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Sample records for healthy adult population

  1. Deficient selenium status of a healthy adult Spanish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millán Adame, E; Florea, D; Sáez Pérez, L; Molina López, J; López-González, B; Pérez de la Cruz, A; Planells del Pozo, E

    2012-01-01

    Selenium is an essential micronutrient for human health, being a cofactor for enzymes with antioxidant activity that protect the organism from oxidative damage. An inadequate intake of this mineral has been associated with the onset and progression of chronic diseases such as hypertension, diabetes, coronary diseases, asthma, and cancer. For this reason, knowledge of the plasma and erythrocyte selenium levels of a population makes a relevant contribution to assessment of its nutritional status. The objective of the present study was to determine the nutritional status of selenium and risk of selenium deficiency in a healthy adult population in Spain by examining food and nutrient intake and analyzing biochemical parameters related to selenium metabolism, including plasma and erythrocyte levels and selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidase (GPx) enzymatic activity. We studied 84 healthy adults (31 males and 53 females) from the province of Granada, determining their plasma and erythrocyte selenium concentrations and the association of these levels with the enzymatic activity of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and with life style factors. We also gathered data on their food and nutrient intake and the results of biochemical analyses. Correlations were studied among all of these variables. The mean plasma selenium concentration was 76.6 ± 17.3 μg/L (87.3 ± 17.4 μg/L in males, 67.3 ± 10.7 μg/L in females), whereas the mean erythrocyte selenium concentration was 104.6 μg/L (107.9 ± 26.1 μg/L in males and 101.7 ± 21.7 μg/L in females). The nutritional status of selenium was defined by the plasma concentration required to reach maximum GPx activity, establishing 90 μg/L as reference value. According to this criterion, 50% of the men and 53% of the women were selenium deficient. Selenium is subjected to multiple regulation mechanisms. Erythrocyte selenium is a good marker of longer term selenium status, while plasma selenium appears to be a marker of short

  2. Pinch Strengths in Healthy Iranian Children and Young Adult Population

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    Iman Dianat

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Data on the physical strength capabilities are essential for design-ing safe and usable products and are useful in a wide range of clinical settings especially during treatment of disease affecting the function of the hand. The purpose of this study was to determine peak lateral pinch strength, key pinch strength, tip-to-tip pinch strength and three-jaw pinch strength exertions in a healthy Iranian children and young adult population.Methods: The study was conducted among 511 participants (242 males and 269 females aged 7-30 years. Measurements were carried out with both dominant and non-dominant hands in standard sitting posture using a B&L pinch gauge. Two repetitions of each strength measurement were recorded for each condition and the average value of the two trials was used in the subsequent analysis.Results: The results showed significant differences in the pinch strength data in terms of the age, gender and hand dominance. The lateral pinch strength, key pinch strength, tip-to-tip pinch strength and three-jaw pinch strength exertions by females were 68.4%, 68.8%, 78.8% and 81.8% of those exerted by males, respectively. Strength exertions with the non-dominant hand were 6.4%, 5.2%, 6.6% and 5.1% lower than strength exertions of the dominant hand for the lat-eral pinch strength, key pinch strength, tip-to-tip pinch strength and three-jaw pinch strength exertions, respectively.Conclusion: These findings can be used to fill the gaps in strength data for Iranian population.

  3. Reference Ranges for Exhaled Nitric Oxide Fraction in Healthy Japanese Adult Population

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    Kazuto Matsunaga

    2010-01-01

    Conclusions: The reference ranges for FEno in healthy Japanese adults were similar to those of Caucasians. It seems reasonable that the upper limit of FEno for healthy adults should be set at approximately 36.0 ppb irrespective of ethnic differences.

  4. A Population Pharmacokinetic Analysis of Dextroamphetamine in the Plasma and Hair of Healthy Adults.

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    Roberts, Jessica K; Cook, Sarah F; Stockmann, Chris; Rollins, Douglas E; Wilkins, Diana G; Sherwin, Catherine M T

    2015-10-01

    Hair is an attractive matrix for amphetamine drug testing; however, little is known about the rate at which amphetamines are deposited into hair. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the pharmacokinetics of oral dextroamphetamine in plasma and quantify the rate of deposition into hair in healthy adults using a linked population pharmacokinetic model. Healthy adults >18 years of age received dextroamphetamine 10 mg orally for 7 days. Plasma samples were collected over 48 h following the final dose, and hair was collected 5 weeks following the first dose. NONMEM 7.2 was used to estimate dextroamphetamine oral absorption rate constant, apparent clearance and volume of distribution of the plasma compartment, the plasma to hair incorporation rate constant, and the apparent volume of distribution in the hair compartment. Dextroamphetamine pharmacokinetics were well-described by a one-compartment model with combined additive and proportional error for the plasma compartment, which was linked to a single compartment for the hair. Apparent clearance and volume of distribution in the plasma compartment were scaled by current body weight (centered on the mean). Melanin hair concentration was included as a significant covariate on the hair compartment. Absorption rate constant, clearance, and volume of distribution for the plasma compartment were estimated as 0.527 h(-1) (95% CI 0.467-0.586), 28.7 L/h (95% CI 27.1-30.3), and 377 L (95% CI 326-428), respectively. The incorporation rate constant from plasma to hair was 1.60e(-6) h(-1) (95% CI 1.06e(-6)-2.14e(-6)) and apparent volume of distribution in hair was 17.7 mg (95% CI 12.5-22.8). A one-compartment plasma model linked to a single compartment for hair successfully described the pharmacokinetics of dextroamphetamine in healthy adults. The volume of distribution and clearance of dextroamphetamine increased with weight, and the volume of distribution of the hair compartment increased with greater melanin

  5. Evaluation of postural balance and risk of fall in a healthy adult population

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    Pinar Doruk Analan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: In this retrospective study, it was aimed to evaluate the risk of fall and balance, and to determine whether there is a correlation between the risk of fall and vestibular evoked myogenic potentials, which are the evaluating the vestibular system, in the healthy adults who are working in a factory. Material and Methods: The data of 69 male participants have been reached. Bilateral Vestibular Evoked Myogenic Potentials data and Berg Balance Scale of the participants have been recorded along with balance tests and risks of fall by using the Tetrax Interactive Balance System. The correlations between these measurements were measured Results: There was no statistically significant correlation between age and the risk of fall. Also, There ere no significant correlation between the values of latency and amplitude of the bilateral Vestibular Evoked Myogenic Potential waves, Berg Balance Scale, balance tests, and risk of fall. Berg Balance Scale scores showed a considerably good balance while the risk of fall ranged between 0% and 78%. Conclusion: Advanced age may be not alone significant factor for the risk of fall. Berg Balance Scale may not exactly show the risk of fall in the young adult population. Vestibular Evoked Myogenic Potentials measurements may not provide a significant contribution to evaluate the risk of fall and balance. Our study underlines that there may be a risk of falling more than expected in the community. [Cukurova Med J 2016; 41(2.000: 236-241

  6. Faecal microbiota of healthy adults in south India: Comparison of a tribal & a rural population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadass, Balamurugan; Rani, B Sandya; Pugazhendhi, Srinivasan; John, K R; Ramakrishna, Balakrishnan S

    2017-02-01

    The relevance of the gut microbiota to human health is increasingly appreciated. The objective of this study was to compare the gut microbiota of a group of adult tribals with that of healthy adult villagers in Tamil Nadu, India. Faeces were collected from 10 healthy tribal adults (TAs) in the Jawadhi hills and from 10 healthy villagers [rural adults (RAs)] in Vellore district, Tamil Nadu. DNA was extracted, and 456 bp segments comprising hypervariable regions 3 and 4 of the 16S rRNA gene were amplified, barcoded and 454 sequenced. Totally 227,710 good-quality reads were analyzed. TAs consumed a millets-based diet, ate pork every day, and did not consume milk or milk products. RAs consumed a rice-based diet with meat intake once a week. In both groups, Firmicutes was the most abundant phylum, followed by Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria. The median Firmicutes-to-Bacteroidetes ratio was 34.0 in TA and 92.9 in RA groups. Actinobacteria were significantly low in TA, possibly due to non-consumption of milk. Clostridium constituted the most abundant genus in both groups, but was significantly more abundant in TAs than RAs, while Streptococcus was significantly more abundant in RA (P<0.05). Analyses of genetic distance revealed that the microbiota were distinctly different between TA and RA, and principal component analysis using 550 distinct taxonomically identifiable sequences revealed a clear separation of microbiota composition in the two groups. Phylogenetic analysis of major microbiota indicated clustering of microbial groups at different major branch points for TAs and RAs. Phylum Firmicutes and genus Clostridium constituted the bulk of the faecal microbiota, while significant differences in composition between the groups were probably due to differences in diet and lifestyle.

  7. Short Sleep Duration Increases Metabolic Impact in Healthy Adults: A Population-Based Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Han-Bing; Tam, Tony; Zee, Benny Chung-Ying; Chung, Roger Yat-Nork; Su, Xuefen; Jin, Lei; Chan, Ta-Chien; Chang, Ly-Yun; Yeoh, Eng-Kiong; Lao, Xiang Qian

    2017-10-01

    The metabolic impact of inadequate sleep has not been determined in healthy individuals outside laboratories. This study aims to investigate the impact of sleep duration on five metabolic syndrome components in a healthy adult cohort. A total of 162121 adults aged 20-80 years (men 47.4%) of the MJ Health Database, who were not obese and free from major diseases, were recruited and followed up from 1996 to 2014. Sleep duration and insomnia symptoms were assessed by a self-administered questionnaire. Incident cases of five metabolic syndrome components were identified by follow-up medical examinations. Cox proportional hazard ratios (HRs) were calculated for three sleep duration categories "short)," "6-8 hours/day (regular)," and "> 8 hours/day (long)" with adjustment for potential confounding factors. Analyses were stratified by insomnia symptoms to assess whether insomnia symptoms modified the association between sleep duration and metabolic syndrome. Compared to regular sleep duration, short sleep significantly (p sleep decreased the risk of hypertriglyceridemia (adjusted HR 0.89 [0.84-0.94]) and metabolic syndrome (adjusted HR 0.93 [0.88-0.99]). Insomnia symptoms did not modify the effects of sleep duration. Sleep duration may be a significant determinant of metabolic health.

  8. Modifiable cardiovascular risk factors among apparently healthy adult Nigerian population - a cross sectional study

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    Gbadamosi Maruf

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiovascular disease (CVD remains a major cause of morbidity and a leading contributor to mortality worldwide. Over the next 2 decades, it is projected that there will be a rise in CVD mortality rates in the developing countries, linked to demographic changes and progressive urbanization. Nigeria has witnessed tremendous socio-economic changes and rural-urban migration which have led to the emergence of non-communicable diseases. We set out to determine the prevalence of modifiable CVD risk factors among apparently healthy adult Nigerians. This is a descriptive cross-sectional study carried out at Katsina, northwestern Nigeria from March to May 2006. Subjects for the study were recruited consecutively from local residents, hospital staff and relations of in-patients of the Federal Medical Centre, Katsina using convenience sampling. Socio-demographic information, anthropometric measurements and blood pressure were obtained from the subjects in a standardized manner. Venous samples were collected for necessary investigations and analyzed at the hospital central laboratory. Findings Three hundred subjects (129 males and 171 females with a mean age of 37.6 ± 10.6 (range 18-75 years were studied. Prevalence of the modifiable cardiovascular risk factors screened for were as follows: generalized obesity 21.3% (males 10.9%, females 29.2%, p 0.05, type 2 diabetes mellitus 5.3% (males 5.4%, females 5.3%, p > 0.05, hypercholesterolaemia 28.3% (males 23.3%, females 32.2%, p 0.05, low HDL-cholesterol 59.3% (males 51.9%, females 65%, p 0.05 and metabolic syndrome 22% (males 10.9%, females 30.4%, p Conclusions We found high prevalence of CVD risk factors among apparently healthy adult Nigerians. In order to reduce this high prevalence and prevent subsequent cardiovascular events, encouragement of a healthy lifestyle is suggested.

  9. Healthy Family 2009: Practicing Healthy Adult Living

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Healthy Family 2009 Practicing Healthy Adult Living Past Issues / Winter ... diabetes, or if heart disease runs in your family, begin checking cholesterol at age 20. Colorectal Cancer : ...

  10. Clinical chemistry reference intervals of healthy adult populations in Gojjam Zones of Amhara National Regional State, Northwest Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekonnen, Zewdie; Amuamuta, Asmare; Mulu, Wondemagegn; Yimer, Mulat; Zenebe, Yohannes; Adem, Yesuf; Abera, Bayeh; Gebeyehu, Wondemu; Gebregziabher, Yakob

    2017-01-01

    Reference interval is crucial for disease screening, diagnosis, monitoring, progression and treatment efficacy. Due to lack of locally derived reference values for the parameters, clinicians use reference intervals derived from western population. But, studies conducted in different African countries have indicated differences between locally and western derived reference values. Different studies also indicated considerable variation in clinical chemistry reference intervals by several variables such as age, sex, geographical location, environment, lifestyle and genetic variation. This study aimed to determine the reference intervals of common clinical chemistry parameters of the community of Gojjam Zones, Northwest Ethiopia. Population based cross-sectional study was conducted from November 2015 to December 2016 in healthy adult populations of Gojjam zone. Data such as, medical history, physical examination and socio-demographic data were collected. In addition, laboratory investigations were undertaken to screen the population. Clinical chemistry parameters were measured using Mindray BS 200 clinical chemistry autoanalyzer as per the manufacturer's instructions. Descriptive statistics was used to calculate mean, median and 95th percentiles. Independent sample T-test and one way ANOVA were used to see association between variables. After careful screening of a total of 799 apparently healthy adults who were consented for this study, complete data from 446 (224 females and 222 males) were included for the analysis. The mean age of both the study participants was 28.8 years. Males had high (P0.05). Mean, median, 95% percentile values of AST, ALP, amylase, LDH, creatinine, total protein, total bilirubin, and direct bilirubin across all age groups of participants were similar (P>0.05). But, there was a significant difference in the value of ALT (P1500 ETB compared to those with low monthly income. Significant (Pclinical chemistry parameters reference intervals of

  11. Definition of healthy eating in the Spanish adult population: a national sample in a pan-European survey.

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    Martinez-Gonzalez, M A; Lopez-Azpiazu, I; Kearney, J; Kearney, M; Gibney, M; Martinez, J A

    1998-03-01

    A national survey was carried out to find out how the Spanish adult population defined 'healthy eating'. Consumers were asked to describe in their own words what 'healthy eating' means to them. The sample included 1009 Spanish subjects over 15 y of age selected by a multietapic procedure. This study belongs to the Spanish partnership in a pan-European survey about attitudes to food, nutrition and health coordinated by the Institute of European Food Studies of Dublin. The results were shown as the percentages of the sample who gave one of the five most frequently mentioned descriptions ('more vegetables', 'balanced diet', 'more fruit', 'less fat' and 'more fish') and the distribution of responses by age, sex, region, socio-economic level and education level. A multivariable logistic regression model was fitted to assess the characteristics independently related to the use of the definition 'balance and variety' for healthy eating. The majority of the Spanish people defined 'healthy eating' as a diet with 'more vegetables' as the main description. Other descriptions commonly mentioned were 'less fat', 'more fruit', 'more fish', and 'more lean meat'. A higher age was associated with a lower likelihood of mentioning the concept of balanced diet. A higher educational level was also independently and strongly related to a higher prevalence of this definition. Differences between men and women showed only borderline significance. Our results suggest the need to improve nutritional education about fiber, low fat and cholesterol. It would be interesting to develop strategies in Spain to educate people on a definition of 'healthy eating' based upon 'balance and variety'.

  12. Effects of body mass index on foot posture alignment and core stability in a healthy adult population.

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    AlAbdulwahab, Sami S; Kachanathu, Shaji John

    2016-06-01

    Foot biomechanics and core stability (CS) play significant roles in the quality of standing and walking. Minor alterations in body composition may influence base support or CS strategies. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the body mass index (BMI) on the foot posture index (FPI) and CS in a healthy adult population. A total of 39 healthy adult subjects with a mean age of 24.3±6.4 years and over-weight BMI values between 25 and 29.9 kg/m2 (27.43±6.1 kg/m2) participated in this study. Foot biomechanics were analyzed using the FPI. CS was assessed using a plank test with a time-to-failure trial. The Spearman correlation coefficient indicated a significant correlation between BMI and both the FPI (r=0.504, P=0.001) and CS (r= -0.34, P=0.036). Present study concluded that an overweight BMI influences foot posture alignment and body stability. Consequently, BMI should be considered during rehabilitation management for lower extremity injuries and body balance.

  13. Phenotypic and functional profiling of CD4 T cell compartment in distinct populations of healthy adults with different antigenic exposure.

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    Sophie Roetynck

    Full Text Available Multiparameter flow cytometry has revealed extensive phenotypic and functional heterogeneity of CD4 T cell responses in mice and humans, emphasizing the importance of assessing multiple aspects of the immune response in correlation with infection or vaccination outcome. The aim of this study was to establish and validate reliable and feasible flow cytometry assays, which will allow us to characterize CD4 T cell population in humans in field studies more fully.We developed polychromatic flow cytometry antibody panels for immunophenotyping the major CD4 T cell subsets as well as broadly characterizing the functional profiles of the CD4 T cells in peripheral blood. We then validated these assays by conducting a pilot study comparing CD4 T cell responses in distinct populations of healthy adults living in either rural or urban Kenya. This study revealed that the expression profile of CD4 T cell activation and memory markers differed significantly between African and European donors but was similar amongst African individuals from either rural or urban areas. Adults from rural Kenya had, however, higher frequencies and greater polyfunctionality among cytokine producing CD4 T cells compared to both urban populations, particularly for "Th1" type of response. Finally, endemic exposure to malaria in rural Kenya may have influenced the expansion of few discrete CD4 T cell populations with specific functional signatures.These findings suggest that environmentally driven T cell activation does not drive the dysfunction of CD4 T cells but is rather associated with greater magnitude and quality of CD4 T cell response, indicating that the level or type of microbial exposure and antigenic experience may influence and shape the functionality of CD4 T cell compartment. Our data confirm that it is possible and mandatory to assess multiple functional attributes of CD4 T cell response in the context of infection.

  14. Phenotypic and functional profiling of CD4 T cell compartment in distinct populations of healthy adults with different antigenic exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roetynck, Sophie; Olotu, Ally; Simam, Joan; Marsh, Kevin; Stockinger, Brigitta; Urban, Britta; Langhorne, Jean

    2013-01-01

    Multiparameter flow cytometry has revealed extensive phenotypic and functional heterogeneity of CD4 T cell responses in mice and humans, emphasizing the importance of assessing multiple aspects of the immune response in correlation with infection or vaccination outcome. The aim of this study was to establish and validate reliable and feasible flow cytometry assays, which will allow us to characterize CD4 T cell population in humans in field studies more fully. We developed polychromatic flow cytometry antibody panels for immunophenotyping the major CD4 T cell subsets as well as broadly characterizing the functional profiles of the CD4 T cells in peripheral blood. We then validated these assays by conducting a pilot study comparing CD4 T cell responses in distinct populations of healthy adults living in either rural or urban Kenya. This study revealed that the expression profile of CD4 T cell activation and memory markers differed significantly between African and European donors but was similar amongst African individuals from either rural or urban areas. Adults from rural Kenya had, however, higher frequencies and greater polyfunctionality among cytokine producing CD4 T cells compared to both urban populations, particularly for "Th1" type of response. Finally, endemic exposure to malaria in rural Kenya may have influenced the expansion of few discrete CD4 T cell populations with specific functional signatures. These findings suggest that environmentally driven T cell activation does not drive the dysfunction of CD4 T cells but is rather associated with greater magnitude and quality of CD4 T cell response, indicating that the level or type of microbial exposure and antigenic experience may influence and shape the functionality of CD4 T cell compartment. Our data confirm that it is possible and mandatory to assess multiple functional attributes of CD4 T cell response in the context of infection.

  15. Structural brain correlates of heart rate variability in a healthy young adult population.

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    Winkelmann, Tobias; Thayer, Julian F; Pohlack, Sebastian; Nees, Frauke; Grimm, Oliver; Flor, Herta

    2017-03-01

    The high frequency component of heart rate variability (HRV) has reliably been shown to serve as an index of autonomic inhibitory control and is increasingly considered as a biomarker of adaptability and health. While several functional neuroimaging studies identified associations between regional cerebral blood flow and HRV, studies on structural brain correlates of HRV are scarce. We investigated whether interindividual differences in HRV are related to brain morphology in healthy humans. Thirty participants underwent HRV recording at rest subsequent to structural magnetic resonance imaging. Cortical reconstruction and subcortical volumetry were performed with the Freesurfer image analysis suite. The amount of resting HRV was positively correlated with the cortical thickness of an area within the right anterior midcingulate cortex (aMCC). Consistent with existing studies implicating forebrain regions in cardiac regulation, our findings show that the thickness of the right aMCC is associated with the degree of parasympathetic regulation of heart rate. Evidence for the neural correlates of interindividual differences in HRV may complement our understanding of the mechanisms underlying the association between HRV and self-regulatory capacity.

  16. Dietary Intake Patterns are Consistent across Seasons in a Cohort of Healthy Adults in a Metropolitan Population

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    Bernstein, Shanna; Zambell, Kirsten; Amar, Marcelo J.; Arango, Carolina; Kelley, Rachel C.; Miszewski, Susan G.; Tryon, Samantha; Courville, Amber B.

    2015-01-01

    Background Current literature provides conflicting data regarding seasonal variability in dietary intake. Objective To examine seasonal variation in dietary intake in healthy adults from the metropolitan Washington, DC area. Design This study utilized an observational cohort design. Participants/setting Male and female healthy volunteers (n=103) between the ages of 18–75 years were recruited from the metropolitan Washington, DC area to participate in a clinical study at the National Institutes of Health Clinical Center from February 2011 to June 2014. Main outcome measures Three to seven day food records were collected from subjects (n=76) at three time points (12–15 weeks apart). Subjects were excluded from analysis (n=27) if they completed less than three time points. Food records were reviewed by nutrition staff, assigned to a season and coded in Nutrient Data System for Research for energy, macronutrient, micronutrient and food group serving analysis. Statistical Analyses Multivariate general linear models were run on energy, macronutrient, micronutrient, and food group intakes while being adjusted for age, sex, race, and BMI. Results Subjects had an average BMI of 25 ± 3.9 kg/m2 (mean ± SD) and average age of 34 ± 12.4 years. Subject demographics were 71.1% White, 9.2% Black/African American, 13.2% Asian, and 6.6% unknown race with 44.7% males and 55.3% females. Mean intake of energy across seasons was 2214.6 ± 623.4 kcal with 17.3 ± 4.1%, 33.6 ± 5.5%, 46.6 ± 8.0%, and 2.7 ± 3.2% of calories from protein, fat, carbohydrate, and alcohol, respectively. Intakes of energy, macronutrients, micronutrients, and food groups did not differ between seasons. Conclusions People living in the metropolitan Washington, DC area did not exhibit seasonal variation in dietary intake. Therefore, when designing studies of nutrient intake in a metropolitan population, these findings suggest that investigators do not need to consider the season during which diet is

  17. Spirometry of healthy adult South African men

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1996-07-07

    Jul 7, 1996 ... Spirometry of healthy adult. South African men. Part I. Normative values. S. J. Louw, J. G. Goldin, G. Joubert. Aim. To detennine normative spirometric values for black and white South African men. Methods. A population of 796 bank personnel were. sUbjected to spirometry and anthropometric.

  18. Population Pharmacokinetics of Methylphenidate in Healthy Adults Emphasizing Novel and Known Effects of Several Carboxylesterase 1 (CES1) Variants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyauk, Y K; Stage, C; Bergmann, T K

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify demographic and genetic factors that significantly affect methylphenidate (MPH) pharmacokinetics (PK), and may help explain interindividual variability and further increase the safety of MPH. d-MPH plasma concentrations, demographic covariates......, and carboxylesterase 1 (CES1) genotypes were gathered from 122 healthy adults and analyzed using nonlinear mixed effects modeling. The structural model that best described the data was a two-compartment disposition model with absorption transit compartments. Novel effects of rs115629050 and CES1 diplotypes, as well...... as previously reported effects of rs71647871 and body weight, were included in the final model. Assessment of the independent and combined effect of CES1 covariates identified several specific risk factors that may result in severely increased d-MPH plasma exposure....

  19. Association of Animal and Plant Proteins Intake with Hypertension in Iranian Adult Population: Isfahan Healthy Heart Program.

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    Mehrabani, Sanaz; Asemi, Mehdi; Najafian, Jamshid; Sajjadi, Firouzeh; Maghroun, Maryam; Mohammadifard, Noushin

    2017-01-01

    There is evidence regarding the relationship between dietary proteins intake and blood pressure (BP), but they had inconsistent results. Therefore, this study was designed to assess the association between different kinds of protein intake (animal and plant protein) and BP. Data were collected from Isfahan Healthy Heart Program. We performed a cross-sectional study among 9660 randomly selected Iranian adults aged ≥19-year-old that they were selected from three large Iranian regions in 2007. A simplified validated 48-item-food frequency questionnaire was used to assess dietary intake including all kinds of protein. Systolic and diastolic BPs were measured in duplicate by trained personnel using a standard protocol. Multivariable regressions were applied to assess the relationship between protein intake and BP levels and the presence of hypertension (HTN). More frequent consumption of animal, plant, and total protein intake were inversely associated with BP in a crude model (P protein (P = 0.04). The risk of HTN occurrence decreased in the highest quintile of total and plant protein consumption by 19% (odds ratio [OR] = 0.81; confidence interval [CI]: [0.65-0.96]; P for trend = 0.004) and 18% (OR = 0.82; [CI: (0.67-0.94]; P for trend = 0.03), respectively. More frequent protein intake, especially plant protein consumption was inversely associated with BP and risk of HTN among Iranian adults.

  20. Dietary and other lifestyle correlates of serum folate concentrations in a healthy adult population in Crete, Greece: a cross-sectional study

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    Scott John M

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Folate has emerged as a key nutrient for optimising health. Impaired folate status has been identified as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, various types of cancers, and neurocognitive disorders. The study aimed at examining the distribution and determinants of serum folate concentrations in a healthy adult population in Crete, Greece. Methods A cross-sectional sample of 486 healthy adults (250 men, 236 women aged 39 ± 14 years, personnel of the Medical School and the University Hospital of Crete in Greece, was examined. Serum folate and vitamin B12 concentrations were measured by microbiological assay, and total homocysteine was determined fluorometrically and by high-pressure liquid chromatography. Lifestyle questionnaires were completed, and nutrient intakes and food consumption were assessed by 24-h dietary recalls. Multivariate analyses were performed using SPSS v10.1. Results The geometric mean (95% confidence interval concentrations of serum folate were 15.6 μmol/l (14.6–16.8 in men and 19.2 μmol/l (17.9–20.7 in women (p 1, and B6 were positively associated with serum folate. Consumption of potatoes, legumes, fruits, and vegetables were favourably related to the serum folate status. Conclusion Serum folate concentrations were associated with various demographic, lifestyle and dietary factors in healthy Cretan adults. Large-scale epidemiological studies should be conducted within the general Greek adult population to assess the prevalence of impaired folate status and further examine associations with dietary patterns and chronic disease risk. Considering the importance of folate in health maintenance, it is important to increase the public's awareness of modifiable lifestyle patterns and diet and tobacco use in particular, which may be associated with improved folate status.

  1. Association of Animal and Plant Proteins Intake with Hypertension in Iranian Adult Population: Isfahan Healthy Heart Program

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    Sanaz Mehrabani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is evidence regarding the relationship between dietary proteins intake and blood pressure (BP, but they had inconsistent results. Therefore, this study was designed to assess the association between different kinds of protein intake (animal and plant protein and BP. Materials and Methods: Data were collected from Isfahan Healthy Heart Program. We performed a cross-sectional study among 9660 randomly selected Iranian adults aged ≥19-year-old that they were selected from three large Iranian regions in 2007. A simplified validated 48-item-food frequency questionnaire was used to assess dietary intake including all kinds of protein. Systolic and diastolic BPs were measured in duplicate by trained personnel using a standard protocol. Multivariable regressions were applied to assess the relationship between protein intake and BP levels and the presence of hypertension (HTN. Results: More frequent consumption of animal, plant, and total protein intake were inversely associated with BP in a crude model (P < 0.001; however, after adjustment for potential confounders this relationship remained only for plant protein (P = 0.04. The risk of HTN occurrence decreased in the highest quintile of total and plant protein consumption by 19% (odds ratio [OR] = 0.81; confidence interval [CI]: [0.65–0.96]; P for trend = 0.004 and 18% (OR = 0.82; [CI: (0.67–0.94]; P for trend = 0.03, respectively. Conclusions: More frequent protein intake, especially plant protein consumption was inversely associated with BP and risk of HTN among Iranian adults.

  2. Reference interval for the disc-macula distance to disc diameter ratio in a large population of healthy Japanese adults: A prospective, observational study.

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    Sato, Ken-Ichi

    2017-04-01

    This study presents the calculated reference interval for the disc-to-macula distance to disc diameter ratio (DM:DD) based on a large population of healthy Japanese adults.A total of 308 consecutive, healthy Japanese adults were examined in this prospective observational study. Eighteen subjects were also excluded because of poor quality of the fundus photograph of one or both eyes; 290 (161 men and 129 women) were included in this study. For each subject, a color fundus photograph of one eye, either the right or left, was randomly selected and used for analysis. On the photograph, the distances between the fovea and the nearest temporal margin of the optic disc (Dft), and the two kinds of disc diameters (D1 and D2), which bisected at right angles and one of which was directed to the fovea (D1), were measured. DM:DD was estimated using the formula: (2Dft + D1)/(D1 + D2).The mean ± standard deviation of DM:DD was 2.91 ± 0.49 for men and 2.96 ± 0.54 for women; there was no sex difference (P = .78, Mann-Whitney U test). Also, almost no relationship was found between DM:DD and age (ρ = -.12, P = .04, Spearman's rank correlation coefficient). The data did not fit a normal distribution (P < .001, Kolmogorov-Smirnov test). The estimated reference interval for DM:DD corresponding to the 2.5th and 97.5th percentiles was 2.12 to 4.18.Using a nonparametric approach, the reference interval for DM:DD of a large population of healthy Japanese adults was calculated to be 2.12 to 4.18, regardless of age or sex.

  3. Daily physical activities and sports in adult survivors of childhood cancer and healthy controls: a population-based questionnaire survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueegg, Corina S; von der Weid, Nicolas X; Rebholz, Cornelia E; Michel, Gisela; Zwahlen, Marcel; Grotzer, Michael; Kuehni, Claudia E

    2012-01-01

    Healthy lifestyle including sufficient physical activity may mitigate or prevent adverse long-term effects of childhood cancer. We described daily physical activities and sports in childhood cancer survivors and controls, and assessed determinants of both activity patterns. The Swiss Childhood Cancer Survivor Study is a questionnaire survey including all children diagnosed with cancer 1976-2003 at age 0-15 years, registered in the Swiss Childhood Cancer Registry, who survived ≥5 years and reached adulthood (≥20 years). Controls came from the population-based Swiss Health Survey. We compared the two populations and determined risk factors for both outcomes in separate multivariable logistic regression models. The sample included 1058 survivors and 5593 controls (response rates 78% and 66%). Sufficient daily physical activities were reported by 52% (n = 521) of survivors and 37% (n = 2069) of controls (psports (p = 0.067). Risk factors for insufficient daily activities in both populations were: older age (OR for ≥35 years: 1.5, 95CI 1.2-2.0), female gender (OR 1.6, 95CI 1.3-1.9), French/Italian Speaking (OR 1.4, 95CI 1.1-1.7), and higher education (OR for university education: 2.0, 95CI 1.5-2.6). Risk factors for no sports were: being a survivor (OR 1.3, 95CI 1.1-1.6), older age (OR for ≥35 years: 1.4, 95CI 1.1-1.8), migration background (OR 1.5, 95CI 1.3-1.8), French/Italian speaking (OR 1.4, 95CI 1.2-1.7), lower education (OR for compulsory schooling only: 1.6, 95CI 1.2-2.2), being married (OR 1.7, 95CI 1.5-2.0), having children (OR 1.3, 95CI 1.4-1.9), obesity (OR 2.4, 95CI 1.7-3.3), and smoking (OR 1.7, 95CI 1.5-2.1). Type of diagnosis was only associated with sports. Physical activity levels in survivors were lower than recommended, but comparable to controls and mainly determined by socio-demographic and cultural factors. Strategies to improve physical activity levels could be similar as for the general population.

  4. Healthy Lifestyle and Blood Pressure Variability in Young Adults.

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    Maseli, Anna; Aeschbacher, Stefanie; Schoen, Tobias; Fischer, Andreas; Jung, Manuel; Risch, Martin; Risch, Lorenz; Conen, David

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the relationships between healthy lifestyle metrics and blood pressure variability (BPV) in young and healthy adults. A population-based sample of 1,999 individuals aged 25-41 years was investigated. A lifestyle-score from 0 (most unhealthy) to 7 (most healthy) was calculated by giving one point for each of the following components: never smoking cigarettes, adhering to a healthy diet, performing moderate or intense physical activity, having a body mass index healthy adults, adopting a healthy lifestyle was associated with a lower BPV. These associations were independent of mean BP levels.

  5. Association of Plasma Heat Shock Protein 70, Interleukin 6, and Creatine Kinase Concentrations in a Healthy, Young Adult Population

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    Carmen Contreras-Sesvold

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Variations of baseline plasma concentrations of creatine kinase (CK, heat shock protein 70 (HSP70, and interleukin 6 (IL-6 have been reported. We report categorical associations which may influence these protein levels. Methods. Blood was harvested for DNA and plasma protein analysis from 567 adults. Mean protein levels of CK, HSP70, and IL-6 were compared by sex, ethnicity, genetic variants—CKMM Nco1 (rs1803285, HSPA1B +A1538G (rs1061581, and IL6 G-174C (rs1800795—self-reported history of exercise, oral contraceptive use, and dietary supplement use. Results. SNP major allele frequencies for CKMM, HSPA1B, and IL6 were 70% A, 57% A, and 60%. Mean CK statistically differed by sex, ethnicity, oral contraceptives, and caffeine. Plasma HSP70 differed by caffeine and protein. Mean IL-6 concentration differed by sex, ethnicity, and genotype. Plasma IL-6 was significantly lower (29% in males (1.92 ± 0.08 pg/mL and higher (29% among African Americans (2.85 ± 0.50 pg/mL relative to the others. IL6 G-174C GG genotype (2.23 ± 0.14 pg/mL was 19% greater than CG or CC genotypes. Conclusion. Differences in baseline CK and IL-6 plasma protein concentrations are associated with genetics, sex, ethnicity, and the use of oral contraceptives, caffeine, and protein supplements in this young and athletic population.

  6. Adult height, dietary patterns, and healthy aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Wenjie; Hagan, Kaitlin A; Heianza, Yoriko; Sun, Qi; Rimm, Eric B; Qi, Lu

    2017-08-01

    Background: Adult height has shown directionally diverse associations with several age-related disorders, including cardiovascular disease, cancer, decline in cognitive function, and mortality.Objective: We investigated the associations of adult height with healthy aging measured by a full spectrum of health outcomes, including incidence of chronic diseases, memory, physical functioning, and mental health, among populations who have survived to older age, and whether lifestyle factors modified such relations.Design: We included 52,135 women (mean age: 44.2 y) from the Nurses' Health Study without chronic diseases in 1980 and whose health status was available in 2012. Healthy aging was defined as being free of 11 major chronic diseases and having no reported impairment of subjective memory, physical impairment, or mental health limitations.Results: Of all eligible study participants, 6877 (13.2%) were classified as healthy agers. After adjustment for demographic and lifestyle factors, we observed an 8% (95% CI: 6%, 11%) decrease in the odds of healthy aging per SD (0.062 m) increase in height. Compared with the lowest category of height (≤1.57 m), the OR of achieving healthy aging in the highest category (≥1.70 m) was 0.80 (95% CI: 0.73, 0.87; P-trend height with a prudent dietary pattern in relation to healthy aging (P-interaction = 0.005), and among the individual dietary factors characterizing the prudent dietary pattern, fruit and vegetable intake showed the strongest effect modification (P-interaction = 0.01). The association of greater height with reduced odds of healthy aging appeared to be more evident among women with higher adherence to the prudent dietary pattern rich in vegetable and fruit intake.Conclusions: Greater height was associated with a modest decrease in the likelihood of healthy aging. A prudent diet rich in fruit and vegetables might modify the relation. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  7. Dietary and other lifestyle correlates of serum folate concentrations in a healthy adult population in Crete, Greece: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzis, Christos M; Bertsias, George K; Linardakis, Manolis; Scott, John M; Kafatos, Anthony G

    2006-02-10

    Folate has emerged as a key nutrient for optimising health. Impaired folate status has been identified as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, various types of cancers, and neurocognitive disorders. The study aimed at examining the distribution and determinants of serum folate concentrations in a healthy adult population in Crete, Greece. A cross-sectional sample of 486 healthy adults (250 men, 236 women) aged 39 +/- 14 years, personnel of the Medical School and the University Hospital of Crete in Greece, was examined. Serum folate and vitamin B12 concentrations were measured by microbiological assay, and total homocysteine was determined fluorometrically and by high-pressure liquid chromatography. Lifestyle questionnaires were completed, and nutrient intakes and food consumption were assessed by 24-h dietary recalls. Multivariate analyses were performed using SPSS v10.1. The geometric mean (95% confidence interval) concentrations of serum folate were 15.6 micromol/l (14.6-16.8) in men and 19.2 micromol/l (17.9-20.7) in women (p tobacco and coffee consumption were associated with lower folate concentrations (p diet and tobacco use in particular, which may be associated with improved folate status.

  8. Comprehensive multi-stage linkage analyses identify a locus for adult height on chromosome 3p in a healthy Caucasian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Justine A; Scurrah, Katrina J; Duncan, Anna E; Lamantia, Angela; Byrnes, Graham B; Harrap, Stephen B

    2007-04-01

    There have been a number of genome-wide linkage studies for adult height in recent years. These studies have yielded few well-replicated loci, and none have been further confirmed by the identification of associated gene variants. The inconsistent results may be attributable to the fact that few studies have combined accurate phenotype measures with informative statistical modelling in healthy populations. We have performed a multi-stage genome-wide linkage analysis for height in 275 adult sibling pairs drawn randomly from the Victorian Family Heart Study (VFHS), a healthy population-based Caucasian cohort. Height was carefully measured in a standardised fashion on regularly calibrated equipment. Following genome-wide identification of a peak Z-score of 3.14 on chromosome 3 at 69 cM, we performed a fine-mapping analysis of this region in an extended sample of 392 two-generation families. We used a number of variance components models that incorporated assortative mating and shared environment effects, and we observed a peak LOD score of approximately 3.5 at 78 cM in four of the five models tested. We also demonstrated that the most prevalent model in the literature gave the worst fit, and the lowest LOD score (2.9) demonstrating the importance of appropriate modelling. The region identified in this study replicates the results of other genome-wide scans of height and bone-related phenotypes, strongly suggesting the presence of a gene important in bone growth on chromosome 3p. Association analyses of relevant candidate genes should identify the genetic variants responsible for the chromosome 3p linkage signal in our population.

  9. Healthy Weights for Healthy Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... also can be a problem for some older adults. Here are a few tasty tips to pump up your protein intake, without upsetting your food budget or energy balance. Enjoy More Beans. Add canned beans to salads, soups, rice dishes and ...

  10. Population-based estimation of renal function in healthy young Indian adults based on body mass index and sex correlating renal volume, serum creatinine, and cystatin C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajagopalan P

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Prashanth Rajagopalan,1 Georgi Abraham,2 Yuvaram NV Reddy,2 Ravivarman Lakshmanasami,1 ML Prakash,1 Yogesh NV Reddy2 1Department of General Medicine, Mahatma Gandhi Medical College and Research Institute, Puducherry, 2Department of Nephrology, Madras Medical Mission Hospital, Chennai, India Abstract: This population-based prospective study was undertaken in Mahatma Gandhi Medical College to estimate the renal function in young healthy Indian adults. A young healthy heterogeneous Indian cohort comprising 978 individuals, predominantly medical students, was assessed by a detailed questionnaire, and variables such as height, weight, body mass index (BMI, birth weight, and blood pressure were documented. Laboratory investigations included serum creatinine, serum cystatin C, blood sugar, urine protein, and imaging of the kidneys with ultrasound. The mean age of the cohort was 25±6 years, comprising 672 males and 306 females. The estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFRs by the Cockcroft–Gault formula for BMI <18.5 kg/m2, 18.5–24.99 kg/m2, 25–29.99 kg/m2, and ≥30 kg/m2 were 71.29±10.45 mL/min, 86.38±13.46 mL/min, 98.88±15.29 mL/min, and 109.13±21.57 mL/min, respectively; the eGFRs using cystatin C for the four groups of BMI were 84.53±18.14 mL/min, 84.01±40.11 mL/min, 79.18±13.46 mL/min, and 77.30±10.90 mL/min, respectively. This study attempts to establish a normal range of serum creatinine and cystatin C values for the Indian population and shows that in young healthy Indian adults, eGFR and kidney volume vary by BMI and sex. Keywords: eGFR, birth weight, renal volume

  11. What makes a BIA equation unique? Validity of eight-electrode multifrequency BIA to estimate body composition in a healthy adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosy-Westphal, A; Schautz, B; Later, W; Kehayias, J J; Gallagher, D; Müller, M J

    2013-01-01

    The validity of bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) for body composition analysis is limited by assumptions relating to body shape. Improvement in BIA technology could overcome these limitations and reduce the population specificity of the BIA algorithm. BIA equations for the prediction of fat-free mass (FFM), total body water (TBW) and extracellular water (ECW) were generated from data obtained on 124 Caucasians (body mass index 18.5-35 kg/m(2)) using a four-compartment model and dilution techniques as references. The algorithms were validated in an independent multiethnic population (n=130). The validity of BIA results was compared (i) between ethnic groups and (ii) with results from the four-compartment model and two-compartment methods (air-displacement plethysmography, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and deuterium dilution). Indices were developed from segmental R and Xc values to represent the relative contribution of trunk and limbs to total body conductivity. The coefficient of determination for all prediction equations was high (R(2): 0.94 for ECW, 0.98 for FFM and 0.98 for TBW) and root mean square error was low (1.9 kg for FFM, 0.8 l for ECW and 1.3 kg for TBW). The bias between BIA results and different reference methods was not statistically different between Afro-American, Hispanic, Asian or Caucasian populations and showed a similar difference (-0.2-0.2 kg FFM) when compared with the bias between different two-compartment reference methods (-0.2-0.3 kg FFM). An eight-electrode, segmental multifrequency BIA is a valid tool to estimate body composition in healthy euvolemic adults compared with the validity and precision of other two-compartment reference methods. Population specificity is of minor importance when compared with discrepancies between different reference methods.

  12. Reduced coenzyme Q10 in female smokers and its association with lipid profile in a young healthy adult population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Bazi, Maha M.; Elshal, Mohamed F.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Cigarette smoking has a negative effect on body reserve of antioxidants and cholesterol metabolism. Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10), a potent antioxidant synthesized as part of the cholesterol pathway, is a potential biomarker for systemic oxidative stress. We aimed to investigate gender variation in plasma lipid profile and CoQ10 concentrations in healthy non-smokers and in smokers. Material and methods The study included 55 cigarette smokers (25 females and 30 males) and 51 non-smokers (25 females and 26 males) with the age range from 21 to 45 years, and who had no history of alcohol abuse or chronic diseases such as diabetes mellitus or obesity. Coenzyme Q10 plasma concentrations were measured by reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with ultraviolet detection. Fasting plasma glucose and lipid levels were determined by standard colorimetric methods. Results Our results showed that CoQ10 concentrations were significantly decreased in smokers, especially in females, than their non-smoker counterparts. Female smokers also exhibited a significant decrease in plasma concentrations of total cholesterol (TC), HDL-C, LDL-C, and atherogenic ratios HDL-C/TC and CoQ10/LDL-C than male counterparts. Plasma triglyceride concentrations were increased in smokers irrespective of gender. Plasma CoQ10 was relatively more associated with TC and LDL-C in female smokers than male smokers. Conclusions The adverse effects of smoking on body reserve of antioxidants and cholesterol metabolism are greater in females than in males, partially as a result of decreased CoQ10 plasma concentrations, HDL-C and total-cholesterol and abnormal atherogenicity indices. PMID:22328876

  13. Body image distortions in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Christina T; Longo, Matthew R; Haggard, Patrick

    2013-10-01

    Distortions of body image have often been investigated in clinical disorders. Much of this literature implicitly assumes healthy adults maintain an accurate body image. We recently developed a novel, implicit, and quantitative measure of body image - the Body Image Task (BIT). Here, we report a large-scale analysis of performance on this task by healthy adults. In both an in-person and an online version of the BIT, participants were presented with an image of a head as an anchoring stimulus on a computer screen, and told to imagine that the head was part of a mirror image of themselves in a standing position. They were then instructed to judge where, relative to the head, each of several parts of their body would be located. The relative positions of each landmark can be used to construct an implicit perceptual map of bodily structure. We could thus measure the internally-stored body image, although we cannot exclude contributions from other representations. Our results show several distortions of body image. First, we found a large and systematic over-estimation of width relative to height. These distortions were similar for both males and females, and did not closely track the idiosyncrasies of individual participant's own bodies. Comparisons of individual body parts showed that participants overestimated the width of their shoulders and the length of their upper arms, relative to their height, while underestimating the lengths of their lower arms and legs. Principal components analysis showed a clear spatial structure to the distortions, suggesting spatial organisation and segmentation of the body image into upper and lower limb components that are bilaterally integrated. These results provide new insight into the body image of healthy adults, and have implications for the study and rehabilitation of clinical populations. © 2013.

  14. The association between personal sun exposure, serum vitamin D and global methylation in human lymphocytes in a population of healthy adults in South Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nair-Shalliker, Visalini, E-mail: visalinin@nswcc.org.au [Cancer Research Division, Cancer Council New South Wales (Australia); Dhillon, Varinderpal [CSIRO Food and Nutritional Sciences (Australia); Clements, Mark [Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet (Sweden); Armstrong, Bruce K. [Sydney School of Public Health, University of Sydney (Australia); Fenech, Michael [CSIRO Food and Nutritional Sciences (Australia)

    2014-07-15

    Highlights: • Solar UV exposure is positively correlated with LINE 1 hypomethylation. • This was observed in human peripheral blood lymphocytes. • There was no evident effect modification by serum vitamin D (25OHD) levels. • This was observed in a population of healthy adults from South Australia. - Abstract: Background: There is a positive association between solar UV exposure and micronucleus frequency in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) and this association may be stronger when serum vitamin D (25(OH)D) levels are insufficient (<50 nmol/L). Micronucleus formation can result from global hypomethylation of DNA repeat sequences. The aim of this analysis was to evaluate the relationship between solar UV exposure and methylation pattern in LINE-1 repetitive elements in PBL DNA and to see if serum 25(OH)D levels modify it. Method: Personal solar UV exposure was estimated from hours of outdoor exposure over 6 weeks recalled at the time of blood collection in 208 male and female participants living in South Australia. Methylation in LINE-1 repetitive elements was assessed in PBL using pyrosequencing. Results: Methylation in LINE-1 decreased with increasing solar UV exposure (% decrease = 0.5% per doubling of sUV; 95%CI: −0.7 to −0.2 p{sub value} = 0.00003). Although there was no correlation between LINE-1 methylation and micronucleus frequency, there was a 4.3% increase (95%CI: 0.6–8.1 p-value = 0.02) in nucleoplasmic bridges and a 4.3% increase in necrosis (CI: 1.9–6.8 p-value = 0.0005) for every 1% increase in LINE-1 methylation. Serum 25(OH)D was not associated with DNA methylation; or did it modify the association of solar UV with DNA methylation. Conclusion: Exposure to solar UV radiation may reduce DNA methylation in circulating lymphocytes. This association does not appear to be influenced or mediated by vitamin D status.

  15. [Healthy life expectancy in older adults with social security].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Ábrego, Gabriela; Ramírez-Sánchez, Teresita Jesús; Torres-Cosme, José Luis

    2014-01-01

    Population aging increases the prevalence of chronic diseases. This morbidity impacts on the relatively high mortality levels and has disabling effects. Classic health indicators -life expectancy at birth and gross mortality rate- are complemented by the disability-free life expectancy (DFLE), whose advantage is a standardization of concepts, sources of information and calculation methods. In this investigation, the healthy life expectancy in adult older population with social security in Mexico is estimated. Life expectancy was estimated from the mortality analysis and by constructing life tables of the population affiliated to the Mexican Institute of Social Security. Chiang's method was used and the disability prevalence-adjusted life table was modified using Sullivan's method. The healthy life expectancy, life expectancy free of disability and life expectancy with disability in the older adult analysis was highlighted. Life expectancy free of disability was estimated at 66.5 years. In females, it was 16 years and, in men, 15.2 years, indicating that from this age on they live less time with a healthy life. Healthy life expectancy is an indicator that can be useful to build scenarios to support the planning, administration and strategic management of healthy aging programs.

  16. Prescription of resistance training for healthy populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hass, C J; Feigenbaum, M S; Franklin, B A

    2001-01-01

    Although there are well documented protective health benefits conferred by regular physical activity, most individuals of all ages are not physically active at a level for sufficient maintenance of health. Consequently, a major public health goal is to improve the collective health and fitness levels of all individuals. The American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) and other international organisations have established guidelines for comprehensive exercise programmes composed of aerobic, flexibility and resistance-exercise training. Resistance training is the most effective method available for maintaining and increasing lean body mass and improving muscular strength and endurance. Furthermore, there is an increasing amount of evidence suggesting that resistance training may significantly improve many health factors associated with the prevention of chronic diseases. These health benefits can be safely obtained by most segments of the population when prescribed appropriate resistance-exercise programmes. Resistance-training programmes should be tailored to meet the needs and goals of the individual and should incorporate a variety of exercises performed at a sufficient intensity to enhance the development and maintenance of muscular strength and endurance, and lean body mass. A minimum of 1 set of 8 to 10 exercises (multi-joint and single joint) that involve the major muscle groups should be performed 2 to 3 times a week for healthy participants of all ages. More technical and advanced training including periodised multiple set regimens and/or advanced exercises may be more appropriate for individuals whose goals include maximum gains in strength and lean body mass. However, the existing literature supports the guidelines as outlined in this paper for children and adults of all ages seeking the health and fitness benefits associated with resistance training.

  17. First definition of reference intervals of liver function tests in China: a large-population-based multi-center study about healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Runqing; Chen, Wenxiang; Pan, Baishen; Wang, Lanlan; Hao, Xiaoke; Huang, Xianzhang; Qiao, Rui; Zhao, Min; Zhang, Chuanbao; Guo, Wei; Huang, Hengjian; Ma, Yueyun; Zhuang, Junhua; Zhang, Jie; Shang, Hong

    2013-01-01

    Reference intervals of Liver function tests are very important for the screening, diagnosis, treatment, and monitoring of liver diseases. We aim to establish common reference intervals of liver function tests specifically for the Chinese adult population. A total of 3210 individuals (20-79 years) were enrolled in six representative geographical regions in China. Analytes of ALT, AST, GGT, ALP, total protein, albumin and total bilirubin were measured using three analytical systems mainly used in China. The newly established reference intervals were based on the results of traceability or multiple systems, and then validated in 21 large hospitals located nationwide qualified by the National External Quality Assessment (EQA) of China. We had been established reference intervals of the seven liver function tests for the Chinese adult population and found there were apparent variances of reference values for the variables for partitioning analysis such as gender(ALT, GGT, total bilirubin), age(ALP, albumin) and region(total protein). More than 86% of the 21 laboratories passed the validation in all subgroup of reference intervals and overall about 95.3% to 98.8% of the 1220 validation results fell within the range of the new reference interval for all liver function tests. In comparison with the currently recommended reference intervals in China, the single side observed proportions of out of range of reference values from our study for most of the tests deviated significantly from the nominal 2.5% such as total bilirubin (15.2%), ALP (0.2%), albumin (0.0%). Most of reference intervals in our study were obviously different from that of other races. These used reference intervals are no longer applicable for the current Chinese population. We have established common reference intervals of liver function tests that are defined specifically for Chinese population and can be universally used among EQA-approved laboratories located all over China.

  18. Serum variations of anti-mullerian hormone and total testosterone with aging in healthy adult Iranian men: A population-based study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahimeh Ramezani Tehrani

    Full Text Available Literature proves anti-mullerian hormone (AMH and total testosterone (TT as two important reproductive hormones in male development, however evidence regarding age variations of these hormones is lacking.To estimate the normal serum AMH values and to assess the age-specific TT levels in men aged 30-70, we conducted the present population-based study.A total of 831 healthy eligible men, aged 30-70 years, were recruited from Tehran Lipid and Glucose study cohort. Centiles for AMH were estimated according to the exponential normal 3-parameter model. The parametric method of Royston available in general software was applied for the first time to estimate the age-specific AMH and TT percentiles of 5th, 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 90th and 95th.Mean AMH level was 6.93, ranging from 0.1 to 40.1 ng/ml. Serum AMH concentrations followed a steady reduction with increasing age. Mean TT level was 4.8, ranging from 0.44 to 11.4 ng/ml.A measurable serum concentrations of AMH in healthy males throughout lifespan with variations, based on age, confirming a slight age-related AMH decline. Fractional polynomial (FP regression models revealed that the mean and standard deviation (SD of the TT were not associated with age, so the percentiles estimated were not age-specific.We presented a nomogram of age-specific AMH values in a healthy cohort of Iranian men. This finding might have clinical importance in dealing hormonal disorders in men.

  19. Serum variations of anti-mullerian hormone and total testosterone with aging in healthy adult Iranian men: A population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramezani Tehrani, Fahimeh; Mansournia, Mohammad Ali; Solaymani-Dodaran, Masoud; Minooee, Sonia; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2017-01-01

    Literature proves anti-mullerian hormone (AMH) and total testosterone (TT) as two important reproductive hormones in male development, however evidence regarding age variations of these hormones is lacking. To estimate the normal serum AMH values and to assess the age-specific TT levels in men aged 30-70, we conducted the present population-based study. A total of 831 healthy eligible men, aged 30-70 years, were recruited from Tehran Lipid and Glucose study cohort. Centiles for AMH were estimated according to the exponential normal 3-parameter model. The parametric method of Royston available in general software was applied for the first time to estimate the age-specific AMH and TT percentiles of 5th, 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 90th and 95th. Mean AMH level was 6.93, ranging from 0.1 to 40.1 ng/ml. Serum AMH concentrations followed a steady reduction with increasing age. Mean TT level was 4.8, ranging from 0.44 to 11.4 ng/ml. A measurable serum concentrations of AMH in healthy males throughout lifespan with variations, based on age, confirming a slight age-related AMH decline. Fractional polynomial (FP) regression models revealed that the mean and standard deviation (SD) of the TT were not associated with age, so the percentiles estimated were not age-specific. We presented a nomogram of age-specific AMH values in a healthy cohort of Iranian men. This finding might have clinical importance in dealing hormonal disorders in men.

  20. [Physical activity and healthy diet, weight perception and stress in adult population in Chile: analysis of the second quality of life and health survey 2006].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pablo Zavala, Juan; Leraç, Lydia; Vio, Fernando

    2010-12-01

    Chile had a rapid epidemiological and nutritional transition with an increase in risk factors for chronic diseases and obesity. Dietary changes have occurred, mostly an increase in consumption of foods high in fat, sugar and salt, as well as a decrease in physical activity. This has led to a marked increase in obesity rates. To learn more on these risk factors for chronic diseases, obesity and physical activity, the First Quality of Life and Health Survey (ECVS) was carried out in 2000, with a second version in 2006. The objective of this paper is to analyze, from data collected by the 2006 survey, the relationship of physical activity with the consumption of fruits, vegetables and dairy products, weight perception and stress. The 2006 survey included 6.210 subjects with a 10.8% of active population and 89.2% of sedentary people. The relationship of activity was determined with the consumption of fruits, vegetables, dairy products, weight perception and stress, by sex and socioeconomic levels. Results show that more than 50% of the active subjects consume fruits and vegetables, and 50% consume dairy products every day, with a higher probability of active persons of consuming healthy foods than the sedentary ones. Besides, sedentary people perceive themselves with more overweight and obesity than the active subjects. There was no relationship between physical activity and stress. People with a higher socioeconomic level are more active and consume more healthy products. These results permit to elaborate targeted policies and programs to improve diet and physical activity in the Chilean population.

  1. RESPONSE TO 6 MINUTE WALK TEST IN HEALTHY ADULTS

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    Vibhuti kiran shah

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: 6Minute walk test (MWT has been used as a performance based measure of functional exercise capacity in all populations including healthy adults. 6MWT is recommended out of other all timed walked tests due to its reproducibility and ease of administration compared to other longer or shorter time duration tests. It detects changes following interventions to improve exercise tolerance in healthy individuals, to assess the fitness level, used as intervention to improve walking endurance and as predictor of objectively measured aerobic fitness in healthy adults. It is essential to know a level of fitness healthy adults possess in our community, thus aim of this study was to evaluate response to 6MWT in young healthy adults. Method: 50 healthy individuals (25 males and 25 females of 18 - 30 years of age were recruited. The 6MWT was performed as per standard guidelines. All subjects were assessed for the outcome measures by principal investigator at baseline i.e. before and post- 6MWT for following parameters. BP, PR, RR, SPO2, RPE. Results: The mean 6 minute walked distance (6MWD was 635.6+59.07, for men it was 675.0+46.88 and for women it was 596.5+41.41. Out of study population 18% of people covered 70%-80%, 54% people covered 80%-90% and 28% people covered 90%-100% of their predicted distance. Oxygen saturation remained unaltered throughout the walk. Mean resting and walking spo2 values were 96.80+13.55% and 96.71+13.55% (p-value: 0.2288. Pulse rate (PR and respiratory rate (RR were affected by the walk. Mean resting and walking PR was 79.82+9.18 and 142.6+19.62 (p-value: 0.0001 and RR was 18.48+2.78 and 30.20+4.35 (p-value: 0.0001 respectively. Mean resting and walking systolic and diastolic blood pressure was significantly higher in males as compared to females. Conclusion: The 6 minute walk test is a useful measure of functional capacity in healthy adults. There was a difference between predicted distance covered and actual distance

  2. Healthy lifestyle and heart rate variability in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aeschbacher, Stefanie; Bossard, Matthias; Ruperti Repilado, Francisco Javier; Good, Nathalie; Schoen, Tobias; Zimny, Matylda; Probst-Hensch, Nicole M; Schmidt-Trucksäss, Arno; Risch, Martin; Risch, Lorenz; Conen, David

    2016-07-01

    We aimed to determine the association of a comprehensive healthy lifestyle with heart rate variability (HRV), a validated measure of autonomic function. This was a prospective cohort study. A population-based sample of 2079 individuals aged 25-41 years without prevalent cardiovascular disease was investigated. The standard deviation of all normal RR intervals (SDNN) during 24-hour electrocardiography was used as main HRV marker. Healthy lifestyle metrics were summed to a validated lifestyle-score ranging from 0 = most unhealthy to 7 = most healthy. One point was given for each of the following items: never smoking cigarettes; consuming a healthy diet; performing moderate (≥150 min/week) or vigorous (≥75 min/week) physical activity; body mass index (BMI)heart rate (HR) (β-estimate (95% CI) 0.07 (0.07-0.10), p healthy lifestyle in this large contemporary cohort of young adults from the general population. Adopting a healthy lifestyle has an important effect on autonomic function. © The European Society of Cardiology 2015.

  3. Subclinical cardiovascular disease assessment and its relationship with cardiovascular risk SCORE in a healthy adult population: A cross-sectional community-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitu, Ovidiu; Roca, Mihai; Floria, Mariana; Petris, Antoniu Octavian; Graur, Mariana; Mitu, Florin

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the relationship and the accuracy of SCORE (Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation Project) risk correlated to multiple methods for determining subclinical cardiovascular disease (CVD) in a healthy population. This cross-sectional study included 120 completely asymptomatic subjects, with an age range 35-75 years, and randomly selected from the general population. The individuals were evaluated clinically and biochemical, and the SCORE risk was computed. Subclinical atherosclerosis was assessed by various methods: carotid ultrasound for intima-media thickness (cIMT) and plaque detection; aortic pulse wave velocity (aPWV); echocardiography - left ventricular mass index (LVMI) and aortic atheromatosis (AA); ankle-brachial index (ABI). SCORE mean value was 2.95±2.71, with 76% of subjects having SCORE <5. Sixty-four percent of all subjects have had increased subclinical CVD changes, and SCORE risk score was correlated positively with all markers, except for ABI. In the multivariate analysis, increased cIMT and aPWV were significantly associated with high value of SCORE risk (OR 4.14, 95% CI: 1.42-12.15, p=0.009; respectively OR 1.41, 95% CI: 1.01-1.96, p=0.039). A positive linear relationship was observed between 3 territories of subclinical CVD (cIMT, LVMI, aPWV) and SCORE risk (p<0.0001). There was evidence of subclinical CVD in 60% of subjects with a SCORE value <5. As most subjects with a SCORE value <5 have subclinical CVD abnormalities, a more tailored subclinical CVD primary prevention program should be encouraged. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Arteriosclerosis. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Measuring Fluid Intelligence in Healthy Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goghari, Vina M.

    2017-01-01

    The present study evaluated subjective and objective cognitive measures as predictors of fluid intelligence in healthy older adults. We hypothesized that objective cognitive measures would predict fluid intelligence to a greater degree than self-reported cognitive functioning. Ninety-three healthy older (>65 years old) community-dwelling adults participated. Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices (RAPM) were used to measure fluid intelligence, Digit Span Sequencing (DSS) was used to measure working memory, Trail Making Test (TMT) was used to measure cognitive flexibility, Design Fluency Test (DFT) was used to measure creativity, and Tower Test (TT) was used to measure planning. The Cognitive Failures Questionnaire (CFQ) was used to measure subjective perceptions of cognitive functioning. RAPM was correlated with DSS, TT, and DFT. When CFQ was the only predictor, the regression model predicting fluid intelligence was not significant. When DSS, TMT, DFT, and TT were included in the model, there was a significant change in the model and the final model was also significant, with DFT as the only significant predictor. The model accounted for approximately 20% of the variability in fluid intelligence. Our findings suggest that the most reliable means of assessing fluid intelligence is to assess it directly. PMID:28250990

  5. Severe tuberculous retinal vasculitis in healthy adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sin Yee Fang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Ocular tuberculosis may be a presenting feature of tuberculous infection, especially with extensive occlusive retinal vasculitis among Asians. Being a curable disease, awareness of its presentation and high index of suspicion are paramount as prompt treatment can halt the disease progression and prevent visual loss. We presented three cases of ocular tuberculosis in young healthy adults who presented with progressive blurring of vision with florid retinal vasculitis seen on funduscopy. Two of them were with no bacillus Calmette-Guerin scar. Fundus fluorescein angiography confirmed the presence of occlusive vasculitis with extensive area of ischemia. All cases showed a raise in erythrocyte sedimentation rate and strongly positive Mantoux tests. Pan-retinal photocoagulation was given to all patients. Two cases responded well to anti-tubercular therapy followed by oral steroids and regained normal vision in both eyes. One patient was not started on anti-tubercular therapy as he requested to return to his native country for further treatment.

  6. A clinical trial to assess the immunogenicity and safety of Inactivated Influenza Vaccine (Whole Virion) IP (Pandemic Influenza (H1N1) 2009 Monovalent Vaccine; VaxiFlu-S™) in healthy Indian adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubavat, A H; Mittal, R; Patel, P M; Jarsaniya, D H; Pawar, P R

    2011-01-01

    The pandemic of H1N1 2009 influenza has spread world over and low degree of virus transmission has continued in several regions of India. To assess the immunogenicity and safety of Pandemic Influenza (H1N1) 2009 Monovalent Vaccine in healthy adult Indian population. Prospective, open label, multicentric, phase 2/3 clinical trial. Healthy adult Indian subjects belonging to either 18-59 years or ≥ 60 years age groups were enrolled and administered a single 0.5 ml (≥ 15 mcg of hemagglutinin antigen) dose of vaccine in the deltoid muscle. Anti-hemagglutinin antibody titer was assessed at baseline and 21 (± 2) days after vaccination by Hemagglutination Inhibition (HI) test. Safety assessments were done for a period of 42 days. Percentages of appropriate population with 95% confidence intervals calculated, log transformation of the data to calculate Geometric Mean Titers (GMTs) and chi-square test and student's t-test applied for significance testing. 182/198 and 53/63 volunteers in age groups of 18-59 years and ≥ 60 years, respectively, achieved an HI titer ≥ 1 : 40 at Day 21 (91.9% [95% confidence interval: 88.1-95.7%] and 84.1% [75.1-93.2%]; P=0.072). Further, 171/198 and 50/63 volunteers in the respective age groups achieved seroconversion/four-fold increase in titer at Day 21 (86.4% [81.6-91.1%] and 79.4% [69.4-89.4%]; P=0.179). A significant rise of 22.6-fold [18.0-28.4] and 10.5-fold [7.4-15.0] was noted in GMT in the respective age groups (Ppopulation.

  7. Saliva microbiomes distinguish caries-active from healthy human populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fang; Zeng, Xiaowei; Ning, Kang; Liu, Kuan-Liang; Lo, Chien-Chi; Wang, Wei; Chen, Jie; Wang, Dongmei; Huang, Ranran; Chang, Xingzhi; Chain, Patrick S; Xie, Gary; Ling, Junqi; Xu, Jian

    2012-01-01

    The etiology of dental caries remains elusive because of our limited understanding of the complex oral microbiomes. The current methodologies have been limited by insufficient depth and breadth of microbial sampling, paucity of data for diseased hosts particularly at the population level, inconsistency of sampled sites and the inability to distinguish the underlying microbial factors. By cross-validating 16S rRNA gene amplicon-based and whole-genome-based deep-sequencing technologies, we report the most in-depth, comprehensive and collaborated view to date of the adult saliva microbiomes in pilot populations of 19 caries-active and 26 healthy human hosts. We found that: first, saliva microbiomes in human population were featured by a vast phylogenetic diversity yet a minimal organismal core; second, caries microbiomes were significantly more variable in community structure whereas the healthy ones were relatively conserved; third, abundance changes of certain taxa such as overabundance of Prevotella Genus distinguished caries microbiota from healthy ones, and furthermore, caries-active and normal individuals carried different arrays of Prevotella species; and finally, no ‘caries-specific' operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were detected, yet 147 OTUs were ‘caries associated', that is, differentially distributed yet present in both healthy and caries-active populations. These findings underscored the necessity of species- and strain-level resolution for caries prognosis, and were consistent with the ecological hypothesis where the shifts in community structure, instead of the presence or absence of particular groups of microbes, underlie the cariogenesis. PMID:21716312

  8. A clinical trial to assess the immunogenicity and safety of Inactivated Influenza Vaccine (Whole Virion IP (Pandemic Influenza (H1N1 2009 Monovalent Vaccine; VaxiFlu-S ™ in healthy Indian adult population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A H Kubavat

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : The pandemic of H1N1 2009 influenza has spread world over and low degree of virus transmission has continued in several regions of India. Aims : To assess the immunogenicity and safety of Pandemic Influenza (H1N1 2009 Monovalent Vaccine in healthy adult Indian population. Settings and Design : Prospective, open label, multicentric, phase 2/3 clinical trial. Materials and Methods : Healthy adult Indian subjects belonging to either 18-59 years or ≥60 years age groups were enrolled and administered a single 0.5 ml (≥15 mcg of hemagglutinin antigen dose of vaccine in the deltoid muscle. Anti-hemagglutinin antibody titer was assessed at baseline and 21 (±2 days after vaccination by Hemagglutination Inhibition (HI test. Safety assessments were done for a period of 42 days. Statistical Analysis Used : Percentages of appropriate population with 95% confidence intervals calculated, log transformation of the data to calculate Geometric Mean Titers (GMTs and chi-square test and student′s t-test applied for significance testing. Results : 182/198 and 53/63 volunteers in age groups of 18-59 years and ≥60 years, respectively, achieved an HI titer ≥1 : 40 at Day 21 (91.9% [95% confidence interval: 88.1-95.7%] and 84.1% [75.1-93.2%]; P=0.072. Further, 171/198 and 50/63 volunteers in the respective age groups achieved seroconversion/four-fold increase in titer at Day 21 (86.4% [81.6-91.1%] and 79.4% [69.4-89.4%]; P=0.179. A significant rise of 22.6-fold [18.0-28.4] and 10.5-fold [7.4-15.0] was noted in GMT in the respective age groups (P<0.001 for both groups as compared to baseline. Nine vaccine-related adverse events were reported (3.4% incidence [1.2-5.6%], which were of low severity only. Conclusions : Pandemic Influenza (H1N1 2009 Monovalent Vaccine produces excellent immunogenic response with a good tolerability profile in adult Indian population.

  9. Depressive Symptoms Affect Working Memory in Healthy Older Adult Hispanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar-Villanea, Monica; Liebmann, Edward; Garnier-Villarreal, Mauricio; Montenegro-Montenegro, Esteban; Johnson, David K

    2015-10-01

    Low and middle income nations will experience an unprecedented growth of the elderly population and subsequent increase in age-related neurological disorders. Worldwide prevalence and incidence of all-types of neurological disorders with serious mental health complications will increase with life expectancy across the globe. One-in- ten individuals over 75 has at least moderate cognitive impairment. Prevalence of cognitive impairment doubles every 5 years thereafter. Latin America's population of older adult's 65 years and older is growing rapidly, yet little is known about cognitive aging among healthy older Latinos. Clinically significant depressive symptomatology is common among community-dwelling older adults and is associated with deficits across multiple cognitive domains, however much of the literature has not modeled the unique effects of depression distinct from negative and low positive affect. Our objective was to understand how mental health affects cognitive health in healthy aging Latinos. The present study used confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and structural equation modeling (SEM) to examine the relative effects of Negative Affect, Positive Affect and Geriatric Depression on Verbal Memory, Verbal Reasoning, Processing Speed, and Working Memory in healthy aging Latinos. Data was collected from a sample of healthy community dwelling older adults living in San Jose, Costa Rica. Modeling of latent variables attenuated error and improved measurement reliability of cognition, affect, and depression variables. Costa Ricans enjoy a notoriety for being much happier than US citizens and are renowned as one of the happiest nations in the world in global surveys. This was born out in these data. Costa Rican affective profiles differed substantively from US profiles. Levels of negative affect and depression were similar to US samples, but their levels of positive affect were much higher. Cognitive performance of these Costa Rican older adults was similar to US

  10. Complete blood count reference intervals for healthy Han Chinese adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinzhong Wu

    Full Text Available Complete blood count (CBC reference intervals are important to diagnose diseases, screen blood donors, and assess overall health. However, current reference intervals established by older instruments and technologies and those from American and European populations are not suitable for Chinese samples due to ethnic, dietary, and lifestyle differences. The aim of this multicenter collaborative study was to establish CBC reference intervals for healthy Han Chinese adults.A total of 4,642 healthy individuals (2,136 males and 2,506 females were recruited from six clinical centers in China (Shenyang, Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou, Chengdu, and Xi'an. Blood samples collected in K2EDTA anticoagulant tubes were analyzed. Analysis of variance was performed to determine differences in consensus intervals according to the use of data from the combined sample and selected samples.Median and mean platelet counts from the Chengdu center were significantly lower than those from other centers. Red blood cell count (RBC, hemoglobin (HGB, and hematocrit (HCT values were higher in males than in females at all ages. Other CBC parameters showed no significant instrument-, region-, age-, or sex-dependent difference. Thalassemia carriers were found to affect the lower or upper limit of different RBC profiles.We were able to establish consensus intervals for CBC parameters in healthy Han Chinese adults. RBC, HGB, and HCT intervals were established for each sex. The reference interval for platelets for the Chengdu center should be established independently.

  11. Lipid Profile of Apparently Healthy Adults in Aba Metropolis, South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to evaluate the lipid profile pattern of apparently healthy adults in Aba metropolis and hence, identify the possible contributions of hyper lipidaemia in the ever increasing cardiovascular risk burden in our society. Subjects for this study were apparently healthy adult respondents who met the ...

  12. Population pharmacokinetics of olprinone in healthy male volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunisawa T

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Takayuki Kunisawa,1 Hidefumi Kasai,2 Makoto Suda,2 Manabu Yoshimura,3 Ami Sugawara,3 Yuki Izumi,3 Takafumi Iida,3 Atsushi Kurosawa,3 Hiroshi Iwasaki3 1Surgical Operation Department, Asahikawa Medical University Hospital, Hokkaido, Japan; 2Clinical Study Management Division, Bell Medical Solutions Inc, Tokyo, Japan; 3Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Asahikawa Medical University, Hokkaido, Japan Background: Olprinone decreases the cardiac preload and/or afterload because of its vasodilatory effect and increases myocardial contractility by inhibiting phosphodiesterase III. Purpose: The objective of this study was to characterize the population pharmacokinetics of olprinone after a single continuous infusion in healthy male volunteers. Methods: We used 500 plasma concentration data points collected from nine healthy male volunteers for the study. The population pharmacokinetic analysis was performed using the nonlinear mixed effect model (NONMEM® software. Results: The time course of plasma concentration of olprinone was best described using a two-compartment model. The final pharmacokinetic parameters were total clearance (7.37 mL/minute/kg, distribution volume of the central compartment (134 mL/kg, intercompartmental clearance (7.75 mL/minute/kg, and distribution volume of the peripheral compartment (275 mL/kg. The interindividual variability in the total clearance was 12.4%, and the residual error variability (exponential and additive were 22.2% and 0.129 (standard deviation. The final pharmacokinetic model was assessed using a bootstrap method and visual predictive check. Conclusion: We developed a population pharmacokinetic model of olprinone in healthy male adults. The bootstrap method and visual predictive check showed that this model was appropriate. Our results might be used to develop the population pharmacokinetic model in patients. Keywords: phosphodiesterase III inhibitor, men, pharmacokinetic model

  13. Neurodynamic mobilization and foam rolling improved delayed-onset muscle soreness in a healthy adult population: a randomized controlled clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca Romero-Moraleda

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives Compare the immediate effects of a Neurodynamic Mobilization (NM treatment or foam roller (FR treatment after DOMS. Design Double blind randomised clinical trial. Setting The participants performed 100 drop jumps (5 sets of 20 repetitions, separated by 2 min rests from a 0.5-m high box in a University biomechanics laboratory to induce muscle soreness. The participants were randomly assigned in a counter-balanced fashion to either a FR or NM treatment group. Participants Thirty-two healthy subjects (21 males and 11 females, mean age 22.6 ± 2.2 years were randomly assigned into the NM group (n = 16 or the FR group (n = 16. Main Outcome Measures The numeric pain rating scale (NPRS; 0–10, isometric leg strength with dynamometry, surface electromyography at maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC and muscle peak activation (MPA upon landing after a test jump were measured at baseline, 48 h after baseline before treatment, and immediately after treatment. Results Both groups showed significant reduction in NPRS scores after treatment (NM: 59%, p  .05. The percentage change improvement in the MVIC for the rectus femoris was the only significant difference between the groups (p < 0.05 at post-treatment. After treatment, only the FR group had a statistically significant improvement (p < 0.01 in strength compared to pre-treatment. Conclusion Our results illustrate that both treatments are effective in reducing pain perception after DOMS whereas only FR application showed differences for the MVIC in the rectus femoris and strength.

  14. Neurodynamic mobilization and foam rolling improved delayed-onset muscle soreness in a healthy adult population: a randomized controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Moraleda, Blanca; La Touche, Roy; Lerma-Lara, Sergio; Ferrer-Peña, Raúl; Paredes, Víctor; Peinado, Ana Belén; Muñoz-García, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Compare the immediate effects of a Neurodynamic Mobilization (NM) treatment or foam roller (FR) treatment after DOMS. Double blind randomised clinical trial. The participants performed 100 drop jumps (5 sets of 20 repetitions, separated by 2 min rests) from a 0.5-m high box in a University biomechanics laboratory to induce muscle soreness. The participants were randomly assigned in a counter-balanced fashion to either a FR or NM treatment group. Thirty-two healthy subjects (21 males and 11 females, mean age 22.6 ± 2.2 years) were randomly assigned into the NM group (n = 16) or the FR group (n = 16). The numeric pain rating scale (NPRS; 0-10), isometric leg strength with dynamometry, surface electromyography at maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) and muscle peak activation (MPA) upon landing after a test jump were measured at baseline, 48 h after baseline before treatment, and immediately after treatment. Both groups showed significant reduction in NPRS scores after treatment (NM: 59%, p  .05). The percentage change improvement in the MVIC for the rectus femoris was the only significant difference between the groups (p < 0.05) at post-treatment. After treatment, only the FR group had a statistically significant improvement (p < 0.01) in strength compared to pre-treatment. Our results illustrate that both treatments are effective in reducing pain perception after DOMS whereas only FR application showed differences for the MVIC in the rectus femoris and strength.

  15. A higher Mediterranean diet adherence and exercise practice are associated with a healthier drinking profile in a healthy Spanish adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira-Pêgo, Cíntia; Babio, Nancy; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi

    2017-03-01

    Very few studies have examined the association between beverage intake patterns and healthy lifestyle characteristics. Most of the research that has been carried out focuses on the consumption of soft drinks or alcohol and ignores the overall beverage pattern. The aim of this study is to evaluate the association between consumption of different types of beverage and physical exercise practice and MedDiet adherence. Cross-sectional information about fluid intake from different types of beverages was collected in 1262 men and women between 18 and 70 years old, using a 24-h fluid-specific diary over seven consecutive days. Physical exercise was evaluated with a self-reported questionnaire, and MedDiet adherence was assessed using a validated 14-item questionnaire. Both variables were classified into three categories. Individuals with greater adherence to the MedDiet showed a higher intake of water and wine and a lower consumption of sweet regular beverages. Participants who engaged in more physical exercise consumed more water, milk and derivatives, juices and wine and less sweet regular beverages. Compared to the lowest category, the possibility of meeting the EFSA recommendations of total fluid intake was greater in individuals with eight or more points on the MedDiet adherence questionnaire [OR 1.94; 95 % CI 1.25-3.01] and in those who practice physical exercise three times a week or more [OR 1.71; 95 % CI 1.22-2.39]. Participants with a healthier lifestyle had a lower risk of exceeding the WHO's free-sugar recommendations only from beverages. Participants with greater adherence to the MedDiet and who engaged in more physical exercise exhibit a healthier pattern of fluid intake.

  16. Measurement of Cough Aerodynamics in Healthy Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinstein, Aaron J; Zhang, Zhaoyan; Chhetri, Dinesh K; Long, Jennifer

    2017-05-01

    Cough is a critical human reflex and also among the most frequent symptoms in medicine. Despite the prevalence of disordered cough in laryngeal pathologies, comprehensive and quantitative evaluation of cough in these patients is lacking. Herein we seek to establish normative values for cough aerodynamics to provide a population standard for reference in future studies. Healthy subjects were recruited from an outpatient clinic to perform voluntary cough. Subjects were instructed on the technique for maximal voluntary cough production with measurements recorded on pneumotachograph. Fifty-two subjects were studied, including 29 women and 23 men with a mean age of 51.6 and 52.3 years, respectively. Main Outcomes and Measures: Cough peak airflow, peak pressure, and expiratory rise time. Results were stratified by age, gender, and height. Peak airflow demonstrated significant differences across age, gender, and height, with flow increasing according to increasing height. Peak cough pressure also increased with height and was significantly greater in males versus females. Expiratory rise time, the time from glottal opening to peak airflow, did not vary with age or height but was statistically significantly longer in women. Cough aerodynamics can be readily measured objectively in the outpatient setting. Expiratory rise time, peak flow, and peak pressure are important aspects of each cough epoch. Normative data provided herein can be used for future studies of patients with laryngotracheal disorders, and these cough parameters may prove to be simple, accessible, and repeatable outcome measures.

  17. Disposition of levetiracetam in healthy adult horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesar, F B; Stewart, A J; Boothe, D M; Ravis, W R; Duran, S H; Wooldridge, A A

    2018-02-01

    Nine horses received 20 mg/kg of intravenous (LEVIV ); 30 mg/kg of intragastric, crushed immediate release (LEVCIR ); and 30 mg/kg of intragastric, crushed extended release (LEVCER ) levetiracetam, in a three-way randomized crossover design. Crushed tablets were dissolved in water and administered by nasogastric tube. Serum samples were collected over 48 hr, and levetiracetam concentrations were determined by immunoassay. Mean ± SD peak concentrations for LEVCIR and LEVCER were 50.72 ± 10.60 and 53.58 ± 15.94 μg/ml, respectively. The y-intercept for IV administration was 64.54 ± 24.99 μg/ml. The terminal half-life was 6.38 ± 1.97, 7.07 ± 1.93 and 6.22 ± 1.35 hr for LEVCIR , LEVCER, and LEVIV , respectively. Volume of distribution at steady-state was 630 ± 73.4 ml/kg. Total body clearance after IV administration was 74.40 ± 19.20 ml kg-1  hr-1 . Bioavailability was 96 ± 10, and 98 ± 13% for LEVCIR and LEVCER , respectively. A single dose of Levetiracetam (LEV) was well tolerated. Based on this study, a recommended dosing regimen of intravenous or oral LEV of 32 mg/kg every 12 hr is likely to achieve and maintain plasma concentrations within the therapeutic range suggested for humans, with optimal kinetics throughout the dosing interval in healthy adult horses. Repeated dosing and pharmacodynamic studies are warranted. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Corneal biomechanical metrics of healthy Chinese adults using Corvis ST.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; He, Miao; He, Hong; Zhang, Chi; Jin, He; Zhong, Xingwu

    2017-04-01

    To evaluate the corneal biomechanical metrics by Corvis ST (CST) in healthy Chinese adults. This cross-sectional study used CST to measure intraocular pressure (IOP), central corneal thickness (CCT), and corneal biomechanical parameters, including time, velocity, length, deformation amplitude at the first (A1T, A1V, A1L, A1DA) and second applanation (A2T, A2V, A2L, A2DA), time, radius curvature and deformation amplitude at highest concavity (HCT, HCR, HCDA) and peak distance (PD). A total of 158 healthy adults (158 eyes) were included in the final analysis. No significant differences were observed between male and female for any biomechanical parameters (All P>0.05). With increasing age, a significant trend of increase was detected among A1V, A1DA, A2T, A2DA, and HCDA (All Pcorneal biomechanical measurements in this Chinese population. Most corneal biomechanical parameters were associated with IOP, and several parameters were influenced by age or CCT, suggesting adjustment of these factors was needed before interpretations of CST outputs. Copyright © 2016 British Contact Lens Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Neuroticism and facial emotion recognition in healthy adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andric, Sanja; Maric, Nadja P.; Knezevic, Goran; Mihaljevic, Marina; Mirjanic, Tijana; Velthorst, Eva; van Os, Jim

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine whether healthy individuals with higher levels of neuroticism, a robust independent predictor of psychopathology, exhibit altered facial emotion recognition performance. Facial emotion recognition accuracy was investigated in 104 healthy adults using the

  20. Anaemia in Apparently Healthy Adult Nigerians | Olayemi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: There is a direct relationship between health and social position, especially between anaemia, level of education and social development. I t has been reported that apparently healthy, fully ambulatory individuals could have low haematocrit. In the recent past, there have been attempts at correlating the ...

  1. Story Processing Ability in Cognitively Healthy Younger and Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Heather Harris; Capilouto, Gilson J.; Srinivasan, Cidambi; Fergadiotis, Gerasimos

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the study was to examine the relationships among measures of comprehension and production for stories depicted in wordless pictures books and measures of memory and attention for 2 age groups. Method: Sixty cognitively healthy adults participated. They consisted of two groups--young adults (20-29 years of age) and older…

  2. Approximate Quantification in Young, Healthy Older Adults', and Alzheimer Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandini, Delphine; Lemaire, Patrick; Michel, Bernard Francois

    2009-01-01

    Forty young adults, 40 healthy older adults, and 39 probable AD patients were asked to estimate small (e.g., 25) and large (e.g., 60) collections of dots in a choice condition and in two no-choice conditions. Participants could choose between benchmark and anchoring strategies on each collection of dots in the choice condition and were required to…

  3. Prevalence of Sleepwalking in an Adult Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mume, Celestine Okorome

    2010-01-01

    Sleepwalking consists of a series of behavioral activities that occur during sleep. These activities may be simple, complex or aggressive in nature. They include motor activities, confusion, and amnesia for the events. Sleepwalking is a disorder of arousal from non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep. In children, episodes of sleepwalking are rarely violent; in adults, however, sleepwalking might include violence, which could endanger the patient or others and might precipitate legal issues. There is inadequate information on the prevalence and demographic correlates of sleepwalking in Nigeria. One objective of this study was to determine the lifetime prevalence rate of sleepwalking in an adult population in Ile-Ife, in Southwestern Nigeria. Another objective was to determine the age and sex distribution of sleepwalking among those who have experienced it at least once in their lifetime. A random sample of 228 healthy individuals aged 18-60 years was obtained and the members were asked to fill out a survey form about lifetime prevalence rate of sleepwalking. The overall lifetime prevalence rate of sleepwalking was 7% (16 of 228 participants). It was 10.4% in males and 3.5% in females, but the difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.07). This study has shown that sleepwalking is common in the population. In view of the psychological effects of sleepwalking and the potential physical and legal problems associated with it, adequate efforts should be made for early detection and prompt management of the condition.

  4. Lung attenuation measurements in healthy young adults.

    OpenAIRE

    Smit, H.J.M.; Golding, R.P.; Schramel, F.M.N.H.; Devillé, W.L.; Manoliu, R.A.; Postmus, P. E.

    2003-01-01

    Background: High-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) attenuation measurements may be more sensitive in finding early emphysematous changes in relatively young subjects than lung function measurements. Objectives: To define lung attenuation parameters in smokers and never-smokers. Methods: A prospective comparative study in a university hospital setting was designed with 20 healthy smoking and 20 nonsmoking volunteers. Attenuation measurements on spirometrically controlled HRCT at three leve...

  5. Nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus among healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Chong Seng; Yin, Chow Suet; Bakar, Afra Abu; Sakewi, Zamberi; Naing, Nyi Nyi; Jamal, Farida; Othman, Norlijah

    2006-12-01

    Data on the carriage rate and antibiotic sensitivity pattern of Staphylococcus aureus strains prevalent in the community are not available for many developing countries including Malaysia. To estimate the extent of community S. aureus transmission, in particular methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), the prevalence of S. aureus nasal colonization in a population of healthy adults was determined. Factors associated with S. aureus nasal carriage and antibiotic sensitivity patterns of the isolates were also analyzed. A cross-sectional study involving 346 adults was conducted. Nasal swabs were examined for the presence of S. aureus. Epidemiological information concerning risk factors for nasal carriage was also obtained. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed using the disk diffusion method according to the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards guidelines. MRSA strains isolated were further subjected to pulse-field gel electrophoresis analysis. The prevalence of S. aureus nasal carriage was 23.4%. The findings also revealed that ex-smokers (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.08-6.32, p=0.033) and oral contraceptive users (95% CI 1.12-21.67, p=0.035) were more likely to harbor S. aureus. One person was colonized with MRSA, which was different from the hospital strain. MRSA nasal colonization was found to be low outside of the health care environment. Smokers and oral contraceptive users have high nasal carrier rates.

  6. Healthy Eating and Risks of Total and Cause-Specific Death among Low-Income Populations of African-Americans and Other Adults in the Southeastern United States: A Prospective Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danxia Yu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A healthy diet, as defined by the US Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA, has been associated with lower morbidity and mortality from major chronic diseases in studies conducted in predominantly non-Hispanic white individuals. It is unknown whether this association can be extrapolated to African-Americans and low-income populations.We examined the associations of adherence to the DGA with total and cause-specific mortality in the Southern Community Cohort Study, a prospective study that recruited 84,735 American adults, aged 40-79 y, from 12 southeastern US states during 2002-2009, mostly through community health centers that serve low-income populations. The present analysis included 50,434 African-Americans, 24,054 white individuals, and 3,084 individuals of other racial/ethnic groups, among whom 42,759 participants had an annual household income less than US$15,000. Usual dietary intakes were assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire at baseline. Adherence to the DGA was measured by the Healthy Eating Index (HEI, 2010 and 2005 editions (HEI-2010 and HEI-2005, respectively. During a mean follow-up of 6.2 y, 6,906 deaths were identified, including 2,244 from cardiovascular disease, 1,794 from cancer, and 2,550 from other diseases. A higher HEI-2010 score was associated with lower risks of disease death, with adjusted hazard ratios (HRs of 0.80 (95% CI, 0.73-0.86 for all-disease mortality, 0.81 (95% CI, 0.70-0.94 for cardiovascular disease mortality, 0.81 (95% CI, 0.69-0.95 for cancer mortality, and 0.77 (95% CI, 0.67-0.88 for other disease mortality, when comparing the highest quintile with the lowest (all p-values for trend 0.50. Several component scores in the HEI-2010, including whole grains, dairy, seafood and plant proteins, and ratio of unsaturated to saturated fatty acids, showed significant inverse associations with total mortality. HEI-2005 score was also associated with lower disease mortality, with a HR of 0.86 (95

  7. The Muscle Metabolome Differs between Healthy and Frail Older Adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fazelzadeh, P.; Hangelbroek, R.W.J.; Tieland, M.; de Groot, C.P.G.M.; Verdijk, L.B.; van Loon, L.J.C.; Smilde, A.K.; Alves, R.D.A.M.; Vervoort, J.; Müller, M.; van Duynhoven, J.P.M.; Boekschoten, M.V.

    2016-01-01

    Populations around the world are aging rapidly. Age-related loss of physiological functions negatively affects quality of life. A major contributor to the frailty syndrome of aging is loss of skeletal muscle. In this study we assessed the skeletal muscle biopsy metabolome of healthy young, healthy

  8. The muscle metabolome differs between healthy and frail older adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fazelzadeh, P.; Hangelbroek, R.W.J.; Tieland, C.A.B.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.; Verdijk, L.; Loon, van L.J.C.; Smilde, A.K.; Alves Rolo, Rodrigo; Vervoort, J.J.M.; Müller, M.R.; Duynhoven, van J.P.M.; Boekschoten, M.V.

    2016-01-01

    Populations around the world are aging rapidly. Age-related loss of physiological functions negatively affects quality of life. A major contributor to the frailty syndrome of aging is loss of skeletal muscle. In this study we assessed the skeletal muscle biopsy metabolome of healthy young, healthy

  9. Anaemia in Apparently Healthy Adult Nigerians | Olayemi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , who did not have symptoms or signs of anaemia. Methods: One hundred and seventy apparently ... Results: Mean PCV for males was 0.374± 0.032 and for females was 0.326± 0.036.The prevalence of anaemia in the study population was ...

  10. Anthropometric measures and nutritional status in a healthy elderly population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duque-López María

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anthropometric evaluation is an essential feature of geriatric nutritional evaluation for determining malnutrition, being overweight, obesity, muscular mass loss, fat mass gain and adipose tissue redistribution. Anthropometric indicators are used to evaluate the prognosis of chronic and acute diseases, and to guide medical intervention in the elderly. We evaluated anthropometric measurements and nutritional status as they relate to age and gender in healthy elderly people. Methods The study analyzed data from the national survey "Health needs and health service use by older-than-60-year-old beneficiaries of the Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS". The present study included only individuals who reported no chronic disease in the last 20 years and had no hospital admission in the two months prior to the survey. Anthropometric measurements included weight, height, body mass index (BMI, body circumference (arm, waist, hip and calf, waist to hip ratio (WHR, elbow amplitude and knee-heel length. Results Application of the inclusion criteria resulted in a study population elderly of 1,968, representing 12.2% of the original number in the national survey in urban areas beneficiaries of the IMSS. The study population comprised 870 women and 1,098 men, with a mean age of 68.6 years. The average weights were 62.7 kg for women and 70.3 kg for men (p Conclusion Our findings suggest that applying the BMI thresholds that identify being overweight in the general adult population may lead to an overestimation in the number of overweight elderly Similar problems appear to exist when assessing waist circumference and WHR values. Prospective studies are required to determine the associations between health and BMI, waist circumference and WHR in the elderly.

  11. Determination of salivary glucose in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Maria-Sueli-Marques; Batista-Filho, Mário-Márcio-Vasconcelos; Pimentel, Marcele-Jardim; Passos, Isabela-Albuquerque; Chimenos-Küstner, Eduardo

    2009-10-01

    Our aim in this study was to determine the concentration of salivary glucose in healthy individuals and to compare it with the capillary glycemia. Samples of unstimulated whole saliva were collected from 63 non-diabetic patients. The concentration of salivary glucose and capillary blood was measured in all of the patients. The salivary glucose was determined by enzymatic method and spectrophotometry. The data was then analyzed using the Spearman correlation test, considering values of pglucose among the males studied was 100.05+/-13.51 mg/dL, and among females, it was 99.5+/-13.9 mg/dL. The average salivary glucose for the whole sample was 5.97+/-1.87 mg/dL, with 5.91+/-2.19 mg/dL among males and 5.97+/-1.56 mg/dL among females, respectively, without presenting any significant differences (p=0.908). The concentration of salivary glucose did not present any statistically significant correlation with the capillary glycemia (p=0.732). The results suggest that the concentration of salivary glucose is not dependent on capillary glycemia and that the concentration of salivary glucose does not present significant differences between the measurements for males and females.

  12. Perceived face size in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amour, Sarah; Harris, Laurence R

    2017-01-01

    Perceptual body size distortions have traditionally been studied using subjective, qualitative measures that assess only one type of body representation-the conscious body image. Previous research on perceived body size has typically focused on measuring distortions of the entire body and has tended to overlook the face. Here, we present a novel psychophysical method for determining perceived body size that taps into implicit body representation. Using a two-alternative forced choice (2AFC), participants were sequentially shown two life-size images of their own face, viewed upright, upside down, or tilted 90°. In one interval, the width or length dimension was varied, while the other interval contained an undistorted image. Participants reported which image most closely matched their own face. An adaptive staircase adjusted the distorted image to hone in on the image that was equally likely to be judged as matching their perceived face as the accurate image. When viewed upright or upside down, face width was overestimated and length underestimated, whereas perception was accurate for the on-side views. These results provide the first psychophysically robust measurements of how accurately healthy participants perceive the size of their face, revealing distortions of the implicit body representation independent of the conscious body image.

  13. Determinants of selenium status in healthy adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Selenium (Se) status in non-deficient subjects is typically assessed by the Se contents of plasma/serum. That pool comprises two functional, specific selenoprotein components and at least one non-functional, non-specific components which respond differently to changes in Se intake. A more informative means of characterizing Se status in non-deficient individuals is needed. Methods Multiple biomarkers of Se status (plasma Se, serum selenoprotein P [SEPP1], plasma glutathione peroxidase activity [GPX3], buccal cell Se, urinary Se) were evaluated in relation to selenoprotein genotypes (GPX1, GPX3, SEPP1, SEP15), dietary Se intake, and parameters of single-carbon metabolism in a cohort of healthy, non-Se-deficient men (n = 106) and women (n = 155). Conclusions Plasma Se concentration was 142.0 ± 23.5 ng/ml, with GPX3 and serum-derived SEPP1 calculated to comprise 20% and 34%, respectively, of that total. The balance, comprised of non-specific components, accounted for virtually all of the interindividual variation in total plasma Se. Buccal cell Se was associated with age and plasma homocysteine (hCys), but not plasma Se. SEPP1 showed a quadratic relationship with body mass index, peaking at BMI 25-30. Urinary Se was greater in women than men, and was associated with metabolic body weight (kg0.75), plasma folate, vitamin B12 and hCys (negatively). One GPX1 genotype (679T/T) was associated with significantly lower plasma Se levels than other allelic variants. Selenium intake, estimated from food frequency questionnaires, did not predict Se status as indicated by any biomarker. These results show that genotype, methyl-group status and BMI contribute to variation in Se biomarkers in Se-adequate individuals. PMID:21767397

  14. Determinants of selenium status in healthy adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoeg Antonia

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Selenium (Se status in non-deficient subjects is typically assessed by the Se contents of plasma/serum. That pool comprises two functional, specific selenoprotein components and at least one non-functional, non-specific components which respond differently to changes in Se intake. A more informative means of characterizing Se status in non-deficient individuals is needed. Methods Multiple biomarkers of Se status (plasma Se, serum selenoprotein P [SEPP1], plasma glutathione peroxidase activity [GPX3], buccal cell Se, urinary Se were evaluated in relation to selenoprotein genotypes (GPX1, GPX3, SEPP1, SEP15, dietary Se intake, and parameters of single-carbon metabolism in a cohort of healthy, non-Se-deficient men (n = 106 and women (n = 155. Conclusions Plasma Se concentration was 142.0 ± 23.5 ng/ml, with GPX3 and serum-derived SEPP1 calculated to comprise 20% and 34%, respectively, of that total. The balance, comprised of non-specific components, accounted for virtually all of the interindividual variation in total plasma Se. Buccal cell Se was associated with age and plasma homocysteine (hCys, but not plasma Se. SEPP1 showed a quadratic relationship with body mass index, peaking at BMI 25-30. Urinary Se was greater in women than men, and was associated with metabolic body weight (kg0.75, plasma folate, vitamin B12 and hCys (negatively. One GPX1 genotype (679T/T was associated with significantly lower plasma Se levels than other allelic variants. Selenium intake, estimated from food frequency questionnaires, did not predict Se status as indicated by any biomarker. These results show that genotype, methyl-group status and BMI contribute to variation in Se biomarkers in Se-adequate individuals.

  15. Understanding Arthritis Promoting Healthy Lifestyles for Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremethick, Mary Jane; Hogan, Patricia I.; Coleman, Barb; Adams, Kady

    2010-01-01

    One of the goals of "Healthy People 2010" is to decrease the incidence of limitation in physical activity due to arthritis. Physical education, recreation, and dance professionals can play an important role in meeting this objective by addressing barriers to physical activity and exercise in older adults with arthritis, and by successfully…

  16. Reference values of haematological parameters of healthy adults in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reference values of haematological parameters of healthy adults in the north central zone of Nigeria. HO Olawumi, IA Durotoye, JK Afolabi, A Fadeyi, OO Desalu, SA Aderibigbe, AS Babatunde, SK Ernest, AE Fawibe, AK Salami, R Saadu, MAN Adeboye, AP Aboyeji ...

  17. Normal values for hand grip strength in healthy Nigerian adults ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Assessment of hand grip strength is used in a wide range of clinical settings particularly during management of hand injuries and diseases affecting hand function. This study aimed to determine age and gender specific normal values of hand grip strength in healthy adults in Nigeria and compare values ...

  18. Haemoglobin F levels in healthy Nigerian adults | Kotila | West ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The association between HbF and high Persistence of fetal haemoglobin (HPFH) and the thalassaemias are discussed. Key words: HbF, Hereditary persistence of fetal haemoglobin, Thalassaemias, Healthy adults. Résumé La maladie de la drépanocytose est un désordre génétique majeur dans le tropique de l'Afrique, ...

  19. Interactive video dance games for healthy older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studenski, S; Perera, S; Hile, E; Keller, V; Spadola-Bogard, J; Garcia, J

    2010-12-01

    Physical activity promotes health in older adults but participation rates are low. Interactive video dance games can increase activity in young persons but have not been designed for use with older adults. The purpose of this research was to evaluate healthy older adults' interest and participation in a dance game adapted for an older user. Healthy older adults were recruited from 3 senior living settings and offered three months of training and supervision using a video dance game designed for older people. Before and after the program, data was collected on vital signs, physical function and self reported quality of life. Feedback was obtained during and after training. Of 36 persons who entered (mean age 80.1 + 5.4 years, 83 % female), 25 completed the study. Completers were healthier than noncompleters. Completers showed gains in narrow walk time, self-reported balance confidence and mental health. While there were no serious adverse events, 4 of 11 noncompleters withdrew due to musculoskeletal complaints. Adapted Interactive video dance is feasible for some healthy older adults and may help achieve physical activity goals.

  20. Physical benefits of dancing for healthy older adults: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keogh, Justin W L; Kilding, Andrew; Pidgeon, Philippa; Ashley, Linda; Gillis, Dawn

    2009-10-01

    Dancing is a mode of physical activity that may allow older adults to improve their physical function, health, and well-being. However, no reviews on the physical benefits of dancing for healthy older adults have been published in the scientific literature. Using relevant databases and keywords, 15 training and 3 cross-sectional studies that met the inclusion criteria were reviewed. Grade B-level evidence indicated that older adults can significantly improve their aerobic power, lower body muscle endurance, strength and flexibility, balance, agility, and gait through dancing. Grade C evidence suggested that dancing might improve older adults' lower body bone-mineral content and muscle power, as well as reduce the prevalence of falls and cardiovascular health risks. Further research is, however, needed to determine the efficacy of different forms of dance, the relative effectiveness of these forms of dance compared with other exercise modes, and how best to engage older adults in dance participation.

  1. Combined Healthy Behaviors and Healthcare Services Use in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Aceituno, Ana; Pérez-Tasigchana, Raúl F; Guallar-Castillón, Pilar; López-García, Esther; Rodríguez-Artalejo, Fernando; Banegas, José R

    2017-07-31

    Data on the combined impact of healthy behaviors on healthcare use in older adults are limited. Study with community-dwelling individuals aged ≥60 years from the Spanish Seniors-ENRICA cohort, recruited in 2008-2010, followed through 2012-2013, and analyzed in 2016 (N=2,021). At baseline, the following healthy behaviors were self-reported: three traditional (never smoking, being physically active, having a healthy diet) and three emerging (sleeping 7-8 hours/day, sitting healthy behaviors and healthcare services used in 2012-2013 were summarized with ORs and 95% CIs from multiple logistic regression, adjusting for demographics, lifestyles, comorbidities, and baseline health services used. Most single healthy behaviors were associated with lower use of most health services. Compared with participants with zero or one healthy behavior, those with five or six healthy behaviors showed lower risk of polypharmacy (OR=0.46, 95% CI=0.24, 0.85, p-trend=0.001), visits to the primary care physician (OR=0.50, 95% CI=0.26, 0.96, p-trend=0.013), and hospitalization (OR=0.50, 95% CI=0.24, 1.01, p-trend=0.016). No association was found with visits to the medical specialist. The combination of five to six healthy behaviors in older adults is associated with half the risk of polypharmacy and using several healthcare services. In an era of constrained resources in most countries, this information may help inform health policy to control healthcare spending in the future. Copyright © 2017 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Vitamin D in the healthy European paediatric population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braegger, Christian; Campoy, Cristina; Colomb, Virginie

    2013-01-01

    by paediatricians and other healthcare professionals. Healthy children and adolescents should be encouraged to follow a healthy lifestyle associated with a normal body mass index and including a varied diet with vitamin D containing foods (fish, eggs, dairy products) and adequate outdoor activities with associated......In recent years, reports suggesting a resurgence of vitamin D deficiency in the Western world, combined with various proposed health benefits for vitamin D supplementation have resulted in increased interest from healthcare professionals, the media and the public. The aim of this position paper...... is to summarize the published data on vitamin D intake and prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in the healthy European paediatric population, to discuss health benefits of vitamin D and to provide recommendations for the prevention of vitamin D deficiency in this population. Vitamin D plays a key role in calcium...

  3. Diet composition and activity level of at risk and metabolically healthy obese American adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankinson, Arlene L; Daviglus, Martha L; Van Horn, Linda; Chan, Queenie; Brown, Ian; Holmes, Elaine; Elliott, Paul; Stamler, Jeremiah

    2013-03-01

    Obesity often clusters with other major cardiovascular disease risk factors, yet a subset of the obese appears to be protected from these risks. Two obesity phenotypes are described, (i) "metabolically healthy" obese, broadly defined as body mass index (BMI) ≥ 30 kg/m(2) and favorable levels of blood pressure, lipids, and glucose; and (ii) "at risk" obese, BMI ≥ 30 with unfavorable levels of these risk factors. More than 30% of obese American adults are metabolically healthy. Diet and activity determinants of obesity phenotypes are unclear. We hypothesized that metabolically healthy obese have more favorable behavioral factors, including less adverse diet composition and higher activity levels than at risk obese in the multi-ethnic group of 775 obese American adults ages 40-59 years from the International Population Study on Macro/Micronutrients and Blood Pressure (INTERMAP) cohort. In gender-stratified analyses, mean values for diet composition and activity behavior variables, adjusted for age, race, and education, were compared between metabolically healthy and at risk obese. Nearly one in five (149/775 or 19%) of obese American INTERMAP participants were classified as metabolically healthy obese. Diet composition and most activity behaviors were similar between obesity phenotypes, although metabolically healthy obese women reported higher sleep duration than at risk obese women. These results do not support hypotheses that diet composition and/or physical activity account for the absence of cardiometabolic abnormalities in metabolically healthy obese. Copyright © 2012 The Obesity Society.

  4. Adult population estimate of Toxorhynchites brevipalpis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trpis, M

    1973-06-01

    An estimate of the numbers of adults of the predacious mosquito Toxorhynchites brevipalpis was made in a 1-ha biotope in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, where the population of its larval prey Aedes aegypti was high, by means of the mark-release-recapture method. Two months after the end of the rainy season, the number of adults was estimated to be 3 500-about 6 times the number of adult A. aegypti in the biotope.

  5. Laryngeal Aerodynamics in Healthy Older Adults and Adults with Parkinson's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matheron, Deborah; Stathopoulos, Elaine T.; Huber, Jessica E.; Sussman, Joan E.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The present study compared laryngeal aerodynamic function of healthy older adults (HOA) to adults with Parkinson's disease (PD) while speaking at a comfortable and increased vocal intensity. Method: Laryngeal aerodynamic measures (subglottal pressure, peak-to-peak flow, minimum flow, and open quotient [OQ]) were compared between HOAs and…

  6. Fat Replacement of Paraspinal Muscles with Aging in Healthy Adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlqvist, Julia R; Vissing, Christoffer R; Hedermann, Gitte

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate the age-related changes in fatty replacement and cross sectional area (CSA) of cervical, thoracic and lumbar paraspinal muscles vs. leg muscles in healthy adults, and to test for association between muscle fat fraction and lifestyle factors. METHODS...... fat fraction (page-related changes than leg muscles. Further, men had significantly lower fat fractions in lumbar paraspinal muscles and BMI......: Fifty-three healthy adults (24-76 years) were included. Dixon MRI technique was used to determine CSA and quantify fat fraction of paraspinal and leg muscles. Muscle CSA and fat fractions were tested for association with age and muscle strength. The fat fractions were also tested for association...

  7. Haematological reference values for healthy adults in Port Harcourt ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Published reports of the basic haematological parameters of apparently healthy subjects in Port Harcourt, Nigeria are relatively scanty. This has resulted in an apparent unavailability of laboratory reference values for haematological parameters for the population. Aim: To determine the reference values of some ...

  8. QT Dispersion in Healthy Adult Nigerians | Ale | Nigerian Quarterly ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    QTd was independent of age (p= 0.86), sex (p= 0.97), heart rate (p=0.22), blood pressure (p > 0.05), BMI (p=0.81), QTc (p=0.41), LVH (ECG and echo) and LV systolic function (p>0.05). Conclusion: QT dispersion is independent of demographic parameters, LV systolic function and LV hypertrophy in healthy adult Nigerians.

  9. White noise enhances new-word learning in healthy adults

    OpenAIRE

    Angwin, Anthony J.; Wilson, Wayne J.; Arnott, Wendy L.; Signorini, Annabelle; Barry, Robert J.; Copland, David A.

    2017-01-01

    Research suggests that listening to white noise may improve some aspects of cognitive performance in individuals with lower attention. This study investigated the impact of white noise on new word learning in healthy young adults, and whether this effect was mediated by executive attention skills. Eighty participants completed a single training session to learn the names of twenty novel objects. The session comprised 5 learning phases, each followed by a recall test. A final recognition test ...

  10. Healthy Adult Ageing: Multitasking Abilities and the Impact of Interruptions

    OpenAIRE

    Nevay, Robyn

    2013-01-01

    The ability to multitask plays a significant role within everyday life. This experiment investigated whether multitasking abilities are impaired in healthy adult ageing. Neuropsychological literature has shown that patients with frontal lobe damage are impaired in their ability to multitask on tests designed to assess cognitive functions used in real-life multitasking situations. Age-related reductions in brain volume are most pronounced in the frontal lobes. Therefore, it’s assumed that olde...

  11. Sleep reduces false memory in healthy older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, June C; Sim, Sam K Y; Chee, Michael W L

    2014-04-01

    To investigate the effects of post-learning sleep and sleep architecture on false memory in healthy older adults. Balanced, crossover design. False memory was induced using the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm and assessed following nocturnal sleep and following a period of daytime wakefulness. Post-learning sleep structure was evaluated using polysomnography (PSG). Sleep research laboratory. Fourteen healthy older adults from the Singapore-Longitudinal Aging Brain Study (mean age ± standard deviation = 66.6 ± 4.1 y; 7 males). At encoding, participants studied lists of words that were semantically related to non-presented critical lures. At retrieval, they made "remember"/"know" and "new" judgments. Compared to wakefulness, post-learning sleep was associated with reduced "remember" responses, but not "know" responses to critical lures. In contrast, there were no significant differences in the veridical recognition of studied words, false recognition of unrelated distractors, discriminability, or response bias between the sleep and the wake conditions. More post-learning slow wave sleep was associated with greater reduction in false memory. In healthy older adults, sleep facilitates the reduction in false memory without affecting veridical memory. This benefit correlates with the amount of slow wave sleep in the post-learning sleep episode.

  12. Healthy Lifestyle Characteristics and Their Joint Association With Cardiovascular Disease Biomarkers in US Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loprinzi, Paul D; Branscum, Adam; Hanks, June; Smit, Ellen

    2016-04-01

    To estimate the prevalence of healthy lifestyle characteristics and to examine the association between different combinations of healthy lifestyle characteristics and cardiovascular disease biomarkers. The prevalence of healthy lifestyle characteristics was estimated for the US adult population (N=4745) using 2003-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data for the following parameters: being sufficiently active (accelerometer), eating a healthy diet (Healthy Eating Index based on 24-hour recalls), being a nonsmoker (serum cotinine level), and having a recommended body fat percentage (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry). Cardiovascular biomarkers included mean arterial pressure, C-reactive protein, white blood cells (WBCs), total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), total cholesterol to HDL-C ratio, fasting low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, fasting triglycerides, fasting glucose, fasting insulin, insulin resistance, hemoglobin A1c, and homocysteine. The study was conducted from August 15, 2013, through January 5, 2016. Only 2.7% (95% CI, 1.9%-3.4%) of all adults had all 4 healthy lifestyle characteristics. Participants with 3 or 4 compared with 0 healthy lifestyle characteristics had more favorable biomarker levels except for mean arterial blood pressure, fasting glucose, and hemoglobin A1c. Having at least 1 or 2 compared with 0 healthy lifestyle characteristics was favorably associated with C-reactive protein, WBCs, HDL-C, total cholesterol, and homocysteine. For HDL-C and total cholesterol, the strongest correlate was body fat percentage. For homocysteine, a healthy diet and not smoking were strong correlates; for WBCs, diet was not a strong correlate. Although multiple healthy lifestyle characteristics are important, specific health characteristics may be more important for particular cardiovascular disease risk factors. Copyright © 2016 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All

  13. Applications of multivariate pattern classification analyses in developmental neuroimaging of healthy and clinical populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Signe L Bray

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Analyses of functional and structural imaging data typically involve testing hypotheses at each voxel in the brain. However, it is often the case that distributed spatial patterns may be a more appropriate metric for discriminating between conditions or groups. Multivariate pattern analysis has been gaining traction in neuroimaging of adult healthy and clinical populations; studies have shown that information present in neuroimaging data can be used to decode intentions and perceptual states, as well as discriminate between healthy and diseased brains. While few studies to date have applied these methods in pediatric populations, in this review we discuss exciting potential applications for studying both healthy, and aberrant, brain development. We include an overview of methods and discussion of challenges and limitations.

  14. Walking stability during cell phone use in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Pei-Chun; Higginson, Christopher I; Seymour, Kelly; Kamerdze, Morgan; Higginson, Jill S

    2015-05-01

    The number of falls and/or accidental injuries associated with cellular phone use during walking is growing rapidly. Understanding the effects of concurrent cell phone use on human gait may help develop safety guidelines for pedestrians. It was shown previously that older adults had more pronounced dual-task interferences than younger adults when concurrent cognitive task required visual information processing. Thus, cell phone use might have greater impact on walking stability in older than in younger adults. This study examined gait stability and variability during a cell phone dialing task (phone) and two classic cognitive tasks, the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT) and Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT). Nine older and seven younger healthy adults walked on a treadmill at four different conditions: walking only, PASAT, phone, and SDMT. We computed short-term local divergence exponent (LDE) of the trunk motion (local stability), dynamic margins of stability (MOS), step spatiotemporal measures, and kinematic variability. Older and younger adults had similar values of short-term LDE during all conditions, indicating that local stability was not affected by the dual-task. Compared to walking only, older and younger adults walked with significantly greater average mediolateral MOS during phone and SDMT conditions but significantly less ankle angle variability during all dual-tasks and less knee angle variability during PASAT. The current findings demonstrate that healthy adults may try to control foot placement and joint kinematics during cell phone use or another cognitive task with a visual component to ensure sufficient dynamic margins of stability and maintain local stability. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Benefits of regular aerobic exercise for executive functioning in healthy populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiney, Hayley; Machado, Liana

    2013-02-01

    Research suggests that regular aerobic exercise has the potential to improve executive functioning, even in healthy populations. The purpose of this review is to elucidate which components of executive functioning benefit from such exercise in healthy populations. In light of the developmental time course of executive functions, we consider separately children, young adults, and older adults. Data to date from studies of aging provide strong evidence of exercise-linked benefits related to task switching, selective attention, inhibition of prepotent responses, and working memory capacity; furthermore, cross-sectional fitness data suggest that working memory updating could potentially benefit as well. In young adults, working memory updating is the main executive function shown to benefit from regular exercise, but cross-sectional data further suggest that task-switching and post error performance may also benefit. In children, working memory capacity has been shown to benefit, and cross-sectional data suggest potential benefits for selective attention and inhibitory control. Although more research investigating exercise-related benefits for specific components of executive functioning is clearly needed in young adults and children, when considered across the age groups, ample evidence indicates that regular engagement in aerobic exercise can provide a simple means for healthy people to optimize a range of executive functions.

  16. Fostering Healthy Lifestyles in the African American Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murimi, Mary; Chrisman, Matthew S.; McAllister, Tiffany; McDonald, Olevia D.

    2015-01-01

    Approximately 8.3% of the U.S. population (25.8 million people) is affected by type 2 diabetes. The burden of diabetes is disproportionately greater in the African American community. Compared with non-Hispanic Caucasian adults, the risk of diagnosed type 2 diabetes was 77% higher among non-Hispanic Blacks, who are 27% more likely to die of…

  17. Echocardiographic chamber quantification in a healthy Dutch population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Grootel, R W J; Menting, M E; McGhie, J; Roos-Hesselink, J W; van den Bosch, A E

    2017-12-01

    For accurate interpretation of echocardiographic measurements normative data are required, which are provided by guidelines. For this article, the hypothesis was that these cannot be extrapolated to the Dutch population, since in Dutch clinical practice often higher values are found, which may not be pathological but physiological. Therefore this study aimed to 1) obtain and propose normative values for cardiac chamber quantification in a healthy Dutch population and 2) determine influences of baseline characteristics on these measurements. Prospectively recruited healthy subjects, aged 20-72 years (at least 28 subjects per age decade, equally distributed for gender) underwent physical examination and 2D and 3D echocardiography. Both ventricles and atria were assessed and volumes were calculated. 147 subjects were included (age 44 ± 14 years, 50% female). Overall, feasibility was good for both linear and volumetric measurements. Linear and volumetric parameters were consistently higher than current guidelines recommend, while functional parameters were in line with the guidelines. This was more so in the older population. 3D volumes were higher than 2D volumes. Gender dependency was seen in all body surface area (BSA) corrected volumes and with increasing age, ejection fractions decreased. This study provides 2D and 3D echocardiographic reference ranges for both ventricles and atria derived from a healthy Dutch population. BSA indexed volumes are gender-dependent, age did not influence ventricular volumes and a rise in blood pressure was independently associated with increased right ventricular volumes. The higher volumes found may be indicative for the Dutch population being the tallest in the world.

  18. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D in a West African population of tuberculosis patients and unmatched healthy controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wejse, Christian; Olesen, Rikke; Rabna, Paulo

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Little is known regarding vitamin D deficiency (VDD) in African populations and in tuberculosis (TB) patients. VDD has been shown to be associated with TB. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to compare the degree of vitamin D insufficiency (VDI) and VDD in TB patients and healthy adult controls...... in a West African population. DESIGN: An unmatched case-control study was performed at a Demographic Surveillance Site in Guinea-Bissau. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D(3) [25(OH)D(3)] concentrations were measured in 362 TB patients and in 494 controls. RESULTS: Hypovitaminosis D [25(OH)D(3) Udgivelsesdato: 2007...

  19. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D in a West African population of tuberculosis patients and unmatched healthy controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wejse, Christian; Olesen, Rikke; Rabna, Paulo

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Little is known regarding vitamin D deficiency (VDD) in African populations and in tuberculosis (TB) patients. VDD has been shown to be associated with TB. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to compare the degree of vitamin D insufficiency (VDI) and VDD in TB patients and healthy adult controls...... in a West African population. DESIGN: An unmatched case-control study was performed at a Demographic Surveillance Site in Guinea-Bissau. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D(3) [25(OH)D(3)] concentrations were measured in 362 TB patients and in 494 controls. RESULTS: Hypovitaminosis D [25(OH)D(3)...

  20. Haemophilia Joint Health Score in healthy adults playing sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sluiter, D; Foppen, W; de Kleijn, P; Fischer, K

    2014-03-01

    To evaluate outcome of prophylactic clotting factor replacement in children with haemophilia, the Haemophilia Joint Health Score (HJHS) was developed aiming at scoring early joint changes in children aged 4-18. The HJHS has been used for adults on long-term prophylaxis but interpretation of small changes remains difficult. Some changes in these patients may be due to sports-related injuries. Evaluation of HJHS score in healthy adults playing sports could improve the interpretation of this score in haemophilic patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the HJHS scores in a cohort of young, healthy men participating in sports. Concomitant with a project collecting MRI images of ankles and knees in normal young adults, HJHS scores were assessed in 30 healthy men aged 18-26, participating in sports one to three times per week. One physiotherapist assessed their clinical function using the HJHS 2.1. History of joint injuries was documented. MRI images were scored by a single radiologist, using the International Prophylaxis Study Group additive MRI score. Median age of the study group was 24.3 years (range 19.0-26.4) and median frequency of sports activities was three times per week (range 1-4). Six joints (five knees, one ankle) had a history of sports-related injury. The median overall HJHS score was 0 out of 124 (range 0-3), with 60% of subjects showing no abnormalities on HJHS. All joints were normal on MRI. These results suggest that frequent sports participation and related injuries are not related with abnormalities in HJHS scores. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Adult height, nutrition, and population health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Jessica M.; Subramanian, S.V.; Davey Smith, George

    2016-01-01

    In this review, the potential causes and consequences of adult height, a measure of cumulative net nutrition, in modern populations are summarized. The mechanisms linking adult height and health are examined, with a focus on the role of potential confounders. Evidence across studies indicates that short adult height (reflecting growth retardation) in low- and middle-income countries is driven by environmental conditions, especially net nutrition during early years. Some of the associations of height with health and social outcomes potentially reflect the association between these environmental factors and such outcomes. These conditions are manifested in the substantial differences in adult height that exist between and within countries and over time. This review suggests that adult height is a useful marker of variation in cumulative net nutrition, biological deprivation, and standard of living between and within populations and should be routinely measured. Linkages between adult height and health, within and across generations, suggest that adult height may be a potential tool for monitoring health conditions and that programs focused on offspring outcomes may consider maternal height as a potentially important influence. PMID:26928678

  2. Subchondral stress fracture of femoral head in a healthy adult

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Ashish

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Subchondral fracture of the femoral head is an uncommon entity and usually occurs as an insufficiency fracture associated with poor bone quality or as a fatigue fracture in young military recruits. This condition should be considered in the differential diagnosis of acute hip pain in young patients along with transient osteoporosis and avascular necrosis of the hip. We report a case of acute onset hip pain in an asymptomatic healthy adult in which the diagnosis was made by magnetic resonance imaging and the patient responded well to conservative treatment.

  3. Strategies of Healthy Adults Walking on a Laterally Oscillating Treadmill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Rachel A.; Peters, Brian T.; Bloomberg, Jacob J.

    2008-01-01

    We mounted a treadmill on top of a six degree-of-freedom motion base platform to investigate locomotor responses produced by healthy adults introduced to a dynamic walking surface. The experiment examined self-selected strategies employed by participants when exposed to continuous, sinusoidal lateral motion of the support surface while walking. Torso translation and step width were used to classify responses used to stabilize gait in a novel, dynamic environment. Two response categories emerged. Participants tended to either fix themselves in space (FIS), allowing the treadbelt to move laterally beneath them, or they fixed themselves to the base (FTB), moving laterally as the motion base oscillated. The degree of fixation in both extremes varied across participants. This finding suggests that normal adults have innate and varied preferences for reacquiring gait stability, some depending more heavily on vision (FIS group) and others on proprioception (FTB group). Keywords: Human locomotion, Unstable surface, Treadmill, Adaptation, Stability

  4. Insulin sensitivity and secretory status of a healthy malay population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mahmood, Abu Kholdun; Ismail, Aziz Al-Safi; Rashid, Faridah Abdul; Wan Bebakar, Wan Mohamad

    2006-07-01

    Insulin insensitivity is a common finding in several metabolic disorders including glucose intolerance, dyslipidemia, hyperuricemia and hypertension. Most of the previous studies on insulin sensitivity were performed on diabetic or obese population. So our knowledge about insulin sensitivity of healthy population remains limited. Rising prevalence of obesity, diabetes and metabolic syndrome is a serious issue in Malaysia and some other rapidly developing countries. So it is important to look at the insulin sensitivity status of healthy Malaysian subjects and to compare it in future with those of diabetic, obese or metabolic syndrome patients. In this study we sampled subjects who were independent of confounding factors such as obesity (including abdominal obesity), hypertension and glucose intolerance (diabetes, IGT or IFG) which may influence insulin sensitivity. Fasting plasma glucose, fasting insulin and lipid profile were determined. Insulin sensitivity and secretory status were calculated using the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) software (HOMA%S, HOMA%B and HOMA-IR). The insulin sensitivity (HOMA%S) of healthy Malay subjects aged between 30-60 years was 155.17%, HOMA-IR was 1.05 and HOMA%B was 116.65% (values adjusted for age, sex, BMI and waist circumference). It was seen that non-obese Malaysians can prevent age related lowering of insulin sensitivity if they can retain their BMI within limit.

  5. Cognitive Benefits of Online Social Networking for Healthy Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myhre, Janelle W; Mehl, Matthias R; Glisky, Elizabeth L

    2017-09-01

    Research suggests that older adults who remain socially active and cognitively engaged have better cognitive function than those who are isolated and disengaged. This study examined the efficacy of learning and using an online social networking website, Facebook.com, as an intervention to maintain or enhance cognitive function in older adults. Forty-one older adults were assigned to learn and use Facebook (n = 14) or an online diary website (active control, n = 13) for 8 weeks or placed on a waitlist (n = 14). Outcome measures included neuropsychological tests of executive functions, memory, and processing speed and self-report questionnaires about social engagement. The Facebook group showed a significant increase in a composite measure of updating, an executive function factor associated with complex working memory tasks, compared to no significant change in the control groups. Other measures of cognitive function and social support showed no differential improvement in the Facebook group. Learning and using an online social networking site may provide specific benefits for complex working memory in a group of healthy older adults. This may reflect the particular cognitive demands associated with online social networking and/or the benefits of social engagement more generally.

  6. Exposure to bisphenol A is directly associated with inflammation in healthy Korean adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yong Jun; Ha, Kyoung Hwa; Kim, Dae Jung

    2017-01-01

    It was recently discovered that bisphenol A (BPA) and phthalates are cardiovascular disruptors. Inflammation is central to the initiation and progression of cardiovascular disease (CVD). This study evaluated whether BPA and different phthalate metabolites are associated with the inflammation marker high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) in healthy Korean adults. This research is part of an ongoing, population-based study of Korean adults (30-64 years of age) conducted at the Cardiovascular and Metabolic Diseases Etiology Research Center (CMERC). The study enrolled 200 healthy volunteers (96 men, 104 women). Plasma hs-CRP was measured as an inflammation marker. BPA and five phthalate metabolites in urine were analyzed by using liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. BPA and monobenzyl phthalate (MBzP) differed significantly between the low-hs-CRP (inflammation regardless of obesity or insulin resistance.

  7. Lexical effects and lexical properties associated with National Adult Reading Test (NART) stimuli in healthy young adults and healthy elderly adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraro, F R; Sturgill, D

    1998-08-01

    Fifty healthy younger adults and 45 healthy elderly adults performed a speeded lexical decision task (LDT). Stimuli consisted of 57 National Adult Reading Test (NART) words (the NART consists of "irregular" words that violate standard spelling-to-sound correspondence rules) and 57 pronounceable pseudowords (e.g., blant). Both groups displayed statistically equivalent lexicality (PW-W) effects, and error rates were lower in elderly adults. With groups equated on vocabulary ability, lexicality effects remained the same and error rates did not differ across either group. Correlational analyses confirmed the role played by word frequency and word familiarity in latencies to NART stimuli. Results are discussed regarding the importance of obtaining speeded latency measures for age-related word recognition comparisons.

  8. Fat Replacement of Paraspinal Muscles with Aging in Healthy Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlqvist, Julia R; Vissing, Christoffer R; Hedermann, Gitte; Thomsen, Carsten; Vissing, John

    2017-03-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the age-related changes in fatty replacement and cross-sectional area (CSA) of cervical, thoracic, and lumbar paraspinal muscles versus leg muscles in healthy adults and to test for association between muscle fat fraction and lifestyle factors. Fifty-three healthy adults (24-76 yr) were included. Dixon magnetic resonance imaging technique was used to determine CSA and to quantify the fat fraction of paraspinal and leg muscles. Muscle CSA and fat fractions were tested for association with age and muscle strength. The fat fractions were also tested for association with sex, body mass index (BMI), physical activity, and lower back pain. Both paraspinal and leg fat fractions correlated directly with age (P muscles. The age-related increase in fat fraction was higher in paraspinal muscles than leg muscles (P muscles did not correlate with age. Knee extension strength correlated with fat fraction (P muscle strength of hip muscles, thigh muscles, and anterior calf muscles correlated with CSA (P muscles were more susceptible to age-related changes than leg muscles. Further, men had significantly lower fat fractions in lumbar paraspinal muscles, and BMI was positively associated with thigh, but not paraspinal, fat fraction.

  9. Alternate-day dosing of itraconazole in healthy adult cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, S M; Kubier, A; Dirikolu, L; Papich, M G; Mitchell, M A; Rubin, S I

    2016-02-01

    The current available formulations of itraconazole are not ideal for dosing in cats. The capsular preparation often does not allow for accurate dosing, the oral solution is difficult to administer and poorly tolerated, and the bioavailability of compounded formulations has been shown to be poor in other species. The aim of this study was to evaluate every other day dosing of 100 mg itraconazole capsule in healthy adult cats. Ten healthy adult cats received a 100 mg capsule of itraconazole orally every 48 h for 8 weeks. Peak and trough serum concentrations of itraconazole were measured weekly using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Physical examination, complete blood count (CBC), and chemistry profiles were performed weekly. The dosage regimen achieved average therapeutic trough concentrations (>0.5 μg/mL) within 3 weeks. The protocol yielded no adverse effects in 8 of the 10 study cats, with affected cats recovering fully with discontinuation of the drug and supportive care. At 8 weeks, an average peak concentration of 1.79 ± 0.952 μg/mL (95% CI: 0.996-2.588) and an average trough concentration of 0.761 ± 0.540 μg/mL (95% CI: 0.314-1.216) were achieved. Overall, a 100 mg every other day oral dosage regimen for itraconazole in cats yielded serum concentrations with minimal fluctuation and with careful monitoring may be considered for treatment of cats with systemic fungal disease. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Disability prevalence among healthy weight, overweight, and obese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, Brian S; Courtney-Long, Elizabeth A; Campbell, Vincent A; Wethington, Holly R

    2013-04-01

    Obesity is associated with adverse health outcomes in people with and without disabilities. However, little is known about disability prevalence among people who are obese. The purpose of this study is to determine the prevalence and type of disability among adults who are obese. Pooled data from the 2003-2009 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) were analyzed to obtain national prevalence estimates of disability, disability type and obesity. The disability prevalence was stratified by body mass index (BMI): healthy weight (BMI 18.5-<25.0), overweight (BMI 25.0-<30.0), and obese (BMI ≥ 30.0). In this pooled sample, among the 25.4% of US adults who were obese, 41.7% reported a disability. In contrast, 26.7% of those with a healthy weight and 28.5% of those who were overweight reported a disability. The most common disabilities among respondents with obesity were movement difficulty (32.5%) and work limitation (16.6%). This research contributes to the literature on obesity by including disability as a demographic in assessing the burden of obesity. Because of the high prevalence of disability among those who are obese, public health programs should consider the needs of those with disabilities when designing obesity prevention and treatment programs. Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society.

  11. [Influencing factors on healthy life expectancy in adults in Beijing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, J; Li, G; Gao, Y L; Wei, Z H; Wang, J; Su, J T; Liu, Q P; Wang, P

    2016-08-10

    To understand the main influencing factors related to healthy life expectancy (HALE) among adults in Beijing. The calculation on health-adjusted life expectancy was performed by Sullivan METHODS. Data from the self-reported health survey program on adults in Beijing 2012 was gathered. Hierarchical ordered probit model was used to estimate the severity-weighted prevalence of disability and then combined with the period life table to obtain the HALE. Factors associated with the severity-adjusted prevalence of the disabled were analyzed under the generalized additive models (GAM). The main influencing factors of HALE would include age (t=40.351, P<0.001), sex (t=9.689, P<0.001), levels of education (t=5.021, P< 0.001), exercise (t=5.487, P<0.001) and alcohol intake (t=-2.380, P=0.017) etc. The influence of per capita monthly income (χ(2) =3.949, P=0.044) showed as non-linear. Levels of income would directly influence the severity-weighted prevalence of the disability, which also affecting the HALE. Programs on improving healthy life style and health care in women should be promoted.

  12. Naturalistic Assessment of Executive Function and Everyday Multitasking in Healthy Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAlister, Courtney; Schmitter-Edgecombe, Maureen

    2013-01-01

    Everyday multitasking and its cognitive correlates were investigated in an older adult population using a naturalistic task, the Day Out Task. Fifty older adults and 50 younger adults prioritized, organized, initiated and completed a number of subtasks in a campus apartment to prepare for a day out (e.g., gather ingredients for a recipe, collect change for a bus ride). Participants also completed tests assessing cognitive constructs important in multitasking. Compared to younger adults, the older adults took longer to complete the everyday tasks and more poorly sequenced the subtasks. Although they initiated, completed, and interweaved a similar number of subtasks, the older adults demonstrated poorer task quality and accuracy, completing more subtasks inefficiently. For the older adults, reduced prospective memory abilities were predictive of poorer task sequencing, while executive processes and prospective memory were predictive of inefficiently completed subtasks. The findings suggest that executive dysfunction and prospective memory difficulties may contribute to the age-related decline of everyday multitasking abilities in healthy older adults. PMID:23557096

  13. Nocturia in the Dutch adult population.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, L. van; Kooij, D.G.; Schellevis, F.G.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To estimate the prevalence of nocturia in the Dutch adult population, its association with sociodemographic and health characteristics, and to assess problems experienced by persons with nocturia. Subjects and Methods: In spring 2001 a telephone survey was conducted among a representative

  14. Surveillance of Vaccination Coverage among Adult Populations - United States, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Walter W; Lu, Peng-Jun; O'Halloran, Alissa; Kim, David K; Grohskopf, Lisa A; Pilishvili, Tamara; Skoff, Tami H; Nelson, Noele P; Harpaz, Rafael; Markowitz, Lauri E; Rodriguez-Lainz, Alfonso; Fiebelkorn, Amy Parker

    2017-05-05

    Overall, the prevalence of illness attributable to vaccine-preventable diseases is greater among adults than among children. Adults are recommended to receive vaccinations based on their age, underlying medical conditions, lifestyle, prior vaccinations, and other considerations. Updated vaccination recommendations from CDC are published annually in the U.S. Adult Immunization Schedule. Despite longstanding recommendations for use of many vaccines, vaccination coverage among U.S. adults is low. August 2014-June 2015 (for influenza vaccination) and January-December 2015 (for pneumococcal, tetanus and diphtheria [Td] and tetanus and diphtheria with acellular pertussis [Tdap], hepatitis A, hepatitis B, herpes zoster, and human papillomavirus [HPV] vaccination). The National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) is a continuous, cross-sectional national household survey of the noninstitutionalized U.S. civilian population. In-person interviews are conducted throughout the year in a probability sample of households, and NHIS data are compiled and released annually. The survey objective is to monitor the health of the U.S. population and provide estimates of health indicators, health care use and access, and health-related behaviors. Compared with data from the 2014 NHIS, increases in vaccination coverage occurred for influenza vaccine among adults aged ≥19 years (a 1.6 percentage point increase compared with the 2013-14 season to 44.8%), pneumococcal vaccine among adults aged 19-64 years at increased risk for pneumococcal disease (a 2.8 percentage point increase to 23.0%), Tdap vaccine among adults aged ≥19 years and adults aged 19-64 years (a 3.1 percentage point and 3.3 percentage point increase to 23.1% and to 24.7%, respectively), herpes zoster vaccine among adults aged ≥60 years and adults aged ≥65 years (a 2.7 percentage point and 3.2 percentage point increase to 30.6% and to 34.2%, respectively), and hepatitis B vaccine among health care personnel (HCP) aged

  15. Validity of predictive equations for resting metabolic rate in healthy older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoi, Aya; Yamada, Yosuke; Yokoyama, Keiichi; Adachi, Tetsuji; Kimura, Misaka

    2017-12-01

    Accurate estimation of energy expenditure in older people is important for nutritional support. The current literature contains controversial or inconsistent data regarding the resting metabolic rate (RMR, or basal metabolic rate) in older adults, including the relationship between the RMR and ethnicity. Little information about the RMR in healthy Asian older adults is available. This study was performed to examine the RMR in healthy Japanese older adults and compare it with previously established 16 equations. Thirty-two community-dwelling, healthy, and active elderly Japanese adults were enrolled (age, 64-87 years; 14 men, 18 women; mean height, 154.9 ± 8.9 cm; mean weight, 53.5 ± 9.1 kg; mean body mass index, 22.2 ± 2.5 kg/m 2 ). The RMR was measured by indirect calorimetry. The measured RMR was compared among 16 equations. Correlation analysis, a paired t test, and a Bland-Altman plot were used to assess the agreement among the equations. The average RMR was 1132 ± 178 kcal/day with 2233 ± 437 kcal/day average total energy expenditure (TEE) measured by doubly labeled water (DLW). The smallest bias was established by De Lorenzo et al.'s equation as bias ±1.96SD = 4 ± 121 kcal/day. De Lorenzo et al. and Ikeda et al.'s equations had no significant average bias both in men and women (P > 0.05). The 1.96SD of bias in six equations was within 160 kcal/day. In contrast, residuals between the measured and predicted RMR were largely correlated with the RMR in four equations. A sex-related difference in the mean bias was observed in many equations. Although the average Japanese healthy older adult has a shorter stature and lower weight than older adults in the Western population, the current data suggest that a similar predictive equation for the RMR can be applied to both Japanese and Western older adults. This study demonstrate that the De Lorenzo et al.'s or Ikeda's equation may be useful for estimating RMR in the community

  16. Blunted Diurnal Cortisol Activity in Healthy Adults with Childhood Adversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuliya I. Kuras

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Childhood adversity, such as neglect, or physical, emotional, or sexual abuse, is prevalent in the U.S. and worldwide, and connected to an elevated incidence of disease in adulthood. A pathway in this relationship might be altered hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis functioning, as a result of differential hippocampal development in early life. A blunted diurnal cortisol slope is a precursor for many disorders. While studies have focused on HPA reactivity in relation to childhood adversity, there has been markedly less research on basal HPA functioning in those with low-to-moderate adversity. Based on previous research, we hypothesized that adults with low-to-moderate childhood adversity would have altered HPA axis functioning, as evidenced by a blunted diurnal cortisol slope and altered cortisol awakening response (CAR. Healthy adults aged 18–65 (n = 61 adults; 31 males and 30 females completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. Participants provided at-home saliva samples on two consecutive days at wake-up, and 30 min, 1, 4, 9, and 13 h later; samples were averaged over the 2 days. We found that low-to-moderate childhood adversity predicted lower morning cortisol (β = -0.34, p = 0.007, R2 = 0.21, as well as a blunted cortisol slope (β = 2.97, p = 0.004, R2 = 0.22, but found no association with CAR (β = 0.19, p = 0.14, R2 = 0.12. Overall, we found that in healthy participants, low-to-moderate adversity in childhood is associated with altered basal HPA activity in adulthood. Our findings indicate that even low levels of childhood adversity may predispose individuals to disease associated with HPA dysregulation in later life.

  17. Humoral responses to independent vaccinations are correlated in healthy boosted adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garman, Lori; Vineyard, Amanda J.; Crowe, Sherry R.; Harley, John B.; Spooner, Christina E.; Collins, Limone C.; Nelson, Michael R.; Engler, Renata J.M.; James, Judith A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Roughly half of U.S. adults do not receive recommended booster vaccinations, but protective antibody levels are rarely measured in adults. Demographic factors, vaccination history, and responses to other vaccinations could help identify at-risk individuals. We sought to characterize rates of seroconversion and determine associations of humoral responses to multiple vaccinations in healthy adults. Methods Humoral responses toward measles, mumps, tetanus toxoid, pertussis, hepatitis B surface antigen, and anthrax protective antigen were measured by ELISA in post-immunization samples from 1,465 healthy U.S. military members. We examined the effects of demographic and clinical factors on immunization responses, as well as assessed correlations between vaccination responses. Results Subsets of boosted adults did not have seroprotective levels of antibodies toward measles (10.4%), mumps (9.4%), pertussis (4.7%), hepatitis B (8.6%) or protective antigen (14.4%) detected. Half-lives of antibody responses were generally long (>30 years). Measles and mumps antibody levels were correlated (r=0.31, pvaccination history. Measles and mumps antibody levels also correlated with tetanus antibody response (r=0.11, pVaccination responses are predominantly robust and vaccine specific. However, a small but significant portion of the vaccinated adult population may not have quantitative seroprotective antibody to common vaccine-preventable infections. PMID:25140930

  18. Urinary growth hormone excretion in 657 healthy children and adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Main, K; Philips, M; Jørgensen, M

    1991-01-01

    .0001) with maximum values in Tanner stage 3 for girls and 4 for boys. This corresponded to a peak in u-GH excretion between 11.5-14.5 years in girls and 12.5-16 years in boys. Additionally, u-GH excretion in adults was significantly higher than in prepubertal children (p less than 0.001). The day/night ratio of u......-GH excretion (pg/h) was significantly higher in females than in males (p less than 0.01). In Tanner stages 1-4, u-GH excretion during the day was lower than that at night, whereas the opposite was true in late puberty and in adult women. The interindividual variation of u-GH excretion within the same Tanner......Urinary growth hormone (u-GH) excretion was measured in 547 healthy children and 110 adults by ELISA with a detection limit of 1.1 ng/l u-GH after prior concentration of the urine samples (20- to 30-fold). u-GH excretion values were significantly dependent on the pubertal stage (p less than 0...

  19. Effect of Patiromer on Urinary Ion Excretion in Healthy Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegel, David M.; Gross, Coleman; Benton, Wade W.; Fogli, Jeanene; Hill Gallant, Kathleen M.; Du Mond, Charles; Block, Geoffrey A.; Weir, Matthew R.; Pitt, Bertram

    2016-01-01

    Background and objectives Patiromer is a nonabsorbed potassium-binding polymer that uses calcium as the counterexchange ion. The calcium released with potassium binding has the potential to be absorbed or bind phosphate. Because binding is not specific for potassium, patiromer can bind other cations. Here, we evaluate the effect of patiromer on urine ion excretion in healthy adults, which reflects gastrointestinal ion absorption. Design, setting, participants, & measurements We analyzed the effect of patiromer on urine potassium, sodium, magnesium, calcium, and phosphate in two studies. Healthy adults on controlled diets in a clinical research unit were given patiromer up to 50.4 g/d divided three times a day for 8 days (dose-finding study) or 25.2 g/d in a crossover design as daily or divided (two or three times a day) doses for 18 days (dosing regimen study). On the basis of 24-hour collections, urinary ion excretion during the baseline period (days 5–11) was compared with that during the treatment period (days 13–19; dose-finding study), and the last 4 days of each period were compared across regimens (dosing regimen study). Results In the dose-finding study, patiromer induced a dose-dependent decrease in urine potassium, urine magnesium, and urine sodium (P<0.01 for each). Patiromer at 25.2 g/d decreased urine potassium (mean±SD) by 1140±316 mg/d, urine magnesium by 45±1 mg/d, and urine sodium by 225±145 mg/d. Urine calcium increased in a dose-dependent manner, and urine phosphate decreased in parallel (both P<0.01). Patiromer at 25.2 g/d increased urine calcium by 73±23 mg/d and decreased urine phosphate by 64±40 mg/d. Urine potassium, urine sodium, and urine magnesium were unaffected by dosing regimen, whereas the increase in urine calcium was significantly lower with daily compared with three times a day dosing (P=0.01). Urine phosphate also decreased less with daily compared with two or three times a day dosing (P<0.05). Conclusions In healthy

  20. [Scapular balance angle reference values in a healthy population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, J; Gil, D; de Dios Errázuriz, J; Ruiz, P; Díaz, C; Aguila, P; Rosselot, A; Espinoza, R; Beltrán, M; Liendo, R; Soza, F

    2014-01-01

    To calculate the Scapular Balance Angle (SBA) reference values in a healthy population between 18 and 85 years old, and to define abnormality criteria for this sample. A descriptive study was conducted on a total of 300 individuals (mean age: 44.83, range: 18-83; proportion male/female: 1.59), calculating the SBA through manual measurement with a goniometer. An intraobserver Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) of 0.87 and a interobserver ICC of 0.84 was observed. The values for the SBA in healthy population were 2.505 ± 2.340°. We define the abnormality criteria for this sample with an angle greater than 7.185°. SBA manual measurement is a simple and reproducible assessment of the position and rotation of the scapula in clinical practice. The main findings of this study are the reference values for the SBA and a statistical cut-off to define abnormality. Copyright © 2013 SECOT. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  1. Biochemistry reference intervals for healthy elderly population in Asmara, Eritrea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achila, Oliver Okoth; Semere, Paulos; Andemichael, Danait; Gherezgihier, Harerta; Mehari, Senait; Amanuel, Adiam; Yohannes, Tedalo; Yohaness, Eyob; Goje, Tzegezeab

    2017-12-19

    There is a scarcity of reference interval studies on the elderly in Africa. This study establishes reference interval for the elderly for some commonly used biochemical parameters. In this study, 255 conveniently sampled, healthy elderly, participants meeting Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI C28-A3) guidelines were enrolled. The results obtained may have utility in clinical diagnosis, patient management and research. In general, the consensus reference interval established in this study tended to be higher than reference interval from Caucasian populations; but lower than those obtained from reference interval studies in several African countries. This pattern was observed in a number of analytes including Alanine aminotransferase; aspartate aminotransferase; alkaline phosphatase; sodium; potassium among others. Significant sex-related variations were also observed in total bilirubin; direct bilirubin; indirect bilirubin; albumin; sodium; chloride; plasma carbon dioxide, creatinine and anion gap. The results demonstrate that reference interval for Eritrean urban population differs from those derived from other African or North American populations. In this regard, the use of reference interval values obtained from Caucasian populations may result in misdiagnosis.

  2. Perceived body image and eating behavior in young adults with cystic fibrosis and their healthy peers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, J; Conway, S; Etherington, C; Fitzjohn, J; Gee, L; Morton, A; Musson, H; Webb, A K

    2000-12-01

    Treatment aimed at achieving an ideal nutritional status is an integral part of the management of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Emphasis is continually placed upon dietary intake and weight. The effects of this on eating behavior and self-perceptions are unclear. This work compared male and female CF adults with a healthy male and female control population with regard to (a) clinical variables, (b) actual, perceived, and desired body shape/body mass index (BMI), and (c) body satisfaction, eating behaviors and attitudes, and self-esteem. Clinical data were recorded for 221 adults with CF and 148 healthy controls. All subjects completed BMI Charts (perception of body weight/BMI), the Eating Attitudes Test, and scales of body satisfaction and self-esteem. CF patients had poorer lung function and nutritional status than controls. Control males accurately perceived their body shape/BMI and were content with it, whereas CF males viewed their BMI as greater than it actually was and desired to be much heavier. Control females viewed their body shape/BMI as less than it actually was and desired to be even slimmer, in comparison with CF females, who perceived their BMI as less than it actually was but were happy with their perceived shape/weight. Control subjects, especially females, dieted to a greater extent and were more preoccupied with food (with binge eating and intended vomiting) than CF patients. Conversely, those with CF reported greater pressure from others to eat than did controls. More problems with food/eating behavior were associated with less body satisfaction and reduced self-esteem. In comparison with a healthy control population, the perceptions and behaviors of CF adults relating to eating, weight, and body image are not abnormal. Indeed, females with CF have fewer problems than their healthy peers.

  3. White noise enhances new-word learning in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angwin, Anthony J; Wilson, Wayne J; Arnott, Wendy L; Signorini, Annabelle; Barry, Robert J; Copland, David A

    2017-10-12

    Research suggests that listening to white noise may improve some aspects of cognitive performance in individuals with lower attention. This study investigated the impact of white noise on new word learning in healthy young adults, and whether this effect was mediated by executive attention skills. Eighty participants completed a single training session to learn the names of twenty novel objects. The session comprised 5 learning phases, each followed by a recall test. A final recognition test was also administered. Half the participants listened to white noise during the learning phases, and half completed the learning in silence. The noise group demonstrated superior recall accuracy over time, which was not impacted by participant attentional capacity. Recognition accuracy was near ceiling for both groups. These findings suggest that white noise has the capacity to enhance lexical acquisition.

  4. Subcortical intelligence: caudate volume predicts IQ in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grazioplene, Rachael G; G Ryman, Sephira; Gray, Jeremy R; Rustichini, Aldo; Jung, Rex E; DeYoung, Colin G

    2015-04-01

    This study examined the association between size of the caudate nuclei and intelligence. Based on the central role of the caudate in learning, as well as neuroimaging studies linking greater caudate volume to better attentional function, verbal ability, and dopamine receptor availability, we hypothesized the existence of a positive association between intelligence and caudate volume in three large independent samples of healthy adults (total N = 517). Regression of IQ onto bilateral caudate volume controlling for age, sex, and total brain volume indicated a significant positive correlation between caudate volume and intelligence, with a comparable magnitude of effect across each of the three samples. No other subcortical structures were independently associated with IQ, suggesting a specific biological link between caudate morphology and intelligence. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Reliability of basal plasma vasopressin concentrations in healthy male adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintana, Daniel S; Westlye, Lars T; Smerud, Knut T; Mahmoud, Ramy A; Djupesland, Per G; Andreassen, Ole A

    2017-10-01

    The neuropeptides oxytocin (OT) and arginine vasopressin (AVP) play important and interrelated roles in modulating mammalian social behaviour. While the OT system has received considerable research attention for its potential to treat psychiatric symptoms, comparatively little is known about the role of the AVP system in human social behaviour. To better understand the intraindividual stability of basal AVP, the present study assessed the reproducibility of basal plasma AVP concentrations. Basal plasma AVP was assessed at four sampling points separated by 8 days, on average, in 16 healthy adult males. Only one out of six comparisons revealed strong evidence for reproducibility of basal AVP concentrations (visit 2 vs. visit 4: r=0.8, p0.1). The concordance correlation coefficient [0.15, 95% CI (-0.55, 0.73)] also revealed poor overall reproducibility. Poor reliability of basal AVP concentrations suggests future work covarying AVP with trait markers should proceed with careful consideration of intraindividual fluctuations.

  6. Cardiovascular aging and exercise in healthy older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckman, George A; McKelvie, Robert S

    2008-11-01

    Physical inactivity in an aging population is a major contributing factor to the rising numbers of older persons with chronic illnesses and disabilities. The purpose of this article is to review the relationship between physical inactivity and age-associated changes to the cardiovascular system, and provide guidance on prescribing exercise to healthy older persons in order to mitigate the adverse effects of cardiovascular aging. Interpretive review of the literature. A number of structural and functional changes occur in the cardiovascular system with advancing age, many of which are mediated by changes in vascular stiffness. These changes lead not only to cardiovascular events and strokes, but also to frailty, functional decline, and cognitive impairment. A substantial proportion of the decline in aerobic capacity with age may result from physical inactivity. Guidelines for the prescription of aerobic, resistance, and balance training for otherwise healthy older persons are provided. Lack of physical activity is a major risk factor for the epidemic of chronic disease and disability facing an aging population. Many age-associated changes in cardiovascular function result from physical inactivity. The benefits of regular exercise include prevention of cardiovascular events, disability, and cognitive impairment. Age is not a contraindication to exercise, which can usually be initiated safely in older persons.

  7. Population pharmacokinetics and electrocardiographic effects of dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chotsiri, Palang; Wattanakul, Thanaporn; Hoglund, Richard M; Hanboonkunupakarn, Borimas; Pukrittayakamee, Sasithon; Blessborn, Daniel; Jittamala, Podjanee; White, Nicholas J; Day, Nicholas P J; Tarning, Joel

    2017-12-01

    The aims of the present study were to evaluate the pharmacokinetic properties of dihydroartemisinin (DHA) and piperaquine, potential drug-drug interactions with concomitant primaquine treatment, and piperaquine effects on the electrocardiogram in healthy volunteers. The population pharmacokinetic properties of DHA and piperaquine were assessed in 16 healthy Thai adults using an open-label, randomized, crossover study. Drug concentration-time data and electrocardiographic measurements were evaluated with nonlinear mixed-effects modelling. The developed models described DHA and piperaquine population pharmacokinetics accurately. Concomitant treatment with primaquine did not affect the pharmacokinetic properties of DHA or piperaquine. A linear pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic model described satisfactorily the relationship between the individually corrected QT intervals and piperaquine concentrations; the population mean QT interval increased by 4.17 ms per 100 ng ml-1 increase in piperaquine plasma concentration. Simulations from the final model showed that monthly and bimonthly mass drug administration in healthy subjects would result in median maximum QT interval prolongations of 18.9 ms and 16.8 ms, respectively, and would be very unlikely to result in prolongation of more than 50 ms. A single low dose of primaquine can be added safely to the existing DHA-piperaquine treatment in areas of multiresistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic modelling and simulation in healthy adult volunteers suggested that therapeutic doses of DHA-piperaquine in the prevention or treatment of P. falciparum malaria are unlikely to be associated with dangerous QT prolongation. © 2017 The Authors. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British Pharmacological Society.

  8. Adherence to Alternative Healthy Eating Index in relation to depression and anxiety in Iranian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saneei, Parvane; Hajishafiee, Maryam; Keshteli, Ammar Hassanzadeh; Afshar, Hamid; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad; Adibi, Peyman

    2016-07-01

    Earlier studies have shown a protective association between adherence to healthy eating guidelines and mental disorders in Western nations; however, data in this regard are limited from the understudied region of Middle East. We examined the association between adherence to healthy eating guidelines, as measured by Alternative Healthy Eating Index (AHEI)-2010, and prevalence of anxiety and depression in a large sample of Iranian adults. In this cross-sectional study, data on dietary intakes of 3363 adult participants were collected using a validated dish-based 106-item semi-quantitative FFQ. Adherence to healthy eating was quantified using AHEI-2010, as suggested by earlier publications. The Iranian validated version of Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale was used to assess anxiety and depression in study participants. Data on other covariates were gathered using a pre-tested questionnaire. Overall, the prevalence of anxiety and depression was 15·2 % (males 10·8 % and females 18·3 %) and 30·0 % (males 22·9 % and females 35·1 %), respectively. After controlling for potential confounders, those in the top quartile of AHEI-2010 had a 49 % lower chance of anxiety (OR 0·51; 95 % CI 0·35, 0·72) and a 45 % lower odds of depression (OR 0·55; 95 % CI 0·42, 0·72), compared with those in the bottom quartile. Stratified analysis by sex revealed that women in the highest categories of AHEI-2010 had a 49 % lower odds of having anxiety and depression, after adjustment for confounders, but no significant association was found in men. In addition, among individuals who were 40 years old or younger, those with high adherence to AHEI-2010 were 58 and 51 % less likely to have anxiety and depression, compared with those with less adherence. Adherence to healthy eating was inversely associated with a lower chance of anxiety and depression in Iranian adults. Prospective studies are required to confirm these associations in Middle-Eastern populations.

  9. Normal range values for thromboelastography in healthy adult volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Scarpelini

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Thromboelastography (TEG® provides a functional evaluation of coagulation. It has characteristics of an ideal coagulation test for trauma, but is not frequently used, partially due to lack of both standardized techniques and normal values. We determined normal values for our population, compared them to those of the manufacturer and evaluated the effect of gender, age, blood type, and ethnicity. The technique was standardized using citrated blood, kaolin and was performed on a Haemoscope 5000 device. Volunteers were interviewed and excluded if pregnant, on anticoagulants or having a bleeding disorder. The TEG® parameters analyzed were R, K, α, MA, LY30, and coagulation index. All volunteers outside the manufacturer’s normal range underwent extensive coagulation investigations. Reference ranges for 95% for 118 healthy volunteers were R: 3.8-9.8 min, K: 0.7-3.4 min, α: 47.8-77.7 degrees, MA: 49.7-72.7 mm, LY30: -2.3-5.77%, coagulation index: -5.1-3.6. Most values were significantly different from those of the manufacturer, which would have diagnosed coagulopathy in 10 volunteers, for whom additional investigation revealed no disease (81% specificity. Healthy women were significantly more hypercoagulable than men. Aging was not associated with hypercoagulability and East Asian ethnicity was not with hypocoagulability. In our population, the manufacturer’s normal values for citrated blood-kaolin had a specificity of 81% and would incorrectly identify 8.5% of the healthy volunteers as coagulopathic. This study supports the manufacturer’s recommendation that each institution should determine its own normal values before adopting TEG®, a procedure which may be impractical. Consideration should be given to a multi-institutional study to establish wide standard values for TEG®.

  10. Epidemiologic, clinical, and virologic characteristics of human rhinovirus infection among otherwise healthy children and adults: rhinovirus among adults and children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei-Ju; Arnold, John C; Fairchok, Mary P; Danaher, Patrick J; McDonough, Erin A; Blair, Patrick J; Garcia, Josefina; Halsey, Eric S; Schofield, Christina; Ottolini, Martin; Mor, Deepika; Ridoré, Michelande; Burgess, Timothy H; Millar, Eugene V

    2015-03-01

    human rhinovirus (HRV) is a major cause of influenza-like illness (ILI) in adults and children. Differences in disease severity by HRV species have been described among hospitalized patients with underlying illness. Less is known about the clinical and virologic characteristics of HRV infection among otherwise healthy populations, particularly adults. to characterize molecular epidemiology of HRV and association between HRV species and clinical presentation and viral shedding. observational, prospective, facility-based study of ILI was conducted from February 2010 to April 2012. Collection of nasopharyngeal specimens, patient symptoms, and clinical information occurred on days 0, 3, 7, and 28. Patients recorded symptom severity daily for the first 7 days of illness in a symptom diary. HRV was identified by RT-PCR and genotyped for species determination. Cases who were co-infected with other viral respiratory pathogens were excluded from the analysis. We evaluated the associations between HRV species, clinical severity, and patterns of viral shedding. eighty-four HRV cases were identified and their isolates genotyped. Of these, 62 (74%) were >18 years. Fifty-four were HRV-A, 11HRV-B, and 19HRV-C. HRV-C infection was more common among children than adults (59% vs. 10%, P<0.001). Among adults, HRV-A was associated with higher severity of upper respiratory symptoms compared to HRV-B (P=0.02), but no such association was found in children. In addition, adults shed HRV-A significantly longer than HRV-C (P trend=0.01). among otherwise healthy adults with HRV infection, we observed species-specific differences in respiratory symptom severity and duration of viral shedding. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Asymmetry of the structural brain connectome in healthy older adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo eBonilha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: It is now possible to map neural connections in vivo across the whole brain (i.e., the brain connectome. This is a promising development in neuroscience since many health and disease processes are believed to arise from the architecture of neural networks.Objective: To describe the normal range of hemispheric asymmetry in structural connectivity in healthy older adults.Methods: We obtained high-resolution structural magnetic resonance images (MRI from 17 healthy older adults. For each subject, the brain connectome was reconstructed by parcelating the probabilistic map of gray matter into anatomically defined regions of interested (ROIs. White matter fiber tractography was reconstructed from diffusion tensor imaging and streamlines connecting gray matter ROIs were computed. Asymmetry indices were calculated regarding ROI connectivity (representing the sum of connectivity weight of each cortical ROI and for regional white matter links. All asymmetry measures were compared to a normal distribution with mean=0 through one sample t-tests.Results: Leftward cortical ROI asymmetry was observed in medial temporal, dorsolateral frontal and occipital regions. Rightward cortical ROI asymmetry was observed in middle temporal and orbito-frontal regions. Link-wise asymmetry revealed stronger connections in the left hemisphere between the medial temporal, anterior and posterior peri-Sylvian and occipito-temporal regions. Rightward link asymmetry was observed in lateral temporal, parietal and dorsolateral frontal connections.Conclusions: We postulate that asymmetry of specific connections may be related to functional hemispheric organization. This study may provide reference for future studies evaluating the architecture of the connectome in health and disease processes in senior individuals.

  12. Population Pharmacokinetic Meta-Analysis of Vortioxetine in Healthy Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Areberg, Johan; Petersen, Kamilla B; Chen, Grace; Naik, Himanshu

    2014-01-01

    The objective was to describe the pharmacokinetics of vortioxetine and evaluate the effect of intrinsic and extrinsic factors in the healthy population. Data from 26 clinical pharmacology studies were pooled. A total of 21,758 vortioxetine quantifiable plasma concentrations were collected from 887 subjects with corresponding demography. The doses ranged from 2.5 to 75 mg (single dose) and 2.5–60 mg (multiple QD doses). The pharmacokinetics of vortioxetine was best characterised by a two-compartment model with first-order absorption, lag-time and linear elimination, with interindividual error terms for absorption rate constant, oral clearance and central volume of distribution. The population mean was 32.7 L/hr for oral clearance and 1.97·103 L for the central volume of distribution. The average elimination half-life was 65.8 hr. CYP2D6 inferred metabolic status (ultra, extensive, intermediate or poor metabolisers) and age on oral clearance and height on central volume of distribution were identified as statistically significant covariate–parameter relationships. For CYP2D6 poor metabolisers, CL/F was approximately 50% to that seen in CYP2D6 extensive metabolisers. The impact of height on V2/F and age on CL/F was low and not considered to be clinically relevant. The final model was found to be reliable, stable and predictive. A reliable, stable and predictive pharmacokinetic model was developed to characterise pharmacokinetics of vortioxetine in the healthy population. PMID:24766668

  13. Psychological correlates of habitual diet in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Richard J

    2017-01-01

    There are 3 motivations for studying the psychological correlates of habitual diet. First, diet is a major but modifiable cause of morbidity and mortality, and dietary interventions could be improved by knowing the psychological characteristics of consumers of healthy/unhealthy diets. Second, animal studies indicate that diet can impair cognition, stress responsiveness, and affective processing, but it is unclear whether this also happens in humans. Third, certain psychological traits are associated with obesity, but it is not known whether these precede and thus contribute to weight gain. Although many psychological correlates of diet have been identified, the literature is highly dispersed, and there has been no previous comprehensive narrative review. Organized here by psychological domain, studies linking diet with individual differences in perception, cognition, impulsivity, personality, affective processing, mental health, and attitudes, beliefs and values-in healthy adults-are reviewed. Although there is a growing literature on the psychological correlates of fruit/vegetable intake-the core of a healthy diet-consumers of unhealthy diets have characteristics that probably make them less responsive to education-based interventions. Diet may be a causal contributor to depression, and diet is consistently linked to impulsivity and certain personality traits. There are inconsistent and less explored links to perceptual, affective and cognitive processes, with several emerging parallels to the animal literature. Impulsivity and personality traits common to obese individuals also occur in lean consumers of unhealthy diets, suggesting these may contribute to weight gain. Diet-psychology correlates remain understudied even though this could significantly benefit human health. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Community Priorities for Healthy Eating in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Qianzhi; Cohen, Nancy L; Marra, Melissa Ventura; Woolf, Kathleen; Gilbride, Judith; Francis, Sarah L

    2017-01-01

    Community planners such as policymakers and health care and nutrition service providers can create an "age-friendly" environment to support healthy eating in older residents by addressing the highest priorities that enable older adults to improve their dietary intake through different food-related community settings. To identify and prioritize these factors that facilitate behavioral change (enablers) and behavioral settings important for older adult nutrition based on the social ecological model, nutrition and aging professionals (n = 30) from two rural (West Virginia, Iowa) and two urban (Massachusetts, New York) city/county regions (communities) participated in an online or live focus group discussion and completed an analytic hierarchy process survey online. Overall, the most important perceived enablers were accessibility and cost, followed by transportation and social support, but their relative importance varied by community. Participants from all communities considered congregate meal sites and food banks among the most important behavioral settings. Participants from most communities considered food stores to be important and also highlighted other settings unique to the area, such as senior housing, neighborhood, and farmers' markets. By targeting interventions to address the most notable enablers and behavioral settings specific to their community, planning groups can enhance their older residents' ability to achieve optimal nutritional health.

  15. Whole body vibration improves cognition in healthy young adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Ruben H Regterschot

    Full Text Available This study investigated the acute effects of passive whole body vibration (WBV on executive functions in healthy young adults. Participants (112 females, 21 males; age: 20.5±2.2 years underwent six passive WBV sessions (frequency 30 Hz, amplitude approximately 0.5 mm and six non-vibration control sessions of two minutes each while sitting on a chair mounted on a vibrating platform. A passive WBV session was alternated with a control session. Directly after each session, performance on the Stroop Color-Block Test (CBT, Stroop Color-Word Interference Test (CWIT, Stroop Difference Score (SDS and Digit Span Backward task (DSBT was measured. In half of the passive WBV and control sessions the test order was CBT-CWIT-DSBT, and DSBT-CBT-CWIT in the other half. Passive WBV improved CWIT (p = 0.009; effect size r = 0.20 and SDS (p = 0.034; r = 0.16 performance, but only when the CBT and CWIT preceded the DSBT. CBT and DSBT performance did not change. This study shows that two minutes passive WBV has positive acute effects on attention and inhibition in young adults, notwithstanding their high cognitive functioning which could have hampered improvement. This finding indicates the potential of passive WBV as a cognition-enhancing therapy worth further evaluation, especially in persons unable to perform active forms of exercise.

  16. Masticatory function, taste, and salivary flow in young healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Polliane M; Castelo, Paula M; Carpenter, Guy H; Gavião, Maria Beatriz D

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate masticatory function and taste and their possible relationship with salivary flow in young adults with good oral health. The study also examined whether anthropometric measurements and gender could influence the variables studied. A total of 171 subjects were selected (125 females, 46 males). Masticatory performance was evaluated with the sieve method, and perceived masticatory ability was measured using the visual analogue scale. Taste was evaluated using the drop test with four different flavors in three different concentrations, and unstimulated and stimulated saliva flows were measured. The anthropometric variables measured included body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC). The independent variables studied could not predict masticatory performance. The independent variables, BMI, WC, and gender, predicted 14% of perceived masticatory ability, and BMI predicted 5% of taste. Masticatory performance was not related to salivary flow or anthropometric parameters in young healthy adults. Perceived masticatory ability was related to BMI, WC, and gender, whereas taste was only weakly related to BMI. The flow rate did not exhibit a statistically significant difference between males and females for the anthropometric groups. (J Oral Sci 58, 391-399, 2016).

  17. Action Video Game Training for Healthy Adults: A Meta-Analytic Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wang, Ping; Liu, Han-Hui; Zhu, Xing-Ting; Meng, Tian; Li, Hui-Jie; Zuo, Xi-Nian

    2016-01-01

    .... More and more studies found video game training improved a variety of cognitive functions. However, it remains controversial whether healthy adults can benefit from AVG training, and whether young and older adults benefit similarly from AVG training...

  18. Hydration Status of Adult Population of Yazd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MH Lotfi

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Water is an essential nutrient for life. It comprises 75% of total body weight in infants,60% in adult males and 50% in adult females. Decrease in body water is commonly known as dehydration. Acute or chronic dehydration is a common condition in some population groups, especialy the elderly and those who participate in physical activity in warm enviroments. Potential consequences of dehydration include constipation,urinary tract and respiratory infection,urinary stone disease and there might also be an association between a low habitual fluid intake and some carcinomas,cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Many indices have been investigated to establish their role as markers of dehydration status. Body mass changes,blood indices,urine indices and bioelectrical impedance analysis have been used most widely, but current evidence and opinion tend to favour urine indices as the most convenient and sensitive methods. Methods: This cross sectional study was done for estimating the prevalence of dehydration in adult population(students,nurses,officials,workersin Yazd. These persons were selected randomly. Urine samples of two hundred and thirty persons were obtained at 10-12 AM,and urine specific gravity measured by refractometer (all of the samplesand dip stick (some samples. Finding: According to this study,96.7% of our population had some degree of dehydration.69.7% of them were significantly dehydrated(urine SG>1020 and 4.8% of them were severely dehydrated (urine SG>1030 and the mean specific gravity was 1021±5/65. This study evaluated other factors that could probably indicate hydration status like urine colour, type of drink,frequency of urination and frequency of thirst per day. Conclusion: High percentage of our population were dehydrated which was not correlated to the type of drink but was correlated to urine colour, frequency of urination and frequency of thirst. So, regular monitoring of urine to keep if clear or light

  19. Moderators of noise-induced cognitive change in healthy adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernice AL Wright

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental noise causes cognitive impairment, particularly in executive function and episodic memory domains, in healthy populations. However, the possible moderating influences on this relationship are less clear. This study assessed 54 healthy participants (24 men on a cognitive battery (measuring psychomotor speed, attention, executive function, working memory, and verbal learning and memory under three (quiet, urban, and social noise conditions. IQ, subjective noise sensitivity, sleep, personality, paranoia, depression, anxiety, stress, and schizotypy were assessed on a single occasion. We found significantly slower psychomotor speed (urban, reduced working memory and episodic memory (urban and social, and more cautious decision-making (executive function, urban under noise conditions. There was no effect of sex. Variance in urban noise-induced changes in psychomotor speed, attention, Trail Making B-A (executive function, and immediate recall and social noise-induced changes in verbal fluency (executive function and immediate recall were explained by a combination of baseline cognition and paranoia, noise sensitivity, sleep, or cognitive disorganization. Higher baseline cognition (but not IQ predicted greater impairment under urban and social noise for most cognitive variables. Paranoia predicted psychomotor speed, attention, and executive function impairment. Subjective noise sensitivity predicted executive function and memory impairment. Poor sleep quality predicted less memory impairment. Finally, lower levels of cognitive disorganization predicted slower psychomotor speed and greater memory impairment. The identified moderators should be considered in studies aiming to reduce the detrimental effects of occupational and residential noise. These results highlight the importance of studying noise effects in clinical populations characterized by high levels of the paranoia, sleep disturbances, noise sensitivity, and cognitive

  20. Moderators of noise-induced cognitive change in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Bernice Al; Peters, Emmanuelle R; Ettinger, Ulrich; Kuipers, Elizabeth; Kumari, Veena

    2016-01-01

    Environmental noise causes cognitive impairment, particularly in executive function and episodic memory domains, in healthy populations. However, the possible moderating influences on this relationship are less clear. This study assessed 54 healthy participants (24 men) on a cognitive battery (measuring psychomotor speed, attention, executive function, working memory, and verbal learning and memory) under three (quiet, urban, and social) noise conditions. IQ, subjective noise sensitivity, sleep, personality, paranoia, depression, anxiety, stress, and schizotypy were assessed on a single occasion. We found significantly slower psychomotor speed (urban), reduced working memory and episodic memory (urban and social), and more cautious decision-making (executive function, urban) under noise conditions. There was no effect of sex. Variance in urban noise-induced changes in psychomotor speed, attention, Trail Making B-A (executive function), and immediate recall and social noise-induced changes in verbal fluency (executive function) and immediate recall were explained by a combination of baseline cognition and paranoia, noise sensitivity, sleep, or cognitive disorganization. Higher baseline cognition (but not IQ) predicted greater impairment under urban and social noise for most cognitive variables. Paranoia predicted psychomotor speed, attention, and executive function impairment. Subjective noise sensitivity predicted executive function and memory impairment. Poor sleep quality predicted less memory impairment. Finally, lower levels of cognitive disorganization predicted slower psychomotor speed and greater memory impairment. The identified moderators should be considered in studies aiming to reduce the detrimental effects of occupational and residential noise. These results highlight the importance of studying noise effects in clinical populations characterized by high levels of the paranoia, sleep disturbances, noise sensitivity, and cognitive disorganization.

  1. Association between Alternative Healthy Eating Index (AHEI and Depression and Anxiety in Iranian Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Earlier studies have shown a protective association between adherence to healthy eating guidelines and mental disorders in western nations; however, data in this regard are limited from the understudies region of Middle-East. We aimed to examine the association between adherence to healthy eating guidelines, as measured by AHEI, and prevalence of anxiety and depression in a large sample of Iranian adults. Materials and Methods In this cross-sectional study, data on dietary intakes of 3363 adult participants were collected using a validated dish-based 106-item semi-quantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ. Adherence to healthy eating was quantified using AHEI as suggested by earlier publications. The Iranian validated version of Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS was used to assess anxiety and depression in study participants. Data on other covariates were gathered using a pre-tested questionnaire. Results Overall, the frequency of anxiety and depression was 15.2% and 30.0%, respectively. After taking potential confounders into account, participants with greater adherence to AHEI had 48% lower odds of depression compared with those in the bottom quartile (OR = 0.52; 95% CI: 0.39-0.70. Those in the highest quartile of AHEI had a 29% lower odds of anxiety, compared with those in the lowest quartile (OR=0.71; 95% CI: 0.54-0.94; however, adjustment for dietary intakes and body mass index attenuated the association (OR = 0.75, 95% CI: 0.52-1.09. Conclusion Adherence to healthy eating was inversely associated with a lower chance of depression in Iranian adults. Further studies, especially with prospective design, are required to confirm these associations in Middle-Eastern populations.

  2. Fearful face detection sensitivity in healthy adults correlates with anxiety-related traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doty, Tracy J; Japee, Shruti; Ingvar, Martin; Ungerleider, Leslie G

    2013-04-01

    Threatening faces have a privileged status in the brain, which can be reflected in a processing advantage. However, this effect varies among individuals, even healthy adults. For example, one recent study showed that fearful face detection sensitivity correlated with trait anxiety in healthy adults (S. Japee, L. Crocker, F. Carver, L. Pessoa, & L. G. Ungerleider, 2009. Individual differences in valence modulation of face-selective M170 response. Emotion, 9, 59-69). Here, we expanded on those findings by investigating whether intersubject variability in fearful face detection is also associated with state anxiety, as well as more broadly with other traits related to anxiety. To measure fearful face detection sensitivity, we used a masked face paradigm where the target face was presented for only 33 ms and was immediately followed by a neutral face mask. Subjects then rated their confidence in detecting either fear or no fear in the target face. Fearful face detection sensitivity was calculated for each subject using signal detection theory. Replicating previous results, we found a significant positive correlation between trait anxiety and fearful face detection sensitivity. However, this behavioral advantage did not correlate with state anxiety. We also found that fearful face detection sensitivity correlated with other personality measures, including neuroticism and harm avoidance. Our data suggest that fearful face detection sensitivity varies parametrically across the healthy population, is associated broadly with personality traits related to anxiety, but remains largely unaffected by situational fluctuations in anxiety. These results underscore the important contribution of anxiety-related personality traits to threat processing in healthy adults. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  3. Pharmacokinetics of Escalating Doses of Oral Psilocybin in Healthy Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Randall T; Nicholas, Christopher R; Cozzi, Nicholas V; Gassman, Michele C; Cooper, Karen M; Muller, Daniel; Thomas, Chantelle D; Hetzel, Scott J; Henriquez, Kelsey M; Ribaudo, Alexandra S; Hutson, Paul R

    2017-03-28

    Psilocybin is a psychedelic tryptamine that has shown promise in recent clinical trials for the treatment of depression and substance use disorders. This open-label study of the pharmacokinetics of psilocybin was performed to describe the pharmacokinetics and safety profile of psilocybin in sequential, escalating oral doses of 0.3, 0.45, and 0.6 mg/kg in 12 healthy adults. Eligible healthy adults received 6-8 h of preparatory counseling in anticipation of the first dose of psilocybin. The escalating oral psilocybin doses were administered at approximately monthly intervals in a controlled setting and subjects were monitored for 24 h. Blood and urine samples were collected over 24 h and assayed by a validated liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) assay for psilocybin and psilocin, the active metabolite. The pharmacokinetics of psilocin were determined using both compartmental (NONMEM) and noncompartmental (WinNonlin) methods. No psilocybin was found in plasma or urine, and renal clearance of intact psilocin accounted for less than 2% of the total clearance. The pharmacokinetics of psilocin were linear within the twofold range of doses, and the elimination half-life of psilocin was 3 h (standard deviation 1.1). An extended elimination phase in some subjects suggests hydrolysis of the psilocin glucuronide metabolite. Variation in psilocin clearance was not predicted by body weight, and no serious adverse events occurred in the subjects studied. The small amount of psilocin renally excreted suggests that no dose reduction is needed for subjects with mild-moderate renal impairment. Simulation of fixed doses using the pharmacokinetic parameters suggest that an oral dose of 25 mg should approximate the drug exposure of a 0.3 mg/kg oral dose of psilocybin. Although doses of 0.6 mg/kg are in excess of likely therapeutic doses, no serious physical or psychological events occurred during or within 30 days of any dose. NCT02163707.

  4. Reference intervals of echocardiographic measurements in healthy adult dairy goats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Szaluś-Jordanow

    Full Text Available To determine references intervals for echocardiographic measurements in adult dairy goats.125 clinically healthy, adult dairy goats aged 2-9 years, belonging to two breeds-Polish Fawn Improved (PFI, n = 64, weight range from 46 to 73, median of 58.5kg and Polish White Improved (PWI, n = 61, weight range from 48 to 80 kg, median of 67.9kg, closely related to French Alpine and Saanen, respectively.Non-invasive transthoracic echocardiography examination was performed in unsedated goats in a standing position. Two-dimensional, M-mode and pulsed wave Doppler measurements were obtained. A non-parametric method was applied for determination of reference intervals. Measurements for the two breeds were compared using an analysis of covariance to control for their body weight. Repeatability was assessed using a between-day coefficient of variation and a coefficient of repeatability.Following reference intervals were determined: aortic diameter in diastole 2.2-3.3, left atrial diameter in systole 2.5-4.3cm cm, the ratio of the left atrial diameter to the aortic diameter 0.96-1.5, right ventricular internal diameter in diastole 0.4-1.7cm, left ventricular internal diameter in systole and diastole 1.8-3.2 and 3.2-5.6 cm, respectively, inter-ventricular septum thickness in systole and diastole 0.7-1.5 and 0.5-1.1cm, respectively, left ventricular posterior-wall in systole and diastole 0.8-1.6 and 0.5-1.2cm, respectively, E-point to septal separation 0.3-0.8cm, left ventricular fractional shortening 28-54%, left ventricular ejection fraction 55-86%, maximum Left and Right Ventricular Outflow Tract velocity 80-140 cm/s and 70-130 cm/s, respectively Left and Right Ventricular Outflow Tract pressure gradient 2.5-8.9mmHg and 1.9-6.5mmHg, respectively. Most of the differences between the two breeds could be attributed to different body weight.The study provides echocardiographic reference intervals determined on the highest sample of apparently healthy goats so far

  5. Reference intervals of echocardiographic measurements in healthy adult dairy goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szaluś-Jordanow, Olga; Czopowicz, Michał; Witkowski, Lucjan; Mickiewicz, Marcin; Frymus, Tadeusz; Markowska-Daniel, Iwona; Bagnicka, Emilia; Kaba, Jarosław

    2017-01-01

    To determine references intervals for echocardiographic measurements in adult dairy goats. 125 clinically healthy, adult dairy goats aged 2-9 years, belonging to two breeds-Polish Fawn Improved (PFI, n = 64, weight range from 46 to 73, median of 58.5kg) and Polish White Improved (PWI, n = 61, weight range from 48 to 80 kg, median of 67.9kg), closely related to French Alpine and Saanen, respectively. Non-invasive transthoracic echocardiography examination was performed in unsedated goats in a standing position. Two-dimensional, M-mode and pulsed wave Doppler measurements were obtained. A non-parametric method was applied for determination of reference intervals. Measurements for the two breeds were compared using an analysis of covariance to control for their body weight. Repeatability was assessed using a between-day coefficient of variation and a coefficient of repeatability. Following reference intervals were determined: aortic diameter in diastole 2.2-3.3, left atrial diameter in systole 2.5-4.3cm cm, the ratio of the left atrial diameter to the aortic diameter 0.96-1.5, right ventricular internal diameter in diastole 0.4-1.7cm, left ventricular internal diameter in systole and diastole 1.8-3.2 and 3.2-5.6 cm, respectively, inter-ventricular septum thickness in systole and diastole 0.7-1.5 and 0.5-1.1cm, respectively, left ventricular posterior-wall in systole and diastole 0.8-1.6 and 0.5-1.2cm, respectively, E-point to septal separation 0.3-0.8cm, left ventricular fractional shortening 28-54%, left ventricular ejection fraction 55-86%, maximum Left and Right Ventricular Outflow Tract velocity 80-140 cm/s and 70-130 cm/s, respectively Left and Right Ventricular Outflow Tract pressure gradient 2.5-8.9mmHg and 1.9-6.5mmHg, respectively. Most of the differences between the two breeds could be attributed to different body weight. The study provides echocardiographic reference intervals determined on the highest sample of apparently healthy goats so far enrolled.

  6. Kidney dysfunction and cerebral microbleeds in neurologically healthy adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Hyuck Kim

    Full Text Available Cerebral microbleed (CMB is a potent risk factor for overt cerebrovascular disease. Although some studies indicated the possible role of renal dysfunction as a risk factor of CMB, the findings could not be generalized. This study aimed to investigate the association between renal dysfunction and cerebral microbleed (CMB in neurologically healthy adults.A total of 2,518 subjects who underwent brain MRI as part of health screening were involved in the study. CMBs were defined as well-demarcated focal areas of low signal intensity with associated blooming on the T2-weighted MRI measuring less than 5mm in diameter. The glomerular filtration rate (GFR was estimated using the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease formula. Kidney function was classified as normal (≥90, mild (60 to 89.9, moderate (30 to 59.9, and severe (<30 mL/min/1.73 m2 renal dysfunction according to the GFR.The mean age of the participants was 57.5 ± 8.3 years (ranged 40 to 79, and 1,367 subjects (54.3% were male. The mean GFR level was 81.5 ± 15.5, and the prevalence of CMB was 4.1% (n = 103. Subjects with CMB demonstrated a higher proportion of moderate-to-severe renal dysfunction than those without CMB (15.5% vs. 5.0%, p < 0.001. In the multivariate logistic regression analysis, moderate-to-severe renal dysfunction showed a significant association with CMB (adjusted odd ratio = 2.63; p = 0.008. Furthermore, a decrease in the GFR level was associated with an increasing trend of the presence of CMB (p for trend = 0.031 and number of CMB lesions (p for trend = 0.003.Renal dysfunction was significantly associated with the presence of CMB in neurologically healthy adults. More studies are needed to evaluate if treatment of kidney disease and risk factor modification may prevent further progress of CMB.

  7. Obesity can predict and promote systemic inflammation in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellulu, Mohammed S; Khaza'ai, Huzwah; Rahmat, Asmah; Patimah, Ismail; Abed, Yehia

    2016-07-15

    To find out the differences on biomedical data between obese and non-obese participants, and to identify risk factors associated with systemic inflammation in healthy Palestinian adults. A cross-sectional study involved 105 apparently healthy adults. Interview questionnaire was used to collect personal information. Participants were excluded if they suffered from acute or chronic inflammatory diseases, or continued using medicines, which might affect the biomedical results. In association with increased Body Mass Index (BMI), the obese group displayed significant higher markers including: interleukin 6 (IL-6), high sensitivity C reactive protein (hs-CRP), total cholesterol (TC), systolic blood pressure (SBP), and diastolic blood pressure (DBP). Obese group in association with increased waist circumference (WC) was higher significantly in inflammatory markers (IL-6, hs-CRP), lipid profile (TC) and triglyceride (TG), and blood pressure (SBP, DBP). A tertile of a feature of systemic inflammation (hs-CRP) was created, by Ordinal Logistic Regression, after adjusting for the age, gender, smoking habits, physical activity pattern, father and mother's health history; risk factors were the increased BMI [OR: 1.24] (95% CI: 1.005-1.548, P=0.050), IL-6 [OR: 3.35] (95% CI: 1.341-8.398, P=0.010), DBP [OR: 1.19] (95% CI: 1.034-1.367, P=0.015), and reduced Adiponectin [OR: 0.59] (95% CI: 0.435-0.820, P=0.001). Finally, BMI correlated with IL-6 and hs-CRP (r=0.326, P=0.005; r=0.347, P<0.001; respectively), and hs-CRP correlated with IL-6 (r=0.303, P=0.010), and inversely with Adiponectin (r=-0.342, P=0.001). The increased level of IL-6 and reduced Adiponectin, which strongly associated with obesity, indicated that having high BMI is a useful marker in association with IL-6 and further developed systemic inflammation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Bacterial populations in the vaginas of healthy adolescent women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Ted; Zhou, Xia; Williams, Chris J; Hochwalt, Anne; Forney, Larry J

    2009-02-01

    Given that the microbiota of the healthy vagina plays an important role in the maintenance of health, it follows that an understanding of its composition and development may offer insights into the etiology and prevention of disease. In contrast to previous studies, this study exclusively investigated the structure and composition of adolescent vaginal bacterial communities. In this report, the vaginal bacterial communities of 90 menarcheal adolescents, ages 13-18y, were characterized using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphisms (T-RFLP) of 16S rRNA genes. Further characterization involved cluster analysis of the T-RFLP data to identify the number of different kinds of microbial communities found among the adolescents sampled, and phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences cloned from samples representative of each cluster. We report the identification of four major clusters that accounted for 96.7% of the cohort. In general, these clusters could be divided into those dominated by Lactobacillus spp. and those dominated by a variety of lactic acid producing, anaerobic bacterial types such as Atopobium vaginae and Streptococcus spp. The compositional and structural similarity of the vaginal microbiota of menarcheal adolescents and adults suggests that the vaginal microbiota does not change significantly after the onset of menarche.

  9. Nutritional assessment of Esmeraldan adult population (Ecuador

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    Sonia MATEOS-MARCOS

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective To analyse the nutritional status of the adult population in Esmeraldas by means of anthropometric measurements, the input of macro and micronutrients in the diet, and the adequacy estimation of nutrient intake by hispanic Dietary Reference Instakes along with the sex and the age influence. Methods Nutrient intake data were obtained by personal interview with the application of two 24 hour recalls (weekend and weekday. The anthropometric indicators analysed were body mass index, waist circumference and blood pressure. Nutriplato version 2.0 software was used for the two 24-hours food recall surveys data processing, and for the respective calculations of macronutrients, micronutrients and Dietary Reference Intakes. Means and standard deviations were calculated for anthropometry, nutrient intakes and Dietary Reference Instakes. The General Linear Model was applied to identify differences in relation to nutrient intakes considering sex, profession, body mass index, group, origin and day of the week as factors. Results Statistical analysis showed significant differences mainly in carbohydrates, fiber, calcium, phosphorus, iron, sodium, iodine, and vitamin E. Dietary intakes were compared with the Federación Española de Sociedades de Nutrición, Alimentación y Dietética Dietary Reference Intakes requirements and calcium, potassium, iodine, riboflavin, pantothenic acid, biotin, vitamin D, vitamin E, fiber, monounsaturated fatty acids and polyunsaturated fatty acids are below the Dietary Reference Instakes in all ages and gender subgroups. The anthropometric results obtained indicated that 67.0% of the population were overweight and obese, the 87.7% of the adults suffered from prehypertension and the waist circumference indicated that 73.0% of the subjects were established in the range of high risk of cardiovascular disease. Conclusion Priority nutrition actions and interventions are needed to be developed in Esmeraldas adult

  10. Application of metabolomics: Focus on the quantification of organic acids in healthy adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsoukalas, Dimitris; Alegakis, Athanasios; Fragkiadaki, Persefoni; Papakonstantinou, Evangelos; Nikitovic, Dragana; Karataraki, Aikaterini; Nosyrev, Alexander E.; Papadakis, Emmanouel G.; Spandidos, Demetrios A.; Drakoulis, Nikolaos; Tsatsakis, Aristides M.

    2017-01-01

    Metabolomics, a 'budding' discipline, may accurately reflect a specific phenotype which is sensitive to genetic and epigenetic interactions. This rapidly evolving field in science has been proposed as a tool for the evaluation of the effects of epigenetic factors, such as nutrition, environment, drug and lifestyle on phenotype. Urine, being sterile, is easy to obtain and as it contains metabolized or non-metabolized products, is a favored study material in the field of metabolomics. Urine organic acids (OAs) reflect the activity of main metabolic pathways and have been used to assess health status, nutritional status, vitamin deficiencies and response to xenobiotics. To date, a limited number of studies have been performed which actually define reference OA values in a healthy population and as reference range for epigenetic influences, and not as a reference to congenital metabolic diseases. The aim of the present study was thus the determination of reference values (RVs) for urine OA in a healthy adult population. Targeted metabolomics analysis of 22 OAs in the urine of 122 healthy adults by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, was conducted. Percentile distributions of the OA concentrations in urine, as a base for determining the RVs in the respective population sample, were used. No significant differences were detected between female and male individuals. These findings can facilitate the more sensitive determination of OAs in pathological conditions. Therefore, the findings of this study may contribute or add to the information already available on urine metabolite databases, and may thus promote the use of targeted metabolomics for the evaluation of OAs in a clinical setting and for pathophysiological evaluation. However, further studies with well-defined patients groups exhibiting specific symptoms or diseases are warranted in order to discern between normal and pathological values. PMID:28498405

  11. Coeliac disease: clinical features in adult populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, A; González, L; de-la-Fuente, J

    2010-07-01

    coeliac disease (CD) is a chronic disease of the small intestine, which is caused by gluten intolerance, producing malabsorption of nutrients and vitamins. Clinical manifestations of CD in adults are highly variable, including intestinal and extra-intestinal symptoms. The disease may also occur in individuals who are asymptomatic. our objective is to describe the incidence and clinical manifestations of CD in adults. a retrospective study was carried out in patients diagnosed of CD between January 1990 and December 2008. Diagnosis was based on serologic tests and duodenal biopsy, which were compatible with CD in all of them. sixty eight adult patients were diagnosed of CD in this period. Mean age was 33 (18-65) years and 50 (74%) were women. The clinical manifestations were diarrhoea in 38 (55%), abdominal pain in 27 (40%), loss of weight in 15 (22%), dyspepsia in 13 (19%). Analytical results showed a slight increase of transaminases in 26 (38%), ferropenic anaemia in 33 (48.5%) cases, sub-clinical hypothyroidism in 3 (4.5%) patients, and folic acid deficiency in 16 (23.5%) cases. Almost all patients were diagnosed between 2000 and 2008: 60 (87%). Population-based incidence of CD in adults had increased from 0.7-2/100,000 per year in the nineties to 3.5-10.3/100,000 in the last years. CD can appear at any age and with a wide manifestation spectrum, which can be atypical in some cases. Patients with ferropenic anaemia and a negative response to treatment or those with an unexplained increase in transaminases should be screening for CD. Atypical manifestations and low suspect index can delay diagnosis even during years. There is a marked increase in the incidence-rates of CD in adults over time.

  12. Prevalence and distribution of fasciculations in healthy adults: Effect of age, caffeine consumption and exercise.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fermont, J.; Arts, I.M.P.; Overeem, S.; Kleine, B.U.; Schelhaas, H.J.; Zwarts, M.J.

    2010-01-01

    Our objective was to determine the prevalence and distribution of fasciculations in healthy adults and to assess the effect of age, caffeine and exercise. Fasciculations were studied with ultrasonography in 58 healthy adults in various age categories. Questionnaires were used to determine effect of

  13. Blood pressure and pulse rate of apparently healthy adults on land ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The study compared cardiovascular parameters of apparently healthy adults in erect standing posture on land and whilst immersed in water at rest. Methods: One hundred and ninety-three apparently healthy adults were purposively recruited to participate in the study. An electronic blood pressure monitor was ...

  14. Voice Loudness and Gender Effects on Jitter and Shimmer in Healthy Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockmann, Meike; Storck, Claudio; Carding, Paul N.; Drinnan, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate voice loudness and gender effects on jitter and shimmer in healthy young adults because previous descriptions have been inconsistent. Method: Fifty-seven healthy adults (28 women, 29 men) aged 20-40 years were included in this cross-sectional single-cohort study. Three phonations of /a/ at soft,…

  15. Biomechanical Properties of the Cornea Measured With the Dynamic Scheimpflug Analyzer in Young Healthy Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hun; Kang, David Sung Yong; Ha, Byoung Jin; Choi, Jin Young; Kim, Eung Kweon; Seo, Kyoung Yul; Kim, Ha Yan; Kim, Tae-Im

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the biomechanical properties of the cornea using the dynamic Scheimpflug analyzer in young healthy adults. This prospective cross-sectional population study included 944 eyes of 472 participants aged 20 to 40 years. Participants underwent ophthalmic investigations, including evaluation of biomechanical properties of the cornea using the dynamic Scheimpflug analyzer, manifest refraction, and measurements of keratometric values by autokeratometry, intraocular pressure (IOP) by noncontact tonometer, central corneal thickness (CCT) by ultrasound, and white-to-white distance by Scheimpflug tomography. Statistical analyses included determination of the reference interval with a bootstrapping method, linear quantile mixed-effects model, and Spearman correlation analysis between the corneal biomechanical parameters and other variables (age, manifest refraction spherical equivalent, CCT, IOP, white-to-white, and keratometric values). The 90% CIs of all corneal biomechanical parameters demonstrated that the ranges of the 90% CIs for the reference data were almost identical with and without bootstrapping. Quantile regression to determine the fifth, 50th, and 95th percentiles of each corneal biomechanical parameter supported the findings from the nonparametric method with the 90% CIs. Correlation analysis showed significant correlations between the parameters and variables, but there was a relatively high Spearman correlation coefficient in the case of the correlations with the CCT and IOP. Using data from a large population of young healthy adults, we developed a database of normal values for multiple corneal biomechanical parameters obtained from the dynamic Scheimpflug analyzer. We conclude that the biomechanical properties of the cornea are influenced by the CCT and IOP.

  16. Bikram yoga training and physical fitness in healthy young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracy, Brian L; Hart, Cady E F

    2013-03-01

    There has been relatively little longitudinal controlled investigation of the effects of yoga on general physical fitness, despite the widespread participation in this form of exercise. The purpose of this exploratory study was to examine the effect of short-term Bikram yoga training on general physical fitness. Young healthy adults were randomized to yoga training (N = 10, 29 ± 6 years, 24 sessions in 8 weeks) or a control group (N = 11, 26 ± 7 years). Each yoga training session consisted of 90-minute standardized supervised postures performed in a heated and humidified studio. Isometric deadlift strength, handgrip strength, lower back/hamstring and shoulder flexibility, resting heart rate and blood pressure, maximal oxygen consumption (treadmill), and lean and fat mass (dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry) were measured before and after training. Yoga subjects exhibited increased deadlift strength, substantially increased lower back/hamstring flexibility, increased shoulder flexibility, and modestly decreased body fat compared with control group. There were no changes in handgrip strength, cardiovascular measures, or maximal aerobic fitness. In summary, this short-term yoga training protocol produced beneficial changes in musculoskeletal fitness that were specific to the training stimulus.

  17. Neural Correlates of Animacy Attribution Include Neocerebellum in Healthy Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack, Allison; Pelphrey, Kevin A.

    2015-01-01

    Recent work suggests that biological motion perception is supported by interactions between posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) and regions of the posterior lobe of the cerebellum. However, insufficient attention has been given to cerebellar contributions to most other social cognitive functions, including ones that rely upon the use of biological motion cues for making mental inferences. Here, using adapted Heider and Simmel stimuli in a passive-viewing paradigm, we present functional magnetic resonance imaging evidence detailing cerebellar contributions to animacy attribution processes in healthy adults. We found robust cerebellar activity associated with viewing animate versus random movement in hemispheric lobule VII bilaterally as well as in vermal and paravermal lobule IX. Stronger activity in left Crus I and lobule VI was associated with a greater tendency to describe the stimuli in social-affective versus motion-related terms. Psychophysiological interaction analysis indicated preferential effective connectivity between right pSTS and left Crus II during the viewing of animate than random stimuli, controlling for individual variance in social attributions. These findings indicate that lobules VI, VII, and IX participate in social functions even when no active response is required. This cerebellar activity may also partially explain individual differences in animacy attribution. PMID:24981794

  18. Dobutamine stress echocardiography in healthy adult male rats

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    Couet Jacques

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dobutamine stress echocardiography is used to investigate a wide variety of heart diseases in humans. Dobutamine stress echocardiography has also been used in animal models of heart disease despite the facts that the normal response of healthy rat hearts to this type of pharmacological stress testing is unknown. This study was performed to assess this normal response. Methods 15 normal adult male Wistar rats were evaluated. Increasing doses of dobutamine were infused intravenously under continuous imaging of the heart by a 12 MHz ultrasound probe. Results Dobutamine stress echocardiography reduced gradually LV diastolic and systolic dimensions. Ejection fraction increased by a mean of +24% vs. baseline. Heart rate increased progressively without reaching a plateau. Changes in LV dimensions and ejection fraction reached a plateau after a mean of 4 minutes at a constant infusion rate. Conclusion DSE can be easily performed in rats. The normal response is an increase in heart rate and ejection fraction and a decrease in LV dimensions. A plateau in echocardiographic measurements is obtained after 4 minutes of a constant infusion rate in most animals.

  19. Limited Effects of Set Shifting Training in Healthy Older Adults

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    Petra Grönholm-Nyman

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Our ability to flexibly shift between tasks or task sets declines in older age. As this decline may have adverse effects on everyday life of elderly people, it is of interest to study whether set shifting ability can be trained, and if training effects generalize to other cognitive tasks. Here, we report a randomized controlled trial where healthy older adults trained set shifting with three different set shifting tasks. The training group (n = 17 performed adaptive set shifting training for 5 weeks with three training sessions a week (45 min/session, while the active control group (n = 16 played three different computer games for the same period. Both groups underwent extensive pre- and post-testing and a 1-year follow-up. Compared to the controls, the training group showed significant improvements on the trained tasks. Evidence for near transfer in the training group was very limited, as it was seen only on overall accuracy on an untrained computerized set shifting task. No far transfer to other cognitive functions was observed. One year later, the training group was still better on the trained tasks but the single near transfer effect had vanished. The results suggest that computerized set shifting training in the elderly shows long-lasting effects on the trained tasks but very little benefit in terms of generalization.

  20. Alexithymic trait and voluntary control in healthy adults.

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    Xiaosi Gu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Alexithymia is a personality trait characterized by deficiency in understanding, processing, or describing emotions. Recent studies have revealed that alexithymia is associated with less activation of the anterior cingulate cortex, a brain region shown to play a role in cognitive and emotional processing. However, few studies have directly investigated the cognitive domain in relation to alexithymia to examine whether alexithymic trait is related to less efficient voluntary control. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We examined the relationship between alexithymic trait and voluntary control in a group of healthy volunteers. We used the 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20 to measure alexithymic trait. Additionally, we examined state and trait voluntary control using the revised Attention Network Test (ANT-R and the Adult Temperament Questionnaire (ATQ, respectively. Alexithymic trait was positively correlated with the overall reaction time of the ANT-R, and negatively correlated with the Effortful Control factor of the ATQ. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results suggest that alexithymic trait is associated with less efficient voluntary control.

  1. Chronic Low Quality Sleep Impairs Postural Control in Healthy Adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabianne Furtado

    Full Text Available The lack of sleep, both in quality and quantity, is an increasing problem in modern society, often related to workload and stress. A number of studies have addressed the effects of acute (total sleep deprivation on postural control. However, up to date, the effects of chronic sleep deficits, either in quantity or quality, have not been analyzed. Thirty healthy adults participated in the study that consisted of registering activity with a wrist actigraph for more than a week before performing a series of postural control tests. Sleep and circadian rhythm variables were correlated and the sum of activity of the least active 5-h period, L5, a rhythm variable, obtained the greater coefficient value with sleep quality variables (wake after sleep onset WASO and efficiency sleep. Cluster analysis was performed to classify subjects into two groups based on L5 (low and high. The balance tests scores used to asses postural control were measured using Biodex Balance System and were compared between the two groups with different sleep quality. The postural tests were divided into dynamic (platform tilt with eyes open, closed and cursor and static (clinical test of sensory integration. The results showed that during the tests with eyes closed, the group with worse sleep quality had also worse postural control performance. Lack of vision impairs postural balance more deeply in subjects with chronic sleep inefficiency. Chronic poor sleep quality impairs postural control similarly to total sleep deprivation.

  2. Chronic Low Quality Sleep Impairs Postural Control in Healthy Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furtado, Fabianne; Gonçalves, Bruno da Silva B; Abranches, Isabela Lopes Laguardia; Abrantes, Ana Flávia; Forner-Cordero, Arturo

    2016-01-01

    The lack of sleep, both in quality and quantity, is an increasing problem in modern society, often related to workload and stress. A number of studies have addressed the effects of acute (total) sleep deprivation on postural control. However, up to date, the effects of chronic sleep deficits, either in quantity or quality, have not been analyzed. Thirty healthy adults participated in the study that consisted of registering activity with a wrist actigraph for more than a week before performing a series of postural control tests. Sleep and circadian rhythm variables were correlated and the sum of activity of the least active 5-h period, L5, a rhythm variable, obtained the greater coefficient value with sleep quality variables (wake after sleep onset WASO and efficiency sleep). Cluster analysis was performed to classify subjects into two groups based on L5 (low and high). The balance tests scores used to asses postural control were measured using Biodex Balance System and were compared between the two groups with different sleep quality. The postural tests were divided into dynamic (platform tilt with eyes open, closed and cursor) and static (clinical test of sensory integration). The results showed that during the tests with eyes closed, the group with worse sleep quality had also worse postural control performance. Lack of vision impairs postural balance more deeply in subjects with chronic sleep inefficiency. Chronic poor sleep quality impairs postural control similarly to total sleep deprivation.

  3. Heart rate, heart rate variability and inflammatory biomarkers among young and healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aeschbacher, Stefanie; Schoen, Tobias; Dörig, Laura; Kreuzmann, Rahel; Neuhauser, Charlotte; Schmidt-Trucksäss, Arno; Probst-Hensch, Nicole M; Risch, Martin; Risch, Lorenz; Conen, David

    2017-02-01

    Heart rate (HR), heart rate variability (HRV), and inflammation are all associated with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to assess potential interrelationships between these parameters in a young and healthy population. Healthy individuals aged 25-41 years were included in a prospective population-based study. All participants underwent 24-h electrocardiography using a validated device. The standard deviation of all normal RR intervals (SDNN) was pre-defined as the main HRV outcome variable. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), total leukocyte (LC) count and LC subtypes were obtained from venous blood samples. A total of 2064 participants (47% men, 37 years) were included in this analysis. In multivariable linear regression analyses using SDNN as the outcome variable, β-coefficients (95% confidence intervals) per 1 standard deviation (SD) increase on the log-scale were -0.11 (-0.16; -0.07), p healthy adults, inflammatory parameters were strongly associated with increased HR and decreased HRV, suggesting an important interaction between inflammatory pathways and the autonomic nervous system. Key message Inflammatory biomarkers, such as high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and leukocyte cell count with its subtypes were inversely associated with HRV and positively associated with HR. Our findings suggest important interrelationships between inflammatory pathways and the ANS.

  4. Indoor molds and lung function in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernberg, Samu; Sripaiboonkij, Penpatra; Quansah, Reginald; Jaakkola, Jouni J K; Jaakkola, Maritta S

    2014-05-01

    Indoor mold exposure is common worldwide and constitutes an important health problem. There are very few studies assessing the relation between mold exposure and lung function levels among non-asthmatic adults. Our objective was to assess the relations between dampness and mold exposures at home and at work and lung function. In particular, we elaborated the importance of different exposure indicators. In a population-based study, 269 non-asthmatic adults from South Finland answered a questionnaire on indoor dampness and mold exposures at home or at work and other factors potentially influencing lung function, and performed spirometry. Multiple linear regression model was applied to study the relations between exposures and spirometric lung function levels. In linear regression adjusting for confounding, FEV1 level was reduced on average 200 ml related to mold odor at home (effect estimate -0.20, 95% CI -0.60 to 0.21) and FVC level was reduced on average 460 ml (-0.46, -0.95 to 0.03) respectively. Exposure to mold odor at home or at work or both was related to reduced FEV1 (-0.15, -0.42 to 0.12) and FVC (-0.22, -0.55 to 0.11) levels. Women had on average 510 ml reduced FEV1 levels (-0.51, -1.0 to 0.03) and 820 ml reduced FVC levels (-0.82, -1.4 to -0.20) related to mold odor exposure at home. Mold odor exposure was related to lower lung function levels among non-asthmatic adults, especially among women. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Heritability of pulmonary function estimated from genome-wide SNPs in healthy Japanese adults.

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    Yamada, Hideyasu; Yatagai, Yohei; Masuko, Hironori; Sakamoto, Tohru; Iijima, Hiroaki; Naito, Takashi; Noguchi, Emiko; Hirota, Tomomitsu; Tamari, Mayumi; Hizawa, Nobuyuki

    2015-03-01

    Pulmonary function is a heritable trait, and recent genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have identified a number of loci influencing the trait. Genome-wide Complex Trait Analysis (GCTA) is a novel method provided by a software package that estimates the total additive genetic influence caused by common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on whole-genome arrays. We conducted a GWAS and assessed the heritability of pulmonary function in an adult Japanese population using this approach. We initially conducted a GWAS on %forced vital capacity (FVC), %forced expiratory volume (FEV1) and FEV1/FVC in healthy Japanese adults (N=967). We then examined the heritability of these traits using GCTA with a total of 480,026 SNPs. We also estimated the genetic impact of the 24 genes identified as susceptibility genes to FEV1/FVC in six previous GWASs on the heritability of FEV1/FVC in the Japanese population. The heritabilities for %FVC, %FEV1, and FEV1/FVC were 71.2%, 51.9% and 41.6%, respectively. These results corresponded to previous heritability estimates for pulmonary function obtained by GCTA or by twin studies. The 24 previously reported pulmonary function genes accounted for 4.3-12.0% of the entire estimated heritability of FEV1/FVC. This study demonstrated that the heritability of pulmonary function traits can be explained by the additive effects of multiple common SNPs in healthy Japanese adults. The pulmonary function genes reported in previous GWASs of non-Japanese populations showed a definite impact of the genes on FEV1/FVC, thus indicating the presence of common pathways related to this trait beyond ethnicity. Copyright © 2014 The Japanese Respiratory Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Association between healthy diet and exercise and greater muscle mass in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinhee; Lee, Yunhwan; Kye, Seunghee; Chung, Yoon-Sok; Kim, Kwang-Min

    2015-05-01

    To examine the association between healthy diet and exercise, individually and combined, and low muscle mass in older Korean adults. Population-based cross-sectional study from the Fourth and Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys from 2008 to 2011. Community. Nationally representative sample aged 65 and older (1,486 men, 1,799 women) in the Republic of Korea. A food frequency questionnaire was used to determine frequency of food group consumption (meat, fish, eggs, legumes; vegetables; fruits). Participation in exercise (aerobic and resistance) was based on self-report. Combined healthy lifestyle factors were calculated as the number of recommendations met regarding consumption of food groups and exercise performed. Appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM) was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and low muscle mass was defined using the variable of ASM adjusted for weight. Logistic regression analysis was performed to examine the association between healthy lifestyle factors and low muscle mass, adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics and health-related variables. In women, after controlling for covariates, vegetable consumption (odds ratio (OR)=0.52, 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.30-0.89) and aerobic exercise (OR=0.62, 95% CI=0.39-1.00) were inversely associated with low muscle mass. Also, the odds of low muscle mass was lower in women with three or more healthy lifestyle factors versus none (OR=0.45, 95% CI=0.23-0.87). In men, there were no associations between food group consumption and exercise and low muscle mass. Older women who exercise and consume a healthy diet have lower odds of low muscle mass. Engaging in multiple healthy behaviors may be important in preventing low muscle mass in late life. © 2015, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2015, The American Geriatrics Society.

  7. Effects of motor and cognitive dual-task performance in depressive elderly, healthy older adults, and healthy young individuals

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    Helena Moraes

    Full Text Available Abstract Impairments in dual-task performance can be observed in healthy older adults when motor and cognitive assignments are applied simultaneously. According to the hypofrontality hypothesis, there may be a reduction in frontal cognitive function during exercise. Objective: The aim of the present study was to compare the performance changes on cognitive tests of depressive elderly (n=10, healthy older adults (n=10, and healthy young individuals (n=10 during cycle ergometer exercise. Methods: The groups were submitted to a working memory test, a short memory test and a semantic memory test, before and during a 20-minute cycle ergometer exercise at 80% of their age-predicted maximal heart rate. Results: Significant differences (p=0.04 were observed in scores on the digit backward test during exercise when young individuals were compared to healthy older adults. This result indicates that young subjects, as expected, had better performance than elderly. No significant differences were found among the groups for the digit forward subtest (p=0.40 or the vocabulary test (p=0.69. Conclusion: Data from this study showed that healthy older adults had impaired performance on higher cognitive tasks when these assignments were applied together with motor tasks.

  8. Singapore Healthy Older People Everyday (HOPE) Study: Prevalence of Frailty and Associated Factors in Older Adults.

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    Merchant, Reshma A; Chen, Matthew Zhixuan; Tan, Linda Wei Lin; Lim, Moses YiDong; Ho, Han Kwee; van Dam, Rob M

    2017-08-01

    In the context of a rapidly ageing population, Singapore is anticipating a rise in multimorbidity, disability, and dependency, which are driven by physical frailty. Healthy Older People Everyday (HOPE) is an epidemiologic population-based study on community-dwelling older adults aged 65 years and older in Singapore. To investigate the prevalence of frail and prefrail states and their association with polypharmacy, multimorbidity, cognitive and functional status, and perceived health status among community-dwelling older adults in Singapore. Participants for HOPE were older adults aged 65 years and older recruited from a cohort study on the northwest region of Singapore. Analysis was performed on data collected from a combination of interviewer-administered questionnaires (including FRAIL scale, EQ-5D, Mini Mental State Examination, Barthel index, and Lawton IADL scale), clinical assessments, and physical measurements (including hand grip strength and Timed-Up-and-Go [TUG] test). A total of 1051 older adults (mean age 71.2 years) completed the study. More than half (57.2%) were female. The prevalence of frailty and prefrailty was 6.2% and 37%, respectively. Frailty was associated with older age, female gender, Indian (instead of Chinese) ethnicity, multimorbidity, polypharmacy, cognitive and functional impairment, weaker hand grip strength, longer TUG times, and poor perceived health status. Those with underlying cognitive impairment and frailty were at greater risk of adverse health outcome. Frailty is a complex health state with multiple domains and dimensions. In our study in a multiethnic Asian population, we identified nonmodifiable factors and modifiable risk factors (multimorbidity, polypharmacy, cognitive and functional impairment) that were associated with frailty. Interventions will have to be multipronged and will require a collaborated effort in order to effect change and improve the health span in rapidly ageing populations. Copyright © 2017 AMDA

  9. GENETIC POLIMORPHISMS OF ENZYMES INVOLVED IN FOLATE METABOLISM IN HEALTHY SLOVENIAN POPULATION

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    Petra Bohanec

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Background. Enzymes that play a major role in folate metabolism are 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR, thymidilate synthase (TS, methionine synthase (MS and methionine synthase reductase (MTRR. Polymorphisms in their corresponding genes alter their enzymatic activity. The aim of this study was to determine the frequencies of polymorphic MTHFR and TS genotypes in healthy adults from Slovenian population in order to estimate the proportion of individuals that may be at risk for certain diseases or increased toxicity if treated with antifolate drugs.Methods. MTHFR and TS polymorphisms were studied by a genotyping technique, based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR followed by restriction enzyme analysis. DNA samples from 122 unrelated adult healthy subjects were obtained from the Tissue Typing Center and University Children’s Hospital in Ljubljana.Results. In the analyzed group 62.3% of individuals carried at least one polymorphic MTHFR 677T allele and 52.5% carried at least one polymorphic 1298C allele. Only 12% of individuals had no polymorphic MTHFR allele. The frequencies of MTHFR genotypes were influenced by the age of the subjects under investigation. The frequency of the TS 3R/3R genotype in Slovenian population was significantly lower than in some other populations.Conclusions. Genetic polymorphisms in folate metabolic pathway occur with high frequency in Slovenian population and modify cancer risk. Regarding the influence of these polymorphisms on the efficacy of treatment with antifolate drugs the introduced genotyping method could contribute to the individualization of treatment with methotrexate and 5-fluorouracil.

  10. Smoking cession decreases mean platelet volume in healthy Korean populations.

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    Cho, S Y; You, E; Lee, H J; Lee, W I; Park, T S

    2014-01-01

    Smoking is considered as a major modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. It has been shown that smoking cessation drops the risk of cardiovascular diseases such as myocardial infarction and also improves platelet function. Because mean platelet volume (MPV) is a simple and convenient indicator for platelet activation, we planned to investigate the effect of smoking status on MPV in healthy populations. This study was conducted on 398 individuals who visited our hospital for regular medical check-ups and were confirmed not to have diabetes or hypertension. MPV was measured using EDTA blood on an Advia 2120 (Siemens Healthcare Diagnostics Inc., Tarrytown, NY, USA) within 2 hours. Present smokers showed higher MPV levels than present non-smokers. When MPV was compared by taking previous smoking history and present smoking status into account, the smoking cessation group showed significantly lower MPV levels than other groups. Because this finding was significant only in the female group, the change in MPV according to smoking status was found to be different by gender. We carefully suggest that smoking cessation can lower the risk of cardiovascular diseases through the change in MPV, which can be more effective for women than men.

  11. Incidental pancreatic cystic neoplasms in an asymptomatic healthy population of 21,745 individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ye Rim; Park, Joo Kyung; Jang, Jin-Young; Kwon, Wooil; Yoon, Jeong Hee; Kim, Sun-Whe

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Although incidental pancreatic cystic neoplasms are being diagnosed with increasing frequency, little is known about the accurate prevalence of pancreatic cysts in the general population. The aims of this study were to evaluate the crude prevalence rate of pancreatic cystic neoplasms in asymptomatic healthy adults, and calculate the age- and sex-adjusted nationwide prevalence rate. A total of 21,745 asymptomatic individuals who underwent abdominal computed tomography (CT) as a health screening examination were enrolled between 2003 and 2013 at the Seoul National University Hospital Healthcare System Gangnam Center. Nationwide population data of 2010 were collected from the National Statistical Office, Korea. Incidental pancreatic cystic neoplasms were found in 457 individuals whose mean age was 58.7 years. The types of neoplasms were reviewed by 2 separate designated radiologists and the final diagnosis was made as follows: intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm: 376 (82%), serous cystic neoplasm: 19 (4%), mucinous cystic neoplasm: 7 (2%), and indeterminate cysts: 55 (12%). Eight cases underwent operation. The crude prevalence rate was 2.1% and the age- and sex-adjusted expected nationwide prevalence was 2.2%. The prevalence increased with age. Here, we reported the first large-scale study among the healthy population to find out the prevalence rate of pancreatic cystic neoplasms; the age- and sex-adjusted prevalence was 2.2%, and increased with age. Further investigations regarding the clinical implications of incidental pancreatic neoplasms are necessary. PMID:28002329

  12. Combined Healthy Lifestyle Is Inversely Associated with Psychological Disorders among Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saneei, Parvane; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad; Keshteli, Ammar Hassanzadeh; Reza Roohafza, Hamid; Afshar, Hamid; Feizi, Awat; Adibi, Peyman

    2016-01-01

    Joint association of lifestyle-related factors and mental health has been less studied in earlier studies, especially in Middle Eastern countries. This study aimed to examine how combinations of several lifestyle-related factors related to depression and anxiety in a large group of middle-age Iranian population. In a cross-sectional study on 3363 Iranian adults, a healthy lifestyle score was constructed by the use of data from dietary intakes, physical activity, smoking status, psychological distress and obesity. A dish-based 106-item semi-quantitative validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), General Practice Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPPAQ), General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) and other pre-tested questionnaires were used to assess the components of healthy lifestyle score. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) was applied to screen for anxiety and depression. After adjustment for potential confounders, we found that individuals with the highest score of healthy lifestyle were 95% less likely to be anxious (OR: 0.05; 95% CI: 0.01-0.27) and 96% less likely to be depressed (OR: 0.04; 95% CI: 0.01-0.15), compared with those with the lowest score. In addition, non-smokers had lower odds of anxiety (OR: 0.64; 95% CI: 0.47-0.88) and depression (OR: 0.62; 95% CI: 0.48-0.81) compared with smokers. Individuals with low levels of psychological distress had expectedly lower odds of anxiety (OR: 0.13; 95% CI: 0.10-0.16) and depression (OR: 0.10; 95% CI: 0.08-0.12) than those with high levels. Individuals with a healthy diet had 29% lower odds of depression (OR: 0.71; 95% CI: 0.59-0.87) than those with a non-healthy diet. We found evidence indicating that healthy lifestyle score was associated with lower odds of anxiety and depression in this group of Iranian adults. Healthy diet, psychological distress, and smoking status were independent predictors of mental disorders.

  13. Combined Healthy Lifestyle Is Inversely Associated with Psychological Disorders among Adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvane Saneei

    Full Text Available Joint association of lifestyle-related factors and mental health has been less studied in earlier studies, especially in Middle Eastern countries. This study aimed to examine how combinations of several lifestyle-related factors related to depression and anxiety in a large group of middle-age Iranian population.In a cross-sectional study on 3363 Iranian adults, a healthy lifestyle score was constructed by the use of data from dietary intakes, physical activity, smoking status, psychological distress and obesity. A dish-based 106-item semi-quantitative validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ, General Practice Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPPAQ, General Health Questionnaire (GHQ and other pre-tested questionnaires were used to assess the components of healthy lifestyle score. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS was applied to screen for anxiety and depression.After adjustment for potential confounders, we found that individuals with the highest score of healthy lifestyle were 95% less likely to be anxious (OR: 0.05; 95% CI: 0.01-0.27 and 96% less likely to be depressed (OR: 0.04; 95% CI: 0.01-0.15, compared with those with the lowest score. In addition, non-smokers had lower odds of anxiety (OR: 0.64; 95% CI: 0.47-0.88 and depression (OR: 0.62; 95% CI: 0.48-0.81 compared with smokers. Individuals with low levels of psychological distress had expectedly lower odds of anxiety (OR: 0.13; 95% CI: 0.10-0.16 and depression (OR: 0.10; 95% CI: 0.08-0.12 than those with high levels. Individuals with a healthy diet had 29% lower odds of depression (OR: 0.71; 95% CI: 0.59-0.87 than those with a non-healthy diet.We found evidence indicating that healthy lifestyle score was associated with lower odds of anxiety and depression in this group of Iranian adults. Healthy diet, psychological distress, and smoking status were independent predictors of mental disorders.

  14. Electromyography and Mechanomyography Signals During Swallowing in Healthy Adults and Head and Neck Cancer Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantinescu, Gabriela; Hodgetts, William; Scott, Dylan; Kuffel, Kristina; King, Ben; Brodt, Chris; Rieger, Jana

    2017-02-01

    Surface electromyography (sEMG) is used as an adjuvant to dysphagia therapy to demonstrate the activity of submental muscles during swallowing exercises. Mechanomyography (MMG) has been suggested as a potential superior alternative to sEMG; however, this advantage is not confirmed for signal acquired from submental muscles. This study compared the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) obtained from sEMG and MMG sensors during swallowing tasks, in healthy participants and those with a history of head and neck cancer (HNC), a population with altered anatomy and a high incidence of dysphagia. Twenty-two healthy adults and 10 adults with a history of HNC participated in this study. sEMG and MMG signals were acquired during dry, thin liquid, effortful, and Mendelsohn maneuver swallows. SNR was compared between the two sensors using repeated measures ANOVAs and subsequent planned pairwise comparisons. Test-retest measures were collected on 20 % of participants. In healthy participants, MMG SNR was higher than that of sEMG for dry [t(21) = -3.02, p = 0.007] and thin liquid swallows [t(21) = -4.24, p < 0.001]. Although a significant difference for sensor was found in HNC participants F(1,9) = 5.54, p = 0.043, planned pairwise comparisons by task revealed no statistically significant difference between the two sensors. sEMG also showed much better test-retest reliability than MMG. Biofeedback provided as an adjuvant to dysphagia therapy in patients with HNC should employ sEMG technology, as this sensor type yielded better SNR and overall test-retest reliability. Poor MMG test-retest reliability was noted in both healthy and HNC participants and may have been related to differences in sensor application.

  15. Normative Values of Voice Analysis Parameters With Respect to Menstrual Cycle in Healthy Adult Turkish Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatar, Emel C; Sahin, Mustafa; Demiral, Dilek; Bayir, Omer; Saylam, Guleser; Ozdek, Ali; Korkmaz, Mehmet Hakan

    2016-05-01

    Objective measurements are quite important for assessment of voice disorders. The first aim of this study was to establish a prototype database of normative values of voice analysis parameters in healthy Turkish adult female population. The second aim was to evaluate the variations of these parameters during physiological menstrual cycle. This is a prospective, single-blind study. Eighty-nine healthy women (mean age, 31.5 ± 6.0 years) with normal physical findings and without vocal abuse or dysphonia were participated. Detailed physical and videostroboscopic larynx examination was done. Participants' voice samples of sustained /a/ and /i/ vowels were recorded, and voice analysis was done. GRBAS scale was done by four otolaryngologists, and subjects were asked to score their own voice quality using Voice Handicap Index-10 (VHI-10) at the premenstruation, during menstruation, and postmenstruation periods. Eighty-nine healthy Turkish women's some normative acoustic vocal parameters of three different phases of menstrual cycle were reported. The data indicated that during the premenstruation period; the mean jitter %, shimmer % and noise-to-harmonic ratio values were significantly higher than that of other two periods. Variations of computerized acoustic vocal analysis parameters through menstruation cycle were in concordance with the perceptual voice assessment (GRBAS) and the questionnaire of subjects' perception of their own voices (VHI-10). In this study the normative values of voice analysis parameters of healthy adult Turkish women was reported. Adding computerized voice analysis parameters may improve the assessment and screening of voice in routine clinical practice because this is a simple and reliable method. Evaluation of voice can be performed regardless of the phases of menstrual cycle, but not performing acoustic analysis during the premenstrual period may prevent some of the unintended errors. Copyright © 2016 The Voice Foundation. Published by

  16. Heart rate variability during daytime naps in healthy adults: Autonomic profile and short-term reliability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cellini, Nicola; Whitehurst, Lauren N; McDevitt, Elizabeth A; Mednick, Sara C

    2016-04-01

    In healthy individuals, a reduction in cardiovascular output and a shift to parasympathetic/vagal dominant activity is observed across nocturnal sleep. This cardiac autonomic profile, often measured by heart rate variability (HRV), has been associated with significant benefits for the cardiovascular system. However, little is known about the autonomic profile during daytime sleep. Here, we investigated the autonomic profile and short-term reliability of HRV during daytime naps in 66 healthy young adults. Participants took an 80-120 min polysomnographically recorded nap at 1:30 pm. Beat-by-beat RR interval values (RR), high (HF) and low frequency (LF) power, total power (TP), HF normalized units (HF(nu)), and the LF/HF ratio were obtained for 5 min during presleep wakefulness and during nap sleep stages (N2, N3, REM). A subsample of 37 participants took two additional naps with 2 weeks between recordings. We observed lengthening of the RR, higher HF and HF(nu), and lower LF/HF during NREM, compared with REM and wake, and a marked reduction of LF and TP during N3. Intraclass correlation coefficients highlighted a short-term stability of RR and HF ranging across sleep stages between 0.52-0.76 and 0.52-0.80, respectively. Our results suggest that daytime napping in healthy young adults is associated with dynamic changes in the autonomic profile, similar to those seen during nocturnal sleep. Moreover, a reliable intraindividual measure of autonomic cardiac activity can be obtained by just a single daytime nap depending on specific parameters and recording purposes. Nap methodology may be a new and promising tool to explore sleep-dependent, autonomic fluctuations in healthy and at-risk populations. © 2015 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  17. Jaw sensorimotor control in healthy adults and effects of ageing.

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    Avivi-Arber, L; Sessle, B J

    2018-01-01

    The oro-facial sensorimotor system is a unique system significantly distinguished from the spinal sensorimotor system. The jaw muscles are involved in mastication, swallowing and articulatory speech movements and their integration with respiration. These sensorimotor functions are vital for sustaining life and necessitate complex neuromuscular processing to provide for exquisite sensorimotor control of numerous oro-facial muscles. The function of the jaw muscles in relation to sensorimotor control of these movements may be subject to ageing-related declines. This review will focus on peripheral, brainstem and higher brain centre mechanisms involved in reflex regulation and sensorimotor coordination and control of jaw muscles in healthy adults. It will outline the limited literature bearing on age-related declines in jaw sensorimotor functions and control including reduced biting forces and increased risk of impaired chewing, speaking and swallowing. The mechanisms underlying these alterations include age-related degenerative changes within the peripheral neuromuscular system and in brain regions involved in the generation and control of jaw movements. In the light of the vital role of jaw sensorimotor functions in sustaining life, normal ageing involves compensatory mechanisms that utilise the neuroplastic capacity of the brain and the recruitment of additional brain regions involved in sensorimotor performance and closely associated functions (e.g. cognition and memory). However, these regions are themselves susceptible to detrimental age-related changes. Thus, better understanding of the peripheral and central mechanisms underlying age-related sensorimotor impairment is crucial for developing improved treatment approaches to prevent or cure impaired jaw sensorimotor functions and to thereby improve health and quality of life. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Kinematic viscosity of unstimulated whole saliva in healthy young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foglio-Bonda, A; Pattarino, F; Foglio-Bonda, P L

    2014-10-01

    To analyze kinematic viscosity and pH of unstimulated whole saliva, evaluate possible variations after sampling, identify any gender differences and detect possible correlations between them. The sample consisted of sixty-four healthy young adults (37 females and 27 males, mean age 25.2 years). Saliva was collected using the spitting method at 11:00 am. Kinematic viscosity was determined with a capillary viscometer (ViscoClock, Schott-Geräte Mainz, Germany) equipped with a micro-Ubbelohde capillary. Viscosity and pH were measured at a temperature of 36 °C in a thermostatic bath. Viscosity and pH data were evaluated almost simultaneously at six different times after sampling in order to identify any variations due to aging. The data were statistically analyzed using Student's t test and Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test. In total sample kinematic viscosity was 1.40 cSt (SD = 0.39; RSD % = 27.81), in the male and female groups was 1.33 cSt (SD = 0.35, RSD% = 26.31) and 1.45 cSt (SD = 0.41, RSD % = 28.45) respectively; the difference was not statistically significant. Viscosity decreased exponentially as a function of time after sampling then reaching a plateau around 1.12 cSt, while the pH values increased linearly. There was a trend of pH to decrease while viscosity decreases. Kinematic viscometry could be a valid tool to evaluate salivary viscosity. Degradation of saliva after sampling affects viscosity and slightly pH. The use of capillary viscometer to evaluate salivary aging needs more improvements. Further studies are required to investigate and explain the effects of different techniques to reduce the film forming on the air/liquid interface during measurement.

  19. Physical exercise and cardiac autonomic activity in healthy adult men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Kaninika; Krishna, Pushpa

    2014-01-01

    Physical inactivity is an important risk factor for cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. Regular exercise is known to improve health and maintain physical fitness. The heart rate response to exercise reflects autonomic control of heart and has shown to predict cardiovascular prognosis. Decreased heart rate variability (HRV) is known as a risk factor for cardiovascular mortality. The objective of this study was to study the effect of exercise on cardiac autonomic activity. Thirty two healthy adult men in the age group of 18-25 years with normal body mass index (BMI) were recruited from different physical fitness centers, who were undergoing regular exercise for past 3 months. Resting ECG was recorded for 5 minutes and analyzed for frequency analysis of HRV. HRV parameters of the subjects were compared with fifty age and BMI matched subjects who were not undergoing any exercise program. Physical activity level of all subjects was assessed by using Global Physical Activity Questionnaire. The exercising (E) subjects were found to have a lesser heart rate (73.27 ± 8.6 vs 74.41 ± 8.59) compared to non-exercising (NE) group, which was not significant. No significant difference was found in frequency domain parameters of HRV between exercising and non-exercising group with LF (47.12 ± 19.17 vs 43.55 ± 16.66), HF (41.03 ± 17.65 vs 46.03 ± 15.89) and LF/HF (1.61 ± 1.16 vs 1.22 ± 0.93) respectively. Physical activity level was significantly different between the two groups (4175 ± 1481.53 vs 1176.4?1103.83, pexercise did not have any effect on cardiac autonomic activity despite the difference in physical activity.

  20. Metabolic effects of regular physical exercise in healthy population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caro, Juan; Navarro, Inmaculada; Romero, Pedro; Lorente, Rosario I; Priego, María Antonia; Martínez-Hervás, Sergio; Real, Jose T; Ascaso, Juan F

    2013-04-01

    To assess the effect of moderate regular aerobic physical activity not associated to body weight changes on insulin resistance and the associated metabolic changes in general population. A cross-sectional, observational study in an adult population (n=101 subjects aged 30-70 years) with no personal history of disease and with stable weight in the three months prior to the study. The group with regular exercise performed 30-60 minutes of moderate regular physical exercise 5 days per week (7.5-15 hours MET per week), while a control group performed no regular physical exercise and had a sedentary lifestyle. Subjects were age- and sex-matched. Lipids, lipoproteins, and HOMA index were measured using standard methods. The group with regular physical activity consisted of 48 subjects (21 male/27 female), while the group with no regular physical activity included 53 subjects (31 male/22 female). No significant differences were found between the groups in age, sex, BMI, waist circumference, and blood pressure. Significant differences were found between the groups in fasting serum triglyceride, HDL-C, and apoB levels. Fasting plasma insulin levels (12.1 ± 4.13 vs 14.9 ± 4.8 mU/L, P= .004) and HOMA index (2.8 ± 1.1 vs 3.5 ± 4.1, P= .001) were significantly lower in the group with regular physical activity as compared to the sedentary group. Prevalence rates of metabolic syndrome were 20.7% and 45.8% (P=.01) in the regular physical activity and sedentary groups respectively. Moderate regular physical activity is associated to higher insulin sensitivity, an improved lipid profile, and a decrease in components of metabolic syndrome with no change in weight or BMI. Copyright © 2012 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  1. Cardiorespiratory parameters of exercise capacity in a healthy Lithuanian population: the pilot study.

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    Grigaliūnienė, Asta; Ramonas, Andrius; Celutkienė, Jelena; Sileikienė, Virginija; Rudys, Alfredas; Juocevičius, Alvydas; Laucevičius, Aleksandras

    2013-01-01

    The normative values of exercise capacity used for the interpretation of exercise testing results are influenced by a variety of internal and external factors specific to certain populations. Therefore, in clinical practice it is recommended that population-specific reference values be employed. Cardiorespiratory fitness norms have not yet been established for a healthy Lithuanian population over a wide age span. The purpose of the present study was to determine the main cardiorespiratory fitness parameters for healthy adults living in Lithuania and to compare these parameters with the reference values established for different foreign populations. This was a cross-sectional, community-based study involving 168 healthy adults aged from 20 to 60 years who were randomly selected from the general population. All subjects performed a progressive incremental exercise test on the cycle ergometer. The main cardiorespiratory fitness parameters analysed were peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak), ventilatory anaerobic threshold, and peak heart rate (HRpeak). The average estimated VO2peak was 35.02 ± 7.37 mL.kg(-1).min(-1) for men and 28.27 ± 6.33 mL.kg(-1).min(-1) for women. According to the results presented by other authors, this parameter is approximately 9-22% lower compared to other populations in all age groups, with the exception of the 20-29 year old group who alone satisfied fair aerobic fitness criteria. The average age-related decline in VO2peak was 0.016 L.min(-1) per year for men and 0.011 L.min(-1) per year for women. However, age itself explained only 12-14% of the variance. After VO2peak was adjusted relative to body mass, the difference in the decline between men and women remained insignificant: VO2peak decrease was 0.34 mL.kg(-1).min(-1) per year for men (coefficient of determination R(2) 0.250) and 0.32 mL.kg(-1).min(-1) per year for women (R(2) 0.330). A decline in peak heart rate of approximately 9 beats per minute was observed in each following age

  2. Association of childhood trauma with cognitive function in healthy adults: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Jin-Mann S

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Animal and human studies suggest that stress experienced early in life has detrimental consequences on brain development, including brain regions involved in cognitive function. Cognitive changes are cardinal features of depression and posttraumatic stress disorder. Early-life trauma is a major risk factor for these disorders. Only few studies have measured the long-term consequences of childhood trauma on cognitive function in healthy adults. Methods In this pilot study, we investigated the relationship between childhood trauma exposure and cognitive function in 47 healthy adults, who were identified as part of a larger study from the general population in Wichita, KS. We used the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB and the Wide-Range-Achievement-Test (WRAT-3 to examine cognitive function and individual achievement. Type and severity of childhood trauma was assessed by the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ. Data were analyzed using multiple linear regression on CANTAB measures with primary predictors (CTQ scales and potential confounders (age, sex, education, income. Results Specific CTQ scales were significantly associated with measures of cognitive function. Emotional abuse was associated with impaired spatial working memory performance. Physical neglect correlated with impaired spatial working memory and pattern recognition memory. Sexual abuse and physical neglect were negatively associated with WRAT-3 scores. However, the association did not reach the significance level of p Conclusions Our results suggest that physical neglect and emotional abuse might be associated with memory deficits in adulthood, which in turn might pose a risk factor for the development of psychopathology.

  3. CD4 + lymphocyte reference ranges in healthy adults in Port ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aims and Objectives: Reference values are essential for the interpretation of data in clinical practice and research studies. The aim of this study was to establish reference ranges for CD4 lymphocytes in healthy HIV-negative Nigerians. Methodology: 200 healthy Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) antibody free ...

  4. White matter microstructure in the executive network associated with aggression in healthy adolescents and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsgodt, Katherine H; Bato, Angelica A; Blair, Melanie A; DeRosse, Pamela; Szeszko, Philip R; Malhotra, Anil K

    2015-09-01

    Predicting which individuals may engage in aggressive behavior is of interest in today's society; however, there is little data on the neural basis of aggression in healthy individuals. Here, we tested whether regional differences in white matter (WM) microstructure were associated with later reports of aggressive tendencies. We recontacted healthy young adults an average of 3 years after they underwent research MRI scans. Via electronic survey, we administered the Buss Perry Aggression Questionnaire. We divided aggression into Aggressive Thoughts (Anger and Hostility subscales) and Aggressive Acts (Verbal and Physical subscales) and used Tract-Based Spatial Statistics to test the relationship of those measures to WM microstructure. In 45 individuals age 15-30 at baseline, we observed significant relationships between Aggressive Acts and fractional anisotropy (FA) in a parietal region consistent with the superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF). As the SLF has an established relationship to executive function, we performed an exploratory analysis in a subset of individuals with working memory data. Decreased FA in executive network regions, as well as working memory performance, were associated with later self-reported aggressive tendencies. This has implications for our healthy behavior understanding of as well as that of patient populations known to have executive dysfunction. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Relationship between ultrasound bone parameters, lung function, and body mass index in healthy student population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvijetić, Selma; Pipinić, Ivana Sabolić; Varnai, Veda Maria; Macan, Jelena

    2017-03-01

    Low bone mineral density has been reported in paediatric and adult patients with different lung diseases, but limited data are available on the association between lung function and bone density in a healthy young population. We explored the predictors of association between bone mass and pulmonary function in healthy first-year university students, focusing on body mass index (BMI). In this cross-sectional study we measured bone density with ultrasound and lung function with spirometry in 370 university students (271 girls and 99 boys). Information on lifestyle habits, such as physical activity, smoking, and alcohol consumption were obtained with a questionnaire. All lung function and bone parameters were significantly higher in boys than in girls (Pstudents had a significantly lower forced vital capacity (FVC%) (P=0.001 girls; P=0.012 boys), while overweight students had a significantly higher FVC% than normal weight students (P=0.024 girls; P=0.001 boys). BMI significantly correlated with FVC% (P=0.001) and forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1 %) in both genders (P=0.001 girls; P=0.018 boys) and with broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA) in boys. There were no significant associations between any of the bone and lung function parameters either in boys or girls. The most important determinant of lung function and ultrasound bone parameters in our study population was body mass index, with no direct association between bone density and lung function.

  6. Effects of Mindfulness-Based Interventions on Salivary Cortisol in Healthy Adults: A Meta-Analytical Review

    OpenAIRE

    Kenji Sanada; Jesus Montero-Marin; Marta Alda; Montserrat Salas-Valero; Maria C Perez-Yus; Hector Morillo; Marcelo Demarzo; Mauro Garcia-Toro; Javier Garcia-Campayo

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the present study was to elucidate the effects of Mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) on salivary cortisol levels in healthy adult populations. Method: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs), published between January 1980 and June 2015 in PubMed, EMBASE, PsycINFO and the Cochrane library. The PRISMA and Cochrane guidelines were followed. The pooled effect sizes were calculated with the random-effects model, using Hed...

  7. Gait velocity is an indicator of cognitive performance in healthy middle-aged adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artin Jabourian

    Full Text Available Psychomotor retardation, especially motor and cognitive slowing down, has been described many times in the elderly but to our knowledge, has never been examined in healthy middle-aged adults. The present study explores whether walking time may provide an early signal of cognitive performance, using 266 healthy adults ([18-65] years old, mean age: 45.7±12.9 years who were also subdivided in 2 groups: under or over 50. Walking time (50 meters and cognitive performances (mini-mental state examination, Benton Visual Retention Test and Rey Complex Figure were assessed; total psychometric score was the sum of individual test scores. Analyses were controlled for age, gender, education level, height and weight. The mean psychometric scores were within the normal range. A substantial proportion of subjects exhibited low performance in some aspects of visuospatial memory, particularly in the older subset. In the total population, walking time was negatively correlated with all cognitive tests, particularly to total psychometric score (R = -0.817, p<0.0001; the unique contribution of walking time on all cognitive scores was very high (delta R-squared = 0.496. In the older subset, performances on walk and cognition were lower than in the younger subset. Total psychometric score showed the strongest correlation with walking time in the older subset (R = -0.867; p<0.001. In all subsets, walking time was the main explanatory variable of the total psychometric score (delta R-squared: ≤ 49 = 0.361; ≥50 = 0.613. These findings indicate that i a significant proportion of adults without cognitive complaints exhibit low cognitive performance including visuospatial memory and longer walking time, ii cognitive functioning is strongly correlated to walking time in healthy middle-aged adults, iii gait velocity (GV could be an indicator of cognitive performance in some important cognitive domains. These results warrant further investigation

  8. Profiling healthy eaters: determining factors that predict healthy eating practices among Dutch adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swan, E.; Bouwman, L.; Hiddink, G.J.; Aarts, N.; Koelen, M.

    2015-01-01

    Research has identified multiple factors that predict unhealthy eating practices. However what remains poorly understood are factors that promote healthy eating practices. This study aimed to determine a set of factors that represent a profile of healthy eaters. This research applied Antonovsky's

  9. Profiling healthy eaters. Determining factors that predict healthy eating practices among Dutch adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swan, E.C.; Bouwman, L.I.; Hiddink, G.J.; Aarts, N.; Koelen, M.

    2015-01-01

    Research has identified multiple factors that predict unhealthy eating practices. However what remains poorly understood are factors that promote healthy eating practices. This study aimed to determine a set of factors that represent a profile of healthy eaters. This research applied Antonovsky's

  10. Reference values of electrocardiogram repolarization variables in a healthy population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haarmark, Christian; Graff, Claus; Andersen, Mads P

    2010-01-01

    Reference values for T-wave morphology analysis and evaluation of the relationship with age, sex, and heart rate are lacking in the literature. In this study, we characterized T-wave morphology in a large sample of healthy individuals....

  11. The barriers and enablers of healthy eating among young adults: a missing piece of the obesity puzzle: A scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munt, A E; Partridge, S R; Allman-Farinelli, M

    2017-01-01

    Young adults in Western countries are gaining weight faster than their parents and are more likely to gain weight than any other age cohort. Despite this, investigation into the complex young adults' food choice motives, which enable and prevent healthy eating, has not been widely investigated. A scoping review was conducted involving an extensive literature search of four major electronic databases: Medline, Embase, PsychInfo and CINAHL. Data were collected from 34 articles: study descriptions numerically analysed and key findings thematically analysed. The key barriers found included: male apathy towards diet; unhealthy diet of friends and family; expected consumption of unhealthy foods in certain situations; relative low cost of unhealthy foods; lack of time to plan, shop, prepare and cook healthy foods; lack of facilities to prepare, cook and store healthy foods; widespread presence of unhealthy foods; lack of knowledge and skills to plan, shop, prepare and cook healthy foods; lack of motivation to eat healthily (including risk-taking behaviour). The key enablers found included: female interest in a healthy diet; healthy diet of friends and family; support/encouragement of friends and family to eat healthy; desire for improved health; desire for weight management; desire for improved self-esteem; desire for attractiveness to potential partners and others; possessing autonomous motivation to eat healthy and existence and use of self-regulatory skills. This research provides evidence that can be used to tailor interventions for healthy eating and overweight and obesity in this population. However, government intervention in addressing food access, affordability, marketing and taxation remains essential to any significant change. © 2016 World Obesity Federation.

  12. Identifying effective healthy weight and lifestyle advertisements: Focus groups with Australian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Helen; Murphy, Michael; Scully, Maree; Rose, Mischa; Cotter, Trish

    2016-08-01

    This study explored adult's attitudes and reactions to a range of television advertisements (ads) promoting healthy weight, physical activity and healthy eating. Twenty-four focus groups (N = 179) were conducted in metropolitan and regional areas of the Australian states of Victoria, New South Wales (NSW) and Queensland, with participants segmented by sex, education (no tertiary, at least some tertiary) and life stage (young adults, parents). Each group was assigned to one of the three advertising streams - Weight, Activity, or Nutrition - where responses to five different ads were explored using semi-structured, moderator-led discussions. Discussion transcripts were qualitatively content analysed using a conventional approach. Four main themes were identified in participants' discussions about the ads' main messages - (i) Why is it a problem? (ii) Who is it a problem for? (iii) What should I do about it? (iv) How do I make the changes? Reactions varied by demographic factors and current weight and lifestyle status. Participants furthest from achieving public health recommendations for weight, diet and activity were motivated by 'what' and 'how' ads involving gentle persuasion and helpful hints. Participants who were closer to meeting these recommendations were motivated by 'why' ads featuring more graphic and emotive content and new information. Findings suggest a strategic approach is important for the development of public health ads promoting healthy weight and lifestyle, with consideration given to the specific communication goals and who the target audience is. This should help ensure an appropriate message is delivered to priority population subgroups in the most informative and motivating manner. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Trends in diet quality among adolescents, adults and older adults: A population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Caesar de Andrade, PhD

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to monitor diet quality and associated factors in adolescents, adults and older adults from the city of São Paulo, Brazil. We conducted a cross-sectional population-based study involving 2376 individuals surveyed in 2003, and 1662 individuals in 2008 (Health Survey of São Paulo, ISA-Capital. Participants were of both sexes and aged 12 to 19 years old (adolescents, 20 to 59 years old (adults and 60 years old or over (older adults. Food intake was assessed using the 24-h dietary recall method while diet quality was determined by the Brazilian Healthy Eating Index (BHEI-R. The prevalence of descriptive variables for 2003 and 2008 was compared adopting a confidence interval of 95%. The means of total BHEI-R score and its components for 2003 and 2008 were compared for each age group. Associations between the BHEI-R and independent variables were evaluated for each survey year using multiple linear regression analysis. Results showed that the mean BHEI-R increased (54.9 vs. 56.4 points over the five-year period. However, the age group evaluation showed a deterioration in diet quality of adolescents, influenced by a decrease in scores for dark-green and orange vegetables and legumes, total grains, oils and SoFAAS (solid fat, alcohol and added sugar components. In the 2008 survey, adults had a higher BHEI-R score, by 6.1 points on average, compared to adolescents. Compared to older adults, this difference was 10.7 points. The diet quality remains a concern, especially among adolescents, that had the worst results compared to the other age groups.

  14. Kidney injury biomarkers and urinary creatinine variability in nominally healthy adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental exposure diagnostics use creatinine concentrations in urine aliquots as the internal standard for dilution normalization of all other excreted metabolites when urinary excretion rate data are not available. This is a reasonable approach for healthy adults as creati...

  15. Leptin and Hunger Levels in Young Healthy Adults After One Night of Sleep Loss

    OpenAIRE

    Pejovic, Slobodanka; Alexandros N. Vgontzas; Basta, Maria; Tsaoussoglou, Marina; Zoumakis, Emanuel; Vgontzas, Angeliki; Bixler, Edward O.; Chrousos, George P

    2010-01-01

    Short-term sleep curtailment associated with activation of the stress system in healthy, young adults has been shown to be associated with decreased leptin levels, impaired insulin sensitivity and increased hunger and appetite.

  16. Gene Expression Profiles of Colonic Mucosa in Healthy Young Adult and Senior Dogs: e12882

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dong Yong Kil; Brittany M Vester Boler; Carolyn J Apanavicius; Lawrence B Schook; Kelly S Swanson

    2010-01-01

      Background We have previously reported the effects of age and diet on nutrient digestibility, intestinal morphology, and large intestinal fermentation patterns in healthy young adult and senior dogs...

  17. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin d and the incidence of acute viral respiratory tract infections in healthy adults

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sabetta, James R; DePetrillo, Paolo; Cipriani, Ralph J; Smardin, Joanne; Burns, Lillian A; Landry, Marie L

    2010-01-01

    .... In this prospective cohort study serial monthly concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D were measured over the fall and winter 2009-2010 in 198 healthy adults, blinded to the nature of the substance being measured...

  18. Dietary intake of antioxidant vitamins in healthy adults in relation to current recommended intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabłonowska-Lietz, Beata; Jarosz, Agnieszka; Nowicka, Graiyna

    2013-01-01

    The health benefits arising from antioxidant vitamins A, C and E are well recognised and their recommended dietary intake for the general population have been established. However, there is still a need for assessing antioxidant vitamin intake in different population groups. To assess intake of antioxidant vitamins: A, C, E and beta-carotene, and to identify their major sources in the diets of healthy subjects. The study group consisted of 182 adults; both men and women from polish population. Antioxidant vitamin dietary intake was assessed by individual 3-day records. Data were analysed using updated "Polish Food Composition Tables" and 'Dieta 5' Software. The average daily intake of antioxidant vitamins was: 1076 mg for vitamin A (including 46% of retinol and 55% of beta-carotene), 107 mg for vitamin C and 9 mg for vitamin E. Higher dietary intake of these vitamins was observed in men compared to women. The average intake ofantioxidant vitamins was found to be in recommended range, however, significant differences were observed between the lowest and the highest intake. They were related to differences in the consumption of food products recognized as major sources of vitamins A, C, E and beta-carotene in study population.

  19. Socio-demographic status and alcohol drinking patterns among Greek healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazarlis, Pandelis; Mauri, Davide; Cortinovis, Ivan; Katsigiannopoulos, Konstantinos; Alevizaki, Paraskevi; Koukourakis, Georgios; Casazza, Giovanni; Kamposioras, Konstantinos; Chatziioannou, Ioanna; Milousis, Athansios; Papakonstantinou, Anastasios; Karathanasi, Ioanna; Alexiou, George; Proiskos, Anastasios; Mitrogianni, Zoi; Peponi, Christina

    2006-12-01

    To analyze socio-demographic correlates of alcohol drinking among Greek healthy adults. Data related to alcohol consumption patterns of 5500 adult individuals, coming from 26 Hellenic provinces were abstracted from SESy-Europe database within a framework of the nationwide Hellenic anticancer-trial PACMeR 02 study. Statistic: chi2 test and logistic regression analyses were used. 42.5% of males and 82.5% of females did not consume alcoholic drinks. Among users, daily alcohol assumption was 28.50 g/day for men and 9.85 g/day for women. The mainland population presented higher proportions for both abstainers and moderate-heavy drinkers. Consumption rate was higher for sub-populations living in islands, but they were mostly light drinkers rather than heavy consumers. Among males, younger subjects, farmers and craftsmen had a higher tendency for alcohol abuse. Among females, the proportion of consumers and abusers was notably more elevated among younger individuals, especially among those living in urban areas of mainland, with higher educational level, employees and freelance professionals. A particular attention to the newly and rapidly growing patterns of alcoholism among young females should be given and prevention programs should be promptly developed.

  20. Safety and Efficacy of Oral Polypodium leucotomos Extract in Healthy Adult Subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Nestor, Mark S.; Berman, Brian; Swenson, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the safety of oral Polypodium leucotomos extract administered twice daily to healthy adults for 60 days and assess its ability to provide protection against exposure to ultraviolet radiation. Design: This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Setting: A single clinical research center. Participants: Healthy adult men and women between 18 and 65 years of age with Fitzpatrick skin types I to IV. Measurements: Safety ass...

  1. Dietary total antioxidant capacity is associated with diet and plasma antioxidant status in healthy young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Yang, Meng; Lee, Sang-Gil; Davis, Catherine G; Koo, Sung I; Chun, Ock K

    2012-10-01

    Dietary total antioxidant capacity (TAC), based on the cumulative antioxidant activities of all the antioxidants present in food, has been shown to be inversely associated with risks of chronic diseases. However, dietary TAC has not been validated for its relevance in a healthy young population or for reliability and predictability for antioxidant status. Our study aimed to validate TAC as a tool in assessing antioxidant intake and to investigate whether dietary TAC predicts plasma antioxidant status in a healthy young population. Sixty healthy, nonsmoking college students at the University of Connecticut ages 18 to 25 years were recruited. Thirty-day food records and two 12-hour fasting blood samples were collected for dietary and plasma antioxidant assessments. After adjustment for total energy intake, TAC from diet and supplement was positively correlated with intakes of carotenoids (P<0.01), beta carotene (P<0.05), β-cryptoxanthin (P<0.05), flavonoids (P<0.0001), isoflavones (P<0.01), flavan-3-ols (P<0.01), flavones (P<0.05), and flavonols (P<0.0001). Dietary TAC was an independent predictor of plasma TAC determined by vitamin C equivalent antioxidant capacity (P<0.01) and by ferric-reducing ability of plasma (P<0.0001), plasma glutathione peroxidase (P<0.01), red blood cell glutathione peroxidase (P<0.05), α-tocopherol (P<0.05), and lutein (P<0.05). Results were similar for TAC from diet sources only. The findings suggest that dietary TAC is a good predictor of dietary and plasma antioxidant status in this sample of young adult men and women. Copyright © 2012 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The relationship between healthy behaviors and health outcomes among older adults in Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selivanova, Anna; Cramm, Jane M

    2014-11-19

    Worldwide, populations are aging and the health of elderly individuals is deteriorating. Healthy habits may slow the process of health deterioration, but research investigating relationships between health and various health behaviors is lacking. This study aimed to investigate the relationships between health and health behaviors (alcohol consumption, smoking, dietary behavior, and physical activity) among older men and women in Russia. Wave 1 Study on Global AGEing and Adult Health data (2007-2010) collected in the European portion of the Russian Federation, southern federal districts of the European portion of Russia and from the Asian portion of the country were used for this study. Relationships between self-rated health and four risk behavior measures [physical activity, alcohol consumption, smoking, and dietary behavior (fruit and vegetable consumption)] were examined. Analyses controlled for several socioeconomic factors: gender, age, marital status, educational level, area of residence, ethnicity, and employment status. To estimate the effect of healthy behavior on the probability that participants rated their health as very good/good/moderate/bad/very bad, the ordered logit model and average marginal effects were used. Sufficient physical activity affected self-rated health most significantly in both genders, whereas excessive alcohol consumption had no significant effect. Smoking had explanatory power (being a current smoker decreased the probability of a very good health assessment and increased the probability of a very bad rating compared with being a non-smoker) among men, but not women. Fruit and vegetable consumption had a strong effect on self-rated health among women, but not men. The results of this study indicate that health behaviors, especially physical activity, are important for the health of Russia's older population. Smoking behavior had a strong impact on the health of men, whereas fruit and vegetable consumption was a relevant factor

  3. Prevalence of Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) in healthy adults and Human ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prevalence of HCV infection in Abuja, FCT, Nigeria was determined among healthy adults and HIV infected persons. A total of n=520 apparently healthy HIV negative persons and n=1,200 infected persons were tested for antibodies against HCV by rapid chromatographic immunoassay HCV kit (Acon, ACON ...

  4. Stage-Based Healthy Lifestyles Program for Non-College Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Jennifer; Kattelmann, Kendra; White, Adrienne

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to test the feasibility of implementing a healthy lifestyles intervention to maintain or achieve healthy weight for low-income young adults in vocational education. Design/methodology/approach: Non-randomized, quasi-experimental feasibility test of a ten-week intervention with follow-up assessment designed…

  5. Effecting Healthy Lifestyle Changes in Overweight and Obese Young Adults with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pett, Marjorie; Clark, Lauren; Eldredge, Alison; Cardell, Beth; Jordan, Kristine; Chambless, Cathy; Burley, Jeff

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated a 12-week recreation center-based healthy lifestyle intervention for 30 obese home-dwelling young adults (YA) with intellectual disabilities. Three cohorts participated: YA only, YA and parents, and parents only. The YA cohorts received a nutrition/exercise intervention; parents focused on modeling healthy lifestyle behaviors.…

  6. Prevalence of Sleepwalking in an Adult Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mume CO

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sleepwalking consists of a series of behavioral activities that occur during sleep. These activities may besimple, complex or aggressive in nature. They include motor activities, confusion, and amnesia for the events. Sleepwalking isa disorder of arousal from non-rapid eye movement (NREM sleep. In children, episodes of sleepwalking are rarely violent; inadults, however, sleepwalking might include violence, which could endanger the patient or others and might precipitate legalissues. There is inadequate information on the prevalence and demographic correlates of sleepwalking in Nigeria.Objectives: One objective of this study was to determine the lifetime prevalence rate of sleepwalking in an adult populationin Ile-Ife, in Southwestern Nigeria. Another objective was to determine the age and sex distribution of sleepwalking amongthose who have experienced it at least once in their lifetime. Materials and Methods: A random sample of 228 healthyindividuals aged 18 – 60 years was obtained and the members were asked to fill out a survey form about lifetime prevalencerate of sleepwalking. Results: The overall lifetime prevalence rate of sleepwalking was 7% (16 of 228 participants. It was10.4% in males and 3.5% in females, but the difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.07. Conclusion: This studyhas shown that sleepwalking is common in the population. In view of the psychological effects of sleepwalking and thepotential physical and legal problems associated with it, adequate efforts should be made for early detection and promptmanagement of the condition.

  7. Dual N-Back Working Memory Training in Healthy Adults: A Randomized Comparison to Processing Speed Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawlor-Savage, Linette; Goghari, Vina M

    2016-01-01

    Enhancing cognitive ability is an attractive concept, particularly for middle-aged adults interested in maintaining cognitive functioning and preventing age-related declines. Computerized working memory training has been investigated as a safe method of cognitive enhancement in younger and older adults, although few studies have considered the potential impact of working memory training on middle-aged adults. This study investigated dual n-back working memory training in healthy adults aged 30-60. Fifty-seven adults completed measures of working memory, processing speed, and fluid intelligence before and after a 5-week web-based dual n-back or active control (processing speed) training program. Repeated measures multivariate analysis of variance failed to identify improvements across the three cognitive composites, working memory, processing speed, and fluid intelligence, after training. Follow-up Bayesian analyses supported null findings for training effects for each individual composite. Findings suggest that dual n-back working memory training may not benefit working memory or fluid intelligence in healthy adults. Further investigation is necessary to clarify if other forms of working memory training may be beneficial, and what factors impact training-related benefits, should they occur, in this population.

  8. Dual N-Back Working Memory Training in Healthy Adults: A Randomized Comparison to Processing Speed Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawlor-Savage, Linette; Goghari, Vina M.

    2016-01-01

    Enhancing cognitive ability is an attractive concept, particularly for middle-aged adults interested in maintaining cognitive functioning and preventing age-related declines. Computerized working memory training has been investigated as a safe method of cognitive enhancement in younger and older adults, although few studies have considered the potential impact of working memory training on middle-aged adults. This study investigated dual n-back working memory training in healthy adults aged 30–60. Fifty-seven adults completed measures of working memory, processing speed, and fluid intelligence before and after a 5-week web-based dual n-back or active control (processing speed) training program. Results: Repeated measures multivariate analysis of variance failed to identify improvements across the three cognitive composites, working memory, processing speed, and fluid intelligence, after training. Follow-up Bayesian analyses supported null findings for training effects for each individual composite. Findings suggest that dual n-back working memory training may not benefit working memory or fluid intelligence in healthy adults. Further investigation is necessary to clarify if other forms of working memory training may be beneficial, and what factors impact training-related benefits, should they occur, in this population. PMID:27043141

  9. A comparison of knowledge of diabetes mellitus between patients with diabetes and healthy adults: a survey from north Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Lai Shin; Hassan, Yahaya; Aziz, Noorizan Abd; Awaisu, Ahmed; Ghazali, Rozina

    2007-12-01

    The primary objective of this study was to assess and compare the knowledge of diabetes mellitus possessed by patients with diabetes and healthy adult volunteers in Penang, Malaysia. A cross-sectional study was conducted from 20 February 2006 to 31 March 2006. We randomly selected 120 patients with diabetes mellitus from a diabetic clinic at the General Hospital Penang, Malaysia and 120 healthy adults at a shopping complex in Penang. Each participant was interviewed face-to-face by a pharmacist using a validated questionnaire, and they were required to answer a total of 30 questions concerning knowledge about diabetes mellitus using Yes, No or Unsure as the only response. The results showed that patients with diabetes mellitus were significantly more knowledgeable than the healthy volunteers about risk factors, symptoms, chronic complications, treatment and self-management, and monitoring parameters. Educational level was the best predictive factor for diabetes mellitus and public awareness. Knowledge about diabetes mellitus should be improved among the general population. This study has major implications for the design of an educational programme for diabetics and a health promotion programme as a primary prevention measure for the healthy population in general, and especially for those at high risk. The results could be useful in the design of future studies for evaluating patients' and the general public's knowledge about diabetes mellitus.

  10. Cognitive Deficits in Healthy Elderly Population With "Normal" Scores on the Mini-Mental State Examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Votruba, Kristen L; Persad, Carol; Giordani, Bruno

    2016-05-01

    This study investigated whether healthy older adults with Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores above 23 exhibit cognitive impairment on neuropsychological tests. Participants completed the MMSE and a neuropsychological battery including tests of 10 domains. Results were compared to published normative data. On neuropsychological testing, participants performed well on measures of naming and recall but showed mild to moderate impairment in working memory and processing speed and marked impairment in inhibition, sustained attention, and executive functioning. Almost everyone (91%) scored at least 1 standard deviation (SD) below the mean in at least 1 domain. The median number of domains in which individuals scored below 1 SD was 3.0 of 10.0, whereas over 21% scored below 1 SD in 5 domains or more. With the strictest of definitions for impairment, 20% of this population scored below 2.0 SDs below the norm in at least 2 domains, a necessary condition for a diagnosis of dementia. The finding that cognitive impairment, particularly in attention and executive functioning, is found in healthy older persons who perform well on the MMSE has clinical and research implications in terms of emphasizing normal variability in performance and early identification of possible impairment. © The Author(s) 2016.

  11. The Effect of Swimming on the Lung Functions in Healthy Young Male Population of Amritsar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahajan Shashi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this research is to study the effects of swimming on the lung functions in adult male population of Amritsar. Many exercise physiologists study the effect of exercise on pathology, and the mechanisms by which exercise can reduce or reverse disease progression. The present study was undertaken to study the effects swimming on the lung functions. Pulmonary function tests (PFTs of swimming trainees were compared with those of controls. We evaluated PFTs in 50 healthy subjects who participated in a 3 months of swimming plan. Pulmonary function tests were recorded before the commencement of swimming and at the end of swimming and compared the values so obtained with 50 healthy non- swimmers who were chosen as controls. The controls were the physiotherapy students from Khalsa College Amritsar. Both were in the age group of 18- 20 years. The PFTs were carried out with a computerized spirometer “Med-Spiror”. The various data was collected, compiled, statistically analysed and valid conclusions were drawn. Higher lung volumes and flow rates were achieved in swimming trainees after their training period, as compared to their own values obtained before their training period and to those of controls. Regular exercise enhances physical capabilities and physiological responses of the human body and also in the lungs. The cause of improved of various respiratory functions and flow rates after  swimming duration was better mechanical factors and lower airway resistance influenced during the training period. Key words: Pulmonary; Expiration; Swimming; Pulmonary Function Test

  12. [Severe Haemophilus influenzae b infection in healthy male adult

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilmar, A.C.; Gjorup, I.; David, Kim Peter

    2008-01-01

    Haemophilus influenzae b (Hib) can be the cause of serious infections, and is mainly observed affecting children and immuno-compromised patients. We report a case of a healthy 49-year old male with a severe Hib infection complicated by septicaemia, meningitis and anuria. The risk of invasive Hib...

  13. Pyrosequencinq analysis of the oral microflora of healthy adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keijser, B.J.F.; Zaura, E.; Huse, S.M.; Vossen, J.M.B.M. van der; Schuren, F.H.J.; Montijn, R.C.; Gate, J.M. ten; Crielaard, W.

    2008-01-01

    A good definition of commensal microflora and an understanding of its relation to health are essential in preventing and combating disease. We hypothesized that the species richness of human oral microflora is underestimated. Saliva and supragingival plaque were sampled from 71 and 98 healthy

  14. Kinematic Mechanisms of How Power Training Improves Healthy Old Adults' Gait Velocity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beijersbergen, Chantal M. I.; Granacher, Urs; Gäbler, Martijn; Devita, Paul; Hortobagyi, Tibor

    Introduction: Slow gait predicts many adverse clinical outcomes in old adults, but the mechanisms of how power training can minimize the age-related loss of gait velocity is unclear. We examined the effects of 10 wk of lower extremity power training and detraining on healthy old adults' lower

  15. Resting heart rate and the risk of heart failure in healthy adults: the Rotterdam Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanchen, David; Leening, Maarten J G; Locatelli, Isabella; Cornuz, Jacques; Kors, Jan A; Heeringa, Jan; Deckers, Jaap W; Hofman, Albert; Franco, Oscar H; Stricker, Bruno H Ch; Witteman, Jacqueline C M; Dehghan, Abbas

    2013-05-01

    An elevated resting heart rate is associated with rehospitalization for heart failure and is a modifiable risk factor in heart failure patients. We aimed to examine the association between resting heart rate and incident heart failure in a population-based cohort study of healthy adults without pre-existing overt heart disease. We studied 4768 men and women aged ≥55 years from the population-based Rotterdam Study. We excluded participants with prevalent heart failure, coronary heart disease, pacemaker, atrial fibrillation, atrioventricular block, and those using β-blockers or calcium channel blockers. We used extended Cox models allowing for time-dependent variation of resting heart rate along follow-up. During a median of 14.6 years of follow-up, 656 participants developed heart failure. The risk of heart failure was higher in men with higher resting heart rate. For each increment of 10 beats per minute, the multivariable adjusted hazard ratios in men were 1.16 (95% confidence interval, 1.05-1.28; P=0.005) in the time-fixed heart rate model and 1.13 (95% confidence interval, 1.02-1.25; P=0.017) in the time-dependent heart rate model. The association could not be demonstrated in women (P for interaction=0.004). Censoring participants for incident coronary heart disease or using time-dependent models to account for the use of β-blockers or calcium channel blockers during follow-up did not alter the results. Baseline or persistent higher resting heart rate is an independent risk factor for the development of heart failure in healthy older men in the general population.

  16. Positive Association of Vitamin E Supplementation with Hemoglobin Levels in Mildly Anemic Healthy Pakistani Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jilani, Tanveer; Azam, Iqbal; Moiz, Bushra; Mehboobali, Naseema; Perwaiz Iqbal, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Hemoglobin levels slightly below the lower limit of normal are common in adults in the general population in developing countries. A few human studies have suggested the use of antioxidant vitamins in the correction of mild anemia. The objective of the present study was to investigate the association of vitamin E supplementation in mildly anemic healthy adults with post-supplemental blood hemoglobin levels in the general population of Karachi, Pakistan. In a single-blinded and placebo-controlled randomized trial, 124 mildly anemic subjects from the General Practitioners' Clinics and personnel of the Aga Khan University were randomized into intervention (n = 82) and control (n = 42) group. In the intervention group, each subject was given vitamin E (400 mg) everyday for a period of three months, while control group subjects received a placebo. Eighty six subjects completed the trial. Fasting venous blood was collected at baseline and after three months of supplementation. Hemoglobin levels and serum/plasma concentrations of vitamin E, vitamin B12, folate, ferritin, serum transferrin receptor (sTfR), glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, creatinine, total-antioxidant-status and erythropoietin were measured and analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA and multiple linear regression. The adjusted regression coefficients (β) and standard error [SE(β)] of the significant predictors of post-supplemental hemoglobin levels were serum concentration of vitamin E (0.983[0.095]), gender (- 0.656[0.244]), sTfR (- 0.06[0.02]) and baseline hemoglobin levels (0.768[0.077]). The study showed a positive association between vitamin E supplementation and enhanced hemoglobin levels in mildly anemic adults.

  17. Risk factors for overweight and obesity in young healthy adults during compulsory military service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grotto, Itamar; Zarka, Salman; Balicer, Ran D; Sherf, Michael; Meyerovitch, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    In view of the rising prevalence of obesity, the identification of young adult populations at risk is important for the formulation of intervention and prevention programs. To assess demographic and behavioral factors associated with an increase in body mass index in young healthy adults and to identify the incidence of overweight/obesity in this population. Data on anthropometric measures, demographic characteristics, and health behaviors were collected retrospectively for a representative sample of young Israeli adults (11,391 men, 11,280 women) on their release from military service (age 20-22 years) between 1989 and 2003. The incidence of overweight (BMI or =30 kg/m2), and increase in BMI during military service were calculated. The average increase in BMI during military service was 1.11 kg/m2 in males and 1.08 kg/m2 in females. Agreater increase was positively associated with low paternal education and smoking cessation, and negatively associated with high physical activity. Twelve percent of subjects with a normal BMI on recruitment became overweight, and 21.7% of overweight subjects became obese. On multivariate logistic regression analysis, a higher incidence of overweight was associated with low education level (in both the subject and his or her father) in both genders, and non-use of oral contraceptives and low level of physical activity in females. BMI appears to increase significantly during early adulthood. Intervention programs should be targeted specifically at subjects with low education or who started smoking before age 18, and physical activity (especially among females) should be encouraged.

  18. Healthy and pathological processes in adult development: new evidence from neuroimaging of the aging brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedden, Trey; Gabrieli, John D E

    2005-12-01

    Recent research has revealed that the population of older adults is composed not only of individuals who are either healthy or have an age-related disease, most commonly Alzheimer's disease, but also individuals with mild cognitive impairment who are at-risk for or already in the prodromal stage of Alzheimer's disease. These variations in cognitive aging can be related to their neural bases via structural and functional neuroimaging methods. Healthy aging appears to primarily affect a frontal-striatal system that undergirds executive control of cognition, while minimally affecting medial temporal lobe structures. Functional imaging studies suggest that enhanced prefrontal engagement may offer compensatory plasticity that minimizes age-related cognitive losses. Mild cognitive impairment appears to affect the entorhinal cortex in particular, with functional consequences in other brain regions. Alzheimer's disease is characterized by severe hippocampal injury, although early-stage Alzheimer's disease may relatively spare some cortical regions. Advances in in-vivo imaging methods are providing the tools for identifying different trajectories of neurocognitive aging, and knowledge about these brain changes may promote opportunities for treatment.

  19. Protein Considerations for Optimising Skeletal Muscle Mass in Healthy Young and Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver C. Witard

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal muscle is critical for human health. Protein feeding, alongside resistance exercise, is a potent stimulus for muscle protein synthesis (MPS and is a key factor that regulates skeletal muscle mass (SMM. The main purpose of this narrative review was to evaluate the latest evidence for optimising the amino acid or protein source, dose, timing, pattern and macronutrient coingestion for increasing or preserving SMM in healthy young and healthy older adults. We used a systematic search strategy of PubMed and Web of Science to retrieve all articles related to this review objective. In summary, our findings support the notion that protein guidelines for increasing or preserving SMM are more complex than simply recommending a total daily amount of protein. Instead, multifactorial interactions between protein source, dose, timing, pattern and macronutrient coingestion, alongside exercise, influence the stimulation of MPS, and thus should be considered in the context of protein recommendations for regulating SMM. To conclude, on the basis of currently available scientific literature, protein recommendations for optimising SMM should be tailored to the population or context of interest, with consideration given to age and resting/post resistance exercise conditions.

  20. Intervention-induced enhancement in intrinsic brain activity in healthy older adults

    OpenAIRE

    Shufei Yin; Xinyi Zhu; Rui Li; Yanan Niu; Baoxi Wang; Zhiwei Zheng; Xin Huang; Lijuan Huo; Juan Li

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the effects of a multimodal intervention on spontaneous brain activity in healthy older adults. Seventeen older adults received a six-week intervention that consisted of cognitive training, Tai Chi exercise, and group counseling, while 17 older adults in a control group attended health knowledge lectures. The intervention group demonstrated enhanced memory and social support compared to the control group. The amplitude of low frequency fluctuations (ALFF) in the middle fro...

  1. Spinal shape analysis in 1,020 healthy young adults aged from 19 to 30 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Krejčí

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: A number of studies on diseased spine have been published; however, there is a relative paucity of studies investigating spine shape characteristics in healthy populations. Such characteristics are needed for diagnostics of spine disorders and assessment of changes in the spinal shape that may have been caused by influence of the modern life style or intensive sport activity. Objective: The aim of the study was to determine characteristics of the spine shape in a large sample of healthy young adults. Methods: Population cross-sectional study. A non-radiographic surface method (system DTP-3 was used for the assessment of spine shape in the sagittal and frontal planes. A total of 1,020 participants (440 men, 580 women took part in the study, their mean (± SD age was 21.8 ± 1.9 years (range 19.1-29.7 for men and 21.9 ± 1.8 years (range 19.3-29.7 for women. All data were checked for normality and are presented as means, standard deviations, ranges, skewness, and kurtosis. Differences between the sexes were assessed with the two-sample t-test. Results: The average sagittal spinal shape was C3 - 12.9° - C7 - 43.0° - T10 - 27.1° - L5 for men and C3 - 12.1° - C6 - 44.5° - T11 - 34.1° - L5 for women. Men showed a significantly smaller thoracic kyphosis and lumbar lordosis curvatures than women. The average curvature due to the lateral deviation in the frontal plane was 6.1° for both sexes, the curvature was larger than 10° in 9.1% of men and 8.8% of women. We found left lateral deviation in 72.5% of men and in 63.6% of women. Conclusions: The study provides characteristics of the spine shape in a large sample of healthy young adults. Such characteristics should be part and parcel of determining the cut-off level for physiological spinal shape. Based on the results of the study, we suggest a lateral deviation of 10° as the maximum for a curvature to be still considered non-pathological.

  2. Balance training improves memory and spatial cognition in healthy adults

    OpenAIRE

    Rogge, Ann-Kathrin; R?der, Brigitte; Zech, Astrid; Nagel, Volker; Hollander, Karsten; Braumann, Klaus-Michael; H?tting, Kirsten

    2017-01-01

    Physical exercise has been shown to improve cognitive functions. However, it is still unknown which type of exercise affects cognition. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that a demanding balance training program improves memory and spatial cognition. Forty healthy participants aged 19?65 years were randomly assigned to either a balance or relaxation training intervention. Each group exercised twice a week for a total of 12 weeks. Pre- and posttests assessed balance performance, c...

  3. Foot pain and functional limitation in healthy adults with hallux valgus: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nix Sheree E

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hallux valgus (HV is a very common deformity of the first metatarsophalangeal joint that often requires surgical correction. However, the association between structural HV deformity and related foot pain and disability is unclear. Furthermore, no previous studies have investigated concerns about appearance and difficulty with footwear in a population with HV not seeking surgical correction. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate foot pain, functional limitation, concern about appearance and difficulty with footwear in otherwise healthy adults with HV compared to controls. Methods Thirty volunteers with HV (radiographic HV angle >15 degrees and 30 matched controls were recruited for this study (50 women, 10 men; mean age 44.4 years, range 20 to 76 years. Differences between groups were examined for self-reported foot pain and disability, satisfaction with appearance, footwear difficulty, and pressure-pain threshold at the first metatarsophalangeal joint. Functional measures included balance tests, walking performance, and hallux muscle strength (abduction and plantarflexion. Mean differences (MD and 95% confidence intervals (CI were calculated. Results All self-report measures showed that HV was associated with higher levels of foot pain and disability and significant concerns about appearance and footwear (p Conclusions These findings show that HV negatively impacts on self-reported foot pain and function, and concerns about foot appearance and footwear in otherwise healthy adults. There was also evidence of impaired hallux muscle strength and increased postural sway in HV subjects compared to controls, although general physical functioning and participation in physical activity were not adversely affected.

  4. Multisensory reweighting of vision and touch is intact in healthy and fall-prone older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Leslie K; Kiemel, Tim; Jeka, John J

    2006-11-01

    Unexplained falls in older adults are thought to arise from subtle deficits in multiple components of the postural control system, including peripheral sensory loss and central sensory processing. One commonly proposed central sensory processing deficit is a decline in the adaptive use of changing or conflicting sensory inputs for estimating body dynamics, i.e., multisensory reweighting. We examined the assumption of impaired multisensory reweighting in healthy and fall-prone older adults using quantitative methods that have previously demonstrated reweighting in young adults. Standing subjects were exposed to simultaneous medio-lateral oscillatory visual and fingertip touch inputs at varying relative amplitudes. No group differences in overall levels of vision and touch gain were found. Both healthy and fall-prone older adults demonstrated the same pattern of adaptive gain change as healthy young adults. Like the young adults, both elderly groups displayed clear evidence of intra- and inter-sensory reweighting to both vision and touch motion stimuli. These data suggest that, for small amplitude vision and touch stimuli, the central sensory reweighting adaptation process remains intact in healthy and fall-prone older adults with sufficiently intact peripheral sensation.

  5. The Attention Network Test-Interaction (ANT-I): reliability and validity in healthy older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishigami, Yoko; Eskes, Gail A; Tyndall, Amanda V; Longman, R Stewart; Drogos, Lauren L; Poulin, Marc J

    2016-03-01

    The Attention Network Test (ANT) is a frequently used computer-based tool for measuring the three attention networks (alerting, orienting, and executive control). We examined the psychometric properties of performance on a variant of the ANT, the Attention Network Test-Interaction (ANT-I) in healthy older adults (N = 173; mean age = 65.4, SD = 6.5; obtained from the Brain in Motion Study, Tyndall et al. BMC Geriatr 13:21, 2013. doi: 10.1186/1471-2318-13-21) to evaluate its usefulness as a measurement tool in both aging and clinical research. In terms of test reliability, split-half correlation analyses showed that all network scores were significantly reliable, although the strength of the correlations varied across networks as seen before (r = 0.29, 0.70, and 0.68, for alerting, orienting, and executive networks, respectively, p's older adult population. The results provide insights into the psychometrics of the ANT-I and its potential utility in clinical research settings.

  6. Keep Your Mouth Healthy: Oral Care for Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the simple routine you learned as a kid—brush your teeth twice a day and floss regularly—can become more of a challenge as you get older. Among adults ages 75 and up, about 1 in 4 has lost all natural teeth, largely because of gum disease and tooth decay. You can take steps to keep your ...

  7. Impacts of dance on non-motor symptoms, participation, and quality of life in Parkinson disease and healthy older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeely, M E; Duncan, R P; Earhart, G M

    2015-12-01

    Evidence indicates exercise is beneficial for motor and non-motor function in older adults and people with chronic diseases including Parkinson disease (PD). Dance may be a relevant form of exercise in PD and older adults due to social factors and accessibility. People with PD experience motor and non-motor symptoms, but treatments, interventions, and assessments often focus more on motor symptoms. Similar non-motor symptoms also occur in older adults. While it is well-known that dance may improve motor outcomes, it is less clear how dance affects non-motor symptoms. This review aims to describe the effects of dance interventions on non-motor symptoms in older adults and PD, highlights limitations of the literature, and identifies opportunities for future research. Overall, intervention parameters, study designs, and outcome measures differ widely, limiting comparisons across studies. Results are mixed in both populations, but evidence supports the potential for dance to improve mood, cognition, and quality of life in PD and healthy older adults. Participation and non-motor symptoms like sleep disturbances, pain, and fatigue have not been measured in older adults. Additional well-designed studies comparing dance and exercise interventions are needed to clarify the effects of dance on non-motor function and establish recommendations for these populations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Impacts of dance on non-motor symptoms, participation, and quality of life in Parkinson disease and healthy older adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeely, ME; Duncan, RP; Earhart, GM

    2015-01-01

    Evidence indicates exercise is beneficial for motor and non-motor function in older adults and people with chronic diseases including Parkinson disease (PD). Dance may be a relevant form of exercise in PD and older adults due to social factors and accessibility. People with PD experience motor and non-motor symptoms, but treatments, interventions, and assessments often focus more on motor symptoms. Similar non-motor symptoms also occur in older adults. While it is well-known that dance may improve motor outcomes, it is less clear how dance affects non-motor symptoms. This review aims to describe the effects of dance interventions on non-motor symptoms in older adults and PD, highlights limitations of the literature, and identifies opportunities for future research. Overall, intervention parameters, study designs, and outcome measures differ widely, limiting comparisons across studies. Results are mixed in both populations, but evidence supports the potential for dance to improve mood, cognition, and quality of life in PD and healthy older adults. Participation and non-motor symptoms like sleep disturbances, pain, and fatigue have not been measured in older adults. Additional well-designed studies comparing dance and exercise interventions are needed to clarify the effects of dance on non-motor function and establish recommendations for these populations. PMID:26318265

  9. HEALTHY AGEING AT HOME: ERGONOMICS ADAPTATIONS OF INTERIOR DESIGN AND SELF-ASSESED QUALITY OF LIFE OF OLDER ADULTS OF THE MUNICIPALITY OF LJUBLJANA

    OpenAIRE

    Jasna Hrovatin; Saša Pišot; Matej Plevnik

    2017-01-01

    Population is ageing and many nations already respond by developing and promoting special strategies of healthy ageing. Living environment is one of the factors that can contribute to healthy and safe ageing at home, providing that it is well adapted to the needs of older adults. On the contrary, it can cause stress, discomfort and lead to injuries, resulting in the loss of independence and autonomy. With the use of a questionnaire, conducting a survey and an analysis regarding the adaptabili...

  10. Seasonal influenza vaccination of healthy working-age adults: a review of economic evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatwood, Justin; Meltzer, Martin I; Messonnier, Mark; Ortega-Sanchez, Ismael R; Balkrishnan, Rajesh; Prosser, Lisa A

    2012-01-01

    The recent impact of influenza on the working-age population of the US has led to changes in the recommendations for vaccination against seasonal influenza; however, the implications of vaccinating such a population have been debated. A review of cost-effectiveness analyses of vaccinating the working-age population of the US against seasonal influenza was conducted using articles published between January 1990 and January 2010. Studies considered for inclusion were identified using MEDLINE, EMBASE and Econlit. Reviewers worked in pairs, and each team member independently extracted relevant data using a standard abstraction form. The source and appropriateness of parameters (epidemiological data, probabilities and costs), the designs employed and the sufficiency of sensitivity analysis were considered during review. Key inputs extracted from the selected studies included influenza or influenza-like illness attack rates, outpatient visits averted, total vaccination days and lost workdays. Seven studies were identified as appropriate for this review. All studies were conducted in the US and from the societal perspective; three were randomized controlled trials and the remaining four were economic simulation models comparing vaccination and influenza antiviral drugs or no intervention; analyses focused on healthy working-age adults aged 18-49 years. Results ranged from net savings of $US68.96 to net costs of $US85.92 per person vaccinated (four studies) and net costs of $US104-1005 per episode of influenza averted (one study). Only two studies reported cost-effectiveness ratios; these ranged from $US26,565 to $US50,512 per quality-adjusted life-year gained. Nearly all of the studies conducted sensitivity analysis; results were most sensitive to variation in wage rates, levels of worker productivity, the costs and effectiveness of vaccination, and the rate of influenza illness. Review of the included studies suggests that seasonal influenza vaccination of healthy

  11. Carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity in a healthy adult sample: The ELSA-Brasil study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldo, Marcelo Perim; Cunha, Roberto S; Molina, Maria Del Carmen B; Chór, Dora; Griep, Rosane H; Duncan, Bruce B; Schmidt, Maria Inês; Ribeiro, Antonio L P; Barreto, Sandhi M; Lotufo, Paulo A; Bensenor, Isabela M; Pereira, Alexandre C; Mill, José Geraldo

    2018-01-15

    Aging declines essential physiological functions, and the vascular system is strongly affected by artery stiffening. We intended to define the age- and sex-specific reference values for carotid-to-femoral pulse wave velocity (cf-PWV) in a sample free of major risk factors. The ELSA-Brasil study enrolled 15,105 participants aged 35-74years. The healthy sample was achieved by excluding diabetics, those over the optimal and normal blood pressure levels, body mass index ≤18.5 or ≥25kg/m2, current and former smokers, and those with self-report of previous cardiovascular disease. After exclusions, the sample consisted of 2158 healthy adults (1412 women). Although cf-PWV predictors were similar between sex (age, mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate), cf-PWV was higher in men (8.74±1.15 vs. 8.31±1.13m/s; adjusted for age and MAP, PBrasil population (n=15,105) increased by twice the age-related slope of cf-PWV growth, regardless of sex (0.0919±0.182 vs. 0.0504±0.153m/s per year for men, 0.0960±0.173 vs. 0.0606±0.139m/s per year for women). cf-PWV is different between men and women and even in an optimal and normal range of MAP and free of other classical risk factors for arterial stiffness, reference values for cf-PWV should take into account MAP levels. Also, the presence of major risk factors in the general population doubles the age-related rise in cf-PWV. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Action Video Game Training for Healthy Adults: A Meta-Analytic Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ping; Liu, Han-Hui; Zhu, Xing-Ting; Meng, Tian; Li, Hui-Jie; Zuo, Xi-Nian

    2016-01-01

    Action video game (AVG) has attracted increasing attention from both the public and from researchers. More and more studies found video game training improved a variety of cognitive functions. However, it remains controversial whether healthy adults can benefit from AVG training, and whether young and older adults benefit similarly from AVG training. In the present study, we aimed to quantitatively assess the AVG training effect on the cognitive ability of adults and to compare the training effects on young and older adults by conducting a meta-analysis on previous findings. We systematically searched video game training studies published between January 1986 and July 2015. Twenty studies were included in the present meta-analysis, for a total of 313 participants included in the training group and 323 participants in the control group. The results demonstrate that healthy adults achieve moderate benefit from AVG training in overall cognitive ability and moderate to small benefit in specific cognitive domains. In contrast, young adults gain more benefits from AVG training than older adults in both overall cognition and specific cognitive domains. Age, education, and some methodological factors, such as the session duration, session number, total training duration, and control group type, modulated the training effects. These meta-analytic findings provide evidence that AVG training may serve as an efficient way to improve the cognitive performance of healthy adults. We also discussed several directions for future AVG training studies.

  13. Body water distribution and risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in a healthy population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Nikoline Nygård; Kjærulff, Thora Majlund; Ward, Leigh Cordwin

    2014-01-01

    Early alterations in the cardiovascular structure and function may change normal body water distribution. The resulting fluid shifts may thus serve as an early marker for cardiovascular disease. However, studies examining this in healthy populations are absent.......Early alterations in the cardiovascular structure and function may change normal body water distribution. The resulting fluid shifts may thus serve as an early marker for cardiovascular disease. However, studies examining this in healthy populations are absent....

  14. Masticatory function, taste, and salivary flow in young healthy adults

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho, Polliane M.; Castelo, Paula M.; Carpenter, Guy; Gavião, Maria Beatriz D

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate masticatory function and taste and their possible relationship with salivary flow in young adults with good oral health. The study also examined whether anthropometric measurements and gender could influence the variables studied. A total of 171 subjects were selected (125 females, 46 males). Masticatory performance was evaluated with the sieve method, and perceived masticatory ability was measured using the visual analogue scale. Taste was evaluated using the ...

  15. Ochratoxin A in blood of healthy population in Zagreb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domijan, A M; Peraica, M; Fuchs, R; Lucić, A; Radić, B; Balija, M; Bosanac, I; Grgicević, D

    1999-09-01

    Healthy blood donors from the city of Zagreb were checked for the presence of a nephrotoxic mycotoxin ochratoxin A (OTA) in the plasma. Samples of blood were collected in June, September, and December 1997, and March 1998, totalling 200 or 50 in each round. The concentrations of OTA were measured using high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) method (detection limit 0.2 ng OTA/ml of plasma). The frequency of OTA-positive samples (> 0.2 ng/ml of plasma) showed significant seasonal variation (P plasma). The estimated daily intake was 0.26 ng/kg b.w., that is, substantially below the tolerable daily intake proposed by World Health Organization (16.0 ng/kg b.w.).

  16. Fish oil-supplementation increases appetite in healthy adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsbo-Svendsen, Signe; Rønsholdt, Mia Dybkjær; Lauritzen, Lotte

    2013-01-01

    Marine n-3 fatty acids are hypothesized to have beneficial effects on obesity and cancer cachexia possibly via an effect on appetite. The aim of this study was to investigate, if fish oil-supplementation affects appetite in healthy individuals. In a randomized cross-over study, 20 normal-weight s......Marine n-3 fatty acids are hypothesized to have beneficial effects on obesity and cancer cachexia possibly via an effect on appetite. The aim of this study was to investigate, if fish oil-supplementation affects appetite in healthy individuals. In a randomized cross-over study, 20 normal...... with the paired design considering oil sequence and gender. All subjects completed both periods with a compliance of 96% and oil sequence did not affect the results. There was no difference between the two supplements in any pre-breakfast appetite scores, but the post-prandial sensation of being full was 1.21. cm...... (0.20; 2.22) lower after the fish oil-period. Furthermore, there was a supplement × gender-interaction on "desire to eat more" due to a score increase of 1.09. cm (0.28; 1.90) in women only. These results suggest that marine n-3 fatty acid may increase appetite. This finding would be potentially...

  17. The microbiome of the middle meatus in healthy adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay R Ramakrishnan

    Full Text Available Rhinitis and rhinosinusitis are multifactorial disease processes in which bacteria may play a role either in infection or stimulation of the inflammatory process. Rhinosinusitis has been historically studied with culture-based techniques, which have implicated several common pathogens in disease states. More recently, the NIH Human Microbiome Project has examined the microbiome at a number of accessible body sites, and demonstrated differences among healthy and diseased patients. Recent DNA-based sinus studies have suggested that healthy sinuses are not sterile, as was previously believed, but the normal sinonasal microbiome has yet to be thoroughly examined. Middle meatus swab specimens were collected from 28 consecutive patients presenting with no signs or symptoms of rhinosinusitis. Bacterial colonization was assessed in these specimens using quantitative PCR and 16S rRNA pyrosequencing. All subjects were positive for bacterial colonization of the middle meatus. Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Propionibacterium acnes were the most prevalent and abundant microorganisms detected. Rich and diverse bacterial assemblages are present in the sinonasal cavity in the normal state, including opportunistic pathogens typically found in the nasopharynx. This work helps establish a baseline for understanding how the sinonasal microbiome may impact diseases of the upper airways.

  18. Prevalence of Serum Celiac Antibodies in a Multiracial Asian Population-A First Study in the Young Asian Adult Population of Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Theresa Wan-Chen Yap; Weng-Kai Chan; Alex Hwong-Ruey Leow; Ahmad Najib Azmi; Mun-Fai Loke; Jamuna Vadivelu; Khean-Lee Goh

    2015-01-01

    Background Celiac disease (CD) is an immune-mediated disorder induced by the ingestion of gluten in genetically susceptible persons. The prevalence of CD in Malaysia is unknown. We aim to determine the seroprevalence of CD antibodies and also investigate the correlation between H. pylori infection and CD in the young and healthy multiracial Malaysian population. Methods Healthy young adult volunteers between the ages of 18?30 years were consecutively recruited from June 2012 to May 2014 at th...

  19. The interplay between healthy behaviors and health outcomes among older adults in Russia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M. Cramm (Jane); A. Selivanova (Anna)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Background: Worldwide, populations are aging and the health of elderly individuals is deteriorating. Healthy habits may slow the process of health deterioration, but research investigating relationships between health and various health behaviors is lacking. This

  20. Understanding noise stress-induced cognitive impairment in healthy adults and its implications for schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernice Wright

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Noise stress (NS is detrimental to many aspects of human health and behavior. Understanding the effect of noise stressors on human cognitive function is a growing area of research and is crucial to helping clinical populations, such as those with schizophrenia, which are particularly sensitive to stressors. A review of electronic databases for studies assessing the effect of acute NS on cognitive functions in healthy adults revealed 31 relevant studies. The review revealed (1 NS exerts a clear negative effect on attention, working memory and episodic recall, and (2 personality characteristics, in particular neuroticism, and sleep influence the impact of noise stressors on performance in interaction with task complexity. Previous findings of consistent impairment in NS-relevant cognitive domains, heightened sensitivity to stressors, elevated neuroticism and sleep disturbances in schizophrenia, taken together with the findings of this review, highlight the need for empirical studies to elucidate whether NS, a common aspect of urban environments, exacerbates cognitive deficits and other symptoms in schizophrenia and related clinical populations.

  1. Reference ranges of cholesterol sub-fractions in random healthy adults in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koumaré, Alice T C R Kiba; Sakandé, Linda P L; Kabré, Elie; Sondé, Issaka; Simporé, Jacques; Sakandé, Jean

    2015-01-01

    In Burkina Faso, the values that serve as clinical chemistry reference ranges are those provided by European manufacturers' insert sheets based on reference of the Western population. However, studies conducted so far in some African countries reported significant differences in normal laboratory ranges compared with those of the industrialized world. The aim of this study was to determine reference values of cholesterol fractions in apparently normal adults in Burkina Faso that could be used to better assess the risks related to cardiovascular diseases. Study population was 279 healthy subjects aged from 15 to 50 years including 139 men and 140 women recruited at the Regional Center of Blood Transfusion of Ouagadougou, capital city of Burkina Faso (West Africa). Exclusion criteria based on history and clinical examination were used for defining reference individuals. The dual-step precipitation of HDL cholesterol sub-fractions using dextran sulfate was performed according to the procedure described by Hirano. The medians were calculated and reference values were determined at 2.5th and 97.5th percentiles. The median and upper ranges for total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, total HDL cholesterol and HDL2 cholesterol were observed to be higher in women in comparison to men (p values for limited resources countries. Our study provides the first cholesterol sub-fractions (HDL2 and HDL3) reference ranges for interpretation of laboratory results for cardiovascular risk management in Burkina Faso.

  2. Psychosocial Factors Associated with Diet Quality in a Working Adult Population

    OpenAIRE

    Ferranti, Erin Poe; DUNBAR, SANDRA B.; Higgins, Melinda; Dai, Jun; Ziegler, Thomas R.; Frediani, Jennifer K; Reilly, Carolyn; Brigham, Kenneth L.

    2013-01-01

    The associations between specific intra- and inter-personal psychosocial factors and dietary patterns were explored in a healthy, working adult population. Participants (N= 640) were enrolled in a prospective predictive health study and characterized by a mean age of 48(SD = 11) years, 67% women, and 30% minority. Baseline psychosocial measures of perceived stress, depressive symptoms, social support, and family functioning were examined for their relationships with three diet quality indices...

  3. Dopamine Transporter Genotype Predicts Attentional Asymmetry in Healthy Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Daniel P.; O'Connell, Redmond G.; Nathan, Pradeep J.; Bellgrove, Mark A.

    2012-01-01

    A number of recent studies suggest that DNA variation in the dopamine transporter gene (DAT1) influences spatial attention asymmetry in clinical populations such as ADHD, but confirmation in non-clinical samples is required. Since non-spatial factors such as attentional load have been shown to influence spatial biases in clinical conditions, here…

  4. Pharmacokinetic Study of Nifedipine in Healthy Adult Male Human ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: This study confirms the rapid absorption of nifedipine in humans. AUC was similar to that previously reported for Nigerians but slightly lower than that stated in the literature for other south Asian races. Further studies on large segments of the local population using the non-compartmental model for

  5. Pharmacokinetic Study of Nifedipine in Healthy Adult Male Human ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    Conclusion: This study confirms the rapid absorption of nifedipine in humans. AUC was similar to that previously reported for Nigerians but slightly lower than that stated in the literature for other south Asian races. Further studies on large segments of the local population using the non-compartmental model for.

  6. Lipid profile of healthy adult Nigerians in Port Harcourt, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Hyperlipidaemia is a major cardiovascular risk factor for coronary artery disease, atherosclerosis, hypertension and stroke. It is thought that serum cholesterol levels are low in Nigerians as shown by results of a population survey done over twenty years ago. In addition the last national non communicable ...

  7. Extending healthy ageing: nutrient sensitive pathway and centenarian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davinelli Sergio

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Ageing is a challenge for any living organism and human longevity is a complex phenotype. With increasing life expectancy, maintaining long-term health, functionality and well-being during ageing has become an essential goal. To increase our understanding of how ageing works, it may be advantageous to analyze the phenotype of centenarians, perhaps one of the best examples of successful ageing. Healthy ageing involves the interaction between genes, the environment, and lifestyle factors, particularly diet. Besides evaluating specific gene-environment interactions in relation to exceptional longevity, it is important to focus attention on modifiable lifestyle factors such as diet and nutrition to achieve extension of health span. Furthermore, a better understanding of human longevity may assist in the design of strategies to extend the duration of optimal human health. In this article we briefly discuss relevant topics on ageing and longevity with particular focus on dietary patterns of centenarians and nutrient-sensing pathways that have a pivotal role in the regulation of life span. Finally, we also discuss the potential role of Nrf2 system in the pro-ageing signaling emphasizing its phytohormetic activation.

  8. Effect of cortisol diurnal rhythm on emotional memory in healthy young adults

    OpenAIRE

    Nagamine, Mitsue; Noguchi, Hiroko; Takahashi, Nobuaki; Kim, Yoshiharu; Matsuoka, Yutaka

    2017-01-01

    Few studies have investigated the relationship between cortisol diurnal rhythm and cognitive function in healthy young adults, especially for emotional memory. To address this deficiency, this study examined the effect of diurnal cortisol slope (DCS) and heart rate variability (HRV) on emotional memory. Participants included healthy volunteers (44 men and 23 women; mean age 20.60 yrs). Participants were shown emotionally arousing slides and were asked to return to the laboratory one week late...

  9. Differences in muscle coactivation during postural control between healthy older and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Koutatsu; Yamada, Minoru; Uemura, Kazuki; Yamada, Yosuke; Ichihashi, Noriaki; Tsuboyama, Tadao

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the difference in muscle coactivation during postural control between older and young adults and to identify the characteristics of postural control strategies in older adults by investigating the relationship between muscle coactivation and postural control ability. Forty-six healthy older adults (82.0±7.5 years) and 34 healthy young adults (22.1±2.3 years) participated. The postural tasks selected consisted of static standing, functional reach, functional stability boundary and gait. Coactivation of the ankle joint was recorded during each task via electromyography (EMG). The older adults showed significantly higher coactivation than the young adults during the tasks of standing, functional reach, functional stability boundary (forward), and gait (pPostural sway area (ρ=0.42, polder adults, i.e., muscle coactivation was significantly higher in the elderly with low postural control ability than in the elderly with high balance ability. Increased muscle coactivation could be a necessary change to compensate for a deterioration in postural control accompanying healthy aging. Further research is needed to clarify in greater detail positive and negative effects of muscle coactivation on postural control. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The Healthy Mind, Healthy Mobility Trial: A Novel Exercise Program for Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Dawn P; Gregory, Michael A; Zou, Guangyong; Liu-Ambrose, Teresa; Shigematsu, Ryosuke; Hachinski, Vladimir; Fitzgerald, Clara; Petrella, Robert J

    2016-02-01

    More evidence is needed to conclude that a specific program of exercise and/or cognitive training warrants prescription for the prevention of cognitive decline. We examined the effect of a group-based standard exercise program for older adults, with and without dual-task training, on cognitive function in older adults without dementia. We conducted a proof-of-concept, single-blinded, 26-wk randomized controlled trial whereby participants recruited from preexisting exercise classes at the Canadian Centre for Activity and Aging in London, Ontario, were randomized to the intervention group (exercise + dual-task [EDT]) or the control group (exercise only [EO]). Each week (2 or 3 d · wk(-1)), both groups accumulated a minimum of 50 min of aerobic exercise (target 75 min) from standard group classes and completed 45 min of beginner-level square-stepping exercise. The EDT group was also required to answer cognitively challenging questions while doing beginner-level square-stepping exercise (i.e., dual-task training). The effect of interventions on standardized global cognitive function (GCF) scores at 26 wk was compared between the groups using the linear mixed effects model approach. Participants (n = 44; 68% female; mean [SD] age: 73.5 [7.2] yr) had on average, objective evidence of cognitive impairment (Montreal Cognitive Assessment scores, mean [SD]: 24.9 [1.9]) but not dementia (Mini-Mental State Examination scores, mean [SD]: 28.8 [1.2]). After 26 wk, the EDT group showed greater improvement in GCF scores compared with the EO group (difference between groups in mean change [95% CI]: 0.20 SD [0.01-0.39], P = 0.04). A 26-wk group-based exercise program combined with dual-task training improved GCF in community-dwelling older adults without dementia.

  11. Population pharmacokinetics of tafenoquine during malaria prophylaxis in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Bruce G; Miller, Ann K; Nasveld, Peter E; Reid, Mark G; Harris, Ivor E; Edstein, Michael D

    2007-08-01

    The population pharmacokinetics of tafenoquine were studied in Australian soldiers taking tafenoquine for malarial prophylaxis. The subjects (476 males and 14 females) received a loading dose of 200 mg tafenoquine base daily for 3 days, followed by a weekly dose of 200 mg tafenoquine for 6 months. Blood samples were collected from each subject after the last loading dose and then at weeks 4, 8, and 16. Plasma tafenoquine concentrations were determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Population modeling was performed with NONMEM, using a one-compartment model. Typical values of the first-order absorption rate constant (K(a)), clearance (CL/F), and volume of distribution (V/F) were 0.243 h(-1), 0.056 liters/h/kg, and 23.7 liters/kg, respectively. The intersubject variability (coefficient of variation) in CL/F and V/F was 18% and 22%, respectively. The interoccasion variability in CL/F was 18%, and the mean elimination half-life was 12.7 days. A positive linear association between weight and both CL/F and V/F was found, but this had insufficient impact to warrant dosage adjustments. Model robustness was assessed by a nonparametric bootstrap (200 samples). A degenerate visual predictive check indicated that the raw data mirrored the postdose concentration-time profiles simulated (n = 1,000) from the final model. Individual pharmacokinetic estimates for tafenoquine did not predict the prophylactic outcome with the drug for four subjects who relapsed with Plasmodium vivax malaria, as they had similar pharmacokinetics to those who were free of malaria infection. No obvious pattern existed between the plasma tafenoquine concentration and the pharmacokinetic parameter values for subjects with and without drug-associated moderate or severe adverse events. This validated population pharmacokinetic model satisfactorily describes the disposition and variability of tafenoquine used for long-term malaria prophylaxis in a large cohort of soldiers on military

  12. Smokeless tobacco use in adult Nigerian population | Desalu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study aim was to establish the prevalence and determinants of smokeless tobacco use in Nigerian adults' population. Across-sectional survey of 1776 adults inYola, North-East Nigeria was carried out in June 2007.A modified World Health Organization (WHO) tobacco survey questionnaire was used for interview and ...

  13. 3D strength surfaces for ankle plantar- and dorsi-flexion in healthy adults: an isometric and isokinetic dynamometry study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara J. Hussain

    2016-11-01

    of ankle strength in healthy adults than previously reported. These models may allow researchers and clinicians to quantify ankle strength deficits and track recovery in patient populations, using angle- and velocity-specific ankle strength values and/or strength percentiles from healthy adults.

  14. Strategic creatine supplementation and resistance training in healthy older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candow, Darren G; Vogt, Emelie; Johannsmeyer, Sarah; Forbes, Scott C; Farthing, Jonathan P

    2015-07-01

    Creatine supplementation in close proximity to resistance training may be an important strategy for increasing muscle mass and strength; however, it is unknown whether creatine supplementation before or after resistance training is more effective for aging adults. Using a double-blind, repeated measures design, older adults (50-71 years) were randomized to 1 of 3 groups: creatine before (CR-B: n = 15; creatine (0.1 g/kg) immediately before resistance training and placebo (0.1 g/kg cornstarch maltodextrin) immediately after resistance training), creatine after (CR-A: n = 12; placebo immediately before resistance training and creatine immediately after resistance training), or placebo (PLA: n = 12; placebo immediately before and immediately after resistance training) for 32 weeks. Prior to and following the study, body composition (lean tissue, fat mass; dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) and muscle strength (1-repetition maximum leg press and chest press) were assessed. There was an increase over time for lean tissue mass and muscle strength and a decrease in fat mass (p Creatine supplementation, independent of the timing of ingestion, increased muscle strength more than placebo (leg press: CR-B, Δ 36.6 ± 26.6 kg; CR-A, Δ 40.8 ± 38.4 kg; PLA, Δ 5.6 ± 35.1 kg; chest press: CR-B, Δ 15.2 ± 13.0 kg; CR-A, Δ 15.7 ± 12.5 kg; PLA, Δ 1.9 ± 14.7 kg; p creatine supplementation improves muscle strength, with greater gains in lean tissue mass resulting from post-exercise creatine supplementation.

  15. Serum inhibin A and inhibin B in healthy prepubertal, pubertal, and adolescent girls and adult women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sehested, Astrid Marie; Juul, A A; Andersson, A M

    2000-01-01

    of inhibin A, inhibin B, FSH, LH and estradiol in a cross-sectional study of 403 healthy schoolgirls (aged 6 -20 yr) in relation to age and stage of puberty and in 181 healthy nonpregnant women (aged 20-32 yr) in relation to stage of the menstrual cycle. In addition, inhibin A and inhibin B were measured...... daily throughout the menstrual cycle in 10 healthy adult women. Levels of inhibin B are low or undetectable in prepubertal girls (median, 26.5 pg/mL; 95% prediction interval,...

  16. Pharmacokinetics, Safety, and Tolerability of Vortioxetine Following Single- and Multiple-Dose Administration in Healthy Japanese Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuno, Kumi; Nakamura, Koki; Aritomi, Yutaka; Nishimura, Akira

    2017-09-21

    Three phase 1 randomized single-center studies assessed the pharmacokinetics, safety, and tolerability of vortioxetine after single- and multiple-dose administration in healthy Japanese adults. Study 1 assessed the pharmacokinetics of vortioxetine after administration of single rising doses to men and multiple doses to men and women; study 2 evaluated vortioxetine pharmacokinetics in elderly adults; and study 3 assessed food effects on vortioxetine pharmacokinetics in healthy men. The primary end points included pharmacokinetic parameters of vortioxetine and incidence of adverse events (AEs). Across all studies, 130 participants were randomized and 128 participants completed the studies. Vortioxetine was absorbed and eliminated from plasma slowly, and exposure to vortioxetine increased in an almost dose-proportional manner. No clinically significant differences in the pharmacokinetics of vortioxetine or its metabolites were observed between the sexes in young and elderly adults. Study 3 demonstrated that vortioxetine and its metabolites had similar pharmacokinetics when administered in the fasted and fed states. Importantly, vortioxetine was safe and tolerated, with incidence of AEs comparable to that of placebo. No deaths or serious AEs leading to trial discontinuation were observed. Overall, vortioxetine pharmacokinetics, safety, and tolerability in Japanese adults were comparable to reports in non-Japanese populations. © 2017 The Authors. Clinical Pharmacology in Drug Development Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  17. Standard 12-lead electrocardiogram in healthy young adults in South-Western Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunlade, Oluwadare; Ukponmwan, Otas E; Ayoka, Abiodun O; Akintomide, Anthony O; Ogunlade, Oluwasayo B

    2012-12-01

    This study aimed to determine the mean values of electrocardiographic parameters, and to describe the pattern of electrocardiograms in young adults. 353 healthy young adults were evaluated by medical history, physical examination, and standard 12-lead electrocardiogram. The mean heart rate, QRS duration, PR interval, QT interval, corrected QT interval (QTc),T wave axis, P wave duration and amplitude were: 74 +/- 9 beats per min, 0.09 +/- 0.01s, 0.15 +/- 0.02 s, 0.36 +/- 0.02 s, 0.40 +/- 0.02 s, 54 +/- 20 degrees, 49 +/- 14 degrees, 0.09 +/- 0.01 s, 1.28 +/- 0.41 mm, respectively. The dominant electrocardiographic peculiarity among the participants was early repolarization which was characterized by male preponderance. This study defined baseline values for electrocardiographic variables in healthy young adults. Early repolarization is a common ECG feature in young adults.

  18. Serum inhibin A and inhibin B in healthy prepubertal, pubertal, and adolescent girls and adult women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sehested, Anne; Juul, A A; Andersson, Annica

    2000-01-01

    Biochemical assessment of gonadal function during maturation in girls and in adult women can be troublesome. With the recent advent of specific assays for the gonadal peptides inhibin A and inhibin B, it might be possible to achieve a clearer picture of events. We therefore determined serum levels...... daily throughout the menstrual cycle in 10 healthy adult women. Levels of inhibin B are low or undetectable in prepubertal girls (median, 26.5 pg/mL; 95% prediction interval,...

  19. [Transcutaneous carbon dioxide measurements. Dynamics during hyperventilation in healthy adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertram, L; Stiel, S; Grözinger, M

    2012-12-01

    In various fields of medicine the transcutaneous measurement (p(tc)CO₂) of carbon dioxide pressure (pCO₂) has been accepted as a reliable measuring method while for other disciplines the method has been doubted. Nevertheless, some minor therapeutic interventions, such as electroconvulsive therapy and breathing biofeedback used in psychiatry could benefit considerably from transcutaneous monitoring. The study presented here investigated the accuracy of transcutaneous measurement as compared to end-tidal (p(et)CO₂) and capillary (p(cap)CO₂) measurements in hyperventilation. In this study 22 healthy volunteers underwent a hyperventilation procedure with assessment of p(tc)CO₂, p(et)CO₂, p(cap)CO₂, breathing and pulse rates. The three measurement methods of pCO₂ were compared pairwise by Bland-Altman diagrams before and at the end of hyperventilation. The time delay between p(et)CO₂ and p(tc)CO₂ was determined for each individual participant by a stepwise shifting the time course of p(et)CO₂ until an optimal congruence with p(tc)CO₂ was reached. The study group consisted of 10 men and 12 women with a mean age of 30.5 ± 9.4 years. The experimental procedure lasted an average of 27.7 min including 1.9 min for the baseline measurement and 11.6 min for the actual hyperventilation procedure. The course of pCO₂ from baseline to the end of the hyperventilation phase and back to normal baseline followed a U-curve in all individuals. The pCO₂ could be reduced by a mean of approximately 45 % for the 3 measurement methods from the individual baseline of 35 mmHg. The breathing and pulse frequencies increased by 26.8 % and 17.3 %, respectively. A total of 91 p(cap)CO₂ values (mean 4 values per person) and 1,218 pairs of p(et)CO₂ and p(tc)CO₂ values (mean 55 values per person) could be evaluated. The difference of the pCO₂ values for two measurement methods revealed similar standard deviations in the Bland-Altman diagrams of about 2.5 mm

  20. Palmar abduction: reliability of 6 measurement methods in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Kraker, M; Selles, R W; Schreuders, T A R; Stam, H J; Hovius, S E R

    2009-03-01

    The aim of the current study was to assess reliability of 6 palmar thumb abduction measurement methods: conventional goniometry, the Inter Metacarpal Distance, the method described by the American Medical Association, the method described by the American Society of Hand Therapists, and 2 new methods: the Pollexograph-thumb and the Pollexograph-metacarpal. An experienced hand therapist and a less-experienced examiner (trainee in plastic surgery) measured the right hands of 25 healthy subjects. Palmar abduction was measured both passively and actively. Means and ranges for palmar abduction were calculated, and intrarater and interrater reliability was expressed in intraclass correlation coefficients, standard errors of measurement, and smallest detectable differences. Mean active and passive angles measured with goniometry resembled values measured with the Pollexograph-thumb method (approximately 60 degrees). Mean angles found with the Pollexograph-metacarpal method were approximately 48 degrees. Mean active and passive distances for the Inter Metacarpal Distance were 64 mm. Mean active and passive distances found with the American Society of Hand Therapists method were 97 to 101 mm, and mean distances found with the American Medical Association method were 67 to 70 mm for active and passive measurements. Intraclass correlation coefficients for the Pollexograph-thumb, Pollexograph-metacarpal, and the Inter Metacarpal Distance indicated good and significantly higher intrarater agreement for active and passive measurements than intraclass correlation coefficients of conventional goniometry, the American Society of Hand Therapists method, and the American Medical Association method, which showed only moderate agreement. For interrater reliability, the same measurement methods were found to be most reliable: the Pollexograph-thumb, Pollexograph-metacarpal, and the Inter Metacarpal Distance. We found that the Pollexograph-thumb, Pollexograph-metacarpal, and the Inter

  1. Prevalence of sleepwalking in an adult population

    OpenAIRE

    Mume, Celestine Okorome

    2010-01-01

    Background: Sleepwalking consists of a series of behavioral activities that occur during sleep. These activities may be simple, complex or aggressive in nature. They include motor activities, confusion, and amnesia for the events. Sleepwalking is a disorder of arousal from non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep. In children, episodes of sleepwalking are rarely violent; in adults, however, sleepwalking might include violence, which could endanger the patient or others and might precipitate legal ...

  2. Video analysis of sagittal spinal posture in healthy young and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Yi-Liang; Tully, Elizabeth A; Galea, Mary P

    2009-01-01

    Changes in posture are of concern because of their association with pain or impaired physical function. Previous studies that have used computer-aided video motion analysis systems to measure posture have been compromised by the use of problematic models of skin marker placement. This study aimed to quantify and compare sagittal spinal posture in standing and sitting between young and older adults using a two-dimensional PEAK Motus system and a revised skin marker model. Twenty-four healthy young adults and 22 healthy older adults volunteered for this study. The angles of the upper and lower cervical spine, thoracic spine, lumbar spine as well as the orientations of the head, neck, and pelvic plane with respect to an external reference were measured in the standing and sitting positions. Compared to young adults, healthy older adults demonstrated a forward head posture, with increased lower cervical spine flexion and increased upper cervical extension in both positions. Older adults also sat with significantly increased thoracic kyphosis and decreased lumbar spine flexion. The angular relationship between adjacent spinal regions in the sagittal plane can be objectively quantified using image-based analysis. The concept that the anteroposterior tilt of the pelvis in standing dictates the lumbar and thoracic curves was supported by the correlations between these adjacent regions in both age groups. The model of skin marker placement used in this study can have a broader application as a clinical tool for image-based postural assessment.

  3. Cognitive functioning in healthy older adults aged 64-81: a cohort study into the effects of age, sex, and education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hooren, S A H; Valentijn, A M; Bosma, H; Ponds, R W H M; van Boxtel, M P J; Jolles, J

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine a possible differential effect of age, education, and sex on cognitive speed, verbal memory, executive functioning, and verbal fluency in healthy older adults. A group of 578 healthy participants in the age range of 64-81 was recruited from a large population study of healthy adults (Maastricht Aging Study). Even in healthy individuals in this restricted age range, there is a clear, age-related decrease in performance on executive functioning, verbal fluency, verbal memory, and cognitive speed tasks. The capacity to inhibit information is affected most. Education had a substantial effect on cognitive functioning: participants with a middle or high level of education performed better on cognitive tests than did participants with a low level of education. Women performed better than men on verbal memory tasks. Therefore, education and sex must be taken into account when examining an older individual's cognitive performance.

  4. Clinical assessment of organizational strategy: An examination of healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Pia; White, Desirée A

    2015-06-01

    During the assessment of patients with cognitive difficulties, clinicians often examine strategic processing, particularly the ability to use organization-based strategies to efficiently complete various tasks. Several commonly used neuropsychological tasks are currently thought to provide measures of organizational strategic processing, but empirical evidence for the construct validity of these strategic measures is needed before interpreting them as measuring the same underlying ability. This is particularly important for the assessment of organizational strategic processing because the measures span cognitive domains (e.g., memory strategy, language strategy) as well as types of organization. In the present study, 200 adults were administered cognitive tasks commonly used in clinical practice to assess organizational strategic processing. Factor analysis was used to examine whether these measures of organizational strategic processing, which involved different cognitive domains and types of organization, could be operationalized as measuring a unitary construct. A very good-fitting model of the data demonstrated no significant shared variance among any of the strategic variables from different tasks (root mean square error of approximation organizational strategic processing is highly specific to the demands and goals of individual tasks even when tasks share commonalities such as involving the same cognitive domain. In the design of neuropsychological batteries involving the assessment of organizational strategic processing, it is recommended that various strategic measures across cognitive domains and types of organizational processing are selected as guided by each patient's individual cognitive difficulties. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. [Clinical experience of streptococcal balanoposthitis in 47 healthy adult males].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakatsuki, Akira

    2005-11-01

    Between January 2001 and December 2003, 189 adult patients with balanoposthitis were treated in my clinic. Swab culture from the affected lesion detected Streptococcus pyogens in 47 cases (PYO group), other bacterial species including Candida albicans in 93 (B group), no bacterial growth in 27 (NB group) and swab culture was not done because clinical symptom was trivial in 22 (N group). The PYO group had a significantly higher prevalence of purulent discharge (68.1%) and local pain (38.3%), compared to the B group (25.8% and 21.5%, respectively) or the NB group (33.3% and 11.1%, respectively). Phimosis was absent in 7 cases in the PYO group. The route of infection in the PYO group was considered to be predominantly via sexual contact (PYO group 78.7%, B group 52.7%, NB group 59.3%), especially through fellatio by commercial sex worker for the majority of the PYO patients. The latent period (from sexual contact to the onset of symptoms) was 3 days or less in 40.5% and 4 to 7 days in 35.1% in the PYO group, whereas it was more than a week or not remembered in the majority of the B and NB groups, disapproving the causal relationship with sexual contact in such cases. Treatment with tosufloxacin tosilate or amoxicillin was effective in most cases of streptococcal balanoposthitis. Our results suggest that Streptococcus pyogens is one of the causative organisms of sexually transmitted balanoposthitis.

  6. Sustainable healthy eating behaviour of young adults: towards a novel methodological approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieniak, Zuzanna; Żakowska-Biemans, Sylwia; Kostyra, Eliza; Raats, Monique

    2016-07-15

    Food, nutrition and health policy makers are poised with two pertinent issues more than any other: obesity and climate change. Consumer research has focused primarily on specific areas of sustainable food, such as organic food, local or traditional food, meat substitution and/or reduction. More holistic view of sustainable healthy eating behaviour has received less attention, albeit that more research is emerging in this area. This study protocol that aims to investigate young consumers' attitudes and behaviour towards sustainable and healthy eating by applying a multidisciplinary approach, taking into account economical, marketing, public health and environmental related issues. In order to achieve this goal, consumers' reactions on interactive tailored informational messages about sustainable from social, environmental and economical point of view, as well as healthy eating behaviour in a group of young adults will be investigated using randomized controlled trial. To undertake the objective, the empirical research is divided into three studies: 1) Qualitative longitudinal research to explore openness to adopting sustainable healthy eating behaviour; 2) Qualitative research with the objective to develop a sustainable healthy eating behaviour index; and 3) Randomised controlled trial to describe consumers' reactions on interactive tailored messages about sustainable healthy eating in young consumers. To our knowledge, this is the first randomised controlled trial to test the young adults reactions to interactive tailor made messages on sustainable healthy eating using mobile smartphone app. Mobile applications designed to deliver intervention offer new possibilities to influence young adults behaviour in relation to diet and sustainability. Therefore, the study will provide valuable insights into drivers of change towards more environmentally sustainable and healthy eating behaviours. NCT02776410 registered May 16, 2016.

  7. Sustainable healthy eating behaviour of young adults: towards a novel methodological approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzanna Pieniak

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Food, nutrition and health policy makers are poised with two pertinent issues more than any other: obesity and climate change. Consumer research has focused primarily on specific areas of sustainable food, such as organic food, local or traditional food, meat substitution and/or reduction. More holistic view of sustainable healthy eating behaviour has received less attention, albeit that more research is emerging in this area. Methods/design This study protocol that aims to investigate young consumers’ attitudes and behaviour towards sustainable and healthy eating by applying a multidisciplinary approach, taking into account economical, marketing, public health and environmental related issues. In order to achieve this goal, consumers’ reactions on interactive tailored informational messages about sustainable from social, environmental and economical point of view, as well as healthy eating behaviour in a group of young adults will be investigated using randomized controlled trial. To undertake the objective, the empirical research is divided into three studies: 1 Qualitative longitudinal research to explore openness to adopting sustainable healthy eating behaviour; 2 Qualitative research with the objective to develop a sustainable healthy eating behaviour index; and 3 Randomised controlled trial to describe consumers’ reactions on interactive tailored messages about sustainable healthy eating in young consumers. Discussion To our knowledge, this is the first randomised controlled trial to test the young adults reactions to interactive tailor made messages on sustainable healthy eating using mobile smartphone app. Mobile applications designed to deliver intervention offer new possibilities to influence young adults behaviour in relation to diet and sustainability. Therefore, the study will provide valuable insights into drivers of change towards more environmentally sustainable and healthy eating behaviours. Trial

  8. Nutritional status in the healthy longeval population from Sardinia (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffa, R; Floris, G; Lodde, M; Cotza, M; Marini, E

    2010-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate sex- and age-related variations of the nutritional status in the aged population of central Sardinia, a geographical area with a high frequency of long-lived people, particularly men. The sample consisted of 200 subjects over 70 years of age (men: N= 100, age= 81.0 +/- 7.0 years; women: N= 100, age= 81.5 +/- 7.3 years). Orroli (central Sardinia, Italy). Mini nutritional assessment (MNA) and bioelectrical impedance vector analysis (BIVA) were used to evaluate nutritional status and body composition. The indicators revealed a generally good nutritional status. The MNA results (men: 24.6 +/- 2.2; women: 23.4 +/- 2.5) showed that 64.1% of the subjects had a normal nutritional status and only a small proportion (1.2%) could be classified as malnourished. BIVA showed that most subjects (74.2%) were normal, while the prevalence of low body cell mass was 10.7% and that of dehydration 11.2%. According to the MNA, the nutritional status was significantly better in the men. Almost three-quarters of the men (73.1%) were well nourished vs. half of the women (50.6%). A worsening of the nutritional status with age was observed. The proportion of malnourished individuals, as assessed by MNA, increased from 0% to 9.1% from 70-79 to > 90 years. With respect to their contemporaries from other regions, the elderly of Orroli presented a better nutritional status, a similar worsening with age and generally higher sexual dimorphism.

  9. Fibromyalgia in the adult Danish population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prescott, E; Kjøller, Mette; Jacobsen, S

    1993-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies of fibromyalgia have so far been based on rheumatologic and general practice settings, which are poor proxies for the underlying population. The study is based on a national health interview survey carried out by the Danish Institute for Clinical Epidemiology in 1990......%). Eight subjects, all female, met the 1990 American College of Rheumatism criteria for fibromyalgia. Dropouts were regarded as not having fibromyalgia. The prevalence of fibromyalgia in the Danish population between 18 and 79 years of age was found to be a minimum estimate of 0.66% (95% confidence limits...

  10. Effects of Growth Hormone–Releasing Hormone on Cognitive Function in Adults With Mild Cognitive Impairment and Healthy Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Laura D.; Barsness, Suzanne M.; Borson, Soo; Merriam, George R.; Friedman, Seth D.; Craft, Suzanne; Vitiello, Michael V.

    2013-01-01

    Background Growth hormone–releasing hormone (GHRH), growth hormone, and insulinlike growth factor 1 have potent effects on brain function, their levels decrease with advancing age, and they likely play a role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease. Previously, we reported favorable cognitive effects of short-term GHRH administration in healthy older adults and provided preliminary evidence to suggest a similar benefit in adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Objective To examine the effects of GHRH on cognitive function in healthy older adults and in adults with MCI. Design Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Setting Clinical Research Center, University of Washington School of Medicine in Seattle. Participants A total of 152 adults (66 with MCI) ranging in age from 55 to 87 years (mean age, 68 years); 137 adults (76 healthy participants and 61 participants with MCI) successfully completed the study. Intervention Participants self-administered daily subcutaneous injections of tesamorelin (Theratechnologies Inc), a stabilized analog of human GHRH (1 mg/d), or placebo 30 minutes before bedtime for 20 weeks. At baseline, at weeks 10 and 20 of treatment, and after a 10-week washout (week 30), blood samples were collected, and parallel versions of a cognitive battery were administered. Before and after the 20-week intervention, participants completed an oral glucose tolerance test and a dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scan to measure body composition. Main Outcome Measures Primary cognitive outcomes were analyzed using analysis of variance and included 3 composites reflecting executive function, verbal memory, and visual memory. Executive function was assessed with Stroop Color-Word Interference, Task Switching, the Self-Ordered Pointing Test, and Word Fluency, verbal memory was assessed with Story Recall and the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test, and visual memory was assessed with the Visual-Spatial Learning Test and Delayed Match

  11. Problematic Video Game Play and ADHD Traits in an Adult Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagiotidi, Maria

    2017-05-01

    This study examined the relationship between problematic video game play (PVGP), video game usage, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) traits in an adult population. A sample of 205 healthy adult volunteers completed the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS), a video game usage questionnaire, and the Problem Video Game Playing Test (PVGT). A significant positive correlation was found between the ASRS and the PVGT. More specifically, inattention symptoms and time spent playing video games were the best predictors of PVGP. No relationship was found between frequency and duration of play and ADHD traits. Hyperactivity symptoms were not associated with PVGP. Our results suggest that there is a positive relationship between ADHD traits and problematic video game play. In particular, adults with higher level of self-reported inattention symptoms could be at higher risk of PVGP.

  12. Iodine nutrition in the adult population of Galicia (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rego-Iraeta, A; Pérez-Fdez, R; Cadarso-Suárez, C; Tomé, M; Fdez-Mariño, A; Mato, J A; Botana, M; Solache, I

    2007-02-01

    To identify the current state of iodine nutrition in the adult population of Galicia (Spain), which is considered iodine sufficient based on results from studies carried out on schoolchildren. Urinary iodine concentration (UIC) and its relationship with different socio-demographic variables were assessed. A cross-sectional study was carried out on the population aged above 18 years in the Autonomous Community of Galicia (Spain) during 2004. The UICs were determined in an isolated urine sample using Dunn's colorimetric method. Iodine status was based on World Health Organization/International Council for the Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders (WHO/ICCIDD) UIC. A total of 2877 urine samples were taken. Median UIC for the total Galician population was 75.6 microg/L. About 30% of the population showed a UIC below 50 microg/L. Educational level, place of residence (coast vs. inland), and consumption of iodized salt were independent variables associated with the iodine nutrition of the adult population of Galicia. There is "mild" iodine deficiency (WHO) in the adult population of Galicia, which affects all the groups analyzed and which is particularly significant in the group of women of a fertile age. The data obtained on the state of iodine nutrition in school-age populations cannot be extended to the adult population.

  13. Taurodontism in a young adult Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald-Jankowski, D S; Li, T T

    1993-08-01

    The first and second molars on the panoramic radiographs of 196 consecutive 15-19-year-old Chinese adults (male:female ratio; 46:54) were assessed in order to establish the prevalence of taurodontism, which is considered to be a marker of underlying genetic disease. The criteria of Shifman and Chanannel (Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 1978; 6: 200-3) were employed and the measurements made digitally. Taurodontism was present in 46.4% of patients in this series with a greater prevalence in females (56% compared to 36% in males, P taurodontism is not sufficiently sensitive to be a marker of genetic disease in Chinese.

  14. False positivity of ETV6/RUNX1 detected by FISH in healthy newborns and adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusk, Maria Schioldan; Lausten-Thomsen, Ulrik; Andersen, Mette Klarskov

    2014-01-01

    fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) (FISH probe sets, we screened 179,000 cells from ETV6-RUNX1-positive dilution series, healthy adults and random cord blood samples. The t(12;21) single fusion extra signal translocation probe and the ETV6 break apart probe...

  15. The Relationship between Relative Fundamental Frequency and a Kinematic Estimate of Laryngeal Stiffness in Healthy Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Victoria S.; Heller Murray, Elizabeth S.; Lien, Yu-An S.; Stepp, Cara E.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the relationship between the acoustic measure relative fundamental frequency (RFF) and a kinematic estimate of laryngeal stiffness. Method: Twelve healthy adults (mean age = 22.7 years, SD = 4.4; 10 women, 2 men) produced repetitions of /ifi/ while varying their vocal effort during simultaneous acoustic and video…

  16. Urinary excretion of dietary maillard reaction products in healthy adult female cats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooijen, van C.; Bosch, G.; Butre, C.I.; Poel, van der A.F.B.; Wierenga, P.A.; Alexander, L.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2016-01-01

    Download »Citation Alerts »Sign up for TOC email alerts Share »Email this content »Recommend to librarian Facebook Twitter doi:10.2527/jas.2015-9550 Urinary excretion of dietary Maillard reaction products in healthy adult female cats12 C. van Rooijen*, G. Bosch 3*, C. I. Butré†, A. F. B. van der

  17. Carer Knowledge and Perceptions of Healthy Lifestyles for Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melville, Craig A.; Hamilton, Sarah; Miller, Susan; Boyle, Susan; Robinson, Nicola; Pert, Carol; Hankey, Catherine R.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Carers can have a significant impact supporting people with intellectual disabilities to make healthy lifestyle choices. This study examines carers' training needs on diet and physical activity. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was undertaken of the knowledge and perceptions of carers supporting adults with intellectual disabilities.…

  18. Healthy living according to adults with intellectual disabilities: towards tailoring health promotion initiatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijken, N.M.; Naaldenberg, J.; Nijhuis, M.W.; Schrojenstein Lantman-de Valk, H.M.J. van

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A healthy lifestyle can prevent several health problems experienced by adults with intellectual disabilities (ID). For the development of effective and usable health promoting interventions for people with ID, the perspective of the intended audience should be taken into account. The aim

  19. Correlates of Intellectual Ability with Morphology of the Hippocampus and Amygdala in Healthy Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amat, Jose A.; Bansal, Ravi; Whiteman, Ronald; Haggerty, Rita; Royal, Jason; Peterson, Bradley S.

    2008-01-01

    Several prior imaging studies of healthy adults have correlated volumes of the hippocampus and amygdala with measures of general intelligence (IQ), with variable results. In this study, we assessed correlations between volumes of the hippocampus and amygdala and full-scale IQ scores (FSIQ) using a method of image analysis that permits detailed…

  20. Freely-Paced Walking In Healthy Adults Does Not Meet Minimum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Walking is a very popular form of physical activity and a brisk walking pace is often advised as a form of exercise. However, in order for exercise to enhance fitness it should be of sufficient intensity to elicit at least 50% of maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) and it is not known if a brisk walk in healthy adults elicits this ...

  1. Mechanism of Sequential Swallowing during Straw Drinking in Healthy Young and Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Stephanie K.; Corey, David M.; Hadskey, Leslie D.; Legendre, Calli; Priestly, Daniel H.; Rosenbek, John C.; Foundas, Anne L.

    2004-01-01

    Recent research has revealed differences between isolated and sequential swallowing in healthy young adults; however, the influence of normal aging on sequential swallowing has not been studied. Thus, the purpose of this investigation was to examine the effects of normal aging on deglutition during sequential straw drinking. Videofluoroscopic…

  2. A computerized algorithm for arousal detection in healthy adults and patients with Parkinson disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Gertrud Laura; Jennum, Poul; Kempfner, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    polysomnographic (PSG) recordings from a total of 24 subjects. Eight of the subjects were diagnosed with Parkinson disease (PD) and the rest (16) were healthy adults in various ages. The performance of the algorithm was validated in 3 settings: testing on the 8 patients with PD using the leave-one-out method...

  3. IgG subclasses in previously healthy adult patients with acute ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    has been known for more than 20 years that certain patients with IgG subclass deficiencies may develop recurrent respiratory tract infections, including pneumonia.I...; However, there are few studies of IgG subclass levels in previously healthy adult patients with acute community-acquired pneumonia,~ particularly of patients ...

  4. Health effects of protein intake in healthy adults: A systematic literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this systematic review is to assess the evidence behind the dietary requirement of protein and to assess the health effects of varying protein intake in healthy adults. The literature search covered the years 2000-2011. Prospective cohort, case-control, and intervention studies were i...

  5. Lung Volume during Swallowing: Single Bolus Swallows in Healthy Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegland, Karen M. Wheeler; Huber, Jessica E.; Pitts, Teresa; Sapienza, Christine M.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the relationship between swallowing and lung volume initiation in healthy adults during single swallows of boluses differing in volume and consistency. Differences in lung volume according to respiratory phase surrounding the swallow were also assessed. Method: Nine men and 11 women between the ages of 19 and 28 years…

  6. Lipid profile in an apparently healthy Nigerian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emma-Okon, B O; Onayade, A A; Adegoke, A O; Soyinka, J O; Ademigbuji, E A

    2014-12-01

    To describe the pattern of lipid profile of members of staff of a tertiary education institution in South-West Nigeria with a view to assessing risk of cardiovascular disease among them. One hundred and ninety three (193) members of staff of the Institution were involved in the study. Questionnaires were administered to obtain information on demographic characteristics and medical history of respondents. Weight, height and blood pressure of participants were measured and the Body Mass Index (BMI) calculated. Fasting plasma lipid profile parameters--Total cholesterol (TC), High Density Lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) , Low Density Lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and Triglycerides (TG)) were also determined in all the participants using standard assay methods. Mean TC, HDL-C, LDL-C and TG were 4.04 mmol/L, 1.63 mmol/L, 1.98 mmol/L and 0.92 mmol/L respectively . Mean BMI was 25.98 kg/m2. Twenty-eight (14.5%) participants had mean cholesterol values e" 5.2 mM/L, 19 men had HDL valueslipid parameters within reference range while 62 (32.8%) had abnormality in 1 or more of the parameters. Sixty two participants (32.1%) were overweight while 45 (23.3%) were obese. Statistically significant differences were found when TG and BMI levels of male participants were compared with those of their female counterparts. Abnormalities in lipid profile parameters were found mostly in participants who were 40 years and above. Age of participants correlated positively with total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol levels while LDL-C levels correlated negatively with HDL levels. A significant proportion of the population had abnormality in one or more Lipid profile parameters, the most common being low HDL cholesterol levels. A considerable number of participants were also either overweight or obese. Most of the abnormalities in lipid profile were found in participants e" 40 years. The study underscores a need to sensitise members of the community to regular lipid profile check up .

  7. Relationship of serum thyroid stimulating hormone with body mass index in healthy adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amrita Solanki

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate any possible relationship between serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH with body mass index (BMI in healthy adults. Materials and Methods: A total of 417 subjects aged 18-60 years who volunteered to get screened for thyroid illness with serum TSH have been enrolled from November 2012 to July 2013. Patients were divided into four groups based on BMI value: Underweight (BMI <18 kg/m 2 , normal (BMI: 18-22.9 kg/m 2 , overweight (BMI: 23-24.9 kg/m 2 , and obese (BMI ≥25 kg/m 2 . Result: In our study we found a significant variation (P < 0.001 in TSH with increasing BMI. As the BMI increased, mean TSH in the BMI range also increased. The individuals with higher BMI had higher TSH and this trend continued from underweight to Obese. The mean TSH of underweight group was 1.6036 mIU/L, normal weight group 2.1727 mIU/L, overweight group 2.2870 mIU/L and obese group 2.6416 mIU/L. Conclusion: In this study we found a significant relationship between serum TSH and BMI and mean TSH increased as BMI increased. Further large scale data from the population is required to confirm our findings.

  8. Gender differences in predictors of body weight and body weight change in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiriboga, David E; Ma, Yunsheng; Li, Wenjun; Olendzki, Barbara C; Pagoto, Sherry L; Merriam, Philip A; Matthews, Charles E; Hebert, James R; Ockene, Ira S

    2008-01-01

    Overweight and obesity are important predictors of a wide variety of health problems. Analysis of naturally occurring changes in body weight can provide valuable insights in improving our understanding of the influence of demographic, lifestyle, and psychosocial factors on weight gain in middle-age adults. To identify gender-specific predictors of body weight using cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses. Anthropometric, lifestyle and psychosocial factors were measured at baseline and then quarterly for 1 year in 572 healthy adult volunteers from Central Massachusetts who were recruited between 1994 and 1998. Linear mixed models were used to analyze the relationship between body weight and potential predictors, including demographic (e.g., age, educational level), lifestyle (e.g., diet, physical activity, smoking), and psychosocial (e.g., anxiety, depression) factors. Over the 1-year study period, on average, men gained 0.3 kg and women lost 0.2 kg. Predictors of lower body weight at baseline in both men and women included current cigarette smoking, greater leisure-time physical activity, and lower depression and anxiety scores. Lower body weights were associated with a lower percentage of caloric intake from protein and greater occupational physical activity levels only among men; and with higher education level only among women. Longitudinal predictors of 1-year weight gain among women included increased total caloric intake and decreased leisure-time physical activity, and among men, greater anxiety scores. Demographic, lifestyle and psychosocial factors are independently related to naturally occurring changes in body weight and have marked differential gender effects. These effects should be taken into consideration when designing interventions for weight-loss and maintenance at the individual and population levels.

  9. Nickel Nanoparticles Exposure and Reproductive Toxicity in Healthy Adult Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Kong

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Nickel is associated with reproductive toxicity. However, the reproductive toxicity of nickel nanoparticles (Ni NPs is unclear. Our goal was to determine the association between nickel nanoparticle exposure and reproductive toxicity. According to the one-generation reproductive toxicity standard, rats were exposed to nickel nanoparticles by gavage and we selected indicators including sex hormone levels, sperm motility, histopathology, and reproductive outcome etc. Experimental results showed nickel nanoparticles increased follicle stimulating hormone (FSH and luteinizing hormone (LH, and lowered etradiol (E2 serum levels at a dose of 15 and 45 mg/kg in female rats. Ovarian lymphocytosis, vascular dilatation and congestion, inflammatory cell infiltration, and increase in apoptotic cells were found in ovary tissues in exposure groups. For male rats, the weights decreased gradually, the ratio of epididymis weight over body weight increased, the motility of rat sperm changed, and the levels of FSH and testosterone (T diminished. Pathological results showed the shedding of epithelial cells of raw seminiferous tubule, disordered arrangement of cells in the tube, and the appearance of cell apoptosis and death in the exposure group. At the same time, Ni NPs resulted in a change of the reproductive index and the offspring development of rats. Further research is needed to elucidate exposure to human populations and mechanism of actions.

  10. Adoption of American Heart Association 2020 ideal healthy diet recommendations prevents weight gain in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forget, Geneviève; Doyon, Myriam; Lacerte, Guillaume; Labonté, Mélissa; Brown, Christine; Carpentier, André C; Langlois, Marie-France; Hivert, Marie-France

    2013-11-01

    In 2010, the American Heart Association established the concept of ideal cardiovascular health. Nationally representative data estimated that Healthy Diet Score. In a cohort of young adults (N=196), we aimed to investigate the prevalence of ideal cardiovascular health and ideal Healthy Diet Score and its association to weight gain over a 4-year follow-up period. Anthropometric measures, blood pressure, and blood samples were taken according to standardized procedures. Dietary intake was measured by a 3-day food diary and verified by a registered dietitian. We observed that only 0.5% of our sample met the criteria for ideal cardiovascular health and only 4.1% met the criteria for an ideal Healthy Diet Score. The components of the Healthy Diet Score with the lowest observance were consumption of fruits and vegetables (9.7%) and whole grains (14.8%). Meeting zero or one out of five of the Healthy Diet Score components was associated with increased risk of weight gain over 4 years compared with meeting at least two components (P=0.03). With the exception of dietary criteria, prevalence was high for achieving ideal levels of the remaining six cardiovascular health metrics. In conclusion, in this sample of young adults, a very low prevalence of ideal overall cardiovascular health was observed, mainly driven by poor dietary habits, and a poor Healthy Diet Score was associated with increased weight gain. Copyright © 2013 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. “Conviv\\^{e}ncia” Groups: Building Active and Healthy Communities of Older Adults in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia R. Bertoldo Benedetti

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In old age, social groups can be a crucial component for health and well-being. In 2009-2010, a follow-up survey was carried out in Florianópolis, Brazil to understand the impact of a variety of programs established since 2002 that were designed to enhance social activities among the older adult population. This study employed two surveys within the population of older adults in Florianópolis. The first survey interviewed a total of 875 older adults in 2002, and the second survey involved 1,705 older adults between 2009 and 2010. By 2010, many new programs were offered in the community and the enrollment of older adults in social programs followed similar trends. “Convivência” groups stood out as extremely popular social groups among this population. This paper discusses some of the potential outcomes associated with participation in “convivência” groups.

  12. Effects of Mindfulness-based interventions on salivary cortisol in healthy adults: a meta-analytical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji Sanada

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the effects of Mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs on salivary cortisol levels in healthy adult populations. Method. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs, published between January 1980 and June 2015 in PubMed, EMBASE, PsycINFO and the Cochrane library. The PRISMA and Cochrane guidelines were followed. The pooled effect sizes were calculated with the random-effects model, using Hedges’ g values, and heterogeneity was measured using the I2 statistic. The contribution of different characteristics of participants and programmes were assessed by meta-regression models, using beta coefficients. Results. Five RCTs with 190 participants in total were included in this systematic review. The overall effect size (ES for improving the state of health related to cortisol levels was moderately low (g=0.41; p=0.025, although moderate heterogeneity was found (I2=55; p=0.063. There were no significant differences between active (g=0.33; p=0.202 and passive (g=0.48; p=0.279 controls, but significant differences were found when comparing standard (g=0.81; p=0.002 and raw (g=0.03; p=0.896 measures. The percentage of women in each study was not related to ES. Nevertheless, age (beta=-0.03; p=0.039, the number of sessions (beta=0.33; p=0.007 and the total hours of the MBI (beta=0.06; p=0.005 were significantly related to ES, explaining heterogeneity (R2=1.00. Conclusions. Despite the scarce number of studies, our results suggest that MBIs might have some beneficial effect on cortisol secretion in healthy adult subjects. However, there is a need for further RCTs implemented in accordance with standard programmes and measurements of salivary cortisol under rigorous strategies in healthy adult populations.

  13. In adult patients with type 1 diabetes healthy lifestyle associates with a better cardiometabolic profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroux, C; Gingras, V; Desjardins, K; Brazeau, A-S; Ott-Braschi, S; Strychar, I; Rabasa-Lhoret, R

    2015-05-01

    Little is known about lifestyle habits of adults with type 1 diabetes (T1D) and their association with cardiometabolic risk (CMR) factors. The aims of the present study were to determine the prevalence of adults with T1D who adopted a healthy lifestyle and to explore the association between a healthy lifestyle and the cardiometabolic profile. This is a cross-sectional analysis of 115 adults with T1D. Participants wore a motion sensor and completed a 3-day food record. The following CMR factors were assessed: body mass index, waist circumference, body composition (iDXA), glycated hemoglobin, lipids and blood pressure. Insulin resistance was estimated (estimated glucose disposal rate). Participants were classified according to the number of healthy lifestyle habits adopted (ranging from 0 to 3): regular physical activity (physical activity level ≥1.7), good diet quality (Canadian Healthy Eating Index score >80) and none-smoking status. The proportion of participants who adopted 3, 2, 1 or 0 lifestyle habits were 11%, 30%, 37%, and 23%, respectively. As the number of healthy lifestyle habits adopted increased, participants had significantly lower body mass index, waist circumference, body fat, total cholesterol, non-HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides and systolic blood pressure (p lifestyle habit, body mass index decreased by 1.9 kg/m(2), waist circumference by 4.0 cm for men and 4.8 cm for women and trunk fat by 3.6% for men and 4.1% for women. These results suggest the importance of a healthy lifestyle among adults with T1D in order to control CMR factors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. EFFECTS OF AGE AND ACUTE MUSCLE FATIGUE ON REACTIVE POSTURAL CONTROL IN HEALTHY ADULTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papa, Evan V.; Foreman, K. Bo; Dibble, Lee E.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Falls can cause moderate to severe injuries such as hip fractures and head trauma in older adults. While declines in muscle strength and sensory function contribute to increased falls in older adults, skeletal muscle fatigue is often overlooked as an additional contributor to fall risk. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the effects of acute lower extremity muscle fatigue and age on reactive postural control in healthy adults. METHODS A sample of 16 individuals participated in this study (8 healthy older adults and 8 healthy young persons). Whole body kinematic and kinetic data were collected during anterior and posterior reproducible fall tests before (T0) and immediately after (T1) eccentric muscle fatiguing exercise, as well as after 15-minutes (T15) and 30-minutes (T30) of rest. FINDINGS Lower extremity joint kinematics of the stepping limb during the support (landing) phase of the anterior fall were significantly altered by the presence of acute muscle fatigue. Step velocity was significantly decreased during the anterior falls. Statistically significant main effects of age were found for step length in both fall directions. Effect sizes for all outcomes were small. No statistically significant interaction effects were found. INTERPRETATION Muscle fatigue has a measurable effect on lower extremity joint kinematics during simulated falls. These alterations appear to resolve within 15 minutes of recovery. The above deficits, coupled with a reduced step length, may help explain the increased fall risk in older adults. PMID:26351001

  15. Effects of age and acute muscle fatigue on reactive postural control in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papa, Evan V; Foreman, K Bo; Dibble, Leland E

    2015-12-01

    Falls can cause moderate to severe injuries such as hip fractures and head trauma in older adults. While declines in muscle strength and sensory function contribute to increased falls in older adults, skeletal muscle fatigue is often overlooked as an additional contributor to fall risk. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the effects of acute lower extremity muscle fatigue and age on reactive postural control in healthy adults. A sample of 16 individuals participated in this study (8 healthy older adults and 8 healthy young persons). Whole body kinematic and kinetic data were collected during anterior and posterior reproducible fall tests before (T0) and immediately after (T1) eccentric muscle fatiguing exercise, as well as after 15-min (T15) and 30-min (T30) of rest. Lower extremity joint kinematics of the stepping limb during the support (landing) phase of the anterior fall were significantly altered by the presence of acute muscle fatigue. Step velocity was significantly decreased during the anterior falls. Statistically significant main effects of age were found for step length in both fall directions. Effect sizes for all outcomes were small. No statistically significant interaction effects were found. Muscle fatigue has a measurable effect on lower extremity joint kinematics during simulated falls. These alterations appear to resolve within 15 min of recovery. The above deficits, coupled with a reduced step length, may help explain the increased fall risk in older adults. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Health returns of the older adult population

    OpenAIRE

    Cortez V., Rafael; Zavala L., José

    2014-01-01

    The oldest people is described as one of the most vulnerable population groups in the country. They require special public attention since there is a weak protection to risks and external changes. The demographic transition in Peru is increasing the proportion of people older than 60 years in a constant pattern. Besides, labor participation is high around 54%, and poverty levels even higher (70%). The objective of the study is to estimate the impact of health status on labour productivity in ...

  17. Status of Vitamin B12 and Folate among the Urban Adult Population in South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivaprasad, M; Shalini, T; Balakrishna, N; Sudarshan, M; Lopamudra, P; Suryanarayana, P; Arlappa, N; Ravikumar, B P; Radhika, M S; Reddy, G Bhanuprakash

    2016-01-01

    Deficiency of vitamin B12 (B12) and folate (FA) leads to a wide spectrum of disorders that affect all age groups. However, reports on B12 and FA status in healthy adults in India are limited. Hence, we determined the plasma levels and dietary intake of B12 and FA in the adult population. We conducted a community-based cross-sectional study in an urban setup among 630 apparently healthy adults distributed into 3 age groups: 21-40, 41-60 and >60 years. Plasma concentrations of B12 and FA were analyzed by radio immunoassay and dietary intake by 24-hour recall method. The overall prevalence of FA deficiency was 12%, but there was no significant difference in plasma FA concentrations among the groups. While the overall prevalence of B12 deficiency was 35%, it was significantly higher in the 21-40 (44%) and 41-60 age groups (40%) when compared with the >60 group (30%). B12 deficiency was higher in vegetarians (54%) compared to those consuming mixed diet (31%), and the reverse was the case with FA. However, the dietary intakes of FA and B12 were not significantly different among the groups. These results indicate a higher prevalence of B12 deficiency in apparently healthy adults in an urban setup. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. A Healthy Lifestyle Score Is Associated with Cardiometabolic and Neuroendocrine Risk Factors among Puerto Rican Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotos-Prieto, Mercedes; Bhupathiraju, Shilpa N; Falcón, Luis M; Gao, Xiang; Tucker, Katherine L; Mattei, Josiemer

    2015-07-01

    Although individual healthy lifestyle behaviors may reduce cardiovascular disease risk, few studies have analyzed the combined effect of multiple lifestyle components as one all-inclusive measure on such outcomes, much less in minority populations. We aimed to develop a Healthy Lifestyle Score (HLS) that included several lifestyle recommendations and to test its association with metabolic syndrome (MetS) and allostatic load (AL) and their cardiometabolic and neuroendocrine factors in Puerto Ricans. In a cross-sectional study in 787 Puerto Ricans living in Boston (aged 45-75 y), we developed an HLS that ranged from 0 to 190 (higher score indicative of healthier lifestyle) and included 5 components (diet, physical activity and sedentary behaviors, smoking, social support and network, and sleep). Multivariable-adjusted models were used to test associations between the HLS and biomarkers of dysregulation and odds of MetS and high AL (≥4 out of 10 components). The HLS showed adequate internal consistency (ρ = 0.31-0.69) and was inversely associated with urinary cortisol (β ± SE = -0.22 ± 0.11; P = 0.042), epinephrine (-0.20 ± 0.09; P = 0.017), and norepinephrine (-0.26 ± 0.11; P = 0.016); waist circumference (-0.014 ± 0.004; P = 0.003); and serum insulin (-0.30 ± 0.13; P = 0.028) and positively associated with plasma HDL cholesterol (0.007 ± 0.003; P = 0.021) after adjustment for potential confounders. For each 20-unit increase in HLS, participants had 19% (95% CI: 2%, 33%) and 25% (11%, 36%) lower odds of MetS or AL, respectively. Healthier scores for social support and network and smoking components were associated with lower odds of high AL (P lifestyle components. Following an overall healthy lifestyle that comprises a combination of multiple behaviors may provide stronger protection against MetS and AL in Puerto Rican adults than individual components. The HLS may be a useful tool for examining health-related outcomes. This trial was registered at

  19. The Effects of Yoga on Positive Mental Health Among Healthy Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendriks, Tom; de Jong, Joop; Cramer, Holger

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to present an overview of the research on the effects of yoga on positive mental health (PMH) among non-clinical adult populations. This was a systematic literature review and meta-analysis, including a risk of bias assessment. The electronic databases PubMed/Medline, Scopus, IndMED, and the Cochrane Library were searched from 1975 to 2015. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on the effects of yoga interventions on PMH among a healthy adult population were selected. A total of 17 RCTs were included in the meta-analysis. Four indicators of PMH were found: psychological well-being, life satisfaction, social relationships, and mindfulness. A significant increase in psychological well-being in favor of yoga over no active control was found. Overall risk of bias was unclear due to incomplete reporting. The current body of research offers weak evidence that the practice of yoga contributes to an increase in PMH among adults from non-clinical populations in general. Yoga was found to contribute to a significant increase in psychological well-being when compared to no intervention but not compared to physical activity. For life satisfaction (emotional well-being), social relationships (social well-being), and mindfulness no significant effects for yoga were found over active or non-active controls. Due to the limited amount of studies, the heterogeneity of the intervention, and perhaps the way PMH is being measured, any definite conclusions on the effects of yoga on PMH cannot be drawn.

  20. Healthy older adults balance pattern under dual task conditions: exploring the strategy and trend

    OpenAIRE

    Bahareh Zeynalzadeh Ghoochani; Seyed Ali Hosseini; Saeed Talebian; Akbar Biglarian; Afsaneh Zeinalzadeh; Salman Nazary-Moghadam; Seyed Alireza Derakhshanrad

    2016-01-01

    Background: In line with health promotion plans, early intervention and fall prevention in geriatric population, it is important to study healthy individuals balance mechanisms. The aim of this research was to investigate the effect of adding and removing visual input and dual task on elderly balance. Methods: Twenty healthy elderly recruited from four different senior citizen health club centers and from the University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences (USWR) participated in this...

  1. Influence of continual biofeedback on jaw pursuit-tracking in healthy adults and in adults with apraxia plus aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, K J; Robin, D A

    2007-01-01

    Apraxia of speech (AOS) is a disorder of motor programming resulting from damage to premotor or anterior insula cortex. The authors used a pursuit visuomotor tracking task to test whether such a disorder interferes with development of motor programs or with modification of existing programs via integration of feedback. Healthy older adults (n = 15) and adults with AOS plus aphasia and nonverbal apraxia (n = 8) performed a jaw movement task with (a) continuous visual feedback of a target movement pattern and their jaw movement and (b) no feedback. Healthy speakers were more accurate and less variable with feedback, suggesting accurate development of a program and feedback integration. Apraxic individuals' performance accuracy and response to feedback suggested that the neurological damage impairs both development of new programs and efficient integration of feedback.

  2. Reorientation to vertical modulated by combined support surface tilt and virtual visual flow in healthy elders and adults with stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaboda, Jill C; Keshner, Emily A

    2012-12-01

    We explored how changes in visual attention impacted postural motor performance in healthy elders and adults post-stroke within a virtual reality environment, including when vestibular information was not perceptible. Visual dependence in 13 healthy (50-80 years) and 13 adults post-stroke (49-70 years) was assessed with a rod-and-frame task. Three degree support surface dorsiflexion tilts at 30°/s were combined with 30° and 45°/s continuous pitch rotations of the visual environment. The support surface remained tilted for 30 s followed by a 0.1°/s return to neutral during continued visual field rotation. Body displacement and ankle muscle responses were recorded, and wavelet transforms calculated. Muscle frequencies and kinematic measures were examined with functional principal component analysis, and weights compared through mixed model repeated measures ANOVA. Both populations exhibited increased backward sway with pitch upward visual field motion; adults post-stroke produced significantly larger muscle responses. Lateral sway was most regulated when visual flow velocity matched platform velocity. Visual flow summed with direction of support surface instability and visually dependent individuals produced more controlled lateral sway when viewing a dynamic visual field. Provoking postural instability within a dynamic visual flow field could serve as a training tool for postural stabilizing actions, particularly when visual dependence is exhibited.

  3. Fibromyalgia in the adult Danish population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prescott, E; Jacobsen, S; Kjøller, Mette

    1993-01-01

    Clinical characteristics of fibromyalgia have so far been based mainly on patients identified in rheumatologic settings. This paper offers the clinical findings in fibromyalgia based on a national health interview survey, in which 123 persons fulfilled preset criteria for widespread pain. Clinical......, headache, difficulty in stair-climbing, and poorer self-evaluated health with more tender points was found. Contrary to that which was expected, fibromyalgia subjects did not suffer from sleep disturbances, irritable bowels or morning stiffness. Our findings indicate that clinical characteristics...... of fibromyalgia in the general population may differ from those found in rheumatological settings....

  4. Cognitive-enhancing drugs in the healthy population: Fundamental drawbacks and researcher roles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsee Leng Choy

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of pharmacological cognitive enhancers (PCEs in the healthy population is a controversial topic with numerous and expansive repercussions. By outlining common proponent arguments on the current PCE state of affairs, the definition of normality, and the complex regulation of PCEs, this article addresses why the mainstream use of PCEs in the healthy population is still disadvantageous overall. In this respect, the influence and roles of researchers to the society are emphasized in bringing the focus back to the fundamental issues, which is crucial in deciphering its controversy and avoiding costly societal, research credibility and ethical implications.

  5. Enriching Diet with n-3 PUFAs to Help Prevent Cardiovascular Diseases in Healthy Adults: Results from Clinical Trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Manuelli

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs are believed to be important for cardiovascular health. Many investigations have been carried out in an attempt to examine the effect of n-3 PUFAs intake, in the form of supplementation or fortified foods, for the management of cardiovascular disease (CVD and risk factors for CVD, whereas less is known about the effect on healthy individuals. The present study reviews the available literature in order to examine the relationship between n-3 PUFAs intake, either via supplementation or enriched food, and the prevention of CVD among healthy adults. Interventional clinical trials on subjects aged >18 years old with none of the established risk factors for CVD have been considered for review. n-3 PUFAs supplementation or enriched food may positively regulate triglycerides and some lipoprotein subsets, as well as several vascular and coagulation parameters, even in healthy patients, presenting no risk factors for CVD, suggesting a protective effect. Diet enrichment with omega-3 is likely to be useful in helping to lower the risk of developing CVD in healthy individuals, but still offers no strong evidence of a tangible benefit on a population level. Additional studies are needed to determine the optimal daily intake, especially to prevent the unfavorable effects of PUFAs over-consumption.

  6. The evaluation of walking footwear on postural stability in healthy older adults: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenton-Rule, Angela; Bassett, Sandra; Walsh, Annie; Rome, Keith

    2011-10-01

    It has been proposed that walking footwear enhances postural stability in healthy older adults. The aim of the study is to evaluate differences between two different types of athletic footwear in relation to postural stability in healthy older adults. A convenience sample of 21 healthy older adults with mean (SD) of 74 (5) years was recruited. Postural stability was measured using a force plate for anterior-posterior (AP) and mediolateral (ML) centre of pressure excursion for 30s with eyes closed and open using two different types of athletic footwear. Each participant performed three repetitions of bipedal standing. Two-way analysis of variance tested the interaction effect of the footwear and eye conditions on anterior-posterior (AP) and mediolateral (ML) postural sway. There was no significant footwear-eye condition interaction for anterior-posterior(AP) postural sway but there were significant main effects for both the footwear and eye conditions (Ppostural sway there was no significant interaction effect and no main effects for the footwear and eye conditions (P>0.05). The results suggest that older adults demonstrate an initial destabilisation effect which could possibly be of benefit to functional ability but the long-term effects of ability of athletic footwear to enhance postural stability requires further investigation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. [Study on the lowest acceptable intake of cow's milk for healthy adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Rong; Hung, Cheng-yu; Zeng, Guo; Vonk, Roel J; Li, Ling; Ye, Sheng

    2006-11-01

    [corrected] To find out the lowest acceptable intake of Cow's Milk in subjects with lactose intolerance(LI) and then observe intolerance symptoms in 280 healthy adults after they drank the milk. Eight LI subjects with watery diarrhea who were selected from 38 subjects by hydrogen breath test(HBT) were divided into group A, group B to go on drinking cow's milk test. The subjects in group A ingested 25g milk powder, the subjects in group B ingested 38.2g milk powder( contain 6.25g, 9.55g lactose respectively) according to literature and single factor optimization method (0.618 golden mean) to analyze their hydrogen excretion(ppm), symptom score and stool lactose. The 100 younger, the 80 middle-age and the 100 elder subjects were selected to observe symptoms after they ingested 25g milk powder. hydrogen excretion(ppm) and symptom score in the high dose group (group B)are a little higher than those in low dose group(group A). No case with diarrhea occurred in these two group but mild symptoms. Most of healthy adults (80.3%) have no intolerance symptoms after they drank the milk. The study demonstrates that most of adults, even with LI, can tolerance 25g cow's milk powder (6.25g lactose). It is suggested 20g cow's milk powder (5g lactose, make 160 ml of milk solution) is the lowest acceptable intake of healthy adults in China.

  8. Body positions used by healthy and frail older adults to rise from the floor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulbrich, J; Raheja, A; Alexander, N B

    2000-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe how older adults, particularly more physically impaired older adults, might differ from healthy controls in the body positions used to rise from the floor. Cross-sectional analysis of young, healthy older, and congregate housing older women. University-based laboratory and congregate housing facility. Healthy young university student controls (n = 22, mean age 23 years); healthy old adults living independently in the community (n = 24, mean age 73 years); and congregate housing older adults (n = 29, mean age 81 years). Videotaping and timing of rising from a supine position on the floor to standing. In addition to the time taken to rise from the floor, 10 specific trunk and extremity positions used during the rise, termed Intermediate Positions (IP), were identified. The Young controls had the fastest rise time and used the fewest number of IP, whereas the Congregate residents had the slowest rise time and used the most IP, with the Healthy old adults intermediate in both time and IP use. Prevalence of certain IP, together with correlational and factor analyses, suggest that use of Sit and Crouch was the most preferred rise strategy for the Young controls, whereas use of Tuck, Crouch-Kneel, All Fours, and Bearwalk was the most preferred rise strategy among the Congregate residents. The Healthy old used IP common to both Young and Congregate residents, reflecting a rise strategy intermediate to the latter groups. A substantial subset of the Congregate residents (38%) were unable to rise without assistance and appeared to use certain preparatory positions (Sit, Kneel, Tuck) but were unable to get into presumably more challenging positions (Crouch-Kneel, All Fours, Bearwalk). With increasing age and physical impairment, body positions used during rising from the floor suggest a preference for maintaining upper and lower extremity contact with the floor, presumably minimizing the lower extremity strength requirements to rise

  9. Construction of a short form of the healthy eating behaviour inventory for the Japanese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimazaki, Takashi; Iio, Misa; Lee, Ying-Hua; Suzuki, Akiko; Konuma, Kayo; Teshima, Yoko; Takenaka, Koji

    2016-09-01

    The present study constructed a short form of the Healthy Eating Behavior Inventory suitable for use in the Japanese culture (HEBI-J) and confirmed the scale's preliminary reliability and validity. In Study 1, Japanese adults (N=75) completed a free-response questionnaire about healthy eating behaviours. Thematic analysis was used to identify three factors-balance, pattern, and restriction-associated with healthy eating behaviours and 12 items related to these healthy eating behaviours. In Study 2, Japanese office workers (N=784) completed two questionnaires regarding 12 items of healthy eating behaviours and the dietary stages of change. Confirmatory factor analysis demonstrated that the three-factor model was appropriate (GFI=.94, AGFI=.90, CFI=.90, RMSEA=.08, SRMR=.53). Reliability was confirmed by alpha coefficients and the Spearman-Brown formula. Concurrent validity was confirmed by the relationship between the healthy eating stages. This study demonstrated the preliminary reliability and validity of the HEBI-J. Copyright © 2015 Asia Oceania Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Prevalence of Healthy Sleep Duration among Adults--United States, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yong; Wheaton, Anne G; Chapman, Daniel P; Cunningham, Timothy J; Lu, Hua; Croft, Janet B

    2016-02-19

    To promote optimal health and well-being, adults aged 18-60 years are recommended to sleep at least 7 hours each night (1). Sleeping hours per night is associated with increased risk for obesity, diabetes, high blood pressure, coronary heart disease, stroke, frequent mental distress, and all-cause mortality (2-4). Insufficient sleep impairs cognitive performance, which can increase the likelihood of motor vehicle and other transportation accidents, industrial accidents, medical errors, and loss of work productivity that could affect the wider community (5). CDC analyzed data from the 2014 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) to determine the prevalence of a healthy sleep duration (≥ 7 hours) among 444,306 adult respondents in all 50 states and the District of Columbia. A total of 65.2% of respondents reported a healthy sleep duration; the age-adjusted prevalence of healthy sleep was lower among non-Hispanic blacks, American Indians/Alaska Natives, Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders, and multiracial respondents, compared with non-Hispanic whites, Hispanics, and Asians. State-based estimates of healthy sleep duration prevalence ranged from 56.1% in Hawaii to 71.6% in South Dakota. Geographic clustering of the lowest prevalence of healthy sleep duration was observed in the southeastern United States and in states along the Appalachian Mountains, and the highest prevalence was observed in the Great Plains states. More than one third of U.S. respondents reported typically sleeping hours in a 24-hour period, suggesting an ongoing need for public awareness and public education about sleep health; worksite shift policies that ensure healthy sleep duration for shift workers, particularly medical professionals, emergency response personnel, and transportation industry personnel; and opportunities for health care providers to discuss the importance of healthy sleep duration with patients and address reasons for poor sleep health.

  11. Are a Healthy Diet and Physical Activity Synergistically Associated with Cognitive Functioning in Older Adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijholt, W; Jager-Wittenaar, H; Visser, M; van der Schans, C P; Hobbelen, J S M

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that being both physically active and adhering a healthy diet is associated with improved cognitive functioning; however, it remains unclear whether these factors act synergistically. We investigated the synergistic association of a healthy diet and being physically active with cognitive functioning. Cross-sectional study. Data from the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam (LASA) were used. We analyzed data from 2,165 community dwelling adults who were aged 55-85 years, 56% of whom were female. Cognitive functioning was assessed by the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), an MMSE score of >26 indicates good cognitive functioning. Physical activity was assessed by the LASA Physical Activity Questionnaire and was considered sufficient if the person engaged in moderately intense physical activity ≥ 20 min/day. A healthy diet score was based on the intake of fruit, vegetables and fish. Each of the food groups was assigned a score that ranged from 1 (well below the Dutch guideline for a healthy diet) to 4 (well above the Dutch guideline for a healthy diet), and the scores were aggregated to determine a healthy diet (healthy ≥ 9 points). Multiple logistic and linear regression analyses were used to examine the (synergistic) association among physical activity, a healthy diet and cognitive functioning. All analyses were adjusted for potential chronic diseases and lifestyle confounders. Of all of the participants, 25% were diagnosed with a cognitive impairment (MMSE ≤26), 80% were physically active and 41% had a healthy diet. Sixty three percent of the participants both adhered to a healthy diet and were physically active. Sufficient daily physical activity (OR=2.545 pdiet (OR=1.766 p=.002) were associated with good cognitive functioning. After adjusting for confounding factors, sufficient physical activity was not significantly related to cognitive functioning (p=.163); however adherence to a healthy diet remained significantly

  12. Multilocus enzyme electrophoresis typing of Candida albicans populations isolated from healthy children according to socioeconomic background

    OpenAIRE

    Marcelo Fabiano Gomes Boriollo; Edvaldo Antônio Ribeiro Rosa; Wagner Luis de Carvalho Bernardo; Denise Madalena Palomari Spolidorio; Reginaldo Bruno Gonçalves; José Francisco Höfling

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this research was to evaluate the genetic diversity within and between C. albicans populations isolated from the oral cavity of healthy Brazilian children classified into five socioeconomic categories (A to E). Multilocus Enzyme Electrophoresis (MLEE) analysis was the method used to assess genetic diversity. High genetic diversity was observed in all populations that showed predominance of some C. albicans subtypes (Electrophoretic Types - ETs). However, no correlation was observed...

  13. Temperamental Characteristics in Adults with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A Comparison with Bipolar Disorder and Healthy Control Groups

    OpenAIRE

    Ekinci, Suat; ?ZDEL, Kadir; ?nc?, Bedriye; ?olak, Bur?in; Kandemir, Hasan; Canat, Saynur

    2013-01-01

    Objective To date, the affective temperamental characteristics of adults with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have not been studied. The aim of this study is to explore those temperamental characteristics for adults diagnosed with ADHD as measured by the TEMPS-A and then to compare those results with results for individuals diagnosed with bipolar disorder (BD) and with healthy controls. Methods Forty adults with ADHD, 40 patients with BD, and 40 healthy controls were enrolled ...

  14. JP-3 gene polymorphism in a healthy population of Serbia and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Genetics; Volume 84; Issue 1. JP-3 gene polymorphism in a healthy population of Serbia and Montenegro. M. Keckarević D. Savić S. Romac. Research Article Volume 84 Issue 1 April 2005 pp 69-71. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  15. JP-3 gene polymorphism in a healthy population of Serbia and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Expansions of CTG repeats in JP-3 gene are associated with a phenotype similar to Huntington disease. These expan- sions are the cause of Huntington disease like-2 (HDL-2) phenotype. CTG repeats in JP-3 gene are polymorphic in healthy population. Analyses of CTG repeat polymorphism of JP-3 gene in various ...

  16. Memory-guided force control in healthy younger and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neely, Kristina A; Samimy, Shaadee; Blouch, Samantha L; Wang, Peiyuan; Chennavasin, Amanda; Diaz, Michele T; Dennis, Nancy A

    2017-08-01

    Successful performance of a memory-guided motor task requires participants to store and then recall an accurate representation of the motor goal. Further, participants must monitor motor output to make adjustments in the absence of visual feedback. The goal of this study was to examine memory-guided grip force in healthy younger and older adults and compare it to performance on behavioral tasks of working memory. Previous work demonstrates that healthy adults decrease force output as a function of time when visual feedback is not available. We hypothesized that older adults would decrease force output at a faster rate than younger adults, due to age-related deficits in working memory. Two groups of participants, younger adults (YA: N = 32, mean age 21.5 years) and older adults (OA: N = 33, mean age 69.3 years), completed four 20-s trials of isometric force with their index finger and thumb, equal to 25% of their maximum voluntary contraction. In the full-vision condition, visual feedback was available for the duration of the trial. In the no vision condition, visual feedback was removed for the last 12 s of each trial. Participants were asked to maintain constant force output in the absence of visual feedback. Participants also completed tasks of word recall and recognition and visuospatial working memory. Counter to our predictions, when visual feedback was removed, younger adults decreased force at a faster rate compared to older adults and the rate of decay was not associated with behavioral performance on tests of working memory.

  17. Dietary supplement consumption among urban adults influenced by psychosocial stress: its pronounced influence upon persons with a less healthy lifestyle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Hui-Jing; Nakamura, Keiko; Shimbo, Mari; Takano, Takehito

    2005-09-01

    In order to examine the consumption of dietary supplements among urban adults and the impact of psychological stress on supplement use in relation to lifestyle, 375 interviews of a population-based sample of urban Japanese in 2002 were analysed. The usage of various supplements, stress process (daily stressors, psychological moderators, stress outcomes), personal health practices (smoking, alcohol drinking, physical exercise, fruit and vegetable juice consumption, health-conscious eating habits) and other background factors were measured. We examined the impacts of stress on the use of vitamin tablets and capsules, vitamin-enriched health drinks and health drinks for intestinal adjustment. The percentages of these three categories of supplement user were 26.9, 18.7 and 35.7%, respectively. After adjusting for potential confounders, subjects with 'two or more' daily stressors out of the eight stressors investigated consistently showed 2-fold higher levels of consumption of either vitamin tablets and capsules or vitamin-enriched drinks compared with their counterparts with 'one or less' daily stressors. Stress-outcome indicators also related, to a greater or less extent, to the elevated consumption of various supplements. Further lifestyle-stratified analyses revealed that the stress-supplementation relationships were weaker in subjects fulfilling more than three of the five investigated health practices (i.e. the healthy lifestyle group), but stronger in subjects with fewer than two healthy practices (i.e. the less healthy lifestyle group). In conclusion, dietary supplement consumption is independently associated with stress in urban adults. The uncontrolled use of supplements for the self-medication of stress or to compensate for unhealthy behaviour represents a health concern for the general population.

  18. Single-dose pharmacokinetics of bupropion hydrobromide and metabolites in healthy adolescent and adult subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, D Alexander; Crean, Christopher S

    2015-09-01

    Data from 2 pediatric single-dose studies, conducted at the same center, were combined to evaluate exposure levels of bupropion and metabolites in adolescents 12-17 years old, compared with adults > 18 years. Pharmacokinetic analyses of bupropion and its metabolites were performed using normalization and pharmacological/convulsive weighting methods on exposure. When compared with adults (>18 years), subjects 12-14 years had an increase in weight-normalized exposure to bupropion (ie, Cmax , 78%; AUC0-t , 83%; and AUCinf , 85%). Variability in this younger age group was also higher, with observations of a 3- to 4-fold increase in exposure. When the changes in metabolites were accounted within pharmacological and convulsive-weighted exposures, the relative ratio of 12-14 years to adults in body weight-normalized Cmax was 127% and 110%, respectively. Subjects 15-17 years did not exhibit a difference in exposure compared with adults. The influence of age on bupropion pharmacokinetics demonstrates that, in general, healthy adolescent subjects cannot be considered smaller healthy adult subjects; the increase in exposure is inversely related to age and appears to be solely associated with bupropion, not with its metabolites. Because there are no clinical safety and efficacy data of bupropion in adolescents, this data may shift its risk-benefit profile. © 2015, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  19. The dynamics of visual reweighting in healthy and fall-prone older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeka, John J; Allison, Leslie K; Kiemel, Tim

    2010-01-01

    Multisensory reweighting (MSR) is an adaptive process that prioritizes the visual, vestibular, and somatosensory inputs to provide the most reliable information for postural stability when environmental conditions change. This process is thought to degrade with increasing age and to be particularly deficient in fall-prone versus healthy older adults. In the present study, the authors investigate the dynamics of sensory reweighting, which is not well-understood at any age. Postural sway of young, healthy, and fall-prone older adults was measured in response to large changes in the visual motion stimulus amplitude within a trial. Absolute levels of gain, and the rate of adaptive gain change were examined when visual stimulus amplitude changed from high to low and from low to high. Compared with young adults, gains in both older adult groups were higher when the stimulus amplitude was high. Gains in the fall-prone elderly were higher than both other groups when the stimulus amplitude was low. Both older groups demonstrated slowed sensory reweighting over prolonged time periods when the stimulus amplitude was high. The combination of higher vision gains and slower down weighting in older adults suggest deficits that may contribute to postural instability.

  20. Comparison of Intelligibility Measures for Adults with Parkinson's Disease, Adults with Multiple Sclerosis, and Healthy Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stipancic, Kaila L.; Tjaden, Kris; Wilding, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This study obtained judgments of sentence intelligibility using orthographic transcription for comparison with previously reported intelligibility judgments obtained using a visual analog scale (VAS) for individuals with Parkinson's disease and multiple sclerosis and healthy controls (K. Tjaden, J. E. Sussman, & G. E. Wilding, 2014).…

  1. Plantarflexor Muscle Tendon Properties are Associated With Mobility in Healthy Older Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Stenroth, Lauri; Sillanpää, Elina; McPhee, Jamie S.; Narici, Marco V.; Gapeyeva, Helena; Pääsuke, Mati; Barnouin, Yoann; Hogrel, Jean-Yves; Butler-Browne, Gillian; Bijlsma, Astrid; Meskers, Carel G. M.; Maier, Andrea B.; Finni Juutinen, Taija; Sipilä, Sarianna

    2015-01-01

    Background. Muscle mass, strength, and power are known determinants of mobility in older adults but there is limited knowledge on the influence of muscle architecture or tendon properties on mobility. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between mobility and plantarflexor muscle–tendon properties in healthy older adults. Methods. A total of 52 subjects (age 70–81 years) were measured for 6-minute walk test (6MWT), timed “up and go”-test (TUG), isometric pla...

  2. Prohibition or coffee shops: regulation of amphetamine and methylphenidate for enhancement use by healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubljević, Veljko

    2013-01-01

    This article analyzes appropriate public policies for enhancement use of two most important stimulant drugs: Ritalin (methylphenidate) and Adderall (mixed amphetamine salts). The author argues that appropriate regulation of cognition enhancement drugs cannot be a result of a general discussion on cognitive enhancements as such, but has to be made on a case-by-case basis. Starting from the recently proposed taxation approach to cognition enhancement drugs, the author analyzes available, moderately permissive models of regulation. After a thorough analysis of relevant characteristics of methylphenidate and amphetamine, the author concludes that a moderately liberal permissive regulation of enhancement use by healthy adults might be appropriate for extended release forms of methylphenidate. However, due to their danger profile, amphetamine and instant release forms of methylphenidate should not be made readily available to healthy adults and would need to be prohibited.

  3. Effects of guided imagery and music (GIM) therapy on mood and cortisol in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinney, C H; Antoni, M H; Kumar, M; Tims, F C; McCabe, P M

    1997-07-01

    Healthy adults (N = 28) participated in a randomized trial of Bonny Method of Guided Imagery and Music (GIM; a depth approach to music psychotherapy) sessions on mood and cortisol. Participants in both GIM and wait-list control conditions completed the Profile of Mood States (POMS) and donated 15 cc of blood before and after the 13-week intervention period and again at a 6-week follow-up. Split-plot factorial and post hoc analyses demonstrated that after 6 biweekly sessions GIM participants reported significant decreases between pre- and postsession depression, fatigue, and total mood disturbance and had significant decreases in cortisol level by follow-up. Pretest to follow-up decrease in cortisol was significantly associated with decrease in mood disturbance. A short series of GIM sessions may positively affect mood and reduce cortisol levels in healthy adults. Such changes in hormonal regulation may have health implications for chronically stressed people.

  4. A study of fluid intake from beverages in a sample of healthy French children, adolescents and adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellisle, F; Thornton, S N; Hébel, P; Denizeau, M; Tahiri, M

    2010-01-01

    Background/Objectives: To assess the intake of fluid in healthy French children, adolescents, adults and seniors, considering amounts, types of beverages, time and place of consumption. Subjects/Methods: Data regarding fluid intake were extracted and analyzed from the National Intake Survey, which was conducted in quota samples of the French population (Comportement et Consommations Alimentaires en France study). Seven-day questionnaires were administered to free-living individuals in 2002–2003. A total of 566 children (aged 6–11 years), 333 adolescents (aged 12–19 years), 831 adults (aged 20–54 years) and 443 seniors (aged ⩾55 years) were included in this study. Results: The average total intake of fluid was 1–1.3 l per day depending on age groups. Water accounted for about one-half of daily fluid intake. The contribution of other types of beverages varied with age (for example, dairy drinks in children and adolescents; alcoholic drinks in adults and seniors). Intake of sodas (including regular and light) was highest in adolescents (169 ml a day). Beverages were mainly consumed at home during meals. Conclusions: This is the first description of fluid intake in French children, adolescents, adults and seniors, considering amounts, types of beverages, time and place of intake. It shows that water is the main source of fluid in all age groups. Selection of various types of beverages is different according to age. PMID:20160751

  5. CLSI-derived hematology and biochemistry reference intervals for healthy adults in eastern and southern Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etienne Karita

    Full Text Available Clinical laboratory reference intervals have not been established in many African countries, and non-local intervals are commonly used in clinical trials to screen and monitor adverse events (AEs among African participants. Using laboratory reference intervals derived from other populations excludes potential trial volunteers in Africa and makes AE assessment challenging. The objective of this study was to establish clinical laboratory reference intervals for 25 hematology, immunology and biochemistry values among healthy African adults typical of those who might join a clinical trial.Equal proportions of men and women were invited to participate in a cross sectional study at seven clinical centers (Kigali, Rwanda; Masaka and Entebbe, Uganda; two in Nairobi and one in Kilifi, Kenya; and Lusaka, Zambia. All laboratories used hematology, immunology and biochemistry analyzers validated by an independent clinical laboratory. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines were followed to create study consensus intervals. For comparison, AE grading criteria published by the U.S. National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Division of AIDS (DAIDS and other U.S. reference intervals were used. 2,990 potential volunteers were screened, and 2,105 (1,083 men and 1,022 women were included in the analysis. While some significant gender and regional differences were observed, creating consensus African study intervals from the complete data was possible for 18 of the 25 analytes. Compared to reference intervals from the U.S., we found lower hematocrit and hemoglobin levels, particularly among women, lower white blood cell and neutrophil counts, and lower amylase. Both genders had elevated eosinophil counts, immunoglobulin G, total and direct bilirubin, lactate dehydrogenase and creatine phosphokinase, the latter being more pronounced among women. When graded against U.S. -derived DAIDS AE grading criteria, we observed 774 (35.3% volunteers

  6. Aging, Vascular Risk and Cognition: Blood Glucose, Pulse Pressure, and Cognitive Performance in Healthy Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Dahle, Cheryl L.; Jacobs, Bradley S.; Raz, Naftali

    2009-01-01

    Advanced age is associated with decline in many areas of cognition as well as increased frequency of vascular disease. Well-described risk factors for vascular disease such as diabetes and arterial hypertension have been linked to cognitive deficits beyond those associated with aging. To examine whether vascular health indices such as fasting blood glucose levels and arterial pulse pressure can predict subtle deficits in age-sensitive abilities, we studied 104 healthy adults (age 18 to 78 yea...

  7. Combined Cognitive Training vs. Memory Strategy Training in Healthy Older Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Bing; Zhu, Xinyi; Hou, Jianhua; Chen, Tingji; Wang, Pengyun; Juan LI

    2016-01-01

    As mnemonic utilization deficit in older adults associates with age-related decline in executive function, we hypothesized that memory strategy training combined with executive function training might induce larger training effect in memory and broader training effects in non-memory outcomes than pure memory training. The present study compared the effects of combined cognitive training (executive function training plus memory strategy training) to pure memory strategy training. Forty healthy...

  8. Disturbance of attention network functions in Chinese healthy older adults: an intra-individual perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hanna; Fung, Ada W T; Chan, Sandra S M; Lam, Linda C W

    2016-02-01

    Intra-individual variability (IIV) and the change of attentional functions have been reported to be susceptible to both healthy ageing and pathological ageing. The current study aimed to evaluate the IIV of attention and the age-related effect on alerting, orienting, and executive control in cognitively healthy older adults. We evaluated 145 Chinese older adults (age range of 65-80 years, mean age of 72.41 years) with a comprehensive neuropsychological battery and the Attention network test (ANT). A two-step strategy of analytical methods was used: Firstly, the IIV of older adults was evaluated by the intraindividual coefficient of variation of reaction time (ICV-RT). The correlation between ICV-RT and age was used to evaluate the necessity of subgrouping. Further, the comparisons of ANT performance among three age groups were performed with processing speed adjusted. Person's correlation revealed significant positive correlations between age and IIV (r = 0.185, p = 0.032), age and executive control (r = 0.253, p = 0.003). Furthermore, one-way ANOVA comparisons among three age groups revealed a significant age-related disturbance on executive control (F = 4.55, p = 0.01), in which oldest group (group with age >75 years) showed less efficient executive control than young-old (group with age 65-70 years) (Conventional score, p = 0.012; Ratio score, p = 0.020). Advancing age has an effect on both IIV and executive attention in cognitively healthy older adults, suggesting that the disturbance of executive attention is a sensitive indicator to reflect healthy ageing. Its significance to predict further deterioration should be carefully evaluated with prospective studies.

  9. Roles of Arterial Stiffness and Blood Pressure in Hypertension-Associated Cognitive Decline in Healthy Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajjar, Ihab; Goldstein, Felicia C; Martin, Greg S; Quyyumi, Arshed A

    2016-01-01

    Although there is strong evidence that hypertension leads to cognitive decline, especially in the executive domain, the relationship between blood pressure and cognition has been conflicted. Hypertension is characterized by blood pressure elevation and increased arterial stiffness. We aimed at investigating whether arterial stiffness would be superior to blood pressure in predicting cognitive decline and explaining the hypertension-executive decline association. A randomly selected asymptomatic population (n=591, age=49.2 years, 70% women, 27% black, and education=18 years) underwent annual vascular and cognitive assessments. Cognition was assessed using computerized versions commonly used cognitive tests, and principal component analysis was used for deriving cognitive scores for executive function, memory, and working memory. Arterial stiffness was measured by carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV). Higher PWV, but not blood pressure, was associated with a steeper decline in executive (P=0.0002), memory (P=0.05), and working memory (P=0.02) scores after adjusting for demographics, education, and baseline cognitive performance. This remained true after adjusting for hypertension. Hypertension was associated with greater decline in executive score (P=0.0029) and those with combined hypertension and elevated PWV (>7 m/s) had the greatest decline in executive score (P value hypertension×PWV=0.02). PWV explained the association between hypertension and executive function (P value for hypertension=0.0029 versus 0.24 when adjusting for PWV). In healthy adults, increased arterial stiffness is superior to blood pressure in predicting cognitive decline in all domains and in explaining the hypertension-executive function association. Arterial stiffness, especially in hypertension, may be a target in the prevention of cognitive decline. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  10. Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D and the Incidence of Acute Viral Respiratory Tract Infections in Healthy Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabetta, James R.; DePetrillo, Paolo; Cipriani, Ralph J.; Smardin, Joanne; Burns, Lillian A.; Landry, Marie L.

    2010-01-01

    Background Declining serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D seen in the fall and winter as distance increases from the equator may be a factor in the seasonal increased prevalence of influenza and other viral infections. This study was done to determine if serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations correlated with the incidence of acute viral respiratory tract infections. Methodology/Findings In this prospective cohort study serial monthly concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D were measured over the fall and winter 2009–2010 in 198 healthy adults, blinded to the nature of the substance being measured. The participants were evaluated for the development of any acute respiratory tract infections by investigators blinded to the 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations. The incidence of infection in participants with different concentrations of vitamin D was determined. One hundred ninety-five (98.5%) of the enrolled participants completed the study. Light skin pigmentation, lean body mass, and supplementation with vitamin D were found to correlate with higher concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D. Concentrations of 38 ng/ml or more were associated with a significant (prespiratory tract infections and with a marked reduction in the percentages of days ill. Conclusions/Significance Maintenance of a 25-hydroxyvitamin D serum concentration of 38 ng/ml or higher should significantly reduce the incidence of acute viral respiratory tract infections and the burden of illness caused thereby, at least during the fall and winter in temperate zones. The findings of the present study provide direction for and call for future interventional studies examining the efficacy of vitamin D supplementation in reducing the incidence and severity of specific viral infections, including influenza, in the general population and in subpopulations with lower 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations, such as pregnant women, dark skinned individuals, and the obese. PMID:20559424

  11. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin d and the incidence of acute viral respiratory tract infections in healthy adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James R Sabetta

    Full Text Available Declining serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D seen in the fall and winter as distance increases from the equator may be a factor in the seasonal increased prevalence of influenza and other viral infections. This study was done to determine if serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations correlated with the incidence of acute viral respiratory tract infections.In this prospective cohort study serial monthly concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D were measured over the fall and winter 2009-2010 in 198 healthy adults, blinded to the nature of the substance being measured. The participants were evaluated for the development of any acute respiratory tract infections by investigators blinded to the 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations. The incidence of infection in participants with different concentrations of vitamin D was determined. One hundred ninety-five (98.5% of the enrolled participants completed the study. Light skin pigmentation, lean body mass, and supplementation with vitamin D were found to correlate with higher concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D. Concentrations of 38 ng/ml or more were associated with a significant (p<0.0001 two-fold reduction in the risk of developing acute respiratory tract infections and with a marked reduction in the percentages of days ill.Maintenance of a 25-hydroxyvitamin D serum concentration of 38 ng/ml or higher should significantly reduce the incidence of acute viral respiratory tract infections and the burden of illness caused thereby, at least during the fall and winter in temperate zones. The findings of the present study provide direction for and call for future interventional studies examining the efficacy of vitamin D supplementation in reducing the incidence and severity of specific viral infections, including influenza, in the general population and in subpopulations with lower 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations, such as pregnant women, dark skinned individuals, and the obese.

  12. Test-retest reliability of a balance testing protocol with external perturbations in young healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Shawn M; Caplan, Ryan M; Aponte, Daniel I; St-Onge, Nancy

    2017-10-01

    External perturbations are utilized to challenge balance and mimic realistic balance threats in patient populations. The reliability of such protocols has not been established. The purpose was to examine test-retest reliability of balance testing with external perturbations. Healthy adults (n=34; mean age 23 years) underwent balance testing over two visits. Participants completed ten balance conditions in which the following parameters were combined: perturbation or non-perturbation, single or double leg, and eyes open or closed. Three trials were collected for each condition. Data were collected on a force plate and external perturbations were applied by translating the plate. Force plate center of pressure (CoP) data were summarized using 13 different CoP measures. Test-retest reliability was examined using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) and Bland-Altman plots. CoP measures of total speed and excursion in both anterior-posterior and medial-lateral directions generally had acceptable ICC values for perturbation conditions (ICC=0.46 to 0.87); however, many other CoP measures (e.g. range, area of ellipse) had unacceptable test-retest reliability (ICCleg standing, but not single leg standing. Therefore, changes to balance testing protocols that include external perturbations should be made to improve test-retest reliability and diminish learning including more extensive participant training and increasing the number of trials. CoP measures that consider all data points (e.g. total speed) are more reliable than those that only consider a few data points. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin d and the incidence of acute viral respiratory tract infections in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabetta, James R; DePetrillo, Paolo; Cipriani, Ralph J; Smardin, Joanne; Burns, Lillian A; Landry, Marie L

    2010-06-14

    Declining serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D seen in the fall and winter as distance increases from the equator may be a factor in the seasonal increased prevalence of influenza and other viral infections. This study was done to determine if serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations correlated with the incidence of acute viral respiratory tract infections. In this prospective cohort study serial monthly concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D were measured over the fall and winter 2009-2010 in 198 healthy adults, blinded to the nature of the substance being measured. The participants were evaluated for the development of any acute respiratory tract infections by investigators blinded to the 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations. The incidence of infection in participants with different concentrations of vitamin D was determined. One hundred ninety-five (98.5%) of the enrolled participants completed the study. Light skin pigmentation, lean body mass, and supplementation with vitamin D were found to correlate with higher concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D. Concentrations of 38 ng/ml or more were associated with a significant (prespiratory tract infections and with a marked reduction in the percentages of days ill. Maintenance of a 25-hydroxyvitamin D serum concentration of 38 ng/ml or higher should significantly reduce the incidence of acute viral respiratory tract infections and the burden of illness caused thereby, at least during the fall and winter in temperate zones. The findings of the present study provide direction for and call for future interventional studies examining the efficacy of vitamin D supplementation in reducing the incidence and severity of specific viral infections, including influenza, in the general population and in subpopulations with lower 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations, such as pregnant women, dark skinned individuals, and the obese.

  14. CORRELATION BETWEEN BODY MASS INDEX AND HANDGRIP STRENGTH AND HANDGRIP ENDURANCE AMONG YOUNG HEALTHY ADULTS

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    Anupi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Physical inactivity has become a serious problem all over the world. Handgrip Strength (a form of isometric static contraction test, is an important test to evaluate the physical fitness and nutritional status of an individua l. A number of factors like a ge, gender, body size, effort, skeletal muscle bulk and contractility may affect the handgrip strength (HGS and handgrip endurance (HGE. AIM: This study was conducted to establish the possible correlation (if any between body mass index and handgrip str ength and endurance among young healthy adults. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A population based cross - sectional study comprising of 200 students (both male and female, age group - 18 - 22 yrs was carried out in the Department of Physiology, Jorhat Medical College. Anthropometric parameters like height and weight were taken to evaluate the BMI and handgrip strength and handgrip endurance were taken by using handgrip dynamometer. According to WHO classification of BMI, subjects were categorized into three groups as un derweight BMI ≤18.5 kg/m 2 , normal weight BMI 18.5 - 24.9 kg/m 2 and overweight BMI≥ 24.9 kg/m 2 . Gender wise difference was analyzed by unpaired t test. Statistical analysis for correlation was done by using Karl Pearson’s Correlation Coefficient denoted by(r. RESULT: Males had higher handgrip strength and handgrip endurance than females. Statistic ally significant correlation was found between BMI and handgrip strength & endurance in underweight & overweight subjects. Gender differences in correlation were observed in correlation between BMI & HGS and HGE. CONCLUSION: The observed influence of BMI a nd gender differences in correlation between BMI and HGS and HGE indicate that besides BMI several other factors like effort, strength, muscular contractility etc . affect muscular strength & endurance in young males and females.

  15. Calf exercise-induced vasodilation is blunted in healthy older adults with increased walking performance fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Joaquin U; Defferari, Elizabeth; Fisher, Amy; Shephard, Jordan; Proctor, David N

    2014-09-01

    Vascular aging as measured by central arterial stiffness contributes to slow walking speed in older adults, but the impact of age-related changes in peripheral vascular function on walking performance is unclear. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that calf muscle-specific vasodilator responses are associated with walking performance fatigue in healthy older adults. Forty-five older (60-78yrs) adults performed a fast-paced 400m walk test. Twelve of these adults exhibited fatigue as defined by slowing of walking speed (≥0.02m/s) measured during the first and last 100m segments of the 400m test. Peak calf vascular conductance was measured following 10min of arterial occlusion using strain-gauge plethysmography. Superficial femoral artery (SFA) vascular conductance response to graded plantar-flexion exercise was measured using Doppler ultrasound. No difference was found for peak calf vascular conductance between adults that slowed walking speed and those that maintained walking speed (p>0.05); however, older adults that slowed walking speed had a lower SFA vascular conductance response to calf exercise (at highest workload: slowed group, 2.4±0.9 vs. maintained group, 3.6±0.9ml/kg/min/mmHg; pcalf exercise hemodynamics are associated with walking performance fatigability in older adults. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Impaired mediolateral postural control at the ankle in healthy, middle-aged adults.

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    Bonnet, Cédrick T; Mercier, Marie; Szaffarczyk, Sébastien

    2013-01-01

    Elderly adults sway more than young adults. Based on the literature, the authors expected the mediolateral ankle postural control mechanism to be affected before age 60 years. Twelve healthy young adults (24.21 ± 2.50 years) and 12 middle-aged adults (51.13 ± 6.09 years) participated in the study. To challenge mediolateral stance, the conditions modified the mediolateral distance among the feet (narrow and standard distances), mandibular position (rest position, left and right laterality occlusion positions), and the occlusion with clenching (intercuspal occlusion, left and right maximal voluntary clenches). As we expected, middle-aged adults exhibited significantly reduced contribution of the ankle mechanism. It was so both in narrow and standard stances. A second objective was to show a greater contribution of the 2 mechanisms in narrow than in standard stances. The results confirmed our hypothesis. As we expected, mandibular conditions only had a significant effect on center of pressure sway. Unexpectedly, middle-aged adults did not increase their range of center of pressure sway in narrow stance. They may have overconstrained their center of pressure sway because of their ankle impairments. On the practical level, our results suggest that older adults should increase their stance width to relieve their hip and ankle control mechanisms and to stabilize their mediolateral posture.

  17. EFFECT OF CORE STABILITY TRAINING ON DYNAMIC BALANCE IN HEALTHY YOUNG ADULTS - A RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL

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    Dhvani N Shah

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Balance is a key component of normal daily activities. Therefore, it is necessary to find various programs to improve balance. The core functions to maintain postural alignment and balance during functional activities. The purpose was to study the effects of the core stability training on dynamic balance in healthy, young adults. Methods: It was an interventional study, in which 60 healthy young adults were selected. They were randomly divided into two groups of 30 each, one being experimental group and other control group. Measurement of their height, weight, BMI and leg length was taken. Subjects in both the groups were assessed for core stability with pressure biofeedback unit (PBU and dynamic balance using Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT pre and post intervention. Subjects in the experimental group underwent progressive core stability training program for six weeks (3days/week and control group was refrained from any type of structured training program. Results: There was statistically significant improvement in core stability and dynamic balance of the experimental group after six weeks of intervention. Conclusion: It is concluded that core stability training of six weeks duration is effective in improving dynamic balance in healthy, young adults.

  18. Biologic variability of N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide in adult healthy cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Autumn N; Estrada, Amara H; Gallagher, Alexander E; Winter, Brandy; Lamb, Kenneth E; Bohannon, Mary; Hanscom, Jancy; Mainville, Celine A

    2017-02-01

    Objectives The biologic variability of N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) and its impact on diagnostic utility is unknown in healthy cats and those with cardiac disease. The purpose of this study was to determine the biologic variation of NT-proBNP within-day and week-to-week in healthy adult cats. Methods Adult cats were prospectively evaluated by complete blood count (CBC), biochemistry, total thyroxine, echocardiography, electrocardiography and blood pressure, to exclude underlying systemic or cardiac disease. Adult healthy cats were enrolled and blood samples were obtained at 11 time points over a 6 week period (0, 2 h, 4 h, 6 h, 8 h, 10 h and at weeks 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6). The intra-individual (coefficient of variation [CVI]) biologic variation along with index of individuality and reference change values (RCVs) were calculated. Univariate models were analyzed and included comparison of the six different time points for both daily and weekly samples. This was followed by a Tukey's post-hoc adjustment, with a P value of cats. Further research is warranted to evaluate NT-proBNP variability, particularly how serial measurements of NT-proBNP may be used in the diagnosis and management of cats with cardiac disease.

  19. Validity of the Inbody 520™ to predict metabolic rate in apparently healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salacinski, Amanda J; Howell, Steven M; Hill, Danielle L

    2017-05-30

    The present study seeks to assess the validity of the InBody 520™ device to predict RMR in apparently healthy adults relative to a metabolic cart (the standard, yet time intensive, method for determining resting metabolic rate). Twenty-six apparently healthy adults participated in the study. Predicted RMR (pRMR) was calculated by the InBody 520™ and measured RMR (mRMR) was determined by 30-minute gas analysis and ventilated hood system. Of the 78 measurement trials conducted, 64 yielded acceptable measurement trials. A Pearson product-moment correlation was used to determine the relationship between pRMR and mRMR (r = .87, P < .001). No significant difference existed between the pRMR (1650.89 ± 295.96 kcal) and mRMR (1675.36 ± 278.69 kcal) values (P =.19). Study findings suggest that the InBody520™ provides valid measurements of RMR in apparently healthy adults and can be an effective and efficient method for collecting data in a clinical setting.

  20. Factors influencing bolus dwell times in healthy older adults assessed endoscopically.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Susan G; Maslan, Jonathan; Stuart, Andrew; Leng, Xiaoyan; Wilhelm, Erika; Lintzenich, Catherine Rees; Williamson, Jeff; Kritchevsky, Stephen B

    2011-12-01

    Scant data exist on normal bolus dwell time assessed during flexible endoscopic evaluation of swallowing (FEES). The purpose of this study was to examine bolus dwell time in healthy older adults. Because it has been previously reported that some healthy older adults aspirate, we also sought to determine if bolus dwell time varied as a function of aspiration status. Prospective. Seventy-six healthy volunteers from the seventh, eighth, and ninth decades of life participated. Dwell times were analyzed via FEES as a function of pharyngeal location, liquid type, delivery method, purée type, viscosity, age, and gender. Longer dwell times were evidenced with the eldest participants, straw delivery, and the smallest volume. Adults in the ninth decade were 4.8 (P = .01) and 3.8 (P = .02) times more likely to have longer dwell times at the vallecula and 7.1 (P = .002) and 3.8 (P = 0.02) at the pyriform sinus than those in the seventh and eighth decades, respectively. Longer dwell times at the vallecula and pyriform sinuses were 2 and 2.38 times (P times (P dwell times than larger volumes. Bolus dwell times did not significantly differ as a function of aspiration status. Advanced age, straw delivery, and small volumes yielded longer dwell times. These variables should be considered before diagnosing an abnormal bolus dwell time in elder patients. Copyright © 2011 The American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society, Inc.

  1. Association between Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D and Inflammatory Cytokines in Healthy Adults

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    Xiaomin Sun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Here, we aimed to examine the associations between levels of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OHD] and inflammatory cytokines in healthy Japanese adults. A total of 95 healthy adults (61 women; age range 21–69 years participated in our study. Fasting blood samples were analyzed for 25(OHD, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH2D], interferon-γ (IFN-γ, interleukin-6 (IL-6, and interleukin-17 (IL-17 levels using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays kits. Total percent body fat was determined by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA. Moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA was assessed objectively using an activity monitor for 7 days. The mean 25(OHD concentration was 34.7 nmol/L, and 83 subjects had 25(OHD concentrations less than 50 nmol/L. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that serum 25(OHD level was positively related to plasma IL-17 level (β = 0.26, p = 0.025, after adjustment for gender, age, vitamin D intake, alcohol consumption, smoking status, and percent body fat. This relationship remained statistically significant (β = 0.28, p = 0.019 even after additional adjustment for MVPA. However, no significant association was found between serum 25(OHD level and plasma IFN-γ or IL-6 levels. In conclusion, this study identified a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in healthy Japanese adults. Serum 25(OHD level was positively related to IL-17 level, independent of physical activity.

  2. Fraction of Exhaled Nitric Oxide (FeNO Norms in Healthy Tunisian Adults

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    Sonia Rouatbi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. To establish FeNO norms for healthy Tunisian adults aged 18–60 years and to prospectively assess their reliability. Methods. This was a cross-sectional analytical study. A convenience sample of healthy Tunisian adults was recruited. Subjects responded to a medical questionnaire, and then FeNO levels were measured by an online method (Medisoft, Sorinnes (Dinant, Belgium. Clinical, anthropometric, and plethysmographic data were collected. All analyses were performed on natural logarithm values of FeNO. Results. 257 adults (145 males were retained. The proposed reference equation to predict FeNO value is lnFeNO (ppb = 3.47−0.56× height (m. After the predicted FeNO value for a given adult was computed, the upper limit of normal could be obtained by adding 0.60 ppb. The mean ± SD (minimum-maximum of FeNO (ppb for the total sample was 13.54±4.87 (5.00–26.00. For Tunisian and Arab adults of any age and height, any FeNO value greater than 26.00 ppb may be considered abnormal. Finally, in an additional group of adults prospectively assessed, we found no adult with a FeNO higher than 26.00 ppb. Conclusion. The present FeNO norms enrich the global repository of FeNO norms that the clinician can use to choose the most appropriate norms.

  3. Hallucinations in Healthy Older Adults: An Overview of the Literature and Perspectives for Future Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badcock, Johanna C; Dehon, Hedwige; Larøi, Frank

    2017-01-01

    KEY POINTS ➢ Studies suggest a substantial minority of healthy older adults have hallucinatory experiences, in line with existing evidence on hallucinations in other age groups, though it is still unclear if hallucination prevalence increases or declines with age in older cohorts.➢ Stigma attached to both hallucinations and ageing leads to considerable under-reporting of these experiences in healthy older adults and may negatively bias how professionals, family members, and the public respond.➢ Why and when hallucinations in healthy older adults remit, persist, or progress to other clinical disorders remains poorly understood.➢ Current evidence points to a range of factors associated with hallucinations in older adults including decline in sensory or cognitive functioning, poor sleep, and psychosocial stressors (e.g., social isolation, loneliness, and bereavement), highlighting the need for accurate assessment and tailored interventions. Hallucinations, though common in youth and younger adults, are not the preserve of these age groups. Accumulating evidence shows that hallucinatory experiences are also present at surprisingly high rates in healthy older adults in the general community. Furthermore, stigma and misunderstanding of hallucinations, together with ageism, may lead to under-reporting of these experiences by older adults, and misdiagnosis or mismanagement by health and mental health practitioners. Consequently, improved public and professional knowledge is needed about the nature and significance of hallucinations with advancing age. The purpose of this review is to provide a comprehensive overview, and critical analysis, of research on the prevalence, psychosocial, and neurobiological factors associated with hallucinations in people aged 60 years and over. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first review of its kind in the literature. The evidence supports a dynamic conceptualization of hallucinations, in which the emergence of

  4. Hallucinations in Healthy Older Adults: An Overview of the Literature and Perspectives for Future Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna C. Badcock

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available KEY POINTS➢ Studies suggest a substantial minority of healthy older adults have hallucinatory experiences, in line with existing evidence on hallucinations in other age groups, though it is still unclear if hallucination prevalence increases or declines with age in older cohorts.➢ Stigma attached to both hallucinations and ageing leads to considerable under-reporting of these experiences in healthy older adults and may negatively bias how professionals, family members, and the public respond.➢ Why and when hallucinations in healthy older adults remit, persist, or progress to other clinical disorders remains poorly understood.➢ Current evidence points to a range of factors associated with hallucinations in older adults including decline in sensory or cognitive functioning, poor sleep, and psychosocial stressors (e.g., social isolation, loneliness, and bereavement, highlighting the need for accurate assessment and tailored interventions.Hallucinations, though common in youth and younger adults, are not the preserve of these age groups. Accumulating evidence shows that hallucinatory experiences are also present at surprisingly high rates in healthy older adults in the general community. Furthermore, stigma and misunderstanding of hallucinations, together with ageism, may lead to under-reporting of these experiences by older adults, and misdiagnosis or mismanagement by health and mental health practitioners. Consequently, improved public and professional knowledge is needed about the nature and significance of hallucinations with advancing age. The purpose of this review is to provide a comprehensive overview, and critical analysis, of research on the prevalence, psychosocial, and neurobiological factors associated with hallucinations in people aged 60 years and over. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first review of its kind in the literature. The evidence supports a dynamic conceptualization of hallucinations, in which the

  5. REFERENCE VALUES OF AORTIC PULSE WAVE VELOCITY IN A LARGE HEALTHY POPULATION AGED BETWEEN 3 AND18 YEARS

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    Erzsebet Valeria Hidvegi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The measurement of aortic pulse wave velocity (PWVao is an accepted marker in stratifying individual cardiovascular risk in adults. There is an increasing volume of evidence concerning impaired vascular function in different diseases in paediatric populations, but, unfortunately, only a few studies are available on the measurement of normal PWVao values in children. The aim of our study was to determine the reference values of PWVao in a large healthy population using a newly developed technique. Methods: Three thousand, three hundred and seventyfour healthy individuals (1802 boys aged 3–18 years were examined by an invasively validated, occlusive, oscillometric device. Results: The mean PWVao values increased from 5.5_0.3 to 6.5_0.3 m/s (P<0.05 in boys and from 5.6_0.3 to 6.4_0.3 m/s (P<0.05 in girls. The increase, however, was not constant, and the values exhibited a flat period between the ages of 3 and 8 years in both sexes. The first pronounced increase occurred at the age of 12.1 years in boys and 10.4 years in girls. Moreover, between the ages of 3 and 8 years, the brachial SBP and mean blood pressures increased continuously and gradually, whereas the PWVao remained unchanged. By contrast, beyond the age of 9 years, blood pressure and aortic stiffness trends basically moved together. Conclusion: Our study provides the largest database to date concerning arterial stiffness in healthy children and adolescents between the ages of 3 and 18 years, and the technology adopted proved easy to use in large paediatric populations, even at a very young age.  

  6. Higher fasting glucose is associated with poorer cognition among healthy young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Misty A W; Gunstad, John; Calvo, Dayana; Spitznagel, Mary Beth

    2016-02-01

    Obesity is associated with cognitive deficits; however, the mechanisms are unclear, especially among otherwise healthy adults. Our objectives were to examine (a) whether obesity is linked to elevations in fasting glucose and (b) whether these elevations are associated with cognitive impairment among otherwise healthy young adults. Participants were 35 normal weight adults and 35 young adults with obesity who completed a task from the Automated Neuropsychological Assessment Metrics-4 (ANAM-4). Measured body mass index (BMI) and fasting blood glucose levels (mg/dL) were examined. Persons with obesity had higher fasting glucose levels than normal weight persons (p = .03). After applying Bonferroni correction for multiple tests, higher fasting glucose predicted less accurate performance on tests of inhibitory control: Go/No-Go Commission Errors (β = .33, p = .004). No effects were observed for sustained attention or working memory (ps ≥. 049). Persons with glucose levels in the prediabetes range had nearly twice as many errors as those with normal glucose, a large effect that was independent of BMI. Young adults who were obese but otherwise healthy had higher fasting glucose levels compared with normal weight peers. Higher glucose levels were associated with poorer cognitive performance on tests of inhibitory control, especially among individuals with prediabetes levels. Thus, subclinical elevations in blood glucose may contribute to cognitive impairment and, ultimately, greater impulsivity-well in advance of the development of chronic disease states (e.g., insulin resistance or Type 2 diabetes) and independently of excess adiposity--though prospective studies are needed to determine directionality of this relationship. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Afoxolaner and fluralaner treatment do not impact on cutaneous Demodex populations of healthy dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zewe, Christine M; Altet, Laura; Lam, Andrea T H; Ferrer, Lluís

    2017-10-01

    Fluralaner and afoxolaner are isoxazolines licensed for the treatment of flea and tick infestations. Isoxazolines have also shown efficacy for treatment of demodicosis. Nothing is known about the impact of these compounds on the populations of Demodex in healthy dogs. The objective of this study was to measure the prevalence of Demodex in the skin of healthy dogs prior to and following the use of either afoxolaner or fluralaner, using real-time PCR (RT-PCR) for Demodex DNA. Our hypothesis was that the use of an isoxazoline at the labelled dose would eliminate Demodex populations from the skin of healthy dogs. Twenty healthy dogs with no history of skin disease were recruited. Dogs were divided into two groups of ten, with each group receiving afoxolaner or fluralaner for the 90 day study period. Hairs were plucked from three body sites on Day 0 prior to medication administration, then again on days 30 and 90. RT-PCR amplifying Demodex DNA was performed on all samples. At Day 0 (prior to treatment), five of the 20 dogs were positive for Demodex DNA at least in one skin site (25%). At Day 60, three of 18 dogs were positive (16.7%) and on Day 90, six of 20 dogs were positive (30%). No significant difference in numbers of positive dogs was found between groups or timepoints. Treatment with afoxolaner or fluralaner does not impact on cutaneous Demodex populations of normal dogs over a 90 day period. © 2017 ESVD and ACVD.

  8. Influence of visual control, conduction, and central integration on static and dynamic balance in healthy older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrin, P P; Jeandel, C; Perrin, C A; Béné, M C

    1997-01-01

    Aging is associated with decreased balance abilities, resulting in an increased risk of fall. In order to appreciate the visual, somatosensory, and central signals involved in balance control, sophisticated methods of posturography assessment have been developed, using static and dynamic tests, eventually associated with electromyographic measurements. We applied such methods to a population of healthy older adults in order to appreciate the respective importance of each of these sensorial inputs in aging individuals. Posture control parameters were recorded on a force-measuring platform in 41 healthy young (age 28.5 +/- 5.9 years) and 50 older (age 69.8 +/- 5.9 years) adults, using a static test and two dynamic tests performed by all individuals first with eyes open, then with eyes closed. The distance covered by the center of foot pressure, sway area, and anteroposterior oscillations were significantly higher, with eyes open or closed, in older people than in young subjects. Significant differences were noted in dynamic tests with longer latency responses in the group of old people. Dynamic recordings in a sinusoidal test had a more regular pattern when performed eyes open in both groups and evidenced significantly greater instability in old people. These data suggest that vision remains important in maintaining postural control while conduction and central integration become less efficient with age.

  9. Measuring Dyspnea and Perceived Exertion in Healthy Adults and with Respiratory Disease: New Pictorial Scales

    OpenAIRE

    Pianosi, Paolo T; Zhang, Zhen; Hernandez, Paul; Huebner, Marianne

    2016-01-01

    Background Dyspnea or perceived exertion during exercise is most commonly measured using Borg or visual analog scales, created for use in adults. In contrast, pictorial scales have been promoted for children due to skepticism concerning applicability of the said scales in pediatrics. We sought to validate our newly created, pictorial Dalhousie Dyspnea and Perceived Exertion Scales in adult populations and compare ratings with the Borg scale. Methods Dyspnea and perceived exertion ratings obta...

  10. Genetic architecture differences between pediatric and adult-onset inflammatory bowel diseases in the Polish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrowski, Jerzy; Paziewska, Agnieszka; Lazowska, Izabella; Ambrozkiewicz, Filip; Goryca, Krzysztof; Kulecka, Maria; Rawa, Tomasz; Karczmarski, Jakub; Dabrowska, Michalina; Zeber-Lubecka, Natalia; Tomecki, Roman; Kluska, Anna; Balabas, Aneta; Piatkowska, Magdalena; Paczkowska, Katarzyna; Kierkus, Jaroslaw; Socha, Piotr; Lodyga, Michal; Rydzewska, Grazyna; Klopocka, Maria; Mierzwa, Grazyna; Iwanczak, Barbara; Krzesiek, Elzbieta; Bak-Drabik, Katarzyna; Walkowiak, Jaroslaw; Klincewicz, Beata; Radwan, Piotr; Grzybowska-Chlebowczyk, Urszula; Landowski, Piotr; Jankowska, Agnieszka; Korczowski, Bartosz; Starzynska, Teresa; Albrecht, Piotr; Mikula, Michal

    2016-12-23

    Most inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) are classic complex disorders represented by common alleles. Here we aimed to define the genetic architecture of pediatric and adult-onset IBDs for the Polish population. A total of 1495 patients were recruited, including 761 patients with Crohn's disease (CD; 424 pediatric), 734 patients with ulcerative colitis (UC; 390 pediatric), and 934 healthy controls. Allelotyping employed a pooled-DNA genome-wide association study (GWAS) and was validated by individual genotyping. Whole exome sequencing (WES) was performed on 44 IBD patients diagnosed before 6 years of age, 45 patients diagnosed after 40 years of age, and 18 healthy controls. Altogether, out of 88 selected SNPs, 31 SNPs were replicated for association with IBD. A novel BRD2 (rs1049526) association reached significance of P = 5.2 × 10 -11 and odds ratio (OR) = 2.43. Twenty SNPs were shared between pediatric and adult patients; 1 and 7 were unique to adult-onset and pediatric-onset IBD, respectively. WES identified numerous rare and potentially deleterious variants in IBD-associated or innate immunity-associated genes. Deleterious alleles in both groups were over-represented among rare variants in affected children. Our GWAS revealed differences in the polygenic architecture of pediatric- and adult-onset IBD. A significant accumulation of rare and deleterious variants in affected children suggests a contribution by yet unexplained genetic components.

  11. STAPHYLOCOCCAL SCALDED SKIN SYNDROME MIMICKING TOXIC EPIDERMAL NECROLYSIS IN A HEALTHY ADULT

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    Tomoko Oishi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Staphylococcal scaled skin syndrome (SSSS presents generalized form bullous impetigo caused by Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus infection, typically seen in infants and children. SSSS may occur also in adults; however, the majority of adult cases are those with immunosuppression. Atypical clinical features of impetigo in adults sometimes make it difficult to diagnose correctly. Case Report: A 74-year-old healthy woman was hospitalized, complaining of extensive desquamative erythema and a number of erosions. She was administered oral antiviral drugs under suspicion of herpes zoster prior to 10 days. Initial diagnosis on the admission was toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN due to antiviral tablets; however, steroid pulse therapy resulted in no effect. Bacterial culture yielded coagulase-positive methicillin-resistent S. aureus, producing exfoliative toxin B. A biopsy specimen showed subcorneal splitting of the epidermis. The diffuse erosions gradually improved over 10 days by the treatment with intravenous antibiotics. Conclusions: The differentiation between streptococcal scaled skin syndrome (SSSS and TEN is sometimes difficult. It is important to remind SSSS when we suspect TEN, even in healthy adults..

  12. Investigation of the effects of solid lipid curcumin on cognition and mood in a healthy older population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Katherine H M; Pipingas, Andrew; Scholey, Andrew B

    2015-05-01

    Curcumin possesses many properties which may prevent or ameliorate pathological processes underlying age-related cognitive decline, dementia or mood disorders. These benefits in preclinical studies have not been established in humans. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial examined the acute (1 and 3 h after a single dose), chronic (4 weeks) and acute-on-chronic (1 and 3 h after single dose following chronic treatment) effects of solid lipid curcumin formulation (400 mg as Longvida®) on cognitive function, mood and blood biomarkers in 60 healthy adults aged 60-85. One hour after administration curcumin significantly improved performance on sustained attention and working memory tasks, compared with placebo. Working memory and mood (general fatigue and change in state calmness, contentedness and fatigue induced by psychological stress) were significantly better following chronic treatment. A significant acute-on-chronic treatment effect on alertness and contentedness was also observed. Curcumin was associated with significantly reduced total and LDL cholesterol and had no effect on hematological safety measures. To our knowledge this is the first study to examine the effects of curcumin on cognition and mood in a healthy older population or to examine any acute behavioral effects in humans. Results highlight the need for further investigation of the potential psychological and cognitive benefits of curcumin in an older population. © The Author(s) 2014.

  13. Screening of a healthy newborn identifies three adult family members with symptomatic glutaric aciduria type I

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    MCH Janssen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We report three adult sibs (one female, two males with symptomatic glutaric acidura type I, who were diagnosed after a low carnitine level was found by newborn screening in a healthy newborn of the women. All three adults had low plasma carnitine, elevated glutaric acid levels and pronounced 3-hydroxyglutaric aciduria. The diagnosis was confirmed by undetectable glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase activity in lymphocytes and two pathogenic heterozygous mutations in the GCDH gene (c.1060A>G, c.1154C>T. These results reinforce the notion that abnormal metabolite levels in newborns may lead to the diagnosis of adult metabolic disease in the mother and potentially other family members.

  14. Rapid global expansion of the fungal disease chytridiomycosis into declining and healthy amphibian populations.

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    Timothy Y James

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The fungal disease chytridiomycosis, caused by Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, is enigmatic because it occurs globally in both declining and apparently healthy (non-declining amphibian populations. This distribution has fueled debate concerning whether, in sites where it has recently been found, the pathogen was introduced or is endemic. In this study, we addressed the molecular population genetics of a global collection of fungal strains from both declining and healthy amphibian populations using DNA sequence variation from 17 nuclear loci and a large fragment from the mitochondrial genome. We found a low rate of DNA polymorphism, with only two sequence alleles detected at each locus, but a high diversity of diploid genotypes. Half of the loci displayed an excess of heterozygous genotypes, consistent with a primarily clonal mode of reproduction. Despite the absence of obvious sex, genotypic diversity was high (44 unique genotypes out of 59 strains. We provide evidence that the observed genotypic variation can be generated by loss of heterozygosity through mitotic recombination. One strain isolated from a bullfrog possessed as much allelic diversity as the entire global sample, suggesting the current epidemic can be traced back to the outbreak of a single clonal lineage. These data are consistent with the current chytridiomycosis epidemic resulting from a novel pathogen undergoing a rapid and recent range expansion. The widespread occurrence of the same lineage in both healthy and declining populations suggests that the outcome of the disease is contingent on environmental factors and host resistance.

  15. Characteristic muscle activity patterns during gait initiation in the healthy younger and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanmohammadi, Roya; Talebian, Saeed; Hadian, Mohammad Reza; Olyaei, Gholamreza; Bagheri, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    It is thought that gait initiation (GI) might be an optimal task for identifying postural control deficiencies. Thus, the aim of this study was to clarify the strategies adopted by older subjects during this task. 16 healthy younger and 15 healthy older adults participated in the study. Subjects were instructed to begin forward stepping with their dominant limb in response to an auditory stimulus. The mean muscle activity, co-contraction index, and intra-subject coefficients of variation (intra-subject CVs) of dominant limb muscles in different phases of GI were measured. The level of association between the co-contraction index and intra-subject CV of muscles was also explored. This study showed that in the anticipatory phase, the younger group had larger amplitudes and more intra-subject CVs than older the group, particularly for the tibialis anterior muscle. However, the co-contraction index was greater in older subjects relative to younger subjects. During the weight transition phase, tibialis anterior, semitendinosus and vastus lateralis muscles of older adults had a lower amplitude as compared to younger adults. However, during the locomotor phase, the activity of tibialis anterior was greater in comparison to younger adults. Also, during this phase, similar to the anticipatory phase, the co-contraction index between tibialis anterior and gastrocnemius muscles was greater in older subjects relative to younger subjects. Additionally, the larger co-contraction index of some muscles was associated with smaller intra-subject CV. These findings suggest that muscle behaviors are altered with aging and older adults employ different strategies in the different phases of GI as compared to younger adults. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Reliability and Validity of Computerized Force Platform Measures of Balance Function in Healthy Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harro, Cathy C; Garascia, Chelsea

    2018-01-10

    Postural control declines with aging and is an independent risk factor for falls in older adults. Objective examination of balance function is warranted to direct fall prevention strategies. Force platform (FP) systems provide quantitative measures of postural control and analysis of different aspects of balance. The purpose of this study was to examine the reliability and validity of FP measures in healthy older adults. This study enrolled 46 healthy elderly adults, mean age 67.67 (5.1) years, who had no history of falls. They were assessed on 3 standardized tests on the NeuroCom Equitest FP system: limits of stability (LOS), motor control test (MCT), and sensory organization test (SOT). The test battery was administered twice within a 10-day period for test-retest reliability; intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs), standard error of measurement (SEM), and minimal detectable change based on a 95% confidence interval (MDC95) were calculated. FP measures were compared with criterion clinical balance (Mini-BESTest and Functional Gait Assessment) and gait (10-m walk and 6-minute walk) measures to examine concurrent validity using Pearson correlation coefficients. Multiple linear regression analysis examined whether age and activity level were associated with FP performance. The α level was set at P learning effects were evident, particularly for the SOT. The SEM and MDC95 for the LOS and SOT measures were relatively large for this healthy elderly cohort. A relationship between FP measures, which assess underlying balance mechanisms, and clinical balance and gait measures was not strongly supported in this study. Further research is needed to justify the value of adding FP measures to a test battery for balance assessment in older adults without a history of falls.

  17. [Effects of vitamin A supplementation on nutritional status of iron in healthy adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zuwen; Fan, Ping; Deng, Gangbo; Du, Zhen; Shao, Zewei; Wang, Zhixu

    2012-05-01

    To investigate the effect of vitamin A (VA) supplementation on the nutritional status of iron in healthy adults. One hundred and fifteen healthy adults were recruited and divided randomly into four groups, with 28 or 29 adults in each group. VA supplements with different doses of retinyl acetate in capsules were given for 4-month. The equivalent doses of supplemented retinyl acetate were 600 microg/d, 400 microg/d, 200 microg/d and 0 microg/d (control) of retinol, respectively. The capsules were administered orally by double blind method. During the experiment, the subjects kept their usual dietary pattern but avoided high VA or pre-VA carotenoids foods from their diets. A 24-h dietary recall was carried out monthly on every subject. Before and after the intervention, the fast blood samples were collected from each subject, and were determined for hemoglobin concentration, levels of serum retinol, iron, ferrtin and transferrtin receptor. Total 108 subjects finished the experiment, with 27, 28, 27 and 26 persons left in group A, B, C and D, respectively. The subjects from each group had similar dietary intakes of energy nutrients, VA and iron (both were P > 0.05) during the experimental period. The serum retinol concentration of subjects from group A increased from 1.63 +/- 0.55 micromol/L of baseline to 1.93 +/-0.52 micromol/L at the end of the experiment (P 0.05). There was no significant difference on Hb concentration before and after the experiment as well as between groups (all were P > 0.05). In subjects of group A, serum iron concentration increased (P supplement intervention. No such changes were observed in group B and C (P supplement with relative high dose of retinol at dietary level could enhance the iron status further in no-anemic healthy adults even without dietary iron supplementation.

  18. The effects of the serotonin transporter polymorphism and age on frontal white matter integrity in healthy adult women.

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    Rune eJonassen

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Studies of populations at genetic risk have the potential to explore the underlying structural and functional mechanisms in the development of psychological disorders. The polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR in the serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4 has been associated with major depression (Caspi et al., 2003. In healthy women, variation in the human brain white matter microstructure integrity in the uncinate fascicule (UF has been suggested as an endophenotypes in the development of major depression (MDD. Pacheco et al. (2009 found a unique effect of age and 5-HTTLPR within the left frontal UF. The present study examined whether these associations persist along the adult life span. Thirty-seven right-handed healthy women between 21 and 61 years of age were invited for a diffusion MRI study. The functional polymorphism 5-HTTLPR located in the promoter region of the SLC6A4 gene was genotyped using polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Fractional anisotropy (FA was generated for the UF based on Tract-Based Spatial Statistics (TBSS. Models of emotion regulation circuitry suggest that working memory is important in conscious emotion regulation (Price and Drevets, 2010. To explore if 5-HTTLPR is related to this aspects of emotion processing, a working memory pathway, the superior longitudinal fascicule (SLF was included. The results demonstrate that age may explain the hypothesized association between 5-HTTLPR and frontal uncinate fascicule white matter integrity in healthy adult women. Both white matter changes associated with the aging process and those associated with growth and development may explain why the earlier reported unique effects of genotype in frontal UF FA do not persist into adulthood.

  19. Small Demodex populations colonize most parts of the skin of healthy dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravera, Iván; Altet, Laura; Francino, Olga; Sánchez, Armand; Roldán, Wendy; Villanueva, Sergio; Bardagí, Mar; Ferrer, Lluís

    2013-02-01

    It is unproven that all dogs harbour Demodex mites in their skin. In fact, several microscopic studies have failed to demonstrate mites in healthy dogs. Demodex canis is a normal inhabitant of the skin of most, if not all, dogs. This hypothesis was tested using a sensitive real-time PCR to detect Demodex DNA in the skin of dogs. One hundred dogs living in a humane society shelter, 20 privately owned and healthy dogs and eight dogs receiving immunosuppressive or antineoplastic therapy. Hair samples (250-300 hairs with their hair bulbs) were taken from five or 20 skin locations. A real-time PCR that amplifies a 166 bp sequence of the D. canis chitin synthase gene was used. The percentage of positive dogs increased with the number of sampling points. When a large canine population was sampled at five cutaneous locations, 18% of dogs were positive for Demodex DNA. When 20 skin locations were sampled, all dogs tested positive for mite DNA. Our study indicates that Demodex colonization of the skin is present in all dogs, independent of age, sex, breed or coat. Nevertheless, the population of mites in a healthy dog appears to be small. Demodex DNA was amplified from all 20 cutaneous points investigated, without statistically significant differences. Using a real-time PCR technique, Demodex mites, albeit in very low numbers, were found to be normal inhabitants of haired areas of the skin of healthy dogs. © 2013 The Authors. Veterinary Dermatology © 2013 ESVD and ACVD.

  20. COMPARING LUNG FUNCTION OF TEXTILE WORKERS WITH THE HEALTHY PAKISTANI POPULATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabbani, Unaib; Nafees, Asaad Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare lung function of textile workers with healthy Pakistani population, compare predicted values based on the European Respiratory Society (ERS) equations with those based on the Pakistani equations, and to develop predictor equations for textile workers in Pakistan. This was a secondary analysis of data from two previous surveys where lung function of textile workers was compared with healthy Pakistani men. Spirometry was performed according to the American Thoracic Society guidelines. Independent sample t-test was used to compare the lung function parameters and multivariate linear regression was used to develop predictor equations. There were significant differences in lung function of textile workers (FVC: 4.1 L, FEV1: 3.3 L and FEV1/FVC: 0.8) compared to healthy Pakistani men (FVC: 3.9 L, FEV1: 4.1 L and FEV1/FVC: 1.04). ERS reference equations tended to under-diagnose abnormal lung function, 16.9% versus 25.3% (ptextile workers were also developed. Lung function of textile workers was significantly reduced compared to healthy population. Use of ERS reference equations for Pakistani textile workers may not provide appropriate interpretation.

  1. Psychosocial factors associated with diet quality in a working adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferranti, Erin Poe; Dunbar, Sandra B; Higgins, Melinda; Dai, Jun; Ziegler, Thomas R; Frediani, Jennifer K; Reilly, Carolyn; Brigham, Kenneth L

    2013-06-01

    The associations between specific intra- and inter-personal psychosocial factors and dietary patterns were explored in a healthy, working adult sample of university and health center employees (N = 640) who were enrolled in a prospective predictive health study. Participants had a mean age of 48 (SD = 11) years and were 67% women and 30% minority. Baseline psychosocial measures of perceived stress, depressive symptoms, social support, and family functioning were examined for their relationships with three diet quality indices-AHEI, DASH, and the Mediterranean. Dietary intake was of moderate quality in this high-income, well-educated, psychosocially healthy population. Social support was positively associated with better diet quality for all three indices (p diet quality. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Socio-Demographic Determinants of Diet Quality in Australian Adults Using the Validated Healthy Eating Index for Australian Adults (HEIFA-2013

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    Amanda Grech

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Diet quality indices have been shown to predict cardiovascular disease, cancer, Type 2 Diabetes, obesity and all-cause mortality. This study aimed to determine the socio-demographics of Australian adults with poor diet quality. Diet quality was assessed for participants of the 2011–2012 National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey aged 18 years or above (n = 9435, with the validated 11-component Healthy Eating Index for Australians (HEIFA-2013, based on the 2013 Australian Dietary Guidelines. Differences in scores by demographics (ANOVA and regression models for associations between the HEIFA-2013 score and demographic characteristics were conducted. The mean (SD HEIFA-2013 score was 45.5 (14.7 out of 100 due to poor intakes of vegetables, fruit, grains, dairy and fat and high intakes of added sugar, sodium and discretionary foods. Lower mean HEIFA-2013 scores (SD were found for males 43.3 (14.7, young-adults 41.6 (14.2 obese 44.1 (14.3, smokers 40.0 (14.2, low socio-economic status 43.7 (14.9 and Australian country-of-birth 44.2 (14.6 (p < 0.05. The overall diet quality of the Australian population is poor and targeted interventions for young-adults, males, obese and those with lower socio-economic status are recommended.

  3. Effects of moderate beer consumption on blood lipid profile in healthy Spanish adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeo, Javier; González-Gross, Marcela; Wärnberg, Julia; Díaz, Ligia E; Marcos, Ascensión

    2008-06-01

    To analyse the association of moderate beer consumption on the blood lipid profile in healthy Spanish adults. The study had an intervention longitudinal design in which each subject established their own control with a previous wash-out phase. After a 30-day alcohol abstinence period, 57 healthy volunteers were submitted to a daily moderate intake of beer for 30 days. Serum total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, triacylglycerols, GOT, GPT, GGT and glucose values, as well as blood erythrocytes, haemoglobin, haematocrit and MCV levels, together with anthropometric parameters were determined at the beginning of the study (baseline levels) (a), after 1 month of alcoholic abstinence (b) and after 1 month of moderate beer consumption (c). Dietary intake was assessed twice by a 7-day dietary record. HDL-cholesterol, erythrocytes, haematocrit and MCV levels increased significantly (pbeer consumption in women. In men, a decrease in HDL-cholesterol levels was observed after alcohol abstention. Haematocrit and MCV counts also increased significantly (pbeer consumption. There were no dietary changes during the study. In healthy Spanish adults, the effects of moderate beer consumption during 1 month were associated with favourable changes on the blood lipid profile.

  4. Perception of the older adults regarding the practise of physical activity and healthy eating

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    Rodrigo de Rosso Krug

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To understand the perception of regular physical activity and healthy eating among the older adults. Methods: This descriptive study (qualitative approach included 36 older adults (69 to 91 years residents in a rural community in southern Brazil. A semi-structured interview was used and the information were recorded, transcribed and interpreted (content analysis technique. Results: The following categories of analysis were identified: a facilitators and barriers for the practising PA, b benefits of regular PA, and c healthy eating habits-consumption of food (beneficial and harmful for health. Facilitating factors were related to social interaction, motivation, willpower, practise enjoying, having company, and being encouraged. Barriers perceived were diseases, physical limitations, pain, lack of willingness and age. The PA benefits were wellbeing, pain reduction, increased willingness, treatment and disease prevention. Fruits, vegetables, vitamin D, calcium, and water were cited as important to health. The consumption of foods rich in fat and sugars was associated with the occurrence of diseases. Conclusion: Personal aspects, of coexistence and motivation, are factors cited as facilitators for the practise of physical activities, while the barriers are related to health, unwillingness, and age. Health promotion strategies may be multidisciplinary and should consider personal aspects, of coexistence, motivation and health. Strategies should focus on the benefits of regular PA and healthy eating.

  5. Do Aging and Tactile Noise Stimulation Affect Responses to Support Surface Translations in Healthy Adults?

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    Marius Dettmer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Appropriate neuromuscular responses to support surface perturbations are crucial to prevent falls, but aging-related anatomical and physiological changes affect the appropriateness and efficiency of such responses. Low-level noise application to sensory receptors has shown to be effective for postural improvement in a variety of different balance tasks, but it is unknown whether this intervention may have value for improvement of corrective postural responses. Ten healthy younger and ten healthy older adults were exposed to sudden backward translations of the support surface. Low-level noise (mechanical vibration to the foot soles was added during random trials and temporal (response latency and spatial characteristics (maximum center-of-pressure excursion and anterior-posterior path length of postural responses were assessed. Mixed-model ANOVA was applied for analysis of postural response differences based on age and vibration condition. Age affected postural response characteristics, but older adults were well able to maintain balance when exposed to a postural perturbation. Low-level noise application did not affect any postural outcomes. Healthy aging affects some specific measures of postural stability, and in high-functioning older individuals, a low-level noise intervention may not be valuable. More research is needed to investigate if recurring fallers and neuropathy patients could benefit from the intervention in postural perturbation tasks.

  6. The effects of sling exercise using vibration on trunk muscle activities of healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Youngin; Kang, Hyungkyu

    2013-10-01

    [Purpose] This study compared the effects of sling exercises with and without vibration on the muscular activity of the internal oblique (IO), rectus abdominis (RA), multifidus (MF), and erector spinae (ES) muscles of healthy adults. [Methods] Eleven healthy university students (11 men) with a mean age of 22.8 years were enrolled in this study. Subjects performed supine and prone bridge exercises with the knees flexed using a sling suspension system with and without vibration. The amplitudes of the EMG activities of selected trunk muscles (internal oblique, rectus abdominis, erector spinae, multifidus) were recorded. Two types of exercise conditions were executed in a random sequence for 5 seconds each. The signals detected from the middle 3 seconds (after discarding the signals of the first and the last one seconds) were used in the analysis. A 3-minute break was given after each exercise to minimize muscle fatigue. [Results] During the supine bridge exercise with vibration, the activities of the IO, RA, MF, and ES muscles were significantly higher than those of the supine bridge exercise without vibration. Additionally, during the prone bridge exercise with vibration, the activities of the IO, RA, MF, and ES were significantly higher than those of the prone bridge exercise without vibration. [Conclusion] Sling exercises with vibration improved the trunk muscle activities of healthy adults compared to the sling exercises without vibration. The information presented here is important for clinicians who use lumbar stabilization exercises as an evaluation tool or a rehabilitation exercise.

  7. A Narrative Synthesis of Nintendo Wii Fit Gaming Protocol in Addressing Balance Among Healthy Older Adults: What System Works?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manlapaz, Donald G; Sole, Gisela; Jayakaran, Prasath; Chapple, Cathy M

    2017-04-01

    Balance is crucial in performing functional tasks particularly among older adults. Exergaming is gaining attention as a novel approach to enhance balance in a number of clinical populations. The aim of this review was to synthesize and present published evidence for Nintendo Wii Fit™ gaming system protocols. These include game preference, intervention setting, and exercise dosage for improving balance in healthy older adults. Commonly used outcome measures were also identified. A literature search was developed using the PICOS strategy using keywords such as "older adult," "Nintendo Wii Fit," "exergaming," and "balance" in the databases: MEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, Scopus, Science Direct, and Web of Science. Sixteen articles were included with participants (n = 491) mostly female (69%), and mean age ranged between 71 and 85 years old. Participants were recruited mainly from the community. The most commonly used Wii Fit games were Table tilt, Soccer Heading, Ski Slalom, and Ski jump, performed three times per week, with a duration of 30 minutes per session for 6 weeks. Berg Balance Scale, Timed Up and Go Test, and Centre of Pressure were the most commonly used outcome measures. Wii Fit exergames can be a potential alternative to improve balance if safety and technical procedures are provided. With conflicting and mechanism-based evidence on dosage presented, exergaming parameters require further research before firm recommendations can be made. Clinically, effective dosage is an important component in any type of interventions, and exergaming should not be an exception.

  8. A rehabilitative ultrasound imaging investigation of lateral abdominal muscle thickness in healthy aging adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stetts, Deborah M; Freund, Jane E; Allison, Stephen C; Carpenter, Gray

    2009-01-01

    Rehabilitative ultrasound imaging (RUSI) is used to evaluate lateral abdominal muscle size and function during the abdominal drawing-in maneuver (ADIM), an exercise used to improve lumbar spine stability. Little is known about the size and performance of these muscles in healthy aging adults. The purpose of this study was to investigate, using RUSI, the size and symmetry of the lateral abdominal muscles bilaterally at rest and during the ADIM in healthy older adults and the reliability of these measurements. Three ultrasound images of the right and left lateral abdominal muscles were taken at rest and during the ADIM in 12 healthy older adults. Thickness of the transversus abdominis muscles (TrA), internal oblique (IO), and external oblique (EO) were measured for all images. Intraclass correlation coefficients were computed using model 3, form 1 (ICC3,1). Two ratios of the abdominal muscles were calculated in the relaxed and contracted states. Paired t-tests were used to compare relaxed muscle thickness to contracted muscle thickness for all 3 muscles for each side. To test further for interactions of side and contractile state, 2 x 2 repeated measures ANOVAs were performed. Side-to-side differences in absolute and relative thickness were assessed with paired t-tests for the TrA and IO muscles. Absolute and relative side-to-side muscle symmetry indices were computed for each muscle at rest. There was a significant difference in muscle thickness between the contracted and relaxed states for both the TrA and IO. There was no significant difference between left/right muscle thickness for the TrA or IO at rest or during the ADIM. The TrA nearly doubled in size while thickness of the IO + EO stayed relatively constant during the ADIM. Reliability for absolute muscle thickness was generally excellent: ICCs3,1 ranged from 0.95 to 1.00 for intra-image reliability; 0.77 to 0.97 for inter-image reliability. These findings support symmetrical and preferential activation of

  9. How does bone quality differ between healthy-weight and overweight adolescents and young adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoy, Christa L; Macdonald, Heather M; McKay, Heather A

    2013-04-01

    Overweight youth have greater bone mass than their healthy-weight peers but sustain more fractures. However, it is unclear whether and how excess body fat influences bone quality in youth. We determined whether overweight status correlated with three-dimensional aspects of bone quality influencing bone strength in adolescent and young adult females and males. We categorized males (n=103; mean age, 17 years) and females (n=85; mean age, 18 years) into healthy-weight and overweight groups. We measured lean mass (LM) and fat mass (FM) with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). We used high-resolution peripheral quantitative CT to assess the distal radius (7% site) and distal tibia (8% site). Bone quality measures included total bone mineral density (Tt.BMD), total area (Tt.Ar), trabecular bone volume fraction (BV/TV), trabecular number (Tb.N), separation (Tb.Sp), and thickness (Tb.Th). We used multiple regression to compare bone quality between healthy-weight and overweight adolescents adjusting for age, ethnicity, limb length, LM, and FM. Overweight males had higher (10%-21%) Tt.BMD, BV/TV, and Tb.N and lower Tb.Sp at the tibia and lower Tt.Ar at the radius than healthy-weight males. No differences were observed between overweight and healthy-weight females. LM attenuated the differences in bone quality between groups in males while FM negatively predicted Tt.BMD, BV/TV, Tb.N, and Tb.Th. Our data suggest overweight males have enhanced bone quality compared with healthy-weight males; however, when group differences are interpreted in the context of the mechanostat theory, it appears bone quality of overweight adolescents adapts to LM and not to greater FM.

  10. Population pharmacokinetics of halofantrine in healthy volunteers and patients with symptomatic falciparum malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Kerenaftali; Aarons, Leon; Ter Kuile, Feiko O; Nosten, Francois; White, Nick J; Edstein, Michael D; Teja-Isavadharm, Paktiya

    2012-11-01

    To investigate the population pharmacokinetics of the antimalarial halofantrine (HF) in healthy volunteers and patients with symptomatic falciparum malaria. Healthy volunteer data were obtained from six volunteers who received three different doses of HF (250, 500 and 1000 mg) after an overnight fast with a washout period of at least 6 weeks between doses. Patient data (n = 188) were obtained from randomised controlled trials conducted on the Thai-Burmese border in the early 1990s. They were either assigned to receive a total HF dose of 24 mg/kg (8 mg/kg every 6 h for 24 h) or 72 mg/kg (8 mg/kg every 6 to 10 h for 3 days). The population pharmacokinetics of HF were evaluated using non-linear mixed effects modelling with a two-compartment model with first-order absorption. The population estimates of apparent clearance (CL), volume of compartment one (V1), distributional clearance (CLD) and volume of compartment two (V2) of HF in healthy volunteers were 2453 l/day (102 l/h), 2386 l, 716 l/day (29.8 l/h) and 2641 l, respectively. The population estimates of the PK parameters in patients were 429 l/day (17.9 l/h), 729 l, 178 l/day (7.42 l/h) and 1351 l, respectively. All PK parameters were significantly related to body weight and some were related to sex, sampling method, pre-treatment parasite density and whether patients vomited or not. When the two datasets were analysed jointly using a maximum likelihood method, the population estimates in patients were 196 l/day (8.17 l/h), 161 l, 65 l/day (2.71 l/h) and 89 l, respectively, and the parameters were significantly related to body weight and sex. Bayesian analysis of the patient data, with a diffuse prior based on the healthy volunteer data analysis results, yielded the population estimates 354 l/day (14.8 l/h), 728 l, 162 l/day (6.75 l/h) and 1939 l, respectively. The pharmacokinetic properties of HF in patients with malaria are affected by several demographic variables as well as other relevant covariates. Apparent

  11. The Effect of Tai Chi Training on Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Healthy Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Guohua Zheng; Shuzhen Li; Maomao Huang; Feiwen Liu; Jing Tao; Lidian Chen

    2015-01-01

    Background Tai Chi may be efficient for healthy adults to improve the cardiorespiratory fitness, but there is no systematic evaluation for its effectiveness. Objective To systematically assess the effectiveness of Tai Chi on cardiorespiratory fitness in healthy adults. Methods Seven electronic databases were searched from their inception to October 2013. The controlled trails including randomized controlled trial (RCT), non-randomized controlled trial (NRCT), self-controlled trial (SCT), and ...

  12. Perfluoroalkyl substance serum concentrations and immune response to FluMist vaccination among healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Cheryl R; Ge, Yongchao; Wolff, Mary S; Ye, Xiaoyun; Calafat, Antonia M; Kraus, Thomas; Moran, Thomas M

    2016-08-01

    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) were shown to be immunotoxic in laboratory animals. There is some epidemiological evidence that PFAS exposure is inversely associated with vaccine-induced antibody concentration. We examined immune response to vaccination with FluMist intranasal live attenuated influenza vaccine in relation to four PFAS (perfluorooctanoate, perfluorononanoate, perfluorooctane sulfonate, perfluorohexane sulfonate) serum concentrations among 78 healthy adults vaccinated during the 2010-2011 influenza season. We measured anti-A H1N1 antibody response and cytokine and chemokine concentrations in serum pre-vaccination, 3 days post-vaccination, and 30 days post-vaccination. We measured cytokine, chemokine, and mucosal IgA concentration in nasal secretions 3 days post-vaccination and 30 days post-vaccination. Adults with higher PFAS concentrations were more likely to seroconvert after FluMist vaccination as compared to adults with lower PFAS concentrations. The associations, however, were imprecise and few participants seroconverted as measured either by hemagglutination inhibition (9%) or immunohistochemical staining (25%). We observed no readily discernable or consistent pattern between PFAS concentration and baseline cytokine, chemokine, or mucosal IgA concentration, or between PFAS concentration and change in these immune markers between baseline and FluMist-response states. The results of this study do not support a reduced immune response to FluMist vaccination among healthy adults in relation to serum PFAS concentration. Given the study's many limitations, however, it does not rule out impaired vaccine response to other vaccines or vaccine components in either children or adults. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Sagittal spinal posture after Pilates-based exercise in healthy older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Yi-Liang; Tully, Elizabeth A; Galea, Mary P

    2009-05-01

    Longitudinal, repeated-measures study. The aim of this study was to determine changes in sagittal spinal posture in older adults during standing and sitting after a Pilates-based exercise program. Pilates exercise is purported to improve posture, however, few peer-reviewed articles are available to provide scientific support. Most previous studies were conducted in young dancers, and the effect of Pilates exercise on spinal posture in older adults remained unclear. Thirty-four healthy older adults aged over 60 years volunteered for this study. A two-dimensional PEAK Motus motion analysis system was used to measure sagittal spinal angles. Participants were tested on 2 occasions before the exercise program to establish a baseline measure, and undertook a supervised Pilates-based exercise program twice weekly for 10 weeks. Participants were tested on another 2 occasions, immediately after the exercise program, and after a short-term follow-up. Baseline measures in both standing and sitting postures remained unchanged except for the lumbar spine angle in sitting. Immediately after the Pilates-based exercise program, older adults stood with slightly decreased thoracic flexion and sat with slightly increased lumbar extension. No significant differences were found during the follow-up period. The individually designed Pilates-based exercise program was feasible for healthy older adults, and the high attendance rate supports the suitability of the exercise program over a long period. Considering the variability of the baseline measure, small improvement was only observed in the thoracic kyphosis during standing. The long-term effect of Pilates exercise requires further investigation.

  14. [Study of ADC value in healthy adults kidney of different age groups].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yehuan; Pan, Jingjing; Wang, Haiyi; Wang, Xinkun; Li, Lu; Ye, Huiyi

    2014-04-08

    To evaluate the changes of ADC value on renal parenchyma at different age groups in healthy adults. One hundred healthy adults were divided into five groups based on age:namely 18-29 years, 30-39 years, 40-49 years, 50-59 years and 60-69 years. All adults underwent diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance(MR) imaging of the kidneys with b values of 800 s/mm(2). ADC values of renal parenchyma were measured by the manufacturer's software. With the increasing of age , the renal parenchyma ADCs decrease. The ADCs of renal parenchyma in five age groups were (2.07 ± 0.10) ×10(-3)mm(2)/s, (2.06 ± 0.12) ×10(-3)mm(2)/s, (2.03 ± 0.10) ×10(-3)mm(2)/s, (1.98 ± 0.17) ×10(-3)mm(2)/s and (1.94 ± 0.12) ×10(-3)mm(2)/s, which had statistically significant different (F = 3.375, P age , with the increasing of age, ADCs of normal kidney presented tenuous decreasing tendency especially the people aged ≥ 40 years; (2)in clinical application, we ought to pay attention to the influence of age factor. Income data of this study can be took as normal reference value in other more study.

  15. Individual differences in error monitoring in healthy adults: psychological symptoms and antisocial personality characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Wen-Pin; Davies, Patricia L; Gavin, William J

    2010-10-01

    Recent studies have investigated the relationship between psychological symptoms and personality traits and error monitoring measured by error-related negativity (ERN) and error positivity (Pe) event-related potential (ERP) components, yet there remains a paucity of studies examining the collective simultaneous effects of psychological symptoms and personality traits on error monitoring. This present study, therefore, examined whether measures of hyperactivity-impulsivity, depression, anxiety and antisocial personality characteristics could collectively account for significant interindividual variability of both ERN and Pe amplitudes, in 29 healthy adults with no known disorders, ages 18-30 years. The bivariate zero-order correlation analyses found that only the anxiety measure was significantly related to both ERN and Pe amplitudes. However, multiple regression analyses that included all four characteristic measures while controlling for number of segments in the ERP average revealed that both depression and antisocial personality characteristics were significant predictors for the ERN amplitudes whereas antisocial personality was the only significant predictor for the Pe amplitude. These findings suggest that psychological symptoms and personality traits are associated with individual variations in error monitoring in healthy adults, and future studies should consider these variables when comparing group difference in error monitoring between adults with and without disabilities. © 2010 The Authors. European Journal of Neuroscience © 2010 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. Healthy adults maximum oxygen uptake prediction from a six minute walking test

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    Nury Nusdwinuringtyas

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: A parameter is needed in medical activities or services to determine functional capacity. This study is aimed to produce functional capacity parameter for Indonesian adult as maximum O2.Methods: This study used 123 Indonesian healthy adult subjects (58 males and 65 females with a sedentary lifestyle, using a cross-sectional method.Results: Designed by using the followings: distance, body height, body weight, sex, age, maximum heart rate of six minute walking test and lung capacity (FEV and FVC, the study revealed a good correlation (except body weight with maximum O2. Three new formulas were proposed, which consisted of eight, six, and five variable respectively. Test of the new formula gave result of maximum O2 that is relevant to the golden standard maximum O2 using Cosmed® C-Pex.Conclusion: The Nury formula is the appropriate predictor of maximum oxygen uptake for healthy Indonesians adult as it is designed using Indonesian subjects (Mongoloid compared to the Cahalin’s formula (Caucasian. The Nury formula which consists of five variables is more applicable because it does not require any measurement tools neither specific competency. (Med J Indones 2011;20:195-200Keywords: maximum O2, Nury’s formula, six minute walking test

  17. Transfer after process-based object-location memory training in healthy older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Kathrin; von Bastian, Claudia C; Röcke, Christina; Martin, Mike; Eschen, Anne

    2016-11-01

    A substantial part of age-related episodic memory decline has been attributed to the decreasing ability of older adults to encode and retrieve associations among simultaneously processed information units from long-term memory. In addition, this ability seems to share unique variance with reasoning. In this study, we therefore examined whether process-based training of the ability to learn and remember associations has the potential to induce transfer effects to untrained episodic memory and reasoning tasks in healthy older adults (60-75 years). For this purpose, the experimental group (n = 36) completed 30 sessions of process-based object-location memory training, while the active control group (n = 31) practiced visual perception on the same material. Near (spatial episodic memory), intermediate (verbal episodic memory), and far transfer effects (reasoning) were each assessed with multiple tasks at four measurements (before, midway through, immediately after, and 4 months after training). Linear mixed-effects models revealed transfer effects on spatial episodic memory and reasoning that were still observed 4 months after training. These results provide first empirical evidence that process-based training can enhance healthy older adults' associative memory performance and positively affect untrained episodic memory and reasoning abilities. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Salivary adiponectin concentration in healthy adult males in relation to anthropometric measures and fat distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdalla, Mona Mohamed Ibrahim; Soon, S C

    2017-10-26

    Body fat content, fat distribution, and adiponectin level are important variables in the development of obesity related complications. Anthropometric indices may provide an economic and faster method in measuring the risk for complications through their predictive effect of fat distribution and adiponectin concentration. We aimed to determine, which of the waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and body mass index (BMI) may be the best predictor for the total fat percentage (WF), visceral fat level (VF), and subcutaneous whole-body fat (SCWBF). We aimed also to investigate the potential use of the anthropometric measures and fat distribution as predictors for the salivary adiponectin level in the healthy adult males. A total of 88 adult males aged between 18-25 years with a wide range of BMI were studied. Anthropometric indices were measured using standardized methods and salivary adiponectin level was assessed using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In path analysis of the Structural Equation Model (SEM) using IBM@SPSS AMOS, version22, BMI and WC, but not WHR, were strong predictors for WF and SCWBF (pfat and fat distribution. However, WHR seems to be of a little value and the salivary adiponectin level independent of BMI and body fat in healthy adult Malay males.

  19. Sustained attention and frailty in the older adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Halloran, Aisling M; Finucane, Ciaran; Savva, George M; Robertson, Ian H; Kenny, Rose Anne

    2014-03-01

    We investigated whether sustained attention performance and variability were associated with prefrailty and frailty in the older adult population. A total of 4,317 participants aged 50 years and over from the Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing (TILDA) completed a comprehensive health assessment. Frailty was defined by low gait speed, low grip strength, unintentional weight loss, self-reported exhaustion, and low physical activity. Scores of greater than or equal to 3, 1-2, and 0 indicated that participants were frail, prefrail, and nonfrail, respectively. Multinomial logistic regression computed associations between frailty state and measures of performance and variability on the Sustained Attention to Response Task (SART). Cognitive processing speed and executive function were also measured. Mean reaction time (RT; odds ratio [OR] = 1.13, p attention (OR = 1.11, p attention performance and variability were associated with prefrailty and frailty in the older adult population and may represent a novel, objective, and modifiable cognitive marker of frailty progression.

  20. Genetic architecture of knee radiographic joint space in healthy young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duren, Dana L; Sherwood, Richard J; Czerwinski, Stefan A; Chumlea, William Cameron; Lee, Miryoung; Demerath, Ellen W; Sun, Shumei S; Siervogel, Roger M; Towne, Bradford

    2008-02-01

    Evidence of a significant genetic component to the age-related degenerative joint disease osteoarthritis has been established, but the nature of genetic influences on normal joint morphology in healthy individuals remains unclear. Following up on our previous findings on the influence of body habitus on phenotypic variation in knee joint space [Duren et al., Human Biology 78:353-364 (2006)], the objective of the current study was to estimate the heritability of radiographic joint space in the knees of healthy young adults from a community-based sample of families. A sample of 253 subjects (mean age = 18.02 years) from 87 randomly ascertained nuclear and extended families was examined. Joint width (JW) and minimum joint space in the medial (MJS) and lateral (LJS) knee compartments were measured. A maximum-likelihood variance components method was used to estimate the heritability of MJS, LJS, and JW. Covariate effects of age, sex, age-by-sex interactions, stature, weight, and BMI were simultaneously estimated. Genetic correlation analyses were then conducted to examine relationships between trait pairs. MJS, LJS, and JW were each significantly heritable (p healthy subjects. This suggests that there are specific but as yet unidentified genes that influence the morphology of healthy articular cartilage, the target tissue of osteoarthritis. Genetic correlation analyses indicate complete pleiotropy between MJS and LJS but genetic independence of joint space and JW.

  1. Metabolic syndrome in a Taiwanese metropolitan adult population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Pei-Chia

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Metabolic syndrome (MS is a combination of medical disorders that increase one's risk for cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Little information exists on the prevalence of MS in a general adult population in Taiwan. Methods We did a cross-sectional survey in a representative sample of 2,359 Chinese adults aged 40 years and over who lived in a metropolitan city, Taiwan in 2004–05. MS was defined by Adult Treatment Panel III criteria modified for Asians. Results The prevalence of MetS was 35.32% and 43.23% in men aged 40–64 years and 65 years and over, respectively, and 24.19% and 51.82% in women aged 40–64 years and 65 years and over. Older age, postmenopausal status, higher body mass index, current smoking, low education attainment, low household income, no alcohol consumption, lower level of occupation physical activity, and a family history of diabetes were associated with increased odds of MetS. Conclusion MetS was present in more than 30% of the Taiwan adult population aged 40 years and over in a metropolitan area; there were substantial variations by age and body mass index groups.

  2. Intestinal microbiota in healthy adults: temporal analysis reveals individual and common core and relation to intestinal symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jalanka-Tuovinen, J.; Vos, de W.M.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: While our knowledge of the intestinal microbiota during disease is accumulating, basic information of the microbiota in healthy subjects is still scarce. The aim of this study was to characterize the intestinal microbiota of healthy adults and specifically address its temporal stability,

  3. COMPONENTS OF THE HEALTHY EATING INDEX IN NUTRITION OF ADULT FEMALES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarína Fatrcová-Šramková

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available To assess and monitor the nutriton and dietary status, the U.S. Department of Agriculture developed the Healthy Eating Index - HEI. The index consists of 10 components, each representing different aspects of a healthful diet. The aim of the study was to evaluate the nutrition in adult females and to analyze the actual nutrition according to selected four components (no. 6-9 of the Healthy Eating Index. Components 6 and 7 measure total fat and saturated fat consumption, respectively, as a percentage of total food intake (maximal 30 % and 10 % of total energy daily content respectively; in case of 31,3 % and 58,62 % females respectively. Components 8 and 9 measure total cholesterol (daily maximal 300 mg in case of 69,54 % participants and sodium intake (maximal 2400 mg a day in case of 22,99 % probands. doi:10.5219/106

  4. Reproducibility of a knee and hip proprioception test in healthy older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvin, Mina; Hoozemans, Marco J M; Burger, Bart J; Verschueren, Sabine M P; van Dieën, Jaap H; Pijnappels, Mirjam

    2015-04-01

    Proprioception can be assessed by measuring joint position sense (JPS). Most studies have focused on JPS of the knee joint while literature for other joints especially for hip JPS is scarce. Although some studies have evaluated proprioception of the knee joint, the reproducibility of methods has rarely been investigated. To estimate intrasession reliability and agreement of an active-active JPS test for hip flexion/abduction and knee flexion in healthy older adults. Nineteen healthy older adults participated in this study. The proprioception of the hip (flexion and abduction) and knee (flexion) were assessed in both legs using the "active-active" reproduction technique. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), standard error of measurement (SEM), and limits of agreement (LOA) were estimated for relative angular error (RE), absolute angular error (AE), and variable angular error (VE). Reliability of our JPS test was substantial to almost perfect for the RE for both joints and legs (ICC values ranging from 0.75 to 0.93). We also found that the ICC values for AE were substantial for knee flexion and hip abduction of the left and right leg. The ICC results of VE showed poor reliability for hip and knee joints. SEM and LOA values for hip abduction were generally lower than for hip and knee flexion, indicating lower measurement error or more precise scores for the proprioception test of hip abduction. Proprioceptive acuity of the knee and hip joints in healthy older adults can be reliably assessed with an active-active procedure in a standing position with respect to relative and absolute error.

  5. THE IMPACT OF PILATES EXERCISES ON THE POSTURAL ALIGNMENT OF HEALTHY ADULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Krawczky

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: Exercises of Pilates method have been widely used to improve postural alignment. There is strong evidence favoring their use in improving flexibility and balance, as well as some evidence of improvement in muscle strength. However, the benefits related to posture are not well established. Objective: To investigate in healthy adults, the impact of the Pilates method in the postural alignment through some angles in the sagittal plane and the occurrence of pain before and after an exercise session, and after the completion of a 16-session program. Methods: This is a quasi-experimental study of pre and post-intervention type. Healthy adults (n = 37 interested in starting Pilates were evaluated for acute effects on posture after a Pilates session (n = 37 and after a 16-session program, for a period of 10 weeks (n = 13. Using the postural assessment software (SAPO, six angles were analyzed: head horizontal alignment (HHA, pelvis horizontal alignment (PHA, hip angle (HA, vertical alignment of the body (VAB, thoracic kyphosis (TK, and lumbar lordosis (LL. The occurrence of pain was investigated to control adverse effects. Results: Statistically significant (p<0.05 differences found after one session include increased HHA (left view, decreased VAB (left view and TK (both side views. After 16 sessions, we observed an increase of HHA, and a decrease of TK, LL (both side views and HA (right view. All the differences point to an improvement of postural alignment. A significant reduction of prevalence of pain was verified after the first session (40.5% vs. 13.5%; p=0.004 and after the full program (30.8% vs. 15.3%; p=0.02. Conclusions: Our results suggest that the Pilates method has a positive impact on postural alignment in healthy adults, besides being a safe exercise.

  6. [Effects of multi-nutrients supplementation on the nutritional status and antioxidant capability of healthy adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Meiying; Li, Yanfang; Wu, Zhaoyan; Huang, Wenjing; Jiang, Zhuoqin

    2012-01-01

    To determine whether daily multivitamins/minerals supplement can improve nutrient status, plasma, antioxidant enzymes activity and total antioxidant capacity in healthy adults. One hundred and fifty-one healthy adults living in a normal lifestyle with a mean age of 28 (20 - 50) years were recruited from Guangzhou. The subjects were divided into the supplement group and the control ineral supplements. One hundred and fifty-one healthy adults living in a normal lifestyle with a mean age of 28 (20 - 50) years were recruited from Guangzhou. The subjects were divided into the supplement group and the control group carefully matched with age and gender. Supplement pellets (consisted of multivitamins/minerals, including VitA, VitC, VitE,Ca, Zn, Fe, Se, etc.) and placebo pellets (consisted of only dextrin with the same color, shape and size as the supplement pellets) were administrated in a double-blinded manner for 8 week. The nutrients intake data of the research subjects were collected daily by a 24-hour dietary recall method. Blood samples were collected at the beginning and the end of the intervention period for determining the nutritional status, the activities of antioxidant enzymes and the products of oxidative damage. The dietary intake of nutrients was insufficient in these subjects. The levels of plasma VitC, alpha-tocopherol, beta-carotene, Zn, Fe and Se in the supplement group were increased in comparison with the control group by 46%, 28%, 116%, 7%, 30% and 28% respectively (P nutritional status regarding antioxidant nutrients had largely been improved. But levels of plasma gamma-tocopherol were decreased by 25% in comparison with the control group (P supplementation (P Supplementation of multiple micronutrients could effectively increase the levels of plasma VitC, alpha-tocopherol, beta-carotene, Zn, Fe and Se and the activities of GPX, CAT and T-AOC.

  7. Impact of Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation on Memory Functions in Healthy Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Külzow, Nadine; Witte, A Veronica; Kerti, Lucia; Grittner, Ulrike; Schuchardt, Jan Philipp; Hahn, Andreas; Flöel, Agnes

    2016-01-01

    As the process of Alzheimer's disease (AD) begins years before disease onset, searching for prevention strategies is of major medical and economic importance. Nutritional supplementation with long-chain polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids (LC-n3-FA) may exert beneficial effects on brain structure and function. However, experimental evidence in older adults without clinical dementia is inconsistent, possibly due to low sensitivity of previously employed test batteries for detecting subtle improvements in cognition in healthy individuals. Here we used LOCATO, recently described as a robust and sensitive tool for assessing object-location memory (OLM) in older adults, to evaluate the impact of LC-n3-FA supplementation on learning and memory formation. In a double-blind placebo-controlled proof-of-concept study, 44 (20 female) cognitively healthy individuals aged 50-75 years received either LC-n3-FA (2,200 mg/day, n = 22) or placebo (n = 22) for 26 weeks. Before and after intervention, memory performance in the OLM-task (primary) was tested. As secondary outcome parameters, performance in Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT), dietary habits, omega-3-index, and other blood-derived parameters were assessed. Omega-3 index increased significantly in the LC-n3-FA group compared with the placebo group. Moreover, recall of object locations was significantly better after LC-n3-FA supplementation compared with placebo. Performance in the AVLT was not significantly affected by LC-n3-FA. This double-blind placebo-controlled proof-of-concept study provides further experimental evidence that LC-n3-FA exert positive effects on memory functions in healthy older adults. Our findings suggest novel strategies to maintain cognitive functions into old age.

  8. POSTURAL CONTROL IN HEALTHY YOUNG ADULTS WITH AND WITHOUT CHRONIC MOTION SENSITIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alyahya D

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Postural control requires complex processing of peripheral sensory inputs from the visual, somatosensory and vestibular systems. Motion sensitivity and decreased postural control are influenced by visual-vestibular conflicts.The purpose of this study was to measure the difference between the postural control of healthy adults with and without history of sub-clinical chronic motion sensitivity using a computerized dynamic posturography in a virtual reality environment. Sub-clinical chronic motion sensitivity was operationally defined as a history of avoiding activities causing dizziness, nausea, imbalance, and/or blurred vision without having a related medical diagnosis. Methods: Twenty healthy adults between 22 and 33 years of age participated in the study. Eleven subjects had sub-clinical chronic motion sensitivity and 9 subjects did not. Postural control was measured in both groups using the Bertec Balance Advantage-Dynamic Computerized Dynamic Posturography with Immersion Virtual Reality (CDP-IVR. The CDP-IVR reports an over-all equilibrium score based on subjects’ center of gravity displacement and postural sway while immersed in a virtual reality environment. Subjects were tested on stable (condition 1 and unstable (condition2 platform conditions. Results: There was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of mean age, height, weight, body mass index in kg/m2, postural control scores for conditions 2, and average (p>0.05. However, significant differences were observed in mean postural control for condition 1 between groups (p=0.03. Conclusions: Results of this study suggest that healthy young adults without chronic sub-clinical motion sensitivity have better postural control than those with chronic sub-clinical motion sensitivity. Further investigation is warranted to explore wider age ranges with larger samples sizes as well as intervention strategies to improve postural control.

  9. The effect of topical anti-muscarinic agents on subfoveal choroidal thickness in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öner, V; Bulut, A; Öter, K

    2016-07-01

    PurposeTo investigate the effects of tropicamide and cyclopentolate, which are two anti-muscarinic agents commonly used in the ophthalmologic practice, on subfoveal choroidal choroidal thickness (ChT) in healthy adults.MethodsA total of 74 healthy adult subjects were enrolled in the study. Subjects were randomly divided into two groups: (1) cyclopentolate group (n=37) in which the right eye (study eye) of each subject received topical cyclopentolate 1%, and the fellow eye (control eye) received artificial tears and (2) tropicamide group (n=37) in which the right eye (study eye) of each subject received topical tropicamide 1% and the fellow eye (control eye) received artificial tears. Each topical medication was applied three times with 10-min intervals. ChT measurements were performed at baseline and 40 min after the last drops of the topical medications by enhanced depth imaging (EDI) optical coherence tomography (OCT).ResultsIn the cyclopentolate group, subfoveal ChT significantly increased in the study eyes (P=0.013), whereas it did not significantly change in the control eyes (P=0.417). On the other hand, in the tropicamide group, no significant subfoveal ChT changes were observed in either the study eyes (P=0.715) or the control eyes (P=0.344).ConclusionsThe current study demonstrated that cyclopentolate caused significant choroidal thickening, whereas tropicamide had no significant effect on ChT in healthy adults. As a result, mydriasis by cyclopentolate may complicate ChT measurements by EDI OCT. Use of tropicamide may provide more reliable results for evaluation of ChT in ocular pathologies.

  10. A Comparison of Dietary Habits between Recreational Runners and a Randomly Selected Adult Population in Slovenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Škof, Branko; Rotovnik Kozjek, Nada

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the dietary habits of recreational runners with those of a random sample of the general population. We also wanted to determine the influence of gender, age and sports performance of recreational runners on their basic diet and compliance with recommendations in sports nutrition. The study population consisted of 1,212 adult Slovenian recreational runners and 774 randomly selected residents of Slovenia between the ages of 18 and 65 years. The data on the dietary habits of our subjects was gathered by means of two questionnaires. The following parameters were evaluated: the type of diet, a food pattern, and the frequency of consumption of individual food groups, the use of dietary supplements, fluid intake, and alcohol consumption. Recreational runners had better compliance with recommendations for healthy nutrition than the general population. This pattern increased with the runner's age and performance level. Compared to male runners, female runners ate more regularly and had a more frequent consumption of food groups associated with a healthy diet (fruit, vegetables, whole grain foods, and low-fat dairy products). The consumption of simple sugars and use of nutritional supplements by well-trained runners was inadequate with values recommended for physically active individuals. Recreational runners are an exemplary population group that actively seeks to adopt a healthier lifestyle.

  11. Healthy eating habits among the population of Serbia: gender and age differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovičić, Ana Đ

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of the study is to examine healthy eating habits of the population of Serbia through three dimensions: knowledge, problems, and feelings as well as to determine whether there are any differences between genders and among different age-groups. The research instrument was an Eating Habits Questionnaire (EHQ) which consisted of 35 items. There were 382 respondents involved in the study. The reliability and factor structure of the questionnaire were verified by using factor analysis. The results of MANOVA showed that there is a significant difference in the habits concerning healthy eating between men and women [F (3,378)=4.26, p=0.006; Wilks' Lambda=0.97]. When the results for the dependent variables (knowledge, problems, and feelings) were considered separately, it was determined that there is no significant difference between men and women, which confirms the results of the t-test. The effect of age on the three dimensions of healthy eating habits was examined within three age-groups, by using ANOVA. The results showed that knowledge about healthy eating increases with age [F (2,379)=6.14, p=0.002] as well as positive feelings which occur as a result of healthy eating [F (2,379)=3.66, p=0.027]. Unlike ANOVA, MANOVA showed difference among the age-groups only when it came to the 'knowledge' variable. This study is important as it shows the current state of awareness on healthy eating habits in the researched populace and may be the basis for further research in this field in Serbia.

  12. Social Inclusion Predicts Lower Blood Glucose and Low-Density Lipoproteins in Healthy Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floyd, Kory; Veksler, Alice E; McEwan, Bree; Hesse, Colin; Boren, Justin P; Dinsmore, Dana R; Pavlich, Corey A

    2017-08-01

    Loneliness has been shown to have direct effects on one's personal well-being. Specifically, a greater feeling of loneliness is associated with negative mental health outcomes, negative health behaviors, and an increased likelihood of premature mortality. Using the neuroendocrine hypothesis, we expected social inclusion to predict decreases in both blood glucose levels and low-density lipoproteins (LDLs) and increases in high-density lipoproteins (HDLs). Fifty-two healthy adults provided self-report data for social inclusion and blood samples for hematological tests. Results indicated that higher social inclusion predicted lower levels of blood glucose and LDL, but had no effect on HDL. Implications for theory and practice are discussed.

  13. Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) induction of CYP3A4 enzyme activity in healthy Faroese adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Maria Skaalum; Halling, Jónrit; Damkier, Per

    2007-01-01

    A4 phenotype in regard to increased concentrations of PCBs and other persistent organohalogen pollutants (POPs) in healthy Faroese adults. In 310 randomly selected Faroese residents aged 18-60 years, the CYP3A4 activity was determined based on the urinary 6beta-hydroxycortisol/cortisol (6beta...... analysis showed significant associations between 6beta-OHC/FC ratios and summation PCB, PCB-TEQ and p,p'-DDE, o,p'-DDT and HCB, respectively, but the associations were statistically significant for men only....

  14. Association of Biotin Ingestion With Performance of Hormone and Nonhormone Assays in Healthy Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Danni; Radulescu, Angela; Shrestha, Rupendra T; Root, Matthew; Karger, Amy B; Killeen, Anthony A; Hodges, James S; Fan, Shu-Ling; Ferguson, Angela; Garg, Uttam; Sokoll, Lori J; Burmeister, Lynn A

    2017-09-26

    Biotinylated antibodies and analogues, with their strong binding to streptavidin, are used in many clinical laboratory tests. Excess biotin in blood due to supplemental biotin ingestion may affect biotin-streptavidin binding, leading to potential clinical misinterpretation. However, the degree of interference remains undefined in healthy adults. To assess performance of specific biotinylated immunoassays after 7 days of ingesting 10 mg/d of biotin, a dose common in over-the-counter supplements for healthy adults. Nonrandomized crossover trial involving 6 healthy adults who were treated at an academic medical center research laboratory. Administration of 10 mg/d of biotin supplementation for 7 days. Analyte concentrations were compared with baseline (day 0) measures on the seventh day of biotin treatment and 7 days after treatment had stopped (day 14). The 11 analytes included 9 hormones (ie, thyroid-stimulating hormone, total thyroxine, total triiodothyronine, free thyroxine, free triiodothyronine, parathyroid hormone, prolactin, N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide, 25-hydroxyvitamin D) and 2 nonhormones (prostate-specific antigen and ferritin). A total of 37 immunoassays for the 11 analytes were evaluated on 4 diagnostic systems, including 23 assays that incorporated biotin and streptavidin components and 14 assays that did not include biotin and streptavidin components and served as negative controls. Among the 2 women and 4 men (mean age, 38 years [range, 31-45 years]) who took 10 mg/d of biotin for 7 days, biotin ingestion-associated interference was found in 9 of the 23 (39%) biotinylated assays compared with none of the 14 nonbiotinylated assays (P = .007). Results from 5 of 8 biotinylated (63%) competitive immunoassays tested falsely high and results from 4 out of 15 (27%) biotinylated sandwich immunoassays tested falsely low. In this preliminary study of 6 healthy adult participants and 11 hormone and nonhormone analytes measured by 37 immunoassays

  15. Cardiovascular health among healthy population of Northeast region of India: a cross-sectional study comparing urban-tribal difference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Soma; Gupta, Kinnari; Kumar, Soumitra

    2013-12-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of adult mortality in India but data on the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors are scarce, especially from North-east region of India. This study aims to assess the prevalence and the urban/tribal gradient of cardiovascular disease risk factors among healthy population of Tripura. A cross-sectional study was carried out among 238 healthy individuals (140 urban and 98 tribal) in one urban and five tribal areas of Tripura. Data was collected on sociodemographic profile, medical history, anthropometry, dietary patterns and addiction. Fasting blood samples were collected for biochemical analysis. Prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk factors and short-term cardiovascular disease risk score was calculated. The association of independent variables with 10-year cardiovascular disease risk score were examined by using multiple regression model. Prevalence of obesity, hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidaemia, metabolic syndrome and short-term cardiovascular disease risk score were higher in urban group. Urban people had higher salt, calories and fat intake. No difference was found in the addiction patterns of tobacco and alcohol but frequency and quantity being higher in tribal area. Dyslipidaemia and alcohol consumption showed significant positive association with 10-year cardiovascular disease risk score in both groups. While the non-sedentary lifestyle and dietary habits (low salt, low fat, carbohydrate predominant) of tribal population need to be promoted as a whole across the nation, they need to be protected from the adverse effects of rampant prevalence of tobacco and alcohol addiction among them. Urban population need to be extricated from adverse effects of sedentary lifestyle, modern food habits (high salt, high fat) and tobacco-alcohol addiction.

  16. Distribution of CTG repeats at the DMPK gene in myotonic dystrophy patients and healthy individuals from the Mexican population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magaña, J J; Cortés-Reynosa, P; Escobar-Cedillo, R; Gómez, R; Leyva-García, N; Cisneros, B

    2011-02-01

    Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1), the most common form of adult muscular dystrophy, is caused by anormal expansion of CTG trinucleotide repeats located in the 3'-untranslated region of the DMPK gene. The clinical features of DM1 are multisystemic and highly variable, and the unstable nature of CTG expansion causes wide genotypic and phenotypic presentations. In this study, we described to our knowledge for the first time the molecular diagnosis of myotonic dystrophy type 1 patients in the Mexican population, applying a fluorescent PCR method in combination with capillary electrophoresis analysis of the amplified products. We identified expanded alleles in 45 out of 50 patients (90%) with clinical features of myotonic disease. Furthermore, genotyping of 400 healthy subjects revealed the presence of 25 different alleles, ranging in size from 5 to 34 repeats. The most frequent allele was 13 CTG repeats (38.87%) and the frequency for alleles over 18 CTG repeats was 6.7%. Molecular test is essential for DM1 diagnosis and distribution of the CTG repeat alleles present in the Mexican population are significantly different from those of other populations.

  17. Relationship between chewing behavior and body weight status in fully dentate healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yong; Hollis, James H

    2015-03-01

    Recent research indicates that chewing behavior may influence energy intake and energy expenditure. However, little is known about the relationship between chewing behavior and body weight status. In the present study, 64 fully dentate normal-weight or overweight/obese adults were asked to consume five portions of a test food and the number of chewing cycles, chewing duration before swallowing and chewing rate were measured. Adjusting for age and gender, normal-weight participants used a higher number of chewing cycles (p = 0.003) and a longer chewing duration (p body mass index and the number of chewing cycles (r = -0.296, p = 0.020) and chewing duration (r = -0.354, p = 0.005) was observed. In conclusion, these results suggest that chewing behavior is associated with body weight status in fully dentate healthy adults.

  18. Physical Exercise Habits Correlate with Gray Matter Volume of the Hippocampus in Healthy Adult Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killgore, William D. S.; Olson, Elizabeth A.; Weber, Mareen

    2013-12-01

    Physical activity facilitates neurogenesis of dentate cells in the rodent hippocampus, a brain region critical for memory formation and spatial representation. Recent findings in humans also suggest that aerobic exercise can lead to increased hippocampal volume and enhanced cognitive functioning in children and elderly adults. However, the association between physical activity and hippocampal volume during the period from early adulthood through middle age has not been effectively explored. Here, we correlated the number of minutes of self-reported exercise per week with gray matter volume of the hippocampus using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) in 61 healthy adults ranging from 18 to 45 years of age. After controlling for age, gender, and total brain volume, total minutes of weekly exercise correlated significantly with volume of the right hippocampus. Findings highlight the relationship between regular physical exercise and brain structure during early to middle adulthood.

  19. Comparable liraglutide pharmacokinetics in pediatric and adult populations with type 2 diabetes: a population pharmacokinetic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petri, Kristin C Carlsson; Jacobsen, Lisbeth V; Klein, David J

    2015-06-01

    The safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics of the once-daily human glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analog liraglutide have been evaluated in pediatric patients aged greater than 10 years with type 2 diabetes (T2D). In this study, a population pharmacokinetic analysis was compared to the pediatric pharmacokinetic data with those from two clinical pharmacology trials in adults with T2D. A one-compartment pharmacokinetic model previously found to adequately describe the pharmacokinetics of liraglutide in adults with T2D was applied to the evaluation of 13 pediatric subjects (10-17 years of age) with T2D. Steady-state estimates for apparent clearance (CL/F) for individual subjects and corresponding dose were used to derive the area under the plasma-concentration time curve from 0-24 h (AUC24) and investigate dose proportionality in the pediatric trial. A covariate analysis evaluated the effects of body weight, gender, and age category (pediatric/adult) on liraglutide exposure. Dose proportionality in the dose range of 0.3-1.8 mg was indicated by the model-derived AUC24 slope: 1.05 (95% CI 0.96-1.15). Consistent with findings from adult trials, body weight and gender were relevant covariates for liraglutide exposure in the pediatric population. The CL/F estimates, and thus exposure, for the pediatric subjects with T2D were similar to those in the adult trials. Based on this population pharmacokinetic analysis, the liraglutide dose regimen that was found to be clinically effective in adults is predicted to achieve the same range of exposure in the pediatric population (10-17 years of age) with a pre-trial body weight range of 57-214 kg.

  20. [PROPOSAL FOR A NEW FORMULA FOR ESTIMATING RESTING ENERGY EXPENDITURE FOR HEALTHY SPANISH POPULATION].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Cruz Marcos, Sandra; de Mateo Silleras, Beatriz; Camina Martín, Ma Alicia; Carreño Enciso, Laura; Miján de la Torre, Alberto; Galgani Fuentes, José E; Redondo del Río, Ma Paz

    2015-11-01

    although there are precise and accurate techniques for estimating resting energy expenditure, like the indirect calorimetry (IC), daily practice needs faster, easier and cheaper methods as the predictive equations. the aim of the study was to develop a new predictive equation for estimating resting energy expenditure (REE) for healthy Spanish population. Méthods: the REE of 95 healthy normal weighted volunteers was determined by indirect calorimetry (IC). The new equation was obtained by multiple lineal regression by using the analytical criteria of the Cp of Mallows and the adjusted R2. Then, the behavior of the new formula was studied in a group of overweight volunteers through the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and Bland-Almand plots. The level of signification was reached at p new equation and the IC in normal weighted subjects was 0.901 (95%CI: 0.851 - 0.934). The new formula showed a good level of agreement in the overweight group (ICC: 0.880; 95%IC: 0.772 - 0.937). we propose a new predictive equation for estimating the REE for healthy Spanish population which has an easy application and includes sex, age and weigh. The selected equation shows an adequate behavior in overweight subjects too. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  1. The Williams syndrome prosociality geneGTF2Imediates oxytocin reactivity and social anxiety in a healthy population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procyshyn, Tanya L; Spence, Jason; Read, Silven; Watson, Neil V; Crespi, Bernard J

    2017-04-01

    The neurohormone oxytocin plays a central role in human social behaviour and cognition, and oxytocin dysregulation may contribute to psychiatric disorders. However, genetic factors influencing individual variation in the oxytocinergic system remain poorly understood. We genotyped 169 healthy adults for a functional polymorphism in GTF2I ( general transcription factor II-I ), a gene associated with high prosociality and reduced social anxiety in Williams syndrome, a condition reported to involve high oxytocin levels and reactivity. Participants' salivary oxytocin levels were measured before and after watching a validated empathy-inducing video. Oxytocin reactivity, defined as pre- to post-video percentage change in salivary oxytocin, varied substantially and significantly between individuals with different GTF2I genotypes, with, additionally, a trend towards an interaction between genotype and sex. Individuals with more oxytocin-reactive genotypes also reported significantly lower social anxiety. These findings suggest a model whereby GTF2I has a continuum of effects on human sociality, from the extreme social phenotypes and oxytocin dysregulation associated with gene deletion in Williams syndrome, to individual differences in oxytocin reactivity and sociality associated with common polymorphisms in healthy populations. © 2017 The Author(s).

  2. Moderators of physical activity and healthy eating in an integrated community-based intervention for older adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luten, Karla A.; Dijkstra, Arie; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.; de Winter, Andrea F.

    Background: An integrated community-based intervention was developed to stimulate physical activity (PA) and healthy eating in older adults in a socioeconomically disadvantaged area. This study aims to assess whether its short-term effects among older adults vary by sociodemographic, psychosocial

  3. Gene expression profiles of colonic mucosa in healthy young adult and senior dogs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Yong Kil

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We have previously reported the effects of age and diet on nutrient digestibility, intestinal morphology, and large intestinal fermentation patterns in healthy young adult and senior dogs. However, a genome-wide molecular analysis of colonic mucosa as a function of age and diet has not yet been performed in dogs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Colonic mucosa samples were collected from six senior (12-year old and six young adult (1-year old female beagles fed one of two diets (animal protein-based vs. plant protein-based for 12 months. Total RNA in colonic mucosa was extracted and hybridized to Affymetrix GeneChip® Canine Genome Arrays. Results indicated that the majority of gene expression changes were due to age (212 genes rather than diet (66 genes. In particular, the colonic mucosa of senior dogs had increased expression of genes associated with cell proliferation, inflammation, stress response, and cellular metabolism, whereas the expression of genes associated with apoptosis and defensive mechanisms were decreased in senior vs. young adult dogs. No consistent diet-induced alterations in gene expression existed in both age groups, with the effects of diet being more pronounced in senior dogs than in young adult dogs. CONCLUSION: Our results provide molecular insight pertaining to the aged canine colon and its predisposition to dysfunction and disease. Therefore, our data may aid in future research pertaining to age-associated gastrointestinal physiological changes and highlight potential targets for dietary intervention to limit their progression.

  4. Intervention-induced enhancement in intrinsic brain activity in healthy older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Shufei; Zhu, Xinyi; Li, Rui; Niu, Yanan; Wang, Baoxi; Zheng, Zhiwei; Huang, Xin; Huo, Lijuan; Li, Juan

    2014-12-04

    This study examined the effects of a multimodal intervention on spontaneous brain activity in healthy older adults. Seventeen older adults received a six-week intervention that consisted of cognitive training, Tai Chi exercise, and group counseling, while 17 older adults in a control group attended health knowledge lectures. The intervention group demonstrated enhanced memory and social support compared to the control group. The amplitude of low frequency fluctuations (ALFF) in the middle frontal gyrus, superior frontal gyrus, and anterior cerebellum lobe was enhanced for the intervention group, while the control group showed reduced ALFF in these three regions. Moreover, changes in trail-making performance and well-being could be predicted by the intervention-induced changes in ALFF. Additionally, individual differences in the baseline ALFF were correlated with intervention-related changes in behavioral performance. These findings suggest that a multimodal intervention is effective in improving cognitive functions and well-being and can induce functional changes in the aging brain. The study extended previous training studies by suggesting resting-state ALFF as a marker of intervention-induced plasticity in older adults.

  5. Gene expression profiles of colonic mucosa in healthy young adult and senior dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kil, Dong Yong; Vester Boler, Brittany M; Apanavicius, Carolyn J; Schook, Lawrence B; Swanson, Kelly S

    2010-09-22

    We have previously reported the effects of age and diet on nutrient digestibility, intestinal morphology, and large intestinal fermentation patterns in healthy young adult and senior dogs. However, a genome-wide molecular analysis of colonic mucosa as a function of age and diet has not yet been performed in dogs. Colonic mucosa samples were collected from six senior (12-year old) and six young adult (1-year old) female beagles fed one of two diets (animal protein-based vs. plant protein-based) for 12 months. Total RNA in colonic mucosa was extracted and hybridized to Affymetrix GeneChip® Canine Genome Arrays. Results indicated that the majority of gene expression changes were due to age (212 genes) rather than diet (66 genes). In particular, the colonic mucosa of senior dogs had increased expression of genes associated with cell proliferation, inflammation, stress response, and cellular metabolism, whereas the expression of genes associated with apoptosis and defensive mechanisms were decreased in senior vs. young adult dogs. No consistent diet-induced alterations in gene expression existed in both age groups, with the effects of diet being more pronounced in senior dogs than in young adult dogs. Our results provide molecular insight pertaining to the aged canine colon and its predisposition to dysfunction and disease. Therefore, our data may aid in future research pertaining to age-associated gastrointestinal physiological changes and highlight potential targets for dietary intervention to limit their progression.

  6. Age, education and gender effects on neuropsychological functions in healthy Indian older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravikesh Tripathi

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT It is essential to use culturally appropriate, sensitive and specific tests that reflect true cognitive performance. However, several factors including age, education and gender can influence neuropsychological test performance. Objective: To examine the effects of age, education and gender on neuropsychological function in older adults using measures of global cognitive screening, attention, working memory, executive functions, memory, construction, language and parietal focal signs. Methods: This is a cross sectional normative study of 180 community-dwelling normal older adults. All participants were screened with the Hindi Mental Status Examination (HMSE, Everyday Activities Scale for India (EASI, Edinburgh handedness inventory (EDI and MINI Screen, and followed by a detailed neuropsychological assessment. Results: Stepwise regression analysis revealed that education was associated with better performance on all the neuropsychological tests. Females performed significantly better on measures of memory. Further, most of the illiterate subjects, including low educated participants, refused to cooperate on measures of executive functioning. Conclusion: Education was found to be the strongest determinant of neuropsychological test performance followed by age and gender. Our study demonstrates that Indian healthy normal older adults with low education perform poorly on measures of planning and working memory. Traditional measures of planning and working memory should be avoided or used cautiously in the presence of low education. There is an urgent need to develop tasks for measuring executive functions, especially in low educated Indian older adults.

  7. A Comparison Study: The Risk Factors in the Lifestyles of Thyroid Cancer Patients and Healthy Adults of South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Yang Gyeong; Yu, Boas J; Choi, Eun-Hi

    2016-12-09

    In South Korea, there has been a rapid increase in thyroid cancer diagnoses, and the thyroid cancer incidence rate is the highest in the world. This study explored possible risk factors that may influence the development of thyroid cancer by comparing life habits of thyroid cancer patients and healthy adults. The aims of this study were to identify lifestyle and habit differences in thyroid cancer patients and healthy adults and to investigate risk factors that influence the development of thyroid cancer. The study was designed as a retrospective comparison survey study of thyroid cancer patient group and healthy adult group. One hundred two thyroid cancer patients in a university hospital and 115 healthy adults were recruited for this study. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, χ test/t test, and logistic regression with SPSS program. Previous smoking history, lower physical activity level, higher stress, and unhealthy eating habits (consumption of instant food products) were shown to be risk factors in the development of thyroid cancer. Based on the results of this study comparing thyroid cancer patients and healthy adults, it is recommended to encourage an increase in physical activity, minimize both direct and indirect exposure to smoking, develop healthy eating habits of consuming more vegetables, and effectively manage stress levels. Lifestyle preferences and habits may influence the development of thyroid cancer. It is imperative to identify and modify the risk factors in order to prevent thyroid cancer development.

  8. Associations between socio-demographic characteristics and healthy lifestyles in Korean Adults: the result of the 2010 Community Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, So Yeon; Park, Jong; Choi, Seong Woo; Han, Mi Ah

    2014-03-01

    Several previous studies have found that healthy behaviors substantially reduce non-communicable disease incidence and mortality. The present study was performed to estimate the prevalence of four modifiable healthy behaviors and a healthy lifestyle among Korean adults according to socio-demographic and regional factors. We analyzed data from 199 400 Korean adults aged 19 years and older who participated in the 2010 Korean Community Health Survey. We defined a healthy lifestyle as a combination of four modifiable healthy behaviors: non-smoking, moderate alcohol consumption, regular walking, and a healthy weight. We calculated the prevalence rates and odds ratios of each healthy behavior and healthy lifestyle according to socio-demographic and regional characteristics. The prevalence rates were as follows: non-smoking, 75.0% (53.7% in men, 96.6% in women); moderate alcohol consumption, 88.2% (79.7% in men, 96.9% in women); regular walking, 45.0% (46.2% in men, 43.8% in women); healthy weight, 77.4% (71.3% in men, 73.6% in women); and a healthy lifestyle, 25.5% (16.4% in men, 34.6% in women). The characteristics associated with a low prevalence of healthy lifestyle were male gender, younger age (19 to 44 years of age), low educational attainment, married, living in a rural area, living in the Chungcheong, Youngnam, or Gwangwon-Jeju region, and poorer self-rated health. Further research should be implemented to explore the explainable factors of disparities for socio-demographic and regional characteristics to engage in the healthy lifestyle among adults.

  9. Associations Between Socio-demographic Characteristics and Healthy Lifestyles in Korean Adults: The Result of the 2010 Community Health Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    So Yeon Ryu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available ObjectivesSeveral previous studies have found that healthy behaviors substantially reduce non-communicable disease incidence and mortality. The present study was performed to estimate the prevalence of four modifiable healthy behaviors and a healthy lifestyle among Korean adults according to socio-demographic and regional factors.MethodsWe analyzed data from 199 400 Korean adults aged 19 years and older who participated in the 2010 Korean Community Health Survey. We defined a healthy lifestyle as a combination of four modifiable healthy behaviors: non-smoking, moderate alcohol consumption, regular walking, and a healthy weight. We calculated the prevalence rates and odds ratios of each healthy behavior and healthy lifestyle according to socio-demographic and regional characteristics.ResultsThe prevalence rates were as follows: non-smoking, 75.0% (53.7% in men, 96.6% in women; moderate alcohol consumption, 88.2% (79.7% in men, 96.9% in women; regular walking, 45.0% (46.2% in men, 43.8% in women; healthy weight, 77.4% (71.3% in men, 73.6% in women; and a healthy lifestyle, 25.5% (16.4% in men, 34.6% in women. The characteristics associated with a low prevalence of healthy lifestyle were male gender, younger age (19 to 44 years of age, low educational attainment, married, living in a rural area, living in the Chungcheong, Youngnam, or Gwangwon-Jeju region, and poorer self-rated health.ConclusionsFurther research should be implemented to explore the explainable factors of disparities for socio-demographic and regional characteristics to engage in the healthy lifestyle among adults.

  10. The prevalence of frailty syndrome in an older population from Spain. The Toledo Study for Healthy Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Garcia, F J; Gutierrez Avila, G; Alfaro-Acha, A; Amor Andres, M S; De Los Angeles De La Torre Lanza, M; Escribano Aparicio, M V; Humanes Aparicio, S; Larrion Zugasti, J L; Gomez-Serranillo Reus, M; Rodriguez-Artalejo, F; Rodriguez-Manas, L

    2011-12-01

    To assess the prevalence of the frailty syndrome and its associated variables among the older adult population in the province of Toledo (Spain). Data were taken from the Toledo Study for Healthy Aging, a population-based study conducted on 2,488 individuals aged 65 years and older. Study participants were selected by a two-stage random sampling from the municipal census of Toledo, covering both institutionalized and community dwelling persons from rural and urban settings. Data were collected from 2006 to 2009, and included information on social support, activities of daily living, comorbidity, physical activity, quality of life, depressive symptoms, and cognitive function. In addition, a nurse collected anthropometric data, conducted tests of physical performance (walk speed, upper and lower extremities strength, and the stand-and-sit from a chair test) and obtained a blood sample. The diagnosis of the frailty syndrome was based on the Fried criteria (weakness, low speed, low physical activity, exhaustion, and weight loss). In total, 41.8% (95% confidence interval [CI] 39.4-44.2%) of the study participants were prefrail, and 8.4% (95% CI 7.1-9.8%) were frail. There were no differences in the prevalence of frailty by sex, level of education, occupation, marital status, or place of residence. The frequency of the frailty syndrome increased with age, and was higher in those with disability, depression, hip fracture and other comorbidity, such as cardiovascular disease and disorders of the central nervous system. The prevalence of the frailty syndrome in older Spanish adults is high and similar to that reported in other populations in the Mediterranean basin.

  11. Hepatitis B infection is associated with an increased incidence of thrombocytopenia in healthy adults without cirrhosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, E-J; Chang, Y; Yeom, J-S; Lee, Y-G; Ryu, S

    2017-03-01

    The association between HBV infection and incident thrombocytopenia among subjects without cirrhosis or splenomegaly is unknown. Therefore, we sought to elucidate the association between HBV infection and the development of thrombocytopenia in a large cohort of apparently healthy men and women. A cohort study was performed in 122 200 participants without liver cirrhosis or splenomegaly who underwent comprehensive health examinations and were followed until December 2014. HBV infection was defined by the presence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) at baseline. Thrombocytopenia was defined as a platelet count thrombocytopenia. HBsAg was positive in 4857 of 122 200 subjects (4.0%) at baseline. During 883 983 person-years of follow-up, 2037 incident cases of thrombocytopenia were identified (incident rate 2.3 per 1000 person-years). HBsAg-positive subjects had a higher incidence of thrombocytopenia than did healthy controls (11.2 vs 1.9 per 1000 person-years, respectively). The multivariate-adjusted hazard ratio (95% CI) for incident thrombocytopenia comparing HBsAg-positive to HBsAg-negative subjects was 5.71 (5.10-6.38). Strong associations between HBsAg positivity and thrombocytopenia were consistently observed across prespecified subgroups. In this large cohort study of an apparently healthy population, HBsAg positivity was strongly and independently associated with incident thrombocytopenia, indicating that mechanisms of thrombocytopenia other than portal hypertension may exist in healthy HBV carriers. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Variations in Serum Transforming Growth Factor-β1 Levels with Gender, Age and Lifestyle Factors of Healthy Japanese Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingsong Lin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Elevated serum or plasma Transforming Growth Factor-β1 (TGF-β1 levels have been linked to cancer and other diseases in numerous studies; however, very few studies have reported an association between circulating TGF-β1 and lifestyle factors in healthy people. We examined the association between serum TGF-β1 levels and gender, age, body mass index (BMI, smoking, and drinking in a large population-based cohort study (N = 9,142. Serum TGF-β1 levels were detected by the Quantikine enzyme-linked immunoassay kit (R&D Systems. The data indicated highly significant (p<0.0001 difference in serum TGF-β1 levels between men (mean value: 37.6 ± 0.12 ng/mL, N = 4888 and women (mean value: 35.1 ± 0.12 ng/ml, N = 4254. Serum TGF-β1 levels decreased with age (trend p < 0.0001 and were positively associated with obesity (trend p < 0.0001 in both men and women. We observed a significant trend with increased serum TGF-β1 levels corresponding to increased amount of tobacco and alcohol consumption in men (trend p < 0.0001. These findings suggest that serum TGF-β1 levels appear to be modulated by gender, age and lifestyle factors such as obesity, cigarette smoking, and alcohol drinking in healthy Japanese adults.

  13. Short-term practice effects and variability in cognitive testing in a healthy elderly population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krenk, L.; Rasmussen, L.S.; Siersma, V.

    2012-01-01

    and variability in test performance. The aim of this study was to collect cognitive test results with repeated testing in an elderly healthy population. METHODS: 161 healthy controls =60years were included. Cognitive testing was performed upon entry into the study, at 1week and 3months. Practice effect......BACKGROUND: Cognitive decline in the elderly is a subject of intense focus. However, there is a lack of consensus regarding definition of significant decline in connection with repeated testing and the interpretation of cognitive tests results must take into account the practice effect...... was evaluated on 7 neuropsychological measures and reference values of clinically important changes were calculated according to z-scores above 1.96. RESULTS: Test scores improved significantly (p...

  14. Metabolic syndrome prevalence among Northern Mexican adult population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogelio Salas

    Full Text Available Dietary habits in the Mexican population have changed dramatically over the last few years, which are reflected in increased overweight and obesity prevalence. The aim was to examine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS and associated risk factors in Northern Mexican adults aged ≥ 16 years.The study was a population-based cross-sectional nutritional survey carried out in the State of Nuevo León, Mexico. The study included a sub-sample of 1,200 subjects aged 16 and over who took part in the State Survey of Nutrition and Health-Nuevo León 2011/2012. Anthropometric measurements, physical activity, blood pressure and fasting blood tests for biochemical analysis were obtained from all subjects. The prevalence of MetS in Mexican adults aged ≥ 16 years was 54.8%, reaching 73.8% in obese subjects. This prevalence was higher in women (60.4% than in men (48.9% and increased with age in both genders. Multivariate analyses showed no evident relation between MetS components and the level of physical activity.Obese adults, mainly women, are particularly at risk of developing MetS, with the associated implications for their health. The increasing prevalence of MetS highlights the need for developing strategies for its early detection and prevention.

  15. Metabolic Syndrome Prevalence among Northern Mexican Adult Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas, Rogelio; Bibiloni, Maria del Mar; Ramos, Esteban; Villarreal, Jesús Z.; Pons, Antoni; Tur, Josep A.; Sureda, Antoni

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Dietary habits in the Mexican population have changed dramatically over the last few years, which are reflected in increased overweight and obesity prevalence. The aim was to examine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and associated risk factors in Northern Mexican adults aged ≥16 years. Methods and Results The study was a population-based cross-sectional nutritional survey carried out in the State of Nuevo León, Mexico. The study included a sub-sample of 1,200 subjects aged 16 and over who took part in the State Survey of Nutrition and Health–Nuevo León 2011/2012. Anthropometric measurements, physical activity, blood pressure and fasting blood tests for biochemical analysis were obtained from all subjects. The prevalence of MetS in Mexican adults aged ≥16 years was 54.8%, reaching 73.8% in obese subjects. This prevalence was higher in women (60.4%) than in men (48.9%) and increased with age in both genders. Multivariate analyses showed no evident relation between MetS components and the level of physical activity. Conclusions Obese adults, mainly women, are particularly at risk of developing MetS, with the associated implications for their health. The increasing prevalence of MetS highlights the need for developing strategies for its early detection and prevention. PMID:25141255

  16. Aging, vascular risk, and cognition: blood glucose, pulse pressure, and cognitive performance in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahle, Cheryl L; Jacobs, Bradley S; Raz, Naftali

    2009-03-01

    Advanced age is associated with decline in many areas of cognition as well as increased frequency of vascular disease. Well-described risk factors for vascular disease, such as diabetes and arterial hypertension, have been linked to cognitive deficits beyond those associated with aging. To examine whether vascular health indices such as fasting blood glucose levels and arterial pulse pressure can predict subtle deficits in age-sensitive abilities, the authors studied 104 healthy adults (ages 18 to 78) without diagnoses of diabetes or hypertension. Whereas results revealed a classic pattern of age-related differences in cognition, preprandial blood glucose level and pulse pressure independently and differentially affected cognitive performance. High-normal blood glucose levels were associated with decreased delayed associative memory, reduced accuracy of working memory processing among women, and slower working memory processing among men. Elevated pulse pressure was associated with slower perceptual-motor processing. Results suggest that blood glucose levels and pulse pressure may be sensitive indicators of cognitive status in healthy adults; however, longitudinal research is needed to determine whether such relatively mild elevations in this select group predict age-related cognitive declines.

  17. Effect of Neuromuscular Electrical Muscle Stimulation on Energy Expenditure in Healthy Adults

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    Ya-Ju Chang

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Weight loss/weight control is a major concern in prevention of cardiovascular disease and the realm of health promotion. The primary aim of this study was to investigate the effect of neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES at different intensities on energy expenditure (oxygen and calories in healthy adults. The secondary aim was to develop a generalized linear regression (GEE model to predict the increase of energy expenditure facilitated by NMES and identify factors (NMES stimulation intensity level, age, body mass index, weight, body fat percentage, waist/hip ratio, and gender associated with this NMES-induced increase of energy expenditure. Forty sedentary healthy adults (18 males and 22 females participated. NMES was given at the following stimulation intensities for 10 minutes each: sensory level (E1, motor threshold (E2, and maximal intensity comfortably tolerated (E3. Cardiopulmonary gas exchange was evaluated during rest, NMES, and recovery stage. The results revealed that NMES at E2 and E3 significantly increased energy expenditure and the energy expenditure at recovery stage was still significantly higher than baseline. The GEE model demonstrated that a linear dose-response relationship existed between the stimulation intensity and the increase of energy expenditure. No subject’s demographic or anthropometric characteristics tested were significantly associated with the increase of energy expenditure. This study suggested NMES may be used to serve as an additional intervention for weight loss programs. Future studies to develop electrical stimulators or stimulation electrodes to maximize the comfort of NMES are recommended.

  18. The role of masturbation in healthy sexual development: perceptions of young adults.

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    Kaestle, Christine E; Allen, Katherine R

    2011-10-01

    Despite efforts to identify masturbation as a strategy to improve sexual health, promote relational intimacy, and reduce unwanted pregnancy, STIs, and HIV transmission, masturbation as a context for healthy sexual development has been met with silence or trepidation in the scientific and educational communities. Relegated to the realm of commercial media, rather than rational discourse in families, schools, and the general public, young people receive mixed messages about this non-reproductive sexual behavior. In order to explore how young adults have learned about masturbation and currently perceive masturbation, we conducted a grounded theory study of 72 college students (56 females; 16 males) enrolled in a human sexuality class. Findings revealed that a young adult's perceptions of and feelings toward masturbation were the result of a developmental process that included: (1) learning about the act of masturbation and how to do it, (2) learning and internalizing the social contradiction of stigma and taboo surrounding this pleasurable act, and (3) coming to terms with this tension between stigma and pleasure. Although nearly all participants learned about masturbation through the media and peers (not parents or teachers), gender was salient in coming to terms with the contradiction of stigma and pleasure. Most of the women reported either still struggling with the contradiction or accepting it as normal. Most of the men recognized the beneficial aspects for healthy sexual development that result from masturbation. Both male and female participants identified differential sexual scripts as contributing to the double standard.

  19. Quantitative Age-specific Variability of Plasma Proteins in Healthy Neonates, Children and Adults.

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    Bjelosevic, Stefan; Pascovici, Dana; Ping, Hui; Karlaftis, Vasiliki; Zaw, Thiri; Song, Xiaomin; Molloy, Mark P; Monagle, Paul; Ignjatovic, Vera

    2017-05-01

    Human blood plasma is a complex biological fluid containing soluble proteins, sugars, hormones, electrolytes, and dissolved gasses. As plasma interacts with a wide array of bodily systems, changes in protein expression, or the presence or absence of specific proteins are regularly used in the clinic as a molecular biomarker tool. A large body of literature exists detailing proteomic changes in pathologic contexts, however little research has been conducted on the quantitation of the plasma proteome in age-specific, healthy subjects, especially in pediatrics. In this study, we utilized SWATH-MS to identify and quantify proteins in the blood plasma of healthy neonates, infants under 1 year of age, children between 1-5 years, and adults. We identified more than 100 proteins that showed significant differential expression levels across these age groups, and we analyzed variation in protein expression across the age spectrum. The plasma proteomic profiles of neonates were strikingly dissimilar to the older children and adults. By extracting the SWATH data against a large human spectral library we increased protein identification more than 6-fold (940 proteins) and confirmed the concentrations of several of these using ELISA. The results of this study map the variation in expression of proteins and pathways often implicated in disease, and so have significant clinical implication. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  20. Acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI elastography of adrenal glands in healthy adult dogs

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    S. Fernandez

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT To describe the ARFI elastography in the evaluation of the adrenal glands in adult dogs, to evaluate the stiffness of adrenal parenchyma and to determine the qualitative and quantitative standards of the ARFI technique, which have not yet been described in veterinary medicine. Sixty adrenal glands from thirty healthy adult dogs were evaluated by B-mode and qualitative and quantitative ARFI elastography to assess the stiffness of healthy parenchyma and to determine the quality and quantity (shear velocity standards of ARFI technique in body, cranial and caudal adrenal poles. Findings of ultrasonography evaluations were normal. Qualitative elastography showed that adrenal glands were not deformable and presented homogeneous middle-gray areas. The results of shear wave velocity were similar statically (P = 0.3087: 1 left adrenal - 1.42 m/s for cranial polar, 1.31 m/s for body region, and 1.71 m/s for caudal polar; 2 right adrenal - 1.42 m/s for cranial polar, 1.74 m/s for body region and 1.63 m/s for caudal pole. Quantitative and qualitative ARFI elastography of dogs' adrenal glands is feasible, well tolerated, easily implemented and may provide baseline data in the study of this structure to allow the use of ARFI.

  1. Olfaction and Apathy in Alzheimer’s Disease, Mild Cognitive Impairment, and Healthy Older Adults

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    Seligman, Sarah C.; Kamath, Vidyulata; Giovannetti, Tania; Arnold, Steven E.; Moberg, Paul J.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Apathy is a prevalent neuropsychiatric manifestation in individuals with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) that is associated with decreased social functioning and increased caregiver burden. Olfactory deficits are also commonly observed in AD, and prior work has indicated a link between increased apathy and olfactory dysfunction in individuals with Parkinson’s disease. Here, we examined odor identification performance in patients with probable AD (n = 172), individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI; n = 112), and neurologically and psychiatrically healthy older adults (n = 132) and its relation to apathy, depression, and overall psychopathology. Method Participants were administered the Sniffin’ Sticks odor identification test and measures assessing severity of apathy, depression, and overall neuropsychiatric symptomatology. Results Consistent with previous research, AD and MCI patients were significantly worse at identifying odors than healthy older adults. Additionally, a sex by diagnosis interaction was observed. AD patients had significantly higher levels of apathy relative to MCI and control participants. Of note, across the entire sample odor identification deficits were correlated with level of apathy at the level of p apathy in AD may result from the progression of disease pathology in shared neural substrates. PMID:23398350

  2. Tai chi training reduces self-report of inattention in healthy young adults

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    Alexander K. Converse

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available It is important to identify effective non-pharmacological alternatives to stimulant medications that reduce symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. In this study of healthy young adults, we measured the effects of training in tai chi, which involves mindful attention to the body during movement. Using a non-randomized, controlled, parallel design, students in a 15-week introductory tai chi course (n=28 and control participants (n=44 were tested for ADHD indicators and cognitive function at three points over the course of the 15 weeks. The tai chi students' self-report of attention, but not hyperactivity-impulsivity, improved compared to controls. At baseline, inattention correlated positively with reaction time variability in an affective go/no-go task across all participants, and improvements in attention correlated with reductions in reaction time variability across the tai chi students. Affective bias changed in the tai chi students, as reaction times to positive- and negative-valenced words equalized over time. These results converge to suggest that tai chi training may help improve attention in healthy young adults. Further studies are needed to confirm these results and to evaluate tai chi as therapy for individuals with ADHD.

  3. Differences in dynamic and static functional connectivity between young and elderly healthy adults.

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    Park, Ji Eun; Jung, Seung Chai; Ryu, Kyeoung Hwa; Oh, Joo Young; Kim, Ho Sung; Choi, Choong-Gon; Kim, Sang Joon; Shim, Woo Hyun

    2017-08-01

    Brain connectivity is highly dynamic, but functional connectivity (FC) studies using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) assume it to be static. This study assessed differences in dynamic FC between young healthy adults (YH) and elderly healthy adults (EH) compared to static FC. Using rs-fMRI data from 12 YH and 31 EH, FC was assessed in six functional regions (subcortical, auditory [AUD], sensorimotor [SM], visuospatial [VS], cognitive control [CC], and default mode network [DMN]). Static FC was calculated as Fisher's z-transformed correlation coefficient. The sliding time window correlation (window size 30 s, step size 3 s) was applied for dynamic FC, and the standard deviation across sliding windows was calculated. Differences in static and dynamic FC between EH and YH were calculated and compared by region. EH showed decreased static FC in the subcortical, CC, and DMN regions (FDR corrected p = 0.0013; 74 regions), with no regions showing static FC higher than that in YH. EH showed increased dynamic FC in the subcortical, CC, and DMN regions, whereas decreased dynamic FC in CC and DMN regions (p static and dynamic FC. Dynamic FC exhibited differences from static FC in EH and YH, mainly in regions involved in cognitive control and the DMN. Altered dynamic FC demonstrated both qualitatively and quantitatively distinct patterns of transient brain activity and needs to be studied as an imaging biomarker in the aging process.

  4. Effects of a single, oral 60 mg caffeine dose on attention in healthy adult subjects.

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    Wilhelmus, Micha Mm; Hay, Justin L; Zuiker, Rob Gja; Okkerse, Pieter; Perdrieu, Christelle; Sauser, Julien; Beaumont, Maurice; Schmitt, Jeroen; van Gerven, Joop Ma; Silber, Beata Y

    2017-02-01

    Caffeine induces positive effects on sustained attention, although studies assessing the acute effects of low caffeine dose (effects of a 60 mg dose of caffeine on sustained attention in tests lasting up to 45 minutes using 82 low or non-caffeine-consuming healthy male ( n=41) and female ( n=41) adults aged between 40 and 60 years. Vigilance was measured using Mackworth Clock test, Rapid Visual Information Processing Test, adaptive tracking test, saccadic eye movement and attention switch test. Effects on mood and fatigue were analysed using Bond and Lader and Caffeine Research visual analogue scales, and Samn-Perelli questionnaire. Saliva sampling was performed for both compliance and caffeine pharmacokinetic analysis. Administration of a 60 mg caffeine dose resulted in a significant improvement in sustained attention compared with the placebo. Also a significantly improved peak saccadic velocity and reaction time performance was found, and decreased error rate. Significantly increased feelings of alertness, contentment and overall mood after caffeine treatment compared with placebo were observed. This study demonstrated that in healthy adult subjects oral administration of a single 60 mg caffeine dose elicited a clear enhancement of sustained attention and alertness, measured both in multiple objective performances and in subjective scales.

  5. Tai chi training reduces self-report of inattention in healthy young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Converse, Alexander K; Ahlers, Elizabeth O; Travers, Brittany G; Davidson, Richard J

    2014-01-01

    It is important to identify effective non-pharmacological alternatives to stimulant medications that reduce symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In this study of healthy young adults, we measured the effects of training in tai chi, which involves mindful attention to the body during movement. Using a non-randomized, controlled, parallel design, students in a 15-week introductory tai chi course (n = 28) and control participants (n = 44) were tested for ADHD indicators and cognitive function at three points over the course of the 15-weeks. The tai chi students' self-report of attention, but not hyperactivity-impulsivity, improved compared to controls. At baseline, inattention correlated positively with reaction time variability in an affective go/no-go task across all participants, and improvements in attention correlated with reductions in reaction time variability across the tai chi students. Affective bias changed in the tai chi students, as reaction times to positive- and negative-valenced words equalized over time. These results converge to suggest that tai chi training may help improve attention in healthy young adults. Further studies are needed to confirm these results and to evaluate tai chi as therapy for individuals with ADHD.

  6. Older adult Alexander Technique practitioners walk differently than healthy age-matched controls.

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    Hamel, Kate A; Ross, Christopher; Schultz, Brooke; O'Neill, Matthew; Anderson, David I

    2016-10-01

    The Alexander Technique (AT) seeks to eliminate harmful patterns of tension that interfere with the control of posture and movement and in doing so, it may serve as a viable intervention method for increasing gait efficacy in older adults. The purpose of this study was to compare the comfortable pace gait kinematics of older AT practitioners with those of healthy, age-matched controls. Participants were six licensed AT practitioners and seven healthy age-matched controls between the ages of 61-76. During the stance phase, AT participants exhibited significantly greater ankle stance range of motion (ROM) and plantar flexion at toe off, as well as lower ROM of the trunk and head compared to controls. During the swing phase, the AT practitioners had significantly increased hip and knee flexion and a trend toward significantly increased dorsiflexion. The findings suggest that the older AT practitioners walked with gait patterns more similar to those found in the literature for younger adults. These promising results highlight the need for further research to assess the AT's potential role as an intervention method for ameliorating the deleterious changes in gait that occur with aging. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Road test and naturalistic driving performance in healthy and cognitively impaired older adults: does environment matter?

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    Davis, Jennifer D; Papandonatos, George D; Miller, Lindsay A; Hewitt, Scott D; Festa, Elena K; Heindel, William C; Ott, Brian R

    2012-11-01

    To relate the standardized road test to video recordings of naturalistic driving in older adults with a range of cognitive impairment. Cross-sectional observational study. Academic medical center memory disorders clinic. One hundred three older drivers (44 healthy, 59 with cognitive impairment) who passed a road test. Error rate and global ratings of safety (pass with and without recommendations, marginal with restrictions or training, or fail) made by a professional driving instructor. There was fair agreement between global ratings on the road test and naturalistic driving. More errors were detected in the naturalistic environment, but this did not affect global ratings. Error scores between settings were significantly correlated, and the types of errors made were similar. History of crashes corrected for miles driven per week was related to road test error scores but not naturalistic driving error scores. Global cognition (Mini-Mental State Examination) was correlated with road test and naturalistic driving errors. In healthy older adults, younger age was correlated with fewer errors on the road test and more errors in naturalistic driving. Road test performance is a reasonable proxy for estimating fitness to drive in older individuals' typical driving environments, but differences between performance assessed using these two methods remain poorly understood and deserve further study. © 2012, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2012, The American Geriatrics Society.

  8. Aronia juice suppresses the elevation of postprandial blood glucose levels in adult healthy Japanese

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    Takuya Yamane

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Aronia has various functions toward human health, including the beneficial effect on hypertension, hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia. Recently, we identified cyanidin-3,5-O-diglucoside as DPP IV inhibitor from Aronia juice. We also found its beneficial effect on hyperglycemia in KKAy mice fed aronia juice. In this study, to examine the effect of aronia juice on postprandial blood glucose levels in Japanese, we performed an oral meal tolerance test (OMTT. We found that postprandial blood glucose levels were reduced in aronia juice-administered adult healthy Japanese. We also found that there was no difference of reduction levels of postprandial blood glucose between male and female. We also found that activities of dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP IV, α-glucosidase and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE were reduced by aronia juice. These results suggest that aronia juice suppresses the elevation of postprandial blood glucose levels through inhibition of these enzyme activities and may be useful for prevention of metabolic diseases in adult healthy Japanese.

  9. Efficacy of Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera [L.] Dunal) in improving cardiorespiratory endurance in healthy athletic adults.

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    Choudhary, Bakhtiar; Shetty, A; Langade, Deepak G

    2015-01-01

    Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera [L.] Dunal) has been traditionally used for various actions ranging from vitalizer, improve endurance and stamina, promote longevity, improve immunity, and male and female fertility. However, clinical studies are needed to prove the clinical efficacy of this herb, especially in cardiovascular endurance and physical performance. This prospective, double-blind, randomized, and placebo-controlled study evaluated the efficacy of Ashwagandha roots extract in enhancing cardiorespiratory endurance and improving the quality of life (QOL) in 50 healthy male/female athletic adults. Cardiorespiratory endurance was assessed by measuring the oxygen consumption at peak physical exertion (VO2 max) levels during a 20 m shuttle run test. The World Health Organization self-reported QOL questionnaire (physical health, psychological health, social relationships, and environmental factors) was used to assess the QOL. Student's t-test was used to compare the differences in a mean and change from baseline VO2 max levels, whereas Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to assess changes in QOL scores from baseline in the two groups. There was a greater increase from baseline (P Ashwagandha (n = 24) compared to placebo (n = 25) at 8 weeks (4.91 and 1.42, respectively) and at 12 weeks (5.67 and 1.86 respectively). The QOL scores for all subdomains significantly improved to a greater extent in the Ashwagandha group at 12 weeks compared to placebo (P Ashwagandha root extract enhances the cardiorespiratory endurance and improves QOL in healthy athletic adults.

  10. Variability in heart rate recovery measurements over 1 year in healthy, middle-aged adults.

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    Mellis, M G; Ingle, L; Carroll, S

    2014-02-01

    This study assessed the longer-term (12-month) variability in post-exercise heart rate recovery following a submaximal exercise test. Longitudinal data was analysed for 97 healthy middle-aged adults (74 male, 23 female) from 2 occasions, 12 months apart. Participants were retrospectively selected if they had stable physical activity habits, submaximal treadmill fitness and anthropometric measurements between the 2 assessment visits. A submaximal Bruce treadmill test was performed to at least 85% age-predicted maximum heart rate. Absolute heart rate and Δ heart rate recovery (change from peak exercise heart rate) were recorded for 1 and 2 min post-exercise in an immediate supine position. Heart rate recovery at both time-points was shown to be reliable with intra-class correlation coefficient values ≥ 0.714. Absolute heart rate 1-min post-exercise showed the strongest agreement between repeat tests (r = 0.867, P heart rate values rather than Δ heart rate recovery, and for 1-min rather than 2-min post-exercise recovery time points. Log-transformed values generated better variability with acceptable coefficient of variation for all measures (2.2-10%). Overall, 1 min post-exercise heart rate recovery data had least variability over the 12-month period in apparently healthy middle-aged adults. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. Acute Whole-Body Vibration does not Facilitate Peak Torque and Stretch Reflex in Healthy Adults

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    Yeung, Ella W.; Lau, Cheuk C.; Kwong, Ada P.K.; Sze, Yan M.; Zhang, Wei Y.; Yeung, Simon S.

    2014-01-01

    The acute effect of whole-body vibration (WBV) training may enhance muscular performance via neural potentiation of the stretch reflex. The purpose of this study was to investigate if acute WBV exposure affects the stretch induced knee jerk reflex [onset latency and electromechanical delay (EMD)] and the isokinetic knee extensor peak torque performance. Twenty-two subjects were randomly assigned to the intervention or control group. The intervention group received WBV in a semi-squat position at 30° knee flexion with an amplitude of 0.69 mm, frequency of 45 Hz, and peak acceleration of 27.6 m/s2 for 3 minutes. The control group underwent the same semii-squatting position statically without exposure of WBV. Two-way mixed repeated measures analysis of variance revealed no significant group effects differences on reflex latency of rectus femoris (RF) and vastus lateralis (VL; p = 0.934 and 0.935, respectively) EMD of RF and VL (p = 0.474 and 0.551, respectively) and peak torque production (p = 0.483) measured before and after the WBV. The results of this study indicate that a single session of WBV exposure has no potentiation effect on the stretch induced reflex and peak torque performance in healthy young adults. Key Points There is no acute potentiation of stretch reflex right after whole body vibration. Acute whole body vibration does not improve mus-cle peak torque performance in healthy young adults. PMID:24570602

  12. Determinants of hyperhomocysteinemia in healthy and hypertensive subjects: A population-based study and systematic review.

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    Han, Liyuan; Liu, Yanfen; Wang, Changyi; Tang, Linlin; Feng, Xiaoqi; Astell-Burt, Thomas; Wen, Qi; Duan, Donghui; Lu, Nanjia; Xu, Guodong; Wang, Kaiyue; Zhang, Lu; Gu, Kaibo; Chen, Sihan; Ma, Jianping; Zhang, Tao; You, Dingyun; Duan, Shiwei

    2017-10-01

    Hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) is known to increase the risk of many diseases. Factors influencing HHcy in healthy and hypertensive subjects remain under-researched. A large population-based study was conducted in 60 communities from Shenzhen, China. Responses to standardized questions on lifestyle factors and blood samples were collected from all participants after a 12-h overnight fast. Multiple linear and multivariate logistic regressions were used to explore risk factors for HHcy. Results were then compared to those from a systematic review of English-language articles listed in Pubmed, EBSCOhost, Web of Science, Embase and Cochrane libraries that investigated HHcy risk factors in healthy and hypertensive subjects. A total of 1586 healthy (Male/Female = 642/944) and 5935 hypertensive subjects (Male/Female = 2928/3007) participated in our population-based study. In logistic regression analyses, age, BMI and creatinine (Cr) were risk factors, while being female, fruit intake and physical activity were protective factors for HHcy in healthy subjects. In hypertensive subjects, seven [age, smoking, salt intake, systolic blood pressure (SBP), uric acid, triglycerides (TG), and Cr] and four [female, fruit intake, total cholesterol (TC), and glucose] factors were associated with higher and lower HHcy respectively. The review of 71 studies revealed that potential risk factors for Hcy included nutritional, physiologic, lifestyle habits, ethnicity, genetics, interactions between gene-environment, gene-gene, gene-nutritional, environment-environment, nutritional-nutritional. Our study indicates the potential importance of increasing folic acid and vitamin B supplementation, daily fruit and vegetable intake, regular exercise and refraining from tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption as preventive strategies for Hcy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  13. Kidney injury biomarkers and urinary creatinine variability in nominally healthy adults.

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    Stiegel, M A; Pleil, J D; Sobus, J R; Angrish, M M; Morgan, M K

    2015-01-01

    Environmental exposure diagnostics use creatinine concentrations in urine aliquots as the internal standard for dilution normalization of all other excreted metabolites when urinary excretion rate data are not available. This is a reasonable approach for healthy adults as creatinine is a human metabolite that is continually produced in skeletal muscles and presumably excreted in the urine at a stable rate. However, creatinine also serves as a biomarker for glomerular filtration rate (efficiency) of the kidneys, so undiagnosed kidney function impairment could affect this commonly applied dilution calculation. The United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) has recently conducted a study that collected approximately 2600 urine samples from 50 healthy adults, aged 19-50 years old, in North Carolina in 2009-2011. Urinary ancillary data (creatinine concentration, total void volume, elapsed time between voids), and participant demographic data (race, gender, height, and body weight) were collected. A representative subset of 280 urine samples from 29 participants was assayed using a new kidney injury panel (KIP). In this article, we investigated the relationships of KIP biomarkers within and between subjects and also calculated their interactions with measured creatinine levels. The aims of this work were to document the analytical methods (procedures, sensitivity, stability, etc.), provide summary statistics for the KIP biomarkers in "healthy" adults without diagnosed disease (distribution, fold range, central tendency, variance), and to develop an understanding as to how urinary creatinine level varies with respect to the individual KIP proteins. Results show that new instrumentation and data reduction methods have sufficient sensitivity to measure KIP levels in nominally healthy urine samples, that linear regression between creatinine concentration and urinary excretion explains only about 68% of variability, that KIP markers are poorly correlated with

  14. Constitutive activation and accelerated maturation of peripheral blood t cells in healthy adults in burkina faso compared to Germany: The case of malaria?

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    Tiba F

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective It is not exactly known how frequent exposure to Plasmodium falciparum shapes the peripheral blood T-cell population in healthy West Africans. Methods The frequency of peripheral blood CD4+ lymphocytes responding to Plasmodium falciparum merozoite surface protein 1 (PfMSP-1 by production of interferon-gamma (IFN-γ, interleukin-2 (IL-2 or tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α was determined using a commercially available flow cytometric activation assay (Fastlmmune in 17 healthy adults in Nouna, Burkina Faso. T-cell activation and maturation in peripheral blood of healthy adults in Burkina Faso (n = 40 and Germany (n = 20 were compared using immunophenotyping and three-colour flow cytometry. Results Significant numbers of PfMSV-1 -specific CD4+ lymphocytes producing IFN-γ, IL-2 and/or TNF-α were detected in 14 healthy adults in Nouna. Cytokine profiles showed predominant production of IFN-γ and TNF-α. Compared to Germans, Burkinabé showed markedly lower proportions of CCR7+ CD45RA+ naïve CD4+ cells and slightly higher frequencies of CD95+ CD4+ T-cells and of CD38+ CD8+ T-cells. The median antibody-binding capacity of CD95dim CD4+ T-cells in Burkinabé was more than twice the value observed in Germans (263 vs. 108 binding sites per cell, p Conclusions We hypothesize that an IFN-γ-induced increase in the expression level of CD95 on CD4+ lymphocytes may lower the activation threshold of resting naïve CD4+ T-cells in healthy adults living in Burkina Faso. Bystander activation of these cells deserves further study as a molecular mechanism linking strong IFN-γ responses against Plasmodium falciparum to decreased susceptibility to parasitemia observed in specific ethnic groups in West Africa.

  15. Spinal Arachnoiditis as a Complication of Cryptococcal Meningoencephalitis in Non-HIV Previously Healthy Adults.

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    Panackal, Anil A; Komori, Mika; Kosa, Peter; Khan, Omar; Hammoud, Dima A; Rosen, Lindsey B; Browne, Sarah K; Lin, Yen-Chih; Romm, Elena; Ramaprasad, Charu; Fries, Bettina C; Bennett, John E; Bielekova, Bibiana; Williamson, Peter R

    2017-02-01

    Cryptococcus can cause meningoencephalitis (CM) among previously healthy non-HIV adults. Spinal arachnoiditis is under-recognized, since diagnosis is difficult with concomitant central nervous system (CNS) pathology. We describe 6 cases of spinal arachnoiditis among 26 consecutively recruited CM patients with normal CD4 counts who achieved microbiologic control. We performed detailed neurological exams, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) immunophenotyping and biomarker analysis before and after adjunctive immunomodulatory intervention with high dose pulse corticosteroids, affording causal inference into pathophysiology. All 6 exhibited severe lower motor neuron involvement in addition to cognitive changes and gait disturbances from meningoencephalitis. Spinal involvement was associated with asymmetric weakness and urinary retention. Diagnostic specificity was improved by MRI imaging which demonstrated lumbar spinal nerve root enhancement and clumping or lesions. Despite negative fungal cultures, CSF inflammatory biomarkers, sCD27 and sCD21, as well as the neuronal damage biomarker, neurofilament light chain (NFL), were elevated compared to healthy donor (HD) controls. Elevations in these biomarkers were associated with clinical symptoms and showed improvement with adjunctive high dose pulse corticosteroids. These data suggest that a post-infectious spinal arachnoiditis is an important complication of CM in previously healthy individuals, requiring heightened clinician awareness. Despite microbiological control, this syndrome causes significant pathology likely due to increased inflammation and may be amenable to suppressive therapeutics. Published by Oxford University Press for the Clinical Infectious Diseases Society of America 2016. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  16. The Association between Taking Dietary Supplements and Healthy Habits among Korean Adults: Results from the Fifth Korea National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (2010–2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin-Wook; Lee, So-Hye; Kim, Jung-Eun; Han, Kyung-Do; Kwack, Tae-Eung; Kim, Bo-Seon; Kim, Jeong-Eun; Jo, Eun-Bae; Park, Young-Kyu

    2016-01-01

    Background Recently, the number of people interested in health in South Korea has increased, and the rate of dietary supplement use is rising. Researchers have hypothesized that the rate of practicing healthy habits is higher among those who use dietary supplements than those who do not. Therefore, this study aimed to discover the association between taking dietary supplements and practicing various healthy habits in the Korean, adult population. Methods The sample included 15,789 adults over 19 years old who participated in the fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The user group was defined as those taking dietary supplements for more than 2 weeks during the previous year or once during the past month. Measures for the seven healthy habits were based on those included in the Alameda study and were analyzed accounting for the complex sampling design. Results The rate of taking dietary supplements was significantly higher in women, middle aged participants, urban residents, those with a higher income, those with a higher education level, and nonsmokers as well as among women with a moderate subjective health status, women who limited their alcohol content, and women with dyslipidemia. In the adjusted analysis, the rate of performing three of the 'Alameda 7' habits—eating breakfast regularly, restricting snacking, and limiting drinking—was higher in the female dietary supplement user group than in the other groups. Women practiced more healthy habits and had a higher dietary supplement intake rate than men. Conclusion We found that taking dietary supplements in Korean adults is highly associated with demographic and social factors. Taking dietary supplements had a relationship with dietary habits, and there was no significant association between dietary supplement and other healthy habits. Thus in the health clinic, we suggest that taking dietary supplements complements a patient's healthy habits, with the exception of dietary habits, for

  17. The Association between Taking Dietary Supplements and Healthy Habits among Korean Adults: Results from the Fifth Korea National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (2010-2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin-Wook; Lee, So-Hye; Kim, Jung-Eun; Han, Kyung-Do; Kwack, Tae-Eung; Kim, Bo-Seon; Kim, Jeong-Eun; Jo, Eun-Bae; Park, Young-Kyu; Lee, Kyung-Shik

    2016-05-01

    Recently, the number of people interested in health in South Korea has increased, and the rate of dietary supplement use is rising. Researchers have hypothesized that the rate of practicing healthy habits is higher among those who use dietary supplements than those who do not. Therefore, this study aimed to discover the association between taking dietary supplements and practicing various healthy habits in the Korean, adult population. The sample included 15,789 adults over 19 years old who participated in the fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The user group was defined as those taking dietary supplements for more than 2 weeks during the previous year or once during the past month. Measures for the seven healthy habits were based on those included in the Alameda study and were analyzed accounting for the complex sampling design. The rate of taking dietary supplements was significantly higher in women, middle aged participants, urban residents, those with a higher income, those with a higher education level, and nonsmokers as well as among women with a moderate subjective health status, women who limited their alcohol content, and women with dyslipidemia. In the adjusted analysis, the rate of performing three of the 'Alameda 7' habits-eating breakfast regularly, restricting snacking, and limiting drinking-was higher in the female dietary supplement user group than in the other groups. Women practiced more healthy habits and had a higher dietary supplement intake rate than men. We found that taking dietary supplements in Korean adults is highly associated with demographic and social factors. Taking dietary supplements had a relationship with dietary habits, and there was no significant association between dietary supplement and other healthy habits. Thus in the health clinic, we suggest that taking dietary supplements complements a patient's healthy habits, with the exception of dietary habits, for health promotion.

  18. Allele and Genotype Distributions of DNA Repair Gene Polymorphisms in South Indian Healthy Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katiboina Srinivasa Rao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Various DNA repair pathways protect the structural and chemical integrity of the human genome from environmental and endogenous threats. Polymorphisms of genes encoding the proteins involved in DNA repair have been found to be associated with cancer risk and chemotherapeutic response. In this study, we aim to establish the normative frequencies of DNA repair genes in South Indian healthy population and compare with HapMap populations. Genotyping was done on 128 healthy volunteers from South India, and the allele and genotype distributions were established. The minor allele frequency of Xeroderma pigmentosum group A ( XPA G23A, Excision repair cross-complementing 2 ( ERCC2 /Xeroderma pigmentosum group D ( XPD Lys751Gln, Xeroderma pigmentosum group G ( XPG His46His, XPG Asp1104His, and X-ray repair cross-complementing group 1 ( XRCC1 Arg399Gln polymorphisms were 49.2%, 36.3%, 48.0%, 23.0%, and 34.0% respectively. Ethnic variations were observed in the frequency distribution of these polymorphisms between the South Indians and other HapMap populations. The present work forms the groundwork for cancer association studies and biomarker identification for treatment response and prognosis.

  19. Faecal shedding of canine parvovirus after modified-live vaccination in healthy adult dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freisl, M; Speck, S; Truyen, U; Reese, S; Proksch, A-L; Hartmann, K

    2017-01-01

    Since little is known about the persistence and faecal shedding of canine parvovirus (CPV) in dogs after modified-live vaccination, diagnostic tests for CPV can be difficult to interpret in the post-vaccination period. The primary aim of this study was to determine the incidence, duration and extent of CPV vaccine virus shedding in adult dogs and to investigate related factors, including the presence of protective antibodies, increase in anti-CPV antibody titres and development of any gastrointestinal side-effects. A secondary objective was to assess prevalence of CPV field virus shedding in clinically healthy dogs due to subclinical infections. One hundred adult, healthy privately owned dogs were vaccinated with a commercial CPV-2 modified-live vaccine (MLV). Faeces were tested for the presence of CPV DNA on days 0 (prior to vaccination), 3, 7, 14, 21 and 28 by quantitative real-time PCR. Pre- and post-vaccination serum titres were determined by haemagglutination inhibition on days 0, 7 and 28. Transient excretion of CPV DNA was detected in 2.0% of dogs before vaccination. About one quarter of dogs (23.0%) shed CPV DNA during the post-vaccination period, but field and vaccine virus differentiation by VP2 gene sequencing was only successful in few samples. Faecal CPV excretion occurred despite protective serum antibody titres. Post-vaccination CPV shedding was not related to adequate antibody response after vaccination or to the occurrence of gastrointestinal side-effects. Despite individual differences, CPV DNA was detectable for up to 28 days after vaccination, although the faecal CPV DNA load in these clinically healthy dogs was very low. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of moderate beer consumption on first-line immunity of healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeo, J; Wärnberg, J; Díaz, L E; González-Gross, M; Marcos, A

    2007-06-01

    Moderate alcohol consumption has shown to induce benefits on host specific (cell-mediated and humoral) immune system, but there is scarce literature regarding first-line immune responses. The aim of this study was to investigate differences in non-specific immunity after alcohol abstention and moderate beer consumption in healthy adults. After a 30 day-alcohol abstemious period, 57 healthy volunteers were submitted to a daily moderate consumption of beer (330 mL for women and 660 mL for men, respectively) during the following 30 days. White blood cell counts and phagocytic and oxidative burst activity were evaluated at three points: a) basal, b) abstemious, c) after moderate consumption of beer. Absolute values of leukocytes, neutrophils, lymphocytes and basophiles (x10(9)/L) increased significantly in women from point b to point c (6.34 +/- 1.26 vs. 7.27 +/- 1.97, 3.43 +/- 0.88 vs. 4.13 +/- 1.53, 2.14 +/- 0.50 vs. 2.38 +/- 0.63, and 0.05 +/- 0.02 vs. 0.06 +/- 0.03, respectively; p consumption of beer in both women (33.90 +/- 19.00 vs. 48.86 +/- 21.83) and men (27.39 +/- 18.13 vs. 39.25 +/- 24.53). In healthy adults, after 30 days of moderate beer consumption the parameter describing the non-specific immunity improved when compared to the basal situation. For several of these parameters, the response is more enhanced in women.

  1. Sleep following alcohol intoxication in healthy, young adults: effects of sex and family history of alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnedt, J Todd; Rohsenow, Damaris J; Almeida, Alissa B; Hunt, Sarah K; Gokhale, Manjusha; Gottlieb, Daniel J; Howland, Jonathan

    2011-05-01

    This study evaluated sex and family history of alcoholism as moderators of subjective ratings of sleepiness/sleep quality and polysomnography (PSG) following alcohol intoxication in healthy, young adults. Ninety-three healthy adults [mean age 24.4 ± 2.7 years, 59 women, 29 subjects with a positive family history of alcoholism (FH+)] were recruited. After screening PSG, participants consumed alcohol (sex/weight adjusted dosing) to intoxication [peak breath alcohol concentration (BrAC) of 0.11 ± 0.01 g% for men and women] or matching placebo between 20:30 and 22:00 hours. Sleep was monitored using PSG between 23:00 and 07:00 hours. Participants completed the Stanford Sleepiness Scale and Karolinska Sleepiness Scale at bedtime and on awakening and a validated post-sleep questionnaire. Following alcohol, total sleep time, sleep efficiency, nighttime awakenings, and wake after sleep onset were more disrupted in women than men, with no differences by family history status. Alcohol reduced sleep onset latency, sleep efficiency, and rapid eye movement sleep while increasing wakefulness and slow wave sleep across the entire night compared with placebo. Alcohol also generally increased sleep consolidation in the first half of the night, but decreased it during the second half. Sleepiness ratings were higher following alcohol, particularly in women at bedtime. Morning sleep quality ratings were lower following alcohol than placebo. Alcohol intoxication increases subjective sleepiness and disrupts sleep objectively more in healthy women than in men, with no differences evident by family history of alcoholism status. Evaluating moderators of alcohol effects on sleep may provide insight into the role of sleep in problem drinking. Copyright © 2011 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  2. [TSH-reference range of adults: results from the population-based study KORA F4].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhardt, K; Ittermann, T; Heier, M; Kirchberger, I; Völzke, H; Wallaschofski, H; Below, H; Nauck, M; Meisinger, C

    2014-02-01

    There is no valid nationwide reference value for Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) for German adults because of different iodine supply and different laboratory equipment, however, reference values for single regions of Germany have been defined. The aim of this study was to find a reference value for South Germany and to compare this with results of other population-based studies. 3080 individuals from the KORA-F4 study (Cooperative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg) at the age range of 32 to 81 years were examined regarding their thyroid characteristics (anamnesis, sonography and clinical chemistry). After excluding individuals with known as well as unknown thyroid disorders revealed by the KORA study, there were 710 thyroid-healthy individuals left to evaluate TSH-, fT3- and fT4-reference ranges. For thyroid-healthy men and women we evaluated a TSH-reference range of 0.52-3.60 mIU/l on Siemens Vista Analysers with a median of 1.49 mIU/l. We could not find any statistically significant influence of age or sex. Median iodine excretion in urine was 118.6 µg/g creatinine in our healthy population which is above the recommended target value of 100 µg/g. The TSH-reference value of the South German population is higher than the one assessed in the Northeast-German SHIP-study 10 years ago. For the definition of a TSH-reference value, population-based and apparatus-specific examinations are necessary. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  3. Felbamate in an adult population with severe refractory epilepsy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kearney, H

    2011-04-05

    Felbamate (FBM) is efficacious in treating patients with refractory epilepsy but was withdrawn due to cases of aplastic anaemia, hepatic failure and five reported deaths. FBM is currently used in specialist centres and is only being used in one Irish centre to date. This papers aim is to review the efficacy and safety experience of FBM in Irish adult patients with refractory epilepsy. A retrospective chart review was done on patients\\' medical records. Patients were subdivided into responders and non responders based on change in seizure frequency and side effects were recorded for all. Of the 13 patients on FBM nine patients responded to FBM, four patients did not. FBM is a safe and efficacious alternative in an Irish adult population with refractory epilepsy. However close monitoring is still required given the potential fatal side effects that are possible with this anticonvulsant.

  4. Components of adult class III malocclusion in an Iranian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roodabeh Koodaryan

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims. Class III malocclusions are considered complex and difficult orthodontic problems to diagnose and treat. The purpose of this study was to investigate the morphologic characteristics of the craniofacial complex of adults with Class III malocclusion in an Iranian population. Materials and methods. Lateral cephalometric radiographs of 50 patients with Class III malocclusion (20 males and 30 females; age range of 18-27 years were selected on the basis of molar relationship, concave profile and an overjet of ≤ 0 mm. The standard values of 19 soft tissue measurements were determined using McNamara, Burstone and Viazis methods. Results. Adults with Class III malocclusion exhibited distinct craniofacial morphologic characteristics manifested by a combination of retrusion of maxilla and protrusion of mandible. Conclusion. The most prevalent component was mandibular prognathism, normal maxilla and LAFH on the basis of the component analysis.

  5. Subclinical Atherosclerosis is Weakly Associated with Lower Cognitive Function in Healthy Hyperhomocysteinemic Adults without Clinical Cardiovascular Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatto, Nicole M.; Henderson, Victor W.; St. John, Jan A.; McCleary, Carol; Detrano, Robert; Hodis, Howard N.; Mack, Wendy J.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Atherosclerosis is the most common pathologic process underlying cardiovascular disease (CVD). It is not well known whether subclinical atherosclerosis is an independent risk factor for lower cognitive function among individuals without clinically evident CVD. METHODS We examined cross-sectional associations between subclinical atherosclerosis and cognitive function in a community-based sample of otherwise healthy adults with plasma homocysteine ≥8.5 µmol/L enrolled in the BVAIT study (n=504, mean age 61 years). Carotid artery intima-media thickness (CIMT), coronary (CAC) and abdominal aortic calcium (AAC) were used to measure subclinical atherosclerosis. Cognitive function was assessed with a battery of neuropsychological tests. A principal components analysis was used to extract five uncorrelated cognitive factors from scores on individual tests, and a measure of global cognition was derived. Multivariable linear regression was used to examine the association between subclinical atherosclerosis and cognitive function, adjusting for other correlates of cognition. RESULTS Increasing thickness of CIMT was associated with significantly lower scores on the verbal learning factor (β = −0.07 per 0.1 mm increase CIMT [SE(β)=0.03], p=0.01). CAC and AAC were not individually associated with any of the cognitive factors. CONCLUSIONS This study provides evidence that increasing CIMT is weakly associated with lower verbal learning abilities but not global cognition in a population of otherwise healthy middle-to-older aged adults with elevated plasma homocysteine but without clinically evident CVD. The association between CIMT and poor verbal learning may pertain particularly to men. PMID:18836986

  6. Balance control in the elderly: do Masters athletes show more efficient balance responses than healthy older adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brauer, Sandra G; Neros, Christina; Woollacott, Marjorie

    2008-10-01

    Older adults can improve several components of their balance such as timed stance ability by participating in a short specific exercise program. However, it is not clear whether participation in more frequent and intense training can result in improved reactive balance performance in older adults. Optimal reactive responses are required to prevent falls. This study begins to evaluate this issue by comparing the reactive balance ability of elite older adults (Masters athletes) to that of healthy older adults. Kinetic and electromyography data were collected from elite older athletes and healthy older adults during backward linear underfoot perturbations at high and low speeds. Behavioral outcomes of postural recovery strategy, timing and levels of muscular activation, and time to stabilize the displaced center of pressure were measured and compared between groups. The elite older athletes were able to more frequently regain balance without stepping, stabilized their center of pressure faster than did healthy older adults and activated their tibialis anterior with a greater magnitude when perturbed at the higher speed. There were no differences between groups in these measures at the lower perturbation speed and no differences in onset latencies at either speed. Older athletes undertaking longterm high intensity training demonstrate better and more rapid stabilization of posture following perturbation than healthy older adults under challenging conditions. Further studies are advocated to determine the relative contribution of processes such as neuromotor adaptation, strength, motivation and arousal to this finding.

  7. Smoking-attributable periodontal disease in the Australian adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Loc G; Slade, Gary D; Roberts-Thomson, Kaye F; Sanders, Anne E

    2008-05-01

    The extent to which periodontitis is attributable to smoking in Australia has not been examined. To investigate the smoking-periodontitis relationship and to estimate the public health impact of smoking on periodontitis in Australia. The National Survey of Adult Oral Health 2004-2006 collected nationally representative oral epidemiologic data for the Australian adult population. Examiners measured probing pocket depth (PPD) and gingival recession at three sites per tooth to compute clinical attachment level (CAL). Moderate-severe cases were defined as having: >/=2 interproximal sites (not on same tooth) with >/=4 mm CAL or with >/=5 mm PPD. Smoking status was defined as never-, former- or current-smoker. Current-smokers were further classified into light-, moderate- or heavy-smoker using calculated pack-years. Age, sex and socioeconomic position were examined as potential confounders. Twenty-three per cent were former-smokers and 15% were current-smokers. Prevalence of periodontitis was 23%. In unadjusted analyses, former- and current-smokers had significantly higher periodontitis prevalence than never-smokers. Relative to non-smokers, adjusted prevalence ratios (95% confidence interval) for periodontitis were as follows: former-smokers: 1.22 (1.03-1.46), moderate-smokers: 1.63 (1.16-2.30); and heavy-smokers: 1.64 (1.27-2.12). The population attributable fraction of smoking for moderate-severe periodontitis was 32% (equivalent to 700,000 adults). Smoking has a significant impact on periodontal health of the Australian adults.

  8. Mediterranean diet, healthy eating index 2005, and cognitive function in middle-aged and older Puerto Rican adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xingwang; Scott, Tammy; Gao, Xiang; Maras, Janice E; Bakun, Peter J; Tucker, Katherine L

    2013-02-01

    Adherence to a Mediterranean diet has recently been shown to protect against cognitive decline and dementia. It remains unclear, however, whether such protection extends to different ethnic groups and middle-aged individuals and how it might compare with adherence to the US Department of Agriculture's 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans (measured with Healthy Eating Index 2005 [HEI 2005]). This study examined associations between diet quality, as assessed by the Mediterranean diet and HEI 2005, and cognitive performance in a sample of 1,269 Puerto Rican adults aged 45 to 75 years and living in the Greater Boston area of Massachusetts. Dietary intake was assessed with a food frequency questionnaire specifically designed for and validated with this population. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet was assessed with a 0- to 9-point scale, and the HEI 2005 score was calculated with a maximum score of 100. Cognitive performance was measured with a battery of seven tests and the Mini Mental State Examination was used for global cognitive function. Greater adherence to the Mediterranean diet was associated with higher Mini Mental State Examination score (P trend=0.012) and lower likelihood (odds ratio=0.87 for each additional point; 95% CI 0.80 to 0.94; Pdiet or the diet recommended by the US Department of Agriculture 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans can protect cognitive function in middle-aged and older adults. Copyright © 2013 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. A preliminary examination of gut microbiota, sleep, and cognitive flexibility in healthy older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Jason R; Carroll, Ian; Azcarate-Peril, M Andrea; Rochette, Amber D; Heinberg, Leslie J; Peat, Christine; Steffen, Kristine; Manderino, Lisa M; Mitchell, James; Gunstad, John

    2017-10-01

    Inadequate sleep increases the risk for age-related cognitive decline and recent work suggests a possible role of the gut microbiota in this phenomenon. Partial sleep deprivation alters the human gut microbiome, and its composition is associated with cognitive flexibility in animal models. Given these findings, we examined the possible relationship among the gut microbiome, sleep quality, and cognitive flexibility in a sample of healthy older adults. Thirty-seven participants (age 64.59 ± 7.54 years) provided a stool sample for gut microbial sequencing and completed the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and Stroop Color Word Test as part of a larger project. Better sleep quality was associated with better Stroop performance and higher proportions of the gut microbial phyla Verrucomicrobia and Lentisphaerae. Stroop Word and Color-Word performance correlated with higher proportions of Verrucomicrobia and Lentisphaerae. Partial correlations suggested that the relationship between Lentisphaerae and Stroop Color-Word performance was better accounted for by sleep quality; sleep quality remained a significant predictor of Color-Word performance, independent of the Lentisphaerae proportion, while the relationship between Lentisphaerae and Stroop performance was non-significant. Verrucomicrobia and sleep quality were not associated with Stroop Word performance independent of one another. The current findings suggest a possible relationship among sleep quality, composition of the gut microbiome, and cognitive flexibility in healthy older adults. Prospective and experimental studies are needed to confirm these findings and determine whether improving microbiome health may buffer against sleep-related cognitive decline in older adults. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Characteristics of Healthy Older Adults that Influence Self-rated Cognitive Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Bryce P; Smart, Colette M; Segalowitz, Sidney J; MacDonald, Stuart W S

    2017-07-19

    We sought to clarify the nature of self-reported cognitive function among healthy older adults by considering the short-term, within-person association (coupling) of subjective cognitive function with objective cognitive performance. We expected this within-person coupling to differ between persons as a function of self-perceived global cognitive decline and depression, anxiety, or neuroticism. This was an intensive measurement (short-term longitudinal) study of 29 older adult volunteers between the ages of 65 and 80 years without an existing diagnosis of dementia or mild cognitive impairment. Baseline assessment included neuropsychological testing and self-reported depression, anxiety, and neuroticism, as well as self- and informant-reported cognitive decline (relative to 10 years previously). Intensive within-person measurement occasions included subjective ratings of cognitive function paired with performance on a computerized working memory (n-back) task; each participant attended four or five assessments separated by intervals of at least one day. Statistical analysis was comprised of multilevel linear regression. Comparison of models suggested that both neuroticism and self-rated cognitive decline explained unique variance in the within-person, across-occasion coupling of subjective cognitive function with objective working memory performance. Self-ratings of cognition may accurately reflect day-to-day variations in objective cognitive performance among older adults, especially for individuals lower in neuroticism and higher in self-reported cognitive decline. Clinicians should consider these individual differences when determining the validity of complaints about perceived cognitive declines in the context of otherwise healthy aging. (JINS, 2017, 23, 1-10).

  11. Within-person variation in the postprandial lipemic response of healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Miriam F; O'Grada, Colm M; Grada, Colm O; Morris, Ciara; Segurado, Ricardo; Walsh, Marianne C; Gibney, Eileen R; Brennan, Lorraine; Roche, Helen M; Gibney, Michael J

    2013-02-01

    The response to dietary fat plays a key role in metabolic health. Although this can vary widely between individuals, variation within an individual and the associated contribution of phenotypic and genotypic factors to this variation are less defined. The objectives were to quantify within-person variation in triacylglycerol response by means of a novel variation score (S(v)) and to explore the phenotypic and genotypic factors associated with this score. Two consecutive 5-h oral-lipid-tolerance tests (OLTTs) were conducted in 51 healthy adults aged 18-60 y with a BMI (in kg/m²) of 18.5 to 49.8. Detailed body composition, physical function, biochemistry, and genotype data were gathered. The postprandial triacylglycerol response profile did not differ (P = 0.64) across OLTTs for the group; nor did average concentrations of functional markers apolipoprotein C2 (P = 0.73) and apolipoprotein C3 (P = 0.74). S(v) was low in most (82%) of the adults and was significantly (P < 0.05) associated with age, fasting triacylglycerol, triacylglycerol AUC, and fasting nonessential fatty acids. Significant associations were also observed between S(v) and single nucleotide polymorphisms in 7 genes (APOA1, IL1α, IL1β, TLR4, TCF7L2, CCK1Rec, and STAT3) after correction for phenotypic differences. This work showed that the within-person variability in postprandial lipemic response is low in most healthy adults. It also showed that variability in this response is associated with a defined set of phenotypic and genotypic characteristics.

  12. VOR Gain Is Related to Compensatory Saccades in Healthy Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anson, Eric R.; Bigelow, Robin T.; Carey, John P.; Xue, Qian-Li; Studenski, Stephanie; Schubert, Michael C.; Agrawal, Yuri

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) gain is well-suited for identifying rotational vestibular dysfunction, but may miss partial progressive decline in age-related vestibular function. Since compensatory saccades might provide an alternative method for identifying subtle vestibular decline, we describe the relationship between VOR gain and compensatory saccades in healthy older adults. Methods: Horizontal VOR gain was measured in 243 subjects age 60 and older from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging using video head impulse testing (HIT). Saccades in each HIT were identified as either “compensatory” or “compensatory back-up,” i.e., same or opposite direction as the VOR response respectively. Saccades were also classified as “covert” (occurring during head movement) and “overt” (occurring after head movement). The relationship between VOR gain and percentage of HITs with saccades, as well as the relationship between VOR gain and saccade latency and amplitude, were evaluated using regression analyses adjusting for age, gender, and race. Results: In adjusted analyses, the percentage of HITs with compensatory saccades increased 4.5% for every 0.1 decrease in VOR gain (p saccade amplitude decreased 0.6° (p saccade amplitude increased 0.4° for every 0.1 increase in VOR gain. Conclusion: We observed significant relationships between VOR gain and compensatory saccades in healthy older adults. Lower VOR gain was associated with larger amplitude, shorter latency compensatory saccades. Compensatory saccades reflect underlying rotational vestibular hypofunction, and may be particularly useful at identifying partial vestibular deficits as occur in aging adults. PMID:27445793

  13. Standardisation of bioelectrical impedance analysis for the estimation of body composition in healthy paediatric populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brantlov, Steven; Jødal, Lars; Lange, Aksel

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) requires a high degree of standardisation in order to ensure valid and reproducible impedance measurements. The overall aim of this review was to study the degree to which BIA papers conducted in healthy paediatric populations (aged 0-17 years......) were standardised. METHODS: Literature was identified on the basis of a systematic search of internationally-recognised electronic databases and hand searching of the reference lists of the included papers in order to identify additional relevant papers. The review was limited to lead-type BIA devices...

  14. [Detection and Serotyping of Streptococcus pneumoniae Carried in Healthy Adults with a Modified PCR Method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishihara, Yuka; Okamoto, Akira; Ohta, Michio

    2015-05-01

    Detection of Streptococcus pneumoniae colonized in the pharynx of healthy carriers currently relies on conventional culture methods of direct plating with pharyngeal swab specimens. The accurate measurement of the carriage of pneumococci, however, has not been necessarily achieved with these methods due to low density colonization and contamination of numerous oral streptococci that express α-hemolysis. A PCR-based detection method of pneumococci-specific for lytA as well as PCR serotyping of S. pneumoniae was recently developed and their effectiveness was confirmed. We modified the reaction conditions of these methods to improve the detection rate and applied them to the measurement of S. pneumoniae carried in healthy adults. Pharyngeal swab specimens obtained from 110 healthy volunteers over 40 and living in Nagoya were enriched for 5 hours with broth medium supplemented with rabbit serum and the template DNA for PCR was extracted from the mixed enriched culture. Of 110 specimens 36 (32.7%) were lytA-positive, the rate of which was much higher than the results of previous culture-based studies. The DNA template preparations were then used for PCR-based serotyping with primers specific for each of the types included in pneumococcal 23 valent vaccine (PPV23). We found that 28 out of 36 lytA-positive carriers were identified as being positive for the serotypes belonging to PPV23, although serotypes 6A and 6B were indistinguishable with the PCR method. The most frequent serotype was serotype 14, and serotypes 4, 18C, and 6A/B were also frequently identified. Five lytA-positive carriers were previously vaccinated with PPV23, and among them, 4 were positive for serotypes contained in PPV23. We recommend PCR-based identification and serotyping of S. pneumoniae in broth enrichment culture of pharyngeal swab specimens as a reliable method for the surveillance of healthy carriers with low density colonization.

  15. A Review of Dietary Surveys in the Adult South African Population from 2000 to 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zandile J. Mchiza

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available One serious concern of health policymakers in South Africa is the fact that there is no national data on the dietary intake of adult South Africans. The only national dietary study was done in children in 1999. Hence, it becomes difficult to plan intervention and strategies to combat malnutrition without national data on adults. The current review consequently assessed all dietary studies in adults from 2000 to June 2015 in an attempt to portray typical adult dietary intakes and to assess possible dietary deficiencies. Notable findings were that, in South Africa micronutrient deficiencies are still highly prevalent and energy intakes varied between very low intakes in informal settlements to very high intakes in urban centers. The most commonly deficient food groups observed are fruit and vegetables, and dairy. This has been attributed to high prices and lack of availability of these food groups in poorer urban areas and townships. In rural areas, access to healthy foods also remains a problem. A national nutrition monitoring system is recommended in order to identify dietary deficiencies in specific population groups.

  16. A Review of Dietary Surveys in the Adult South African Population from 2000 to 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mchiza, Zandile J.; Steyn, Nelia P.; Hill, Jillian; Kruger, Annamarie; Schönfeldt, Hettie; Nel, Johanna; Wentzel-Viljoen, Edelweiss

    2015-01-01

    One serious concern of health policymakers in South Africa is the fact that there is no national data on the dietary intake of adult South Africans. The only national dietary study was done in children in 1999. Hence, it becomes difficult to plan intervention and strategies to combat malnutrition without national data on adults. The current review consequently assessed all dietary studies in adults from 2000 to June 2015 in an attempt to portray typical adult dietary intakes and to assess possible dietary deficiencies. Notable findings were that, in South Africa micronutrient deficiencies are still highly prevalent and energy intakes varied between very low intakes in informal settlements to very high intakes in urban centers. The most commonly deficient food groups observed are fruit and vegetables, and dairy. This has been attributed to high prices and lack of availability of these food groups in poorer urban areas and townships. In rural areas, access to healthy foods also remains a problem. A national nutrition monitoring system is recommended in order to identify dietary deficiencies in specific population groups. PMID:26404371

  17. Invasive pneumococcal disease in healthy adults: increase of empyema associated with the clonal-type Sweden(1-ST306.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imma Grau

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Adult invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD occurs mainly in the elderly and patients with co-morbidities. Little is known about the clinical characteristics, serotypes and genotypes causing IPD in healthy adults. METHODS: We studied 745 culture-proven cases of IPD in adult patients aged 18-64 years (1996-2010. Patients were included in two groups: 1. adults with co-morbidities, and 2. healthy adults, who had no prior or coincident diagnosis of a chronic or immunosuppressive underlying disease. Microbiological studies included pneumococcal serotyping and genotyping. RESULTS: Of 745 IPD episodes, 525 (70% occurred in patients with co-morbidities and 220 (30% in healthy adults. The healthy adults with IPD were often smokers (56% or alcohol abusers (18%. As compared to patients with co-morbidities, the healthy adults had (P<0.05: younger age (43.5+/-13.1 vs. 48.7+/-11.3 years; higher proportions of women (45% vs. 24%, pneumonia with empyema (15% vs. 7% and infection with non-PCV7 serotypes including serotypes 1 (25% vs. 5%, 7F (13% vs. 4%, and 5 (7% vs. 2%; and lower mortality (5% vs. 20%. Empyema was more frequently caused by serotype 1. No death occurred among 79 patients with serotype 1 IPD. There was an emergence of virulent clonal-types Sweden(1-ST306 and Netherlands(7F-ST191. The vaccine serotype coverage with the PCV13 was higher in healthy adults than in patients with co-morbidities: 82% and 56%, respectively, P<0.001. CONCLUSION: In this clinical study, one-third of adults with IPD had no underlying chronic or immunosuppressive diseases (healthy adults. They were often smokers and alcohol abusers, and frequently presents with pneumonia and empyema caused by virulent clones of non-PCV7 serotypes such as the Sweden(1-ST306. Thus, implementing tobacco and alcohol abuse-cessation measures and a proper pneumococcal vaccination, such as PCV13 policy, in active smokers and alcohol abusers may diminish the burden of IPD in adults.

  18. Population Pharmacokinetics of Linezolid in Adults with Pulmonary Tuberculosis▿

    OpenAIRE

    McGee, Bryan; Dietze, Reynaldo; Hadad, David Jamil; Molino, Lucilia Pereira Dutra; Maciel, Ethel Leonor Noia; Boom, W. Henry; Palaci, Moises; Johnson, John L.; Peloquin, Charles A.

    2009-01-01

    Nineteen adults with pulmonary tuberculosis received linezolid (600 mg) once or twice daily in an early bactericidal activity trial. A one-compartment population model produced median values for the absorption rate constant, volume of distribution, and elimination rate constant of 1.5 h−1, 29.6 liters, and 0.25 h−1 (once daily) and 2.7 h−1, 32.1 liters, and 0.15 h−1 (twice daily). Linezolid administered twice daily produced higher values for free drug area under the concentration-time curve (...

  19. Normal Q-angle in an adult Nigerian population.

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    Omololu, Bade B; Ogunlade, Olusegun S; Gopaldasani, Vinod K

    2009-08-01

    The Q-angle has been studied among the adult Caucasian population with the establishment of reference values. Scientists are beginning to accept the concept of different human races. Physical variability exists between various African ethnic groups and Caucasians as exemplified by differences in anatomic features such as a flat nose compared with a pointed nose, wide rather than narrow faces, and straight rather than curly hair. Therefore, we cannot assume the same Q-angle values will be applicable to Africans and Caucasians. We established a baseline reference value for normal Q-angles among asymptomatic Nigerian adults. The Q-angles of the left and right knees were measured using a goniometer in 477 Nigerian adults (354 males; 123 females) in the supine and standing positions. The mean Q-angles for men were 10.7 degrees +/- 2.2 degrees in the supine position and 12.3 degrees +/- 2.2 degrees in the standing position in the right knee. The left knee Q-angles in men were 10.5 degrees +/- 2.6 degrees in the supine position and 11.7 degrees +/- 2.8 degrees in the standing position. In women, the mean Q-angles for the right knee were 21 degrees +/- 4.8 degrees in the supine position and 22.8 degrees +/- 4.7 degrees in the standing position. The mean Q-angles for the left knee in women were 20.9 degrees +/- 4.6 degrees in the supine position and 22.7 degrees +/- 4.6 degrees in the standing position. We observed a difference in Q-angles in the supine and standing positions for all participants. The Q-angle in adult Nigerian men is comparable to that of adult Caucasian men, but the Q-angle of Nigerian women is greater than that of their Caucasian counterparts.

  20. Evaluating the subject-performed task effect in healthy older adults: relationship with neuropsychological tests

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    Ana Rita Silva

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: An enhancement in recall of simple instructions is found when actions are performed in comparison to when they are verbally presented – the subject-performed task (SPT effect. This enhancement has also been found with older adults. However, the reason why older adults, known to present a deficit in episodic memory, have a better performance for this type of information remains unclear. In this article, we explored this effect by comparing the performance on the SPT task with the performance on other tasks, in order to understand the underlying mechanisms that may explain this effect. Objective: We hypothesized that both young and older adult groups should show higher recall in SPT compared with the verbal learning condition, and that the differences between age groups should be lower in the SPT condition. We aimed to explore the correlations between these tasks and known neuropsychological tests, and we also measured source memory for the encoding condition. Design: A mixed design was used with 30 healthy older adults, comparing their performance with 30 healthy younger adults. Each participant was asked to perform 16 simple instructions (SPT condition and to only read the other 16 instructions (Verbal condition – VT. The test phase included a free recall task. Participants were also tested with a set of neuropsychological measures (speed of processing, working memory and verbal episodic memory. Results: The SPT effect was found for both age groups; but even for SPT materials, group differences in recall persisted. Source memory was found to be preserved for the two groups. Simple correlations suggested differences in correlates of SPT performance between the two groups. However, when controlling for age, the SPT and VT tasks correlate with each other, and a measure of episodic memory correlated moderately with both SPT and VT performance. Conclusions: A strong effect of SPT was observed for all but one, which still displayed the

  1. Actively station: Effects on global cognition of mature adults and healthy elderly program using eletronic games

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    Tiago Nascimento Ordonez

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Studies show that aging is accompanied by decline in cognitive functions but also indicate that interventions, such as training on electronic games, can enhance performance and promote maintenance of cognitive abilities in healthy older adults. Objective: To investigate the effects of an electronic game program, called Actively Station, on the performance of global cognition of adults aged over 50 years. Methods: 124 mature and elderly adults enrolled in the "Actively Station" cognitive stimulation program of São Caetano do Sul City, in the State of São Paulo, participated in training for learning of electronic games. Participants were divided into two groups: training group (TG n=102 and control group (CG n=22. Protocol: a sociodemographic questionnaire, the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE, the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination Revised (ACE-R, the Memory Complaint Questionnaire (MAC-Q, the scale of frequency of forgetfulness, the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15, the Geriatric Anxiety Inventory (GAI, the Global Satisfaction with Life Scale, and two scales on learning in the training. Results: The cognitive performance of the TG improved significantly after the program, particularly in the domains of language and memory, and there was a decrease on the anxiety index and frequency of memory complaints, when compared to the CG. Conclusion: These findings suggest that the acquisition of new knowledge and the use of new stimuli, such as electronic games, can promote improvements in cognition and mood and reduce the frequency of memory complaints.

  2. Development of a Healthy Dietary Habits Index for New Zealand Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Jyh Eiin; Haszard, Jillian J; Howe, Anna S; Parnell, Winsome R; Skidmore, Paula M L

    2017-05-03

    Healthful dietary habits are individually associated with better nutrient intake and positive health outcomes; however, this information is rarely examined together to validate an indicator of diet quality. This study developed a 15-item Healthy Dietary Habits Index (HDHI) based on self-reported dietary habits information collected in the 2008/09 New Zealand Adult Nutrition Survey. The validity of HDHI as a diet quality index was examined in relation to sociodemographic factors, 24-diet recall derived nutrient intakes, and nutritional biomarkers in a representative sample of adults aged 19 years and above. Linear regression models were employed to determine associations between HDHI quintiles and energy-adjusted nutrient data and nutritional biomarkers. Significantly higher HDHI scores were found among women, older age groups, Non-Māori or Pacific ethnic groups, and less socioeconomically-deprived groups (all p < 0.001). Increasing quintiles of HDHI were associated with higher intakes of dietary fibre and seven micronutrients including calcium, iron, and vitamin C, and lower intakes of energy, macronutrients, sodium, zinc, vitamins B6 and B12. Associations in the expected directions were also found for urinary sodium, whole blood folate, serum and red blood cell folate, and plasma selenium (all p < 0.001). The present findings suggest that the HDHI is a valid measure of diet quality as it is capable of discerning quality of diets of subgroups and ranking nutrient intakes among NZ adults.

  3. Exergames for unsupervised balance training at home: A pilot study in healthy older adults.

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    van Diest, M; Stegenga, J; Wörtche, H J; Verkerke, G J; Postema, K; Lamoth, C J C

    2016-02-01

    Exercise videogames (exergames) are gaining popularity as tools for improving balance ability in older adults, yet few exergames are suitable for home-based use. The purpose of the current pilot study was to examine the effects of a 6-week unsupervised home-based exergaming training program on balance performance. Ten community dwelling healthy older adults (age: 75.9 ± 7.2 years) played a newly developed ice skating exergame for six weeks at home. In the game, the speed and direction of a virtual ice skater on a frozen canal were controlled using lateral weight shifts, which were captured using Kinect. Sway characteristics during quiet standing in eyes open (EO), eyes closed (EC) and dual task (DT) conditions were assessed in time and frequency domain before, and after two, four and six weeks of training. Balance was also evaluated using the narrow ridge balance test (NRBT). Multilevel modeling was applied to examine changes in balance ability. Participants played 631 (± 124)min over the intervention period and no subjects dropped out. Balance in terms of sway characteristics improved on average by 17.4% (EO) and 23.3% (EC) after six weeks of training (polder adults, but also that participants do not benefit equally from the program, thereby emphasizing the need for more personalized exergame training programs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Rural Hispanic populations at risk in developing diabetes: sociocultural and familial challenges in promoting a healthy diet.

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    Heuman, Amy N; Scholl, Juliann C; Wilkinson, Kenton

    2013-01-01

    Type II diabetes affects Hispanic populations disproportionately and is the fifth leading cause of death for Hispanic people in the United States ( Smith & Barnett, 2005 ). Risk of diabetes is of great concern throughout the United States and is clearly of epidemic proportions for regions such as the Southwest and Texas where the primary minority populations are Mexican American. We conducted four focus groups with a total of 49 Hispanic participants (23 adults and 26 adolescents) from rural West Texas communities to gain insights about participants' eating habits, knowledge of diabetes, and potential barriers to preventive care. From the data, we identified a three-tiered predisposition or vulnerability to diabetes-heredity; preferences for unhealthy, culturally based food; and temptations from U.S. mainstream fast food culture. These vulnerabilities added to the sociocultural concerns that participants identified-importance of parental and familial modeling; challenges to healthy eating based on a culturally based diet and mainstream fast food culture; and a lack of support from the larger sociocultural networks such as teachers, community leaders, and the media. From these data, we have a better understanding of familial and sociocultural factors that need to be addressed in the development of preventive public awareness and educational plans. We outline implications for practitioners and educators from an integrated cultural biomedical approach.

  5. Nasal carriage of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus among healthy population of Kashmir, India

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    B A Fomda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nasal colonisation with community acquired methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA is being increasingly reported, especially in places where people are in close contact and where hygiene is compromised. The aim of this study was to find out prevalence of methicillin resistant S.aureus (MRSA colonising anterior nares of healthy subjects. Materials and Methods: Nasal swabs of healthy subjects were collected aseptically and cultured using standard microbiological protocols. Antibiotic susceptibility was done by Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method according to CLSI guidelines. Methicillin resistance was detected by cefoxitin disc diffusion method and confirmed by minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and amplification of mecA gene by PCR. Strain typing of MRSA strains was done by PFGE. Results: Out of 820 samples, S.aureus was isolated from 229 (27.92% subjects. Of the 229 isolates, 15 were methicillin resistant. All S. aureus isolates were susceptible to vancomycin. Nasal carriage of MRSA was found to be 1.83% among healthy population. The isolates were found to be polyclonal by PFGE analysis. Conclusion: High prevalence of MRSA is a cause of concern and strategies to interrupt transmission should be implemented.

  6. Agrofood chain analysis: production, commercialisation and consumption of healthy food for population at risk of poverty in Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Ruggeri, Arianna

    2013-01-01

    Italy registers a fast increase of low income population. Academics and policy makers consider income inequalities as a key determinant for low or inadequate healthy food consumption. Thus the objective is to understand how to overcome the agrofood chain barriers towards healthy food production, commercialisation and consumption for population at risk of poverty (ROP) in Italy. The study adopts a market oriented food chain approach, focusing the research ambit on ROP consumers, processi...

  7. Influence of passive leg movements on blood circulation on the tilt table in healthy adults

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    Czell David

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One problem in the mobilization of patients with neurological diseases, such as spinal cord injury, is the circulatory collapse that occurs while changing from supine to vertical position because of the missing venous pump due to paralyzed leg muscles. Therefore, a tilt table with integrated stepping device (tilt stepper was developed, which allows passive stepping movements for performing locomotion training in an early state of rehabilitation. The aim of this pilot study was to investigate if passive stepping and cycling movements of the legs during tilt table training could stabilize blood circulation and prevent neurally-mediated syncope in healthy young adults. Methods In the first experiment, healthy subjects were tested on a traditional tilt table. Subjects who had a syncope or near-syncope in this condition underwent a second trial on the tilt stepper. In the second experiment, a group of healthy subjects was investigated on a traditional tilt table, the second group on the tilt ergometer, a device that allows cycling movements during tilt table training. We used the chi-square test to compare the occurrence of near-syncope/syncope in both groups (tilt table/tilt stepper and tilt table/tilt ergometer and ANOVA to compare the blood pressure and heart rate between the groups at the four time intervals (supine, at 2 minutes, at 6 minutes and end of head-up tilt. Results Separate chi-square tests performed for each experiment showed significant differences in the occurrence of near syncope or syncope based on the device used. Comparison of the two groups (tilt stepper/ tilt table in experiment one (ANOVA showed that blood pressure was significantly higher at the end of head-up tilt on the tilt stepper and on the tilt table there was a greater increase in heart rate (2 minutes after head-up tilt. Comparison of the two groups (tilt ergometer/tilt table in experiment 2 (ANOVA showed that blood pressure was significantly

  8. DHA supplementation improved both memory and reaction time in healthy young adults: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stonehouse, Welma; Conlon, Cathryn A; Podd, John; Hill, Stephen R; Minihane, Anne M; Haskell, Crystal; Kennedy, David

    2013-05-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is important for brain function, and its status is dependent on dietary intakes. Therefore, individuals who consume diets low in omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids may cognitively benefit from DHA supplementation. Sex and apolipoprotein E genotype (APOE) affect cognition and may modulate the response to DHA supplementation. We investigated whether a DHA supplement improves cognitive performance in <