become more prevalent in aging research. As we move from genetics to pharmacology and therapeutics, studies will not only require demonstration of life span extension and an underlying molecular mechanism, but also the translational relevance for human health and disease prevention. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Circulating Spexin Levels Negatively Correlate With Age, BMI, Fasting Glucose, and Triglycerides in Healthy Adult Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Cheng-Yuan; Huang, Tao; Zhao, Ling; Zhong, Linda L D; Lam, Wai Ching; Fan, Bao-Min; Bian, Zhao-Xiang

    2018-05-01

    Spexin is a newly identified neuropeptide that is involved in satiety control, glucose, and lipids metabolism. It has also been related to human diseases, such as obesity and type 2 diabetes. However, whether spexin changes with age or not is still unclear. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between circulating spexin levels and age and to study their interaction effects on body mass index (BMI), fasting glucose, and -lipids. This is a cross-sectional study, including 68 healthy adult women whose ages are in a wide range (minimum: 23; median: 38.5; maximum: 64). The serum spexin levels were measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Fasting glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides (TG), alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, urea, and creatinine were measured by routine biochemical test. Shapiro-Wilk's test, Spearman and Pearson correlation analyses, χ 2 test, and two-way analysis of variance were used to interpret the data. Serum spexin levels are significantly correlated with age (Spearman r = -0.277, P = 0.022), BMI (Spearman r = -0.445, P glucose (Spearman r = -0.302, P = 0.014), and TG (Spearman r = -0.324, P = 0.008). Spexin levels independently predict the risk of high BMI and high fasting glucose. No interaction effects of spexin and age on BMI and fasting glucose were found. Circulating spexin levels decrease with age, suggesting a possible role of this peptide in aging-related functions and disorders. Further investigations are needed to expand the clinical significance of this finding.

  14. Age- and gender-dependent values of skeletal muscle mass in healthy children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webber, Colin E; Barr, Ronald D

    2012-03-01

    Skeletal muscle mass (SMM) can be extracted from whole-body scans obtained by X-ray-based dual-photon absorptiometry (DXA). There is a need to establish expected age-dependent values for children and adolescents. Appendicular lean tissue mass (ALM) was extracted from whole-body DXA scans in 140 healthy children and adolescents (68 females and 72 males). Whole-body SMM was calculated from ALM using equations developed by Kim et al. (Am J Clin Nutr 84:1014-1020, 2006). Age-dependent patterns of increase in SMM were derived by fitting SMM values to equations that consisted of the sum of two logistic expressions, one accounting for SMM changes during growth and the other for SMM changes during puberty. Normal ranges were defined so that 95% of the SMM values were included. The reproducibility of SMM measurements was obtained from whole-body DXA scans repeated on three occasions in each of a separate group of 32 normal children with repositioning between scans. Normal ranges are presented as equations describing the age-dependent pattern of increase in SMM as well as population standard deviations that increased steadily with age. For 15 children below age 10, SMM reproducibility (95% CI) was 149 g (119-199 g) while for 17 children and adolescents over age 10, reproducibility was 170 g (138-223 g). DXA-based measurements of SMM in children and adolescents are reproducible and can be expressed in terms of age-dependent Z scores.

  15. Can older "at risk" adults benefit from psychoeducation targeting healthy brain aging?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norrie, Louisa M; Diamond, Keri; Hickie, Ian B; Rogers, Naomi L; Fearns, Samantha; Naismith, Sharon L

    2011-04-01

    Multifactorial strategies that prevent or delay the onset or progress of cognitive decline and dementia are needed, and should include education regarding recognized risk factors. The current study sought to investigate whether older adults "at risk" of cognitive decline benefit from psychoeducation targeting healthy brain aging. 65 participants (mean age 64.8 years, SD 9.6) with a lifetime history of major depression; vascular risk as evidenced by at least one vascular risk factor; and/or subjective or objective memory impairment were allocated to weekly psychoeducation sessions or a waitlist control group. The small group sessions were conducted over ten weeks by a team of medical and allied health professionals with expertise in late-life depression and cognition. Sessions focused on modifiable risk factors for cognitive decline including vascular risk, diet, exercise, depression, anxiety and sleep disturbance, as well as providing practical strategies for memory and cognition. Both the psychoeducation and waitlist group completed a 20-item knowledge test at baseline and follow-up. Participants in the psychoeducation group were asked to complete follow-up self-report satisfaction questionnaires. Repeated measures ANOVA showed a significant interaction effect depicting improvements in knowledge associated with psychoeducation, corresponding to an improvement of 15% from baseline. Satisfaction data additionally showed that 92.3% of participants rated the program as "good" to "excellent", and over 90% suggested they would recommend it to others. A group-based psychoeducation program targeting healthy brain aging is effective in improving knowledge. Additionally, it is acceptable and rated highly by participants.

  16. Distribution of coronary calcium score in healthy middle-aged Korean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choe, Kyu Ok; Kim, Min Jung; Choi, Byoung Wook; Kim, Jung Ho; Noh, Ki Suh; Kim, Si Yon; Ko, Heung Kyu; Suh, Il

    1999-01-01

    To determine the prevalence and degree of CAC (coronary artery calcification) in appearently healthy middle-aged Koreans, and the relation of CAC to risk factors for atherosclerosis. A total of 289 apparently healthy personnel at Yonsei University (male: 170, female:119, age: mean(SD=54.9±7.1 years) underwent EBT (electron bean tomography). The risk factors for athero-sclerosis, which included diabetes mellitus, hypertension, smoking, a family history of precocious onset, obesity, hyperlipidemia, and high intraperitoneal fat, were scrutinized. One hundred and sixty-eight subjects (58%) had at least one risk factor. The CAC score was calculated for all subjects and for each coronary artery separately and was then analyzed by age and sex and in relation to the risk factors. The prevalence of CAC was 40% in men and 18.5% in women (mean score:29.7 vs. 9.9). The number of individuals who had one, two, or more than two risk factors was 141,41, and 19, respectively. The number of risk factors and the prevalence and score of CAC were significantly correlated (p=0.01, 0.02 respectively). The number of individuals with no risk factor, with without CAC, was 58(20.1%) and 103(35.6%), respectively, while the number with some risk factor, with or without CAC, was 38(13.1%) and 90(31.1%), respectively. The CAC score was significantly higher in the presence of hypertension, low HDL, or obesity(p=0.001, 0.049, and 0.068, respectively). Smoking appeared to have a borderline effect on the calcium score(p=0.118). This study should provide useful information for interpreting CAC scores and establishing a treatment strategy for Koreans. The comparison of our results with other studies will enable a better understanding of the process and risk factors of atherosclerosis in Koreans

  17. Distribution of coronary calcium score in healthy middle-aged Korean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choe, Kyu Ok; Kim, Min Jung; Choi, Byoung Wook; Kim, Jung Ho; Noh, Ki Suh; Kim, Si Yon; Ko, Heung Kyu; Suh, Il [Yonsei Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-11-01

    To determine the prevalence and degree of CAC (coronary artery calcification) in appearently healthy middle-aged Koreans, and the relation of CAC to risk factors for atherosclerosis. A total of 289 apparently healthy personnel at Yonsei University (male: 170, female:119, age: mean(SD=54.9{+-}7.1 years)) underwent EBT (electron bean tomography). The risk factors for athero-sclerosis, which included diabetes mellitus, hypertension, smoking, a family history of precocious onset, obesity, hyperlipidemia, and high intraperitoneal fat, were scrutinized. One hundred and sixty-eight subjects (58%) had at least one risk factor. The CAC score was calculated for all subjects and for each coronary artery separately and was then analyzed by age and sex and in relation to the risk factors. The prevalence of CAC was 40% in men and 18.5% in women (mean score:29.7 vs. 9.9). The number of individuals who had one, two, or more than two risk factors was 141,41, and 19, respectively. The number of risk factors and the prevalence and score of CAC were significantly correlated (p=0.01, 0.02 respectively). The number of individuals with no risk factor, with without CAC, was 58(20.1%) and 103(35.6%), respectively, while the number with some risk factor, with or without CAC, was 38(13.1%) and 90(31.1%), respectively. The CAC score was significantly higher in the presence of hypertension, low HDL, or obesity(p=0.001, 0.049, and 0.068, respectively). Smoking appeared to have a borderline effect on the calcium score(p=0.118). This study should provide useful information for interpreting CAC scores and establishing a treatment strategy for Koreans. The comparison of our results with other studies will enable a better understanding of the process and risk factors of atherosclerosis in Koreans.

  18. Gastrointestinal tract and the elderly: functional foods, gut microflora and healthy ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunier, K; Doré, J

    2002-09-01

    Advances in science and medicine as well as improved living standards have led to a steady increase in life expectancy. Yet ageing is associated with increased susceptibility to degenerative or infectious diseases, which may be exacerbated by a poor nutritional status. The intestinal microflora will mediate crucial events towards the protection or degradation of health. It is hence essential and timely that strategies of preventive nutrition aimed at maintaining or improving the quality of life of the ageing population be developed. "CROWNALIFE" is a newly funded EuropeanUnion project, so called because of its emphasis on the preservation of the period of independence of the elderly, recognised as the "crown of life". The project aims at assessing age-related alterations and exploring strategies to restore and maintain a balanced healthy intestinal environment. Current knowledge on the composition and function of the human intestinal microflora is still improving with the use of better methodologies and yet their evolution with ageing has not been investigated in detail. There have been a few reports that putatively protective lactic acid bacteria, in general, and bifidobacteria, in particular, seem less represented in the elderly faecal flora. We have also observed an increase in species diversity of the dominant faecal microflora with ageing. This certainly warrants confirmation and is being addressed by the investigation of age-related changes in the structure and function of the intestinal flora of the elderly in countries across Europe. Ensuing results will constitute a baseline for functional-food based strategies aimed at providing health benefits for the elderly.

  19. The role of attention in emotional memory enhancement in pathological and healthy aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sava, Alina-Alexandra; Paquet, Claire; Dumurgier, Julien; Hugon, Jacques; Chainay, Hanna

    2016-01-01

    After short delays between encoding and retrieval, healthy young participants have better memory performance for emotional stimuli than for neutral stimuli. Divided-attention paradigms suggest that this emotional enhancement of memory (EEM) is due to different attention mechanisms involved during encoding: automatic processing for negative stimuli, and controlled processing for positive stimuli. As far as we know, no study on the influence of these factors on EEM in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) patients, as compared to healthy young and older controls, has been conducted. Thus, the goal of our study was to ascertain whether the EEM in these populations depends on the attention resources available at encoding. Participants completed two encoding phases: full attention (FA) and divided attention (DA), followed by two retrieval phases (recognition tasks). There was no EEM on the discrimination accuracy, independently of group and encoding condition. Nevertheless, all participants used a more liberal response criterion for the negative and positive stimuli than for neutral ones. In AD patients, larger numbers of false recognitions for negative and positive stimuli than for neutral ones were observed after both encoding conditions. In MCI patients and in healthy older and younger controls this effect was observed only for negative stimuli, and it depended on the encoding condition. Thus, this effect was observed in young controls after both encoding conditions, in older controls after the DA encoding, and in MCI patients after the FA encoding. In conclusion, our results suggest that emotional valence does not always enhance discrimination accuracy. Nevertheless, in certain conditions related to the attention resources available at encoding, emotional valence, especially the negative one, enhances the subjective feeling of familiarity and, consequently, engenders changes in response bias. This effect seems to be sensitive to the age and

  20. Non-coding genomic regions possessing enhancer and silencer potential are associated with healthy aging and exceptional survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sangkyu; Welsh, David A; Myers, Leann; Cherry, Katie E; Wyckoff, Jennifer; Jazwinski, S Michal

    2015-02-28

    We have completed a genome-wide linkage scan for healthy aging using data collected from a family study, followed by fine-mapping by association in a separate population, the first such attempt reported. The family cohort consisted of parents of age 90 or above and their children ranging in age from 50 to 80. As a quantitative measure of healthy aging, we used a frailty index, called FI34, based on 34 health and function variables. The linkage scan found a single significant linkage peak on chromosome 12. Using an independent cohort of unrelated nonagenarians, we carried out a fine-scale association mapping of the region suggestive of linkage and identified three sites associated with healthy aging. These healthy-aging sites (HASs) are located in intergenic regions at 12q13-14. HAS-1 has been previously associated with multiple diseases, and an enhancer was recently mapped and experimentally validated within the site. HAS-2 is a previously uncharacterized site possessing genomic features suggestive of enhancer activity. HAS-3 contains features associated with Polycomb repression. The HASs also contain variants associated with exceptional longevity, based on a separate analysis. Our results provide insight into functional genomic networks involving non-coding regulatory elements that are involved in healthy aging and longevity.

  1. The role of income and occupation in the association of education with healthy aging: results from a population-based, prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Christine M; St John, Philip D; Cheverie, Madelon R; Iraniparast, Maryam; Tyas, Suzanne L

    2015-11-25

    The beneficial effects of higher education on healthy aging are generally accepted, but the mechanisms are less well understood. Education may influence healthy aging through improved employment opportunities that enhance feelings of personal control and reduce hazardous exposures, or through higher incomes that enable individuals to access better health care or to reside in better neighbourhoods. Income and occupation have not been explored extensively as potential mediators of the effect of education on healthy aging. This study investigates the role of income and occupation in the association between education and healthy aging including potential effect modification by gender. Logistic regression was used to explore the association of education, income (perceived income adequacy, life satisfaction with finances) and occupation (occupational prestige) with healthy aging five years later in 946 community-dwelling adults 65+ years from a population-based, prospective cohort study in Manitoba, Canada. Higher levels of education generally increased the likelihood of healthy aging. After adjusting for education, both income measures, but not occupation, predicted healthy aging among men; furthermore, the association between education and healthy aging was no longer significant. Income and occupation did not explain the significant association between education and healthy aging among women. Perceived income adequacy and life satisfaction with finances explained the beneficial effects of higher education on healthy aging among men, but not women. Identifying predictors of healthy aging and the mechanisms through which these factors exert their effects can inform strategies to maximize the likelihood of healthy aging.

  2. Definition of Technological Solutions Based on the Internet of Things and Smart Cities Paradigms for Active and Healthy Ageing through Cocreation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Martín Medrano-Gil

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Existing initiatives to improve physical, mental, and social condition of senior citizens, which in Europe fall under the name of Active and Healthy Ageing, are including technological paradigms as main driver for innovation uptake. Among these paradigms, Smart Cities and the Internet of Things are of utmost importance. However, these initiatives may benefit from unified visions, efforts, and frameworks when it comes to defining technological solutions that take the most of both paradigms. We have defined an iterative approach, which combines user centred design techniques, technological development approaches, and a multifaceted adaptation process, to define a solution for Active and Healthy Ageing that makes use of the two paradigms. The solution is being defined in the context of two research and innovation projects, City4Age and ACTIVAGE, during which a solution is going to be defined and evaluated in the city of Madrid. Results show how Smart Cities and Internet of Things contribute to the solution, from a user (user needs and use cases and a service delivery (technologies, architecture, and suppliers perspective. In conclusion, we find the cocreation framework extremely useful for the Active and Health Ageing domain, and the proposed implementation of it is functioning, although there is room for improvement.

  3. ATTITUDES OF HEALTHY CHILDREN PARENTS TOWARDS HANDICAPPED CHILDREN AT THE PRE-SCHOOL AGE

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    Ruzica KERAMICIEVA

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1970-ties, in the USA and Western and Eastern Europe, the model of segregated education has been abandoned, and nowadays the handicapped children attend regular schools all together with other healthy pupils. This , so called Integrative Pedagogy, proceeds from the mental hygiene aspects according to which the restrictive environment in special schools has not been a favorable one for the development of those children.The integrational process of these children in preschool institutions and schools has rather been difficult due to a number of reasons. As one of them, already mentioned and found in literature , has been the negative attitude of non-handicapped children parents towards those handicapped in their development.The problem of this research is to check and test the attitude of healthy children parents towards handicapped children at preschool age. This research shall also tend to analyze the origin of the such attitudes i. e. , whether they have been a result of an insufficient information and ignorance of the obstacles during development, or been produced by imitation of the environment, or due to an empathy, or even because of the fear that “ such a thing better never enter their home”, etc.We sincerely believe that, revealing the above parents’ attitudes and their origin, would certainly bring finding ways of their successful socialization and making the integrational process of handicapped children with their normal mates in preschool institutions easier.

  4. Multilingualism and later life: a sociolinguistic perspective on age and aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divita, David

    2014-08-01

    In this paper, I contribute to subjective accounts of aging by focusing on a population that has been largely overlooked in social gerontology: individuals in later life who are multilingual. How do such individuals experience and make sense of their multilingualism? What role does language play in the way they experience and make sense of their lives? To answer these questions I take a life story approach to three women who experienced similar sociohistorical circumstances but arrived at different linguistic outcomes: born in Spain around the time of the civil war (1936-1939), they migrated to Paris in the 1960s to pursue social and economic mobility. Although they arrived in France as monolingual Spanish speakers, they have since acquired French and now practice their multilingualism in distinct ways. I juxtapose their life stories to illustrate how the acquisition and use of language are informed by a confluence of personal, social, and historical factors. Focusing on the linguistic dimension of the life course I thus introduce a new perspective on the heterogeneity obtained among individuals at this stage of their biographical trajectories. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of growth and aging on the reference values of pulmonary nitric oxide dynamics in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Högman, M; Thornadtsson, A; Liv, P; Hua-Huy, T; Dinh-Xuan, A T; Tufvesson, E; Dressel, H; Janson, C; Koskela, K; Oksa, P; Sauni, R; Uitti, J; Moilanen, E; Lehtimäki, L

    2017-09-13

    The lung just like all other organs is affected by age. The lung matures by the age of 20 and age-related changes start around middle age, at 40-50 years. Exhaled nitric oxide (F E NO) has been shown to be age, height and gender dependent. We hypothesize that the nitric oxide (NO) parameters alveolar NO (C A NO), airway flux (J aw NO), airway diffusing capacity (D aw NO) and airway wall content (C aw NO) will also demonstrate this dependence. Data from healthy subjects were gathered by the current authors from their earlier publications in which healthy individuals were included as control subjects. Healthy subjects (n = 433) ranged in age from 7 to 78 years. Age-stratified reference values of the NO parameters were significantly different. Gender differences were only observed in the 20-49 age group. The results from the multiple regression models in subjects older than 20 years revealed that age, height and gender interaction together explained 6% of variation in F E NO at 50 ml s -1 (F E NO 50 ), 4% in J aw NO, 16% in C aw NO, 8% in D aw NO and 12% in C A NO. In conclusion, in this study we have generated reference values for NO parameters from an extended NO analysis of healthy subjects. This is important in order to be able to use these parameters in clinical practice.

  6. Brain activation by visual erotic stimuli in healthy middle aged males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S W; Sohn, D W; Cho, Y-H; Yang, W S; Lee, K-U; Juh, R; Ahn, K-J; Chung, Y-A; Han, S-I; Lee, K H; Lee, C U; Chae, J-H

    2006-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to identify brain centers, whose activity changes are related to erotic visual stimuli in healthy, heterosexual, middle aged males. Ten heterosexual, right-handed males with normal sexual function were entered into the present study (mean age 52 years, range 46-55). All potential subjects were screened over 1 h interview, and were encouraged to fill out questionnaires including the Brief Male Sexual Function Inventory. All subjects with a history of sexual arousal disorder or erectile dysfunction were excluded. We performed functional brain magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in male volunteers when an alternatively combined erotic and nonerotic film was played for 14 min and 9 s. The major areas of activation associated with sexual arousal to visual stimuli were occipitotemporal area, anterior cingulate gyrus, insula, orbitofrontal cortex, caudate nucleus. However, hypothalamus and thalamus were not activated. We suggest that the nonactivation of hypothalamus and thalamus in middle aged males may be responsible for the lesser physiological arousal in response to the erotic visual stimuli.

  7. Neuromelanin marks the spot: identifying a locus coeruleus biomarker of cognitive reserve in healthy aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clewett, David V; Lee, Tae-Ho; Greening, Steven; Ponzio, Allison; Margalit, Eshed; Mather, Mara

    2016-01-01

    Leading a mentally stimulating life may build up a reserve of neural and mental resources that preserve cognitive abilities in late life. Recent autopsy evidence links neuronal density in the locus coeruleus (LC), the brain's main source of norepinephrine, to slower cognitive decline before death, inspiring the idea that the noradrenergic system is a key component of reserve (Robertson, I. H. 2013. A noradrenergic theory of cognitive reserve: implications for Alzheimer's disease. Neurobiol. Aging. 34, 298-308). Here, we tested this hypothesis using neuromelanin-sensitive magnetic resonance imaging to visualize and measure LC signal intensity in healthy younger and older adults. Established proxies of reserve, including education, occupational attainment, and verbal intelligence, were linearly correlated with LC signal intensity in both age groups. Results indicated that LC signal intensity was significantly higher in older than younger adults and significantly lower in women than in men. Consistent with the LC-reserve hypothesis, both verbal intelligence and a composite reserve score were positively associated with LC signal intensity in older adults. LC signal intensity was also more strongly associated with attentional shifting ability in older adults with lower cognitive reserve. Together these findings link in vivo estimates of LC neuromelanin signal intensity to cognitive reserve in normal aging. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Differential patterns of implicit emotional processing in Alzheimer's disease and healthy aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Rodríguez, Beatriz; Fusari, Anna; Rodríguez, Beatriz; Hernández, José Martín Zurdo; Ellgring, Heiner

    2009-01-01

    Implicit memory for emotional facial expressions (EFEs) was investigated in young adults, healthy old adults, and mild Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. Implicit memory is revealed by the effect of experience on performance by studying previously encoded versus novel stimuli, a phenomenon referred to as perceptual priming. The aim was to assess the changes in the patterns of priming as a function of aging and dementia. Participants identified EFEs taken from the Facial Action Coding System and the stimuli used represented the emotions of happiness, sadness, surprise, fear, anger, and disgust. In the study phase, participants rated the pleasantness of 36 faces using a Likert-type scale. Subsequently, the response to the 36 previously studied and 36 novel EFEs was tested when they were randomly presented in a cued naming task. The results showed that implicit memory for EFEs is preserved in AD and aging, and no specific age-related effects on implicit memory for EFEs were observed. However, different priming patterns were evident in AD patients that may reflect pathological brain damage and the effect of stimulus complexity. These findings provide evidence of how progressive neuropathological changes in the temporal and frontal areas may affect emotional processing in more advanced stages of the disease.

  9. The Mediterranean healthy eating, ageing, and lifestyle (MEAL) study: rationale and study design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosso, Giuseppe; Marventano, Stefano; D'Urso, Maurizio; Mistretta, Antonio; Galvano, Fabio

    2017-08-01

    There is accumulating evidence suggesting that Mediterranean lifestyles, including nutrition and sleeping patterns as well as social integration, may play a role in reducing age-related diseases. However, the literature is mostly deficient of evidence provided by Italian Mediterranean islands that more closely adhered to the originally described lifestyles. In this paper, we described the rationale and the study design of the Mediterranean healthy Eating, Ageing, and Lifestyle (MEAL) study, a prospective population-based cohort established in Sicily, southern Italy. The main exposures investigated are classical determinants of health, including demographic, nutritional habits, smoking and physical activity status, as well as eating-related behaviors, sleeping habits, sun exposure, social resources, and perceived stress. Anthropometric measurements will be collected. The main outcomes included depression, quality of life, and, after the follow-up period, also cardiovascular disease and cancer. The MEAL study may provide important data to increase our knowledge regarding the prevalence, incidence, and risk factors of age-related disorders in the Mediterranean region.

  10. Age differences in striatal delay sensitivity during intertemporal choice in healthy adults

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    Gregory R Samanez-Larkin

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Intertemporal choices are a ubiquitous class of decisions that involve selecting between outcomes available at different times in the future. We investigated the neural systems supporting intertemporal decisions in healthy younger and older adults. Using functional neuroimaging, we find that aging is associated with a shift in the brain areas that respond to delayed rewards. Although we replicate findings that brain regions associated with the mesolimbic dopamine system respond preferentially to immediate rewards, we find a separate region in the ventral striatum with very modest time dependence in older adults. Activation in this striatal region was relatively insensitive to delay in older but not younger adults. Since the dopamine system is believed to support associative learning about future rewards over time, our observed transfer of function may be due to greater experience with delayed rewards as people age. Identifying differences in the neural systems underlying these decisions may contribute to a more comprehensive model of age-related change in intertemporal choice.

  11. Parenting clinically anxious versus healthy control children aged 4-12 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Sluis, C M; van Steensel, F J A; Bögels, S M

    2015-05-01

    This study investigated whether parenting behaviors differed between parents of 68 clinically anxious children and 106 healthy control children aged 4-12 years. The effects of parent gender, child gender and child age on parenting were explored. Mothers and fathers completed a questionnaire to assess parenting behaviors in for children hypothetically anxious situations. Results showed that parents of clinically anxious children reported more anxiety-enhancing parenting (reinforcement of dependency and punishment) as well as more positive parenting (positive reinforcement). For the clinical sample, fathers reported using more modeling/reassurance than mothers, and parents reported using more force with their 4-7-year-olds than with their 8-12-year-olds. No interaction effects were found for child gender with child anxiety status on parenting. Results indicate that for intervention, it is important to measure parenting behaviors, and to take into account father and mother differences and the age of the child. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Dynamic functional reorganizations and relationship with working memory performance in healthy aging.

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    Roser eSala-Llonch

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, several theories have been proposed in attempts to identify the neural mechanisms underlying successful cognitive aging. Old subjects show increased neural activity during the performance of tasks, mainly in prefrontal areas, which is interpreted as a compensatory mechanism linked to functional brain efficiency. Moreover, resting-state studies have concluded that elders show disconnection or disruption of large-scale functional networks. We used functional MRI during resting-state and a verbal n-back task with different levels of memory load in a cohort of young and old healthy adults to identify patterns of networks associated with working memory and brain default mode. We found that the disruption of resting-state networks in the elderly coexists with task-related overactivations of certain brain areas and with reorganizations within these functional networks. Moreover, elders who were able to activate additional areas and to recruit a more bilateral frontal pattern within the task-related network achieved successful performance on the task. We concluded that the balanced and plastic reorganization of brain networks underlies successful cognitive aging. This observation allows the integration of several theories that have been proposed to date regarding the aging brain.

  13. Normative perceptual estimates for 91 healthy subjects age 60-75

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilms, Inge Linda; Nielsen, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Visual perception serves as the basis for much of the higher level cognitive processing as well as human activity in general. Here we present normative estimates for the following components of visual perception: the visual perceptual threshold, the visual short-term memory capacity and the visual...... perceptual encoding/decoding speed (processing speed) of visual short-term memory based on an assessment of 91 healthy subjects aged 60-75. The estimates are presented at total sample level as well as at gender level. The estimates were modelled from input from a whole-report assessment based on A Theory...... speed of Visual Short-term Memory (VTSM) but not the capacity of VSTM nor the visual threshold. The estimates will be useful for future studies into the effects of various types of intervention and training on cognition in general and visual attention in particular....

  14. Dietary restriction with and without caloric restriction for healthy aging [version 1; referees: 3 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changhan Lee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Caloric restriction is the most effective and reproducible dietary intervention known to regulate aging and increase the healthy lifespan in various model organisms, ranging from the unicellular yeast to worms, flies, rodents, and primates. However, caloric restriction, which in most cases entails a 20–40% reduction of food consumption relative to normal intake, is a severe intervention that results in both beneficial and detrimental effects. Specific types of chronic, intermittent, or periodic dietary restrictions without chronic caloric restriction have instead the potential to provide a significant healthspan increase while minimizing adverse effects. Improved periodic or targeted dietary restriction regimens that uncouple the challenge of food deprivation from the beneficial effects will allow a safe intervention feasible for a major portion of the population. Here we focus on healthspan interventions that are not chronic or do not require calorie restriction.

  15. Effects of age and physical activity on the autonomic control of heart rate in healthy men

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    R.C. Melo

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The effects of the aging process and an active life-style on the autonomic control of heart rate (HR were investigated in nine young sedentary (YS, 23 ± 2.4 years, 16 young active (YA, 22 ± 2.1 years, 8 older sedentary (OS, 63 ± 2.4 years and 8 older active (OA, 61 ± 1.1 years healthy men. Electrocardiogram was continuously recorded for 15 min at rest and for 4 min in the deep breathing test, with a breath rate of 5 to 6 cycles/min in the supine position. Resting HR and RR intervals were analyzed by time (RMSSD index and frequency domain methods. The power spectral components are reported in normalized units (nu at low (LF and high (HF frequency, and as the LF/HF ratio. The deep breathing test was analyzed by the respiratory sinus arrhythmia indices: expiration/inspiration ratio (E/I and inspiration-expiration difference (deltaIE. The active groups had lower HR and higher RMSSD index than the sedentary groups (life-style condition: sedentary vs active, P < 0.05. The older groups showed lower HFnu, higher LFnu and higher LF/HF ratio than the young groups (aging effect: young vs older, P < 0.05. The OS group had a lower E/I ratio (1.16 and deltaIE (9.7 bpm than the other groups studied (YS: 1.38, 22.4 bpm; YA: 1.40, 21.3 bpm; OA: 1.38, 18.5 bpm. The interaction between aging and life-style effects had a P < 0.05. These results suggest that aging reduces HR variability. However, regular physical activity positively affects vagal activity on the heart and consequently attenuates the effects of aging in the autonomic control of HR.

  16. Feature-selective attention in healthy old age: a selective decline in selective attention?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quigley, Cliodhna; Müller, Matthias M

    2014-02-12

    Deficient selection against irrelevant information has been proposed to underlie age-related cognitive decline. We recently reported evidence for maintained early sensory selection when older and younger adults used spatial selective attention to perform a challenging task. Here we explored age-related differences when spatial selection is not possible and feature-selective attention must be deployed. We additionally compared the integrity of feedforward processing by exploiting the well established phenomenon of suppression of visual cortical responses attributable to interstimulus competition. Electroencephalogram was measured while older and younger human adults responded to brief occurrences of coherent motion in an attended stimulus composed of randomly moving, orientation-defined, flickering bars. Attention was directed to horizontal or vertical bars by a pretrial cue, after which two orthogonally oriented, overlapping stimuli or a single stimulus were presented. Horizontal and vertical bars flickered at different frequencies and thereby elicited separable steady-state visual-evoked potentials, which were used to examine the effect of feature-based selection and the competitive influence of a second stimulus on ongoing visual processing. Age differences were found in feature-selective attentional modulation of visual responses: older adults did not show consistent modulation of magnitude or phase. In contrast, the suppressive effect of a second stimulus was robust and comparable in magnitude across age groups, suggesting that bottom-up processing of the current stimuli is essentially unchanged in healthy old age. Thus, it seems that visual processing per se is unchanged, but top-down attentional control is compromised in older adults when space cannot be used to guide selection.

  17. Changes to online control and eye-hand coordination with healthy ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Rielly, Jessica L; Ma-Wyatt, Anna

    2018-06-01

    Goal directed movements are typically accompanied by a saccade to the target location. Online control plays an important part in correction of a reach, especially if the target or goal of the reach moves during the reach. While there are notable changes to visual processing and motor control with healthy ageing, there is limited evidence about how eye-hand coordination during online updating changes with healthy ageing. We sought to quantify differences between older and younger people for eye-hand coordination during online updating. Participants completed a double step reaching task implemented under time pressure. The target perturbation could occur 200, 400 and 600 ms into a reach. We measured eye position and hand position throughout the trials to investigate changes to saccade latency, movement latency, movement time, reach characteristics and eye-hand latency and accuracy. Both groups were able to update their reach in response to a target perturbation that occurred at 200 or 400 ms into the reach. All participants demonstrated incomplete online updating for the 600 ms perturbation time. Saccade latencies, measured from the first target presentation, were generally longer for older participants. Older participants had significantly increased movement times but there was no significant difference between groups for touch accuracy. We speculate that the longer movement times enable the use of new visual information about the target location for online updating towards the end of the movement. Interestingly, older participants also produced a greater proportion of secondary saccades within the target perturbation condition and had generally shorter eye-hand latencies. This is perhaps a compensatory mechanism as there was no significant group effect on final saccade accuracy. Overall, the pattern of results suggests that online control of movements may be qualitatively different in older participants. Crown Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V. All

  18. Consumer Perspectives on Involving Family and Significant Others in a Healthy Lifestyle Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschbrenner, Kelly; Bartels, Stephen; Mueser, Kim; Carpenter-Song, Elizabeth; Kinney, Allison

    2012-01-01

    This focus group study explored the potential benefits and challenges of involving family members and significant others in a healthy lifestyle program for people with serious mental illness (SMI). Six focus group interviews were conducted with a total of 30 people with SMI, who were participants in a healthy lifestyle intervention. Separate focus…

  19. Aging in the Soviet Union: A West Siberian Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demitri, Shimkin

    1989-01-01

    Presents ethnographic observations on the aged and aging from six months' residence in Siberian industrial city. Describes interactions with medical personnel and reviews scanty literature in Soviet Union. Notes integration of aged in families and respect given to older persons. Discusses problems of elderly caused by hard living conditions,…

  20. Internal Jugular Vein Cross-Sectional Area Enlargement Is Associated with Aging in Healthy Individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Magnano

    Full Text Available Internal jugular vein (IJV narrowing has been implicated in central nervous system pathologies, however normal physiological age- and gender-related IJV variance in healthy individuals (HIs has not been adequately assessed.We assessed the relationship between IJV cross-sectional area (CSA and aging.This study involved 193 HIs (63 males and 130 females who received 2-dimensional magnetic resonance venography at 3T. The minimum CSA of the IJVs at cervical levels C2/C3, C4, C5/C6, and C7/T1 was obtained using a semi-automated contouring-thresholding technique. Subjects were grouped by decade. Pearson and partial correlation (controlled for cardiovascular risk factors, including hypertension, heart disease, smoking and body mass index and analysis of variance analyses were used, with paired t-tests comparing side differences.Mean right IJV CSA ranges were: in males, 41.6 mm2 (C2/C3 to 82.0 mm2 (C7/T1; in females, 38.0 mm2 (C2/C3 to 62.3 mm2 (C7/T1, while the equivalent left side ranges were: in males, 28.0 mm2 (C2/C3 to 52.2 mm2 (C7/T1; in females, 27.2 mm2 (C2/C3 to 47.8 mm2 (C7/T1. The CSA of the right IJVs was significantly larger (p<0.001 than the left at all cervical levels. Controlling for cardiovascular risk factors, the correlation between age and IJV CSA was more robust in males than in the females for all cervical levels.In HIs age, gender, hand side and cervical location all affect IJV CSA. These findings suggest that any definition of IJV stenosis needs to account for these factors.

  1. Plasma and serum lipidomics of healthy white adults shows characteristic profiles by subjects' gender and age.

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    Masaki Ishikawa

    Full Text Available Blood is a commonly used biofluid for biomarker discovery. Although blood lipid metabolites are considered to be potential biomarker candidates, their fundamental properties are not well characterized. We aimed to (1 investigate the matrix type (serum vs. plasma that may be preferable for lipid biomarker exploration, (2 elucidate age- and gender-associated differences in lipid metabolite levels, and (3 examine the stability of lipid metabolites in matrix samples subjected to repeated freeze-thaw cycles. Using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, we performed lipidomic analyses for fasting plasma and serum samples for four groups (15 subjects/group of young and elderly (25-34 and 55-64 years old, respectively males and females and for an additional aliquot of samples from young males, which were subjected to repeated freeze-thaw cycles. Lysophosphatidylcholine and diacylglycerol levels were higher in serum than in plasma samples, suggesting that the clotting process influences serum lipid metabolite levels. Gender-associated differences highlighted that the levels of many sphingomyelin species were significantly higher in females than in males, irrespective of age and matrix (plasma and serum. Age-associated differences were more prominent in females than in males, and in both matrices, levels of many triacylglycerols were significantly higher in elderly females than in young females. Plasma and serum levels of most lipid metabolites were reduced by freeze-thawing. Our results indicate that plasma is an optimal matrix for exploring lipid biomarkers because it represents the original properties of an individual's blood sample. In addition, the levels of some blood lipid species of healthy adults showed gender- and age-associated differences; thus, this should be considered during biomarker exploration and its application in diagnostics. Our fundamental findings on sample selection and handling procedures for measuring blood lipid metabolites

  2. Establishing blood gas ranges in healthy bovine neonates differentiated by age, sex, and breed type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillane, Patrick; Krump, Lea; Kennedy, Aideen; Sayers, Ríona G; Sayers, Gearóid P

    2018-04-01

    Calf mortality and morbidity commonly occurs within the first month of life postpartum. Standard health ranges are invaluable aids in diagnostic veterinary medicine to confirm normal or the degree and nature of abnormal parameters in (sub)clinically ill animals. Extensive research has indicated significant differences between the physiologies of neonate and adult cattle, particularly for blood parameters such as pH, base excess, anion gap, and bicarbonate (HCO 3 - ). The objective of this research was to determine the influence of age, sex, and breed type, in addition to environmental factors, on the normal blood gas profiles of neonatal calves, and thus develop a scientifically validated reference range accounting for any significant factors. The study was conducted on healthy neonatal calves (n = 288), and completed over a 2-yr period. Individual calf blood gas analysis was conducted for parameters of pH, base excess, Na + , K + , Ca 2+ , Cl - , glucose, total hemoglobin, HCO 3 - , pCO 2 , anion gap, strong ion difference, and hematocrit levels. Regression procedures examined the combined effect of year, farm, age, breed type, sex, and hours postfeeding on each variable. Significant effects were observed for age, sex, and breed type on several of the blood gas variables. Furthermore, year, farm, and hours postfeeding appeared to have less of an influence on neonatal bovine blood gas profiles. Consequently, specific ranges based on the neonate's age, sex, and breed type will allow for more detailed and accurate diagnosis of health and ill health in neonatal calves. The Authors. Published by FASS Inc. and Elsevier Inc. on behalf of the American Dairy Science Association®. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/).

  3. Time perspectives and convenience food consumption among teenagers in Vietnam: The dual role of hedonic and healthy eating values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Svein Ottar; Tuu, Ho Huy

    2017-09-01

    This study uses the subscales of Consideration of Future Consequences (CFC) to explore the effects of future (CFC-future) and immediate (CFC-immediate) on convenience food consumption among teenagers in Vietnam. Furthermore, we investigate the mediating and dual role of hedonic and healthy eating values in the relationships between CFCs and convenience food consumption. Survey data from 451 teenagers in Central Vietnam and structural equation modelling were used to test the relationships in a proposed theoretical model. The results indicate that while CFC-immediate and hedonic eating value has a positive direct effect, CFC-future and healthy eating value has a negative direct effect on convenience food consumption. The findings also reveal that both CFC-immediate and CFC-future have positive effects on hedonic and healthy eating values. However, this study argues and tests the relative importance of the direct (asymmetric) effects of time perspectives on eating values, and finds that while CFC-future dominate in explaining healthy eating values, CFC-immediate dominate in explaining hedonic eating values. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The perspective of university students on the school as a promoter of health and healthy lifestyle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan José Leiva Olivencia

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Healthy Education is a basic dimension in the 21st-century scholar functions. In this paper is shown the more highlighted outcomes from a research about understanding attitudes and perceptions from university students about the role of the school for boosting a healthy style of life. An ad-hoc questionnaire was applied to 115 students from the Faculty of Education of the University of Málaga. The main conclusion is student have a very positive image about the Education for Health, and its inclusion in the curriculum. However, they are critics about a real engagement from schools for developing healthy habits.

  5. COMPARATIVE CHARACTERISTICS OF EMOTIONAL CONDITION OF HEALTHY SCHOOLCHILDREN AND CHILDREN WITH POLLINOSIS AT THE AGE OF 11–17 YEARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. I. Muradova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The comparative characteristics of emotional condition of healthy schoolchildren and children with pollinosis at the age of 11–17 years old was performed with Spielberg-Hanin questionnaire on the basis of computer psychophysiological complex CPPC-99 «Psichomat».One hundred seventy-five healthy schoolchildren and 46 children with pollinosis at the age of 11–17 years old were included to the study. No significant difference in reactive anxiety between children with pollinosis and healthy children was found. It was shown, that pollinosis (in 35% significantly and concomitant diseases, such as bronchial asthma (in 57 significant influence on personality anxiety, in comparison with healthy children (significant personality anxiety was found in 3% of cases. It was revealed, that all children from control group with high anxiety rate (3% were 17-year-old adolescents.

  6. Nutrition and brain aging: role of fatty acids with an epidemiological perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samieri Cécilia

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In the absence of identified etiologic treatment for dementia, the potential preventive role of nutrition may offer an interesting perspective. The objective of the thesis of C. Samieri was to study the association between nutrition and brain aging in 1,796 subjects, aged 65 y or older, from the Bordeaux sample of the Three-City study, with a particular emphasis on fatty acids. Considering the multidimensional nature of nutritional data, several complementary strategies were used. At the global diet level, dietary patterns actually observed in the population were identified by exploratory methods. Older subjects with a ‘‘healthy’’ pattern, who consumed more than 3.5 weekly servings of fish in men and more than 6 daily servings of fruits and vegetables in women, showed a better cognitive and psychological health. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet, measured according to a score-based confirmatory method, was associated with slower global cognitive decline after 5 y of follow-up. At the nutrient biomarker level, higher plasma eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, a long-chain omega-3 fatty acid, was associated with a decreased dementia risk, and the omega-6-to-omega-3 fatty acids ratio to an increased risk, particularly in depressed subjects. EPA was also related to slower working memory decline in depressed subjects or in carriers of the e4 allele of the ApoE gene. Docosahexaenoic acid was related to slower working memory decline only in ApoE4 carriers. Overall, this work suggests a positive impact of a healthy diet rich in fruits and vegetables and fish, and notably the Mediterranean diet, on cognition in older subjects. Long-chain n-3 PUFA, in particular EPA, may be key protective nutrients against risk of dementia and cognitive decline.

  7. Preserved memory-based orienting of attention with impaired explicit memory in healthy ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvato, Gerardo; Patai, Eva Z; Nobre, Anna C

    2016-01-01

    It is increasingly recognised that spatial contextual long-term memory (LTM) prepares neural activity for guiding visuo-spatial attention in a proactive manner. In the current study, we investigated whether the decline in explicit memory observed in healthy ageing would compromise this mechanism. We compared the behavioural performance of younger and older participants on learning new contextual memories, on orienting visual attention based on these learnt contextual associations, and on explicit recall of contextual memories. We found a striking dissociation between older versus younger participants in the relationship between the ability to retrieve contextual memories versus the ability to use these to guide attention to enhance performance on a target-detection task. Older participants showed significant deficits in the explicit retrieval task, but their behavioural benefits from memory-based orienting of attention were equivalent to those in young participants. Furthermore, memory-based orienting correlated significantly with explicit contextual LTM in younger adults but not in older adults. These results suggest that explicit memory deficits in ageing might not compromise initial perception and encoding of events. Importantly, the results also shed light on the mechanisms of memory-guided attention, suggesting that explicit contextual memories are not necessary. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Energy-related parameters and their association with age, gender, and morphometric measurements in healthy donkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, F J; Estepa, J C; Gonzalez-De Cara, C A; Aguilera-Aguilera, R; Toribio, R E; Perez-Ecija, A

    2015-05-01

    Donkeys are commonly afflicted by endocrine and metabolic disturbances but few studies have investigated endocrine variables involved in energy regulation and their association with morphometric indices, age or gender in this species. Hemostatic and clinical differences have been demonstrated between horses and donkeys, so to consider both species as metabolically and endocrinologically similar could lead to misdiagnosis. In this study, plasma concentrations of glucose, triglycerides and endocrine factors involved in energy homeostasis (insulin, glucagon, leptin, adiponectin, ghrelin and insulin-like growth factor [IGF]-1) were measured and their association with morphometric variables (body condition score, neck scoring and body mass index), gender and age was determined in 62 healthy donkeys. In addition, a neck scoring system specific for donkeys was developed. Insulin, glucagon, leptin and IGF-1 concentrations were found to be similar between donkeys and other species, but adiponectin and active ghrelin were lower in donkeys than horses. Donkeys with larger neck scores and body mass indices had higher triglyceride, leptin and IGF-1 concentrations. A sexual dimorphism was observed on all morphometric measurements and plasma glucose concentrations independent of adiposity. Younger animals had lower morphometric measurements and triglyceride and leptin concentrations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Preservation of musical memory and engagement in healthy aging and Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuddy, Lola L; Sikka, Ritu; Vanstone, Ashley

    2015-03-01

    In striking contrast to the difficulties with new learning and episodic memories in aging and especially in Alzheimer's disease (AD), musical long-term memories appear to be largely preserved. Evidence for spared musical memories in aging and AD is reviewed here. New data involve the development of a Musical Engagement Questionnaire especially designed for use with AD patients. The questionnaire assesses behavioral responses to music and is answered by the care partner. Current results show that, despite cognitive loss, persons with mild to moderate AD preserve musical engagement and music seeking. Familiar music evokes personal autobiographical memories for healthy younger and older adults as well and for those with mild to moderate AD. It is argued that music is a prime candidate for being a stimulus for cognitive stimulation because musical memories and associated emotions may be readily evoked; that is, they are strong and do not need to be repaired. Working with and through music as a resource may enhance social and communication functions. © 2015 New York Academy of Sciences.

  10. Posturography and risk of recurrent falls in healthy non-institutionalized persons aged over 65.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buatois, Séverine; Gueguen, René; Gauchard, Gérome C; Benetos, Athanase; Perrin, Philippe P

    2006-01-01

    A poor postural stability in older people is associated with an increased risk of falling. The posturographic tool has widely been used to assess balance control; however, its value in predicting falls remains unclear. The purpose of this prospective study was to determine the predictive value of posturography in the estimation of the risk of recurrent falls, including a comparison with standard clinical balance tests, in healthy non-institutionalized persons aged over 65. Two hundred and six healthy non-institutionalized volunteers aged over 65 were tested. Postural control was evaluated by posturographic tests, performed on static, dynamic and dynamized platforms (static test, slow dynamic test and Sensory Organization Test [SOT]) and clinical balance tests (Timed 'Up & Go' test, One-Leg Balance, Sit-to-Stand-test). Subsequent falls were monitored prospectively with self-questionnaire sent every 4 months for a period of 16 months after the balance testing. Subjects were classified prospectively in three groups of Non-Fallers (0 fall), Single-Fallers (1 fall) and Multi-Fallers (more than 2 falls). Loss of balance during the last trial of the SOT sensory conflicting condition, when visual and somatosensory inputs were distorted, was the best factor to predict the risk of recurrent falls (OR = 3.6, 95% CI = 1.3-10.11). Multi-Fallers showed no postural adaptation during the repetitive trials of this sensory condition, contrary to Non-Fallers and Single-Fallers. The Multi-Fallers showed significantly more sway when visual inputs were occluded. The clinical balance tests, the static test and the slow dynamic test revealed no significant differences between the groups. In a sample of non-institutionalized older persons aged over 65, posturographic evaluation by the SOT, especially with repetition of the same task in sensory conflicting condition, compared to the clinical tests and the static and dynamic posturographic test, appears to be a more sensitive tool to

  11. Analysis of longitudinal diffusion-weighted images in healthy and pathological aging: An ADNI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruggel, Frithjof; Masaki, Fumitaro; Solodkin, Ana

    2017-02-15

    The widely used framework of voxel-based morphometry for analyzing neuroimages is extended here to model longitudinal imaging data by exchanging the linear model with a linear mixed-effects model. The new approach is employed for analyzing a large longitudinal sample of 756 diffusion-weighted images acquired in 177 subjects of the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging initiative (ADNI). While sample- and group-level results from both approaches are equivalent, the mixed-effect model yields information at the single subject level. Interestingly, the neurobiological relevance of the relevant parameter at the individual level describes specific differences associated with aging. In addition, our approach highlights white matter areas that reliably discriminate between patients with Alzheimer's disease and healthy controls with a predictive power of 0.99 and include the hippocampal alveus, the para-hippocampal white matter, the white matter of the posterior cingulate, and optic tracts. In this context, notably the classifier includes a sub-population of patients with minimal cognitive impairment into the pathological domain. Our classifier offers promising features for an accessible biomarker that predicts the risk of conversion to Alzheimer's disease. Data used in preparation of this article were obtained from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) database (adni.loni.usc.edu). As such, the investigators within the ADNI contributed to the design and implementation of ADNI and/or provided data but did not participate in analysis or writing of this report. A complete listing of ADNI investigators can be found at: http://adni.loni.usc.edu/wp-content/uploads/how to apply/ADNI Acknowledgement List.pdf. Significance statement This study assesses neuro-degenerative processes in the brain's white matter as revealed by diffusion-weighted imaging, in order to discriminate healthy from pathological aging in a large sample of elderly subjects. The analysis of time

  12. Socio-ecological perspective of older age life expectancy: income, gender inequality, and financial crisis in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong In; Kim, Gukbin

    2017-08-18

    Population is aging rapidly in Europe. Older age life expectancy (OLE) can be influenced by country-level depth of credit information (DCI) as an indicator of financial crisis, gross national income (GNI) per capita, and gender inequality index (GII). These factors are key indicators of socio-ecological inequality. They can be used to develop strategies to reduce country-level health disparity. The objective of this study was to confirm the relationship between socio-ecological factors and OLE in Europe. Data were obtained from World Bank, WHO, and UN database for 34 Europe countries. Associations between socio-ecological factors and OLE were assessed with Pearson correlation coefficients and three regression models. These models assumed that appropriate changes in country-level strategies of healthy aging would produce changes in GNI per capital as personal perspective, GII in social environment perspective, and DCI in public policy perspective to implement socio-ecological changes. Hierarchal linear regression was used for final analysis. Although OLE (women and men) had significant negative correlation with GII (gender inequality index, r = - 0.798, p = 0.001), it had positive correlations with GNI (gross national income per capita, r = 0.834, p = 0.001) and DCI (depth of credit information index, r = 0.704, p = 0.001) levels caused by financial crisis. Higher levels GNI and DCI but lower GII were found to be predictors of OLE (women and men) (R 2  = 0.804, p effect on OLE levels. Thus, country-level strategies of successful aging in Europe should target socio-ecological factors such as GII, GNI, and DCI value.

  13. Educational Differences in Healthy Behavior Changes and Adherence among Middle-Aged Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolis, Rachel

    2013-01-01

    Although the better-educated are more likely to practice healthy behaviors when measured at one point in time, there is no clear evidence regarding whether more educated people are more likely to initiate healthy behavior changes in the face of new chronic conditions and whether they are better able to adhere to these healthy changes, once made. I…

  14. The cost of community-managed viral respiratory illnesses in a cohort of healthy preschool-aged children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allen Kelly M

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute respiratory illnesses (ARIs during childhood are often caused by respiratory viruses, result in significant morbidity, and have associated costs for families and society. Despite their ubiquity, there is a lack of interdisciplinary epidemiologic and economic research that has collected primary impact data, particularly associated with indirect costs, from families during ARIs in children. Methods We conducted a 12-month cohort study in 234 preschool children with impact diary recording and PCR testing of nose-throat swabs for viruses during an ARI. We used applied values to estimate a virus-specific mean cost of ARIs. Results Impact diaries were available for 72% (523/725 of community-managed illnesses between January 2003 and January 2004. The mean cost of ARIs was AU$309 (95% confidence interval $263 to $354. Influenza illnesses had a mean cost of $904, compared with RSV, $304, the next most expensive single-virus illness, although confidence intervals overlapped. Mean carer time away from usual activity per day was two hours for influenza ARIs and between 30 and 45 minutes for all other ARI categories. Conclusion From a societal perspective, community-managed ARIs are a significant cost burden on families and society. The point estimate of the mean cost of community-managed influenza illnesses in healthy preschool aged children is three times greater than those illnesses caused by RSV and other respiratory viruses. Indirect costs, particularly carer time away from usual activity, are the key cost drivers for ARIs in children. The use of parent-collected specimens may enhance ARI surveillance and reduce any potential Hawthorne effect caused by compliance with study procedures. These findings reinforce the need for further integrated epidemiologic and economic research of ARIs in children to allow for comprehensive cost-effectiveness assessments of preventive and therapeutic options.

  15. The Survey on Knowledge of Shiraz District Health Volunteers Over Healthy Life Style in Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoomeh Saffari

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The education promotion of elderly health is an Important preference of health that should be planned for it. Several problems of elderly are supposed to be due to life style so the community education of healthy life style should be considered. The appropriate approach to achieve those objectives is to use of female health volunteers for transformation of this education to families. Methods & Materials: To determine the level of knowledge of health voluntaries about healthy life style for prevention of problems in elderly period, in Shiraz. Method & Materials: In a cross-sectional study, 320 health voluntaries were selected by randomized method. The sample size was calculated with the results.  A pilot study on one hundred with use of a questionnaire contain of 5 demographic questions and 32 questions about life style including nutrition, prevention of disease, oral health's and health advices. They filled the questionaries' and the data were entered in EPI 2002 software and were analyzed by descriptive tests. Results: The mean age all of 320 health were 33.7 years, with standard deviation of 8.6 years. The knowledge level of them in health advices were 15% weak, 66.9% medium and 18.2% well. In oral health 21.6% well, 61.3% medium & 7.2% well. In prevention of disease 37% weak, 62.2% medium and 9% well, in nutrition 24.6% weak, 69.3% medium and 5.9% well. Overall the level of knowledge of health volunteers about life style were 20.9% weak, 65.5% medium and 13.8% well. Conclusion: In the aim achieving to their approaches program of health, volunteers was started by Ministry of Health in 1990. This program was performed by the aim of health promotion in these group with participation of themselves. Till now they have trained in the recognition of health problems and healthy approach to them. So, the volunteers transfer their knowledge to community specially to under their coverage. At present the health problems are not only due to

  16. Relationship between ultrasound estimated fetal gestational age and cerebellar appearance in healthy pregnant Nigerian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeyekun, Ademola A; Orji, Michael O

    2015-01-01

    Fetal biometry by ultrasound provides reliable and important information about fetal growth and wellbeing. Evaluation of the fetal posterior fossa is useful in the assessment of neural tube-defects. Studies on normal ultrasound fetal cerebellar appearance and diameter across gestational age (GA) are scanty in the Nigerian medical literature. This study was carried out to study normal fetal cerebellar appearance and diameter at various GAs among healthy pregnant Nigerian Africans. This was a prospective study of 450 healthy singleton pregnant women between 13 and 42 weeks gestation. A curvilinear probe with a 3.5 MHz transducer of a SonoAce X6 (Medison Inc., Korea 2010) scanner was used to assess fetal transcerebellar diameter (TCD) and appearance. GA was also determined using fetal biometric parameters such as the biparietal diameter, femur length, and abdominal circumference. Fetal cerebellar appearance was correlated against GA. The cerebellar appearance was graded into: Grade I: 164 fetuses (36.4%), Grade II; 102 fetuses (22.7%) and Grade III: 184 fetuses (40.9%). Mean GA and TCD was 21 weeks and 21.2 mm for Grade I; 28 weeks and 32.6 mm for Grade II; and 35 weeks and 47.1 mm for Grade III. There was significance difference among the cerebellar grades at the GA groups and transverse cerebellar diameter (P < 0.000). There is a gradual and steady change in ultrasonographic appearance of the fetal cerebellar and diameter appearance with advancing gestation. The changes ranged from anechoic, "pair of eye glass" appearance at second trimester to relatively echogenic, "dumb-bell" appearance at early third trimester, and solid, "fan-shape" in late third trimester.

  17. Spinal shape analysis in 1,020 healthy young adults aged from 19 to 30 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Krejčí

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: A number of studies on diseased spine have been published; however, there is a relative paucity of studies investigating spine shape characteristics in healthy populations. Such characteristics are needed for diagnostics of spine disorders and assessment of changes in the spinal shape that may have been caused by influence of the modern life style or intensive sport activity. Objective: The aim of the study was to determine characteristics of the spine shape in a large sample of healthy young adults. Methods: Population cross-sectional study. A non-radiographic surface method (system DTP-3 was used for the assessment of spine shape in the sagittal and frontal planes. A total of 1,020 participants (440 men, 580 women took part in the study, their mean (± SD age was 21.8 ± 1.9 years (range 19.1-29.7 for men and 21.9 ± 1.8 years (range 19.3-29.7 for women. All data were checked for normality and are presented as means, standard deviations, ranges, skewness, and kurtosis. Differences between the sexes were assessed with the two-sample t-test. Results: The average sagittal spinal shape was C3 - 12.9° - C7 - 43.0° - T10 - 27.1° - L5 for men and C3 - 12.1° - C6 - 44.5° - T11 - 34.1° - L5 for women. Men showed a significantly smaller thoracic kyphosis and lumbar lordosis curvatures than women. The average curvature due to the lateral deviation in the frontal plane was 6.1° for both sexes, the curvature was larger than 10° in 9.1% of men and 8.8% of women. We found left lateral deviation in 72.5% of men and in 63.6% of women. Conclusions: The study provides characteristics of the spine shape in a large sample of healthy young adults. Such characteristics should be part and parcel of determining the cut-off level for physiological spinal shape. Based on the results of the study, we suggest a lateral deviation of 10° as the maximum for a curvature to be still considered non-pathological.

  18. 'Keeping your body and mind active': an ethnographic study of aspirations for healthy ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guell, Cornelia; Shefer, Guy; Griffin, Simon; Ogilvie, David

    2016-01-07

    To describe and explore perceptions, practices and motivations for active living in later life. Qualitative study with semistructured interviews and 'semistructured' participant observations of participant-selected activities, such as exercise classes, private or organised walks, shopping and gardening. 27 participants (65-80 years) from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer Norfolk study, purposefully selected by gender, age, occupational class, living status and residential location; 19 of the participants agreed to be accompanied for observed activities. Participants' homes, neighbourhoods, places of leisure activities and workplaces in Norfolk, England. All participants regarded a positive attitude as important for healthy ageing; this included staying active, both physically and mentally through sedentary activities such as reading and crosswords. 'Getting out of the house', being busy, or following a variety of interests were regarded as both important motivators and descriptions of their 'activeness'. Purposeful activities formed an important part of this, for example, still being engaged in paid or voluntary work, having caring responsibilities, or smaller incidental activities such as helping neighbours or walking for transport. Many also reported adapting previous, often lifelong, activity preferences and habits to their ageing body, or replacing them altogether with lower impact activities such as walking. This included adapting to the physical limitations of partners and friends which dictated the intensity and frequency of shared activities. The social context of activities could thus form a barrier to active living, but could also encourage it through companionship, social responsibilities and social pressures. Promoting and maintaining physical activity among older people may require more attention to activeness as an attitude and way of life as well as to its social context, and initiatives encouraging broader activity habits rather

  19. The Neural Mechanisms of Meditative Practices: Novel Approaches for Healthy Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo, Bianca P; Pospos, Sarah; Lavretsky, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Meditation has been shown to have physical, cognitive, and psychological health benefits that can be used to promote healthy aging. However, the common and specific mechanisms of response remain elusive due to the diverse nature of mind-body practices. In this review, we aim to compare the neural circuits implicated in focused-attention meditative practices that focus on present-moment awareness to those involved in active-type meditative practices (e.g., yoga) that combine movement, including chanting, with breath practices and meditation. Recent meta-analyses and individual studies demonstrated common brain effects for attention-based meditative practices and active-based meditations in areas involved in reward processing and learning, attention and memory, awareness and sensory integration, and self-referential processing and emotional control, while deactivation was seen in the amygdala, an area implicated in emotion processing. Unique effects for mindfulness practices were found in brain regions involved in body awareness, attention, and the integration of emotion and sensory processing. Effects specific to active-based meditations appeared in brain areas involved in self-control, social cognition, language, speech, tactile stimulation, sensorimotor integration, and motor function. This review suggests that mind-body practices can target different brain systems that are involved in the regulation of attention, emotional control, mood, and executive cognition that can be used to treat or prevent mood and cognitive disorders of aging, such as depression and caregiver stress, or serve as "brain fitness" exercise. Benefits may include improving brain functional connectivity in brain systems that generally degenerate with Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and other aging-related diseases.

  20. Child Poverty and the Promise of Human Capacity: Childhood as a Foundation for Healthy Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Paul H

    2016-04-01

    The effect of child poverty and related early life experiences on adult health outcomes and patterns of aging has become a central focus of child health research and advocacy. In this article a critical review of this proliferating literature and its relevance to child health programs and policy are presented. This literature review focused on evidence of the influence of child poverty on the major contributors to adult morbidity and mortality in the United States, the mechanisms by which these associations operate, and the implications for reforming child health programs and policies. Strong and varied evidence base documents the effect of child poverty and related early life experiences and exposures on the major threats to adult health and healthy aging. Studies using a variety of methodologies, including longitudinal and cross-sectional strategies, have reported significant findings regarding cardiovascular disorders, obesity and diabetes, certain cancers, mental health conditions, osteoporosis and fractures, and possibly dementia. These relationships can operate through alterations in fetal and infant development, stress reactivity and inflammation, the development of adverse health behaviors, the conveyance of child chronic illness into adulthood, and inadequate access to effective interventions in childhood. Although the reviewed studies document meaningful relationships between child poverty and adult outcomes, they also reveal that poverty, experiences, and behaviors in adulthood make important contributions to adult health and aging. There is strong evidence that poverty in childhood contributes significantly to adult health. Changes in the content, financing, and advocacy of current child health programs will be required to address the childhood influences on adult health and disease. Policy reforms that reduce child poverty and mitigate its developmental effects must be integrated into broader initiatives and advocacy that also attend to the health and

  1. Short sleep duration is associated with poor performance on IQ measures in healthy school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Reut; Laviolette, Rachelle; Deluca, Paolo; Monson, Eva; Cornish, Kim; Carrier, Julie

    2010-03-01

    To examine the associations between habitual sleep duration and intellectual functioning in healthy, well-rested, school-age children. The study group consisted of 39 healthy children, aged 7-11 years old. Nightly actigraphic sleep recordings were taken for four consecutive nights to determine habitual week-night sleep duration in the home environment. Objective measures of cognitive functioning and sleepiness were used to measure daytime functioning. Longer habitual sleep duration in healthy school-age participants was associated with better performance on measures of perceptual reasoning and overall IQ, as measured by the WISC-IV, and on reported measures of competence and academic performance. No association between sleep duration and the studied behavioral measures was found. These findings support the hypothesis that sleep duration is differentially related to some components of cognitive functioning, even in the absence of evidence for sleep deprivation or attention deficits. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Cognitive Reserve in Healthy Aging and Alzheimer's Disease: A Meta-Analysis of fMRI Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colangeli, Stefano; Boccia, Maddalena; Verde, Paola; Guariglia, Paola; Bianchini, Filippo; Piccardi, Laura

    2016-08-01

    Cognitive reserve (CR) has been defined as the ability to optimize or maximize performance through differential recruitment of brain networks. In the present study, we aimed at providing evidence for a consistent brain network underpinning CR in healthy and pathological aging. To pursue this aim, we performed a coordinate-based meta-analysis of 17 functional magnetic resonance imaging studies on CR proxies in healthy aging, Alzheimer's disease (AD), and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). We found that different brain areas were associated with CR proxies in healthy and pathological aging. A wide network of areas, including medial and lateral frontal areas, that is, anterior cingulate cortex and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, as well as precuneus, was associated with proxies of CR in healthy elderly patients. The CR proxies in patients with AD and amnesic-MCI were associated with activation in the anterior cingulate cortex. These results were discussed hypothesizing the existence of possible compensatory mechanisms in healthy and pathological aging. © The Author(s) 2016.

  3. Effects of Healthy Aging and Mild Cognitive Impairment on a Real-Life Decision-Making Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pertl, Marie-Theres; Benke, Thomas; Zamarian, Laura; Delazer, Margarete

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the effects of age and of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) on decision making under risk by adopting a task representing real-life health-related situations and involving complex numerical information. Moreover, we assessed the relationship of real-life decision making to other cognitive functions such as number processing, executive functions, language, memory, and attention. For this reason, we compared the performance of 19 healthy, relatively younger adults with that of 18 healthy older adults and the performance of the 18 healthy older adults with that of 17 patients with MCI. Results indicated difficulties in real-life decision making for the healthy older adults compared with the healthy, relatively younger adults. Difficulties of patients with MCI relative to the healthy older adults arose in particular in difficult items requiring processing of frequencies and fractions. Significant effects of age and of MCI in processing frequencies were also evident in a ratio number comparison task. Decision-making performance of healthy participants and of the patient group correlated significantly with number processing. There was a further significant correlation with executive functions for the healthy participants and with reading comprehension for the patients. Our results suggest that healthy older individuals and patients with MCI make less advantageous decisions when the information is complex and high demands are put on executive functions and numerical abilities. Moreover, we show that executive functions and numerical abilities are not only essential in laboratory gambling tasks but also in more realistic and ecological decision situations within the health context.

  4. Aging phenomena in gaseous detectors - perspectives from the 2001 workshop

    CERN Document Server

    Hohlmann, M; Tesch, N; Titov, M

    2002-01-01

    High-Energy Physics experiments are currently entering a new era which requires the operation of gaseous particle detectors at unprecedented high rates and integrated particle fluxes. Full functionality of such detectors over the lifetime of an experiment in a harsh radiation environment is of prime concern. New classes of gaseous detectors such as large-scale straw-type detectors, Micro-pattern Gas Detectors, and resistive plate chambers--each with their own specific aging characteristics--have evolved since the first workshop on wire chamber aging was held at LBL, Berkeley in 1986. The 2001 workshop provided a forum to review the progress since 1986 in understanding aging effects and to exchange recent experiences. A summary of the main results reported at the 2001 workshop is presented providing a systematic review of aging effects in state-of-the-art detectors.

  5. To know how to age: positive aspects and new perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paz Franco Módenes

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The aging process characterizes by its universality, affecting all the human beings. It has his origin in the conception of the being, it is developed with the passage of the years and finishes, unfailingly, with the end of the life. The study of the aging is justified by the significant increase of people majors of 65 years pre- sent in the present society. In addition, the demographic evolution establishes that they will continue increasing. This supposes the necessity to create rehabilitating and preventive strategies, that can delay or prevent the problems related to the age. Although at first it was considered to the aging in terms of deterioration and degra- dation with clearly negative aspects, nowadays, those expositions have been obsole- te. It mainly appears a new concept of aging based on the improvement of the qua- lity of life of the people majors. Thus, at the present time, it is not considered, the aging like a involutivo process but, on the contrary, of evolution, growth and deve- lopment, based, mainly in the experience of the people majors. In order to favor the healthful aging it is necessary to maintain and to take care of the health doing physical exercise, to realise a suitable diet etc, and at the same time to maintain the mental activity agile, not only through the daily activities but realising programs of mental training for people majors. These programs are desti- ned to improve and to maintain the perceptive, attention and mnésica capacity pro- viding to the people majors strategies that allow them to realise a codification and information retrieval adapted to each situation. Key words: Aging, Sensorial deficits, Programs of training, Vulnerability versus growth. 

  6. The Role of Design in Healthy Buildings – An Actornetwork Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øien, Turid Borgestrand; Frandsen, Anne Kathrine

    2015-01-01

    in the field of indoor environment. The ANT analysis shows a wide gap between the theory and practice of indoor environment. The phenomenon of mold growth can be inaccessible to laymen and makes it difficult for habitants to actively maintain a good and healthy living environment. Furthermore, the focuses...... on energy-efficiency and new technologies in construction reinforce the power of the specialist, to a degree where the user is excluded from the indoor environment network. Because the arrangement and practices of a household is critical for a healthy home, we suggest that the user practices are taken...

  7. Nutrition and Healthy Ageing: Calorie Restriction or Polyphenol-Rich “MediterrAsian” Diet?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathrin Pallauf

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Diet plays an important role in mammalian health and the prevention of chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease (CVD. Incidence of CVD is low in many parts of Asia (e.g., Japan and the Mediterranean area (e.g., Italy, Spain, Greece, and Turkey. The Asian and the Mediterranean diets are rich in fruit and vegetables, thereby providing high amounts of plant bioactives including polyphenols, glucosinolates, and antioxidant vitamins. Furthermore, oily fish which is rich in omega-3 fatty acids is an important part of the Asian (e.g., Japanese and also of the Mediterranean diets. There are specific plant bioactives which predominantly occur in the Mediterranean (e.g., resveratrol from red wine, hydroxytyrosol, and oleuropein from olive oil and in the Asian diets (e.g., isoflavones from soybean and epigallocatechin gallate from green tea. Interestingly, when compared to calorie restriction which has been repeatedly shown to increase healthspan, these polyphenols activate similar molecular targets such as Sirt1. We suggest that a so-called “MediterrAsian” diet combining sirtuin-activating foods (= sirtfoods of the Asian as well as Mediterranean diet may be a promising dietary strategy in preventing chronic diseases, thereby ensuring health and healthy ageing. Future (human studies are needed which take the concept suggested here of the MediterrAsian diet into account.

  8. Effects of dietary restriction on adipose mass and biomarkers of healthy aging in human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lettieri-Barbato, Daniele; Giovannetti, Esmeralda; Aquilano, Katia

    2016-11-29

    In developing countries the rise of obesity and obesity-related metabolic disorders, such as cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes, reflects the changes in lifestyle habits and wrong dietary choices. Dietary restriction (DR) regimens have been shown to extend health span and lifespan in many animal models including primates. Identifying biomarkers predictive of clinical benefits of treatment is one of the primary goals of precision medicine. To monitor the clinical outcomes of DR interventions in humans, several biomarkers are commonly adopted. However, a validated link between the behaviors of such biomarkers and DR effects is lacking at present time. Through a systematic analysis of human intervention studies, we evaluated the effect size of DR (i.e. calorie restriction, very low calorie diet, intermittent fasting, alternate day fasting) on health-related biomarkers. We found that DR is effective in reducing total and visceral adipose mass and improving inflammatory cytokines profile and adiponectin/leptin ratio. By analysing the levels of canonical biomarkers of healthy aging, we also validated the changes of insulin, IGF-1 and IGFBP-1,2 to monitor DR effects. Collectively, we developed a useful platform to evaluate the human responses to dietary regimens low in calories.

  9. Dietary sources of polyphenols in the Mediterranean healthy Eating, Aging and Lifestyle (MEAL) study cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godos, Justyna; Marventano, Stefano; Mistretta, Antonio; Galvano, Fabio; Grosso, Giuseppe

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the dietary intake and major food sources of polyphenols in the Mediterranean healthy Eating, Aging and Lifestyles (MEAL) study cohort. A total of 1937 individuals (18 + y) of urban population of Catania, Italy, completed a validated 110-item food frequency questionnaire; Phenol-Explorer database was used to estimate polyphenol intake. Mean intake of polyphenols was 663.7 mg/d; the most abundant classes were phenolic acids (362.7 mg/d) and flavonoids (258.7 mg/d). The main dietary sources of total polyphenols were nuts, followed by tea and coffee as source of flavanols and hydroxycinnamic acids, respectively, fruits (i.e. cherries were sources of anthocyanins and citrus fruits of flavanones) and vegetables (i.e. artichokes and olives were sources of flavones and spinach and beans of flavonols); chocolate, red wine and pasta contributed to flavanols and tyrosols, respectively. These findings will be useful to assess the potential benefits of foods with high polyphenol content.

  10. Redundant Vasodilator Pathways Underlying Radial Artery Flow-Mediated Dilation Are Preserved in Healthy Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin D. Ballard

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Blocking nitric oxide (NO and vasodilator prostanoids (PN does not consistently reduce flow-mediated dilation (FMD in young adults. The impact of aging on the contribution of NO and PG to FMD is unknown. Methods. FMD was measured in older adults (n=10, 65±3 y after arterial infusion of saline, N(G-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA, and ketorolac + L-NMMA. Data were compared to published data in young adults. Results. L-NMMA reduced FMD in older adults (8.9±3.6 to 5.9±3.7% although this was not statistically significant (P=0.08 and did not differ (P=0.74 from the reduction observed in young adults (10.0±3.8 to 7.6±4.7%; P=0.03. Blocking PN did not affect FMD in young or older adults. In older adults, L-NMMA reduced (n=6; range = 36–123% decrease, augmented (n=3; 10–122% increase, or did not change FMD (n=1; 0.4% increase. After PN blockade, FMD responses were reduced (n=2, augmented (n=6, or unaffected (n=1. Conclusions. NO or PN blockade did not consistently reduce FMD in healthy older adults, suggesting the existence of redundant vasodilator phenotypes as observed previously in young adults.

  11. Social Determinants of Active Aging: Differences in Mortality and the Loss of Healthy Life between Different Income Levels among Older Japanese in the AGES Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Hirai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined the relationship between income, mortality, and loss of years of healthy life in a sample of older persons in Japan. We analyzed 22,829 persons aged 65 or older who were functionally independent at baseline as a part of the Aichi Gerontological Evaluation Study (AGES. Two outcome measures were adopted, mortality and loss of healthy life. Independent variables were income level and age. The occurrence of mortality and need for care during these 1,461 days were tracked. Cox regressions were used to calculate the hazard ratio for mortality and loss of healthy life by income level. We found that people with lower incomes were more likely than those with higher incomes to report worse health. For the overall sample, using the governmental administrative data, the hazard ratios of mortality and loss of healthy life-years comparing the lowest to the highest income level were 3.50 for men and 2.48 for women for mortality and 3.71 for men and 2.27 for women for loss of healthy life. When only those who responded to questions about income on the mail survey were included in the analysis, the relationships became weaker and lost statistical significance.

  12. A Bayesian perspective on age replacement with minimal repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheu, S.-H.; Yeh, R.H.; Lin, Y.-B.; Juang, M.-G.

    1999-01-01

    In this article, a Bayesian approach is developed for determining an optimal age replacement policy with minimal repair. By incorporating minimal repair, planned replacement, and unplanned replacement, the mathematical formulas of the expected cost per unit time are obtained for two cases - the infinite-horizon case and the one-replacement-cycle case. For each case, we show that there exists a unique and finite optimal age for replacement under some reasonable conditions. When the failure density is Weibull with uncertain parameters, a Bayesian approach is established to formally express and update the uncertain parameters for determining an optimal age replacement policy. Further, various special cases are discussed in detail. Finally, a numerical example is given

  13. Biological effects of 2-oxoglutarate with particular emphasis on the regulation of protein, mineral and lipid absorption/metabolism, muscle performance, kidney function, bone formation and cancerogenesis, all viewed from a healthy ageing perspective state of the art--review article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, A P; Pierzynowski, S G

    2008-08-01

    The fact that men and women are living longer than they have ever done before is something in which we can all rejoice. However, the process of ageing is associated with changes in skeletal, muscular, gastrointestinal, neural hormonal and metabolic processes that seriously affect an individual's performance and quality of life. Indeed, such changes can be contributory to a loss of independence in the elderly. This state-of-the art address highlights the main changes found to occur with ageing whilst simultaneously reporting findings of in vivo and in vitro studies designed to elucidate the potential of the Krebs cycle intermediate - alpha-ketoglutaric acid (AKG) in protecting elderly body systems from failing and degradation. The topics of paramount importance include impaired bone structure and strength, amino acid and mineral absorption, muscle performance, as well as highlighting the role of Krebs cycle intermediates in the debilitating changes that occur with end-stage renal failure and the regulation of the lipid metabolism. Finally, focus will be given to the role of 2-oxoglutarate as a potent protective factor in connection with the development of malignant cells in the body.

  14. Association of Healthy Habits Beliefs and Mortality in Older Adults: A Longitudinal Analysis of the Mexican Health and Aging Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Villa, Julio M; Marquez, David X; Sanchez-Garrido, Natalia; Perez-Zepeda, Mario U; Gonzalez-Lara, Mariana

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this article is to establish the association between beliefs about healthy habits and mortality in a group of Mexican older adults. This is an 11-year follow-up secondary analysis of the Mexican Health and Aging Study. There was a significant difference ( p healthy habits have the potential to improve health compared with those who did not. After adjustment for confounders, Cox regression models showed a hazard ratio (HR) of 0.17 (95% confidence interval [CI] [0.07, 0.38], p healthy habits. Although the mechanism is not completely clear, according to our results, believing that healthy habits can improve health was associated with lower rates of mortality. Further research should elucidate potential strategies for changing beliefs in older adults with the goal of improving their overall health.

  15. Telomere biology in aging and cancer: early history and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Makoto T

    2018-01-20

    The ends of eukaryotic linear chromosomes are protected from undesired enzymatic activities by a nucleoprotein complex called the telomere. Expanding evidence indicates that telomeres have central functions in human aging and tumorigenesis. While it is undoubtedly important to follow current advances in telomere biology, it is also fruitful to be well informed in seminal historical studies for a comprehensive understanding of telomere biology, and for the anticipation of future directions. With this in mind, I here summarize the early history of telomere biology and current advances in the field, mostly focusing on mammalian studies relevant to aging and cancer.

  16. Systemic Problems: A perspective on stem cell aging and rejuvenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conboy, Irina M; Conboy, Michael J; Rebo, Justin

    2015-10-01

    This review provides balanced analysis of the advances in systemic regulation of young and old tissue stem cells and suggests strategies for accelerating development of therapies to broadly combat age-related tissue degenerative pathologies. Many highlighted recent reports on systemic tissue rejuvenation combine parabiosis with a "silver bullet" putatively responsible for the positive effects. Attempts to unify these papers reflect the excitement about this experimental approach and add value in reproducing previous work. At the same time, defined molecular approaches, which are "beyond parabiosis" for the rejuvenation of multiple old organs represent progress toward attenuating or even reversing human tissue aging.

  17. Age differences in the understanding of wealth and power: the mediating role of future time perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tianyuan; Tsang, Vivian Hiu-Ling

    2016-12-01

    Individuals' understanding of wealth and power largely determines their use of resources. Moreover, the age range of wealth and power holders is increasing in modern societies. Thus, the current study examines how people of different ages understand wealth and power. As varying future time perspective is related to changes in prioritised life goals, it was tested as a potential mediator of the age differences. A total of 133 participants aged 18-78 years were asked 8 open-ended questions regarding their understanding of the possible use and desired use of wealth and power, after which they reported their future time perspective. Compared with possible use, the participants mentioned relatively more prosocial elements when they talked about their desired use of the resources, especially power. The older adults expressed more prosocial understanding in regard to the desired use of wealth and the possible use of power compared to their younger counterparts. The age differences were fully mediated by future time perspective. The results suggest that age is a critical factor that influences individuals' conceptualisation of wealth and power. Life-span developmental stage and future time perspective are important factors to consider for explaining individual differences in the exercise of wealth and power and for promoting their prosocial usage.

  18. Perspectives of Mexican-Origin Smokers on Healthy Eating and Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, Larkin L.; Hoover, Diana S.; Heredia, Natalia I.; Krasny, Sarah; Spears, Claire A.; Correa-Fernández, Virmarie; Wetter, David W.; Fernandez, Maria E.

    2016-01-01

    Key modifiable risk behaviors such as smoking, poor diet and physical inactivity often cluster and may have multiplicative adverse effects on health. This study investigated barriers and facilitators to healthy eating and physical activity (PA) in overweight Mexican-origin smokers to inform the adaptation of an evidence-based smoking cessation…

  19. L2 learner age from a contextualised perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Mihaljeviđ Djigunoviđ

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this qualitative study the author focuses on age effects on young learners’ L2 development by comparing the L2 learning processes of six young learners in an instructed setting: three who had started learning English as L2 at age 6/7 and three who had started at age 9/10. Both earlier and later young beginners were followed for three years (during their second, third and fourth year of learning English. The participants’ L2 development was measured through their oral output elicited by a two-part speaking task administered each year. Results of the analyses are interpreted taking into account each learners’ individual characteristics (learning ability, attitudes and motivation, self-concept and the characteristics of the context in which they were learning their L2 (attitudes of school staff and parents to early L2 learning, home support, in-class and out-of-class exposure to L2, socio-economic status. The findings show that earlier and later young beginners follow different trajectories in their L2 learning, which reflects different interactions which age enters into with the other variables.

  20. Older employees’ desired retirement age: a JD-R perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frins, W.; Ruysseveldt, J. van; Dam, K. van; Bossche, S.N.J. van den

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. Using the job demands-resources (JD-R) model as a theoretical framework, the purpose of this paper is to investigate how job demands and job resources affect older employees’ desired retirement age, through an energy-depletion and a motivational process. Furthermore, the importance of gain

  1. Time Perspective and Emotion Regulation as Predictors of Age-Related Subjective Passage of Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittmann, Marc; Rudolph, Tina; Linares Gutierrez, Damisela; Winkler, Isabell

    2015-01-01

    Hardly any empirical work exists concerning the relationship between the intra-individually stable time perspective relating to the past, present, and future and the subjective speed of time passing in everyday life. Moreover, studies consistently show that the subjective passage of time over the period of the last ten years speeds up as we get older. Modulating variables influencing this phenomenon are still unknown. To investigate these two unresolved issues, we conducted an online survey with n = 423 participants ranging in age between 17 and 81 assessing trait time perspective of the past, present, and future, and relating these subscales with a battery of measures pertaining to the subjective passage of time. Moreover, the subjective passage of time as an age-dependent variable was probed in relationship to emotion awareness, appraisal and regulation. Results show how present hedonism is linked with having fewer routines in life and a faster passage of the last week; the past negative perspective is related to time pressure, time expansion and more routine; a pronounced future perspective is related to a general faster passage of time. Importantly, increased emotion regulation and a balanced time perspective are related to a slower passage of the last ten years. These novel findings are discussed within models of time perception and the time perspective. PMID:26694439

  2. Time Perspective and Emotion Regulation as Predictors of Age-Related Subjective Passage of Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittmann, Marc; Rudolph, Tina; Linares Gutierrez, Damisela; Winkler, Isabell

    2015-12-17

    Hardly any empirical work exists concerning the relationship between the intra-individually stable time perspective relating to the past, present, and future and the subjective speed of time passing in everyday life. Moreover, studies consistently show that the subjective passage of time over the period of the last ten years speeds up as we get older. Modulating variables influencing this phenomenon are still unknown. To investigate these two unresolved issues, we conducted an online survey with n = 423 participants ranging in age between 17 and 81 assessing trait time perspective of the past, present, and future, and relating these subscales with a battery of measures pertaining to the subjective passage of time. Moreover, the subjective passage of time as an age-dependent variable was probed in relationship to emotion awareness, appraisal and regulation. Results show how present hedonism is linked with having fewer routines in life and a faster passage of the last week; the past negative perspective is related to time pressure, time expansion and more routine; a pronounced future perspective is related to a general faster passage of time. Importantly, increased emotion regulation and a balanced time perspective are related to a slower passage of the last ten years. These novel findings are discussed within models of time perception and the time perspective.

  3. Time Perspective and Emotion Regulation as Predictors of Age-Related Subjective Passage of Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Wittmann

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Hardly any empirical work exists concerning the relationship between the intra-individually stable time perspective relating to the past, present, and future and the subjective speed of time passing in everyday life. Moreover, studies consistently show that the subjective passage of time over the period of the last ten years speeds up as we get older. Modulating variables influencing this phenomenon are still unknown. To investigate these two unresolved issues, we conducted an online survey with n = 423 participants ranging in age between 17 and 81 assessing trait time perspective of the past, present, and future, and relating these subscales with a battery of measures pertaining to the subjective passage of time. Moreover, the subjective passage of time as an age-dependent variable was probed in relationship to emotion awareness, appraisal and regulation. Results show how present hedonism is linked with having fewer routines in life and a faster passage of the last week; the past negative perspective is related to time pressure, time expansion and more routine; a pronounced future perspective is related to a general faster passage of time. Importantly, increased emotion regulation and a balanced time perspective are related to a slower passage of the last ten years. These novel findings are discussed within models of time perception and the time perspective.

  4. Aging in Rural Appalachia: Perspectives from Geriatric Social Service Professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie D. Pope

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses qualitative methodology to explore the experience of growing old in rural Appalachia. Given the growing population of older adults seeking and utilizing services, it is important to understand the challenges and specific needs related to aging. Within the context of rural Appalachia, these challenges and needs may be different than those in urban areas or areas outside of the region itself. From interviews with 14 geriatric service providers in rural southeast Ohio, the authors were able to identity three prevalent themes associated with aging in rural North Central Appalachia: scarcity of resources, valuing neighbors and family, and the prevalence of drug use. These findings suggest that preparation and ongoing training of rural geriatric social workers should include attention to topics such as substance abuse and strengthening social support networks that often exist in these regions.

  5. A critical period of corticomuscular and EMG-EMG coherence detection in healthy infants aged 9-25weeks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ritterband-Rosenbaum, Anina; Herskind, Anna; Li, Xi

    2017-01-01

    The early postnatal development of functional corticospinal connections in human infants is not fully clarified. We used EEG and EMG to investigate the development of corticomuscular and intramuscular coherence as indicators of functional corticospinal connectivity in healthy infants aged 1-66 we...

  6. Scaling up strategies of the chronic respiratory disease programme of the European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bousquet, J; Farrell, J; Crooks, G

    2016-01-01

    Action Plan B3 of the European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing (EIP on AHA) focuses on the integrated care of chronic diseases. Area 5 (Care Pathways) was initiated using chronic respiratory diseases as a model. The chronic respiratory disease action plan includes (1) AIRWAYS ...

  7. Mental Time Travel into the Past and the Future in Healthy Aged Adults: An fMRI Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viard, Armelle; Chetelat, Gael; Lebreton, Karine; Desgranges, Beatrice; Landeau, Brigitte; de La Sayette, Vincent; Eustache, Francis; Piolino, Pascale

    2011-01-01

    Remembering the past and envisioning the future rely on episodic memory which enables mental time travel. Studies in young adults indicate that past and future thinking share common cognitive and neural underpinnings. No imaging data is yet available in healthy aged subjects. Using fMRI, we scanned older subjects while they remembered personal…

  8. Using CForest to Analyze Diffusion Tensor Imaging Data: A Study of White Matter Integrity in Healthy Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWhinney, Sean R; Tremblay, Antoine; Chevalier, Thérèse M; Lim, Vanessa K; Newman, Aaron J

    2016-12-01

    Healthy aging has been associated with a global reduction in white matter integrity, which is thought to reflect cognitive decline. The present study aimed to investigate this reduction over a broad range of the life span, using diffusion tensor imaging analyzed with conditional inference random forest modeling (CForest). This approach is sensitive to subtle and potentially nonlinear effects over the age continuum and was used to characterize the progression of decline in greater detail than has been possible in the past. Data were collected from 45 healthy individuals ranging in age from 19 to 67 years. Fractional anisotropy (FA) was estimated using probabilistic tractography for a number of major tracts across the brain. Age coincided with a nonlinear decrease in FA, with onset beginning at ∼30 years of age and the steepest declines occurring later in life. However, several tracts showed a transient increase before this decline. The progression of decline varied by tract, with steeper but later decline occurring in more anterior tracts. Finally, strongly right-handed individuals demonstrated relatively preserved FA until more than a decade following the onset of decline of others. These results demonstrate that using a novel, nonparametric analysis approach, previously reported reductions in FA with healthy aging were confirmed, while at the same time, new insight was provided into the onset and progression of decline, with evidence suggesting increases in integrity continuing into adulthood.

  9. Healthy or Unhealthy Lifestyle: A Thematic Analysis of Iranian Male Adolescents? Perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Zareiyan, Armin

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Identifying what adolescents perceive as their lifestyle and exploring the factors persuading their decisions to engage in or avoid healthy or unhealthy lifestyle behaviors could improve the ability of healthcare professionals to develop innovative preventive strategies and modify negative health behaviors in adolescents. Hence, the literature on adolescent health-related issues reported by adults showed a rarity of information from adolescents themselves. Materials and Methods:...

  10. Normative Data for Bone Mass in Healthy Term Infants from Birth to 1 Year of Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sina Gallo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available For over 2 decades, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA has been the gold standard for estimating bone mineral density (BMD and facture risk in adults. More recently DXA has been used to evaluate BMD in pediatrics. However, BMD is usually assessed against reference data for which none currently exists in infancy. A prospective study was conducted to assess bone mass of term infants (37 to 42 weeks of gestation, weight appropriate for gestational age, and born to healthy mothers. The group consisted of 33 boys and 26 girls recruited from the Winnipeg Health Sciences Center (Manitoba, Canada. Whole body (WB as well as regional sites of the lumbar spine (LS 1–4 and femur was measured using DXA (QDR 4500A, Hologic Inc. providing bone mineral content (BMC for all sites and BMD for spine. During the year, WB BMC increased by 200% (76.0±14.2 versus 227.0±29.7 g, spine BMC by 130% (2.35±0.42 versus 5.37±1.02 g, and femur BMC by 190% (2.94±0.54 versus 8.50±1.84 g. Spine BMD increased by 14% (0.266±0.044 versus 0.304±0.044 g/cm2 during the year. This data, representing the accretion of bone mass during the first year of life, is based on a representative sample of infants and will aid in the interpretation of diagnostic DXA scans by researchers and health professionals.

  11. Trace element status and fatty acids metabolism during healthy ageing: an example of a population from the Tunisian eastern coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sfar, Sonia; El Heni, Jihen; Laporte, François; Braham, Hamadi; Jawed, Abdelhafidh; Amor, Salah; Sfar, Mohamed Tahar; Kerkeni, Abdelhamid

    2012-03-01

    Micronutrients as well as essential fatty acids are indispensable for the correct functioning of the organism. The risk of disturbance in the associated nutrition and metabolism is expected to increase during ageing. In addition, it seems that trace elements are involved in the fatty acids metabolism. The aim of the present study was then to assess age-related changes in trace elements status and in plasma essential fatty acids composition with an emphasis on the desaturase activity estimation. Two hundred healthy Tunisian subjects (30-85 years old) were recruited and separated into two subgroups: elderly (65-85 years old) and middle-aged (30-60 years old). The findings revealed that plasma zinc and calcium concentrations significantly decreased according to age. The prevalence of zinc deficiency was therefore shown to increase in old age (over 60% of elderly subjects were deficient or at risk of deficiency). No age-related changes were obtained for copper or magnesium status. The Δ6 desaturase, involved in the EFAs conversion, was shown to decrease according to age and to be associated with the plasma zinc level. Since elderly subjects were at risk of nutritional imbalance, it would be interesting to set optimal dietary proportion. This will help to prevent age-associated alterations and diseases for a better and healthy ageing. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Motor development in 3-month-old healthy term-born infants is associated with cognitive and behavioural outcomes at early school age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hitzert, Marrit; Roze, Elise; Van Braeckel, Koenraad N. J. A.; Bos, Arend F.

    AIM To determine whether motor development at 3 months of age is associated with cognitive, motor, and behavioural outcomes in healthy children at early school age. METHOD In this cohort study, we included 74 term-born, healthy children (44 males, 30 females; median gestational age 40.1wks, range

  13. Social participation and healthy ageing: a neglected, significant protective factor for chronic non communicable conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Jennifer

    2011-10-01

    address the increase in chronic non-communicable diseases should include consideration of healthy ageing, conditions that affect quality of life, and strategies to increase social participation. There are useful examples showing that it is feasible to catalyse the formation of Elders' Clubs or older people's associations which become self-sustaining, promote social participation, and improve health and well-being of elders and their families.

  14. College Freshmen Students' Perspectives on Weight Gain Prevention in the Digital Age: Web-Based Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroe, Courtney M; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle; Larsen, Chelsea A; Magradey, Karen; Brandt, Heather M; Wilcox, Sara; Sundstrom, Beth; West, Delia Smith

    2017-10-12

    College freshmen are highly vulnerable to experiencing weight gain, and this phenomenon is associated with an increased risk of chronic diseases and mortality in older adulthood. Technology offers an attractive and scalable way to deliver behavioral weight gain prevention interventions for this population. Weight gain prevention programs that harness the appeal and widespread reach of Web-based technologies (electronic health or eHealth) are increasingly being evaluated in college students. Yet, few of these interventions are informed by college students' perspectives on weight gain prevention and related lifestyle behaviors. The objective of this study was to assess college freshmen students' concern about weight gain and associated topics, as well as their interest in and delivery medium preferences for eHealth programs focused on these topics. Web-based surveys that addressed college freshmen students' (convenience sample of N=50) perspectives on weight gain prevention were administered at the beginning and end of the fall 2015 semester as part of a longitudinal investigation of health-related issues and experiences in first semester college freshmen. Data on weight gain prevention-related concerns and corresponding interest in eHealth programs targeting topics of potential concern, as well as preferred program delivery medium and current technology use were gathered and analyzed using descriptive statistics. A considerable proportion of the freshmen sample expressed concern about weight gain (74%, 37/50) and both traditional (healthy diet: 86%, 43/50; physical activity: 64%, 32/50) and less frequently addressed (stress: 82%, 41/50; sleep: 74%, 37/50; anxiety and depression: 60%, 30/50) associated topics within the context of behavioral weight gain prevention. The proportion of students who reported interest in eHealth promotion programs targeting these topics was also generally high (ranging from 52% [26/50] for stress management to 70% [35/50] for eating a

  15. Differences in nativity, age and gender may impact health behavior and perspectives among Asian Indians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhar, Sohini; Gor, Beverly; Banerjee, Deborah; Krishnan, Sunil; Dorai, V K; Jones, Lovell; Kabad, Kanchan; Naik, Lakshmi Rai; Legha, Sewa S; Pande, Mala

    2017-07-03

    Identify health perspectives among Asian Indians in greater Houston area, to guide a tailored community wide survey. Four focus groups of different ages, gender, and nativity were conducted at which participants were asked for their opinions about specific health topics. Key informant interviews were conducted with ten community leaders to validate focus group responses. Recordings from focus groups and key informant interviews were transcribed and analyzed. Diabetes, cancer, and hypertension were primary health concerns. Common themes were sedentary lifestyle and poor health literacy. Older participants were more accepting of having familial hypertension and high cholesterol. Women were more concerned about health of family members and dietary habits. Perspectives differed on eating habits, physical activity, use of Western medicine, and smoking based on nativity. Responses from key informant interviews validated focus group findings. Perspectives on health may differ among Asian Indians depending on gender, age, and nativity.

  16. Healthy brain ageing assessed with 18F-FDG PET and age-dependent recovery factors after partial volume effect correction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonte, Stijn [IBiTech, Ghent, (Belgium); Ghent University, iMinds - Medical Image and Signal Processing (MEDISIP), Department of Electronics and Information Systems, Ghent (Belgium); University Hospital, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Ghent (Belgium); Vandemaele, Pieter; Deblaere, Karel; Goethals, Ingeborg [University Hospital, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Ghent (Belgium); Verleden, Stijn; Audenaert, Kurt [University Hospital, Department of Psychiatry, Ghent (Belgium); Holen, Roel van [Ghent University, iMinds - Medical Image and Signal Processing (MEDISIP), Department of Electronics and Information Systems, Ghent (Belgium)

    2017-05-15

    The mechanisms of ageing of the healthy brain are not entirely clarified to date. In recent years several authors have tried to elucidate this topic by using {sup 18}F-FDG positron emission tomography. However, when correcting for partial volume effects (PVE), divergent results were reported. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate these methods in the presence of atrophy due to ageing. In this paper we first evaluate the performance of two PVE correction techniques with a phantom study: the Rousset method and iterative deconvolution. We show that the ability of the latter method to recover the true activity in a small region decreases with increasing age due to brain atrophy. Next, we have calculated age-dependent recovery factors to correct for this incomplete recovery. These factors were applied to PVE-corrected {sup 18}F-FDG PET scans of healthy subjects for mapping the agedependent metabolism in the brain. Many regions in the brain show a reduced metabolism with ageing, especially in grey matter in the frontal and temporal lobe. An increased metabolism is found in grey matter of the cerebellum and thalamus. Our study resulted in age-dependent recovery factors which can be applied following standard PVE correction methods. Cancelling the effect of atrophy, we found regional changes in {sup 18}F-FDG metabolism with ageing. A decreasing trend is found in the frontal and temporal lobe, whereas an increasing metabolism with ageing is observed in the thalamus and cerebellum.

  17. Facilitators and barriers of adopting healthy lifestyle in rural China: a qualitative analysis through social capital perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Ma, Defu; Cui, Renzhe; Haregot Hilawe, Esayas; Chiang, Chifa; Hirakawa, Yoshihisa; Hu, Yonghua; Wang, Peiyu; Iso, Hiroyasu; Aoyama, Atsuko

    2016-05-01

    Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are the major public health concerns in China. However, little has been known yet about the background social factors that influence lifestyles as possible NCD risk factors. This qualitative study aimed to explore facilitators and barriers of adopting healthy lifestyles among residents in a rural community of China. Three age-stratified focus group discussions (FGDs) were conducted in Fangshan district of Beijing in 2013. A FGD guide was designed to elicit the participants' perception and experience regarding their lifestyles. The audio-records were transcribed, and data were qualitatively analyzed through thematic approach. Through social capital framework with bonding, bridging, and linking classifications, we identified the following facilitators and barriers to adopt healthy lifestyles. (1) Facilitators: mutual support from family/friends and motivation to participate in regular exercises (bonding); cooperative relationships with community health workers (bridging); and nationwide high level of healthy lifestyle awareness (linking). (2) Barriers: negative influence from family/friends, insufficient support from family/friends, peer pressure and tolerance towards unhealthy lifestyles (bonding); insufficient support from health professionals (bridging); and inequity in allocation of public resources (linking). This study revealed that bonding, bridging and linking social capital would work as facilitators and barriers to adopt healthy lifestyles among rural residents in China.

  18. Adherence to the Mediterranean Diet Is not Related to Beta-Amyloid Deposition: Data from the Women's Healthy Ageing Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, E; Szoeke, C; Dennerstein, L; Campbell, S; Clifton, P

    2018-01-01

    Research has indicated the neuroprotective potential of the Mediterranean diet. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet has shown preventative potential for Alzheimer's disease incidence and prevalence, yet few studies have investigated the impact of Mediterranean diet adherence on the hallmark protein; beta-amyloid. To investigate the association between Mediterranean diet adherence and beta-amyloid deposition in a cohort of healthy older Australian women. This study was a cross-sectional investigation of participants from the longitudinal, epidemiologically sourced Women's Healthy Ageing Project which is a follow-up of the Melbourne Women's Midlife Health Project. Assessments were conducted at the Centre for Medical Research, Royal Melbourne Hospital in Melbourne, Australia. F-18 Florbetaben positron emission tomography scanning was conducted at the Austin Centre for PET in Victoria, Australia. One hundred and eleven Women's Healthy Ageing Project participants were included in the study. Mediterranean diet adherence scores for all participants were calculated from the administration of a validated food frequency questionnaire constructed by the Cancer Council of Victoria. Beta-amyloid deposition was measured using positron emission tomography standardised uptake value ratios. Gamma regression analysis displayed no association between Mediterranean diet adherence and beta-amyloid deposition. This result was consistent across APOE-ε4 +/- cohorts and with the inclusion of covariates such as age, education, body mass index and cognition. This study found no association between adherence to the Mediterranean diet and beta-amyloid deposition in a cohort of healthy Australian women.

  19. Investigation on the average serum E2 level and menopausal age in healthy women in Wuhan area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Huilin; Lan Jian; Zhang Yangyang; Li Fei; Zhang Yuanji

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the average serum E 2 level and menopausal age of healthy women in Wuhan area and assess the appropriateness of hormone replacement therapy in these women. Methods: Serum E 2 levels were measured with RIA in 2020 healthy women (26-75 yr old) in Wuhan area. Results: (1) Serum E 2 levels reached peak in 31-35yr group, significantly dropped in 46-50yr group and reached menopausal level in 51-55 yr group. (2) The average menopausal age in Wuhan area was rather early-48.08yr. Conclusion: The average menopausal age in Wuhan area was 2.3yr earlier than the nationwide 1989 screening result, which should be a concern for the maternity health workers. (authors)

  20. Perspective-Taking Judgments Among Young Adults, Middle-Aged, and Elderly People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ligneau-Herve, Catherine; Mullet, Etienne

    2005-01-01

    Perspective-taking judgments among young adults, middle-aged, and elderly people were examined. In 1 condition, participants were instructed to judge the likelihood of acceptance of a painkiller as a function of 3 cues: severity of the condition, potential side effects, and level of trust in the health care provider. In the other condition,…

  1. Health/Service Providers' Perspectives on Barriers to Healthy Weight Gain and Physical Activity in Pregnant, Urban First Nations Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darroch, Francine E; Giles, Audrey R

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine health/service providers' perspectives of barriers to healthy weight gain and physical activity for urban, pregnant First Nations women in Ottawa, Canada. Through the use of semi-structured interviews, we explored 15 health/service providers' perspectives on the complex barriers their clients face. By using a postcolonial feminist lens and a social determinants of health framework, we identified three social determinants of health that the health/service providers believed to have the greatest influence on their clients' weight gain and physical activity during pregnancy: poverty, education, and colonialism. Our findings are then contextualized within existing Statistics Canada and the Ottawa Neighbourhood Study data. We found that health/service providers are in a position to challenge colonial relations of power. We conclude by urging health/service providers, researchers, and policymakers alike to take into consideration the ways in which these social determinants of health and their often synergistic effects affect urban First Nations women during pregnancy. © The Author(s) 2015.

  2. Gramscian Contributions about Race, Cultural Identity and Aging in the Perspective of Stuart Hall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juceli Aparecida Silva

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article contextualizes a profile of Gramscian contributions presented from the perspective of Stuart Hall. It uses the themes of racism and cultural identity, comparing them to the phenomenon of aging. It presents a dialog between theories, concepts and their contemporary importance. The study concludes that aging is not a homogeneous process and that its general characteristics are specifically defined by the historic moments in which it occurs.

  3. Time to get healthy: associations of time perspective with perceived health status and health behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griva, Fay; Tseferidi, Sofia-Ioanna; Anagnostopoulos, Fotios

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined the associations of time perspective (TP) with health behaviors including smoking, exercise, and body mass index (BMI), and perceptions of health status after controlling for sociodemographic factors. Participants (N = 413) completed a web-based questionnaire that included a short version of the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory, and reported their weight, height, smoking, and exercise frequency. Future TP was associated with more physical exercise, whereas past-negative and present-fatalistic dimensions were associated with higher BMI. Smoking was not associated with any of the TP dimensions. Additionally, all of the dimensions of TP were found to be associated with conceptually relevant perceptions of health status. Research on TP predominantly focuses on the future and the present orientation, but the findings of the present study suggest that all dimensions of TP should be used in health-related research. Also, issues regarding the role of the present-hedonistic dimension are discussed and directions for future research are proposed.

  4. [Active aging from the perspective of aged individuals who are functionally independent].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Olivia Galvão Lucena; Maciel, Silvana Carneiro; Silva, Antonia Oliveira; dos Santos, Walberto Silva; Moreira, Maria Adelaide Silva P

    2010-12-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the social representations of the elderly regarding active aging