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Sample records for healthy adults matched

  1. Functional health status of adults with tetralogy of Fallot: matched comparison with healthy siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, Rachel; Veldtman, Gruschen; Hickey, Edward J; Bradley, Timothy; Gengsakul, Aungkana; Webb, Gary D; Williams, William G; McCrindle, Brian W

    2012-07-01

    Survival prospects for adults with repaired tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) are now excellent. Attention should therefore shift to assessing and improving functional health status and quality of life. We aimed to assess late functional health status of adults surviving TOF repair by matched comparison to their healthy siblings. All 1,693 TOF repairs performed at our institution between 1946 and 1990 were reviewed. A matched comparison was undertaken whereby presumed survivors and their healthy sibling were contacted and asked to complete the Ontario Health Survey 1990 and the 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) questionnaire. Both questionnaires were completed by 224 adult survivors and their sibling closest in age. Adults with repaired TOF had lower scores for self-perceived general health status (p health as good or excellent (p health (p = 0.001) than their siblings. However, patients reported similar satisfaction with their lives, similar levels of social participation and support, and were as likely to be in long-term partnerships. Worse physical and mental health scores were associated with older age at surgery and at time of questionnaire completion and recent requirement for noncardiac medication. Although reporting lower functional health status then their siblings, quality of life and life satisfaction for adults who underwent surgery for TOF during childhood is comparable to that of their siblings without heart defects. Follow-up of younger adults is required to understand current health outcomes attributable to improvements in the management of TOF. Copyright © 2012 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Clinical implications of gait analysis in the rehabilitation of adult patients with "Prader-Willi" Syndrome: a cross-sectional comparative study ("Prader-Willi" Syndrome vs matched obese patients and healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baccalaro Gabriele

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Being severely overweight is a distinctive clinical feature of Prader-Willi Syndrome (PWS. PWS is a complex multisystem disorder, representing the most common form of genetic obesity. The aim of this study was the analysis of the gait pattern of adult subjects with PWS by using three-Dimensional Gait Analysis. The results were compared with those obtained in a group of obese patients and in a group of healthy subjects. Methods Cross-sectional, comparative study: 19 patients with PWS (11 males and 8 females, age: 18–40 years, BMI: 29.3–50.3 kg/m2; 14 obese matched patients (5 males and 9 females, age: 18–40 years, BMI: 34.3–45.2 kg/m2; 20 healthy subjects (10 males and 10 females, age: 21–41 years, BMI: 19.3–25.4 kg/m2. Kinematic and kinetic parameters during walking were assessed by an optoelectronic system and two force platforms. Results PWS adult patients walked slower, had a shorter stride length, a lower cadence and a longer stance phase compared with both matched obese, and healthy subjects. Obese matched patients showed spatio-temporal parameters significantly different from healthy subjects. Furthermore, Range Of Motion (ROM at knee and ankle, and plantaflexor activity of PWS patients were significantly different between obese and healthy subjects. Obese subjects revealed kinematic and kinetic data similar to healthy subjects. Conclusion PWS subjects had a gait pattern significantly different from obese patients. Despite that, both groups had a similar BMI. We suggest that PWS gait abnormalities may be related to abnormalities in the development of motor skills in childhood, due to precocious obesity. A tailored rehabilitation program in early childhood of PWS patients could prevent gait pattern changes.

  3. N400 elicited by incongruent ending words of Chinese idioms in healthy adults

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Xing-shi; ZHANG Tian-hong; TANG Yun-xiang; XIAO Ze-ping; WANG Ji-jun; ZHANG Ming-dao; ZHANG Zai-fu; HU Zhen-yu; LOU Fei-ying; CHEN Chong

    2010-01-01

    Background Prior research about N400 has been mainly based on English stimuli,while the cognitive.processing of Chinese characters is still unclear.The aim of the present study was to further investigate the semantic processing of Chinese idioms.Methods Event related potentials (ERP) component N400 was elicited by 38 pairs of matching (congruent) and mismatching (incongruent) ended Chinese idioms:ending words with same phoneme but different shape and meaning (sPdSdM),with similar shape but different phoneme and meaning(sSdPdM),with same meaning but different phoneme and shape(sMdPdS),and words with different phoneme,shape and meaning(dPdSdM)and recorded by Guangzhou Runjie WJ-1 ERP instruments.In 62 right-handed healthy adults(age 19-50 years),N400 amplitudes and latencies were compared between matching and mismatching conditions at Fz,Cz and Pz.Results N400 showed a midline distribution and could be elicited in electrodes Fz, Cz and Pz.The mean values of N400 latencies and amplitudes were obtained for matching and mismatching ending werds in healthy adults.Significant differences were found in N400 latencies and amplitudes in matching and mismatching ending-werds idioms in healthy adults(P0.05).Conclusions Compared with English stimuli.Chinese ideographic words could provide more flexible stimuli for N400 research in that the werds have 3-dimension changes-phoneme.shape and meaning.Features of N400 elicited by matching and mismatching ending words in Chinese idioms are mainly determined by the meaning of the werd.Some issues of N400 elicited by Chinese characters deserve further research.

  4. N400 elicited by incongruent ending words of Chinese idioms in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xing-shi; Tang, Yun-xiang; Xiao, Ze-ping; Wang, Ji-jun; Zhang, Ming-dao; Zhang, Zai-fu; Hu, Zhen-yu; Lou, Fei-ying; Chen, Chong; Zhang, Tian-hong

    2010-03-20

    Prior research about N400 has been mainly based on English stimuli, while the cognitive processing of Chinese characters is still unclear. The aim of the present study was to further investigate the semantic processing of Chinese idioms. Event related potentials (ERP) component N400 was elicited by 38 pairs of matching (congruent) and mismatching (incongruent) ended Chinese idioms: ending words with same phoneme but different shape and meaning (sPdSdM), with similar shape but different phoneme and meaning (sSdPdM), with same meaning but different phoneme and shape (sMdPdS), and words with different phoneme, shape and meaning (dPdSdM) and recorded by Guangzhou Runjie WJ-1 ERP instruments. In 62 right-handed healthy adults (age 19 - 50 years), N400 amplitudes and latencies were compared between matching and mismatching conditions at Fz, Cz and Pz. N400 showed a midline distribution and could be elicited in electrodes Fz, Cz and Pz. The mean values of N400 latencies and amplitudes were obtained for matching and mismatching ending words in healthy adults. Significant differences were found in N400 latencies and amplitudes in matching and mismatching ending-words idioms in healthy adults (P idioms, N400 latencies were prolonged and the amplitudes were increased in mismatching ones. N400s elicited by different types of stimuli showed different latencies and amplitudes, and longest N400 latency and largest N400 amplitude were elicited by ending-words with dPdSdM. No gender difference was found of N400 latency and amplitude in this study (P > 0.05). Compared with English stimuli, Chinese ideographic words could provide more flexible stimuli for N400 research in that the words have 3-dimension changes - phoneme, shape and meaning. Features of N400 elicited by matching and mismatching ending words in Chinese idioms are mainly determined by the meaning of the word. Some issues of N400 elicited by Chinese characters deserve further research.

  5. Impact of Short- and Long-term Tai Chi Mind-Body Exercise Training on Cognitive Function in Healthy Adults: Results From a Hybrid Observational Study and Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Jacquelyn N; Manor, Brad; Hausdorff, Jeffrey; Novak, Vera; Lipsitz, Lewis; Gow, Brian; Macklin, Eric A; Peng, Chung-Kang; Wayne, Peter M

    2015-07-01

    Cognitive decline amongst older adults is a significant public health concern. There is growing interest in behavioral interventions, including exercise, for improving cognition. Studies to date suggest tai chi (TC) may be a safe and potentially effective exercise for preserving cognitive function with aging; however, its short-term and potential long-term impact on physically active, healthy adults is unclear. To compare differences in cognitive function among long-term TC expert practitioners and age-matched and gender-matched TC-naïve adults and to determine the effects of short-term TC training on measures of cognitive function in healthy, nonsedentary adults. A hybrid design including an observational comparison and a 2-arm randomized clinical trial (RCT). Healthy, nonsedentary, TC-naive adults (50 y-79 y) and age-matched and gender-matched long-term TC experts. A cross-sectional comparison of cognitive function in healthy TC-naïve (n=60) and TC expert (24.5 y ÷ 12 y experience; n=27) adults: TC-naïve adults then completed a 6-month, 2-arm, wait-list randomized clinical trial of TC training. Six measures of cognitive function were assessed for both cross-sectional and longitudinal comparisons. TC experts exhibited trends towards better scores on all cognitive measures, significantly so for category fluency (P=.01), as well as a composite z score summarizing all 6 cognitive assessments (P=.03). In contrast, random assignment to 6 months of TC training in TC-naïve adults did not significantly improve any measures of cognitive function. In healthy nonsedentary adults, long-term TC training may help preserve cognitive function; however, the effect of short-term TC training in healthy adults remains unclear. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01340365.

  6. Healthy older adults have insufficient hip range of motion and plantar flexor strength to walk like healthy young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Dennis E; Madigan, Michael L

    2014-03-21

    Limited plantar flexor strength and hip extension range of motion (ROM) in older adults are believed to underlie common age-related differences in gait. However, no studies of age-related differences in gait have quantified the percentage of strength and ROM used during gait. We examined peak hip angles, hip torques and plantar flexor torques, and corresponding estimates of functional capacity utilized (FCU), which we define as the percentage of available strength or joint ROM used, in 10 young and 10 older healthy adults walking under self-selected and controlled (slow and fast) conditions. Older adults walked with about 30% smaller hip extension angle, 28% larger hip flexion angle, 34% more hip extensor torque in the slow condition, and 12% less plantar flexor torque in the fast condition than young adults. Older adults had higher FCU than young adults for hip flexion angle (47% vs. 34%) and hip extensor torque (48% vs. 27%). FCUs for plantar flexor torque (both age groups) and hip extension angle (older adults in all conditions; young adults in self-selected gait) were not significantly adults lacked sufficient hip extension ROM to walk with a hip extension angle as large as that of young adults. Similarly, in the fast gait condition older adults lacked the strength to match the plantar flexor torque produced by young adults. This supports the hypothesis that hip extension ROM and plantar flexor strength are limiting factors in gait and contribute to age-related differences in gait. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Sexual dysfunction is more than twice as frequent in Danish female predialysis patients compared to age- and gender-matched healthy controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prescott, Lotte; Eidemak, Inge; Harrison, Adrian Paul

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: This study aimed to compare sexual dysfunction in Danish female predialysis patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) stage 4-5 with age-matched healthy women in Denmark. METHODS: Twenty-seven adult female predialysis patients (CKD stage 4-5 ~ creatinine clearance ≤ 30 ml/min) without.......1, respectively, p = 0.180). CONCLUSION: Sexual dysfunction was found to be more than two times as frequent in Danish female predialysis patients with CKD stage 4-5 compared to age- and gender-matched healthy controls, and this result emphasizes the need for attention towards sexual function in the treatment...... diagnosed depression and 54 randomly assigned healthy female controls completed the questionnaires Female Sexual Function Index, Female Sexual Distress Scale, and the Major Depression Inventory. RESULTS: Predialysis patients reported lower Female Sexual Function Index scores compared to the controls (14...

  8. Healthy building environments for ageing adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kort, Helianthe S.M.

    2017-01-01

    A healthy building environment, when looking from a gerontechnology perspective, should facilitate ageing adults' functioning, self-esteem, and prosperity. Creating healthy environments is becoming more and more relevant in society. Older adults tend to stay more indoors when compared to younger

  9. Statins and New-Onset Diabetes Mellitus and Diabetic Complications: A Retrospective Cohort Study of US Healthy Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansi, Ishak; Frei, Christopher R; Wang, Chen-Pin; Mortensen, Eric M

    2015-11-01

    Statin use is associated with increased incidence of diabetes and possibly with increased body weight and reduced exercise capacity. Data on the long-term effects of these associations in healthy adults, however, are very limited. In addition, the relationship between these effects and diabetic complications has not been adequately studied. To examine the association between statin use and new-onset diabetes, diabetic complications, and overweight/obesity in a cohort of healthy adults. This was a retrospective cohort study. Subjects were Tricare beneficiaries who were evaluated between October 1, 2003 and March 1, 2012. Patients were divided into statin users and nonusers. We excluded patients who, at baseline, had a preexisting disease indicative of cardiovascular diseases, any positive element of the Charlson comorbidity index (including diabetes mellitus), or life-limiting chronic diseases. Using 42 baseline characteristics, we generated a propensity score to match statin users and nonusers. Outcomes assessed included new-onset diabetes, diabetic complications, and overweight/obesity. A total of 25,970 patients (3982 statin users and 21,988 nonusers) were identified as healthy adults at baseline. Of these, 3351 statins users and 3351 nonusers were propensity score-matched. Statin users had higher odds of new-onset diabetes (odds ratio [OR] 1.87; 95 % confidence interval [95 % CI] 1.67-2.01), diabetes with complications (OR 2.50; 95 % CI 1.88-3.32), and overweight/obesity (OR 1.14; 95 % CI 1.04-1.25). Secondary and sensitivity analyses demonstrated similar findings. Diabetes, diabetic complications, and overweight/obesity were more commonly diagnosed among statin-users than similar nonusers in a healthy cohort of adults. This study demonstrates that short-term clinical trials might not fully describe the risk/benefit of long-term statin use for primary prevention.

  10. Movement Discordance between Healthy and Non-Healthy US Adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann M Swartz

    Full Text Available Physical activity is known to significantly impact cardiometabolic health. Accelerometer data, as a measure of physical activity, can be used to objectively identify a disparity in movement (movement discordance between healthy and unhealthy adults. The purpose of this study was to examine the Movement Discordance between healthy and unhealthy adults in a large US population sample.Demographic, health and accelerometer data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Study (NHANES 2003-2004 and 2005-2006 cohorts were used for this study. Participants were classified as either having a "normal" or "abnormal" value for each cardiometabolic health parameter examined, based on published criteria. Linear regression analyses were performed to determine significance of each abnormal health parameter (risk factor in its unique effect on the accelerometer counts, controlling for age and gender. Average accelerometer counts per minute (cpm by gender and age categories were estimated separately for the groups of normal and abnormal cardiometabolic risk.Average cpm for those with healthy levels of each individual cardiometabolic health parameter range from 296 cpm (for C reactive protein to 337 cpm (for waist circumference, while average cpm for those with abnormal levels of each individual cardiometabolic health parameter range from 216 cpm (for insulin to 291 cpm (for LDL-cholesterol. After controlling for age and gender, waist circumference, HbA1c, Insulin, Homocysteine, and HDL-Cholesterol were the cardiometabolic health parameters that showed significant, unique and independent effects on cpm. Overall, individuals who have abnormal values for all significant cardiometabolic health parameters ("unhealthy" averaged 267 cpm (SE = 15 cpm, while the healthy sample of this study averaged 428 cpm (SE = 10 cpm. The difference in cpm between the unhealthy and healthy groups is similar between males and females. Further, for both males and females, the

  11. Greater Glycaemic Response to an Oral Glucose Load in Healthy, Lean, Active and Young Chinese Adults Compared to Matched Caucasians

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    Trevor Simper

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available There are ethnic differences recorded in glycaemic response and rates of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM between Chinese and Caucasian populations. Whether these differences are evident in matched healthy, lean, active, young adults is unclear. This study compares the postprandial glycaemic response of a group of Chinese participants (n = 49 with a group of similar Caucasians, (n = 48 aged 23.8 (±4.35 years, body mass index (BMI 22.7 (±2.6 kg/m2, healthy (free from non-communicable disease, and lean (body fat % 23.28% (±5.04. Participants undertook an oral glucose tolerance test to identify any significant differences in postprandial blood glucose response. Body fat percentage, body mass, age, physical activity, baseline glucose and HbA1c did not significantly differ between groups. Data from food frequency questionnaires indicated that the Chinese participants consumed less starchy foods, candy and “other” sweets and sugary drinks, and more rice than the Caucasians (all p ≤ 0.001, but not a greater overall intake of carbohydrates or any other macronutrient (all p > 0.05. The two groups’ postprandial blood glucose responses and 2-h incremental area under the curve values (iAUC—156.67 (74.12 mmol/L 120 min for Caucasians versus 214.03 (77.49 mmol/L 120 min for Chinese—indicate significant differences (p = 0.003 and p < 0.001 respectively between groups. Findings suggest that the difference between the two groups’ iAUC values do not relate to obvious lifestyle factors. The Chinese group were eating the least sugary and starchy food but had the highest iAUC. It is argued that the Chinese group in this investigation have the most favourable BMI, body fat percentage, and body mass, yet “poorest” glycaemic response.

  12. The Comparison of Risky Decision Making in Opium Abuser and Healthy Matched Individuals

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    Vahid Nejati

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Risky decision making is one of the most basic mechanisms of impulsive and addictive behaviors. The purpose of present study was the comparison of risky decision making in opium abuser and healthy matched individuals. Method: In present cross sectional study, 50 opium abusers compared to 50 healthy who were matched on age and gender. Balloon Analogue Risk Taking Task was used for evaluation of risk taking in participant of both groups. Results: The results showed that opium abusers have had higher scores on number of plumbing balloon and exploded balloon in BART task than normal individuals. Conclusion: Opium abusers have higher risk taking than normal individuals.

  13. MR Detection of microhemorrhages in neurologically healthy adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsushima, Y.; Tanizaki, Y.; Aoki, J.; Endo, K.

    2002-01-01

    T2*-weighted gradient-echo (GE) magnetic resonance images frequently demonstrate small hypointense lesions in patients with systemic hypertension and spontaneous hematomas. These lesions have been suspected to represent subclinical microhemorrhages. We examined the incidence of these lesions in neurologically healthy adults, and the factors associated with them. Axial T2*-weighted GE images (TR = 1,000 ms, TE = 30 ms, flip angle = 20 ) were obtained in addition to conventional T1- and T2-weighted spin echo images in 450 neurologically healthy Japanese adults (289 men and 161 women; age 52.9±7.7 years, range 24-84). The overall incidence of small hypointense lesions was 3.1% (14/450), and these lesions were closely related to systemic hypertension (P 20 cigarettes per day; P=0.003). Although the incidence of hypointense lesions was lower in neurologically healthy adults than in the reported incidence in patients with a hemorrhagic history, the presence of these lesions was related to the risk factors for primary intracerebral hemorrhage even in the neurologically healthy adults. (orig.)

  14. Laryngeal Aerodynamics in Healthy Older Adults and Adults with Parkinson's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matheron, Deborah; Stathopoulos, Elaine T.; Huber, Jessica E.; Sussman, Joan E.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The present study compared laryngeal aerodynamic function of healthy older adults (HOA) to adults with Parkinson's disease (PD) while speaking at a comfortable and increased vocal intensity. Method: Laryngeal aerodynamic measures (subglottal pressure, peak-to-peak flow, minimum flow, and open quotient [OQ]) were compared between HOAs and…

  15. Depressive Symptoms Affect Working Memory in Healthy Older Adult Hispanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar-Villanea, Monica; Liebmann, Edward; Garnier-Villarreal, Mauricio; Montenegro-Montenegro, Esteban; Johnson, David K

    2015-10-01

    Low and middle income nations will experience an unprecedented growth of the elderly population and subsequent increase in age-related neurological disorders. Worldwide prevalence and incidence of all-types of neurological disorders with serious mental health complications will increase with life expectancy across the globe. One-in- ten individuals over 75 has at least moderate cognitive impairment. Prevalence of cognitive impairment doubles every 5 years thereafter. Latin America's population of older adult's 65 years and older is growing rapidly, yet little is known about cognitive aging among healthy older Latinos. Clinically significant depressive symptomatology is common among community-dwelling older adults and is associated with deficits across multiple cognitive domains, however much of the literature has not modeled the unique effects of depression distinct from negative and low positive affect. Our objective was to understand how mental health affects cognitive health in healthy aging Latinos. The present study used confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and structural equation modeling (SEM) to examine the relative effects of Negative Affect, Positive Affect and Geriatric Depression on Verbal Memory, Verbal Reasoning, Processing Speed, and Working Memory in healthy aging Latinos. Data was collected from a sample of healthy community dwelling older adults living in San Jose, Costa Rica. Modeling of latent variables attenuated error and improved measurement reliability of cognition, affect, and depression variables. Costa Ricans enjoy a notoriety for being much happier than US citizens and are renowned as one of the happiest nations in the world in global surveys. This was born out in these data. Costa Rican affective profiles differed substantively from US profiles. Levels of negative affect and depression were similar to US samples, but their levels of positive affect were much higher. Cognitive performance of these Costa Rican older adults was similar to US

  16. Neuroticism and facial emotion recognition in healthy adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andric, Sanja; Maric, Nadja P.; Knezevic, Goran; Mihaljevic, Marina; Mirjanic, Tijana; Velthorst, Eva; van Os, Jim

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine whether healthy individuals with higher levels of neuroticism, a robust independent predictor of psychopathology, exhibit altered facial emotion recognition performance. Facial emotion recognition accuracy was investigated in 104 healthy adults using the

  17. Comparison of Emotion Recognition and Mind Reading Abilities in Opium Abusers and Healthy Matched Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Nejati

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The purpose of this study is to compare the emotion recognition and mind reading in opium abusers and healthy individuals. Method: In this causative-comparative study, with a non probability sampling method, 30 opium abusers compared with 30 healthy individuals that were matched in sex and education. Neurocognitive tests of reading mind from eyes and emotion recognition from face were used for evaluation. Independent T-Test was used for analysis. Findings: The results showed that opium abusers had significantly lower abilities in mind reading than healthy matched individuals. Also opium abusers had significantly lower performance in recognition of emotional experience of happy, sad and angry faces. Conclusion: Based on weak performance of mind reading and emotion recognition in addicts, it is advised that social cognition evaluation considered in drug abusers evaluation. Future interventional study could propose social cognition rehabilitation programs for addicts.

  18. Chromosome aberrations in T lymphocytes carrying adult T-cell leukemia-associated antigens (ATLA) from healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuhara, S; Hinuma, Y; Gotoh, Y I; Uchino, H

    1983-01-01

    Chromosomes were studied in cultured T lymphocytes carrying adult T-cell leukemia-associated antigens (ATLA) that were obtained from five Japanese anti-ATLA seropositive healthy adults. Chromosomally abnormal cells were observed in three of the five healthy adults, and these cells were clonal in two subjects. All cells examined in one subject had rearrangements of chromosome nos. 7 and 14. Clonal cells from the second had a minute chromosome of unknown origin. A few cells in the third had nonclonal rearrangements of chromosomes. Thus, ATLA-positive T lymphocytes in some anti-ATLA seropositive healthy people have chromosome aberrations.

  19. Pharmacology and safety of glycerol phenylbutyrate in healthy adults and adults with cirrhosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Brendan M; Zupanets, Igor A; Lowe, Mark E; Xiao, Xunjun; Syplyviy, Vasyliy A; Monteleone, Jon; Gargosky, Sharron; Dickinson, Klara; Martinez, Antonia; Mokhtarani, Masoud; Scharschmidt, Bruce F

    2010-06-01

    Phenylbutyric acid (PBA), which is approved for treatment of urea cycle disorders (UCDs) as sodium phenylbutyrate (NaPBA), mediates waste nitrogen excretion via combination of PBA-derived phenylacetic acid with glutamine to form phenylactylglutamine (PAGN) that is excreted in urine. Glycerol phenylbutyrate (GPB), a liquid triglyceride pro-drug of PBA, containing no sodium and having favorable palatability, is being studied for treatment of hepatic encephalopathy (HE). In vitro and clinical studies have been performed to assess GPB digestion, safety, and pharmacology in healthy adults and individuals with cirrhosis. GPB hydrolysis was measured in vitro by way of pH titration. Twenty-four healthy adults underwent single-dose administration of GPB and NaPBA and eight healthy adults and 24 cirrhotic subjects underwent single-day and multiple-day dosing of GPB, with metabolites measured in blood and urine. Simulations were performed to assess GPB dosing at higher levels. GPB was hydrolyzed by human pancreatic triglyceride lipase, pancreatic lipase-related protein 2, and carboxyl-ester lipase. Clinical safety was satisfactory. Compared with NaPBA, peak metabolite blood levels with GPB occurred later and were lower; urinary PAGN excretion was similar but took longer. Steady state was achieved within 4 days for both NaPBA and GPB; intact GPB was not detected in blood or urine. Cirrhotic subjects converted GPB to PAGN similarly to healthy adults. Simulations suggest that GPB can be administered safely to cirrhotic subjects at levels equivalent to the highest approved NaPBA dose for UCDs. GPB exhibits delayed release characteristics, presumably reflecting gradual PBA release by pancreatic lipases, and is well tolerated in adults with cirrhosis, suggesting that further clinical testing for HE is warranted.

  20. Adult height, dietary patterns, and healthy aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Wenjie; Hagan, Kaitlin A; Heianza, Yoriko; Sun, Qi; Rimm, Eric B; Qi, Lu

    2017-08-01

    Background: Adult height has shown directionally diverse associations with several age-related disorders, including cardiovascular disease, cancer, decline in cognitive function, and mortality. Objective: We investigated the associations of adult height with healthy aging measured by a full spectrum of health outcomes, including incidence of chronic diseases, memory, physical functioning, and mental health, among populations who have survived to older age, and whether lifestyle factors modified such relations. Design: We included 52,135 women (mean age: 44.2 y) from the Nurses' Health Study without chronic diseases in 1980 and whose health status was available in 2012. Healthy aging was defined as being free of 11 major chronic diseases and having no reported impairment of subjective memory, physical impairment, or mental health limitations. Results: Of all eligible study participants, 6877 (13.2%) were classified as healthy agers. After adjustment for demographic and lifestyle factors, we observed an 8% (95% CI: 6%, 11%) decrease in the odds of healthy aging per SD (0.062 m) increase in height. Compared with the lowest category of height (≤1.57 m), the OR of achieving healthy aging in the highest category (≥1.70 m) was 0.80 (95% CI: 0.73, 0.87; P -trend healthy aging ( P -interaction = 0.005), and among the individual dietary factors characterizing the prudent dietary pattern, fruit and vegetable intake showed the strongest effect modification ( P -interaction = 0.01). The association of greater height with reduced odds of healthy aging appeared to be more evident among women with higher adherence to the prudent dietary pattern rich in vegetable and fruit intake. Conclusions: Greater height was associated with a modest decrease in the likelihood of healthy aging. A prudent diet rich in fruit and vegetables might modify the relation. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  1. Blood pressure and pulse rate of apparently healthy adults on land ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Blood pressure and pulse rate of apparently healthy adults on land and in water: A comparative study. AI Bello, BOA Adegoke, OA Abass, O Addo. Abstract. Objective: The study compared cardiovascular parameters of apparently healthy adults in erect standing posture on land and whilst immersed in water at rest. Methods: ...

  2. Isometric and swallowing tongue strength in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, J Tee; Lintzenich, Catherine Rees; Butler, Susan G

    2013-10-01

    The tongue contributes to a safe swallow. It facilitates bolus control during mastication, maintains a bolus in the oral cavity to prevent premature entry of the bolus into the hypopharynx, and helps generate pressure in the hypopharynx during swallowing. This study examined isometric tongue strength and tongue pressure measured during swallowing in healthy young and older adults. Prospective group design. One hundred twenty-six healthy individuals who were recruited as part of a larger study on swallowing participated in this study. Participants were divided into three age groups: 20 to 40 years, 41 to 60 years, and ≥61 years. A KayPentax Digital Swallowing Workstation with an air-filled bulb array was placed on the tongue of each participant (anterior to posterior). Participants completed three isometric tongue presses and three swallows. Repeated measures analyses of variance revealed a significant main effect of age (P = .01) and gender by tongue bulb location interaction (P = .02) for isometric tongue strength. That is, older adults had lower isometric tongue strength than young adults, and females had a greater difference between anterior and posterior tongue strength than males. Tongue strength during swallowing yielded significantly greater anterior versus posterior tongue pressure. This study comprises one of the largest in terms of number of healthy participants reported to date and confirms previous findings that isometric tongue strength decreases with age. Furthermore, given young and older adults generate similar swallowing pressures, swallowing is a submaximal strength activity, yet older adults have less functional reserve. 4. Copyright © 2013 The American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society, Inc.

  3. Healthy Choices for Every Body Adult Curriculum Improves Participants' Food Resource Management Skills and Food Safety Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adedokun, Omolola A; Plonski, Paula; Jenkins-Howard, Brooke; Cotterill, Debra B; Vail, Ann

    2018-04-03

    To evaluate the impact of the University of Kentucky's Healthy Choices for Every Body (HCEB) adult nutrition education curriculum on participants' food resource management (FRM) skills and food safety practices. A quasi-experimental design was employed using propensity score matching to pair 8 intervention counties with 8 comparison counties. Independent-samples t tests and ANCOVA models compared gains in FRM skills and food safety practices between the intervention and comparison groups (n = 413 and 113, respectively). Propensity score matching analysis showed a statistical balance and similarities between the comparison and intervention groups. Food resource management and food safety gain scores were statistically significantly higher for the intervention group (P food safety practices of participants. Copyright © 2018 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Sleep reduces false memory in healthy older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, June C; Sim, Sam K Y; Chee, Michael W L

    2014-04-01

    To investigate the effects of post-learning sleep and sleep architecture on false memory in healthy older adults. Balanced, crossover design. False memory was induced using the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm and assessed following nocturnal sleep and following a period of daytime wakefulness. Post-learning sleep structure was evaluated using polysomnography (PSG). Sleep research laboratory. Fourteen healthy older adults from the Singapore-Longitudinal Aging Brain Study (mean age ± standard deviation = 66.6 ± 4.1 y; 7 males). At encoding, participants studied lists of words that were semantically related to non-presented critical lures. At retrieval, they made "remember"/"know" and "new" judgments. Compared to wakefulness, post-learning sleep was associated with reduced "remember" responses, but not "know" responses to critical lures. In contrast, there were no significant differences in the veridical recognition of studied words, false recognition of unrelated distractors, discriminability, or response bias between the sleep and the wake conditions. More post-learning slow wave sleep was associated with greater reduction in false memory. In healthy older adults, sleep facilitates the reduction in false memory without affecting veridical memory. This benefit correlates with the amount of slow wave sleep in the post-learning sleep episode.

  5. Participation in Heart-Healthy Behaviors: A Secondary Analysis of the American Heart Association Go Red Heart Match Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslanian-Engoren, Cynthia; Eastwood, Jo-Ann; De Jong, Marla J; Berra, Kathy

    2015-01-01

    The American Heart Association created Go Red Heart Match, a free and secure online program that enables women to connect with each other to fight heart disease either personally or as a caregiver for someone with heart disease. Through these connections, participants have an opportunity to develop a personal, private, and supportive relationship with other women; share common experiences; and motivate and encourage each other to follow a heart-healthy lifestyle. The aims of this study were to describe the demographic characteristics of the Go Red Heart Match responders and to determine whether participation in the program prompted participants to engage in heart-healthy behaviors. A secondary analysis of data collected as part of a needs assessment survey from the American Heart Association Go Red Heart Match was conducted. A total of 117 (35%) of the 334 invited women completed the survey. Most responders were female, married, and college educated. A total of 105 (90%) responders were diagnosed with a type of heart disease or stroke and 77 (73%) responders had undergone treatment. As a result of participating in the program, 75% of the responders reported the following improvements in heart-healthy behaviors: eating a more heart-healthy diet (54%), exercising more frequently (53%), losing weight (47%), and quitting smoking (10%). Responders who had a diagnosis of heart attack (n = 48) were more likely (P = .003) to quit smoking than were those with other diagnoses (n = 69). Notably, 48% of responders reported encouraging someone else in their life to speak to their doctor about their risk for heart disease. Most women who participated in Heart Match reported engaging in new heart-healthy behaviors. The findings support expanding the existing program in a more diverse population as a potentially important way to reach women and encourage cardiovascular disease risk reduction for those with heart disease and stroke.

  6. Young adults perinatally infected with HIV perform more poorly on measures of executive functioning and motor speed than ethnically matched healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willen, Elizabeth J; Cuadra, Anai; Arheart, Kristopher L; Post, M J D; Govind, Varan

    2017-03-01

    Perinatal HIV is associated with significant neurocognitive morbidities, but few studies have examined cognitive impact of early HIV infection on patients surviving to adulthood. The purpose of this study was to evaluate neurocognitive outcomes among a cohort of perinatally infected young adults. Individuals between the ages of 18 and 24 with perinatal infection were recruited for this cross-sectional study along with similarly aged healthy controls. Participants completed an MRI and brief neuropsychological assessment battery. Multivariate analysis of covariance controlling for age, gender, race/ethnicity, and education was completed to detect differences between the HIV+ and control groups. Multivariable linear regression was performed to assess HIV-associated factors potentially impacting neuropsychological findings among the HIV+ group. Twenty-nine HIV+ young adults and 13 healthy controls were included in the study. After adjusting for age and sociodemographic variables, the HIV+ group scored lower on attention/working memory (Digit Span (p = .008) and Letter-Number Sequencing (p = .038)), set-shifting (DKEFS Trail Making Test Condition 4 (p = .026) and motor speed (DKEFS Trail Making Test Condition 5 (p = .003)). For the HIV+ group, nadir CD4 was associated with better Letter-Number Sequencing score (p = .029) and use of highly active antiretroviral therapy was associated with better performance on Category Fluency (p = .040). After controlling for sociodemographic variables, executive dysfunction persists among young adults with perinatal HIV infection in comparison to controls. Future studies to further elucidate the impact of executive dysfunction on independent living and functional outcomes are indicated.

  7. Neural correlates of childhood trauma with executive function in young healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Shaojia; Pan, Fen; Gao, Weijia; Wei, Zhaoguo; Wang, Dandan; Hu, Shaohua; Huang, Manli; Xu, Yi; Li, Lingjiang

    2017-10-03

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship among childhood trauma, executive impairments, and altered resting-state brain function in young healthy adults. Twenty four subjects with childhood trauma and 24 age- and gender-matched subjects without childhood trauma were recruited. Executive function was assessed by a series of validated test procedures. Localized brain activity was evaluated by fractional amplitude of low frequency fluctuation (fALFF) method and compared between two groups. Areas with altered fALFF were further selected as seeds in subsequent functional connectivity analysis. Correlations of fALFF and connectivity values with severity of childhood trauma and executive dysfunction were analyzed as well. Subjects with childhood trauma exhibited impaired executive function as assessed by Wisconsin Card Sorting Test and Stroop Color Word Test. Traumatic individuals also showed increased fALFF in the right precuneus and decreased fALFF in the right superior temporal gyrus. Significant correlations of specific childhood trauma severity with executive dysfunction and fALFF value in the right precuneus were found in the whole sample. In addition, individuals with childhood trauma also exhibited diminished precuneus-based connectivity in default mode network with left ventromedial prefrontal cortex, left orbitofrontal cortex, and right cerebellum. Decreased default mode network connectivity was also associated with childhood trauma severity and executive dysfunction. The present findings suggest that childhood trauma is associated with executive deficits and aberrant default mode network functions even in healthy adults. Moreover, this study demonstrates that executive dysfunction is related to disrupted default mode network connectivity.

  8. Intraindividual variability in physical and emotional functioning: comparison of adults with traumatic brain injuries and healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Catherine L; Hultsch, David F; Strauss, Esther; Hunter, Michael A

    2002-08-01

    Recent research has shown that individuals with certain neurological conditions demonstrate greater intraindividual variability on cognitive tasks compared to healthy controls. The present study investigated intraindividual variability in the domains of physical functioning and affect/stress in three groups: adults with mild head injuries, adults with moderate/severe head injuries, and healthy adults. Participants were assessed on 10 occasions and results indicated that (a) individuals with head injuries demonstrated greater variability in dominant finger dexterity and right grip strength than the healthy controls; (b) increased variability tended to be associated with poorer performance/report both within and across tasks; and (c) increased variability on one task was associated with increased variability on other tasks. The findings suggest that increased variability in physical function, as well as cognitive function, represents an indicator of neurological compromise.

  9. Quality of life in Arab Muslim cancer survivors following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: comparison with matched healthy group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaloul, Fawwaz; Brockopp, Dorothy Y; Andrykowski, Michael A; Hall, Lynne A; Al Nusairat, Taghreed S

    2015-07-01

    The aims of this study were to determine if quality of life (QOL) among Arab Muslim hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) survivors differs from that of a healthy matched comparison group and to examine the relationships of demographic and medical variables and perceived social support with post-HSCT QOL. HSCT survivors (n = 63) were recruited from the King Hussein Cancer Center outpatient clinic. A matched (age, gender, education), healthy comparison group (n = 63) was recruited through public advertisements. Participants completed the EORTC-30 QOL scale and the Medical Outcomes Study Social Support Survey. Differences were found between the Arab Muslim HSCT survivor and healthy comparison groups for physical functioning (p Western HSCT survivors in the social and emotional QOL domains. Given growing numbers of Arab and Muslim cancer survivors in the USA and other Western countries, future research is warranted.

  10. A comparative study of negative life events and depressive symptoms among healthy older adults and older adults with chronic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Han; Gao, Tingting; Gao, Jinglei; Kong, Yixi; Hu, Yueyang; Wang, Ruimei; Mei, Songli

    2017-12-01

    This study aims to study internal relations and functionary mechanism between social support, coping style, negative life events and depressive symptoms and compare these relations in healthy older adults and older adults with chronic disease. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2015. In total, 1,264 older adults with chronic disease and 749 healthy older adults participated in this investigation which consist of socio-demographic characters, negative life events, social support, coping style and depressive symptoms. The path and direction of variable function in healthy older adults were inconsistent with older adults with chronic disease. Older adults with chronic disease had more severe depressive symptoms and negative life events, and lower social support and positive coping style. Negative life events, subjective support, positive coping style and negative coping style were significantly predicted depressive symptoms. Objective support may weaken the influence of negative life events on depressive symptoms in chronic disease group. Utilization of support and positive coping style worsen the effect of negative life events on depressive symptoms in healthy older adults. This study implied that to improve their mental health, attention should be paid to the role of biological, psychological and social stress factors and its inherent law of interaction.

  11. Action Video Game Training for Healthy Adults: A Meta-Analytic Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ping; Liu, Han-Hui; Zhu, Xing-Ting; Meng, Tian; Li, Hui-Jie; Zuo, Xi-Nian

    2016-01-01

    Action video game (AVG) has attracted increasing attention from both the public and from researchers. More and more studies found video game training improved a variety of cognitive functions. However, it remains controversial whether healthy adults can benefit from AVG training, and whether young and older adults benefit similarly from AVG training. In the present study, we aimed to quantitatively assess the AVG training effect on the cognitive ability of adults and to compare the training effects on young and older adults by conducting a meta-analysis on previous findings. We systematically searched video game training studies published between January 1986 and July 2015. Twenty studies were included in the present meta-analysis, for a total of 313 participants included in the training group and 323 participants in the control group. The results demonstrate that healthy adults achieve moderate benefit from AVG training in overall cognitive ability and moderate to small benefit in specific cognitive domains. In contrast, young adults gain more benefits from AVG training than older adults in both overall cognition and specific cognitive domains. Age, education, and some methodological factors, such as the session duration, session number, total training duration, and control group type, modulated the training effects. These meta-analytic findings provide evidence that AVG training may serve as an efficient way to improve the cognitive performance of healthy adults. We also discussed several directions for future AVG training studies.

  12. SHORT COMMUNICATION: Reduction of Spirometric Lung Function Tests in Habitually Smoking Healthy Young Adults: It’s Correlation with Pack Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumangala M Patil

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adolescent smoking and the subsequent health problems are a major concern today. However there are very few studies done on spirometric lung functions and its relation with pack years in young adult habitual smokers who are apparently healthy. Aims and Objectives: The present study is undertaken to assess the change in lung functions in apparently healthy young adult habitual smokers compared to their age matched controls. Materials and Methods: A random sample of apparently healthy young adult habitual smokers (n=40 and nonsmokers (n=40 between age group17-35 years with history suggesting of pack years of 2-10 years were selected from students & employee’s of B.L.D.E.U’s Sri B.M. Patil Medical College,Hospital & Research Centre Bijapur (Karnataka, India. Spirometric lung functions recorded were forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1, FEV1%, Peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR and Maximal expiratory pressure (MEP. Results: The results suggested that inapparently healthy habitual smokers there was significant decrease in FEV1 (L (-13.34%, p<0.001, FEV1 % (-10.76%, p<0.001, PEFR (-45.26%, p<0.0001 and MEP (-35.51%, p<0.0001 compared to nonsmokers and decrease in FEV1 was negatively correlated withpack years in smokers (r2=0.063, p=0.001. Reduced lung functions and negative correlation to pack years may be attributed todecreased airway diameter & reflex broncho- constriction in response to inhaled smoke particles. Conclusions: In conclusion young adulthabitual smokers who were apparently healthy are more prone for respiratory dysfunction than their nonsmoker counterparts. FEV1 reduction in relation to pack years acts as an important determinant for detecting lung dysfunction in the early stage of the disease. As the risk of having smoking related diseases depends mainly on number of pack years, it is suggested that quitting smoking earliest helps to get greatest health benefits in apparently healthy young adult habitual smokers.

  13. Gait impairment in cervical spondylotic myelopathy: comparison with age- and gender-matched healthy controls.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Malone, Ailish

    2012-12-01

    Gait impairment is a primary symptom of cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM); however, little is known about specific kinetic and kinematic gait parameters. The objectives of the study were: (1) to compare gait patterns of people with untreated CSM to those of age- and gender-matched healthy controls; (2) to examine the effect of gait speed on kinematic and kinetic parameters.

  14. Stage-Based Healthy Lifestyles Program for Non-College Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Jennifer; Kattelmann, Kendra; White, Adrienne

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to test the feasibility of implementing a healthy lifestyles intervention to maintain or achieve healthy weight for low-income young adults in vocational education. Design/methodology/approach: Non-randomized, quasi-experimental feasibility test of a ten-week intervention with follow-up assessment designed…

  15. Meals described as healthy or unhealthy match public health education in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laguna-Camacho, Antonio; Booth, David A

    2015-04-01

    Dietary guidelines for the general public aim to lower the incidence of nutrition-related diseases by influencing habitual food choices. Yet little is known about how well the guidelines are matched by the actual practices that people regard as healthy or unhealthy. In the present study, British residents were asked in a cognitive interview to write a description of an occasion when either they ate in an unhealthy way or the eating was healthy. The reported foods and drinks, as well as sort of occasion, location, people present and time of day, were categorised by verbal and semantic similarities. The number of mentions of terms in each category was then contrasted between groups in exact probability tests. Perceived unhealthy and healthy eating occasions differed reliably in the sorts of foods and the contexts reported. There was also full agreement with the national guidelines on eating plenty of fruit and vegetables, eating small amounts of foods and drinks high in fat and/or sugar, drinking plenty of water, and cutting down on alcohol. There was a tendency to regard choices of bread, rice, potatoes, pasta and other starchy foods as healthy. Reported healthy and unhealthy eating did not differ in incidences of meat, fish, eggs, beans and other non-dairy sources of protein or of dairy foods and milk. These results indicate that operationally clear recommendations by health professionals are well understood in this culture but members of the public do not make clear distinctions in the case of foods that can be included in moderate amounts in a healthy diet. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Swallow Event Sequencing: Comparing Healthy Older and Younger Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzberg, Erica G; Lazarus, Cathy L; Steele, Catriona M; Molfenter, Sonja M

    2018-04-23

    Previous research has established that a great deal of variation exists in the temporal sequence of swallowing events for healthy adults. Yet, the impact of aging on swallow event sequence is not well understood. Kendall et al. (Dysphagia 18(2):85-91, 2003) suggested there are 4 obligatory paired-event sequences in swallowing. We directly compared adherence to these sequences, as well as event latencies, and quantified the percentage of unique sequences in two samples of healthy adults: young ( 65). The 8 swallowing events that contribute to the sequences were reliably identified from videofluoroscopy in a sample of 23 healthy seniors (10 male, mean age 74.7) and 20 healthy young adults (10 male, mean age 31.5) with no evidence of penetration-aspiration or post-swallow residue. Chi-square analyses compared the proportions of obligatory pairs and unique sequences by age group. Compared to the older subjects, younger subjects had significantly lower adherence to two obligatory sequences: Upper Esophageal Sphincter (UES) opening occurs before (or simultaneous with) the bolus arriving at the UES and UES maximum distention occurs before maximum pharyngeal constriction. The associated latencies were significantly different between age groups as well. Further, significantly fewer unique swallow sequences were observed in the older group (61%) compared with the young (82%) (χ 2  = 31.8; p < 0.001). Our findings suggest that paired swallow event sequences may not be robust across the age continuum and that variation in swallow sequences appears to decrease with aging. These findings provide normative references for comparisons to older individuals with dysphagia.

  17. Napping: Do's and Don'ts for Healthy Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Adult health Napping isn't just for children. Understand the pros and cons of napping and the best way to take a nap. ... you might be thinking about taking a nap. Napping at the wrong time of day or for ...

  18. Motivators of and Barriers to Engagement in Healthy Eating Behaviors among non-Hispanic Black Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Sarah E M; Tucker, Carolyn M; Flenar, Delphia J; Arthur, Tya M; Smith, Tasia M

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if non-Hispanic Black adults' levels of endorsement of motivators and barriers related to healthy eating are significantly associated with their level of engagement in healthy eating and their perceived importance of healthy eating and if these investigated variables differ by gender, income, and/or age. An assessment battery was completed by a cross-sectional sample of 207 non-Hispanic Black adults in Bronx, NY (54.1 % female; age: M = 38, SD = 14.12). Participants were recruited by culturally diverse data collectors at community-based locations within Bronx. Building healthy eating into a routine was a significant motivator of healthy eating (p motivators to engaging in healthy eating (routine: p motivators and barriers. Intervention programs to increase healthy eating among adults similar to those in this study may benefit from including a focus on increasing self-control of eating behaviors and incorporating healthy eating into one's routine.

  19. Promoting Healthy Aging in Adults with Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Tamar; Sorensen, Amy

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews the research on health promotion for adults aging with developmental disabilities. First, it examines barriers to healthy aging, including health behaviors and access to health screenings and services. Second, it reviews the research on health promotion interventions, including physical activity interventions, health education…

  20. Intraindividual variability in cognitive performance in older adults: comparison of adults with mild dementia, adults with arthritis, and healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hultsch, D F; MacDonald, S W; Hunter, M A; Levy-Bencheton, J; Strauss, E

    2000-10-01

    Intraindividual variability in latency and accuracy of cognitive performance across both trials and occasions was examined in 3 groups of older adults: healthy adults, adults with arthritis, and adults diagnosed with mild dementia. Participants completed 2 reaction-time and 2 episodic-memory tasks on 4 occasions. Results indicated that intraindividual variability in latency was greater in individuals diagnosed with mild dementia than in adults who were neurologically intact, regardless of their health status. Individual differences in variability were stable over time and across cognitive domains. Intraindividual variability was also related to level of performance and was uniquely predictive of neurological status, independent of level of performance. Results suggest that intraindividual variability may be a behavioral indicator of compromised neurological mechanisms.

  1. Story Processing Ability in Cognitively Healthy Younger and Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Heather Harris; Capilouto, Gilson J.; Srinivasan, Cidambi; Fergadiotis, Gerasimos

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the study was to examine the relationships among measures of comprehension and production for stories depicted in wordless pictures books and measures of memory and attention for 2 age groups. Method: Sixty cognitively healthy adults participated. They consisted of two groups--young adults (20-29 years of age) and older…

  2. Approximate Quantification in Young, Healthy Older Adults', and Alzheimer Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandini, Delphine; Lemaire, Patrick; Michel, Bernard Francois

    2009-01-01

    Forty young adults, 40 healthy older adults, and 39 probable AD patients were asked to estimate small (e.g., 25) and large (e.g., 60) collections of dots in a choice condition and in two no-choice conditions. Participants could choose between benchmark and anchoring strategies on each collection of dots in the choice condition and were required to…

  3. Sustainable healthy eating behaviour of young adults: towards a novel methodological approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieniak, Zuzanna; Żakowska-Biemans, Sylwia; Kostyra, Eliza; Raats, Monique

    2016-07-15

    Food, nutrition and health policy makers are poised with two pertinent issues more than any other: obesity and climate change. Consumer research has focused primarily on specific areas of sustainable food, such as organic food, local or traditional food, meat substitution and/or reduction. More holistic view of sustainable healthy eating behaviour has received less attention, albeit that more research is emerging in this area. This study protocol that aims to investigate young consumers' attitudes and behaviour towards sustainable and healthy eating by applying a multidisciplinary approach, taking into account economical, marketing, public health and environmental related issues. In order to achieve this goal, consumers' reactions on interactive tailored informational messages about sustainable from social, environmental and economical point of view, as well as healthy eating behaviour in a group of young adults will be investigated using randomized controlled trial. To undertake the objective, the empirical research is divided into three studies: 1) Qualitative longitudinal research to explore openness to adopting sustainable healthy eating behaviour; 2) Qualitative research with the objective to develop a sustainable healthy eating behaviour index; and 3) Randomised controlled trial to describe consumers' reactions on interactive tailored messages about sustainable healthy eating in young consumers. To our knowledge, this is the first randomised controlled trial to test the young adults reactions to interactive tailor made messages on sustainable healthy eating using mobile smartphone app. Mobile applications designed to deliver intervention offer new possibilities to influence young adults behaviour in relation to diet and sustainability. Therefore, the study will provide valuable insights into drivers of change towards more environmentally sustainable and healthy eating behaviours. NCT02776410 registered May 16, 2016.

  4. Prevalence of Healthy Sleep Duration among Adults--United States, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yong; Wheaton, Anne G; Chapman, Daniel P; Cunningham, Timothy J; Lu, Hua; Croft, Janet B

    2016-02-19

    To promote optimal health and well-being, adults aged 18-60 years are recommended to sleep at least 7 hours each night (1). Sleeping disease, stroke, frequent mental distress, and all-cause mortality (2-4). Insufficient sleep impairs cognitive performance, which can increase the likelihood of motor vehicle and other transportation accidents, industrial accidents, medical errors, and loss of work productivity that could affect the wider community (5). CDC analyzed data from the 2014 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) to determine the prevalence of a healthy sleep duration (≥ 7 hours) among 444,306 adult respondents in all 50 states and the District of Columbia. A total of 65.2% of respondents reported a healthy sleep duration; the age-adjusted prevalence of healthy sleep was lower among non-Hispanic blacks, American Indians/Alaska Natives, Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders, and multiracial respondents, compared with non-Hispanic whites, Hispanics, and Asians. State-based estimates of healthy sleep duration prevalence ranged from 56.1% in Hawaii to 71.6% in South Dakota. Geographic clustering of the lowest prevalence of healthy sleep duration was observed in the southeastern United States and in states along the Appalachian Mountains, and the highest prevalence was observed in the Great Plains states. More than one third of U.S. respondents reported typically sleeping sleep health; worksite shift policies that ensure healthy sleep duration for shift workers, particularly medical professionals, emergency response personnel, and transportation industry personnel; and opportunities for health care providers to discuss the importance of healthy sleep duration with patients and address reasons for poor sleep health.

  5. Walking stability during cell phone use in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Pei-Chun; Higginson, Christopher I; Seymour, Kelly; Kamerdze, Morgan; Higginson, Jill S

    2015-05-01

    The number of falls and/or accidental injuries associated with cellular phone use during walking is growing rapidly. Understanding the effects of concurrent cell phone use on human gait may help develop safety guidelines for pedestrians. It was shown previously that older adults had more pronounced dual-task interferences than younger adults when concurrent cognitive task required visual information processing. Thus, cell phone use might have greater impact on walking stability in older than in younger adults. This study examined gait stability and variability during a cell phone dialing task (phone) and two classic cognitive tasks, the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT) and Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT). Nine older and seven younger healthy adults walked on a treadmill at four different conditions: walking only, PASAT, phone, and SDMT. We computed short-term local divergence exponent (LDE) of the trunk motion (local stability), dynamic margins of stability (MOS), step spatiotemporal measures, and kinematic variability. Older and younger adults had similar values of short-term LDE during all conditions, indicating that local stability was not affected by the dual-task. Compared to walking only, older and younger adults walked with significantly greater average mediolateral MOS during phone and SDMT conditions but significantly less ankle angle variability during all dual-tasks and less knee angle variability during PASAT. The current findings demonstrate that healthy adults may try to control foot placement and joint kinematics during cell phone use or another cognitive task with a visual component to ensure sufficient dynamic margins of stability and maintain local stability. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. UnAdulterated - children and adults' visual attention to healthy and unhealthy food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junghans, Astrid F; Hooge, Ignace T C; Maas, Josje; Evers, Catharine; De Ridder, Denise T D

    2015-04-01

    Visually attending to unhealthy food creates a desire to consume the food. To resist the temptation people have to employ self-regulation strategies, such as visual avoidance. Past research has shown that self-regulatory skills develop throughout childhood and adolescence, suggesting adults' superior self-regulation skills compared to children. This study employed a novel method to investigate self-regulatory skills. Children and adults' initial (bottom-up) and maintained (top-down) visual attention to simultaneously presented healthy and unhealthy food were examined in an eye-tracking paradigm. Results showed that both children and adults initially attended most to the unhealthy food. Subsequently, adults self-regulated their visual attention away from the unhealthy food. Despite the children's high self-reported attempts to eat healthily and importance of eating healthily, children did not self-regulate visual attention away from unhealthy food. Children remained influenced by the attention-driven desire to consume the unhealthy food whereas adults visually attended more strongly to the healthy food thereby avoiding the desire to consume the unhealthy option. The findings emphasize the necessity of improving children's self-regulatory skills to support their desire to remain healthy and to protect children from the influences of the obesogenic environment. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Prevalence of Prediabetes and Abdominal Obesity Among Healthy-Weight Adults: 18-Year Trend.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainous, Arch G; Tanner, Rebecca J; Jo, Ara; Anton, Stephen D

    2016-07-01

    Trends in sedentary lifestyle may have influenced adult body composition and metabolic health among individuals at presumably healthy weights. This study examines the nationally representative prevalence of prediabetes and abdominal obesity among healthy-weight adults in 1988 through 2012. We analyzed the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) III (1988-1994) and NHANES for the years 1999 to 2012, focusing on adults aged 20 years and older who have a body mass index (BMI) of 18.5 to 24.99 and do not have diabetes, either diagnosed or undiagnosed. We defined prediabetes using glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level ranges from 5.7% to 6.4%, as specified by the American Diabetes Association. Abdominal obesity was measured by waist circumference and waist-to-height ratio. The prevalence of prediabetes among healthy-weight adults, aged 20 years and older and without diagnosed or undiagnosed diabetes, increased from 10.2% in 1988-1994 to 18.5% in 2012. Among individuals aged 45 years and older, the prevalence of prediabetes increased from 22.0% to 33.1%. The percentage of adults aged 20 years and older with an unhealthy waist circumference increased from 5.6% in 1988-1994 to 7.6% in 2012. The percentage of individuals with an unhealthy waist-to-height ratio increased from 27.2% in 1988-1994 to 33.7% in 2012. Adjusted models found that measures of abdominal obesity were not independent predictors of prediabetes among adults with a healthy BMI. Among individuals within a healthy BMI range, the prevalence of prediabetes and abdominal obesity has substantially increased. Abdominal obesity does not appear to be the primary cause of the increase. © 2016 Annals of Family Medicine, Inc.

  8. Older-Adult Playfulness: An Innovative Construct and Measurement for Healthy Aging Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarnal, Careen; Qian, Xinyi

    2011-01-01

    Few studies of adult playfulness exist, but limited research on older adults and playfulness suggests that playfulness in later life improves cognitive, emotional, social, and psychological functioning and healthy aging overall. Older adults represent a rapidly growing segment of the U.S. population, underscoring the need to understand the aging…

  9. Understanding Arthritis Promoting Healthy Lifestyles for Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremethick, Mary Jane; Hogan, Patricia I.; Coleman, Barb; Adams, Kady

    2010-01-01

    One of the goals of "Healthy People 2010" is to decrease the incidence of limitation in physical activity due to arthritis. Physical education, recreation, and dance professionals can play an important role in meeting this objective by addressing barriers to physical activity and exercise in older adults with arthritis, and by successfully…

  10. Mental State Decoding in Adolescent Boys with Major Depressive Disorder versus Sex-Matched Healthy Controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellick, William; Sharp, Carla

    2016-01-01

    Several adult depression studies have investigated mental state decoding, the basis for theory of mind, using the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test. Findings have been mixed, but a comprehensive study found a greater severity of depression to be associated with poorer mental state decoding. Importantly, there has yet to be a similar study of adolescent depression. Converging evidence suggests that atypical mental state decoding may have particularly profound effects for psychosocial functioning among depressed adolescent boys. Adolescent boys with major depressive disorder (MDD, n = 33) and sex-matched healthy controls (HCs, n = 84) completed structured clinical interviews, self-report measures of psychopathology and the Child Eyes Test (CET). The MDD group performed significantly better than HCs on the CET overall (p = 0.002), underscored by greater accuracy for negatively valenced items (p = 0.003). Group differences on items depicting positive (p = 0.129) and neutral mental states (p = 0.081) were nonsignificant. Enhanced mental state decoding among depressed adolescent boys may play a role in the maintenance of and vulnerability to adolescent depression. Findings and implications are discussed. Limitations of this study include a reliance on self-report data for HC boys, as well as a lack of 'pure' depression among the boys with MDD. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Memory-guided force control in healthy younger and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neely, Kristina A; Samimy, Shaadee; Blouch, Samantha L; Wang, Peiyuan; Chennavasin, Amanda; Diaz, Michele T; Dennis, Nancy A

    2017-08-01

    Successful performance of a memory-guided motor task requires participants to store and then recall an accurate representation of the motor goal. Further, participants must monitor motor output to make adjustments in the absence of visual feedback. The goal of this study was to examine memory-guided grip force in healthy younger and older adults and compare it to performance on behavioral tasks of working memory. Previous work demonstrates that healthy adults decrease force output as a function of time when visual feedback is not available. We hypothesized that older adults would decrease force output at a faster rate than younger adults, due to age-related deficits in working memory. Two groups of participants, younger adults (YA: N = 32, mean age 21.5 years) and older adults (OA: N = 33, mean age 69.3 years), completed four 20-s trials of isometric force with their index finger and thumb, equal to 25% of their maximum voluntary contraction. In the full-vision condition, visual feedback was available for the duration of the trial. In the no vision condition, visual feedback was removed for the last 12 s of each trial. Participants were asked to maintain constant force output in the absence of visual feedback. Participants also completed tasks of word recall and recognition and visuospatial working memory. Counter to our predictions, when visual feedback was removed, younger adults decreased force at a faster rate compared to older adults and the rate of decay was not associated with behavioral performance on tests of working memory.

  12. Platelet aggregation responses in clinically healthy adult llamas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Rosanne M; Bird, Karyn E; Kutzler, Michelle A

    2009-03-01

    Limited information exists regarding hemostasis in camelids despite the importance of platelet function testing in the accurate identification of platelet disorders. As further importation of llamas to North America is restricted, variability in breeding stock will continue to decrease, potentially leading to an increase in heritable bleeding disorders. The objective of this study was to measure platelet aggregation responses in clinically healthy llamas and provide baseline data to which abnormal platelet function may be compared in the future. Blood samples were collected from 39 healthy adult llamas, citrated, and centrifuged to produce platelet-rich plasma (PRP). Within 4 hours of the blood draw, 20 microL of each agonist reagent were added to 180 microL of PRP. Final concentrations of agonists were 2 x 10(-5) M ADP, 0.19 mg collagen/mL PRP, 1 x 10(-4) M epinephrine, and 500 microg arachidonic acid/mL PRP. Llama platelets were most responsive to ADP and collagen, with a maximum percent aggregation (mean+/-SD) of 71.3+/-18.6% and 55.8+/-19% and aggregation rates of 9.5+/-3.9 and 6.7+/-3.7 cm/min, respectively. Llama platelet aggregation in response to epinephrine and arachidonic acid was minimal to absent. This study is the first of its kind to establish baseline values for platelet aggregation in healthy adult llamas.

  13. Sustainable healthy eating behaviour of young adults: towards a novel methodological approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzanna Pieniak

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Food, nutrition and health policy makers are poised with two pertinent issues more than any other: obesity and climate change. Consumer research has focused primarily on specific areas of sustainable food, such as organic food, local or traditional food, meat substitution and/or reduction. More holistic view of sustainable healthy eating behaviour has received less attention, albeit that more research is emerging in this area. Methods/design This study protocol that aims to investigate young consumers’ attitudes and behaviour towards sustainable and healthy eating by applying a multidisciplinary approach, taking into account economical, marketing, public health and environmental related issues. In order to achieve this goal, consumers’ reactions on interactive tailored informational messages about sustainable from social, environmental and economical point of view, as well as healthy eating behaviour in a group of young adults will be investigated using randomized controlled trial. To undertake the objective, the empirical research is divided into three studies: 1 Qualitative longitudinal research to explore openness to adopting sustainable healthy eating behaviour; 2 Qualitative research with the objective to develop a sustainable healthy eating behaviour index; and 3 Randomised controlled trial to describe consumers’ reactions on interactive tailored messages about sustainable healthy eating in young consumers. Discussion To our knowledge, this is the first randomised controlled trial to test the young adults reactions to interactive tailor made messages on sustainable healthy eating using mobile smartphone app. Mobile applications designed to deliver intervention offer new possibilities to influence young adults behaviour in relation to diet and sustainability. Therefore, the study will provide valuable insights into drivers of change towards more environmentally sustainable and healthy eating behaviours. Trial

  14. A study of glycaemic effects following acute anthocyanin-rich blueberry supplementation in healthy young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, L; Lamport, D J; Butler, L T; Williams, C M

    2017-09-20

    The postprandial response to ingested carbohydrate is recognised as a marker of metabolic health. Postprandial hyperglycaemia is observed in type 2 diabetes mellitus and is a significant risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Cognitive deficits are also associated with type 2 diabetes. Therefore interventions which moderate postprandial glucose profiles are desirable. Here we investigated the impact of anthocyanin-rich wild blueberries on postprandial glucose response. Seventeen healthy young adults consumed a range of doses of freeze-dried wild blueberry powder, in smoothie form, in both sugar-matched and no-added-sugar conditions. Plasma glucose was determined by a capillary sampling method at baseline and at regular intervals up to 2.5 hours postprandially. Blueberries were observed to significantly extend the postprandial glucose response beyond the period observed for a sugar-matched control, characteristic of a beneficial glycaemic response. Furthermore, blueberries were observed to reduce peak postprandial glucose levels, although statistical significance was not achieved. The findings suggest a tempering of the postprandial glucose response in the presence of anthocyanin-rich blueberry, and are discussed with reference to likely glucoregulatory mechanisms of action and their implications for cognitive and type 2 diabetes research.

  15. Predictive Accuracy of Exercise Stress Testing the Healthy Adult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamont, Linda S.

    1981-01-01

    Exercise stress testing provides information on the aerobic capacity, heart rate, and blood pressure responses to graded exercises of a healthy adult. The reliability of exercise tests as a diagnostic procedure is discussed in relation to sensitivity and specificity and predictive accuracy. (JN)

  16. Is there a similarity between DNA damage in adults with chronic alcoholism and community-dwelling healthy older adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retana-Ugalde, Raquel; Altamirano-Lozano, Mario; Mendoza-Núñez, Víctor Manuel

    2007-01-01

    Daily alcohol consumption and ageing have been linked with DNA damage, leading to the hypothesis that chronic alcoholism causes DNA damage similar to that which occurs with ageing. Likewise, it has been suggested that chronic alcoholism is the cause of accelerated or premature ageing. The objective of this study was to evaluate the frequency and magnitude of DNA damage among adults with chronic alcoholism and healthy older adults residing in Mexico City. A cross-sectional and comparative study was carried out in a sample of 53 chronic alcoholics of 25-44 years of age (without alcohol ingestion in the past 30 days) without additional diseases, 26 healthy subjects >or=60 years of age, and 25 healthy adults of 25-44 years of age without alcohol addiction, all residents of Mexico City during the past 10 years. DNA damage was evaluated by single-cell gel electrophoresis technique (Comet assay). Our results showed a similar percentage of DNA damage between healthy elderly subjects and chronic alcoholics (62 vs 55%, P >0.05), although average DNA migration was greater in alcoholics than in the elderly (78.1 +/- 33.2 vs 58.6 +/- 26.2, P = 0.09). However, the percentage of subjects with more than six damaged cells was higher in the older adults subjects group than in the group chronic alcoholics (19 vs 35%, P = 0.16). Data suggest that DNA damage is not similar in young subjects with chronic alcoholism that which occurs with ageing.

  17. Exercise accelerates wound healing among healthy older adults: a preliminary investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, Charles F; Kiecolt-Glaser, Janice K; Glaser, Ronald; Malarkey, William B; Frid, David J

    2005-11-01

    Older adults are likely to experience delayed rates of wound healing, impaired neuroendocrine responsiveness, and increased daily stress. Exercise activity has been shown to have a positive effect on physiological functioning and psychological functioning among older adults. This study evaluated the effect of a 3-month exercise program on wound healing, neuroendocrine function, and perceived stress among healthy older adults. Twenty-eight healthy older adults (mean age 61.0 +/- 5.5 years) were assigned randomly to an exercise activity group (n = 13) or to a nonexercise control group (n = 15). One month following baseline randomization, after exercise participants had acclimated to the exercise routine, all participants underwent an experimental wound procedure. Wounds were measured 3 times per week until healed to calculate rate of wound healing. All participants completed assessments of exercise endurance, salivary cortisol, and self-reported stress prior to randomization and at the conclusion of the intervention. Exercise participants achieved significant improvements in cardiorespiratory fitness, as reflected by increased oxygen consumption (VO(2)max) and exercise duration. Wound healing occurred at a significantly faster rate in the exercise group [mean = 29.2 (9.0) days] than in the nonexercise group [38.9 (7.4) days; p =.012]. Exercise participants also experienced increased cortisol secretion during stress testing following the intervention. Group differences in wound healing and neuroendocrine responsiveness were found despite low levels of self-reported stress. A relatively short-term exercise intervention is associated with enhanced rates of wound healing among healthy older adults. Thus, exercise activity may be an important component of health care to promote wound healing.

  18. Human paraoxonase and HDL-cholesterol in pakistan patients with acute myocardial infarction and normal healthy adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, I.P.; Khan, A.H.; Mehboobali, N.

    2007-01-01

    Human serum paraoxonase is a high density lipoprotein (HDL)-bound enzyme exhibiting antiatherogenic properties. The aim of this study was to investigate any relationship between serum paraoxonase activity and serum levels of HDL-cholesterol in Pakistani patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) compared to normal healthy subjects and to examine possible association between serum paraoxonase activity and AMI in Pakistani population. In a case-control study, serum paraoxonase activity and serum levels of HDL-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol were monitored in 164 Pakistani patients with AMI and 106 normal healthy adults matched for gender, BMI and age within 10 years. Mean serum concentration of HDL-cholesterol and mean serum paraoxonase activity in AMI patients were not significantly different from the corresponding values in normal healthy subjects. Mean serum paraoxonase activity value was significantly lower in normal healthy subjects with low HDL-cholesterol (serum levels < 40mg/dl) compared to the value in those with normal levels of HDL-cholesterol (P=0.04). In AMI patients, paraoxonase activity was lower in subjects with low HDL-cholesterol compared to those with normal levels of HDL-cholesterol, however, the decrease was not statistically significant. Correlation analyses of the data revealed a moderate association of paraoxonase activity with HDL-cholesterol (Pearson's r= 0.225, P<0.01 for AMI patients and r=0.281, P<0.01 for normal healthy controls). Seventy three percent of normal healthy subjects and 65% of AMI patients in this study had low HDL-cholesterol. Low serum paraoxonase activity and high prevalence of low HDL-cholesterol in Pakistani population could be contributing to the high rates of coronary heart disease in this population. (author)

  19. Comparison of body composition between professional sportswomen and apparently healthy age- and sex-matched controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raman K Marwaha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In view of the relationship between physical activity and nutrition on body composition, we assessed lean and fat mass and BMC (total and regional in professional Indian sportswomen and compared it with apparently healthy age- and sex-matched females. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study included 104 sportswomen and an equal number of age-matched normal healthy females (controls. They were evaluated for anthropometry and body composition (fat, lean mass, and bone mineral content (BMC by DXA. Results: Mean age (19.1 ± 1.3 vs. 19.4 ± 1.5 years and body mass index (21.34 ± 3.02 vs. 21.26 ± 4.05 kg/m 2 were comparable in both groups. Sportswomen had higher intake of energy, macronutrients, calcium, phosphorus and magnesium. Total lean mass (33.67 ± 3.49 vs. 31.14 ± 3.52 kg, P < 0.0001, appendicular skeletal muscle index (5.84 ± 0.57 vs. 5.46 ± 0.63 kg/m 2 ; P < 0.0001 and BMC (2.27 ± 0.32 vs. 2.13 ± 0.34 kg, P < 0.002 was significantly higher and percentage fat mass was significantly lower (33.1 ± 7.5 vs. 37.0 ± 8.3; P < 0.0001 among sportswomen when compared to controls. Conclusions: Indian sportswomen have a higher total and regional lean mass, BMC, and lower percentage fat mass when compared with healthy females. Physical activity, energy, protein and calcium intake were positively associated with lean mass and BMC.

  20. Functional analyses of the skin surface of the areola mammae: comparison between healthy adult male and female subjects and between healthy individuals and patients with atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, K; Tagami, H; Akaraphanth, R; Aiba, S

    2011-01-01

    Although the nipple and areola of the breast constitute a unique and prominent area on the chest, so far no study has been done on the functional properties of their skin surfaces. To study the stratum corneum (SC) covering the areola using noninvasive methods. Eighteen adult healthy subjects comprising nine men and nine women and 18 age- and sex-matched patients with atopic dermatitis (AD), none of whom had visible skin lesions, participated in the study. Transepidermal water loss (TEWL), skin surface hydration and skin surface lipid levels were measured on the areola and adjacent breast skin. The size of the skin surface corneocytes of these skin regions was assessed. All the healthy subjects showed significantly higher TEWL accompanied by smaller sized corneocytes on the areola than on the adjacent breast skin. Only female subjects revealed a significantly higher skin surface hydration state together with significantly increased skin surface lipid levels on the areola than on the adjacent breast skin. These sex differences were observed even in patients with AD. Comparison between healthy individuals and the patients with AD demonstrated higher TEWL, decreased skin surface hydration state and lower skin surface lipid levels associated with smaller sized corneocytes in the areola in the patients with AD, especially in male patients. In adults, the SC barrier function and SC water-binding capacity of the areola were functionally poorer than in the adjacent skin, being covered by smaller sized corneocytes and lower amounts of skin surface lipids, especially in men and in patients with AD. © 2011 The Authors. BJD © 2011 British Association of Dermatologists 2011.

  1. Whole Body Vibration Improves Cognition in Healthy Young Adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Regterschot, G. Ruben H.; Van Heuvelen, Marieke J. G.; Zeinstra, Edzard B.; Fuermaier, Anselm B.M.; Tucha, Lara; Koerts, Janneke; Tucha, Oliver; Van der Zee, Eddy A.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the acute effects of passive whole body vibration (WBV) on executive functions in healthy young adults. Participants (112 females, 21 males; age: 20.5 +/- 2.2 years) underwent six passive WBV sessions (frequency 30 Hz, amplitude approximately 0.5 mm) and six non-vibration

  2. Perceived face size in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amour, Sarah; Harris, Laurence R

    2017-01-01

    Perceptual body size distortions have traditionally been studied using subjective, qualitative measures that assess only one type of body representation-the conscious body image. Previous research on perceived body size has typically focused on measuring distortions of the entire body and has tended to overlook the face. Here, we present a novel psychophysical method for determining perceived body size that taps into implicit body representation. Using a two-alternative forced choice (2AFC), participants were sequentially shown two life-size images of their own face, viewed upright, upside down, or tilted 90°. In one interval, the width or length dimension was varied, while the other interval contained an undistorted image. Participants reported which image most closely matched their own face. An adaptive staircase adjusted the distorted image to hone in on the image that was equally likely to be judged as matching their perceived face as the accurate image. When viewed upright or upside down, face width was overestimated and length underestimated, whereas perception was accurate for the on-side views. These results provide the first psychophysically robust measurements of how accurately healthy participants perceive the size of their face, revealing distortions of the implicit body representation independent of the conscious body image.

  3. Specific airway resistance in healthy young Vietnamese and Caucasian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Tuan, Thanh; Nguyen, Ngoc Minh; Demoulin, Bruno; Bonabel, Claude; Nguyen-Thi, Phi Linh; Ioan, Iulia; Schweitzer, Cyril; Nguyen, H T T; Varechova, Silvia; Marchal, Francois

    2015-06-01

    In healthy Vietnamese children the respiratory resistance has been suggested to be similar at 110 cm height but larger at 130 cm when compared with data in Caucasians from the literature, suggesting smaller airways in older Vietnamese children (Vu et al., 2008). The hypothesis tested here is whether the difference in airway resistance remains consistent throughout growth, and if it is larger in adult Vietnamese than in Caucasians. Airway resistance and Functional Residual Capacity were measured in healthy young Caucasian and Vietnamese adults in their respective native country using identical equipment and protocols. Ninety five subjects in Vietnam (60 males) and 101 in France (41 males) were recruited. Airway resistance was significantly larger in Vietnamese than in Caucasians and in females than in males, consistent with difference in body dimensions. Specific airway resistance however was not different by ethnicity or gender. The findings do not support the hypothesis that airway size at adult age - once normalized for lung volume - differs between Vietnamese and Caucasians. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Foot pain and functional limitation in healthy adults with hallux valgus: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nix Sheree E

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hallux valgus (HV is a very common deformity of the first metatarsophalangeal joint that often requires surgical correction. However, the association between structural HV deformity and related foot pain and disability is unclear. Furthermore, no previous studies have investigated concerns about appearance and difficulty with footwear in a population with HV not seeking surgical correction. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate foot pain, functional limitation, concern about appearance and difficulty with footwear in otherwise healthy adults with HV compared to controls. Methods Thirty volunteers with HV (radiographic HV angle >15 degrees and 30 matched controls were recruited for this study (50 women, 10 men; mean age 44.4 years, range 20 to 76 years. Differences between groups were examined for self-reported foot pain and disability, satisfaction with appearance, footwear difficulty, and pressure-pain threshold at the first metatarsophalangeal joint. Functional measures included balance tests, walking performance, and hallux muscle strength (abduction and plantarflexion. Mean differences (MD and 95% confidence intervals (CI were calculated. Results All self-report measures showed that HV was associated with higher levels of foot pain and disability and significant concerns about appearance and footwear (p Conclusions These findings show that HV negatively impacts on self-reported foot pain and function, and concerns about foot appearance and footwear in otherwise healthy adults. There was also evidence of impaired hallux muscle strength and increased postural sway in HV subjects compared to controls, although general physical functioning and participation in physical activity were not adversely affected.

  5. Subjective memory complaints, cognitive performance, and psychological factors in healthy older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Susanne I; Negash, Selamawit; Sammel, Mary D; Bogner, Hillary; Harel, Brian T; Livney, Melissa G; McCoubrey, Hannah; Wolk, David A; Kling, Mitchel A; Arnold, Steven E

    2013-12-01

    To determine whether subjective memory complaints (SMCs) are associated with performance on objective cognitive measures and psychological factors in healthy, community-dwelling older adults. The cohort was composed of adults, 65 years and older with no clinical evidence of cognitive impairment (n = 125). Participants were administered: CogState computerized neurocognitive battery, Prospective Retrospective Memory Questionnaire, personality and meaning-in-life measures. SMCs were associated with poorer performance on measures of executive function (p = 0.001). SMCs were also associated with impaired delayed recall (p = 0.006) but this did not remain significant after statistical adjustment for multiple comparisons. SMCs were inversely associated with conscientiousness (p = 0.004) and directly associated with neuroticism (p cognitive changes and are associated with personality traits and meaning-in-life in healthy, older adults.

  6. Optimizing Tailored Health Promotion for Older Adults : Understanding Their Perspectives on Healthy Living

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marcus-Varwijk, Anne Esther; Koopmans, Marg; Visscher, Tommy L S; Seidell, Jacob C; Slaets, Joris P J; Smits, Carolien H M

    2017-01-01

    Objective: This study explores older adults' perspectives on healthy living, and their interactions with professionals regarding healthy living. This perspective is necessary for health professionals when they engage in tailored health promotion in their daily work routines. Method: In a qualitative

  7. Invasive pneumococcal disease in healthy adults: increase of empyema associated with the clonal-type Sweden(1-ST306.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imma Grau

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Adult invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD occurs mainly in the elderly and patients with co-morbidities. Little is known about the clinical characteristics, serotypes and genotypes causing IPD in healthy adults. METHODS: We studied 745 culture-proven cases of IPD in adult patients aged 18-64 years (1996-2010. Patients were included in two groups: 1. adults with co-morbidities, and 2. healthy adults, who had no prior or coincident diagnosis of a chronic or immunosuppressive underlying disease. Microbiological studies included pneumococcal serotyping and genotyping. RESULTS: Of 745 IPD episodes, 525 (70% occurred in patients with co-morbidities and 220 (30% in healthy adults. The healthy adults with IPD were often smokers (56% or alcohol abusers (18%. As compared to patients with co-morbidities, the healthy adults had (P<0.05: younger age (43.5+/-13.1 vs. 48.7+/-11.3 years; higher proportions of women (45% vs. 24%, pneumonia with empyema (15% vs. 7% and infection with non-PCV7 serotypes including serotypes 1 (25% vs. 5%, 7F (13% vs. 4%, and 5 (7% vs. 2%; and lower mortality (5% vs. 20%. Empyema was more frequently caused by serotype 1. No death occurred among 79 patients with serotype 1 IPD. There was an emergence of virulent clonal-types Sweden(1-ST306 and Netherlands(7F-ST191. The vaccine serotype coverage with the PCV13 was higher in healthy adults than in patients with co-morbidities: 82% and 56%, respectively, P<0.001. CONCLUSION: In this clinical study, one-third of adults with IPD had no underlying chronic or immunosuppressive diseases (healthy adults. They were often smokers and alcohol abusers, and frequently presents with pneumonia and empyema caused by virulent clones of non-PCV7 serotypes such as the Sweden(1-ST306. Thus, implementing tobacco and alcohol abuse-cessation measures and a proper pneumococcal vaccination, such as PCV13 policy, in active smokers and alcohol abusers may diminish the burden of IPD in adults.

  8. Reduced cingulate gyrus volume associated with enhanced cortisol awakening response in young healthy adults reporting childhood trauma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaojia Lu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Preclinical studies have demonstrated the relationship between stress-induced increased cortisol levels and atrophy of specific brain regions, however, this association has been less revealed in clinical samples. The aim of the present study was to investigate the changes and associations of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis activity and gray matter volumes in young healthy adults with self-reported childhood trauma exposures. METHODS: Twenty four healthy adults with childhood trauma and 24 age- and gender-matched individuals without childhood trauma were recruited. Each participant collected salivary samples in the morning at four time points: immediately upon awakening, 30, 45, and 60 min after awakening for the assessment of cortisol awakening response (CAR. The 3D T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging data were obtained on a Philips 3.0 Tesla scanner. Voxel-based morphometry analyses were conducted to compare the gray matter volume between two groups. Correlations of gray matter volume changes with severity of childhood trauma and CAR data were further analyzed. RESULTS: Adults with self-reported childhood trauma showed an enhanced CAR and decreased gray matter volume in the right middle cingulate gyrus. Moreover, a significant association was observed between salivary cortisol secretions after awaking and the right middle cingulate gyrus volume reduction in subjects with childhood trauma. CONCLUSIONS: The present research outcomes suggest that childhood trauma is associated with hyperactivity of the HPA axis and decreased gray matter volume in the right middle cingulate gyrus, which may represent the vulnerability for developing psychosis after childhood trauma experiences. In addition, this study demonstrates that gray matter loss in the cingulate gyrus is related to increased cortisol levels.

  9. The nasal cavity microbiota of healthy adults

    OpenAIRE

    Bassis, Christine M; Tang, Alice L; Young, Vincent B; Pynnonen, Melissa A

    2014-01-01

    Background The microbiota of the nares has been widely studied. However, relatively few studies have investigated the microbiota of the nasal cavity posterior to the nares. This distinct environment has the potential to contain a distinct microbiota and play an important role in health. Results We obtained 35,142 high-quality bacterial 16S rRNA-encoding gene sequence reads from the nasal cavity and oral cavity (the dorsum of the tongue and the buccal mucosa) of 12 healthy adult humans and dep...

  10. Effect of enzyme supplements on macronutrient digestibility by healthy adult dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villaverde, Cecilia; Manzanilla, Edgar G; Molina, Jenifer; Larsen, Jennifer A

    2017-01-01

    Some enzyme supplement products claim benefits for healthy dogs to compensate for alleged suboptimal production of endogenous enzymes and the loss of enzymes in commercial pet foods secondary to processing. The objective of the current study was to determine macronutrient and energy digestibility by healthy adult dogs fed a commercial maintenance diet with or without supplementation with plant- and animal-origin enzyme products at the dosage recommended by their respective manufacturers. A group of fourteen healthy neutered adult Beagle dogs (average age 8 years) was divided into two equal groups and fed the basal diet alone and then with either the plant- or animal-origin enzyme supplement in three consecutive 10-d periods; the treatment groups received the opposite enzyme supplement in the third period. Digestibility in each period was performed by the total faecal collection method. Serum trypsin-like immunoreactivity (TLI) was measured at the end of each trial. Data were analysed by repeated measures and the α level of significance was set at 0·05. There were no differences in energy and nutrient digestibility between enzyme treatments. When comparing basal with enzyme supplementation, fat digestibility was higher for the basal diet compared with the animal-origin enzyme treatment, which could be a period effect and was not biologically significant (94·7 v . 93·5 %). Serum TLI was not affected by supplementation with either enzyme product. Exogenous enzyme supplementation did not significantly increase digestibility of a typical commercial dry diet in healthy adult dogs and routine use of such products is not recommended.

  11. Kinematic Mechanisms of How Power Training Improves Healthy Old Adults' Gait Velocity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beijersbergen, Chantal M. I.; Granacher, Urs; Gäbler, Martijn; Devita, Paul; Hortobagyi, Tibor

    Introduction: Slow gait predicts many adverse clinical outcomes in old adults, but the mechanisms of how power training can minimize the age-related loss of gait velocity is unclear. We examined the effects of 10 wk of lower extremity power training and detraining on healthy old adults' lower

  12. A community-based exercise intervention transitions metabolically abnormal obese adults to a metabolically healthy obese phenotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalleck, Lance C; Van Guilder, Gary P; Richardson, Tara B; Bredle, Donald L; Janot, Jeffrey M

    2014-01-01

    Background Lower habitual physical activity and poor cardiorespiratory fitness are common features of the metabolically abnormal obese (MAO) phenotype that contribute to increased cardiovascular disease risk. The aims of the present study were to determine 1) whether community-based exercise training transitions MAO adults to metabolically healthy, and 2) whether the odds of transition to metabolically healthy were larger for obese individuals who performed higher volumes of exercise and/or experienced greater increases in fitness. Methods and results Metabolic syndrome components were measured in 332 adults (190 women, 142 men) before and after a supervised 14-week community-based exercise program designed to reduce cardiometabolic risk factors. Obese (body mass index ≥30 kg · m2) adults with two to four metabolic syndrome components were classified as MAO, whereas those with no or one component were classified as metabolically healthy but obese (MHO). After community exercise, 27/68 (40%) MAO individuals (Pmetabolically healthy, increasing the total number of MHO persons by 73% (from 37 to 64). Compared with the lowest quartiles of relative energy expenditure and change in fitness, participants in the highest quartiles were 11.6 (95% confidence interval: 2.1–65.4; Pexercise transitions MAO adults to metabolically healthy. MAO adults who engaged in higher volumes of exercise and experienced the greatest increase in fitness were significantly more likely to become metabolically healthy. Community exercise may be an effective model for primary prevention of cardiovascular disease. PMID:25120373

  13. Association between osteocalcin and cognitive performance in healthy older adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bradburn, Steven; Mcphee, Jamie S.; Bagley, Liam; Sipila, Sarianna; Stenroth, Lauri; Narici, Marco Vincenzo; Pääsuke, Mati; Gapeyeva, Helena; Osborne, Gabrielle; Sassano, Lorraine; Meskers, Carel G.M.; Maier, Andrea B.; Hogrel, Jean Yves; Barnouin, Yoann; Butler-Browne, Gillian; Murgatroyd, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: cognitive deterioration and reductions of bone health coincide with increasing age. We examine the relationship between bone composition and plasma markers of bone remodelling with measures of cognitive performance in healthy adults. Methods: this cross-sectional study included 225 old

  14. Diet Quality Scores of Australian Adults Who Have Completed the Healthy Eating Quiz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Rebecca L; Rollo, Megan E; Schumacher, Tracy; Collins, Clare E

    2017-08-15

    Higher scores obtained using diet quality and variety indices are indicators of more optimal food and nutrient intakes and lower chronic disease risk. The aim of this paper is to describe the overall diet quality and variety in a sample of Australian adults who completed an online diet quality self-assessment tool, the Healthy Eating Quiz. The Healthy Eating Quiz takes approximately five minutes to complete online and computes user responses into a total diet quality score (out of a maximum of 73 points) and then categorizes them into the following groups: 'needs work' (Healthy eating quiz scores were higher in those aged 45-75 years compared to 16-44 years ( p Healthy Eating Quiz data indicates that individuals receiving feedback on how to improve their score can improve their diet quality, there is a need for further nutrition promotion interventions in Australian adults.

  15. Demographic Variables and Selective, Sustained Attention and Planning through Cognitive Tasks among Healthy Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Afsaneh Zarghi; Zali; A; Tehranidost; M; Mohammad Reza Zarindast; Ashrafi; F; Doroodgar; Khodadadi

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Cognitive tasks are considered to be applicable and appropriate in assessing cognitive domains. The purpose of our study is to determine the relationship existence between variables of age, sex and education with selective, sustained attention and planning abilities by means of computerized cognitive tasks among healthy adults. Methods: A cross-sectional study was implemented during 6 months from June to November, 2010 on 84 healthy adults (42 male and 42 female). The whole part...

  16. Body-image, quality of life and psychological distress: a comparison between kidney transplant patients and a matching healthy sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagil, Yaron; Geller, Shulamit; Levy, Sigal; Sidi, Yael; Aharoni, Shiri

    2018-04-01

    The purpose of the current study was to assess the uniqueness of the condition of kidney transplant recipients in comparison to a sample of matching healthy peers in relation to body-image dissatisfaction and identification, quality of life and psychological distress. Participants were 45 kidney transplant recipients who were under follow-up care at a Transplant Unit of a major Medical Center, and a sample of 45 matching healthy peers. Measures were taken using self-report questionnaires [Body-Image Ideals Questionnaire (BIIQ), Body Identification Questionnaire (BIQ), Brief Symptoms Inventory (BSI), and the SF-12]. The major findings were the following: (i) kidney transplant recipients reported lower levels of quality of life and higher levels of PsD when compared to their healthy peers; (ii) no difference in body-image dissatisfaction was found between the two studied groups; (iii) significant correlations between body-image dissatisfaction quality of life and PsD were found only in the kidney transplant recipients. The kidney transplantation condition has a moderating effect in the association between body-image dissatisfaction PsD but not in the association between body-image dissatisfaction and quality of life; (iv) kidney transplant recipients experienced higher levels of body identification than did their healthy peers. Taken together, these findings highlight the unique condition of kidney transplant recipients, as well as the function that body-image plays within the self.

  17. Higher fasting glucose is associated with poorer cognition among healthy young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Misty A W; Gunstad, John; Calvo, Dayana; Spitznagel, Mary Beth

    2016-02-01

    Obesity is associated with cognitive deficits; however, the mechanisms are unclear, especially among otherwise healthy adults. Our objectives were to examine (a) whether obesity is linked to elevations in fasting glucose and (b) whether these elevations are associated with cognitive impairment among otherwise healthy young adults. Participants were 35 normal weight adults and 35 young adults with obesity who completed a task from the Automated Neuropsychological Assessment Metrics-4 (ANAM-4). Measured body mass index (BMI) and fasting blood glucose levels (mg/dL) were examined. Persons with obesity had higher fasting glucose levels than normal weight persons (p = .03). After applying Bonferroni correction for multiple tests, higher fasting glucose predicted less accurate performance on tests of inhibitory control: Go/No-Go Commission Errors (β = .33, p = .004). No effects were observed for sustained attention or working memory (ps ≥. 049). Persons with glucose levels in the prediabetes range had nearly twice as many errors as those with normal glucose, a large effect that was independent of BMI. Young adults who were obese but otherwise healthy had higher fasting glucose levels compared with normal weight peers. Higher glucose levels were associated with poorer cognitive performance on tests of inhibitory control, especially among individuals with prediabetes levels. Thus, subclinical elevations in blood glucose may contribute to cognitive impairment and, ultimately, greater impulsivity-well in advance of the development of chronic disease states (e.g., insulin resistance or Type 2 diabetes) and independently of excess adiposity--though prospective studies are needed to determine directionality of this relationship. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Psychosocial factors for influencing healthy aging in adults in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, KyungHun; Lee, YunJung; Gu, JaSung; Oh, Hee; Han, JongHee; Kim, KwuyBun

    2015-03-07

    Healthy aging includes physical, psychological, social, and spiritual well-being in later years. The purpose of this study is to identify the psychosocial factors influencing healthy aging and examining their socio-demographic characteristics. Perceived health status, depression, self-esteem, self-achievement, ego-integrity, participation in leisure activities, and loneliness were identified as influential factors in healthy aging. 171 Korean adults aged between 45 and 77 years-old participated in the study. Self-reporting questionnaires were used, followed by descriptive statistics and multiple regressions as inferential statistical analyses. There were significant differences between participants' general characteristics: age, education, religion, housing, hobby, and economic status. The factors related to healthy aging had positive correlation with perceived health status, self-esteem, self-achievements, and leisure activities, and negative correlation with depression and loneliness. The factors influencing healthy aging were depression, leisure activities, perceived health status, ego integrity, and self-achievements. These factors were able to explain 51.9%. According to the results, depression is the factor with the greatest influence on healthy aging. Perceived health status, ego integrity, self-achievement, self-esteem, participation of leisure activities were also influential on healthy aging as beneficial factors.

  19. Intestinal microbiota in healthy U.S. young children and adults--a high throughput microarray analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamar Ringel-Kulka

    Full Text Available It is generally believed that the infant's microbiota is established during the first 1-2 years of life. However, there is scarce data on its characterization and its comparison to the adult-like microbiota in consecutive years.To characterize and compare the intestinal microbiota in healthy young children (1-4 years and healthy adults from the North Carolina region in the U.S. using high-throughput bacterial phylogenetic microarray analysis.Detailed characterization and comparison of the intestinal microbiota of healthy children aged 1-4 years old (n = 28 and healthy adults of 21-60 years (n = 23 was carried out using the Human Intestinal Tract Chip (HITChip phylogenetic microarray targeting the V1 and V6 regions of 16S rRNA and quantitative PCR.The HITChip microarray data indicate that Actinobacteria, Bacilli, Clostridium cluster IV and Bacteroidetes are the predominant phylum-like groups that exhibit differences between young children and adults. The phylum-like group Clostridium cluster XIVa was equally predominant in young children and adults and is thus considered to be established at an early age. The genus-like level show significant 3.6 fold (higher or lower differences in the abundance of 26 genera between young children and adults. Young U.S. children have a significantly 3.5-fold higher abundance of Bifidobacterium species than the adults from the same location. However, the microbiota of young children is less diverse than that of adults.We show that the establishment of an adult-like intestinal microbiota occurs at a later age than previously reported. Characterizing the microbiota and its development in the early years of life may help identify 'windows of opportunity' for interventional strategies that may promote health and prevent or mitigate disease processes.

  20. In adult patients with type 1 diabetes healthy lifestyle associates with a better cardiometabolic profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroux, C; Gingras, V; Desjardins, K; Brazeau, A-S; Ott-Braschi, S; Strychar, I; Rabasa-Lhoret, R

    2015-05-01

    Little is known about lifestyle habits of adults with type 1 diabetes (T1D) and their association with cardiometabolic risk (CMR) factors. The aims of the present study were to determine the prevalence of adults with T1D who adopted a healthy lifestyle and to explore the association between a healthy lifestyle and the cardiometabolic profile. This is a cross-sectional analysis of 115 adults with T1D. Participants wore a motion sensor and completed a 3-day food record. The following CMR factors were assessed: body mass index, waist circumference, body composition (iDXA), glycated hemoglobin, lipids and blood pressure. Insulin resistance was estimated (estimated glucose disposal rate). Participants were classified according to the number of healthy lifestyle habits adopted (ranging from 0 to 3): regular physical activity (physical activity level ≥1.7), good diet quality (Canadian Healthy Eating Index score >80) and none-smoking status. The proportion of participants who adopted 3, 2, 1 or 0 lifestyle habits were 11%, 30%, 37%, and 23%, respectively. As the number of healthy lifestyle habits adopted increased, participants had significantly lower body mass index, waist circumference, body fat, total cholesterol, non-HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides and systolic blood pressure (p healthy lifestyle habit, body mass index decreased by 1.9 kg/m(2), waist circumference by 4.0 cm for men and 4.8 cm for women and trunk fat by 3.6% for men and 4.1% for women. These results suggest the importance of a healthy lifestyle among adults with T1D in order to control CMR factors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Sociodemographic Characteristics and Health Outcomes Among Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual U.S. Adults Using Healthy People 2020 Leading Health Indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunn, Mitchell R; Cui, Wanjun; Zack, Matthew M; Thompson, William W; Blank, Michael B; Yehia, Baligh R

    2017-08-01

    This study aimed to characterize the sociodemographic characteristics of sexual minority (i.e., gay, lesbian, bisexual) adults and compare sexual minority and heterosexual populations on nine Healthy People 2020 leading health indicators (LHIs). Using a nationally representative, cross-sectional survey (National Health Interview Survey 2013-2015) of the civilian, noninstitutionalized population (228,893,944 adults), nine Healthy People 2020 LHIs addressing health behaviors and access to care, stratified using a composite variable of sex (female, male) and sexual orientation (gay or lesbian, bisexual, heterosexual), were analyzed individually and in aggregate. In 2013-2015, sexual minority adults represented 2.4% of the U.S. Compared to heterosexuals, sexual minorities were more likely to be younger and to have never married. Gays and lesbians were more likely to have earned a graduate degree. Gay males were more likely to have a usual primary care provider, but gay/lesbian females were less likely than heterosexuals to have a usual primary care provider and health insurance. Gay males received more colorectal cancer screening than heterosexual males. Gay males, gay/lesbian females, and bisexual females were more likely to be current smokers than their sex-matched, heterosexual counterparts. Binge drinking was more common in bisexuals compared to heterosexuals. Sexual minority females were more likely to be obese than heterosexual females; the converse was true for gay males. Sexual minorities underwent more HIV testing than their heterosexual peers, but bisexual males were less likely than gay males to be tested. Gay males were more likely to meet all eligible LHIs than heterosexual males. Overall, more sexual minority adults met all eligible LHIs compared to heterosexual adults. Similar results were found regardless of HIV testing LHI inclusion. Differences between sexual minorities and heterosexuals suggest the need for targeted health assessments and public

  2. Effecting Healthy Lifestyle Changes in Overweight and Obese Young Adults with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pett, Marjorie; Clark, Lauren; Eldredge, Alison; Cardell, Beth; Jordan, Kristine; Chambless, Cathy; Burley, Jeff

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated a 12-week recreation center-based healthy lifestyle intervention for 30 obese home-dwelling young adults (YA) with intellectual disabilities. Three cohorts participated: YA only, YA and parents, and parents only. The YA cohorts received a nutrition/exercise intervention; parents focused on modeling healthy lifestyle behaviors.…

  3. Healthy lifestyle behaviour among Ghanaian adults in the phase of a health policy change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dake Fidelia AA

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many countries have adopted health policies that are targeted at reducing the risk factors for chronic non-communicable diseases. These policies promote a healthy population by encouraging people to adopt healthy lifestyle behaviours. This paper examines healthy lifestyle behaviour among Ghanaian adults by comparing behaviours before and after the introduction of a national health policy. The paper also explores the socio-economic and demographic factors associated with healthy lifestyle behaviour. Method Descriptive, bivariate and multivariate regression techniques were employed on two nationally representative surveys (2003 World Health Survey (Ghana and 2008 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey to arrive at the results. Results While the prevalence of some negative lifestyle behaviours like smoking has reduced others like alcohol consumption has increased. Relatively fewer people adhered to consuming the recommended amount of fruit and vegetable servings per day in 2008 compared to 2003. While more females (7.0% exhibited healthier lifestyles, more males (9.0% exhibited risky lifestyle behaviours after the introduction of the policy. Conclusion The improvement in healthy lifestyle behaviours among female adult Ghanaians will help promote healthy living and potentially lead to a reduction in the prevalence of obesity among Ghanaian women. The increase in risky lifestyle behaviour among adult male Ghanaians even after the introduction of the health policy could lead to an increase in the risk of non-communicable diseases among men and the resultant burden of disease on them and their families will push more people into poverty.

  4. Spirituality and stress management in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuck, Inez; Alleyne, Renee; Thinganjana, Wantana

    2006-12-01

    The purposes of this longitudinal, descriptive pilot study were to (a) test the acceptability and feasibility of a 6-week spiritual intervention; (b) determine the relationship between spirituality and stress; (c) explore the effects of the intervention on measures of perceived stress, spiritual perspective, and spiritual well-being; and (d) explore the meaning of spirituality. The sample consisted of 27 community-dwelling adults. Six categories emerged from the qualitative data as descriptors of the meaning and significance of spirituality. The survey data indicated that there were significant negative correlations between perceived stress and spiritual well-being at three time intervals, a significant decline in the levels of perceived stress, and a significant increase in spiritual perspective from the pretest to the 6-week follow-up. There were no significant changes in spiritual well-being. The intervention proved effective in reducing stress in this healthy adult sample.

  5. Neuronal mechanisms of motor learning and motor memory consolidation in healthy old adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berghuis, K M M; Veldman, M P; Solnik, S; Koch, G; Zijdewind, I; Hortobágyi, T

    2015-06-01

    It is controversial whether or not old adults are capable of learning new motor skills and consolidate the performance gains into motor memory in the offline period. The underlying neuronal mechanisms are equally unclear. We determined the magnitude of motor learning and motor memory consolidation in healthy old adults and examined if specific metrics of neuronal excitability measured by magnetic brain stimulation mediate the practice and retention effects. Eleven healthy old adults practiced a wrist extension-flexion visuomotor skill for 20 min (MP, 71.3 years), while a second group only watched the templates without movements (attentional control, AC, n = 11, 70.5 years). There was 40 % motor learning in MP but none in AC (interaction, p learn a new motor skill and consolidate the learned skill into motor memory, processes that are most likely mediated by disinhibitory mechanisms. These results are relevant for the increasing number of old adults who need to learn and relearn movements during motor rehabilitation.

  6. The Comparison of Sagittal Spinopelvic Parameters between Young Adult Patients with L5 Spondylolysis and Age-Matched Control Group

    OpenAIRE

    Oh, Young Min; Choi, Ha Young; Eun, Jong Pil

    2013-01-01

    Objective To compare spinopelvic parameters in young adult patients with spondylolysis to those in age-matched patients without spondylolysis and investigate the clinical impact of sagittal spinopelvic parameters in patients with L5 spondylolysis. Methods From 2009 to 2012, a total of 198 young adult male patients with spondylolysis were identified. Eighty age-matched patients without spondylolysis were also selected. Standing lateral films that included both hip joints were obtained for each...

  7. Fraction of Exhaled Nitric Oxide (FeNO Norms in Healthy Tunisian Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Rouatbi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. To establish FeNO norms for healthy Tunisian adults aged 18–60 years and to prospectively assess their reliability. Methods. This was a cross-sectional analytical study. A convenience sample of healthy Tunisian adults was recruited. Subjects responded to a medical questionnaire, and then FeNO levels were measured by an online method (Medisoft, Sorinnes (Dinant, Belgium. Clinical, anthropometric, and plethysmographic data were collected. All analyses were performed on natural logarithm values of FeNO. Results. 257 adults (145 males were retained. The proposed reference equation to predict FeNO value is lnFeNO (ppb = 3.47−0.56× height (m. After the predicted FeNO value for a given adult was computed, the upper limit of normal could be obtained by adding 0.60 ppb. The mean ± SD (minimum-maximum of FeNO (ppb for the total sample was 13.54±4.87 (5.00–26.00. For Tunisian and Arab adults of any age and height, any FeNO value greater than 26.00 ppb may be considered abnormal. Finally, in an additional group of adults prospectively assessed, we found no adult with a FeNO higher than 26.00 ppb. Conclusion. The present FeNO norms enrich the global repository of FeNO norms that the clinician can use to choose the most appropriate norms.

  8. Healthy Behaviors and Lifestyles in Young Adults with a History of Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rurangirwa, Jacqueline; Braun, Kim Van Naarden; Schendel, Diana; Yeargin-Allsopp, Marshalyn

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Measure select Healthy People 2010 Leading Health Indicators in young adults with and without a history of developmental disabilities (DD) using a population-based cohort. Methods: Young adults were interviewed to assess the prevalence of seven Leading Health Indicators: physical activity, overweight and obesity, tobacco use, substance…

  9. Severe infective endocarditis in a healthy adult due to Streptococcus agalactiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Hiroaki; Nakamura, Itaru; Tsukimori, Ayaka; Sato, Akihiro; Ohkusu, Kiyofumi; Matsumoto, Tetsuya

    2015-09-01

    A case of severe endocarditis, with complications of multiple infarction, meningitis, and ruptured mitral chordae tendineae, caused by Streptococcus agalactiae in a healthy man, is reported. Emergency cardiovascular surgery was performed on the day of admission. Infective endocarditis caused by S. agalactiae is very rare, particularly in a healthy adult. In addition, microbiological analysis revealed that S. agalactiae of sequence type (ST) 19, which belongs to serotype III, was present in the patient's vegetation, mitral valve, and blood culture. It was therefore concluded that the endocarditis was caused by ST19, which has been reported as a non-invasive type of S. agalactiae. This was an extremely rare case in which S. agalactiae of ST19 caused very severe endocarditis in an adult patient with no underlying disease. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Quantitative sensory testing and pain-evoked cytokine reactivity: comparison of patients with sickle cell disease to healthy matched controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Claudia M; Carroll, C Patrick; Kiley, Kasey; Han, Dingfen; Haywood, Carlton; Lanzkron, Sophie; Swedberg, Lauren; Edwards, Robert R; Page, Gayle G; Haythornthwaite, Jennifer A

    2016-04-01

    Sickle cell disease (SCD) is an inherited blood disorder associated with significant morbidity, which includes severe episodic pain, and, often, chronic pain. Compared to healthy individuals, patients with SCD report enhanced sensitivity to thermal detection and pain thresholds and have altered inflammatory profiles, yet no studies to date have examined biomarker reactivity after laboratory-induced pain. We sought to examine this relationship in patients with SCD compared to healthy control participants. We completed quantitative sensory testing in 83 patients with SCD and sequential blood sampling in 27 of them, whom we matched (sex, age, race, body mass index, and education) to 27 healthy controls. Surprisingly, few quantitative sensory testing differences emerged between groups. Heat pain tolerance, pressure pain threshold at the trapezius, thumb, and quadriceps, and thermal temporal summation at 45°C differed between groups in the expected direction, whereas conditioned pain modulation and pain ratings to hot water hand immersion were counterintuitive, possibly because of tailoring the water temperature to a perceptual level; patients with SCD received milder temperatures. In the matched subsample, group differences and group-by-time interactions were observed in biomarkers including tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-1ß, interleukin-4, and neuropeptide Y. These findings highlight the utility of laboratory pain testing methods for understanding individual differences in inflammatory cytokines. Our findings suggest amplified pain-evoked proinflammatory cytokine reactivity among patients with SCD relative to carefully matched controls. Future research is warranted to evaluate the impact of enhanced pain-related cytokine response and whether it is predictive of clinical characteristics and the frequency/severity of pain crises in patients with SCD.

  11. Kidney injury biomarkers and urinary creatinine variability in nominally healthy adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental exposure diagnostics use creatinine concentrations in urine aliquots as the internal standard for dilution normalization of all other excreted metabolites when urinary excretion rate data are not available. This is a reasonable approach for healthy adults as creati...

  12. Lung function parameters of healthy Sri Lankan Tamil young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramaniam, M; Sivapalan, K; Thuvarathipan, R

    2014-06-01

    To establish reference norms of lung function parameters for healthy Sri Lankan Tamil young adults. Cross sectional study of Tamil students at the Faculty of Medicine, Jaffna. Healthy non smoking students of Sri Lankan Tamil ethnic group were enrolled. Age, height, weight, BMI and spirometric measurements (Micro Quark) were recorded in 267 participants (137 females and 130 males). Height was significantly correlated with (pTamils. When mean values were compared, these parameters were significantly higher in Tamil males (pTamil females (pTamils. However, our study sample was confined to medical students of 20-28 years which may explain the differences with Sinhalese.

  13. Reference Values for Cardiac and Aortic Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Healthy, Young Caucasian Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eikendal, Anouk L M; Bots, Michiel L; Haaring, Cees; Saam, Tobias; van der Geest, Rob J; Westenberg, Jos J M; den Ruijter, Hester M; Hoefer, Imo E; Leiner, Tim

    2016-01-01

    Reference values for morphological and functional parameters of the cardiovascular system in early life are relevant since they may help to identify young adults who fall outside the physiological range of arterial and cardiac ageing. This study provides age and sex specific reference values for aortic wall characteristics, cardiac function parameters and aortic pulse wave velocity (PWV) in a population-based sample of healthy, young adults using magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. In 131 randomly selected healthy, young adults aged between 25 and 35 years (mean age 31.8 years, 63 men) of the general-population based Atherosclerosis-Monitoring-and-Biomarker-measurements-In-The-YOuNg (AMBITYON) study, descending thoracic aortic dimensions and wall thickness, thoracic aortic PWV and cardiac function parameters were measured using a 3.0T MR-system. Age and sex specific reference values were generated using dedicated software. Differences in reference values between two age groups (25-30 and 30-35 years) and both sexes were tested. Aortic diameters and areas were higher in the older age group (all page or sex effect. This study provides age and sex specific reference values for cardiovascular MR parameters in healthy, young Caucasian adults. These may aid in MR guided pre-clinical identification of young adults who fall outside the physiological range of arterial and cardiac ageing.

  14. Reference ranges for lymphocyte subsets in healthy adult male Oman is

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Jabri, Ali A.; Al-Shukaili, Ahmed K.; Al-Rashdi, Zowaina T.; Ganguly, Shyam S.

    2008-01-01

    Objective was to determine the reference ranges of lymphocyte subsets in serologically HIV-seronegative healthy male adults in Oman. A cohort, of 118 healthy male blood donors ranging in age from 18-51 years, was included in the study. The average was 25 years. Blood samples collected into tubes containing ethylene-diamine-tetra acetic acid were investigated for lymphocyte subsets using flow cytometer. This study was conducted in the Immunology Laboratory of Sultan Qaboos University, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Muscat, Oman during the year 2006. For the 118 males investigated, the mean percentage and absolute values of the lymphocyte subsets were as follows: Cd3: 68.53+-7.5%, 1701+-489 cells/ul; CD8: 25.8+-5.9%, 638+-225 cells/ul; CD19: 13.7+-4.7%, 349+-158 cells/ul, CD56: 12.2+-6.7%, 308+-204 cells/ul. The ratio of CD4/CD8 was 1.6. Immunophenotyping has been used to establish reference values of lymphocyte subsets in normal healthy adult males in Oman. The Omani male reference values obtained in this study show wide variations compared with kits values previously used as reference. (author)

  15. Effect of footwear on standing balance in healthy young adult males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alghadir, Ahmad H; Zafar, Hamayun; Anwer, Shahnawaz

    2018-03-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of footwear on standing balance in healthy young adult males. Thirty healthy male participants aged 20-30 years were tested for standing balance on the Balance Master on three occasions, including wearing a sandal, standard shoe, or no footwear (barefoot). The tests of postural stability include; "Modified Clinical Test of Sensory Interaction on Balance" (mCTSIB), "Unilateral Stance" (US), and the "Limits of Stability" (LOS). The balance scores (mCTSIB, US, and LOS) was analyzed. There was a significant effect between footwear conditions for mCTIB with eye closed on a firm surface (p=0.002). There was a significant effect between footwear conditions for the US with eye open and closed (p⟨0.05). There was a significant effect between footwear conditions for LOS reaction time during forward movement (p=0.02). Similarly, there was a significant effect between footwear conditions for LOS reaction time during left side movement (p=0.01). Wearing sandals compared to bare feet significantly increased postural sway and reduced stability in healthy young adult males. However, wearing a standard shoe compared to bare feet did not significantly affect balance scores in standing.

  16. Cardiovascular function is better in veteran football players than age-matched untrained elderly healthy men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Jakob Friis; Andersen, Thomas Rostgaard; Andersen, Lars Juel

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine whether lifelong football training may improve cardiovascular function, physical fitness, and body composition. Our subjects were 17 male veteran football players (VPG; 68.1 ± 2.1 years) and 26 healthy age-matched untrained men who served as a control group (CG......, RHI was 21% higher (P training is associated with better LV systolic function, physical fitness......, microvascular function, and a healthier body composition. Overall, VPG have better cardiovascular function compared with CG, which may reduce their cardiovascular morbidity and mortality....

  17. The longitudinal relation between smoking and muscle strength in healthy adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, Maarten O; Hoekstra, T.; Twisk, Jos W R

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To assess longitudinally whether smoking tobacco is related to muscle strength in healthy adults and to assess the influence of lifestyle covariates on this relation. METHODS: Data were obtained from the observational Amsterdam Growth and Health Longitudinal Study, with four repeated

  18. Combined Healthy Lifestyle Is Inversely Associated with Psychological Disorders among Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saneei, Parvane; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad; Keshteli, Ammar Hassanzadeh; Reza Roohafza, Hamid; Afshar, Hamid; Feizi, Awat; Adibi, Peyman

    2016-01-01

    Joint association of lifestyle-related factors and mental health has been less studied in earlier studies, especially in Middle Eastern countries. This study aimed to examine how combinations of several lifestyle-related factors related to depression and anxiety in a large group of middle-age Iranian population. In a cross-sectional study on 3363 Iranian adults, a healthy lifestyle score was constructed by the use of data from dietary intakes, physical activity, smoking status, psychological distress and obesity. A dish-based 106-item semi-quantitative validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), General Practice Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPPAQ), General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) and other pre-tested questionnaires were used to assess the components of healthy lifestyle score. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) was applied to screen for anxiety and depression. After adjustment for potential confounders, we found that individuals with the highest score of healthy lifestyle were 95% less likely to be anxious (OR: 0.05; 95% CI: 0.01-0.27) and 96% less likely to be depressed (OR: 0.04; 95% CI: 0.01-0.15), compared with those with the lowest score. In addition, non-smokers had lower odds of anxiety (OR: 0.64; 95% CI: 0.47-0.88) and depression (OR: 0.62; 95% CI: 0.48-0.81) compared with smokers. Individuals with low levels of psychological distress had expectedly lower odds of anxiety (OR: 0.13; 95% CI: 0.10-0.16) and depression (OR: 0.10; 95% CI: 0.08-0.12) than those with high levels. Individuals with a healthy diet had 29% lower odds of depression (OR: 0.71; 95% CI: 0.59-0.87) than those with a non-healthy diet. We found evidence indicating that healthy lifestyle score was associated with lower odds of anxiety and depression in this group of Iranian adults. Healthy diet, psychological distress, and smoking status were independent predictors of mental disorders.

  19. Female fibromyalgia patients: lower resting metabolic rates than matched healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, John C; Yellin, Jackie; Honeyman-Lowe, Gina

    2006-07-01

    Many features of fibromyalgia and hypothyroidism are virtually the same, and thyroid hormone treatment trials have reduced or eliminated fibromyalgia symptoms. These findings led the authors to test the hypothesis that fibromyalgia patients are hypometabolic compared to matched controls. Resting metabolic rate (RMR) was measured by indirect calorimetry and body composition by bioelectrical impedance for 15 fibromyalgia patients and 15 healthy matched controls. Measured resting metabolic rate (mRMR) was compared to percentages of predicted RMR (pRMR) by fat-free weight (FFW) (Sterling-Passmore: SP) and by sex, age, height, and weight (Harris-Benedict: HB). Patients had a lower mRMR (4,306.31+/-1077.66 kJ vs 5,411.59+/-695.95 kJ, p=0.0028) and lower percentages of pRMRs (SP: -28.42+/-15.82% vs -6.83+/-12.55%, pBMI) best accounted for variability in controls' RMRs, age and fat weight (FW) did for patients. In the patient group, TSH level accounted for 28% of the variance in pain distribution, and free T3 (FT3) accounted for 30% of the variance in pressure-pain threshold. Patients had lower mRMR and percentages of pRMRs. The lower RMRs were not due to calorie restriction or low FFW. Patients' normal FFW argues against low physical activity as the mechanism. TSH, FT4, and FT3 levels did not correlate with RMRs in either group. This does not rule out inadequate thyroid hormone regulation because studies show these laboratory values do not reliably predict RMR.

  20. Effect of alcohol consumption on whole-body protein turnover in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wutzke, Klaus D; Krentz, Helga; Bruns, Gerrit

    2011-03-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the whole-body protein turnover, either before or after continuous, moderate ethanol-induced oxidative stress by red wine consumption over a relatively short period in healthy volunteers. Ten healthy adults received an individual regular diet over 20 days. After 10 days, the subjects consumed 0.4 ml ethanol kg(-1) day(-1) as red wine together with dinner over a 10-day period. After 8 and 18 days, respectively, a (15)N-labelled yeast protein was administered in a dosage of 4.2 mg kg(-1) body weight. Urine and faeces were collected over 48 h, respectively. The (15)N-enrichment was measured by isotope ratio mass spectrometry, whereas the protein flux rates were calculated by a three-compartment model. The whole-body protein turnover without/with red wine consumption amounted to 3.73±0.6 and 3.49±0.6 g kg(-1) day(-1) (not significant), respectively. Moderate alcohol consumption does not induce significant short-term changes in the whole-body protein turnover of healthy adults.

  1. Effects of age and acute muscle fatigue on reactive postural control in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papa, Evan V; Foreman, K Bo; Dibble, Leland E

    2015-12-01

    Falls can cause moderate to severe injuries such as hip fractures and head trauma in older adults. While declines in muscle strength and sensory function contribute to increased falls in older adults, skeletal muscle fatigue is often overlooked as an additional contributor to fall risk. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the effects of acute lower extremity muscle fatigue and age on reactive postural control in healthy adults. A sample of 16 individuals participated in this study (8 healthy older adults and 8 healthy young persons). Whole body kinematic and kinetic data were collected during anterior and posterior reproducible fall tests before (T0) and immediately after (T1) eccentric muscle fatiguing exercise, as well as after 15-min (T15) and 30-min (T30) of rest. Lower extremity joint kinematics of the stepping limb during the support (landing) phase of the anterior fall were significantly altered by the presence of acute muscle fatigue. Step velocity was significantly decreased during the anterior falls. Statistically significant main effects of age were found for step length in both fall directions. Effect sizes for all outcomes were small. No statistically significant interaction effects were found. Muscle fatigue has a measurable effect on lower extremity joint kinematics during simulated falls. These alterations appear to resolve within 15 min of recovery. The above deficits, coupled with a reduced step length, may help explain the increased fall risk in older adults. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. EFFECTS OF AGE AND ACUTE MUSCLE FATIGUE ON REACTIVE POSTURAL CONTROL IN HEALTHY ADULTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papa, Evan V.; Foreman, K. Bo; Dibble, Lee E.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Falls can cause moderate to severe injuries such as hip fractures and head trauma in older adults. While declines in muscle strength and sensory function contribute to increased falls in older adults, skeletal muscle fatigue is often overlooked as an additional contributor to fall risk. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the effects of acute lower extremity muscle fatigue and age on reactive postural control in healthy adults. METHODS A sample of 16 individuals participated in this study (8 healthy older adults and 8 healthy young persons). Whole body kinematic and kinetic data were collected during anterior and posterior reproducible fall tests before (T0) and immediately after (T1) eccentric muscle fatiguing exercise, as well as after 15-minutes (T15) and 30-minutes (T30) of rest. FINDINGS Lower extremity joint kinematics of the stepping limb during the support (landing) phase of the anterior fall were significantly altered by the presence of acute muscle fatigue. Step velocity was significantly decreased during the anterior falls. Statistically significant main effects of age were found for step length in both fall directions. Effect sizes for all outcomes were small. No statistically significant interaction effects were found. INTERPRETATION Muscle fatigue has a measurable effect on lower extremity joint kinematics during simulated falls. These alterations appear to resolve within 15 minutes of recovery. The above deficits, coupled with a reduced step length, may help explain the increased fall risk in older adults. PMID:26351001

  3. Neuromodulation as a cognitive enhancement strategy in healthy older adults: promises and pitfalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Ana R S; Fregni, Felipe; Simis, Marcel; Almeida, Jorge

    2017-03-01

    Increases in life expectancy have been followed by an upsurge of age-associated cognitive decline. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) have risen as promising approaches to prevent or delay such cognitive decline. However, consensus has not yet been reached about their efficacy in improving cognitive functioning in healthy older adults. Here we review the effects of TMS and tDCS on cognitive abilities in healthy older adults. Despite considerable variability in the targeted cognitive domains, design features and outcomes, the results generally show an enhancement or uniform benefit across studies. Most studies employed tDCS, suggesting that this technique is particularly well-suited for cognitive enhancement. Further work is required to determine the viability of these techniques as tools for long-term cognitive improvement. Importantly, the combination of TMS/tDCS with other cognitive enhancement strategies may be a promising strategy to alleviate the cognitive decline associated with the healthy aging process.

  4. Acute ingestion of different macronutrients differentially enhances aspects of memory and attention in healthy young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Emma K; Sünram-Lea, Sandra I; Wesnes, Keith A

    2012-02-01

    The role of carbohydrates on mood and cognition is fairly well established, however research examining the behavioural effects of the other macronutrients is limited. The current study compared the effects of a 25 g glucose drink to energetically matched protein and fat drinks and an inert placebo. Following a blind, placebo-controlled, randomised crossover design, 18 healthy young adults consumed drinks containing fat, glucose, protein and placebo. Cognitive performance was examined at baseline and again 15- and 60 min post drink. Mood was assessed at baseline and then 10-, 35- and 80 min post drink. Attention and speed were enhanced 15 min following fat or glucose ingestion and working memory was enhanced 15 min following protein ingestion. Sixty minutes post drink memory enhancements were observed after protein and memory impairment was observed following glucose. All drinks increased ratings of alertness. The findings suggest that macronutrients: (i) have different windows of opportunity for effects (ii) target different cognitive domains. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Biologic variability of N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide in adult healthy cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Autumn N; Estrada, Amara H; Gallagher, Alexander E; Winter, Brandy; Lamb, Kenneth E; Bohannon, Mary; Hanscom, Jancy; Mainville, Celine A

    2017-02-01

    Objectives The biologic variability of N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) and its impact on diagnostic utility is unknown in healthy cats and those with cardiac disease. The purpose of this study was to determine the biologic variation of NT-proBNP within-day and week-to-week in healthy adult cats. Methods Adult cats were prospectively evaluated by complete blood count (CBC), biochemistry, total thyroxine, echocardiography, electrocardiography and blood pressure, to exclude underlying systemic or cardiac disease. Adult healthy cats were enrolled and blood samples were obtained at 11 time points over a 6 week period (0, 2 h, 4 h, 6 h, 8 h, 10 h and at weeks 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6). The intra-individual (coefficient of variation [CV I ]) biologic variation along with index of individuality and reference change values (RCVs) were calculated. Univariate models were analyzed and included comparison of the six different time points for both daily and weekly samples. This was followed by a Tukey's post-hoc adjustment, with a P value of cats. Further research is warranted to evaluate NT-proBNP variability, particularly how serial measurements of NT-proBNP may be used in the diagnosis and management of cats with cardiac disease.

  6. Alterations in fecal microbiota composition by probiotic supplementation in healthy adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Nadja B; Bryrup, Thomas; Allin, Kristine H

    2016-01-01

    as assessed by high-throughput molecular approaches in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of healthy adults. METHODS: The survey of peer-reviewed papers was performed on 17 August 2015 by a literature search through PubMed, SCOPUS, and ISI Web of Science. Additional papers were identified by checking...

  7. Failure to differentiate between threat-related and positive emotion cues in healthy adults with childhood interpersonal or adult trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Denise A; Bryant, Richard A; Gatt, Justine M; Harris, Anthony W F

    2016-07-01

    Enhanced threat-related processing is associated with both elevated anxiety and childhood exposure to trauma. Given the paucity of evidence regarding the effects of childhood and adult trauma exposure on subsequent psychophysiological processes in the absence of psychopathology, we investigated the relative impacts of childhood interpersonal and non-interpersonal trauma, as well as adult trauma exposure on neural processing of threat in healthy adults. We measured peak amplitudes of the N170 face-sensitive visual ERP component response to non-conscious and conscious Angry (threat) versus Happy (non-threat, positive) and Neutral (non-threat baseline) faces at temporo-occipital sites (right-T6; left-T5) in 489 psychiatrically asymptomatic adults (aged 18-70 years, 54% women, 94% right-handed). N170 peak amplitude differences between Angry vs Happy or Neutral faces were calculated and subjected to hierarchical multiple regression analysis, with trauma types (childhood interpersonal, childhood non-interpersonal and adult trauma) entered as predictors of interest. After controlling for sociodemographic and health factors, N170 peak amplitudes for non-conscious Angry vs Happy faces were inversely associated with childhood interpersonal trauma at T6 and adult trauma exposure at T5. Post-hoc repeated measures ANOVA indicated that unlike adults without trauma exposure, trauma-exposed adults failed to show significantly reduced N170 responses to Happy relative to Angry faces during non-conscious processing. This suggests that childhood interpersonal and adult trauma exposure are associated with a failure to differentiate between non-threat or positive and threat-related emotion cues. This is consistent with generalised hypervigilance seen in PTSD, and suggests trauma exposure is associated with a generalized heightened responsivity to non-conscious non-threat or positive as well as threat-related emotion cues in psychiatrically healthy adults. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd

  8. Complete Blood Count Reference Intervals for Healthy Han Chinese Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Runqing; Guo, Wei; Qiao, Rui; Chen, Wenxiang; Jiang, Hong; Ma, Yueyun; Shang, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Background Complete blood count (CBC) reference intervals are important to diagnose diseases, screen blood donors, and assess overall health. However, current reference intervals established by older instruments and technologies and those from American and European populations are not suitable for Chinese samples due to ethnic, dietary, and lifestyle differences. The aim of this multicenter collaborative study was to establish CBC reference intervals for healthy Han Chinese adults. Methods A total of 4,642 healthy individuals (2,136 males and 2,506 females) were recruited from six clinical centers in China (Shenyang, Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou, Chengdu, and Xi’an). Blood samples collected in K2EDTA anticoagulant tubes were analyzed. Analysis of variance was performed to determine differences in consensus intervals according to the use of data from the combined sample and selected samples. Results Median and mean platelet counts from the Chengdu center were significantly lower than those from other centers. Red blood cell count (RBC), hemoglobin (HGB), and hematocrit (HCT) values were higher in males than in females at all ages. Other CBC parameters showed no significant instrument-, region-, age-, or sex-dependent difference. Thalassemia carriers were found to affect the lower or upper limit of different RBC profiles. Conclusion We were able to establish consensus intervals for CBC parameters in healthy Han Chinese adults. RBC, HGB, and HCT intervals were established for each sex. The reference interval for platelets for the Chengdu center should be established independently. PMID:25769040

  9. Self-Perceived Benefits of Cognitive Training in Healthy Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vina M. Goghari

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The idea that individualized, computer-based cognitive training improves cognitive functioning in non-trained domains is highly contested. An understudied area is whether cognitive training improves one’s own perception of cognitive and day-to-day functioning. Furthermore, no studies have compared working memory training to programs that train higher-level processes themselves, namely logic and planning, in improving perception of cognitive abilities. We investigated self-reported changes in: (a cognitive errors relevant to daily life; (b expectations regarding training; and (c impact of training on daily life, in healthy older adults who completed working memory training or logic and planning training. Ninety-seven healthy older adults completed 8-weeks of computerized cognitive training that targeted either working memory or logic and planning. Findings were compared to a no-training control group. Participants reported fewer cognitive failures relevant to daily life after training compared to the no-training control group, with a greater reduction in errors reported by the logic and planning training group compared to the working memory training group. Trainees’ perception of training efficacy decreased over time. Nonetheless, approximately half of the participants in both training groups endorsed “some improvement” or more in self-perceived day-to-day functioning at post-testing. These results support the conclusion that individualized computerized cognitive training may enhance subjective perceptions of change and that higher level cognitive training may confer additional benefits. Findings suggest that cognitive training can enhance cognitive self-efficacy in healthy seniors.

  10. Naturalistic Assessment of Executive Function and Everyday Multitasking in Healthy Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAlister, Courtney; Schmitter-Edgecombe, Maureen

    2013-01-01

    Everyday multitasking and its cognitive correlates were investigated in an older adult population using a naturalistic task, the Day Out Task. Fifty older adults and 50 younger adults prioritized, organized, initiated and completed a number of subtasks in a campus apartment to prepare for a day out (e.g., gather ingredients for a recipe, collect change for a bus ride). Participants also completed tests assessing cognitive constructs important in multitasking. Compared to younger adults, the older adults took longer to complete the everyday tasks and more poorly sequenced the subtasks. Although they initiated, completed, and interweaved a similar number of subtasks, the older adults demonstrated poorer task quality and accuracy, completing more subtasks inefficiently. For the older adults, reduced prospective memory abilities were predictive of poorer task sequencing, while executive processes and prospective memory were predictive of inefficiently completed subtasks. The findings suggest that executive dysfunction and prospective memory difficulties may contribute to the age-related decline of everyday multitasking abilities in healthy older adults. PMID:23557096

  11. Establishment of new complete blood count reference values for healthy Thai adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongkrajang, P; Chinswangwatanakul, W; Mokkhamakkun, C; Chuangsuwanich, N; Wesarachkitti, B; Thaowto, B; Laiwejpithaya, S; Komkhum, O

    2018-04-28

    Laboratory reference ranges are essential for diagnostic orientation and treatment decision. As complete blood count parameters are influenced by various factors, including gender, geographic origin, and ethnic origin, it is important to establish specific hematologic reference values for specific populations. This study was conducted at the Department of Clinical Pathology, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand. Blood samples were taken from healthy adults aged 18-60 years that attended a health check-up program at our hospital during February 2015 to July 2015. Hematologic and routine chemistry analysis were performed. Participants were determined to be healthy based on medical history and routine medical examinations. Serum vitamin B12, folate, ferritin, and hemoglobin typing were also analyzed to exclude the possible presence of anemia. A statistically significant difference was observed between males and females for Hb level, hematocrit level, red blood cell count, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, percentage neutrophils, monocytes and eosinophils, and absolute neutrophil, lymphocyte, basophil, and platelet counts. Accordingly, gender-specific reference intervals were established for all complete blood count parameters in healthy Thai adult population. The reference value ranges established in this study reflect significant differences between genders. It is possible that these reference ranges may be generalizable to adults living in Thailand. The findings of this study emphasize the importance of establishing specific hematologic reference values for specific populations. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Diet composition and activity level of at risk and metabolically healthy obese American adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankinson, Arlene L; Daviglus, Martha L; Van Horn, Linda; Chan, Queenie; Brown, Ian; Holmes, Elaine; Elliott, Paul; Stamler, Jeremiah

    2013-03-01

    Obesity often clusters with other major cardiovascular disease risk factors, yet a subset of the obese appears to be protected from these risks. Two obesity phenotypes are described, (i) "metabolically healthy" obese, broadly defined as body mass index (BMI) ≥ 30 kg/m(2) and favorable levels of blood pressure, lipids, and glucose; and (ii) "at risk" obese, BMI ≥ 30 with unfavorable levels of these risk factors. More than 30% of obese American adults are metabolically healthy. Diet and activity determinants of obesity phenotypes are unclear. We hypothesized that metabolically healthy obese have more favorable behavioral factors, including less adverse diet composition and higher activity levels than at risk obese in the multi-ethnic group of 775 obese American adults ages 40-59 years from the International Population Study on Macro/Micronutrients and Blood Pressure (INTERMAP) cohort. In gender-stratified analyses, mean values for diet composition and activity behavior variables, adjusted for age, race, and education, were compared between metabolically healthy and at risk obese. Nearly one in five (149/775 or 19%) of obese American INTERMAP participants were classified as metabolically healthy obese. Diet composition and most activity behaviors were similar between obesity phenotypes, although metabolically healthy obese women reported higher sleep duration than at risk obese women. These results do not support hypotheses that diet composition and/or physical activity account for the absence of cardiometabolic abnormalities in metabolically healthy obese. Copyright © 2012 The Obesity Society.

  13. Healthy Lifestyle Characteristics and Their Joint Association With Cardiovascular Disease Biomarkers in US Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loprinzi, Paul D; Branscum, Adam; Hanks, June; Smit, Ellen

    2016-04-01

    To estimate the prevalence of healthy lifestyle characteristics and to examine the association between different combinations of healthy lifestyle characteristics and cardiovascular disease biomarkers. The prevalence of healthy lifestyle characteristics was estimated for the US adult population (N=4745) using 2003-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data for the following parameters: being sufficiently active (accelerometer), eating a healthy diet (Healthy Eating Index based on 24-hour recalls), being a nonsmoker (serum cotinine level), and having a recommended body fat percentage (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry). Cardiovascular biomarkers included mean arterial pressure, C-reactive protein, white blood cells (WBCs), total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), total cholesterol to HDL-C ratio, fasting low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, fasting triglycerides, fasting glucose, fasting insulin, insulin resistance, hemoglobin A1c, and homocysteine. The study was conducted from August 15, 2013, through January 5, 2016. Only 2.7% (95% CI, 1.9%-3.4%) of all adults had all 4 healthy lifestyle characteristics. Participants with 3 or 4 compared with 0 healthy lifestyle characteristics had more favorable biomarker levels except for mean arterial blood pressure, fasting glucose, and hemoglobin A1c. Having at least 1 or 2 compared with 0 healthy lifestyle characteristics was favorably associated with C-reactive protein, WBCs, HDL-C, total cholesterol, and homocysteine. For HDL-C and total cholesterol, the strongest correlate was body fat percentage. For homocysteine, a healthy diet and not smoking were strong correlates; for WBCs, diet was not a strong correlate. Although multiple healthy lifestyle characteristics are important, specific health characteristics may be more important for particular cardiovascular disease risk factors. Copyright © 2016 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All

  14. Healthy adult aging and decision-making:Is it all downhill from here?

    OpenAIRE

    Hinvest, Neal

    2015-01-01

    As we age there are significant changes to our brain structure and cognitive functioning. There is a substantial body of literature exploring changes to memory and attention during healthy adult aging. There has been considerably less focus on the impact of aging on other areas of cognition, specifically, decision-making. This is surprising given that choices are ubiquitous in daily life across the lifespan. For example, older adults still face many significant decisions including those conce...

  15. White noise enhances new-word learning in healthy adults

    OpenAIRE

    Angwin, Anthony J.; Wilson, Wayne J.; Arnott, Wendy L.; Signorini, Annabelle; Barry, Robert J.; Copland, David A.

    2017-01-01

    Research suggests that listening to white noise may improve some aspects of cognitive performance in individuals with lower attention. This study investigated the impact of white noise on new word learning in healthy young adults, and whether this effect was mediated by executive attention skills. Eighty participants completed a single training session to learn the names of twenty novel objects. The session comprised 5 learning phases, each followed by a recall test. A final recognition test ...

  16. Whole Body Vibration Improves Cognition in Healthy Young Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Regterschot, G. Ruben H.; Van Heuvelen, Marieke J. G.; Zeinstra, Edzard B.; Fuermaier, Anselm B. M.; Tucha, Lara; Koerts, Janneke; Tucha, Oliver; Van Der Zee, Eddy A.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the acute effects of passive whole body vibration (WBV) on executive functions in healthy young adults. Participants (112 females, 21 males; age: 20.5 +/- 2.2 years) underwent six passive WBV sessions (frequency 30 Hz, amplitude approximately 0.5 mm) and six non-vibration control sessions of two minutes each while sitting on a chair mounted on a vibrating platform. A passive WBV session was alternated with a control session. Directly after each session, performance on ...

  17. What factors influence healthy aging? A person-centered approach among older adults in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li-Fan; Su, Pei-Fang

    2017-05-01

    The present study aimed to identify the health profiles of older adults by using latent class analysis to investigate health heterogeneity and to determine what factors predicted healthy aging among an oldest-old sample cohort that was followed up for 14 years in Taiwan. Data were drawn from five waves (carried out in 1993, 1996, 1999, 2003 and 2007) of the Taiwan Longitudinal Study on Aging to examine the changes in health heterogeneity in a nationally representative oldest-old cohort of Taiwanese. Overall, data from a total of 11 145 observations of 3155 older adults were considered. The influential factors predicting health changes were analyzed by using a generalized estimating equation. The results showed that four health profiles were identified among the aging population observed in the Taiwan Longitudinal Study on Aging. With increasing age, the combined effects of the physical functioning, cognitive and emotional health, and comorbidities of older adults significantly impact their health changes. Apart from health deteriorating with age and sex disparities, educational and economic status, health behaviors, and social participation at the individual level were found to be the robust factors in predicting healthy aging. In considering what factors impact healthy aging, we suggest that a person-centered approach would be useful and critical for policy makers to understand the compositions of health profiles and the influencing factors in view of a life-course perspective. Based on the factors identified as influencing healthy aging at the individual level, it is imperative from a policy-making perspective to maximize opportunities for healthy aging. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; 17: 697-707. © 2016 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  18. Safety and immunogenicity of a trivalent, inactivated, mammalian cell culture-derived influenza vaccine in healthy adults, seniors, and children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halperin, Scott A; Smith, Bruce; Mabrouk, Taoufik; Germain, Marc; Trépanier, Pierre; Hassell, Thomas; Treanor, John; Gauthier, Richard; Mills, Elaine L

    2002-01-15

    We performed randomized, double-blind, controlled trials to assess the safety and immunogenicity of an inactivated, Madin Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK)-derived cell line produced influenza vaccine in healthy adults (19-50 years), children (3-12 years) and the elderly (> or =65 years). We studied three lots of cell culture-derived vaccine and one lot of licensed egg-derived vaccine in healthy adults (n=462), two lots of cell culture-derived vaccine and one lot of egg-derived vaccine in seniors (n=269), and one lot of each vaccine in children (n=209). Adverse events were collected during the first 3 days post-immunization; serum was collected before and 1 month after immunization. Rates of local and systemic adverse reactions were similar with both vaccines. An injection site adverse event rated at least moderate severity was reported by 21.9% of children who received the egg-derived vaccine and 25.0% of those who received the cell culture-derived vaccine. In healthy adults the proportions were 12.1 and 15.3%, respectively and 6.7 and 6.3%, respectively in seniors. Systemic events of at least moderate severity were 12.4 and 12.5% in children, 19.8 and 13.6% in healthy adults, and 14.1 and 9.7% in seniors; none of these differences were statistically significant. The antibody response against all three viruses was similar between the two vaccines. From 83 to 100% of children, healthy adults and seniors achieved hemagglutination inhibition titers in excess of 40 post-immunization. We conclude that the cell culture-derived vaccine was safe and immunogenic in children, healthy adults and seniors.

  19. Differences in chewing behaviors between healthy fully dentate young and older adults assessed by electromyographic recordings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yong; Hollis, James H

    2015-01-01

    To characterize changes in chewing behaviors associated with healthy aging, 10 young and 10 older fully dentate healthy participants were enrolled in this study. They chewed carrot samples that differed in hardness until their normal swallowing threshold. Their chewing behaviors were assessed using an electromyographic recording device. Adjusting for gender and body mass index, older adults had a higher number of chewing cycles (p = 0.020), a longer chewing duration (p chewing rate (p = 0.002), a greater maximal electromyographic voltage (p = 0.003) and a greater muscle activity (p = 0.002) before they could comfortably swallow the food bolus. A statistically significant main effect of food hardness on the number of chewing cycles, chewing duration, chewing rate and muscle activity was also observed (p < 0.001 for all). These results suggest that reduced mastication efficiency is associated with healthy aging in fully dentate adults. This ingestive behavior may contribute to aging-related reduction in appetite in older adults.

  20. Longitudinal Whole-Brain N-acetylaspartate Concentration in Healthy Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigotti, Daniel J.; Kirov, Ivan I.; Djavadi, Bejan; Perry, Nissa N.; Babb, James S.; Gonen, Oded

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Though N-acetylaspartate (NAA) is often used as a marker of neural integrity and health in different neurological disorders, the temporal behavior of its whole-brain concentration (WBNAA) is not well characterized. Our goal, therefore, was to establish its normal variations in a cohort of healthy adults over typical clinical trial periods. METHODS Baseline amount of brain NAA, QNAA, was obtained with non-localizing proton MR spectroscopy from 9 subjects (7 women, 2 men) 31.2±5.6 years old. QNAA was converted into absolute millimole amount using phantom-replacement. The WBNAA concentration was derived by dividing QNAA with the brain parenchyma volume, VB, segmented from MRI. Temporal variations were determined with four annual scans of each participant. RESULTS The distribution of WBNAA levels was not different among time points with respect to the mean, 12.1±1.5 mM (p 0.6) nor was its intra-subject change (CV = 8.6%) significant between any two scans (p 0.5). There was a small (0.2 mL), but significant (p=0.05) annual VB decline. CONCLUSION WBNAA is stable over a three year period in healthy adults. It qualifies therefore, as a biomarker for global neuronal loss and dysfunction in diffuse neurological disorders that may be well worth considering as a secondary outcome measure candidate for clinical trials. PMID:21511862

  1. Job-Preference and Job-Matching Assessment Results and Their Association with Job Performance and Satisfaction among Young Adults with Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Julie; Morgan, Robert L.; Salzberg, Charles L.

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the effects of preference and degree of match on job performance of four 19 to 20-year-old young adults with developmental disabilities placed in community-based job conditions. We identified high-preference, high-matched and low-preference, low-matched job tasks using a video web-based assessment program. The job matching…

  2. Urinary growth hormone excretion in 657 healthy children and adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Main, K; Philips, M; Jørgensen, M

    1991-01-01

    .0001) with maximum values in Tanner stage 3 for girls and 4 for boys. This corresponded to a peak in u-GH excretion between 11.5-14.5 years in girls and 12.5-16 years in boys. Additionally, u-GH excretion in adults was significantly higher than in prepubertal children (p less than 0.001). The day/night ratio of u......Urinary growth hormone (u-GH) excretion was measured in 547 healthy children and 110 adults by ELISA with a detection limit of 1.1 ng/l u-GH after prior concentration of the urine samples (20- to 30-fold). u-GH excretion values were significantly dependent on the pubertal stage (p less than 0...

  3. Periodontitis and early mortality among adults treated with hemodialysis: a multinational propensity-matched cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruospo, Marinella; Palmer, Suetonia C; Wong, Germaine; Craig, Jonathan C; Petruzzi, Massimo; De Benedittis, Michele; Ford, Pauline; Johnson, David W; Tonelli, Marcello; Natale, Patrizia; Saglimbene, Valeria; Pellegrini, Fabio; Celia, Eduardo; Gelfman, Ruben; Leal, Miguel R; Torok, Marietta; Stroumza, Paul; Bednarek-Skublewska, Anna; Dulawa, Jan; Frantzen, Luc; Del Castillo, Domingo; Schon, Staffan; Bernat, Amparo G; Hegbrant, Jorgen; Wollheim, Charlotta; Gargano, Letizia; Bots, Casper P; Strippoli, Giovanni Fm

    2017-05-22

    Periodontitis is associated with cardiovascular mortality in the general population and adults with chronic diseases. However, it is unclear whether periodontitis predicts survival in the setting of kidney failure. ORAL-D was a propensity matched analysis in 3338 dentate adults with end-stage kidney disease treated in a hemodialysis network in Europe and South America designed to examine the association between periodontitis and all-cause and cardiovascular-related mortality in people on long-term hemodialysis. Participants were matched 1:1 on their propensity score for moderate to severe periodontitis assessed using the World Health Organization Community Periodontal Index. A random-effects Cox proportional hazards model was fitted with shared frailty to account for clustering of mortality risk within countries. Among the 3338 dentate participants, 1355 (40.6%) had moderate to severe periodontitis at baseline. After using propensity score methods to generate a matched cohort of participants with periodontitis similar to those with none or mild periodontal disease, moderate to severe periodontitis was associated with a lower risk of all-cause (9.1 versus 13.0 per 100 person years, hazard ratio 0.74, 95% confidence interval 0.61 to 0.90) and cardiovascular (4.3 versus 6.9 per 100 person years, hazard ratio 0.67, 0.51 to 0.88) mortality. These associations were not changed substantially when participants were limited to those with 12 or more natural teeth and when accounting for competing causes of cardiovascular death. In contrast to the general population, periodontitis does not appear to be associated with an increased risk of early death in adults treated with hemodialysis.

  4. Hallucinations in Healthy Older Adults: An Overview of the Literature and Perspectives for Future Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna C. Badcock

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available KEY POINTS➢ Studies suggest a substantial minority of healthy older adults have hallucinatory experiences, in line with existing evidence on hallucinations in other age groups, though it is still unclear if hallucination prevalence increases or declines with age in older cohorts.➢ Stigma attached to both hallucinations and ageing leads to considerable under-reporting of these experiences in healthy older adults and may negatively bias how professionals, family members, and the public respond.➢ Why and when hallucinations in healthy older adults remit, persist, or progress to other clinical disorders remains poorly understood.➢ Current evidence points to a range of factors associated with hallucinations in older adults including decline in sensory or cognitive functioning, poor sleep, and psychosocial stressors (e.g., social isolation, loneliness, and bereavement, highlighting the need for accurate assessment and tailored interventions.Hallucinations, though common in youth and younger adults, are not the preserve of these age groups. Accumulating evidence shows that hallucinatory experiences are also present at surprisingly high rates in healthy older adults in the general community. Furthermore, stigma and misunderstanding of hallucinations, together with ageism, may lead to under-reporting of these experiences by older adults, and misdiagnosis or mismanagement by health and mental health practitioners. Consequently, improved public and professional knowledge is needed about the nature and significance of hallucinations with advancing age. The purpose of this review is to provide a comprehensive overview, and critical analysis, of research on the prevalence, psychosocial, and neurobiological factors associated with hallucinations in people aged 60 years and over. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first review of its kind in the literature. The evidence supports a dynamic conceptualization of hallucinations, in which the

  5. Designing a packaging to promote healthy and low-fat foods: Adolescents versus young-adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vila-López, Natalia; Küster-Boluda, Ines; Sarabia-Sánchez, Francisco

    2017-09-01

    Packaging is a relevant tool when adolescents and young adults search for low-fat and healthy foods. However, the power of a packaging is not homogenous. In this framework, two main objectives guide our work: (i) to investigate to what extent visual cues (size, colors, images etc.) are more important than informational cues (label); (ii) to analyze if adolescents and young adults pay equal attention to both packaging cues. 590 adolescents between 12 and 18years of age were interviewed at the door of both public and private schools. Additionally, 300 young adults between 19 and 25years of age were contacted. Their opinions were analyzed twice using structural modelling techniques: (i) without considering age differences and (ii) splitting the sample into adolescents (590 participants) and young-adults (300 participants) to compare their perceptions. Our results have showed that when looking for healthy and low-fat aliments visual cues (size, colors, images etc.) are more important than informational cues (label design, easily understandable words, size of the letters). Additionally, age is a pertinent variable to explain alternative packaging strategies, because adolescents and young adults do not pay equal attention to both packaging cues. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Gender- and Age-Specific REE and REE/FFM Distributions in Healthy Chinese Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Cheng

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Basic data on the resting energy expenditure (REE of healthy populations are currently rare, especially for developing countries. The aims of the present study were to describe gender- and age-specific REE distributions and to evaluate the relationships among glycolipid metabolism, eating behaviors, and REE in healthy Chinese adults. This cross-sectional survey included 540 subjects (343 women and 197 men, 20–79 years old. REE was measured by indirect calorimetry and expressed as kcal/day/kg total body weight. The data were presented as the means and percentiles for REE and the REE to fat-free mass (FFM ratio; differences were described by gender and age. Partial correlation analysis was used to analyze the correlations between REE, tertiles of REE/FFM, and glycolipid metabolism and eating behaviors. In this study, we confirmed a decline in REE with age in women (p = 0.000 and men (p = 0.000, and we found that men have a higher REE (p = 0.000 and lower REE/FFM (p = 0.021 than women. Furthermore, we observed no associations among glycolipid metabolism, eating behaviors, and REE in healthy Chinese adults. In conclusion, the results presented here may be useful to clinicians and nutritionists for comparing healthy and ill subjects and identifying changes in REE that are related to aging, malnutrition, and chronic diseases.

  7. Gender- and Age-Specific REE and REE/FFM Distributions in Healthy Chinese Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yu; Yang, Xue; Na, Li-Xin; Li, Ying; Sun, Chang-Hao

    2016-09-01

    Basic data on the resting energy expenditure (REE) of healthy populations are currently rare, especially for developing countries. The aims of the present study were to describe gender- and age-specific REE distributions and to evaluate the relationships among glycolipid metabolism, eating behaviors, and REE in healthy Chinese adults. This cross-sectional survey included 540 subjects (343 women and 197 men, 20-79 years old). REE was measured by indirect calorimetry and expressed as kcal/day/kg total body weight. The data were presented as the means and percentiles for REE and the REE to fat-free mass (FFM) ratio; differences were described by gender and age. Partial correlation analysis was used to analyze the correlations between REE, tertiles of REE/FFM, and glycolipid metabolism and eating behaviors. In this study, we confirmed a decline in REE with age in women (p = 0.000) and men (p = 0.000), and we found that men have a higher REE (p = 0.000) and lower REE/FFM (p = 0.021) than women. Furthermore, we observed no associations among glycolipid metabolism, eating behaviors, and REE in healthy Chinese adults. In conclusion, the results presented here may be useful to clinicians and nutritionists for comparing healthy and ill subjects and identifying changes in REE that are related to aging, malnutrition, and chronic diseases.

  8. The effect of 48-hour fasting on taurine status in healthy adult dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, K; Alexander, L G; Staunton, R; Colyer, A; Watson, A; Fascetti, A J

    2016-06-01

    Low circulating taurine concentrations may be a risk factor for dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) in dogs. Circulating taurine is typically measured in the clinic 4-5 h after feeding, largely because the impact of later sampling is not known. The objective of this study was to measure taurine in the blood during a 48-h fast in 12 healthy adult Labrador Retrievers to refine sampling methodology for determination of taurine status. Plasma and whole blood (WB) taurine concentrations did not fall to levels indicative of clinical deficiency throughout fasting; WB was the more reliable indicator of taurine status. This study shows that blood samples can be taken for assessment of taurine status any time up to 48 h after ingestion of a meal in healthy adult dogs. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  9. Carer Knowledge and Perceptions of Healthy Lifestyles for Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melville, Craig A.; Hamilton, Sarah; Miller, Susan; Boyle, Susan; Robinson, Nicola; Pert, Carol; Hankey, Catherine R.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Carers can have a significant impact supporting people with intellectual disabilities to make healthy lifestyle choices. This study examines carers' training needs on diet and physical activity. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was undertaken of the knowledge and perceptions of carers supporting adults with intellectual disabilities.…

  10. The Effect of High Dose Cholecalciferol on Arterial Stiffness and Peripheral and Central Blood Pressure in Healthy Humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bressendorff, Iain; Brandi, Lisbet; Schou, Morten

    2016-01-01

    and central blood pressure and 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure. RESULTS: 22 subjects in the cholecalciferol arm and 18 subjects in the placebo arm completed the 16 weeks of follow-up. There was no difference in changes in PWV, AIx corrected for heart rate or central or peripheral blood pressure between...... and blood pressure in healthy normotensive adults. METHODS: 40 healthy adults were randomised in this double-blinded study to either oral cholecalciferol 3000 IU/day or matching placebo and were followed for 16 weeks to examine any effects on pulse wave velocity (PWV), augmentation index (AIx), peripheral...... the two groups. There was no correlation between serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D and any of these parameters. CONCLUSIONS: Oral cholecalciferol 3000 IU/day does not affect arterial stiffness or blood pressure after 16 weeks of treatment in healthy normotensive adults. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT...

  11. Demographic Variables and Selective, Sustained Attention and Planning through Cognitive Tasks among Healthy Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afsaneh Zarghi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cognitive tasks are considered to be applicable and appropriate in assessing cognitive domains. The purpose of our study is to determine the relationship existence between variables of age, sex and education with selective, sustained attention and planning abilities by means of computerized cognitive tasks among healthy adults. Methods: A cross-sectional study was implemented during 6 months from June to November, 2010 on 84 healthy adults (42 male and 42 female. The whole participants performed computerized CPT, STROOP and TOL tests after being content and trained. Results: The obtained data indicate that there is a significant correlation coefficient between age, sex and education variables (p<0.05. Discussion: The above-mentioned tests can be used to assess selective, sustained attention and planning.

  12. Transfer after process-based object-location memory training in healthy older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Kathrin; von Bastian, Claudia C; Röcke, Christina; Martin, Mike; Eschen, Anne

    2016-11-01

    A substantial part of age-related episodic memory decline has been attributed to the decreasing ability of older adults to encode and retrieve associations among simultaneously processed information units from long-term memory. In addition, this ability seems to share unique variance with reasoning. In this study, we therefore examined whether process-based training of the ability to learn and remember associations has the potential to induce transfer effects to untrained episodic memory and reasoning tasks in healthy older adults (60-75 years). For this purpose, the experimental group (n = 36) completed 30 sessions of process-based object-location memory training, while the active control group (n = 31) practiced visual perception on the same material. Near (spatial episodic memory), intermediate (verbal episodic memory), and far transfer effects (reasoning) were each assessed with multiple tasks at four measurements (before, midway through, immediately after, and 4 months after training). Linear mixed-effects models revealed transfer effects on spatial episodic memory and reasoning that were still observed 4 months after training. These results provide first empirical evidence that process-based training can enhance healthy older adults' associative memory performance and positively affect untrained episodic memory and reasoning abilities. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Healthy Adult Ageing: Multitasking Abilities and the Impact of Interruptions

    OpenAIRE

    Nevay, Robyn

    2013-01-01

    The ability to multitask plays a significant role within everyday life. This experiment investigated whether multitasking abilities are impaired in healthy adult ageing. Neuropsychological literature has shown that patients with frontal lobe damage are impaired in their ability to multitask on tests designed to assess cognitive functions used in real-life multitasking situations. Age-related reductions in brain volume are most pronounced in the frontal lobes. Therefore, it’s assumed that olde...

  14. Effect of atopic skin stressors on natural moisturizing factors and cytokines in healthy adult epidermis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engebretsen, K A; Kezic, S; Jakasa, I

    2018-01-01

    : To explore the effect of selected exogenous skin stressors on NMF and skin cytokines levels in healthy adult epidermis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 40 healthy volunteers (18-49 years) were exposed to hard, soft, and chlorinated water, 0.5% SLS, house dust mite, cat allergen, staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB...... of various skin cytokines in healthy individuals. Our data highlight environmental factors that might play a role in AD pathophysiology, but needs confirmation in AD patients. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved....

  15. The retinal nerve fibre layer thickness in glaucomatous hydrophthalmic eyes assessed by scanning laser polarimetry with variable corneal compensation in comparison with age-matched healthy children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hložánek, Martin; Ošmera, Jakub; Ležatková, Pavlína; Sedláčková, Petra; Filouš, Aleš

    2012-12-01

    To compare the thickness of the retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) in hydrophthalmic glaucomatous eyes in children with age-matched healthy controls using scanning laser polarimetry with variable corneal compensation (GDxVCC). Twenty hydrophthalmic eyes of 20 patients with the mean age of 10.64 ± 3.02 years being treated for congenital or infantile glaucoma were included in the analysis. Evaluation of RNFL thickness measured by GDxVCC in standard Temporal-Superior-Nasal-Inferior-Temporal (TSNIT) parameters was performed. The results were compared to TSNIT values of an age-matched control group of 120 healthy children published recently as referential values. The correlation between horizontal corneal diameter and RNFL thickness in hydrophthalmic eyes was also investigated. The mean ± SD values in TSNIT Average, Superior Average, Inferior Average and TSNIT SD in hydrophthalmic eyes were 52.3 ± 11.4, 59.7 ± 17.1, 62.0 ± 15.6 and 20.0 ± 7.8 μm, respectively. All these values were significantly lower compared to referential TSNIT parameters of age-matched healthy eyes (p = 0.021, p = 0.001, p = 0.003 and p = 0.018, respectively). A substantial number of hydrophthalmic eyes laid below the level of 5% probability of normality in respective TSNIT parameters: 30% of the eyes in TSNIT average, 50% of the eyes in superior average, 30% of the eyes in inferior average and 45% of the eyes in TSNIT SD. No significant correlation between enlarged corneal diameter and RNFL thickness was found. The mean values of all standard TSNIT parameters assessed using GDxVCC in hydrophthalmic glaucomatous eyes in children were significantly lower in comparison with referential values of healthy age-matched children. © 2011 The Authors. Acta Ophthalmologica © 2011 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation.

  16. Yoga's potential for promoting healthy eating and physical activity behaviors among young adults: a mixed-methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Allison W; Rydell, Sarah A; Eisenberg, Marla E; Laska, Melissa N; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2018-05-02

    A regular yoga practice may have benefits for young adult health, however, there is limited evidence available to guide yoga interventions targeting weight-related health. The present study explored the relationship between participation in yoga, healthy eating behaviors and physical activity among young adults. The present mixed-methods study used data collected as part of wave 4 of Project EAT (Eating and Activity in Teens and Young Adults), a population-based cohort study in Minneapolis-St. Paul, Minnesota. Young adults (n = 1820) completed the Project EAT survey and a food frequency questionnaire, and a subset who reported practicing yoga additionally participated in semi-structured interviews (n = 46). Analyses of survey data were used to examine cross-sectional associations between the frequency of yoga practice, dietary behaviors (servings of fruits and vegetables (FV), sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) and snack foods and frequency of fast food consumption), and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Thematic analysis of interview discussions further explored yoga's perceived influence on eating and activity behaviors among interview participants. Regular yoga practice was associated with more servings of FV, fewer servings of SSBs and snack foods, less frequent fast food consumption, and more hours of MVPA. Interviews revealed that yoga supported healthy eating through motivation to eat healthfully, greater mindfulness, management of emotional eating, more healthy food cravings, and the influence of the yoga community. Yoga supported physical activity through activity as part of yoga practice, motivation to do other forms of activity, increased capacity to be active, and by complementing an active lifestyle. Young adult yoga practitioners reported healthier eating behaviors and higher levels of physical activity than non-practitioners. Yoga should be investigated as an intervention for young adult health promotion and healthy weight management.

  17. Interval Running Training Improves Cognitive Flexibility and Aerobic Power of Young Healthy Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venckunas, Tomas; Snieckus, Audrius; Trinkunas, Eugenijus; Baranauskiene, Neringa; Solianik, Rima; Juodsnukis, Antanas; Streckis, Vytautas; Kamandulis, Sigitas

    2016-08-01

    Venckunas, T, Snieckus, A, Trinkunas, E, Baranauskiene, N, Solianik, R, Juodsnukis, A, Streckis, V, and Kamandulis, S. Interval running training improves cognitive flexibility and aerobic power of young healthy adults. J Strength Cond Res 30(8): 2114-2121, 2016-The benefits of regular physical exercise may well extend beyond the reduction of chronic diseases risk and augmentation of working capacity, to many other aspects of human well-being, including improved cognitive functioning. Although the effects of moderate intensity continuous training on cognitive performance are relatively well studied, the benefits of interval training have not been investigated in this respect so far. The aim of the current study was to assess whether 7 weeks of interval running training is effective at improving both aerobic fitness and cognitive performance. For this purpose, 8 young dinghy sailors (6 boys and 2 girls) completed the interval running program with 200 m and 2,000 m running performance, cycling maximal oxygen uptake, and cognitive function was measured before and after the intervention. The control group consisted of healthy age-matched subjects (8 boys and 2 girls) who continued their active lifestyle and were tested in the same way as the experimental group, but did not complete any regular training. In the experimental group, 200 m and 2,000 m running performance and cycling maximal oxygen uptake increased together with improved results on cognitive flexibility tasks. No changes in the results of short-term and working memory tasks were observed in the experimental group, and no changes in any of the measured indices were evident in the controls. In conclusion, 7 weeks of interval running training improved running performance and cycling aerobic power, and were sufficient to improve the ability to adjust behavior to changing demands in young active individuals.

  18. Dual N-Back Working Memory Training in Healthy Adults: A Randomized Comparison to Processing Speed Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawlor-Savage, Linette; Goghari, Vina M.

    2016-01-01

    Enhancing cognitive ability is an attractive concept, particularly for middle-aged adults interested in maintaining cognitive functioning and preventing age-related declines. Computerized working memory training has been investigated as a safe method of cognitive enhancement in younger and older adults, although few studies have considered the potential impact of working memory training on middle-aged adults. This study investigated dual n-back working memory training in healthy adults aged 30–60. Fifty-seven adults completed measures of working memory, processing speed, and fluid intelligence before and after a 5-week web-based dual n-back or active control (processing speed) training program. Results: Repeated measures multivariate analysis of variance failed to identify improvements across the three cognitive composites, working memory, processing speed, and fluid intelligence, after training. Follow-up Bayesian analyses supported null findings for training effects for each individual composite. Findings suggest that dual n-back working memory training may not benefit working memory or fluid intelligence in healthy adults. Further investigation is necessary to clarify if other forms of working memory training may be beneficial, and what factors impact training-related benefits, should they occur, in this population. PMID:27043141

  19. Dual N-Back Working Memory Training in Healthy Adults: A Randomized Comparison to Processing Speed Training.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linette Lawlor-Savage

    Full Text Available Enhancing cognitive ability is an attractive concept, particularly for middle-aged adults interested in maintaining cognitive functioning and preventing age-related declines. Computerized working memory training has been investigated as a safe method of cognitive enhancement in younger and older adults, although few studies have considered the potential impact of working memory training on middle-aged adults. This study investigated dual n-back working memory training in healthy adults aged 30-60. Fifty-seven adults completed measures of working memory, processing speed, and fluid intelligence before and after a 5-week web-based dual n-back or active control (processing speed training program.Repeated measures multivariate analysis of variance failed to identify improvements across the three cognitive composites, working memory, processing speed, and fluid intelligence, after training. Follow-up Bayesian analyses supported null findings for training effects for each individual composite. Findings suggest that dual n-back working memory training may not benefit working memory or fluid intelligence in healthy adults. Further investigation is necessary to clarify if other forms of working memory training may be beneficial, and what factors impact training-related benefits, should they occur, in this population.

  20. Blunted Diurnal Cortisol Activity in Healthy Adults with Childhood Adversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuras, Yuliya I; Assaf, Naomi; Thoma, Myriam V; Gianferante, Danielle; Hanlin, Luke; Chen, Xuejie; Fiksdal, Alexander; Rohleder, Nicolas

    2017-01-01

    Childhood adversity, such as neglect, or physical, emotional, or sexual abuse, is prevalent in the U.S. and worldwide, and connected to an elevated incidence of disease in adulthood. A pathway in this relationship might be altered hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis functioning, as a result of differential hippocampal development in early life. A blunted diurnal cortisol slope is a precursor for many disorders. While studies have focused on HPA reactivity in relation to childhood adversity, there has been markedly less research on basal HPA functioning in those with low-to-moderate adversity. Based on previous research, we hypothesized that adults with low-to-moderate childhood adversity would have altered HPA axis functioning, as evidenced by a blunted diurnal cortisol slope and altered cortisol awakening response (CAR). Healthy adults aged 18-65 ( n = 61 adults; 31 males and 30 females) completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. Participants provided at-home saliva samples on two consecutive days at wake-up, and 30 min, 1, 4, 9, and 13 h later; samples were averaged over the 2 days. We found that low-to-moderate childhood adversity predicted lower morning cortisol (β = -0.34, p = 0.007, R 2 = 0.21), as well as a blunted cortisol slope (β = 2.97, p = 0.004, R 2 = 0.22), but found no association with CAR (β = 0.19, p = 0.14, R 2 = 0.12). Overall, we found that in healthy participants, low-to-moderate adversity in childhood is associated with altered basal HPA activity in adulthood. Our findings indicate that even low levels of childhood adversity may predispose individuals to disease associated with HPA dysregulation in later life.

  1. Blunted Diurnal Cortisol Activity in Healthy Adults with Childhood Adversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuliya I. Kuras

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Childhood adversity, such as neglect, or physical, emotional, or sexual abuse, is prevalent in the U.S. and worldwide, and connected to an elevated incidence of disease in adulthood. A pathway in this relationship might be altered hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis functioning, as a result of differential hippocampal development in early life. A blunted diurnal cortisol slope is a precursor for many disorders. While studies have focused on HPA reactivity in relation to childhood adversity, there has been markedly less research on basal HPA functioning in those with low-to-moderate adversity. Based on previous research, we hypothesized that adults with low-to-moderate childhood adversity would have altered HPA axis functioning, as evidenced by a blunted diurnal cortisol slope and altered cortisol awakening response (CAR. Healthy adults aged 18–65 (n = 61 adults; 31 males and 30 females completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. Participants provided at-home saliva samples on two consecutive days at wake-up, and 30 min, 1, 4, 9, and 13 h later; samples were averaged over the 2 days. We found that low-to-moderate childhood adversity predicted lower morning cortisol (β = -0.34, p = 0.007, R2 = 0.21, as well as a blunted cortisol slope (β = 2.97, p = 0.004, R2 = 0.22, but found no association with CAR (β = 0.19, p = 0.14, R2 = 0.12. Overall, we found that in healthy participants, low-to-moderate adversity in childhood is associated with altered basal HPA activity in adulthood. Our findings indicate that even low levels of childhood adversity may predispose individuals to disease associated with HPA dysregulation in later life.

  2. Construction of Healthy and Palatable Diet for Low Socioeconomic Female Adults using Linear Programming

    OpenAIRE

    Roslee Rajikan; Nurul Izza Ahmad Zaidi; Siti Masitah Elias; Suzana Shahar; Zahara Abd Manaf; Noor Aini Md Yusoff

    2017-01-01

    Differences in socioeconomic profile may influences healthy food choices, particularly among individuals with low socioeconomic status. Thus, high-energy dense foods become the preferences compared to high nutritional content foods due to their cheaper price. The present study aims to develop healthy and palatable diet at the minimum cost based on Malaysian Dietary Guidelines 2010 and Recommended Nutrient Intake 2005 via linear programming. A total of 96 female adults from low socioeconomic f...

  3. Association between Alternative Healthy Eating Index (AHEI and Depression and Anxiety in Iranian Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Earlier studies have shown a protective association between adherence to healthy eating guidelines and mental disorders in western nations; however, data in this regard are limited from the understudies region of Middle-East. We aimed to examine the association between adherence to healthy eating guidelines, as measured by AHEI, and prevalence of anxiety and depression in a large sample of Iranian adults. Materials and Methods In this cross-sectional study, data on dietary intakes of 3363 adult participants were collected using a validated dish-based 106-item semi-quantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ. Adherence to healthy eating was quantified using AHEI as suggested by earlier publications. The Iranian validated version of Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS was used to assess anxiety and depression in study participants. Data on other covariates were gathered using a pre-tested questionnaire. Results Overall, the frequency of anxiety and depression was 15.2% and 30.0%, respectively. After taking potential confounders into account, participants with greater adherence to AHEI had 48% lower odds of depression compared with those in the bottom quartile (OR = 0.52; 95% CI: 0.39-0.70. Those in the highest quartile of AHEI had a 29% lower odds of anxiety, compared with those in the lowest quartile (OR=0.71; 95% CI: 0.54-0.94; however, adjustment for dietary intakes and body mass index attenuated the association (OR = 0.75, 95% CI: 0.52-1.09. Conclusion Adherence to healthy eating was inversely associated with a lower chance of depression in Iranian adults. Further studies, especially with prospective design, are required to confirm these associations in Middle-Eastern populations.

  4. Mental toughness, sleep disturbances, and physical activity in patients with multiple sclerosis compared to healthy adolescents and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi Bahmani, Dena; Gerber, Markus; Kalak, Nadeem; Lemola, Sakari; Clough, Peter J; Calabrese, Pasquale; Shaygannejad, Vahid; Pühse, Uwe; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Brand, Serge

    2016-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most common chronic autoimmune demyelinating and inflammatory disease of the central nervous system, afflicting both the body and mind. The risk of suffering from MS is 2.5-3.5 times greater in females than in males. While there is extant research on fatigue, depression, and cognitive impairment in patients with MS during its clinical course, there is a lack of research focusing on sleep, psychological functioning, and physical activity (PA) at the point of disease onset. The aims of the present study were therefore, to assess the markers of mental toughness (MT) as a dimension of psychological functioning, sleep disturbances (SD), and PA among patients at the moment of disease onset and to compare these with the corresponding values for healthy adolescents and young adults. A total of 23 patients with MS at disease onset (mean age =32.31 years; 91% females), 23 healthy adolescents (mean age =17.43 years; 82% females), and 25 healthy young adults (mean age =20.72 years; 80% females) took part in the study. They completed questionnaires covering sociodemographic data, MT, SD, and PA. Patients with MS had similar scores for MT traits as those in healthy adolescents and healthy young adults, and equivalent levels of moderate-intensity PA and SD as young adults. MS patients reported lower levels of vigorous PA compared to both healthy adolescents and young adults. The pattern of the results of the present study suggests that the onset of MS is not associated with poor MT, poor sleep, or reduced moderate-intensity PA. Lower levels of vigorous PA were observed in MS patients. Low levels of vigorous PA may lead to decreased cardiorespiratory fitness in patients with MS and, in the long run, to reduced cardiovascular health and degraded psychological functioning.

  5. Cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction and carotid stiffness in adults with repaired tetralogy of Fallot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novaković, Marko; Prokšelj, Katja; Starc, Vito; Jug, Borut

    2017-06-01

    Adults after surgical repair of tetralogy of Fallot (ToF) may have impaired vascular and cardiac autonomic function. Thus, we wanted to assess interrelations between heart rate variability (HRV) and heart rate recovery (HRR), as parameters of cardiac autonomic function, and arterial stiffness, as a parameter of vascular function, in adults with repaired ToF as compared to healthy controls. In a case-control study of adults with repaired ToF and healthy age-matched controls we measured: 5-min HRV variability (with time and frequency domain data collected), carotid artery stiffness (through pulse-wave analysis using echo-tracking ultrasound) and post-exercise HRR (cycle ergometer exercise testing). Twenty-five patients with repaired ToF (mean age 38 ± 10 years) and 10 healthy controls (mean age 39 ± 8 years) were included. Selected HRR and HRV (time-domain) parameters, but not arterial stiffness were significantly reduced in adults after ToF repair. Moreover, a strong association between late/slow HRR (after 2, 3 and 4 min) and carotid artery stiffness was detected in ToF patients (r = -0.404, p = 0.045; r = -0.545, p = 0.005 and r = -0.545, p = 0.005, respectively), with statistical significance retained even after adjusting for age, gender, resting heart rate and β-blockers use (r = -0.393, p = 0.024 for HRR after 3 min). Autonomic cardiac function is impaired in patients with repaired ToF, and independently associated with vascular function in adults after ToF repair, but not in age-matched healthy controls. These results might help in introducing new predictors of cardiovascular morbidity in a growing population of adults after surgical repair of ToF.

  6. Chewing side preference is associated with hemispheric laterality in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serel Arslan, Selen; İnal, Özgü; Demir, Numan; Ölmez, Merih Seval; Karaduman, Aynur Ayşe

    2017-06-01

    Purpose To investigate if chewing side preference (CSP) can be used as an indicator of hemispheric laterality in healthy adults. Materials and methods Seventy-five individuals were included. The visual analogue scale (VAS) was used to determine CSP and laterality test for preferred peripheral organs. Results Significant correlation between CSP and hand, foot, ear, and eye side preference was found (r = .41, p lateralization.

  7. Perception of the older adults regarding the practise of physical activity and healthy eating

    OpenAIRE

    de Rosso Krug, Rodrigo; Rodrigues Barbosa, Aline; Aita Monego, Estela; Ferreira de Mello, Ana Lúcia Schaefer; Francielle França, Vivian

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To understand the perception of regular physical activity and healthy eating among the older adults. Methods: This descriptive study (qualitative approach) included 36 older adults (69 to 91 years) residents in a rural community in southern Brazil. A semi-structured interview was used and the information were recorded, transcribed and interpreted (content analysis technique). Results: The following categories of analysis were identified: a) facilitators and barriers for the practis...

  8. Poor sleep quality diminishes cognitive functioning independent of depression and anxiety in healthy young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benitez, Andreana; Gunstad, John

    2012-01-01

    Sufficient sleep is essential for optimum cognitive and psychological functioning. Diminished sleep quality is associated with depression and anxiety, but the extent to which poor sleep quality uniquely impacts attention and executive functions independent of the effects of the common underlying features of depression and anxiety requires further exploration. Here 67 healthy young adults were given the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory, second edition (MMPI-2), the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), and tests of attention and executive functions. Similar to findings from a previous study with healthy community-based older adults (Nebes, Buysse, Halligan, Houck, & Monk, 2009), participants who reported poor sleep quality on the PSQI endorsed significantly greater scores on MMPI-2 Restructured Clinical scales related to depression and anxiety (Cohen's d = 0.77-1.05). In addition, PSQI component scores indexing poor sleep quality, duration, and medication use were associated with diminished attention and executive functions, even after controlling for emotional reactivity or demoralization (rs = 0.21-0.27). These results add to the concurrent validity of the PSQI, and provide further evidence for subtle cognitive decrements related to insufficient sleep even in healthy young adults. Future extension of these findings is necessary with larger samples and clinical comparison groups, and using objective indices of sleep dysfunction such as polysomnography.

  9. Measurement of blood flow in the carotid arteries using color doppler in healthy Korean adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Ki Ho; Jeon, Do Ig; Choi, Chang Ho; Ro, Young Jin; Kim, Hak Jin; Lee, Suck Hong; Kim, Byung Soo

    1994-01-01

    To evaluate the blood flow patterns and velocities of the carotid arteries in healthy Korean adults. We evaluated the blood flow patterns and measured the peak systolic and end-diastolic velocities of the common, internal and external carotid arteries in 48 healthy adults who did not have cardiovascular disorders and neck lesions. The velocity difference was analyzed according to different age groups. In addition, peak systolic and end-diastolic velocity ratio of the internal to common carotid artery was estimated, and our data were compared with values reported by other authors. Generally, the velocity in the younger age group tends be to higher than in older group. The peak systolic and end diastolic velocities of the internal carotid artery were 84.5 cm/sec and 30.5 cm/sec. The peak systolic and end diastolic velocity ratio of the internal to common carotid artery were 0.715 and 0.966. The internal carotid artery was less resistant in blood flow than the external carotid artery. Our data were lower than the values which were reported by Bluth et al. The blood flow velocities of the internal carotid artery in healthy adults were lower than those of previous reported foreign values, but the patterns were similar

  10. A standing posture is associated with increased susceptibility to the sound-induced flash illusion in fall-prone older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapleton, John; Setti, Annalisa; Doheny, Emer P; Kenny, Rose Anne; Newell, Fiona N

    2014-02-01

    Recent research has provided evidence suggesting a link between inefficient processing of multisensory information and incidence of falling in older adults. Specifically, Setti et al. (Exp Brain Res 209:375-384, 2011) reported that older adults with a history of falling were more susceptible than their healthy, age-matched counterparts to the sound-induced flash illusion. Here, we investigated whether balance control in fall-prone older adults was directly associated with multisensory integration by testing susceptibility to the illusion under two postural conditions: sitting and standing. Whilst standing, fall-prone older adults had a greater body sway than the age-matched healthy older adults and their body sway increased when presented with the audio-visual illusory but not the audio-visual congruent conditions. We also found an increase in susceptibility to the sound-induced flash illusion during standing relative to sitting for fall-prone older adults only. Importantly, no performance differences were found across groups in either the unisensory or non-illusory multisensory conditions across the two postures. These results suggest an important link between multisensory integration and balance control in older adults and have important implications for understanding why some older adults are prone to falling.

  11. Physical Demand but Not Dexterity Is Associated with Motor Flexibility during Rapid Reaching in Healthy Young Adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greve, Christian; Hortobagyi, Tibor; Bongers, Raoul M.

    2015-01-01

    Healthy humans are able to place light and heavy objects in small and large target locations with remarkable accuracy. Here we examine how dexterity demand and physical demand affect flexibility in joint coordination and end-effector kinematics when healthy young adults perform an upper extremity

  12. THE IMPACT OF PILATES EXERCISES ON THE POSTURAL ALIGNMENT OF HEALTHY ADULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Krawczky

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: Exercises of Pilates method have been widely used to improve postural alignment. There is strong evidence favoring their use in improving flexibility and balance, as well as some evidence of improvement in muscle strength. However, the benefits related to posture are not well established. Objective: To investigate in healthy adults, the impact of the Pilates method in the postural alignment through some angles in the sagittal plane and the occurrence of pain before and after an exercise session, and after the completion of a 16-session program. Methods: This is a quasi-experimental study of pre and post-intervention type. Healthy adults (n = 37 interested in starting Pilates were evaluated for acute effects on posture after a Pilates session (n = 37 and after a 16-session program, for a period of 10 weeks (n = 13. Using the postural assessment software (SAPO, six angles were analyzed: head horizontal alignment (HHA, pelvis horizontal alignment (PHA, hip angle (HA, vertical alignment of the body (VAB, thoracic kyphosis (TK, and lumbar lordosis (LL. The occurrence of pain was investigated to control adverse effects. Results: Statistically significant (p<0.05 differences found after one session include increased HHA (left view, decreased VAB (left view and TK (both side views. After 16 sessions, we observed an increase of HHA, and a decrease of TK, LL (both side views and HA (right view. All the differences point to an improvement of postural alignment. A significant reduction of prevalence of pain was verified after the first session (40.5% vs. 13.5%; p=0.004 and after the full program (30.8% vs. 15.3%; p=0.02. Conclusions: Our results suggest that the Pilates method has a positive impact on postural alignment in healthy adults, besides being a safe exercise.

  13. POSTURAL CONTROL IN HEALTHY YOUNG ADULTS WITH AND WITHOUT CHRONIC MOTION SENSITIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alyahya D

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Postural control requires complex processing of peripheral sensory inputs from the visual, somatosensory and vestibular systems. Motion sensitivity and decreased postural control are influenced by visual-vestibular conflicts.The purpose of this study was to measure the difference between the postural control of healthy adults with and without history of sub-clinical chronic motion sensitivity using a computerized dynamic posturography in a virtual reality environment. Sub-clinical chronic motion sensitivity was operationally defined as a history of avoiding activities causing dizziness, nausea, imbalance, and/or blurred vision without having a related medical diagnosis. Methods: Twenty healthy adults between 22 and 33 years of age participated in the study. Eleven subjects had sub-clinical chronic motion sensitivity and 9 subjects did not. Postural control was measured in both groups using the Bertec Balance Advantage-Dynamic Computerized Dynamic Posturography with Immersion Virtual Reality (CDP-IVR. The CDP-IVR reports an over-all equilibrium score based on subjects’ center of gravity displacement and postural sway while immersed in a virtual reality environment. Subjects were tested on stable (condition 1 and unstable (condition2 platform conditions. Results: There was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of mean age, height, weight, body mass index in kg/m2, postural control scores for conditions 2, and average (p>0.05. However, significant differences were observed in mean postural control for condition 1 between groups (p=0.03. Conclusions: Results of this study suggest that healthy young adults without chronic sub-clinical motion sensitivity have better postural control than those with chronic sub-clinical motion sensitivity. Further investigation is warranted to explore wider age ranges with larger samples sizes as well as intervention strategies to improve postural control.

  14. Healthy lifestyle intervention for adult clinic patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlin, Steven S; Hatzigeorgiou, Christos; Anglin, Judith; Xie, Ding; Besenyi, Gina M; De Leo, Gianluca; Stewart, Jessica; Wilkins, Thad

    2017-01-01

    Diet and exercise therapy have been reported to be effective in improving blood glucose control and are an important part of treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. The goal of this study is to examine the efficacy of a healthy lifestyle intervention for adult clinic patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, as measured by Hgb-A1c, cardiovascular indicators, physical activity, weight, and BMI. Also of interest are optimal strategies for subject recruitment, the number of intervention sessions attended, and participant use of the Fitbit watch to monitor their physical activity and track food and beverage consumption. A pre/post-test design will be used in this pilot study. Non-institutionalized adult patients (n=50) aged 18-65 years who have been seen at the Augusta Health outpatient clinics (General Internal Medicine or Family Medicine) for type 2 diabetes in the past 12 months, and who are interested in reducing their risk of disease recurrence through healthy lifestyle behaviors, will be eligible to participate. At orientation visit, eligible individuals will be asked to provide written informed consent. Consenting volunteers (n=50) will be asked to complete the baseline and 6-month follow-up questionnaire and to participate in 12 weekly group sessions of 90 min duration, involving physical activity and to meet with a dietitian (baseline, one month, 90 days) to receive individualized advice on diet and nutrition. The technology-based intervention will use wrist-worn Fitbit Blaze physical activity monitoring devices. This pilot study will provide important information about the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of a healthy lifestyle intervention for adult clinic patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The use of consumer-facing devices such as the Fitbit watch has the potential advantage over the use of research accelerometers, pedometers, or actigraphs in increasing the likelihood that the intervention will be sustainable after the study ends.

  15. Computerized tomography in diagnosing cerebral atrophy (measurements of the ventricular system and hemispheric sulci in healthy adults)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taneva, N.

    1996-01-01

    Brain atrophy problem faced in healthy adults and in patients with a variety of diseases is disputable in the literature. An important issue of interpretation of CT-results is the criterion of normal values of the ventricular system and sulci. The results obtained in this investigation of forty healthy adults help to establish the values in norm and pathology. The data are compared with those reported by other authors. A number of characteristic features, attributable to gender and age, are noted. 10 refs., 2 tabs., 2 figs. (author)

  16. Effects of resveratrol on memory performance, hippocampal functional connectivity, and glucose metabolism in healthy older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witte, A Veronica; Kerti, Lucia; Margulies, Daniel S; Flöel, Agnes

    2014-06-04

    Dietary habits such as caloric restriction or nutrients that mimic these effects may exert beneficial effects on brain aging. The plant-derived polyphenol resveratrol has been shown to increase memory performance in primates; however, interventional studies in older humans are lacking. Here, we tested whether supplementation of resveratrol would enhance memory performance in older adults and addressed potential mechanisms underlying this effect. Twenty-three healthy overweight older individuals that successfully completed 26 weeks of resveratrol intake (200 mg/d) were pairwise matched to 23 participants that received placebo (total n = 46, 18 females, 50-75 years). Before and after the intervention/control period, subjects underwent memory tasks and neuroimaging to assess volume, microstructure, and functional connectivity (FC) of the hippocampus, a key region implicated in memory functions. In addition, anthropometry, glucose and lipid metabolism, inflammation, neurotrophic factors, and vascular parameters were assayed. We observed a significant effect of resveratrol on retention of words over 30 min compared with placebo (p = 0.038). In addition, resveratrol led to significant increases in hippocampal FC, decreases in glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and body fat, and increases in leptin compared with placebo (all p memory performance in association with improved glucose metabolism and increased hippocampal FC in older adults. Our findings offer the basis for novel strategies to maintain brain health during aging. Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/347862-09$15.00/0.

  17. Psychological correlates of habitual diet in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Richard J

    2017-01-01

    There are 3 motivations for studying the psychological correlates of habitual diet. First, diet is a major but modifiable cause of morbidity and mortality, and dietary interventions could be improved by knowing the psychological characteristics of consumers of healthy/unhealthy diets. Second, animal studies indicate that diet can impair cognition, stress responsiveness, and affective processing, but it is unclear whether this also happens in humans. Third, certain psychological traits are associated with obesity, but it is not known whether these precede and thus contribute to weight gain. Although many psychological correlates of diet have been identified, the literature is highly dispersed, and there has been no previous comprehensive narrative review. Organized here by psychological domain, studies linking diet with individual differences in perception, cognition, impulsivity, personality, affective processing, mental health, and attitudes, beliefs and values-in healthy adults-are reviewed. Although there is a growing literature on the psychological correlates of fruit/vegetable intake-the core of a healthy diet-consumers of unhealthy diets have characteristics that probably make them less responsive to education-based interventions. Diet may be a causal contributor to depression, and diet is consistently linked to impulsivity and certain personality traits. There are inconsistent and less explored links to perceptual, affective and cognitive processes, with several emerging parallels to the animal literature. Impulsivity and personality traits common to obese individuals also occur in lean consumers of unhealthy diets, suggesting these may contribute to weight gain. Diet-psychology correlates remain understudied even though this could significantly benefit human health. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Measurement and analysis of cardiopulmonary vascular in Lanzhou healthy adults with multislice spiral CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Xiaonan; Guo Shunlin

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To constitute a normal standard of cardiopulmonary vascular diameter and size of normal adult in Lanzhou, and to compared with the other's data reported in the previous bibliography by measuring diameter and area of cardiopulmonary artery lumen of the healthy adults in Lanzhou with multislice spiral CT (MSCT). Methods: Three hundred Lanzhou adults with no cardiopulmonary disease were equally assigned to 3 groups according to their age (A group: 18-39 years, B group: 40-60 years, C group: 61-80 years; 50 females and 50 males in each group). CT data were acquired at the end of deep inspiration phase and measurements were done on 3D reconstruction image with precise landmarks. All the results were statistically analyzed. Results: The diameters and areas of the main pulmonary artery left pulmonary artery right pulmonary artery ascending aorta and descending aorta differed significantly among the 3 groups (P<0.05). In groups B and C, there were significant differences in diameters and areas of pulmonary artery left pulmonary artery and right pulmonary between different genders (P<0.05). Conclusion: Imaging standard is provided for Lanzhou adult in early diagnosis of cardiopulmonary disease. The diameters and areas of main pulmonary artery left pulmonary artery and right pulmonary artery of Lanzhou healthy adults are different from that of other regions. It may be related to the geographical environment and the state of air pollution in Lanzhou. (authors)

  19. Disability prevalence among healthy weight, overweight, and obese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, Brian S; Courtney-Long, Elizabeth A; Campbell, Vincent A; Wethington, Holly R

    2013-04-01

    Obesity is associated with adverse health outcomes in people with and without disabilities. However, little is known about disability prevalence among people who are obese. The purpose of this study is to determine the prevalence and type of disability among adults who are obese. Pooled data from the 2003-2009 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) were analyzed to obtain national prevalence estimates of disability, disability type and obesity. The disability prevalence was stratified by body mass index (BMI): healthy weight (BMI 18.5-reported a disability. In contrast, 26.7% of those with a healthy weight and 28.5% of those who were overweight reported a disability. The most common disabilities among respondents with obesity were movement difficulty (32.5%) and work limitation (16.6%). This research contributes to the literature on obesity by including disability as a demographic in assessing the burden of obesity. Because of the high prevalence of disability among those who are obese, public health programs should consider the needs of those with disabilities when designing obesity prevention and treatment programs. Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society.

  20. Severely deficient autobiographical memory (SDAM) in healthy adults: A new mnemonic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palombo, Daniela J; Alain, Claude; Söderlund, Hedvig; Khuu, Wayne; Levine, Brian

    2015-06-01

    Recollection of previously experienced events is a key element of human memory that entails recovery of spatial, perceptual, and mental state details. While deficits in this capacity in association with brain disease have serious functional consequences, little is known about individual differences in autobiographical memory (AM) in healthy individuals. Recently, healthy adults with highly superior autobiographical capacities have been identified (e.g., LePort, A.K., Mattfeld, A.T., Dickinson-Anson, H., Fallon, J.H., Stark, C.E., Kruggel, F., McGaugh, J.L., 2012. Behavioral and neuroanatomical investigation of Highly Superior Autobiographical Memory (HSAM). Neurobiol. Learn. Mem. 98(1), 78-92. doi: 10.1016/j.nlm.2012.05.002). Here we report data from three healthy, high functioning adults with the reverse pattern: lifelong severely deficient autobiographical memory (SDAM) with otherwise preserved cognitive function. Their self-reported selective inability to vividly recollect personally experienced events from a first-person perspective was corroborated by absence of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and event-related potential (ERP) biomarkers associated with naturalistic and laboratory episodic recollection, as well as by behavioral evidence of impaired episodic retrieval, particularly for visual information. Yet learning and memory were otherwise intact, as long as these tasks could be accomplished by non-episodic processes. Thus these individuals function normally in day-to-day life, even though their past is experienced in the absence of recollection. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. [Effects of vitamin A supplementation on nutritional status of iron in healthy adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zuwen; Fan, Ping; Deng, Gangbo; Du, Zhen; Shao, Zewei; Wang, Zhixu

    2012-05-01

    To investigate the effect of vitamin A (VA) supplementation on the nutritional status of iron in healthy adults. One hundred and fifteen healthy adults were recruited and divided randomly into four groups, with 28 or 29 adults in each group. VA supplements with different doses of retinyl acetate in capsules were given for 4-month. The equivalent doses of supplemented retinyl acetate were 600 microg/d, 400 microg/d, 200 microg/d and 0 microg/d (control) of retinol, respectively. The capsules were administered orally by double blind method. During the experiment, the subjects kept their usual dietary pattern but avoided high VA or pre-VA carotenoids foods from their diets. A 24-h dietary recall was carried out monthly on every subject. Before and after the intervention, the fast blood samples were collected from each subject, and were determined for hemoglobin concentration, levels of serum retinol, iron, ferrtin and transferrtin receptor. Total 108 subjects finished the experiment, with 27, 28, 27 and 26 persons left in group A, B, C and D, respectively. The subjects from each group had similar dietary intakes of energy nutrients, VA and iron (both were P > 0.05) during the experimental period. The serum retinol concentration of subjects from group A increased from 1.63 +/- 0.55 micromol/L of baseline to 1.93 +/-0.52 micromol/L at the end of the experiment (P 0.05). There was no significant difference on Hb concentration before and after the experiment as well as between groups (all were P > 0.05). In subjects of group A, serum iron concentration increased (P < 0.05) and serum ferrtin and transferrtin receptor concentration decreased significantly (both were P < 0.05) after VA supplement intervention. No such changes were observed in group B and C (P < 0.05). It seems that the intervention of VA supplement with relative high dose of retinol at dietary level could enhance the iron status further in no-anemic healthy adults even without dietary iron supplementation.

  2. Vitamin-D status in a Population of Healthy Adults in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmood, K.; Akhtar, S.T.; Talib, A.; Haider, I.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of hypovitaminosis D and its predictors in healthy adult Pakistanis. This study was conducted at various hospitals in Karachi from April 2007 to September 2007. Methodology: In this study 244 healthy adults 16-62 years of age, visited hospital as an attendant of the patients and fulfilled the inclusion and exclusion criteria has been enrolled. After taking written consent a questionnaire regarding age, gender, occupation, duration of sun exposure, area of skin exposed, type of residence used, clothing and dietary habits were recorded. Serum 25-OH Vitamin D3 levels were determined by electro chemiluminescence method and Vitamin D deficiency was defined as a level <20 mu g/ml. serum calcium. Phosphorus and Alkaline Phosphatase were also measured in all of these subjects. Results: Among 244 subjects ranging from 16-62 years, 193(79%) were female. Subjects were predominantly married (72%), mostly residing in apartments (47.5%) and most of them (41.8%)only exposed their face and hands while outdoor. Duration of sun exposure in majority was 1-2 hour /day (42%). Majority used clothes of variable colour (72%) and fabric (41%). One hundred and eighty six (76.2%) subjects had deficiency of Vitamin D and significantly correlated with duration of sunlight exposure, large area of skin exposed, vitamin D in diet consumed and colour of clothes worn. Vitamin D was significantly correlated negatively with serum Phosphorus and Alkaline Phosphatase whereas serum calcium correlated positively. Conclusion: Prevalence of hypovitaminosis D among healthy Pakistanis is high and duration of sun exposure is the most common predictor of hypovitaminosis D. (author)

  3. Serum inhibin A and inhibin B in healthy prepubertal, pubertal, and adolescent girls and adult women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sehested, A; Juul, A A; Andersson, A M

    2000-01-01

    of inhibin A, inhibin B, FSH, LH and estradiol in a cross-sectional study of 403 healthy schoolgirls (aged 6 -20 yr) in relation to age and stage of puberty and in 181 healthy nonpregnant women (aged 20-32 yr) in relation to stage of the menstrual cycle. In addition, inhibin A and inhibin B were measured...... daily throughout the menstrual cycle in 10 healthy adult women. Levels of inhibin B are low or undetectable in prepubertal girls (median, 26.5 pg/mL; 95% prediction interval,...

  4. SERUM AND PAROTID FLUIS UREA-LEVELS IN UNREALOADED HEALTHY YOUNG ADULTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forty-four healthy young adult male subjects were given oral doses of urea, and parotid fluid and serum urea levels were studied for 1 to 3 hours. A...highly significant correlation between urea in serum and in parotid fluid (r equals 0.982) was found. The indication was that, with flow rate...carefully controlled, parotid fluid could be used interchangeably with serum in urea determination, regardless of the magnitude of the blood concentration. (Author)

  5. Predicting healthy lifestyle patterns among retirement age older adults in the WELL study: a latent class analysis of sex differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Södergren, Marita; Wang, Wei Chun; Salmon, Jo; Ball, Kylie; Crawford, David; McNaughton, Sarah A

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify subgroups of retirement age older adults with respect to their lifestyle patterns of eating, drinking, smoking, physical activity and TV viewing behaviors, and to examine the association between these patterns and socio-demographic covariates. The sample consisted of 3133 older adults aged 55-65 years from the Wellbeing, Eating and Exercise for a Long Life (WELL) study, 2010. This study used latent class analysis (stratified by sex), with a set of lifestyle indicators and including socio-demographic covariates. Statistical analyses were performed by generalized linear latent and mixed models in Stata. Two classes of lifestyle patterns were identified: Healthy (53% men and 72% women) and less healthy lifestyles. Physical activity, TV-viewing time, and fruit intake were good indicators distinguishing the "Healthier" class, whereas consumption of vegetables, alcohol (men) and fast food (women) could not clearly discriminate older adults in the two classes. Class membership was associated with education, body mass index, and self-rated health. This study contributes to the literature on lifestyle behaviors among older adults, and provides evidence that there are meaningful sex differences in lifestyle behaviors between subgroups of older adults. From a policy perspective, understanding indicators or "markers" of healthy and less healthy lifestyle patterns is important for identifying target groups for interventions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Association of Biotin Ingestion With Performance of Hormone and Nonhormone Assays in Healthy Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Danni; Radulescu, Angela; Shrestha, Rupendra T; Root, Matthew; Karger, Amy B; Killeen, Anthony A; Hodges, James S; Fan, Shu-Ling; Ferguson, Angela; Garg, Uttam; Sokoll, Lori J; Burmeister, Lynn A

    2017-09-26

    Biotinylated antibodies and analogues, with their strong binding to streptavidin, are used in many clinical laboratory tests. Excess biotin in blood due to supplemental biotin ingestion may affect biotin-streptavidin binding, leading to potential clinical misinterpretation. However, the degree of interference remains undefined in healthy adults. To assess performance of specific biotinylated immunoassays after 7 days of ingesting 10 mg/d of biotin, a dose common in over-the-counter supplements for healthy adults. Nonrandomized crossover trial involving 6 healthy adults who were treated at an academic medical center research laboratory. Administration of 10 mg/d of biotin supplementation for 7 days. Analyte concentrations were compared with baseline (day 0) measures on the seventh day of biotin treatment and 7 days after treatment had stopped (day 14). The 11 analytes included 9 hormones (ie, thyroid-stimulating hormone, total thyroxine, total triiodothyronine, free thyroxine, free triiodothyronine, parathyroid hormone, prolactin, N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide, 25-hydroxyvitamin D) and 2 nonhormones (prostate-specific antigen and ferritin). A total of 37 immunoassays for the 11 analytes were evaluated on 4 diagnostic systems, including 23 assays that incorporated biotin and streptavidin components and 14 assays that did not include biotin and streptavidin components and served as negative controls. Among the 2 women and 4 men (mean age, 38 years [range, 31-45 years]) who took 10 mg/d of biotin for 7 days, biotin ingestion-associated interference was found in 9 of the 23 (39%) biotinylated assays compared with none of the 14 nonbiotinylated assays (P = .007). Results from 5 of 8 biotinylated (63%) competitive immunoassays tested falsely high and results from 4 out of 15 (27%) biotinylated sandwich immunoassays tested falsely low. In this preliminary study of 6 healthy adult participants and 11 hormone and nonhormone analytes measured by 37 immunoassays

  7. Low educational level effects on the performance of healthy adults on a Neuropsychological Protocol suggested by the Commission on Neuropsychology of the Liga Brasileira de Epilepsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Erich Belzunces; Tudesco, Ivanda de Souza Silva; Caboclo, Luis Otávio S F; Yacubian, Elza Márcia T

    2011-10-01

    To assess cognitive measures and impact of education on cognitive performance (CP) of low educational levels healthy adults (LELHA) on a Neuropsychological Protocol (NP) suggested by the Liga Brasileira de Epilepsia. 138 subjects from an Education Program for Adults divided into two, age and gender matched groups of 69 subjects, answered the NP: Group 1 (mean of 6.9 ± 2.95 months of formal education) and Group 2, 47.8 ± 10 months. Data were compared as z-scores. The mean IQ was 77.1 ± 5.50 and 79.4 ± 3.30 in Groups 1 and 2, respectively (p=0.001). Both performed below the normal curve and Group 1 worse than 2. CP correlated with schooling, especially executive functions (54.1% vs 36.2%) and language (52.9% vs 25.7%). LELHA showed significant cognitive impairment in verbal and visuospatial areas. If these results had been obtained in epilepsy patients they would be interpreted as global cognitive impairment.

  8. Reliability and Validity of Computerized Force Platform Measures of Balance Function in Healthy Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harro, Cathy C; Garascia, Chelsea

    2018-01-10

    Postural control declines with aging and is an independent risk factor for falls in older adults. Objective examination of balance function is warranted to direct fall prevention strategies. Force platform (FP) systems provide quantitative measures of postural control and analysis of different aspects of balance. The purpose of this study was to examine the reliability and validity of FP measures in healthy older adults. This study enrolled 46 healthy elderly adults, mean age 67.67 (5.1) years, who had no history of falls. They were assessed on 3 standardized tests on the NeuroCom Equitest FP system: limits of stability (LOS), motor control test (MCT), and sensory organization test (SOT). The test battery was administered twice within a 10-day period for test-retest reliability; intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs), standard error of measurement (SEM), and minimal detectable change based on a 95% confidence interval (MDC95) were calculated. FP measures were compared with criterion clinical balance (Mini-BESTest and Functional Gait Assessment) and gait (10-m walk and 6-minute walk) measures to examine concurrent validity using Pearson correlation coefficients. Multiple linear regression analysis examined whether age and activity level were associated with FP performance. The α level was set at P point excursion measures all demonstrated excellent test-retest reliability (ICC = 0.90, 0.85, and 0.77, respectively), whereas moderate to good reliability was found for SOT vestibular ratio score (ICC = 0.71). There was large variability in performance in this healthy elderly cohort, resulting in relatively large MDC95 for these measures, especially for the LOS test. Fair correlations were found between LOS end point excursion and clinical balance and gait measures (r = 0.31-0.49), and between MCT average latency and gait measures only (r = -0.32). No correlations were found between SOT measures and clinical balance and gait measures. Age was only marginally

  9. Adoption of American Heart Association 2020 ideal healthy diet recommendations prevents weight gain in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forget, Geneviève; Doyon, Myriam; Lacerte, Guillaume; Labonté, Mélissa; Brown, Christine; Carpentier, André C; Langlois, Marie-France; Hivert, Marie-France

    2013-11-01

    In 2010, the American Heart Association established the concept of ideal cardiovascular health. Nationally representative data estimated that Healthy Diet Score. In a cohort of young adults (N=196), we aimed to investigate the prevalence of ideal cardiovascular health and ideal Healthy Diet Score and its association to weight gain over a 4-year follow-up period. Anthropometric measures, blood pressure, and blood samples were taken according to standardized procedures. Dietary intake was measured by a 3-day food diary and verified by a registered dietitian. We observed that only 0.5% of our sample met the criteria for ideal cardiovascular health and only 4.1% met the criteria for an ideal Healthy Diet Score. The components of the Healthy Diet Score with the lowest observance were consumption of fruits and vegetables (9.7%) and whole grains (14.8%). Meeting zero or one out of five of the Healthy Diet Score components was associated with increased risk of weight gain over 4 years compared with meeting at least two components (P=0.03). With the exception of dietary criteria, prevalence was high for achieving ideal levels of the remaining six cardiovascular health metrics. In conclusion, in this sample of young adults, a very low prevalence of ideal overall cardiovascular health was observed, mainly driven by poor dietary habits, and a poor Healthy Diet Score was associated with increased weight gain. Copyright © 2013 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Palatability versus healthiness as determinants of food preferences in young adults: a comparison of nomothetic and idiographic analytic approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caltabiano, M L; Shellshear, J

    1998-08-01

    Past research on adults has found that the sensory appeal or taste of foods is a primary determiner of food consumption and how people think about food. The nomothetic nature of this research may have underestimated the impact of health considerations on food choice. This study compared 'nomothetic' and 'idiographic' modes of analysis in 1) determining the relative influence of palatability and perceived healthiness of foods, on preference for the food, and 2) assessing the relationship between palatability and evaluations of healthiness. Additionally, gender differences were examined in relation to within-person correlations between the concepts of preference, palatability and healthiness. Subjects (n = 139) rated 81 foods on preference, palatability and healthiness. Findings from both the idiographic and nomothetic analyses indicated that palatability rather than health considerations determined preferences in young adults. The within-person correlational analysis indicated a large number of persons, mostly female, who preferred unhealthy food. The sample was equally split in their evaluations of healthy food as palatable or not.

  11. Tai chi training reduces self-report of inattention in healthy young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander K. Converse

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available It is important to identify effective non-pharmacological alternatives to stimulant medications that reduce symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. In this study of healthy young adults, we measured the effects of training in tai chi, which involves mindful attention to the body during movement. Using a non-randomized, controlled, parallel design, students in a 15-week introductory tai chi course (n=28 and control participants (n=44 were tested for ADHD indicators and cognitive function at three points over the course of the 15 weeks. The tai chi students' self-report of attention, but not hyperactivity-impulsivity, improved compared to controls. At baseline, inattention correlated positively with reaction time variability in an affective go/no-go task across all participants, and improvements in attention correlated with reductions in reaction time variability across the tai chi students. Affective bias changed in the tai chi students, as reaction times to positive- and negative-valenced words equalized over time. These results converge to suggest that tai chi training may help improve attention in healthy young adults. Further studies are needed to confirm these results and to evaluate tai chi as therapy for individuals with ADHD.

  12. Multidimensional analysis of food-allergic children and adolescents' self-concept: A comparison with a healthy matched sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polloni, Laura; Baldi, Ileana; Lazzarotto, Francesca; Bonaguro, Roberta; Toniolo, Alice; Gregori, Dario; Muraro, Antonella

    2015-06-01

    The study investigated self-concept in food-allergic youths and matched healthy controls. Global and domain-specific self-concepts were assessed in 154 participants (9-19 years) using the Multidimensional Self-Concept Scale. Statistical analysis assessed differences between the two samples and effects of asthma, dermatitis, age, and gender among patients. Significant differences were found for Total Scale score and for Competence and Physical scores. Patients showed clinically problematic self-concepts in Global, Competence, and Family domains. Age was found to be associated with the Total score. Health professionals should consider food-allergic patients' personality development. Further studies could examine disease-specific consequences and interventions. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. Subchondral stress fracture of femoral head in a healthy adult

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Ashish

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Subchondral fracture of the femoral head is an uncommon entity and usually occurs as an insufficiency fracture associated with poor bone quality or as a fatigue fracture in young military recruits. This condition should be considered in the differential diagnosis of acute hip pain in young patients along with transient osteoporosis and avascular necrosis of the hip. We report a case of acute onset hip pain in an asymptomatic healthy adult in which the diagnosis was made by magnetic resonance imaging and the patient responded well to conservative treatment.

  14. Ambulatory blood pressure and blood lipids in a multiethnic sample of healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Gary D; Van Berge-Landry, Helene M; Morrison, Lynn A; Reza, Angela M; Nicolaisen, Nicola M; Bindon, James R; Brown, Daniel E

    2013-01-01

    Elevated blood pressure (BP), elevated serum cholesterol, and aberrant lipoprotein fractions (low levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and high levels of low-density lipoprotein fractions and triglycerides) have all been used as measures that assess the "metabolic syndrome" and more recently in indexes of allostatic load, which are designed to assess the degree of integrated metabolic pathology. While there are ample data regarding the interrelationships of these measures in various pathophysiological settings, there are limited data regarding the interrelationship of ambulatory BP (ABP) and blood lipids in healthy subjects. The present study evaluates ABP-blood lipid relationships in a multiethnic sample of healthy adults. The subjects were 37 men (age = 40.9 ± 10.7 years) and 42 women (age = 35.8 ± 10.4 years) who were employed as hotel workers in Hawaii. Each wore an ABP monitor for one midweek workday and had pressures averaged in three daily microenvironments (work, home, and during sleep). They also had fasting blood samples taken for lipid profiling. Multivariate analysis of covariance shows that there was a strong inverse relationship between HDL and both systolic (P act as a group in healthy adults but that higher HDL is associated with lower BP. This latter finding is consistent with research that shows that HDL promotes vasodilation via its effect on endothelial nitric oxide synthase. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Structural covariance networks across healthy young adults and their consistency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiaojuan; Wang, Yan; Guo, Taomei; Chen, Kewei; Zhang, Jiacai; Li, Ke; Jin, Zhen; Yao, Li

    2015-08-01

    To investigate structural covariance networks (SCNs) as measured by regional gray matter volumes with structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) from healthy young adults, and to examine their consistency and stability. Two independent cohorts were included in this study: Group 1 (82 healthy subjects aged 18-28 years) and Group 2 (109 healthy subjects aged 20-28 years). Structural MRI data were acquired at 3.0T and 1.5T using a magnetization prepared rapid-acquisition gradient echo sequence for these two groups, respectively. We applied independent component analysis (ICA) to construct SCNs and further applied the spatial overlap ratio and correlation coefficient to evaluate the spatial consistency of the SCNs between these two datasets. Seven and six independent components were identified for Group 1 and Group 2, respectively. Moreover, six SCNs including the posterior default mode network, the visual and auditory networks consistently existed across the two datasets. The overlap ratios and correlation coefficients of the visual network reached the maximums of 72% and 0.71. This study demonstrates the existence of consistent SCNs corresponding to general functional networks. These structural covariance findings may provide insight into the underlying organizational principles of brain anatomy. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. The role of serotonin in nonnormative risky choice: the effects of tryptophan supplements on the "reflection effect" in healthy adult volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Susannah E; Longhitano, Carlo; Ayres, Rachael E; Cowen, Philip J; Harmer, Catherine J; Rogers, Robert D

    2009-09-01

    Risky decision-making involves weighing good and bad outcomes against their probabilities in order to determine the relative values of candidate actions. Although human decision-making sometimes conforms to rational models of how this weighting is achieved, irrational (or nonnormative) patterns of risky choice, including shifts between risk-averse and risk-seeking choices involving equivalent-value gambles (the "reflection effect"), are frequently observed. In the present experiment, we investigated the role of serotonin in decision-making under conditions of uncertainty. Fifteen healthy adult volunteers received a treatment of 3 g per day of the serotonin precursor, tryptophan, in the form of dietary supplements over a 14-day period, whereas 15 age- and IQ-matched control volunteers received a matched placebo substance. At test, all participants completed a risky decision-making task involving a series of choices between two simultaneously presented gambles, differing in the magnitude of their possible gains, the magnitude of their possible losses, and the probabilities with which these outcomes were delivered. Tryptophan supplements were associated with alterations in the weighting of gains and small losses perhaps reflecting reduced loss-aversion, and a marked and significant diminution of the reflection effect. We conclude that serotonin activity plays a significant role in nonnormative risky decision-making under conditions of uncertainty.

  17. Body Composition in Adult Patients with Thalassemia Major

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    Marianna Vlychou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To assess body composition in adult male and female patients with thalassemia major by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA and to compare the findings with a group of healthy age-matched controls. Methods. Our study group included sixty-two patients (27 males, mean age 36 years, and 35 females, mean age 36.4 years and fifteen age-matched healthy controls. All patients had an established diagnosis of thalassemia major and followed a regular blood transfusion scheme since childhood and chelation treatment. Fat, lean, and bone mineral density (BMD were assessed with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Ferritin levels and body mass index of all patients and controls were also recorded. Student t-test and Wilcoxon test were performed and statistical significance was set at p<0.05. Results. BMD and whole body lean mass are lower in both male and female adult patients compared with controls (p<0.01 in both groups, whereas whole body fat mass was found to have no statistically significant difference compared to controls. Regional trunk fat around the abdomen was found to be lower in male patients compared to controls (p=0.02. Conclusion. Severe bone loss and diminished lean mass are expected in adult male and female patients with thalassemia major. Fat changes seem to affect mainly male patients.

  18. Perfluoroalkyl substance serum concentrations and immune response to FluMist vaccination among healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Cheryl R; Ge, Yongchao; Wolff, Mary S; Ye, Xiaoyun; Calafat, Antonia M; Kraus, Thomas; Moran, Thomas M

    2016-08-01

    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) were shown to be immunotoxic in laboratory animals. There is some epidemiological evidence that PFAS exposure is inversely associated with vaccine-induced antibody concentration. We examined immune response to vaccination with FluMist intranasal live attenuated influenza vaccine in relation to four PFAS (perfluorooctanoate, perfluorononanoate, perfluorooctane sulfonate, perfluorohexane sulfonate) serum concentrations among 78 healthy adults vaccinated during the 2010-2011 influenza season. We measured anti-A H1N1 antibody response and cytokine and chemokine concentrations in serum pre-vaccination, 3 days post-vaccination, and 30 days post-vaccination. We measured cytokine, chemokine, and mucosal IgA concentration in nasal secretions 3 days post-vaccination and 30 days post-vaccination. Adults with higher PFAS concentrations were more likely to seroconvert after FluMist vaccination as compared to adults with lower PFAS concentrations. The associations, however, were imprecise and few participants seroconverted as measured either by hemagglutination inhibition (9%) or immunohistochemical staining (25%). We observed no readily discernable or consistent pattern between PFAS concentration and baseline cytokine, chemokine, or mucosal IgA concentration, or between PFAS concentration and change in these immune markers between baseline and FluMist-response states. The results of this study do not support a reduced immune response to FluMist vaccination among healthy adults in relation to serum PFAS concentration. Given the study's many limitations, however, it does not rule out impaired vaccine response to other vaccines or vaccine components in either children or adults. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Investigation of cortical thickness abnormalities in lithium-free adults with bipolar type I disorder using cortical pattern matching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foland-Ross, Lara C.; Thompson, Paul M.; Sugar, Catherine A.; Madsen, Sarah K.; Shen, Jim K.; Penfold, Conor; Ahlf, Kyle; Rasser, Paul E.; Fischer, Jeffrey; Yang, Yilan; Townsend, Jennifer; Bookheimer, Susan Y.; Altshuler, Lori L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Several lines of evidence implicate gray matter abnormalities in the prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulate cortex in patients with bipolar disorder. Findings however, have been largely inconsistent across studies. Differences in patients’ medication status or mood state, or the application of traditional volumetric methods that are insensitive to subtle neuroanatomic differences may have contributed to these inconsistent findings. Given this, we used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in conjunction with cortical pattern matching methods to assess cortical thickness abnormalities in euthymic bipolar subjects who were not treated with lithium. Method Sixty-five subjects, including 34 lithium-free euthymic subjects with bipolar (type I) disorder and 31 healthy subjects were scanned using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Data were processed to measure cortical gray matter thickness. Cortical pattern matching methods associated homologous brain regions across subjects. Spatially normalized thickness maps were analyzed to assess illness effects and associations with clinical variables. Results Relative to healthy subjects, euthymic bipolar I subjects had significantly thinner gray matter in bilateral prefrontal cortex (Brodmann Areas 11, 10, 8 and 44) and left anterior cingulate cortex (Brodmann Areas 24/32). Additionally, thinning in these regions was more pronounced in patients with a history of psychosis. No areas of thicker cortex were detected in bipolar subjects versus healthy subjects. Conclusions Using a technique that is highly sensitive to subtle neuroanatomic differences, significant regional cortical thinning was found in euthymic subjects with bipolar disorder. Clinical implications are discussed. PMID:21285139

  20. Cognitive Benefits of Online Social Networking for Healthy Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myhre, Janelle W; Mehl, Matthias R; Glisky, Elizabeth L

    2017-09-01

    Research suggests that older adults who remain socially active and cognitively engaged have better cognitive function than those who are isolated and disengaged. This study examined the efficacy of learning and using an online social networking website, Facebook.com, as an intervention to maintain or enhance cognitive function in older adults. Forty-one older adults were assigned to learn and use Facebook (n = 14) or an online diary website (active control, n = 13) for 8 weeks or placed on a waitlist (n = 14). Outcome measures included neuropsychological tests of executive functions, memory, and processing speed and self-report questionnaires about social engagement. The Facebook group showed a significant increase in a composite measure of updating, an executive function factor associated with complex working memory tasks, compared to no significant change in the control groups. Other measures of cognitive function and social support showed no differential improvement in the Facebook group. Learning and using an online social networking site may provide specific benefits for complex working memory in a group of healthy older adults. This may reflect the particular cognitive demands associated with online social networking and/or the benefits of social engagement more generally. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. [Motor skills and safety of patients with bi- or trimalleolar ankle injury : Comparison with healthy, active, age-matched control subjects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loudovici-Krug, Dana; Benkenstein, Monique; Derlien, Steffen; Best, Norman

    2018-06-01

    Do patients with bi- or trimalleolar ankle injury show differences in motor skills and safety in comparison with healthy, active, age-matched control subjects? Prospective controlled cross-sectional study. Inclusion of 17 patients with bi- or trimalleolar ankle injury (mean 1.5 years postsurgery) and 23 healthy, active subjects of comparable age (fitness studio). Measurement instruments: motor test procedures and questionnaires. Comparison of patients and control subjects by routine daily motor function: patients  0.05), fear of falling: patients > controls (p = 0.003) and physical activity: patients motor deficits in activities of daily life between the patients and controls, only tendencies; however, the patients showed definite limitations with an increased fear of falling and a reduced physical activity compared with the healthy control group. The resulting differences should be positively influenced by appropriate enhancement of training or participation in sports courses. The aim is to achieve a similar quality of life by a perception of safety and trust in one's own motor skills.

  2. Mechanistic model of mass-specific basal metabolic rate: evaluation in healthy young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z; Bosy-Westphal, A; Schautz, B; Müller, M

    2011-12-01

    Mass-specific basal metabolic rate (mass-specific BMR), defined as the resting energy expenditure per unit body mass per day, is an important parameter in energy metabolism research. However, a mechanistic explanation for magnitude of mass-specific BMR remains lacking. The objective of the present study was to validate the applicability of a proposed mass-specific BMR model in healthy adults. A mechanistic model was developed at the organ-tissue level, mass-specific BMR = Σ( K i × F i ), where Fi is the fraction of body mass as individual organs and tissues, and K i is the specific resting metabolic rate of major organs and tissues. The Fi values were measured by multiple MRI scans and the K i values were suggested by Elia in 1992. A database of healthy non-elderly non-obese adults (age 20 - 49 yrs, BMI BMR of all subjects was 21.6 ± 1.9 (mean ± SD) and 21.7 ± 1.6 kcal/kg per day, respectively. The measured mass-specific BMR was correlated with the predicted mass-specific BMR (r = 0.82, P BMR, versus the average of measured and predicted mass-specific BMR. In conclusion, the proposed mechanistic model was validated in non-elderly non-obese adults and can help to understand the inherent relationship between mass-specific BMR and body composition.

  3. Renal replacement therapy in healthy adult horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, D M; Witty, D; Alcott, C J; Sponseller, B A; Wang, C; Hepworth, K

    2013-01-01

    Renal replacement therapy (RRT) has been implemented extensively in people to facilitate recovery from acute renal failure (ARF). RRT has not been explored in horses, but might provide a further treatment option in horses with ARF. To investigate efficacy and safety of RRT in horses. Five healthy adult horses. A prospective study was performed on horses restrained in stocks and intravenously connected to a commercial RRT machine to allow continuous venovenous hemodiafiltration to be performed for 6 hours. The RRT machine was set at the following flow rates: blood flow rate 250 mL/min; dialysate rate 3,000 mL/h; prefilter replacement pump 3,000 mL/h; and postfilter replacement pump rate 2,000 mL/h. Balanced electrolyte solution was used as dialysate and replacement fluid. Heart rate, respiratory rate, body temperature, direct arterial blood pressure, urine output, and various clinicopathologic parameters were measured over the study period. Renal replacement therapy was successfully performed in horses, resulting in a mean creatinine clearance of 0.127 mL/kg/min (68.9 mL/min) and urea reduction ratio of 24%. No adverse effects were detected although a significant decrease in rectal temperature was observed (P ≤ .007). A significant increase in serum phosphorus (P ≤ .001) and decrease in BUN (P replacement therapy can safely and effectively be used in adult horses. Copyright © 2013 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  4. Health effects of protein intake in healthy adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Agnes N.; Kondrup, Jens; Børsheim, Elisabet

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this systematic review is to assess the evidence behind the dietary requirement of protein and to assess the health effects of varying protein intake in healthy adults. The literature search covered the years 2000-2011. Prospective cohort, case-control, and intervention studies were......: probable for an estimated average requirement of 0.66 g good-quality protein/kg body weight (BW)/day based on nitrogen balance studies, suggestive for a relationship between increased all-cause mortality risk and long-term low-carbohydrate-high-protein (LCHP) diets; but inconclusive for a relationship...... between all-cause mortality risk and protein intake per se; suggestive for an inverse relationship between cardiovascular mortality and vegetable protein intake; inconclusive for relationships between cancer mortality and cancer diseases, respectively, and protein intake; inconclusive for a relationship...

  5. Aronia juice suppresses the elevation of postprandial blood glucose levels in adult healthy Japanese

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    Takuya Yamane

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Aronia has various functions toward human health, including the beneficial effect on hypertension, hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia. Recently, we identified cyanidin-3,5-O-diglucoside as DPP IV inhibitor from Aronia juice. We also found its beneficial effect on hyperglycemia in KKAy mice fed aronia juice. In this study, to examine the effect of aronia juice on postprandial blood glucose levels in Japanese, we performed an oral meal tolerance test (OMTT. We found that postprandial blood glucose levels were reduced in aronia juice-administered adult healthy Japanese. We also found that there was no difference of reduction levels of postprandial blood glucose between male and female. We also found that activities of dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP IV, α-glucosidase and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE were reduced by aronia juice. These results suggest that aronia juice suppresses the elevation of postprandial blood glucose levels through inhibition of these enzyme activities and may be useful for prevention of metabolic diseases in adult healthy Japanese.

  6. Improving Naming Abilities among Healthy Young-Old Adults Using Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lifshitz-Ben-Basat, Adi; Mashal, Nira

    2018-01-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a noninvasive tool to facilitate brain plasticity and enhance language abilities. Our study aims to search for a potential beneficial influence of tDCS on a cognitive linguistic task of naming which found to decline during aging. A group of fifteen healthy old adults (M = 64.93 ± 5.09 years) were…

  7. Association of Healthy Habits Beliefs and Mortality in Older Adults: A Longitudinal Analysis of the Mexican Health and Aging Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Villa, Julio M; Marquez, David X; Sanchez-Garrido, Natalia; Perez-Zepeda, Mario U; Gonzalez-Lara, Mariana

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this article is to establish the association between beliefs about healthy habits and mortality in a group of Mexican older adults. This is an 11-year follow-up secondary analysis of the Mexican Health and Aging Study. There was a significant difference ( p healthy habits have the potential to improve health compared with those who did not. After adjustment for confounders, Cox regression models showed a hazard ratio (HR) of 0.17 (95% confidence interval [CI] [0.07, 0.38], p healthy habits. Although the mechanism is not completely clear, according to our results, believing that healthy habits can improve health was associated with lower rates of mortality. Further research should elucidate potential strategies for changing beliefs in older adults with the goal of improving their overall health.

  8. Asymmetry of the structural brain connectome in healthy older adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo eBonilha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: It is now possible to map neural connections in vivo across the whole brain (i.e., the brain connectome. This is a promising development in neuroscience since many health and disease processes are believed to arise from the architecture of neural networks.Objective: To describe the normal range of hemispheric asymmetry in structural connectivity in healthy older adults.Methods: We obtained high-resolution structural magnetic resonance images (MRI from 17 healthy older adults. For each subject, the brain connectome was reconstructed by parcelating the probabilistic map of gray matter into anatomically defined regions of interested (ROIs. White matter fiber tractography was reconstructed from diffusion tensor imaging and streamlines connecting gray matter ROIs were computed. Asymmetry indices were calculated regarding ROI connectivity (representing the sum of connectivity weight of each cortical ROI and for regional white matter links. All asymmetry measures were compared to a normal distribution with mean=0 through one sample t-tests.Results: Leftward cortical ROI asymmetry was observed in medial temporal, dorsolateral frontal and occipital regions. Rightward cortical ROI asymmetry was observed in middle temporal and orbito-frontal regions. Link-wise asymmetry revealed stronger connections in the left hemisphere between the medial temporal, anterior and posterior peri-Sylvian and occipito-temporal regions. Rightward link asymmetry was observed in lateral temporal, parietal and dorsolateral frontal connections.Conclusions: We postulate that asymmetry of specific connections may be related to functional hemispheric organization. This study may provide reference for future studies evaluating the architecture of the connectome in health and disease processes in senior individuals.

  9. Healthy food trends -- flaxseeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... seeds; Healthy food trends - linseeds; Healthy snacks - flaxseeds; Healthy diet - flaxseeds; Wellness - flaxseeds ... of nutrition and dietetics: dietary fatty acids for healthy adults. J Acad Nutr Diet . 2014;114(1):136-153. PMID: 24342605 www. ...

  10. Kinematic Mechanisms of How Power Training Improves Healthy Old Adults' Gait Velocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beijersbergen, Chantal M I; Granacher, Urs; Gäbler, Martijn; Devita, Paul; Hortobágyi, Tibor

    2017-01-01

    Slow gait predicts many adverse clinical outcomes in old adults, but the mechanisms of how power training can minimize the age-related loss of gait velocity is unclear. We examined the effects of 10 wk of lower extremity power training and detraining on healthy old adults' lower extremity muscle power and gait kinematics. As part of the Potsdam Gait Study, participants started with 10 wk of power training followed by 10 wk of detraining (n = 16), and participants started with a 10-wk control period followed by 10 wk of power training (n = 16). We measured gait kinematics (stride characteristic and joint kinematics) and isokinetic power of the ankle plantarflexor (20°·s, 40°·s, and 60°·s) and knee extensor and flexor (60°·s, 120°·s, and 180°·s) muscles at weeks 0, 10, and 20. Power training improved isokinetic muscle power by ~30% (P ≤ 0.001) and fast (5.9%, P kinematics did not correlate with increases in fast gait velocity. The mechanisms that increased fast gait velocity involved higher cadence (r = 0.86, P ≤ 0.001) rather than longer strides (r = 0.49, P = 0.066). Detraining did not reverse the training-induced increases in muscle power and fast gait velocity. Because increases in muscle power and modifications in joint kinematics did not correlate with increases in fast gait velocity, kinematic mechanisms seem to play a minor role in improving healthy old adults' fast gait velocity after power training.

  11. Faecal microbiota of healthy adults in south India: Comparison of a tribal & a rural population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadass, Balamurugan; Rani, B Sandya; Pugazhendhi, Srinivasan; John, K R; Ramakrishna, Balakrishnan S

    2017-02-01

    The relevance of the gut microbiota to human health is increasingly appreciated. The objective of this study was to compare the gut microbiota of a group of adult tribals with that of healthy adult villagers in Tamil Nadu, India. Faeces were collected from 10 healthy tribal adults (TAs) in the Jawadhi hills and from 10 healthy villagers [rural adults (RAs)] in Vellore district, Tamil Nadu. DNA was extracted, and 456 bp segments comprising hypervariable regions 3 and 4 of the 16S rRNA gene were amplified, barcoded and 454 sequenced. Totally 227,710 good-quality reads were analyzed. TAs consumed a millets-based diet, ate pork every day, and did not consume milk or milk products. RAs consumed a rice-based diet with meat intake once a week. In both groups, Firmicutes was the most abundant phylum, followed by Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria. The median Firmicutes-to-Bacteroidetes ratio was 34.0 in TA and 92.9 in RA groups. Actinobacteria were significantly low in TA, possibly due to non-consumption of milk. Clostridium constituted the most abundant genus in both groups, but was significantly more abundant in TAs than RAs, while Streptococcus was significantly more abundant in RA (P<0.05). Analyses of genetic distance revealed that the microbiota were distinctly different between TA and RA, and principal component analysis using 550 distinct taxonomically identifiable sequences revealed a clear separation of microbiota composition in the two groups. Phylogenetic analysis of major microbiota indicated clustering of microbial groups at different major branch points for TAs and RAs. Phylum Firmicutes and genus Clostridium constituted the bulk of the faecal microbiota, while significant differences in composition between the groups were probably due to differences in diet and lifestyle.

  12. 3D strength surfaces for ankle plantar- and dorsi-flexion in healthy adults: an isometric and isokinetic dynamometry study

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    Sara J. Hussain

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ankle is an important component of the human kinetic chain, and deficits in ankle strength can negatively impact functional tasks such as balance and gait. While peak torque is influenced by joint angle and movement velocity, ankle strength is typically reported for a single angle or movement speed. To better identify deficits and track recovery of ankle strength after injury or surgical intervention, ankle strength across a range of movement velocities and joint angles in healthy adults is needed. Thus, the primary goals of this study were to generate a database of strength values and 3-dimensional strength surface models for plantarflexion (PF and dorsiflexion (DF ankle strength in healthy men and women. Secondary goals were to develop a means to estimate ankle strength percentiles as well as examine predictors of maximal ankle strength in healthy adults. Methods Using an isokinetic dynamometer, we tested PF and DF peak torques at five joint angles (−10° [DF], 0° [neutral], 10° [PF], 20° [PF] and 30° [PF] and six velocities (0°/s, 30°/s, 60°/s, 90°/s, 120°/s and 180°/s in 53 healthy adults. These data were used to generate 3D plots, or “strength surfaces”, for males and females for each direction; surfaces were fit using a logistic equation. We also tested predictors of ankle strength, including height, weight, sex, and self-reported physical activity levels. Results Torque-velocity and torque-angle relationships at the ankle interact, indicating that these relationships are interdependent and best modeled using 3D surfaces. Sex was the strongest predictor of ankle strength over height, weight, and self-reported physical activity levels. 79 to 97 % of the variance in mean peak torque was explained by joint angle and movement velocity using logistic equations, for men and women and PF and DF directions separately. Conclusions The 3D strength data and surface models provide a more comprehensive dataset

  13. 3D strength surfaces for ankle plantar- and dorsi-flexion in healthy adults: an isometric and isokinetic dynamometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Sara J; Frey-Law, Laura

    2016-01-01

    The ankle is an important component of the human kinetic chain, and deficits in ankle strength can negatively impact functional tasks such as balance and gait. While peak torque is influenced by joint angle and movement velocity, ankle strength is typically reported for a single angle or movement speed. To better identify deficits and track recovery of ankle strength after injury or surgical intervention, ankle strength across a range of movement velocities and joint angles in healthy adults is needed. Thus, the primary goals of this study were to generate a database of strength values and 3-dimensional strength surface models for plantarflexion (PF) and dorsiflexion (DF) ankle strength in healthy men and women. Secondary goals were to develop a means to estimate ankle strength percentiles as well as examine predictors of maximal ankle strength in healthy adults. Using an isokinetic dynamometer, we tested PF and DF peak torques at five joint angles (-10° [DF], 0° [neutral], 10° [PF], 20° [PF] and 30° [PF]) and six velocities (0°/s, 30°/s, 60°/s, 90°/s, 120°/s and 180°/s) in 53 healthy adults. These data were used to generate 3D plots, or "strength surfaces", for males and females for each direction; surfaces were fit using a logistic equation. We also tested predictors of ankle strength, including height, weight, sex, and self-reported physical activity levels. Torque-velocity and torque-angle relationships at the ankle interact, indicating that these relationships are interdependent and best modeled using 3D surfaces. Sex was the strongest predictor of ankle strength over height, weight, and self-reported physical activity levels. 79 to 97 % of the variance in mean peak torque was explained by joint angle and movement velocity using logistic equations, for men and women and PF and DF directions separately. The 3D strength data and surface models provide a more comprehensive dataset of ankle strength in healthy adults than previously reported. These

  14. Role of C-peptide in Altered Lipid Profile among Apparently Healthy Adults of Vijayapura City, Karnataka

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    Chandrahas M.Kulkarni

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: C-peptide is produced in equimolar concentration during insulin production as inactive molecule by beta islet cells of Langerhans. C-peptide is most useful biomarker of endogenous insulin production. Aim and Objectives: To predict metabolic syndrome in advance by estimation of C-peptide and lipid profile in healthy adults. Material and Methods: Serum C-peptide, fasting blood glucose and lipid profile of 128 healthy individuals were estimated. Adults in the age group of 18 to 60 years of both sexes were included in study. Results: C-peptide levels were increased in 27%, Serum cholesterol in 30%, LDL Cholesterol in 55% and triglyceride levels in 21% of healthy individuals. Significant correlation was observed between C peptide, age, serum cholesterol, LDL and cholesterol LDL ratio in male subjects only. In our study group most of the subjects (both males and females fell in overweight group. Conclusion: Cpeptide level and lipid profile may be considered as useful biomarkers to predict type 2 diabetes mellitus in advance, possibly due to insulin resistance.

  15. Risk factors for fatality among confirmed adult dengue inpatients in Singapore: a matched case-control study.

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    Tun-Linn Thein

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To identify demographic, clinical and laboratory risk factors for death due to dengue fever in adult patients in Singapore. METHODS: Multi-center retrospective study of hospitalized adult patients with confirmed dengue fever in Singapore between 1 January 2004 and 31 December 2008. Non-fatal controls were selected by matching age and year of infection with fatal cases. World Health Organization 1997, 2009 criteria were applied to define dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF, warning signs and severe dengue. Statistical significance was assessed by conditional logistic regression modeling. RESULTS: Significantly more fatal cases than matched controls had pre-existing co-morbid conditions, and presented with abdominal pain/tenderness. Median pulse rates were significantly higher while myalgia was significantly less frequent in cases. . Fatal cases also had higher leucocyte counts, platelet counts, serum sodium, potassium, urea, creatine and bilirubin levels on admission compared to controls. There was no statistical significant difference between the prevalence of DHF and hematocrit level among cases and controls. Multivariate analysis showed myalgia and leucocyte count at presentation were independent predictors of fatality (adjusted odds ratios 0.09 and 2.94 respectively. None of the controls was admitted to intensive care unit (ICU or given blood transfusion, while 71.4% and 28.6% of fatal cases received ICU admission and blood transfusion. CONCLUSIONS: Absence of myalgia and leucocytosis on admission were independently associated with fatality in our matched case-control study. Fatalities were also commonly associated with co-morbidities and clinicians should be alarmed if dengue patients fulfilled severe dengue case definition on admission.

  16. COMPONENTS OF THE HEALTHY EATING INDEX IN NUTRITION OF ADULT FEMALES

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    Katarína Fatrcová-Šramková

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available To assess and monitor the nutriton and dietary status, the U.S. Department of Agriculture developed the Healthy Eating Index - HEI. The index consists of 10 components, each representing different aspects of a healthful diet. The aim of the study was to evaluate the nutrition in adult females and to analyze the actual nutrition according to selected four components (no. 6-9 of the Healthy Eating Index. Components 6 and 7 measure total fat and saturated fat consumption, respectively, as a percentage of total food intake (maximal 30 % and 10 % of total energy daily content respectively; in case of 31,3 % and 58,62 % females respectively. Components 8 and 9 measure total cholesterol (daily maximal 300 mg in case of 69,54 % participants and sodium intake (maximal 2400 mg a day in case of 22,99 % probands. doi:10.5219/106

  17. A study of several normal values of Korean healthy adults on chest roentgenograms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhee, Byung Chull [Choong Nam University College of Medicine, Taejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    1975-06-15

    Determination of several normal values were carried out healthy 1805 cases of Korean adults, 1436 cases of male and 369 cases of female, by the drawing and calculation on chest roentgenograms. In many instances, the change of normal values provides an important clinical values, and often is decisive to evaluate the diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of pulmonary, cardiac and mediastinal disease.

  18. Age differences in striatal delay sensitivity during intertemporal choice in healthy adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory R Samanez-Larkin

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Intertemporal choices are a ubiquitous class of decisions that involve selecting between outcomes available at different times in the future. We investigated the neural systems supporting intertemporal decisions in healthy younger and older adults. Using functional neuroimaging, we find that aging is associated with a shift in the brain areas that respond to delayed rewards. Although we replicate findings that brain regions associated with the mesolimbic dopamine system respond preferentially to immediate rewards, we find a separate region in the ventral striatum with very modest time dependence in older adults. Activation in this striatal region was relatively insensitive to delay in older but not younger adults. Since the dopamine system is believed to support associative learning about future rewards over time, our observed transfer of function may be due to greater experience with delayed rewards as people age. Identifying differences in the neural systems underlying these decisions may contribute to a more comprehensive model of age-related change in intertemporal choice.

  19. Effect of somatosensory and neurofeedback training on balance in older healthy adults: a preliminary investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azarpaikan, Atefeh; Taheri Torbati, Hamidreza

    2017-10-23

    The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of balance training with somatosensory and neurofeedback training on dynamic and static balance in healthy, elderly adults. The sample group consisted of 45 healthy adults randomly assigned to one of the three test groups: somatosensory, neurofeedback, and a control. Individualization of the balance program started with pre-tests for static and dynamic balances. Each group had 15- and 30-min training sessions. All groups were tested for static (postural stability) and dynamic balances (Berg Balance Scale) in acquisition and transfer tests (fall risk of stability and timed up and go). Improvements in static and dynamic balances were assessed by somatosensory and neurofeedback groups and then compared with the control group. Results indicated significant improvements in static and dynamic balances in both test groups in the acquisition test. Results revealed a significant improvement in the transfer test in the neurofeedback and somatosensory groups, in static and dynamic conditions, respectively. The findings suggest that these methods of balance training had a significant influence on balance. Both the methods are appropriate to prevent falling in adults. Neurofeedback training helped the participants to learn static balance, while somatosensory training was effective on dynamic balance learning. Further research is needed to assess the effects of longer and discontinuous stimulation with somatosensory and neurofeedback training on balance in elderly adults.

  20. Identifying effective healthy weight and lifestyle advertisements: Focus groups with Australian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Helen; Murphy, Michael; Scully, Maree; Rose, Mischa; Cotter, Trish

    2016-08-01

    This study explored adult's attitudes and reactions to a range of television advertisements (ads) promoting healthy weight, physical activity and healthy eating. Twenty-four focus groups (N = 179) were conducted in metropolitan and regional areas of the Australian states of Victoria, New South Wales (NSW) and Queensland, with participants segmented by sex, education (no tertiary, at least some tertiary) and life stage (young adults, parents). Each group was assigned to one of the three advertising streams - Weight, Activity, or Nutrition - where responses to five different ads were explored using semi-structured, moderator-led discussions. Discussion transcripts were qualitatively content analysed using a conventional approach. Four main themes were identified in participants' discussions about the ads' main messages - (i) Why is it a problem? (ii) Who is it a problem for? (iii) What should I do about it? (iv) How do I make the changes? Reactions varied by demographic factors and current weight and lifestyle status. Participants furthest from achieving public health recommendations for weight, diet and activity were motivated by 'what' and 'how' ads involving gentle persuasion and helpful hints. Participants who were closer to meeting these recommendations were motivated by 'why' ads featuring more graphic and emotive content and new information. Findings suggest a strategic approach is important for the development of public health ads promoting healthy weight and lifestyle, with consideration given to the specific communication goals and who the target audience is. This should help ensure an appropriate message is delivered to priority population subgroups in the most informative and motivating manner. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Flavonoid-rich dark chocolate improves endothelial function and increases plasma epicatechin concentrations in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engler, Mary B; Engler, Marguerite M; Chen, Chung Y; Malloy, Mary J; Browne, Amanda; Chiu, Elisa Y; Kwak, Ho-Kyung; Milbury, Paul; Paul, Steven M; Blumberg, Jeffrey; Mietus-Snyder, Michele L

    2004-06-01

    Dark chocolate derived from the plant (Theobroma cacao) is a rich source of flavonoids. Cardioprotective effects including antioxidant properties, inhibition of platelet activity, and activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase have been ascribed to the cocoa flavonoids. To investigate the effects of flavonoid-rich dark chocolate on endothelial function, measures of oxidative stress, blood lipids, and blood pressure in healthy adult subjects. The study was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled design conducted over a 2 week period in 21 healthy adult subjects. Subjects were randomly assigned to daily intake of high-flavonoid (213 mg procyanidins, 46 mg epicatechin) or low-flavonoid dark chocolate bars (46 g, 1.6 oz). High-flavonoid chocolate consumption improved endothelium-dependent flow-mediated dilation (FMD) of the brachial artery (mean change = 1.3 +/- 0.7%) as compared to low-flavonoid chocolate consumption (mean change = -0.96 +/- 0.5%) (p = 0.024). No significant differences were noted in the resistance to LDL oxidation, total antioxidant capacity, 8-isoprostanes, blood pressure, lipid parameters, body weight or body mass index (BMI) between the two groups. Plasma epicatechin concentrations were markedly increased at 2 weeks in the high-flavonoid group (204.4 +/- 18.5 nmol/L, p < or = 0.001) but not in the low-flavonoid group (17.5 +/- 9 nmol/L, p = 0.99). Flavonoid-rich dark chocolate improves endothelial function and is associated with an increase in plasma epicatechin concentrations in healthy adults. No changes in oxidative stress measures, lipid profiles, blood pressure, body weight or BMI were seen.

  2. Executive functioning in older adults with hoarding disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayers, Catherine R; Wetherell, Julie Loebach; Schiehser, Dawn; Almklov, Erin; Golshan, Shahrokh; Saxena, Sanjaya

    2013-11-01

    Hoarding disorder (HD) is a chronic and debilitating psychiatric condition. Midlife HD patients have been found to have neurocognitive impairment, particularly in areas of executive functioning, but the extent to which this is due to comorbid psychiatric disorders has not been clear. The purpose of the present investigation was to examine executive functioning in geriatric HD patients without any comorbid Axis I disorders (n = 42) compared with a healthy older adult comparison group (n = 25). We hypothesized that older adults with HD would perform significantly worse on measures of executive functioning (Wisconsin Card Sort Task [Psychological Assessment Resources, Lutz, Florida, USA] ( Psychological Assessment Resources, 2003) and the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-IV digit span and letter-number sequencing tests [Pearson, San Antonio, TX, USA]). Older adults with HD showed significant differences from healthy older controls in multiple aspects of executive functioning. Compared with healthy controls, older adults with HD committed significantly more total, non-perseverative errors and conceptual level responses on the Wisconsin Card Sort Task and had significantly worse performance on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-IV digit span and letter-number sequencing tests. Hoarding symptom severity was strongly correlated with executive dysfunction in the HD group. Compared with demographically-matched controls, older adults with HD have dysfunction in several domains of executive functioning including mental control, working memory, inhibition, and set shifting. Executive dysfunction is strongly correlated with hoarding severity and is not because of comorbid psychiatric disorders in HD patients. These results have broad clinical implications suggesting that executive functioning should be assessed and taken into consideration when developing intervention strategies for older adults with HD. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. 5' Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends and Illumina MiSeq Reveals B Cell Receptor Features in Healthy Adults, Adults With Chronic HIV-1 Infection, Cord Blood, and Humanized Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waltari, Eric; Jia, Manxue; Jiang, Caroline S; Lu, Hong; Huang, Jing; Fernandez, Cristina; Finzi, Andrés; Kaufmann, Daniel E; Markowitz, Martin; Tsuji, Moriya; Wu, Xueling

    2018-01-01

    Using 5' rapid amplification of cDNA ends, Illumina MiSeq, and basic flow cytometry, we systematically analyzed the expressed B cell receptor (BCR) repertoire in 14 healthy adult PBMCs, 5 HIV-1+ adult PBMCs, 5 cord blood samples, and 3 HIS-CD4/B mice, examining the full-length variable region of μ, γ, α, κ, and λ chains for V-gene usage, somatic hypermutation (SHM), and CDR3 length. Adding to the known repertoire of healthy adults, Illumina MiSeq consistently detected small fractions of reads with high mutation frequencies including hypermutated μ reads, and reads with long CDR3s. Additionally, the less studied IgA repertoire displayed similar characteristics to that of IgG. Compared to healthy adults, the five HIV-1 chronically infected adults displayed elevated mutation frequencies for all μ, γ, α, κ, and λ chains examined and slightly longer CDR3 lengths for γ, α, and λ. To evaluate the reconstituted human BCR sequences in a humanized mouse model, we analyzed cord blood and HIS-CD4/B mice, which all lacked the typical SHM seen in the adult reference. Furthermore, MiSeq revealed identical unmutated IgM sequences derived from separate cell aliquots, thus for the first time demonstrating rare clonal members of unmutated IgM B cells by sequencing.

  4. Smoking and diet in healthy adults: a cross-sectional study in tehran, iran, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heydari, Gholamreza; Heidari, Farrokh; Yousefifard, Mahmoud; Hosseini, Mostafa

    2014-04-01

    Smoking and unhealthy diet are two major risk factors for non-communicable diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible association between these two risk factors amongst healthy adults 30-60 years old in Tehran, Iran. Overall, 2602 healthy adults 30 to 60 years old in Tehran were studied. The demographic characteristics, anthropometric and smoking status of the participants were questioned. The frequency of consumption of red meat, white meat, fruits and vegetables, dairy products, bread and cereals and fast food were questioned to be daily, weekly, monthly, once every 6 months or yearly and categorized as "healthy" or "unhealthy". Of the 2602 participants, 974 (37.4%) had smoked more than 100 cigarettes in their life time and continued daily or smoked occasionally. Smokers significantly consumed more fast food and white meat but less fruit and vegetables and dairy product (Pdiet. A positive association between cigarette smoking and unhealthy diet (OR=1.68; 95% CI: 1.40-2.03) were found. After adjusting the analysis for the effect of age, education and gender, the odds ratio of consuming unhealthy diet for the smoker increased to 1.83 (1.50, 2.25) compared with non-smoker. Our study found a noticeable association between cigarette smoking and unhealthy diet. Smoking cessation and changing diet program for smokers is recommended.

  5. Perception of the older adults regarding the practise of physical activity and healthy eating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo de Rosso Krug

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To understand the perception of regular physical activity and healthy eating among the older adults. Methods: This descriptive study (qualitative approach included 36 older adults (69 to 91 years residents in a rural community in southern Brazil. A semi-structured interview was used and the information were recorded, transcribed and interpreted (content analysis technique. Results: The following categories of analysis were identified: a facilitators and barriers for the practising PA, b benefits of regular PA, and c healthy eating habits-consumption of food (beneficial and harmful for health. Facilitating factors were related to social interaction, motivation, willpower, practise enjoying, having company, and being encouraged. Barriers perceived were diseases, physical limitations, pain, lack of willingness and age. The PA benefits were wellbeing, pain reduction, increased willingness, treatment and disease prevention. Fruits, vegetables, vitamin D, calcium, and water were cited as important to health. The consumption of foods rich in fat and sugars was associated with the occurrence of diseases. Conclusion: Personal aspects, of coexistence and motivation, are factors cited as facilitators for the practise of physical activities, while the barriers are related to health, unwillingness, and age. Health promotion strategies may be multidisciplinary and should consider personal aspects, of coexistence, motivation and health. Strategies should focus on the benefits of regular PA and healthy eating.

  6. Nutrition and Healthy Eating: Caffeine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Nutrition and healthy eating By Mayo Clinic Staff If you're like most adults, caffeine is a part of ... US adults: 2001-2010. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2015;101:1081. 2015-2020 Dietary Guidelines for ...

  7. Cognitive profile and mental health in adult phenylketonuria: A PKU-COBESO study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahja, Rianne; Huijbregts, Stephan C J; de Sonneville, Leo M J; van der Meere, Jaap J; Legemaat, Amanda M; Bosch, Annet M; Hollak, Carla E M; Rubio-Gozalbo, M Estela; Brouwers, Martijn C G J; Hofstede, Floris C; de Vries, Maaike C; Janssen, Mirian C H; van der Ploeg, Ans T; Langendonk, Janneke G; van Spronsen, Francjan J

    2017-05-01

    Despite early dietary treatment phenylketonuria patients have lower IQ and poorer executive functions compared to healthy controls. Cognitive problems in phenylketonuria have often been associated with phenylalanine levels. The present study examined the cognitive profile and mental health in adult phenylketonuria, in relation to phenylalanine levels and tetrahydrobiopterin treatment. Fifty-seven early treated adult patients with phenylketonuria and 57 healthy matched controls (18-40 years) performed IQ subtests and executive function tests from the Amsterdam Neuropsychological Tasks. They also completed the Adult Self-Report on mental health problems. Analyses of variance were performed to examine group differences. Patients with phenylketonuria had normal IQs although lower than controls. They performed poorer on working memory, inhibitory control, and sustained attention tasks. Patients reported Depressive and Avoidant Personality problems more frequently. Specifically, patients with childhood and lifetime phenylalanine ≥360 μmol/L had poorer cognitive and mental health outcomes than controls. In a subset of patients, comparisons between patients on and off tetrahydrobiopterin showed that nontetrahydrobiopterin users (matched for childhood, pretreatment phenylalanine) were slower (on number of tasks) and reported more mental health problems. Adult patients had lower IQ and poorer executive functions than controls, resembling problems observed in younger patients with phenylketonuria, as well as more internalizing problems. Group differences and phenylalanine-outcome associations were smaller than those observed in younger populations. A subset of nontetrahydrobiopterin users, matched for childhood phenylalanine level, had a poorer outcome on some tests than tetrahydrobiopterin users, which might indicate an impact of tetrahydrobiopterin treatment beyond lowering phenylalanine. However, clinical relevance needs further investigation. (PsycINFO Database Record

  8. Variations in eyeball diameters of the healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekerman, Inessa; Gottlieb, Paul; Vaiman, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the current research was to reevaluate the normative data on the eyeball diameters. Methods. In a prospective cohort study, the CT data of consecutive 250 adults with healthy eyes were collected and analyzed, and sagittal, transverse, and axial diameters of both eyeballs were measured. The data obtained from the left eye and from the right eye were compared. The correlation analysis was performed with the following variables: orbit size, gender, age, and ethnic background. Results. We did not find statistically significant differences correlated with gender of the patients and their age. The right eyeball was slightly smaller than the left one but this difference was statistically insignificant (P = 0.17). We did not find statistically significant differences of the eyeball sizes among the ethnicities we dealt with. Strong correlation was found between the transverse diameter and the width of the orbit (r = 0.88). Conclusion. The size of a human adult eye is approximately 24.2 mm (transverse) × 23.7 mm (sagittal) × 22.0-24.8 mm (axial) with no significant difference between sexes and age groups. In the transverse diameter, the eyeball size may vary from 21 mm to 27 mm. These data might be useful in ophthalmological, oculoplastic, and neurological practice.

  9. fMRI Evidence for Dorsal Stream Processing Abnormality in Adults Born Preterm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaminade, Thierry; Leutcher, Russia Ha-Vinh; Millet, Veronique; Deruelle, Christine

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the consequences of premature birth on the functional neuroanatomy of the dorsal stream of visual processing. fMRI was recorded while sixteen healthy participants, 8 (two men) adults (19 years 6 months old, SD 10 months) born premature (mean gestational age 30 weeks), referred to as Premas, and 8 (two men) matched controls (20…

  10. Submaximal oxygen uptake kinetics, functional mobility, and physical activity in older adults with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction

    OpenAIRE

    Hummel, Scott L; Herald, John; Alpert, Craig; Gretebeck, Kimberlee A; Champoux, Wendy S; Dengel, Donald R; Vaitkevicius, Peter V; Alexander, Neil B

    2016-01-01

    Background Submaximal oxygen uptake measures are more feasible and may better predict clinical cardiac outcomes than maximal tests in older adults with heart failure (HF). We examined relationships between maximal oxygen uptake, submaximal oxygen kinetics, functional mobility, and physical activity in older adults with HF and reduced ejection fraction. Methods Older adults with HF and reduced ejection fraction (n = 25, age 75 ? 7 years) were compared to 25 healthy age- and gender-matched cont...

  11. Ugly bugs in healthy guts! Carriage of multidrug-resistant and ESBL-producing commensal Enterobacteriaceae in the intestine of healthy Nepalese adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maharjan A

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Anjila Maharjan,1 Anjeela Bhetwal,1 Shreena Shakya,1 Deepa Satyal,1 Shashikala Shah,1 Govardhan Joshi,1,2 Puspa Raj Khanal,1 Narayan Prasad Parajuli1,3 1Department of Laboratory Medicine, Manmohan Memorial Institute of Health Sciences, Kathmandu, Nepal; 2Kathmandu Center for Genomics and Research Laboratory (KCGRL, Kathmandu, Nepal; 3Department of Clinical Laboratory Services, Manmohan Memorial Medical College and Teaching Hospital, Kathmandu, Nepal Background: Fecal carriage of multidrug-resistant and extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae is one of the important risk factors for infection with antibiotic-resistant bacteria. In this report, we examined the prevalence of multidrug-resistant and ESBL-producing common enterobacterial strains colonizing the intestinal tract of apparently healthy adults in Kathmandu, Nepal.Methods: During a 6-month period (February–July 2016, a total of 510 stool specimens were obtained from apparently healthy students of Manmohan Memorial Institute of Health Sciences, Kathmandu, Nepal. Stool specimens were cultured, and the most common enterobacterial isolates (Escherichia coli and Klebsiella species were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility tests according to the standard microbiologic guidelines. Multidrug-resistant isolates were selected for ESBL confirmation by combined disk test and E-test methods. Molecular characterization of plasmid-borne ESBL genes was performed by using specific primers of cefotaximase Munich (CTX-M, sulfhydryl variant (SHV, and temoniera (TEM by polymerase chain reaction.Results: Among 510 bacterial strains, E. coli (432, 84.71% was the predominant organism followed by Klebsiella oxytoca (48, 9.41% and K. pneumoniae (30, 5.88%. ESBLs were isolated in 9.8% of the total isolates including K. oxytoca (29.17%, E. coli (7.87%, and K. pneumoniae (6.67%. Among ESBLs, bla-TEM was the predominant type (92% followed by bla-CTX-M (60% and bla-SHV (4%.Conclusion

  12. Multimodal imaging of small hard retinal drusen in young healthy adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Hilde R; Gilson, Stuart J; Dubra, Alfredo

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Small hard macular drusen can be observed in the retina of adults as young as 18 years of age. Here, we seek to describe the in vivo topography and geometry of these drusen. METHODS: Retinal images were acquired in young, healthy adults using colour fundus photography, spectral domain...... the foveal centre were characterised. RESULTS: Small hard drusen were seen on colour photographs in 21 out of 97 participants and 26 drusen in 12 eyes in 11 participants were imaged using the full protocol. Drusen were easily identifiable in all modalities, except a few very small ones, which were...... not visible on SD-OCT. On AOSLO images, these drusen appeared as round, oval or lobular areas (up to three lobules) of diameter 22-61 µm where cone photoreceptor reflectivity and density was decreased (p=0.049). This was usually associated with discrete thickening of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE...

  13. Do Aging and Tactile Noise Stimulation Affect Responses to Support Surface Translations in Healthy Adults?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Dettmer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Appropriate neuromuscular responses to support surface perturbations are crucial to prevent falls, but aging-related anatomical and physiological changes affect the appropriateness and efficiency of such responses. Low-level noise application to sensory receptors has shown to be effective for postural improvement in a variety of different balance tasks, but it is unknown whether this intervention may have value for improvement of corrective postural responses. Ten healthy younger and ten healthy older adults were exposed to sudden backward translations of the support surface. Low-level noise (mechanical vibration to the foot soles was added during random trials and temporal (response latency and spatial characteristics (maximum center-of-pressure excursion and anterior-posterior path length of postural responses were assessed. Mixed-model ANOVA was applied for analysis of postural response differences based on age and vibration condition. Age affected postural response characteristics, but older adults were well able to maintain balance when exposed to a postural perturbation. Low-level noise application did not affect any postural outcomes. Healthy aging affects some specific measures of postural stability, and in high-functioning older individuals, a low-level noise intervention may not be valuable. More research is needed to investigate if recurring fallers and neuropathy patients could benefit from the intervention in postural perturbation tasks.

  14. Low educational level effects on the performance of healthy adults on a Neuropsychological Protocol suggested by the Commission on Neuropsychology of the Liga Brasileira de Epilepsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erich Belzunces dos Santos

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess cognitive measures and impact of education on cognitive performance (CP of low educational levels healthy adults (LELHA on a Neuropsychological Protocol (NP suggested by the Liga Brasileira de Epilepsia. METHOD: 138 subjects from an Education Program for Adults divided into two, age and gender matched groups of 69 subjects, answered the NP: Group 1 (mean of 6.9±2.95 months of formal education and Group 2, 47.8±10 months. Data were compared as z-scores. RESULTS: The mean IQ was 77.1±5.50 and 79.4±3.30 in Groups 1 and 2, respectively (p=0.001. Both performed below the normal curve and Group 1 worse than 2. CP correlated with schooling, especially executive functions (54.1% vs 36.2% and language (52.9% vs 25.7%. CONCLUSION: LELHA showed significant cognitive impairment in verbal and visuospatial areas. If these results had been obtained in epilepsy patients they would be interpreted as global cognitive impairment.

  15. Individual differences in error monitoring in healthy adults: psychological symptoms and antisocial personality characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Wen-Pin; Davies, Patricia L; Gavin, William J

    2010-10-01

    Recent studies have investigated the relationship between psychological symptoms and personality traits and error monitoring measured by error-related negativity (ERN) and error positivity (Pe) event-related potential (ERP) components, yet there remains a paucity of studies examining the collective simultaneous effects of psychological symptoms and personality traits on error monitoring. This present study, therefore, examined whether measures of hyperactivity-impulsivity, depression, anxiety and antisocial personality characteristics could collectively account for significant interindividual variability of both ERN and Pe amplitudes, in 29 healthy adults with no known disorders, ages 18-30 years. The bivariate zero-order correlation analyses found that only the anxiety measure was significantly related to both ERN and Pe amplitudes. However, multiple regression analyses that included all four characteristic measures while controlling for number of segments in the ERP average revealed that both depression and antisocial personality characteristics were significant predictors for the ERN amplitudes whereas antisocial personality was the only significant predictor for the Pe amplitude. These findings suggest that psychological symptoms and personality traits are associated with individual variations in error monitoring in healthy adults, and future studies should consider these variables when comparing group difference in error monitoring between adults with and without disabilities. © 2010 The Authors. European Journal of Neuroscience © 2010 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. Skin-infiltrating, interleukin-22-producing T cells differentiate pediatric psoriasis from adult psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordoro, Kelly M; Hitraya-Low, Maria; Taravati, Keyon; Sandoval, Priscila Munoz; Kim, Esther; Sugarman, Jeffrey; Pauli, Mariela L; Liao, Wilson; Rosenblum, Michael D

    2017-09-01

    Evidence from adult psoriasis studies implicates an imbalance between regulatory and effector T cells, particularly T H -17-producing T cells, in the pathogenesis of psoriasis. Little is known about the immunopathology of psoriasis in children. We sought to functionally characterize the inflammatory cell profiles of psoriatic plaques from pediatric patients and compare them with healthy, age-matched controls and adult psoriasis patients. Skin samples from pediatric psoriasis patients and healthy controls were analyzed by multiparameter flow cytometry to determine the dominant immune cell subsets present and cytokines produced. Lesional tissue from pediatric psoriasis patients had significantly increased interleukin (IL) 22 derived from CD4 + and CD8 + cells compared with the tissues from healthy pediatric controls and adult psoriasis patients. Tissue from pediatric psoriasis patients had significantly less elevation of IL-17 derived from CD4 + and CD8 + cells compared with the tissue from adult psoriasis patients. In contrast with the lesions from adult patients, lesional skin in pediatric patients with psoriasis did not have increases in regulatory T cells. This is a pilot study, thus the sample size is small. Significant differences in IL-17 and IL-22 expression were observed in the pediatric psoriasis patients compared with pediatric healthy controls and adult psoriasis patients. IL-22 might be relevant in the pathogenesis of pediatric psoriasis and represents a potential treatment target unique to pediatric psoriasis. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Mental toughness, sleep disturbances, and physical activity in patients with multiple sclerosis compared to healthy adolescents and young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadeghi Bahmani D

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Dena Sadeghi Bahmani,1 Markus Gerber,2 Nadeem Kalak,1 Sakari Lemola,3 Peter J Clough,4 Pasquale Calabrese,5 Vahid Shaygannejad,6 Uwe Pühse,2 Edith Holsboer-Trachsler,1 Serge Brand1,2 1Psychiatric Clinics of the University of Basel, Center for Affective, Stress and Sleep Disorders, 2Department of Sport, Exercise and Health, Sport Science Section, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland; 3Department of Psychology, University of Warwick, Coventry, 4Department of Psychology, Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester, UK; 5Division of Molecular and Cognitive Neuroscience, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland; 6Department of Neurology and Isfahan Neurosciences Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS is the most common chronic autoimmune demyelinating and inflammatory disease of the central nervous system, afflicting both the body and mind. The risk of suffering from MS is 2.5–3.5 times greater in females than in males. While there is extant research on fatigue, depression, and cognitive impairment in patients with MS during its clinical course, there is a lack of research focusing on sleep, psychological functioning, and physical activity (PA at the point of disease onset. The aims of the present study were therefore, to assess the markers of mental toughness (MT as a dimension of psychological functioning, sleep disturbances (SD, and PA among patients at the moment of disease onset and to compare these with the corresponding values for healthy adolescents and young adults. Methods: A total of 23 patients with MS at disease onset (mean age =32.31 years; 91% females, 23 healthy adolescents (mean age =17.43 years; 82% females, and 25 healthy young adults (mean age =20.72 years; 80% females took part in the study. They completed questionnaires covering sociodemographic data, MT, SD, and PA. Results: Patients with MS had similar scores for MT traits as those in healthy

  18. Diabetes risk among overweight and obese metabolically healthy young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twig, Gilad; Afek, Arnon; Derazne, Estela; Tzur, Dorit; Cukierman-Yaffe, Tali; Gerstein, Hertzel C; Tirosh, Amir

    2014-11-01

    To determine diabetes incidence over time among obese young adults without metabolic risk factors. Incident diabetes during a median follow-up of 6.1 years was assessed among 33,939 young men (mean age 30.9 ± 5.2 years) of the Metabolic, Lifestyle and Nutrition Assessment in Young Adults cohort who were stratified for BMI and the number of metabolic abnormalities (based on the Adult Treatment Panel-III). Metabolically healthy (MH) obesity was defined as BMI ≥30 kg/m2 in the presence of normoglycemia, normal blood pressure, and normal levels of fasting triglyceride and HDL-cholesterol levels (n = 631). A total of 734 new cases of diabetes were diagnosed during 210,282 person-years of follow-up. The incidence rate of diabetes among participants with no metabolic risk factors was 1.15, 2.10, and 4.34 cases per 1,000 person-years among lean, overweight, and obese participants, respectively. In a multivariable model adjusted for age, region of origin, family history of diabetes, physical activity, fasting plasma glucose, triglyceride level, HDL-cholesterol, systolic blood pressure, and white blood cell count, a higher diabetes risk was observed among MH-overweight (hazard ratio [HR] 1.89 [95% CI 1.25-2.86]; P young adults from incident diabetes associated with overweight and obesity. © 2014 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  19. 5′ Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends and Illumina MiSeq Reveals B Cell Receptor Features in Healthy Adults, Adults With Chronic HIV-1 Infection, Cord Blood, and Humanized Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Waltari

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Using 5′ rapid amplification of cDNA ends, Illumina MiSeq, and basic flow cytometry, we systematically analyzed the expressed B cell receptor (BCR repertoire in 14 healthy adult PBMCs, 5 HIV-1+ adult PBMCs, 5 cord blood samples, and 3 HIS-CD4/B mice, examining the full-length variable region of μ, γ, α, κ, and λ chains for V-gene usage, somatic hypermutation (SHM, and CDR3 length. Adding to the known repertoire of healthy adults, Illumina MiSeq consistently detected small fractions of reads with high mutation frequencies including hypermutated μ reads, and reads with long CDR3s. Additionally, the less studied IgA repertoire displayed similar characteristics to that of IgG. Compared to healthy adults, the five HIV-1 chronically infected adults displayed elevated mutation frequencies for all μ, γ, α, κ, and λ chains examined and slightly longer CDR3 lengths for γ, α, and λ. To evaluate the reconstituted human BCR sequences in a humanized mouse model, we analyzed cord blood and HIS-CD4/B mice, which all lacked the typical SHM seen in the adult reference. Furthermore, MiSeq revealed identical unmutated IgM sequences derived from separate cell aliquots, thus for the first time demonstrating rare clonal members of unmutated IgM B cells by sequencing.

  20. Ambient carbon monoxide associated with alleviated respiratory inflammation in healthy young adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Zhuohui; Chen, Renjie; Lin, Zhijing; Cai, Jing; Yang, Yingying; Yang, Dandan; Norback, Dan; Kan, Haidong

    2016-01-01

    There is increasing controversy on whether acute exposure to ambient carbon monoxide (CO) is hazardous on respiratory health. We therefore performed a longitudinal panel study to evaluate the acute effects of ambient CO on fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO), a well-established biomarker of airway inflammation. We completed 4–6 rounds of health examinations among 75 healthy young adults during April to June in 2013 in Shanghai, China. We applied the linear mixed-effect model to investigate the short-term associations between CO and FeNO. CO exposure during 2–72 h preceding health tests was significantly associated with decreased FeNO levels. For example, an interquartile range increase (0.3 mg/m"3) of 2-h CO exposure corresponded to 10.6% decrease in FeNO. This association remained when controlling for the concomitant exposure to co-pollutants. This study provided support that short-term exposure to ambient CO might be related with reduced levels of FeNO, a biomarker of lower airway inflammation. - Highlights: • We completed 4–6 rounds of health examinations among 75 healthy young adults. • Short-term CO exposure was significantly associated with decreased FeNO levels. • The inverse association between CO and FeNO was robust controlling for co-pollutants. - Short-term exposure to ambient carbon monoxide may alleviate the respiratory inflammation.

  1. Dose-Response Relationships of Resistance Training in Healthy Old Adults : A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borde, Ron; Hortobagyi, Tibor; Granacher, Urs

    2015-01-01

    Background Resistance training (RT) is an intervention frequently used to improve muscle strength and morphology in old age. However, evidence-based, dose-response relationships regarding specific RT variables (e.g., training period, frequency, intensity, volume) are unclear in healthy old adults.

  2. Walking velocity and step length adjustments affect knee joint contact forces in healthy weight and obese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milner, Clare E; Meardon, Stacey A; Hawkins, Jillian L; Willson, John D

    2018-04-28

    Knee osteoarthritis is a major public health problem and adults with obesity are particularly at risk. One approach to alleviating this problem is to reduce the mechanical load at the joint during daily activity. Adjusting temporospatial parameters of walking could mitigate cumulative knee joint mechanical loads. The purpose of this study was to determine how adjustments to velocity and step length affects knee joint loading in healthy weight adults and adults with obesity. We collected three-dimensional gait analysis data on 10 adults with a normal body mass index and 10 adults with obesity during over ground walking in nine different conditions. In addition to preferred velocity and step length, we also conducted combinations of 15% increased and decreased velocity and step length. Peak tibiofemoral joint impulse and knee adduction angular impulse were reduced in the decreased step length conditions in both healthy weight adults (main effect) and those with obesity (interaction effect). Peak knee joint adduction moment was also reduced with decreased step length, and with decreased velocity in both groups. We conclude from these results that adopting shorter step lengths during daily activity and when walking for exercise can reduce mechanical stimuli associated with articular cartilage degenerative processes in adults with and without obesity. Thus, walking with reduced step length may benefit adults at risk for disability due to knee osteoarthritis. Adopting a shorter step length during daily walking activity may reduce knee joint loading and thus benefit those at risk for knee cartilage degeneration. © 2018 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 9999:XX-XX, 2018. © 2018 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Cognitive and Mood Effects of a Nutrient Enriched Breakfast Bar in Healthy Adults: A Randomised, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Parallel Groups Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David O. Kennedy

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Few previous studies have assessed the effects of concomitant administration of multiple potentially psychoactive nutrients. Methods: 95 healthy adult participants consumed either a nutrient enriched breakfast bar (containing α-Linolenic acid, l-tyrosine, l-theanine, vitamins, minerals and 21.5 mg of caffeine or an isocaloric, macronutrient matched control bar for 56 days. Cognitive function and mood were assessed pre-dose and at 40- and 160-min post-dose on the 1st and 56th day of the intervention period. Results: The results demonstrated acute effects of treatment across post-dose assessments on both assessment days in terms of alertness, and on tasks assessing attention, working and episodic memory and executive function, including cognitively demanding Serial subtraction and Rapid Visual Information Processing tasks. There were no evident chronic effects independent of the breakfast bars’ acute effects. Discussion: These results demonstrate that a nutrient enriched breakfast bar with low caffeine content can exert striking beneficial effects on acute cognitive function and alertness.

  4. DDAH2 mRNA expression is inversely associated with some cardiovascular risk-related features in healthy young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puchau, Blanca; Hermsdorff, Helen Hermana M; Zulet, M Angeles; Martínez, J Alfredo

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether the mRNA expression profiles of three genes (PRMT1, DDAH2 and NOS3) are related to ADMA metabolism and signalling, and the potential relationships with anthropometrical, biochemical, lifestyle and inflammatory indicators in healthy young adults. An emphasis on the putative effect of different mRNA expression on cardiovascular risk-related features was paid. Anthropometrical measurements as well as lifestyle features were analyzed in 120 healthy young adults. Fasting blood samples were collected for the measurement of glucose and lipid profiles as well as the concentrations of selected inflammatory markers. Profiles of mRNA expression were assessed for PRMT1, DDAH2 and NOS3 genes from peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Regarding inflammatory biomarkers, DDAH2 was inversely associated with IL-6 and TNF-alpha. Moreover, subjects in the highest quintile of DDAH2 mRNA expression showed a reduced risk to have higher values of waist circumference, and to be more prone to show higher values of HDL-c. Interestingly, DDAH2 gene expression seemed to be related with some anthropometrical, biochemical, lifestyle and inflammatory indicators linked to cardiovascular risk in apparently healthy young adults, emerging as a potential disease marker.

  5. DDAH2 mRNA Expression Is Inversely Associated with Some Cardiovascular Risk-Related Features in Healthy Young Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca Puchau

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether the mRNA expression profiles of three genes (PRMT1, DDAH2 and NOS3 are related to ADMA metabolism and signalling, and the potential relationships with anthropometrical, biochemical, lifestyle and inflammatory indicators in healthy young adults. An emphasis on the putative effect of different mRNA expression on cardiovascular risk-related features was paid. Anthropometrical measurements as well as lifestyle features were analyzed in 120 healthy young adults. Fasting blood samples were collected for the measurement of glucose and lipid profiles as well as the concentrations of selected inflammatory markers. Profiles of mRNA expression were assessed for PRMT1, DDAH2 and NOS3 genes from peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Regarding inflammatory biomarkers, DDAH2 was inversely associated with IL-6 and TNF-α. Moreover, subjects in the highest quintile of DDAH2 mRNA expression showed a reduced risk to have higher values of waist circumference, and to be more prone to show higher values of HDL-c. Interestingly, DDAH2 gene expression seemed to be related with some anthropometrical, biochemical, lifestyle and inflammatory indicators linked to cardiovascular risk in apparently healthy young adults, emerging as a potential disease marker.

  6. Word and picture matching: a PET study of semantic category effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perani, D; Schnur, T; Tettamanti, M; Gorno-Tempini, M; Cappa, S F; Fazio, F

    1999-03-01

    We report two positron emission tomography (PET) studies of cerebral activation during picture and word matching tasks, in which we compared directly the processing of stimuli belonging to different semantic categories (animate and inanimate) in the visual (pictures) and verbal (words) modality. In the first experiment, brain activation was measured in eleven healthy adults during a same/different matching task for textures, meaningless shapes and pictures of animals and artefacts (tools). Activations for meaningless shapes when compared to visual texture discrimination were localized in the left occipital and inferior temporal cortex. Animal picture identification, either in the comparison with meaningless shapes and in the direct comparison with non-living pictures, involved primarily activation of occipital regions, namely the lingual gyrus bilaterally and the left fusiform gyrus. For artefact picture identification, in the same comparison with meaningless shape-baseline and in the direct comparison with living pictures, all activations were left hemispheric, through the dorsolateral frontal (Ba 44/6 and 45) and temporal (Ba 21, 20) cortex. In the second experiment, brain activation was measured in eight healthy adults during a same/different matching task for visually presented words referring to animals and manipulable objects (tools); the baseline was a pseudoword discrimination task. When compared with the tool condition, the animal condition activated posterior left hemispheric areas, namely the fusiform (Ba 37) and the inferior occipital gyrus (Ba 18). The right superior parietal lobule (Ba 7) and the left thalamus were also activated. The reverse comparison (tools vs animals) showed left hemispheric activations in the middle temporal gyrus (Ba 21) and precuneus (Ba 7), as well as bilateral activation in the occipital regions. These results are compatible with different brain networks subserving the identification of living and non-living entities; in

  7. A healthy aging program for older adults: effects on self-efficacy and morale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scult, Matthew; Haime, Vivian; Jacquart, Jolene; Takahashi, Jonathan; Moscowitz, Barbara; Webster, Ann; Denninger, John W; Mehta, Darshan H

    2015-01-01

    As of 2012, 810 million people worldwide were older than 60 y, accounting for 11% of the population. That number is expected to rise to 2 billion by 2050 or to 22% of the overall population. As a result, a growing need exists to understand the factors that promote mental and physical health in older populations. The purpose of this study was to develop a healthy aging program for older adults and to measure the changes from baseline to the end of the program in participants' relevant psychosocial outcomes (ie, self-efficacy and morale). The study's healthy aging mind-body intervention (MBI) was adapted from the Relaxation Response Resiliency Program (3RP) at the Benson-Henry Institute for Mind Body Medicine, which incorporates elements from the fields of stress management, cognitive behavioral therapy, and positive psychology. That program was modified with examples and exercises targeted to an older population and evaluated in the current single-arm pilot study. The program took place at the Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH). The 9-wk healthy aging MBI was developed for participants aged 65 y and older. Fifty-one older adults from the surrounding community participated in the study's groups. A new intervention group began the program every 3 mo, with a maximum of 12 individuals per group. For each group, the MBI consisted of weekly 90-min sessions for 9 consecutive wk, directed by a psychologist. The program included sessions that taught participants (1) a variety of methods to elicit the relaxation response (RR), (2) the practice of adaptive coping and cognitions, (3) behaviors necessary to create a healthy lifestyle, and (4) methods of building social support. The research team chose to focus on 2 psychological variables of interest for aging populations: morale and self-efficacy. The study used 2 questionnaires to measure those outcomes, the Philadelphia Geriatric Center Morale Scale (PGCMS), a multidimensional measure of the psychological state of older

  8. Ageing Is Associated with Decreases in Appetite and Energy Intake—A Meta-Analysis in Healthy Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giezenaar, Caroline; Chapman, Ian; Luscombe-Marsh, Natalie; Feinle-Bisset, Christine; Horowitz, Michael; Soenen, Stijn

    2016-01-01

    It is not well recognized that in the elderly weight loss is more common than weight gain. The aim of this analysis was to determine the effect of ageing on appetite (hunger/fullness) and energy intake, after overnight fasting and in a postprandial state, by meta-analyses of trials that included at least two age groups (>18 years). We hypothesized that appetite and energy intake would be less in healthy older compared with younger adults. Following a PubMed-database systematic search up to 30 June 2015, 59 studies were included in the random-effects-model meta-analyses. Energy intake was 16%–20% lower in older (n = 3574/~70 years/~71 kg/~25 kg/m2) than younger (n = 4111/~26 years/~69 kg/~23 kg/m2) adults (standardized mean difference: −0.77 (95% confidence interval −0.90 to −0.64)). Hunger was 25% (after overnight fasting; weighted mean difference (WMD): −17 (−22 to −13) mm) to 39% (in a postprandial state; WMD: −14 (−19 to −9) mm) lower, and fullness 37% (after overnight fasting; WMD: 6 mm (95% CI: 1 to 11 mm)) greater in older than younger adults. In conclusion, appetite and energy intake are less in healthy older than younger adults, suggesting that ageing per se affects food intake. PMID:26751475

  9. Subcortical intelligence: caudate volume predicts IQ in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grazioplene, Rachael G; G Ryman, Sephira; Gray, Jeremy R; Rustichini, Aldo; Jung, Rex E; DeYoung, Colin G

    2015-04-01

    This study examined the association between size of the caudate nuclei and intelligence. Based on the central role of the caudate in learning, as well as neuroimaging studies linking greater caudate volume to better attentional function, verbal ability, and dopamine receptor availability, we hypothesized the existence of a positive association between intelligence and caudate volume in three large independent samples of healthy adults (total N = 517). Regression of IQ onto bilateral caudate volume controlling for age, sex, and total brain volume indicated a significant positive correlation between caudate volume and intelligence, with a comparable magnitude of effect across each of the three samples. No other subcortical structures were independently associated with IQ, suggesting a specific biological link between caudate morphology and intelligence. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. White noise enhances new-word learning in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angwin, Anthony J; Wilson, Wayne J; Arnott, Wendy L; Signorini, Annabelle; Barry, Robert J; Copland, David A

    2017-10-12

    Research suggests that listening to white noise may improve some aspects of cognitive performance in individuals with lower attention. This study investigated the impact of white noise on new word learning in healthy young adults, and whether this effect was mediated by executive attention skills. Eighty participants completed a single training session to learn the names of twenty novel objects. The session comprised 5 learning phases, each followed by a recall test. A final recognition test was also administered. Half the participants listened to white noise during the learning phases, and half completed the learning in silence. The noise group demonstrated superior recall accuracy over time, which was not impacted by participant attentional capacity. Recognition accuracy was near ceiling for both groups. These findings suggest that white noise has the capacity to enhance lexical acquisition.

  11. Do spatiotemporal parameters and gait variability differ across the lifespan of healthy adults? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herssens, Nolan; Verbecque, Evi; Hallemans, Ann; Vereeck, Luc; Van Rompaey, Vincent; Saeys, Wim

    2018-06-12

    Aging is often associated with changes in the musculoskeletal system, peripheral and central nervous system. These age-related changes often result in mobility problems influencing gait performance. Compensatory strategies are used as a way to adapt to these physiological changes. The aim of this review is to investigate the differences in spatiotemporal and gait variability measures throughout the healthy adult life. This systematic review was conducted according to the PRISMA guidelines and registered in the PROSPERO database (no. CRD42017057720). Databases MEDLINE (Pubmed), Web of Science (Web of Knowledge), Cochrane Library and ScienceDirect were systematically searched until March 2018. Eighteen of the 3195 original studies met the eligibility criteria and were included in this review. The majority of studies reported spatiotemporal and gait variability measures in adults above the age of 65, followed by the young adult population, information of middle-aged adults is lacking. Spatiotemporal parameters and gait variability measures were extracted from 2112 healthy adults between 18 and 98 years old and, in general, tend to deteriorate with increasing age. Variability measures were only reported in an elderly population and show great variety between studies. The findings of this review suggest that most spatiotemporal parameters significantly differ across different age groups. Elderly populations show a reduction of preferred walking speed, cadence, step and stride length, all related to a more cautious gait, while gait variability measures remain stable over time. A preliminary framework of normative reference data is provided, enabling insights into the influence of aging on spatiotemporal parameters, however spatiotemporal parameters of middle-aged adults should be investigated more thoroughly. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Association between oxidative stress index and serum lipid levels in healthy young adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turkdogan, K.E.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the relationship between lipid levels and oxidative stress index in healthy young adults. Methods: The study was camed out at the Department of Emergency Service, Faculty of Medicine, Cumhuriyet University, Sivas, Turkey, between January 2011 and July 2012. A total of 100 healthy adult volunteers were enrolled in the study. Venous blood samples (10 ml) were collected from all individuals, and serum lipid parameters, total antioxidant capacity and total oxidative levels were studied. SPSS 15 was used for statistical analysis. Results: Overall, there were 84 (84%) males and 16 (16%) females. The mean age of the male population was 30+-3 years, while that of the females was 31+-3 years. Overall age ranged from 25 to 35 years. A statistically significant correlation was found between the oxidative stress index and serum cholesterol (p<0.001; r=0.596), triglyceride (p<0.001; r=0.476) and low-density lipoprotein levels (p<0.001; r=0.318). However, no significant correlation was found between oxidative stress index and serum high-density lipoprotein levels (p=0.564; r=0.058). Conclusion: The results showed that even at an early age, there is a direct linear correlation between oxidative stress and serum lipid levels. (author)

  13. Acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI elastography of adrenal glands in healthy adult dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Fernandez

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT To describe the ARFI elastography in the evaluation of the adrenal glands in adult dogs, to evaluate the stiffness of adrenal parenchyma and to determine the qualitative and quantitative standards of the ARFI technique, which have not yet been described in veterinary medicine. Sixty adrenal glands from thirty healthy adult dogs were evaluated by B-mode and qualitative and quantitative ARFI elastography to assess the stiffness of healthy parenchyma and to determine the quality and quantity (shear velocity standards of ARFI technique in body, cranial and caudal adrenal poles. Findings of ultrasonography evaluations were normal. Qualitative elastography showed that adrenal glands were not deformable and presented homogeneous middle-gray areas. The results of shear wave velocity were similar statically (P = 0.3087: 1 left adrenal - 1.42 m/s for cranial polar, 1.31 m/s for body region, and 1.71 m/s for caudal polar; 2 right adrenal - 1.42 m/s for cranial polar, 1.74 m/s for body region and 1.63 m/s for caudal pole. Quantitative and qualitative ARFI elastography of dogs' adrenal glands is feasible, well tolerated, easily implemented and may provide baseline data in the study of this structure to allow the use of ARFI.

  14. Your Way to a Better Theory of Mind: A Healthy Diet Relates to Better Faux Pas Recognition in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffman, Ted; Zhang, Julie; Taumoepeau, Mele; Skeaff, Sheila

    2016-01-01

    Aging is characterized by a well-documented worsening of general cognition, and also a decline in social understanding such as the ability to recognize emotions or detect socially inappropriate behavior (faux pas). Several studies have demonstrated that lifestyle factors (diet, exercise, social integration, smoking) tend to offset general cognitive decline, and we examined whether they also help to offset age-related declines in social cognition. There were 56 participants aged 60 years or over. General cognition was measured using a matrices task and the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). Emotion recognition was measured by the matching of faces to emotion sounds and bodies to sounds. Faux pas recognition was measured by 16 videos, examining participants' ability to differentiate appropriate and inappropriate social behavior. Diet, exercise, social integration, and smoking habits were measured via questionnaires. For general cognition, diet, pr = .32, p smoking, pr = -.32, p = .02, and education, pr = .48, p exercise habits, smoking, and social integration, a healthy diet explained independent variance in the ability to identify appropriate social behavior, pr = .29, p = .04. We replicated previous research in finding that lifestyle factors were related to fluid intelligence. In addition, we obtained the novel finding that a healthy diet is associated with better recognition of faux pas in older adults, likely acting through facilitation of brain health, and providing initial support for a means of enhancing social functioning and well-being in old age.

  15. Alexithymic trait and voluntary control in healthy adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaosi Gu

    Full Text Available Alexithymia is a personality trait characterized by deficiency in understanding, processing, or describing emotions. Recent studies have revealed that alexithymia is associated with less activation of the anterior cingulate cortex, a brain region shown to play a role in cognitive and emotional processing. However, few studies have directly investigated the cognitive domain in relation to alexithymia to examine whether alexithymic trait is related to less efficient voluntary control.We examined the relationship between alexithymic trait and voluntary control in a group of healthy volunteers. We used the 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20 to measure alexithymic trait. Additionally, we examined state and trait voluntary control using the revised Attention Network Test (ANT-R and the Adult Temperament Questionnaire (ATQ, respectively. Alexithymic trait was positively correlated with the overall reaction time of the ANT-R, and negatively correlated with the Effortful Control factor of the ATQ.Our results suggest that alexithymic trait is associated with less efficient voluntary control.

  16. Faecal shedding of canine parvovirus after modified-live vaccination in healthy adult dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freisl, M; Speck, S; Truyen, U; Reese, S; Proksch, A-L; Hartmann, K

    2017-01-01

    Since little is known about the persistence and faecal shedding of canine parvovirus (CPV) in dogs after modified-live vaccination, diagnostic tests for CPV can be difficult to interpret in the post-vaccination period. The primary aim of this study was to determine the incidence, duration and extent of CPV vaccine virus shedding in adult dogs and to investigate related factors, including the presence of protective antibodies, increase in anti-CPV antibody titres and development of any gastrointestinal side-effects. A secondary objective was to assess prevalence of CPV field virus shedding in clinically healthy dogs due to subclinical infections. One hundred adult, healthy privately owned dogs were vaccinated with a commercial CPV-2 modified-live vaccine (MLV). Faeces were tested for the presence of CPV DNA on days 0 (prior to vaccination), 3, 7, 14, 21 and 28 by quantitative real-time PCR. Pre- and post-vaccination serum titres were determined by haemagglutination inhibition on days 0, 7 and 28. Transient excretion of CPV DNA was detected in 2.0% of dogs before vaccination. About one quarter of dogs (23.0%) shed CPV DNA during the post-vaccination period, but field and vaccine virus differentiation by VP2 gene sequencing was only successful in few samples. Faecal CPV excretion occurred despite protective serum antibody titres. Post-vaccination CPV shedding was not related to adequate antibody response after vaccination or to the occurrence of gastrointestinal side-effects. Despite individual differences, CPV DNA was detectable for up to 28 days after vaccination, although the faecal CPV DNA load in these clinically healthy dogs was very low. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Life satisfaction in adult survivors of childhood brain tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crom, Deborah B; Li, Zhenghong; Brinkman, Tara M; Hudson, Melissa M; Armstrong, Gregory T; Neglia, Joseph; Ness, Kirsten K

    2014-01-01

    Adult survivors of childhood brain tumors experience multiple, significant, lifelong deficits as a consequence of their malignancy and therapy. Current survivorship literature documents the substantial impact such impairments have on survivors' physical health and quality of life. Psychosocial reports detail educational, cognitive, and emotional limitations characterizing survivors as especially fragile, often incompetent, and unreliable in evaluating their circumstances. Anecdotal data suggest some survivors report life experiences similar to those of healthy controls. The aim of our investigation was to determine whether life satisfaction in adult survivors of childhood brain tumors differs from that of healthy controls and to identify potential predictors of life satisfaction in survivors. This cross-sectional study compared 78 brain tumor survivors with population-based matched controls. Chi-square tests, t tests, and linear regression models were used to investigate patterns of life satisfaction and identify potential correlates. Results indicated that life satisfaction of adult survivors of childhood brain tumors was similar to that of healthy controls. Survivors' general health expectations emerged as the primary correlate of life satisfaction. Understanding life satisfaction as an important variable will optimize the design of strategies to enhance participation in follow-up care, reduce suffering, and optimize quality of life in this vulnerable population. © 2014 by Association of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology Nurses.

  18. White Matter Microstructure of the Human Mirror Neuron System Is Related to Symptom Severity in Adults with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fründt, Odette; Schulz, Robert; Schöttle, Daniel; Cheng, Bastian; Thomalla, Götz; Braaß, Hanna; Ganos, Christos; David, Nicole; Peiker, Ina; Engel, Andreas K.; Bäumer, Tobias; Münchau, Alexander

    2018-01-01

    Mirror neuron system (MNS) dysfunctions might underlie deficits in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Diffusion tensor imaging based probabilistic tractography was conducted in 15 adult ASD patients and 13 matched, healthy controls. Fractional anisotropy (FA) was quantified to assess group differences in tract-related white matter microstructure of…

  19. Effects of Mindfulness-Based Interventions on Salivary Cortisol in Healthy Adults: A Meta-Analytical Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanada, Kenji; Montero-Marin, Jesus; Alda Díez, Marta; Salas-Valero, Montserrat; Pérez-Yus, María C; Morillo, Héctor; Demarzo, Marcelo M P; García-Toro, Mauro; García-Campayo, Javier

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the present study was to elucidate the effects of Mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) on salivary cortisol levels in healthy adult populations. Method: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs), published between January 1980 and June 2015 in PubMed, EMBASE, PsycINFO and the Cochrane library. The PRISMA and Cochrane guidelines were followed. The pooled effect sizes were calculated with the random-effects model, using Hedges' g -values, and heterogeneity was measured using the I 2 statistic. The contribution of different characteristics of participants and programmes were assessed by meta-regression models, using beta coefficients. Results: Five RCTs with 190 participants in total were included in this systematic review. The overall effect size (ES) for improving the state of health related to cortisol levels was moderately low ( g = 0.41; p = 0.025), although moderate heterogeneity was found ( I 2 = 55; p = 0.063). There were no significant differences between active ( g = 0.33; p = 0.202) and passive ( g = 0.48; p = 0.279) controls, but significant differences were found when comparing standard ( g = 0.81; p = 0.002) and raw ( g = 0.03; p = 0.896) measures. The percentage of women in each study was not related to ES. Nevertheless, age (beta = -0.03; p = 0.039), the number of sessions (beta = 0.33; p = 0.007) and the total hours of the MBI (beta = 0.06; p = 0.005) were significantly related to ES, explaining heterogeneity ( R 2 = 1.00). Conclusions: Despite the scarce number of studies, our results suggest that MBIs might have some beneficial effect on cortisol secretion in healthy adult subjects. However, there is a need for further RCTs implemented in accordance with standard programmes and measurements of salivary cortisol under rigorous strategies in healthy adult populations.

  20. Effects of Mindfulness-based interventions on salivary cortisol in healthy adults: a meta-analytical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji Sanada

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the effects of Mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs on salivary cortisol levels in healthy adult populations. Method. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs, published between January 1980 and June 2015 in PubMed, EMBASE, PsycINFO and the Cochrane library. The PRISMA and Cochrane guidelines were followed. The pooled effect sizes were calculated with the random-effects model, using Hedges’ g values, and heterogeneity was measured using the I2 statistic. The contribution of different characteristics of participants and programmes were assessed by meta-regression models, using beta coefficients. Results. Five RCTs with 190 participants in total were included in this systematic review. The overall effect size (ES for improving the state of health related to cortisol levels was moderately low (g=0.41; p=0.025, although moderate heterogeneity was found (I2=55; p=0.063. There were no significant differences between active (g=0.33; p=0.202 and passive (g=0.48; p=0.279 controls, but significant differences were found when comparing standard (g=0.81; p=0.002 and raw (g=0.03; p=0.896 measures. The percentage of women in each study was not related to ES. Nevertheless, age (beta=-0.03; p=0.039, the number of sessions (beta=0.33; p=0.007 and the total hours of the MBI (beta=0.06; p=0.005 were significantly related to ES, explaining heterogeneity (R2=1.00. Conclusions. Despite the scarce number of studies, our results suggest that MBIs might have some beneficial effect on cortisol secretion in healthy adult subjects. However, there is a need for further RCTs implemented in accordance with standard programmes and measurements of salivary cortisol under rigorous strategies in healthy adult populations.

  1. Metabolic responses of healthy or prediabetic adults to bovine whey protein and sodium caseinate do not differ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoefle, Anja S; Bangert, Adina M; Stamfort, Adelmar; Gedrich, Kurt; Rist, Manuela J; Lee, Yu-Mi; Skurk, Thomas; Daniel, Hannelore

    2015-03-01

    Casein is considered a slowly digestible protein compared with whey protein, and this may cause differences in hormone responses and the kinetics of delivering amino acids into the circulation. We investigated whether postprandial plasma hormone and metabolite responses were different when bovine casein or whey protein was co-administered with carbohydrates in healthy and prediabetic adults. White healthy male adults (n = 15) and white, well-defined male and female prediabetic adults (n = 15) received test drinks randomly on 3 different occasions at least 2 d apart which contained 50 g of maltodextrin19 (MD19) alone or in combination with 50 g of whey protein isolate (WPI) or 50 g of sodium caseinate (SC). Blood samples were collected over a 240-min time period and were analyzed for hormone profiles and defined metabolites. No evidence was found that gastric emptying was different between the 2 protein drinks. Both proteins increased peak plasma insulin concentrations in prediabetic persons by 96% compared with MD19 (each, P < 0.05), which was accompanied by a reduction of peak venous blood glucose by 21% (each, P < 0.0001) without a difference between the 2 proteins. Peak plasma glucagon concentrations increased by 101% in both groups after the protein drinks (P < 0.05). The WPI drink also increased peak plasma glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide concentrations in healthy volunteers by 56% (P < 0.01). Differences in plasma metabolite concentrations in volunteers could be attributed exclusively to the differences in the amino acid composition of the 2 proteins ingested. The WPI and the SC drinks similarly reduced postprandial glucose excursions when ingested with carbohydrates in healthy and prediabetic volunteers. Under our experimental conditions, however, no evidence was found that gastrointestinal processing of the 2 protein varieties differed substantially. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as DRKS00005682. © 2015 American Society for

  2. Mitochondrial Respiration after One Session of Calf Raise Exercise in Patients with Peripheral Vascular Disease and Healthy Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Schaardenburgh, Michel; Wohlwend, Martin; Rognmo, Øivind; Mattsson, Erney J R

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondria are essential for energy production in the muscle cell and for this they are dependent upon a sufficient supply of oxygen by the circulation. Exercise training has shown to be a potent stimulus for physiological adaptations and mitochondria play a central role. Whether changes in mitochondrial respiration are seen after exercise in patients with a reduced circulation is unknown. The aim of the study was to evaluate the time course and whether one session of calf raise exercise stimulates mitochondrial respiration in the calf muscle of patients with peripheral vascular disease. One group of patients with peripheral vascular disease (n = 11) and one group of healthy older adults (n = 11) were included. Patients performed one session of continuous calf raises followed by 5 extra repetitions after initiation of pain. Healthy older adults performed 100 continuous calf raises. Gastrocnemius muscle biopsies were collected at baseline and 15 minutes, one hour, three hours and 24 hours after one session of calf raise exercise. A multi substrate (octanoylcarnitine, malate, adp, glutamate, succinate, FCCP, rotenone) approach was used to analyze mitochondrial respiration in permeabilized fibers. Mixed-linear model for repeated measures was used for statistical analyses. Patients with peripheral vascular disease have a lower baseline respiration supported by complex I and they increase respiration supported by complex II at one hour post-exercise. Healthy older adults increase respiration supported by electron transfer flavoprotein and complex I at one hour and 24 hours post-exercise. Our results indicate a shift towards mitochondrial respiration supported by complex II as being a pathophysiological component of peripheral vascular disease. Furthermore exercise stimulates mitochondrial respiration already after one session of calf raise exercise in patients with peripheral vascular disease and healthy older adults. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01842412.

  3. The role of masturbation in healthy sexual development: perceptions of young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaestle, Christine E; Allen, Katherine R

    2011-10-01

    Despite efforts to identify masturbation as a strategy to improve sexual health, promote relational intimacy, and reduce unwanted pregnancy, STIs, and HIV transmission, masturbation as a context for healthy sexual development has been met with silence or trepidation in the scientific and educational communities. Relegated to the realm of commercial media, rather than rational discourse in families, schools, and the general public, young people receive mixed messages about this non-reproductive sexual behavior. In order to explore how young adults have learned about masturbation and currently perceive masturbation, we conducted a grounded theory study of 72 college students (56 females; 16 males) enrolled in a human sexuality class. Findings revealed that a young adult's perceptions of and feelings toward masturbation were the result of a developmental process that included: (1) learning about the act of masturbation and how to do it, (2) learning and internalizing the social contradiction of stigma and taboo surrounding this pleasurable act, and (3) coming to terms with this tension between stigma and pleasure. Although nearly all participants learned about masturbation through the media and peers (not parents or teachers), gender was salient in coming to terms with the contradiction of stigma and pleasure. Most of the women reported either still struggling with the contradiction or accepting it as normal. Most of the men recognized the beneficial aspects for healthy sexual development that result from masturbation. Both male and female participants identified differential sexual scripts as contributing to the double standard.

  4. Safety of a benazepril and pimobendan combination tablet in adult healthy dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuntz, E A; Strehlau, G; Giraudel, J M; King, J N

    2018-02-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the safety of a combination tablet of benazepril and pimobendan, Fortekor PLUS ® , in a randomized, blinded, parallel-group design study in healthy adult beagle dogs. The test article, Fortekor PLUS ® tablets, was administered orally twice daily for 6 months at one, two, and four times the highest recommended dosage of 0.5 mg/kg benazepril hydrochloride/0.25 mg/kg pimobendan (four males and four females per group). An additional control group was sham-dosed. Fortekor PLUS ® did not induce any treatment-related effects on body weight, food consumption, neurological, ophthalmologic or physical assessments over the 6-month treatment period. The test article was possibly associated with an increased frequency of occasional vomiting. Fortekor PLUS ® was associated with small, but significant, increases in heart rate and reductions in PR and QT intervals, which were assessed by electrocardiography. These effects were most probably related to reflex tachycardia secondary to reduced systemic blood pressure. Statistically significant changes in some clinical pathology variables were noted after test article administration, but were considered to be of no clinical relevance as values remained within reference ranges and/or were not dose-dependent. No treatment-related macroscopic or microscopic findings were observed. In conclusion, Fortekor PLUS ® tablets were well tolerated in healthy adult dogs when administered at one, two, and four times the highest recommended dosage for 6 months. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Effect of neuromuscular electrical muscle stimulation on energy expenditure in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Miao-Ju; Wei, Shun-Hwa; Chang, Ya-Ju

    2011-01-01

    Weight loss/weight control is a major concern in prevention of cardiovascular disease and the realm of health promotion. The primary aim of this study was to investigate the effect of neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) at different intensities on energy expenditure (oxygen and calories) in healthy adults. The secondary aim was to develop a generalized linear regression (GEE) model to predict the increase of energy expenditure facilitated by NMES and identify factors (NMES stimulation intensity level, age, body mass index, weight, body fat percentage, waist/hip ratio, and gender) associated with this NMES-induced increase of energy expenditure. Forty sedentary healthy adults (18 males and 22 females) participated. NMES was given at the following stimulation intensities for 10 minutes each: sensory level (E1), motor threshold (E2), and maximal intensity comfortably tolerated (E3). Cardiopulmonary gas exchange was evaluated during rest, NMES, and recovery stage. The results revealed that NMES at E2 and E3 significantly increased energy expenditure and the energy expenditure at recovery stage was still significantly higher than baseline. The GEE model demonstrated that a linear dose-response relationship existed between the stimulation intensity and the increase of energy expenditure. No subject's demographic or anthropometric characteristics tested were significantly associated with the increase of energy expenditure. This study suggested NMES may be used to serve as an additional intervention for weight loss programs. Future studies to develop electrical stimulators or stimulation electrodes to maximize the comfort of NMES are recommended.

  6. Low Nourishment of Vitamin C Induces Glutathione Depletion and Oxidative Stress in Healthy Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waly, Mostafa I; Al-Attabi, Zahir; Guizani, Nejib

    2015-09-01

    The present study was conducted to assess the status of vitamin C among healthy young adults in relation to serum antioxidant parameters [glutathione (GSH), thiols, and total antioxidant capacity, (TAC)], and oxidative stress markers [malondialdehyde (MDA), and nitrites plus nitrates (NN)]. A prospective study included 200 young adults, and their dietary intake was assessed by using food diaries. Fasting plasma vitamin C, serum levels of GSH, thiols, TAC, MDA, and NN were measured using biochemical assays. It was observed that 38% of the enrolled subjects, n=76, had an adequate dietary intake of vitamin C (ADI group). Meanwhile, 62%, n=124, had a low dietary intake of vitamin C (LDI group) as compared to the recommended dietary allowances. The fasting plasma level of vitamin C was significantly higher in the ADI group as compared to the LDI group. Oxidative stress in the sera of the LDI group was evidenced by depletion of GSH, low thiols levels, impairment of TAC, an elevation of MDA, and increased NN. In the ADI group, positive correlations were found between plasma vitamin C and serum antioxidant parameters (GSH, thiols, and TAC). Meanwhile, the plasma vitamin C was negatively correlated with serum MDA and NN levels. This study reveals a significant increase of oxidative stress status and reduced antioxidant capacity in sera from healthy young adults with low intake of the dietary antioxidant, vitamin C.

  7. Validity of maximal isometric knee extension strength measurements obtained via belt-stabilized hand-held dynamometry in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ushiyama, Naoko; Kurobe, Yasushi; Momose, Kimito

    2017-11-01

    [Purpose] To determine the validity of knee extension muscle strength measurements using belt-stabilized hand-held dynamometry with and without body stabilization compared with the gold standard isokinetic dynamometry in healthy adults. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-nine healthy adults (mean age, 21.3 years) were included. Study parameters involved right side measurements of maximal isometric knee extension strength obtained using belt-stabilized hand-held dynamometry with and without body stabilization and the gold standard. Measurements were performed in all subjects. [Results] A moderate correlation and fixed bias were found between measurements obtained using belt-stabilized hand-held dynamometry with body stabilization and the gold standard. No significant correlation and proportional bias were found between measurements obtained using belt-stabilized hand-held dynamometry without body stabilization and the gold standard. The strength identified using belt-stabilized hand-held dynamometry with body stabilization may not be commensurate with the maximum strength individuals can generate; however, it reflects such strength. In contrast, the strength identified using belt-stabilized hand-held dynamometry without body stabilization does not reflect the maximum strength. Therefore, a chair should be used to stabilize the body when performing measurements of maximal isometric knee extension strength using belt-stabilized hand-held dynamometry in healthy adults. [Conclusion] Belt-stabilized hand-held dynamometry with body stabilization is more convenient than the gold standard in clinical settings.

  8. Stride rate and walking intensity in healthy older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peacock, Leslie; Hewitt, Allan; Rowe, David A; Sutherland, Rona

    2014-04-01

    The study investigated (a) walking intensity (stride rate and energy expenditure) under three speed instructions; (b) associations between stride rate, age, height, and walking intensity; and (c) synchronization between stride rate and music tempo during overground walking in a population of healthy older adults. Twenty-nine participants completed 3 treadmill-walking trials and 3 overground-walking trials at 3 self-selected speeds. Treadmill VO2 was measured using indirect calorimetry. Stride rate and music tempo were recorded during overground-walking trials. Mean stride rate exceeded minimum thresholds for moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) under slow (111.41 ± 11.93), medium (118.17 ± 11.43), and fast (123.79 ± 11.61) instructions. A multilevel model showed that stride rate, age, and height have a significant effect (p Music can be a useful way to guide walking cadence.

  9. Pulmonary function studies in healthy Filipino adults residing in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, F L; Kelso, J M

    1999-08-01

    Differences in lung volumes among various ethnic groups are known to occur; however, this has not been studied in Filipinos. We sought to assess pulmonary function in healthy, nonsmoking Filipinos residing in the United States compared with standards for white subjects. Healthy adult Filipinos, age 18 years or greater, were recruited. All subjects were screened with health questionnaires to exclude those with cardiopulmonary disease. Pulmonary function tests were performed by using forced expiratory maneuvers. Values for FEV(1 ), forced vital capacity (FVC), FEV(1 )/FVC, forced expiratory flow from 25% to 75% of FVC, and peak expiratory flow rate were compared with predicted values for white subjects (ie, without a racial adjustment). Two hundred twenty-four healthy subjects (121 men and 103 women) completed the study. The group means (as a percentage of the predicted standard for white subjects) were as follows: FEV(1 ), 86%; FVC, 84%; FEV(1 )/FVC, 103%; forced expiratory flow from 25% to 75% of FVC, 96%; and peak expiratory flow rate, 107%. These findings are very similar to those for African Americans and other Asians. We conclude that it is appropriate to use an 85% racial adjustment for FEV(1 ) and FVC when interpreting pulmonary function test results in Filipinos.

  10. Impact of novelty and type of material on recognition in healthy older adults and persons with mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belleville, Sylvie; Ménard, Marie-Claude; Lepage, Emilie

    2011-08-01

    The goal of this study was to assess the effect of novelty on correct recognition (hit minus false alarms) and on recollection and familiarity processes in normal aging and amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Recognition tasks compared well-known and novel stimuli in the verbal domain (words vs. pseudowords) and in the musical domain (well-known vs. novel melodies). Results indicated that novel materials associated with lower correct recognition and lower recollection, an effect that can be related to its lower amenability to elaborative encoding in comparison with well-known items. Results also indicated that normal aging impairs recognition of well-known items, whereas MCI impairs recognition of novel items only. Healthy older adults showed impaired recollection and familiarity relative to younger controls and individuals with MCI showed impaired recollection relative to healthy older adults. The recollection deficit in healthy older adults and persons with MCI and their impaired recognition of well-known items is compatible with the difficulty both groups have in encoding information in an elaborate manner. In turn, familiarity deficit could be related to impaired frontal functioning. Therefore, novelty of material has a differential impact on recognition in persons with age-related memory disorders. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Can Training Enhance Face Cognition Abilities in Middle-Aged Adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolzycka, Dominika; Herzmann, Grit; Sommer, Werner; Wilhelm, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    Face cognition is a crucial skill for social interaction and shows large individual differences in healthy adults, suggesting a possibility for improvement in some. We developed and tested specific training procedures for the accuracy of face memory and the speed of face cognition. Two groups each of 20 healthy middle-aged trainees practiced for 29 daily sessions of 15 minutes duration with different computerized home-based training procedures. In addition, 20 matched and 59 non-matched controls were included. Face cognition speed training enhanced performance during the training and transferred to the latent factor level as measured in a pre-post comparison. Persistence of the training effect was evidenced at the manifest level after three months. However, the training procedure influenced the speed of processing object stimuli to the same extent as face stimuli and therefore seems to have affected a more general ability of processing complex visual stimuli and not only faces. No effects of training on the accuracy of face memory were found. This study demonstrates that face-specific abilities may be hard to improve but also shows the plasticity of the speed of processing complex visual stimuli – for the first time in middle-aged, normal adults. PMID:24632743

  12. Screening of a healthy newborn identifies three adult family members with symptomatic glutaric aciduria type I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MCH Janssen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We report three adult sibs (one female, two males with symptomatic glutaric acidura type I, who were diagnosed after a low carnitine level was found by newborn screening in a healthy newborn of the women. All three adults had low plasma carnitine, elevated glutaric acid levels and pronounced 3-hydroxyglutaric aciduria. The diagnosis was confirmed by undetectable glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase activity in lymphocytes and two pathogenic heterozygous mutations in the GCDH gene (c.1060A>G, c.1154C>T. These results reinforce the notion that abnormal metabolite levels in newborns may lead to the diagnosis of adult metabolic disease in the mother and potentially other family members.

  13. A descriptive study on selected growth parameters and growth hormone receptor gene in healthy young adults from the American Midwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartin, Samantha N; Hossain, Waheeda A; Manzardo, Ann M; Brown, Shaquanna; Fite, Paula J; Bortolato, Marco; Butler, Merlin G

    2018-02-12

    The first study of growth hormone receptor (GHR) genotypes in healthy young adults in the United States attending a Midwestern university and impact on selected growth parameters. To describe the frequency of GHR genotypes in a sample of healthy young adults from the United States attending a university in the Midwest and analyze the relationship between GHR genotypes and selected growth parameters. Saliva was collected from 459 healthy young adults (237 females, 222 males; age range = 18-25 y) and DNA isolated for genotyping of GHR alleles (fl/fl, fl/d3, or d3/d3). Selected growth parameters were collected and GHR genotype data examined for previously reported associations (e.g., height, weight or bone mass density) or novel findings (e.g., % body water and index finger length). We found 219 participants (48%) homozygous for fl/fl, 203 (44%), heterozygous fl/d3 and 37 (8%) homozygous d3/d3. The distribution of GHR genotypes in our participants was consistent with previous reports of non-US populations. Several anthropometric measures differed by sex. The distribution of GHR genotypes did not significantly differ by sex, weight, or other anthropometric measures. However, the fl/d3 genotype was more common among African-Americans. Our study of growth and anthropometric parameters in relationship to GHR genotypes found no association with height, weight, right index finger length, BMI, bone mass density, % body fat or % body water in healthy young adults. We did identify sex differences with increased body fat, decreased bone density, body water and index finger length in females. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The creation of a healthy eating motivation score and its association with food choice and physical activity in a cross sectional sample of Irish adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naughton, Paul; McCarthy, Sinéad N; McCarthy, Mary B

    2015-06-06

    This study aimed to develop a healthy eating motivation score and to determine if dietary, lifestyle and activity behaviours vary across levels of motivation to eat a healthy diet with a view to informing health promotion interventions. A cross-sectional survey of food intake, physical activity, lifestyles and food choice attitudes was conducted in a nationally representative sample of 1262 adults in the Republic of Ireland aged 18 years and over. Increasing score for health motivation was significantly and positively related to healthy eating and exercise. Women, increasing age, normal BMI, regular exercise and increasing intakes of fruit and vegetables were associated with a higher odds ratio (OR) for having a high healthy eating motivation score. However, despite a high motivation score only 31% of consumers in the strong motivation group achieved the recommendations for daily fruit and vegetable consumption, while 57% achieved the fat recommendation. A higher intake of calorie dense foods from the top shelf of the food pyramid and increased time spent watching T.V. was associated with a decreased OR for positive motivation towards healthy eating. Healthy eating promotions directed at women and older adults should focus on supporting people's motivations to attain a healthy diet by addressing issues such as dietary self-control and self-regulation. For men and younger adults, healthy eating promotions will need to address the issues underlying their weak attitudes towards healthy eating.

  15. Registration of FA and T1-weighted MRI data of healthy human brain based on template matching and normalized cross-correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinsky, Milos; Peter, Roman; Hodneland, Erlend; Lundervold, Astri J; Lundervold, Arvid; Jan, Jiri

    2013-08-01

    In this work, we propose a new approach for three-dimensional registration of MR fractional anisotropy images with T1-weighted anatomy images of human brain. From the clinical point of view, this accurate coregistration allows precise detection of nerve fibers that is essential in neuroscience. A template matching algorithm combined with normalized cross-correlation was used for this registration task. To show the suitability of the proposed method, it was compared with the normalized mutual information-based B-spline registration provided by the Elastix software library, considered a reference method. We also propose a general framework for the evaluation of robustness and reliability of both registration methods. Both registration methods were tested by four evaluation criteria on a dataset consisting of 74 healthy subjects. The template matching algorithm has shown more reliable results than the reference method in registration of the MR fractional anisotropy and T1 anatomy image data. Significant differences were observed in the regions splenium of corpus callosum and genu of corpus callosum, considered very important areas of brain connectivity. We demonstrate that, in this registration task, the currently used mutual information-based parametric registration can be replaced by more accurate local template matching utilizing the normalized cross-correlation similarity measure.

  16. Fat Replacement of Paraspinal Muscles with Aging in Healthy Adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlqvist, Julia R; Vissing, Christoffer R; Hedermann, Gitte

    2017-01-01

    also tested for association with sex, body mass index (BMI), physical activity, and lower back pain. RESULTS: Both paraspinal and leg fat fractions correlated directly with age (P ages, fat fraction was higher in paraspinal than leg muscles. The age-related increase in fat fraction...... was associated with lumbar paraspinal fat fraction (P activity or lower back pain. CONCLUSION: The paraspinal muscles were more susceptible to age-related changes than leg muscles. Further, men had......PURPOSE: The aims of this study were to investigate the age-related changes in fatty replacement and cross-sectional area (CSA) of cervical, thoracic, and lumbar paraspinal muscles versus leg muscles in healthy adults and to test for association between muscle fat fraction and lifestyle factors...

  17. Anticardiolipin and antinuclear antibodies in the adult healthy Omani individuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Jabri, Ali A.; Al-Buloshi, Mohamed S.

    2004-01-01

    To investigate the prevalence and normal versus abnormal levels of anticardiolipin antibodies (aCL) in a healthy adult popultion of Omani's and whether a correlation exists in between aCL and antinuclear antibodies (ANA) in this Omani population. A total of 521 healthy Omani individuals (333 males and 188) females aged between 17-54 years were investigated for the presence and quntities of aClL (immunoglubolin G (IgG)) and IgM isotypesusing a conventional enzyme linked immunosobrent assay. ANA were were detacted in this group, using standard indirect immunofloresence techniques. This study was conducted during the period 2002 through 2003 at the Immunology Laboratories, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Sultan Qaboos University, Al Khod, Muscat, Sultanate of Oman. The prevalence of of aCL in healthy Omani population was estimated to be 2.5% for IgG 3.1% for IgM. The cut off points for IgG and IgM were determined for the whole population as 22.5 IgG phospholipid (GPL) units and 15.7 IgM phospholipid (MPL) units, using the mean plus 5 standard deviations. Using these cut off values, aCL were not detected in the the majority of individuals (97%) and in the remainig 3% the levels were not very high. There was no significant difference between the levels of aCL in either the male or female groups and no significant correlation for the presence of aCL with the age in this studied population. ANA were detected in 76/521 (14.6%)of the population studied, with some individuals studied, with some individuals (0.8%) showing titers of 1:640, but there was no association with aCL. Although ANA is present in this healthy Omani population at high frequency and some individuals at high levels of aCL do not occur and their presence may be an indicator of autoimmune mediated pathalogy. (author)

  18. Cardiometabolic disease risk in metabolically healthy and unhealthy obesity: Stability of metabolic health status in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Fangjian; Garvey, W Timothy

    2016-02-01

    To assess the stability of metabolic status and body mass index (BMI) status and their relative contribution to risk of diabetes, cardiovascular events, and mortality. A total of 14,685 participants from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study and 4,990 from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study were included. People with healthy obesity (HO) are defined as those meeting all three indices of blood pressure, blood glucose, and blood lipids. People with unhealthy obesity crossed the risk threshold for all three criteria. In both healthy and unhealthy subgroups, risks for coronary heart disease (CHD), stroke, and mortality were comparable among BMI status during a mean 18.7-year follow-up. When compared with HO, hazard ratios were increased for diabetes (5.56, 95% confidence interval [CI] 4.12-7.48), CHD (5.60, 95% CI 3.14-9.98), stroke (4.84, 95% CI 2.13-10.97), and mortality (2.6, 95% CI 1.88-3.61) in people with unhealthy obesity. BMI only moderately increased the risks for diabetes among healthy subjects. In the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study over 20 years, 17.5% of lean subjects and 67.3% of overweight subjects at baseline developed obesity during follow-up. Despite rising BMI, metabolic status remained relatively stable. Metabolic status is relatively stable despite rising BMI. HO had lower risks for diabetes, CHD, stroke, and mortality than unhealthy subjects but increased diabetes risks than healthy lean people. Cardiometabolic risk factors confer much higher risk than obesity per se. © 2015 The Obesity Society.

  19. The barriers and enablers of healthy eating among young adults: a missing piece of the obesity puzzle: A scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munt, A E; Partridge, S R; Allman-Farinelli, M

    2017-01-01

    Young adults in Western countries are gaining weight faster than their parents and are more likely to gain weight than any other age cohort. Despite this, investigation into the complex young adults' food choice motives, which enable and prevent healthy eating, has not been widely investigated. A scoping review was conducted involving an extensive literature search of four major electronic databases: Medline, Embase, PsychInfo and CINAHL. Data were collected from 34 articles: study descriptions numerically analysed and key findings thematically analysed. The key barriers found included: male apathy towards diet; unhealthy diet of friends and family; expected consumption of unhealthy foods in certain situations; relative low cost of unhealthy foods; lack of time to plan, shop, prepare and cook healthy foods; lack of facilities to prepare, cook and store healthy foods; widespread presence of unhealthy foods; lack of knowledge and skills to plan, shop, prepare and cook healthy foods; lack of motivation to eat healthily (including risk-taking behaviour). The key enablers found included: female interest in a healthy diet; healthy diet of friends and family; support/encouragement of friends and family to eat healthy; desire for improved health; desire for weight management; desire for improved self-esteem; desire for attractiveness to potential partners and others; possessing autonomous motivation to eat healthy and existence and use of self-regulatory skills. This research provides evidence that can be used to tailor interventions for healthy eating and overweight and obesity in this population. However, government intervention in addressing food access, affordability, marketing and taxation remains essential to any significant change. © 2016 World Obesity Federation.

  20. Whole body vibration improves cognition in healthy young adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Ruben H Regterschot

    Full Text Available This study investigated the acute effects of passive whole body vibration (WBV on executive functions in healthy young adults. Participants (112 females, 21 males; age: 20.5±2.2 years underwent six passive WBV sessions (frequency 30 Hz, amplitude approximately 0.5 mm and six non-vibration control sessions of two minutes each while sitting on a chair mounted on a vibrating platform. A passive WBV session was alternated with a control session. Directly after each session, performance on the Stroop Color-Block Test (CBT, Stroop Color-Word Interference Test (CWIT, Stroop Difference Score (SDS and Digit Span Backward task (DSBT was measured. In half of the passive WBV and control sessions the test order was CBT-CWIT-DSBT, and DSBT-CBT-CWIT in the other half. Passive WBV improved CWIT (p = 0.009; effect size r = 0.20 and SDS (p = 0.034; r = 0.16 performance, but only when the CBT and CWIT preceded the DSBT. CBT and DSBT performance did not change. This study shows that two minutes passive WBV has positive acute effects on attention and inhibition in young adults, notwithstanding their high cognitive functioning which could have hampered improvement. This finding indicates the potential of passive WBV as a cognition-enhancing therapy worth further evaluation, especially in persons unable to perform active forms of exercise.

  1. Whole body vibration improves cognition in healthy young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regterschot, G Ruben H; Van Heuvelen, Marieke J G; Zeinstra, Edzard B; Fuermaier, Anselm B M; Tucha, Lara; Koerts, Janneke; Tucha, Oliver; Van Der Zee, Eddy A

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the acute effects of passive whole body vibration (WBV) on executive functions in healthy young adults. Participants (112 females, 21 males; age: 20.5±2.2 years) underwent six passive WBV sessions (frequency 30 Hz, amplitude approximately 0.5 mm) and six non-vibration control sessions of two minutes each while sitting on a chair mounted on a vibrating platform. A passive WBV session was alternated with a control session. Directly after each session, performance on the Stroop Color-Block Test (CBT), Stroop Color-Word Interference Test (CWIT), Stroop Difference Score (SDS) and Digit Span Backward task (DSBT) was measured. In half of the passive WBV and control sessions the test order was CBT-CWIT-DSBT, and DSBT-CBT-CWIT in the other half. Passive WBV improved CWIT (p = 0.009; effect size r = 0.20) and SDS (p = 0.034; r = 0.16) performance, but only when the CBT and CWIT preceded the DSBT. CBT and DSBT performance did not change. This study shows that two minutes passive WBV has positive acute effects on attention and inhibition in young adults, notwithstanding their high cognitive functioning which could have hampered improvement. This finding indicates the potential of passive WBV as a cognition-enhancing therapy worth further evaluation, especially in persons unable to perform active forms of exercise.

  2. Hippocampal volume is decreased in adults with hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Gillian E; Mullally, Sinead; Correia, Neuman; O'Mara, Shane M; Gibney, James

    2014-03-01

    Thyroid hormones are important for the adult brain, particularly regions of the hippocampus including the dentate gyrus and CA1 and CA3 regions. The hippocampus is a thyroid hormone receptor-rich region of the brain involved in learning and memory. Consequently, alterations in thyroid hormone levels have been reported to impair hippocampal-associated learning and memory, synaptic plasticity, and neurogenesis. While these effects have been shown primarily in developing rats, as well as in adult rats, little is known about the effects in adult humans. There are currently no data regarding structural changes in the hippocampus as a result of adult-onset hypothyroidism. We aimed to establish whether hippocampal volume was reduced in patients with untreated adult-onset hypothyroidism compared to age-matched healthy controls. High-resolution magnetization-prepared rapid acquisition with gradient echo (MPRAGE) scans were performed on 11 untreated hypothyroid adults and 9 age-matched control subjects. Hypothyroidism was diagnosed based on increased levels of thyrotropin (TSH) and reduced levels of free thyroxine (fT4). Volumetric analysis of the right and left hippocampal regions, using functional magnetic resonance imaging of the brain (FMRIB) integrated registration and segmentation tool (FIRST), demonstrated significant volume reduction in the right hippocampus in the hypothyroid patients relative to the control group. These findings provide preliminary evidence that hypothyroidism results in structural deficits in the adult human brain. Decreases in volume in the right hippocampus were evident in patients with adult-onset overt hypothyroidism, supporting some of the findings in animal models.

  3. Associations of Adiponectin with Adiposity, Insulin Sensitivity, and Diet in Young, Healthy, Mexican Americans and Non-Latino White Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Rocio I; Low Wang, Cecilia C; Wolfe, Pamela; Havranek, Edward P; Long, Carlin S; Bessesen, Daniel H

    2015-12-22

    Low circulating adiponectin levels may contribute to higher diabetes risk among Mexican Americans (MA) compared to non-Latino whites (NLW). Our objective was to determine if among young healthy adult MAs have lower adiponectin than NLWs, independent of differences in adiposity. In addition, we explored associations between adiponectin and diet. This was an observational, cross-sectional study of healthy MA and NLW adults living in Colorado (U.S.A.). We measured plasma total adiponectin, adiposity (BMI, and visceral adipose tissue), insulin sensitivity (IVGTT), and self-reported dietary intake in 43 MA and NLW adults. Mean adiponectin levels were 40% lower among MA than NLW (5.8 ± 3.3 vs. 10.7 ± 4.2 µg/mL, p = 0.0003), and this difference persisted after controlling for age, sex, BMI, and visceral adiposity. Lower adiponectin in MA was associated with lower insulin sensitivity (R² = 0.42, p diet support the need for future studies exploring the regulation of adiponectin by diet and other environmental factors.

  4. Effects of Elastic Resistance Exercise on Muscle Strength and Functional Performance in Healthy Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Poliana Alves; Blasczyk, Juscelino Castro; Souza Junior, Gerson; Lagoa, Karina Ferreira; Soares, Milene; de Oliveira, Ricardo Jacó; Filho, Paulo José Barbosa Gutierres; Carregaro, Rodrigo Luiz; Martins, Wagner Rodrigues

    2017-04-01

    Elastic Resistance Exercise (ERE) has already demonstrated its effectiveness in older adults and, when combined with the resistance generated by fixed loads, in adults. This review summarizes the effectiveness of ERE performed as isolated method on muscle strength and functional performance in healthy adults. A database search was performed (MEDLine, Cochrane Library, PEDro and Web of Knowledge) to identify controlled clinical trials in English language. The mean difference (MD) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and overall effect size were calculated for all comparisons. The PEDro scale was used assess the methodological quality. From the 93 articles identified by the search strategy, 5 met the inclusion criteria, in which 3 presented high quality (PEDro > 6). Meta-analyses demonstrated that the effects of ERE were superior when compared with passive control on functional performance and muscle strength. When compared with active controls, the effect of ERE was inferior on function performance and with similar effect on muscle strength. ERE are effective to improve functional performance and muscle strength when compared with no intervention, in healthy adults. ERE are not superior to other methods of resistance training to improve functional performance and muscle strength in health adults.

  5. Humors Effect on Short-term Memory in Healthy and Diabetic Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bains, Gurinder Singh; Berk, Lee S; Lohman, Everett; Daher, Noha; Petrofsky, Jerrold; Schwab, Ernie; Deshpande, Pooja

    2015-01-01

    With aging, the detrimental effects of stress can impair a person's ability to learn and sustain memory. Humor and its associated mirthful laughter can reduce stress by decreasing the hormone cortisol. Chronic release of cortisol can damage hippocampal neurons, leading to impairment of learning and memory. Objectives • The study intended to examine the effect of watching a humor video on short-term memory in older adults. Design • The research team designed a randomized, controlled trial. The study took place at Loma Linda University in Loma Linda, CA, USA. The study included 30 participants: 20 normal, healthy, older adults-11 males and 9 females-and 10 older adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM)-6 males and 4 females. The study included 2 intervention groups of older adults who viewed humorous videos, a healthy group (humor group), aged 69.9 ± 3.7 y, and the diabetic group, aged 67.1 ± 3.8 y. Each participant selected 1 of 2 humorous videos that were 20 min in length, either a Red Skeleton comedy or a montage of America's Funniest Home Videos. The control group, aged 68.7 ± 5.5 y, did not watch a humor video and sat in quiescence. A standardized, neuropsychological, memory-assessment tool, the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT), was used to assess the following abilities: (1) learning, (2) recall, and (3) visual recognition. The testing occurred twice, once before (RAVLT1) and once after (RAVLT2) the humorous video for the humor and diabetic groups, and once before (RAVLT1) and once after (RAVLT2) the period of quiescence for the control group. At 5 time points, measurements of salivary cortisol were also obtained. The Kruskal-Wallis test was used to measure significance of the data based on the 3 groups. In the humor, diabetic, and control groups, (1) learning ability improved by 38.5%, 33.4%, and 24.0%, respectively (P = .025); (2) delayed recall improved by 43.6%, 48.1%, and 20.3%, respectively (P = .064); and (3) visual recognition

  6. Age-dependent decline in acyl-ghrelin concentrations and reduced association of acyl-ghrelin and growth hormone in healthy older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nass, Ralf; Farhy, Leon S; Liu, Jianhua; Pezzoli, Suzan S; Johnson, Michael L; Gaylinn, Bruce D; Thorner, Michael O

    2014-02-01

    Acyl-ghrelin is thought to have both orexigenic effects and to stimulate GH release. A possible cause of the anorexia of aging is an age-dependent decrease in circulating acyl-ghrelin levels. The purpose of the study was to compare acyl-ghrelin and GH concentrations between healthy old and young adults and to examine the relationship of acyl-ghrelin and GH secretion in both age groups. Six healthy older adults (age 62-74 y, body mass index range 20.9-29 kg/m(2)) and eight healthy young men (aged 18-28 y, body mass index range 20.6-26.2 kg/m(2)) had frequent blood samples drawn for hormone measurements every 10 minutes for 24 hours. Ghrelin was measured in an in-house, two-site sandwich ELISA specific for full-length acyl-ghrelin. GH was measured in a sensitive assay (Immulite 2000), and GH peaks were determined by deconvolution analysis. The acyl-ghrelin/GH association was estimated from correlations between amplitudes of individual GH secretory events and the average acyl-ghrelin concentration in the 60-minute interval preceding each GH burst. Twenty-four-hour mean (±SEM) GH (0.48 ± 0.14 vs 2.2 ± 0.3 μg/L, P adults compared with young adults. Twenty-four-hour cortisol concentrations were higher in the old than the young adults (15.1 ± 1.0 vs 10.6 ± 0.9 μg/dL, respectively, P young adults (0.16 ± 0.12 vs 0.69 ± 0.04, P age-dependent decline in circulating acyl-ghrelin levels, which might play a role both in the decline of GH and in the anorexia of aging. Our data also suggest that with normal aging, endogenous acyl-ghrelin levels are less tightly linked to GH regulation.

  7. Association between healthy diet and exercise and greater muscle mass in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinhee; Lee, Yunhwan; Kye, Seunghee; Chung, Yoon-Sok; Kim, Kwang-Min

    2015-05-01

    To examine the association between healthy diet and exercise, individually and combined, and low muscle mass in older Korean adults. Population-based cross-sectional study from the Fourth and Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys from 2008 to 2011. Community. Nationally representative sample aged 65 and older (1,486 men, 1,799 women) in the Republic of Korea. A food frequency questionnaire was used to determine frequency of food group consumption (meat, fish, eggs, legumes; vegetables; fruits). Participation in exercise (aerobic and resistance) was based on self-report. Combined healthy lifestyle factors were calculated as the number of recommendations met regarding consumption of food groups and exercise performed. Appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM) was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and low muscle mass was defined using the variable of ASM adjusted for weight. Logistic regression analysis was performed to examine the association between healthy lifestyle factors and low muscle mass, adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics and health-related variables. In women, after controlling for covariates, vegetable consumption (odds ratio (OR)=0.52, 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.30-0.89) and aerobic exercise (OR=0.62, 95% CI=0.39-1.00) were inversely associated with low muscle mass. Also, the odds of low muscle mass was lower in women with three or more healthy lifestyle factors versus none (OR=0.45, 95% CI=0.23-0.87). In men, there were no associations between food group consumption and exercise and low muscle mass. Older women who exercise and consume a healthy diet have lower odds of low muscle mass. Engaging in multiple healthy behaviors may be important in preventing low muscle mass in late life. © 2015, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2015, The American Geriatrics Society.

  8. Surface electromyography activity of the rectus abdominis, internal oblique, and external oblique muscles during forced expiration in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Kenichi; Nonaka, Koji; Ogaya, Shinya; Ogi, Atsushi; Matsunaka, Chiaki; Horie, Jun

    2016-06-01

    We aimed to characterize rectus abdominis, internal oblique, and external oblique muscle activity in healthy adults under expiratory resistance using surface electromyography. We randomly assigned 42 healthy adult subjects to 3 groups: 30%, 20%, and 10% maximal expiratory intraoral pressure (PEmax). After measuring 100% PEmax and muscle activity during 100% PEmax, the activity and maximum voluntary contraction of each muscle during the assigned experimental condition were measured. At 100% PEmax, the external oblique (pinternal oblique (pexternal oblique (pinternal oblique (pexternal oblique: pinternal oblique: p<0.01). The abdominal oblique muscles are the most active during forced expiration. Moreover, 30% PEmax is the minimum intensity required to achieve significant, albeit very slight, muscle activity during expiratory resistance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of Neuromuscular Electrical Muscle Stimulation on Energy Expenditure in Healthy Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-Ju Chang

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Weight loss/weight control is a major concern in prevention of cardiovascular disease and the realm of health promotion. The primary aim of this study was to investigate the effect of neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES at different intensities on energy expenditure (oxygen and calories in healthy adults. The secondary aim was to develop a generalized linear regression (GEE model to predict the increase of energy expenditure facilitated by NMES and identify factors (NMES stimulation intensity level, age, body mass index, weight, body fat percentage, waist/hip ratio, and gender associated with this NMES-induced increase of energy expenditure. Forty sedentary healthy adults (18 males and 22 females participated. NMES was given at the following stimulation intensities for 10 minutes each: sensory level (E1, motor threshold (E2, and maximal intensity comfortably tolerated (E3. Cardiopulmonary gas exchange was evaluated during rest, NMES, and recovery stage. The results revealed that NMES at E2 and E3 significantly increased energy expenditure and the energy expenditure at recovery stage was still significantly higher than baseline. The GEE model demonstrated that a linear dose-response relationship existed between the stimulation intensity and the increase of energy expenditure. No subject’s demographic or anthropometric characteristics tested were significantly associated with the increase of energy expenditure. This study suggested NMES may be used to serve as an additional intervention for weight loss programs. Future studies to develop electrical stimulators or stimulation electrodes to maximize the comfort of NMES are recommended.

  10. Sentence comprehension following moderate closed head injury in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leikin, Mark; Ibrahim, Raphiq; Aharon-Peretz, Judith

    2012-09-01

    The current study explores sentence comprehension impairments among adults following moderate closed head injury. It was hypothesized that if the factor of syntactic complexity significantly affects sentence comprehension in these patients, it would testify to the existence of syntactic processing deficit along with working-memory problems. Thirty-six adults (18 closed head injury patients and 18 healthy controls matched in age, gender, and IQ) participated in the study. A picture-sentence matching task together with various tests for memory, language, and reading abilities were used to explore whether sentence comprehension impairments exist as a result of a deficit in syntactic processing or of working-memory dysfunction. Results indicate significant impairment in sentence comprehension among adults with closed head injury compared with their non-head-injured peers. Results also reveal that closed head injury patients demonstrate considerable decline in working memory, short-term memory, and semantic knowledge. Analysis of the results shows that memory impairment and syntactic complexity contribute significantly to sentence comprehension difficulties in closed head injury patients. At the same time, the presentation mode (spoken or written language) was found to have no effect on comprehension among adults with closed head injury, and their reading abilities appear to be relatively intact.

  11. Pharmacokinetics of Escalating Doses of Oral Psilocybin in Healthy Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Randall T; Nicholas, Christopher R; Cozzi, Nicholas V; Gassman, Michele C; Cooper, Karen M; Muller, Daniel; Thomas, Chantelle D; Hetzel, Scott J; Henriquez, Kelsey M; Ribaudo, Alexandra S; Hutson, Paul R

    2017-12-01

    Psilocybin is a psychedelic tryptamine that has shown promise in recent clinical trials for the treatment of depression and substance use disorders. This open-label study of the pharmacokinetics of psilocybin was performed to describe the pharmacokinetics and safety profile of psilocybin in sequential, escalating oral doses of 0.3, 0.45, and 0.6 mg/kg in 12 healthy adults. Eligible healthy adults received 6-8 h of preparatory counseling in anticipation of the first dose of psilocybin. The escalating oral psilocybin doses were administered at approximately monthly intervals in a controlled setting and subjects were monitored for 24 h. Blood and urine samples were collected over 24 h and assayed by a validated liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) assay for psilocybin and psilocin, the active metabolite. The pharmacokinetics of psilocin were determined using both compartmental (NONMEM) and noncompartmental (WinNonlin) methods. No psilocybin was found in plasma or urine, and renal clearance of intact psilocin accounted for less than 2% of the total clearance. The pharmacokinetics of psilocin were linear within the twofold range of doses, and the elimination half-life of psilocin was 3 h (standard deviation 1.1). An extended elimination phase in some subjects suggests hydrolysis of the psilocin glucuronide metabolite. Variation in psilocin clearance was not predicted by body weight, and no serious adverse events occurred in the subjects studied. The small amount of psilocin renally excreted suggests that no dose reduction is needed for subjects with mild-moderate renal impairment. Simulation of fixed doses using the pharmacokinetic parameters suggest that an oral dose of 25 mg should approximate the drug exposure of a 0.3 mg/kg oral dose of psilocybin. Although doses of 0.6 mg/kg are in excess of likely therapeutic doses, no serious physical or psychological events occurred during or within 30 days of any dose. NCT02163707.

  12. Hippocampal dentation: Structural variation and its association with episodic memory in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming Beattie, Julia; Martin, Roy C; Kana, Rajesh K; Deshpande, Hrishikesh; Lee, Seongtaek; Curé, Joel; Ver Hoef, Lawrence

    2017-07-01

    While the hippocampus has long been identified as a structure integral to memory, the relationship between morphology and function has yet to be fully explained. We present an analysis of hippocampal dentation, a morphological feature previously unexplored in regard to its relationship with episodic memory. "Hippocampal dentation" in this case refers to surface convolutions, primarily present in the CA1/subiculum on the inferior aspect of the hippocampus. Hippocampal dentation was visualized using ultra-high resolution structural MRI and evaluated using a novel visual rating scale. The degree of hippocampal dentation was found to vary considerably across individuals, and was positively associated with verbal memory recall and visual memory recognition in a sample of 22 healthy adults. This study is the first to characterize the variation in hippocampal dentation in a healthy cohort and to demonstrate its association with aspects of episodic memory. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Postprandial Glucose Surges after Extremely Low Carbohydrate Diet in Healthy Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanamori, Koji; Ihana-Sugiyama, Noriko; Yamamoto-Honda, Ritsuko; Nakamura, Tomoka; Sobe, Chie; Kamiya, Shigemi; Kishimoto, Miyako; Kajio, Hiroshi; Kawano, Kimiko; Noda, Mitsuhiko

    2017-09-01

    Carbohydrate-restricted diets are prevalent not only in obese people but also in the general population to maintain appropriate body weight. Here, we report that extreme carbohydrate restriction for one day affects the subsequent blood glucose levels in healthy adults. Ten subjects (median age 30.5 years, BMI 21.1 kg/m 2 , and HbA1c 5.5%), wearing with a continuous glucose monitoring device, were given isoenergetic test meals for 4 consecutive days. On day 1, day 2 (D2), and day 4 (D4), they consumed normal-carbohydrate (63-66% carbohydrate) diet, while on day 3, they took low-carbohydrate/high-fat (5% carbohydrate) diet. The daily energy intake was 2,200 kcal for males and 1,700 kcal for females. On D2 and D4, we calculated the mean 24-hr blood glucose level (MEAN/24h) and its standard deviation (SD/24h), the area under the curve (AUC) for glucose over 140 mg/dL within 4 hours after each meal (AUC/4h/140), the mean amplitude of the glycemic excursions (MAGE), the incremental AUC of 24-hr blood glucose level above the mean plus one standard deviation (iAUC/MEAN+SD). Indexes for glucose fluctuation on D4 were significantly greater than those on D2 (SD/24h; p = 0.009, MAGE; p = 0.013, AUC/4h/140 after breakfast and dinner; p = 0.006 and 0.005, and iAUC/MEAN+SD; p = 0.007). The value of MEAN/24h and AUC/4h/140 after lunch on D4 were greater than those on D2, but those differences were not statistically significant. In conclusion, consumption of low-carbohydrate/high-fat diet appears to cause higher postprandial blood glucose on subsequent normal-carbohydrate diet particularly after breakfast and dinner in healthy adults.

  14. Effects of a single, oral 60 mg caffeine dose on attention in healthy adult subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelmus, Micha Mm; Hay, Justin L; Zuiker, Rob Gja; Okkerse, Pieter; Perdrieu, Christelle; Sauser, Julien; Beaumont, Maurice; Schmitt, Jeroen; van Gerven, Joop Ma; Silber, Beata Y

    2017-02-01

    Caffeine induces positive effects on sustained attention, although studies assessing the acute effects of low caffeine dose (caffeine on sustained attention in tests lasting up to 45 minutes using 82 low or non-caffeine-consuming healthy male ( n=41) and female ( n=41) adults aged between 40 and 60 years. Vigilance was measured using Mackworth Clock test, Rapid Visual Information Processing Test, adaptive tracking test, saccadic eye movement and attention switch test. Effects on mood and fatigue were analysed using Bond and Lader and Caffeine Research visual analogue scales, and Samn-Perelli questionnaire. Saliva sampling was performed for both compliance and caffeine pharmacokinetic analysis. Administration of a 60 mg caffeine dose resulted in a significant improvement in sustained attention compared with the placebo. Also a significantly improved peak saccadic velocity and reaction time performance was found, and decreased error rate. Significantly increased feelings of alertness, contentment and overall mood after caffeine treatment compared with placebo were observed. This study demonstrated that in healthy adult subjects oral administration of a single 60 mg caffeine dose elicited a clear enhancement of sustained attention and alertness, measured both in multiple objective performances and in subjective scales.

  15. Protein-Enriched Liquid Preloads Varying in Macronutrient Content Modulate Appetite and Appetite-Regulating Hormones in Healthy Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougkas, Anestis; Östman, Elin

    2016-03-01

    Dietary protein is considered the most satiating macronutrient, yet there is little evidence on whether the effects observed are attributable to the protein or to the concomitant manipulation of carbohydrates and fat. The aim was to examine the effect of consumption of preloads varying in macronutrient content on appetite, energy intake, and biomarkers of satiety. Using a randomized, within-subjects, 2-level factorial design, 36 adults [mean ± SD age: 27 ± 5 y; body mass index (in kg/m(2)): 24.3 ± 1.6) received a breakfast consisting of 1 of 7 isovolumetric (670 mL) and isoenergetic (2100 kJ) liquid preloads matched for energy density and sensory properties but with different macronutrient composition (levels: 9%, 24%, or 40% of energy from protein combined with a carbohydrate-to-fat ratio of 0.4, 2, or 3.6, respectively). Appetite ratings and blood samples were collected and assessed at baseline and every 30 and 60 min, respectively, until a lunch test meal, which participants consumed ad libitum, was served 3.5 h after breakfast. Prospective consumption was 12% lower after intake of the high-protein (40%)/3.6 carbohydrate:fat preload than after intake of the low-protein (9%)/0.4 carbohydrate:fat preload (P = 0.02) solely because of the increased protein, irrespective of the manipulation of the other macronutrients. Most appetite ratings tended to be suppressed (13%) with increasing protein content of the preloads (P appetite than did carbohydrates and fat. Modulating the nutritional profile of a meal by replacing fat with protein can influence appetite in healthy adults. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01849302. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  16. Effects of a Lutein and Zeaxanthin Intervention on Cognitive Function: A Randomized, Double-Masked, Placebo-Controlled Trial of Younger Healthy Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renzi-Hammond, Lisa M; Bovier, Emily R; Fletcher, Laura M; Miller, L Stephen; Mewborn, Catherine M; Lindbergh, Cutter A; Baxter, Jeffrey H; Hammond, Billy R

    2017-11-14

    Background: Past studies have suggested that higher lutein (L) and zeaxanthin (Z) levels in serum and in the central nervous system (as quantified by measuring macular pigment optical density, MPOD) are related to improved cognitive function in older adults. Very few studies have addressed the issue of xanthophylls and cognitive function in younger adults, and no controlled trials have been conducted to date to determine whether or not supplementation with L + Z can change cognitive function in this population. Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine whether or not supplementation with L + Z could improve cognitive function in young (age 18-30), healthy adults. Design: A randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled trial design was used. Fifty-one young, healthy subjects were recruited as part of a larger study on xanthophylls and cognitive function. Subjects were randomized into active supplement ( n = 37) and placebo groups ( n = 14). MPOD was measured psychophysically using customized heterochromatic flicker photometry. Cognitive function was measured using the CNS Vital Signs testing platform. MPOD and cognitive function were measured every four months for a full year of supplementation. Results: Supplementation increased MPOD significantly over the course of the year, vs. placebo ( p cognitive function in young, healthy adults. Magnitudes of effects are similar to previous work reporting correlations between MPOD and cognition in other populations.

  17. Computerized cognitive training in cognitively healthy older adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis of effect modifiers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Lampit

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: New effective interventions to attenuate age-related cognitive decline are a global priority. Computerized cognitive training (CCT is believed to be safe and can be inexpensive, but neither its efficacy in enhancing cognitive performance in healthy older adults nor the impact of design factors on such efficacy has been systematically analyzed. Our aim therefore was to quantitatively assess whether CCT programs can enhance cognition in healthy older adults, discriminate responsive from nonresponsive cognitive domains, and identify the most salient design factors. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We systematically searched Medline, Embase, and PsycINFO for relevant studies from the databases' inception to 9 July 2014. Eligible studies were randomized controlled trials investigating the effects of ≥ 4 h of CCT on performance in neuropsychological tests in older adults without dementia or other cognitive impairment. Fifty-two studies encompassing 4,885 participants were eligible. Intervention designs varied considerably, but after removal of one outlier, heterogeneity across studies was small (I(2 = 29.92%. There was no systematic evidence of publication bias. The overall effect size (Hedges' g, random effects model for CCT versus control was small and statistically significant, g = 0.22 (95% CI 0.15 to 0.29. Small to moderate effect sizes were found for nonverbal memory, g = 0.24 (95% CI 0.09 to 0.38; verbal memory, g = 0.08 (95% CI 0.01 to 0.15; working memory (WM, g = 0.22 (95% CI 0.09 to 0.35; processing speed, g = 0.31 (95% CI 0.11 to 0.50; and visuospatial skills, g = 0.30 (95% CI 0.07 to 0.54. No significant effects were found for executive functions and attention. Moderator analyses revealed that home-based administration was ineffective compared to group-based training, and that more than three training sessions per week was ineffective versus three or fewer. There was no evidence for the effectiveness of WM training, and only weak

  18. Safety, Tolerability and Pharmacokinetics of the Serotonin 5-HT6 Receptor Antagonist, SUVN-502, in Healthy Young Adults and Elderly Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirogi, Ramakrishna; Mudigonda, Koteshwara; Bhyrapuneni, Gopinadh; Muddana, Nageswara Rao; Goyal, Vinod Kumar; Pandey, Santosh Kumar; Palacharla, Raghava Choudary

    2018-05-01

    SUVN-502, a selective 5-HT6 receptor antagonist, was found to be active in preclinical models of cognitive deterioration suggesting a potential role in the treatment of dementia related to Alzheimer's disease. The objective of this study was to characterize the safety, tolerability and pharmacokinetics of SUVN-502 in healthy young adults and elderly subjects following single and multiple oral doses. Single doses (5, 15, 50, 100 and 200 mg SUVN-502) and multiple doses (50, 100 and 130 mg SUVN-502 once daily for 7 days) were evaluated in healthy young adults and multiple doses (50 and 100 mg SUVN-502 once daily for 14 days) were evaluated in elderly subjects using randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-escalating study designs. The effect of food, gender and age on SUVN-502 pharmacokinetics (100 mg single dose) was evaluated using an open-label, two-period, randomized, fed and fasted in a crossover design. SUVN-502 and M1 (major metabolite of SUVN-502) were monitored using validated analytical methods. SUVN-502 is safe and well tolerated up to the highest tested single dose of 200 mg in healthy young adults and multiple doses up to 130 mg for 7 days and 100 mg for 14 days in healthy young adults and elderly subjects, respectively. Exposures of SUVN-502 and M1 were more than dose-proportional over the evaluated dose range. Food and gender did not have a clinically meaningful effect on SUVN-502 exposure. The mean SUVN-502 total (AUC 0-∞ , and AUC 0-last ) and peak exposures (C max ) were 2.9- and 2.2-fold higher, respectively, in elderly subjects compared to young subjects. Steady-state was achieved for SUVN-502 and M1 within 7 days after once-daily dosing of SUVN-502. SUVN-502 exhibited an acceptable safety, tolerability and pharmacokinetic profile in healthy young adults and elderly subjects. Based on the above results, 50 and 100 mg once-daily doses of SUVN-502 were advanced to Phase 2 evaluation in patients with moderate AD.

  19. Vitamin C and fibre consumption from fruits and vegetables improves oxidative stress markers in healthy young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermsdorff, Helen Hermana M; Barbosa, Kiriaque B F; Volp, Ana Carolina P; Puchau, Blanca; Bressan, Josefina; Zulet, M Ángeles; Martínez, J Alfredo

    2012-04-01

    The aim of the present cross-sectional study was to assess the potential relationships between fruit and vegetable (FV) consumption and some oxidative stress markers in young adults, with particular emphasis on fibre and vitamin C intake. The study enrolled 246 healthy subjects (eighty-eight men and 158 women), with a mean age of 22 (sd 3) years and a mean BMI of 21·9 (sd 2·8) kg/m2. Dietary intake, anthropometry, blood pressure, lifestyle features and blood biochemical data were assessed with validated procedures. Those subjects in the highest tertile (T) of FV consumption ( ≥ 705 g/d) had statistically lower oxidised LDL (ox-LDL) concentrations as well as higher plasma total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity (P for trend well as increased TAC and GPx activity in healthy young adults, with dietary fibre and vitamin C from FV clearly being implicated in this beneficial relationship.

  20. The Comparison of Sagittal Spinopelvic Parameters between Young Adult Patients with L5 Spondylolysis and Age-Matched Control Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Young Min; Choi, Ha Young

    2013-01-01

    Objective To compare spinopelvic parameters in young adult patients with spondylolysis to those in age-matched patients without spondylolysis and investigate the clinical impact of sagittal spinopelvic parameters in patients with L5 spondylolysis. Methods From 2009 to 2012, a total of 198 young adult male patients with spondylolysis were identified. Eighty age-matched patients without spondylolysis were also selected. Standing lateral films that included both hip joints were obtained for each subject. Pelvic incidence (PI), sacral slope (SS), pelvic tilt, lumbar lordosis angle, sacral inclination, lumbosacral angle, and sacral table angle were measured in both groups. A comparative study of the spinopelvic parameters of these two groups was performed using SPSS 15.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). Results Among the aforementioned spinopelvic parameters, PI, SS and STA were significantly different between patients with spondylolysis and those without spondylolysis. PI and SS were higher in the spondylolysis group than in the control group, but STA was lower in the spondylolysis group than in the control group. Conclusion PI and SS were higher in the spondylolysis group than in the control group, but STA was lower in the spondylolysis group than in the control group. Patients with spondylolysis have low STA at birth, which remains constant during growth; a low STA translates into high SS. As a result, PI is also increased in accordance with SS. Therefore, we suggest that STA is an important etiologic factor in young adult patients with L5 spondylolysis. PMID:24278649

  1. Skeletal muscle abnormalities and exercise capacity in adults with a Fontan circulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordina, Rachael; O'Meagher, Shamus; Gould, Haslinda; Rae, Caroline; Kemp, Graham; Pasco, Julie A; Celermajer, David S; Singh, Nalin

    2013-10-01

    The peripheral muscle pump is key in promoting cardiac filling during exercise, especially in subjects who lack a subpulmonary ventricle (the Fontan circulation). A muscle-wasting syndrome exists in acquired heart failure but has not been assessed in Fontan subjects. We sought to investigate whether adults with the Fontan circulation exhibit reduced skeletal muscle mass and/or metabolic abnormalities. Sixteen New York Heart Association Class I/II Fontan adults (30±2 years) underwent cardiopulmonary exercise testing and lean mass quantification with dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA); eight had calf muscle (31)P magnetic resonance spectroscopy as did eight healthy age-matched and sex-matched controls. DXA results were compared with Australian reference data. Single tertiary referral centre. Peak VO2 was 1.9±0.1 L/min (66±3% of predicted values). Skeletal muscle mass assessed by relative appendicular lean mass index was significantly reduced compared with age-matched and sex-matched reference values (Z-score -1.46±0.22, pskeletal muscle mass correlated with poorer VO2 max (r=0.67, p=0.004). Overall, skeletal muscle mass T-score (derived from comparison with young normal reference mean) was -1.47±0.21; 4/16 Fontan subjects had sarcopenic range muscle wasting (T-score Muscle aerobic capacity, measured by the rate constant (k) of postexercise phosphocreatine resynthesis, was significantly impaired in Fontan adults versus controls (1.48±0.13 vs 2.40±0.33 min(-1), p=0.02). Fontan adults have reduced skeletal muscle mass and intrinsic muscle metabolic abnormalities.

  2. Health effects of ambient levels of respirable particulate matter (PM) on healthy, young-adult population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaughnessy, William J.; Venigalla, Mohan M.; Trump, David

    2015-12-01

    There is an absence of studies that define the relationship between ambient particulate matter (PM) levels and adverse health outcomes among the young and healthy adult sub-group. In this research, the relationship between exposures to ambient levels of PM in the 10 micron (PM10) and 2.5 micron (PM2.5) size fractions and health outcomes in members of the healthy, young-adult subgroup who are 18-39 years of age was examined. Active duty military personnel populations at three strategically selected military bases in the United States were used as a surrogate to the control group. Health outcome data, which consists of the number of diagnoses for each of nine International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision (ICD-9) categories related to respiratory illness, were derived from outpatient visits at each of the three military bases. Data on ambient concentrations of particulate matter, specifically PM10 and PM2.5, were obtained for these sites. The health outcome data were correlated and regressed with the PM10 and PM2.5 data, and other air quality and weather-related data on a daily and weekly basis for the period 1998 to 2004. Results indicate that at Fort Bliss, which is a US Environmental Protection Agency designated non-attainment area for PM10, a statistically significant association exists between the weekly-averaged number of adverse health effects in the young and healthy adult population and the corresponding weekly-average ambient PM10 concentration. A least squares regression analysis was performed on the Fort Bliss data sets indicated that the health outcome data is related to several environmental parameters in addition to PM10. Overall, the analysis estimates a .6% increase in the weekly rate of emergency room visits for upper respiratory infections for every 10 μg/m3 increase in the weekly-averaged PM10 concentration above the mean. The findings support the development of policy and guidance opportunities that can be developed to mitigate exposures

  3. Does diurnal variation in cough reflex testing exist in healthy young adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Sarah; Huckabee, Maggie-Lee

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether diurnal variation in cough reflex sensitivity exists in healthy young adults when a tidal-breathing method is used. Fifty-three participants (19-37 years) underwent cough reflex testing on two occasions: once in the morning (between 9 am - midday) and once in the afternoon (between 2-5 pm). The order of testing was counter-balanced. Within each assessment, participants inhaled successively higher citric acid concentrations via a facemask, with saline solution randomly interspersed to control for a placebo response. The lowest concentration that elicited a reflexive cough response was recorded. Morning cough thresholds (mean=0.6mol/L) were not different from afternoon cough thresholds (mean=0.6mol/L), p=0.16, T=101, r=-0.14. We found no evidence of diurnal variability in cough reflex testing. There was, however, an order effect irrespective of time of day, confirming that healthy participants are able to volitionally modulate their cough response. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Are a Healthy Diet and Physical Activity Synergistically Associated with Cognitive Functioning in Older Adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijholt, W; Jager-Wittenaar, H; Visser, M; van der Schans, C P; Hobbelen, J S M

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that being both physically active and adhering a healthy diet is associated with improved cognitive functioning; however, it remains unclear whether these factors act synergistically. We investigated the synergistic association of a healthy diet and being physically active with cognitive functioning. Cross-sectional study. Data from the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam (LASA) were used. We analyzed data from 2,165 community dwelling adults who were aged 55-85 years, 56% of whom were female. Cognitive functioning was assessed by the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), an MMSE score of >26 indicates good cognitive functioning. Physical activity was assessed by the LASA Physical Activity Questionnaire and was considered sufficient if the person engaged in moderately intense physical activity ≥ 20 min/day. A healthy diet score was based on the intake of fruit, vegetables and fish. Each of the food groups was assigned a score that ranged from 1 (well below the Dutch guideline for a healthy diet) to 4 (well above the Dutch guideline for a healthy diet), and the scores were aggregated to determine a healthy diet (healthy ≥ 9 points). Multiple logistic and linear regression analyses were used to examine the (synergistic) association among physical activity, a healthy diet and cognitive functioning. All analyses were adjusted for potential chronic diseases and lifestyle confounders. Of all of the participants, 25% were diagnosed with a cognitive impairment (MMSE ≤26), 80% were physically active and 41% had a healthy diet. Sixty three percent of the participants both adhered to a healthy diet and were physically active. Sufficient daily physical activity (OR=2.545 phealthy diet (OR=1.766 p=.002) were associated with good cognitive functioning. After adjusting for confounding factors, sufficient physical activity was not significantly related to cognitive functioning (p=.163); however adherence to a healthy diet remained

  5. Body Weight and Matching with a Physically Attractive Romantic Partner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmalt, Julie H.; Cawley, John; Joyner, Kara; Sobal, Jeffery

    2008-01-01

    Matching and attribute trade are two perspectives used to explain mate selection. We investigated patterns of matching and trade, focusing on obesity, using Add Health Romantic Pair data (N = 1,405 couples). Obese individuals, relative to healthy weight individuals, were less likely to have physically attractive partners, with this disadvantage…

  6. Predictors of Memory Deficits in Adolescents and Young Adults with Congenital Heart Disease Compared to Healthy Controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy A. Pike

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Adolescents and young adults with congenital heart disease [CHD] show a range of memory deficits, which can dramatically impact their clinical outcomes and quality of life. However, few studies have identified predictors of these memory changes. The purpose of this investigation was to identify predictors of memory deficits in adolescents and young adults with CHD after surgical palliation compared to healthy controls. Method: 156 adolescents and young adults [80 CHD and 76 controls; age 14-21 years] were recruited and administered an instrument to assess memory [Wide Range Assessment of Memory and Learning 2nd Edition – general memory index (GMI score] and completed questionnaires that measure anxiety, depression, sleepiness, health status, and self-efficacy. Descriptive and non-parametric statistics were used to assess group differences, and logistic regression to identify predictors of memory deficits. Results: CHD subjects consisted of 58% males, median age 17 years, 41% Hispanic, and medians of 2 previous heart surgeries and 14 years since last surgery. Memory deficits [GMI < 85] were identified in 50% CHD compared to 4% healthy controls [median GMI 85 vs. 108, p <0.001]. Of GMI subscale medians, CHD subjects had significantly worse memory performance vs. healthy controls [verbal 88 vs. 105, p <0.001; attention 88 vs. 109, p<0.001; working memory 86 vs. 108, p <0.001]. No significant differences appeared between groups for visual memory. Multiple clinical and psychosocial factors were identified which were statistically different on bivariate analyses between the subjects with and without memory deficits. By multivariate analysis, male gender, number of surgeries, anxiety, and self-efficacy emerged as independent predictors of memory deficits. Conclusion: Adolescents and young adults with CHD, more than a decade since their last surgery, show significant verbal, attention and working memory deficits over controls. To enhance

  7. Reaching in reality and virtual reality: a comparison of movement kinematics in healthy subjects and in adults with hemiparesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feldman Anatol G

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Virtual reality (VR is an innovative tool for sensorimotor rehabilitation increasingly being employed in clinical and community settings. Despite the growing interest in VR, few studies have determined the validity of movements made in VR environments with respect to real physical environments. The goal of this study was to compare movements done in physical and virtual environments in adults with motor deficits to those in healthy individuals. Methods The participants were 8 healthy adults and 7 adults with mild left hemiparesis due to stroke. Kinematics of functional arm movements involving reaching, grasping and releasing made in physical and virtual environments were analyzed in two phases: 1 reaching and grasping the ball and 2 ball transport and release. The virtual environment included interaction with an object on a 2D computer screen and haptic force feedback from a virtual ball. Temporal and spatial parameters of reaching and grasping were determined for each phase. Results Individuals in both groups were able to reach, grasp, transport, place and release the virtual and real ball using similar movement strategies. In healthy subjects, reaching and grasping movements in both environments were similar but these subjects used less wrist extension and more elbow extension to place the ball on the virtual vertical surface. Participants with hemiparesis made slower movements in both environments compared to healthy subjects and during transport and placing of the ball, trajectories were more curved and interjoint coordination was altered. Despite these differences, patients with hemiparesis also tended to use less wrist extension during the whole movement and more elbow extension at the end of the placing phase. Conclusion Differences in movements made by healthy subjects in the two environments may be explained by the use of a 2D instead of a 3D virtual environment and the absence of haptic feedback from the VR target

  8. Artichoke leaf extract (Cynara scolymus) reduces plasma cholesterol in otherwise healthy hypercholesterolemic adults: a randomized, double blind placebo controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bundy, Rafe; Walker, Ann F; Middleton, Richard W; Wallis, Carol; Simpson, Hugh C R

    2008-09-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are the chief causes of death in the UK, and are associated with high circulating levels of total cholesterol in the plasma. Artichoke leaf extracts (ALEs) have been reported to reduce plasma lipids levels, including total cholesterol, although high quality data is lacking. The objective of this trial was to assess the effect of ALE on plasma lipid levels and general well-being in otherwise healthy adults with mild to moderate hypercholesterolemia. 131 adults were screened for total plasma cholesterol in the range 6.0-8.0 mmol/l, with 75 suitable volunteers randomised onto the trial. Volunteers consumed 1280 mg of a standardised ALE, or matched placebo, daily for 12 weeks. Plasma total cholesterol decreased in the treatment group by an average of 4.2% (from 7.16 (SD 0.62) mmol/l to 6.86 (SD 0.68) mmol/l) and increased in the control group by an average of 1.9% (6.90 (SD 0.49) mmol/l to 7.03 (0.61) mmol/l), the difference between groups being statistically significant (p=0.025). No significant differences between groups were observed for LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol or triglyceride levels. General well-being improved significantly in both the treatment (11%) and control groups (9%) with no significant differences between groups. In conclusion, ALE consumption resulted in a modest but favourable statistically significant difference in total cholesterol after 12 weeks. In comparison with a previous trial, it is suggested that the apparent positive health status of the study population may have contributed to the modesty of the observed response.

  9. Development of a Healthy Dietary Habits Index for New Zealand Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Jyh Eiin; Haszard, Jillian J; Howe, Anna S; Parnell, Winsome R; Skidmore, Paula M L

    2017-05-03

    Healthful dietary habits are individually associated with better nutrient intake and positive health outcomes; however, this information is rarely examined together to validate an indicator of diet quality. This study developed a 15-item Healthy Dietary Habits Index (HDHI) based on self-reported dietary habits information collected in the 2008/09 New Zealand Adult Nutrition Survey. The validity of HDHI as a diet quality index was examined in relation to sociodemographic factors, 24-diet recall derived nutrient intakes, and nutritional biomarkers in a representative sample of adults aged 19 years and above. Linear regression models were employed to determine associations between HDHI quintiles and energy-adjusted nutrient data and nutritional biomarkers. Significantly higher HDHI scores were found among women, older age groups, Non-Māori or Pacific ethnic groups, and less socioeconomically-deprived groups (all p < 0.001). Increasing quintiles of HDHI were associated with higher intakes of dietary fibre and seven micronutrients including calcium, iron, and vitamin C, and lower intakes of energy, macronutrients, sodium, zinc, vitamins B6 and B12. Associations in the expected directions were also found for urinary sodium, whole blood folate, serum and red blood cell folate, and plasma selenium (all p < 0.001). The present findings suggest that the HDHI is a valid measure of diet quality as it is capable of discerning quality of diets of subgroups and ranking nutrient intakes among NZ adults.

  10. Relationship between chewing behavior and body weight status in fully dentate healthy adults.

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    Zhu, Yong; Hollis, James H

    2015-03-01

    Recent research indicates that chewing behavior may influence energy intake and energy expenditure. However, little is known about the relationship between chewing behavior and body weight status. In the present study, 64 fully dentate normal-weight or overweight/obese adults were asked to consume five portions of a test food and the number of chewing cycles, chewing duration before swallowing and chewing rate were measured. Adjusting for age and gender, normal-weight participants used a higher number of chewing cycles (p = 0.003) and a longer chewing duration (p chewing rate (p = 0.597). A statistically significant negative correlation between body mass index and the number of chewing cycles (r = -0.296, p = 0.020) and chewing duration (r = -0.354, p = 0.005) was observed. In conclusion, these results suggest that chewing behavior is associated with body weight status in fully dentate healthy adults.

  11. Correlations Between Nutrition Habits, Anxiety and Metabolic Parameters in Greek Healthy Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambrinakou, Stavroula; Katsa, Maria Efthymia; Zyga, Sofia; Ioannidis, Anastasios; Sachlas, Athanasios; Panoutsopoulos, Georgios; Pistikou, Anna Maria; Magana, Maria; Kougioumtzi Dimoligianni, Dafni Eleni; Kolovos, Petros; Rojas Gil, Andrea Paola

    2017-01-01

    Anxiety combined with nervousness and apprehension consist a focal response to different life conditions. Lifestyle habits, anxiety and biochemical markers are in a constant interaction. To investigate the prevalence of anxiety in healthy adults and its possible association with biochemical factors-lipid profile, liver markers, thyroid hormones-and lifestyle habits. Quantitative descriptive correlation study. A total of 100 healthy adults participated in the research. A specially designed questionnaire and Hamilton's scale were used. Anthropometric and biochemical analyses were performed. Overall, 61% of the participants presented moderate to very serious anxiety. The average score on the Hamilton scale was 13.82 (±9.000), with men exhibiting less stress than women. For p ≤ 0.05: Stress was positively correlated with impaired thyroid and hepatic function. Hepatic function was affected by both sugar products and water melon, which were positively correlated with total bilirubin and AST/SGOT respectively. Tomato, peppers and legumes were negatively correlated with AST/SGOT. Deep fried food was positively correlated with GGT and triglycerides. Legumes and fish were negatively correlated with CPK. Regarding the lipid metabolism, it was found that food cooked with oil was positively associated with uric acid, but non-cooked olive oil was negatively correlated with the risk for CAD. Thyroid function was negatively correlated with non-homemade food and pasta consumption and positively correlated with consumption of whole grains and green tea. Participants with subclinical hypothyroidism seemed to consume less vitamin B12, folic acid and vegetables. No direct correlation between lifestyle habits and anxiety was found. Nevertheless, eating habits influenced biochemical markers-especially the thyroid hormones-which may be indirectly responsible for anxiety and related moods.

  12. The Influence of Matching Populations on Kinematic and Kinetic Variables in Runners with Iliotibial Band Syndrome

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    Grau, Stefan; Maiwald, Christian; Krauss, Inga; Axmann, Detlef; Horstmann, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess how participant matching influences biomechanical variables when comparing healthy runners and runners with iliotibial band syndrome (ITBS). We examined 52 healthy runners (CO) and 18 with ITBS, using three-dimensional kinematics and pressure distribution. The study population was matched in three ways and…

  13. Normative data for the Clock Drawing Test for French-Quebec mid- and older aged healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turcotte, Valérie; Gagnon, Marie-Eve; Joubert, Sven; Rouleau, Isabelle; Gagnon, Jean-François; Escudier, Frédérique; Koski, Lisa; Potvin, Olivier; Macoir, Joël; Hudon, Carol

    2018-05-09

    The Clock Drawing Test (CDT) is frequently used to screen for cognitive impairment, however, normative data for Rouleau et al.'s scoring system are scarce. The present study aims to provide norms for Rouleau et al.'s scoring system that are tailored to Quebec French-speaking mid- and older aged healthy adults. Six researchers from various research centers across the Province of Quebec (Canada) sent anonymous data for 593 (391 women) healthy community-dwelling volunteers (age range: 43-93 years; education range: 5-23 years) who completed the CDT 'drawing on command' version. This command version (setting the clock hands to 11:10, without a pre-drawn circle) was administrated as part of a more extensive neuropsychological assessment, or along with cognitive screening instruments. Each drawn clock was scored according to the quantitative criteria set by Rouleau et al.'s scoring system. CDT scores were significantly correlated with age (r(592) = -.132, p = .001) and years of education (r(592) = .116, p = .005), but not with sex (r(592) = .065, p = .112). Since data were skewed towards higher test scores, the percentiles method was used for analysis. Percentile ranks stratified by age and education are presented. These normative data for Rouleau et al.'s scoring system will contribute towards adequately screening for cognitive decline in Quebec French-speaking healthy adults, by also taking into account individual characteristics such as age and education.

  14. A multicentre matched case control study of risk factors for Preeclampsia in healthy women in Pakistan

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    Qadri Zeeshan

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Preeclampsia is one of the leading causes of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality world-wide. The risk for developing preeclampsia varies depending on the underlying mechanism. Because the disorder is heterogeneous, the pathogenesis can differ in women with various risk factors. Understanding these mechanisms of disease responsible for preeclampsia as well as risk assessment is still a major challenge. The aim of this study was to determine the risk factors associated with preeclampsia, in healthy women in maternity hospitals of Karachi and Rawalpindi. Methods We conducted a hospital based matched case-control study to assess the factors associated with preeclampsia in Karachi and Rawalpindi, from January 2006 to December 2007. 131 hospital-reported cases of PE and 262 controls without history of preeclampsia were enrolled within 3 days of delivery. Cases and controls were matched on the hospital, day of delivery and parity. Potential risk factors for preeclampsia were ascertained during in-person postpartum interviews using a structured questionnaire and by medical record abstraction. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate matched odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs. Results In multivariate analysis, women having a family history of hypertension (adjusted OR 2.06, 95% CI; 1.27-3.35, gestational diabetes (adjusted OR 6.57, 95% CI; 1.94 -22.25, pre-gestational diabetes (adjusted OR 7.36, 95% CI; 1.37-33.66 and mental stress during pregnancy (adjusted OR 1.32; 95% CI; 1.19-1.46, for each 5 unit increase in Perceived stress scale score were at increased risk of preeclampsia. However, high body mass index, maternal age, urinary tract infection, use of condoms prior to index pregnancy and sociodemographic factors were not associated with higher risk of having preeclampsia. Conclusions Development of preeclampsia was associated with gestational diabetes, pregestational diabetes, family

  15. Short Sleep Duration Increases Metabolic Impact in Healthy Adults: A Population-Based Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Han-Bing; Tam, Tony; Zee, Benny Chung-Ying; Chung, Roger Yat-Nork; Su, Xuefen; Jin, Lei; Chan, Ta-Chien; Chang, Ly-Yun; Yeoh, Eng-Kiong; Lao, Xiang Qian

    2017-10-01

    The metabolic impact of inadequate sleep has not been determined in healthy individuals outside laboratories. This study aims to investigate the impact of sleep duration on five metabolic syndrome components in a healthy adult cohort. A total of 162121 adults aged 20-80 years (men 47.4%) of the MJ Health Database, who were not obese and free from major diseases, were recruited and followed up from 1996 to 2014. Sleep duration and insomnia symptoms were assessed by a self-administered questionnaire. Incident cases of five metabolic syndrome components were identified by follow-up medical examinations. Cox proportional hazard ratios (HRs) were calculated for three sleep duration categories " 8 hours/day (long)" with adjustment for potential confounding factors. Analyses were stratified by insomnia symptoms to assess whether insomnia symptoms modified the association between sleep duration and metabolic syndrome. Compared to regular sleep duration, short sleep significantly (p sleep decreased the risk of hypertriglyceridemia (adjusted HR 0.89 [0.84-0.94]) and metabolic syndrome (adjusted HR 0.93 [0.88-0.99]). Insomnia symptoms did not modify the effects of sleep duration. Sleep duration may be a significant determinant of metabolic health. © Sleep Research Society 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Constitutive activation and accelerated maturation of peripheral blood t cells in healthy adults in burkina faso compared to Germany: The case of malaria?

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    Tiba F

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective It is not exactly known how frequent exposure to Plasmodium falciparum shapes the peripheral blood T-cell population in healthy West Africans. Methods The frequency of peripheral blood CD4+ lymphocytes responding to Plasmodium falciparum merozoite surface protein 1 (PfMSP-1 by production of interferon-gamma (IFN-γ, interleukin-2 (IL-2 or tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α was determined using a commercially available flow cytometric activation assay (Fastlmmune in 17 healthy adults in Nouna, Burkina Faso. T-cell activation and maturation in peripheral blood of healthy adults in Burkina Faso (n = 40 and Germany (n = 20 were compared using immunophenotyping and three-colour flow cytometry. Results Significant numbers of PfMSV-1 -specific CD4+ lymphocytes producing IFN-γ, IL-2 and/or TNF-α were detected in 14 healthy adults in Nouna. Cytokine profiles showed predominant production of IFN-γ and TNF-α. Compared to Germans, Burkinabé showed markedly lower proportions of CCR7+ CD45RA+ naïve CD4+ cells and slightly higher frequencies of CD95+ CD4+ T-cells and of CD38+ CD8+ T-cells. The median antibody-binding capacity of CD95dim CD4+ T-cells in Burkinabé was more than twice the value observed in Germans (263 vs. 108 binding sites per cell, p Conclusions We hypothesize that an IFN-γ-induced increase in the expression level of CD95 on CD4+ lymphocytes may lower the activation threshold of resting naïve CD4+ T-cells in healthy adults living in Burkina Faso. Bystander activation of these cells deserves further study as a molecular mechanism linking strong IFN-γ responses against Plasmodium falciparum to decreased susceptibility to parasitemia observed in specific ethnic groups in West Africa.

  17. Mental Time Travel into the Past and the Future in Healthy Aged Adults: An fMRI Study

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    Viard, Armelle; Chetelat, Gael; Lebreton, Karine; Desgranges, Beatrice; Landeau, Brigitte; de La Sayette, Vincent; Eustache, Francis; Piolino, Pascale

    2011-01-01

    Remembering the past and envisioning the future rely on episodic memory which enables mental time travel. Studies in young adults indicate that past and future thinking share common cognitive and neural underpinnings. No imaging data is yet available in healthy aged subjects. Using fMRI, we scanned older subjects while they remembered personal…

  18. Dobutamine stress echocardiography in healthy adult male rats

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    Couet Jacques

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dobutamine stress echocardiography is used to investigate a wide variety of heart diseases in humans. Dobutamine stress echocardiography has also been used in animal models of heart disease despite the facts that the normal response of healthy rat hearts to this type of pharmacological stress testing is unknown. This study was performed to assess this normal response. Methods 15 normal adult male Wistar rats were evaluated. Increasing doses of dobutamine were infused intravenously under continuous imaging of the heart by a 12 MHz ultrasound probe. Results Dobutamine stress echocardiography reduced gradually LV diastolic and systolic dimensions. Ejection fraction increased by a mean of +24% vs. baseline. Heart rate increased progressively without reaching a plateau. Changes in LV dimensions and ejection fraction reached a plateau after a mean of 4 minutes at a constant infusion rate. Conclusion DSE can be easily performed in rats. The normal response is an increase in heart rate and ejection fraction and a decrease in LV dimensions. A plateau in echocardiographic measurements is obtained after 4 minutes of a constant infusion rate in most animals.

  19. Patterns of effective connectivity during memory encoding and retrieval differ between patients with mild cognitive impairment and healthy older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampstead, B M; Khoshnoodi, M; Yan, W; Deshpande, G; Sathian, K

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has shown that there is considerable overlap in the neural networks mediating successful memory encoding and retrieval. However, little is known about how the relevant human brain regions interact during these distinct phases of memory or how such interactions are affected by memory deficits that characterize mild cognitive impairment (MCI), a condition that often precedes dementia due to Alzheimer's disease. Here we employed multivariate Granger causality analysis using autoregressive modeling of inferred neuronal time series obtained by deconvolving the hemodynamic response function from measured blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) time series data, in order to examine the effective connectivity between brain regions during successful encoding and/or retrieval of object location associations in MCI patients and comparable healthy older adults. During encoding, healthy older adults demonstrated a left hemisphere dominant pattern where the inferior frontal junction, anterior intraparietal sulcus (likely involving the parietal eye fields), and posterior cingulate cortex drove activation in most left hemisphere regions and virtually every right hemisphere region tested. These regions are part of a frontoparietal network that mediates top-down cognitive control and is implicated in successful memory formation. In contrast, in the MCI patients, the right frontal eye field drove activation in every left hemisphere region examined, suggesting reliance on more basic visual search processes. Retrieval in the healthy older adults was primarily driven by the right hippocampus with lesser contributions of the right anterior thalamic nuclei and right inferior frontal sulcus, consistent with theoretical models holding the hippocampus as critical for the successful retrieval of memories. The pattern differed in MCI patients, in whom the right inferior frontal junction and right anterior thalamus drove successful memory retrieval, reflecting the

  20. Effects of dual task on turning ability in stroke survivors and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollands, K L; Agnihotri, D; Tyson, S F

    2014-09-01

    Turning is an integral component of independent mobility in which stroke survivors frequently fall. This study sought to measure the effects of competing cognitive demands on the stepping patterns of stroke survivors, compared to healthy age-match adults, during turning as a putative mechanism for falls. Walking and turning (90°) was assessed under single (walking and turning alone) and dual task (subtracting serial 3s while walking and turning) conditions using an electronic, pressure-sensitive walkway. Dependent measures were time to turn, variability in time to turn, step length, step width and single support time during three steps of the turn. Turning ability in single and dual task conditions was compared between stroke survivors (n=17, mean ± SD: 59 ± 113 months post-stroke, 64 ± 10 years of age) and age-matched healthy counterparts (n=15). Both groups took longer, were more variable, tended to widen the second step and, crucially, increased single support time on the inside leg of the turn while turning and distracted. Increased single support time during turning may represent biomechanical mechanism, within stepping patterns of turning under distraction, for increased risk of falls for both stroke survivors and older adults. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Loss of Peripheral Sensory Function Explains Much of the Increase in Postural Sway in Healthy Older Adults

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    Eric Anson

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Postural sway increases with age and peripheral sensory disease. Whether, peripheral sensory function is related to postural sway independent of age in healthy adults is unclear. Here, we investigated the relationship between tests of visual function (VISFIELD, vestibular function (CANAL or OTOLITH, proprioceptive function (PROP, and age, with center of mass sway area (COM measured with eyes open then closed on firm and then a foam surface. A cross-sectional sample of 366 community dwelling healthy adults from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging was tested. Multiple linear regressions examined the association between COM and VISFIELD, PROP, CANAL, and OTOLITH separately and in multi-sensory models controlling for age and gender. PROP dominated sensory prediction of sway across most balance conditions (β's = 0.09–0.19, p's < 0.001, except on foam eyes closed where CANAL function loss was the only significant sensory predictor of sway (β = 2.12, p < 0.016. Age was not a consistent predictor of sway. This suggests loss of peripheral sensory function explains much of the age-associated increase in sway.

  2. Differences in dynamic and static functional connectivity between young and elderly healthy adults

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    Park, Ji Eun; Jung, Seung Chai; Ryu, Kyeoung Hwa; Oh, Joo Young; Kim, Ho Sung; Choi, Choong-Gon; Kim, Sang Joon; Shim, Woo Hyun [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Songpa-Gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-08-15

    Brain connectivity is highly dynamic, but functional connectivity (FC) studies using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) assume it to be static. This study assessed differences in dynamic FC between young healthy adults (YH) and elderly healthy adults (EH) compared to static FC. Using rs-fMRI data from 12 YH and 31 EH, FC was assessed in six functional regions (subcortical, auditory [AUD], sensorimotor [SM], visuospatial [VS], cognitive control [CC], and default mode network [DMN]). Static FC was calculated as Fisher's z-transformed correlation coefficient. The sliding time window correlation (window size 30 s, step size 3 s) was applied for dynamic FC, and the standard deviation across sliding windows was calculated. Differences in static and dynamic FC between EH and YH were calculated and compared by region. EH showed decreased static FC in the subcortical, CC, and DMN regions (FDR corrected p = 0.0013; 74 regions), with no regions showing static FC higher than that in YH. EH showed increased dynamic FC in the subcortical, CC, and DMN regions, whereas decreased dynamic FC in CC and DMN regions (p < 0.01). However, the regions showing differences between EH and YH did not overlap between static and dynamic FC. Dynamic FC exhibited differences from static FC in EH and YH, mainly in regions involved in cognitive control and the DMN. Altered dynamic FC demonstrated both qualitatively and quantitatively distinct patterns of transient brain activity and needs to be studied as an imaging biomarker in the aging process. (orig.)

  3. Bupropion improves attention but does not affect impulsive behavior in healthy young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acheson, Ashley; de Wit, Harriet

    2008-04-01

    Bupropion is an effective abstinence aid for cessation of smoking and possibly other drug use as well. There is evidence that bupropion improves attention and impulse control in certain patient populations, and improvements in these processes could mediate its efficacy as an abstinence aid. In the present study, we tested the effects of acute bupropion on measures of attention and impulsivity in healthy adults with d-amphetamine included as a positive control. Twenty-two nonsmokers (11 women) and 11 smokers (4 women) completed four 4-hr sessions where they received placebo, bupropion (150 or 300 mg), or d-amphetamine (20 mg) in capsules. Ninety minutes after capsule administration, participants were tested on attention with a simple reaction time task (SRT) and on impulsivity with the stop task, a delay and probability discounting task (DPD), and the balloon analogue risk task (BART). Participants also completed mood questionnaires during sessions. Bupropion (150 mg) decreased lapses in attention on the SRT, but did not affect performance on the stop task, DPD, or BART. Amphetamine decreased lapses in attention and speeded sensory motor processing time on the SRT but did not significantly affect responding on the stop task or DPD. On the BART, d-amphetamine tended to decrease risk taking in men but increased risk taking in women. Bupropion (300 mg) and d-amphetamine increased ratings of arousal. These results suggest that bupropion improves attention without affecting impulsive behavior in healthy adults. Improvements in attention may contribute to the effectiveness of bupropion as a pharmacotherapy for smoking.

  4. Association of childhood trauma with cognitive function in healthy adults: a pilot study

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    Lin Jin-Mann S

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Animal and human studies suggest that stress experienced early in life has detrimental consequences on brain development, including brain regions involved in cognitive function. Cognitive changes are cardinal features of depression and posttraumatic stress disorder. Early-life trauma is a major risk factor for these disorders. Only few studies have measured the long-term consequences of childhood trauma on cognitive function in healthy adults. Methods In this pilot study, we investigated the relationship between childhood trauma exposure and cognitive function in 47 healthy adults, who were identified as part of a larger study from the general population in Wichita, KS. We used the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB and the Wide-Range-Achievement-Test (WRAT-3 to examine cognitive function and individual achievement. Type and severity of childhood trauma was assessed by the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ. Data were analyzed using multiple linear regression on CANTAB measures with primary predictors (CTQ scales and potential confounders (age, sex, education, income. Results Specific CTQ scales were significantly associated with measures of cognitive function. Emotional abuse was associated with impaired spatial working memory performance. Physical neglect correlated with impaired spatial working memory and pattern recognition memory. Sexual abuse and physical neglect were negatively associated with WRAT-3 scores. However, the association did not reach the significance level of p Conclusions Our results suggest that physical neglect and emotional abuse might be associated with memory deficits in adulthood, which in turn might pose a risk factor for the development of psychopathology.

  5. A study of diurnal variation in peak expiratory flow rates in healthy adult female subjects in South India

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    Jenny Jayapal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Peak Expiratory Flow Rate (PEFR reflects the strength and condition of respiratory muscles and the degree of airflow limitation in large airways. PEFR shows hour to hour variation that follows a specific pattern in asthmatics and healthy individuals. Adequate data is not available for the diurnal variation in normal individuals who are students in professional courses and had a sedentary life style. Hence, this study was undertaken to study the diurnal variation in peak expiratory flow rates in healthy adult female subjects in South India. Materials and Methods: Peak expiratory flow rate was recorded in 50 adult healthy female students aged 18-23 years and studying in professional courses. Mini Wright′s peak flow meter was used to measure the peak expiratory flow rate. PEFR were recorded at 7-8 a.m., 10-11 a.m., 1-2 p.m., 4-5 p.m., and 7-8 p.m. for two consecutive days. Results: On analysis of PEFR records of individual subjects, it was seen that there was an overall dip in the morning at 7-8 h PEFR, which increased in the daytime, peaking in the afternoon at 1-2 p.m. and eventually decreased in the night. Subjects did not show the peak PEFR values at the same time point, 10% of subjects had a rise in PEFR in the early morning, afternoon (1-2 p.m. peak was observed in 48% subjects and evening (4-5 p.m. peak was observed in 16% subjects. 14% subjects showed a peak in the night time (7-8 p.m. PEFR values. Conclusion: This study provided the preliminary reference data of diurnal variation of peak expiratory flow rate in healthy adults. Since, there is a variation in the peak expiratory flow rate recorded during different time points of the day; hence, to compare the PEFR between individuals it is advisable to record the PEFR at the same time point.

  6. Ugly bugs in healthy guts! Carriage of multidrug-resistant and ESBL-producing commensal Enterobacteriaceae in the intestine of healthy Nepalese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maharjan, Anjila; Bhetwal, Anjeela; Shakya, Shreena; Satyal, Deepa; Shah, Shashikala; Joshi, Govardhan; Khanal, Puspa Raj; Parajuli, Narayan Prasad

    2018-01-01

    Fecal carriage of multidrug-resistant and extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae is one of the important risk factors for infection with antibiotic-resistant bacteria. In this report, we examined the prevalence of multidrug-resistant and ESBL-producing common enterobacterial strains colonizing the intestinal tract of apparently healthy adults in Kathmandu, Nepal. During a 6-month period (February-July 2016), a total of 510 stool specimens were obtained from apparently healthy students of Manmohan Memorial Institute of Health Sciences, Kathmandu, Nepal. Stool specimens were cultured, and the most common enterobacterial isolates ( Escherichia coli and Klebsiella species) were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility tests according to the standard microbiologic guidelines. Multidrug-resistant isolates were selected for ESBL confirmation by combined disk test and E-test methods. Molecular characterization of plasmid-borne ESBL genes was performed by using specific primers of cefotaximase Munich (CTX-M), sulfhydryl variant (SHV), and temoniera (TEM) by polymerase chain reaction. Among 510 bacterial strains, E. coli (432, 84.71%) was the predominant organism followed by Klebsiella oxytoca (48, 9.41%) and K. pneumoniae (30, 5.88%). ESBLs were isolated in 9.8% of the total isolates including K. oxytoca (29.17%), E. coli (7.87%), and K. pneumoniae (6.67%). Among ESBLs, bla -TEM was the predominant type (92%) followed by bla -CTX-M (60%) and bla -SHV (4%). Multidrug-resistant and ESBL-producing enterobacterial commensal strains among healthy individuals are of serious concern. Persistent carriage of ESBL organisms in healthy individuals suggests the possibility of sustained ESBL carriage among the diseased and hospitalized patients. We recommend similar types of epidemiologic surveys in larger communities and in hospital settings to ascertain the extent of ESBL resistance.

  7. Am I a 6 or a 10? Mate Value Among Young Adult Survivors of Childhood Cancer and Healthy Peers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Vicky; Tuinman, Marrit A; Keim, Madelaine C; Hagedoorn, Mariët; Gerhardt, Cynthia A

    2018-02-01

    This study focused on self-perceived mate value of young adult survivors of childhood cancer relative to healthy peers. Qualitative studies indicate potential problems surrounding romantic relationships among survivors, but systematic studies are missing. One-hundred forty-nine childhood cancer survivors and 149 matched controls completed online questionnaires about their mate value, social comparison strategies (i.e., upward/downward identifying/contrasting strategies), and marital status. Survivors and controls were aged 20-40 (M = 27.8), 55% were female, and survivors had been treated for brain tumors (n = 52; 35%), leukemia (n = 42; 28%), lymphoma (n = 31; 21%), or other solid tumors (n = 24; 16%) at 5-33 years before study participation. Survivors and controls did not differ on overall mate value, but on individual characteristics: Survivors thought they had a better sense of humor (d = 0.36), were more loyal (d = 0.32), had higher social status (d = 0.26), and were more ambitious (d = 0.19), while also considering themselves less sexually adventurous (d = 0.31), less healthy (d = 0.26), having less desire to have children (d = 0.21), and a less attractive face (d = 0.20). Higher mate value was related to being partnered, more upward-identifying, less upward-contrasting, and less downward-identifying strategies. Moreover, less downward-identifying was associated with higher mate value in survivors, but not controls; whereas greater downward-contrasting was associated with higher mate value among controls only (R 2  = 30.8%). Survivors do not generally view themselves as less valuable (potential) romantic partners, but they evaluate different characteristics either more positively or more negatively. Social comparison strategies offer targetable points of interventions to intervene on negative self-evaluations, potentially enhancing well-being.

  8. Family meal frequency, weight status and healthy management in children, young adults and seniors. A study in Sardinia, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuvoli, Gianfranco

    2015-06-01

    To examine family meal frequency, and weight management as a protective factor throughout life. Selected by city and by town in Sardinia (Italy), the 522 participants were divided into 162 children (7-11 years), 187 young adults (19-30 years), and 173 seniors (65-90 years). Chi-square analyses were used to compare the frequency of family meals, weight (self-reported and perceived) and healthy management (physical activity, dieting, perceived appetite) between age groups. In addition, multinomial regression analyses were carried out to find associations, with age group as the dependent variable and frequency of family meal, weight status, and healthy management categories as independent variables, adjusted for moderating effects. Significant associations with age variables were observed in mealtime frequency (skipping breakfast and mid-morning snack in adults and lunch in children and seniors), in decreasing self-reported normal weight with age and increasing perceived overweight with age, and in physical activity, dieting and perceived appetite. The results suggest the protective nature of family meals for adults and seniors, and identify significant associations (and some differences) between age groups. Discrepancies suggest the importance of education about body weight awareness throughout life. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of flexi-bar and non-flexi-bar exercises on trunk muscles activity in different postures in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Jun Sub; Park, Seol; Kim, JiYoung; Park, Ji Won

    2015-07-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of flexi-bar exercises and non-flexi-bar exercises on trunk muscle activity in different postures in healthy adults. [Subjects] Twenty healthy right-hand dominant adults (10 males and 10 females) were selected for this study. None of the participants had experienced any orthopedic problems in the spine or in the upper and lower extremities in the previous six months. [Methods] The subjects were instructed to adopt three exercise postures: posture 1, quadruped; posture 2, side-bridge; and posture 3, standing. Surface electromyography of selected trunk muscles was normalized to maximum voluntary isometric contraction. [Results] The external oblique, internal oblique, and erector spinae muscle activity showed significant differences between flexi-bar exercises and non-flexi-bar exercises. [Conclusion] The results of this study suggest that flexi-bar exercises are useful in the activation of trunk muscles.

  10. Salivary adiponectin concentration in healthy adult males in relation to anthropometric measures and fat distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdalla Mona Mohamed Ibrahim

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Body fat content, fat distribution, and adiponectin level are important variables in the development of obesity related complications. Anthropometric indices may provide an economic and faster method in measuring the risk for complications through their predictive effect of fat distribution and adiponectin concentration. We aimed to determine, which of the waist circumference (WC, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR, and body mass index (BMI may be the best predictor for the total fat percentage (WF, visceral fat level (VF, and subcutaneous whole-body fat (SCWBF. We aimed also to investigate the potential use of the anthropometric measures and fat distribution as predictors for the salivary adiponectin level in the healthy adult males. Subjects. A total of 88 adult males aged between 18−25 years with a wide range of BMI were studied. Anthropometric indices were measured using standardized methods and salivary adiponectin level was assessed using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results. In path analysis of the Structural Equation Model (SEM using IBM@SPSS AMOS, version22, BMI and WC, but not WHR, were strong predictors for WF and SCWBF (p<0.05. BMI but not WC was a strong predictor for VF (p<0.001. WF was strong predictor for SCWBF (p<0.001, but not for VF. BMI, WC, WHR, WF, VF, and SCWBF were poor predictors of the salivary adiponectin level. Conclusion. BMI is the best predictor for the total body fat and fat distribution. However, WHR seems to be of a little value and the salivary adiponectin level independent of BMI and body fat in healthy adult Malay males.

  11. The relation between 25-hydroxyvitamin D with peak bone mineral density and body composition in healthy young adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot, Annemieke M.; Krenning, Eric P.; Keizer-Schrama, Sabine M. P. F. de Muinck

    Objective: The associations between peak bone mineral density (BMD) and body composition with 25 hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) levels in healthy young adults were evaluated. Methods: The number of participants was 464; 347 women and 117 men. The mean age was 24.3 years (range 17-31 years). BMD of the

  12. Association between aerobic fitness and cerebrovascular function with neurocognitive functions in healthy, young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Jungyun; Kim, Kiyoung; Brothers, R Matthew; Castelli, Darla M; Gonzalez-Lima, F

    2018-05-01

    Studies of the effects of physical activity on cognition suggest that aerobic fitness can improve cognitive abilities. However, the physiological mechanisms for the cognitive benefit of aerobic fitness are less well understood. We examined the association between aerobic fitness and cerebrovascular function with neurocognitive functions in healthy, young adults. Participants aged 18-29 years underwent measurements of cerebral vasomotor reactivity (CVMR) in response to rebreathing-induced hypercapnia, maximal oxygen uptake (VO 2 max) during cycle ergometry to voluntary exhaustion, and simple- and complex-neurocognitive assessments at rest. Ten subjects were identified as having low-aerobic fitness (LF aerobic fitness (HF > 80th fitness percentile). There were no LF versus HF group differences in cerebrovascular hemodynamics during the baseline condition. Changes in middle cerebral artery blood velocity and CVMR during hypercapnia were elevated more in the HF than the LF group. Compared to the LF, the HF performed better on a complex-cognitive task assessing fluid reasoning, but not on simple attentional abilities. Statistical modeling showed that measures of VO 2 max, CVMR, and fluid reasoning were positively inter-correlated. The relationship between VO 2 max and fluid reasoning, however, did not appear to be reliably mediated by CVMR. In conclusion, a high capacity for maximal oxygen uptake among healthy, young adults was associated with greater CVMR and better fluid reasoning, implying that high-aerobic fitness may promote cerebrovascular and cognitive functioning abilities.

  13. Social support attenuates the harmful effects of stress in healthy adult women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Elizabeth R; Smith, Bruce W

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that social support buffers the effects of perceived stress on physical symptoms in healthy women. The study was conducted in the Southwest United States and data were collected from 2006 to 2010. Participants were 52 healthy adult women who completed a baseline questionnaire and a 21-day daily diary. Social support was assessed in the baseline questionnaire and perceived stress and physical symptoms were assessed in the daily diary. Multilevel analyses were used to predict both same day and next day physical symptoms from baseline social support and daily perceived stress. The hypotheses were supported when predicting both same and next day physical symptoms. For the same day, perceived stress and the social support × perceived stress interaction were both related to physical symptoms. For the next day, the social support × perceived stress interaction but not perceived stress was related to physical symptoms when controlling for previous day physical symptoms. The interactions were such that women higher in social support had smaller increases in same and next day physical symptoms on days of higher perceived stress than women lower in social support. Social support may buffer the effects of daily perceived stress on physical symptoms in healthy women. Future research should investigate what aspects and in what contexts social support may reduce the effects of perceived stress on physical symptoms and examine how social support may affect the development of long-term health problems through increases in daily physical symptoms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Absorption capacity of fructose in healthy adults. Comparison with sucrose and its constituent monosaccharides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rumessen, J J; Gudmand-Høyer, E

    1986-01-01

    The capacity to absorb fructose in 10 healthy adults was investigated by means of hydrogen breath analysis. Fructose absorption was quantified with lactulose standards. Significant hydrogen production (greater than or equal to 20 ppm rise of breath hydrogen) was found after challenge with 10......% solutions of 50, 37.5, 25, 20, and 15 g fructose in eight, seven, five, four and one subjects, respectively. One subject showed malabsorption after a 10 g dose and possibly also 5 g fructose. In contrast, no malabsorption could be detected in any of the 10 subjects after ingestion of 100 g, 75 g, or 50 g...... sucrose or a mixture of 50 g glucose and 50 g fructose. After ingestion of mixtures of 50 g fructose +25 g glucose and 50 g fructose +12.5 g glucose malabsorption was present in three and seven subjects, respectively. Symptoms during all challenges were mild, or absent. It is concluded that in the healthy...

  15. Anodal Direct Current Stimulation of the Cerebellum Reduces Cerebellar Brain Inhibition but Does Not Influence Afferent Input from the Hand or Face in Healthy Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doeltgen, Sebastian H; Young, Jessica; Bradnam, Lynley V

    2016-08-01

    The cerebellum controls descending motor commands by outputs to primary motor cortex (M1) and the brainstem in response to sensory feedback. The cerebellum may also modulate afferent input en route to M1 and the brainstem. The objective of this study is to determine if anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) to the cerebellum influences cerebellar brain inhibition (CBI), short afferent inhibition (SAI) and trigeminal reflexes (TRs) in healthy adults. Data from two studies evaluating effects of cerebellar anodal and sham tDCS are presented. The first study used a twin coil transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) protocol to investigate CBI and combined TMS and cutaneous stimulation of the digit to assess SAI. The second study evaluated effects on trigemino-cervical and trigemino-masseter reflexes using peripheral nerve stimulation of the face. Fourteen right-handed healthy adults participated in experiment 1. CBI was observed at baseline and was reduced by anodal cerebellar DCS only (P < 0.01). There was SAI at interstimulus intervals of 25 and 30 ms at baseline (both P < 0.0001), but cerebellar tDCS had no effect. Thirteen right-handed healthy adults participated in experiment 2. Inhibitory reflexes were evoked in the ipsilateral masseter and sternocleidomastoid muscles. There was no effect of cerebellar DCS on either reflex. Anodal DCS reduced CBI but did not change SAI or TRs in healthy adults. These results require confirmation in individuals with neurological impairment.

  16. Approximate time to steady state resting energy expenditure using indirect calorimetry in young, healthy adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collin Popp

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Indirect calorimetry (IC measurements to estimate resting energy expenditure (REE necessitate a stable measurement period, or steady state (SS. There is limited evidence when assessing the time to reach SS in young, healthy adults. The aims of this prospective study are to determine the approximate time to necessary reach SS using open-circuit IC and to establish the appropriate duration of SS needed to estimate REE. One hundred young, healthy participants (54 males and 46 females; age = 20.6 ± 2.1 years; body weight = 73.6 ± 16.3 kg; height 172.5 ± 9.3 cm; BMI = 24.5 ± 3.8 kg/m2 completed IC measurement for approximately 30-minutes while the volume of oxygen (VO2 and volume of carbon dioxide (VCO2 were collected. SS was defined by variations in the VO2 and VCO2 of ≤10% coefficient of variation (%CV over a period of 5- consecutive minutes. The 30-minute IC measurement was divided into six 5-minute segments, S1, S2, S3, S4, S5 and S6. The results show that SS was achieved during S2 (%CV = 6.81 ± 3.2%, and the %CV continued to met the SS criteria for the duration of the IC measurement (S3= 8.07 ± 4.4%; S4 = 7.93 ± 3.7%; S5 = 7.75 ± 4.1%; S6 = 8.60 ± 4.6%. The current study found that in a population of young, healthy adults the duration of the IC measurement period could be a minimum of 10 minutes. The first 5-minute segment was discarded, while SS occurred by the second 5-minute segment.

  17. Intestinal microbiota in healthy adults: temporal analysis reveals individual and common core and relation to intestinal symptoms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonna Jalanka-Tuovinen

    Full Text Available While our knowledge of the intestinal microbiota during disease is accumulating, basic information of the microbiota in healthy subjects is still scarce. The aim of this study was to characterize the intestinal microbiota of healthy adults and specifically address its temporal stability, core microbiota and relation with intestinal symptoms. We carried out a longitudinal study by following a set of 15 healthy Finnish subjects for seven weeks and regularly assessed their intestinal bacteria and archaea with the Human Intestinal Tract (HIT Chip, a phylogenetic microarray, in conjunction with qPCR analyses. The health perception and occurrence of intestinal symptoms was recorded by questionnaire at each sampling point.A high overall temporal stability of the microbiota was observed. Five subjects showed transient microbiota destabilization, which correlated not only with the intake of antibiotics but also with overseas travelling and temporary illness, expanding the hitherto known factors affecting the intestinal microbiota. We identified significant correlations between the microbiota and common intestinal symptoms, including abdominal pain and bloating. The most striking finding was the inverse correlation between Bifidobacteria and abdominal pain: subjects who experienced pain had over five-fold less Bifidobacteria compared to those without pain. Finally, a novel computational approach was used to define the common core microbiota, highlighting the role of the analysis depth in finding the phylogenetic core and estimating its size. The in-depth analysis suggested that we share a substantial number of our intestinal phylotypes but as they represent highly variable proportions of the total community, many of them often remain undetected.A global and high-resolution microbiota analysis was carried out to determine the temporal stability, the associations with intestinal symptoms, and the individual and common core microbiota in healthy adults. The

  18. Comparison of the corneal endothelial cell count in type II diabetic patients with healthy adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rizvi, B.Z.; Zafar, O.

    2016-01-01

    To compare the mean corneal endothelial cell count in type II diabetic patients with healthy adults. Study Design: Case control. Place and Duration of Study: Out-patient Department of Armed Forces Institute of Ophthalmology, Rawalpindi from September 10, 2013 to March 25, 2014. Material and Methods: A hospital-based case-control study was carried out at out-patient department of Armed Forces Institute of Ophthalmology in which 130 eyes (65 diabetic eyes and 65 controls) were included. Non-probability consecutive sampling was adopted. Relevant detailed history including information about age, gender, duration of diabetes, any other medical illness and current medical treatment being taken by patient was recorded. Results: Data entry and analysis was done in SPSS version 10. Total 130 eyes (65 diabetic and 65 non-diabetic eyes) were included in our study according to the inclusion criteria. Mean age (years) of patient in both the groups was 59.55 +- 8.01 and 53.85 +- 10.07. Mean corneal endothelial cell count in both the groups was 2368.35 +- 389.58 and 2588.64 +- 269.84 respectively which was statistically significant (p-value=0.001) in both the groups. Conclusion: The conclusion of the study was that the mean corneal endothelial cell count in type II diabetic patients was significantly less as compared to healthy adults. (author)

  19. Dose-dependent increases in flow-mediated dilation following acute cocoa ingestion in healthy older adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feehan, Robert P.; Kunselman, Allen R.; Preston, Amy G.; Miller, Debra L.; Lott, Mary E. J.

    2011-01-01

    An inverse relation exists between intake of flavonoid-rich foods, such as cocoa, and cardiovascular-related mortality. Favorable effects of flavonoids on the endothelium may underlie these associations. We performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study to test the hypothesis that acute cocoa ingestion dose dependently increases endothelium-dependent vasodilation, as measured by an increase in brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD), in healthy older adults. Measurements were obtained before (preingestion) and after (1- and 2-h postingestion) ingestion of 0 (placebo), 2, 5, 13, and 26 g of cocoa in 23 adults (63 ± 2 yr old, mean ± SE). Changes in brachial artery FMD 1- and 2-h postingestion compared with preingestion were used to determine the effects of cocoa. FMD was unchanged 1 (Δ−0.3 ± 0.2%)- and 2-h (Δ0.1 ± 0.1%) after placebo (0 g cocoa). In contrast, FMD increased both 1-h postingestion (2 g cocoa Δ0.0 ± 0.2%, 5 g cocoa Δ0.8 ± 0.3%, 13 g cocoa Δ1.0 ± 0.3%, and 26 g cocoa Δ1.6 ± 0.3%: P FMD 1- and 2-h postingestion (r = 0.44–0.48; both P FMD in healthy older humans. These responses may help to explain associations between flavonoid intake and cardiovascular-related mortality in humans. PMID:21903881

  20. Age-specific MRI brain and head templates for healthy adults from twenty through eighty-nine years of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul T Fillmore

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study created and tested a database of adult, age-specific MRI brain and head templates. The participants included healthy adults from 20 through 89 years of age. The templates were done in 5-year, 10-year, and multi-year intervals from 20 through 89 years, and consist of average T1W for the head and brain, and segmenting priors for GM, WM, and CSF. It was found that age-appropriate templates provided less biased tissue classification estimates than age-inappropriate reference data and reference data based on young adult templates. This database is available for use by other investigators and clinicians for their MRI studies, as well as other types of neuroimaging and electrophysiological research (http://jerlab.psych.sc.edu/NeurodevelopmentalMRIDatabase/.

  1. The role of cognitive operations in reality monitoring: a study with healthy older adults and Alzheimer's-type dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairfield, Beth; Mammarella, Nicola

    2009-01-01

    The authors examined the role of cognitive operations in discriminations between externally and internally generated events (e.g., reality monitoring) in healthy and pathological aging. The authors used 2 reality-monitoring distinctions to manipulate the quantity and quality of necessary cognitive operations: discriminating between I performed versus I imagined performing and between I watched another perform versus I imagined another performing. Older adults had more difficulty than did younger adults when discriminating between memories in both versions of the task. In addition, older adults with Alzheimer's-type dementia showed marked difficulties when attributing a source to imagined actions. The authors interpret these findings in terms of an age difficulty or the failure to use cognitive operations as useful cues during source monitoring.

  2. An Evaluation of Functional Sit-to-Stand Power in Cohorts of Healthy Adults Aged 18-97 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, Jordan M; Gray, Michelle; Vincenzo, Jennifer; Paulson, Sally; Powers, Melissa

    2017-04-01

    This investigation examined differences in functional sit-to-stand power/velocity between cohorts of adults aged 18-97 years. This study included 264 healthy adults classified into four cohorts (18-40, C1; 60-69, C2; 70-79, C2; ≥ 80, C4). Participants completed the sit-to-stand task five times. Power and velocity were measured via the TENDO power analyzer. Absolute average power was maintained from C1-C3, but decreased (p power decreased between C1-C2 (p power decreased between C1-C2 (p power may plateau during the seventh and eighth decades, accelerating after 80 years.

  3. Reliability of basal plasma vasopressin concentrations in healthy male adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintana, Daniel S; Westlye, Lars T; Smerud, Knut T; Mahmoud, Ramy A; Djupesland, Per G; Andreassen, Ole A

    2017-10-01

    The neuropeptides oxytocin (OT) and arginine vasopressin (AVP) play important and interrelated roles in modulating mammalian social behaviour. While the OT system has received considerable research attention for its potential to treat psychiatric symptoms, comparatively little is known about the role of the AVP system in human social behaviour. To better understand the intraindividual stability of basal AVP, the present study assessed the reproducibility of basal plasma AVP concentrations. Basal plasma AVP was assessed at four sampling points separated by 8 days, on average, in 16 healthy adult males. Only one out of six comparisons revealed strong evidence for reproducibility of basal AVP concentrations (visit 2 vs. visit 4: r=0.8, p0.1). The concordance correlation coefficient [0.15, 95% CI (-0.55, 0.73)] also revealed poor overall reproducibility. Poor reliability of basal AVP concentrations suggests future work covarying AVP with trait markers should proceed with careful consideration of intraindividual fluctuations.

  4. Auditory and visual cueing modulate cycling speed of older adults and persons with Parkinson's disease in a Virtual Cycling (V-Cycle) system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Rosemary; Damodaran, Harish; Werner, William G; Powell, Wendy; Deutsch, Judith E

    2016-08-19

    Evidence based virtual environments (VEs) that incorporate compensatory strategies such as cueing may change motor behavior and increase exercise intensity while also being engaging and motivating. The purpose of this study was to determine if persons with Parkinson's disease and aged matched healthy adults responded to auditory and visual cueing embedded in a bicycling VE as a method to increase exercise intensity. We tested two groups of participants, persons with Parkinson's disease (PD) (n = 15) and age-matched healthy adults (n = 13) as they cycled on a stationary bicycle while interacting with a VE. Participants cycled under two conditions: auditory cueing (provided by a metronome) and visual cueing (represented as central road markers in the VE). The auditory condition had four trials in which auditory cues or the VE were presented alone or in combination. The visual condition had five trials in which the VE and visual cue rate presentation was manipulated. Data were analyzed by condition using factorial RMANOVAs with planned t-tests corrected for multiple comparisons. There were no differences in pedaling rates between groups for both the auditory and visual cueing conditions. Persons with PD increased their pedaling rate in the auditory (F 4.78, p = 0.029) and visual cueing (F 26.48, p auditory (F = 24.72, p visual cueing (F = 40.69, p visual condition in age-matched healthy adults showed a step-wise increase in pedaling rate (p = 0.003 to p visual cues (p visual cues in order to obtain an increase in cycling intensity. The combination of the VE and auditory cues was neither additive nor interfering. These data serve as preliminary evidence that embedding auditory and visual cues to alter cycling speed in a VE as method to increase exercise intensity that may promote fitness.

  5. Vascular smooth muscle responsiveness to nitric oxide is reduced in healthy adults with increased adiposity

    OpenAIRE

    Christou, Demetra D.; Pierce, Gary L.; Walker, Ashley E.; Hwang, Moon-Hyon; Yoo, Jeung-Ki; Luttrell, Meredith; Meade, Thomas H.; English, Mark; Seals, Douglas R.

    2012-01-01

    Vascular smooth muscle responsiveness to nitric oxide, as assessed by nitroglycerin-induced dilation (NID), is impaired in clinical cardiovascular disease, but its relation to adiposity is unknown. We determined the relation of NID to total and abdominal adiposity in healthy adults varying widely in adiposity. In 224 men and women [age, 18–79 years; body mass index (BMI), 16.4–42.2 kg/m2], we measured NID (brachial artery dilation to 0.4 mg sublingual nitroglycerin), total body adiposity [BMI...

  6. Gender effects of the COMT Val 158 Met genotype on verbal fluency in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soeiro-De-Souza, Marcio Gerhardt; Bio, Danielle Soares; David, Denise Petresco; Missio, Giovani; Lima, Bruno; Fernandes, Fernando; Machado-Vieira, Rodrigo; Moreno, Ricardo Alberto

    2013-09-01

    Cognitive performance in healthy individuals is associated with gender differences in specific tests; a female advantage has been demonstrated in language tests, whereas a male advantage has been demonstrated in spatial relation examinations. The prefrontal cortex (PFC) mediates important cognitive domains and is influenced by dopamine (DA) activity. The single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs4680 in the catechol‑O‑methyltransferase (COMT) gene results in an amino acid substitution from valine (Val) to methionine (Met). The Met allele has been demonstrated to decrease COMT enzyme activity and improve PFC cognitive function. COMT regulates DA activity in the PFC and exhibits gender effects. The aim of the present study was to investigate the gender‑specific effects of the COMT genotype on cognition in healthy young adults. Seventy‑six healthy subjects were genotyped for COMT rs4680 and submitted to an extensive range of neuropsychological tests assessing aspects of PFC function. The COMT Met allele influenced the performance of executive function. The results revealed gender effects of the COMT rs4680 Met allele on verbal fluency, with positive effects in males and negative effects in females. This suggested that DA activity affects cognitive function in different ways, according to gender.

  7. Plasma levels of glucagon-like peptide 1 and markers of obesity among young and healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Stouwe, Jan Gerrit; Aeschbacher, Stefanie; Krisai, Philipp; Schoen, Tobias; Meyre, Pascal; Todd, John; Estis, Joel; Risch, Martin; Risch, Lorenz; Conen, David

    2015-11-01

    Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1)-related pathways may partially explain the strong relationship between obesity and type 2 diabetes. We therefore aimed to evaluate the relationships between fasting GLP-1 levels, body fat mass and other obesity markers in a large sample of young and healthy adults. Our population-based study included 2096 individuals aged 24-44. Exclusion criteria were prevalent cardiovascular disease, diabetes or a body mass index (BMI) >35 kg/m(2) . Body fat mass was obtained by bioelectrical impedance analysis. Multivariable linear regression models were constructed to assess the relationships of GLP-1 with various measures of body composition. Median age of our population was 37 years, median BMI 24·1 kg/m(2) and median body fat 25·1%. A strong positive correlation was observed in age-adjusted models between GLP-1 and fat mass in men (β (95% confidence interval) 1·38 (0·69; 2·07), P young and healthy adults, GLP-1 levels are strongly and independently related to body fat mass especially in men but not BMI or waist circumference. These results raise the hypothesis that GLP-1 may be implicated in body fat mass regulation. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Social Inclusion Predicts Lower Blood Glucose and Low-Density Lipoproteins in Healthy Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floyd, Kory; Veksler, Alice E; McEwan, Bree; Hesse, Colin; Boren, Justin P; Dinsmore, Dana R; Pavlich, Corey A

    2017-08-01

    Loneliness has been shown to have direct effects on one's personal well-being. Specifically, a greater feeling of loneliness is associated with negative mental health outcomes, negative health behaviors, and an increased likelihood of premature mortality. Using the neuroendocrine hypothesis, we expected social inclusion to predict decreases in both blood glucose levels and low-density lipoproteins (LDLs) and increases in high-density lipoproteins (HDLs). Fifty-two healthy adults provided self-report data for social inclusion and blood samples for hematological tests. Results indicated that higher social inclusion predicted lower levels of blood glucose and LDL, but had no effect on HDL. Implications for theory and practice are discussed.

  9. Effects of a Lutein and Zeaxanthin Intervention on Cognitive Function: A Randomized, Double-Masked, Placebo-Controlled Trial of Younger Healthy Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa M. Renzi-Hammond

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Past studies have suggested that higher lutein (L and zeaxanthin (Z levels in serum and in the central nervous system (as quantified by measuring macular pigment optical density, MPOD are related to improved cognitive function in older adults. Very few studies have addressed the issue of xanthophylls and cognitive function in younger adults, and no controlled trials have been conducted to date to determine whether or not supplementation with L + Z can change cognitive function in this population. Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine whether or not supplementation with L + Z could improve cognitive function in young (age 18–30, healthy adults. Design: A randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled trial design was used. Fifty-one young, healthy subjects were recruited as part of a larger study on xanthophylls and cognitive function. Subjects were randomized into active supplement (n = 37 and placebo groups (n = 14. MPOD was measured psychophysically using customized heterochromatic flicker photometry. Cognitive function was measured using the CNS Vital Signs testing platform. MPOD and cognitive function were measured every four months for a full year of supplementation. Results: Supplementation increased MPOD significantly over the course of the year, vs. placebo (p < 0.001. Daily supplementation with L + Z and increases in MPOD resulted in significant improvements in spatial memory (p < 0.04, reasoning ability (p < 0.05 and complex attention (p < 0.04, above and beyond improvements due to practice effects. Conclusions: Supplementation with L + Z improves CNS xanthophyll levels and cognitive function in young, healthy adults. Magnitudes of effects are similar to previous work reporting correlations between MPOD and cognition in other populations.

  10. Prevalence rates of borderline symptoms reported by adolescent inpatients with BPD, psychiatrically healthy adolescents and adult inpatients with BPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanarini, Mary C; Temes, Christina M; Magni, Laura R; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M; Aguirre, Blaise A; Goodman, Marianne

    2017-08-01

    The validity of borderline personality disorder (BPD) in children and adolescents has not been studied in a rigorous manner reflecting the criteria of Robins and Guze first detailed in 1970. This paper and the others in this series address some aspects of this multifaceted validation paradigm, which requires that a disorder has a known clinical presentation, can be delimited from other disorders, 'runs' in families, and something of its aetiology, treatment response and course is known. Three groups of subjects were studied: 104 adolescent inpatients meeting the Revised Diagnostic Interview for Borderlines and DSM-IV criteria for BPD, 60 psychiatrically healthy adolescents and 290 adult inpatients meeting the Revised Diagnostic Interview for Borderlines and DSM-III-R criteria for BPD. Adolescents with BPD had significantly higher prevalence rates of 22 of the 24 symptoms studied than psychiatrically healthy adolescents. Only rates of serious treatment regressions and countertransference problems failed to reach the Bonferroni-corrected level of 0.002. Adolescents and adults with BPD had only four symptomatic differences that reached this level of significance, with adolescents with BPD reporting significantly lower levels of quasi-psychotic thought, dependency/masochism, devaluation/manipulation/sadism and countertransference problems than adults with BPD. Taken together, the results of this study suggest that adolescents report BPD as severe as that reported by adults. They also suggest that BPD in adolescents is not a tumultuous phase of normal adolescence. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. A Rare Case of Human Coronavirus 229E Associated with Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome in a Healthy Adult

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foula Vassilara

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Human coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E is one of the first coronavirus strains being described. It is linked to common cold symptoms in healthy adults. Younger children and the elderly are considered vulnerable to developing lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs. In particular, immunocompromised patients have been reported with severe and life-threatening LRTIs attributed to HCoV-229E. We report for the first time a case of LRTI and acute respiratory distress syndrome developed in a healthy adult with no comorbidities and HCoV-229E strain identified as the only causative agent. A 45-year-old female with a clear medical history presented with fever, cough, and headache. Respiratory tract infection was diagnosed, and empirical antibiotics were started. Within two days, she developed bilateral pleural effusions, diffuse consolidations, and ground glass opacities involving all lung fields. She needed immediate oxygen supply, while ABGs deteriorated and chest imaging and PaO2/FiO2 indicated ARDS. Early administration of systemic corticosteroids led to gradual clinical improvement. Multiplex PCR from nasal secretions was positive only for HCoV-229E and negative for multiple other pathogens. It remains to be elucidated how an immunocompetent adult developed a life-threatening LRTI caused by a “benign considered” coronavirus strain, the HCoV-229E.

  12. Impact of family history on relations between insulin resistance, LDL cholesterol and carotid IMT in healthy adults.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Anderwald, Christian

    2010-08-01

    Insulin resistance (IR) is implicated as an independent risk factor for vascular disease. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of family history (FH) of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and\\/or cardiovascular disease (CVD) on the associations between IR, low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and subclinical atherosclerosis (common and internal carotid artery intima media thickness (IMT)) in healthy European adults.

  13. Curcumin supplementation improves vascular endothelial function in healthy middle-aged and older adults by increasing nitric oxide bioavailability and reducing oxidative stress

    OpenAIRE

    Santos-Parker, Jessica R.; Strahler, Talia R.; Bassett, Candace J.; Bispham, Nina Z.; Chonchol, Michel B.; Seals, Douglas R.

    2017-01-01

    We hypothesized that curcumin would improve resistance and conduit artery endothelial function and large elastic artery stiffness in healthy middle-aged and older adults. Thirty-nine healthy men and postmenopausal women (45-74 yrs) were randomized to 12 weeks of curcumin (2000 mg/day Longvida?; n=20) or placebo (n=19) supplementation. Forearm blood flow response to acetylcholine infusions (FBFACh; resistance artery endothelial function) increased 37% following curcumin supplementation (107?13...

  14. Increase or Decrease of fMRI Activity in Adult Attention Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder: Does It Depend on Task Difficulty?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biehl, Stefanie C; Merz, Christian J; Dresler, Thomas; Heupel, Julia; Reichert, Susanne; Jacob, Christian P; Deckert, Jürgen; Herrmann, Martin J

    2016-05-27

    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder has been shown to affect working memory, and fMRI studies in children and adolescents with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder report hypoactivation in task-related attentional networks. However, studies with adult attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder patients addressing this issue as well as the effects of clinically valid methylphenidate treatment are scarce. This study contributes to closing this gap. Thirty-five adult patients were randomized to 6 weeks of double-blind placebo or methylphenidate treatment. Patients completed an fMRI n-back working memory task both before and after the assigned treatment, and matched healthy controls were tested and compared to the untreated patients. There were no whole-brain differences between any of the groups. However, when specified regions of interest were investigated, the patient group showed enhanced BOLD responses in dorsal and ventral areas before treatment. This increase was correlated with performance across all participants and with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms in the patient group. Furthermore, we found an effect of treatment in the right superior frontal gyrus, with methylphenidate-treated patients exhibiting increased activation, which was absent in the placebo-treated patients. Our results indicate distinct activation differences between untreated adult attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder patients and matched healthy controls during a working memory task. These differences might reflect compensatory efforts by the patients, who are performing at the same level as the healthy controls. We furthermore found a positive effect of methylphenidate on the activation of a frontal region of interest. These observations contribute to a more thorough understanding of adult attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and provide impulses for the evaluation of therapy-related changes. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf

  15. Effect of resistant wheat starch on subjective appetite and food intake in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emilien, Christine H; Hsu, Walter H; Hollis, James H

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of replacing standard wheat flour (SWF) with resistant wheat starch (RWS) on markers of appetite and food intake in healthy adults. A randomized, single-blind, crossover study was conducted with 27 healthy adults (ages 23 ± 2 y with a body mass index of 23.0 ± 3.0 kg/m 2 ). After an overnight fast, muffins that contained only SWF or muffins in which 40% of the SWF was replaced with RWS were consumed as part of the breakfast meal. Appetite questionnaires and plasma samples were collected before the test meal and at 10 time points after meal consumption. An ad libitum meal was provided 240 min after breakfast, and the amount eaten was recorded. Food intake was recorded over the remainder of the day using a diet diary, and appetite was measured hourly using appetite questionnaires. Plasma was assayed to measure biomarkers of satiety and glycemia. Replacing SWF with RWS had no effect on subjective appetite or energy intake at the lunch meal (P > 0.05). Total daily energy intake (including the breakfast meal) was reduced by 179 kcal when participants consumed the RWS muffins (P = 0.05). Replacing SWF with RWS reduced plasma insulin (P  0.05). These results indicate that replacing SWF with RWS decreases plasma insulin concentration and reduces energy intake over a 24-h period. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Echocardiographic and radiographic findings in a cohort of healthy adult green iguanas (Iguana iguana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustavsen, Kate A; Saunders, Ashley B; Young, Benjamin D; Winter, Randolph L; Hoppes, Sharman M

    2014-09-01

    To describe characteristics of echocardiography and cranial coelomic radiography in a cohort of iguanas. Twenty apparently healthy adult green iguanas (Iguana iguana) from a reptile sanctuary. Physical examination, radiography, two-dimensional and color Doppler echocardiography were performed to assess cardiac structures and function, and any related normal or abnormal findings were recorded. Echocardiographic examination was possible without sedation and allowed visualization of the great vessels, atria, and ventricle. Some structures could not be evaluated in a minority of the iguanas due to individual differences in bony conformation and imaging quality. Suspected abnormal echocardiographic findings in 3 iguanas included pericardial effusion (n = 1) and enlarged caudal vena cava and/or sinus venosus (n = 2). Objective measurements were repeatable as assessed by within-subject coefficient of variation, and reliable as assessed by intra-observer intraclass correlation coefficient. Left atrial and ventricular measurements were significantly correlated with body weight. Valve regurgitation was common, with atrioventricular valve regurgitation present in 53% (9/17) and aortic or pulmonic valve regurgitation in 71% (12/17) of otherwise normal iguanas. A heart murmur was not appreciated during examination of any of the iguanas. Heart size cannot be measured radiographically due to superimposition and silhouetting of other coelomic structures. Echocardiographic or radiographic findings consistent with mineralization of the great vessels were present in 76% of iguanas (13/17). Echocardiography in iguanas is well tolerated without sedation and allowed both subjective evaluation and structural measurements. Valve regurgitation and great vessel mineralization were commonly observed in this cohort of apparently healthy adult iguanas. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Inter-device reliability of an automatic-scoring actigraph for measuring sleep in healthy adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Driller

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Actigraphy has become a common method of measuring sleep due to its non-invasive, cost-effective nature. An actigraph (Readiband™ that utilizes automatic scoring algorithms has been used in the research, but is yet to be evaluated for its inter-device reliability. A total of 77 nights of sleep data from 11 healthy adult participants was collected while participants were concomitantly wearing two Readiband™ actigraphs attached together (ACT1 and ACT2. Sleep indices including total sleep time (TST, sleep latency (SL, sleep efficiency (SE%, wake after sleep onset (WASO, total time in bed (TTB, wake episodes per night (WE, sleep onset variance (SOV and wake variance (WV were assessed between the two devices using mean differences, 95% levels of agreement, intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC, typical error of measurement (TEM and coefficient of variation (CV% analysis. There were no significant differences between devices for any of the measured sleep variables (p>0.05. TST, SE, SL, TTB, SOV and WV all resulted in very high ICC's (>0.90, with WASO and WE resulting in high ICC's between devices (0.85 and 0.80, respectively. Mean differences of −2.1 and 0.2 min for TST and SL were associated with a low TEM between devices (9.5 and 3.8 min, respectively. SE resulted in a 0.3% mean difference between devices. The Readiband™ is a reliable tool for researchers using multiple devices of this brand in sleep studies to assess basic measures of sleep quality and quantity in healthy adult populations.

  18. Physical Exercise Habits Correlate with Gray Matter Volume of the Hippocampus in Healthy Adult Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killgore, William D. S.; Olson, Elizabeth A.; Weber, Mareen

    2013-12-01

    Physical activity facilitates neurogenesis of dentate cells in the rodent hippocampus, a brain region critical for memory formation and spatial representation. Recent findings in humans also suggest that aerobic exercise can lead to increased hippocampal volume and enhanced cognitive functioning in children and elderly adults. However, the association between physical activity and hippocampal volume during the period from early adulthood through middle age has not been effectively explored. Here, we correlated the number of minutes of self-reported exercise per week with gray matter volume of the hippocampus using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) in 61 healthy adults ranging from 18 to 45 years of age. After controlling for age, gender, and total brain volume, total minutes of weekly exercise correlated significantly with volume of the right hippocampus. Findings highlight the relationship between regular physical exercise and brain structure during early to middle adulthood.

  19. Haematological and biochemical reference values for healthy adults in the middle belt of Ghana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David K Dosoo

    Full Text Available Reference values are very important in clinical management of patients, screening participants for enrollment into clinical trials and for monitoring the onset of adverse events during these trials. The aim of this was to establish gender-specific haematological and biochemical reference values for healthy adults in the central part of Ghana.A total of 691 adults between 18 and 59 years resident in the Kintampo North Municipality and South District in the central part of Ghana were randomly selected using the Kintampo Health and Demographic Surveillance System and enrolled in this cross-sectional survey. Out of these, 625 adults made up of 316 males and 309 females were assessed by a clinician to be healthy. Median values and nonparametric 95% reference values for 16 haematology and 22 biochemistry parameters were determined for this population based on the Clinical Laboratory and Standards Institute guidelines. Values established in this study were compared with the Caucasian values being used currently by our laboratory as reference values and also with data from other African and western countries.REFERENCE VALUES ESTABLISHED INCLUDE: haemoglobin 113-164 g/L for males and 88-144 g/L for females; total white blood cell count 3.4-9.2 × 10(9/L; platelet count 88-352 × 10(9/L for males and 89-403 × 10(9/L for females; alanine aminotransferase 8-54 U/L for males and 6-51 U/L for females; creatinine 56-119 µmol/L for males and 53-106 µmol/L for females. Using the haematological reference values based on the package inserts would have screened out up to 53% of potential trial participants and up to 25% of the population using the biochemical parameters.We have established a panel of locally relevant reference parameters for commonly used haematological and biochemical tests. This is important as it will help in the interpretation of laboratory results both for clinical management of patients and safety monitoring during a trial.

  20. Heart rate autonomic regulation system at rest and during paced breathing among patients with CRPS as compared to age-matched healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartur, Gadi; Vatine, Jean-Jacques; Raphaely-Beer, Noa; Peleg, Sara; Katz-Leurer, Michal

    2014-09-01

    The objective of this study is to assess the autonomic nerve heart rate regulation system at rest and its immediate response to paced breathing among patients with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) as compared with age-matched healthy controls. Quasiexperimental. Outpatient clinic. Ten patients with CRPS and 10 age- and sex-matched controls. Participants underwent Holter ECG (NorthEast Monitoring, Inc., Maynard, MA, USA) recording during rest and biofeedback-paced breathing session. Heart rate variability (HRV), time, and frequency measures were assessed. HRV and time domain values were significantly lower at rest among patients with CRPS as compared with controls. A significant association was noted between pain rank and HRV frequency measures at rest and during paced breathing; although both groups reduced breathing rate significantly during paced breathing, HRV time domain parameters increased only among the control group. The increased heart rate and decreased HRV at rest in patients with CRPS suggest a general autonomic imbalance. The inability of the patients to increase HRV time domain values during paced breathing may suggest that these patients have sustained stress response with minimal changeability in response to slow-paced breathing stimuli. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Combined Cognitive Training vs. Memory Strategy Training in Healthy Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bing; Zhu, Xinyi; Hou, Jianhua; Chen, Tingji; Wang, Pengyun; Li, Juan

    2016-01-01

    As mnemonic utilization deficit in older adults associates with age-related decline in executive function, we hypothesized that memory strategy training combined with executive function training might induce larger training effect in memory and broader training effects in non-memory outcomes than pure memory training. The present study compared the effects of combined cognitive training (executive function training plus memory strategy training) to pure memory strategy training. Forty healthy older adults were randomly assigned to a combined cognitive training group or a memory strategy training group. A control group receiving no training was also included. Combined cognitive training group received 16 sessions of training (eight sessions of executive function training followed by eight sessions of memory strategy training). Memory training group received 16 sessions of memory strategy training. The results partly supported our hypothesis in that indeed improved performance on executive function was only found in combined training group, whereas memory performance increased less in combined training compared to memory strategy group. Results suggest that combined cognitive training may be less efficient than pure memory training in memory outcomes, though the influences from insufficient training time and less closeness between trained executive function and working memory could not be excluded; however it has broader training effects in non-memory outcomes. Clinical Trial Registration: www.chictr.org.cn, identifier ChiCTR-OON-16007793. PMID:27375521

  2. Specific Interference between a Cognitive Task and Sensory Organization for Stance Balance Control in Healthy Young Adults: Visuospatial Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Raymond K. Y.; Mills, Bradley; Dailey, Leanna; Lane, Elizabeth; Smith, Sarah; Lee, Kyoung-Hyun

    2010-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that a computational overload results when two activities, one motor and the other cognitive that draw on the same neural processing pathways, are performed concurrently. Healthy young adult subjects carried out two seemingly distinct tasks of maintaining standing balance control under conditions of low (eyes closed),…

  3. The effects of a multicomponent intervention program on clinical outcomes associated with falls in healthy older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Young-Hee; Mohamed, Olfat; White, Barbara; Singh-Carlson, Savitri; Krishnan, Vennila

    2018-01-25

    Multicomponent intervention programs have been shown to be effective in reducing risk factors associated with falls, but the primary target population of these interventions is often low-functioning older adults. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of a multicomponent intervention program focusing on balance and muscle strength for independently functioning community-dwelling older adults. Fifty-three independently functioning older adults, aged 80.09 ± 6.62 years, participated in a group exercise class (conducted 2 times/week for 8 weeks) emphasizing balance. Outcome measures were balance performance using the Fullerton Advanced Balance (FAB) scale and muscle strength using the Senior Fitness Test (SFT). The intervention improved balance (P older adults who were classified as having high fall risks based on the FAB scores at pre-testing improved more than older adults who were classified as having low fall risks (P = 0.017). As a result, 22 participants transitioned from a high fall risk group at pre-testing to a low fall risk group at post-testing (P fall risk status. The multicomponent intervention conducted two times per week for 8 weeks was effective in improving balance and enhancing muscle strength of independently functioning older adults. The results underscore the importance of providing fall prevention interventions to healthy older adults, a population often not a target of balance interventions.

  4. Effects of transcranial direct current stimulation on the control of finger force during dexterous manipulation in healthy older adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pranav J Parikh

    Full Text Available The contribution of poor finger force control to age-related decline in manual dexterity is above and beyond ubiquitous behavioral slowing. Altered control of the finger forces can impart unwanted torque on the object affecting its orientation, thus impairing manual performance. Anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS over primary motor cortex (M1 has been shown to improve the performance speed on manual tasks in older adults. However, the effects of anodal tDCS over M1 on the finger force control during object manipulation in older adults remain to be fully explored. Here we determined the effects of anodal tDCS over M1 on the control of grip force in older adults while they manipulated an object with an uncertain mechanical property. Eight healthy older adults were instructed to grip and lift an object whose contact surfaces were unexpectedly made more or less slippery across trials using acetate and sandpaper surfaces, respectively. Subjects performed this task before and after receiving anodal or sham tDCS over M1 on two separate sessions using a cross-over design. We found that older adults used significantly lower grip force following anodal tDCS compared to sham tDCS. Friction measured at the finger-object interface remained invariant after anodal and sham tDCS. These findings suggest that anodal tDCS over M1 improved the control of grip force during object manipulation in healthy older adults. Although the cortical networks for representing objects and manipulative actions are complex, the reduction in grip force following anodal tDCS over M1 might be due to a cortical excitation yielding improved processing of object-specific sensory information and its integration with the motor commands for production of manipulative forces. Our findings indicate that tDCS has a potential to improve the control of finger force during dexterous manipulation in older adults.

  5. A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW AND META-ANALYSIS COMPARING CARDIOPULMONARY EXERCISE TEST VALUES OBTAINED FROM THE ARM CYCLE AND THE LEG CYCLE RESPECTIVELY IN HEALTHY ADULTS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Rasmus Tolstrup; Christensen, Jan; Tang, Lars Hermann

    2016-01-01

    a systematic review and meta-analysis of the difference in VO2max achieved by AC compared to LC in healthy adults and to explore factors that may be predictive of this difference. METHODS: MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and PEDro were searched in April 2015. The differences in VO2max (ACLCdiff) were pooled across....../min with a mean ACLCratio of 0.70. The ACLCdiff was lower in studies with higher mean age and lower aerobic capacity. CONCLUSION: There is linear association between the AC and LC values in healthy adults. The AC values were on average 70% of the LC values. The magnitude of this difference appeared to be reduced...

  6. Self-Esteem, Self-Efficacy, and Resources in Adults With ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newark, Patricia Elizabeth; Elsässer, Marina; Stieglitz, Rolf-Dieter

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to shed light on therapy-relevant factors, such as self-esteem, self-efficacy, and resources in adults with ADHD in comparison with a healthy control group. A total of 43 adults who met Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., text rev.; DSM-IV-TR) criteria for ADHD in adulthood were matched with a nonclinical sample in terms of age and gender. All participants (N = 86) were assessed with self-ratings: Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R), Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, General Perceived Self-Efficacy Scale, and Dick's Resources Checklist. Adults with ADHD showed lower levels of self-esteem and self-efficacy when compared with the control group. The authors found some, but not all, of the resources of adults with ADHD to be reduced. In other words, people with ADHD seem to possess specific resources. Our results have important implications for the treatment of adult ADHD and suggest that specific therapy programs should include resources-oriented modules for enhancing self-esteem, self-efficacy, and fostering strengths. © The Author(s) 2012.

  7. Spinal Arachnoiditis as a Complication of Cryptococcal Meningoencephalitis in Non-HIV Previously Healthy Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komori, Mika; Kosa, Peter; Khan, Omar; Hammoud, Dima A.; Rosen, Lindsey B.; Browne, Sarah K.; Lin, Yen-Chih; Romm, Elena; Ramaprasad, Charu; Fries, Bettina C.; Bennett, John E.; Bielekova, Bibiana; Williamson, Peter R.

    2017-01-01

    Background. Cryptococcus can cause meningoencephalitis (CM) among previously healthy non-HIV adults. Spinal arachnoiditis is under-recognized, since diagnosis is difficult with concomitant central nervous system (CNS) pathology. Methods. We describe 6 cases of spinal arachnoiditis among 26 consecutively recruited CM patients with normal CD4 counts who achieved microbiologic control. We performed detailed neurological exams, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) immunophenotyping and biomarker analysis before and after adjunctive immunomodulatory intervention with high dose pulse corticosteroids, affording causal inference into pathophysiology. Results. All 6 exhibited severe lower motor neuron involvement in addition to cognitive changes and gait disturbances from meningoencephalitis. Spinal involvement was associated with asymmetric weakness and urinary retention. Diagnostic specificity was improved by MRI imaging which demonstrated lumbar spinal nerve root enhancement and clumping or lesions. Despite negative fungal cultures, CSF inflammatory biomarkers, sCD27 and sCD21, as well as the neuronal damage biomarker, neurofilament light chain (NFL), were elevated compared to healthy donor (HD) controls. Elevations in these biomarkers were associated with clinical symptoms and showed improvement with adjunctive high dose pulse corticosteroids. Conclusions. These data suggest that a post-infectious spinal arachnoiditis is an important complication of CM in previously healthy individuals, requiring heightened clinician awareness. Despite microbiological control, this syndrome causes significant pathology likely due to increased inflammation and may be amenable to suppressive therapeutics. PMID:28011613

  8. Working memory predicts semantic comprehension in dichotic listening in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Philip J; Krishnan, Saloni; Aydelott, Jennifer

    2014-10-01

    Older adults have difficulty understanding spoken language in the presence of competing voices. Everyday social situations involving multiple simultaneous talkers may become increasingly challenging in later life due to changes in the ability to focus attention. This study examined whether individual differences in cognitive function predict older adults' ability to access sentence-level meanings in competing speech using a dichotic priming paradigm. Older listeners showed faster responses to words that matched the meaning of spoken sentences presented to the left or right ear, relative to a neutral baseline. However, older adults were more vulnerable than younger adults to interference from competing speech when the competing signal was presented to the right ear. This pattern of performance was strongly correlated with a non-auditory working memory measure, suggesting that cognitive factors play a key role in semantic comprehension in competing speech in healthy aging. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Association between a Healthy Lifestyle Score and inflammatory markers among Puerto Rican adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotos-Prieto, M; Bhupathiraju, S N; Falcon, L M; Gao, X; Tucker, K L; Mattei, J

    2016-03-01

    The relationship between multiple lifestyle components analyzed in combination and inflammation remains understudied. We aimed to assess the association between a Healthy Lifestyle Score (HLS) that includes adherence to five behavioral components (diet, physical activity and sedentary behaviors, smoking, social support and network, and sleep) and inflammatory markers, as well as the role of the HLS in inflammation among individuals with cardiometabolic conditions, in Puerto Rican adults. In a cross-sectional study of 842 Puerto Ricans adults (aged 45-75 y) living in Boston, MA, the HLS (range = 0-190; maximum indicative of healthiest adherence) was analyzed for association with three inflammatory markers: interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and C-reactive protein (CRP). In multivariable-adjusted models, the HLS was inversely associated with IL-6 (β ± SE = -0.55 ± 0.13; P markers independently of the other HLS components. Significant inverse associations were observed for each 20-unit increase in HLS and IL-6 and TNF-α for participants with hypertension (n = 600; β ± SE = -0.58 ± 0.16; -0.46 ± 0.16, respectively) and with overweight/obesity (n = 743; β ± SE = -0.59 ± 0.13; -0.50 ± 0.14, respectively), but not for those with diabetes (n = 187) or heart disease (n = 192). The HLS was not associated with CRP, after adjustment for potential confounders. Higher adherence to multiple lifestyle behaviors was associated with lower concentrations of inflammatory markers. Because low-grade inflammation may precede chronic diseases, following an overall healthy lifestyle may help lower risk of these diseases. Copyright © 2015 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Systematic review of the potential adverse effects of caffeine consumption in healthy adults, pregnant women, adolescents, and children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wikoff, Daniele; Welsh, Brian T; Henderson, Rayetta; Brorby, Gregory P; Britt, Janice; Myers, Esther; Goldberger, Jeffrey; Lieberman, Harris R; O'Brien, Charles; Peck, Jennifer; Tenenbein, Milton; Weaver, Connie; Harvey, Seneca; Urban, Jonathan; Doepker, Candace

    2017-11-01

    To date, one of the most heavily cited assessments of caffeine safety in the peer-reviewed literature is that issued by Health Canada (Nawrot et al., 2003). Since then, >10,000 papers have been published related to caffeine, including hundreds of reviews on specific human health effects; however, to date, none have compared the wide range of topics evaluated by Nawrot et al. (2003). Thus, as an update to this foundational publication, we conducted a systematic review of data on potential adverse effects of caffeine published from 2001 to June 2015. Subject matter experts and research team participants developed five PECO (population, exposure, comparator, and outcome) questions to address five types of outcomes (acute toxicity, cardiovascular toxicity, bone and calcium effects, behavior, and development and reproduction) in four healthy populations (adults, pregnant women, adolescents, and children) relative to caffeine intake doses determined not to be associated with adverse effects by Health Canada (comparators: 400 mg/day for adults [10 g for lethality], 300 mg/day for pregnant women, and 2.5 mg/kg/day for children and adolescents). The a priori search strategy identified >5000 articles that were screened, with 381 meeting inclusion/exclusion criteria for the five outcomes (pharmacokinetics was addressed contextually, adding 46 more studies). Data were extracted by the research team and rated for risk of bias and indirectness (internal and external validity). Selected no- and low-effect intakes were assessed relative to the population-specific comparator. Conclusions were drawn for the body of evidence for each outcome, as well as endpoints within an outcome, using a weight of evidence approach. When the total body of evidence was evaluated and when study quality, consistency, level of adversity, and magnitude of response were considered, the evidence generally supports that consumption of up to 400 mg caffeine/day in healthy adults is not associated

  11. Bias due to sample selection in propensity score matching for a supportive housing program evaluation in New York City.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungwoo Lim

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Little is known about influences of sample selection on estimation in propensity score matching. The purpose of the study was to assess potential selection bias using one-to-one greedy matching versus optimal full matching as part of an evaluation of supportive housing in New York City (NYC. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTINGS: Data came from administrative data for 2 groups of applicants who were eligible for an NYC supportive housing program in 2007-09, including chronically homeless adults with a substance use disorder and young adults aging out of foster care. We evaluated the 2 matching methods in their ability to balance covariates and represent the original population, and in how those methods affected outcomes related to Medicaid expenditures. RESULTS: In the population with a substance use disorder, only optimal full matching performed well in balancing covariates, whereas both methods created representative populations. In the young adult population, both methods balanced covariates effectively, but only optimal full matching created representative populations. In the young adult population, the impact of the program on Medicaid expenditures was attenuated when one-to-one greedy matching was used, compared with optimal full matching. CONCLUSION: Given covariate balancing with both methods, attenuated program impacts in the young adult population indicated that one-to-one greedy matching introduced selection bias.

  12. Fitness as a determinant of arterial stiffness in healthy adult men: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Jinwook; Kim, Milyang; Jin, Youngsoo; Kim, Yonghwan; Hong, Jeeyoung

    2018-01-01

    Fitness is known to influence arterial stiffness. This study aimed to assess differences in cardiorespiratory endurance, muscular strength, and flexibility according to arterial stiffness, based on sex and age. We enrolled 1590 healthy adults (men: 1242, women: 348) who were free of metabolic syndrome. We measured cardiorespiratory endurance in an exercise stress test on a treadmill, muscular strength by a grip test, and flexibility by upper body forward-bends from a standing position. The brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity test was performed to measure arterial stiffness before the fitness test. Cluster analysis was performed to divide the patients into groups with low (Cluster 1) and high (Cluster 2) arterial stiffness. According to the k-cluster analysis results, Cluster 1 included 624 men and 180 women, and Cluster 2 included 618 men and 168 women. Men in the middle-aged group with low arterial stiffness demonstrated higher cardiorespiratory endurance, muscular strength, and flexibility than those with high arterial stiffness. Similarly, among men in the old-aged group, the cardiorespiratory endurance and muscular strength, but not flexibility, differed significantly according to arterial stiffness. Women in both clusters showed similar cardiorespiratory endurance, muscular strength, and flexibility regardless of their arterial stiffness. Among healthy adults, arterial stiffness was inversely associated with fitness in men but not in women. Therefore, fitness seems to be a determinant for arterial stiffness in men. Additionally, regular exercise should be recommended for middle-aged men to prevent arterial stiffness.

  13. Assessment of healthy behaviors for metabolic syndrome among Korean adults: a modified information-motivation-behavioral skills with psychological distress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guna Lee

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since the worldwide incidence of metabolic syndrome (Mets has rapidly increased, healthy behaviors such as weight control, engaging in physical activity, and healthy diet have been crucial in the management of Mets. The purpose of this study was to examine healthy behaviors practice and factors that affect the practice in relation to Mets on the basis of a modified Information-Motivation-Behavioral skills model (IMB with psychological distress, which is a well-known factor affecting healthy behaviors among individuals with Mets. Methods Study participants were 267 community dwelling adults (M age: 54.0 ± 8.1 years with Mets who were attending public health centers located in Seoul, South Korea. A structured questionnaire was administered in the areas of information, motivation, behavioral skills, and practice of Mets healthy behaviors and levels of psychological distress from May 2014 to September 2014. Structural equation modeling was used to test the modified IMB model. Results The modified IMB model had a good fit with the data, indicating that motivation and behavioral skills directly influenced the practice of Mets healthy behaviors, whereas information and psychological distress directly influenced motivation and influenced the practice of healthy behaviors through behavioral skills. These components of the modified IMB model explained 29.8 % of the variance in healthy behaviors for Mets. Conclusion Findings suggested that strengthening motivation and behavioral skills for healthy behaviors can directly enhance healthy behavior practice. Providing information about Mets related healthy behaviors and strategies for psychological distress management can be used as the first line evidence based intervention to systemically enhance motivation and behavioral skills among individuals with Mets.

  14. Assessment of healthy behaviors for metabolic syndrome among Korean adults: a modified information-motivation-behavioral skills with psychological distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Guna; Yang, Sook Ja; Chee, Yeon Kyung

    2016-06-18

    Since the worldwide incidence of metabolic syndrome (Mets) has rapidly increased, healthy behaviors such as weight control, engaging in physical activity, and healthy diet have been crucial in the management of Mets. The purpose of this study was to examine healthy behaviors practice and factors that affect the practice in relation to Mets on the basis of a modified Information-Motivation-Behavioral skills model (IMB) with psychological distress, which is a well-known factor affecting healthy behaviors among individuals with Mets. Study participants were 267 community dwelling adults (M age: 54.0 ± 8.1 years) with Mets who were attending public health centers located in Seoul, South Korea. A structured questionnaire was administered in the areas of information, motivation, behavioral skills, and practice of Mets healthy behaviors and levels of psychological distress from May 2014 to September 2014. Structural equation modeling was used to test the modified IMB model. The modified IMB model had a good fit with the data, indicating that motivation and behavioral skills directly influenced the practice of Mets healthy behaviors, whereas information and psychological distress directly influenced motivation and influenced the practice of healthy behaviors through behavioral skills. These components of the modified IMB model explained 29.8 % of the variance in healthy behaviors for Mets. Findings suggested that strengthening motivation and behavioral skills for healthy behaviors can directly enhance healthy behavior practice. Providing information about Mets related healthy behaviors and strategies for psychological distress management can be used as the first line evidence based intervention to systemically enhance motivation and behavioral skills among individuals with Mets.

  15. Non-invasive detection of coronary endothelial response to sequential handgrip exercise in coronary artery disease patients and healthy adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison G Hays

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Our objective is to test the hypothesis that coronary endothelial function (CorEndoFx does not change with repeated isometric handgrip (IHG stress in CAD patients or healthy subjects. BACKGROUND: Coronary responses to endothelial-dependent stressors are important measures of vascular risk that can change in response to environmental stimuli or pharmacologic interventions. The evaluation of the effect of an acute intervention on endothelial response is only valid if the measurement does not change significantly in the short term under normal conditions. Using 3.0 Tesla (T MRI, we non-invasively compared two coronary artery endothelial function measurements separated by a ten minute interval in healthy subjects and patients with coronary artery disease (CAD. METHODS: Twenty healthy adult subjects and 12 CAD patients were studied on a commercial 3.0 T whole-body MR imaging system. Coronary cross-sectional area (CSA, peak diastolic coronary flow velocity (PDFV and blood-flow were quantified before and during continuous IHG stress, an endothelial-dependent stressor. The IHG exercise with imaging was repeated after a 10 minute recovery period. RESULTS: In healthy adults, coronary artery CSA changes and blood-flow increases did not differ between the first and second stresses (mean % change ±SEM, first vs. second stress CSA: 14.8%±3.3% vs. 17.8%±3.6%, p = 0.24; PDFV: 27.5%±4.9% vs. 24.2%±4.5%, p = 0.54; blood-flow: 44.3%±8.3 vs. 44.8%±8.1, p = 0.84. The coronary vasoreactive responses in the CAD patients also did not differ between the first and second stresses (mean % change ±SEM, first stress vs. second stress: CSA: -6.4%±2.0% vs. -5.0%±2.4%, p = 0.22; PDFV: -4.0%±4.6% vs. -4.2%±5.3%, p = 0.83; blood-flow: -9.7%±5.1% vs. -8.7%±6.3%, p = 0.38. CONCLUSION: MRI measures of CorEndoFx are unchanged during repeated isometric handgrip exercise tests in CAD patients and healthy adults. These findings

  16. Financial Exploitation Is Associated With Structural and Functional Brain Differences in Healthy Older Adults.

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    Spreng, R Nathan; Cassidy, Benjamin N; Darboh, Bri S; DuPre, Elizabeth; Lockrow, Amber W; Setton, Roni; Turner, Gary R

    2017-10-01

    Age-related brain changes leading to altered socioemotional functioning may increase vulnerability to financial exploitation. If confirmed, this would suggest a novel mechanism leading to heightened financial exploitation risk in older adults. Development of predictive neural markers could facilitate increased vigilance and prevention. In this preliminary study, we sought to identify structural and functional brain differences associated with financial exploitation in older adults. Financially exploited older adults (n = 13, 7 female) and a matched cohort of older adults who had been exposed to, but avoided, a potentially exploitative situation (n = 13, 7 female) were evaluated. Using magnetic resonance imaging, we examined cortical thickness and resting state functional connectivity. Behavioral data were collected using standardized cognitive assessments, self-report measures of mood and social functioning. The exploited group showed cortical thinning in anterior insula and posterior superior temporal cortices, regions associated with processing affective and social information, respectively. Functional connectivity encompassing these regions, within default and salience networks, was reduced, while between network connectivity was increased. Self-reported anger and hostility was higher for the exploited group. We observed financial exploitation associated with brain differences in regions involved in socioemotional functioning. These exploratory and preliminary findings suggest that alterations in brain regions implicated in socioemotional functioning may be a marker of financial exploitation risk. Large-scale, prospective studies are necessary to validate this neural mechanism, and develop predictive markers for use in clinical practice. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America.

  17. Responsiveness to healthy advertisements in adults: An experiment assessing beyond brand snack selection and the impact of restrained eating.

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    Dovey, Terence M; Torab, Tina; Yen, Dorothy; Boyland, E J; Halford, Jason C G

    2017-05-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the impact of different advertising messages on adults' snack choice. Eighty participants (18-24 years old) were offered the choice between two snack packs following exposure to one of three advertising conditions. The snack packs contained either healthy or high fat, sugar or salt (HFSS) foods. Participants were exposed to commercials containing either non-food products, healthy food products or HFSS food products and their subsequent choice of snack pack was recorded. The Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (DEBQ) was used to assess the impact of external, restrained and emotional eating behaviour on snack pack selection following exposure to advertisements. The majority of unrestrained participants preferentially choose the HFSS snack pack irrespective of advertisement condition. In contrast, high restrained individuals exposed to the healthy eating advertisement condition preferentially selected the healthy snack pack while those in other advertisement conditions refused to take either snack pack. The healthy eating message, when distributed through mass media, resonated with restrained eaters only. Exposure to healthy food adverts provoked restrained eaters into choosing a snack pack; while exposure to other messages results in restrained eaters refusing to take any foods. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Theory of mind deficit in adult patients with congenital heart disease.

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    Chiavarino, Claudia; Bianchino, Claudia; Brach-Prever, Silvia; Riggi, Chiara; Palumbo, Luigi; Bara, Bruno G; Bosco, Francesca M

    2015-10-01

    This article provides the first assessment of theory of mind, that is, the ability to reason about mental states, in adult patients with congenital heart disease. Patients with congenital heart disease and matched healthy controls were administered classical theory of mind tasks and a semi-structured interview which provides a multidimensional evaluation of theory of mind (Theory of Mind Assessment Scale). The patients with congenital heart disease performed worse than the controls on the Theory of Mind Assessment Scale, whereas they did as well as the control group on the classical theory-of-mind tasks. These findings provide the first evidence that adults with congenital heart disease may display specific impairments in theory of mind. © The Author(s) 2013.

  19. Word-stem priming and recognition in type 2 diabetes mellitus, Alzheimer's disease patients and healthy older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redondo, María Teresa; Beltrán-Brotóns, José Luís; Reales, José Manuel; Ballesteros, Soledad

    2015-11-01

    The present study investigated (a) whether the pattern of performance on implicit and explicit memory of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) is more similar to those of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) or to cognitively normal older adults and (b) whether glycosylated hemoglobin levels (a measure of glucose regulation) are related to performance on the two memory tasks, implicit word-stem completion and "old-new" recognition. The procedures of both memory tasks included encoding and memory test phases separated by a short delay. Three groups of participants (healthy older adults, DM2 patients and AD patients) completed medical and psychological assessments and performed both memory tasks on a computer. The results of the word-stem completion task showed similar implicit memory in the three groups. By contrast, explicit recognition of the three groups differed. Implicit memory was not affected by either normal or pathological aging, but explicit memory deteriorated in the two groups of patients, especially in AD patients, showing a severe impairment compared to the cognitively healthy older adults. Importantly, glycosylated hemoglobin levels were not related to performance on either implicit or explicit memory tasks. These findings revealed a clear dissociation between explicit and implicit memory tasks in normal and pathological aging. Neuropsychologists and clinicians working with TM2 patients should be aware that the decline of voluntary, long-term explicit memory could have a negative impact on their treatment management. By contrast, the intact implicit memory of the two clinical groups could be used in rehabilitation.

  20. Dietary and other lifestyle correlates of serum folate concentrations in a healthy adult population in Crete, Greece: a cross-sectional study

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    Scott John M

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Folate has emerged as a key nutrient for optimising health. Impaired folate status has been identified as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, various types of cancers, and neurocognitive disorders. The study aimed at examining the distribution and determinants of serum folate concentrations in a healthy adult population in Crete, Greece. Methods A cross-sectional sample of 486 healthy adults (250 men, 236 women aged 39 ± 14 years, personnel of the Medical School and the University Hospital of Crete in Greece, was examined. Serum folate and vitamin B12 concentrations were measured by microbiological assay, and total homocysteine was determined fluorometrically and by high-pressure liquid chromatography. Lifestyle questionnaires were completed, and nutrient intakes and food consumption were assessed by 24-h dietary recalls. Multivariate analyses were performed using SPSS v10.1. Results The geometric mean (95% confidence interval concentrations of serum folate were 15.6 μmol/l (14.6–16.8 in men and 19.2 μmol/l (17.9–20.7 in women (p 1, and B6 were positively associated with serum folate. Consumption of potatoes, legumes, fruits, and vegetables were favourably related to the serum folate status. Conclusion Serum folate concentrations were associated with various demographic, lifestyle and dietary factors in healthy Cretan adults. Large-scale epidemiological studies should be conducted within the general Greek adult population to assess the prevalence of impaired folate status and further examine associations with dietary patterns and chronic disease risk. Considering the importance of folate in health maintenance, it is important to increase the public's awareness of modifiable lifestyle patterns and diet and tobacco use in particular, which may be associated with improved folate status.

  1. Minor Physical Anomalies in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Healthy Controls

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    Irina Manouilenko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Minor Physical Anomalies (MPAs are subtle abnormalities of the head, face, and limbs, without significant cosmetic or functional impact to the individual. They are assumed to represent external markers of developmental deviations during foetal life. MPAs have been suggested to indicate severity in mental illness and constitute external markers for atypical brain development. Higher frequencies of MPAs can be found in children with autism. The aims of the present study were to examine the prevalence and patterns of MPAs in adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD and to investigate whether MPAs are associated with symptom severity and overall functioning. Fifty adults with ASD and intelligence within the normal range and 53 healthy controls were examined with the Waldrop scale, an instrument for assessing MPAs. Face and feet were photographed enabling blinded assessment. Significant differences between the ASD and the control group were found on the MPA total scores, and also in the craniofacial region scores. Moreover, the shape of the ears was associated with autistic traits, in the ASD group. High MPA total scores were associated with poorer functioning. The findings suggest a link between MPAs, autistic traits, and level of functioning. Assessment of MPAs may assist in the diagnostic procedure of psychiatric disorders.

  2. Reference interval for the disc-macula distance to disc diameter ratio in a large population of healthy Japanese adults

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    Sato, Ken-ichi

    2017-01-01

    Abstract This study presents the calculated reference interval for the disc-to-macula distance to disc diameter ratio (DM:DD) based on a large population of healthy Japanese adults. A total of 308 consecutive, healthy Japanese adults were examined in this prospective observational study. Eighteen subjects were also excluded because of poor quality of the fundus photograph of one or both eyes; 290 (161 men and 129 women) were included in this study. For each subject, a color fundus photograph of one eye, either the right or left, was randomly selected and used for analysis. On the photograph, the distances between the fovea and the nearest temporal margin of the optic disc (Dft), and the two kinds of disc diameters (D1 and D2), which bisected at right angles and one of which was directed to the fovea (D1), were measured. DM:DD was estimated using the formula: (2Dft + D1)/(D1 + D2). The mean ± standard deviation of DM:DD was 2.91 ± 0.49 for men and 2.96 ± 0.54 for women; there was no sex difference (P = .78, Mann–Whitney U test). Also, almost no relationship was found between DM:DD and age (ρ = −.12, P = .04, Spearman's rank correlation coefficient). The data did not fit a normal distribution (P < .001, Kolmogorov–Smirnov test). The estimated reference interval for DM:DD corresponding to the 2.5th and 97.5th percentiles was 2.12 to 4.18. Using a nonparametric approach, the reference interval for DM:DD of a large population of healthy Japanese adults was calculated to be 2.12 to 4.18, regardless of age or sex. PMID:28403107

  3. The Association between Taking Dietary Supplements and Healthy Habits among Korean Adults: Results from the Fifth Korea National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (2010-2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin-Wook; Lee, So-Hye; Kim, Jung-Eun; Han, Kyung-Do; Kwack, Tae-Eung; Kim, Bo-Seon; Kim, Jeong-Eun; Jo, Eun-Bae; Park, Young-Kyu; Lee, Kyung-Shik

    2016-05-01

    Recently, the number of people interested in health in South Korea has increased, and the rate of dietary supplement use is rising. Researchers have hypothesized that the rate of practicing healthy habits is higher among those who use dietary supplements than those who do not. Therefore, this study aimed to discover the association between taking dietary supplements and practicing various healthy habits in the Korean, adult population. The sample included 15,789 adults over 19 years old who participated in the fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The user group was defined as those taking dietary supplements for more than 2 weeks during the previous year or once during the past month. Measures for the seven healthy habits were based on those included in the Alameda study and were analyzed accounting for the complex sampling design. The rate of taking dietary supplements was significantly higher in women, middle aged participants, urban residents, those with a higher income, those with a higher education level, and nonsmokers as well as among women with a moderate subjective health status, women who limited their alcohol content, and women with dyslipidemia. In the adjusted analysis, the rate of performing three of the 'Alameda 7' habits-eating breakfast regularly, restricting snacking, and limiting drinking-was higher in the female dietary supplement user group than in the other groups. Women practiced more healthy habits and had a higher dietary supplement intake rate than men. We found that taking dietary supplements in Korean adults is highly associated with demographic and social factors. Taking dietary supplements had a relationship with dietary habits, and there was no significant association between dietary supplement and other healthy habits. Thus in the health clinic, we suggest that taking dietary supplements complements a patient's healthy habits, with the exception of dietary habits, for health promotion.

  4. Healthy lifestyle through young adulthood and the presence of low cardiovascular disease risk profile in middle age: the Coronary Artery Risk Development in (Young) Adults (CARDIA) study.

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    Liu, Kiang; Daviglus, Martha L; Loria, Catherine M; Colangelo, Laura A; Spring, Bonnie; Moller, Arlen C; Lloyd-Jones, Donald M

    2012-02-28

    A low cardiovascular disease risk profile (untreated cholesterol risk profile. We examined whether adopting a healthy lifestyle throughout young adulthood is associated with the presence of the low cardiovascular disease risk profile in middle age. The Coronary Artery Risk Development in (Young) Adults (CARDIA) study sample consisted of 3154 black and white participants 18 to 30 years of age at year 0 (1985-1986) who attended the year 0, 7, and 20 examinations. Healthy lifestyle factors defined at years 0, 7, and 20 included average body mass index risk profile at year 20 were 3.0%, 14.6%, 29.5%, 39.2%, and 60.7% for people with 0 or 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 healthy lifestyle factors, respectively (P for trend risk profile in middle age. Public health and individual efforts are needed to improve the adoption and maintenance of healthy lifestyles in young adults.

  5. Development and validation of an algorithm for the study of sleep using a biometric shirt in young healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pion-Massicotte, Joëlle; Godbout, Roger; Savard, Pierre; Roy, Jean-François

    2018-02-23

    Portable polysomnography is often too complex and encumbering for recording sleep at home. We recorded sleep using a biometric shirt (electrocardiogram sensors, respiratory inductance plethysmography bands and an accelerometer) in 21 healthy young adults recorded in a sleep laboratory for two consecutive nights, together with standard polysomnography. Polysomnographic recordings were scored using standard methods. An algorithm was developed to classify the biometric shirt recordings into rapid eye movement sleep, non-rapid eye movement sleep and wake. The algorithm was based on breathing rate and heart rate variability, body movement, and included a correction for sleep onset and offset. The overall mean percentage of agreement between the two sets of recordings was 77.4%; when non-rapid eye movement and rapid eye movement sleep epochs were grouped together, it increased to 90.8%. The overall kappa coefficient was 0.53. Five of the seven sleep variables were significantly correlated. The findings of this pilot study indicate that this simple portable system could be used to estimate the general sleep pattern of young healthy adults. © 2018 European Sleep Research Society.

  6. Postprandial Effects of Breakfast Glycemic Index on Vascular Function among Young Healthy Adults: A Crossover Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Sanchez-Aguadero

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the postprandial effects of high and low glycemic index (GI breakfasts on vascular function. It was a crossover trial that included 40 young healthy adults (50% women, aged 20–40 years, who were recruited at primary care settings. They consumed three experimental breakfasts in randomized order, each one separated by a 1-week washout period: (1 control conditions (only water; (2 low GI (LGI breakfast (29.4 GI and 1489 KJ energy; and (3 high GI (HGI breakfast (64.0 GI and 1318 KJ energy. Blood samples were collected at 60 and 120 min after each breakfast to determine glucose and insulin levels. Vascular parameters were measured at 15 min intervals. Augmentation index (AIx was studied as a primary outcome. Secondary outcomes comprised glucose, insulin, heart rate (HR and pulse pressures (PPs. We found a trend toward increased AIx, HR and PPs for the HGI versus the LGI breakfast. A significant interaction between the type of breakfast consumed and all measured parameters was identified (p < 0.05 except for central PP. Stratifying data by sex, this interaction remained significant for AIx and augmentation pressure only in males (p < 0.05. In conclusion, breakfast GI could affect postprandial vascular responses in young healthy adults.

  7. Modeling cognitive reserve in healthy middle-aged and older adults: the Tasmanian Healthy Brain Project.

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    Ward, David D; Summers, Mathew J; Saunders, Nichole L; Vickers, James C

    2015-04-01

    Cognitive reserve (CR) is a protective factor that supports cognition by increasing the resilience of an individual's cognitive function to the deleterious effects of cerebral lesions. A single environmental proxy indicator is often used to estimate CR (e.g. education), possibly resulting in a loss of the accuracy and predictive power of the investigation. Furthermore, while estimates of an individual's prior CR can be made, no operational measure exists to estimate dynamic change in CR resulting from exposure to new life experiences. We aimed to develop two latent measures of CR through factor analysis: prior and current, in a sample of 467 healthy older adults. The prior CR measure combined proxy measures traditionally associated with CR, while the current CR measure combined variables that had the potential to reflect dynamic change in CR due to new life experiences. Our main finding was that the analyses uncovered latent variables in hypothesized prior and current models of CR. The prior CR model supports multivariate estimation of pre-existing CR and may be applied to more accurately estimate CR in the absence of neuropathological data. The current CR model may be applied to evaluate and explore the potential benefits of CR-based interventions prior to dementia onset.

  8. Using social media to deliver weight loss programming to young adults: Design and rationale for the Healthy Body Healthy U (HBHU) trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napolitano, Melissa A; Whiteley, Jessica A; Mavredes, Meghan N; Faro, Jamie; DiPietro, Loretta; Hayman, Laura L; Neighbors, Charles J; Simmens, Samuel

    2017-09-01

    The transitional period from late adolescence to early adulthood is a vulnerable period for weight gain, with a twofold increase in overweight/obesity during this life transition. In the United States, approximately one-third of young adults have obesity and are at a high risk for weight gain. To describe the design and rationale of a National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) sponsored randomized, controlled clinical trial, the Healthy Body Healthy U (HBHU) study, which compares the differential efficacy of three interventions on weight loss among young adults aged 18-35years. The intervention is delivered via Facebook and SMS Text Messaging (text messaging) and includes: 1) targeted content (Targeted); 2) tailored or personalized feedback (Tailored); or 3) contact control (Control). Recruitment is on-going at two campus sites, with the intervention delivery conducted by the parent site. A total of 450 students will be randomly-assigned to receive one of three programs for 18months. We hypothesize that: a) the Tailored group will lose significantly more weight at the 6, 12, 18month follow-ups compared with the Targeted group; and that b) both the Tailored and Targeted groups will have greater weight loss at the 6, 12, 18month follow-ups than the Control group. We also hypothesize that participants who achieve a 5% weight loss at 6 and 18months will have greater improvements in their cardiometabolic risk factors than those who do not achieve this target. We will examine intervention costs to inform implementation and sustainability other universities. Expected study completion date is 2019. This project has significant public health impact, as the successful translation could reach as many as 20 million university students each year, and change the current standard of practice for promoting weight management within university campus communities. ClinicalTrial.gov: NCT02342912. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Agave Inulin Supplementation Affects the Fecal Microbiota of Healthy Adults Participating in a Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Crossover Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holscher, Hannah D; Bauer, Laura L; Gourineni, Vishnupriya; Pelkman, Christine L; Fahey, George C; Swanson, Kelly S

    2015-09-01

    Prebiotics resist digestion, providing fermentable substrates for select gastrointestinal bacteria associated with health and well-being. Agave inulin differs from other inulin type fibers in chemical structure and botanical origin. Preclinical animal research suggests these differences affect bacterial utilization and physiologic outcomes. Thus, research is needed to determine whether these effects translate to healthy adults. We evaluated agave inulin utilization by the gastrointestinal microbiota by measuring fecal fermentative end products and bacterial taxa. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 3-period, crossover trial was undertaken in healthy adults (n = 29). Participants consumed 0, 5.0, or 7.5 g agave inulin/d for 21 d with 7-d washouts between periods. Participants recorded daily dietary intake; fecal samples were collected during days 16-20 of each period and were subjected to fermentative end product analysis and 16S Illumina sequencing. Fecal Actinobacteria and Bifidobacterium were enriched (P inulin/d, respectively, compared with control. Desulfovibrio were depleted 40% with agave inulin compared with control. Agave inulin tended (P inulin (g/kcal) and Bifidobacterium (r = 0.41, P inulin/d) per kilocalorie was positively associated with fecal butyrate (r = 0.30, P = 0.005), tended to be positively associated with Bifidobacterium (r = 0.19, P = 0.08), and was negatively correlated with Desulfovibrio abundance (r = -0.31, P = 0.004). Agave inulin supplementation shifted the gastrointestinal microbiota composition and activity in healthy adults. Further investigation is warranted to determine whether the observed changes translate into health benefits in human populations. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01925560. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  10. Evaluating components of dental care utilization among adults with diabetes and matched controls via hurdle models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaudhari Monica

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background About one-third of adults with diabetes have severe oral complications. However, limited previous research has investigated dental care utilization associated with diabetes. This project had two purposes: to develop a methodology to estimate dental care utilization using claims data and to use this methodology to compare utilization of dental care between adults with and without diabetes. Methods Data included secondary enrollment and demographic data from Washington Dental Service (WDS and Group Health Cooperative (GH, clinical data from GH, and dental-utilization data from WDS claims during 2002–2006. Dental and medical records from WDS and GH were linked for enrolees continuously and dually insured during the study. We employed hurdle models in a quasi-experimental setting to assess differences between adults with and without diabetes in 5-year cumulative utilization of dental services. Propensity score matching adjusted for differences in baseline covariates between the two groups. Results We found that adults with diabetes had lower odds of visiting a dentist (OR = 0.74, p  0.001. Among those with a dental visit, diabetes patients had lower odds of receiving prophylaxes (OR = 0.77, fillings (OR = 0.80 and crowns (OR = 0.84 (p 0.005 for all and higher odds of receiving periodontal maintenance (OR = 1.24, non-surgical periodontal procedures (OR = 1.30, extractions (OR = 1.38 and removable prosthetics (OR = 1.36 (p  Conclusions Patients with diabetes are less likely to use dental services. Those who do are less likely to use preventive care and more likely to receive periodontal care and tooth-extractions. Future research should address the possible effectiveness of additional prevention in reducing subsequent severe oral disease in patients with diabetes.

  11. The Effects of a Hypocaloric Diet on Diet-Induced Thermogenesis and Blood Hormone Response in Healthy Male Adults: A Pilot Study.

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    Ishii, Shunsuke; Osaki, Noriko; Shimotoyodome, Akira

    2016-01-01

    Calorie restriction is a common strategy for weight loss and management. Consumption of food and nutrients stimulates diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT), as well as pancreatic and gastrointestinal hormone secretion that may regulate energy metabolism. Yet, little is known about the impact of hypocaloric diets on energy metabolism-related parameters. In this study, we assessed the effects of hypocaloric diets on hormonal variance in relation to DIT in healthy adults. Ten healthy male adults were enrolled in a randomized crossover study comprising three meal trials. Each subject was given a meal of 200 (extremely hypocaloric), 400 (moderately hypocaloric), or 800 kcal (normocaloric). Postprandial blood variables and energy expenditure were measured for 4 h (after the 200- and 400-kcal meals) or 6 h (after the 800-kcal meal). DIT and postprandial changes in blood pancreatic peptide and ghrelin were significantly smaller after the extremely or moderately hypocaloric diet than after the normocaloric diet but were similar between the hypocaloric diets. Postprandial blood insulin, amylin, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), and glucagon-like peptide type-1 (GLP-1) increased in a calorie-dependent manner. Thermogenic efficiency (DIT per energy intake) was negatively correlated with the maximum blood level (Cmax) (p=0.01) and incremental area under the curve (p=0.01) of the blood GIP response. Calorie restriction thus leads to hormonal responses and lower DIT in healthy adults. Extreme calorie restriction, however, led to greater thermogenic efficiency compared with moderate calorie restriction. The postprandial GIP response may be a good predictor of postprandial thermogenic efficiency.

  12. Dietary sodium influences the effect of mental stress on heart rate variability: a randomized trial in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Alexander R; Gullixson, Leah R; Wolhart, Sarah C; Kost, Susan L; Schroeder, Darrell R; Eisenach, John H

    2014-02-01

    Dietary sodium influences intermediate physiological traits in healthy adults independent of changes in blood pressure. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that dietary sodium affects cardiac autonomic modulation during mental stress. In a prospective, randomized cross-over design separated by 1 month between diets, 70 normotensive healthy young adults (F/M: 44/26, aged 18-38 years) consumed a 5-day low (10 mmol/day), normal (150 mmol), and high (400 mmol) sodium diet followed by heart rate variability (HRV) recordings at rest and during 5-min computerized mental arithmetic. Women were studied in the low hormone phase of the menstrual cycle following each diet. Diet did not affect resting blood pressure, but heart rate (HR) (mean ± SE) was 66 ± 1, 64 ± 1, and 63 ± 1 bpm in low, normal, and high sodium conditions, respectively (analysis of variance P = 0.02). For HRV, there was a main effect of sodium on resting SD of normalized RR intervals (SDNN), square root of the mean squared difference of successive normalized RR intervals (RMSSD), high frequency, low-frequency normalized units (LFnu), and high-frequency normalized units (HFnu) (P sodium was most marked and consistent with sympathetic activation and reduced vagal activity, with increased LFnu and decreased SDNN, RMSSD, and HFnu compared to both normal and high sodium conditions (P ≤0.05 for all). Dietary sodium-by-mental stress interactions were significant for mean NN, RMSSD, high-frequency power, LFnu, and low frequency/high frequency ratio (P sodium restriction evoked an increase in resting sympathetic activity and reduced vagal activity to the extent that mental stress caused modest additional disruptions in autonomic balance. Conversely, normal and high sodium evoked a reduction in resting sympathetic activity and incremental increase in resting vagal activity, which were disrupted to a greater extent during mental stress compared to low sodium. We conclude that autonomic control of

  13. A focus group study of healthy eating knowledge, practices, and barriers among adult and adolescent immigrants and refugees in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiedje, Kristina; Wieland, Mark L; Meiers, Sonja J; Mohamed, Ahmed A; Formea, Christine M; Ridgeway, Jennifer L; Asiedu, Gladys B; Boyum, Ginny; Weis, Jennifer A; Nigon, Julie A; Patten, Christi A; Sia, Irene G

    2014-05-16

    Immigrants and refugees to the United States exhibit lower dietary quality than the general population, but reasons for this disparity are poorly understood. In this study, we describe the meanings of food, health and wellbeing through the reported dietary preferences, beliefs, and practices of adults and adolescents from four immigrant and refugee communities in the Midwestern United States. Using a community based participatory research approach, we conducted a qualitative research study with 16 audio-recorded focus groups with adults and adolescents who self-identified as Mexican, Somali, Cambodian, and Sudanese. Focus group topics were eating patterns, perceptions of healthy eating in the country of origin and in the U.S., how food decisions are made and who in the family is involved in food preparation and decisions, barriers and facilitators to healthy eating, and gender and generational differences in eating practices. A team of investigators and community research partners analyzed all transcripts in full before reducing data to codes through consensus. Broader themes were created to encompass multiple codes. Results show that participants have similar perspectives about the barriers (personal, environmental, structural) and benefits of healthy eating (e.g., 'junk food is bad'). We identified four themes consistent across all four communities: Ways of Knowing about Healthy Eating ('Meanings;' 'Motivations;' 'Knowledge Sources'), Eating Practices ('Family Practices;' 'Americanized Eating Practices' 'Eating What's Easy'), Barriers ('Taste and Cravings;' 'Easy Access to Junk Food;' 'Role of Family;' Cultural Foods and Traditions;' 'Time;' 'Finances'), and Preferences for Intervention ('Family Counseling;' Community Education;' and 'Healthier Traditional Meals.'). Some generational (adult vs. adolescents) and gender differences were observed. Our study demonstrates how personal, structural, and societal/cultural factors influence meanings of food and dietary

  14. Beverage and water intake of healthy adults in some European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissensohn, Mariela; Castro-Quezada, Itandehui; Serra-Majem, Lluis

    2013-11-01

    Nutritional surveys frequently collect some data of consumption of beverages; however, information from different sources and different methodologies raises issues of comparability. The main objective of this review was to examine the available techniques used for assessing beverage intake in European epidemiological studies and to describe the most frequent method applied to assess it. Information of beverage intake available from European surveys and nutritional epidemiological investigations was obtained from gray literature. Twelve articles were included and relevant data were extracted. The studies were carried out on healthy adults by different types of assessments. The most frequent tool used was a 7-d dietary record. Only Germany used a specific beverage assessment tool (Beverage Dietary History). From the limited data available and the diversity of the methodology used, the results show that consumption of beverages is different between countries. Current epidemiological studies in Europe focusing on beverage intake are scarce. Further research is needed to clarify the amount of beverage intake in European population.

  15. Preliminary study of the optic radiation in healthy adults by MR diffusion tensor imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Jing; Guo Jing; Xu Han; Jiang Zhen; Xu Xiaoqiu; Shen Junkang; Liu Tao; Gong Zhigang

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the distribution of optic radiation fibers and the variation of Meyer loop in healthy adults. Methods: Diffusion tensor magnetic resonance images were obtained from 25 healthy volunteers using a 1.5 T MR scanner and postprocessed using the DTI Studio software. Multiple ROIs were used for fiber reconstruction. The distance between the anterior limit of Meyer loop and the temporal tip(MT) and the fraction of anisotropy (FA) at one side were compared with those at the contralateral side by paired t test. Results: Forty-nine optic radiation fibers were successfully reconstructed in 25 volunteers. The value of MT was (43.2±7.7) mm(ranged from 30.6 to 59.7 mm), and coefficient of variation was 18%. The values of MT and FA of optic radiation in the left side were (43.5±8.1) mm, (0.53±0.10) respectively, and those counterparts in the right side were (43.2±7.5) mm and (0.53± 0.07) respectively. There were no significance difference of MT or FA between the two sides (t=0.12, 0.00; P=0.91 and 1.00 respectively). Conclusions: The range of interindividual variation for MT was rather large in healthy volunteers. The preoperative measurement of the MT appears be helpful to predict the risk of the incidence of visual defect and to decrease the incidence of the complication. (authors)

  16. Postprandial Gastrointestinal Function Differs after Acute Administration of Sourdough Compared with Brewer's Yeast Bakery Products in Healthy Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polese, Barbara; Nicolai, Emanuele; Genovese, Daniela; Verlezza, Viviana; La Sala, Carmine N; Aiello, Marco; Inglese, Marianna; Incoronato, Mariarosaria; Sarnelli, Giovanni; De Rosa, Tiziana; Schiatti, Alfio; Mondelli, Francesco; Ercolini, Danilo; Cuomo, Rosario

    2018-02-01

    Europeans consume large quantities of bakery products, although these are known as one of the food categories that potentially leads to postprandial symptoms (such as fullness and bloating). The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of sourdough baked goods on gastric emptying and gastrointestinal fermentation and symptoms in healthy people. In a double-blind, randomized crossover study, 2 sourdough croissants (SCs) or 2 brewer's yeast croissants (BCs) were served as single meals to 17 healthy adults [9 women; age range: 18-40 y; body mass index range (in kg/m2): 18-24]. Gastric volume (GV) was evaluated by magnetic resonance to calculate gastric-emptying rate in the 3-h interval after croissant ingestion. A hydrogen breath test was performed to measure hydrogen production after SC and BC ingestion. Palatability and postprandial gastrointestinal symptoms (discomfort, nausea, fullness, and bloating) over a 4-h period after the meal were evaluated. The area under the curve (AUC) was used to evaluate the overall effects on all variables tested. The total GV AUC was reduced by 11% during the 3 h after the consumption of SCs compared with BCs (P = 0.02). Hydrogen production during the 4-h interval after ingestion of SCs was 30% lower than after BCs (P = 0.03). SCs were rated as being >2 times as palatable as BCs (P bakery products could promote better postprandial gastrointestinal function in healthy adults and be more acceptable than those prepared with brewer's yeast. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT03207516.

  17. Efficacy of Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera [L.] Dunal) in improving cardiorespiratory endurance in healthy athletic adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Bakhtiar; Shetty, A; Langade, Deepak G

    2015-01-01

    Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera [L.] Dunal) has been traditionally used for various actions ranging from vitalizer, improve endurance and stamina, promote longevity, improve immunity, and male and female fertility. However, clinical studies are needed to prove the clinical efficacy of this herb, especially in cardiovascular endurance and physical performance. This prospective, double-blind, randomized, and placebo-controlled study evaluated the efficacy of Ashwagandha roots extract in enhancing cardiorespiratory endurance and improving the quality of life (QOL) in 50 healthy male/female athletic adults. Cardiorespiratory endurance was assessed by measuring the oxygen consumption at peak physical exertion (VO2 max) levels during a 20 m shuttle run test. The World Health Organization self-reported QOL questionnaire (physical health, psychological health, social relationships, and environmental factors) was used to assess the QOL. Student's t-test was used to compare the differences in a mean and change from baseline VO2 max levels, whereas Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to assess changes in QOL scores from baseline in the two groups. There was a greater increase from baseline (P < 0.0001) in the mean VO2 max with KSM-66 Ashwagandha (n = 24) compared to placebo (n = 25) at 8 weeks (4.91 and 1.42, respectively) and at 12 weeks (5.67 and 1.86 respectively). The QOL scores for all subdomains significantly improved to a greater extent in the Ashwagandha group at 12 weeks compared to placebo (P < 0.05). The findings suggest that Ashwagandha root extract enhances the cardiorespiratory endurance and improves QOL in healthy athletic adults.

  18. Daily marital interaction quality and carotid artery intima-medial thickness in healthy middle-aged adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Nataria Tennille; Kamarck, Thomas W; Muldoon, Matthew F; Manuck, Stephen B

    2014-06-01

    To examine the association between marital interaction quality during daily life and subclinical cardiovascular disease (CVD). Studies have shown that marital status and quality of marriage are associated with cardiovascular health. However, little is known about the role of marital interaction quality during daily life in contributing to these effects. The sample consisted of 281 healthy, employed middle-aged adults who were married or living with a partner in a marital-like relationship (mean age = 42.0 years, 88% white, 52% men). Marital interaction quality was assessed using hourly real-time ecological momentary assessments for 4 days, with participants rating their current or recent partner interactions on positive and negative characteristics (e.g., agreeableness and conflict). Carotid artery intima-medial thickness (IMT) was assessed using ultrasound imaging. Adjusting for demographics, positive marital interaction was inversely associated with IMT (b = -0.02, F(1,275) = 9.18, p = .002), and negative marital interaction was positively associated with IMT (b = 0.02 F(1,275) = 10.29, p = .001). These associations were not accounted for by behavioral and biological CVD risk factors and were consistent across age, sex, race, and education. The associations were also independent of marital interaction frequency, nonmarital social interaction quality, and personality factors. Global reports of marital quality, in contrast, were not associated with IMT. Marital quality as measured during real-time interactions between partners was associated with subclinical CVD in healthy middle-aged adults. This study supports the use of real-time social interaction assessment for characterizing links between social relationships and cardiovascular health.

  19. Serum insulin-like growth factor-I in 1030 healthy children, adolescents, and adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, A; Bang, P; Hertel, Niels

    1994-01-01

    Serum levels of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) increase with age and pubertal development. The large variation in circulating IGF-I levels in adolescence makes it difficult to use the IGF-I value of a single child in the assessment of his growth status. In addition, the interference of IGF......-binding proteins in many IGF-I assays contributes to this problem. We measured IGF-I in acid-ethanol-extracted serum from 1030 healthy children, adolescents, and adults, employing a RIA that reduces interference of IGF-binding proteins by using monoiodinated Tyr31-[125I]des-(1-3)IGF-I as radioligand. Mean serum...... volume. Multiple regression analysis revealed that serum IGF-I levels predicted height velocity in the following year (r = 0.33; P

  20. Size variability of handwriting in healthy Korean older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Ji Hye; Kim, Hyanghee; Kim, Jungwan; Park, Eunjeong; Kim, Soo Ryon

    2014-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to delineate how age-related deterioration affects the handwriting of healthy elderly (HE) subjects. A total of 235 HE (54 males, 181 females) aged 57-91 years participated as subjects in the study. In order to compare the area of handwriting, we divided the participants into two groups: (i) aged 57-74 years; and (ii) aged 75-91 years. The writing stimulus was a four-syllabic word with one-to-one grapheme-to-phoneme correspondence. The size of each syllable in the target word was measured using a software program. Alignment of the word to baseline was assessed using a multiple-choice checklist. As compared with handwriting by the younger group, the older group showed greater variability in the size of the written syllables within the word (P = 0.023). The handwriting was characterized by unequal size among syllables and non-perpendicular alignment, which could be explained by several factors. First, the variability might have resulted from irregular fine movement motor control in older adults. Second, the deterioration of visual feedback and visuomotor integration in normal aging might have affected handwriting performance. In conclusion, variability of handwriting can be sensitive in predicting the aging process. © 2013 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  1. Less-healthy eating behaviors have a greater association with a high level of sugar-sweetened beverage consumption among rural adults than among urban adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wesley R. Dean

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB consumption is associated with the increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity in the United States; however, little is known about how less-healthy eating behaviors influence high levels of SSB consumption among rural adults. Objective: We assessed the frequency of SSB consumption among rural and urban adults, examined the correlates of frequent SSB consumption, and determined difference in correlates between rural and urban adults in a large region of Texas. Design: A cross-sectional study using data on 1,878 adult participants (urban = 734 and rural = 1,144, who were recruited by random digit dialing to participate in the seven-county 2006 Brazos Valley Community Health Assessment. Data included demographic characteristics, eating behaviors (SSB consumption, frequency of fast-food meals, frequency of breakfast meals, and daily fruit and vegetable intake, and household food insecurity. Results: The prevalence of any consumption of SSB and the prevalence of high consumption of SSB were significantly higher among rural adults compared with urban counterparts. The multivariable logistic regression models indicated that a high level of SSB consumption (≥3 cans or glasses SSB/day was associated with demographic characteristics (poverty-level income and children in the home, frequent consumption of fast-food meals, infrequent breakfast meals, low fruit and vegetable intake, and household food insecurity especially among rural adults. Conclusions: This study provides impetus for understanding associations among multiple eating behaviors, especially among economically and geographically disadvantaged adults. New strategies are needed for educating consumers, not only about how to moderate their SSB intake, but also how to simultaneously disrupt the co-occurrence of undesirable eating and promote healthful eating.

  2. Lower Limb Symmetry: Comparison of Muscular Power Between Dominant and Nondominant Legs in Healthy Young Adults Associated With Single-Leg-Dominant Sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaisman, Alex; Guiloff, Rodrigo; Rojas, Juan; Delgado, Iris; Figueroa, David; Calvo, Rafael

    2017-12-01

    Achieving a symmetrical power performance (difference power between the dominant and nondominant legs in healthy young adults, (2) evaluate the effect of a single-leg-dominant sport activity performed at the professional level, and (3) propose a parameter of normality for maximal power difference in the lower limbs of this young adult population. Controlled laboratory study. A total of 78 healthy, male, young adults were divided into 2 groups according to sport activity level. Group 1 consisted of 51 nonathletes (mean ± SD age, 20.8 ± 1.5 years; weight, 71.9 ± 10.5 kg) who participated in less than 8 hours a week of recreational physical activity with nonspecific training; group 2 consisted of 27 single-leg-dominant professional soccer players (age, 18.4 ± 0.6 years; weight, 70.1 ± 7.5 kg) who specifically trained and competed at their particular activity 8 hours or more a week. For assessment of maximal leg power, both groups completed the single-leg squat jump test. Dominance was determined when participants completed 2 of 3 specific tests with the same extremity. Statistical analysis included the Student t test. No statistical difference was found for maximal power between dominant and nondominant legs for nonathletes ( t = -1.01, P = .316) or single-leg-dominant professional soccer players ( t = -1.10, P = .281). A majority (95%) of participants studied showed a power difference of less than 15% between their lower extremities. Among young healthy adults, symmetrical power performance is expected between lower extremities independent of the existence of dominance and difference in sport activity level. A less than 15% difference in power seems to be a proper parameter to define symmetrical power performance assessed by vertical single-leg jump tests.

  3. The Association between Taking Dietary Supplements and Healthy Habits among Korean Adults: Results from the Fifth Korea National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (2010–2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin-Wook; Lee, So-Hye; Kim, Jung-Eun; Han, Kyung-Do; Kwack, Tae-Eung; Kim, Bo-Seon; Kim, Jeong-Eun; Jo, Eun-Bae; Park, Young-Kyu

    2016-01-01

    Background Recently, the number of people interested in health in South Korea has increased, and the rate of dietary supplement use is rising. Researchers have hypothesized that the rate of practicing healthy habits is higher among those who use dietary supplements than those who do not. Therefore, this study aimed to discover the association between taking dietary supplements and practicing various healthy habits in the Korean, adult population. Methods The sample included 15,789 adults over 19 years old who participated in the fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The user group was defined as those taking dietary supplements for more than 2 weeks during the previous year or once during the past month. Measures for the seven healthy habits were based on those included in the Alameda study and were analyzed accounting for the complex sampling design. Results The rate of taking dietary supplements was significantly higher in women, middle aged participants, urban residents, those with a higher income, those with a higher education level, and nonsmokers as well as among women with a moderate subjective health status, women who limited their alcohol content, and women with dyslipidemia. In the adjusted analysis, the rate of performing three of the 'Alameda 7' habits—eating breakfast regularly, restricting snacking, and limiting drinking—was higher in the female dietary supplement user group than in the other groups. Women practiced more healthy habits and had a higher dietary supplement intake rate than men. Conclusion We found that taking dietary supplements in Korean adults is highly associated with demographic and social factors. Taking dietary supplements had a relationship with dietary habits, and there was no significant association between dietary supplement and other healthy habits. Thus in the health clinic, we suggest that taking dietary supplements complements a patient's healthy habits, with the exception of dietary habits, for

  4. Anatomy Ontology Matching Using Markov Logic Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunhua Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The anatomy of model species is described in ontologies, which are used to standardize the annotations of experimental data, such as gene expression patterns. To compare such data between species, we need to establish relationships between ontologies describing different species. Ontology matching is a kind of solutions to find semantic correspondences between entities of different ontologies. Markov logic networks which unify probabilistic graphical model and first-order logic provide an excellent framework for ontology matching. We combine several different matching strategies through first-order logic formulas according to the structure of anatomy ontologies. Experiments on the adult mouse anatomy and the human anatomy have demonstrated the effectiveness of proposed approach in terms of the quality of result alignment.

  5. Design and rationale for a technology-based healthy lifestyle intervention in older adults grieving the loss of a spouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah T. Stahl

    2017-12-01

    Discussion: Several challenges in implementing our lifestyle interventions to older widow(ers who are at risk for common mental disorders have been identified. Direct outreach to hospice organizations is an effective way to identify older adults in the early months following spousal death. Results from study may advance the field of grief support and promote a healthy adaptation to widowhood.

  6. Barriers and Facilitators of Healthy Diet and Exercise Among Adolescent and Young Adult Cancer Survivors: Implications for Behavioral Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yelena P; Yi, Jaehee; McClellan, Jessica; Kim, Jonghee; Tian, Tian; Grahmann, Bridget; Kirchhoff, Anne C; Holton, Avery; Wright, Jennifer

    2015-12-01

    This study uses qualitative methods to identify barriers to and facilitators of exercise and healthy eating among adolescent and young adult (AYA) cancer survivors (survivors currently aged 18-39 years and diagnosed with cancer anytime in their lives), as reported by survivors and their primary supporters. Survivors (M(age) = 27.6 years, SD = 6.6 years) had completed active cancer therapy. Survivors and supporters (i.e., nominated by survivors as someone who was a main source of support) attended separate focus group sessions (five survivor focus groups, five supporter focus groups) and were asked to complete a self-reported questionnaire assessing demographic and cancer history and engagement in exercise and healthy eating. In total, 25 survivors and 19 supporters participated. The three overarching themes identified were barriers to exercise and healthy eating (e.g., lack of resources, negative thoughts and feelings, negative social and environmental influences), facilitators of exercise and healthy eating (e.g., cognitive motivators, tools for health behavior implementation, social relationships), and intervention implications (e.g., informational needs, desire for social support). AYA cancer survivors and their supporters identified barriers to and facilitators of healthy lifestyle behaviors, which should be considered when designing interventions to improve the long-term health of survivors.

  7. The Relationship between Selected Anthropometric Indices and Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Apparently Healthy Young Adults in a Nigerian Community

    OpenAIRE

    C. N. Ofiaeli; A. V. Egwuonwu; M. J. Nwankwo; Y. E. Ihegihu; U. P. Okonkwo

    2017-01-01

    Background and Aim: Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is a useful tool for establishment of baseline fitness status and monitoring of physical activity level. Therefore, it may by extension serve as health risk index. However, studies that have determined the correlation between anthropometric indices and CRF in apparently healthy young adults is difficult to find in other to preempt preventive actions before pathology develops. Materials and Methods: Using a descriptive correlational resea...

  8. Enhanced task-related brain activation and resting perfusion in healthy older adults after chronic blueberry supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowtell, Joanna L; Aboo-Bakkar, Zainie; Conway, Myra E; Adlam, Anna-Lynne R; Fulford, Jonathan

    2017-07-01

    Blueberries are rich in flavonoids, which possess antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. High flavonoid intakes attenuate age-related cognitive decline, but data from human intervention studies are sparse. We investigated whether 12 weeks of blueberry concentrate supplementation improved brain perfusion, task-related activation, and cognitive function in healthy older adults. Participants were randomised to consume either 30 mL blueberry concentrate providing 387 mg anthocyanidins (5 female, 7 male; age 67.5 ± 3.0 y; body mass index, 25.9 ± 3.3 kg·m -2 ) or isoenergetic placebo (8 female, 6 male; age 69.0 ± 3.3 y; body mass index, 27.1 ± 4.0 kg·m -2 ). Pre- and postsupplementation, participants undertook a battery of cognitive function tests and a numerical Stroop test within a 1.5T magnetic resonance imaging scanner while functional magnetic resonance images were continuously acquired. Quantitative resting brain perfusion was determined using an arterial spin labelling technique, and blood biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress were measured. Significant increases in brain activity were observed in response to blueberry supplementation relative to the placebo group within Brodmann areas 4/6/10/21/40/44/45, precuneus, anterior cingulate, and insula/thalamus (p blueberry versus placebo supplementation (p = 0.05). Supplementation with an anthocyanin-rich blueberry concentrate improved brain perfusion and activation in brain areas associated with cognitive function in healthy older adults.

  9. Entorhinal volume, aerobic fitness, and recognition memory in healthy young adults: A voxel-based morphometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteman, Andrew S; Young, Daniel E; Budson, Andrew E; Stern, Chantal E; Schon, Karin

    2016-02-01

    Converging evidence supports the hypothesis effects of aerobic exercise and environmental enrichment are beneficial for cognition, in particular for hippocampus-supported learning and memory. Recent work in humans suggests that exercise training induces changes in hippocampal volume, but it is not known if aerobic exercise and fitness also impact the entorhinal cortex. In animal models, aerobic exercise increases expression of growth factors, including brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). This exercise-enhanced expression of growth hormones may boost synaptic plasticity, and neuronal survival and differentiation, potentially supporting function and structure in brain areas including but not limited to the hippocampus. Here, using voxel based morphometry and a standard graded treadmill test to determine cardio-respiratory fitness (Bruce protocol; ·VO2 max), we examined if entorhinal and hippocampal volumes were associated with cardio-respiratory fitness in healthy young adults (N=33). In addition, we examined if volumes were modulated by recognition memory performance and by serum BDNF, a putative marker of synaptic plasticity. Our results show a positive association between volume in right entorhinal cortex and cardio-respiratory fitness. In addition, average gray matter volume in the entorhinal cortex, bilaterally, was positively associated with memory performance. These data extend prior work on the cerebral effects of aerobic exercise and fitness to the entorhinal cortex in healthy young adults thus providing compelling evidence for a relationship between aerobic fitness and structure of the medial temporal lobe memory system. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Neuroanatomical correlates of intelligence in healthy young adults: the role of basal ganglia volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhein, Cosima; Mühle, Christiane; Richter-Schmidinger, Tanja; Alexopoulos, Panagiotis; Doerfler, Arnd; Kornhuber, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    In neuropsychiatric diseases with basal ganglia involvement, higher cognitive functions are often impaired. In this exploratory study, we examined healthy young adults to gain detailed insight into the relationship between basal ganglia volume and cognitive abilities under non-pathological conditions. We investigated 137 healthy adults that were between the ages of 21 and 35 years with similar educational backgrounds. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed, and volumes of basal ganglia nuclei in both hemispheres were calculated using FreeSurfer software. The cognitive assessment consisted of verbal, numeric and figural aspects of intelligence for either the fluid or the crystallised intelligence factor using the intelligence test Intelligenz-Struktur-Test (I-S-T 2000 R). Our data revealed significant correlations of the caudate nucleus and pallidum volumes with figural and numeric aspects of intelligence, but not with verbal intelligence. Interestingly, figural intelligence associations were dependent on sex and intelligence factor; in females, the pallidum volumes were correlated with crystallised figural intelligence (r = 0.372, p = 0.01), whereas in males, the caudate volumes were correlated with fluid figural intelligence (r = 0.507, p = 0.01). Numeric intelligence was correlated with right-lateralised caudate nucleus volumes for both females and males, but only for crystallised intelligence (r = 0.306, p = 0.04 and r = 0.459, p = 0.04, respectively). The associations were not mediated by prefrontal cortical subfield volumes when controlling with partial correlation analyses. The findings of our exploratory analysis indicate that figural and numeric intelligence aspects, but not verbal aspects, are strongly associated with basal ganglia volumes. Unlike numeric intelligence, the type of figural intelligence appears to be related to distinct basal ganglia nuclei in a sex-specific manner. Subcortical brain structures thus may contribute substantially to

  11. The Relationship of Body Composition and Coronary Artery Calcification in Apparently Healthy Korean Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung-Hee Yu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundWe investigated the association of coronary artery calcium score (CACS with body composition and insulin resistance in apparently healthy Korean adults.MethodsNine hundred forty-five participants (mean age, 48.9 years; 628 men in a medical check-up program were selected for analysis. Body composition was assessed by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA. Insulin resistance was evaluated using the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR. The CACS was assessed by multidetector computed tomography.ResultsOne hundred forty-six subjects (15.4% showed coronary artery calcification and 148 subjects (15.7% had metabolic syndrome. CACS showed a significant positive correlation with age, fasting glucose level, waist circumference (WC, blood pressure, hemoglobin A1c, HOMA-IR, and waist-hip ratio (WHR assessed by BIA. CACS had a negative correlation with high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C. Subjects with high CACS showed significantly higher mean WHRs and lower mean values for lean body mass compared with subjects without coronary artery calcification. In logistic regression analyses with coronary artery calcification as the dependent variable, the highest quartile of WHR showed a 3.125-fold increased odds ratio for coronary artery calcification compared with the lowest quartile after adjustment for confounding variables. When receiver operating characteristics analyses were performed with coronary artery calcification as the result variable, WHR showed the largest area under the curve (AUC value among other variables except for age and WC in women (AUC=0.696 for WHR, 0.790 for age, and 0.719 for WC in women.ConclusionIn our study population of apparently healthy Korean adults, WHR was the most significant predictor for coronary artery calcification among other confounding factors, suggesting that it may have implication as a marker for early atherosclerosis.

  12. Physical Demand but Not Dexterity Is Associated with Motor Flexibility during Rapid Reaching in Healthy Young Adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Greve

    Full Text Available Healthy humans are able to place light and heavy objects in small and large target locations with remarkable accuracy. Here we examine how dexterity demand and physical demand affect flexibility in joint coordination and end-effector kinematics when healthy young adults perform an upper extremity reaching task. We manipulated dexterity demand by changing target size and physical demand by increasing external resistance to reaching. Uncontrolled manifold analysis was used to decompose variability in joint coordination patterns into variability stabilizing the end-effector and variability de-stabilizing the end-effector during reaching. Our results demonstrate a proportional increase in stabilizing and de-stabilizing variability without a change in the ratio of the two variability components as physical demands increase. We interpret this finding in the context of previous studies showing that sensorimotor noise increases with increasing physical demands. We propose that the larger de-stabilizing variability as a function of physical demand originated from larger sensorimotor noise in the neuromuscular system. The larger stabilizing variability with larger physical demands is a strategy employed by the neuromuscular system to counter the de-stabilizing variability so that performance stability is maintained. Our findings have practical implications for improving the effectiveness of movement therapy in a wide range of patient groups, maintaining upper extremity function in old adults, and for maximizing athletic performance.

  13. Influence of visual control, conduction, and central integration on static and dynamic balance in healthy older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrin, P P; Jeandel, C; Perrin, C A; Béné, M C

    1997-01-01

    Aging is associated with decreased balance abilities, resulting in an increased risk of fall. In order to appreciate the visual, somatosensory, and central signals involved in balance control, sophisticated methods of posturography assessment have been developed, using static and dynamic tests, eventually associated with electromyographic measurements. We applied such methods to a population of healthy older adults in order to appreciate the respective importance of each of these sensorial inputs in aging individuals. Posture control parameters were recorded on a force-measuring platform in 41 healthy young (age 28.5 +/- 5.9 years) and 50 older (age 69.8 +/- 5.9 years) adults, using a static test and two dynamic tests performed by all individuals first with eyes open, then with eyes closed. The distance covered by the center of foot pressure, sway area, and anteroposterior oscillations were significantly higher, with eyes open or closed, in older people than in young subjects. Significant differences were noted in dynamic tests with longer latency responses in the group of old people. Dynamic recordings in a sinusoidal test had a more regular pattern when performed eyes open in both groups and evidenced significantly greater instability in old people. These data suggest that vision remains important in maintaining postural control while conduction and central integration become less efficient with age.

  14. Factors independently associated with cardiac troponin I levels in young and healthy adults from the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossard, Matthias; Thériault, Sébastien; Aeschbacher, Stefanie; Schoen, Tobias; Kunz, Seraina; von Rotz, Mirco; Estis, Joel; Todd, John; Risch, Martin; Mueller, Christian; Risch, Lorenz; Paré, Guillaume; Conen, David

    2017-02-01

    Determinants of cardiomyocyte injury as quantified by high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I (cTnI) in young and healthy individuals, and sex-specific 99th percentiles are largely unknown. Our study included 2077 adults from the general population aged 25-41 years without cardiovascular disease. cTnI was measured using a high-sensitivity assay. We performed stepwise backward linear regression analyses to identify variables independently associated with hs-cTnI levels, and calculated narrow-sense heritability from 1638-genotyped participants. Median age was 37 years. cTnI was quantifiable in all but 11 participants (99.5 %). Median (interquartile range) cTnI was significantly higher in men than in women [0.99 (0.71; 1.65) versus 0.47 (0.33; 0.71) ng/L, p age, systolic blood pressure, heart rate, left ventricular mass, N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide, and creatine kinase (all p age, and systolic blood pressure belong to the strongest determinants of hs-cTnI in healthy adults. The 99th percentile was three times higher in men compared to women. Hence, sex-specific cut-off values may be preferable when applying hs-cTnI for screening purposes. Our results may also improve the interpretation of cTn levels in daily clinical practice.

  15. Structure and function of the healthy pre-adolescent pediatric gut microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollister, Emily B; Riehle, Kevin; Luna, Ruth Ann; Weidler, Erica M; Rubio-Gonzales, Michelle; Mistretta, Toni-Ann; Raza, Sabeen; Doddapaneni, Harsha V; Metcalf, Ginger A; Muzny, Donna M; Gibbs, Richard A; Petrosino, Joseph F; Shulman, Robert J; Versalovic, James

    2015-08-26

    The gut microbiome influences myriad host functions, including nutrient acquisition, immune modulation, brain development, and behavior. Although human gut microbiota are recognized to change as we age, information regarding the structure and function of the gut microbiome during childhood is limited. Using 16S rRNA gene and shotgun metagenomic sequencing, we characterized the structure, function, and variation of the healthy pediatric gut microbiome in a cohort of school-aged, pre-adolescent children (ages 7-12 years). We compared the healthy pediatric gut microbiome with that of healthy adults previously recruited from the same region (Houston, TX, USA). Although healthy children and adults harbored similar numbers of taxa and functional genes, their composition and functional potential differed significantly. Children were enriched in Bifidobacterium spp., Faecalibacterium spp., and members of the Lachnospiraceae, while adults harbored greater abundances of Bacteroides spp. From a functional perspective, significant differences were detected with respect to the relative abundances of genes involved in vitamin synthesis, amino acid degradation, oxidative phosphorylation, and triggering mucosal inflammation. Children's gut communities were enriched in functions which may support ongoing development, while adult communities were enriched in functions associated with inflammation, obesity, and increased risk of adiposity. Previous studies suggest that the human gut microbiome is relatively stable and adult-like after the first 1 to 3 years of life. Our results suggest that the healthy pediatric gut microbiome harbors compositional and functional qualities that differ from those of healthy adults and that the gut microbiome may undergo a more prolonged development than previously suspected.

  16. Exploring the relationship between perceived barriers to healthy eating and dietary behaviours in European adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinho, M G M; Mackenbach, J D; Charreire, H; Oppert, J-M; Bárdos, H; Glonti, K; Rutter, H; Compernolle, S; De Bourdeaudhuij, I; Beulens, J W J; Brug, J; Lakerveld, J

    2017-04-26

    Dietary behaviours may be influenced by perceptions of barriers to healthy eating. Using data from a large cross-European study (N = 5900), we explored associations between various perceived barriers to healthy eating and dietary behaviours among adults from urban regions in five European countries and examined whether associations differed across regions and socio-demographic backgrounds. Frequency of consumption of fruit, vegetables, fish, fast food, sugar-sweetened beverages, sweets, breakfast and home-cooked meals were split by the median into higher and lower consumption. We tested associations between barriers (irregular working hours; giving up preferred foods; busy lifestyle; lack of willpower; price of healthy food; taste preferences of family and friends; lack of healthy options and unappealing foods) and dietary variables using multilevel logistic regression models. We explored whether associations differed by age, sex, education, urban region, weight status, household composition or employment. Respondents who perceived any barrier were less likely to report higher consumption of healthier foods and more likely to report higher consumption of fast food. 'Lack of willpower', 'time constraints' and 'taste preferences' were most consistently associated with consumption. For example, those perceiving lack of willpower ate less fruit [odds ratio (OR) 0.57; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.50-0.64], and those with a busy lifestyle ate less vegetables (OR 0.54; 95% CI 0.47-0.62). Many associations differed in size, but not in direction, by region, sex, age and household composition. Perceived 'lack of willpower', 'time constraints' and 'taste preferences' were barriers most strongly related to dietary behaviours, but the association between various barriers and lower intake of fruit and vegetables was somewhat more pronounced among younger participants and women.

  17. Coefficient of Friction at the Fingertips in Type II Diabetics Compared to Healthy Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thames, Beatriz H; Gorniak, Stacey L

    2017-07-01

    Clinical observations suggest that type II diabetes patients are more susceptible to skin changes, which may be associated with reduced coefficient of friction at the fingertips. Reduced coefficient of friction may explain recent reports of fine motor dysfunction in diabetic patients. Coefficient of friction was evaluated using slip force evaluation in a cross-sectional cohort of diabetic patients and age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Covariates of tactile sensation, disease duration, glycated hemoglobin, and clinical diagnosis of peripheral neuropathy were also assessed. A significant decrease in fingertip coefficient of friction in the diabetic group was found as compared to controls. Health state covariates did not alter the strength of between-group differences in statistical analyses. This finding of between-group differences for fingertip frictional properties suggests that causative factors of reported manual motor dysfunction lie in both the distal and proximal portions of the nervous system.

  18. Effects of feeding polydextrose on faecal characteristics, microbiota and fermentative end products in healthy adult dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beloshapka, Alison N; Wolff, Amanda K; Swanson, Kelly S

    2012-08-01

    Polydextrose is a potential prebiotic, but has not been well tested in dogs. Thus, the objective of the present study was to determine the effects of polydextrose on faecal characteristics, microbial populations and fermentative end products in healthy adult dogs. A total of eight adult hound dogs (3.5 (sem 0.5) years; 20 (sem 0.5) kg) were randomly allotted to one of four test diets containing the following concentrations of polydextrose: (1) 0 % (control); (2) 0.5 %; (3) 1.0 %; or (4) 1.5 %. A Latin square design was used, with each treatment period lasting 14 d (days 0-10 adaptation; days 11-14 fresh and total faecal collection). All dogs were fed to maintain body weight. Data were evaluated for linear and quadratic effects using SAS software. Although apparent total tract DM digestibility was unaffected, total tract crude protein digestibility tended to decrease (P dogs.

  19. Structure of four executive functioning tests in healthy older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Frias, Cindy M; Dixon, Roger A; Strauss, Esther

    2006-03-01

    The authors examined the factor structure of 4 indicators of executive functioning derived from 2 new (i.e., Hayling and Brixton) and 2 traditional (i.e., Stroop and Color Trails) tests. Data were from a cross-sectional sample of 55- to 85-year-old healthy adults (N=427) from the Victoria Longitudinal Study. Confirmatory factor analysis (LISREL 8.52) tested both a 2-factor model of Inhibition (Hayling, Stroop) and Shifting (Brixton, Color Trails) and a single-factor model. The 2-factor model did not fit the data because the covariance matrix of the factors was not positive definite. The single-factor model fit the data well, chi(2)(2, N=427)=0.32, p=.85, root-mean-square error of approximation (RMSEA)=.00, comparative fit index (CFI)=1.00, goodness-of-fit index (GFI)=1.00. Moreover, the single-factor structure of executive functioning was invariant (configural and metric) across gender, and invariant (configural with limited metric) across age. Structural relations showed that poorer executive functioning performance was related to older age and lower fluid intelligence, chi(2)(11, N=418)=23.04, p=.02, RMSEA=.05, CFI=.97, GFI=.98.

  20. Enriching Diet with n-3 PUFAs to Help Prevent Cardiovascular Diseases in Healthy Adults: Results from Clinical Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manuelli, Matteo; Della Guardia, Lucio; Cena, Hellas

    2017-07-18

    Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) are believed to be important for cardiovascular health. Many investigations have been carried out in an attempt to examine the effect of n-3 PUFAs intake, in the form of supplementation or fortified foods, for the management of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and risk factors for CVD, whereas less is known about the effect on healthy individuals. The present study reviews the available literature in order to examine the relationship between n-3 PUFAs intake, either via supplementation or enriched food, and the prevention of CVD among healthy adults. Interventional clinical trials on subjects aged >18 years old with none of the established risk factors for CVD have been considered for review. n-3 PUFAs supplementation or enriched food may positively regulate triglycerides and some lipoprotein subsets, as well as several vascular and coagulation parameters, even in healthy patients, presenting no risk factors for CVD, suggesting a protective effect. Diet enrichment with omega-3 is likely to be useful in helping to lower the risk of developing CVD in healthy individuals, but still offers no strong evidence of a tangible benefit on a population level. Additional studies are needed to determine the optimal daily intake, especially to prevent the unfavorable effects of PUFAs over-consumption.

  1. Video game addiction in emerging adulthood: Cross-sectional evidence of pathology in video game addicts as compared to matched healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockdale, Laura; Coyne, Sarah M

    2018-01-01

    The Internet Gaming Disorder Scale (IGDS) is a widely used measure of video game addiction, a pathology affecting a small percentage of all people who play video games. Emerging adult males are significantly more likely to be video game addicts. Few researchers have examined how people who qualify as video game addicts based on the IGDS compared to matched controls based on age, gender, race, and marital status. The current study compared IGDS video game addicts to matched non-addicts in terms of their mental, physical, social-emotional health using self-report, survey methods. Addicts had poorer mental health and cognitive functioning including poorer impulse control and ADHD symptoms compared to controls. Additionally, addicts displayed increased emotional difficulties including increased depression and anxiety, felt more socially isolated, and were more likely to display internet pornography pathological use symptoms. Female video game addicts were at unique risk for negative outcomes. The sample for this study was undergraduate college students and self-report measures were used. Participants who met the IGDS criteria for video game addiction displayed poorer emotional, physical, mental, and social health, adding to the growing evidence that video game addictions are a valid phenomenon. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The effects of the serotonin transporter polymorphism and age on frontal white matter integrity in healthy adult women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rune eJonassen

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Studies of populations at genetic risk have the potential to explore the underlying structural and functional mechanisms in the development of psychological disorders. The polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR in the serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4 has been associated with major depression (Caspi et al., 2003. In healthy women, variation in the human brain white matter microstructure integrity in the uncinate fascicule (UF has been suggested as an endophenotypes in the development of major depression (MDD. Pacheco et al. (2009 found a unique effect of age and 5-HTTLPR within the left frontal UF. The present study examined whether these associations persist along the adult life span. Thirty-seven right-handed healthy women between 21 and 61 years of age were invited for a diffusion MRI study. The functional polymorphism 5-HTTLPR located in the promoter region of the SLC6A4 gene was genotyped using polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Fractional anisotropy (FA was generated for the UF based on Tract-Based Spatial Statistics (TBSS. Models of emotion regulation circuitry suggest that working memory is important in conscious emotion regulation (Price and Drevets, 2010. To explore if 5-HTTLPR is related to this aspects of emotion processing, a working memory pathway, the superior longitudinal fascicule (SLF was included. The results demonstrate that age may explain the hypothesized association between 5-HTTLPR and frontal uncinate fascicule white matter integrity in healthy adult women. Both white matter changes associated with the aging process and those associated with growth and development may explain why the earlier reported unique effects of genotype in frontal UF FA do not persist into adulthood.

  3. The influence of the Re-Link Trainer on gait symmetry in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Sarah; Wiedemann, Lukas; Stinear, Cathy; Stinear, James; McDaid, Andrew

    2017-07-01

    Walking function post-stroke is characterized by asymmetries in gait cycle parameters and joint kinematics. The Re-Link Trainer is designed to provide kinematic constraint to the paretic lower limb, to guide a physiologically normal and symmetrical gait pattern. The purpose of this pilot study was to assess the immediate influence of the Re-Link Trainer on measures of gait symmetry in healthy adults. Participants demonstrated a significantly lower cadence and a 62% reduction in walking speed in the Re-Link Trainer compared to normal walking. The step length ratio had a significant increase from 1.0 during normal walking to 2.5 when walking in the Re-Link Trainer. The results from this pilot study suggest in its current iteration the Re-Link Trainer imposes an asymmetrical constraint on lower limb kinematics.

  4. The influence of athletic activity on the plantar fascia in healthy young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzel, Murat; Cetinus, Ercan; Ekerbicer, H Cetin; Karaoguz, Ahmet

    2006-01-01

    Complaints deriving from the plantar fascia are relatively common in athletes. This study aimed to investigate the changes of thickness of plantar fascia via sonography in healthy young adults with different levels of activity. One hundred ten adults with normal body mass index were separated into three groups according to activity level: sedentary (group 1, n = 50), athletic activity less than 7 hours per week (group 2, n = 30), and athletic activity 7 or more hours per week (group 3, n = 30). The thicknesses of the plantar fascia at origin and at a point 5 mm distal to origin were measured via sonography. The mean values of the thickness of the proximal plantar fascia (PFp) and the distal plantar fascia (PFd) in group 1 were similar to those of groups 2 and 3 (p > 0.05). The mean values of PFp and PFd were significantly higher in men than in women (p 0.05). There were moderate positive correlations between PFp and weight, height, and body mass index but no correlation between PFp and amount of athletic activity. The thickness of the plantar fascia at origin did not change with athletic activity at the amateur level. Copyright 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Developmental improvement and age-related decline in unfamiliar face matching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megreya, Ahmed M; Bindemann, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Age-related changes have been documented widely in studies of face recognition and eyewitness identification. However, it is not clear whether these changes arise from general developmental differences in memory or occur specifically during the perceptual processing of faces. We report two experiments to track such perceptual changes using a 1-in- 10 (experiment 1) and 1-in-1 (experiment 2) matching task for unfamiliar faces. Both experiments showed improvements in face matching during childhood and adult-like accuracy levels by adolescence. In addition, face-matching performance declined in adults of the age of 65 years. These findings indicate that developmental improvements and aging-related differences in face processing arise from changes in the perceptual encoding of faces. A clear face inversion effect was also present in all age groups. This indicates that those age-related changes in face matching reflect a quantitative effect, whereby typical face processes are engaged but do not operate at the best-possible level. These data suggest that part of the problem of eyewitness identification in children and elderly persons might reflect impairments in the perceptual processing of unfamiliar faces.

  6. Impacts of dance on non-motor symptoms, participation, and quality of life in Parkinson disease and healthy older adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeely, ME; Duncan, RP; Earhart, GM

    2015-01-01

    Evidence indicates exercise is beneficial for motor and non-motor function in older adults and people with chronic diseases including Parkinson disease (PD). Dance may be a relevant form of exercise in PD and older adults due to social factors and accessibility. People with PD experience motor and non-motor symptoms, but treatments, interventions, and assessments often focus more on motor symptoms. Similar non-motor symptoms also occur in older adults. While it is well-known that dance may improve motor outcomes, it is less clear how dance affects non-motor symptoms. This review aims to describe the effects of dance interventions on non-motor symptoms in older adults and PD, highlights limitations of the literature, and identifies opportunities for future research. Overall, intervention parameters, study designs, and outcome measures differ widely, limiting comparisons across studies. Results are mixed in both populations, but evidence supports the potential for dance to improve mood, cognition, and quality of life in PD and healthy older adults. Participation and non-motor symptoms like sleep disturbances, pain, and fatigue have not been measured in older adults. Additional well-designed studies comparing dance and exercise interventions are needed to clarify the effects of dance on non-motor function and establish recommendations for these populations. PMID:26318265

  7. Daily Marital Interaction Quality and Carotid Artery Intima Medial Thickness in Healthy Middle Aged Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Nataria T.; Kamarck, Thomas W.; Muldoon, Matthew F.; Manuck, Stephen B.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine the association between marital interaction quality during daily life and subclinical cardiovascular disease (CVD). Studies have shown that marital status and quality of marriage are associated with cardiovascular health. However, little is known about the role of marital interaction quality during daily life in contributing to these effects. Methods The sample consisted of 281 healthy, employed middle-aged adults who were married or living with a partner in a marital-like relationship (mean age = 42.0 years, 88% white, 52% men). Marital interaction quality was assessed using hourly real-time Ecological Momentary Assessments (EMAs) for 4 days, with participants rating their current or recent partner interactions on positive and negative characteristics (e.g., agreeableness and conflict). Carotid artery intima medial thickness (IMT) was assessed using ultrasound imaging. Results Adjusting for demographics, positive marital interaction was inversely associated with IMT, [b = −.02 F(1, 275) = 9.18, p = .002], and negative marital interaction was positively associated with IMT, [b = .02 F(1, 275) = 10.29, p = .001]. These associations were not accounted for by behavioral and biological cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors and were consistent across age, sex, race, and education. The associations were also independent of marital interaction frequency, nonmarital social interaction quality, and personality factors. Global reports of marital quality, in contrast, were not associated with IMT. Conclusions Marital quality as measured during real-time interactions between partners was associated with subclinical cardiovascular disease in healthy middle-aged adults. This study supports the utility of real-time social interaction assessment for characterizing links between social relationships and cardiovascular health. PMID:24915293

  8. Exercise in the healthy older adult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karani, R; McLaughlin, M A; Cassel, C K

    2001-01-01

    Habitual exercise provides numerous health benefits to the older adult. While dynamic aerobic activities increase stamina and lung capacity, isometric or resistance training improves muscle strength and endurance. Long-term benefits of continued exercise include a decreased risk of death from heart disease, enhanced balance and mobility, a decreased risk of diabetes, and an improvement in depressive symptoms. While the hazards of exercise relate predominantly to extremes of intensity and duration, all older adults should consult with a physician before beginning a new activity program. A prescription for exercise should include both aerobic and resistance training components, and frequent follow-up to improve adherence is highly recommended. (c)2001 CVRR, Inc.

  9. Spirometry of healthy adult South African men

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1996-07-07

    Jul 7, 1996 ... radiographic screening process was used to identify a healthy population ... significantly lower values than the Autolink for FVC measurements despite .... t Medical Instrumentation. ATS '" American ... Quality control. Biological ...

  10. Electrophysiological Evidence for Elimination of the Positive Bias in Elderly Adults with Depressive Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huixia Zhou

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundDepressed populations demonstrate a greater tendency to have negative interpretations on ambiguous situations. Cognitive theories concerning depression proposed that such a negative bias plays an important role in developing and maintaining depression. There is now fairly consistent evidence arising from different stimuli and assessment methods that depression is featured by such a bias. The current study aimed to explore the neural signatures associated with the interpretation bias in the elderly with depressive symptoms confronted with different facial expressions using event-related brain potentials (ERPs.MethodsParticipants were 14 community-dwelling older adults with depressive symptoms assessed by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale scores. We collected event-related potentials of their brain compared to that of 14 healthy aged-matched adults. The late positive potential (LPP was used to examine cognitive-affective processes associated with judgment of emotional facial expressions between the two groups.ResultsOld adults with depressive symptoms have much smaller amplitude than healthy older adults irrespective of the prime types. When processing the targets, the two groups showed different patterns regarding the LPP. The healthy control group revealed no differences between ambiguous and happy primes, irrespective of whether the targets were sad or happy facial expressions. However, significant differences were found between happy and sad and between ambiguous and sad primes. Such a pattern indicates a positive bias in healthy elderly adults. Regarding the elderly with depressive symptoms, there were no significant differences between ambiguous versus happy, ambiguous versus sad primes, and happy versus sad primes. Concerning reaction times, there was no group difference. Thus, the findings provide some support for cognitive theories of depression.ConclusionThe current study shows that there is an association

  11. Color Trails Test: normative data and criterion validity for the greek adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messinis, Lambros; Malegiannaki, Amaryllis-Chryssi; Christodoulou, Tessa; Panagiotopoulos, Vassillis; Papathanasopoulos, Panagiotis

    2011-06-01

    The Color Trails Test (CTT) was developed as a culturally fair analog of the Trail Making Test. In the present study, normative data for the CTT were developed for the Greek adult population and further the criterion validity of the CTT was examined in two clinical groups (29 Parkinson's disease [PD] and 25 acute stroke patients). The instrument was applied to 163 healthy participants, aged 19-75. Stepwise linear regression analyses revealed a significant influence of age and education level on completion time in both parts of the CTT (increased age and decreased educational level contributed to slower completion times for both parts), whereas gender did not influence time to completion of part B. Further, the CTT appears to discriminate adequately between the performance of PD and acute stroke patients and matched healthy controls.

  12. Spinal shape analysis in 1,020 healthy young adults aged from 19 to 30 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Krejčí

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: A number of studies on diseased spine have been published; however, there is a relative paucity of studies investigating spine shape characteristics in healthy populations. Such characteristics are needed for diagnostics of spine disorders and assessment of changes in the spinal shape that may have been caused by influence of the modern life style or intensive sport activity. Objective: The aim of the study was to determine characteristics of the spine shape in a large sample of healthy young adults. Methods: Population cross-sectional study. A non-radiographic surface method (system DTP-3 was used for the assessment of spine shape in the sagittal and frontal planes. A total of 1,020 participants (440 men, 580 women took part in the study, their mean (± SD age was 21.8 ± 1.9 years (range 19.1-29.7 for men and 21.9 ± 1.8 years (range 19.3-29.7 for women. All data were checked for normality and are presented as means, standard deviations, ranges, skewness, and kurtosis. Differences between the sexes were assessed with the two-sample t-test. Results: The average sagittal spinal shape was C3 - 12.9° - C7 - 43.0° - T10 - 27.1° - L5 for men and C3 - 12.1° - C6 - 44.5° - T11 - 34.1° - L5 for women. Men showed a significantly smaller thoracic kyphosis and lumbar lordosis curvatures than women. The average curvature due to the lateral deviation in the frontal plane was 6.1° for both sexes, the curvature was larger than 10° in 9.1% of men and 8.8% of women. We found left lateral deviation in 72.5% of men and in 63.6% of women. Conclusions: The study provides characteristics of the spine shape in a large sample of healthy young adults. Such characteristics should be part and parcel of determining the cut-off level for physiological spinal shape. Based on the results of the study, we suggest a lateral deviation of 10° as the maximum for a curvature to be still considered non-pathological.

  13. Brain metabolism and memory in age differentiated healthy adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riege, W.H.; Metter, E.J.; Kuhl, D.E.; Phelps, M.E.

    1984-01-01

    The [F-18]-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) scan method with positron emission tomography was used to determine age differences in factors underlying both the performances on 18 multivariate memory tests and the rates of cerebral glucose utilization in 9 left and 9 right hemispheric regions of 23 healthy adults in the age range of 27-78 years. Young persons below age 42 had higher scores than middle-aged (age 48-65 yrs) or old (age 66-78 yrs) persons on two of seven factors, reflecting memory for sequences of words or events together with metabolic indices of Broca's (and its mirror region) and Thalamic areas. Reliable correlations (critical r = 0.48, p<0.02) indicated that persons with high Superior Frontal and low Caudate-Thalamic metabolic measures were the same who performed well in tests of memory for sentences, story, designs, and complex patterns; while metabolic indices of Occipital and Posterior Temporal regions were correlated with the decision criteria adopted in testing. The mean metabolic ratio (b = -0.033, F = 5.47, p<0.03) and those of bilateral Broca's regions (b = -0.002, F = 13.65, p<0.001) significantly declined with age. The functional interrelation of frontal-subcortical metabolic ratios with memory processing was more prominent in younger persons under study and implicates decreasing thalamo-frontal interaction with age

  14. Resistance Training using Low Cost Elastic Tubing is Equally Effective to Conventional Weight Machines in Middle-Aged to Older Healthy Adults: A Quasi-Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Fabiano F; Camillo, Carlos A; Gobbo, Luis A; Trevisan, Iara B; Nascimento, Wesley B B M; Silva, Bruna S A; Lima, Manoel C S; Ramos, Dionei; Ramos, Ercy M C

    2018-03-01

    The objectives of the study were to compare the effects of resistance training using either a low cost and portable elastic tubing or conventional weight machines on muscle force, functional exercise capacity, and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in middle-aged to older healthy adults. In this clinical trial twenty-nine middle-aged to older healthy adults were randomly assigned to one of the three groups a priori defined: resistance training with elastic tubing (ETG; n = 10), conventional resistance training (weight machines) (CTG; n = 9) and control group (CG, n = 10). Both ETG and CTG followed a 12-week resistance training (3x/week - upper and lower limbs). Muscle force, functional exercise capacity and HRQOL were evaluated at baseline, 6 and 12 weeks. CG underwent the three evaluations with no formal intervention or activity counseling provided. ETG and CTG increased similarly and significantly muscle force (Δ16-44% in ETG and Δ25-46% in CTG, p tubing (a low cost and portable tool) and conventional resistance training using weight machines promoted similar positive effects on peripheral muscle force and functional exercise capacity in middle-aged to older healthy adults.

  15. Multi-domain computerized cognitive training program improves performance of bookkeeping tasks: a matched-sampling active-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampit, Amit; Ebster, Claus; Valenzuela, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive skills are important predictors of job performance, but the extent to which computerized cognitive training (CCT) can improve job performance in healthy adults is unclear. We report, for the first time, that a CCT program aimed at attention, memory, reasoning and visuo-spatial abilities can enhance productivity in healthy younger adults on bookkeeping tasks with high relevance to real-world job performance. 44 business students (77.3% female, mean age 21.4 ± 2.6 years) were assigned to either (a) 20 h of CCT, or (b) 20 h of computerized arithmetic training (active control) by a matched sampling procedure. Both interventions were conducted over a period of 6 weeks, 3-4 1-h sessions per week. Transfer of skills to performance on a 60-min paper-based bookkeeping task was measured at three time points-baseline, after 10 h and after 20 h of training. Repeated measures ANOVA found a significant Group X Time effect on productivity (F = 7.033, df = 1.745; 73.273, p = 0.003) with a significant interaction at both the 10-h (Relative Cohen's effect size = 0.38, p = 0.014) and 20-h time points (Relative Cohen's effect size = 0.40, p = 0.003). No significant effects were found on accuracy or on Conners' Continuous Performance Test, a measure of sustained attention. The results are discussed in reference to previous findings on the relationship between brain plasticity and job performance. Generalization of results requires further study.

  16. How to determine leg dominance: The agreement between self-reported and observed performance in healthy adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicky van Melick

    Full Text Available Since decades leg dominance is suggested to be important in rehabilitation and return to play in athletes with anterior cruciate ligament injuries. However, an ideal method to determine leg dominance in relation to task performance is still lacking.To test the agreement between self-reported and observed leg dominance in bilateral mobilizing and unilateral stabilizing tasks, and to assess whether the dominant leg switches between bilateral mobilizing tasks and unilateral stabilizing tasks.Cross-sectional study.Forty-one healthy adults: 21 men aged 36 ± 17 years old and 20 women aged 36 ±15 years old.Participants self-reported leg dominance in the Waterloo Footedness Questionnaire-Revised (WFQ-R, and leg dominance was observed during performance of four bilateral mobilizing tasks and two unilateral stabilizing tasks. Descriptive statistics and crosstabs were used to report the percentages of agreement.The leg used to kick a ball had 100% agreement between the self-reported and observed dominant leg for both men and women. The dominant leg in kicking a ball and standing on one leg was the same in 66.7% of the men and 85.0% of the women. The agreement with jumping with one leg was lower: 47.6% for men and 70.0% for women.It is appropriate to ask healthy adults: "If you would shoot a ball on a target, which leg would you use to shoot the ball?" to determine leg dominance in bilateral mobilizing tasks. However, a considerable number of the participants switched the dominant leg in a unilateral stabilizing task.

  17. Effect of drinking Arabian Qahwa on fractional exhaled nitric oxide levels in healthy nonsmoking Saudi adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Shahid Habib

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FENO is an emerging marker of inflammation in respiratory diseases. However, it is affected by a number of confounding factors. We aimed to study the effect of drinking Arabian Qahwa on FENO in non-smoking Saudi healthy adults. Methods: We recruited 12 nonsmoker healthy male adults aged 36.6 ± 2.7 (21-50 years. All subjects were free from acute respiratory infections or allergies and had normal ventilatory functions and serum IgE levels. At 8 am in the morning, their baseline values of FENO were recorded. They had not taken tea or coffee in the morning and had taken similar light breakfast. They were given three cups of Arabian Qahwa to drink and then after every 30 minutes, serial levels of FENO were recorded. Results: Average FENO levels at baseline were 28.73 ± 9.33 (mean ± SD parts per billion (ppb. The mean FENO levels started to decrease significantly after 30 minutes of drinking Arabian Qahwa (P=0.002. This decrease in FENO level was further observed till two hours after Qahwa drinking and then it started to increase in next 90 minutes but still was significantly lower than the baseline (P=0.002. The mean FENO level recorded after 4 hours was 27.22 ± 10.22 (P=0.039. Conclusions: FENO levels were significantly lowered by intake of Arabian Qahwa and this effect remains for about 4 hours. Therefore, history of recent Qahwa intake and abstinence is essential before performance of FENO and its interpretation.

  18. Relationship between attitudes towards healthy eating and dietary behaviour, lifestyle and demographic factors in a representative sample of Irish adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hearty, A P; McCarthy, S N; Kearney, J M; Gibney, M J

    2007-01-01

    Attitudes towards healthy eating were explored according to dietary, lifestyle and socio-demographic correlates in a random sample of 1256 Irish adults. Data were obtained from an Irish cross-sectional survey (1997-1999). A self-administered questionnaire was used to obtain attitudinal information. Food consumption was estimated using a 7-d food diary. A majority of the sample had a positive attitude or motivation towards their healthy eating behaviour. Those who perceived their own eating habits to be healthy were more likely to comply with current dietary guidelines than those who did not. Females, increasing age, higher social class, tertiary education, non-smokers, lower body-weights and increased recreational activity were associated with a lower odds ratio (OR) for having a negative attitude towards their healthy eating behaviour. An increased intake (g/d) of breakfast cereals, vegetables, fruit and poultry dishes were associated with decreased OR for negative attitudes towards their healthy eating behaviour, while an increased intake of high-calorie beverages (g/d) was associated with an increased OR. It can be concluded that attitudes or motivation towards eating healthily was related to measured dietary and lifestyle behaviour in this sample. Future research is warranted to devise appropriate methods of instituting attitude change towards dietary behaviour in certain subgroups of the population.

  19. A focus group study of healthy eating knowledge, practices, and barriers among adult and adolescent immigrants and refugees in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Immigrants and refugees to the United States exhibit lower dietary quality than the general population, but reasons for this disparity are poorly understood. In this study, we describe the meanings of food, health and wellbeing through the reported dietary preferences, beliefs, and practices of adults and adolescents from four immigrant and refugee communities in the Midwestern United States. Methods Using a community based participatory research approach, we conducted a qualitative research study with 16 audio-recorded focus groups with adults and adolescents who self-identified as Mexican, Somali, Cambodian, and Sudanese. Focus group topics were eating patterns, perceptions of healthy eating in the country of origin and in the U.S., how food decisions are made and who in the family is involved in food preparation and decisions, barriers and facilitators to healthy eating, and gender and generational differences in eating practices. A team of investigators and community research partners analyzed all transcripts in full before reducing data to codes through consensus. Broader themes were created to encompass multiple codes. Results Results show that participants have similar perspectives about the barriers (personal, environmental, structural) and benefits of healthy eating (e.g., ‘junk food is bad’). We identified four themes consistent across all four communities: Ways of Knowing about Healthy Eating (‘Meanings;’ ‘Motivations;’ ‘Knowledge Sources’), Eating Practices (‘Family Practices;’ ‘Americanized Eating Practices’ ‘Eating What’s Easy’), Barriers (‘Taste and Cravings;’ ‘Easy Access to Junk Food;’ ‘Role of Family;’ Cultural Foods and Traditions;’ ‘Time;’ ‘Finances’), and Preferences for Intervention (‘Family Counseling;’ Community Education;’ and ‘Healthier Traditional Meals.’). Some generational (adult vs. adolescents) and gender differences were observed. Conclusions Our study

  20. Observing prioritization effects on cognition and gait: The effect of increased cognitive load on cognitively healthy older adults' dual-task performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maclean, Linda M; Brown, Laura J E; Khadra, H; Astell, Arlene J

    2017-03-01

    Previous studies exploring the effects of attention-prioritization on cognitively healthy older adults' gait and cognitive dual task (DT) performance have shown DT cost in gait outcomes but inconsistent effects on cognitive performance, which may reflect task difficulty (the cognitive load). This study aimed to identify whether changing the cognitive load during a walking and counting DT improved the challenge/sensitivity of the cognitive task to observe prioritization effects on concurrent gait and cognitive performance outcomes. Seventy-two cognitively healthy older adults (Mean=73years) walked 15m, counted backwards in 3s and 7s as single tasks (ST), and concurrently walked and counted backwards as DTs. Attention-prioritization was examined in Prioritizing Walking (PW) and Prioritizing Counting (PC) DT conditions. Dual-task performance costs (DTC) were calculated for number of correct cognitive responses (CCR) in the counting tasks, and step-time variability and velocity in the gait task. All DT conditions showed a benefit (DTB) for cognitive outcomes with trade-off cost to gait. In the Serial 3s task, the cognitive DTBs increased in PC over the PW condition (p<0.05), with a greater cost to walking velocity (p<0.05). DT effects were more pronounced in the Serial 7s with a lower cognitive DTB when PC than when PW, (p<0.05) with no trade-off increase in cost to gait outcomes (p<0.05). The findings suggest that increased cognitive load during a gait and cognitive DT produces more pronounced gait measures of attention-prioritization in cognitively healthy older adults. A cognitive load effect was also observed in the cognitive outcomes, with unexpected results. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Validity of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment Screener in Adolescents and Young Adults With and Without Congenital Heart Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pike, Nancy A; Poulsen, Marie K; Woo, Mary A

    Cognitive deficits are common, long-term sequelae in children and adolescents with congenital heart disease (CHD) who have undergone surgical palliation. However, there is a lack of a validated brief cognitive screening tool appropriate for the outpatient setting for adolescents with CHD. One candidate instrument is the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) questionnaire. The purpose of the research was to validate scores from the MoCA against the General Memory Index (GMI) of the Wide Range Assessment of Memory and Learning, 2nd Edition (WRAML2), a widely accepted measure of cognition/memory, in adolescents and young adults with CHD. We administered the MoCA and the WRAML2 to 156 adolescents and young adults ages 14-21 (80 youth with CHD and 76 healthy controls who were gender and age matched). Spearman's rank order correlations were used to assess concurrent validity. To assess construct validity, the Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare differences in scores in youth with CHD and the healthy control group. Receiver operating characteristic curves were created and area under the curve, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value were also calculated. The MoCA median scores in the CHD versus healthy controls were (23, range 15-29 vs. 28, range 22-30; p young adults aged 14-21 with CHD when a cutoff score of 26 is used to differentiate youth with and without significant cognitive impairment. Future studies are needed in other adolescent disease groups with known cognitive deficits and healthy populations to explore the generalizability of validity of MoCA scores in adolescents and young adults.

  2. Eye movements and the perceptual span during first- and second-language sentence reading in bilingual older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitford, Veronica; Titone, Debra

    2016-02-01

    This study addressed a central yet previously unexplored issue in the psychological science of aging, namely, whether the advantages of healthy aging (e.g., greater lifelong experience with language) or disadvantages (e.g., decreases in cognitive and sensory processing) drive L1 and L2 reading performance in bilingual older adults. To this end, we used a gaze-contingent moving window paradigm to examine both global aspects of reading fluency (e.g., reading rates, number of regressions) and the perceptual span (i.e., allocation of visual attention into the parafovea) in bilingual older adults during L1 and L2 sentence reading, as a function of individual differences in current L2 experience. Across the L1 and L2, older adults exhibited reduced reading fluency (e.g., slower reading rates, more regressions), but a similar perceptual span compared with matched younger adults. Also similar to matched younger adults, older adults' reading fluency was lower for L2 reading than for L1 reading as a function of current L2 experience. Specifically, greater current L2 experience increased L2 reading fluency, but decreased L1 reading fluency (for global reading measures only). Taken together, the dissociation between intact perceptual span and impaired global reading measures suggests that older adults may prioritize parafoveal processing despite age-related encoding difficulties. Consistent with this interpretation, post hoc analyses revealed that older adults with higher versus lower executive control were more likely to adopt this strategy. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Abnormal functional connectivity of the amygdala in first-episode and untreated adult major depressive disorder patients with different ages of onset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Jing; Shen, Zonglin; Xu, Xiufeng; Yang, Shuran; Chen, Wei; Liu, Xiaoyan; Lu, Yi; Liu, Fang; Lu, Jin; Li, Na; Sun, Xuejin; Cheng, Yuqi

    2017-03-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a common mental disorder with high morbidity. As a part of the limbic system, the amygdala is important in the processing of emotional information. Structural and functional connectivity (FC) abnormalities in the amygdala have been observed in MDD patients. The present study was carried out to identify the features of amygdala FC in adult MDD patients with different ages of onset. Sixty-nine first-episode and untreated MDD patients and 81 healthy controls (CTLs) were included in this study and underwent 3D structural imaging and resting-state functional MRI scanning. The patients and CTLs were divided into two groups according to age of onset: young adult (abnormal resting-state FC with other regions compared with matched controls. However, in old adult patients, compared with matched controls, the right amygdala showed more abnormal changes in the resting-state FC with other regions. MDD patients with different ages of onset showed different changes in the structure and FC of the amygdala. These results might help us to understand the high heterogeneity of MDD.

  4. Blood flow and blood volume in the femoral heads of healthy adults according to age. Measurement with positron emission tomography (PET)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubo, Toshikazu; Kimori, Kokuto; Nakamura, Fuminori; Inoue, Shigehiro; Fujioka, Mikihiro; Ueshima, Keiichiro; Hirasawa, Yasusuke; Ushijima, Yo; Nishimura, Tsunehiko

    2001-01-01

    To deepen understanding of hemodynamics in the femoral head, i.e., the essential factor in clarifying pathogenesis of hip disorders, this study examined blood flow and blood volume in the femoral heads of healthy adults, and their changes with age, by using positron emission tomography (PET). In 16 healthy adult males (age: 20-78 years old, mean age: 42 years), blood flow was measured by means of the H 2 15 O dynamic study method, and blood volume was measured by means of the 15 O-labeled carbon monoxide bolus inhalation method. Blood flow was 1.68-6.47 ml/min/100 g (mean ±SD: 3.52±1.2), and blood volume was 1.67-6.03 ml/100 g (mean ±SD: 3.00±1.27). Blood flow significantly decreased (p<0.01) with age, and blood volume significantly increased (P<0.05). PET was useful in the measurement of blood flow and blood volume in the femoral heads. With age, physiological hemodynamic changes also increased in femoral heads. (author)

  5. Benefits of Hippotherapy and Horse Riding Simulation Exercise on Healthy Older Adults: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilliere, Camille; Collado-Mateo, Daniel; Villafaina, Santos; Duque-Fonseca, Paulo; Parraça, José A

    2018-04-05

    To provide an up-to-date research analysis on equine-assisted therapies and horse riding simulation exercise in older adults, and to suggest future directions in clinical practice and research. TYPE: Systematic review. A comprehensive search of studies was performed in 4 electronic databases (Cochrane, PubMed, PEDro, and Web of Science) regarding the effects of equine-assisted therapies and horse riding simulation exercise in older adults. Eight articles were selected, 5 of them focused on hippotherapy, 2 on horse riding simulation, and a single article that used the 2 types of therapy. PRISMA guidelines were followed for the data extraction process. The studies were all randomized controlled trials, but not double-blind, so they were classified as level of evidence B. Duration of hippotherapy programs ranged from 8-12 weeks. Sessions lasted between 15 and 60 minutes and were performed 2-5 times per week. Interventions using a horse simulator spanned 8 weeks and were conducted for 20 minutes 5 times per week. Results indicate that hippotherapy might improve balance, mobility, gait ability, and muscle strength, as well as could induce hormonal and cerebral activity changes in healthy older adults. Benefits of horse riding simulation could be limited to physical fitness and muscular activity. ▪▪▪. Copyright © 2018 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Fine motor skills in adult Tourette patients are task-dependent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neuner Irene

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tourette syndrome is a neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by motor and phonic tics. Deficient motor inhibition underlying tics is one of the main hypotheses in its pathophysiology. Therefore the question arises whether this supposed deficient motor inhibition affects also voluntary movements. Despite severe motor tics, different personalities who suffer from Tourette perform successfully as neurosurgeon, pilot or professional basketball player. Methods For the investigation of fine motor skills we conducted a motor performance test battery in an adult Tourette sample and an age matched group of healthy controls. Results The Tourette patients showed a significant lower performance in the categories steadiness of both hands and aiming of the right hand in comparison to the healthy controls. A comparison of patients’ subgroup without comorbidities or medication and healthy controls revealed a significant difference in the category steadiness of the right hand. Conclusions Our results show that steadiness and visuomotor integration of fine motor skills are altered in our adult sample but not precision and speed of movements. This alteration pattern might be the clinical vignette of complex adaptations in the excitability of the motor system on the basis of altered cortical and subcortical components. The structurally and functionally altered neuronal components could encompass orbitofrontal, ventrolateral prefrontal and parietal cortices, the anterior cingulate, amygdala, primary motor and sensorimotor areas including altered corticospinal projections, the corpus callosum and the basal ganglia.

  7. Electrical stimulation directs engineered cardiac tissue to an age-matched native phenotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard A Lasher

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Quantifying structural features of native myocardium in engineered tissue is essential for creating functional tissue that can serve as a surrogate for in vitro testing or the eventual replacement of diseased or injured myocardium. We applied three-dimensional confocal imaging and image analysis to quantitatively describe the features of native and engineered cardiac tissue. Quantitative analysis methods were developed and applied to test the hypothesis that environmental cues direct engineered tissue toward a phenotype resembling that of age-matched native myocardium. The analytical approach was applied to engineered cardiac tissue with and without the application of electrical stimulation as well as to age-matched and adult native tissue. Individual myocytes were segmented from confocal image stacks and assigned a coordinate system from which measures of cell geometry and connexin-43 spatial distribution were calculated. The data were collected from 9 nonstimulated and 12 electrically stimulated engineered tissue constructs and 5 postnatal day 12 and 7 adult hearts. The myocyte volume fraction was nearly double in stimulated engineered tissue compared to nonstimulated engineered tissue (0.34 ± 0.14 vs 0.18 ± 0.06 but less than half of the native postnatal day 12 (0.90 ± 0.06 and adult (0.91 ± 0.04 myocardium. The myocytes under electrical stimulation were more elongated compared to nonstimulated myocytes and exhibited similar lengths, widths, and heights as in age-matched myocardium. Furthermore, the percentage of connexin-43-positive membrane staining was similar in the electrically stimulated, postnatal day 12, and adult myocytes, whereas it was significantly lower in the nonstimulated myocytes. Connexin-43 was found to be primarily located at cell ends for adult myocytes and irregularly but densely clustered over the membranes of nonstimulated, stimulated, and postnatal day 12 myocytes. These findings support our hypothesis and reveal

  8. Coronary fluorine-18-sodium fluoride uptake is increased in healthy adults with an unfavorable cardiovascular risk profile: results from the CAMONA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomberg, Björn A; Thomassen, Anders; de Jong, Pim A; Lam, Marnix G E; Diederichsen, Axel C P; Olsen, Michael H; Mickley, Hans; Mali, Willem P T M; Alavi, Abass; Høilund-Carlsen, Poul F

    2017-11-01

    Coronary artery fluorine-18-sodium fluoride (F-NaF) uptake reflects coronary artery calcification metabolism and is considered to be an early prognostic marker of coronary heart disease. This study evaluated the relationship between coronary artery F-NaF uptake and cardiovascular risk in healthy adults at low cardiovascular risk. Study participants underwent blood pressure measurements, blood analyses, and coronary artery F-NaF PET/CT imaging. In addition, the 10-year risk for the development of cardiovascular disease, on the basis of the Framingham Risk Score, was estimated. Multivariable linear regression evaluated the dependence of coronary artery F-NaF uptake on cardiovascular risk factors. We recruited 89 (47 men, 42 women) healthy adults aged 21-75 years. Female sex (0.34 kBq/ml; P=0.009), age (0.16 kBq/ml per SD; P=0.002), and BMI (0.42 kBq/ml per SD; Prisk factors present (Prisk for the development of cardiovascular disease was on average 2.4 times higher in adults with coronary artery F-NaF uptake in the highest quartile compared with those in the lowest quartile of the distribution (8.0 vs. 3.3%, Prisk and that an unfavorable cardiovascular risk profile is associated with a marked increase in coronary artery F-NaF uptake.

  9. HLA Match Likelihoods for Hematopoietic Stem-Cell Grafts in the U.S. Registry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gragert, Loren; Eapen, Mary; Williams, Eric; Freeman, John; Spellman, Stephen; Baitty, Robert; Hartzman, Robert; Rizzo, J. Douglas; Horowitz, Mary; Confer, Dennis; Maiers, Martin

    2018-01-01

    Background Hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT) is a potentially lifesaving therapy for several blood cancers and other diseases. For patients without a suitable related HLA-matched donor, unrelated-donor registries of adult volunteers and banked umbilical cord–blood units, such as the Be the Match Registry operated by the National Marrow Donor Program (NMDP), provide potential sources of donors. Our goal in the present study was to measure the likelihood of finding a suitable donor in the U.S. registry. Methods Using human HLA data from the NMDP donor and cord-blood-unit registry, we built population-based genetic models for 21 U.S. racial and ethnic groups to predict the likelihood of identifying a suitable donor (either an adult donor or a cord-blood unit) for patients in each group. The models incorporated the degree of HLA matching, adult-donor availability (i.e., ability to donate), and cord-blood-unit cell dose. Results Our models indicated that most candidates for HSCT will have a suitable (HLA-matched or minimally mismatched) adult donor. However, many patients will not have an optimal adult donor — that is, a donor who is matched at high resolution at HLA-A, HLA-B, HLA-C, and HLA-DRB1. The likelihood of finding an optimal donor varies among racial and ethnic groups, with the highest probability among whites of European descent, at 75%, and the lowest probability among blacks of South or Central American descent, at 16%. Likelihoods for other groups are intermediate. Few patients will have an optimal cord-blood unit — that is, one matched at the antigen level at HLA-A and HLA-B and matched at high resolution at HLA-DRB1. However, cord-blood units mismatched at one or two HLA loci are available for almost all patients younger than 20 years of age and for more than 80% of patients 20 years of age or older, regardless of racial and ethnic background. Conclusions Most patients likely to benefit from HSCT will have a donor. Public investment in

  10. Analysis of plasma microRNA expression profiles revealed different cancer susceptibility in healthy young adult smokers and middle-aged smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Bing; Gao, Hongmin; Zhang, Tianyang; Cui, Qinghua

    2016-04-19

    Cigarette smoking is a world-wide habit and an important risk factor for cancer. It was known that cigarette smoking can change the expression of circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) in healthy middle-aged adults. However, it remains unclear whether cigarette smoking can change the levels of circulating miRNAs in young healthy smokers and whether there are differences in cancer susceptibility for the two cases. In this study, the miRNA expression profiles of 28 smokers and 12 non-smokers were determined by Agilent human MicroRNA array. We further performed bioinformatics analysis for the differentially expressed miRNAs. The result showed that 35 miRNAs were differentially expressed. Among them, 24 miRNAs were up-regulated and 11 miRNAs were down-regulated in smokers. Functional enrichment analysis showed that the deregulated miRNAs are related to immune system and hormones regulation. Strikingly, the up-regulated miRNAs are mostly associated with hematologic cancers, such as lymphoma, leukemia. As a comparison, the up-regulated plasma miRNAs in middle-aged smokers are mostly associated with solid cancers, such as hepatocellular carcinoma and lung cancer, suggesting that smoking could have different influences on young adults and middle-aged adults. In a conclusion, we identified the circulating miRNAs deregulated by cigarette smoking and revealed that the age-dependent deregulated miRNAs tend to be mainly involved in different types of human cancers.

  11. Can older "at risk" adults benefit from psychoeducation targeting healthy brain aging?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norrie, Louisa M; Diamond, Keri; Hickie, Ian B; Rogers, Naomi L; Fearns, Samantha; Naismith, Sharon L

    2011-04-01

    Multifactorial strategies that prevent or delay the onset or progress of cognitive decline and dementia are needed, and should include education regarding recognized risk factors. The current study sought to investigate whether older adults "at risk" of cognitive decline benefit from psychoeducation targeting healthy brain aging. 65 participants (mean age 64.8 years, SD 9.6) with a lifetime history of major depression; vascular risk as evidenced by at least one vascular risk factor; and/or subjective or objective memory impairment were allocated to weekly psychoeducation sessions or a waitlist control group. The small group sessions were conducted over ten weeks by a team of medical and allied health professionals with expertise in late-life depression and cognition. Sessions focused on modifiable risk factors for cognitive decline including vascular risk, diet, exercise, depression, anxiety and sleep disturbance, as well as providing practical strategies for memory and cognition. Both the psychoeducation and waitlist group completed a 20-item knowledge test at baseline and follow-up. Participants in the psychoeducation group were asked to complete follow-up self-report satisfaction questionnaires. Repeated measures ANOVA showed a significant interaction effect depicting improvements in knowledge associated with psychoeducation, corresponding to an improvement of 15% from baseline. Satisfaction data additionally showed that 92.3% of participants rated the program as "good" to "excellent", and over 90% suggested they would recommend it to others. A group-based psychoeducation program targeting healthy brain aging is effective in improving knowledge. Additionally, it is acceptable and rated highly by participants.

  12. Effects of Healthy Aging and Mild Cognitive Impairment on a Real-Life Decision-Making Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pertl, Marie-Theres; Benke, Thomas; Zamarian, Laura; Delazer, Margarete

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the effects of age and of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) on decision making under risk by adopting a task representing real-life health-related situations and involving complex numerical information. Moreover, we assessed the relationship of real-life decision making to other cognitive functions such as number processing, executive functions, language, memory, and attention. For this reason, we compared the performance of 19 healthy, relatively younger adults with that of 18 healthy older adults and the performance of the 18 healthy older adults with that of 17 patients with MCI. Results indicated difficulties in real-life decision making for the healthy older adults compared with the healthy, relatively younger adults. Difficulties of patients with MCI relative to the healthy older adults arose in particular in difficult items requiring processing of frequencies and fractions. Significant effects of age and of MCI in processing frequencies were also evident in a ratio number comparison task. Decision-making performance of healthy participants and of the patient group correlated significantly with number processing. There was a further significant correlation with executive functions for the healthy participants and with reading comprehension for the patients. Our results suggest that healthy older individuals and patients with MCI make less advantageous decisions when the information is complex and high demands are put on executive functions and numerical abilities. Moreover, we show that executive functions and numerical abilities are not only essential in laboratory gambling tasks but also in more realistic and ecological decision situations within the health context.

  13. Diurnal Variation and Twenty-Four Hour Sleep Deprivation Do Not Alter Supine Heart Rate Variability in Healthy Male Young Adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel S Quintana

    Full Text Available Heart rate variability (HRV has become an increasingly popular index of cardiac autonomic control in the biobehavioral sciences due to its relationship with mental illness and cognitive traits. However, the intraindividual stability of HRV in response to sleep and diurnal disturbances, which are commonly reported in mental illness, and its relationship with executive function are not well understood. Here, in 40 healthy adult males we calculated high frequency HRV-an index of parasympathetic nervous system (PNS activity-using pulse oximetry during brain imaging, and assessed attentional and executive function performance in a subsequent behavioral test session at three time points: morning, evening, and the following morning. Twenty participants were randomly selected for total sleep deprivation whereas the other 20 participants slept as normal. Sleep deprivation and morning-to-night variation did not influence high frequency HRV at either a group or individual level; however, sleep deprivation abolished the relationship between orienting attention performance and HRV. We conclude that a day of wake and a night of laboratory-induced sleep deprivation do not alter supine high frequency HRV in young healthy male adults.

  14. Effects of an Eight-Week Stepladder Exercise Protocol on Lower Limb Muscular Strength of Apparently Healthy Young Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olagbegi Oladapo Michael

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Backward descent of stairs is associated with improved muscle strength and reduced joint stress, but the effect of backward ascent of stairs on lower limb muscle strength has not been reported. This study compared the effects of forward and backward stair climbing on lower limb muscle strength in apparently healthy young adults. Methods. The total of 31 young volunteers were allocated to either forward or backward stair climbing group (n = 16 and 15, respectively. Dynamic quadriceps and hamstring muscle strength was assessed in addition to thigh girth at baseline and at weeks 4 and 8 with the use of the repetitive maximum method and tape measure, respectively. Results. Between baseline and week 8, muscular strength in both groups (quadriceps: 14.4 ± 3.6 to 16.4 ± 3.4 kg; 14.0 ± 2.9 to 15.3 ± 2.7 kg; hamstring: 12.2 ± 3.2 to 13.4 ± 3.2; 11.7 ± 2.5 to 12.9 ± 2.7 kg increased significantly (p 0.05. The groups were comparable in all three measures post intervention. Conclusions. Forward and backward stair climbing protocols are effective for improving the dynamic strength of the hamstring and quadriceps muscles of apparently healthy young adults. Thus, either protocol could be used for the improvement of lower limbs dynamic muscle strength.

  15. Reach and effectiveness of an integrated community-based intervention on physical activity and healthy eating of older adults in a socioeconomically disadvantaged community

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luten, Karla A; Reijneveld, Sijmen A; Dijkstra, Arie; de Winter, Andrea F

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the reach and effectiveness of an integrated community-based intervention designed to promote physical activity and healthy eating among older adults in a socioeconomically disadvantaged community in the Netherlands. The intervention was evaluated with a controlled

  16. Battery powered thought: enhancement of attention, learning, and memory in healthy adults using transcranial direct current stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffman, Brian A; Clark, Vincent P; Parasuraman, Raja

    2014-01-15

    This article reviews studies demonstrating enhancement with transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) of attention, learning, and memory processes in healthy adults. Given that these are fundamental cognitive functions, they may also mediate stimulation effects on other higher-order processes such as decision-making and problem solving. Although tDCS research is still young, there have been a variety of methods used and cognitive processes tested. While these different methods have resulted in seemingly contradictory results among studies, many consistent and noteworthy effects of tDCS on attention, learning, and memory have been reported. The literature suggests that although tDCS as typically applied may not be as useful for localization of function in the brain as some other methods of brain stimulation, tDCS may be particularly well-suited for practical applications involving the enhancement of attention, learning, and memory, in both healthy subjects and in clinical populations. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Superior haptic-to-visual shape matching in autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Tamami; Kato, Nobumasa; Kitazawa, Shigeru

    2012-04-01

    A weak central coherence theory in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) proposes that a cognitive bias toward local processing in ASD derives from a weakness in integrating local elements into a coherent whole. Using this theory, we hypothesized that shape perception through active touch, which requires sequential integration of sensorimotor traces of exploratory finger movements into a shape representation, would be impaired in ASD. Contrary to our expectation, adults with ASD showed superior performance in a haptic-to-visual delayed shape-matching task compared to adults without ASD. Accuracy in discriminating haptic lengths or haptic orientations, which lies within the somatosensory modality, did not differ between adults with ASD and adults without ASD. Moreover, this superior ability in inter-modal haptic-to-visual shape matching was not explained by the score in a unimodal visuospatial rotation task. These results suggest that individuals with ASD are not impaired in integrating sensorimotor traces into a global visual shape and that their multimodal shape representations and haptic-to-visual information transfer are more accurate than those of individuals without ASD. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Fish oil-supplementation increases appetite in healthy adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsbo-Svendsen, Signe; Rønsholdt, Mia Dybkjær; Lauritzen, Lotte

    2013-01-01

    Marine n-3 fatty acids are hypothesized to have beneficial effects on obesity and cancer cachexia possibly via an effect on appetite. The aim of this study was to investigate, if fish oil-supplementation affects appetite in healthy individuals. In a randomized cross-over study, 20 normal-weight s......Marine n-3 fatty acids are hypothesized to have beneficial effects on obesity and cancer cachexia possibly via an effect on appetite. The aim of this study was to investigate, if fish oil-supplementation affects appetite in healthy individuals. In a randomized cross-over study, 20 normal...

  19. Description of the healthy eating indices-based diet quality in Turkish adults: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koksal, Eda; Karacil Ermumcu, Merve Seyda; Mortas, Hande

    2017-03-20

    This study aims to describe the dietary status of Turkish adults using two different versions of the Healthy Eating Index (HEI). In this cross sectional study, 494 healthy participants (311 females) with randomly selected and living in Ankara were included between September 2013 and March 2014. A questionnaire was completed and anthropometric measurements (weight and height) were performed. The 24-h dietary recall of individuals was collected. Diet quality was measured through HEI-2005 and HEI-2010 scores. The mean age, body mass index (BMI), HEI-2005 and HEI-2010 scores of individuals were 32.9 ± 10.8 years; 25.0 ± 4.8 kg/m 2 ; 56.1 ± 13.9 and 41.5 ± 13.7 points, respectively. Significant differences were found between mean HEI-2005 and HEI-2010 scores (p diet quality needs to be improved according to mean HEI-2005 score, had poorer diet based on mean HEI-2010 scores. The highest mean HEI-2005 and HEI-2010 scores were stated in female, in subjects had low education levels, aged 51 years or older and in overweight groups (p healthy eating indices were correlated positively with BMI and age CONCLUSION: Diet qualities of the individuals are associated with age, gender, education and BMI. Although the components and scores in HEI-2010 version were changed from the version of HEI-2005, the changes may encourage healthy choices of some food group. HEI-2010 gives more attention to food quality than HEI-2005. Thus, in the present study it was concluded that HEI-2010 provided more precise results about diet quality.

  20. Responses of sympathetic nervous system to cold exposure in vibration syndrome subjects and age-matched healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamoto, M

    1990-01-01

    Plasma norepinephrine and epinephrine in vibration syndrome subjects and age-matched healthy controls were measured for the purpose of estimating the responsibility of the sympathetic nervous system to cold exposure. In preliminary experiment, it was confirmed that cold air exposure of the whole body was more suitable than one-hand immersion in cold water. In the main experiment, 195 subjects were examined. Sixty-five subjects had vibration syndrome with vibration-induced white finger (VWF + group) and 65 subjects had vibration syndrome without VWF (VWF- group) and 65 controls had no symptoms (control group). In the three groups, plasma norepinephrine levels increased during cold air exposure of whole body at 7 degrees +/- 1.5 degrees C. Blood pressure increased and skin temperature decreased during cold exposure. Percent increase of norepinephrine in the VWF+ group was the highest while that in VWF- group followed and that in the control group was the lowest. This whole-body response of the sympathetic nervous system to cold conditions reflected the VWF which are characteristic symptoms of vibration syndrome. Excluding the effects of shivering and a cold feeling under cold conditions, it was confirmed that the sympathetic nervous system in vibration syndrome is activated more than in the controls. These results suggest that vibration exposure to hand and arm affects the sympathetic nervous system.

  1. Cardiorespiratory Responses and Prediction of Peak Oxygen Uptake during the Shuttle Walking Test in Healthy Sedentary Adult Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Camila D. C.; Lacerda, Ana Cristina Rodrigues; Lage, Vanessa K. S.; Lima, Liliana P.; Fonseca, Sueli F.; de Avelar, Núbia C. P.; Teixeira, Mauro M.; Mendonça, Vanessa A.

    2015-01-01

    Background The application of the Shuttle Walking Test (SWT) to assess cardiorespiratory fitness and the intensity of this test in healthy participants has rarely been studied. This study aimed to assess and correlate the cardiorespiratory responses of the SWT with the cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CEPT) and to develop a regression equation for the prediction of peak oxygen uptake (VO2 peak) in healthy sedentary adult men. Methods In the first stage of this study, 12 participants underwent the SWT and the CEPT on a treadmill. In the second stage, 53 participants underwent the SWT twice. In both phases, the VO2 peak, respiratory exchange ratio (R), and heart rate (HR) were evaluated. Results Similar results in VO2 peak (P>0.05), R peak (P>0.05) and predicted maximum HR (P>0.05) were obtained between the SWT and CEPT. Both tests showed strong and significant correlations of VO2 peak (r = 0.704, P = 0.01) and R peak (r = 0.737, P0.05) was found. Conclusions The SWT produced maximal cardiorespiratory responses comparable to the CEPT, and the developed equation showed viability for the prediction of VO2 peak in healthy sedentary men. PMID:25659094

  2. Pharmacokinetics and effect on the corrected QT interval of single-dose escitalopram in healthy elderly compared with younger adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Hyewon; Kim, Anhye; Lim, Kyoung Soo; Park, Sang-In; Yu, Kyung-Sang; Yoon, Seo Hyun; Cho, Joo-Youn; Chung, Jae-Yong

    2017-01-01

    Escitalopram is the (S)-enantiomer of citalopram that has a potential QT prolonging effect. In this study, 12 healthy elderly individuals received a single oral dose of escitalopram (20 mg), and their pharmacokinetics and QT effect data were compared with data from 33 younger adults obtained in a previous study. Serial blood samples for pharmacokinetic analysis were collected and ECG was performed up to 48 h postdose. The elderly and younger adults showed similar pharmacokinetic profiles. The geometric mean ratios (90% confidence interval) of the elderly compared with the younger adults were 1.02 (0.89-1.17) and 1.01 (0.86-1.17) for the maximum plasma concentration and area under the concentration-time curve, respectively. The mean baseline-adjusted QT (dQT) time profiles were similar and the mean values of maximum dQT were not significantly different between the elderly and the younger adults. The linear mixed-effect model indicated a weak but positive relationship between the escitalopram concentration and dQT, with an estimated coefficient of concentration of 0.43-0.54. In conclusion, the pharmacokinetics and QT effect of a single dose of escitalopram observed in the elderly without comorbidities and younger adults were generally similar.

  3. Amoxicillin-resistant oral streptococci identified in dental plaque specimens from healthy Japanese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Katsuhiko; Nemoto, Hirotoshi; Nakano, Kazuhiko; Naka, Shuhei; Nomura, Ryota; Ooshima, Takashi

    2012-05-01

    Infective endocarditis (IE) is known to be a life-threatening disease and invasive dental procedures are considered to be important factors. Oral amoxicillin (AMPC) is widely used for prophylaxis in patients with heart disorders who are at risk for IE. However, there is only limited information regarding the inhibition of oral bacteria by AMPC. Dental plaque specimens were obtained from 120 healthy Japanese adult subjects, then diluted and streaked onto selective medium for oral streptococci. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of AMPC was evaluated using a macro-dilution method by Clinical Laboratory Standard Institute (2006). Seven strains with an MIC of AMPC of 16μg/mL or more were isolated from 5 subjects. The bacterial species were confirmed by sequence analysis of 16S rRNA from each strain, which demonstrated that most were Streptococcus sanguinis, followed by Streptococcus oralis. Dental plaque specimens collected from these 5 subjects again after an interval of 2-3 months possessed no strains with an MIC of AMPC of 16μg/mL or more. These findings suggest that strains with a high MIC of AMPC are present in the oral cavities of Japanese adults, though they may be transient rather than inhabitants. Copyright © 2012 Japanese College of Cardiology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Eating competence of elderly Spanish adults is associated with a healthy diet and a favorable cardiovascular disease risk profile.

    OpenAIRE

    Jordi Salas-Salvado; Barbara Lohse; Tricia Psota; Ramon Estruch; Itziar Zazpe; Jose V. Sorli; Merce Serra; Jodi Stotts Krall; Fabiola Ma´rquez; Emilio Ros; PREDIMED Study Investigators

    2010-01-01

    Eating competence of elderly Spanish adults is associated with a healthy diet and a favorable cardiovascular disease risk profile. Eating competence (EC), a bio-psychosocial model for intrapersonal approaches to eating and food-related behaviors, is associated with less weight dissatisfaction, lower BMI, and increased HDL-cholesterol in small U.S. studies, but its relationship to nutrient quality and overall cardiovascular risk have not been examined. Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea (PRE...

  5. Feasibility of Eight Physical Fitness Tests in 1,050 Older Adults with Intellectual Disability : Results of the Healthy Ageing with Intellectual Disabilities Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilgenkamp, Thessa I. M.; van Wijck, Ruud; Evenhuis, Heleen M.

    Although physical fitness is relevant for well-being and health, knowledge on the feasibility of instruments to measure physical fitness in older adults with intellectual disability (ID) is lacking. As part of the study Healthy Ageing with Intellectual Disabilities with 1,050 older clients with ID

  6. Assessment of cellular materials generated by co-cultured ‘inflamed’ and healthy periodontal ligament stem cells from patient-matched groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Hao-Ning [State Key Laboratory of Military Stomatology & National Clinical Research Center for Oral Diseases & Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Stomatology, Department of Periodontology, School of Stomatology, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an (China); Department of Stomatology, The First Affiliated Hospital of the Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing 100048 (China); Xia, Yu [State Key Laboratory of Military Stomatology & National Clinical Research Center for Oral Diseases & Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Stomatology, Department of Periodontology, School of Stomatology, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an (China); Department of Stomatology, The 309th Hospital of Chinese People' s Liberation Army, Beijing 100091 (China); Xu, Jie; Tian, Bei-Min; Zhang, Xi-Yu [State Key Laboratory of Military Stomatology & National Clinical Research Center for Oral Diseases & Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Stomatology, Department of Periodontology, School of Stomatology, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an (China); Chen, Fa-Ming, E-mail: cfmsunhh@fmmu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Military Stomatology & National Clinical Research Center for Oral Diseases & Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Stomatology, Department of Periodontology, School of Stomatology, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an (China)

    2016-08-01

    Recently, stem cells derived from the'inflamed’ periodontal ligament (PDL) tissue of periodontally diseased teeth (I-PDLSCs) have been increasingly suggested as a more readily accessible source of cells for regenerative therapies than those derived from healthy PDL tissue (H-PDLSCs). However, substantial evidence indicates that I-PDLSCs exhibit impaired functionalities compared with H-PDLSCs. In this study, patient-matched I-PDLSCs and H-PDLSCs were co-cultured at various ratios. Cellular materials derived from these cultures were investigated regarding their osteogenic potential in vitro and capacity to form new bone following in vivo transplantation. While patient-matched I-PDLSCs and H-PDLSCs could co-exist in co-culture systems, the proportion of I-PDLSCs tended to increase during in vitro incubation. Compared with H-PDLSC monoculture, the presence of I-PDLSCs in the co-cultures appeared to enhance the overall cell proliferation. Although not completely rescued, the osteogenic and regenerative potentials of the cellular materials generated by co-cultured I-PDLSCs and H-PDLSCs were significantly improved compared with those derived from I-PDLSC monocultures. Notably, cells in co-cultures containing either 50% I-PDLSCs plus 50% H-PDLSCs or 25% I-PDLSCs plus 75% H-PDLSCs expressed osteogenesis-related proteins and genes at levels similar to those expressed in H-PDLSC monocultures (P>0.05). Irrespective of the percentage of I-PDLSCs, robust cellular materials were obtained from co-cultures with 50% or more H-PDLSCs, which exhibited equivalent potential to form new bone in vivo compared with sheets generated by H-PDLSC monocultures. These data suggest that the co-culture of I-PDLSCs with patient-matched H-PDLSCs is a practical and effective method for increasing the overall osteogenic and regenerative potentials of resultant cellular materials. - Highlights: • Co-culturing H-PDLSCs with I-PDLSCs led to rapid cell expansion. • H-PDLSCs and I-PDLSCs co

  7. Assessment of cellular materials generated by co-cultured ‘inflamed’ and healthy periodontal ligament stem cells from patient-matched groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Hao-Ning; Xia, Yu; Xu, Jie; Tian, Bei-Min; Zhang, Xi-Yu; Chen, Fa-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Recently, stem cells derived from the'inflamed’ periodontal ligament (PDL) tissue of periodontally diseased teeth (I-PDLSCs) have been increasingly suggested as a more readily accessible source of cells for regenerative therapies than those derived from healthy PDL tissue (H-PDLSCs). However, substantial evidence indicates that I-PDLSCs exhibit impaired functionalities compared with H-PDLSCs. In this study, patient-matched I-PDLSCs and H-PDLSCs were co-cultured at various ratios. Cellular materials derived from these cultures were investigated regarding their osteogenic potential in vitro and capacity to form new bone following in vivo transplantation. While patient-matched I-PDLSCs and H-PDLSCs could co-exist in co-culture systems, the proportion of I-PDLSCs tended to increase during in vitro incubation. Compared with H-PDLSC monoculture, the presence of I-PDLSCs in the co-cultures appeared to enhance the overall cell proliferation. Although not completely rescued, the osteogenic and regenerative potentials of the cellular materials generated by co-cultured I-PDLSCs and H-PDLSCs were significantly improved compared with those derived from I-PDLSC monocultures. Notably, cells in co-cultures containing either 50% I-PDLSCs plus 50% H-PDLSCs or 25% I-PDLSCs plus 75% H-PDLSCs expressed osteogenesis-related proteins and genes at levels similar to those expressed in H-PDLSC monocultures (P>0.05). Irrespective of the percentage of I-PDLSCs, robust cellular materials were obtained from co-cultures with 50% or more H-PDLSCs, which exhibited equivalent potential to form new bone in vivo compared with sheets generated by H-PDLSC monocultures. These data suggest that the co-culture of I-PDLSCs with patient-matched H-PDLSCs is a practical and effective method for increasing the overall osteogenic and regenerative potentials of resultant cellular materials. - Highlights: • Co-culturing H-PDLSCs with I-PDLSCs led to rapid cell expansion. • H-PDLSCs and I-PDLSCs co

  8. Moderators of noise-induced cognitive change in healthy adults

    OpenAIRE

    Wright, Bernice AL; Peters, Emmanuelle R; Ettinger, Ulrich; Kuipers, Elizabeth; Kumari, Veena

    2016-01-01

    Environmental noise causes cognitive impairment, particularly in executive function and episodic memory domains, in healthy populations. However, the possible moderating influences on this relationship are less clear. This study assessed 54 healthy participants (24 men) on a cognitive battery (measuring psychomotor speed, attention, executive function, working memory, and verbal learning and memory) under three (quiet, urban, and social) noise conditions. IQ, subjective noise sensitivity, sle...

  9. Hemoglobin A1c Is Positively Correlated with Framingham Risk Score in Older, Apparently Healthy Nondiabetic Korean Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Hye Shin

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundSeveral studies have suggested that elevated levels of hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c are associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD in nondiabetic individuals. However, it is unclear whether HbA1c levels can serve as a simple screening marker for increased CVD risk in nondiabetic individuals. Our objective was to evaluate the relationship between HbA1c levels and CVD risk using the Framingham risk score (FRS in older, apparently healthy nondiabetic Korean adults.MethodsWe retrospectively studied 2,879 Korean adults between the ages of 40 and 79 who underwent voluntary health check-ups at the Health Promotion Center of our hospital from July 2009 to June 2011. Subjects were subdivided based on their HbA1c levels into four groups: tertiles within the HbA1c normal tolerance range and a group for subjects with an increased risk for diabetes (IRD.ResultsThe mean FRS for the upper tertile (9.6±3.8 group was significantly higher than that of the middle tertile (8.4±4.0 and lower tertile (7.6±3.8 groups. In addition, FRS was highest in the IRD group (10.5±3.7. Multiple linear regression analysis demonstrated that HbA1c levels exhibited a significant positive correlation with FRS when adjusted for confounding variables in all subjects (β±standard error [SE], 0.018±0.002; R2, 0.131, women (β±SE, 0.023±0.003; R2, 0.170, and men (β±SE, 0.016±0.004; R2, 0.109.ConclusionHbA1c levels were positively correlated with FRS in older, apparently healthy nondiabetic Korean adults. We propose that HbA1c levels may reflect CVD risk in nondiabetic individuals.

  10. Phosphorous31 magnetic resonance spectroscopy after total sleep deprivation in healthy adult men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorsey, Cynthia M; Lukas, Scott E; Moore, Constance M; Tartarini, Wendy L; Parow, Aimee M; Villafuerte, Rosemond A; Renshaw, Perry F

    2003-08-01

    To investigate chemical changes in the brains of healthy adults after sleep deprivation and recovery sleep, using phosphorous magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Three consecutive nights (baseline, sleep deprivation, recovery) were spent in the laboratory. Objective sleep measures were assessed on the baseline and recovery nights using polysomnography. Phosphorous magnetic resonance spectroscopy scans took place beginning at 7 am to 8 am on the morning after each of the 3 nights. Sleep laboratory in a private psychiatric teaching hospital. Eleven healthy young men. Following a baseline night of sleep, subjects underwent a night of total sleep deprivation, which involved supervision to ensure the absence of sleep but was not polysomnographically monitored. No significant changes in any measure of brain chemistry were observed the morning after a night of total sleep deprivation. However, after the recovery night, significant increases in total and beta-nucleoside triphosphate and decreases in phospholipid catabolism, measured by an increase in the concentration of glycerylphosphorylcholine, were observed. Chemical changes paralleled some changes in objective sleep measures. Significant chemical changes in the brain were observed following recovery sleep after 1 night of total sleep deprivation. The specific process underlying these changes is unclear due to the large brain region sampled in this exploratory study, but changes may reflect sleep inertia or some aspect of the homeostatic sleep mechanism that underlies the depletion and restoration of sleep. Phosphorous magnetic resonance spectroscopy is a technique that may be of value in further exploration of such sleep-wake functions.

  11. Evaluation of fat-free mass by whole-body counter in Japanese healthy young adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morita, N.; Takamura, N.; Murakami, T.; Jo, O.; Aoyagi, K.; Yamashita, S.; Okumura, Y.

    2007-01-01

    Whole-body counters (WBCs) are special instruments for measuring internal irradiation doses and are usually housed within or around nuclear facilities in the event of unexpected radiation emergencies. As a substantial proportion of total body potassium (TBK) is found in fat-free mass (FFM), FFM volume can be predicted from WBC-measured 40 K. We screened TBK in Japanese healthy young adults using a WBC and found strong linear correlations between TBK and lean body mass (LBM) and body mass index (r = 0.97, P<0.01 and r = 0.47, P<0.01, respectively). Multiple linear regression analysis, following adjustments for sex, indicates that only LBM has a significant correlation with TBK (P<0.01). These results strongly support the feasibility of using WBCs for estimating FFM. (authors)

  12. Sex and age differences in body-image, self-esteem, and body mass index in adolescents and adults after single-ventricle palliation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pike, Nancy A; Evangelista, Lorraine S; Doering, Lynn V; Eastwood, Jo-Ann; Lewis, Alan B; Child, John S

    2012-06-01

    Single-ventricle congenital heart disease (SVCHD) requires multiple palliative surgical procedures that leave visible surgical scars and physical deficits, which can alter body-im