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Sample records for healthy adolescents electronic

  1. Comparison of resilience in adolescent survivors of brain tumors and healthy adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chin-Mi; Chen, Yueh-Chih; Wong, Tai-Tong

    2014-01-01

    Resilience is essential for the psychological adjustment of adolescents experiencing difficulty. Comparing differences in resilience between adolescent survivors of brain tumors and healthy adolescents may help identify factors related to resilience in adolescents. The purpose of this study was to clarify how illness impacts the normative development of adolescent survivors of brain tumors by comparing them to healthy adolescents in terms of resilience and how it is affected by various health problems. This cross-sectional, case-control study used convenience sampling to recruit 13- to 18-year-old adolescent survivors of brain tumors and healthy adolescents matched by school level, gender, and living area. Data were collected by structured questionnaires. The sample included 60 adolescent survivors and 120 healthy adolescents. Participants in both groups were predominantly male adolescents (63.3%) and junior high school students (55%). The 2 groups did not differ significantly in resilience, but survivors without emotional problems had a higher mean resilience score than did healthy adolescents and survivors with emotional problems (F = 8.65, P adolescent survivors of brain tumors and healthy adolescents. In addition, the impact of emotional problems on resilience was more severe in brain tumor survivors than in healthy adolescents. Our results suggest that pediatric oncology nurses design interdisciplinary school-based interventions to reduce the impact of emotional problems on resilience in both healthy adolescents and those who survived brain tumors.

  2. Perception of adolescents on healthy eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Dayanne Caroline de Assis; Frazão, Iracema da Silva; Osório, Mônica Maria; Vasconcelos, Maria Gorete Lucena de

    2015-11-01

    The objective in this article is to analyze how adolescents at a school in the interior of the State of Pernambuco, Brazil, perceive healthy eating. A descriptive and exploratory study was undertaken, based on the qualitative method. Forty adolescents between 10 and 14 years of age were investigated, using a semistructured interview. The interviews were analyzed using the software Alceste, which evidenced two thematic axes: Eating practices, divided in two classes (routine eating diary and Eating at weekends); and Education practices, consisting of four classes (Factors interfering in and facilitating the maintenance of healthy eating, Role of the school in the education process for healthy eating, Knowledge on healthy eating, The family and the promotion of healthy eating). Although the interviewed adolescents are familiar with healthy eating, they do not always put it in practice, due to the multiple factors that interfere in their preferred diet. The school and the family play a fundamental role in encouraging healthy eating. The school needs to accomplish eating education practices that encourage the consumption of locally produced foods.

  3. Adolescents' Perceptions of Healthy Eating and Communication about Healthy Eating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kara; Prendergast, Gerard; Gronhoj, Alice; Bech-Larsen, Tino

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore Chinese adolescents' perceptions of healthy eating, their perceptions of various socializing agents shaping their eating habits, and their opinions about various regulatory measures which might be imposed to encourage healthy eating. Design/methodology/approach: Four focus group interview sessions…

  4. Sleep in Healthy Black and White Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Matthews, Karen A.; Hall, Martica; Dahl, Ronald E.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Inadequate sleep among adolescents has negative consequences for self-regulation, emotional well-being, and risk behaviors. Using multiple assessment methods, we evaluated the adequacy of sleep among healthy adolescents from a lower socioeconomic community and expected differences by race. METHODS: A total of 250 healthy high school students enrolled in public school (mean age: 15.7 years; 57% black, 54% female) from families of low to middle class according to the ...

  5. Sexual learning, sexual experience, and healthy adolescent sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortenberry, J Dennis

    2014-01-01

    This chapter is organized around the question "How do adolescents learn to have healthy sex?" The chapter assumes that sexual learning derives from a broad range of both informal and formal sources that contribute to learning within the context of neurocognitive brain systems that modulate sexual motivations and self-regulation. The overall objective is to consider how adolescents become sexually functional and healthy and to provide a conceptual basis for expansion of sexual learning to better support healthy sexual functioning. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. ERICA: prevalence of healthy eating habits among Brazilian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barufaldi, Laura Augusta; Abreu, Gabriela de Azevedo; Oliveira, Juliana Souza; dos Santos, Debora França; Fujimori, Elizabeth; Vasconcelos, Sandra Mary Lima; de Vasconcelos, Francisco de Assis Guedes; Tavares, Bruno Mendes

    2016-02-01

    OBJECTIVE To describe the prevalence of eating habits considered healthy in adolescents according to sex, age, education level of the mother, school type, session of study, and geographic region. METHODS The assessed data come from the Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA), a cross-sectional, national and school-based study. Adolescents of 1,247 schools of 124 Brazilian municipalities were evaluated using a self-administered questionnaire with a section on aspects related to eating behaviors. The following eating behaviors were considered healthy: consuming breakfast, drinking water, and having meals accompanied by parents or legal guardians. All prevalence estimates were presented proportionally, with their respective 95% confidence intervals. The Chi-square test was used to evaluate the differences in healthy eating habits prevalences according to other variables. The module survey of the Stata program version 13.0 was used to analyze complex data. RESULTS We evaluated 74,589 adolescents (72.9% of the eligible students). Of these, 55.2% were female, average age being 14.6 years (SD = 1.6). Among Brazilian adolescents, approximately half of them showed healthy eating habits when consuming breakfast, drinking five or more glasses of water a day, and having meals with parents or legal guardians. All analyzed healthy eating habits showed statistically significant differences by sex, age, type of school, session of study, or geographic region . CONCLUSIONS We suggest that specific actions of intersectoral approach are implemented for the dissemination of the benefits of healthy eating habits. Older female adolescents (15 to 17 years old) who studied in public schools, resided in the Southeast region, and whose mothers had lower education levels, should be the focus of these actions since they present lower frequencies concerning the evaluated healthy habits.

  7. Technology-based intervention for healthy lifestyle promotion in Italian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraticelli, Federica; Marchetti, Daniela; Polcini, Francesco; Mohn, Angelika Anna; Chiarelli, Francesco; Fulcheri, Mario; Vitacolonna, Ester

    2016-01-01

    Healthy lifestyle promotion programs are essential to prevent metabolic diseases such as obesity and diabetes. Adolescents could represent the ideal target population especially using serious web games. To test the improvement of knowledge about healthy nutrition in adolescents and to analyze participants' enjoyment in playing the web game "Gustavo in Gnam's Planet" in comparison with a leisure web game. Sixty-five adolescents were engaged in three supervised group sessions. Measures about healthy food knowledge and games' enjoyment were collected during the three stages of assessment. After playing Gustavo in Gnam's Planet, participants significantly improved their knowledge on a healthy diet, compared to the recreational web games; whereas the level of fun experienced while playing the recreational and the educational games was not significantly different. Gustavo in Gnam's Planet is an important promising tool, with entertainment property, to promote a healthy lifestyle in Italian adolescents.

  8. Following family or friends. Social norms in adolescent healthy eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Susanne; Grønhøj, Alice; Thøgersen, John

    2015-03-01

    It is commonly believed that during adolescence children become increasingly influenced by peers at the expense of parents. To test the strength of this tendency with regards to healthy eating (fruit and vegetable intake), a survey was completed by 757 adolescent-parent dyads. Our theoretical framework builds on social cognitive theory and the focus theory of normative conduct, and data are analysed by means of confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modelling. The study reveals that when it comes to adolescents' fruit and vegetable intake, parents remain the main influencer, with what they do (descriptive norms) being more important than what they say (injunctive norms). The study contributes to a more comprehensive understanding of what influences adolescent healthy eating, including the social influence of parents and friends, while also taking adolescent self-efficacy and outcome expectations into account. No previous studies have included all these factors in the same analysis. The study has a number of important implications: (1) healthy eating interventions should aim at strengthening self-efficacy and positive outcome expectations among adolescents, (2) the family context should be included when implementing healthy eating interventions and (3) parents' awareness of their influence on their children's healthy eating should be reinforced. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Pattern recognition and functional neuroimaging help to discriminate healthy adolescents at risk for mood disorders from low risk adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourão-Miranda, Janaina; Oliveira, Leticia; Ladouceur, Cecile D; Marquand, Andre; Brammer, Michael; Birmaher, Boris; Axelson, David; Phillips, Mary L

    2012-01-01

    There are no known biological measures that accurately predict future development of psychiatric disorders in individual at-risk adolescents. We investigated whether machine learning and fMRI could help to: 1. differentiate healthy adolescents genetically at-risk for bipolar disorder and other Axis I psychiatric disorders from healthy adolescents at low risk of developing these disorders; 2. identify those healthy genetically at-risk adolescents who were most likely to develop future Axis I disorders. 16 healthy offspring genetically at risk for bipolar disorder and other Axis I disorders by virtue of having a parent with bipolar disorder and 16 healthy, age- and gender-matched low-risk offspring of healthy parents with no history of psychiatric disorders (12-17 year-olds) performed two emotional face gender-labeling tasks (happy/neutral; fearful/neutral) during fMRI. We used Gaussian Process Classifiers (GPC), a machine learning approach that assigns a predictive probability of group membership to an individual person, to differentiate groups and to identify those at-risk adolescents most likely to develop future Axis I disorders. Using GPC, activity to neutral faces presented during the happy experiment accurately and significantly differentiated groups, achieving 75% accuracy (sensitivity = 75%, specificity = 75%). Furthermore, predictive probabilities were significantly higher for those at-risk adolescents who subsequently developed an Axis I disorder than for those at-risk adolescents remaining healthy at follow-up. We show that a combination of two promising techniques, machine learning and neuroimaging, not only discriminates healthy low-risk from healthy adolescents genetically at-risk for Axis I disorders, but may ultimately help to predict which at-risk adolescents subsequently develop these disorders.

  10. Spreading of healthy mood in adolescent social networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, E M; Griffiths, F E; House, T

    2015-08-22

    Depression is a major public health concern worldwide. There is evidence that social support and befriending influence mental health, and an improved understanding of the social processes that drive depression has the potential to bring significant public health benefits. We investigate transmission of mood on a social network of adolescents, allowing flexibility in our model by making no prior assumption as to whether it is low mood or healthy mood that spreads. Here, we show that while depression does not spread, healthy mood among friends is associated with significantly reduced risk of developing and increased chance of recovering from depression. We found that this spreading of healthy mood can be captured using a non-linear complex contagion model. Having sufficient friends with healthy mood can halve the probability of developing, or double the probability of recovering from, depression over a 6-12-month period on an adolescent social network. Our results suggest that promotion of friendship between adolescents can reduce both incidence and prevalence of depression. © 2015 The Authors.

  11. Eating behavior: do adolescents with diabetes eat differently compared to healthy adolescent?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beaufort, C d; Damsgaard, M T; Ahluwalia, N

    2010-01-01

    aspects of health of adolescents world wide since 1983. As the diet is one of the corner stones of the treatment of diabetes, the Hvidoere study group has investigated whether eating habits in adolescents with type 1 diabetes (T1DM) differ from their healthy peers, in using the same questions as developed......Objective: Comparison between eating habits of 11 and 15 years healthy adolescents and adolescents with type 1 diabetes in 18 countries worldwide. The Health Behaviour in School-age children (HBSC) study, a WHO collaborative cross-national study, (www.HBSC.org) has started to evaluate different...... by the HBSC study. Methodology: Questionnaires were obtained in 18 countries by both HBSC and HSG. Details on data collection for both groups have been reported previously (1, 2). Results are given in age standardized prevalences (percentages) by study and by sex as well as age adjusted odds ratios between...

  12. Defining and understanding healthy lifestyles choices for adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ka; Kramer, Ellen; Houser, Robert F; Chomitz, Virginia R; Hacker, Karen A

    2004-07-01

    To: (a) establish criteria for defining positive health behaviors and lifestyle; and (b) identify characteristics of adolescents who practice a healthy lifestyle. Responses from a 1998 survey via questionnaire, of 1487 students, from a public high school, Cambridge, Massachusetts, were used to assess correlates of healthy lifestyle choices. Strict and broad assessments of healthy behaviors were defined for students: use of alcohol, tobacco, and illegal drugs; sexual behavior; attempted suicide. Whereas the "strict" criteria included only those adolescents who did not practice any of the behaviors in question, the broad criteria reflected experimentation and moderate risk-taking. The prevalence of positive behaviors was assessed by demographic and student characteristics. In addition, logistic regression models were created to predict determinants of teenagers' healthy lifestyles using both strict and broad definitions. Using strict criteria of healthy lifestyle, significant predictors were being female, born outside the United States, higher academic performance, and fewer stressful life events. Using a broad definition of a healthy lifestyle, significant predictors were being non-Caucasian, in the lower grade levels at the school, higher academic performance, and fewer stressful life events. In both models, peers' approval of risky behaviors negatively influenced teens' lifestyles, whereas parents' disapproval of risky behaviors was a positive influence. These results reinforce the importance of school, peer, and parent support of positive behaviors. It is important for public health workers and families to understand and define healthy lifestyles choices for adolescents.

  13. Spiritual and religious experiences of adolescent psychiatric inpatients versus healthy peers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossoehme, Daniel H; Cotton, Sian; Leonard, Anthony

    2007-01-01

    One hundred twenty-two adolescent psychiatric inpatients with depressive disorders and 80 healthy peers were administered the INSPIRIT, a measure of core spiritual experiences. Healthy adolescents reported a greater frequency of spiritual experiences and a more positive impact of such experiences on their belief in God than did their inpatient peers. Adolescent inpatients reported higher frequencies of experiencing angels, demons, God or guiding spirits; feeling unity with the earth and other living things; and with near death or life after death as compared to healthy peers. Overall, females reported higher frequency of spiritual experiences and higher impact of the experience on their belief in God than did males. It was concluded that the INSPIRIT is a feasible spiritual assessment tool for adolescent populations and may be used by chaplains as a means for guiding clinical conversations with adolescents.

  14. Following family or friends: Social norms in adolescent healthy eating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Susanne; Grønhøj, Alice; Thøgersen, John

    2015-01-01

    It is commonly believed that during adolescence children become increasingly influenced by peers at the expense of parents. To test the strength of this tendency with regards to healthy eating (fruit and vegetable intake), a survey was completed by 757 adolescent-parent dyads. Our theoretical...... framework builds on social cognitive theory and the focus theory of normative conduct, and data are analysed by means of confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modelling. The study reveals that when it comes to adolescents' fruit and vegetable intake, parents remain the main influencer......, with what they do (descriptive norms) being more important than what they say (injunctive norms). The study contributes to a more comprehensive understanding of what influences adolescent healthy eating, including the social influence of parents and friends, while also taking adolescent self...

  15. Perceptions of healthy eating amongst Indian adolescents in India and Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, Natasha; Rajaraman, Divya; Swaminathan, Sumathi; Vaz, Mario; Jayachitra, K G; Lear, Scott A; Punthakee, Zubin

    2017-09-01

    Dietary patterns have contributed to the rising prevalence of overweight and obesity among Indian adolescents. Yet there are limited studies on their perspectives on healthy eating. The purpose of this study was to understand perceptions and attitudes of Indian-origin adolescents in India and Canada that may contribute to healthy eating behaviour. Qualitative data collection and analysis of 13 focus group discussions (FGD) was conducted among 34 boys and 39 girls (total number of participants: 73) of different weight and socioeconomic status (SES) in rural and urban India, and urban Canada aged 11-18 years. All adolescents perceived homemade foods, and foods high in vitamins, minerals and fiber as healthy. Rural Indian adolescents also identified contaminant-free food as important. Opinions differed regarding the health value of consuming meat, and amongst Canadian adolescents, the health impact of Western versus Indian diets. Identified benefits of healthy eating included improved energy for Indians, and disease prevention for Canadians and urban Indians. Identified barriers across all settings included peers; and availability, access and affordability of unhealthy foods. Urban Indians and Canadian girls also reported academic stress and lack of time as barriers. Canadian girls reported limited parental supervision during mealtimes as an additional barrier. Facilitators to healthy eating included parents, friends and personal preferences for healthy foods. This study suggests potential targets for family-based and school-based education programs and policies to improve dietary habits of Indian and Indo-Canadian adolescents which include, culturally focused nutrition education and guidelines, academic stress management strategies, parental education, food hygiene regulations and restriction on the sale and advertising of unhealthy foods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Sexuality and reproduction: implications in the process of healthy adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelita Campos Araújo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to understand the perceptions of adolescents about their process of healthy adolescence with regard to sexuality and reproduction. This is a qualitative research of exploratory type, involving 10 teenagers, in a state school in southern Rio Grande do Sul, between August and October 2007. To collect the data, were used semi-structured interviews, whose contents were subjected to thematic analysis, emerging the theme: sexuality and reproduction in adolescence. At the data, it was noticed the need to provide more guidelines to a healthy adolescence, in the sense of strengthening and promoting the necessary security for the exercise of adolescent sexuality and reproduction. It also showed the need to prepare the adolescent by professionals of health, of education or the family, to face some situations, such as: unwanted pregnancy, first sexual intercourse, self-medication, fear of talking to parents about sexuality and reproduction, among others.

  17. Adolescents' perceptions of healthy eating and communication about healthy eating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chan, Kara; Prendergast, Gerard; Grønhøj, Alice

    2009-01-01

    /methodology/approach - Four focus group interview sessions were conducted with 22 eighth and ninth grade adolescents (aged 13 to 15) in Hong Kong. Findings - The participants perceived a balanced diet and regular meal times as the most important attributes of healthy eating. Participants were most likely to eat unhealthy...

  18. [On motivations of adolescents to promote a healthy lifestyle].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bal, L V; Mikhailov, A N; Gundarov, I A

    2014-01-01

    There was studied the motivation of modern adolescents to promote healthy lifestyle. There were observed two arrays, including adolescent-schoolchildren aged 16-17 and 13-14 years in Moscow. The results showed that health occupied one of the first places among the positive motivations, being stable dominant in the period of 13-17 years. The real motivation for a healthy lifestyle coincides with the perspective and informed choice coincides with the life goals. In this, almost all of the identified negative motivation are "manageable", available to be modified or eliminated.

  19. Motivation and perceived competence for healthy eating and exercise among overweight/obese adolescents in comparison to normal weight adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Mokhtari, Suzanne; Grace, Benjamin; Pak, Youngju; Reina, Astrid; Durand, Quinn; Yee, Jennifer K.

    2017-01-01

    Background The current literature on determinants of behavior change in weight management lacks sufficient studies on type of motivation among children/adolescents, on perceived competence, and in relation to healthy eating. This study aimed to investigate type of motivation and levels of perceived competence for healthy diet and exercise, as well as general self efficacy among adolescents. We hypothesized that overweight/obese adolescents would demonstrate lower autonomous motivation and per...

  20. Dietary restraint and impulsivity modulate neural responses to food in adolescents with obesity and healthy adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Johannes; Ardelt-Gattinger, Elisabeth; Paulmichl, Katharina; Weghuber, Daniel; Blechert, Jens

    2015-11-01

    Despite alarming prevalence rates, surprisingly little is known about neural mechanisms underlying eating behavior in juveniles with obesity. To simulate reactivity to modern food environments, event-related potentials (ERP) to appetizing food images (relative to control images) were recorded in adolescents with obesity and healthy adolescents. Thirty-four adolescents with obesity (patients) and 24 matched healthy control adolescents watched and rated standardized food and object images during ERP recording. Personality (impulsivity) and eating styles (trait craving and dietary restraint) were assessed as potential moderators. Food relative to object images triggered larger early (P100) and late (P300) ERPs. More impulsive individuals had considerably larger food-specific P100 amplitudes in both groups. Controls with higher restraint scores showed reduced food-specific P300 amplitudes and subjective palatability ratings whereas patients with higher restraint scores showed increased P300 and palatability ratings. This first ERP study in adolescents with obesity and controls revealed impulsivity as a general risk factor in the current obesogenic environment by increasing food-cue salience. Dietary restraint showed paradoxical effects in patients, making them more vulnerable to visual food-cues. Salutogenic therapeutic approaches that deemphasize strict dietary restraint and foster healthy food choice might reduce such paradoxical effects. © 2015 The Obesity Society.

  1. A review of the Child and Adolescent Social Support Scale for Healthy Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullum, Kristiana G H; Mayo, Ann M

    2015-01-01

    Assessing an instrument's psychometric properties to determine appropriateness for use can be a challenging process. Dissecting the statistical terminology may be even more perplexing. There are several instruments that evaluate adolescents' perceived social support, but a fairly new instrument related to this construct assesses not only the availability of social support but also support for healthy behaviors in this population. The Child and Adolescent Social Support Scale for Healthy Behaviors, first published in 2013, demonstrates adequate initial reliability and validity. The purpose of this article is to review the psychometric properties of the Child and Adolescent Social Support Scale for Healthy Behaviors and potential uses of the instrument.

  2. Breastfeeding in infancy is not associated with inflammatory status in healthy adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vérier, Caroline M P; Duhamel, Alain; Béghin, Laurent; Diaz, Ligia-Esperanza; Warnberg, Julia; Marcos, Ascensión; Gómez-Martínez, Sonia; Manios, Yannis; De Henauw, Stefaan; Sjöström, Michael; Moreno, Luis A; Kersting, Mathilde; Breidenassel, Christina; Molnar, Dènes; Artero, Enrique G; Ferrari, Marika; Widhalm, Kurt; Turck, Dominique; Gottrand, Frédéric

    2011-03-01

    It has been suggested that breast-feeding (BF) may be associated with a decreased risk of cardiovascular disease in adulthood. A low-grade inflammation is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, even in apparently healthy children. The objective of this study was to assess the potential modulating effect of BF on the inflammatory status of healthy adolescents. Information on BF (duration) was obtained from parental records in 484 of 1040 healthy European urban adolescents (56.4% females) that had a blood sample obtained as part of the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition and Adolescence study. Blood serum inflammatory markers were measured, including high sensitivity C-reactive protein, complement factors 3 and 4, ceruloplasmin, adhesion molecules (L-selectin and soluble endothelial selectin, soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule 1, and intercellular adhesion molecule 1), cytokines, TGFβ1, and white blood cells. After univariate analysis, a propensity score, including the potential confounding factors, was computed and used to assess the association between BF and selected inflammatory markers. BF was not significantly associated with any of the selected inflammatory markers after adjustment for gender and propensity score. In our study, BF was not associated with low-grade inflammatory status in healthy adolescents, suggesting that the potential cardiovascular benefits of BF are related to other mechanisms than modulation of inflammation or might become relevant at a later age. Groups at high risk for cardiovascular disease should be a target for further research concerning the effects of BF.

  3. Motivation and perceived competence for healthy eating and exercise among overweight/obese adolescents in comparison to normal weight adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtari, Suzanne; Grace, Benjamin; Pak, Youngju; Reina, Astrid; Durand, Quinn; Yee, Jennifer K

    2017-01-01

    The current literature on determinants of behavior change in weight management lacks sufficient studies on type of motivation among children/adolescents, on perceived competence, and in relation to healthy eating. This study aimed to investigate type of motivation and levels of perceived competence for healthy diet and exercise, as well as general self efficacy among adolescents. We hypothesized that overweight/obese adolescents would demonstrate lower autonomous motivation and perceived competence regarding diet and exercise, and lower self-efficacy in general, and that the scores would be influenced by socioeconomic factors. Normal weight ( n  = 40, body mass index Competence Scale (PCS) for healthy eating and exercise, and the General Self-Efficacy Scale (GSES). Composite scores for the three scales were compared between the two groups using the using the two-sample t-test (for normal data) or the Mann-Whitney U test (for non-parametric data). Relationships between the composite scores and patient characteristics were determined using Pearson or Spearman's correlations. The average age of the total cohort was 15.9 ± 1.9 years. 54% were female, and 82% identified as Latino/Hispanic. In comparison to normal weight subjects, overweight/obese adolescents exhibited higher scores for controlled motivation (mean ± standard deviation 28.3 ± 9.3 vs 18.1 ± 8.1) and higher perceived competence [median and 25-75% interquartile range 22.5 (19.0-26.0) vs 20.0 (15.5-25.0)] in relation to eating a healthy diet. These differences persisted after adjustment for age, sex, paternal education, and family income. Overweight/obese adolescents did not lack autonomous motivation but demonstrated higher controlled motivation and perceived competence for healthy eating in comparison to normal weight adolescents, independent of socioeconomic factors. In the clinical practice of weight management, providers should carefully assess adolescents for type of

  4. Healthy or Unhealthy Lifestyle: A Thematic Analysis of Iranian Male Adolescents? Perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Zareiyan, Armin

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Identifying what adolescents perceive as their lifestyle and exploring the factors persuading their decisions to engage in or avoid healthy or unhealthy lifestyle behaviors could improve the ability of healthcare professionals to develop innovative preventive strategies and modify negative health behaviors in adolescents. Hence, the literature on adolescent health-related issues reported by adults showed a rarity of information from adolescents themselves. Materials and Methods:...

  5. Nutritional knowledge in European adolescents : results from the HELENA (Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence) study

    OpenAIRE

    Hallström, Lena; Sichert-Hellert, Wolfgang; Beghin, Laurent; De Henauw, Stefaan; GRAMMATIKAKI, Eva; Manios, Yannis; Mesana, Maribella; Molnar, Dénes; Dietrich, Sabina; PICCINELLI, Raffaela; Plada, Maria; Sjöström, Michael; Moreno, Luis; Kersting, Mathilde

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To build up sufficient knowledge of a ‘healthy diet’. Here, we report on the assessment of nutritional knowledge using a uniform method in a large sample of adolescents across Europe. Design: A cross-sectional study. Setting: The European multicentre HELENA (Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence) study conducted in 2006–2007 in ten cities in Austria, Belgium, France, Germany, Greece (one inland and one island city), Hungary, Italy, Spain and Sweden. Subjects: A to...

  6. Dietary sodium, adiposity, and inflammation in healthy adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Haidong; Pollock, Norman K; Kotak, Ishita; Gutin, Bernard; Wang, Xiaoling; Bhagatwala, Jigar; Parikh, Samip; Harshfield, Gregory A; Dong, Yanbin

    2014-03-01

    To determine the relationships of sodium intake with adiposity and inflammation in healthy adolescents. A cross-sectional study involved 766 healthy white and African American adolescents aged 14 to 18 years. Dietary sodium intake was estimated by 7-day 24-hour dietary recall. Percent body fat was measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue and visceral adipose tissue were assessed using magnetic resonance imaging. Fasting blood samples were measured for leptin, adiponectin, C-reactive protein, tumor necrosis factor-α, and intercellular adhesion molecule-1. The average sodium intake was 3280 mg/day. Ninety-seven percent of our adolescents exceeded the American Heart Association recommendation for sodium intake. Multiple linear regressions revealed that dietary sodium intake was independently associated with body weight (β = 0.23), BMI (β = 0.23), waist circumference (β = 0.23), percent body fat (β = 0.17), fat mass (β = 0.23), subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (β = 0.25), leptin (β = 0.20), and tumor necrosis factor-α (β = 0.61; all Ps sodium intake and visceral adipose tissue, skinfold thickness, adiponectin, C-reactive protein, or intercellular adhesion molecule-1. All the significant associations persisted after correction for multiple testing (all false discovery rates sodium consumption of our adolescents is as high as that of adults and more than twice the daily intake recommended by the American Heart Association. High sodium intake is positively associated with adiposity and inflammation independent of total energy intake and sugar-sweetened soft drink consumption.

  7. Combined influence of healthy diet and active lifestyle on cardiovascular disease risk factors in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuenca-García, M; Ortega, F B; Ruiz, J R; González-Gross, M; Labayen, I; Jago, R; Martínez-Gómez, D; Dallongeville, J; Bel-Serrat, S; Marcos, A; Manios, Y; Breidenassel, C; Widhalm, K; Gottrand, F; Ferrari, M; Kafatos, A; Molnár, D; Moreno, L A; De Henauw, S; Castillo, M J; Sjöström, M

    2014-06-01

    To investigate the combined influence of diet quality and physical activity on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in adolescents, adolescents (n = 1513; 12.5-17.5 years) participating in the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence study were studied. Dietary intake was registered using a 24-h recall and a diet quality index was calculated. Physical activity was assessed by accelerometry. Lifestyle groups were computed as: healthy diet and active, unhealthy diet but active, healthy diet but inactive, and unhealthy diet and inactive. CVD risk factor measurements included cardiorespiratory fitness, adiposity indicators, blood lipid profile, blood pressure, and insulin resistance. A CVD risk score was computed. The healthy diet and active group had a healthier cardiorespiratory profile, fat mass index (FMI), triglycerides, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels and total cholesterol (TC)/HDL-C ratio (all P ≤ 0.05). Overall, active adolescents showed higher cardiorespiratory fitness, lower FMI, TC/HDL-C ratio, and homeostasis model assessment index and healthier blood pressure than their inactive peers with either healthy or unhealthy diet (all P ≤ 0.05). Healthy diet and active group had healthier CVD risk score compared with the inactive groups (all P ≤ 0.02). Thus, a combination of healthy diet and active lifestyle is associated with decreased CVD risk in adolescents. Moreover, an active lifestyle may reduce the adverse consequences of an unhealthy diet. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Should different marketing communication strategies be used to promote healthy eating among male and female adolescents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kara; Ng, Yu-Leung; Prendergast, Gerard

    2014-01-01

    A study was conducted to examine how interpersonal norms, media norms, attitudes, perceived behavioral control, perceived barriers, and self-efficacy had an influence on healthy eating intention among adolescents. A probability sample of 544 adolescents aged 12 to 18 was conducted. Results indicated that girls had a more favorable attitude and intention toward healthy eating than boys. Healthy eating intention among boys was predicted by attitude, perceived behavioral control, perceived barriers, and self-efficacy, and among girls was predicted by perceived behavioral control and self-efficacy. Different marketing strategies to promote healthy eating among adolescent boys and girls should be adopted.

  9. Do Adolescents Prefer Electronic Books to Paper Books?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret K. Merga

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available While electronic books offer a range of benefits and may be supposed to be more appealing to young people than paper books, this assumption is often treated as fact by educational researchers. Understanding adolescents’ true current preferences is essential, as incorrect assumptions can lead to decisions which restrict adolescent access to their preferred book mode. The belief that adolescents prefer electronic books to paper books has already led to some school libraries being expunged of paper books. As adolescents show a higher level of aliteracy than younger children, and regular reading offers a broad range of benefits for young people, it is imperative that school’s decisions around providing access to books are responsive to adolescent students’ genuine preferences. This paper analyses the current and relevant academic research around adolescent preferences for book modes, finding that, at present, the contention that adolescents prefer electronic books is not supported by the available research. In addition, there are a number of issues identified that make analyzing the findings in this area problematic. Future studies in this area are needed before an adolescent preference for electronic books can be unequivocally substantiated.

  10. Pregnant Adolescents, Beliefs About Healthy Eating, Factors that Influence Food Choices, and Nutrition Education Preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Nancy J

    2015-01-01

    Healthy eating among pregnant adolescents is essential for the well-being of developing adolescent females and their fetuses, as well as for the prevention of adult chronic illness. Understanding factors that influence and prohibit healthy eating, along with preferences for nutrition education in the pregnant adolescent population, is critical when designing and implementing appropriate nutrition education programs. The purpose of this study was to collect individual viewpoints of pregnant adolescents to facilitate the development of a nutrition intervention. This qualitative study using focus group methodology was conducted among pregnant adolescents. Participants (N = 14) were recruited through and teen parenting programs in the Mid-Atlantic region. Focus groups were guided by 6 open-ended questions that were developed based on implications from a previous study that surveyed eating habits of pregnant adolescents. Data were analyzed and coded using verbatim transcripts. Transcripts were read carefully for overall content and identification of major categories and then compared for similar and contrasting data. Four recurring themes emerged that described beliefs about healthy eating, influences on food choices, and nutrition education preferences: 1) pregnant adolescents demonstrate overall knowledge of healthy foods but are unwilling to give up unhealthy foods; 2) parents, offspring, and pregnancy influence healthy eating habits; 3) pregnant adolescents choose foods based on appearance and taste, cravings, convenience, and cost; and 4) pregnancy alters eating habits. Nutrition education in this population should be peer- and adolescent-focused and incorporate preferred methods of learning and favored incentives. Pregnant adolescents are more likely to attend educational programs that are population-specific and peer-focused, and include incentives that make cooking easier, more convenient, and affordable. Program content should be available to potential

  11. Nutritional knowledge in European adolescents: results from the HELENA (Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sichert-Hellert, Wolfgang; Beghin, Laurent; De Henauw, Stefaan; Grammatikaki, Evangelia; Hallström, Lena; Manios, Yannis; Mesana, María I; Molnár, Dénes; Dietrich, Sabine; Piccinelli, Raffaela; Plada, Maria; Sjöström, Michael; Moreno, Luis A; Kersting, Mathilde

    2011-12-01

    To build up sufficient knowledge of a 'healthy diet'. Here, we report on the assessment of nutritional knowledge using a uniform method in a large sample of adolescents across Europe. A cross-sectional study. The European multicentre HELENA (Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence) study conducted in 2006-2007 in ten cities in Austria, Belgium, France, Germany, Greece (one inland and one island city), Hungary, Italy, Spain and Sweden. A total of 3546 adolescents (aged 12·5-17·5 years) completed a validated nutritional knowledge test (NKT). Socio-economic variables and anthropometric data were considered as potential confounders. NKT scores increased with age and girls had higher scores compared with boys (62% v. 59%; P Nutritional knowledge was modest in our sample. Interventions should be focused on the lower SES segments of the population. They should be initiated at a younger age and should be combined with environmental prevention (e.g. healthy meals in school canteens).

  12. Social inequality in adolescents' healthy food intake: the interplay between economic, social and cultural capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Clercq, Bart; Abel, Thomas; Moor, Irene; Elgar, Frank J; Lievens, John; Sioen, Isabelle; Braeckman, Lutgart; Deforche, Benedicte

    2017-04-01

    Current explanations of health inequalities in adolescents focus on behavourial and economic determinants and rarely include more meaningful forms of economic, cultural, and social capital. The aim of the study was to investigate how the interplay between capitals constitutes social inequalities in adolescent healthy food intake. Data were collected in the 2013/14 Flemish Health Behavior among School-aged Children (HBSC) survey, which is part of the international WHO HBSC survey. The total sample included 7266 adolescents aged 12-18. A comprehensive set of 58 capital indicators was used to measure economic, cultural and social capital and a healthy food index was computed from a 17-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) to assess the consumption frequency of healthy food within the overall food intake. The different forms of capital were unequally distributed in accordance with the subdivisions within the education system. Only half of the capital indicators positively related to healthy food intake, and instead 17 interactions were found that both increased or reduced inequalities. Cultural capital was a crucial component for explaining inequalities such that social gradients in healthy food intake increased when adolescents participated in elite cultural practices ( P economic, cultural and social capital may both increase or reduce healthy food intake inequalities in adolescents. Policy action needs to take into account the unequal distribution of these resources within the education system. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  13. Healthy or Unhealthy Lifestyle: A Thematic Analysis of Iranian Male Adolescents' Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zareiyan, Armin

    2017-01-01

    Identifying what adolescents perceive as their lifestyle and exploring the factors persuading their decisions to engage in or avoid healthy or unhealthy lifestyle behaviors could improve the ability of healthcare professionals to develop innovative preventive strategies and modify negative health behaviors in adolescents. Hence, the literature on adolescent health-related issues reported by adults showed a rarity of information from adolescents themselves. A qualitative study using the thematic analysis approach was conducted. Data were collected by semi-structured, digitally recorded interviews from 32 male adolescents. Interviews were transcribed verbatim, and after collecting the data, the thematic analysis process was started and conducted in six phases. After data collection, the interview texts were transcribed, and approximately 800 initial codes were extracted. The initial codes were reevaluated to yield 48 main themes. Hence, the final thematic map was created as having 5 overarching themes and 12 subthemes, showing that interviewees emphasized unhealthy lifestyle. The components of unhealthy lifestyle seem important to them because they consider that they could lead a healthy lifestyle through elimination of negative behaviors.

  14. Prevalence rates of borderline symptoms reported by adolescent inpatients with BPD, psychiatrically healthy adolescents and adult inpatients with BPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanarini, Mary C; Temes, Christina M; Magni, Laura R; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M; Aguirre, Blaise A; Goodman, Marianne

    2017-08-01

    The validity of borderline personality disorder (BPD) in children and adolescents has not been studied in a rigorous manner reflecting the criteria of Robins and Guze first detailed in 1970. This paper and the others in this series address some aspects of this multifaceted validation paradigm, which requires that a disorder has a known clinical presentation, can be delimited from other disorders, 'runs' in families, and something of its aetiology, treatment response and course is known. Three groups of subjects were studied: 104 adolescent inpatients meeting the Revised Diagnostic Interview for Borderlines and DSM-IV criteria for BPD, 60 psychiatrically healthy adolescents and 290 adult inpatients meeting the Revised Diagnostic Interview for Borderlines and DSM-III-R criteria for BPD. Adolescents with BPD had significantly higher prevalence rates of 22 of the 24 symptoms studied than psychiatrically healthy adolescents. Only rates of serious treatment regressions and countertransference problems failed to reach the Bonferroni-corrected level of 0.002. Adolescents and adults with BPD had only four symptomatic differences that reached this level of significance, with adolescents with BPD reporting significantly lower levels of quasi-psychotic thought, dependency/masochism, devaluation/manipulation/sadism and countertransference problems than adults with BPD. Taken together, the results of this study suggest that adolescents report BPD as severe as that reported by adults. They also suggest that BPD in adolescents is not a tumultuous phase of normal adolescence. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Communication Skills assessed at OSCE are not affected by Participation in the Adolescent Healthy Sexuality Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Penava

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available We proposed that first year medical students who voluntarily participated in the Healthy Sexuality adolescent program would perform better than their peers on an adolescent counseling station at the year-end OSCE (Objective Structured Clinical Examination. In addition we compared medical students’ communication skills at the time of the program as assessed by self, peers and participating adolescents. Methods: Nineteen first year medical students voluntarily participated in the ongoing Healthy Sexuality program. Adolescent participants, medical student peer participants and medical students assessed communication components on a 7-point Likert scale at the end of the program. At the year-end OSCE, all first year medical students at the University of Western Ontario were assessed at an adolescent counseling station by a standardized patient (SP and a physician examiner. Statistical analysis examined differences between the two groups. Results: Students who participated in the Healthy Sexuality program did not perform better than their colleagues on the year-end OSCE. A statistically significant correlation between physician examiner and SP evaluations was found (r = 0.62. Adolescent participants communication skills assessments in the Healthy Sexuality Program demonstrated no significant correlation with medical student assessments (self or peer. Conclusions:Voluntary intervention with adolescents did not result in improved communication skills at the structured year-end examination. Further investigation will be directed towards delineating differences between SP and physician examiner assessments.

  16. Asymmetry Assessment Using Surface Topography in Healthy Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Connie Ho

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The ability to assess geometric asymmetry in the torsos of individuals is important for detecting Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis (AIS. A markerless technique using Surface Topography (ST has been introduced as a non-invasive alternative to standard diagnostic radiographs. The technique has been used to identify asymmetry patterns associated with AIS. However, the presence and nature of asymmetries in the healthy population has not been properly studied. The purpose of this study is therefore to identify asymmetries and potential relationships to development factors such as age, gender, hand dominance and unilateral physical activity in healthy adolescents. Full torso scans of 83 participants were analyzed. Using Geomagic, deviation contour maps (DCMs were created by reflecting the torso along the best plane of sagittal symmetry with each spectrum normalized. Two classes of asymmetry were observed: twist and thickness each with subgroupings. Averaged interobserver and intraobserver Kappas for twist subgroupings were 0.84 and 0.84, respectively, and for thickness subgroupings were 0.53 and 0.63 respectively. Further significant relationships were observed between specific types of asymmetry and gender such as females displaying predominately twist asymmetry, and males with thickness asymmetry. However, no relationships were found between type of asymmetry and age, hand dominance or unilateral physical activity. Understanding asymmetries in healthy subjects will continue to enhance assessment ability of the markerless ST technique.

  17. Serum inhibin B in healthy pubertal and adolescent boys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, A M; Juul, A; Petersen, J H

    1997-01-01

    Inhibin B levels were measured in serum from 400 healthy Danish prepubertal, pubertal, and adolescent males, aged 6-20 yr, in a cross-sectional study using a recently developed immunoassay that is specific for inhibin B, the physiologically important inhibin form in men. In addition, serum levels...

  18. Sleep in healthy black and white adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Karen A; Hall, Martica; Dahl, Ronald E

    2014-05-01

    Inadequate sleep among adolescents has negative consequences for self-regulation, emotional well-being, and risk behaviors. Using multiple assessment methods, we evaluated the adequacy of sleep among healthy adolescents from a lower socioeconomic community and expected differences by race. A total of 250 healthy high school students enrolled in public school (mean age: 15.7 years; 57% black, 54% female) from families of low to middle class according to the Hollingshead scale participated in weeklong assessments of sleep duration and fragmentation, assessed by using actigraphy; sleep duration and perceived quality, assessed by using daily diaries; and daytime sleepiness and sleep delay, assessed by using a questionnaire. Students slept during the school week a mean ± SD of 6.0 ± 0.9 hours per night according to actigraphy and 6.8 ± 1.1 hours according to daily diary, and during the weekend, a mean of 7.4 ± 1.2 and 8.7 ± 1.4 hours, respectively. Black participants and male participants slept less and had more fragmented sleep; female participants reported poorer quality of sleep in their daily diaries and more daytime sleepiness. The results remained significant after adjustments for age, physical activity, smoking status, and percentile BMI. Most students slept less than the 8 to 9 hours suggested by the guidelines of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Black male participants had the least amount of sleep, which may play a role in the substantial risks experienced by this demographic group. Our findings are consistent with recommendations that pediatricians should routinely screen their adolescent patients about their sleep, especially those from at-risk subgroups. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  19. Snacks With Nutrition Labels: Tastiness Perception, Healthiness Perception, and Willingness to Pay by Norwegian Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qing; Oostindjer, Marije; Amdam, Gro V; Egelandsdal, Bjørg

    2016-02-01

    Consumers tend to have the perception that healthy equals less tasty. This study aimed to identify whether information provided by the Keyhole symbol, a widely used front-of-package symbol in Nordic countries to indicate nutritional content, and percent daily values (%DVs) affect Norwegian adolescents' perception of the healthiness of snacks and their intention to buy them. Two tasks were used to evaluate adolescents' perception of snacks with the Keyhole symbol: with %DVs or with no nutrition label. A third task was used to test their abilities to use %DVs (pairwise selections). A survey obtained personal attributes. A total of 566 Norwegian adolescents. Taste perception, health perception, and ability to use %DVs. Linear mixed models and logistic models that tested effects of labels and personal attributes on main outcome measures. The Keyhole symbol increased health perception without influencing taste perception of snacks. Norwegian adolescents had limited abilities to use information from the %DVs correctly to identify healthier foods. Norwegian adolescents had a positive perception of the Keyhole symbols. Keyhole symbols as a simple, heuristic front-of-package label have potential as an information strategy that may influence self-efficacy in promoting healthy snack choices among adolescents. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. [Coping with everyday stress in different problem areas- comparison of clinically referred and healthy adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escher, Fabian; Seiffge-Krenke, Inge

    2013-09-01

    Studies are lacking that analyze how clinically referred adolescents and healthy adolescents cope with everyday stressors. Clinically referred adolescents from three problematic domains (diverse disorders including delinquency, drug abuse, and depression) were compared to healthy adolescents using the Coping Across Situations Questionnaire (Seiffge-Krenke, 1995) and a short version of the Youth Self-Report (Achenbach, 1991). The different clinical groups (n = 469) showed unique patterns concerning their coping styles. The group of depressed youth altogether showed lower coping activities. The youth from institutions for drug abusive youth used more dysfunctional coping. The adolescents from youth welfare services (diverse disorders including delinquency) were more active in both dysfunctional and functional coping than the other two clinically referred groups. The control group showed more functional and less dysfunctional coping. The clinically referred adolescents did not differentiate in their coping behavior, depending on the type of stressor. Gender effects were apparent, albeit negligible. Clinically referred youth are unable to adapt their coping behavior according to the given situation.

  1. NONINVASIVE EVALUATION OF VASCULAR WALL STIFFNESSIN HEALTHY ADOLESCENTS, THE RISK FACTORS FOR ARTERIAL HYPERTENSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. P. Filippov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the main indicators characterizing the rigidity of the vascular wall in healthy ado-lescents with such risk factors (RF for arterial hypertension (AH as a family history on hypertension and smoking. Identify changes in the initial elastic-elastic properties of the arteries at the preclinical stage of development of hypertension.Material and methods. It was formed two groups of comparison. Age studied from 13 to 17 years (mean age (15.00 ± 0.31 years. The first group consisted of 30 healthy adolescents whose parents suffer from hypertension from a young age. The second group consisted of 30 healthy smokers teenager from healthy parents. The control group consisted of 30 healthy adolescents from healthy parents. Determines the basic stiffness of the vascular wall: PWV, CAVI, SAI.Results. A significant in crease in the indicators characterizing the rigidity of the vascular wall in the two comparison groups relative to the control. PWV: 6,89 ± 0,56 (first group, 7.13 ± 0.55 (second group and 5.5 ± 0.41 (control, p < 0.05.L-CAVI: 5,46 ± 0,39 (first group, 5.84 ± 0.61 (second group and 4.32 ± 0.41 (control, p < 0.05.R-CAVI: 5,63 ± 0,39 (first group, 5.89 ± 0.56 (second group and 4.49 ± 0.41(control, p < 0.05. R-AI: 0,89 ± 0,09 (first group, 0.95 ± 0.12 (second group and 0.62 ± 0.1 (control, p < 0.05.Smoking teenagers and adolescents with family history of hypertension, there are changes in the initial stiffness of the vessel wall, which requires the allocation of at-riskfor the development of hypertension and prevention activities at the preclinical stage of development ofthe disease.

  2. The role of socializing agents in communicating healthy eating to adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chan, Kara; Prendergast, Gerard; Grønhøj, Alice

    A survey was conducted of 386 Danish and Hong Kong adolescents aged 11 to 16. Looking at socializing agents, respondents claimed that parents asked them to eat healthy food more often than the government publicity, teachers or friends. Parents were also perceived as being the most effective sourc...... five advertising appeals....... in encouraging them to eat healthy food. Respondents considered news and fear appeals for communicating healthy eating the most effective, while popularity and achievement appeals were considered less effective. Respondents with higher collectivism scores showed a higher liking and perceived effectiveness of all...

  3. Parental feeding styles and adolescents' healthy eating habits. Structure and correlates of a Costa Rican questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monge-Rojas, Rafael; Smith-Castro, Vanesa; Colon-Ramos, Uriyoán; Garita-Arce, Carlos; Sánchez-López, Marta; Chinnock, Anne

    2010-10-01

    This study designed and validated a questionnaire aimed at examining parental feeding styles to encourage healthy eating habits among Costa Rican adolescents. Adolescents (n=133; mean age 15.4 years), and their parents, participated in the study. The parents completed a parental feeding style questionnaire, and the adolescents completed 3-day food records. Confirmatory factor analyses suggest four distinct parental feeding styles, (a) verbal encouragement of healthy eating behaviors; (b) use of verbal sanctions to indirectly control the intake of healthy food; (c) direct control of access to and intake of food; and (d) use of food to regulate emotions and behavior. There were no correlations between dietary intake and the verbal encouragement of healthy eating behaviors, but there were significant negative correlations between (1) "the use of verbal sanctions to indirectly control the intake of healthy food", and the consumption of fruit and vegetable, of calcium, iron, vitamin B6 and folic acid intake, and (2) between the "direct control of access to and intake of food" and fast food consumption and total carbohydrates intake. The use of food to regulate emotions and behavior was positively correlated with high energy-dense food consumption. Stratification of the data shows significant differences by gender in the correlations between parental feeding style and dietary intake. Understanding parental feeding styles in a Latin American context is a first step in helping researchers develops culturally-appropriate parenting intervention/prevention strategies to encourage healthy eating behaviors during adolescence.

  4. What undermines healthy habits with regard to physical activity and food? Voices of adolescents in a disadvantaged community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonsson, Linus; Larsson, Christel; Berg, Christina; Korp, Peter; Lindgren, Eva-Carin

    2017-12-01

    This study aimed to illuminate factors that undermine the healthy habits of adolescents from a multicultural community with low socioeconomic status (S.E.S.) in Sweden with regard to physical activity (P.A.) and food, as stated in their own voices. Adolescents (n = 53, 12-13 y/o) were recruited from one school situated in a multicultural community characterized by low S.E.S. Embracing an interpretive approach, 10 focus-group interviews were conducted to produce data for the study. The focus-group interviews were audio recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analysed using qualitative content analysis. The analysis resulted in two major themes: (1) the availability of temptations is large, and support from the surroundings is limited; and (2) norms and demands set the agenda. The adolescents' voices illuminate a profound awareness and the magnitude of tempting screen-based activities as undermining their P.A. and healthy food habits. Moreover, several gender boundaries were highlighted as undermining girls' P.A. and healthy food habits. The adolescents' stories illuminated that it is difficult for them, within their environment, to establish healthy habits with regard to P.A. and food. To facilitate the adolescents' healthy habits, we suggest that support from family, friends, the school, and society at large is essential.

  5. Promotion of adolescent reproductive health and healthy living. Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-12-01

    This article discusses a 3-year project, "Promotion of Adolescent Reproductive Health and Healthy Living," which was implemented by the Federation of Family Planning Associations, Malaysia. The project seeks to achieve the following: 1) development of a reproductive health of adolescent module (RHAM) for trainers and educators; 2) training of trainers; 3) sharing of adolescent reproductive health experiences in Asian countries; and 4) setting up three service models in Sabah, Selangor, and Terengganu to provide reproductive health (RH) care to adolescents and youth. The first part of the RHAM with the trainer's manual has been finalized and will be tested in a workshop. The second part, a teacher's guide, is under preparation. A series of training on the use of the RHAM will be conducted including a 5-day national workshop, which will be followed by several state level workshops. The three service models being set up have specific orientations. The Sabah model is putting up a youth clinic for adolescents within its clinic network. The Selangor model is developing a Youth Resource Center for training and youth involvement in RH activities. Lastly, the Terengganu family planning association (FPA) has developed a Youth Center web site, which features the history, mission, and activities of the Terengganu FPA.

  6. Regional brain activation and affective response to physical activity among healthy adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Schneider, Margaret; Graham, Dan; Grant, Arthur; King, Pamela; Cooper, Dan

    2009-01-01

    Research has shown that frontal brain activation, assessed via electroencephalographic (EEG) asymmetry, predicts the post-exercise affective response to exercise among adults. Building on this evidence, the present study investigates the utility of resting cortical asymmetry for explaining variance in the affective response both during and after exercise at two different intensities among healthy adolescents. Resting EEG was obtained from 98 adolescents (55% male), who also completed two 30-m...

  7. Effectiveness of school-based interventions in Europe to promote healthy nutrition in children and adolescents: systematic review of published and 'grey' literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Cauwenberghe, Eveline; Maes, Lea; Spittaels, Heleen; van Lenthe, Frank J; Brug, Johannes; Oppert, Jean-Michel; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse

    2010-03-01

    The objective of the present review was to summarise the existing European published and 'grey' literature on the effectiveness of school-based interventions to promote a healthy diet in children (6-12 years old) and adolescents (13-18 years old). Eight electronic databases, websites and contents of key journals were systematically searched, reference lists were screened, and authors and experts in the field were contacted for studies evaluating school-based interventions promoting a healthy diet and aiming at primary prevention of obesity. The studies were included if they were published between 1 January 1990 and 31 December 2007 and reported effects on dietary behaviour or on anthropometrics. Finally, forty-two studies met the inclusion criteria: twenty-nine in children and thirteen in adolescents. In children, strong evidence of effect was found for multicomponent interventions on fruit and vegetable intakes. Limited evidence of effect was found for educational interventions on behaviour, and for environmental interventions on fruit and vegetable intakes. Interventions that specifically targeted children from lower socio-economic status groups showed limited evidence of effect on behaviour. In adolescents, moderate evidence of effect was found for educational interventions on behaviour and limited evidence of effect for multicomponent programmes on behaviour. In children and adolescents, effects on anthropometrics were often not measured, and therefore evidence was lacking or delivered inconclusive evidence. To conclude, evidence was found for the effectiveness of especially multicomponent interventions promoting a healthy diet in school-aged children in European Union countries on self-reported dietary behaviour. Evidence for effectiveness on anthropometrical obesity-related measures is lacking.

  8. A concept test of novel healthy snacks among adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Maria Kümpel; Sørensen, Bjarne Taulo; Brunsø, Karen

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this empirical study was to test 1) which of eight novel healthy snack concepts based on fresh fruit and vegetables that 10 to 16-year old adolescents in Denmark prefer and intend to buy, and 2) which factors explain preferences and buying intentions. Our results revealed that the ......The purpose of this empirical study was to test 1) which of eight novel healthy snack concepts based on fresh fruit and vegetables that 10 to 16-year old adolescents in Denmark prefer and intend to buy, and 2) which factors explain preferences and buying intentions. Our results revealed...... high need satisfaction will increase both higher preferences and buying intentions. Nevertheless, preferences will increase the more snacks are perceived as cool and the stronger the peer influence is perceived to be, whereas buying intentions will increase the higher the personal importance...... of the snack attributes is perceived to be, the higher the willingness to try new snacks among best friends at school and the lower the willingness to try new snacks among other peers outside school. The findings indicate the importance of considering both preferences and buying intentions in future product...

  9. Spreading of healthy mood in adolescent social networks

    OpenAIRE

    Hill, E. M.; Griffiths, F. E.; House, T.

    2015-01-01

    Depression is a major public health concern worldwide. There is evidence that social support and befriending influence mental health, and an improved understanding of the social processes that drive depression has the potential to bring significant public health benefits. We investigate transmission of mood on a social network of adolescents, allowing flexibility in our model by making no prior assumption as to whether it is low mood or healthy mood that spreads. Here, we show that while depr...

  10. Formative research for a healthy diet intervention among inner-city adolescents: the importance of family, school and neighborhood environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodson, Jennifer L; Hsiao, Ya-Chun; Kasat-Shors, Madhuri; Murray, Laura; Nguyen, Nga Kim; Richards, Adam K; Gittelsohn, Joel

    2009-01-01

    To understand influences on diet among low-income African-American adolescents in East Baltimore. Formative research was conducted for a food store-centered healthy diet intervention targeted to inner-city youth. Family, school and neighborhood influences on eating habits and health concepts were explored. Family structure, economic resources and past experiences influence what food means to adolescents. Healthy food in school and local stores is limited. Terminology to categorize foods was identified, including the term "home foods". Suggested adolescent nutritional interventions include promotion of home-based eating, improving availability of healthy foods in school and neighborhood stores, and targeted educational materials.

  11. Reference Values for Inspiratory Muscle Endurance in Healthy Children and Adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristhiele Taís Woszezenki

    Full Text Available To generate reference values for two inspiratory muscle endurance (IME protocols in healthy children and adolescents.This is an observational, cross-sectional study, in healthy children and adolescents from 4 to 18 years of age. Weight, height, maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP and IME were measured using two protocols. A fixed load of 30% of MIP with a 10% increment every 2 minutes was used in the incremental threshold loading protocol. As for the maximal loading protocol, a fixed load of 70% of MIP was used and the time limit (Tlim achieved until fatigue was measured.A total of 462 participants were included, 281 corresponding to the incremental loading protocol and 181 to maximal loading. There were moderate and positive correlations between IME and age, MIP, weight and height in the incremental threshold loading. However, the regression model demonstrated that MIP and age were the best variables to predict the IME. Otherwise, weak and positive correlations with age, weight and height were found in the maximal loading. Only age and height influenced endurance in the regression model. The predictive power (r2 of the incremental threshold loading protocol was 0.65, while the maximal loading was 0.15. The reproducibility measured by the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC was higher in the incremental loading (0.96 compared to the maximal loading test (0.69.IME in healthy children and adolescents can be explained by age, height and MIP. The incremental threshold loading protocol showed more reliable results and should be the model of choice to evaluate IME in the pediatric age group.

  12. Alteration in unhealthy nutrition behaviors in adolescents through community intervention: Isfahan Healthy Heart Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noushin Mohammadifard

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Primary prevention of chronic diseases has been suggested to initiate health promotion activities from childhoods. The impact of Isfahan Healthy Heart Program (IHHP, a comprehensive community trial, on unhealthy snacks and fast food intake changes was evaluated in Iranian adolescents between 2001 and 2007. METHODS: Healthy Heart Promotion from Childhood (HHPC as one of the IHHP interventional projects was conducted in adolescents aged 11-18 years, selected randomly by multistage random sampling. Isfahan and Najafabad districts were intervention areas (IA and Arak district was reference area (RA. The baseline and post-intervention surveys were conducted on 1941 and 1997 adolescents, respectively. Healthy lifestyle interventions were performed during the 2nd phase of the study targeting about 410000 students in urban and rural areas of the IA via education, environmental and legislation activities. Dietary intake was assessed annually using a fifty-item food frequency questionnaire in both communities. RESULTS: The interaction of year×area demonstrated that the consumption of unhealthy snacks decreased significantly in middle school boys of RA compared to IA (P for interaction=0.01. However, middle school girls (P for interaction = 0.002 and both sexes of high school students in IA showed a significant reduction in fast food consumption against RA (P for interaction < 0.001. CONCLUSION: The HHPC interventions made some improvement in fast food consumption. It did not show significant decrease regarding unhealthy snacks in adolescents. Proper and higher dose of interventions may be effective in achieving this goal.   Keywords: Nutrition, Dietary Behaviour, Adolescent, Lifestyle, Community Trial

  13. Amygdala habituation to emotional faces in adolescents with internalizing disorders, adolescents with childhood sexual abuse related PTSD and healthy adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca G. van den Bulk

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Adolescents with internalizing disorders and adolescents with childhood sexual abuse related post-traumatic stress disorder (CSA-related PTSD show a large overlap in symptomatology. In addition, brain research indicated hyper-responsiveness and sustained activation instead of habituation of amygdala activation to emotional faces in both groups. Little is known, however, about whether the same patterns of amygdala habituation are present in these two groups. The current study examined habituation patterns of amygdala activity to emotional faces (fearful, happy and neutral in adolescents with a DSM-IV depressive and/or anxiety disorder (N = 25, adolescents with CSA-related PTSD (N = 19 and healthy controls (N = 26. Behaviourally, the adolescents from the internalizing and CSA-related PTSD group reported more anxiety to fearful and neutral faces than adolescents from the control group and adolescents from the CSA-related PTSD group reacted slower compared to the internalizing group. At the whole brain level, there was a significant interaction between time and group within the left amygdala. Follow-up ROI analysis showed elevated initial activity in the amygdala and rapid habituation in the CSA-related PTSD group compared to the internalizing group. These findings suggest that habituation patterns of amygdala activation provide additional information on problems with emotional face processing. Furthermore, the results suggest there are differences in the underlying neurobiological mechanisms related to emotional face processing for adolescents with internalizing disorders and adolescents with CSA-related PTSD. Possibly CSA-related PTSD is characterized by a stronger primary emotional response driven by the amygdala.

  14. Amygdala habituation to emotional faces in adolescents with internalizing disorders, adolescents with childhood sexual abuse related PTSD and healthy adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Bulk, Bianca G; Somerville, Leah H; van Hoof, Marie-José; van Lang, Natasja D J; van der Wee, Nic J A; Crone, Eveline A; Vermeiren, Robert R J M

    2016-10-01

    Adolescents with internalizing disorders and adolescents with childhood sexual abuse related post-traumatic stress disorder (CSA-related PTSD) show a large overlap in symptomatology. In addition, brain research indicated hyper-responsiveness and sustained activation instead of habituation of amygdala activation to emotional faces in both groups. Little is known, however, about whether the same patterns of amygdala habituation are present in these two groups. The current study examined habituation patterns of amygdala activity to emotional faces (fearful, happy and neutral) in adolescents with a DSM-IV depressive and/or anxiety disorder (N=25), adolescents with CSA-related PTSD (N=19) and healthy controls (N=26). Behaviourally, the adolescents from the internalizing and CSA-related PTSD group reported more anxiety to fearful and neutral faces than adolescents from the control group and adolescents from the CSA-related PTSD group reacted slower compared to the internalizing group. At the whole brain level, there was a significant interaction between time and group within the left amygdala. Follow-up ROI analysis showed elevated initial activity in the amygdala and rapid habituation in the CSA-related PTSD group compared to the internalizing group. These findings suggest that habituation patterns of amygdala activation provide additional information on problems with emotional face processing. Furthermore, the results suggest there are differences in the underlying neurobiological mechanisms related to emotional face processing for adolescents with internalizing disorders and adolescents with CSA-related PTSD. Possibly CSA-related PTSD is characterized by a stronger primary emotional response driven by the amygdala. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Qualitative study exploring healthy eating practices and physical activity among adolescent girls in rural South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedibe, Heather M; Kahn, Kathleen; Edin, Kerstin; Gitau, Tabitha; Ivarsson, Anneli; Norris, Shane A

    2014-08-26

    Dietary behaviours and physical activity are modifiable risk factors to address increasing levels of obesity among children and adolescents, and consequently to reduce later cardiovascular and metabolic disease. This paper explores perceptions, attitudes, barriers, and facilitators related to healthy eating and physical activity among adolescent girls in rural South Africa. A qualitative study was conducted in the rural Agincourt subdistrict, covered by a health and sociodemographic surveillance system, in Mpumalanga province, South Africa. Semistructured "duo-interviews" were carried out with 11 pairs of adolescent female friends aged 16 to 19 years. Thematic content analysis was used. The majority of participants considered locally grown and traditional foods, especially fruits and vegetables, to be healthy. Their consumption was limited by availability, and these foods were often sourced from family or neighbourhood gardens. Female caregivers and school meal programmes facilitated healthy eating practices. Most participants believed in the importance of breakfast, even though for the majority, limited food within the household was a barrier to eating breakfast before going to school. The majority cited limited accessibility as a major barrier to healthy eating, and noted the increasing intake of "convenient and less healthy foods". Girls were aware of the benefits of physical activity and engaged in various physical activities within the home, community, and schools, including household chores, walking long distances to school, traditional dancing, and extramural activities such as netball and soccer. The findings show widespread knowledge about healthy eating and the benefits of consuming locally grown and traditional food items in a population that is undergoing nutrition transition. Limited access and food availability are strong barriers to healthy eating practices. School meal programmes are an important facilitator of healthy eating, and breakfast

  16. Association of Healthy Food Intake with Psychiatric Distress in Children and Adolescents: the CASPIAN-IV study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoda Zahedi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Healthy dietary habits are known as a key factor for improving brain functions and cognitive ability in children and adolescents. The goal of this study was to evaluate the association of healthy food consumption with mental health in Iranian children and adolescents.Materials and Methods: Data were obtained from the fourth national school-based surveillance survey entitled CASPIAN-IV study. In this study, 14880 children and adolescents aged 6-18 years were selected by multistage, cluster sampling method from rural and urban areas. The students and their parents completed two sets of questionnaires. The psychiatric distress included depression, worry, insomnia, anxiety, aggression, confusion, and worthless and the violent behaviors comprised of physical fight, victim and bully. The healthy foods included fresh fruits, dried fruits, vegetables and dairy products.Results: The participants include 13,486 students from elementary, intermediate and high school degree. The prevalence of psychiatric distress was significantly higher among high school students, while violent behaviors were more prevalent in the middle school students. According to the multivariate model (model IV, the risk of psychiatric distress was significantly lower in students with daily consumption of fresh fruits, vegetables and milk. In addition, those with daily consumption of vegetables and milk had significantly lower risk for violent behaviors.Conclusion: Consumption of healthy foods may reduce the risk of psychiatric distress and violent behaviors. Therefore, in addition to its benefits, increasing healthy food consumption among children and adolescents can be useful in preventing mental health disorders.

  17. Designing a packaging to promote healthy and low-fat foods: Adolescents versus young-adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vila-López, Natalia; Küster-Boluda, Ines; Sarabia-Sánchez, Francisco

    2017-09-01

    Packaging is a relevant tool when adolescents and young adults search for low-fat and healthy foods. However, the power of a packaging is not homogenous. In this framework, two main objectives guide our work: (i) to investigate to what extent visual cues (size, colors, images etc.) are more important than informational cues (label); (ii) to analyze if adolescents and young adults pay equal attention to both packaging cues. 590 adolescents between 12 and 18years of age were interviewed at the door of both public and private schools. Additionally, 300 young adults between 19 and 25years of age were contacted. Their opinions were analyzed twice using structural modelling techniques: (i) without considering age differences and (ii) splitting the sample into adolescents (590 participants) and young-adults (300 participants) to compare their perceptions. Our results have showed that when looking for healthy and low-fat aliments visual cues (size, colors, images etc.) are more important than informational cues (label design, easily understandable words, size of the letters). Additionally, age is a pertinent variable to explain alternative packaging strategies, because adolescents and young adults do not pay equal attention to both packaging cues. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Association between Frequency of Breakfast Consumption and Academic Performance in Healthy Korean Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    SO, Wi-YOUNG

    2013-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to examine whether the frequency of breakfast consumption was related to academic performance in healthy Korean adolescents. Methods: We analyzed data from the seventh Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey conducted in 2011, in which 75,643 adolescents from school grades 7?12 participated. We assessed the association between the frequency of breakfast consumption (per week) and academic performance using multivariate logistic regression analysis a...

  19. Vitamin D deficiency among healthy adolescents in Al Ain, United Arab Emirates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Although vitamin D deficiency has been studied in various adult populations, there are few data on the prevalence of this nutritional deficiency among healthy adolescents in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and to examine its correlates in adolescents aged 15 to 18 years. Methods This was a cross-sectional study in urban schools. Healthy adolescents (N=315) from a sample of 8 schools were randomly selected from the 142 schools in Al Ain, Abu Dhabi Emirate. Outcomes measured included serum concentrations of 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25OHD), plasma lipids, blood sugar, blood pressure and anthropometric data, nutrition and lifestyle variables. Results Fourty-one participants (19.7%) were vitamin D deficient (serum 25OHD level ≤15 ng/mL [≤37.5 nmol/L]. Using a cutoff level of 25(OH) D of ≤20 ng/ml [≤50 nmol/l] 143 participants (45.4%) were vitamin D insufficient. Overall 65.1% of study participants were either vitamin D deficient or insufficient. The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency varied between boys (10%) and girls (28%). In a final multivariate model, serum 25(OH) D concentrations were inversely correlated with female gender, consumption of fast food per week, and body mass index and positively correlated with physical activity scores after adjustment for age. Conclusions Vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency were highly prevalent in adolescents, and more common in girls. PMID:23311702

  20. The role of socializing agents in communicating healthy eating to adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chan, Kara; Prendergast, Gerard; Grønhøj, Alice

    2011-01-01

    A survey was conducted of 386 Danish and Hong Kong adolescents aged 11 to 16. Results showed that the consumption of relatively unhealthy food was common among respondents. Looking at socializing agents, respondents claimed that parents asked them to eat healthy food more often than the governmen....... There were some gender and age differences in the liking and perceived effectiveness of five advertising appeals. Respondents with higher collectivism scores showed a higher liking and perceived effectiveness of advertising appeals....... publicity, teachers or friends. Parents were also perceived as being the most effective source in encouraging them to eat healthy food. Respondents considered news and fear appeals for communicating healthy eating the most effective, while popularity and achievement appeals were considered less effective...

  1. A conceptual framework for healthy eating behavior in ecuadorian adolescents: a qualitative study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roosmarijn Verstraeten

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to identify factors influencing eating behavior of Ecuadorian adolescents - from the perspective of parents, school staff and adolescents - to develop a conceptual framework for adolescents' eating behavior.Twenty focus groups (N=144 participants were conducted separately with adolescents aged 11-15 y (n (focus groups=12, N (participants=80, parents (n=4, N=32 and school staff (n=4, N=32 in rural and urban Ecuador. A semi-structured questioning route was developed based on the 'Attitude, Social influences and Self-efficacy' model and the socio-ecological model to assess the relevance of behavioral and environmental factors in low- and middle-income countries. Two researchers independently analyzed verbatim transcripts for emerging themes, using deductive thematic content analysis. Data were analyzed using NVivo 8.All groups recognized the importance of eating healthily and key individual factors in Ecuadorian adolescents' food choices were: financial autonomy, food safety perceptions, lack of self-control, habit strength, taste preferences and perceived peer norms. Environmental factors included the poor nutritional quality of food and its easy access at school. In their home and family environment, time and convenience completed the picture as barriers to eating healthily. Participants acknowledged the impact of the changing socio-cultural environment on adolescents' eating patterns. Availability of healthy food at home and financial constraints differed between settings and socio-economic groups.Our findings endorse the importance of investigating behavioral and environmental factors that influence and mediate healthy dietary behavior prior to intervention development. Several culture-specific factors emerged that were incorporated into a conceptual framework for developing health promotion interventions in Ecuador.

  2. A conceptual framework for healthy eating behavior in ecuadorian adolescents: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verstraeten, Roosmarijn; Van Royen, Kathleen; Ochoa-Avilés, Angélica; Penafiel, Daniela; Holdsworth, Michelle; Donoso, Silvana; Maes, Lea; Kolsteren, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify factors influencing eating behavior of Ecuadorian adolescents - from the perspective of parents, school staff and adolescents - to develop a conceptual framework for adolescents' eating behavior. Twenty focus groups (N=144 participants) were conducted separately with adolescents aged 11-15 y (n (focus groups)=12, N (participants)=80), parents (n=4, N=32) and school staff (n=4, N=32) in rural and urban Ecuador. A semi-structured questioning route was developed based on the 'Attitude, Social influences and Self-efficacy' model and the socio-ecological model to assess the relevance of behavioral and environmental factors in low- and middle-income countries. Two researchers independently analyzed verbatim transcripts for emerging themes, using deductive thematic content analysis. Data were analyzed using NVivo 8. All groups recognized the importance of eating healthily and key individual factors in Ecuadorian adolescents' food choices were: financial autonomy, food safety perceptions, lack of self-control, habit strength, taste preferences and perceived peer norms. Environmental factors included the poor nutritional quality of food and its easy access at school. In their home and family environment, time and convenience completed the picture as barriers to eating healthily. Participants acknowledged the impact of the changing socio-cultural environment on adolescents' eating patterns. Availability of healthy food at home and financial constraints differed between settings and socio-economic groups. Our findings endorse the importance of investigating behavioral and environmental factors that influence and mediate healthy dietary behavior prior to intervention development. Several culture-specific factors emerged that were incorporated into a conceptual framework for developing health promotion interventions in Ecuador.

  3. Paired-Associative Stimulation-Induced Long-term Potentiation-Like Motor Cortex Plasticity in Healthy Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan C. Lee

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveThe objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of using paired-associative stimulation (PAS to study excitatory and inhibitory plasticity in adolescents while examining variables that may moderate plasticity (such as sex and environment.MethodsWe recruited 34 healthy adolescents (aged 13–19, 13 males, 21 females. To evaluate excitatory plasticity, we compared mean motor-evoked potentials (MEPs elicited by single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS before and after PAS at 0, 15, and 30 min. To evaluate inhibitory plasticity, we evaluated the cortical silent period (CSP elicited by single-pulse TMS in the contracted hand before and after PAS at 0, 15, and 30 min.ResultsAll participants completed PAS procedures. No adverse events occurred. PAS was well tolerated. PAS-induced significant increases in the ratio of post-PAS MEP to pre-PAS MEP amplitudes (p < 0.01 at all post-PAS intervals. Neither socioeconomic status nor sex was associated with post-PAS MEP changes. PAS induced significant CSP lengthening in males but not females.ConclusionPAS is a feasible, safe, and well-tolerated index of adolescent motor cortical plasticity. Gender may influence PAS-induced changes in cortical inhibition. PAS is safe and well tolerated by healthy adolescents and may be a novel tool with which to study adolescent neuroplasticity.

  4. Encouraging Lifelong Healthy Habits for a Positive Body Image in Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Christine

    This article discusses issues related to body image in adolescents, explaining what school practitioners can do to encourage lifelong healthy habits that enhance body image. Body image is the picture of physical self carried in the mind's eye. This impression can have little resemblance to how a teen actually looks. Body image culturalization is…

  5. Temporal Relationships Between Napping and Nocturnal Sleep in Healthy Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakubowski, Karen P; Hall, Martica H; Lee, Laisze; Matthews, Karen A

    2017-01-01

    Many adolescents do not achieve the recommended 9 hr of sleep per night and report daytime napping, perhaps because it makes up for short nocturnal sleep. This article tests temporal relationships between daytime naps and nighttime sleep as measured by actigraphy and diary among 236 healthy high school students during one school week. Mixed model analyses adjusted for age, race, and gender demonstrated that shorter actigraphy-assessed nocturnal sleep duration predicted longer napping (measured by actigraphy and diary) the next day. Napping (by actigraphy and diary) predicted shorter nocturnal sleep duration and worse sleep efficiency that night measured by actigraphy. Diary-reported napping also predicted poorer self-reported sleep quality that night. Frequent napping may interfere with nocturnal sleep during adolescence.

  6. Association between Frequency of Breakfast Consumption and Academic Performance in Healthy Korean Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, Wi-Young

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether the frequency of breakfast consumption was related to academic performance in healthy Korean adolescents. We analyzed data from the seventh Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey conducted in 2011, in which 75,643 adolescents from school grades 7-12 participated. We assessed the association between the frequency of breakfast consumption (per week) and academic performance using multivariate logistic regression analysis after adjusting for covariates such as age, body mass index, frequency of smoking, frequency of drinking, parents' education level, family economic status, frequency of vigorous physical activity (PA), frequency of moderate PA, frequency of muscular strength exercises, and level of mental stress. For male adolescents, the odds ratios (ORs) for achieving average or higher academic performance according to the breakfast frequency per week were once per week, 1.004 (P=0.945); twice per week, 0.915 (P=0.153); 3 days per week, 0.928 (P=0.237); 4 days per week, 1.087 (P=0.176); 5 days per week, 1.258 (Pacademic performance according to the breakfast frequency were once per week, 1.068 (P=0.320); twice per week, 1.140 (P=0.031); 3 days per week, 1.179 (P=0.004); 4 days per week, 1.339 (Pacademic performance in both male and female healthy adolescents in Korea.

  7. Relationships between Dietary Intake and Cognitive Function in Healthy Korean Children and Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jin Young; Kang, Seung Wan

    2017-01-01

    Background It has long been theorized that a relatively robust dietary intake impacts cognitive function. The aim of the study was to explore dietary intake and cognitive function in healthy Korean children and adolescents. Methods Three hundred and seventeen healthy children with no previous diagnosis of neurologic or psychiatric disorders were evaluated (167 girls and 150 boys with a mean age of 11.8 ? 3.3 years). Analysis indicators including food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) consisting...

  8. Social relationships among adolescents as described in an electronic diary: a mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anttila, Katriina I; Anttila, Minna J; Kurki, Marjo H; Välimäki, Maritta A

    2017-01-01

    Social relationships among adolescents with mental disorders are demanding. Adolescents with depressive symptoms may have few relationships and have difficulties sharing their problems. Internet may offer reliable and easy to use tool to collect real-time information from adolescents. The aim of this study is to explore how adolescents describe their social relationships with an electronic diary. Mixed methods were used to obtain a broad picture of adolescents' social relationships with the data gathered from network maps and reflective texts written in an electronic diary. Adolescents who visited an outpatient clinic and used an intervention (N=70) designed for adolescents with signs of depression were invited to use the electronic diary; 29 did so. The quantitative data gathered in the electronic diary were summarized with descriptive statistics, and the qualitative data were categorized using a thematic analysis with an inductive approach. We found that social relationships among adolescents with signs of depression can vary greatly in regards to the number of existing relationships (from lacking to 21) and the quality of the relationships (from trustful to difficult). However, the relationships may change, and the adolescents are also willing to build up their social relationships. Professionals need to be aware of the diversity of adolescents' social relationships and their need for personalized support.

  9. The Dynamic Association between Healthy Leisure and Substance Use in South African Adolescents: A State and Trait Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weybright, Elizabeth H.; Caldwell, Linda L.; Ram, Nilam; Smith, Edward; Jacobs, Joachim

    2014-01-01

    South Africa has an increasing adolescent substance use problem, lack of leisure opportunities and resources, and high adolescent discretionary time. How aspects of leisure relate to adolescent substance use is not well understood. Little research has been conducted on the leisure behaviors and experiences of South African adolescents, if and how those behaviors are associated with substance use, and ecological influences on those associations. By applying multi-level models to longitudinal data obtained from youth living in high-risk contexts, this research examines the association between state and trait healthy leisure and adolescent substance use and how perceived parental over-control moderates those associations. Results indicate healthy leisure protects against substance use at state and trait levels, provides empirical support that risk behavior can be addressed through leisure-based interventions, and emphasizes the importance of both short- and long-term processes when considering the context-dependent nature of adolescents’ leisure experiences. PMID:24948905

  10. Effectiveness of the 'Healthy School and Drugs' prevention programme on adolescents' substance use: a randomized clustered trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malmberg, M.; Kleinjan, M.; Overbeek, G.J.; Vermulst, A.A.; Monshouwer, K.; Lammers, J.; Vollebergh, W.A.M.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2014-01-01

    Aim To evaluate the effectiveness of the Healthy School and Drugs programme on alcohol, tobacco and marijuana use among Dutch early adolescents. Design Randomized clustered trial with two intervention conditions (i.e. e-learning and integral). Setting General population of 11-15-year-old adolescents

  11. The Academic and Psychological Benefits of Exercise in Healthy Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Martin; Laumann, Karin

    2013-01-01

    This review examines the psychological benefits exercise is connected to in healthy children and adolescents. Studies on the effect of exercise on academic performance, self-esteem, emotions, and mood were examined. Academic performance is found to be maintained when normal academic classes are reduced and replaced by an increase in exercise,…

  12. Influence of perceived sport competence and body attractiveness on physical activity and other healthy lifestyle habits in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Murcia, Juan Antonio; Hellín, Pedro; González-Cutre, David; Martínez-Galindo, Celestina

    2011-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to test an explanatory model of the relationships between physical self-concept and some healthy habits. A sample of 472 adolescents aged 16 to 20 answered different questionnaires assessing physical self-concept, physical activity, intention to be physically active and consumption of alcohol and tobacco. The results of the structural equation model showed that perceived sport competence positively correlated with current physical activity. Body attractiveness positively correlated with physical activity in boys and negatively in girls. Current physical activity positively correlated with the intention to be physically active in the future and negatively with the consumption of alcohol and tobacco. Nevertheless, this last relationship was only significant in boys. The results are discussed in connection with the promotion of healthy lifestyle guidelines among adolescents. This model shows the importance of physical self-concept for engaging in physical activity in adolescence. It also suggests that physical activity is associated with the intention to continue being physically active and with healthy lifestyle habits.

  13. Trajectories of adolescent substance use development and the influence of healthy leisure: A growth mixture modeling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weybright, Elizabeth H; Caldwell, Linda L; Ram, Nilam; Smith, Edward A; Wegner, Lisa

    2016-06-01

    Considerable heterogeneity exists in adolescent substance use development. To most effectively prevent use, distinct trajectories of use must be identified as well as differential associations with predictors of use, such as leisure experience. The current study used a person-centered approach to identify distinct substance use trajectories and how leisure is associated with trajectory classes. Data came from a larger efficacy trial of 2.249 South African high school students who reported substance use at any time across 8 waves. Growth mixture modeling was used to identify developmental trajectories of substance use and the influence of healthy leisure. Results identified three increasing and one stable substance use trajectory and subjective healthy leisure served to protect against use. This study is the first of its kind to focus on a sample of South African adolescents and serves to develop a richer understanding of substance use development and the role of healthy leisure. Copyright © 2016 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Using Theory of Planned Behavior to Predict Healthy Eating among Danish Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gronhoj, Alice; Bech-Larsen, Tino; Chan, Kara; Tsang, Lennon

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the study was to apply the theory of planned behavior to predict Danish adolescents' behavioral intention for healthy eating. Design/methodology/approach: A cluster sample survey of 410 students aged 11 to 16 years studying in Grade 6 to Grade 10 was conducted in Denmark. Findings: Perceived behavioral control followed by…

  15. Self-efficacy for healthy eating and peer support for unhealthy eating are associated with adolescents' food intake patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Amanda; Heary, Caroline; Kelly, Colette; Nixon, Elizabeth; Shevlin, Mark

    2013-04-01

    Adolescence, with its change in dietary habits, is likely to be a vulnerable period in the onset of obesity. It is considered that peers have an important role to play on adolescents' diet, however, limited research has examined the role of peers in this context. This study examined the relationship between self-efficacy for healthy eating, parent and peer support for healthy and unhealthy eating and food intake patterns. Participants were 264 boys and 219 girls (N=483), aged 13-18years, recruited from post-primary schools in Ireland. Self-report measures assessed self-efficacy, parent and peer support for healthy eating, and for unhealthy eating. Dietary pattern analysis, a popular alternative to traditional methods used in nutritional research, was conducted on a FFQ to derive food intake patterns. Two patterns were identified labelled 'healthy food intake' and 'unhealthy food intake'. Multi-group modelling was used to evaluate whether the hypothesized model of factors related to dietary patterns differed by gender. The multi-group model fit the data well, with only one path shown to differ by gender. Lower self-efficacy for healthy eating and higher peer support for unhealthy eating were associated with 'unhealthy food intake'. Higher self-efficacy was associated with 'healthy food intake'. Prevention programs that target self-efficacy for eating and peer support for unhealthy eating may be beneficial in improving dietary choices among adolescents. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Glucoregulatory and order effects on verbal episodic memory in healthy adolescents after oral glucose administration

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Michael; Foster, Jonathan

    2008-01-01

    The ingestion of oral glucose has been observed to facilitate memory performance in both elderly individuals and in young adults. However, fewer studies have investigated the effect of glucose on memory in children or adolescents. In the present study, the ingestion of a glucose laden drink was observed to enhance verbal episodic memory performance in healthy adolescents under conditions of divided attention, relative to a placebo drink. Further analyses found that this glucose memory facilit...

  17. EFFECTS OF AN INTERVENTION PROGRAM (HHP) ON THE PROMOTION OF HEALTHY HABITS IN EARLY ADOLESCENCE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nebot Paradells, Vicente; Pablos Monzó, Ana; Elvira Macagno, Laura; Guzmán Luján, José Francisco; Pablos Abella, Carlos

    2015-12-01

    it is vital to monitor and promote healthy lifestyle habits in early adolescence, as it is a time of changes when future lifestyle habits are formed. a study was conducted to find out the effects of a Healthy Habits Program (HHP) in children between the ages of 10 and 12 years (N = 158). The study included an intervention group (IG) (n = 90), which participated in the HHP for 8 months, and a control group (CG) (n = 100). In order to assess healthy habits in these children we used the Inventory of Healthy Habits (IHH), the reliability of which was previously evaluated (N = 134). the IHH obtained good reliability, Interclass Correlation Coefficient (range .506 - 884; p eating habits initially (p = .564), but by the end of the study (p = .001) the IG showed better habits. As for the other healthy habits indicators, the CG had better habits initially (p = .047), but the score of the IG improved and there were no differences between the groups at the end of the study. it was shown that the IHH is a suitable and reliable questionnaire for studying habits in adolescents. The HHP brought about changes in the IG, which achieved better scores for eating habits and sum of health habits. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  18. Age- and gender-dependent values of skeletal muscle mass in healthy children and adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Webber, Colin E.; Barr, Ronald D.

    2011-01-01

    Background Skeletal muscle mass (SMM) can be extracted from whole-body scans obtained by X-ray-based dual-photon absorptiometry (DXA). There is a need to establish expected age-dependent values for children and adolescents. Methods Appendicular lean tissue mass (ALM) was extracted from whole-body DXA scans in 140 healthy children and adolescents (68 females and 72 males). Whole-body SMM was calculated from ALM using equations developed by Kim et al. (Am J Clin Nutr 84:1014–1020, 2006). Age-de...

  19. Mental toughness, sleep disturbances, and physical activity in patients with multiple sclerosis compared to healthy adolescents and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi Bahmani, Dena; Gerber, Markus; Kalak, Nadeem; Lemola, Sakari; Clough, Peter J; Calabrese, Pasquale; Shaygannejad, Vahid; Pühse, Uwe; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Brand, Serge

    2016-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most common chronic autoimmune demyelinating and inflammatory disease of the central nervous system, afflicting both the body and mind. The risk of suffering from MS is 2.5-3.5 times greater in females than in males. While there is extant research on fatigue, depression, and cognitive impairment in patients with MS during its clinical course, there is a lack of research focusing on sleep, psychological functioning, and physical activity (PA) at the point of disease onset. The aims of the present study were therefore, to assess the markers of mental toughness (MT) as a dimension of psychological functioning, sleep disturbances (SD), and PA among patients at the moment of disease onset and to compare these with the corresponding values for healthy adolescents and young adults. A total of 23 patients with MS at disease onset (mean age =32.31 years; 91% females), 23 healthy adolescents (mean age =17.43 years; 82% females), and 25 healthy young adults (mean age =20.72 years; 80% females) took part in the study. They completed questionnaires covering sociodemographic data, MT, SD, and PA. Patients with MS had similar scores for MT traits as those in healthy adolescents and healthy young adults, and equivalent levels of moderate-intensity PA and SD as young adults. MS patients reported lower levels of vigorous PA compared to both healthy adolescents and young adults. The pattern of the results of the present study suggests that the onset of MS is not associated with poor MT, poor sleep, or reduced moderate-intensity PA. Lower levels of vigorous PA were observed in MS patients. Low levels of vigorous PA may lead to decreased cardiorespiratory fitness in patients with MS and, in the long run, to reduced cardiovascular health and degraded psychological functioning.

  20. Thymopoiesis and regulatory T cells in healthy children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Izabel Arismendi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between T cell receptor excision circle levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and regulatory T cells that co-express CD25 and Foxp3 in healthy children and adolescents of different ages. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The quantification of signal-joint T-cell receptor excision circle levels in the genomic DNA of peripheral blood mononuclear cells was performed using real-time quantitative PCR. The analysis of CD4, CD8, CD25, and Foxp3 expression was performed using flow cytometry. RESULTS: Ninety-five healthy controls (46 females and 49 males ranging in age from 1 to 18 years were analyzed. The mean T-cell receptor excision circle count in all individuals was 89.095¡36.790 T-cell receptor excision circles per microgram of DNA. There was an inverse correlation between T-cell receptor excision circles counts and age (r = -0.846; p<0.001 as well as between the proportion of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ T cells and age (r = -0.467; p = 0.04. In addition, we observed a positive correlation between the amount of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ T cells and the amount of Tcell receptor excision circles per microgram of DNA in individuals of all ages (r = -0.529; p = 0.02. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we observed a decrease in the thymic function with age based on the fact that the level of T-cell receptor excision circles in the peripheral blood positively correlated with the proportion of regulatory T cells in healthy children and adolescents. These findings indicate that although T-cell receptor excision circles and regulatory T cells levels decrease with age, homeostasis of the immune system and relative regulatory T cells population levels are maintained in the peripheral blood.

  1. Internet Use, Depression, and Anxiety in a Healthy Adolescent Population: Prospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thom, Robyn Pauline; Bickham, David S; Rich, Michael

    2018-05-22

    Psychiatric disorders, including conduct disturbances, substance abuse, and affective disorders, emerge in approximately 20% of adolescents. In parallel with the rise in internet use, the prevalence of depression among adolescents has increased. It remains unclear whether and how internet use impacts mental health in adolescents. We assess the association between patterns of internet use and two mental health outcomes (depression and anxiety) in a healthy adolescent population. A total of 126 adolescents between the ages of 12 and 15 years were recruited. Participants reported their typical computer and internet usage patterns. At baseline and one-year follow-up, they completed the Beck Depression Index for primary care (BDI-PC) and the Beck Anxiety Inventory for Primary Care (BAI-PC). Individual linear regressions were completed to determine the association between markers of internet use at baseline and mental health outcomes at one-year follow-up. All models controlled for age, gender, and ethnicity. There was an inverse correlation between minutes spent on a favorite website per visit and BAI-PC score. No association was found between internet use and BDI-PC score. There is no relationship between internet use patterns and depression in adolescents, whereas internet use may mitigate anxiety in adolescents with higher levels of baseline anxiety. ©Robyn Pauline Thom, David S Bickham, Michael Rich. Originally published in JMIR Mental Health (http://mental.jmir.org), 22.05.2018.

  2. Adolescents' electronic media use at night, sleep disturbance, and depressive symptoms in the smartphone age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemola, Sakari; Perkinson-Gloor, Nadine; Brand, Serge; Dewald-Kaufmann, Julia F; Grob, Alexander

    2015-02-01

    Adolescence is a time of increasing vulnerability for poor mental health, including depression. Sleep disturbance is an important risk factor for the development of depression during adolescence. Excessive electronic media use at night is a risk factor for both adolescents' sleep disturbance and depression. To better understand the interplay between sleep, depressive symptoms, and electronic media use at night, this study examined changes in adolescents' electronic media use at night and sleep associated with smartphone ownership. Also examined was whether sleep disturbance mediated the relationship between electronic media use at night and depressive symptoms. 362 adolescents (12-17 year olds, M = 14.8, SD = 1.3; 44.8% female) were included and completed questionnaires assessing sleep disturbance (short sleep duration and sleep difficulties) and depressive symptoms. Further, participants reported on their electronic media use in bed before sleep such as frequency of watching TV or movies, playing video games, talking or text messaging on the mobile phone, and spending time online. Smartphone ownership was related to more electronic media use in bed before sleep, particularly calling/sending messages and spending time online compared to adolescents with a conventional mobile phone. Smartphone ownership was also related to later bedtimes while it was unrelated to sleep disturbance and symptoms of depression. Sleep disturbance partially mediated the relationship between electronic media use in bed before sleep and symptoms of depression. Electronic media use was negatively related with sleep duration and positively with sleep difficulties, which in turn were related to depressive symptoms. Sleep difficulties were the more important mediator than sleep duration. The results of this study suggest that adolescents might benefit from education regarding sleep hygiene and the risks of electronic media use at night.

  3. Family Health Climate and Adolescents' Physical Activity and Healthy Eating: A Cross-Sectional Study with Mother-Father-Adolescent Triads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niermann, Christina Y N; Kremers, Stef P J; Renner, Britta; Woll, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    The importance of the family environment for children's and adolescents' health behavior has been demonstrated, the underlying mechanisms of this influence remain unclear. Therefore, the aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between family environmental and individual determinants. It was hypothesized that the Family Health Climate (FHC) is associated with adolescents' physical activity and dietary behavior and that intrinsic motivation mediates this association. Cross-sectional data were collected from 198 families (mother, father, and child) using questionnaires. Perceptions of FHC of mothers, fathers, and their children were assessed using the FHC-scales for physical activity (FHC-PA) and nutrition (FHC-NU). The adolescents also rated their intrinsic motivation for exercise and healthy eating, their physical activity and consumption of healthful food. A structural equation model was analyzed and a bootstrapping procedure was used to test direct and indirect effects. The FHC-PA was related to the amount of weekly physical activity and the FHC-NU to the consumption of fruit, vegetables and salad. These effects were mediated by adolescents' intrinsic motivation; the indirect effects were significant for both behaviors. These results emphasize the importance of the FHC in shaping adolescents' physical activity and dietary behavior. Individual motivational factors are potential mediators of family and parental influences. Considering family-level variables and their interaction with individual factors contributes to the understanding of adolescents' health behavior.

  4. Family Health Climate and Adolescents' Physical Activity and Healthy Eating: A Cross-Sectional Study with Mother-Father-Adolescent Triads.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Y N Niermann

    Full Text Available The importance of the family environment for children's and adolescents' health behavior has been demonstrated, the underlying mechanisms of this influence remain unclear. Therefore, the aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between family environmental and individual determinants. It was hypothesized that the Family Health Climate (FHC is associated with adolescents' physical activity and dietary behavior and that intrinsic motivation mediates this association.Cross-sectional data were collected from 198 families (mother, father, and child using questionnaires. Perceptions of FHC of mothers, fathers, and their children were assessed using the FHC-scales for physical activity (FHC-PA and nutrition (FHC-NU. The adolescents also rated their intrinsic motivation for exercise and healthy eating, their physical activity and consumption of healthful food. A structural equation model was analyzed and a bootstrapping procedure was used to test direct and indirect effects.The FHC-PA was related to the amount of weekly physical activity and the FHC-NU to the consumption of fruit, vegetables and salad. These effects were mediated by adolescents' intrinsic motivation; the indirect effects were significant for both behaviors.These results emphasize the importance of the FHC in shaping adolescents' physical activity and dietary behavior. Individual motivational factors are potential mediators of family and parental influences. Considering family-level variables and their interaction with individual factors contributes to the understanding of adolescents' health behavior.

  5. ADOLESCENTS’ HEALTHY EATING

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Susanne

    understanding of adolescent healthy eating. Based on this, the thesis presents three research questions which are investigated in three research papers. The research questions are: 1. Which roles do parents and adolescents have in healthy eating socialisation? 2. How does the social influence from parents...... and family members’ roles regarding healthy eating socialisation is underexposed, the study aimed at exploring adolescents’ and parents’ awareness of and involvement in healthy eating and investigated how they related it to their roles in the healthy eating socialisation taking place within the family...... or a cooperative one helping parents. Parents initiated dialogues with family members about healthy eating and felt responsible as role models often fulfilling the adolescents’ demands and acknowledging their help. The findings confirm that parents still have the upper hand, when it comes to healthy eating...

  6. Promoting Healthy Development among Adolescent Girls: A Mixed-Methods Evaluation of the HERstory Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily MacFarlane

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The Leadership Program’s HERstory is a school-based, universal, preventative intervention designed to promote healthy youth development among adolescent girls by increasing their connections to pro-social peers and to school and community while developing social-emotional skills that serve as protective factors. In this school-year-long program, a facilitator implements three program phases: group development activities in Community Building, self-reflective Writing Workshop exercises, and a final Creative Output project, an ethnographic theater production or literary journal developed from participants’ Writing Workshop responses. The current mixed-methods study presents early evidence of program effectiveness based on focus groups and school record data review at two NYC public schools during the 2010-2011 school year. Participants reported improvements in key areas targeted by HERstory, including peer connectedness, academic achievement, and a range of protective factors including future orientation and goal setting. Results suggest this program approach may be suitable promoting healthy adolescent development for girls.

  7. [Use of electronic media in adolescence. Results of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampert, T; Sygusch, R; Schlack, R

    2007-01-01

    The use of electronic media is playing an ever greater role in adolescents' recreational behaviour. From the point of view of the health sciences, one question which arises is the extent to which intensive media use is detrimental to physical activity and adolescents' health development. The data from the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS), which were evaluated with a focus on 11-17-year-olds, confirm this heavy use of electronic media. However, there are distinct group-specific differences. For example, boys spend more time than girls on computers, the internet and games consoles, whereas girls more often listen to music and use their mobile phones. Watching television and videos is equally popular among girls and boys. Adolescents of low social status or a low level of school education use electronic media far more frequently and for longer times, especially television and video, games consoles and mobile phones. The same is true of boys and girls from the former states of the GDR and for boys (but not girls) with a background of migration. A connection to physical activity has been established for adolescents who spend more than five hours a day using electronic media. Moreover, this group of heavy users is more often affected by adiposity. The results of the KiGGS study, which are in line with earlier research findings, thus demonstrate that the use of electronic media is also of relevance from the point of view of public health and should be included in investigations into the health of children and adolescents.

  8. Adolescents' perceptions of healthy eating and attitudes toward regulatory measures: A Denmark-Hong Kong comparison

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chan, Kara; Prendergast, Gerard; Grønhøj, Alice

    eating habits with healthy eating than Danish respondents. Danish respondents were more likely to practice healthy eating at schools than Hong Kong respondents. Making tanks of cold water freely available everywhere was perceived to be most effective in discouraging the consumption of soft drink. Danish......This study explores cross cultural differences in the perceptions of healthy eating, contexts where healthy or unhealthy eating are practiced, and consumer evaluation of regulatory measures that discourage the consumption of unhealthy foods such as soft drinks. A survey was conducted of 386 Danish...... and Chinese adolescents using a structured questionnaire. Results showed that perceptions of healthy eating were generally based on concepts such as balance and moderation. Unhealthy eating was most frequently practiced at parties and in festive periods. Hong Kong respondents were more likely to associate...

  9. Parent & Family Influences on Adopting Healthy Weight-Related Behaviors: Views and Perceptions of Obese African-American Female Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Keeley J; McRitchie, Susan; Collier, David N; Lutes, Lesley D; Sumner, Susan

    2015-06-01

    RTI International is acknowledged for supporting the time of Susan McRitchie, Keeley Pratt and Susan Sumner to participate in the design, execution, or analysis of this study. East Carolina University would like to acknowledge Brittney France for being a triangulated investigator for the qualitative analysis and to the Pitt Memorial Hospital Foundation for financial support of the healthy lifestyles camp. Our purpose was to evaluate the views of obese African-American (AA) female adolescents concerning parent and family factors relating to obesity and a healthy lifestyle. Obese AA female adolescents enrolled in a residential healthy lifestyle program completed inventories measuring family functioning and perceptions of parenting styles, and participated in focus groups to identify themes regarding parent and family involvement in healthy lifestyle change. The majority of participants' mothers were scored as "inductive/authoritative" and fathers were "indulgent". Mothers reportedly were seen as more likely to encourage dieting to control weight than fathers. Common themes of the focus groups included a desire for family involvement, identification of family behaviors that were supportive as well as those which were perceived as unhelpful. Though generalizability of these results is limited by a homogenous small sample size, our results suggest that obese adolescents seeking weight loss treatment desire significant family involvement in their efforts. © 2015 National Medical Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Twelve-Month Effects of the COPE Healthy Lifestyles TEEN Program on Overweight and Depressive Symptoms in High School Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnyk, Bernadette M.; Jacobson, Diana; Kelly, Stephanie A.; Belyea, Michael J.; Shaibi, Gabriel Q.; Small, Leigh; O'Haver, Judith A.; Marsiglia, Flavio F.

    2015-01-01

    Background: We evaluated the 12-month effects of the COPE (Creating Opportunities for Personal Empowerment) Healthy Lifestyles TEEN (Thinking, Emotions, Exercise, Nutrition) program versus an attention control program (Healthy Teens) on overweight/obesity and depressive symptoms in high school adolescents. Methods: A cluster randomized controlled…

  11. Barriers to healthy eating: Findings from the focus groups with older people and children/adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazbare, Laura; Bech-Larsen, Tino

    or potential behavioural change in terms of healthier eating, discussing pre-selected healthy and unhealthy food categories. The revised Social Cognitive Theory was used as a theoretical framework. Results: The study suggests that the main obstacles to change can be grouped into motivational and implementation......), "liking" remains the main food choice criterion, including the healthy foods. Conclusion: The study presented a number of barriers to healthy eating identified by older people and children/adolescents. Based on the results of the study, further investigations should be undertaken in this area...... barriers. The motivational barriers are unwillingness to change eating habits, satisfaction with current diets and misconception about their healthiness; relatively low health consciousness and unwillingness to become excessively health-oriented. Implementation barriers include remembering the change...

  12. Lateral abdominal muscle size at rest and during abdominal drawing-in manoeuvre in healthy adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linek, Pawel; Saulicz, Edward; Wolny, Tomasz; Myśliwiec, Andrzej; Kokosz, Mirosław

    2015-02-01

    Lateral abdominal wall muscles in children and adolescents have not been characterised to date. In the present report, we examined the reliability of the ultrasound measurement and thickness of the oblique external muscle (OE), oblique internal muscle (OI) and transverse abdominal muscle (TrA) at rest and during abdominal drawing-in manoeuvre (ADIM) on both sides of the body in healthy adolescents. We also determined possible differences between boys and girls and defined any factors-such as body mass, height and BMI-that may affect the thickness of the abdominal muscles. B-mode ultrasound was used to assess OE, OI and TrA on both sides of the body in the supine position. Ultrasound measurements at rest and during ADIM were reliable in this age group (ICC3,3 > 0.92). OI was always the thickest and TrA the thinnest muscle on both sides of the body. In this group, an identical pattern of the contribution of the individual muscles to the structure of the lateral abdominal wall (OI > OE > TrA) was observed. At rest and during ADIM, no statistically significant side-to-side differences were demonstrated in either gender. The body mass constitutes between 30% and <50% of the thickness differences in all muscles under examination at rest and during ADIM. The structure of lateral abdominal wall in adolescents is similar to that of adults. During ADIM, the abdominal muscles in adolescents react similarly to those in adults. This study provided extensive information regarding the structure of the lateral abdominal wall in healthy adolescents. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Frequent electronic media communication with friends is associated with higher adolescent substance use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gommans, Rob; Stevens, Gonneke W J M; Finne, Emily; Cillessen, Antonius H N; Boniel-Nissim, Meyran; ter Bogt, Tom F M

    2015-02-01

    This study investigated the unique associations between electronic media communication (EMC) with friends and adolescent substance use (tobacco, alcohol, and cannabis), over and beyond the associations of face-to-face (FTF) interactions with friends and the average level of classroom substance use. Drawn from the cross-national 2009/2010 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study in The Netherlands, 5,642 Dutch adolescents (Mage = 14.29) reported on their substance use, EMC, and FTF interactions. Two-level multilevel analyses (participants nested within classrooms) were run. Electronic media communication was positively associated with adolescent substance use, though significantly more strongly with alcohol (β = 0.15, SEβ = 0.02) than with tobacco (β = 0.05, SEβ = 0.02, t (5,180) = 3.33, p Electronic media communication was uniquely associated with substance use, predominantly with alcohol use. Thus, adolescents' EMC and other online behaviors should not be left unnoticed in substance use research and prevention programs.

  14. Glucoregulatory and order effects on verbal episodic memory in healthy adolescents after oral glucose administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michael A; Foster, Jonathan K

    2008-10-01

    The ingestion of oral glucose has been observed to facilitate memory performance in both elderly individuals and in young adults. However, fewer studies have investigated the effect of glucose on memory in children or adolescents. In the present study, the ingestion of a glucose laden drink was observed to enhance verbal episodic memory performance in healthy adolescents under conditions of divided attention, relative to a placebo drink. Further analyses found that this glucose memory facilitation effect was observed only in adolescents exhibiting better glucoregulatory efficiency. These findings demonstrate that the glucose memory facilitation effect can be generalised to younger individuals. The importance of controlling for treatment order in within-subjects designs investigating the glucose memory enhancement effect is also discussed.

  15. Diet quality and attention capacity in European adolescents: the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence (HELENA) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksson, Pontus; Cuenca-García, Magdalena; Labayen, Idoia; Esteban-Cornejo, Irene; Henriksson, Hanna; Kersting, Mathilde; Vanhelst, Jeremy; Widhalm, Kurt; Gottrand, Frederic; Moreno, Luis A; Ortega, Francisco B

    2017-06-01

    Adolescence represents an important period for the development of executive functions, which are a set of important cognitive processes including attentional control. However, very little is known regarding the associations of nutrition with components of executive functions in adolescence. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate associations of dietary patterns and macronutrient composition with attention capacity in European adolescents. This cross-sectional study included 384 (165 boys and 219 girls) adolescents, aged 12·5-17·5 years, from five European countries in the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence study. Attention capacity was examined using the d2 Test of Attention. Dietary intake was assessed through two non-consecutive 24 h recalls using a computer-based self-administered tool. Three dietary patterns (diet quality index, ideal diet score and Mediterranean diet score) and macronutrient/fibre intakes were calculated. Linear regression analysis was conducted adjusting for age, sex, BMI, maternal education, family affluence scale, study centre and energy intake (only for Mediterranean diet score). In these adjusted regression analyses, higher diet quality index for adolescents and ideal diet score were associated with a higher attention capacity (standardised β=0·16, P=0·002 and β=0·15, P=0·005, respectively). Conversely, Mediterranean diet score or macronutrient/fibre intake were not associated with attention capacity (P>0·05). Our results suggest that healthier dietary patterns, as indicated by higher diet quality index and ideal diet score, were associated with attention capacity in adolescence. Intervention studies investigating a causal relationship between diet quality and attention are warranted.

  16. Examining the causal association of fasting glucose with blood pressure in healthy children and adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goharian, T S; Andersen, Lars Bo; Franks, P W

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine whether genetically raised fasting glucose (FG) levels are associated with blood pressure (BP) in healthy children and adolescents. We used 11 common genetic variants of FG discovered in genome-wide association studies (GWAS), including the rs560887 single...

  17. Structure and function of the healthy pre-adolescent pediatric gut microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollister, Emily B; Riehle, Kevin; Luna, Ruth Ann; Weidler, Erica M; Rubio-Gonzales, Michelle; Mistretta, Toni-Ann; Raza, Sabeen; Doddapaneni, Harsha V; Metcalf, Ginger A; Muzny, Donna M; Gibbs, Richard A; Petrosino, Joseph F; Shulman, Robert J; Versalovic, James

    2015-08-26

    The gut microbiome influences myriad host functions, including nutrient acquisition, immune modulation, brain development, and behavior. Although human gut microbiota are recognized to change as we age, information regarding the structure and function of the gut microbiome during childhood is limited. Using 16S rRNA gene and shotgun metagenomic sequencing, we characterized the structure, function, and variation of the healthy pediatric gut microbiome in a cohort of school-aged, pre-adolescent children (ages 7-12 years). We compared the healthy pediatric gut microbiome with that of healthy adults previously recruited from the same region (Houston, TX, USA). Although healthy children and adults harbored similar numbers of taxa and functional genes, their composition and functional potential differed significantly. Children were enriched in Bifidobacterium spp., Faecalibacterium spp., and members of the Lachnospiraceae, while adults harbored greater abundances of Bacteroides spp. From a functional perspective, significant differences were detected with respect to the relative abundances of genes involved in vitamin synthesis, amino acid degradation, oxidative phosphorylation, and triggering mucosal inflammation. Children's gut communities were enriched in functions which may support ongoing development, while adult communities were enriched in functions associated with inflammation, obesity, and increased risk of adiposity. Previous studies suggest that the human gut microbiome is relatively stable and adult-like after the first 1 to 3 years of life. Our results suggest that the healthy pediatric gut microbiome harbors compositional and functional qualities that differ from those of healthy adults and that the gut microbiome may undergo a more prolonged development than previously suspected.

  18. How Schools Can Promote Healthy Development for Newly Arrived Immigrant and Refugee Adolescents: Research Priorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeely, Clea A.; Morland, Lyn; Doty, S. Benjamin; Meschke, Laurie L.; Awad, Summer; Husain, Altaf; Nashwan, Ayat

    2017-01-01

    Background: The US education system must find creative and effective ways to foster the healthy development of the approximately 2 million newly arrived immigrant and refugee adolescents, many of whom contend with language barriers, limited prior education, trauma, and discrimination. We identify research priorities for promoting the school…

  19. Perceived Barriers to Healthy Eating and Physical Activity among Adolescents in Seven Arab Countries: A Cross-Cultural Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulrahman O. Musaiger

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To highlight the perceived personal, social, and environmental barriers to healthy eating and physical activity among Arab adolescents. Method. A multistage stratified sampling method was used to select 4698 students aged 15–18 years (2240 males and 2458 females from public schools. Seven Arab counties were included in the study, namely, Algeria, Jordan, Kuwait, Libya, Palestine, Syria, and the United Arab Emirates. Self-reported questionnaire was used to list the barriers to healthy eating and physical activity facing these adolescents. Results. It was found that lack of information on healthy eating, lack of motivation to eat a healthy diet, and not having time to prepare or eat healthy food were the main barriers to healthy eating among both genders. For physical activity, the main barriers selected were lack of motivation to do physical activity, less support from teachers, and lack of time to do physical activity. In general, females faced more barriers to physical activity than males in all countries included. There were significant differences between males and females within each country and among countries for most barriers. Conclusion. Intervention programmes to combat obesity and other chronic noncommunicable diseases in the Arab world should include solutions to overcome the barriers to weight maintenance, particularly the sociocultural barriers to practising physical activity.

  20. [Electronic media in obesity prevention in childhood and adolescence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weihrauch-Blüher, Susann; Koormann, Stefanie; Brauchmann, Jana; Wiegand, Susanna

    2016-11-01

    The increasing prevalence of childhood obesity is - amongst other factors - due to changed leisure time habits with decreased physical activity and increased media consumption. However, electronic media such as tablets and smartphones might also provide a novel intervention approach to prevent obesity in childhood and adolescence. A summary of interventions applying electronic media to prevent childhood obesity is provided to investigate short term effects as well as long term results of these interventions. A systematic literature search was performed in PubMed/Web of Science to identify randomized and/or controlled studies that have investigated the efficacy of electronic media for obesity prevention below the age of 18. A total of 909 studies were identified, and 88 studies were included in the analysis. Active video games did increase physical activity compared to inactive games when applied within a peer group. Interventions via telephone had positive effects on certain lifestyle-relevant behaviours. Interventions via mobile were shown to decrease dropout rates by sending regular SMS messages. To date, interventions via smartphones are scarce for adolescents; however, they might improve cardiorespiratory fitness. The results from internet-based interventions showed a trend towards positive effects on lifestyle-relevant behaviors. The combination of different electronic media did not show superior results compared to interventions with only one medium. Interventions via TV, DVD or video-based interventions may increase physical activity when offered as an incentive, however, effects on weight status were not observed. Children and adolescents currently grow up in a technology- and media-rich society with computers, tablets, smartphones, etc. used daily. Thus, interventions applying electronic media to prevent childhood obesity are contemporary. Available studies applying electronic media are however heterogeneous in terms of applied medium and duration

  1. Serum insulin-like growth factor-I in 1030 healthy children, adolescents, and adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, A; Bang, P; Hertel, Niels

    1994-01-01

    Serum levels of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) increase with age and pubertal development. The large variation in circulating IGF-I levels in adolescence makes it difficult to use the IGF-I value of a single child in the assessment of his growth status. In addition, the interference of IGF......-binding proteins in many IGF-I assays contributes to this problem. We measured IGF-I in acid-ethanol-extracted serum from 1030 healthy children, adolescents, and adults, employing a RIA that reduces interference of IGF-binding proteins by using monoiodinated Tyr31-[125I]des-(1-3)IGF-I as radioligand. Mean serum...... volume. Multiple regression analysis revealed that serum IGF-I levels predicted height velocity in the following year (r = 0.33; P

  2. Sleep duration and insulin resistance in healthy black and white adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Karen A; Dahl, Ronald E; Owens, Jane F; Lee, Laisze; Hall, Martica

    2012-10-01

    Poor sleep may play a role in insulin resistance and diabetes risk. Yet few studies of sleep and insulin resistance have focused on the important developmental period of adolescence. To address this gap, we examined the association of sleep and insulin resistance in healthy adolescents. Cross-sectional. Community setting in one high school. 245 (137 African Americans, 116 males) high school students. Participants provided a fasting blood draw and kept a sleep log and wore a wrist actigraph for one week during the school year. Participants' families were from low to middle class based on family Hollingshead scores. Total sleep time across the week averaged 7.4 h by diary and 6.4 h by actigraph; homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance ([HOMA-IR] unadjusted) averaged 4.13. Linear regression analyses adjusted for age, race, gender, body mass index, and waist circumference showed that the shorter the sleep, the higher the HOMA-IR, primarily due to sleep duration during the week. No evidence was found for long sleep being associated with elevated HOMA-IR. Fragmented sleep was not associated with HOMA-IR but was associated with glucose levels. Reduced sleep duration is associated with HOMA-IR in adolescence. Long sleep duration is not associated. Interventions to extend sleep duration may reduce diabetes risk in youth.

  3. High cardiometabolic risk in healthy Chilean adolescents: associations with anthropometric, biological and lifestyle factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, Raquel; Correa-Burrows, Paulina; Reyes, Marcela; Blanco, Estela; Albala, Cecilia; Gahagan, Sheila

    2016-02-01

    To analyse the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in healthy adolescents of low to middle socio-economic status and to study the influence of anthropometric, biological and lifestyle factors on the risk of metabolic syndrome (MetS). Cross-sectional study. BMI, waist circumference, blood pressure, fat and lean mass (by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), TAG, HDL-cholesterol, glucose, insulin, homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR), food intake and physical activity were measured. Cardiovascular risk factors were defined using the International Diabetes Federation criteria and insulin resistance using HOMA-IR ≥2.6. Bivariate and multivariate regressions examined the associations between MetS and anthropometric, biological and lifestyle factors. Observational cohort study including Chilean adolescents, who were part of a follow-up study beginning in infancy. Adolescents aged 16-17 years (n 667). In the sample, 16.2% had obesity and 9.5% had MetS. Low HDL-cholesterol (69.9%), abdominal obesity (33.3%) and fasting hyperglycaemia (8.7%) were the most prevalent cardiovascular risk factors. In males, obesity (OR=3.7; 95% CI 1.2, 10.8), insulin resistance (OR=3.0; 95% CI 1.1, 8.2), physical inactivity (OR=2.9; 95% CI 1.1, 7.7) and sarcopenia (OR=21.2; 95% CI 4.2, 107.5) significantly increased the risk of MetS. In females, insulin resistance (OR=4.9; 95% CI 1.9, 12.6) and sarcopenia (OR=3.6; 95% CI 1.1, 11.9) were significantly associated with MetS. High prevalences of obesity, abdominal obesity, dyslipidaemia, fasting hyperglycaemia and MetS were found in healthy adolescents. In both sexes, sarcopenia and insulin resistance were important risk factors of MetS. Promotion of active lifestyles at the school level and regulation of the sale of energy-dense foods are needed.

  4. A Practitioner's Guide to Electronic Cigarettes in the Adolescent Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildick-Smith, Gordon J; Pesko, Michael F; Shearer, Lee; Hughes, Jenna M; Chang, Jane; Loughlin, Gerald M; Ipp, Lisa S

    2015-12-01

    We present guidance on electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) for health care professionals who care for adolescents. ENDS provide users with inhaled nicotine in an aerosolized mist. Popular forms of ENDS include e-cigarettes and vape-pens. ENDS range in disposability, customization, and price. Growth of ENDS usage has been particularly rapid in the adolescent population, surpassing that of conventional cigarettes in 2014. Despite surging use throughout the United States, little is known about the health risks posed by ENDS, especially in the vulnerable adolescent population. These products may potentiate nicotine addiction in adolescents and have been found to contain potentially harmful chemicals. The growth in these products may be driven by relaxed purchasing restrictions for minors, lack of advertising regulations, and youth friendly flavors. Taken together, ENDS represent a new and growing health risk to the adolescent population, one that health care professionals should address with their patients. We suggest a patient centered strategy to incorporate ENDS use into routine substance counseling. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Does a Nutrition Education Programme Change the Knowledge and Practice of Healthy Diets among High School Adolescents in Chennai, India?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, M. Anitha; Shriraam, Vanishree; Zachariah, Rony; Harries, Anthony D.; Satyanarayana, Srinath; Tetali, Shailaja; Anchala, Raghupathy; Muthukumar, Diviya; Sathiyasekaran, B. W. C.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Nutrition education is used as a way of promoting lifelong healthy eating practices among school adolescents. There is limited published information on the impact of nutrition education programmes in India. Objectives: To assess the knowledge and practices of high school students with respect to healthy diets before and after a…

  6. The Motivational Impact of Wearable Healthy Lifestyle Technologies: A Self-Determination Perspective on Fitbits with Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerner, Charlotte; Goodyear, Victoria A.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Considerable numbers of young people are not meeting physical activity guidelines. Wearable fitness devices can provide opportunities for physical activity promotion. Purpose: The aim of the study was to explore whether wearable healthy lifestyle technologies impacted on adolescents' (13- to 14-year-olds) motivation for physical…

  7. Theory of mind, insecure attachment and paranoia in adolescents with early psychosis and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korver-Nieberg, Nikie; Fett, Anne-Kathrin J; Meijer, Carin J; Koeter, Maarten W J; Shergill, Sukhi S; de Haan, Lieuwe; Krabbendam, Lydia

    2013-08-01

    Impaired Theory of Mind (ToM) is found in adults with schizophrenia and is associated with paranoid symptoms. Insecure attachment is proposed to underlie impaired ToM as well as paranoia. Insight into associations between insecure attachment and impaired ToM skills may help clinicians and patients to understand interpersonal difficulties and use this knowledge to improve recovery. This study used a visual perspective-taking task to investigate whether cognitive ToM is already impaired in adolescents with early psychosis as compared to controls. Also investigated was whether perspective-taking and paranoia are associated with insecure (adult) attachment. Thirty-two adolescent patients with early psychosis and 78 healthy controls participated in this cross-sectional study design and completed the level 1 perspective-taking task, psychopathology assessments (CAPE, PANSS), paranoid thoughts (GPTS), attachment style (PAM) and the WASI vocabulary. Patients did not significantly differ in level-1 perspective-taking behaviour compared to healthy controls. No significant associations were found between perspective-taking, paranoia and attachment. Insecure attachment was significantly related to paranoid thoughts, after controlling for illness-related symptoms. No impairment of level-1 perspective-taking was found in adolescent patients with early psychosis compared to healthy controls. Results indicate that level-1 perspective-taking is not impaired during the early stages of psychotic illness. The association between paranoia and attachment support previous findings and provide further insight into the nature of psychotic symptoms. Understanding the role of attachment in paranoia may help patients and their care workers to gain insight into the reasons for the development or persistence of symptoms. Future research should compare early psychosis samples with more chronic samples to explore whether perspective-taking deteriorates during the course of the illness.

  8. Communicating healthy eating to adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chan, Kara; Prendergast, Gerard; Grønhøj, Alice

    2009-01-01

    ). These three schools may not be representative of all schools in Hong Kong or elsewhere, thus limiting the generalizabilty of the findings. Practical implications - The study can serve as a guideline for social services marketing professionals targeting adolescents. Looking at the findings in relation...... to socializing agents, social services marketers can consider influencing the adolescents eating habits through the parents. As government publicity was perceived as a relatively weak socializing agent, there is a need to review health education materials targeting adolescents. Looking at the findings...... in relation to different advertising appeals discouraging unhealthy eating, news and fear appeals should be considered, as these were considered relatively more likable and effective than other types of appeals. Originality/value - This paper offers insights into designing communication strategies...

  9. Electronic media use and insomnia complaints in German adolescents: gender differences in use patterns and sleep problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Karoline; Cohrs, Stefan; Skarupke, Christian; Görke, Monique; Szagun, Bertram; Schlack, Robert

    2017-02-01

    Electronic media play an important role in the everyday lives of children and adolescents and have been shown to be associated with sleep problems. The objective of this study was to assess the associations between time spent using different electronic media and insomnia complaints (IC) in German adolescents with particular respect to gender differences in use patterns and associations with IC. Cross-sectional data of a weighted total of 7533 adolescents aged 11-17 stem from the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS study) that was conducted from 2003 to 2006. The assessment of IC and time spent using different electronic media (television, computer/internet, video games, total screen time, mobile phones, and music) was included in a self-report questionnaire. Binary logistic regression analyses were performed to assess associations between time spent per day with each electronic media and IC. Age, SES, emotional problems (anxiety/depression) and presence of a medical condition were considered as covariates in the adjusted model. Boys and girls were considered separately. For boys: computer/internet use of ≥3 h/d (AOR = 2.56, p non-listeners. Everyday use of electronic media devices is associated with IC in adolescents. Clinicians dealing with adolescents referred for sleep problems should be aware of gender-specific patterns of media use and sleep problems.

  10. Cost of talking parents, healthy teens: a worksite-based intervention to promote parent-adolescent sexual health communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladapo, Joseph A; Elliott, Marc N; Bogart, Laura M; Kanouse, David E; Vestal, Katherine D; Klein, David J; Ratner, Jessica A; Schuster, Mark A

    2013-11-01

    To examine the cost and cost-effectiveness of implementing Talking Parents, Healthy Teens, a worksite-based parenting program designed to help parents address sexual health with their adolescent children. We enrolled 535 parents with adolescent children at 13 worksites in southern California in a randomized trial. We used time and wage data from employees involved in implementing the program to estimate fixed and variable costs. We determined cost-effectiveness with nonparametric bootstrap analysis. For the intervention, parents participated in eight weekly 1-hour teaching sessions at lunchtime. The program included games, discussions, role plays, and videotaped role plays to help parents learn to communicate with their children about sex-related topics, teach their children assertiveness and decision-making skills, and supervise and interact with their children more effectively. Implementing the program cost $543.03 (standard deviation, $289.98) per worksite in fixed costs, and $28.05 per parent (standard deviation, $4.08) in variable costs. At 9 months, this $28.05 investment per parent yielded improvements in number of sexual health topics discussed, condom teaching, and communication quality and openness. The cost-effectiveness was $7.42 per new topic discussed using parental responses and $9.18 using adolescent responses. Other efficacy outcomes also yielded favorable cost-effectiveness ratios. Talking Parents, Healthy Teens demonstrated the feasibility and cost-effectiveness of a worksite-based parenting program to promote parent-adolescent communication about sexual health. Its cost is reasonable and is unlikely to be a significant barrier to adoption and diffusion for most worksites considering its implementation. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. College students as facilitators in reducing adolescent obesity disparity in Southern Appalachia: Team Up for Healthy Living.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slawson, Deborah Leachman; Dalton, William T; Dula, Taylor McKeehan; Southerland, Jodi; Wang, Liang; Littleton, Mary Ann; Mozen, Diana; Relyea, George; Schetzina, Karen; Lowe, Elizabeth F; Stoots, James M; Wu, Tiejian

    2015-07-01

    The proportion of obese adolescents in Southern Appalachia is among the highest in the nation. Through funding from the National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities--National Institutes of Health, the Team Up for Healthy Living project was a cluster-randomized trial targeting obesity prevention in adolescents through a cross-peer intervention. The specific aims of the project were to: 1) develop a peer-based health education program focusing on establishing positive peer norms towards healthy eating and physical activity (PA) among high school students, 2) test program efficacy, and 3) explore mechanisms underlying the program. The study was guided by the Theory of Planned Behavior, which presupposes that human behavior is primarily driven by attitude, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, and social support. To deliver the intervention, undergraduate students from the disciplines of public health, nutrition, and kinesiology were hired as peer facilitators. Ten area high schools were invited to participate, were matched on demographics and then randomized to intervention or control. The primary outcomes of the study included body mass status, dietary behaviors, PA, and sedentary behaviors which were assessed at baseline and at three and twelve months post baseline. Intervention schools received Team Up for Healthy Living curriculum, which consists of eight 40-minute sessions. The curriculum focused on improving nutrition awareness, PA, leadership and communication. Control schools received their regularly scheduled Lifetime Wellness curriculum. The long-term goal of the study was to establish an effective academia-community partnership program to address adolescent obesity disparity in Southern Appalachia. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Relationships between Dietary Intake and Cognitive Function in Healthy Korean Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin Young; Kang, Seung Wan

    2017-01-01

    It has long been theorized that a relatively robust dietary intake impacts cognitive function. The aim of the study was to explore dietary intake and cognitive function in healthy Korean children and adolescents. Three hundred and seventeen healthy children with no previous diagnosis of neurologic or psychiatric disorders were evaluated (167 girls and 150 boys with a mean age of 11.8 ± 3.3 years). Analysis indicators including food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) consisting of 76 items and neurocognitive tests including symbol digit modalities (SDMT), verbal memory, visual memory, shift attention, reasoning, and digit span (forward and backward) tests were observed and recorded. The standard deviation in reaction time was significantly shorter in girls than in boys (p Coca-Cola showed negative correlation with the results of verbal memory tests (p < 0.05). The consumption of mushrooms showed positive correlation with visual memory and reasoning test results (p < 0.05). The consumption of nuts showed positive correlation with SDMT results (p < 0.01). Omission errors were negatively correlated with the intake of protein, vitamin B1, vitamin B2, niacin, and vitamin B6 (p < 0.05), as well as with vitamin D and zinc intake (p < 0.01). Reaction time showed positive correlation with caffeine intake (p < 0.05). Omission errors were positively correlated with the consumption of rice and ramyeon (p < 0.01). Reaction time showed positive correlation with the consumption of snacks (p < 0.05). Standard deviations in reaction times showed positive correlation with the consumption of rice (p < 0.01), snacks, and chocolate (p < 0.05). Omission errors were negatively correlated with the consumption of rice with mixed grains (p < 0.01) and eggs (p < 0.05). The relationship between dietary intake and cognitive function is generally better observed in girls than in boys. The consumption of healthy foods is correlated with good cognitive function. These results suggest that diet is

  13. Effectiveness of the 'Healthy School and Drugs' prevention programme on adolescents' substance use: a randomized clustered trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malmberg, M.; Kleinjan, M.; Overbeek, G.; Vermulst, A.; Monshouwer, K.; Lammers, J.; Vollebergh, W.A.M.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the effectiveness of the Healthy School and Drugs programme on alcohol, tobacco and marijuana use among Dutch early adolescents. Design: Randomized clustered trial with two intervention conditions (i.e. e-learning and integral). Setting: General population of 11-15-year-old

  14. Effectiveness of the 'Healthy School and Drugs' prevention programme on adolescents' substance use : A randomized clustered trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malmberg, Monique; Kleinjan, Marloes; Overbeek, Geertjan; Vermulst, Ad; Monshouwer, Karin; Lammers, Jeroen; Vollebergh, Wilma A M; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the effectiveness of the Healthy School and Drugs programme on alcohol, tobacco and marijuana use among Dutch early adolescents. Design: Randomized clustered trial with two intervention conditions (i.e. e-learning and integral). Setting: General population of 11-15-year-old

  15. Development and Pilot Testing of the Dual Task Screen in Healthy Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Jaclyn; Nicholson, Rachel; Slomine, Beth; Suskauer, Stacy

    Athletes with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) should refrain from high-risk activities until recovered (symptom free and cognitive and physical exam findings normalize). Studies have suggested that this examination may not be sufficiently sensitive because dual-task paradigms, which typically assess motor performance while a person simultaneously completes a distractor task, can detect residual deficits in athletes who otherwise appear recovered from mTBI. Paradigms used to date are time-intensive procedures conducted in laboratory settings. Here, we report findings from a pilot study of the Dual Task Screen (DTS), which is a brief evaluation with two dual-task paradigms. In 32 healthy female adolescents, the DTS was administered in a mean of 5.63 min in the community, and every participant had poorer dual-condition performance on at least one of the motor tasks. The DTS is a clinically feasible measure and merits additional study regarding utility in adolescents with mTBIs. Copyright © 2018 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  16. Using theory of planned behavior to predict healthy eating of Danish adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønhøj, Alice; Bech-Larsen, Tino; Chan, Kara

    2013-01-01

    in Denmark. Findings - Perceived behavioural control followed by attitudes were the most important factors in predicting behavioural intention. Females and adolescents with a higher BMI were also found to have a stronger behavioural intention. Healthy eating was perceived to be beneficial and useful, and......, to a lesser extent, interesting and desirable. Family, TV programmes, and teachers were influential socialization agents. Research limitations – The survey responses may be affected by a social desirability bias. The survey includes a non-probability sample and results may not be generalized to all Danish...

  17. Mental toughness, sleep disturbances, and physical activity in patients with multiple sclerosis compared to healthy adolescents and young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadeghi Bahmani D

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Dena Sadeghi Bahmani,1 Markus Gerber,2 Nadeem Kalak,1 Sakari Lemola,3 Peter J Clough,4 Pasquale Calabrese,5 Vahid Shaygannejad,6 Uwe Pühse,2 Edith Holsboer-Trachsler,1 Serge Brand1,2 1Psychiatric Clinics of the University of Basel, Center for Affective, Stress and Sleep Disorders, 2Department of Sport, Exercise and Health, Sport Science Section, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland; 3Department of Psychology, University of Warwick, Coventry, 4Department of Psychology, Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester, UK; 5Division of Molecular and Cognitive Neuroscience, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland; 6Department of Neurology and Isfahan Neurosciences Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS is the most common chronic autoimmune demyelinating and inflammatory disease of the central nervous system, afflicting both the body and mind. The risk of suffering from MS is 2.5–3.5 times greater in females than in males. While there is extant research on fatigue, depression, and cognitive impairment in patients with MS during its clinical course, there is a lack of research focusing on sleep, psychological functioning, and physical activity (PA at the point of disease onset. The aims of the present study were therefore, to assess the markers of mental toughness (MT as a dimension of psychological functioning, sleep disturbances (SD, and PA among patients at the moment of disease onset and to compare these with the corresponding values for healthy adolescents and young adults. Methods: A total of 23 patients with MS at disease onset (mean age =32.31 years; 91% females, 23 healthy adolescents (mean age =17.43 years; 82% females, and 25 healthy young adults (mean age =20.72 years; 80% females took part in the study. They completed questionnaires covering sociodemographic data, MT, SD, and PA. Results: Patients with MS had similar scores for MT traits as those in healthy

  18. Mental State Decoding in Adolescent Boys with Major Depressive Disorder versus Sex-Matched Healthy Controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellick, William; Sharp, Carla

    2016-01-01

    Several adult depression studies have investigated mental state decoding, the basis for theory of mind, using the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test. Findings have been mixed, but a comprehensive study found a greater severity of depression to be associated with poorer mental state decoding. Importantly, there has yet to be a similar study of adolescent depression. Converging evidence suggests that atypical mental state decoding may have particularly profound effects for psychosocial functioning among depressed adolescent boys. Adolescent boys with major depressive disorder (MDD, n = 33) and sex-matched healthy controls (HCs, n = 84) completed structured clinical interviews, self-report measures of psychopathology and the Child Eyes Test (CET). The MDD group performed significantly better than HCs on the CET overall (p = 0.002), underscored by greater accuracy for negatively valenced items (p = 0.003). Group differences on items depicting positive (p = 0.129) and neutral mental states (p = 0.081) were nonsignificant. Enhanced mental state decoding among depressed adolescent boys may play a role in the maintenance of and vulnerability to adolescent depression. Findings and implications are discussed. Limitations of this study include a reliance on self-report data for HC boys, as well as a lack of 'pure' depression among the boys with MDD. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. How Family Socioeconomic Status, Peer Behaviors, and School-Based Intervention on Healthy Habits Influence Adolescent Eating Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Maldonado, Concepción; Ramos, Pilar; Moreno, Carmen; Rivera, Francisco

    2018-01-01

    Psychologists in schools can play an important role in developing policies and programs to promote healthy eating habits. This study analyses the contributions of family socioeconomic status, peer influence (schoolmates' food consumption), and school-based nutrition interventions to explain adolescent eating behaviors. Data were obtained from the…

  20. Effects of the COPE Cognitive Behavioral Skills Building TEEN Program on the Healthy Lifestyle Behaviors and Mental Health of Appalachian Early Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoying, Jacqueline; Melnyk, Bernadette Mazurek; Arcoleo, Kimberly

    2016-01-01

    Appalachian adolescents have a high prevalence of obesity and mental health problems that exceed national rates, with the two conditions often co-existing. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of a 15-session cognitive-behavioral skills building intervention (COPE [Creating Opportunities for Personal Empowerment] Healthy Lifestyles TEEN [Thinking, Emotions, Exercise, and Nutrition] Program) on healthy lifestyle behaviors, physical health, and mental health of rural early adolescents. A pre- and posttest pre-experimental design was used with follow-up immediately after the intervention. Results support improvement in the students' anxiety, depression, disruptive behavior, and self-concept scores after the COPE intervention compared with baseline. Additionally, healthy lifestyle behavior scores improved before the intervention compared with after the intervention. COPE is a promising intervention that improves mental health and healthy lifestyle behaviors and can be integrated routinely into school-based settings. Copyright © 2016 National Association of Pediatric Nurse Practitioners. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Serum inhibin B in healthy pubertal and adolescent boys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, A M; Juul, A; Petersen, J H

    1997-01-01

    correlated strongly with age, and when the effect of age was taken into account, only the partial correlation between inhibin B and LH/testosterone remained statistically significant. At stage II of puberty, the positive partial correlation between inhibin B and LH/testosterone was still present. At stage......Inhibin B levels were measured in serum from 400 healthy Danish prepubertal, pubertal, and adolescent males, aged 6-20 yr, in a cross-sectional study using a recently developed immunoassay that is specific for inhibin B, the physiologically important inhibin form in men. In addition, serum levels...... of FSH, LH, testosterone, and estradiol levels were measured. Serum levels of inhibin B, FSH, LH, testosterone, and estradiol all increased significantly between stages I and II of puberty. From stage II of puberty the inhibin B level was relatively constant, whereas the FSH level continued to increase...

  2. Predictors of Memory Deficits in Adolescents and Young Adults with Congenital Heart Disease Compared to Healthy Controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy A. Pike

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Adolescents and young adults with congenital heart disease [CHD] show a range of memory deficits, which can dramatically impact their clinical outcomes and quality of life. However, few studies have identified predictors of these memory changes. The purpose of this investigation was to identify predictors of memory deficits in adolescents and young adults with CHD after surgical palliation compared to healthy controls. Method: 156 adolescents and young adults [80 CHD and 76 controls; age 14-21 years] were recruited and administered an instrument to assess memory [Wide Range Assessment of Memory and Learning 2nd Edition – general memory index (GMI score] and completed questionnaires that measure anxiety, depression, sleepiness, health status, and self-efficacy. Descriptive and non-parametric statistics were used to assess group differences, and logistic regression to identify predictors of memory deficits. Results: CHD subjects consisted of 58% males, median age 17 years, 41% Hispanic, and medians of 2 previous heart surgeries and 14 years since last surgery. Memory deficits [GMI < 85] were identified in 50% CHD compared to 4% healthy controls [median GMI 85 vs. 108, p <0.001]. Of GMI subscale medians, CHD subjects had significantly worse memory performance vs. healthy controls [verbal 88 vs. 105, p <0.001; attention 88 vs. 109, p<0.001; working memory 86 vs. 108, p <0.001]. No significant differences appeared between groups for visual memory. Multiple clinical and psychosocial factors were identified which were statistically different on bivariate analyses between the subjects with and without memory deficits. By multivariate analysis, male gender, number of surgeries, anxiety, and self-efficacy emerged as independent predictors of memory deficits. Conclusion: Adolescents and young adults with CHD, more than a decade since their last surgery, show significant verbal, attention and working memory deficits over controls. To enhance

  3. A School-Based, Peer-Led, Social Marketing Intervention To Engage Spanish Adolescents in a Healthy Lifestyle ("We Are Cool"-Som la Pera Study): A Parallel-Cluster Randomized Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aceves-Martins, Magaly; Llauradó, Elisabet; Tarro, Lucia; Moriña, David; Papell-Garcia, Ignasi; Prades-Tena, Jordi; Kettner-Høeberg, Helle; Puiggròs, Francesc; Arola, Lluís; Davies, Amy; Giralt, Montse; Solà, Rosa

    2017-08-01

    Encouraging adolescents to adopt healthy lifestyles can be challenging. The aim of the "Som la Pera" study was to engage adolescents by applying new strategies to increase both their fruit and vegetable consumption and their physical activity (PA) while reducing their sedentary behavior. In disadvantaged neighborhoods of Reus (Spain), two high schools were randomly assigned to the intervention (n = 170 adolescents 13- to 16-year-olds) and two were assigned to the control group (n = 223 adolescents 13- to 16-year-olds). The intervention, which lasted 12 months and spanned 2 academic years (2013-2015), used social marketing (SM) to improve healthy choices. The peer-led strategy involved 5 adolescents who designed and implemented 10 activities as challenges for their 165 school-aged peers. The control group received no intervention. To assess self-reported lifestyles in both groups, the Health Behavior in School-Aged Children Survey was used at baseline and end of study. After 12 months, intervention adolescents showed an increase of 28.9% in ≥1 fruit/day (p < 0.01) and of 18.5% in ≥6 hours/week of PA (p < 0.01) compared with controls. Additionally, intervention group males had an increase of 28.8% in ≥1 vegetable/day (p < 0.01) and of 15.6% in ≤2 hours/day of sedentary activity (p = 0.01) compared with controls. A school-based, peer-led, SM intervention developed by adolescents attending high schools in low-income neighborhoods effectively improved the healthy choices of their school-aged peers, leading to increased fruit consumption and PA in adolescents of both genders. Furthermore, adolescent males were more sensitive to improvements in healthy choices, showing increased vegetable consumption and decreased sedentary behavior.

  4. Association between high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level and pulmonary function in healthy Korean adolescents: the JS high school study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ji Hye; Mun, Seyeon; Choi, Dong Phil; Lee, Joo Young; Kim, Hyeon Chang

    2017-12-11

    Accumulating evidence suggests that high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol is associated with pulmonary function and pulmonary disorders. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between HDL cholesterol and pulmonary function in healthy adolescents. This cross-sectional study was based on data collected for the JS High School study. The analysis included 644 adolescents (318 male and 326 female) aged 15-16 years old and free from asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Fasting blood samples were collected for hematologic and biochemical assessment. Forced vital capacity volume (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in the 1 s (FEV1) were measured using dry-rolling-seal spirometry. The associations between HDL cholesterol and pulmonary function were analyzed using multiple linear regression models. Among male adolescents, an increase of 1.0 mg/dL in HDL cholesterol was associated with 10 mL decrease in FVC (p = 0.013) and FEV1 (p = 0.013) after adjusting for age, height, weight, alcohol drinking, smoking, physical activity, systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, triglyceride, and monthly household income. Percent predicted values of FVC (p = 0.036) and FEV1 (p = 0.017) were also inversely associated with HDL cholesterol. However, among female adolescents, HDL cholesterol level was not significantly associated with absolute or percent predictive value of FVC and FEV1. Higher HDL cholesterol level may be associated with decreased pulmonary function among healthy male adolescents. The sex differences observed in the association between HDL cholesterol and pulmonary function need further investigation.

  5. Meningococcal Serogroup B Bivalent rLP2086 Vaccine Elicits Broad and Robust Serum Bactericidal Responses in Healthy Adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesikari, Timo; Østergaard, Lars Jørgen; Diez-Domingo, Javier

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B (MnB) is a leading cause of invasive meningococcal disease in adolescents and young adults. A recombinant factor H binding protein (fHBP) vaccine (Trumenba(®); bivalent rLP2086) was recently approved in the United States in individuals aged 10-25 years....... Immunogenicity and safety of 2- or 3-dose schedules of bivalent rLP2086 were assessed in adolescents. METHODS: Healthy adolescents (11 to ... bactericidal antibody assay using human complement (hSBA). Safety assessments included local and systemic reactions and adverse events. RESULTS: Bivalent rLP2086 was immunogenic when administered as 2 or 3 doses; the most robust hSBA responses occurred with 3 doses. The proportion of subjects with hSBA titers...

  6. Process evaluation of a community-based intervention program: Healthy Youth Healthy Communities, an adolescent obesity prevention project in Fiji.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waqa, Gade; Moodie, Marj; Schultz, Jimaima; Swinburn, Boyd

    2013-12-01

    Nearly one-half of the adult population in Fiji between the ages of 15-64 years is either overweight or obese; and rates amongst school children have, on average, doubled during the last decade. There is an urgent need to scale up the promotion of healthy behaviors and environments using a multi-sectoral approach. The Healthy Youth Healthy Community (HYHC) project in Fiji used a settings approach in secondary schools and faith-based organizations to increase the capacity of the whole community, including churches, mosques and temples, to promote healthy eating and regular physical activity, and to prevent unhealthy weight gain in adolescents aged 13-18 years. The team consisted of a study manager, project coordinator and four research assistants (RAs) committed to planning, designing and facilitating the implementation of intervention programs in collaboration with other stakeholders, such as the wider school communities, government and non-governmental organizations and business partners. Process data were collected on all intervention activities and analyzed by dose, frequency and reach for each specific strategy. The Fiji Action Plan included nine objectives for the school settings; four were based on nutrition and two on physical activity in schools, plus three general objectives, namely capacity building, social marketing and evaluation. Long-term change in nutritional behavior was difficult to achieve; a key contributor to this was the unhealthy food served in the school canteens. Whilst capacity-building proved to be one of the best mechanisms for intervening, it is important to consider the cultural and social factors influencing health behaviors and affecting specific groups.

  7. Daily sugar-sweetened beverage consumption and insulin resistance in European adolescents: the HELENA (Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondaki, Katerina; Grammatikaki, Evangelia; Jiménez-Pavón, David; De Henauw, Stefaan; González-Gross, Marcela; Sjöstrom, Michael; Gottrand, Frédéric; Molnar, Dénes; Moreno, Luis A; Kafatos, Anthony; Gilbert, Chantal; Kersting, Mathilde; Manios, Yannis

    2013-03-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the relationship between the consumption of selected food groups and insulin resistance, with an emphasis on sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB). The present research is a large multicentre European study in adolescents, the HELENA-CSS (Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence Cross-Sectional Study). Homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR) was calculated. Several anthropometric and lifestyle characteristics were recorded. Dietary assessment was conducted by using a short FFQ. The participants were a subset of the original sample (n 546) with complete data on glucose, insulin and FFQ. All participants were recruited at schools. Median (25th, 75th percentile) HOMA-IR was 0.62 (0.44, 0.87). Mean HOMA-IR was significantly higher among adolescents consuming brown bread ≤1 time/week than among those consuming 2-6 times/week (P = 0·011). Mean values of HOMA-IR were also higher in adolescents consuming SSB >5 times/week compared with those consuming less frequently, although a statistically significant difference was detected between those consuming SSB 5-6 times/week and 2-4 times/week (P = 0.049). Multiple linear regression analysis showed that only the frequency of SSB consumption was significantly associated with HOMA-IR after controlling for potential confounders. In particular, it was found that HOMA-IR levels were higher among adolescents consuming SSB 5-6 times/week and ≥1 time/d compared with those consuming ≤1 time/week by 0.281 and 0.191 units, respectively (P = 0.009 and 0.046, respectively). The present study revealed that daily consumption of SSB was related with increased HOMA-IR in adolescents.

  8. The Next Level of Research on Electronic Play: Potential Benefits and Contextual Influences for Children and Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorothy E. Salonius-Pasternak

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Most research on electronic play has focused on its possible negative effects for children and adolescents, and contextual factors such as socioeconomic status (SES and culture are rarely considered. This article considers the potential benefits of electronic play from a psychological perspective, as well as individual and contextual factors that may shape the influence of electronic play for children and adolescents. Demographics of players and the games themselves are presented, and recommendations for research and policy are discussed.

  9. Evaluation of healthy and sensory indexes of sweetened beverages using an electronic tongue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dias, Luís G., E-mail: ldias@ipb.pt [CIMO – Escola Superior Agrária, Instituto Politécnico de Bragança, Campus Santa Apolónia, Apartado 1172, 5301-855 Bragança (Portugal); Sequeira, Cédric, E-mail: cedric.b.s@hotmail.com [CIMO – Escola Superior Agrária, Instituto Politécnico de Bragança, Campus Santa Apolónia, Apartado 1172, 5301-855 Bragança (Portugal); Veloso, Ana C.A., E-mail: anaveloso@isec.pt [Instituto Politécnico de Coimbra, ISEC, DEQB, Rua Pedro Nunes, Quinta da Nora, 3030-199 Coimbra (Portugal); CEB – Centre of Biological Engineering, University of Minho, Campus de Gualtar, 4710-057 Braga (Portugal); Sousa, Mara E.B.C., E-mail: mebsousadias@gmail.com [CIMO – Escola Superior Agrária, Instituto Politécnico de Bragança, Campus Santa Apolónia, Apartado 1172, 5301-855 Bragança (Portugal); Peres, António M., E-mail: peres@ipb.pt [LSRE – Laboratory of Separation and Reaction Engineering – Associate Laboratory LSRE/LCM, Escola Superior Agrária, Instituto Politécnico de Bragança, Campus Santa Apolónia, Apartado 1172, 5301-855 Bragança (Portugal)

    2014-10-27

    Highlights: • Overconsumption of soft-drinks and fruit-beverages may enhance health risks. • Beverage’s healthy and sensory indexes were calculated using chromatographic data. • A potentiometric electronic tongue with multivariate linear models was applied. • E-tongue discriminated samples according to glycemic load or fructose-intolerance levels. • Healthy and sensory indexes were accurately quantified using E-tongue data. - Abstract: Overconsumption of sugar-sweetened beverages may increase the risk of health problems and so, the evaluation of their glycemic load and fructose-intolerance level is essential since it may allow establishing possible relations between physiologic effects of sugar-rich beverages and health. In this work, an electronic tongue was used to accurately classify beverages according to glycemic load (low, medium or high load) as well to their adequacy for people suffering from fructose malabsorption syndrome (tolerable or not): 100% of correct classifications (leave-one-out cross-validation) using linear discriminant models based on potentiomentric signals selected by a meta-heuristic simulated annealing algorithm. These results may be partially explained by the electronic tongue’s capability to mimic the human sweetness perception and total acid flavor of beverages, which can be related with glycemic load and fructose-intolerance index. Finally, the E-tongue was also applied to quantify, accurately, healthy and sensory indexes using multiple linear regression models (leave-one-out cross-validation: R{sub adj} > 0.99) in the following dynamic ranges: 4.7 < glycemic load ≤ 30; 0.4 < fructose intolerance index ≤ 1.5; 32 < sweetness perception < 155; 1.3 < total acid flavor, g L{sup −1} < 8.3; and, 5.8 < well-balanced flavor ≤ 74. So, the proposed electronic tongue could be used as a practical, fast, low-cost and green tool for beverage’s healthy and sensory evaluation.

  10. Evaluation of healthy and sensory indexes of sweetened beverages using an electronic tongue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias, Luís G.; Sequeira, Cédric; Veloso, Ana C.A.; Sousa, Mara E.B.C.; Peres, António M.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Overconsumption of soft-drinks and fruit-beverages may enhance health risks. • Beverage’s healthy and sensory indexes were calculated using chromatographic data. • A potentiometric electronic tongue with multivariate linear models was applied. • E-tongue discriminated samples according to glycemic load or fructose-intolerance levels. • Healthy and sensory indexes were accurately quantified using E-tongue data. - Abstract: Overconsumption of sugar-sweetened beverages may increase the risk of health problems and so, the evaluation of their glycemic load and fructose-intolerance level is essential since it may allow establishing possible relations between physiologic effects of sugar-rich beverages and health. In this work, an electronic tongue was used to accurately classify beverages according to glycemic load (low, medium or high load) as well to their adequacy for people suffering from fructose malabsorption syndrome (tolerable or not): 100% of correct classifications (leave-one-out cross-validation) using linear discriminant models based on potentiomentric signals selected by a meta-heuristic simulated annealing algorithm. These results may be partially explained by the electronic tongue’s capability to mimic the human sweetness perception and total acid flavor of beverages, which can be related with glycemic load and fructose-intolerance index. Finally, the E-tongue was also applied to quantify, accurately, healthy and sensory indexes using multiple linear regression models (leave-one-out cross-validation: R adj > 0.99) in the following dynamic ranges: 4.7 < glycemic load ≤ 30; 0.4 < fructose intolerance index ≤ 1.5; 32 < sweetness perception < 155; 1.3 < total acid flavor, g L −1 < 8.3; and, 5.8 < well-balanced flavor ≤ 74. So, the proposed electronic tongue could be used as a practical, fast, low-cost and green tool for beverage’s healthy and sensory evaluation

  11. An electronic screen for triaging adolescent substance use by risk levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Sharon; Weiss, Roger; Sherritt, Lon; Ziemnik, Rosemary; Spalding, Allegra; Van Hook, Shari; Shrier, Lydia A

    2014-09-01

    Screening adolescents for substance use and intervening immediately can reduce the burden of addiction and substance-related morbidity. Several screening tools have been developed to identify problem substance use for adolescents, but none have been calibrated to triage adolescents into clinically relevant risk categories to guide interventions. To describe the psychometric properties of an electronic screen and brief assessment tool that triages adolescents into 4 actionable categories regarding their experience with nontobacco substance use. Adolescent patients (age range, 12-17 years) arriving for routine medical care at 2 outpatient primary care centers and 1 outpatient center for substance use treatment at a pediatric hospital completed an electronic screening tool from June 1, 2012, through March 31, 2013, that consisted of a question on the frequency of using 8 types of drugs in the past year (Screening to Brief Intervention). Additional questions assessed severity of any past-year substance use. Patients completed a structured diagnostic interview (Composite International Diagnostic Interview-Substance Abuse Module), yielding Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fifth Edition) substance use diagnoses. For the entire screen and the Screening to Brief Intervention, sensitivity and specificity for identifying nontobacco substance use, substance use disorders, severe substance use disorders, and tobacco dependence were calculated using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview-Substance Abuse Module as the criterion standard. Of 340 patients invited to participate, 216 (63.5%) enrolled in the study. Sensitivity and specificity were 100% and 84% (95% CI, 76%-89%) for identifying nontobacco substance use, 90% (95% CI, 77%-96%) and 94% (95% CI, 89%-96%) for substance use disorders, 100% and 94% (95% CI, 90%-96%) for severe substance use disorders, and 75% (95% CI, 52%-89%) and 98% (95% CI, 95%-100%) for nicotine dependence. No significant

  12. Age- and gender-dependent values of skeletal muscle mass in healthy children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webber, Colin E; Barr, Ronald D

    2012-03-01

    Skeletal muscle mass (SMM) can be extracted from whole-body scans obtained by X-ray-based dual-photon absorptiometry (DXA). There is a need to establish expected age-dependent values for children and adolescents. Appendicular lean tissue mass (ALM) was extracted from whole-body DXA scans in 140 healthy children and adolescents (68 females and 72 males). Whole-body SMM was calculated from ALM using equations developed by Kim et al. (Am J Clin Nutr 84:1014-1020, 2006). Age-dependent patterns of increase in SMM were derived by fitting SMM values to equations that consisted of the sum of two logistic expressions, one accounting for SMM changes during growth and the other for SMM changes during puberty. Normal ranges were defined so that 95% of the SMM values were included. The reproducibility of SMM measurements was obtained from whole-body DXA scans repeated on three occasions in each of a separate group of 32 normal children with repositioning between scans. Normal ranges are presented as equations describing the age-dependent pattern of increase in SMM as well as population standard deviations that increased steadily with age. For 15 children below age 10, SMM reproducibility (95% CI) was 149 g (119-199 g) while for 17 children and adolescents over age 10, reproducibility was 170 g (138-223 g). DXA-based measurements of SMM in children and adolescents are reproducible and can be expressed in terms of age-dependent Z scores.

  13. Prognostic significance of functional somatic symptoms in adolescence: a 15-year community-based follow-up study of adolescents with depression compared with healthy peers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bohman Hannes

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a lack of population-based long-term longitudinal research on mental health status and functional physical/somatic symptoms. Little is known about the long-term mental health outcomes associated with somatic symptoms or the temporal relationship between depression and such symptoms. This 15-year study followed up adolescents with depression and matched controls, screened from a population-based sample, who reported different numbers of somatic symptoms. Methods The total population of 16–17-year-olds in Uppsala, Sweden, was screened for depression in 1991–1993. Adolescents who screened positive and an equal number of healthy controls took part in a semi-structured diagnostic interview. In addition, 21 different self-rated somatic symptoms were assessed. Sixty-four percent of those adolescents participated in a follow-up structured interview 15 years later. Results Somatic symptoms in adolescence predicted depression and other adult mental disorders regardless of the presence of adolescent depression. In adolescents with depression, the number of functional somatic symptoms predicted, in a dose response relationship, suicidal behavior, bipolar episodes, and psychotic episodes as well as chronic and recurrent depression. Contrary to expectations, the somatic symptoms of abdominal pain and perspiration without exertion better predicted depression than all DSM-IV depressive symptoms. Abdominal pain persisted as an independent strong predictor of depression and anxiety, even after controlling for other important confounders. Conclusions Somatic symptoms in adolescence can predict severe adult mental health disorders. The number of somatic symptoms concurrent with adolescent depression is, in a stepwise manner, linked to suicidal attempts, bipolar disorders, psychotic disorders, and recurrent and chronic depression. These findings can be useful in developing treatment guidelines for patients with somatic symptoms.

  14. Self-esteem and psychiatric features of Turkish adolescents with psychogenic non-epileptic seizures: a comparative study with epilepsy and healthy control groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Say, Gokçe N; Tasdemir, Haydar A; Akbas, Seher; Yüce, Murat; Karabekiroglu, Koray

    2014-01-01

    Children and adolescents with psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES) and epilepsy are known to have psychosocial problems. The aim of the present study was to compare the psychosocial difficulties, history of stressful life events/abuse, psychiatric diagnosis, and self-esteem of adolescents with PNES to the ones with epilepsy and healthy controls at a tertiary care center in Turkey. Thirty-four adolescents with PNES diagnosed by video-EEG were compared with 23 adolescents that have epilepsy and 35 healthy volunteers. Comorbid psychiatric diagnoses of participants were examined by semi-structured interviews using Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School Age Children-Present and Lifetime Version (KSADS-PL). Self-esteem of adolescents was evaluated by Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale (RSES). No differences in sociodemographic features were observed between the groups. The PNES group showed significantly higher rates of parental conflicts, difficulties in relationship with siblings/peers, school under-achievement, and history of stressful events/abuse. The rates of comorbid psychiatric disorders were 64.7% in PNES and 47.8% in epilepsy group. The most common disorders in both groups were attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and depressive disorder. The rate of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was significantly increased in the PNES group. Additionally, adolescents with PNES displayed significantly lower levels of self-esteem than the other groups. It could be concluded that both disorders involved a high risk for developing psychiatric disorders; additionally, adolescents with PNES have higher rates of stressors and lower levels of self-esteem. Findings from this investigation point to the importance of psychiatric interventions in pediatric PNES and also epilepsy.

  15. Attitudes and Acceptability of Behavior Change Techniques to Promote Healthy Food Choices Among Danish Adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørnberg, Trine; Skov, Laurits Rohden; Houlby, Louise

    2016-01-01

    This study addressed attitudes of using nudging-like measures in community schools to promote healthy food choices among Danish adolescents. Data were successfully collected for 408 respondents. The next step was to prepare descriptive statistics and conduct factor analysis and structural equatio...... it to be acceptable for the school to attempt to intervene with their health-related behavior, but respondents saw it as neither the school's obligation nor responsibility. School-based health promotion could benefit from these findings....

  16. Reference values for serum leptin in healthy non-obese children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lausten-Thomsen, Ulrik; Christiansen, Michael; Louise Hedley, Paula; Esmann Fonvig, Cilius; Stjernholm, Theresa; Pedersen, Oluf; Hansen, Torben; Holm, Jens-Christian

    2016-11-01

    Adipokines are biologically active, low-molecular weight peptides, which play a major role in metabolic homeostasis in humans. Leptin has gained increasing attention in pediatrics as a biomarker for various metabolic pathologies. Yet, its usefulness is hampered by the relative lack of reference values from pediatric settings. Accordingly, this study aims to evaluate serum concentrations of leptin, soluble leptin receptor (sOB-R), and free leptin index (FLI) in healthy Danish schoolchildren aged 6-18 years and subsequently to establish reference intervals across sex and age groups. A total of 1193 healthy, non-obese Danish schoolchildren (730 girls, 463 boys) aged 6-18 years (median 11.9) were examined by trained medical staff. Serum leptin and sOB-R concentrations in venous fasting blood samples were quantitated by immunoassay. Percentile curves of leptin, sOB-R, and free leptin index were calculated using the General Additive Model for Location Scale and Shape (GAMLSS). Significant age and sex-dependent differences in circulating leptin levels were found. In boys, the median leptin concentration for all ages combined was 3.35 μg/L (95%-interval: 0.71-22.47) and in girls, it was 9.89 ng/L (95%-interval: 2.06-41.49). For SOB-R, no sex-specific difference was found, and the median sOB-R concentration was 8.24 μg/L (IQR: 3.58-23.74; range: < 1.56-744.15). We demonstrated an age-dependent correlation with both serum leptin concentration and free leptin index with a gradual and significant increase in girls throughout childhood and adolescence and a significantly higher leptin concentration and free leptin index bell-shaped peak in early adolescence in boys.

  17. Relationship between elevated triglyceride levels with the increase of HOMA-IR and HOMA-β in healthy children and adolescents with normal weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simental-Mendía, Luis E; Castañeda-Chacón, Argelia; Rodriguez-Morán, Martha; Aradillas-García, Celia; Guerrero-Romero, Fernando

    2015-05-01

    To test the hypothesis that mildly elevated triglyceride levels are associated with the increase of homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and β-cell function (HOMA-β) indices in healthy children and adolescents with normal weight, we conducted a cross-sectional population study. Based on fasting triglyceride levels, participants were allocated into groups with and without triglyceride levels ≥1.2 mmol/L. Normal weight was defined by body mass index between the 15th and 85th percentiles, for age and gender. Insulin resistance and insulin secretion were estimated using HOMA-IR and HOMA-β indices. A total of 1660 children and adolescents were enrolled, of them 327 (19.7%) with mildly elevated triglycerides. The multivariate linear regression analysis showed that mildly elevated triglyceride levels in children were associated with HOMA-IR (β = 0.214, p HOMA-β (β = 0.139, p = 0.001), systolic (β = 0.094, p = 0.01), and diastolic blood pressure (β = 0.102, p = 0.007), whereas in adolescents, HOMA-IR (β = 0.267, p HOMA-β (β = 0.154, p HOMA-IR and HOMA-β indices in healthy children and adolescents with normal weight.

  18. Electronic cigarette use among adolescents: a cross-sectional study in Hong Kong

    OpenAIRE

    Nan Jiang; Man Ping Wang; Sai Yin Ho; Lok Tung Leung; Tai Hing Lam

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Little is known about electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use among Chinese adolescents. We examined the prevalence of current (past 30-day) e-cigarette use and its associated factors in a large sample of adolescents in Hong Kong. Methods We analyzed data of the School-based Survey on Smoking among Students 2012/13 from a representative sample of 45,857 secondary school students (mean age: 14.8 ± 1.9). We conducted chi-square tests and t-test to compare current e-cigarette ...

  19. Affect, exercise, and physical activity among healthy adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Margaret; Dunn, Andrea; Cooper, Daniel

    2009-12-01

    Many adolescents do not meet public health recommendations for moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). In studies of variables influencing adolescent MVPA, one that has been understudied is the affective response to exercise. We hypothesized that adolescents with a more positive affective response to acute exercise would be more active. Adolescents (N = 124; 46% male) completed two 30-min exercise tasks (above and below the ventilatory threshold [VT]), and wore ActiGraph accelerometers for 6.5 +/- 0.7 days. Affective valence was assessed before, during, and after each task. A more positive affective response during exercise below the VT was associated with greater participation in MVPA (p positive affective response to exercise will engage in more MVPA. To promote greater participation in MVPA among adolescents, programs should be designed to facilitate a positive affective experience during exercise.

  20. Serum leptin concentration during puberty in healthy nonobese adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandão C.M.A.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Data obtained during the past five years have indicated that there are important age- and gender-based differences in the regulation and action of leptin in humans. To study the physiological changes of leptin during puberty in both sexes, and its relationship with body composition and sexual maturation, we measured leptin concentrations in 175 healthy adolescents (80 girls, 95 boys, 10-18 years of age, representing all pubertal stages. We excluded individuals with a body mass index (BMI below the 5thor above the 95th percentile relative to age. Serum concentrations of leptin were determined by a monoclonal antibody-based immunofluorimetric assay, developed in our laboratory. Body composition was determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Pubertal stage was assigned by physical examination, according to Tanner criteria for breast development in females and genital development in males. Leptin concentration in girls (N = 80 presented a positive linear correlation with age (r = 0.35, P = 0.0012, BMI (r = 0.65, P < 0.0001 and %fat mass (r = 0.76, P < 0.0001. In boys (N = 95 there was a positive correlation with BMI (r = 0.49, P < 0.0001 and %fat mass (r = 0.85, P < 0.0001, but a significant negative linear correlation with Tanner stage (r = -0.45, P < 0.0001 and age (r = -0.40, P < 0.0001. The regression equation revealed that %fat mass and BMI are the best parameters to be used to estimate leptin levels in both sexes. Thus, the normal reference ranges for circulating leptin during adolescence should be constructed according to BMI or %fat mass to assure a correct evaluation.

  1. Effectiveness of participatory adolescent strategic health action (PASHA for lifestyle modification among adolescents

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    Asha P Shetty

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Lifestyle modification is one of the methods to promote healthy lifestyle among adolescents. In this study, the researcher planned to develop, implement and evaluate a need based Participatory Adolescent Strategic Health Action (PASHA for lifestyle modification among selected adolescents. Materials and Methods: An evaluative approach with Quasi experimental one group pretest post test design (time series was adopted. Sample constituted 103 adolescents, aged 12-17 years studying in high schools and pre university colleges of Udupi district selected based on convenient sampling. Data was gathered using reliable and valid tools. Results: The mean combined preventive health lifestyle score among all adolescents increased from 75.65-81.56. Similarly the number of adolescents with healthy lifestyle score also increased from 28.2-53.4% after practicing for 180 days. Analysis of all the components of lifestyle showed that the adolescents had adopted healthy lifestyle practices in all the components of lifestyle. The number of adolescents with combined health status score also showed an increase from 31.1-54.4% after implementing PASHA practice. Analysis of reported outcome among subjects indicated that PASHA was motivating to improve their lifestyle practices. Conclusion: PASHA was found to be effective in lifestyle modification of adolescents. It is reiterated that when lifestyle modification is to be done, a strategy to improve self directedness and self efficacy should be adopted.

  2. Family environmental factors do not explain differences in the behavioral effect of a healthy diet promotion program in lower vocational schools among 12-to 14-year-old adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martens, M.; Assema, P.; Knibbe, R.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Brug, J.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose. Assess whether family environmental factors affected changes in fruit and snack consumption among 12- to 14-year-old adolescents participating in a Dutch healthy diet promotion program. Design. Data were derived from pretest and posttest questionnaires completed by adolescents in 10 schools

  3. Body-Related Social Comparison and Disordered Eating among Adolescent Females with an Eating Disorder, Depressive Disorder, and Healthy Controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Le Grange

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between body-related social comparison (BRSC and eating disorders (EDs by: (a comparing the degree of BRSC in adolescents with an ED, depressive disorder (DD, and no psychiatric history; and (b investigating whether BRSC is associated with ED symptoms after controlling for symptoms of depression and self-esteem. Participants were 75 girls, aged 12–18 (25 per diagnostic group. To assess BRSC, participants reported on a 5-point Likert scale how often they compare their body to others’. Participants also completed a diagnostic interview, Eating Disorders Inventory-2 (EDI-2, Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II, and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSE. Compared to adolescents with a DD and healthy adolescents, adolescents with an ED engaged in significantly more BRSC (p ≤ 0.001. Collapsing across groups, BRSC was significantly positively correlated with ED symptoms (p ≤ 0.01, and these associations remained even after controlling for two robust predictors of both ED symptoms and social comparison, namely BDI-II and RSE. In conclusion, BRSC seems to be strongly related to EDs. Treatment for adolescents with an ED may focus on reducing BRSC.

  4. Body-related social comparison and disordered eating among adolescent females with an eating disorder, depressive disorder, and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamel, Andrea E; Zaitsoff, Shannon L; Taylor, Andrew; Menna, Rosanne; Le Grange, Daniel

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between body-related social comparison (BRSC) and eating disorders (EDs) by: (a) comparing the degree of BRSC in adolescents with an ED, depressive disorder (DD), and no psychiatric history; and (b) investigating whether BRSC is associated with ED symptoms after controlling for symptoms of depression and self-esteem. Participants were 75 girls, aged 12-18 (25 per diagnostic group). To assess BRSC, participants reported on a 5-point Likert scale how often they compare their body to others'. Participants also completed a diagnostic interview, Eating Disorders Inventory-2 (EDI-2), Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II), and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSE). Compared to adolescents with a DD and healthy adolescents, adolescents with an ED engaged in significantly more BRSC (p ≤ 0.001). Collapsing across groups, BRSC was significantly positively correlated with ED symptoms (p ≤ 0.01), and these associations remained even after controlling for two robust predictors of both ED symptoms and social comparison, namely BDI-II and RSE. In conclusion, BRSC seems to be strongly related to EDs. Treatment for adolescents with an ED may focus on reducing BRSC.

  5. Community Violence Exposure and Conduct Problems in Children and Adolescents with Conduct Disorder and Healthy Controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersten, Linda; Vriends, Noortje; Steppan, Martin; Raschle, Nora M; Praetzlich, Martin; Oldenhof, Helena; Vermeiren, Robert; Jansen, Lucres; Ackermann, Katharina; Bernhard, Anka; Martinelli, Anne; Gonzalez-Madruga, Karen; Puzzo, Ignazio; Wells, Amy; Rogers, Jack C; Clanton, Roberta; Baker, Rosalind H; Grisley, Liam; Baumann, Sarah; Gundlach, Malou; Kohls, Gregor; Gonzalez-Torres, Miguel A; Sesma-Pardo, Eva; Dochnal, Roberta; Lazaratou, Helen; Kalogerakis, Zacharias; Bigorra Gualba, Aitana; Smaragdi, Areti; Siklósi, Réka; Dikeos, Dimitris; Hervás, Amaia; Fernández-Rivas, Aranzazu; De Brito, Stephane A; Konrad, Kerstin; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate; Fairchild, Graeme; Freitag, Christine M; Popma, Arne; Kieser, Meinhard; Stadler, Christina

    2017-01-01

    Exposure to community violence through witnessing or being directly victimized has been associated with conduct problems in a range of studies. However, the relationship between community violence exposure (CVE) and conduct problems has never been studied separately in healthy individuals and individuals with conduct disorder (CD). Therefore, it is not clear whether the association between CVE and conduct problems is due to confounding factors, because those with high conduct problems also tend to live in more violent neighborhoods, i.e., an ecological fallacy. Hence, the aim of the present study was: (1) to investigate whether the association between recent CVE and current conduct problems holds true for healthy controls as well as adolescents with a diagnosis of CD; (2) to examine whether the association is stable in both groups when including effects of aggression subtypes (proactive/reactive aggression), age, gender, site and socioeconomic status (SES); and (3) to test whether proactive or reactive aggression mediate the link between CVE and conduct problems. Data from 1178 children and adolescents (62% female; 44% CD) aged between 9 years and 18 years from seven European countries were analyzed. Conduct problems were assessed using the Kiddie-Schedule of Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia diagnostic interview. Information about CVE and aggression subtypes was obtained using self-report questionnaires (Social and Health Assessment and Reactive-Proactive aggression Questionnaire (RPQ), respectively). The association between witnessing community violence and conduct problems was significant in both groups (adolescents with CD and healthy controls). The association was also stable after examining the mediating effects of aggression subtypes while including moderating effects of age, gender and SES and controlling for effects of site in both groups. There were no clear differences between the groups in the strength of the association between witnessing violence

  6. Community Violence Exposure and Conduct Problems in Children and Adolescents with Conduct Disorder and Healthy Controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Kersten

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to community violence through witnessing or being directly victimized has been associated with conduct problems in a range of studies. However, the relationship between community violence exposure (CVE and conduct problems has never been studied separately in healthy individuals and individuals with conduct disorder (CD. Therefore, it is not clear whether the association between CVE and conduct problems is due to confounding factors, because those with high conduct problems also tend to live in more violent neighborhoods, i.e., an ecological fallacy. Hence, the aim of the present study was: (1 to investigate whether the association between recent CVE and current conduct problems holds true for healthy controls as well as adolescents with a diagnosis of CD; (2 to examine whether the association is stable in both groups when including effects of aggression subtypes (proactive/reactive aggression, age, gender, site and socioeconomic status (SES; and (3 to test whether proactive or reactive aggression mediate the link between CVE and conduct problems. Data from 1178 children and adolescents (62% female; 44% CD aged between 9 years and 18 years from seven European countries were analyzed. Conduct problems were assessed using the Kiddie-Schedule of Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia diagnostic interview. Information about CVE and aggression subtypes was obtained using self-report questionnaires (Social and Health Assessment and Reactive-Proactive aggression Questionnaire (RPQ, respectively. The association between witnessing community violence and conduct problems was significant in both groups (adolescents with CD and healthy controls. The association was also stable after examining the mediating effects of aggression subtypes while including moderating effects of age, gender and SES and controlling for effects of site in both groups. There were no clear differences between the groups in the strength of the association between witnessing

  7. How does electronic cigarette access affect adolescent smoking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Abigail S

    2015-12-01

    Understanding electronic cigarettes' effect on tobacco smoking is a central economic and policy issue. This paper examines the causal impact of e-cigarette access on conventional cigarette use by adolescents. Regression analyses consider how state bans on e-cigarette sales to minors influence smoking rates among 12 to 17 year olds. Such bans yield a statistically significant 0.9 percentage point increase in recent smoking in this age group, relative to states without such bans. Results are robust to multiple specifications as well as several falsification and placebo checks. This effect is both consistent with e-cigarette access reducing smoking among minors, and large: banning electronic cigarette sales to minors counteracts 70 percent of the downward pre-trend in teen cigarette smoking for a given two-year period. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Assessment of self-reported self-esteem in healthy and diabetic children and adolescents in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlachioti, Efrosini; Petsios, Konstantinos; Boutopoulou, Barbara; Chrisostomou, Anthi; Galanis, Petros; Matziou, Vasiliki

    2010-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate any possible negative effect of diabetes on the self-esteem of children and adolescents with diabetes. Self-esteem was evaluated using the Culture-Free Self-Esteem Inventory (CFSEI-2) in 144 patients with Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM; 7-18 years of age) treated in a diabetes center and compared against that of 136 healthy children and adolescents. Self-esteem was correlated with age (P = 0.017), but not with diabetes (P = 0.886). The median CFSEI-2 score for both healthy and diabetic children was 22. There was no significant correlation between self-esteem and sex, body mass index (BMI), physical exercise, HbA1c or parental educational level. According to Spearman's rank correlation coefficient (r(s)), there was a significant association between age and self-esteem (r(s) = -0.15). Conversely, although BMI (r(s) = -0.09) and treatment duration (r(s) = -0.107) had a slight negative effect on self-esteem and the duration of physical exercise (r(s) = 0.11) and parental education (r(s) = 0.07) seemed to have a positive effect, the associations did not reach statistical significance. Self-esteem in diabetic children is mainly affected by their age, level of physical activity and level of family support. These findings emphasize the need to discriminate between glycemic control and diabetic adjustment. © 2010 Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  9. Relationship between Healthy Lifestyle and Sociodemographic Factors in Adolescents in Catalonia: Application of VISA-TEEN Questionnaire.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lluís Costa-Tutusaus

    Full Text Available There is a clear relationship between the way of life and the health of individuals, and therefore, we can speak of healthy and unhealthy lifestyles. There are different surveys and questionnaires that evaluate the lifestyles of adolescents, but none of them offers a final score that can quantify the healthfulness of an adolescent's lifestyle. It was with this goal that the VISA-TEEN questionnaire is developed and validated. The objective of this study is to apply the questionnaire to a sample of adolescents who attend school in Catalonia to evaluate the healthfulness of their lifestyles and to relate the scores obtained to different sociodemographic variables.Cross-sectional study. A total of 2,832 students from 25 schools in Catalonia responded to the questionnaire. A descriptive analysis was performed, calculating the mean (Standard deviation, median (p25, p75, and confidence interval. The results were calculated for the total population, factoring according to gender, age, urban/rural population, origin (native/immigrant, and family wealth, which was based on the Family Affluence Scale (FAS II. The significance of the difference was calculated for each factor with the appropriate statistical test.For the total score of healthy lifestyle, the youngest students and those with the highest family wealth obtained higher scores. With respect to eating habits, girls scored higher than boys, and higher scores were observed in natives and those with high family wealth. For physical activity, boys scored higher, as well as younger individuals, natives, and those from rural areas. With respect to substance abuse, the worst scores were found in older individuals, students from rural areas, and natives. The rational use of leisure technology was only associated with age (worsening scores with older age. Lastly, hygiene was better with girls, decreased with age, and was worse with natives than immigrants.

  10. Sperm characteristics in a sample of healthy adolescents in São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Mitsuyoshi Mori

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available The article presents preliminary data from a prospective investigation in a sample of healthy 14-17-year-old students from a technical school in Sao Paulo, Brazil. Ninety-six Tanner stage 5 and thirty-one Tanner stage 4 adolescents were evaluated: testicular volume was measured using a Prader orchidometer, and semen analysis was performed according to standard procedures. Median testicular volume was 20.0ml among Tanner 5 students and 15.0ml in Tanner 4 students in both the right and left testes. No significant differences were found in sperm volume or motility. Median concentration was 66.0 million/ml for Tanner 5 and 47.0 million/ml for Tanner 4 subjects. Morphological patterns showed abnormal forms in 81.9% of Tanner 5 and 93.6% of Tanner 4 adolescents. Oligospermia (sperm concentration < 5 million/ml was observed in 7.3% of Tanner stage 5 and 12.9% of Tanner stage 4 individuals. Azoospermia was observed in 3 students (1.8%, with counts less than 1.0 in 8 students (4.8%. The authors discuss the observed results, analyzing the potential implications arising from biological development and potential environmental exposures.

  11. A focus group study of healthy eating knowledge, practices, and barriers among adult and adolescent immigrants and refugees in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiedje, Kristina; Wieland, Mark L; Meiers, Sonja J; Mohamed, Ahmed A; Formea, Christine M; Ridgeway, Jennifer L; Asiedu, Gladys B; Boyum, Ginny; Weis, Jennifer A; Nigon, Julie A; Patten, Christi A; Sia, Irene G

    2014-05-16

    Immigrants and refugees to the United States exhibit lower dietary quality than the general population, but reasons for this disparity are poorly understood. In this study, we describe the meanings of food, health and wellbeing through the reported dietary preferences, beliefs, and practices of adults and adolescents from four immigrant and refugee communities in the Midwestern United States. Using a community based participatory research approach, we conducted a qualitative research study with 16 audio-recorded focus groups with adults and adolescents who self-identified as Mexican, Somali, Cambodian, and Sudanese. Focus group topics were eating patterns, perceptions of healthy eating in the country of origin and in the U.S., how food decisions are made and who in the family is involved in food preparation and decisions, barriers and facilitators to healthy eating, and gender and generational differences in eating practices. A team of investigators and community research partners analyzed all transcripts in full before reducing data to codes through consensus. Broader themes were created to encompass multiple codes. Results show that participants have similar perspectives about the barriers (personal, environmental, structural) and benefits of healthy eating (e.g., 'junk food is bad'). We identified four themes consistent across all four communities: Ways of Knowing about Healthy Eating ('Meanings;' 'Motivations;' 'Knowledge Sources'), Eating Practices ('Family Practices;' 'Americanized Eating Practices' 'Eating What's Easy'), Barriers ('Taste and Cravings;' 'Easy Access to Junk Food;' 'Role of Family;' Cultural Foods and Traditions;' 'Time;' 'Finances'), and Preferences for Intervention ('Family Counseling;' Community Education;' and 'Healthier Traditional Meals.'). Some generational (adult vs. adolescents) and gender differences were observed. Our study demonstrates how personal, structural, and societal/cultural factors influence meanings of food and dietary

  12. Parental influences on adolescent fruit consumption: the role of adolescent self-efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Natalie; Ball, Kylie; Crawford, David

    2012-02-01

    The aims of this study were to examine whether adolescent self-efficacy mediates the associations between parental control, perceptions of the importance of healthy nutrition for child health and barriers to buying fruits and vegetables and adolescent fruit consumption using a theoretically derived explanatory model. Data were drawn from a community-based sample of 1606 adolescents in Years 7 and 9 of secondary school and their parents, from Victoria, Australia. Adolescents completed a web-based survey assessing their fruit consumption and self-efficacy for increasing fruit consumption. Parents completed a survey delivered via mail assessing parental control, perceptions and barriers to buying fruit and vegetables. Adolescent self-efficacy for increasing fruit consumption mediated the positive associations between parental control and perceptions of the importance of healthy nutrition for child health and adolescent fruit consumption. Furthermore, adolescent self-efficacy mediated the negative association between parental barriers to buying fruits and vegetables and adolescent fruit consumption. The importance of explicating the mechanisms through which parental factors influence adolescent fruit consumption not only relates to the advancement of scientific knowledge but also offers potential avenues for intervention. Future research should assess the effectiveness of methods to increase adolescent fruit consumption by focussing on both improving adolescents' dietary self-efficacy and on targeting parental control, perceptions and barriers.

  13. Healthy brand extentions targeted at adolescents: Can products encourage healthier eating habits and still be fun?

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Clara Nobre Braga dos

    2013-01-01

    A Work Project, presented as part of the requirements for the Award of a Masters Degree in Management from the NOVA – School of Business and Economics This study aims to understand if launching healthy extensions of brands that have high acceptance among adolescents could contribute to healthier eating habits. We also analyzed the impact of this launch on brand image. We conducted a survey with 121 Brazilian teenagers and used the market leader brand to study the hypothesis. Results ...

  14. Traditional and cyberbullying victimization as correlates of psychosocial distress and barriers to a healthy lifestyle among severely obese adolescents--a matched case-control study on prevalence and results from a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSmet, Ann; Deforche, Benedicte; Hublet, Anne; Tanghe, Ann; Stremersch, Evi; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse

    2014-03-05

    Obese youth are at increased risk for peer victimization, which may heighten their risk of psychosocial problems and physical activity avoidance, and lower the effectiveness of professional and lifestyle weight-loss initiatives. Little is known about obese adolescents' risk for victimization from cyber-bullying and how this relates to psychosocial functioning and healthy lifestyle barriers. The purpose of the study was to assess traditional and cyber-victimization among adolescents with severe obesity and its relation to psychosocial distress and barriers to healthy lifestyles. A sample of 102 obese adolescents (mean age=15.32±1.71) in residential treatment was matched with 102 normal-weight youngsters from the Health Behavior in School-aged Children (HBSC) study (mean age=15.30±1.73). Adolescents with obesity were significantly more often cyber-victimized than normal-weight peers. Obese youth victimized by traditional bullying experienced lower quality of life, lower motivation for physical activity and higher avoidance and emotional coping towards healthy lifestyles than those non-victimized. Obese cyber-victims experienced significantly higher suicidal ideation. Traditional and cyber-victimization may hinder treatment effectiveness and healthy lifestyle change in adolescents with obesity. Health professionals should pro-actively address peer victimization and psychosocial functioning during multidisciplinary obesity treatment. Schools could contribute to a better physical and psychosocial health of obese youth by implementing multi-behavioral health-promotion programs.

  15. CHANGES IN TOOTH HARD TISSUE MINERALI-ZATION AND BLOOD RHEOLOGY IN HEALTHY ADOLESCENTS AND THOSE WITH THYROID DYSFUNCTION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beriashvili, S; Nikolaishvili, M; Mantskava, M; Momtsemlidze, N; Franchuk, K

    2016-11-01

    Thyroid dysfunction causes spreading and development of caries in the teeth and changes in periodontal tissues. In addition, it causes changes in peripheral blood flow and mineralization, local transcapillary metabolism causes changes in blood rheology. There are only few works in this direction and, therefore, the purpose of our research was to find out how the mineralization and the rheological properties of blood are changed in lesion of periodontal tissue on a background of thyroid dysfunction. Accordingly, the stomatological study was conducted in 75 adolescents aged 12-18 years by the standard method, recommended by the World Health Organization. According to the study, 45 patients out of them suffered from thyroid dysfunction, in particular from hypothyroidism. The comparator group consisted of 30 children of the same age without endocrine abnormalities. By the gained results it is noted that in spite of different type lesions due to dental caries, the caries incidence and intensiveness is higher in children with hypothyroidism as compared to healthy children. Decrease in saliva excretion rate and increase in oral fluid viscosity was found in children with thyroid and endocrine diseases as compared to healthy children. In children with endocrine disorders concurrent increase in calcium content (1,43±0,08 mmol/l) and decrease in inorganic phosphate concentrations (4,54±0,15 mmol/l) is reliably established. In children with thyroid disfunction and while periodontal tissue pathology, rheological features are disordered more dramatically than in healthy children. Therefore, it can be said that the changes in the adolescents' thyroid function is one of the reasons for formation of periodontal tissue diseases.Therefore, at detecting even the first signs of the periodontal tissue diseases, it is desirable in adolescents to assess the thyroid functional condition, since it will be the precondition for effective treatment and management of dental disease, in

  16. Self-esteem of children and adolescents with chronic illness: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinquart, M

    2013-03-01

    Chronic illness may be a risk factor for low self-esteem; however, previous meta-analyses are inconclusive whether children with a chronic illness have lower self-esteem than their healthy peers. The goal of the present study was to summarize available research in order to compare the self-esteem of children and adolescents with a chronic illness with that of healthy children. Random-effects meta-analysis was used to integrate the results of 621 empirical studies that compare levels of self-esteem of children with a chronic physical illness with healthy peers or general test norms. Studies were identified via the electronic databases Adolesc, Embase, Google Scholar, MEDLINE, PSNYDEX, PSYCINFO, and cross-referencing. Children with chronic illnesses have lower self-esteem than healthy peers or test norms (g = -0.18 standard deviation units). The lowest levels of self-esteem were observed in children with chronic fatigue syndrome and chronic headaches. Lower levels of self-esteem in children with a chronic illness were found in girls than in boys, in adolescents than in children, in children from developing or threshold countries, when results were collected from observer ratings rather than child reports, in studies published in the 1990s, and when children with chronic illnesses were directly compared with healthy children instead of test norms. Paediatricians, parents, and teachers should promote experiences of success and positive peer-relations, which are important sources of self-esteem. In addition, psychosocial interventions for children with chronic illnesses should be offered for children with reduced self-esteem. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. How Schools Can Promote Healthy Development for Newly Arrived Immigrant and Refugee Adolescents: Research Priorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeely, Clea A; Morland, Lyn; Doty, S Benjamin; Meschke, Laurie L; Awad, Summer; Husain, Altaf; Nashwan, Ayat

    2017-02-01

    The US education system must find creative and effective ways to foster the healthy development of the approximately 2 million newly arrived immigrant and refugee adolescents, many of whom contend with language barriers, limited prior education, trauma, and discrimination. We identify research priorities for promoting the school success of these youth. The study used the 4-phase priority-setting method of the Child Health and Nutrition Research Initiative. In the final stage, 132 researchers, service providers, educators, and policymakers based in the United States were asked to rate the importance of 36 research options. The highest priority research options (range 1 to 5) were: evaluating newcomer programs (mean = 4.44, SD = 0.55), identifying how family and community stressors affect newly arrived immigrant and refugee adolescents' functioning in school (mean = 4.40, SD = 0.56), identifying teachers' major stressors in working with this population (mean = 4.36, SD = 0.72), and identifying how to engage immigrant and refugee families in their children's education (mean = 4.35, SD = 0.62). These research priorities emphasize the generation of practical knowledge that could translate to immediate, tangible benefits for schools. Funders, schools, and researchers can use these research priorities to guide research for the highest benefit of schools and the newly arrived immigrant and refugee adolescents they serve. © 2017, American School Health Association.

  18. Teen CHAT: Development and Utilization of a Web-Based Intervention to Improve Physician Communication with Adolescents About Healthy Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravender, Terrill; Tulsky, James A.; Farrell, David; Alexander, Stewart C.; Østbye, Truls; Lyna, Pauline; Dolor, Rowena J.; Coffman, Cynthia J.; Bilheimer, Alicia; Lin, Pao-Hwa; Pollak, Kathryn I.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To describe the theoretical basis, use, and satisfaction with Teen CHAT, an online educational intervention designed to improve physician-adolescent communication about healthy weight. Methods Routine health maintenance encounters between pediatricians and family practitioners and their overweight adolescent patients were audio recorded, and content was coded to summarize adherence with motivational interviewing techniques. An online educational intervention was developed using constructs from social cognitive theory and using personalized audio recordings. Physicians were randomized to the online intervention or not, and completed post-intervention surveys. Results Forty-six physicians were recruited, and 22 physicians were randomized to view the intervention website. The educational intervention took an average of 54 minutes to complete, and most physicians thought it was useful, that they would use newly acquired skills with their patients, and would recommend it to others. Fewer physicians thought it helped them address confidentiality issues with their adolescent patients. Conclusion The Teen CHAT online intervention shows potential for enhancing physician motivational interviewing skills in an acceptable and time-efficient manner. Practice Implications If found to be effective in enhancing motivational interviewing skills and changing adolescent weight-related behaviors, wide dissemination will be feasible and indicated. PMID:24021419

  19. Social stress response in adolescents with bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casement, Melynda D; Goldstein, Tina R; Gratzmiller, Sarah M; Franzen, Peter L

    2018-05-01

    Theoretical models posit that stressors contribute to the onset and maintenance of bipolar disorder in adolescence through disruptions in stress physiology, but physiological response to stressors has not been evaluated in adolescents with bipolar illness. The present study tests the hypothesis that adolescents with bipolar disorder will have greater reactivity to a laboratory social stress task than healthy adolescents. Adolescents with bipolar illness (n = 27) and healthy adolescents (n = 28) completed a modified version of the Trier Social Stress Task. Stress response was assessed using high frequency heart rate variability (HF-HRV), heart rate (HR), mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), salivary cortisol, and subjective stress. Multilevel models were used to test for group differences in resting-state physiology, and stress reactivity and recovery. Adolescents with bipolar disorder had greater reactivity in HF-HRV (z = 3.32), but blunted reactivity in MAP (z = -3.08) and cortisol (z = -2.60), during the stressor compared to healthy adolescents. They also had lower resting HF-HRV (z = -3.49) and cortisol (z = -2.86), and higher resting HR (z = 3.56), than healthy adolescents. These results indicate that bipolar disorder is associated with disruptions in autonomic and endocrine response to stress during adolescence, including greater HF-HRV reactivity. Further research should evaluate whether these individual differences in stress physiology precede and predict the onset of mood episodes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The COPE healthy lifestyles TEEN randomized controlled trial with culturally diverse high school adolescents: Baseline characteristics and methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnyk, Bernadette Mazurek; Kelly, Stephanie; Jacobson, Diana; Belyea, Michael; Shaibi, Gabriel; Small, Leigh; O’Haver, Judith; Marsiglia, Flavio Francisco

    2014-01-01

    Obesity and mental health disorders remain significant public health problems in adolescents. Substantial health disparities exist with minority youth experiencing higher rates of these problems. Schools are an outstanding venue to provide teens with skills needed to improve their physical and mental health, and academic performance. In this paper, the authors describe the design, intervention, methods and baseline data for a randomized controlled trial with 779 culturally diverse high-school adolescents in the southwest United States. Aims for this prevention study include testing the efficacy of the COPE TEEN program versus an attention control program on the adolescents’ healthy lifestyle behaviors, Body Mass Index (BMI) and BMI%, mental health, social skills and academic performance immediately following the intervention programs, and at six and 12 months post interventions. Baseline findings indicate that greater than 40% of the sample is either overweight (n = 148, 19.00%) or obese (n = 182, 23.36%). The predominant ethnicity represented is Hispanic (n = 526, 67.52%). At baseline, 15.79%(n = 123) of the students had above average scores on the Beck Youth Inventory Depression subscale indicating mildly (n = 52, 6.68%), moderately (n = 47, 6.03%), or extremely (n = 24, 3.08%) elevated scores (see 1). Anxiety scores were slightly higher with 21.56% (n = 168) reporting responses suggesting mildly (n = 81, 10.40%), moderately (n = 58, 7.45%) or extremely (n = 29, 3.72%) elevated scores. If the efficacy of the COPE TEEN program is supported, it will offer schools a curriculum that can be easily incorporated into high school health courses to improve adolescent healthy lifestyle behaviors, psychosocial outcomes and academic performance. PMID:23748156

  1. Body image of children and adolescents with chronic illness: a meta-analytic comparison with healthy peers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinquart, M

    2013-03-01

    This meta-analysis integrates results from 330 studies on differences between body image of children and adolescents with and without chronic physical illness. Young people with a chronic illness had a less positive body image than their healthy peers although the average size of differences was small (g=-.30 standard deviation units). A comparison of diseases showed that young people with obesity (g=-.79), cystic fibrosis (g=-.50), scoliosis (g=-.41), asthma (g=-.37), growth hormone deficits (g=-.35), spina bifida (g=-.23), cancer (g=-.20), and diabetes (g=-.17) evaluated their body less positively than their healthy peers. Furthermore, levels of body dissatisfaction varied by age at onset of the disease, method for assessing body image, ethnicity, year of publication, and comparison group. Recommendations are stated for reducing effects of chronic illness on the body image of people with chronic illness. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Why Play Sports? How Organized Sports Participation Can Contribute to the Healthy Development of Adolescent Hispanic Girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan A. Horst

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This study addressed the research question, “What is meaningful to Hispanic girls about their organized sports participation during the first year of high school?” Purposeful sampling (Maxwell, 1996 was used to select 15 9th-grade girls to participate in individual interviews about their organized sport participation. Transcripts were analyzed via inductive coding. Findings showed that organized sports offered Hispanic girls in this sample a venue for healthy youth development, including opportunities for the “5 C’s” – competence, confidence, connection, character, and caring (Lerner, Fisher, & Weinberg, 2000. This article highlights the salience of connection, caring, and competence in adolescent Hispanic girls’ organized sports experiences. Insights from girls’ narratives may help coaches and other educators structure athletic programs to best meet the needs of Hispanic girls during adolescence (AAUW, 1991; Brown & Gilligan, 1992; Erkut, Fields, Sing, & Marx, 1996; Gil & Vazquez, 1996; Sadker & Sadker, 1994.

  3. Adolescent Electronic Cigarette Use: Associations With Conventional Cigarette and Hookah Smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Tracey E; Soule, Eric K; Forrest, Jamie R; Porter, Lauren; Tomar, Scott L

    2015-08-01

    The emerging trends and rapid growth of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) among adolescents are being monitored closely. The trends are critical as policy to prevent uptake among adolescents is considered. The purpose of this study is to describe the prevalence of e-cigarette use and potential correlates for use. Associations between e-cigarettes, cigarettes, and hookah are assessed. This study used data from the 2013 Florida Youth Tobacco Survey. Prevalence estimates were calculated in 2014 and differences were determined based on CIs. Adjusted logistic regression models were used to identify correlates of e-cigarette use among participants based on demographic and other tobacco products used. There were no sex differences in middle school, whereas male high school students reported higher use than their female counterparts. Cigarette smoking and hookah use were significantly associated with ever and current e-cigarette use among both middle and high school students. Although e-cigarettes are being assessed as a potential replacement product for traditional tobacco, evidence from this study indicates the possibility of multiple product use among adolescents. E-cigarettes are not only associated with traditional cigarettes, but also with hookahs, a similar emerging product that offer tobacco flavors that may appeal to adolescents. Notably, many e-cigarette users also reported no cigarette or hookah use. Copyright © 2015 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. A focus group study of healthy eating knowledge, practices, and barriers among adult and adolescent immigrants and refugees in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Immigrants and refugees to the United States exhibit lower dietary quality than the general population, but reasons for this disparity are poorly understood. In this study, we describe the meanings of food, health and wellbeing through the reported dietary preferences, beliefs, and practices of adults and adolescents from four immigrant and refugee communities in the Midwestern United States. Methods Using a community based participatory research approach, we conducted a qualitative research study with 16 audio-recorded focus groups with adults and adolescents who self-identified as Mexican, Somali, Cambodian, and Sudanese. Focus group topics were eating patterns, perceptions of healthy eating in the country of origin and in the U.S., how food decisions are made and who in the family is involved in food preparation and decisions, barriers and facilitators to healthy eating, and gender and generational differences in eating practices. A team of investigators and community research partners analyzed all transcripts in full before reducing data to codes through consensus. Broader themes were created to encompass multiple codes. Results Results show that participants have similar perspectives about the barriers (personal, environmental, structural) and benefits of healthy eating (e.g., ‘junk food is bad’). We identified four themes consistent across all four communities: Ways of Knowing about Healthy Eating (‘Meanings;’ ‘Motivations;’ ‘Knowledge Sources’), Eating Practices (‘Family Practices;’ ‘Americanized Eating Practices’ ‘Eating What’s Easy’), Barriers (‘Taste and Cravings;’ ‘Easy Access to Junk Food;’ ‘Role of Family;’ Cultural Foods and Traditions;’ ‘Time;’ ‘Finances’), and Preferences for Intervention (‘Family Counseling;’ Community Education;’ and ‘Healthier Traditional Meals.’). Some generational (adult vs. adolescents) and gender differences were observed. Conclusions Our study

  5. Inflammatory bowel disease and self-esteem in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindfred, H; Saalman, R; Nilsson, S; Reichenberg, K

    2008-02-01

    To compare the self-esteem of adolescents suffering from inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) with that of healthy adolescents, and to identify factors affecting self-esteem in the presence of IBD. A self-assessment questionnaire, 'I think I am' (ITIA), was completed by 71 (41 boys) out of 77 adolescents (10-16 years) with IBD. Of the participating adolescents, 23 had Crohn's disease, 44 had ulcerative colitis and 4 had indeterminate colitis. The self-esteem of adolescents with IBD was compared with that of 1037 school children. In this population-based study, children with IBD estimated their self-esteem in the same range as healthy adolescents. Using a multiple regression analysis, the self-esteem of adolescents with IBD was related to disease course severity and cohabitation status of parents. Children with severe disease and children of single parents were found to be most at risk of low self-esteem. This study shows that, as a group, adolescents with IBD have self-esteem in the same range as their healthy peers, but that there are some adolescents with IBD who are at risk of low self-esteem. Special attention should be given to adolescents with a severe disease course and to those with separated parents.

  6. Diet Pills, Powders, and Liquids: Predictors of Use by Healthy Weight Females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorlton, Janet; Park, Chang; Hughes, Tonda

    2014-01-01

    About 35% of healthy weight adolescent females describe themselves as overweight, and 66% report planning to lose weight. Body weight dissatisfaction is associated with unhealthy weight loss practices including diet pill/powder/liquid (PPL) use. Few studies have examined diet PPL use in healthy weight adolescent females; therefore, Youth Risk…

  7. Comparison of Positive Youth Development for Youth With Chronic Conditions With Healthy Peers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslow, Gary R; Hill, Sherika N; Pollock, McLean D

    2016-12-01

    Adolescents with childhood-onset chronic condition (COCC) are at increased risk for physical and psychological problems. Despite being at greater risk and having to deal with traumatic experiences and uncertainty, most adolescents with COCC do well across many domains. The Positive Youth Development (PYD) perspective provides a framework for examining thriving in youth and has been useful in understanding positive outcomes for general populations of youth as well as at-risk youth. This study aimed to compare levels of PYD assets between youth with COCC and youth without illness. Participants with COCC were recruited from specialty pediatric clinics while healthy participants were recruited from a large pediatric primary care practice. Inclusion criteria for participants included being (1) English speaking, (2) no documented intellectual disability in electronic medical record, and (3) aged between 13 and 18 years during the recruitment period. Univariate and bivariate analyses on key variables were conducted for adolescents with and without COCC. Finally, we performed multivariable linear regressions for PYD and its subdomains. There were no significant differences between overall PYD or any of the subdomains between the two groups. Multivariable linear regression models showed no statistically significant relationship between chronic condition status and PYD or the subdomains. The findings from this study support the application of the PYD perspective to this population of youth. The results of this study suggest that approaches shown to benefit healthy youth, could be used to promote positive outcomes for youth with COCC. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Initial Evaluation of an Electronic Symptom Diary for Adolescents with Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Baggott, C; Gibson, F; Coll, B; Kletter, R; Zeltzer, P; Miaskowski, C

    2012-01-01

    Background: The delivery of optimal care depends on accurate communication between patients and clinicians regarding untoward symptoms. Documentation of patients’ symptoms necessitates reliance on memory, which is often imprecise. We developed an electronic diary (eDiary) for adolescents and young adults (AYAs) with cancer to record symptoms. Objective: The purpose of this paper is to describe the utility of an eDiary designed for AYAs with cancer, including dependability of the mobile applic...

  9. Adolescents’ Responses to a School-Based Prevention Program Promoting Healthy Eating at School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roel C. J. Hermans

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundTo improve the effectiveness of school-based programs that aim to promote adolescents’ healthy food choices, it is essential to understand the views and behaviors of the target group. This study aimed to get a better understanding of adolescents’ food and health perceptions and their willingness to be involved in a specific school-based prevention program, i.e., the Dutch “Healthy School Canteen Program.”MethodsThis study used a mixed-methods research design. First, seven semi-structured focus groups were conducted using a selective sample of 42 Dutch adolescents (25 girls, 17 boys, aged 13–16 years. Second, an online survey among 133 adolescent respondents (72 girls, 61 boys, aged 12–19 years using snowball sampling was conducted. Content analysis was performed to make inferences about the focus group discussions, whereas statistical analyses were conducted to analyze the survey data.ResultsFindings from the group discussions indicated that healthy eating was only an issue of importance when adolescents perceived negative physical changes (e.g., with regard to looks or physical performance. Adolescents also indicated that they clearly wanted to make their own food and beverage choices at school. The quantitative data indicated that taste, price, and variety were seen as the most important aspects of a healthy food assortment (mean scores 8.1, 7.8, and 7.7 on a 10-point scale, respectively. In general, a majority of the adolescents (64% expressed that students should be involved in the organization of a healthy food environment in schools. At the same time, however, adolescents were not willing to participate themselves. This was mostly because they were skeptical about their ideas being heard and put into action by their schools.ConclusionSchool-based prevention programs, such as the Healthy School Program, should take into account that adolescents have a low risk perception of unhealthy eating and are seeking food

  10. Barriers and Facilitators of Healthy Diet and Exercise Among Adolescent and Young Adult Cancer Survivors: Implications for Behavioral Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yelena P; Yi, Jaehee; McClellan, Jessica; Kim, Jonghee; Tian, Tian; Grahmann, Bridget; Kirchhoff, Anne C; Holton, Avery; Wright, Jennifer

    2015-12-01

    This study uses qualitative methods to identify barriers to and facilitators of exercise and healthy eating among adolescent and young adult (AYA) cancer survivors (survivors currently aged 18-39 years and diagnosed with cancer anytime in their lives), as reported by survivors and their primary supporters. Survivors (M(age) = 27.6 years, SD = 6.6 years) had completed active cancer therapy. Survivors and supporters (i.e., nominated by survivors as someone who was a main source of support) attended separate focus group sessions (five survivor focus groups, five supporter focus groups) and were asked to complete a self-reported questionnaire assessing demographic and cancer history and engagement in exercise and healthy eating. In total, 25 survivors and 19 supporters participated. The three overarching themes identified were barriers to exercise and healthy eating (e.g., lack of resources, negative thoughts and feelings, negative social and environmental influences), facilitators of exercise and healthy eating (e.g., cognitive motivators, tools for health behavior implementation, social relationships), and intervention implications (e.g., informational needs, desire for social support). AYA cancer survivors and their supporters identified barriers to and facilitators of healthy lifestyle behaviors, which should be considered when designing interventions to improve the long-term health of survivors.

  11. Altruistic reasoning in adolescent-parent dyads considering participation in a hypothetical sexual health clinical trial for adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chávez, Noé Rubén; Williams, Camille Y; Ipp, Lisa S; Catallozzi, Marina; Rosenthal, Susan L; Breitkopf, Carmen Radecki

    2016-04-01

    Altruism is a well-established reason underlying research participation. Less is known about altruism in adolescent-parent decision-making about clinical trials enrolling healthy adolescents. This qualitative investigation focused on identifying spontaneous statements of altruism within adolescent-parent (dyadic) discussions of participation in a hypothetical phase I clinical trial related to adolescent sexual health. Content analysis revealed several response patterns to each other's altruistic reasoning. Across 70 adolescent-parent dyads in which adolescents were 14-17 years of age and 91% of their parents were mothers, a majority (61%) of dyadic discussions included a statement reflecting altruism. Parents responded to adolescents' statements of altruism more frequently than adolescents responded to parents' statements. Responses included: expresses concern, reiterates altruistic reasoning, agrees with altruistic reasoning, and adds to/expands altruistic reasoning. Since an altruistic perspective was often balanced with concerns about risk or study procedures, researchers cannot assume that altruism will directly lead to study participation. Optimizing the informed consent process for early phase clinical trials involving healthy adolescents may include supporting parents to have conversations with their adolescents which will enhance their capacity to consider all aspects of trial participation.

  12. Systematic review of the potential adverse effects of caffeine consumption in healthy adults, pregnant women, adolescents, and children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wikoff, Daniele; Welsh, Brian T; Henderson, Rayetta; Brorby, Gregory P; Britt, Janice; Myers, Esther; Goldberger, Jeffrey; Lieberman, Harris R; O'Brien, Charles; Peck, Jennifer; Tenenbein, Milton; Weaver, Connie; Harvey, Seneca; Urban, Jonathan; Doepker, Candace

    2017-11-01

    To date, one of the most heavily cited assessments of caffeine safety in the peer-reviewed literature is that issued by Health Canada (Nawrot et al., 2003). Since then, >10,000 papers have been published related to caffeine, including hundreds of reviews on specific human health effects; however, to date, none have compared the wide range of topics evaluated by Nawrot et al. (2003). Thus, as an update to this foundational publication, we conducted a systematic review of data on potential adverse effects of caffeine published from 2001 to June 2015. Subject matter experts and research team participants developed five PECO (population, exposure, comparator, and outcome) questions to address five types of outcomes (acute toxicity, cardiovascular toxicity, bone and calcium effects, behavior, and development and reproduction) in four healthy populations (adults, pregnant women, adolescents, and children) relative to caffeine intake doses determined not to be associated with adverse effects by Health Canada (comparators: 400 mg/day for adults [10 g for lethality], 300 mg/day for pregnant women, and 2.5 mg/kg/day for children and adolescents). The a priori search strategy identified >5000 articles that were screened, with 381 meeting inclusion/exclusion criteria for the five outcomes (pharmacokinetics was addressed contextually, adding 46 more studies). Data were extracted by the research team and rated for risk of bias and indirectness (internal and external validity). Selected no- and low-effect intakes were assessed relative to the population-specific comparator. Conclusions were drawn for the body of evidence for each outcome, as well as endpoints within an outcome, using a weight of evidence approach. When the total body of evidence was evaluated and when study quality, consistency, level of adversity, and magnitude of response were considered, the evidence generally supports that consumption of up to 400 mg caffeine/day in healthy adults is not associated

  13. The influence of electronic cigarette age purchasing restrictions on adolescent tobacco and marijuana use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesko, Michael F; Hughes, Jenna M; Faisal, Fatima S

    2016-06-01

    In the United States, many states have established minimum legal purchase ages for electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) to ban adolescent purchases, but these policies may also affect other related substance use. We explore whether ENDS are substitutes or complements for cigarettes, cigars, smokeless tobacco, and marijuana among adolescents by using variation in state-level implementation of ENDS age purchasing restrictions. We linked data on ENDS age purchasing restrictions to state- and year-specific rates of adolescent tobacco and marijuana use in 2007-2013 from the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System. This data provides a nationally representative sample of adolescents who attend public and private schools. We performed a fixed effect regression analysis exploring the influence of ENDS age purchasing restrictions on outcomes of tobacco use and marijuana use, controlling for state and year fixed characteristics, age-race cohorts, cigarette excise taxes, and cigarette indoor use restrictions. For cigarette use, we separate our results into cigarette use frequency. We found causal evidence that ENDS age purchasing restrictions increased adolescent regular cigarette use by 0.8 percentage points. ENDS age purchasing restrictions were not associated with cigar use, smokeless tobacco use, or marijuana use. We document a concerning trend of cigarette smoking among adolescents increasing when ENDS become more difficult to purchase. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Function of endothelium at adolescents with constitutional exogenous obesity before and after rehabilitation

    OpenAIRE

    Miroshnichenko, O.

    2011-01-01

    Function of endothelium at 43 adolescents with constitutional exogenous obesity before rehabilitation and at 33 healthy adolescents has been studied. Disorder of endothelial function has been established in 32 (74.4%) adolescents with constitutional exogenous obesity and in 7 (21.2%) healthy adolescents. We showed the efficiency of the rehabilitation program on restoration of endothelial function at adolescents with constitutional exogenous obesity.

  15. Atrial fibrillation in a healthy adolescent after heavy smoking of contraband cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozyilmaz, Isa; Ozyilmaz, Sinem; Tosun, Oyku; Tola, Hasan Tahsin; Saygi, Murat; Ergul, Yakup

    2015-08-01

    The use of contraband cigarettes is a serious public health problem. We present a case of atrial fibrillation in a healthy adolescent suspected to be caused by smoking contraband cigarettes. A 15-year-old man was admitted to our emergency department experiencing syncope and palpitations. He was a cigarette smoker, but he had never smoked any illicit tobacco products before. He had finished a pack of counterfeit cigarettes (20 pieces) in 1.5 h. His electrocardiogram showed atrial fibrillation with a rapid ventricular response and irregular RR intervals. The patient had no history of alcohol use, surgery, palpitations, hypertension, chronic bronchitis, or any infectious diseases. His atrial fibrillation was converted to a normal sinus rhythm after the cardioversion treatment. Our patient was discharged from the pediatric cardiology service and advised to quit smoking cigarettes, strictly warning against illicit tobacco products. In conclusion, intensive smoking of counterfeit cigarettes may lead to occurrences of atrial fibrillation.

  16. Electronic Mail, a New Written-Language Register: A Study with French-Speaking Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volckaert-Legrier, Olga; Bernicot, Josie; Bert-Erboul, Alain

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the extent to which the linguistic forms used by adolescents in electronic mail (e-mail) differ from those used in standard written language. The study was conducted in French, a language with a deep orthography that has strict, addressee-dependent rules for using second person personal pronouns (unfamiliar…

  17. Who seeks bariatric surgery? Psychosocial functioning among adolescent candidates, other treatment-seeking adolescents with obesity and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Call, C C; Devlin, M J; Fennoy, I; Zitsman, J L; Walsh, B T; Sysko, R

    2017-12-01

    Limited data are available on the characteristics of adolescents with obesity who seek bariatric surgery. Existing data suggest that adolescent surgery candidates have a higher body mass index (BMI) than comparison adolescents with obesity, but the limited findings regarding psychosocial functioning are mixed. This study aimed to compare BMI and psychosocial functioning among adolescent bariatric surgery candidates, outpatient medical-treatment-seeking adolescents with obesity (receiving lifestyle modification), and adolescents in the normal-weight range. All adolescents completed self-report measures of impulsivity, delay discounting, depression, anxiety, stress, eating pathology, family functioning and quality of life, and had their height and weight measured. Adolescent surgical candidates had higher BMIs than both comparison groups. Surgical candidates did not differ from medical-treatment-seeking adolescents with obesity on any measure of psychosocial functioning, but both groups of adolescents with obesity reported greater anxiety and eating pathology and poorer quality of life than normal-weight adolescents. Quality of life no longer differed across groups after controlling for BMI, suggesting that it is highly related to weight status. Adolescents with obesity may experience greater anxiety, eating pathology, and quality of life impairments than their peers in the normal-weight range regardless of whether they are seeking surgery or outpatient medical treatment. Clinical implications and directions for future research are discussed. © 2017 World Obesity Federation.

  18. [Food consumption patterns among adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palenzuela Paniagua, S M; Pérez Milena, A; Pérula de Torres, L A; Fernández García, J A; Maldonado Alconada, J

    2014-01-01

    Adolescence is a critical time for the establishment of healthy eating habits. The objective was to analyze food consumption patterns among adolescents and their relationship with family and social factors. Multicentre observational cross-sectional descriptive study using a food frequency questionnaire for the last week. It was answered anonymously. The adolescent's age/gender, parents' studies/occupation and school's location/type were included. The population sample was composed of 1,095 adolescents in sixth grade at primary schools from an Andalusian region. They were chosen by polietapic random sampling that distinguished between public/private and capital/provincial schools. 1,005 surveys were analyzed. The mean age is 11.45 (SD: 0.59). Fifty-three percent were male. The intake of dairy products (only two-thirds taken daily), pasta, fruit and vegetables (daily consumption of 30%) is deficient. Sixty-four point five percent consume legumes weekly. Fish consumption is equal to meat, with a preference for poultry. More than half consume red meat daily. Olive oil is preferred. The intake of "empty calories" (fast food, candies, soft drink) is high. Through multivariate analysis the existence of clusters of healthy and unhealthy foods, related to the social status of the parents and the type of school, is proved. A healthy diet based on the nutritional pyramid is not the consumption pattern in the adolescents surveyed. There is a low consumption of diary products, legumes, fruits and vegetables. There is a relationship between the social class of the family and consumption patterns (healthy and unhealthy). Health strategies are needed to modify such inappropriate consumption.

  19. Intention for Healthy Eating among Southern Appalachian Teens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tiejian; Snider, Jeromy Blake; Floyd, Michael R.; Florence, James E.; Stoots, James Michael; Makamey, Michael I.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To describe the intention for healthy eating and its correlates among southern Appalachian teens. Methods: Four hundred sixteen adolescents 14 to 16 years old were surveyed with self-administered questionnaires. Results: About 30% of the adolescents surveyed had definite intentions to eat healthfully during the next 2 weeks. The scales…

  20. Working memory circuit as a function of increasing age in healthy adolescence: A systematic review and meta-analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andre, Julia; Picchioni, Marco; Zhang, Ruibin; Toulopoulou, Timothea

    2016-01-01

    Working memory ability matures through puberty and early adulthood. Deficits in working memory are linked to the risk of onset of neurodevelopmental disorders such as schizophrenia, and there is a significant temporal overlap between the peak of first episode psychosis risk and working memory maturation. In order to characterize the normal working memory functional maturation process through this critical phase of cognitive development we conducted a systematic review and coordinate based meta-analyses of all the available primary functional magnetic resonance imaging studies (n = 382) that mapped WM function in healthy adolescents (10-17 years) and young adults (18-30 years). Activation Likelihood Estimation analyses across all WM tasks revealed increased activation with increasing subject age in the middle frontal gyrus (BA6) bilaterally, the left middle frontal gyrus (BA10), the left precuneus and left inferior parietal gyri (BA7; 40). Decreased activation with increasing age was found in the right superior frontal (BA8), left junction of postcentral and inferior parietal (BA3/40), and left limbic cingulate gyrus (BA31). These results suggest that brain activation during adolescence increased with age principally in higher order cortices, part of the core working memory network, while reductions were detected in more diffuse and potentially more immature neural networks. Understanding the process by which the brain and its cognitive functions mature through healthy adulthood may provide us with new clues to understanding the vulnerability to neurodevelopmental disorders.

  1. Working memory circuit as a function of increasing age in healthy adolescence: A systematic review and meta-analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Andre

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Working memory ability matures through puberty and early adulthood. Deficits in working memory are linked to the risk of onset of neurodevelopmental disorders such as schizophrenia, and there is a significant temporal overlap between the peak of first episode psychosis risk and working memory maturation. In order to characterize the normal working memory functional maturation process through this critical phase of cognitive development we conducted a systematic review and coordinate based meta-analyses of all the available primary functional magnetic resonance imaging studies (n = 382 that mapped WM function in healthy adolescents (10–17 years and young adults (18–30 years. Activation Likelihood Estimation analyses across all WM tasks revealed increased activation with increasing subject age in the middle frontal gyrus (BA6 bilaterally, the left middle frontal gyrus (BA10, the left precuneus and left inferior parietal gyri (BA7; 40. Decreased activation with increasing age was found in the right superior frontal (BA8, left junction of postcentral and inferior parietal (BA3/40, and left limbic cingulate gyrus (BA31. These results suggest that brain activation during adolescence increased with age principally in higher order cortices, part of the core working memory network, while reductions were detected in more diffuse and potentially more immature neural networks. Understanding the process by which the brain and its cognitive functions mature through healthy adulthood may provide us with new clues to understanding the vulnerability to neurodevelopmental disorders.

  2. Traditional and cyberbullying victimization as correlates of psychosocial distress and barriers to a healthy lifestyle among severely obese adolescents – a matched case–control study on prevalence and results from a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Obese youth are at increased risk for peer victimization, which may heighten their risk of psychosocial problems and physical activity avoidance, and lower the effectiveness of professional and lifestyle weight-loss initiatives. Little is known about obese adolescents’ risk for victimization from cyber-bullying and how this relates to psychosocial functioning and healthy lifestyle barriers. The purpose of the study was to assess traditional and cyber-victimization among adolescents with severe obesity and its relation to psychosocial distress and barriers to healthy lifestyles. Methods A sample of 102 obese adolescents (mean age = 15.32 ±1.71) in residential treatment was matched with 102 normal-weight youngsters from the Health Behavior in School-aged Children (HBSC) study (mean age = 15.30 ±1.73). Results Adolescents with obesity were significantly more often cyber-victimized than normal-weight peers. Obese youth victimized by traditional bullying experienced lower quality of life, lower motivation for physical activity and higher avoidance and emotional coping towards healthy lifestyles than those non-victimized. Obese cyber-victims experienced significantly higher suicidal ideation. Conclusions Traditional and cyber-victimization may hinder treatment effectiveness and healthy lifestyle change in adolescents with obesity. Health professionals should pro-actively address peer victimization and psychosocial functioning during multidisciplinary obesity treatment. Schools could contribute to a better physical and psychosocial health of obese youth by implementing multi-behavioral health-promotion programs. PMID:24593118

  3. Social and individual determinants of adolescents' acceptance of novel healthy and cool snack products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Maria Kümpel; Sørensen, Bjarne Taulo; Grunert, Klaus G

    2014-01-01

    Four new, healthy snack products, consisting of fruit, vegetables, bread, dip and topping, were tested with 600 Danish adolescents aged 9–16. Participants could view, handle, and test the products in a school setting. Acceptance was measured by overall buying intention, as well as buying intention...... contingent on specific substitutes and on the social situation. Price consciousness, health consciousness, snack neophobia, peer influence, social activities and word-of-mouth were measured as potential determinants of acceptance of the novel products. An exploratory analysis in TETRAD suggested...... that the measured constructs form three layers, with overall buying intention as the terminal causal effect, health consciousness, word of mouth, snack neophobia and peer influence as endogenous determinants, and social activities and the contingent buying intentions as mediators. Estimation of the causal...

  4. Night/day ratios of ambulatory blood pressure among healthy adolescents: roles of race, socioeconomic status, and psychosocial factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burford, Tanisha I; Low, Carissa A; Matthews, Karen A

    2013-10-01

    Elevated nighttime blood pressure (BP) predicts hypertension and its complications in adulthood. This study aimed to assess the independent effects of race and family income on night/day BP among adolescents and to examine whether negative emotions, low positive resources, and unpleasant interactions during the day are also related. Healthy African American and Caucasian high school students (N = 239) wore an ambulatory BP monitor for 48 h, recorded quality of ongoing interpersonal interactions, and completed questionnaires. African Americans and those with lower family income had higher night/day BP ratios. African Americans reporting greater negative emotions, lower positive resources, and more unpleasant interactions had higher night/day BP ratios. Racial differences in night BP emerge by adolescence, independent of family income. African Americans, especially those high in negative emotions and low in positive resources, may be at higher relative risk for hypertension later in life in part due to elevated night BP.

  5. Using Mobile Apps to Promote a Healthy Lifestyle Among Adolescents and Students: A Review of the Theoretical Basis and Lessons Learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dute, Denise Jantine; Bemelmans, Wanda Jose Erika; Breda, João

    2016-05-05

    European adolescents and students tend to have low levels of physical activity and eat unhealthy foods, and the prevalence of overweight and obesity has increased, which poses a public health challenge. Mobile apps play an important role in their daily lives, suggesting their potential to be used in health-promoting strategies. This review aimed to explore how mobile apps can contribute to the promotion of healthy nutrition, physical activity, and prevention of overweight in adolescents and students. For the apps identified, the review describes the content, the theoretical mechanisms applied, and lessons learned. The databases Scopus, MEDLINE, Embase, and PsycINFO were searched for English-language publications from January 2009 to November 2013. Studies were included if (1) the primary component of the intervention involves an app; (2) the intervention targets healthy nutrition, or physical activity, or overweight prevention; and (3) the target group included adolescents or students (aged 12-25 years). A total of 15 studies were included, which describe 12 unique apps. Ten of these apps functioned as monitoring tools for assessing dietary intake or physical activity levels. The other apps used a Web-based platform to challenge users to exercise and to allow users to list and photograph their problem foods. For 5 apps, the behavioral theory underpinning their development was clearly specified. Frequently applied behavior change techniques are prompting self-monitoring of behavior and providing feedback on performance. Apps can function self-contained, but most of them are used as part of therapy or to strengthen school programs. From the age of 10 years users may be capable of using apps. Only 4 apps were developed specifically for adolescents. All apps were tested on a small scale and for a short period. Despite large potential and abundant usage by young people, limited research is available on apps and health promotion for adolescents. Apps seem to be a

  6. Healthy Minds in Healthy Bodies: Adolescent Clinics and Middle Schools in Collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Augustina H.; Fowler, Michelle

    1999-01-01

    Explores the development of a collaboration between a clinic and an urban middle school in a high-poverty, language minority community in Texas. Considers the need for an adolescent clinic and issues of community support, funding, clinic objectives, and problems. (JPB)

  7. Identification of dietary patterns of adolescents attending public schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucinéia de Pinho

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to identify the dietary patterns of adolescents attending public municipal schools in Northern Minas Gerais, Brazil, and to test the association between these patterns and socioeconomic variables and nutritional status of the adolescents. METHODS: this was an analytical, cross-sectional study with randomized sample of 474 adolescents of both genders, between 11 and 17 years of age, attending municipal public schools in the urban area of Montes Claros, MG, Brazil. The parents provided demographic and economic data. The nutritional status (body mass index - BMI of the adolescents was determined at school, and their dietary habits were assessed though the administration of the Food Frequency Questionnaire for Adolescents (FFQA. Based on 26 categories extracted from FFQA, dietary patterns were determined using principal component analysis (PCA and associated to anthropometric and socioeconomic factors using multiple regression analysis. RESULTS: the three dietary patterns identified, "junk food," "healthy," and "traditional", explained 23.26%, 6.90%, and 5.24% of data variability, respectively. Adolescents with per capita family income exceeding half a minimum wage were more likely to consume the "junk food" pattern (OR = 1.66; 95% CI = 1.07-2.56, and overweight adolescents had lower chances of eating the "healthy" food pattern (OR = 0.56, 95% CI = 0.35-0.91. CONCLUSIONS: deviations from the "healthy" patterns were not associated to low income, but rather to bad eating habits in the studied population. Overweight adolescents did not adhere to the "healthy" dietary pattern, emphasizing the need for nutritional education among them.

  8. Public policies for adolescents in vulnerable áreas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara Rejane Barroso Barcelos

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To characterize the cross-sector policies aimed at the teenager, from the following analytical variables: adolescence, interdisciplinary, intersectionality and Health System; vulnerability and territory, healthy municipalities and communities. Methods: A documental literature review, in which we sought the meaning of adolescence, the ratio of public investment in this segment and a discussion on the social norm and the state apparatus for their support. We used as categories of analysis: intersectionality, systemic complexity of health, territory of vulnerability, spatial delimitation of policy, social network and healthy spaces. Results: Public policies integrated into healthy spaces have been implemented in several places having adolescence as a focal object. Policies aimed at teenagers, whose symbolic representation considers them more independent and positive in social reality, tend to create more meaningful opportunities and empowerment of individuals. Conclusion: In Brazilian State, new spaces of sociability of the adolescent are welcome, serving as socializing agencies, contributing to the construction of the subjectivity of the adolescent, based in the recovery of social values and preparing for life as from an ethical and civicconsciousness.

  9. Anxiety sensitivity in adolescents with somatoform autonomic dysfunction and adolescents with insulin dependent diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisarić, Maja; Nisević, Sanja

    2011-01-01

    Anxiety sensitivity is defined as a belief that anxiety or fear may cause illness, embarrassment, or additional anxiety. The main purpose of this study was to find out if there were differences among adolescents with insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, adolescents with somatoform autonomic dysfunction and their healthy peers in different aspects of psychological functioning and anxiety sensitivity. The sample consisted of 93 subjects, aged 12 to 16. Hamburg Neuroticism and Extraversion Scale, Child Behaviour Checklist and Childhood Anxiety Sensitivity Index were administrated. The adolescents with somatoform autonomic dysfunction had significantly higher scores on neuroticism scale, different Child Behaviour Checklist subscales, and on anxiety sensitivity. Both groups with diagnosed illness had lower scores on extraversion scale compared to healthy peers. This study has shown that the adolescents with somatoform autonomic dysfunction are more prone to fears regarding bodily functioning, and that they are at a higher risk of developing an anxiety disorder.

  10. Differences of biased recall memory for emotional information among children and adolescents of mothers with MDD, children and adolescents with MDD, and normal controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattahi Asl, Abouzar; Ghanizadeh, Ahmad; Mollazade, Javad; Aflakseir, Abdolaziz

    2015-08-15

    This study examines explicit memory bias for emotional information in children and adolescents with major depressive disorder (MDD). Participants were a convenient sample of 28 children and adolescents of mothers with MDD, 28 children and adolescents with MDD, and 29 healthy controls. Their age range was 11-17 years old. The groups were matched for gender ratio, mean age, and the years of educational level. They were assessed by the Recall Task. Emotional stimuli consisted of three sets of words namely sad, happy, and neutral words. Children and adolescents of mothers with MDD similar to children and adolescents with MDD recalled more sadness stimuli in comparison with the controls. In other words, they showed an explicit memory bias towards sad stimuli. Also, healthy children significantly recalled more happy words than the other two groups. There was no significant difference among the three groups for the recall of neutral stimuli. Current findings support that there is a recall memory bias for emotional information in children with MDD. These children more than healthy children recall sad words. Moreover, healthy children recall happy words more than children with MDD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Emergence of electronic cigarette use in US adolescents and the link to traditional cigarette use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanza, Stephanie T; Russell, Michael A; Braymiller, Jessica L

    2017-04-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are increasingly used by US adolescents and may be a gateway to traditional cigarette use. We examine rates of both products by age and examine differences in age-varying rates by sex and race/ethnicity. Data are from the 2014 National Youth Tobacco Survey, a national sample of US middle and high school students (n=22.007); students ages 11-19 were included. Past 30-day e-cigarette and traditional cigarette use were examined as a function of age; sex and race/ethnicity were included as moderators. The age-varying association between e-cigarette and traditional cigarette use was also examined. Rates of e-cigarette use increase faster than traditional cigarette use from ages 13-16. Compared to females, males had higher rates of e-cigarette use from ages 14-17.5 and traditional cigarette use from ages 15-18. Between ages 12-14, more Hispanic adolescents used e-cigarettes compared to White or Black adolescents; after age 14 Hispanics and Whites reported similar rates, peaking at twice the rate for Blacks. Hispanic adolescents report greater traditional cigarette use versus Whites between ages 12-13, but lower rates between ages 15-18. E-cigarette use was strongly associated with traditional cigarette use, particularly during early adolescence [OR>40 before age 12]. Young Hispanic adolescents are at elevated risk for use of e-cigarettes and traditional cigarettes during early adolescence. During early adolescence, youth using e-cigarettes are more likely to smoke traditional cigarettes compared to youth not using e-cigarettes. The study of age-varying effects holds promise for advancing understanding of disparities in health risk behaviors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Kaledo, a board game for nutrition education of children and adolescents at school: cluster randomized controlled trial of healthy lifestyle promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viggiano, Alessandro; Viggiano, Emanuela; Di Costanzo, Anna; Viggiano, Andrea; Andreozzi, Eleonora; Romano, Vincenzo; Rianna, Ines; Vicidomini, Claudia; Gargano, Giuliana; Incarnato, Lucia; Fevola, Celeste; Volta, Pietro; Tolomeo, Caterina; Scianni, Giuseppina; Santangelo, Caterina; Battista, Roberta; Monda, Marcellino; Viggiano, Adela; De Luca, Bruno; Amaro, Salvatore

    2015-02-01

    During childhood and adolescence, a game could be an effective educational tool to learn healthy eating habits. We developed Kaledo, a new board game, to promote nutrition education and to improve dietary behavior. A two-group design with one pre-treatment assessment and two post-treatment assessments was employed. A total of 3,110 subjects (9-19 years old) from 20 schools in Campania, Italy, were included in the trial. In the treated group, the game was introduced each week over 20 consecutive weeks. Control group did not receive any intervention. The primary outcomes were (i) score on the "Adolescent Food Habits Checklist" (AFHC), (ii) scores on a dietary questionnaire, and (iii) BMI z-score. At the first post-assessment (6 months), the treated group obtained significantly higher scores than the control group on the AFHC (14.4 (95 % confidence interval (CI) 14.0 to 14.8) vs 10.9 (95 % CI 10.6 to -11.2); F(1,20) = 72.677; p childhood and adolescence obesity prevention programs.

  13. A Comparison of Quality of Life between Adolescences with Beta Thalassemia Major and their Healthy Peers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahram Baraz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background The chronic genetic blood disorder, thalassemia, affects Quality of life (QOL negatively. Regarding this, if adolescences with thalassemia are treated well, they will grow into an adult who will have a good potential for participating in society. Objectives: to determine the strongest predictor of QOL, compare QOL between the adolescents with beta-type major and their peers in Abadan city. Materials and Methods This was a cross-sectional study; the population consisted of 65 beta thalassemia major patients and 65  healthy peers with the same ages as the witness group. The data collection tools included SF-36 questionnaire and a questionnaire for demographic information. Data analysis was performed using independent t-test, correlation and linear regression by SPSS-16. Results The results of the study revealed that there is a significant difference (P < 0.05 in the average quality of life between the two groups of the study. On the other hand, the results showed that there was a meaningful relation between different aspects of life quality and family history of thalassemia            (P< 0.05. Also, there was a negative correlation between quality of life and the frequency of blood transfusion per year (P< 0.05. Conclusion Adolescences with beta thalassemia major do not have a desirable quality of life, therefore, this fact shows the necessity of serious reforming in various fields of health care, treatment, family, social and financial support, and rehabilitation that need more attention from health care policymakers.

  14. Exploring adolescent views of body image: the influence of media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spurr, Shelley; Berry, Lois; Walker, Keith

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to present findings from two parallel qualitative studies that used focus groups to explore adolescent views of psychological wellness and healthy bodies. Nine focus groups were held with 46 adolescents aged 16-19 years from two Mid-Western Canadian high schools. Both studies were designed with an interpretive humanist perspective and then a 6-step thematic approach was used to analyze the data. Common themes emerging in the focus group discussions in both studies included the negative impact of media on adolescent body image and pressure to conform to the Western views of physical appearance. These findings illustrate the need for nurses to understand the influence of the media on adolescents' views of their body image and to incorporate protocols for assessment, education, and counseling of adolescents on the healthy usage of media into their pediatric clinical practice. Through consistent participation in the development and implementation of health policies, nurses play a critical role in supporting adolescents to develop healthy views of body image.

  15. Development of intimate relationships in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, Marissa; Catallozzi, Marina; Lin, Alison J; Ryan, Owen; Rickert, Vaughn I

    2007-12-01

    This article examines adolescent intimacy through a developmental lens. As they age, adolescents develop the relational skills necessary to gain independence from their parents and form intimate relationships with friends and romantic partners. This article details how adolescents' intimate relationships expand from parental connections to encompass friendships, dating, and sexual activity during progressing stages of development. Finally, clinical implications for adolescent health care practitioners for promoting intimacy and healthy relationships are suggested.

  16. Table talk: How mothers and adolescents across socioeconomic status discuss food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fielding-Singh, Priya; Wang, Jennifer

    2017-08-01

    This article reports findings from a qualitative study of food practices among families of differing socioeconomic circumstances. Using in-depth interviews from sixty-two families in the San Francisco Bay Area in 2015-2016, we find socioeconomic differences in how mothers and adolescents talk about food. Across SES, mothers and adolescents engage in discussions about healthy eating. However, these conversations are more commonplace and embedded within high-SES family life than among low-SES families. Beyond conversations about 1) healthy eating, the topics of 2) food quality and 3) price are discussed to varying degrees across SES. Within high-SES families, frequent discussions of healthy eating are paired with dialogue highlighting the importance of consuming higher quality food. Price is largely absent as a topic of conversation among high-SES families. On the other end of the socioeconomic spectrum, low-SES mothers and adolescents frequently engage in conversations about price when discussing food. Mentions of food quality are rare, but when they do occur, they underscore important trade-offs between food's healthiness, quality and price. Given prior research showing the impact of dialogue between parents and adolescents on adolescents' dietary behaviors, these findings help us understand how family discussions contribute to shaping adolescents' approaches to food. An important implication is that high-SES families' discussions of food quality may strengthen messages about healthy eating, while conversations about affordability within low-SES families may highlight financial barriers to healthy eating. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Pain and Sleep-Wake Disturbances in Adolescents with Depressive Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Caitlin B.; Murphy, Lexa K.; Palermo, Tonya M.; Clarke, Gregory M.

    2012-01-01

    The aims of this study were to (a) assess and compare sleep disturbances (including daytime and nighttime sleep patterns) in adolescents with depressive disorders and healthy peers, (b) examine the prevalence of pain in adolescents with depressive disorders and healthy peers, and (c) examine pubertal development, pain intensity, and depressive…

  18. Sorting Test, Tower Test and BRIEF-SR do not predict school performance of healthy adolescents in preuniversity education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annemarie eBoschloo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Executive functions (EF such as self-monitoring, planning and organizing are known to develop through childhood and adolescence. They are of potential importance for learning and school performance. Earlier research into the relation between executive functions and school performance did not provide clear results possibly because confounding factors such as educational track, boy-girl differences and parental education were not taken into account. The present study therefore investigated the relation between executive function tests and school performance in a highly controlled sample of 173 healthy adolescents aged 12-18. Only students in the pre-university educational track were used and the performance of boys was compared to that of girls. Results showed that there was no relation between the report marks obtained and the performance on executive function tests, notably the Sorting Test and the Tower Test of the Delis-Kaplan Executive Functions System (D-KEFS. Likewise, no relation was found between the report marks and the scores on the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function – Self-Report Version (BRIEF-SR after these were controlled for grade, sex, and level of parental education.The findings indicate that executive functioning as measured with widely used instruments such as the BRIEF-SR does not predict school performance of adolescents in preuniversity education any better than a student’s grade, sex, and level of parental education. ed

  19. Peer interaction in adolescents with a chronic illness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, SA; Sinnema, G; Bijstra, JO; Mellenbergh, GJ; Wolters, WHG

    2000-01-01

    This study examined behavioural, cognitive and affective aspects of peer interaction of adolescents with a chronic illness. The aim of the study was twofold: (1) describe peer interaction of adolescents with a chronic illness in comparison with norms of healthy adolescents; (2) examine the

  20. Overweight, obesity and underweight profile among adolescent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Overweight, obesity and underweight profile among adolescent secondary school students ... should be of concern if a healthy and productive future generation is to be ensured. Primary care providers should constantly assess adolescents for ...

  1. Adolescents' Perspectives on Personalized E-Feedback in the Context of Health Risk Behavior Screening for Primary Care: Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zieve, Garret G; Richardson, Laura P; Katzman, Katherine; Spielvogle, Heather; Whitehouse, Sandy; McCarty, Carolyn A

    2017-07-20

    Electronic health screening tools for primary care present an opportunity to go beyond data collection to provide education and feedback to adolescents in order to motivate behavior change. However, there is limited research to guide feedback message development. The aim of this study was to explore youth perceptions of and preferences for receiving personalized feedback for multiple health risk behaviors and reinforcement for health promoting behaviors from an electronic health screening tool for primary care settings, using qualitative methodology. In total, 31 adolescents aged 13-18 years completed the screening tool, received the electronic feedback, and subsequently participated in individual, semistructured, qualitative interviews lasting approximately 60 min. Participants were queried about their overall impressions of the tool, perceptions regarding various types of feedback messages, and additional features that would help motivate health behavior change. Using thematic analysis, interview transcripts were coded to identify common themes expressed across participants. Overall, the tool was well-received by participants who perceived it as a way to enhance-but not replace-their interactions with providers. They appreciated receiving nonjudgmental feedback from the tool and responded positively to information regarding the consequences of behaviors, comparisons with peer norms and health guidelines, tips for behavior change, and reinforcement of healthy choices. A small but noteworthy minority of participants dismissed the peer norms as not real or relevant and national guidelines as not valid or reasonable. When prompted for possible adaptations to the tool, adolescents expressed interest in receiving follow-up information, setting health-related goals, tracking their behaviors over time, and communicating with providers electronically between appointments. Adolescents in this qualitative study desired feedback that validates their healthy behavior choices

  2. Gait Characteristics in Adolescents With Multiple Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalron, Alon; Frid, Lior; Menascu, Shay

    2017-03-01

    Multiple sclerosis is a progressive autoimmune disease of the central nervous system. A presentation of multiple sclerosis before age18 years has traditionally been thought to be rare. However, during the past decade, more cases have been reported. We examined gait characteristics in 24 adolescents with multiple sclerosis (12 girls, 12 boys). Mean disease duration was 20.4 (S.D. = 24.9) months and mean age was 15.5 (S.D. = 1.1) years. The mean expanded disability status scale score was 1.7 (S.D. = 0.7) indicating minimal disability. Outcomes were compared with gait and the gait variability index value of healthy age-matched adolescents. Adolescents with multiple sclerosis walked slower with a wider base of support compared with age-matched healthy control subjects. Moreover, the gait variability index was lower in the multiple sclerosis group compared with the values in the healthy adolescents: 85.4 (S.D. = 8.1) versus 96.5 (S.D. = 7.4). We present gait parameters of adolescents with multiple sclerosis. From a clinical standpoint, our data could improve management of walking dysfunction in this relatively young population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Epidemiological profile of smoking and nicotine addiction among asthmatic adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Nava, F; Vázquez-Rodríguez, E M; Vázquez-Rodríguez, C F; Castillo Ruiz, O; Peinado Herreros, J

    2017-08-01

    Despite the harmful effects of cigarette smoking, this habit in asthmatic adolescents continues to be a health problem worldwide. Our objectives were to determine the epidemiological profile of smoking and the degree of nicotine dependence among asthmatic adolescents. Through a cross-sectional investigation, 3383 adolescents (13-19 years of age) were studied. Information was collected using a previously validated questionnaire. Two study groups of adolescent smokers were formed: one composed of asthmatic adolescents and the other of healthy youths. Asthmatic adolescents were found to be more likely to smoke (21.6% vs 11.8%) and to have some degree of nicotine dependence compared with healthy adolescents (51.6% vs 48.8%). The most important characteristic of smoking in asthmatic adolescents was found to be an onset before 11 years of age due to curiosity about cigarettes. Asthmatic youths continue smoking because this habit decreases their anxiety and stress. Adolescents know that smoking is addictive and often smoke on waking up in the morning or when they are sick. Yet, these adolescents do not consider smoking to be a problem. In this study, curiosity about cigarettes was the primary reason why asthmatic adolescents smoked for the first time and developed a greater dependence to nicotine compared with healthy adolescents. Moreover, the findings show that many of the factors that favour the development of smoking are preventable, given that they are present in the family and social environment. Copyright © 2017 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A randomised controlled trial of a community-based healthy lifestyle program for overweight and obese adolescents: the Loozit® study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shah Smita

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a need to develop sustainable and clinically effective weight management interventions that are suitable for delivery in community settings where the vast majority of overweight and obese adolescents should be treated. This study aims to evaluate the effect of additional therapeutic contact as an adjunct to the Loozit® group program – a community-based, lifestyle intervention for overweight and lower grade obesity in adolescents. The additional therapeutic contact is provided via telephone coaching and either mobile phone Short Message Service or electronic mail, or both. Methods and design The study design is a two-arm randomised controlled trial that aims to recruit 168 overweight and obese 13–16 year olds (Body Mass Index z-score 1.0 to 2.5 in Sydney, Australia. Adolescents with secondary causes of obesity or significant medical illness are excluded. Participants are recruited via schools, media coverage, health professionals and several community organisations. Study arm one receives the Loozit® group weight management program (G. Study arm two receives the same Loozit® group weight management program plus additional therapeutic contact (G+ATC. The 'G' intervention consists of two phases. Phase 1 involves seven weekly group sessions held separately for adolescents and their parents. This is followed by phase 2 that involves a further seven group sessions held regularly, for adolescents only, until two years follow-up. Additional therapeutic contact is provided to adolescents in the 'G+ATC' study arm approximately once per fortnight during phase 2 only. Outcome measurements are assessed at 2, 12 and 24 months post-baseline and include: BMI z-score, waist z-score, metabolic profile indicators, physical activity, sedentary behaviour, eating patterns, and psychosocial well-being. Discussion The Loozit® study is the first randomised controlled trial of a community-based adolescent weight management

  5. Associations of Leu72Met Polymorphism of Preproghrelin with Ratios of Plasma Lipids Are Diversified by a High-Carbohydrate Diet in Healthy Chinese Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Mi; Qiu, Li; Wang, Qian; Jiang, Zhen; Liu, Xiao Juan; Lin, Jia; Fang, Ding Zhi

    2015-01-01

    The association of preproghrelin Leu72Met polymorphism with plasma lipids profile was inconsistently reported and needs more studies to be confirmed. Our study was to investigate the changes of plasma lipids ratios after a high-carbohydrate (high-CHO) diet in healthy Chinese adolescents with different genotypes of this polymorphism. Fifty-three healthy university students were given a washout diet of 54.1% carbohydrate for 7 days, followed by a high-CHO diet of 70.1% carbohydrate for 6 days. The anthropometric and biological parameters were analyzed at baseline and before and after the high-CHO diet. When compared with those before the high-CHO diet, body mass index (BMI) decreased in the male and female Met72 allele carriers. Decreased low-/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C/HDL-C) was observed in all participants except the female subjects with the Leu72Leu genotype. TG/HDL-C and log (TG/HDL-C) were increased only in the female subjects with the Leu72Leu genotype. These results suggest that the Met72 allele of preproghrelin Leu72Met polymorphism may be associated with decreased BMI induced by the high-CHO diet in male and female adolescents, while the Leu72 allele with increased TG/HDL-C and log (TG/HDL-C) in the female adolescents only. Furthermore, the decreasing effect of the high-CHO diet on LDL/HDL-C may be eliminated in the female Leu72Leu homozygotes. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Understanding Dysfunctional and Functional Family Behaviors for the At-Risk Adolescent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Don; Martin, Maggie

    2000-01-01

    At-risk adolescents and their impact on families and society, as well as characteristics of both healthy and maladaptive families, are discussed. Cognitive distortions of dysfunctional adolescents and their effect on family members, along with methods for intervention and creating more healthy environments, are delineated from a systemic…

  7. Evaluation of diet quality and its associated factors among adolescents in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Rezali, Fara Wahida; Chin, Yit Siew; Mohd Shariff, Zalilah; Mohd Yusof, Barakatun Nisak; Sanker, Kaartina; Woon, Fui Chee

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES This study aims to determine contribution of meal frequency, self-efficacy for healthy eating, and availability of healthy foods towards diet quality of adolescents in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. SUBJECTS/METHODS This study was conducted among 373 adolescents aged from 13 to 16 years old. Diet quality of the respondents was assessed using the Healthy Eating Index for Malaysians. Meal frequency, self-efficacy for healthy eating, and availability of healthy foods were assessed...

  8. Use of Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems Among Adolescents: Status of the Evidence and Public Health Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamat, Aarti D; Van Dyke, Alison L

    2017-02-01

    Although the prevalence of tobacco smoking has been declining in recent years, the use of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) such as of electronic cigarettes, vaporizers, and hookahs has been steadily rising, especially among adolescents. ENDS are not only advertised to children, but their sale via the Internet has made them easily accessible to youth. In general, children perceive ENDS as safe, or at least safer than smoking traditional combustible tobacco products; however, exposure to nicotine may have deleterious effects on the developing brain. Concern also persists that ENDS may be a "starter" drug that may lead to further tobacco, drug, and/or alcohol use. In contrast to this precautionary stance that is associated with calls for legislative oversight of ENDS marketing and sales, harm reductionists claim that the risks posed by ENDS are minor in comparison with those of combustible tobacco products and that ENDS may be used as a means of nicotine replacement for smoking cessation, despite no concrete evidence to support this assertion. Many medical and health-related organizations have produced position statements concerning ENDS use, including among adolescents. This article summarizes the advantages and disadvantages of using ENDS espoused in these position statements, especially as they relate to use among adolescents. [Pediatr Ann. 2017;46(2):e69-e77.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  9. Attitude of teachers to school based adolescent reproductive health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adults may facilitate or obstruct healthy sexual behaviours by adolescents; hence information on their attitude towards adolescent sexual behaviour, including contraceptive use is important. The attitude of teachers to school-based adolescent reproductive health services was assessed among two hundred and twenty three ...

  10. Perceptions of Health among adolescents in Ethiopian immigrant families living in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merja Nikkonen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: From the developmental perspectives children acquire and widen their perceptions of health as they mature and grow up. The main purpose of this study was to describe health through the eyes of adolescents in immigrant Ethiopian families living in Finland.Methods: Ten boys and five girls participated. The adolescents’ ages ranged from 12 to17. Theme interviews were used in data collection. Snowball sampling technique was used. Consent was obtained from the adolescents and adolescents’ parents. Inductive content analysis technique was used to analyse the data.Results: Adolescents indicated that health is the wellbeing of all dimensions that make us intact and complete. Adolescents believed relaxation, physical activity, good hygiene, good social relationship, avoiding consumption of poison substances, green nature, hygienic environment and peace are health supportive elements. On the contrary adolescents said insufficient resting, violent behaviors, difficulty, irritation, being inactive physically, addiction to alcohol and smoking, eating fatty food, not respecting meal time and use of drugs are health damaging behaviors. Adolescents consumed soft drink and alcohol frequently ,were physical inactive, practiced unhealthy eating habits, felt lazy to go and grab food from food store, faced financial difficulty to pay for Gym and healthy food that threatened their health. Adolescents used sport, socialization, moderate alcohol intake, avoid eating unhealthy food and smoking as their strategies to enhance their health.Conclusions: Adolescents were able to identify unhealthy lifestyles and healthy lifestyles. However adolescents were engaged in healthy and unhealthy lifestyles simultaneously. Thus family, school, neighbours and health care workers should work together and vigilant in assessing and removing factors that prevent adolescents from adopting healthy lifestyles.

  11. Professional Doctorate in Health Psychology Thesis Portfolio : Adolescents' views of the electronic cigarette : a new gateway to addiction?

    OpenAIRE

    Clarke, Tilean Naomi

    2015-01-01

    Background:\\ud In the UK alone it is estimated that there are 2.1 million adult electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) users (Action on Smoking and Health, 2014). Introduced to the UK in 2006, ecigarette use has grown rapidly from 700,000 users in 2012 (Kmietowicz, 2014). Given that smoking initiation begins for the most part during adolescence, it is debatable as to whether the e-cigarette could be a gateway into addiction for adolescent non-smokers. This study examined awareness and use of the ...

  12. Tripling use of electronic cigarettes among New Zealand adolescents between 2012 and 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Joanna; Li, Judy; Newcombe, Rhiannon; Walton, Darren

    2015-05-01

    Use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) among adults has flourished in recent years. However, little is known about their use among adolescents. This article reports on data collected from a New Zealand national youth tobacco use survey in 2012 and 2014. The Youth Insights Survey is a biennial self-complete survey of Year 10 students (predominately aged 14-15 years), with a sample size of 3,127 in 2012 and 2,919 in 2014. Ever-use of e-cigarettes was self-reported by participants in both years, and in 2014, e-cigarette ever-users also reported their reasons for first trying e-cigarettes. The rate of e-cigarette ever-use tripled from 7.0% in 2012 to 20.0% in 2014. After adjusting for sociodemographic variables, smoking status (including susceptibility), and other factors associated with tobacco smoking uptake, e-cigarette ever-use was associated with gender, smoking status, close friends' smoking behavior, and risky substance use. Among smokers, desire for a cigarette, quit intention, or past-year quit attempts did not predict e-cigarette ever-use. Irrespective of smoking status, curiosity was the most commonly cited reason for trying e-cigarettes. In 2014, one in five 14- to 15-year-olds had used e-cigarettes. Our data suggest that for adolescent smokers, cessation was not the main reason for trying e-cigarettes. Instead, most adolescents (smokers and nonsmokers) tried e-cigarettes out of curiosity. Our findings signal a need to continue monitoring the uptake of e-cigarettes among adolescents, including both experimental and long-term use. Controlling access and exposure to e-cigarettes among this young age group is also required. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Design and methods for "Commit to Get Fit" - a pilot study of a school-based mindfulness intervention to promote healthy diet and physical activity among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmoirago-Blotcher, Elena; Druker, Sue; Meyer, Florence; Bock, Beth; Crawford, Sybil; Pbert, Lori

    2015-03-01

    Cardiovascular prevention is more effective if started early in life, but available interventions to promote healthy lifestyle habits among youth have been ineffective. Impulsivity in particular has proven to be an important barrier to the adoption of healthy behaviors in youth. Observational evidence suggests that mindfulness interventions may reduce impulsivity and improve diet and physical activity. We hypothesize that mindfulness training in adjunct to traditional health education will improve dietary habits and physical activity among teenagers by reducing impulsive behavior and improving planning skills. The Commit to Get Fit study is a pilot cluster randomized controlled trial examining the feasibility, acceptability and preliminary efficacy of school-based mindfulness training in adjunct to traditional health education for promotion of a healthy diet and physical activity among adolescents. Two schools in central Massachusetts (30 students per school) will be randomized to receive mindfulness training plus standard health education (HE-M) or an attention-control intervention plus standard health education (HE-AC). Assessments will be conducted at baseline, intervention completion (2 months), and 8 months. Primary outcomes are feasibility and acceptability. Secondary outcomes include physical activity, diet, impulsivity, mood, body mass index, and quality of life. This study will provide important information about feasibility and preliminary estimates of efficacy of a school-delivered mindfulness and health education intervention to promote healthy dietary and physical activity behaviors among adolescents. Our findings will provide important insights about the possible mechanisms by which mindfulness training may contribute to behavioral change and inform future research in this important area. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Low calcium and vitamin D intake in healthy children and adolescents and their correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamoun, M M; Kizirian, A S; Tannous, R I; Nabulsi, M M; Choucair, M K; Deeb, M E; El-Hajj Fuleihan, G A

    2005-02-01

    Optimal dietary calcium and possibly vitamin D intake throughout childhood and adolescence may enhance bone mineral accrual. Little data on the intake of these nutrients in Mediterranean countries exist, and predictors of their suboptimal intake are not well defined. To evaluate systematically the effect of gender, lifestyle factors, and socioeconomic status on mean calcium and vitamin D intake in healthy school children and adolescents from Lebanon. A total of 385 students aged 10-16 y were selected from four public and four private schools between Fall 1999 and Spring 2000. Information on calcium and vitamin D intake, through a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire that was validated against a 7-day daily record, and on socioeconomic and lifestyle factors were obtained. Only 12% of the students met the adequate intake (AI) recommendation of 1300 mg of calcium/day, and only 16% met the AI recommendation of 200 IU of vitamin D/day. Boys had a significantly higher mean daily calcium intake than girls. Socioeconomic status as assessed by children's pocket money was a predictor of higher calcium and vitamin D intake. Eating breakfast and physical activity were other correlates of daily calcium and vitamin D intake. Only a minority of students in our study met the AI for calcium and vitamin D. Gender, lifestyle factors, and socioeconomic status were significant predictors of calcium and vitamin D intake. Our findings have important implications regarding the institution of dietary public health strategies to promote skeletal health in Mediterranean countries during a critical time for bone mass accrual.

  15. Parent-adolescent relationship in youths with a chronic condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christin, A; Akre, C; Berchtold, A; Suris, J C

    2016-01-01

    Suffering from a chronic disease or disability (CDD) during adolescence can be a burden for both the adolescents and their parents. The aim of the present study is to assess how living with a CDD during adolescence, the quality of parent-adolescent relationship (PAR) and the adolescent's psychosocial development interact with each other. Using the Swiss Multicenter Adolescent Survey on Health 2002 (SMASH02) database, we compared adolescents aged 16-20 years with a CDD (n = 760) with their healthy peers (n = 6493) on sociodemographics, adolescents' general and psychosocial health, interparental relationship and PAR. Bivariate analyses showed that adolescents with a CDD had a poorer psychosocial health and a more difficult relationship with their parents. The log-linear model indirectly linked CDD and poor PAR through four variables: two of the adolescents' psychosocial health variables (suicide attempt and sensation seeking), the need for help regarding difficulties with parents and a highly educated mother that acted as a protective factor, allowing for a better parent-adolescent with a CDD relationship. It is essential for health professionals taking care of adolescents with a CDD to distinguish between issues in relation with the CDD from other psychosocial difficulties, in order to help these adolescents and their parents deal with them appropriately and thus maintain a healthy PAR. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Social and academic functioning in adolescents with anxiety disorders: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lijster, Jasmijn M; Dieleman, Gwen C; Utens, Elisabeth M W J; Dierckx, Bram; Wierenga, Milou; Verhulst, Frank C; Legerstee, Jeroen S

    2018-04-01

    Anxiety disorders are highly prevalent during adolescence. Although literature points out that anxiety symptoms are related to problems in social and academic functioning, the extent of these problems among adolescents with clinical anxiety disorders has not been systematically reviewed before. Electronic databases were searched up to October 2017, with keywords representing anxiety disorders, adolescents, and social or academic functioning. The inclusion criteria were studies with a sample of adolescents (10-19 years) with anxiety disorders that provided data regarding their social or academic functioning. 3431 studies were examined, of which 19 met the inclusion criteria. Adolescents with anxiety disorders had a lower social competence relative to their healthy peers. They reported more negativity within interpersonal relationships, higher levels of loneliness, and victimization. Most adolescents with anxiety disorders felt impaired at school, however, findings of their average school results, compared to peers, were mixed. In addition, they had a higher risk for school refusal and entered higher education less often. Impairments in social and academic functioning differed across type and the number of anxiety disorders. Most studies examined social phobia or anxiety disorders in general and methodological approaches varied widely between studies. This systematic review indicates that adolescents with anxiety disorders experience a range of significant problems in both social and academic functioning. These findings suggest that the assessment and treatment of anxiety disorders in adolescence should focus on improving functioning across domains. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Self-esteem in adolescents with chronic physical illness vs. controls in Northern Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zashikhina, Anna; Hagglof, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    This work aims to study self-esteem in adolescents with diabetes, asthma and epilepsy; compare the results with those of the representative sample of healthy adolescents; and evaluate the predictive value of certain demographic, family-related, and disease-related factors on self-esteem. A total of 148 chronically ill adolescents and 301 matched healthy counterparts completed the Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale and the "I think I am" questionnaire. Adolescents' parents answered socio-economic status questions. Disease severity was evaluated by doctors of the outpatient clinic. Comparison analysis of the three disease groups revealed highest self-esteem perception in adolescents with diabetes, and lowest in adolescents with epilepsy. Unexpectedly, adolescents with diabetes scored higher than their healthy counterparts. There were no significant differences between the reports of adolescents with asthma and controls. In the epilepsy group, self-esteem was predicted mostly by disease severity and socio-economic status in diabetes and asthma groups, as well as by age and gender. The maintenance of positive self-esteem in adolescents with diabetes and asthma is a very reassuring finding. The other results of our study provide support for recognizing adolescents with epilepsy as a vulnerable group in the society. A multidisciplinary professional approach targeted on adolescents with epilepsy is needed, with focus on factors connected with maturation and gender issues.

  18. Iranian Female Adolescent's Views on Unhealthy Snacks Consumption: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi-Shahanjarini, A; Omidvar, N; Bazargan3, M; Rashidian, A; Majdzadeh, R; Shojaeizadeh, D

    2010-01-01

    Given the increasing prevalence of obesity among Iranian adolescents and the role of consumption of unhealthy snacks in this issue, interventions that focus on factors influencing food choice are needed. This study was designed to delineate factors associated with unhealthy snack use among female Iranian adolescents. The theory of Planned Behavior served as the framework of the study. Qualitative data were collected via nine focus group discussions in two middle schools (6(th) to 8(th) grades) in a socio-economically diverse district in the city of Tehran in spring 2008. The study sample included 90 female adolescents aged 12-15 years. The sampling strategy was purposive method. Data analyzed using the "framework" method. Major factors identified by the respondents were taste, peer pressure, parental influence, easy access to unhealthy snacks, limited availability of healthy snacks, appeal of snacks, habit, high price of healthy snacks, and media advertisements. Nutritional value and healthiness was not one of the first priorities when buying snacks, as adolescents thought it was too early for them to worry about illness and adverse consequences of eating junk foods. For developing culturally sensitive evidence-based interventions that can motivate adolescents to choose healthy snacks, a broad range of factors should be taken into account.

  19. Evaluation of diet quality and its associated factors among adolescents in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezali, Fara Wahida; Chin, Yit Siew; Mohd Shariff, Zalilah; Mohd Yusof, Barakatun Nisak; Sanker, Kaartina; Woon, Fui Chee

    2015-10-01

    This study aims to determine contribution of meal frequency, self-efficacy for healthy eating, and availability of healthy foods towards diet quality of adolescents in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. This study was conducted among 373 adolescents aged from 13 to 16 years old. Diet quality of the respondents was assessed using the Healthy Eating Index for Malaysians. Meal frequency, self-efficacy for healthy eating, and availability of healthy foods were assessed through the Eating Behaviours Questionnaire (EBQ), self-efficacy for healthy eating scale, and availability of healthy foods scale, respectively. The majority of the respondents (80.7%) were at risk of poor diet quality. Males (mean = 34.2 ± 8.2%) had poorer diet quality than females (mean = 39.9 ± 9.0%) (t = -5.941, P diet quality than Indian respondents (mean = 41.3 ± 10.0%) (F = 2.762, P healthy eating (r = 0.129, P healthy foods (r = 0.159, P diet quality of the respondents. However, meal frequency was not correlated with the diet quality of the respondents. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that being a male, being a Malay, low self-efficacy for healthy eating, and low availability of healthy foods contributed significantly towards poor diet quality among respondents. In short, sex, ethnicity, self-efficacy for healthy eating, and availability of healthy foods were associated with diet quality among adolescents. Health practitioners should take into consideration of differences in sex and ethnicity during implementation of nutrition-related intervention programs. Self-efficacy for healthy eating and availability of healthy foods should be included as important components in improving diet quality of adolescents.

  20. Variables associated with family breakdown in healthy and obese/ overweigh adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Cristina J. N. de Almeida

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the presence of family breakdown factors among eutrophic and overweight/obese adolescents. Methods: Cross-sectional study of 242 students aged between 14 and 19 years old, from a public school. Each student was weighed, measured and answered a questionnaire with closed questions addressing the presence of family breakdown factors. The adolescents were divided in two groups: euthophic and overweight/obese. The answers of both groups were compared by Fisher's exact and Mann-Whitney tests. Results: There was no statistically significant difference in the prevalence of the studied factors between the two groups. Comparing the number of positive answers (presence of family breakdown factors and negative ones (absence of family breakdown factors, no difference was observed between the groups. Conclusions: The inclusion of a control group showed that factors of family breakdown, usually identified as associated with obesity in adolescents, may also be present in eutrophic adolescents.

  1. Loss aversion and 5HTT gene variants in adolescent anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique Ernst

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Loss aversion, a well-documented behavioral phenomenon, characterizes decisions under risk in adult populations. As such, loss aversion may provide a reliable measure of risky behavior. Surprisingly, little is known about loss aversion in adolescents, a group who manifests risk-taking behavior, or in anxiety disorders, which are associated with risk-avoidance. Finally, loss aversion is expected to be modulated by genotype, particularly the serotonin transporter (SERT gene variant, based on its role in anxiety and impulsivity. This genetic modulation may also differ between anxious and healthy adolescents, given their distinct propensities for risk taking. The present work examines the modulation of loss aversion, an index of risk-taking, and reaction-time to decision, an index of impulsivity, by the serotonin-transporter-gene-linked polymorphisms (5HTTLPR in healthy and clinically anxious adolescents. Findings show that loss aversion (1 does manifest in adolescents, (2 does not differ between healthy and clinically anxious participants, and (3, when stratified by SERT genotype, identifies a subset of anxious adolescents who are high SERT-expressers, and show excessively low loss-aversion and high impulsivity. This last finding may serve as preliminary evidence for 5HTTLPR as a risk factor for the development of comorbid disorders associated with risk-taking and impulsivity in clinically anxious adolescents.

  2. "Go Girls!": psychological and behavioral outcomes associated with a group-based healthy lifestyle program for adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowd, A Justine; Chen, Michelle Y; Jung, Mary E; Beauchamp, Mark R

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study was to assess changes in adolescent girls' health-enhancing cognitions and behaviors targeted by the Go Girls! group-based mentorship lifestyle program. Three hundred and ten adolescent girls (nested within 40 Go Girls! groups) completed questionnaires that assessed cognitions (attitudes, self-regulatory efficacy, and intentions) and behaviors (physical activity and dietary) at four time points (two pre-program, one at the end of the program, and one at 7-week follow-up). Hierarchical linear modeling was used to examine changes in the outcome variables among Go Girls! participants (M age = 11.68 years, SD = 0.80). No significant changes occurred in the outcome variables during the baseline comparison period (Time 1-2). When compared to the average of the baseline assessments, 7 weeks after completing the program, girls reported significant improvements in physical activity (M Baseline PAtotal = 3.82, SD = 3.49; M T4 PAtotal = 4.38, SD = 3.75) and healthy eating (M Baseline = 10.71, SD = 1.13; M T4 = 11.35, SD = 1.05) behavior and related cognitions (d values ≥0.65). Findings provide preliminary support for programs that foster belongingness and target health behaviors through mentorship models.

  3. The association between use of electronic media and prevalence of headache in adolescents: results from a population-based cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Straube Andreas

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Use of electronic media, i.e. mobile phones, computers, television, game consoles or listening to music, is very common, especially amongst adolescents. There is currently a debate about whether frequent use of these media might have adverse effects on health, especially on headaches, which are among the most-reported health complaints in adolescents. The aim of the present study was to assess associations between frequent use of electronic media and the prevalence of different types of headache in adolescents. Methods Data were derived from a population-based sample (n = 1,025, ages 13-17 years. Type of headache (i.e. migraine, tension-type headache, unclassifiable headache was ascertained by standardized questionnaires for subjects reporting headache episodes at least once per month during the last six months. Duration of electronic media use was assessed during personal interviews. Associations were estimated with logistic regression models adjusted for age group, sex, family condition and socio-economic status. Results Most of the adolescents used computers (85%, watched television (90% or listened to music (90% daily, otherwise only 23% of the participants used their mobile phones and only 25% played with game consoles on a daily basis. A statistically significant association between listening to music and any headache (odds ratio 1.8; 95% confidence interval 1.1-3.1 for 30 minutes per day, 2.1; 1.2-3.7 for 1 to 2 hours per day; 2.0; 1.2-3.5 for 3 hours and longer listening to music per day was observed. When stratifying for type of headache, no statistically significant association was seen. Conclusions Apart from an association between listening to music on a daily basis and overall headache, no consistent associations between the use of electronic media and different types of headache were observed.

  4. The association between use of electronic media and prevalence of headache in adolescents: results from a population-based cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milde-Busch, Astrid; von Kries, Rüdiger; Thomas, Silke; Heinrich, Sabine; Straube, Andreas; Radon, Katja

    2010-02-09

    Use of electronic media, i.e. mobile phones, computers, television, game consoles or listening to music, is very common, especially amongst adolescents. There is currently a debate about whether frequent use of these media might have adverse effects on health, especially on headaches, which are among the most-reported health complaints in adolescents. The aim of the present study was to assess associations between frequent use of electronic media and the prevalence of different types of headache in adolescents. Data were derived from a population-based sample (n = 1,025, ages 13-17 years). Type of headache (i.e. migraine, tension-type headache, unclassifiable headache) was ascertained by standardized questionnaires for subjects reporting headache episodes at least once per month during the last six months. Duration of electronic media use was assessed during personal interviews. Associations were estimated with logistic regression models adjusted for age group, sex, family condition and socio-economic status. Most of the adolescents used computers (85%), watched television (90%) or listened to music (90%) daily, otherwise only 23% of the participants used their mobile phones and only 25% played with game consoles on a daily basis. A statistically significant association between listening to music and any headache (odds ratio 1.8; 95% confidence interval 1.1-3.1 for 30 minutes per day, 2.1; 1.2-3.7 for 1 to 2 hours per day; 2.0; 1.2-3.5 for 3 hours and longer listening to music per day) was observed. When stratifying for type of headache, no statistically significant association was seen. Apart from an association between listening to music on a daily basis and overall headache, no consistent associations between the use of electronic media and different types of headache were observed.

  5. Technology Trumping Sleep: Impact of Electronic Media and Sleep in Late Adolescent Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulin, Kerry L.; Chung, Chia-Jung

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this research study was to explore with what impact evening media use interfered with either schoolwork and/or sufficient healthy sleep. In addition, the study examined with what impact there may be a compromise in students' ability or aptitude for positive academic success, related to either lack of sleep or electronic media use.…

  6. Adolescent Sleepiness: Causes and Consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Shana L; Capener, Dale; Daly, Christopher

    2017-09-01

    Insufficient sleep duration and poor sleep quality are common among adolescents. The multidimensional causes of insufficient sleep duration and poor sleep quality include biological, health-related, environmental, and lifestyle factors. The most common direct consequence of insufficient and/or poor sleep quality is excessive daytime sleepiness, which may contribute to poor academic performance, behavioral health problems, substance use, and drowsy driving. Evaluation of sleepiness includes a detailed sleep history and sleep diary, with polysomnography only required for the assessment of specific sleep disorders. Management involves encouraging healthy sleep practices such as having consistent bed and wake times, limiting caffeine and electronics at night before bed, and eliminating napping, in addition to treating any existing sleep or medical disorders. [Pediatr Ann. 2017;46(9):e340-e344.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  7. Electronic cigarette use among adolescents: a cross-sectional study in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Jiang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about electronic cigarette (e-cigarette use among Chinese adolescents. We examined the prevalence of current (past 30-day e-cigarette use and its associated factors in a large sample of adolescents in Hong Kong. Methods We analyzed data of the School-based Survey on Smoking among Students 2012/13 from a representative sample of 45,857 secondary school students (mean age: 14.8 ± 1.9. We conducted chi-square tests and t-test to compare current e-cigarette use by covariates. We used multivariable logistic regression to examine the association between current e-cigarette use and demographic variables, parental smoking, peer smoking, knowledge about the harm of cigarette smoking, attitudes toward cigarette smoking, cigarette smoking status, use of other tobacco products, and alcohol consumption. Results Overall, 1.1 % of students reported current e-cigarette use. Of e-cigarette users, 11.7 % were never-cigarette smokers, 15.8 % were experimental cigarette smokers, 39.3 % were former cigarette smokers, and 33.2 % were current cigarette smokers. Current e-cigarette use was associated with male sex, poor knowledge about the harm of smoking, cigarette smoking, use of other tobacco products, and alcohol consumption. Conclusions Surveillance and intervention efforts should address a wide range of tobacco products, including e-cigarettes. Tobacco cessation programs should also address alcohol use collectively. Policies prohibiting e-cigarette sales to minors may help prevent e-cigarette uptake among adolescents.

  8. Anthropometry, DXA and leptin reflect subcutaneous but not visceral abdominal adipose tissue by MRI in 197 healthy adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tinggaard, Jeanette; Hagen, Casper P; Christensen, Anders Nymark

    2017-01-01

    Background Abdominal fat distribution is associated with the development of cardio-metabolic disease independently of body mass index (BMI). We assessed anthropometry, serum adipokines, and DXA as markers of abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) using...... to total abdominal volume. Results Girls had a higher SAT% than did boys in early and late puberty (16 vs. 13%, Pfat% (standard deviation score (SDS)), suprailiac skinfold...... magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Methods We performed a cross-sectional study that included 197 healthy adolescents (114 boys) aged 10–15 years nested within a longitudinal population-based cohort. Clinical examination, blood sampling, DXA, and abdominal MRI were performed. SAT% and VAT% were adjusted...

  9. Anterior Cortical Development During Adolescence in Bipolar Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najt, Pablo; Wang, Fei; Spencer, Linda; Johnston, Jennifer A Y; Cox Lippard, Elizabeth T; Pittman, Brian P; Lacadie, Cheryl; Staib, Lawrence H; Papademetris, Xenophon; Blumberg, Hilary P

    2016-02-15

    Increasing evidence supports a neurodevelopmental model for bipolar disorder (BD), with adolescence as a critical period in its development. Developmental abnormalities of anterior paralimbic and heteromodal frontal cortices, key structures in emotional regulation processes and central in BD, are implicated. However, few longitudinal studies have been conducted, limiting understanding of trajectory alterations in BD. In this study, we performed longitudinal neuroimaging of adolescents with and without BD and assessed volume changes over time, including changes in tissue overall and within gray and white matter. Larger decreases over time in anterior cortical volumes in the adolescents with BD were hypothesized. Gray matter decreases and white matter increases are typically observed during adolescence in anterior cortices. It was hypothesized that volume decreases over time in BD would reflect alterations in those processes, showing larger gray matter contraction and decreased white matter expansion. Two high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging scans were obtained approximately 2 years apart for 35 adolescents with bipolar I disorder (BDI) and 37 healthy adolescents. Differences over time between groups were investigated for volume overall and specifically for gray and white matter. Relative to healthy adolescents, adolescents with BDI showed greater volume contraction over time in a region including insula and orbitofrontal, rostral, and dorsolateral prefrontal cortices (p adolescence in BDI in anterior cortices, including altered developmental trajectories of anterior gray and white matter. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Scanning electron microscopic observations of fibrous structure of cemento-dentinal junction in healthy teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratebha, B; Jaikumar, N D; Sudhakar, R

    2014-01-01

    The cemento-dentinal junction (CDJ) is a structural and biologic link between cementum and dentin present in the roots of teeth. Conflicting reports about the origin, structure and composition of this layer are present in literature. The width of this junctional tissue is reported to be about 2-4 μm with adhesion of cementum and dentin by proteoglycans and by collagen fiber intermingling. The objective of this study is to observe and report the fibrous architecture of the CDJ of healthy tooth roots. A total of 15 healthy teeth samples were collected, sectioned into halves, demineralized in 5% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, processed using NaOH maceration technique and observed under a scanning electron microscope. The CDJ appeared to be a fibril poor groove with a width of 2-4 µm. Few areas of collagen fiber intermingling could be appreciated. A detailed observation of these tissues has been presented.

  11. Impact of Carbohydrate Restriction on Healthy Adolescent Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, Hannah M; Duriancik, David M

    2017-09-01

    Carbohydrate-restricted diets are known for their impact on weight loss; however, research is still required to determine if low-carbohydrate diets are safe for adolescents. Carbohydrates directly stimulate an insulin response, and studies have recently shown that insulin and binding to respective insulin receptors (IRs) are critical in Kisspeptin (Kiss1) neuronal development. These neurons directly stimulate gonadotropin-releasing hormone, which activates the pituitary-gonadal axis during puberty. This information suggests that carbohydrate restriction may delay pubertal development in adolescents due to the impact on insulin and Kiss1 transcription. Studies have observed disturbed insulin metabolism in Type I Diabetics leading to delayed puberty, along with overfeeding stimulating early pubertal onset. Additionally, recent clinical trials bred female mice with IR deletions on Kiss1 neurons and observed delayed vaginal opening and estrus. Current animal research suggests low carbohydrate intake may delay pubertal onset, however additional research is required to determine outcome in human subjects. Copyright© of YS Medical Media ltd.

  12. Integrating mindfulness training in school health education to promote healthy behaviors in adolescents: Feasibility and preliminary effects on exercise and dietary habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmoirago-Blotcher, Elena; Druker, Susan; Frisard, Christine; Dunsiger, Shira I; Crawford, Sybil; Meleo-Meyer, Florence; Bock, Beth; Pbert, Lori

    2018-03-01

    Whether mindfulness training (MT) could improve healthy behaviors is unknown. This study sought to determine feasibility and acceptability of integrating MT into school-based health education (primary outcomes) and to explore its possible effects on healthy behaviors (exploratory outcomes). Two high schools in Massachusetts (2014-2015) were randomized to health education plus MT (HE-MT) (one session/week for 8 weeks) or to health education plus attention control (HE-AC). Dietary habits (24-h dietary recalls) and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA/7-day recalls) were assessed at baseline, end of treatment (EOT), and 6 months thereafter. Quantile regression and linear mixed models were used, respectively, to estimate effects on MVPA and dietary outcomes adjusting for confounders. We recruited 53 9th graders (30 HEM, 23 HEAC; average age 14.5, 60% white, 59% female). Retention was 100% (EOT) and 96% (6 months); attendance was 96% (both conditions), with moderate-to-high satisfaction ratings. Among students with higher MVPA at baseline, MVPA was higher in HE-MT vs. HE-AC at both EOT (median difference = 81 min/week, p  = 0.005) and at 6 months ( p  = 0.004). Among males, median MVPA was higher (median difference = 99 min/week) in HE-MT vs. HEAC at both EOT ( p  = 0.056) and at 6 months ( p  = 0.04). No differences were noted in dietary habits. In sum, integrating school-based MT into health education was feasible and acceptable and had promising effects on MVPA among male and more active adolescents. These findings suggest that MT may improve healthy behaviors in adolescents and deserve to be reproduced in larger, rigorous studies.

  13. Impact of an Educational Text Message Intervention on Adolescents' Knowledge and High-Risk Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickman, Nichole Erin; Schaar, Gina

    2018-03-01

    Health care providers need to develop improved methods of educating adolescents. This study was developed to evaluate adolescents' responses to and satisfaction with an educational text message intervention to promote healthy behaviors, reduce the incidence of unhealthy behaviors, and prevent high-risk behaviors. Adolescent participants received weekly text messages regarding high-risk sexual behaviors, healthy dietary habits, exercise, drug, or alcohol use, and social issues. Results indicate adolescents learned something new, made a behavioral change, and overall liked the delivery of educational information via text message. This indicates long-term continuation of a text message intervention is a viable means to deliver adolescent health information, thereby improving an adolescent's current and future health status.

  14. The influence of gender stereotypes on eating habits among Costa Rican adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monge-Rojas, Rafael; Fuster-Baraona, Tamara; Garita, Carlos; Sánchez, Marta; Smith-Castro, Vanesa; Valverde-Cerros, Oscar; Colon-Ramos, Uriyoán

    2015-01-01

    To identify the influence of gender stereotypes on eating habits among Costa Rican adolescents. Qualitative, descriptive research was used in this study. Adolescents and parents were recruited from socioeconomically diverse populations in rural and urban areas of San José, Costa Rica. Subjects were 92 adolescents (14 to 17 years old) and 48 parents. Focus group data were transcribed and entered into the qualitative data analysis software Atlas.ti version 5.0. Analyses were grounded on the social cognitive theory. Five themes emerged from the focus group discussions: (1) Costa Rican adolescents associate the consumption of moderate quantities of healthy foods with femininity and male homosexuality. (2) The consumption of hearty portions of nonhealthy foods was associated with masculinity and male heterosexuality. (3) There is an emerging view that it is acceptable for heterosexual male adolescents to take care of their bodies through healthy eating. (4) Body care among female adolescents is an element of femininity and body image. (5) Parents reinforce their daughters' persistent concern with weight control because they perceive it as feminine behavior. Health promoters should be aware of the existing and changing food stereotypes around gender as an avenue for the promotion of healthy eating.

  15. Dental treatment and caries prevention preceding treatment under general anaesthesia in healthy children and adolescents: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grindefjord, M; Persson, J; Jansson, L; Tsilingaridis, G

    2018-04-01

    This was to examine healthy children and adolescents treated under general anaesthesia (GA) and a matched control group not receiving GA to compare treatment and preventive care received prior to GA treatment. This retrospective cohort study included 71 healthy subjects and 213 age- and gender-matched control subjects. The treatment group had been consecutively referred from the Public Dental Health Service (PDS) in Stockholm to the Department of Paediatric Dentistry, Eastman Institute, Stockholm during 2006-2007. Data was extracted from the patient records at the PDS, including variables such as number of dental visits, treatment/prophylaxis prior to GA, number of missed and cancelled appointments, and number of decayed teeth. On average, the treatment group had significantly more decayed teeth (p general dentists to paediatric specialists had no behaviour management treatment and nearly half, no preventive treatment, despite receiving significantly more operative treatment compared with matched controls. General dentists should target high caries-risk patients for additional behaviour management and preventive care to reduce the need for treatment under GA.

  16. Role of contingency in striatal response to incentive in adolescents with anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Brenda E; Guyer, Amanda E; Nelson, Eric E; Pine, Daniel S; Ernst, Monique

    2015-03-01

    This study examines the effect of contingency on reward function in anxiety. We define contingency as the aspect of a situation in which the outcome is determined by one's action-that is, when there is a direct link between one's action and the outcome of the action. Past findings in adolescents with anxiety or at risk for anxiety have revealed hypersensitive behavioral and neural responses to higher value rewards with correct performance. This hypersensitivity to highly valued (salient) actions suggests that the value of actions is determined not only by outcome magnitude, but also by the degree to which the outcome is contingent on correct performance. Thus, contingency and incentive value might each modulate reward responses in unique ways in anxiety. Using fMRI with a monetary reward task, striatal response to cue anticipation is compared in 18 clinically anxious and 20 healthy adolescents. This task manipulates orthogonally reward contingency and incentive value. Findings suggest that contingency modulates the neural response to incentive magnitude differently in the two groups. Specifically, during the contingent condition, right-striatal response tracks incentive value in anxious, but not healthy, adolescents. During the noncontingent condition, striatal response is bilaterally stronger to low than to high incentive in anxious adolescents, while healthy adolescents exhibit the expected opposite pattern. Both contingency and reward magnitude differentiate striatal activation in anxious versus healthy adolescents. These findings may reflect exaggerated concern about performance and/or alterations of striatal coding of reward value in anxious adolescents. Abnormalities in reward function in anxiety may have treatment implications.

  17. Self-rated health, psychosocial functioning, and health-related behavior among Thai adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Randy M; Suwanteerangkul, Jiraporn

    2009-02-01

    Despite the popularity of self-rated health (SRH) in Western countries as a useful public health tool, it has only rarely been used in Asian countries. The purpose of the current study was to determine whether measures of psychosocial functioning and health-related factors differ according to SRH in a school-based sample of Thai adolescents. The survey was given to 2519 adolescents attending 10 coeducational secondary high schools in Chiang Mai Province, Thailand and included measures of psychosocial functioning (loneliness, hopelessness, shyness, perceptions of social status, self-rated happiness, and perception of physical attractiveness) and certain health-related factors (height/weight, physical activity, eating breakfast, sleep). The proportion of boys (5.1%) reporting that they were not healthy was similar to the proportion of girls (4.6%) making the same rating. These adolescents showed a pattern of overall poor health risk. Compared to adolescent peers who rated their health as healthy or very healthy, they were less physically active, got less sleep, were more likely to be overweight, and scored lower on loneliness, shyness, hopelessness, and self-rated happiness. The present pattern of poor health risk warrants attention and supports the merit of using SRH in adolescent health assessment. SRH is easy to obtain and simple to assess and single-item assessments of SRH appear to be valid measures of health status in adults and adolescent. Interventions, such as health counseling, mental health counseling, and health education, can target adolescents who rate themselves as 'not healthy' or report poor health status.

  18. Parenting characteristics in the home environment and adolescent overweight: a latent class analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berge, Jerica M; Wall, Melanie; Bauer, Katherine W; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2010-04-01

    Parenting style and parental support and modeling of physical activity and healthy dietary intake have been linked to youth weight status, although findings have been inconsistent across studies. Furthermore, little is known about how these factors co-occur, and the influence of the coexistence of these factors on adolescents' weight. This article examines the relationship between the co-occurrence of various parenting characteristics and adolescents' weight status. Data are from Project EAT (eating among teens), a population-based study of 4,746 diverse adolescents. Theoretical and latent class groupings of parenting styles and parenting practices were created. Regression analyses examined the relationship between the created variables and adolescents' BMI. Having an authoritarian mother was associated with higher BMI in sons. The co-occurrence of an authoritarian mother and neglectful father was associated with higher BMI for sons. Daughters' whose fathers did not model or encourage healthy behaviors reported higher BMIs. The co-occurrence of neither parent modeling healthy behaviors was associated with higher BMIs for sons, and incongruent parental modeling and encouraging of healthy behaviors was associated with higher BMIs in daughters. Although, further research into the complex dynamics of the home environment is needed, findings indicate that authoritarian parenting style is associated with higher adolescent weight status and incongruent parenting styles and practices between mothers and fathers are associated with higher adolescent weight status.

  19. Loss aversion and 5HTT gene variants in adolescent anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Monique; Plate, Rista C; Carlisi, Christina O; Gorodetsky, Elena; Goldman, David; Pine, Daniel S

    2014-04-01

    Loss aversion, a well-documented behavioral phenomenon, characterizes decisions under risk in adult populations. As such, loss aversion may provide a reliable measure of risky behavior. Surprisingly, little is known about loss aversion in adolescents, a group who manifests risk-taking behavior, or in anxiety disorders, which are associated with risk-avoidance. Finally, loss aversion is expected to be modulated by genotype, particularly the serotonin transporter (SERT) gene variant, based on its role in anxiety and impulsivity. This genetic modulation may also differ between anxious and healthy adolescents, given their distinct propensities for risk taking. The present work examines the modulation of loss aversion, an index of risk-taking, and reaction-time to decision, an index of impulsivity, by the serotonin-transporter-gene-linked polymorphisms (5HTTLPR) in healthy and clinically anxious adolescents. Findings show that loss aversion (1) does manifest in adolescents, (2) does not differ between healthy and clinically anxious participants, and (3), when stratified by SERT genotype, identifies a subset of anxious adolescents who are high SERT-expressers, and show excessively low loss-aversion and high impulsivity. This last finding may serve as preliminary evidence for 5HTTLPR as a risk factor for the development of comorbid disorders associated with risk-taking and impulsivity in clinically anxious adolescents. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Urinary excretion of phthalate metabolites in 129 healthy Danish children and adolescents: Estimation of daily phthalate intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Hanne; Aksglaede, Lise; Sørensen, Kaspar

    2011-01-01

    Background Phthalates are a group of chemicals with widespread use in the industrial production of numerous consumer products. They are suspected to be involved in male reproductive health problems and have also been associated with several other health problems in children including obesity...... and asthma. Objectives To study the urinary excretion of phthalate metabolites in Danish children recruited from the general population, and to estimate the daily intake of phthalates in this segment of the population. Method One 24 h urine sample and to consecutive first morning urine samples were collected...... from 129 healthy Danish children and adolescents (range 6–21 yrs). The concentrations of 11 phthalate metabolites of 5 different phthalate diesters were analyzed by liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. Results The analyzed metabolites were detectable in almost all 24 h urine samples...

  1. Relationships between psychosocial outcomes in adolescents who are obese and their parents during a multi-disciplinary family-based healthy lifestyle intervention: One-year follow-up of a waitlist controlled trial (Curtin University's Activity, Food and Attitudes Program).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenner, Ashley A; Howie, Erin K; Davis, Melissa C; Straker, Leon M

    2016-07-07

    Limited studies have investigated relationships in psychosocial outcomes between adolescents who are obese and their parents and how psychosocial outcomes change during participation in a physical activity and healthy eating intervention. This study examined both adolescent and parent psychosocial outcomes while participating in a one - year multi-disciplinary family-based intervention: Curtin University's Activity, Food, and Attitudes Program (CAFAP). Following a waitlist control period, the intervention was delivered to adolescent (n = 56, ages 11-16) and parent participants over 8 weeks, with one-year maintenance follow-up. Adolescent depression and quality of life, family functioning, and parent depression, anxiety, and stress were assessed at six time points: baseline and prior to intervention (e.g., waitlist control period), immediately following intervention, and at 3, 6, and 12 months post-intervention. Relationships between adolescent and parent psychosocial outcomes were assessed using Spearman correlations and changes in both adolescent and parent outcomes were assessed using linear mixed models. Changes in adolescent psychosocial outcomes were compared to changes in behavioural (physical activity and healthy eating) and physical (weight) outcomes using independent samples t-tests. The majority of psychosocial outcomes were significantly correlated between adolescents and parents across the one-year follow-up. Adolescent depression, psychosocial and physical quality of life outcomes significantly improved before or following intervention and were maintained at 6-months or one-year follow-up. Parent symptoms of depression, anxiety, and stress were reduced during waitlist and primarily remained improved. Changes in adolescent psychosocial outcomes were shown to be partially associated with behavioural changes and independent of physical changes. Adolescents in CAFAP improved psychosocial and physical quality of life and reversed the typical

  2. Cultural perceptions of healthy weight in rural Appalachian youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, K J; Taylor, C A; Wolf, K N; Lawson, R F; Crespo, R

    2008-01-01

    Rates of overweight among US children have been rising over the past three decades. Changes in lifestyle behaviors, including dietary and physical activity habits, have been examined thoroughly to identify correlates of weight status in children. Youth in rural US Appalachia are at a disproportionately greater risk for obesity and related health complications. Inadequate physical activity and poor dietary habits are two primary causes of obesity that have been noted in West Virginia adolescents. Few existing data describes the decisional balance in performing lifestyle behaviors, nor the perceptions of these youth regarding their beliefs about weight. The purpose of this study was to identify the perceptions of a healthy weight in rural Appalachian adolescents. Ninth grade students were recruited from classroom presentations in four high schools throughout West Virginia. Interested parent-caregiver pairs returned forms to indicate interest in participation. Separate focus group interviews were conducted concurrently with adolescent and parents or caregivers to identify the cultural perceptions of a healthy weight. Questions were developed using grounded theory to explore how a healthy weight was defined, what factors dictate body weight, the perceived severity of the obesity issue, and the social or health ramifications of the condition. Verbatim transcripts were analyzed to identify dominant themes, and content analysis provided text segments to describe the themes. This article describes the data obtained from the adolescent focus groups. When asked what defined a healthy weight, the adolescents who participated in the focus groups placed great value on physical appearance and social acceptability. Students believed there was a particular number, either an absolute weight or body mass index value that determined a healthy weight. These numbers were usually conveyed by a physician; however, there was also a general acceptance of being 'thick' or a reliance on

  3. Glucose enhancement of memory is modulated by trait anxiety in healthy adolescent males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michael A; Hii, Hilary L; Foster, Jonathan K; van Eekelen, J A M

    2011-01-01

    Glucose administration is associated with memory enhancement in healthy young individuals under conditions of divided attention at encoding. While the specific neurocognitive mechanisms underlying this 'glucose memory facilitation effect' are currently uncertain, it is thought that individual differences in glucoregulatory efficiency may alter an individual's sensitivity to the glucose memory facilitation effect. In the present study, we sought to investigate whether basal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function (itself a modulator of glucoregulatory efficiency), baseline self-reported stress and trait anxiety influence the glucose memory facilitation effect. Adolescent males (age range = 14-17 years) were administered glucose and placebo prior to completing a verbal episodic memory task on two separate testing days in a counter-balanced, within-subjects design. Glucose ingestion improved verbal episodic memory performance when memory recall was tested (i) within an hour of glucose ingestion and encoding, and (ii) one week subsequent to glucose ingestion and encoding. Basal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function did not appear to influence the glucose memory facilitation effect; however, glucose ingestion only improved memory in participants reporting relatively higher trait anxiety. These findings suggest that the glucose memory facilitation effect may be mediated by biological mechanisms associated with trait anxiety.

  4. Social and individual determinants of adolescents' acceptance of novel healthy and cool snack products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nørgaard, Maria Kümpel; Sørensen, Bjarne Taulo; Grunert, Klaus G

    2014-12-01

    Four new, healthy snack products, consisting of fruit, vegetables, bread, dip and topping, were tested with 600 Danish adolescents aged 9-16. Participants could view, handle, and test the products in a school setting. Acceptance was measured by overall buying intention, as well as buying intention contingent on specific substitutes and on the social situation. Price consciousness, health consciousness, snack neophobia, peer influence, social activities and word-of-mouth were measured as potential determinants of acceptance of the novel products. An exploratory analysis in TETRAD suggested that the measured constructs form three layers, with overall buying intention as the terminal causal effect, health consciousness, word of mouth, snack neophobia and peer influence as endogenous determinants, and social activities and the contingent buying intentions as mediators. Estimation of the causal relationships was conducted in LISREL. Findings show a predominance of social factors as determinants of novel snack acceptance, whereas health consciousness had only a weak and indirect effect on buying intentions and the effect of snack neophobia was partly mediated by social factors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Aberrant Resting-State Functional Connectivity in the Salience Network of Adolescent Chronic Fatigue Syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Anne Wortinger

    Full Text Available Neural network investigations are currently absent in adolescent chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS. In this study, we examine whether the core intrinsic connectivity networks (ICNs are altered in adolescent CFS patients. Eighteen adolescent patients with CFS and 18 aged matched healthy adolescent control subjects underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rfMRI. Data was analyzed using dual-regression independent components analysis, which is a data-driven approach for the identification of independent brain networks. Intrinsic connectivity was evaluated in the default mode network (DMN, salience network (SN, and central executive network (CEN. Associations between network characteristics and symptoms of CFS were also explored. Adolescent CFS patients displayed a significant decrease in SN functional connectivity to the right posterior insula compared to healthy comparison participants, which was related to fatigue symptoms. Additionally, there was an association between pain intensity and SN functional connectivity to the left middle insula and caudate that differed between adolescent patients and healthy comparison participants. Our findings of insula dysfunction and its association with fatigue severity and pain intensity in adolescent CFS demonstrate an aberration of the salience network which might play a role in CFS pathophysiology.

  6. School-based intervention on healthy behaviour among Ecuadorian adolescents: effect of a cluster-randomized controlled trial on screen-time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Susana; Verloigne, Maïté; Cardon, Greet; Kolsteren, Patrick; Ochoa-Avilés, Angelica; Verstraeten, Roosmarijn; Donoso, Silvana; Lachat, Carl

    2015-09-22

    in adolescents' television time and total screen-time after the first stage of the intervention or in other words, when the intervention included specific components or activities that focused on reducing screen-time. After the second stage of the intervention, which only included components and activities related to improve healthy diet and physical activity and not to decrease the screen-time, the adolescents increased their screen-time again. Our findings might imply that reducing screen-time is only possible when the intervention focuses specifically on reducing screen-time. Clinicaltrials.gov identifier NCT01004367.

  7. The school environment and adolescent physical activity and sedentary behaviour: a mixed-studies systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, K L; Atkin, A J; Corder, K; Suhrcke, M; van Sluijs, E M F

    2016-02-01

    There is increasing academic and policy interest in interventions aiming to promote young people's health by ensuring that the school environment supports healthy behaviours. The purpose of this review was to summarize the current evidence on school-based policy, physical and social-environmental influences on adolescent physical activity and sedentary behaviour. Electronic databases were searched to identify studies that (1) involved healthy adolescents (11-18 years old), (2) investigated school-environmental influences and (3) reported a physical activity and/or sedentary behaviour outcome or theme. Findings were synthesized using a non-quantitative synthesis and thematic analysis. Ninety-three papers of mixed methodological quality were included. A range of school-based policy (e.g. break time length), physical (e.g. facilities) and social-environmental (e.g. teacher behaviours) factors were associated with adolescent physical activity, with limited research on sedentary behaviour. The mixed-studies synthesis revealed the importance of specific activity settings (type and location) and intramural sport opportunities for all students. Important physical education-related factors were a mastery-oriented motivational climate and autonomy supportive teaching behaviours. Qualitative evidence highlighted the influence of the wider school climate and shed light on complexities of the associations observed in the quantitative literature. This review identifies future research needs and discusses potential intervention approaches to be considered. © 2015 World Obesity.

  8. The school environment and adolescent physical activity and sedentary behaviour: a mixed‐studies systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkin, A. J.; Corder, K.; Suhrcke, M.; van Sluijs, E. M. F.

    2015-01-01

    Summary There is increasing academic and policy interest in interventions aiming to promote young people's health by ensuring that the school environment supports healthy behaviours. The purpose of this review was to summarize the current evidence on school‐based policy, physical and social‐environmental influences on adolescent physical activity and sedentary behaviour. Electronic databases were searched to identify studies that (1) involved healthy adolescents (11–18 years old), (2) investigated school‐environmental influences and (3) reported a physical activity and/or sedentary behaviour outcome or theme. Findings were synthesized using a non‐quantitative synthesis and thematic analysis. Ninety‐three papers of mixed methodological quality were included. A range of school‐based policy (e.g. break time length), physical (e.g. facilities) and social‐environmental (e.g. teacher behaviours) factors were associated with adolescent physical activity, with limited research on sedentary behaviour. The mixed‐studies synthesis revealed the importance of specific activity settings (type and location) and intramural sport opportunities for all students. Important physical education‐related factors were a mastery‐oriented motivational climate and autonomy supportive teaching behaviours. Qualitative evidence highlighted the influence of the wider school climate and shed light on complexities of the associations observed in the quantitative literature. This review identifies future research needs and discusses potential intervention approaches to be considered. PMID:26680609

  9. Perceptions of healthy eating in transitional phases of life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech-Larsen, Tino; Kazbare, Laura

    2014-01-01

    ). Originality/value - The study and findings reported in this article contribute by providing the first steps towards a better understanding of how social cognition and self-efficacy perceptions related to healthy eating develop in the transitional phases of adolescence and older adulthood. In order...... adolescents’ and older adults’ own perceptions of the barriers and facilitators of a change towards healthier eating. Design/methodology/approach - This study design consisted of four focus groups that were conducted with adolescents and older adults to identify their health orientations, and their expected...... and experienced outcomes and self-efficacies in implementing approach and avoidance behaviours in relation to healthy eating, i.e. increasing consumption of fruit and vegetables and decreasing consumption of soft drinks and red meat. Findings - The study resulted in a number of interesting insights, e...

  10. Perceived parenting style, self-esteem and psychological distress in adolescents with heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Miri; Mansoor, Daniela; Gagin, Roni; Lorber, Avraham

    2008-08-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the relationships between perceived parenting style, depressed mood, anxiety and self-esteem in adolescents with heart disease compared with healthy adolescents. Forty-five adolescents, aged 12-18 with congenital or acquired heart disease and 50 healthy age-matched adolescents answered perceived parental behaviour, self-esteem, depressed mood and anxiety questionnaires. The study group reported higher perceived acceptance and lower perceived parental control than healthy adolescents, but similar levels of depressed mood, anxiety and self-esteem. Fischer's r-to-z transformation and regression analyses showed different associations between perceived parenting style and depressed mood, anxiety and self esteem. In the study group, higher perceived parental acceptance was associated with lower depressed mood and higher self-esteem, whereas these associations were not significant in the control group. In the control, but not the study group, higher perceived parental control was associated with lower depressed mood and lower anxiety. Parenting style proved to exert a differential effect on adolescents with and without heart disease. For the former, perceived parental acceptance had a more substantial effect on psychological well-being than perceived parental control. Professionals caring for these adolescents should be aware of the special importance of parenting style on the well-being of adolescents with heart disease, and address this issue in the clinical setting with the patients and their parents.

  11. Anxiety sensitivity in adolescents with somatoform autonomic dysfunction and adolescents with insulin dependent diabetes mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Pisarić Maja; Nišević Sanja

    2011-01-01

    Anxiety sensitivity is defined as a belief that anxiety or fear may cause illness, embarrassment, or additional anxiety. The main purpose of this study was to find out if there were differences among adolescents with insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, adolescents with somatoform autonomic dysfunction and their healthy peers in different aspects of psychological functioning and anxiety sensitivity. The sample consisted of 93 subjects, aged 12 to 16. Hamburg Neuroticism and Extraversion...

  12. Insufficient sleep in adolescents: causes and consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Judith A; Weiss, Miriam R

    2017-08-01

    Insufficient sleep poses an important and complicated set of health risks in the adolescent population. Not only is deficient sleep (defined as both sleep duration inadequate to meet sleep needs and sleep timing misaligned with the body's circadian rhythms) at epidemic levels in this population, but the contributing factors are both complex and numerous and there are a myriad of negative physical and mental health, safety and performance consequences. Causes of inadequate sleep identified in this population include internal biological processes such as the normal shift (delay) in circadian rhythm that occurs in association with puberty and a developmentally-based slowing of the "sleep drive", and external factors including extracurricular activities, excessive homework load, evening use of electronic media, caffeine intake and early school start times. Consequences range from inattentiveness, reduction in executive functioning and poor academic performance to increased risk of obesity and cardio-metabolic dysfunction, mood disturbances which include increased suicidal ideation, a higher risk of engaging in health risk behaviors such as alcohol and substance use, and increased rates of car crashes, occupational injuries and sports-related injuries. In response to these concerns, a number of promising measures have been proposed to reduce the burden of adolescent sleep loss, including healthy sleep education for students and families, and later school start times to allow adolescents to obtain sufficient and appropriately-timed sleep.

  13. Dietary sources and sociodemographic and lifestyle factors affecting vitamin D and calcium intakes in European adolescents: the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence (HELENA) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julián, Cristina; Mouratidou, Theodora; Vicente-Rodriguez, Germán; Gracia-Marco, Luis; Valtueña, Jara; González-Gross, Marcela; Ferrari, Marika; Gottrand, Frederic; Manios, Yannis; de la O, Alejandro; Widhalm, Kurt; Molnár, Dénes; Kafatos, Antonios; Sjöström, Michael; Kersting, Mathilde; Gunter, Marc J; De Henauw, Stefaan; Moreno, Luis A; Huybrechts, Inge

    2017-06-01

    To investigate dietary sources of Ca and vitamin D (VitD) intakes, and the associated sociodemographic and lifestyle factors, among European adolescents. Linear regression mixed models were used to examine sex-specific associations of Ca and VitD intakes with parental education, family affluence (FAS), physical activity and television (TV) watching while controlling for age, Tanner stage, energy intake and diet quality. The Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence (HELENA)Cross-Sectional Study. Adolescents aged 12·5-17·5 years (n 1804). Milk and cheese were the main sources of Ca (23 and 19 % contribution to overall Ca intake, respectively). Fish products were the main VitD source (30 % contribution to overall VitD intake). Ca intake was positively associated with maternal education (β=56·41; 95 % CI 1·98, 110·82) and negatively associated with TV viewing in boys (β=-0·43; 95 % CI -0·79, -0·07); however, the significance of these associations disappeared when adjusting for diet quality. In girls, Ca intake was positively associated with mother's (β=73·08; 95 % CI 34·41, 111·74) and father's education (β=43·29; 95 % CI 5·44, 81·14) and FAS (β=37·45; 95 % CI 2·25, 72·65). This association between Ca intake and mother's education remained significant after further adjustment for diet quality (β=41·66; 95 % CI 0·94, 82·38). Girls with high-educated mothers had higher Ca intake. Low-educated families with poor diet quality may be targeted when strategizing health promotion programmes to enhance dietary Ca.

  14. Validation and Diagnostic Efficiency of the Mini-SPIN in Spanish-Speaking Adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LuisJoaquín Garcia-Lopez

    Full Text Available Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD is one of the most common mental disorders in adolescence. Many validated psychometric tools are available to diagnose individuals with SAD efficaciously. However, there is a demand for shortened self-report instruments that identify adolescents at risk of developing SAD. We validate the Mini-SPIN and its diagnostic efficiency in overcoming this problem in Spanish-speaking adolescents in Spain.The psychometric properties of the 3-item Mini-SPIN scale for adolescents were assessed in a community (study 1 and clinical sample (study 2.Study 1 consisted of 573 adolescents, and found the Mini-SPIN to have appropriate internal consistency and high construct validity. Study 2 consisted of 354 adolescents (147 participants diagnosed with SAD and 207 healthy controls. Data revealed that the Mini-SPIN has good internal consistency, high construct validity and adequate diagnostic efficiency.Our findings suggest that the Mini-SPIN has good psychometric properties on clinical and healthy control adolescents and general population, which indicates that it can be used as a screening tool in Spanish-speaking adolescents. Cut-off scores are provided.

  15. Validation and Diagnostic Efficiency of the Mini-SPIN in Spanish-Speaking Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Lopez, LuisJoaquín; Moore, Harry T A

    2015-01-01

    Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) is one of the most common mental disorders in adolescence. Many validated psychometric tools are available to diagnose individuals with SAD efficaciously. However, there is a demand for shortened self-report instruments that identify adolescents at risk of developing SAD. We validate the Mini-SPIN and its diagnostic efficiency in overcoming this problem in Spanish-speaking adolescents in Spain. The psychometric properties of the 3-item Mini-SPIN scale for adolescents were assessed in a community (study 1) and clinical sample (study 2). Study 1 consisted of 573 adolescents, and found the Mini-SPIN to have appropriate internal consistency and high construct validity. Study 2 consisted of 354 adolescents (147 participants diagnosed with SAD and 207 healthy controls). Data revealed that the Mini-SPIN has good internal consistency, high construct validity and adequate diagnostic efficiency. Our findings suggest that the Mini-SPIN has good psychometric properties on clinical and healthy control adolescents and general population, which indicates that it can be used as a screening tool in Spanish-speaking adolescents. Cut-off scores are provided.

  16. E-cigarettes, Hookah Pens and Vapes: Adolescent and Young Adult Perceptions of Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagoner, Kimberly G; Cornacchione, Jennifer; Wiseman, Kimberly D; Teal, Randall; Moracco, Kathryn E; Sutfin, Erin L

    2016-10-01

    Most studies have assessed use of "e-cigarettes" or "electronic cigarettes," potentially excluding new electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS), such as e-hookahs and vape pens. Little is known about how adolescents and young adults perceive ENDS and if their perceptions vary by sub-type. We explored ENDS perceptions among these populations. Ten focus groups with 77 adolescents and young adults, ages 13-25, were conducted in spring 2014. Participants were users or susceptible nonusers of novel tobacco products. Focus group transcripts were coded for emergent themes. Participants reported positive ENDS attributes, including flavor variety; user control of nicotine content; and smoke trick facilitation. Negative attributes included different feel compared to combustible cigarettes, nicotine addiction potential, and no cue to stop use. Participants perceived less harm from ENDS compared to combustible cigarettes, perhaps due to marketing and lack of product regulation, but noted the uncertainty of ingredients in ENDS. Numerous terms were used to describe ENDS, including "e-cigarette," "e-hookah," "hookah pens," "tanks," and "vapes." Although no clear classification system emerged, participants used product characteristics like nicotine content and chargeability to attempt classification. Perceptions differed by product used. E-hookah users were perceived as young and trendy while e-cigarette users were perceived as old and addicted to nicotine. Young adults and adolescents report distinct ENDS sub-types with varying characteristics and social perceptions of users. Although they had more positive than negative perceptions of ENDS, prevention efforts should consider highlighting negative attributes as they may discourage use and product trial among young nonusers. Our study underscores the need for a standardized measurement system for ENDS sub-types and additional research on how ENDS sub-types are perceived among adolescents and young adults. In addition, our

  17. Nutritional and physical activity behaviours and habits in adolescent population of Belgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević-Nikić Marina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Proper nutrition and regular physical activity are essential parts of a adolescent's overall health. The aim of this research was to evaluated eating and physical activity behaviours and habits, nutritional and food knowledge, beliefs and self-efficacy related to diet and health of the adolescents of the city of Belgrade, Serbia. Methods. A dietary questionnaire previously constructed and tested in adolescent population from Italy was self-administrated. We evaluated eating habits, physical activity, meaning of healthy and unhealthy dietary habits and food, self-efficacy, barriers affecting food choices, nutritional and food safety, and body mass index (BMI of the adolescents. The sample included 707 adolescents, the mean age of 15,8 ± 2 years enrolled in the first grade at several high schools in Belgrade. Results. Only 27% of the adolescents had satisfactory eating habits; 31% have a very active lifestyle; 7% good nutritional knowledge and 6- 12% satisfactory food safety knowledge and hygiene practices. Conclusion. Significant deviations from recommendations for healthy lifestyle was noted in adolescents’ habits, knowledge and practice. It is therefore necessary to develop and organize programs for promotion of healthy behaviours adapted to the adolescents’ needs. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III47015

  18. Delayed-type hypersensitivity skin test responses to PPD and other antigens among BCG-vaccinated HIV-1-infected and healthy children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Natalia Moriya Xavierda; Albuquerque, Maly de; Lins, Janaína Bacelar Acioli; Alvares-Junior, João Teixeira; Stefani, Mariane Martins de Araújo

    2011-10-01

    Among HIV-1-infected patients, CD4+ T cell counts are well-established markers of cell-mediated immunity. Delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) skin tests can be used to evaluate in vivo cell-mediated immunity to common antigens. DTH responses to tuberculin purified protein derivative (PPD), sporotrichin, trichophytin, candidin and streptokinase/streptodornase antigens were assessed. Thirty-six HIV-1-infected children/adolescents and 56 age- and sex-matched HIV-1/HIV-2-seronegative participants were tested. All participants had a BCG scar. Fisher's exact test was used to evaluate significant differences between groups (pPPD positivity prevailed among healthy participants (40/56, 71.4%). PPD reactivity in the HIV-1-positive group was 8.3% (pPPD induration was 2.5mm (range: 2-5mm) in the HIV-1 group and 6.0 mm among healthy participants (range: 3-15 mm). There was no correlation between PPD positivity and age. No correlation between CD4+ T cell counts and DTH reactivity was observed among HIV-1-infected patients. DTH skin test responses, including PPD reactivity, were significantly lower among HIV-1-infected participants compared to healthy controls, which likely reflects advanced disease and T cell depletion.

  19. [Self-esteem predictors in adolescents with diabetes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Małkowska-Szkutnik, Agnieszka; Gajewski, Jakub; Mazur, Joanna; Gajewska, Katarzyna

    2012-01-01

    Self-esteem is the conviction concerning self-satisfaction and self-assessment of one's competence. It can influence the overall emotional state, and determine the motivation to take actions of characteristic teenagers. Presentation of the results of research on predictors of self-esteem in healthy adolescents and their peers with diabetes. Is was investigated whether there were differences in factors that determine directly and indirectly the self-esteem within these groups. The survey was conducted during the school year 2010/2011 as a part of cultural and linguistic adaptation of the CHIP-AE questionnaire (Child Health and Illness Profile - Adolescent Edition). Data were collected from 1177 students with average age of 15.4 years, who attended junior high and high schools of different types, in five provinces of Poland. In this group there were 117 adolescents with diabetes and 1060 healthy peers. The CHIP-AE questionnaire consists of six main dimensions: satisfaction, complaints, protective factors, risk factors, achievements and illness. Students are asked to respond mostly from the perspective of the last 4 weeks. Predictors of self-esteem were selected from the following fields of CHIP-AE questionnaire: physical health, self-efficiency, limitation of daily activities, academic achievement, burden of school work, social support, capability of solving social problems, family relationships, relationships with peers and with teachers. Multivariate regression models and structural equitation models were estimated for both the healthy and the ill adolescents. It has been proved that self-esteem of healthy adolescents was determined differently than that of their peers with diabetes. The most important elements forming self-esteem of adolescents with diabetes were as follows: self-assessment of physical fitness, academic achievements and social support. In the studied group an indirect impact of limitations of physical activity on self-perceived fitness and

  20. Adherence to vitamin supplementation following adolescent bariatric surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modi, Avani C; Zeller, Meg H; Xanthakos, Stavra A; Jenkins, Todd M; Inge, Thomas H

    2013-03-01

    Adolescents with extreme obesity, who have undergone bariatric surgery, must adhere to many lifestyle and nutritional recommendations, including multivitamin therapy. Little is known about multivitamin adherence following adolescent bariatric surgery. The present study aims to document self-reported and electronically-monitored adherence to multivitamins, determine convergence between self-report and electronic monitoring adherence for multivitamins, and identify barriers to multivitamin adherence for adolescents who have undergone bariatric surgery. The study used a prospective, longitudinal observational design to assess subjective (self-reported) and objective (electronic monitors) multivitamin adherence in a cohort of 41 adolescents (Mean age = 17.1 ± 1.5; range = 13-19) who have undergone bariatric surgery at Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center. Mean adherence as derived from electronic monitoring for the entire 6-month study period was 29.8% ± 23.9. Self-reported adherence was significantly higher than electronically monitored adherence across both the 1 and 6-month assessment points (z = 4.5, P bariatric surgery, high rates of nonadherence to multivitamin therapy were observed in adolescents who had undergone bariatric surgery with forgetting and difficulty swallowing pills as reported barriers to adherence. These high rates of nonadherence to multivitamin therapy should be considered when devising treatment and family education pathways for adolescents considering weight loss surgery. Copyright © 2012 The Obesity Society.

  1. Heritability of Transforming Growth Factor-β1 and Tumor Necrosis Factor-Receptor Type 1 Expression and Vitamin D Levels in Healthy Adolescent Twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Natalie T; Wright, Margie J; Henders, Anjali K; Eyles, Darryl W; Baune, Bernhard T; McGrath, John J; Byrne, Enda M; Hansell, Narelle K; Birosova, Eva; Scott, James G; Martin, Nicholas G; Montgomery, Grant W; Wray, Naomi R; Vinkhuyzen, Anna A E

    2015-02-01

    Cytokines and vitamin D both have a role in modulating the immune system, and are also potentially useful biomarkers in mental illnesses such as major depressive disorder (MDD) and schizophrenia. Studying the variability of cytokines and vitamin D in a healthy population sample may add to understanding the association between these biomarkers and mental illness. To assess genetic and environmental contributions to variation in circulating levels of cytokines and vitamin D (25-hydroxy vitamin D: 25(OH)D3), we analyzed data from a healthy adolescent twin cohort (mean age 16.2 years; standard deviation 0.25). Plasma cytokine measures were available for 400 individuals (85 MZ, 115 DZ pairs), dried blood spot sample vitamin D measures were available for 378 individuals (70 MZ, 118 DZ pairs). Heritability estimates were moderate but significant for the cytokines transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), 0.57 (95% CI 0.26-0.80) and tumor necrosis factor-receptor type 1 (TNFR1), 0.50 (95% CI 0.11-0.63) respectively. Measures of 25(OH)D3 were within normal range and heritability was estimated to be high (0.86, 95% CI 0.61-0.94). Assays of other cytokines did not generate meaningful results. These potential biomarkers may be useful in mental illness, with further research warranted in larger sample sizes. They may be particularly important in adolescents with mental illness where diagnostic uncertainty poses a significant clinical challenge.

  2. Predictors of changes in adolescents' consumption of fruits, vegetables and energy-dense snacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Natalie; Ball, Kylie; Crawford, David

    2011-03-01

    Understanding the predictors of developmental changes in adolescent eating behaviours is important for the design of nutrition interventions. The present study examined associations between individual, social and physical environmental factors and changes in adolescent eating behaviours over 2 years. Consumption of fruits, vegetables and energy-dense snacks was assessed using a Web-based survey completed by 1850 adolescents from years 7 and 9 of secondary schools in Victoria, Australia, at baseline and 2 years later. Perceived value of healthy eating, self-efficacy for healthy eating, social modelling and support, and home availability and accessibility of foods were assessed at baseline. Self-efficacy for increasing fruit consumption was positively associated with the change in fruit and vegetable consumption, while self-efficacy for decreasing junk food consumption was inversely associated with the change in energy-dense snack consumption. Home availability of energy-dense foods was inversely associated with the change in fruit consumption and positively associated with the change in energy-dense snack consumption, while home availability of fruits and vegetables was positively associated with the change in vegetable consumption. Perceived value of healthy eating and modelling of healthy eating by mothers were positively associated with the change in fruit consumption. Support of best friends for healthy eating was positively associated with the change in vegetable consumption. Self-efficacy and home availability of foods appear to be consistent predictors of change in fruit, vegetable and energy-dense snack consumption. Future study should assess the effectiveness of methods to increase self-efficacy for healthy eating and to improve home availability of healthy food options in programmes promoting healthy eating among adolescents.

  3. Insula tuning towards external eating versus interoceptive input in adolescents with overweight and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata, Fernanda; Verdejo-Roman, Juan; Soriano-Mas, Carles; Verdejo-Garcia, Antonio

    2015-10-01

    This study was aimed to examine if adolescent obesity is associated with alterations of insula function as indexed by differential correlations between insula activation and perception of interoceptive feedback versus external food cues. We hypothesized that, in healthy weight adolescents, insula activation will positively correlate with interoceptive sensitivity, whereas in excess weight adolescents, insula activation will positively correlate with sensitivity towards external cues. Fifty-four adolescents (age range 12-18), classified in two groups as a function of BMI, excess weight (n = 22) and healthy weight (n = 32), performed the Risky-Gains task (sensitive to insula function) inside an fMRI scanner, and completed the heartbeat perception task (measuring interoceptive sensitivity) and the Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (measuring external eating as well as emotional eating and restraint) outside the scanner. We found that insula activation during the Risky-Gains task positively correlated with interoceptive sensitivity and negatively correlated with external eating in healthy weight adolescents. Conversely, in excess weight adolescents, insula activation positively correlated with external eating and negatively correlated with interoceptive sensitivity, arguably reflecting obesity related neurocognitive adaptations. In excess weight adolescents, external eating was also positively associated with caudate nucleus activation, and restrained eating was negatively associated with insula activation. Our findings suggest that adolescent obesity is associated with disrupted tuning of the insula system towards interoceptive input. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Depersonalization: physiological or pathological in adolescents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagioli, Francesca; Dell'Erba, Alice; Migliorini, Vanina; Stanghellini, Giovanni

    2015-05-01

    This study analyzed the presence of DP symptoms in a sample of both psychiatric patients and normal subjects, addressing the issue of DP symptoms in adolescence. A total of 267 subjects (149 patients and 118 healthy controls) aged between 14 and 65 years, were assessed by means of CDS, the SCID-I and the K-SADS. The sample was then divided into two subsamples with a cut-off age of 21 years. As expected CDS score was significantly higher in the patient group compared to the healthy control group. As for the age issue, among patients no statistical difference was found comparing subjects over and under 21 years, whereas in the sample of healthy controls, subjects under 21 years reported CDS scores significantly higher. While in adults DP symptoms are frequently associated with mental disorders, in adolescents they could be considered as a quasi-physiological phenomenon. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Influences on adolescent smoking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Koprivnikar

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract There are numerous and intertwining factors that influence adolescent smoking and have to be considered when we develop and implement programmes and measures for the prevention and reduction of adolescent smoking. In different environments (schools, health system, local communities we have to reduce risk factors and strenghten protective factors through programmes incorporated in the system. The protective factors are low prevalence of smoking, healthy lifestyle, physical activity and good mental health, indicating the importance of links to programmes outside of the tobacco control.

  6. Relationship among sera lipoprotein abnormalities in healthy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As the prevalence of lipoprotein abnormalities in adolescents is increasing dramatically, the identification of relevant risk factors is a major public health challenge. The aim of this study was to investigate whether a family history of diabetes could be a risk factor for lipid abnormalities in healthy individuals. This study is a ...

  7. Immunogenicity and safety of a multicomponent meningococcal serogroup B vaccine in healthy adolescents in Korea--A randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hoan Jong; Choe, Young June; Hong, Young-Jin; Kim, Kyung-Hyo; Park, Su Eun; Kim, Yun-Kyung; Oh, Chi-Eun; Lee, Hyunju; Song, Hyoyoung; Bock, Hans; Casula, Daniela; Bhusal, Chiranjiwi; Arora, Ashwani Kumar

    2016-02-24

    Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B is a significant cause of septicaemia and meningitis worldwide. This phase 3 randomised, controlled study assessed the immunogenicity and safety of a multicomponent meningococcal serogroup B vaccine, 4CMenB, in healthy Korean adolescents. 264 adolescents (11-17 years old) were randomised to receive two doses, one month apart, of 4CMenB or control vaccines [placebo followed by one dose of a quadrivalent meningococcal ACWY glycoconjugate vaccine (MenACWY-CRM)]. Immunogenicity was evaluated by serum bactericidal assay with human complement (hSBA) against three serogroup B test strains specific for individual vaccine antigens (fHbp, NadA or PorA P1.4), and by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) against the NHBA antigen. Solicited reactions and adverse events (AEs) were assessed. One month post-second vaccination, 98%, 97%, and 97% of subjects in the 4CMenB group achieved hSBA titres ≥ 4 against the fHbp, NadA and PorA test strains, respectively, while percentages in the Control group were comparable to baseline (27%, 16%, and 17%, respectively). Geometric mean ELISA concentrations (GMCs) against NHBA increased 52-fold relative to baseline in the 4CMenB group, while there was no substantial increase in GMCs in the Control group (1.05-fold). Frequencies of solicited reactions after any vaccination were higher in the 4CMenB group than in the Control group, although most reactions were of short duration and mild to moderate intensity. There were no vaccine-related serious AEs. Two doses of 4CMenB induced robust immune responses against the vaccine antigens and were well tolerated, with no safety concerns identified, in Korean adolescents (NCT01973218). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The relationship between parental depressive symptoms, family type, and adolescent functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieh, Dominik Sebastian; Sieh, Dominik Sebstian; Visser-Meily, Johanna Maria Augusta; Meijer, Anne Marie

    2013-01-01

    It is evident that parental depressive symptoms negatively influence adolescent behavior and various psychosocial outcomes. Certain family types like families with a chronically ill parent and single parent families are more vulnerable to parental depressive symptoms. However, the relationship between these symptoms, family type, and adolescent functioning remains largely unclear. This study examined relations between self-report of parental depressive symptoms and adolescent functioning in 86 two-parent families including a parent with a chronic medical condition, 94 families with healthy single parents, and 69 families with 2 healthy parents (comparison group). Parents completed the Beck Depression Inventory. Adolescents filled in the Youth Self-Report measuring problem behavior, and other instruments measuring psychosocial outcomes (stress, grade point average, school problems, and self-esteem). Multilevel analyses were used to examine the effects of family type, parental depressive symptoms, adolescents' gender and age, and interaction effects on adolescent functioning. The results indicated that adolescents with chronically ill and single parents had a lower grade point average (pfamily types. Parental depressive symptoms were strongly related to child report of stress (pfamily with 2 parents may have less impact on adolescent problem behavior than growing up in a single parent family. Health practitioners are encouraged to be attentive to the unique and combined influence of family type and parental depressive symptoms on adolescent functioning. Older and female adolescents deserve particular attention.

  9. Evidence for increased glutamatergic cortical facilitation in children and adolescents with major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croarkin, Paul E; Nakonezny, Paul A; Husain, Mustafa M; Melton, Tabatha; Buyukdura, Jeylan S; Kennard, Betsy D; Emslie, Graham J; Kozel, F Andrew; Daskalakis, Zafiris J

    2013-03-01

    Converging lines of evidence implicate the glutamate and γ-aminobutyric acid neurotransmitter systems in the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder. Transcranial magnetic stimulation cortical excitability and inhibition paradigms have been used to assess cortical glutamatergic and γ-aminobutyric acid-mediated tone in adults with major depressive disorder, but not in children and adolescents. To compare measures of cortical excitability and inhibition with 4 different paradigms in a group of children and adolescents with major depressive disorder vs healthy controls. Cross-sectional study examining medication-free children and adolescents (aged 9-17 years) with major depressive disorder compared with healthy controls. Cortical excitability was assessed with motor threshold and intracortical facilitation measures. Cortical inhibition was measured with cortical silent period and intracortical inhibition paradigms. University-based child and adolescent psychiatry clinic and neurostimulation laboratory. Twenty-four participants with major depressive disorder and 22 healthy controls matched for age and sex. Patients with major depressive disorder were medication naive and had moderate to severe symptoms based on an evaluation with a child and adolescent psychiatrist and scores on the Children's Depression Rating Scale-Revised. Motor threshold, intracortical facilitation, cortical silent period, and intracortical inhibition. Compared with healthy controls, depressed patients had significantly increased intracortical facilitation at interstimulus intervals of 10 and 15 milliseconds bilaterally. There were no significant group differences in cortical inhibition measures. These findings suggest that major depressive disorder in children and adolescents is associated with increased intracortical facilitation and excessive glutamatergic activity.

  10. Severe fatigue in adolescents : psychological, neuro-endocrine, and immunological characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolbeek, M. ter

    2007-01-01

    Fatigue is a common complaint among adolescents. In a pilot study, we observed 8% of healthy adolescents to report fatigue severity which was comparable to fatigue severity reported by chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) patients. This observation led to an extensive investigation on psychological,

  11. Emotional conflict processing in adolescent chronic fatigue syndrome: A pilot study using functional magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wortinger, Laura Anne; Endestad, Tor; Melinder, Annika Maria D; Øie, Merete Glenne; Sulheim, Dag; Fagermoen, Even; Wyller, Vegard Bruun

    2017-05-01

    Studies of neurocognition suggest that abnormalities in cognitive control contribute to the pathophysiology of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) in adolescents, yet these abnormalities remain poorly understood at the neurobiological level. Reports indicate that adolescents with CFS are significantly impaired in conflict processing, a primary element of cognitive control. In this study, we examine whether emotional conflict processing is altered on behavioral and neural levels in adolescents with CFS and a healthy comparison group. Fifteen adolescent patients with CFS and 24 healthy adolescent participants underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while performing an emotional conflict task that involved categorizing facial affect while ignoring overlaid affect labeled words. Adolescent CFS patients were less able to engage the left amygdala and left midposterior insula (mpINS) in response to conflict than the healthy comparison group. An association between accuracy interference and conflict-related reactivity in the amygdala was observed in CFS patients. A relationship between response time interference and conflict-related reactivity in the mpINS was also reported. Neural responses in the amygdala and mpINS were specific to fatigue severity. These data demonstrate that adolescent CFS patients displayed deficits in emotional conflict processing. Our results suggest abnormalities in affective and cognitive functioning of the salience network, which might underlie the pathophysiology of adolescent CFS.

  12. Validation and Diagnostic Efficiency of the Mini-SPIN in Spanish-Speaking Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Lopez, LuisJoaquín; Moore, Harry T. A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) is one of the most common mental disorders in adolescence. Many validated psychometric tools are available to diagnose individuals with SAD efficaciously. However, there is a demand for shortened self-report instruments that identify adolescents at risk of developing SAD. We validate the Mini-SPIN and its diagnostic efficiency in overcoming this problem in Spanish-speaking adolescents in Spain. Methods The psychometric properties of the 3-item Mini-SPIN scale for adolescents were assessed in a community (study 1) and clinical sample (study 2). Results Study 1 consisted of 573 adolescents, and found the Mini-SPIN to have appropriate internal consistency and high construct validity. Study 2 consisted of 354 adolescents (147 participants diagnosed with SAD and 207 healthy controls). Data revealed that the Mini-SPIN has good internal consistency, high construct validity and adequate diagnostic efficiency. Conclusions Our findings suggest that the Mini-SPIN has good psychometric properties on clinical and healthy control adolescents and general population, which indicates that it can be used as a screening tool in Spanish-speaking adolescents. Cut-off scores are provided. PMID:26317695

  13. Relationships and interactions in healthy process to be an adolescent Relaciones e interacciones en adolecer saludable Relacionamentos e interações no adolescer saudável

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelita Campos Araújo

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to explore how teenagers view the relationships and interactions in the process of healthily becoming an adolescent. This qualitative exploratory research was conducted with ten teenagers in a state college in a town in southern Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, from August to October, 2007. We used semi-structured interviews to collect the data. Later, we decided to use a thematic analysis, in which two themes emerged: (1 the process of building relationships and interactions in adolescence and (2 the risk in social life. As a result, we realized the importance of interpersonal relationships formed in adolescence, which deserve the nurse’s attention. Nurses can help in the guiding of this population in basic health units, hospitals or schools, to a healthy adolescence. Thus, teenagers may enjoy the relationships built in this process in order to grow and to enter into adulthood.Este estudio tuvo como objetivo conocer las relaciones e interacciones en el proceso de adolecer saludable. Este fue un estudio de tipo cualitativo exploratorio, realizado con diez adolescentes en uno colegió estadual del ciudad en el sur de Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, durante los meses de agosto a octubre de 2007. Para recopilar los datos, utilizamos entrevistas semi-estructuradas. Posteriormente, se decidió por el análisis temático, en la que surgieron dos temas: el proceso de construcción de las relaciones e interacciones en la adolescencia y el riesgo en la vida social. Por lo tanto, se percibió la importancia de las relaciones interpersonales forman durante la adolescencia, digna de atención del enfermero, que puede ayudar en la orientación de esta población en unidades básicas de salud, hospitales o en las escuelas, a la adolescencia saludable. Y así, los jóvenes pueden disfrutar de los vínculos construidos para crecer y para entrar en la edad adulta.Este estudo teve como objetivo conhecer a percepção de adolescentes acerca dos

  14. Impact of early adolescent anxiety disorders on self-esteem development from adolescence to young adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, Lizmarie; Huang, Yangxin; Chen, Ren; Kasen, Stephanie; Cohen, Patricia; Chen, Henian

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To examine the association between early adolescent anxiety disorders and self-esteem development from early adolescence to young adulthood. Methods Self-esteem was measured at mean ages 13, 16 and 22 for 821 participants from the Children in the Community Study, a population-based longitudinal cohort. Anxiety disorders were measured at mean age 13 years. Multilevel growth models were employed to analyze the change in self-esteem from early adolescence to young adulthood and to evaluate whether adolescent anxiety disorders predict both average and slope of self-esteem development. Results Self-esteem increased during adolescence and continued to increase in young adulthood. Girls had lower average self-esteem than boys, but this difference disappeared when examining the effect of anxiety. Adolescents with anxiety disorder had lower self-esteem, on average, compared with healthy adolescents (effect size (ES) =−0.35, pself-esteem (ES=−0.30, pself-esteem from adolescence to young-adulthood ( =−0.1, pself-esteem development. Conclusions All but one of the assessed adolescent anxiety disorders were related to lower self-esteem, with social phobia having the greatest impact. OCD predicted a decline in self-esteem trajectory with age. The importance of raising self-esteem in adolescents with anxiety and other mental disorders is discussed. PMID:23648133

  15. Defensive Passivity in Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenheim, Eliyahu; Gaoni, Bracha

    1977-01-01

    There are potentially healthy adolescents who display excessive reluctance to move toward independent decision and action. This research presents a clinical description of this "syndrome", conceptualizes it as a defensive maneuver against mourning over cherished childhood dreams and offers steps for therapeutic intervention. (Editor/RK)

  16. The health of adolescents: beliefs and behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, H L

    1989-01-01

    Adolescence is a period of transition from childhood to adulthood in which interlocking changes in the body, mind and social relationship take place. Healthy development depends on both a propitious environment and the action of adolescents themselves. A stable family, peace, material conditions for physical health, and educational, social and vocational opportunities with a chance to make use of them before marriage, are necessary environment conditions. However, within this context the adolescent must experiment with new behaviours and relationships inevitably courting some risks. Adolescent health is especially linked to behaviour. If the environment is inadequate or dangerous and the adolescent lacks self-esteem, behaviours dangerous to health are more likely to occur. These include: precocious and unprotected sexual behaviour sometimes resulting in too early or unwanted pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases; the use of tobacco, alcohol and other drugs; injuries arising accidentally from risk taking behaviours especially when combined with alcohol or drugs; intentional injury whether self-inflicted or inflicted by others; and poor eating and habits of hygiene leading to obesity, or emaciation, acne and poor teeth and gums. Adolescent behaviour is often governed by their beliefs about what others think. Two way communication in a trusting atmosphere will reduce myths and misinformation and encourage healthy behaviour. The promotion of health, the prevention of problems, and their treatment and rehabilitation when they arise can best be accomplished with the active co-operation of young people.

  17. Electronic health technology for the assessment of physical activity and eating habits in children and adolescents with overweight and obesity IDA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiel, Ralf; Kaps, Alexander; Bieber, Gerald

    2012-04-01

    It was the goal of the trial to study the impact of electronic healthcare technology into treatment. One hundred and twenty-four children/adolescents (females 56%, age 13.5±2.8 years, height 1.64±0.13 m, weight 85.4±23.0 kg, body-mass index (BMI) 31.3±5.2 kg/m(2), BMI-standard deviation score (SDS) 2.50±0.5) were included. To assess physical activity and eating habits, a mobile motion sensor integrated into a mobile phone with digital camera was used. The children/adolescents had a significant weight reduction of 7.1±3.0 kg. BMI/BMI-SDS decreased (pchildren/adolescents was higher than the assessment with motion sensors (walking 292.9 vs 45.5 min, pchildren and adolescents. The system is able to augment existing weight reduction and stabilization strategies. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Age at Menarche Among In-School Adolescents in Sawla Town ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... low menarche age was comparable with reports from developed countries. Inactive adolescents were more likely to see menarche earlier than average age. Healthy eating habits, regular exercise and nutrition education need to be promoted among school children. Keywords: adolescent, cross sectional, menarche age, ...

  19. Assessing the efficacy of the healthy eating and lifestyle programme (HELP compared with enhanced standard care of the obese adolescent in the community: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christie Deborah

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The childhood obesity epidemic is one of the foremost UK health priorities. Childhood obesity tracks into adult life and places individuals at considerable risk for diabetes, cardiovascular disease, liver disease and other morbidities. There is widespread need for paediatric lifestyle programmes as change may be easier to accomplish in childhood than later in life. Study Design/Method The study will evaluate the management of adolescent obesity by conducting a Medical Research Council complex intervention phase III efficacy randomised clinical trial of the Healthy Eating Lifestyle Programme within primary care. The study tests a community delivered multi-component intervention designed for adolescents developed from best practice as identified by National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence. The hospital based pilot reduced body mass index and improved health-related quality of life. Subjects will be individually randomised to receiving either the Healthy Eating Lifestyle Programme (12 fortnightly family sessions or enhanced standard care. Baseline and follow up assessments will be undertaken blind to allocation status. A health economic evaluation is also being conducted. 200 obese young people (13-17 years, body mass index > 98th centile for age and sex will be recruited from primary care within the greater London area. The primary hypothesis is that a motivational and solution-focused family-based weight management programme delivered over 6 months is more efficacious in reducing body mass index in obese adolescents identified in the community than enhanced standard care. The primary outcome will be body mass index at the end of the intervention, adjusted for baseline body mass index, age and sex. The secondary hypothesis is that the Healthy Eating Lifestyle Programme is more efficacious in improving quality of life and psychological function and reducing waist circumference and cardiovascular risk factors in

  20. Victims of Bullying and Tobacco Use Behaviors in Adolescents: Differences Between Bullied at School, Electronically, or Both.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Kathleen R; Cooper, Maria; Creamer, MeLisa; Mantey, Dale; Kelder, Steven

    2016-11-01

    Being a victim of bullying is associated with greater risk of youth substance use; however, research specifically examining whether tobacco use behaviors differ among adolescents who were bullied at school only, electronically only, or both at school and electronically is limited. We examined the associations between being a victim of bullying (at school only, electronically only, or both at school and electronically) and use of tobacco products using data from the 2013 national Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Girls who were bullied both at school and electronically reported the highest odds of all tobacco use behaviors (ever use of cigarettes, current use of cigarettes, and current use of any tobacco product) as compared with girls who were not bullied after adjusting for covariates. Conversely, for boys, only the association between being bullied electronically only and ever use of cigarettes remained significant after adjusting for covariates. Results from this study indicate that electronic bullying may differentially influence the odds of tobacco use in high school students as compared with bullying that occurs at school only. Confirmation of these findings could inform interventions to reduce both bullying and tobacco use in high school. © 2016, American School Health Association.

  1. Impact of early adolescent anxiety disorders on self-esteem development from adolescence to young adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, Lizmarie; Huang, Yangxin; Chen, Ren; Kasen, Stephanie; Cohen, Patricia; Chen, Henian

    2013-08-01

    To examine the association between early adolescent anxiety disorders and self-esteem development from early adolescence through young adulthood. Self-esteem was measured at mean ages 13, 16, and 22 for 821 participants from the Children in the Community Study, a population-based longitudinal cohort. Anxiety disorders were measured at mean age 13 years. Multilevel growth models were employed to analyze the change in self-esteem from early adolescence to young adulthood and to evaluate whether adolescent anxiety disorders predict both average and slope of self-esteem development. Self-esteem increased during adolescence and continued to increase in young adulthood. Girls had lower average self-esteem than boys, but this difference disappeared when examining the effect of anxiety. Adolescents with anxiety disorder had lower self-esteem, on average, compared with healthy adolescents (effect size [ES] = -.35, p self-esteem (ES = -.30, p self-esteem from adolescence to young adulthood (β = -.1, p self-esteem development. All but one of the assessed adolescent anxiety disorders were related to lower self-esteem, with social phobia having the greatest impact. OCD predicted a decline in self-esteem trajectory with age. The importance of raising self-esteem in adolescents with anxiety and other mental disorders is discussed. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Exposure to air pollution is associated with lung hyperinflation in healthy children and adolescents in Southwest Mexico City: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, L; Mora-Tiscareño, A; Chung, C J; Valencia, G; Fordham, L A; García, R; Osnaya, N; Romero, L; Acuña, H; Villarreal-Calderón, A; Devlin, R B; Koren, H S

    2000-06-01

    Air pollution produces adverse health effects. The consequences of lifelong daily exposures to atmospheric pollutants upon the respiratory apparatus of healthy children are of considerable clinical importance. We investigated the association between exposure to a highly polluted urban environment with a complex mixture of air pollutants-ozone and particulate matter the predominant ones-and chest x-ray abnormalities in 59 healthy Mexican children who are lifelong residents of Southwest Metropolitan Mexico City (SWMMC), with a negative history of tobacco exposure and respiratory illnesses. Their clinical results and x-ray findings were compared to those of 19 Mexican control children, residents of a low-pollution area, with a similar negative history of tobacco exposure and respiratory illnesses. Ozone concentrations in SWMMC exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for O(3): 0.08 ppm as 1-h maximal concentration, not to be exceeded more than 4 times a year, on 71% of days in 1986 and 95% in 1997, with values as high as 0.48 ppm. Ozone maximal peaks are usually recorded between 2 and 5 pm coinciding with children's outdoor physical activities. Children in the control group reported no upper or lower respiratory symptomatology. Every SWMMC child complained of upper and/or lower respiratory symptoms, including epistaxis, nasal dryness and crusting, cough, shortness of breath, and chest discomfort. Children aged 7-13 yr had the most symptomatology, while 5- to 6-year olds and adolescents with the lowest number of statistically significant outdoor exposure hours had less respiratory symptoms. Bilateral symmetric mild lung hyperinflation was significantly associated with exposure to the SWMMC atmosphere (p = .0004). Chronic and sustained inhalation of a complex mixture of air pollutants, including ozone and particulate matter (PM), is associated with lung hyperinflation, suggestive of small airway disease

  3. Discrepancies between implicit and explicit self-esteem among adolescents with social anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, Franziska; Bohn, Christiane; Aderka, Idan M; Stangier, Ulrich; Steil, Regina

    2012-12-01

    Previous studies have found high implicit self-esteem (ISE) to prevail concurrently with low explicit self-esteem (ESE) in socially anxious adults. This suggests that self-esteem discrepancies are associated with social anxiety disorder (SAD). Given that the onset of SAD often occurs in adolescence, we investigated self-esteem discrepancies between ISE and ESE in adolescents suffering from SAD. Two implicit measures (Affect Misattribution Procedure, Implicit Association Test) were used both before and after a social threat activation in 20 adolescents with SAD (14-20 years), and compared to 20 healthy adolescents who were matched for age and gender. The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, the Social Cognitions Questionnaire and Beck Depression Inventory were administered as explicit measures. We expected discrepant self-esteem (high ISE, low ESE) in adolescents with SAD, in comparison to congruent self-esteem (positive ISE, positive ESE) in healthy controls, after social threat activation. Both the patient and control groups exhibited high positive ISE on both implicit measures, before as well as after social threat induction. Explicitly, patients suffering from SAD revealed lower levels of ESE, compared to the healthy adolescents. This study is the first to examine ISE and ESE in a clinical sample of adolescent patients with SAD. Our results suggest that SAD is associated with a discrepancy between high ISE and low ESE, after a social-threat manipulation. The findings are discussed in relation to other studies using implicit measures in SAD and may provide a more comprehensive understanding of the role of self-esteem in adolescent SAD. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Effectiveness of the universal prevention program 'Healthy School and Drugs': study protocol of a randomized clustered trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malmberg, M.; Overbeek, G.J.; Kleinjan, M.; Vermulst, A.; Monshouwer, K.; Lammers, J.; Vollebergh, W.A.M.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Substance use is highly prevalent among Dutch adolescents. The Healthy School and Drugs program is a nationally implemented school-based prevention program aimed at reducing early and excessive substance use among adolescents. Although the program's effectiveness was tested in a

  5. Effectiveness of the universal prevention program 'Healthy School and Drugs': Study protocol of a randomized clustered trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malmberg, M.; Overbeek, G.J.; Kleinjan, M.; Vermulst, A.A.; Monshouwer, K.; Lammers, J.; Vollebergh, W.A.M.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Substance use is highly prevalent among Dutch adolescents. The Healthy School and Drugs program is a nationally implemented school-based prevention program aimed at reducing early and excessive substance use among adolescents. Although the program's effectiveness was tested in a

  6. Neural Substrates for Processing Task-Irrelevant Sad Images in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lihong; Huettel, Scott; De Bellis, Michael D.

    2008-01-01

    Neural systems related to cognitive and emotional processing were examined in adolescents using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Ten healthy adolescents performed an emotional oddball task. Subjects detected infrequent circles (targets) within a continual stream of phase-scrambled images (standards). Sad and neutral…

  7. 76 FR 29769 - Healthy Tomorrows Partnership for Children Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-23

    ...: Notice of a Noncompetitive Replacement Award to the University of Nevada School of Medicine, Department... University of Nevada School of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, in order to continue Healthy Tomorrows supported prevention and intervention services to low-income, underserved women, children and adolescents in...

  8. Objective measures of sleep and dim light melatonin onset in adolescents and young adults with delayed sleep phase disorder compared to healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxvig, Ingvild W; Wilhelmsen-Langeland, Ane; Pallesen, Ståle; Vedaa, Oystein; Nordhus, Inger H; Sørensen, Eli; Bjorvatn, Bjørn

    2013-08-01

    Delayed sleep phase disorder is characterized by a delay in the timing of the major sleep period relative to conventional norms. The sleep period itself has traditionally been described as normal. Nevertheless, it is possible that sleep regulatory mechanism disturbances associated with the disorder may affect sleep duration and/or architecture. Polysomnographic data that may shed light on the issue are scarce. Hence, the aim of this study was to examine polysomnographic measures of sleep in adolescents and young adults with delayed sleep phase disorder, and to compare findings to that of healthy controls. A second aim was to estimate dim light melatonin onset as a marker of circadian rhythm and to investigate the phase angle relationship (time interval) between dim light melatonin onset and the sleep period. Data from 54 adolescents and young adults were analysed, 35 diagnosed with delayed sleep phase disorder and 19 healthy controls. Results show delayed timing of sleep in participants with delayed sleep phase disorder, but once sleep was initiated no group differences in sleep parameters were observed. Dim light melatonin onset was delayed in participants with delayed sleep phase disorder, but no difference in phase angle was observed between the groups. In conclusion, both sleep and dim light melatonin onset were delayed in participants with delayed sleep phase disorder. The sleep period appeared to occur at the same circadian phase in both groups, and once sleep was initiated no differences in sleep parameters were observed. © 2013 European Sleep Research Society.

  9. Attachment styles and psychopathology among adolescent children of parents with bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkan, Mustafa; Gencoglan, Salih; Akguc, Leyla; Ozatalay, Esin; Fettahoglu, Emine Cigil

    2015-04-16

    The aim of this study was to compare attachment styles and psychopathology in adolescent children of parents with bipolar disorder (BD) with a healthy control group. We studied 25 adolescents who had at least 1 parent with BD (BD group) and 28 adolescents who had no parents with BD (control group). The adolescent participants were between the ages of 12 and 17 years. We used the Adolescent Relationship Scales Questionnaire (A-RSQ) for the adolescents in the BD vs. control groups, and we used the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-age Children - present and lifetime version (K-SADS-PL). We used the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders (SCID-I), Clinician Version for each parent of adolescents in the BD and control groups to rule out psychopathologies. Attachment styles of participants were assessed according to A-RSQ, dismissing attachment style scores of adolescents in BD group were found significantly higher compared to the healthy control group (padolescents (48%) out of 25 in the BD group and 5 adolescents (18%) out of 28 in the control group were given DSM-IV Axis I diagnosis, which is a statistically significant result (padolescent children of parents with BD have increased risk of developing mental illnesses, and that these adolescents adopt dismissing attachment styles.

  10. The relationship of age, gender, and IQ with the brainstem and thalamus in healthy children and adolescents: a magnetic resonance imaging volumetric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yuhuan; Chen, Yian Ann; De Bellis, Michael D

    2012-03-01

    In healthy children, there is a paucity of information on the growth of the brainstem and thalamus measured anatomically magnetic resonance imaging. The relations of age, gender, and age by gender with brainstem and thalamus volumes were analyzed from magnetic resonance brain images of 122 healthy children and adolescents (62 males, 60 females; ages 4 to 17). Results showed that age is a significant predictor of brainstem and thalamus volumes. The volume of the brainstem increases with age, while thalamus volume declines with age. The volume of the right thalamus is significantly larger than that of the left in both genders, with greater rightward asymmetry and greater thalamus to grey matter ratio in females. Males have larger brainstems, but these differences are not significant when covarying for cerebral volume. Larger thalami were associated with higher Verbal IQ. These normative pediatric data are of value to researchers who study these regions in neurodevelopmental disorders.

  11. Sleep in adolescence: physiology, cognition and mental health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarokh, Leila; Saletin, Jared M.; Carskadon, Mary A.

    2016-01-01

    Sleep is a core behavior of adolescents, consuming up to a third or more of each day. As part of this special issue on the adolescent brain, we review changes to sleep behaviors and sleep physiology during adolescence with a particular focus on the sleeping brain. We posit that brain activity during sleep may provide a unique window onto adolescent cortical maturation and compliment waking measures. In addition, we review how sleep actively supports waking cognitive functioning in adolescence. Though this review is focused on sleep in healthy adolescents, the striking comorbidity of sleep disruption with nearly all psychiatric and developmental disorders (for reviews see 1,2) further highlights the importance of understanding the determinants and consequences of adolescent sleep for the developing brain. Figure 1 illustrates the overarching themes of our review, linking brain development, sleep development, and behavioral outcomes. PMID:27531236

  12. The "Som la Pera" intervention: sustainability capacity evaluation of a peer-led social-marketing intervention to encourage healthy lifestyles among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llauradó, Elisabet; Aceves-Martins, Magaly; Tarro, Lucia; Papell-Garcia, Ignasi; Puiggròs, Francesc; Prades-Tena, Jordi; Kettner, Helle; Arola, Lluis; Giralt, Montse; Solà, Rosa

    2018-02-10

    Sustainability capacity, always considered a challenge, is the ability to maintain effective long-term intervention in a community. The aim of the study was to improve the sustainability capacity of effective "Som la Pera," a school-based, peer-led, social-marketing intervention that encourages healthy diet and physical activity, in low socioeconomic adolescents from Spain. The sustainability capacity was analyzed by a "programme sustainability assessment tool (PSAT)" comprising eight domains: political support, funding stability, partnerships, organizational capacity, programme evaluation, programme adaptation, communications, and strategic planning. Each domain was evaluated from 1 (no or to a small extent) to 7 points (to a great extent). The final score for sustainability capacity was the mean of the eight domain scores. The PSAT was assessed by nine professionals (researchers, staff members, and stakeholders) at two periods during intervention implementation: end of the first year (January 2015) and end of the second year (September 2015). At the end of the first year, strategic planning (4.43 ± 1.98) and funding stability (4.38 ± 1) were considered deficient domains, and at the end of the second year, these domains had improved by 1.67 points (p =.043) and 0.59 points (p = .159), respectively. The funding stability increase was not significant because only one of the five specific items, "policies implemented to ensure sustained funding," improved by 1.08 points (p = .036). The sustainability capacity final score was 5.93 ± 1.13. The sustainability capacity assessment during the intervention allows its improvement before the programme expires, ensuring the long-term implementation of the "Som la Pera" intervention programme to encourage healthy lifestyles in adolescents. © Society of Behavioral Medicine 2018. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Plasma cytokine expression in adolescent chronic fatigue syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyller, Vegard Bruun; Sørensen, Øystein; Sulheim, Dag; Fagermoen, Even; Ueland, Thor; Mollnes, Tom Eirik

    2015-05-01

    Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is a prevalent and disabling condition among adolescents. The pathophysiology is poorly understood, but low-grade systemic inflammation has been suggested as an important component. This study compared circulating levels of individual cytokines and parameters of cytokine networks in a large set of adolescent CFS patients and healthy controls, and explored associations between cytokines and symptoms in the CFS group. CFS patients (12-18years old) were recruited nation-wide to a single referral center as part of the NorCAPITAL project (ClinicalTrials ID: NCT01040429). A broad case definition of CFS was applied, requiring three months of unexplained, disabling chronic/relapsing fatigue of new onset, whereas no accompanying symptoms were necessary. Thus, the case definition was broader than the Fukuda-criteria of CFS. Healthy controls having comparable distribution of gender and age were recruited from local schools. Twenty-seven plasma cytokines, including interleukins, chemokines and growth factors were assayed using multiplex technology. The results were subjected to network analyses using the ARACNE algorithm. Symptoms were charted by a questionnaire, and patients were subgrouped according to the Fukuda-criteria. A total of 120 CFS patients and 68 healthy controls were included. CFS patients had higher scores for fatigue (p<0.001) and inflammatory symptoms (p<0.001) than healthy controls. All cytokine levels and cytokine network parameters were similar, and none of the differences were statistically different across the two groups, also when adjusting for adherence to the Fukuda criteria of CFS. Within the CFS group, there were no associations between aggregate cytokine network parameters and symptom scores. Adolescent CFS patients are burdened by symptoms that might suggest low-grade systemic inflammation, but plasma levels of individual cytokines as well as cytokine network measures were not different from healthy controls, and

  14. Electronic Cigarettes Use and Intention to Cigarette Smoking among Never-Smoking Adolescents and Young Adults: A Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jieming Zhong

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes use is becoming increasingly common, especially among adolescents and young adults, and there is little evidence on the impact of e-cigarettes use on never-smokers. With a meta-analysis method, we explore the association between e-cigarettes use and smoking intention that predicts future cigarette smoking. Studies were identified by searching three databases up to January 2016. The meta-analysis results were presented as pooled odds ratio (OR with 95% confidence interval (CI calculated by a fixed-effects model. A total of six studies (91,051 participants, including 1452 with ever e-cigarettes use were included in this meta-analysis study. We found that never-smoking adolescents and young adults who used e-cigarettes have more than 2 times increased odds of intention to cigarette smoking (OR = 2.21, 95% CI: 1.86–2.61 compared to those who never used, with low evidence of between-study heterogeneity (p = 0.28, I2 = 20.1%. Among never-smoking adolescents and young adults, e-cigarettes use was associated with increased smoking intention.

  15. Adolescents and Young Adults' Perceptions of Electronic Cigarettes as a Gateway to Smoking: A Qualitative Study in Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akre, Christina; Suris, Joan-Carles

    2017-01-01

    Electronic cigarettes (ECs) acting as a gateway to smoking traditional cigarettes (TCs) is a growing public health concern of EC use among youths. To gather the opinions and perceptions of adolescents and young adults (AYAs) on whether and how EC can act as a gateway to smoking TC among youths. A qualitative method included 42 AYAs. Participants…

  16. Prefrontal-Amygdala Connectivity and State Anxiety during Fear Extinction Recall in Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Despina E. Ganella

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available While deficits in fear extinction recall have been suggested to underlie vulnerability to anxiety disorders in adolescents, the neurobiology of these deficits remain underexplored. Here we investigate the functional connectivity (FC of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC and dorsolateral PFC (dlPFC underlying extinction recall in healthy adolescents, and assess associations between FC and state/trait anxiety. Adolescents (17 and adults (14, for comparison completed a fear-learning paradigm involving extinction and extinction recall during a functional magnetic resonance imaging session, in which skin conductance response (SCR was recorded. Psychophysiological interaction analyses revealed that during extinction recall there was significant negative connectivity between the vmPFC and amygdala in adults, but not adolescents. vmPFC-amygdala connectivity was positively correlated with SCR. Adolescents showed significant negative FC between the dlPFC and the left and right hippocampus, and the amygdala, which was positively correlated with state anxiety. Recall was also associated with negative connectivity between the dlPFC and thalamus, posterior cingulate cortex, fusiform gyrus, and pallidum in adolescents. These results demonstrate that fear extinction recall in healthy adolescents is associated with FC between prefrontal and limbic brain regions, and suggest that alterations in connectivity may be associated with vulnerability to anxiety in adolescence.

  17. An unfinished agenda on adolescent health: Opportunities for interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassi, Zohra S; Salam, Rehana A; Das, Jai K; Wazny, Kerri; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A

    2015-08-01

    The Millennium Development Goal era has resulted in improvements in maternal and child health worldwide. As more children are surviving past their fifth birthday, the population of adolescents is increasing. Adolescence is a time of significant developmental transition; adolescence sets the stage for adult health through risks taken and beneficial and detrimental habits that are formed and it is thus an optimal time to target health interventions. Beginning interventions in adolescence or even earlier in childhood maximizes the impact on the individual's health in adult life. Evidence suggests that interventions to promote sexual and reproductive health, physical activity and healthy lifestyle, mental health and wellbeing, safe and hazard-free environment, improving access to nutritious and healthy foods, and minimizing exposure to substance abuse can improve health outcomes in young adolescents. School-based delivery strategies appear to be the most highly evaluated for improving adolescent health; they have been used to deliver interventions such as sexual health, substance abuse prevention, and nutritional interventions. Use of social media and information technologies, cash transfers, social protection, and micro-finance initiatives are promising strategies; however, given the lack of rigorous evaluations, there is a need for further research. Additional research is also warranted to strengthen the evidence base by establishing causality, understanding the differential impacts of adolescent health in different contexts particularly in low- and middle-income countries. In addition, research and evaluation in the domain of adolescent health must focus on how to implement interventions effectively at-scale, sustain the impacts over time and ensure equitable outcomes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Quantification of Abdominal Fat in Obese and Healthy Adolescents Using 3 Tesla Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Free Software for Image Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eloi, Juliana Cristina; Epifanio, Matias; de Gonçalves, Marília Maia; Pellicioli, Augusto; Vieira, Patricia Froelich Giora; Dias, Henrique Bregolin; Bruscato, Neide; Soder, Ricardo Bernardi; Santana, João Carlos Batista; Mouzaki, Marialena; Baldisserotto, Matteo

    2017-01-01

    Computed tomography, which uses ionizing radiation and expensive software packages for analysis of scans, can be used to quantify abdominal fat. The objective of this study is to measure abdominal fat with 3T MRI using free software for image analysis and to correlate these findings with anthropometric and laboratory parameters in adolescents. This prospective observational study included 24 overweight/obese and 33 healthy adolescents (mean age 16.55 years). All participants underwent abdominal MRI exams. Visceral and subcutaneous fat area and percentage were correlated with anthropometric parameters, lipid profile, glucose metabolism, and insulin resistance. Student's t test and Mann-Whitney's test was applied. Pearson's chi-square test was used to compare proportions. To determine associations Pearson's linear correlation or Spearman's correlation were used. In both groups, waist circumference (WC) was associated with visceral fat area (P = 0.001 and P = 0.01 respectively), and triglycerides were associated with fat percentage (P = 0.046 and P = 0.071 respectively). In obese individuals, total cholesterol/HDL ratio was associated with visceral fat area (P = 0.03) and percentage (P = 0.09), and insulin and HOMA-IR were associated with visceral fat area (P = 0.001) and percentage (P = 0.005). 3T MRI can provide reliable and good quality images for quantification of visceral and subcutaneous fat by using a free software package. The results demonstrate that WC is a good predictor of visceral fat in obese adolescents and visceral fat area is associated with total cholesterol/HDL ratio, insulin and HOMA-IR.

  19. Assessing Empathy across Childhood and Adolescence: Validation of the Empathy Questionnaire for Children and Adolescents (EmQue-CA)

    OpenAIRE

    Sandy Overgaauw; Sandy Overgaauw; Carolien Rieffe; Evelien Broekhof; Eveline A. Crone; Eveline A. Crone; Berna Güroğlu; Berna Güroğlu

    2017-01-01

    Empathy plays a crucial role in healthy social functioning and in maintaining positive social relationships. In this study, 1250 children and adolescents (10–15 year olds) completed the newly developed Empathy Questionnaire for Children and Adolescents (EmQue-CA) that was tested on reliability, construct validity, convergent validity, and concurrent validity. The EmQue-CA aims to assess empathy using the following scales: affective empathy, cognitive empathy, and intention to comfort. A Princ...

  20. Post-coital genital injury in healthy women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Birgitte Schmidt; Lykkebo, Annemette Wildfang

    2015-01-01

    , a single study of adolescent women, and none regarding post-menopausal women. Larger lesions requiring treatment are described casuistically. The purpose of this article is to provide a short, easy-to-read review of the literature regarding the prevalence and nature of female genital injury following......Female genital injury following penile sexual intercourse in healthy women is a matter of importance and debate in many parts of society. However, the literature on the subject is sparse. There are a few studies regarding minor injury that does not require treatment in adult, pre-menopausal women...... consensual sexual intercourse in otherwise healthy women. Clin. Anat., 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc....

  1. Validation of the Brazilian Healthy Eating Index-Revised Using Biomarkers in Children and Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roseli B. D. Toffano

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian Healthy Eating Index-Revised (BHEI-R can be used to determine overall dietary patterns. We assessed the BHEI-R scores in children and adolescents, aged from 9 to 13 years old, and associated its component scores with biomarkers of health and dietary exposure. Three 24-h recalls were used to generate BHEI-R. Biomarkers were analyzed in plasma and red blood cells. Correlation tests, agreement, and covariance analyses were used to associate BHEI-R components with biomarkers. Data from 167 subjects were used. The strongest correlations were between fruits, vegetables and legumes with omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids, and β-carotene intakes. Milk and dairy correlated with plasma retinol and pyridoxine. All components rich in vegetable and animal protein sources correlated with plasma creatine. Total BHEI-R scores were positively associated with intakes of omega-6, omega-3, fiber and vitamin C, and inversely associated with energy and saturated fat intakes of individuals. Plasma β-carotene and riboflavin biomarkers were positively associated with total BHEI-R. An inadequate food consumption pattern was captured by both biomarkers of health and dietary exposure. BHEI-R was validated for the above dietary components and can be associated with metabolomics and nutritional epidemiological data in future pediatric studies.

  2. Do serum BDNF levels vary in self-harm behavior among adolescents and are they correlated with traumatic experiences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavurma, Canem; Varol Tas, Fatma; Serim Demirgoren, Burcu; Demirci, Ferhat; Akan, Pınar; Eyuboglu, Damla; Guvenir, Taner

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to compare serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels between adolescents that harm themselves, those that receive psychiatric treatment but do not harm themselves, healthy adolescents, and childhood traumas and to investigate the relationship between traumatic experiences and serum BDNF levels. The cases were divided into two groups of 40 adolescents exhibiting self-harm behavior (self-harm/diagnosed group) and 30 adolescents receiving psychiatric treatment but not exhibiting self-harm behaviors (non self-harm/diagnosed group). The control group (healthy control group) consisted of 35 healthy adolescents with no psychiatric disorders or self-harm behaviors. The adolescents were asked to fill in the Inventory of Statements About Self Injury (ISAS) and Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ). For BDNF measurement, blood samples were taken from the cases and controls. The serum BDNF level of self-harming adolescents who used the self-cutting method was significantly lower than that of other groups, and serum BDNF levels decreased with the increase in the emotional neglect and abuse severity of self-harming adolescents during childhood. In our study, serum BDNF levels decreased with the increase in emotional abuse in self-harming adolescents. This finding may indicate that neuroplasticity can be affected by a negative emotional environment during the early period. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. in_focus - Healthy Lives for Vulnerable Women and Children ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    24 oct. 2017 ... Tremendous challenges remain to ensure that the most vulnerable populations, including women, children, and adolescents, are able to enjoy the healthy lives and well-being promised in the Sustainable Development Goals. Much of their poor health is caused by poverty, gender, lack of education, and ...

  4. Relationships Between Alcohol Consumption, Smoking Status and Food Habits in Greek Adolescents. Vascular Implications for the Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulou, Sousana K; Hassapidou, Maria N; Katsiki, Niki; Fachantidis, Panagiotis; Fachantidou, Anna I; Daskalou, Efstratia; Deligiannis, Asterios P

    2017-01-01

    Addictive behaviours in adolescents such as alcohol consumption and smoking are rapidly increasing worldwide. No previous study has examined smoking status and alcohol consumption in adolescents of Northern Greece in relation to their food habits. Therefore, we assessed the smoking status and alcohol consumption, as well the food habits, of this population. Adolescents (495 boys and 508 girls) aged 15±1 years old and 15±2 years old respectively, completed questionnaires regarding smoking, alcohol and food habits. Tobacco use and alcohol consumption were reported by 9.2% and 48.1% of them, respectively. Of those that drank alcohol, 13.9% were also smokers. Older adolescents were more likely to consume foods high in fat and sugar, low in vitamins and minerals as well as foods, considered by them to be less healthy and prepared in a less healthy way. Moreover, smoker adolescents were less likely to choose foods considered to be healthy and prepared in a healthy way, whereas they were more likely to choose foods high in fat content. Both smoking and alcohol consumption may affect cardiovascular risk and the vasculature. Poor lifestyle (and risk of vascular events) can start at an early age. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  5. Usability Testing of an HPV Information Website for Parents and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starling, Randall; Nodulman, Jessica A.; Kong, Alberta S.; Wheeler, Cosette M.; Buller, David B.; Woodall, W. Gill

    2015-01-01

    Objective Parents make the decisions regarding their children’s health care. Unfortunately, many parents are misinformed about HPV and HPV vaccines. In order to help parents make an informed decision regarding HPV vaccination for their daughter, the GoHealthyGirls website was created for parents and their adolescent daughters. Usability testing was conducted with members of the target population to refine the website prior to conducting an efficacy trial. Methods Parents with girls (n=9) between the ages of 11-13 and 11-13 year old adolescents (n=10) were recruited for usability testing. The testing consisted of completing twelve scenarios where participants were asked to find specific information on the GoHealthyGirls site. This was followed by a self-administered system usability scale—to determine ease of use and functionality of the website—and a user satisfaction survey. Results Both adult and adolescent participants were able to easily find the requested information and reported an increased positive opinion of HPV vaccines after visiting the website. Both groups of participants reported favorable evaluations of using the website. Conclusion The GoHealthyGirls website has the potential to help parents of adolescent daughters make an informed decision about HPV vaccination. A large scale efficacy trial will determine its usefulness. PMID:26594313

  6. Cerebrovascular blood oxygenation level dependent pulsatility at baseline and following acute exercise among healthy adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theyers, Athena E; Goldstein, Benjamin I; Metcalfe, Arron Ws; Robertson, Andrew D; MacIntosh, Bradley J

    2018-01-01

    Arterial stiffness is linked to cerebral small vessel damage and neurodegeneration, but barriers to accessing deep cerebrovascular anatomy limit our ability to assess the brain. This study describes an adaptation of a cardiac-related scrubbing method as a means of generating blood oxygenation level-dependent pulsatility maps based on the cardiac cycle. We examine BOLD pulsatility at rest, based on the non-parametric deviation from null metric, as well as changes following acute physiological stress from 20 min of moderate-intensity cycling in 45 healthy adolescents. We evaluate the influence of repetition time (TR) and echo time (TE) using simulated and multi-echo empirical data, respectively. There were tissue-specific and voxel-wise BOLD pulsatility decreases 20 min following exercise cessation. BOLD pulsatility detection was comparable over a range of TR and TE values when scan volumes were kept constant; however, short TRs (≤500 ms) and TEs (∼14 ms) acquisitions would yield the most efficient detection. Results suggest cardiac-related BOLD pulsatility may represent a robust and easily adopted method of mapping cerebrovascular pulsatility with voxel-wise resolution.

  7. Healthy eating at school

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruselius-Jensen, Maria Louisa; Egberg Mikkelsen, Bent

    ". This paper highlights the role that the organisation of food provision plays by comparing the attitudes of students towards in-school food provision as opposed to out-of-school provision where food is provided by outside caterers. Schools having internal food production and schools having external food...... operated catering seems to have a negative effect on the social and cultural structures and functions related to the meal during lunchtime. Having meals in schools where external caterers are employed is experienced as an individual act by the students in comparison with schools having internal catering......Unhealthy eating are common among adolescents and the school is a well suited setting for promoting healthy eating. For the school to play a role here, however an environment must be created, in which the school and the students develop a sense of ownership for a healthy food and nutrition "regime...

  8. Healthy and unhealthy eating at lower secondary school in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilsen, Marit; Eikemo, Terje A; Bere, Elling

    2010-11-01

    To assess adolescents' eating/drinking habits of a selection of healthy and unhealthy food items at school, variations in gender and socioeconomic status in these eating habits, and variations between the schools. A cross-sectional study among 2870 adolescents (mean age: 15.5 years) within the Fruits and Vegetables Make the Marks (FVMM) project. A survey questionnaire was completed by the pupils in the classroom in the presence of a trained project worker. One school lesson (45 minutes) was used to complete the questionnaire. A total of two healthy (fruit and vegetables (FV), water) and five unhealthy (candy and/or potato chips, sweet bakery, instant noodles, regular soft drinks, and diet soft drinks) food items were assessed by food frequency questions. All variables were dichotomised to less than once a week and once a week or more. Several pupils reported to consume snacks (33%), sweet bakery (36%) and regular soft drinks (24%) at school at least once a week. The proportion of pupils who reported to eat FV at least once a week (40%) was low. Girls and pupils with plans of higher education had a more favourable intake of healthy versus unhealthy food items at school. In two-level variance component analyses the proportional school variation ranged from 3.4% (diet soft drinks) to 30.7% (noodles). A large number of adolescents consume unhealthy food items at school and few eat FV. Large differences were observed between groups of pupils and between the schools in consumption of these foods.

  9. Exercise for Adolescents with Depressive Disorders: A Feasibility Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard R. Dopp

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Adolescence is associated with increased depressive symptoms and decreased aerobic exercise, yet the relationship between exercise and clinical depression among adolescents requires further examination. This study assessed the feasibility of a 12-week intervention designed to increase exercise for adolescents with depressive disorders: Will a teenager with depression exercise? Methods. Participants were 13 adolescents with depression reporting low levels of aerobic exercise. They completed a 12-week intervention (15 supervised exercise sessions and 21 independent sessions. Exercise was measured through the aerobic exercise Questionnaire, actigraphy, and heart-rate monitoring. Depression was measured with the Children’s Depression Rating Scale, Revised, and Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology, Self-Report. Results. All participants who started the intervention completed the protocol, attending all supervised exercise sessions. Actigraphy verified 81% adherence to the protocol’s independent sessions. Analysis of secondary outcomes showed a significant increase in exercise levels and a significant decrease in depression severity. Initially, ten participants were overweight or obese, and three were healthy weight. After 12 weeks of exercise, the number of participants in the healthy-weight category doubled. Conclusions. Adolescents suffering from depression can complete a rigorous protocol requiring structured increases in aerobic exercise. Participants showed significant increases in exercise, and significant decreases in depressive symptoms.

  10. Factors contributing to adolescent obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Kloub, Manal I; Froelicher, Erika S

    2009-06-01

    Obesity in children is a significant public health concern. The prevalence of overweight and obesity in Jordanian children, and adolescents has increased in the last decade. The consequences of obesity to health in childhood and adulthood have both medical, and economic cost to individuals and society. This paper reviews the factors that contribute to adolescent obesity and emphasizes behavioral and environmental factors. An individual's behaviors such as increased consumption of high caloric foods, increased sedentary activity while decreasing physical activity has been identified as key issues in the development of obesity. Additionally, the current environment in homes, schools, and neighborhoods tend to discourage a healthy lifestyle. A comprehensive approach that involves the whole community is the best strategy for preventing adolescent obesity. Nurses are in a unique position to provide leadership in developing programs for healthier lifestyle choices for adolescents' and adoption of these goals into their daily lives.

  11. Use of Fitness and Nutrition Apps: Associations With Body Mass Index, Snacking, and Drinking Habits in Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Cock, Nathalie; Vangeel, Jolien; Lachat, Carl; Beullens, Kathleen; Vervoort, Leentje; Goossens, Lien; Maes, Lea; Deforche, Benedicte; De Henauw, Stefaan; Braet, Caroline; Eggermont, Steven; Kolsteren, Patrick; Van Camp, John; Van Lippevelde, Wendy

    2017-04-25

    Efforts to improve snacking and drinking habits are needed to promote a healthy body mass index (BMI) in adolescents. Although commercial fitness and nutrition mobile phone apps are widely used, little is known regarding their potential to improve health behaviors, especially in adolescents. In addition, evidence on the mechanisms through which such fitness and nutrition apps influence behavior is lacking. This study assessed whether the use of commercial fitness or nutrition apps was associated with a lower BMI and healthier snacking and drinking habits in adolescents. Additionally, it explored if perceived behavioral control to eat healthy; attitudes to eat healthy for the good taste of healthy foods, for overall health or for appearance; social norm on healthy eating and social support to eat healthy mediated the associations between the frequency of use of fitness or nutrition apps and BMI, the healthy snack, and beverage ratio. Cross-sectional self-reported data on snack and beverage consumption, healthy eating determinants, and fitness and nutrition app use of adolescents (N=889; mean age 14.7 years, SD 0.8; 54.8% [481/878] boys; 18.1% [145/803] overweight) were collected in a representative sample of 20 schools in Flanders, Belgium. Height and weight were measured by the researchers. The healthy snack ratio and the healthy beverage ratio were calculated as follows: gram healthy snacks or beverages/(gram healthy snacks or beverages+gram unhealthy snacks or beverages)×100. Multilevel regression and structural equation modeling were used to analyze the proposed associations and to explore multiple mediation. A total of 27.6% (245/889) of the adolescents used fitness, nutrition apps or both. Frequency of using nutrition apps was positively associated with a higher healthy beverage ratio (b=2.96 [1.11], P=.008) and a higher body mass index z-scores (zBMI; b=0.13 [0.05], P=.008. A significant interaction was found between the frequency of using nutrition and for

  12. Exploring self-regulatory strategies for eating behaviour in Danish adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nureeva, Liliya; Brunsø, Karen; Lähteenmäki, Liisa

    2016-01-01

    – Focusing on improving adolescents’ self-regulatory skills in the domain of eating behaviour is a promising approach in developing future interventions. Originality/value – The present article explores self-regulatory strategies for eating behaviour in adolescence and discusses their relevance.......Purpose – Healthy eating behaviour in adolescence may be negatively affected by lack of self-regulation. The purpose of this paper is to discuss strategies for regulating eating behaviour as formulated by adolescents themselves. Design/methodology/approach – Self-regulatory strategies were elicited...... with concept mapping, which is a group-based method. Three meetings were conducted with each of four school classes in Denmark. Participants in the 12-15-year age group were recruited for the study. At the first meeting, participants had to complete the phrase “Things I can do to ensure my healthy eating are...

  13. Validity of the Pediatric Running-Based Anaerobic Sprint Test to Determine Anaerobic Performance in Healthy Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bongers, Bart C.; Werkman, Maarten S.; Blokland, Donna; Eijsermans, Maria J. C.; van der Torre, Patrick; Bartels, Bart; Verschuren, Olaf; Takken, Tim

    Purpose: To determine criterion validity of the pediatric running-based anaerobic sprint test (RAST) as a nonsophisticated field test for evaluating anaerobic performance in healthy children and adolescents. Methods: Data from 65. healthy children (28 boys and 37 girls between 6 and 18 years of age,

  14. Personality Profile of Male Adolescents With Tourette Syndrome: A Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balottin, Laura; Selvini, Claudia; Luoni, Chiara; Mannarini, Stefania; Chiappedi, Matteo; Seri, Stefano; Termine, Cristiano; Cavanna, Andrea E

    2016-03-01

    Tourette syndrome is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by multiple tics and commonly associated with behavioral problems, especially obsessive-compulsive disorder and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The presence of specific personality traits has been documented in adult clinical populations with Tourette syndrome but has been underresearched in younger patients. We assessed the personality profiles of 17 male adolescents with Tourette syndrome and 51 age- and gender-matched healthy controls using the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-Adolescent version, along with a standardized psychometric battery. All participants scored within the normal range across all Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-Adolescent version scales. Patients with Tourette syndrome scored significantly higher than healthy controls on the Obsessiveness Content Scale only (P = .046). Our findings indicate that younger male patients with Tourette syndrome do not report abnormal personality traits and have similar personality profiles to healthy peers, with the exception of obsessionality traits, which are likely to be related to the presence of comorbid obsessive compulsive symptoms rather than tics. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. Teachers Offering Healthy Escape Options for Teenagers in Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaywell, Joan F.

    2005-01-01

    "[T]wenty-five percent of today's teenagers have inordinate emotional baggage beyond the normal angst of adolescence." This burden can lead to unhealthy escapes, including substance abuse, sexual activity, violence, eating disorders, and suicide. One healthy escape, however, lies in books, where students can read about teenagers living in painful…

  16. Ecological Strategies to Promote Healthy Body Image among Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Retta R.; Roy, Jane; Geiger, Brian F.; Werner, Karen A.; Burnett, Donna

    2008-01-01

    Background: Personal habits of children and adolescents related to healthy body image (BI) are influenced by various determinants in the micro- and macroenvironment. These include attitudes and behaviors about eating; exercise and physical appearance modeled by parents, teachers, and peers; as well as opportunities to learn new habits and social…

  17. Meaning and Spirituality in Adolescence: Practices and Perspectives of School Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Jill Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Adolescence is a crucial life stage involving aspects of identity development and decision-making that have potential life-long consequences. Researchers have found that a sense of meaning and purpose is related to a number of beneficial factors during adolescence, including resilience, healthy self-esteem, academic engagement, and overall…

  18. PROMIS Sleep Disturbance and Sleep-Related Impairment in Adolescents: Examining Psychometrics Using Self-Report and Actigraphy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanish, Alyson E; Lin-Dyken, Deborah C; Han, Joan C

    The National Institutes of Health Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) has self-reported health measures available for both pediatric and adult populations, but no pediatric measures are available currently in the sleep domains. The purpose of this observational study was to perform preliminary validation studies on age-appropriate, self-reported sleep measures in healthy adolescents. This study examined 25 healthy adolescents' self-reported daytime sleepiness, sleep disturbance, sleep-related impairment, and sleep patterns. Healthy adolescents completed a physical exam at the National Institutes of Health Clinical Center (Bethesda, MD), had no chronic medical conditions, and were not taking any chronic medications. The Cleveland Adolescent Sleepiness Questionnaire (CASQ), PROMIS Sleep Disturbance (v. 1.0; 8a), and PROMIS Sleep-Related Impairment (v. 1.0; 8b) questionnaires were completed, and sleep patterns were assessed using actigraphy. Total scores on the three sleep questionnaires were correlated (all Spearman's r > .70, p psychometrically sound sleep questionnaires. Findings suggest the potential research and clinical utility of adult versions of PROMIS sleep measures in adolescents. Future studies should include larger, more diverse samples and explore additional psychometric properties of PROMIS sleep measures to provide age-appropriate, validated, and reliable measures of sleep in adolescents.

  19. Differential outcomes of adolescents with chronically ill and healthy parents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sieh, D.S.; Visser-Meily, J.M.A.; Meijer, A.M.

    2013-01-01

    Approximately 10% of children grow up with a parent who has been diagnosed with a chronic medical condition (CMC) and seem to be at risk for adjustment difficulties. We examined differences in behavioral, psychosocial and academic outcomes between 161 adolescents from 101 families with a chronically

  20. Electronic cigarette use and its association with smoking in Hong Kong Chinese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Man Ping; Ho, Sai Yin; Leung, Lok Tung; Lam, Tai Hing

    2015-11-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are increasingly used in adolescents with unknown impacts on conventional cigarette smoking. We examined the associations of e-cigarette use with smoking intention, nicotine addiction and smoking cessation in Chinese adolescents. A total of 45,128 students (age 14.6 ± 1.9; boys 51.4%) from 75 randomly selected schools in Hong Kong reported e-cigarette use (in the past 30 days), conventional cigarette use and socio-demographic characteristics in an anonymous questionnaire survey. Adjusted odds ratios (AORs) of intention to smoke, morning smoking urge, intention to quit and quit attempts; and beta-coefficient (β) of cigarette consumption per day were calculated in relation to e-cigarette use. E-cigarette use was associated with intention to smoke with an AOR (95% CI) of 1.74 (1.30-2.31) in all students, 2.18 (1.12-4.23) in never and 2.79 (2.05-3.79) in ever smokers (non-significant interaction by smoking status). The associations were also significant in experimental and former smokers but not in current smokers. In current smokers, e-cigarette use was significantly associated with heavier smoking (β 2.54, 95% CI 1.28-3.81) and morning smoking urge (AOR 2.54, 95% CI 1.50-3.11), and non-significantly associated with lower quit intention (0.76, 0.52-1.09) and attempts (0.80, 0.56-1.23). E-cigarette use was associated with smoking intention in never, experimental and former smokers in Hong Kong Chinese adolescents. In current smokers, e-cigarette use was associated with nicotine addiction but not quit intention and attempts. Prospective studies with detailed measurements on e-cigarette use are warranted for further studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Dietary Habits in Adolescence Related to Sociodemographic Factors, Physical Activity and Self-esteem

    OpenAIRE

    Henningsen, Maria

    2011-01-01

    Unhealthy eating during adolescence has shown to have multiple negative consequences. The aim of this paper is to acquire knowledge of dietary habits in adolescence and consider how this behaviour varies across different groups of adolescents. Correlations between dietary habits, age and gender have several times been found, in terms of girls eating healthier than boys, and the intake of healthy food decreasing with age. Additionally, adolescents of low socioeconomic position are at higher ri...

  2. A Phenomenological Investigation of Adolescent Dating Relationships and Dating Violence Counseling Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hays, Danica G.; Michel, Rebecca E.; Cole, Rebekah F.; Emelianchik, Kelly; Forman, Julia; Lorelle, Sonya; McBride, Rebecca; Sikes, April

    2011-01-01

    Despite the prevalence of dating violence, incidences often go unreported due to a lack of awareness among students as to appropriate dating behaviors. This phenomenology investigated how adolescents conceptualize and experience dating relationships. We explored adolescent females' definitions of healthy and abusive relationships, experiences with…

  3. Microstructural abnormalities in white and gray matter in obese adolescents with and without type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arie Nouwen

    Full Text Available Aims/hypotheses: In adults, type 2 diabetes and obesity have been associated with structural brain changes, even in the absence of dementia. Some evidence suggested similar changes in adolescents with type 2 diabetes but comparisons with a non-obese control group have been lacking. The aim of the current study was to examine differences in microstructure of gray and white matter between adolescents with type 2 diabetes, obese adolescents and healthy weight adolescents. Methods: Magnetic resonance imaging data were collected from 15 adolescents with type 2 diabetes, 21 obese adolescents and 22 healthy weight controls. Volumetric differences in the gray matter between the three groups were examined using voxel based morphology, while tract based spatial statistics was used to examine differences in the microstructure of the white matter. Results: Adolescents with type 2 diabetes and obese adolescents had reduced gray matter volume in the right hippocampus, left putamen and caudate, bilateral amygdala and left thalamus compared to healthy weight controls. Type 2 diabetes was also associated with significant regional changes in fractional anisotropy within the corpus callosum, fornix, left inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, left uncinate, left internal and external capsule. Fractional anisotropy reductions within these tracts were explained by increased radial diffusivity, which may suggest demyelination of white matter tracts. Mean diffusivity and axial diffusivity did not differ between the groups. Conclusion/interpretation: Our data shows that adolescent obesity alone results in reduced gray matter volume and that adolescent type 2 diabetes is associated with both white and gray matter abnormalities. Keywords: Type 2 diabetes, Obesity, White matter, Gray matter, Demyelination

  4. Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, childhood adversity and adolescent nonsuicidal self-injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichl, Corinna; Heyer, Anne; Brunner, Romuald; Parzer, Peter; Völker, Julia Madeleine; Resch, Franz; Kaess, Michael

    2016-12-01

    Whereas childhood adversity (CA) and the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis have been suggested to play a major role in the etiology of non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI), no study has thus far investigated both its associations and interactions with adolescent NSSI. We investigated CA (antipathy, neglect, physical, psychological, and sexual abuse) and indices of HPA axis activity (salivary and hair cortisol) in a clinical sample of 26 adolescents engaging in NSSI and 26 age- and gender-matched healthy controls (HC). We used standardized interviews for the assessment of CA (CECA), NSSI (SITBI-G), and axis I diagnoses (MINI-KID). Salivary cortisol sampling was surveyed using a monitoring system and instructed via telephone calls. Adolescents engaging in NSSI exhibited significantly higher cortisol awakening responses compared to HC. No differences were found with respect to the diurnal slope or hair cortisol. In the presence of CA, healthy adolescents showed flatted diurnal cortisol slopes while those engaging in NSSI exhibited significantly steeper ones. Our findings indicate that adolescents engaging in NSSI may exhibit a stronger cortisol awakening response, potentially in expectation of strain. However, elevated cortisol levels may not be maintained throughout the day, especially among adolescents with a history of CA. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Age associations with neural processing of reward anticipation in adolescents with bipolar disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snežana Urošević

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Reward/behavioral approach system hypersensitivity is implicated in bipolar disorders (BD and in normative development during adolescence. Pediatric onset of BD is associated with a more severe illness course. However, little is known about neural processing of rewards in adolescents with BD or developmental (i.e., age associations with activation of these neural systems. The present study aims to address this knowledge gap. The present sample included 21 adolescents with BD and 26 healthy adolescents, ages 13 to 19. Participants completed a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI protocol using the Monetary Incentive Delay (MID task. Behavioral performance was similar between groups. Group differences in BOLD activation during target anticipation and feedback anticipation periods of the task were examined using whole-brain analyses, as were group differences in age effects. During both target anticipation and feedback anticipation, adolescents with BD, compared to adolescents without psychopathology, exhibited decreased engagement of frontal regions involved in cognitive control (i.e., dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Healthy adolescents exhibited age-related decreases, while adolescents with BD exhibited age-related increases, in activity of other cognitive control frontal areas (i.e., right inferior frontal gyrus, suggesting altered development in the BD group. Longitudinal research is needed to examine potentially abnormal development of cognitive control during reward pursuit in adolescent BD and whether early therapeutic interventions can prevent these potential deviations from normative development.

  6. Age associations with neural processing of reward anticipation in adolescents with bipolar disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urošević, Snežana; Luciana, Monica; Jensen, Jonathan B.; Youngstrom, Eric A.; Thomas, Kathleen M.

    2016-01-01

    Reward/behavioral approach system hypersensitivity is implicated in bipolar disorders (BD) and in normative development during adolescence. Pediatric onset of BD is associated with a more severe illness course. However, little is known about neural processing of rewards in adolescents with BD or developmental (i.e., age) associations with activation of these neural systems. The present study aims to address this knowledge gap. The present sample included 21 adolescents with BD and 26 healthy adolescents, ages 13 to 19. Participants completed a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) protocol using the Monetary Incentive Delay (MID) task. Behavioral performance was similar between groups. Group differences in BOLD activation during target anticipation and feedback anticipation periods of the task were examined using whole-brain analyses, as were group differences in age effects. During both target anticipation and feedback anticipation, adolescents with BD, compared to adolescents without psychopathology, exhibited decreased engagement of frontal regions involved in cognitive control (i.e., dorsolateral prefrontal cortex). Healthy adolescents exhibited age-related decreases, while adolescents with BD exhibited age-related increases, in activity of other cognitive control frontal areas (i.e., right inferior frontal gyrus), suggesting altered development in the BD group. Longitudinal research is needed to examine potentially abnormal development of cognitive control during reward pursuit in adolescent BD and whether early therapeutic interventions can prevent these potential deviations from normative development. PMID:27114896

  7. Spiritual well-being and mental health outcomes in adolescents with or without inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton, Sian; Kudel, Ian; Roberts, Yvonne Humenay; Pallerla, Harini; Tsevat, Joel; Succop, Paul; Yi, Michael S

    2009-05-01

    The purpose of this study was threefold: 1) to describe spiritual well-being (existential and religious well-being) in adolescents with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) versus healthy peers; 2) to examine associations of spiritual well-being with mental health outcomes (emotional functioning and depressive symptoms); and 3) to assess the differential impact of existential versus religious well-being on mental health. A total of 155 adolescents aged 11-19 years from a children's hospital and a university hospital filled out questionnaires including the Spiritual Well-Being Scale, the Children's Depression Inventory-Short Form, and the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory. Covariates in multivariable models included demographics, disease status, and interactions. Participants' mean (SD) age was 15.1 (2.0) years; 80 (52%) were male; and 121 (78%) were of white ethnicity. Levels of existential and religious well-being were similar between adolescents with IBD and healthy peers. In multivariable analyses, existential well-being was associated with mental health (partial R(2) change = .08-.11, p religious well-being and depressive symptoms: that is, the relationships were stronger in adolescents with IBD as compared with healthy peers. Religious well-being was only marginally significantly associated with mental health after controlling for other factors. Although both healthy adolescents and those with IBD had high levels of spiritual well-being, having IBD moderated the relationship between spiritual well-being and mental health. Meaning/purpose was related to mental health more than was connectedness to the sacred.

  8. Online Communication and Adolescent Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subrahmanyam, Kaveri; Greenfield, Patricia

    2008-01-01

    Over the past decade, technology has become increasingly important in the lives of adolescents. As a group, adolescents are heavy users of newer electronic communication forms such as instant messaging, e-mail, and text messaging, as well as communication-oriented Internet sites such as blogs, social networking, and sites for sharing photos and…

  9. Family Functioning and Relationship Quality for Adolescents in Family-based Treatment with Severe Anorexia Nervosa Compared with Non-clinical Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallis, Andrew; Miskovic-Wheatley, Jane; Madden, Sloane; Rhodes, Paul; Crosby, Ross D; Cao, Li; Touyz, Stephen

    2018-01-01

    This longitudinal study explored family functioning and relationship quality for adolescents with severe anorexia nervosa (AN). An important outcome given healthy family functioning supports effective adolescent development. Fifty-four female adolescents and their parents, treated with family-based treatment after inpatient admission, and 49 non-clinical age-matched adolescents and their parents were compared at assessment and 6 months after session 20. At baseline, AN group mothers and fathers reported poorer family function. AN adolescents were notably similar to controls, reporting poorer function in only one domain. There were no changes for adolescents, an improvement for mothers in the AN group, but an increase in perceived impairment for fathers in both groups, with AN fathers more affected. The similarity in adolescent reports and the increase for fathers over time may indicate that normal adolescent family processes occur even in the midst of serious illness. There is a need to provide intervention to ameliorate the impact of treatment on parents. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  10. Health promoting Behaviors Among Adolescents: A Cross-sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musavian, Azra Sadat; Pasha, Afsaneh; Rahebi, Seyyedeh-Marzeyeh; Atrkar Roushan, Zahra; Ghanbari, Atefeh

    2014-04-01

    Health maintenance and promotion are the fundamental prerequisites to community development. The best time for establishing healthy lifestyle habits is during adolescence. Due to importance of health promotion behaviors in adolescents, this study was conducted to investigate health-promoting behaviors and its associated factors among high school students in Rasht, Iran. A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted on 424 students during the first semester of the year 2012. We employed the multistage sampling design to recruit from private and public high schools in Rasht, Iran. The data collection instrument was a self-report questionnaire consisting of two parts. The first part of instrument was consisted of demographic questionnaire and the second part was adolescent health promotion scale (AHPS) questionnaire. AHPS questionnaire was consisted of six dimensions (nutrition, social support, health responsibility, life appreciation, physical activity, and stress management) to measure health promoting lifestyles. Statistical analysis was performed by SPSS 16 software employing ANOVA (analysis of variance) test, t-test, Mann-Whitney, and the Kruskal-Wallis. The score of total Adolescent Health Promotion Scale were 3.58 ± 0.52 (possible range was 1-5). The highest score was in life appreciation dimension (3.99 ± 0.068) and the lowest score was in health responsibility dimension. Moreover, Significant associations were found between the adolescent health promotion Scale with age (P school grade (P health instructors, schoolteachers, and families must pay more attention to these students. Moreover, as most of lifelong healthy and unhealthy lifestyle habits are established during adolescence, developing effective health promotion and disease prevention strategies for adolescents seems crucial.

  11. Attitudes of Jordanian Adolescent Students Toward Overweight and Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Baker, Nesrin N; Al-Ali, Nahla; Al-Ajlouni, Ranyah

    2018-01-01

    Obesity is a serious public health problem especially among adolescents. Understanding adolescents' attitudes toward obesity and healthy lifestyle is a crucial step to develop effective health programs to treat and prevent obesity. To examine the attitudes toward overweight and obesity among Jordanian adolescent students and to identify the components of obesity prevention program that the students perceive as important. A sample of 1000 students in 8 th to 10 th grades was randomly selected from 16 schools in Irbid, Jordan. A self-reported questionnaire including attitude related questions was used in a descriptive, cross-sectional study. Generally, the students expressed positive attitudes toward obesity; which means that their attitudes were consistent with societal norms in terms of health and social functioning (mean= 3.5, SD=0.39). Furthermore, the students expressed positive attitudes toward lifestyle; which means that their attitudes were consistent with healthy behaviors (mean=3.7, SD=0.58). However, boys had significantly more positive attitudes than girls (p =0.04). The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 23.8%, while obese and non-obese students had similar attitudes toward lifestyle and obesity. Finally, around 20% to 30% of students desired a prevention program out of school time shared with their families and friends and involves eating healthy food and getting more exercise. More efforts are needed to build effective obesity prevention programs that focus on eating healthy diet and getting more exercise considering gender differences.

  12. Appropriateness of the food-pics image database for experimental eating and appetite research with adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Chad D; Duraccio, Kara M; Barnett, Kimberly A; Stevens, Kimberly S

    2016-12-01

    Research examining effects of visual food cues on appetite-related brain processes and eating behavior has proliferated. Recently investigators have developed food image databases for use across experimental studies examining appetite and eating behavior. The food-pics image database represents a standardized, freely available image library originally validated in a large sample primarily comprised of adults. The suitability of the images for use with adolescents has not been investigated. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the appropriateness of the food-pics image library for appetite and eating research with adolescents. Three hundred and seven adolescents (ages 12-17) provided ratings of recognizability, palatability, and desire to eat, for images from the food-pics database. Moreover, participants rated the caloric content (high vs. low) and healthiness (healthy vs. unhealthy) of each image. Adolescents rated approximately 75% of the food images as recognizable. Approximately 65% of recognizable images were correctly categorized as high vs. low calorie and 63% were correctly classified as healthy vs. unhealthy in 80% or more of image ratings. These results suggest that a smaller subset of the food-pics image database is appropriate for use with adolescents. With some modifications to included images, the food-pics image database appears to be appropriate for use in experimental appetite and eating-related research conducted with adolescents. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Eating habits, knowledge about cancer prevention and the HPLP scale in Turkish adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Can, Hafize Ozturk; Ceber, Esin; Sogukpinar, Neriman; Saydam, Birsen Karaca; Otles, Semih; Ozenturk, Gulsun

    2008-01-01

    Nutritional status and healthy lifestyle are important factors not only in cancer etiology but also for prevention efforts. A good nutritional status contributes to a healthy life with high economic, social and cultural level. Unhealthy eating habits are part of risky behavior seen from adolescence. The present study was therefore carried out to determine eating habits, level of knowledge about cancer prevention and behavior of a group of adolescents. Data were collected using questionnaire covering eating habits and knowledge of adolescents on prevention from cancer, and special scale (HPLP) to determine the related behavior. Three hundred sixty six of 390 students volunteered for study. Eating habits and the level of cancer prevention knowledge were similar for both genders, except for the exercise issue. The mean total points of adolescents in the Health Promotion Behavior and Subscales was 113,63. While spiritual growth had the highest score in HPLP subscale, exercise had a minimal score. Exercise was the only HPLP subscale with a statistically significant difference between male and female genders. Although they have some information, the adolescents surveyed did not have preventive skills relative to their practical life. In general in order to ensure cancer prevention and a healthy life style social, cultural and sportive activities should be encouraged and educational programmes supporting these goals should be designed and applied for all stages of life, starting in early childhood.

  14. Enlarged cavum septum pellucidum as a neurodevelopmental marker in adolescent-onset opiate dependence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaeuk Hwang

    Full Text Available Adolescent-onset exposure to highly addictive substances such as opiates may induce far-reaching deleterious effects on later mental and physical health. However, little is known about the neurodevelopmental basis for adolescent-onset opiate dependence. Here we examined whether having an abnormally large cavum septum pellucidum (CSP, a putative marker of limbic structural maldevelopment, is associated with opiate dependence particularly beginning in adolescence.The overall length of the CSP and the prevalence of abnormal enlargement of the CSP were assessed and compared in 65 opiate-dependent subjects (41 adolescent-onset opiate users and 24 adult-onset opiate users and 67 healthy subjects.Opiate-dependent subjects showed a greater prevalence of abnormal CSP enlargement relative to healthy subjects (odds ratio [OR]=3.64, p=0.034. The overall CSP length of adolescent-onset opiate-dependent subjects was greater, as compared not only with healthy subjects (F₁,₁₀₄=11.03, p=0.001 but also with those who began opiate use during adulthood (F₁,₆₁=4.43, p=0.039.The current findings provide the first evidence that abnormal CSP enlargement, which reflects limbic system dysgenesis of neurodevelopmental origin, may be linked to later development of opiate dependence. In addition, a greater CSP length, which indicates more severe limbic abnormalities, appears to confer higher risk for earlier onset of opiate use.

  15. The relationship between parental depressive symptoms, family type, and adolescent functioning.

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    Dominik Sebastian Sieh

    Full Text Available It is evident that parental depressive symptoms negatively influence adolescent behavior and various psychosocial outcomes. Certain family types like families with a chronically ill parent and single parent families are more vulnerable to parental depressive symptoms. However, the relationship between these symptoms, family type, and adolescent functioning remains largely unclear. This study examined relations between self-report of parental depressive symptoms and adolescent functioning in 86 two-parent families including a parent with a chronic medical condition, 94 families with healthy single parents, and 69 families with 2 healthy parents (comparison group. Parents completed the Beck Depression Inventory. Adolescents filled in the Youth Self-Report measuring problem behavior, and other instruments measuring psychosocial outcomes (stress, grade point average, school problems, and self-esteem. Multilevel analyses were used to examine the effects of family type, parental depressive symptoms, adolescents' gender and age, and interaction effects on adolescent functioning. The results indicated that adolescents with chronically ill and single parents had a lower grade point average (p<.01 than the comparison group. Adolescents of single parents reported more internalizing problems (p<.01 and externalizing problems (p<.05 than children from the other family types. Parental depressive symptoms were strongly related to child report of stress (p<.001. Adolescents of depressed chronically ill parents were particularly vulnerable to internalizing problems (interaction effect, p<.05. Older children and girls, and especially older girls, displayed more internalizing problems and stress. It can be concluded that growing up with a chronically ill parent in a family with 2 parents may have less impact on adolescent problem behavior than growing up in a single parent family. Health practitioners are encouraged to be attentive to the unique and combined

  16. Perceptions and experiences of adolescents, parents and school administrators regarding adolescent-parent communication on sexual and reproductive health issues in urban and rural Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhwezi, Wilson Winstons; Katahoire, Anne Ruhweza; Banura, Cecily; Mugooda, Herbert; Kwesiga, Doris; Bastien, Sheri; Klepp, Knut-Inge

    2015-11-30

    Evidence suggests that in spite of some adolescents being sexually active, many parents do not discuss sex-related issues with them due to lack of age-appropriate respectful vocabulary and skills. The likelihood of parent-adolescent communication improving sexual and reproductive health outcomes appears plausible. The desire to understand parent-adolescent communication and how to improve it for promotion of healthy sexual behaviours inspired this research. The paper is meant to describe perceptions of adolescents, parents and school administrators about parent-adolescent communication on sexual issues; describe the content of such communication and identify factors that influence this communication. The study was done among two urban and two rural secondary school students in their second year of education. Data were collected from 11 focus group discussions and 10 key Informants Interviews. Data management, analysis and interpretation followed thematic analysis principles. Illuminating verbatim quotations are used to illustrate findings. Parental warmth and acceptability of children was perceived by parents to be foundational for a healthy adolescent- parent communication. Perceptions of adolescents tended to point to more open and frequent communication with mothers than fathers and to cordial relationships with mothers. Fathers were perceived by adolescents to be strict, intimidating, unapproachable and unavailable. While adolescents tended to generally discuss sexual issues with mothers, male adolescents communicated less with anyone on sex, relationships and condoms. Much of the parent-adolescent communication was perceived to focus on sexually transmitted infections and body changes. Discussions of sex and dating with adolescents were perceived to be rare. Common triggers of sexuality discussions with female adolescents were; onset of menstruation and perceived abortion in the neighbourhood. Discussion with male adolescents, if it occurred was perceived to

  17. The Fourth R: A School-Based Adolescent Dating Violence Prevention Program

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    David A. Wolfe

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a school-based primary prevention program (The Fourth R to prevent adolescent dating violence, and related risk behaviors. The cornerstone of The Fourth R is a 21-lesson skillbased curriculum delivered by teachers who receive specialized training, that promotes healthy relationships, and targets violence, high-risk sexual behavior, and substance use among adolescents. The Fourth R was evaluated in a cluster randomized trial in 20 schools. Results indicated that teaching youth healthy relationships and skills as part of their curriculum reduced physical dating violence, and increased condom use 2.5 years later.

  18. The characteristics of family functioning with mentally ill children and adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Jelkić Milica; Mandić-Gajić Gordana; Stojanović Zvezdana; Đokić Milan; Eror Aleksandar; Kolundžija Ksenija

    2018-01-01

    Background/Aim. The family functioning and characteristics are the major risk factors in the genesis and persistence of mental disorders in children. The aim of this study was to evaluate the characteristics of functioning of family with mentally ill children and adolescents. Methods. This study explored 47 families with a child/adolescent suffering from mental disorders and 47 families of age matched healthy children/adolescents. The socio-demographic questionnaire, Social Adaptation Self-ev...

  19. Progression of Amygdala Volumetric Abnormalities in Adolescents after Their First Manic Episode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitter, Samantha M.; Mills, Neil P.; Adler, Caleb M.; Strakowski, Stephen M.; DelBello, Melissa P.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Although previous neuroimaging studies suggest that adolescents with bipolar disorder exhibit smaller amygdala volumes compared with healthy adolescents, whether these abnormalities are present at illness onset or instead develop over time remains unclear. The aim of this study was to conduct a prospective longitudinal investigation…

  20. A Longitudinal Analysis of Adolescent Decision-Making with the Iowa Gambling Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almy, Brandon; Kuskowski, Michael; Malone, Stephen M.; Myers, Evan; Luciana, Monica

    2018-01-01

    Many researchers have used the standard Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) to assess decision-making in adolescence given increased risk-taking during this developmental period. Most studies are cross-sectional and do not observe behavioral trajectories over time, limiting interpretation. This longitudinal study investigated healthy adolescents' and young…

  1. Hispanic Mothers' Beliefs Regarding HPV Vaccine Series Completion in Their Adolescent Daughters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roncancio, A. M.; Ward, K. K.; Carmack, C. C.; Muñoz, B. T.; Cribbs, F. L.

    2017-01-01

    Rates of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine series completion among adolescent Hispanic females in Texas in 2014 (~39%) lag behind the Healthy People 2020 goal (80%). This qualitative study identifies Hispanic mothers' salient behavioral, normative and control beliefs regarding having their adolescent daughters complete the vaccine series.…

  2. Meaningful Use of a Confidential Adolescent Patient Portal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Lindsay A; Martinko, Thomas; Budd, Pamela; Mercado, Rebeccah; Schentrup, Anzeela M

    2016-02-01

    To design and evaluate the usage of an adolescent patient portal specifically adapted for adolescent health care needs that also satisfied institutional meaningful use guidelines regarding electronic health records. Key stakeholders at one academic health care center adopted an online portal and opted to designate a patient portal specifically for adolescents to maximize confidentiality in compliance with state privacy laws. This study analyzed aggregate electronic health record data of adolescents' (ages 12-17.9 years) uptake, usage, and functionality of this portal and compared it to parent portal usage for younger children (ages 0-11 years). Differences in means were calculated using paired t tests. The portal was used similarly between parents of young children and adolescents, with almost 1,000 enrollees in each group from September 1, 2012 to March 31, 2015. There were no gender differences in enrollment. Adolescents were less likely than parents of younger children to review appointments (73% vs. 85%), laboratory tests (67% vs. 79%), problem lists (40% vs. 78%), or allergies (45% vs. 77%, all p values adolescents sent 1,397 confidential messages. Institutional decisions for implementing meaningful use requirements can align with goals of adolescent health. Patient portals can enhance adolescent health care quality and adolescents readily use a confidential portal. Implementation of meaningful use requirements should be checked against adolescent health care needs to maximize confidentiality and promote health communication. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Negative associations between corpus callosum midsagittal area and IQ in a representative sample of healthy children and adolescents.

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    Hooman Ganjavi

    Full Text Available Documented associations between corpus callosum size and cognitive ability have heretofore been inconsistent potentially owing to differences in sample characteristics, differing methodologies in measuring CC size, or the use of absolute versus relative measures. We investigated the relationship between CC size and intelligence quotient (IQ in the NIH MRI Study of Normal Brain Development sample, a large cohort of healthy children and adolescents (aged six to 18, n = 198 recruited to be representative of the US population. CC midsagittal area was measured using an automated system that partitioned the CC into 25 subregions. IQ was measured using the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI. After correcting for total brain volume and age, a significant negative correlation was found between total CC midsagittal area and IQ (r = -0.147; p = 0.040. Post hoc analyses revealed a significant negative correlation in children (age<12 (r = -0.279; p = 0.004 but not in adolescents (age≥12 (r = -0.005; p = 0.962. Partitioning the subjects by gender revealed a negative correlation in males (r = -0.231; p = 0.034 but not in females (r = 0.083; p = 0.389. Results suggest that the association between CC and intelligence is mostly driven by male children. In children, a significant gender difference was observed for FSIQ and PIQ, and in males, a significant age-group difference was observed for FSIQ and PIQ. These findings suggest that the correlation between CC midsagittal area and IQ may be related to age and gender.

  4. Amplitude of low frequency fluctuation abnormalities in adolescents with online gaming addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Kai; Jin, Chenwang; Cheng, Ping; Yang, Xuejuan; Dong, Tao; Bi, Yanzhi; Xing, Lihong; von Deneen, Karen M; Yu, Dahua; Liu, Junyu; Liang, Jun; Cheng, Tingting; Qin, Wei; Tian, Jie

    2013-01-01

    The majority of previous neuroimaging studies have demonstrated both structural and task-related functional abnormalities in adolescents with online gaming addiction (OGA). However, few functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies focused on the regional intensity of spontaneous fluctuations in blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) during the resting state and fewer studies investigated the relationship between the abnormal resting-state properties and the impaired cognitive control ability. In the present study, we employed the amplitude of low frequency fluctuation (ALFF) method to explore the local features of spontaneous brain activity in adolescents with OGA and healthy controls during resting-state. Eighteen adolescents with OGA and 18 age-, education- and gender-matched healthy volunteers participated in this study. Compared with healthy controls, adolescents with OGA showed a significant increase in ALFF values in the left medial orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), the left precuneus, the left supplementary motor area (SMA), the right parahippocampal gyrus (PHG) and the bilateral middle cingulate cortex (MCC). The abnormalities of these regions were also detected in previous addiction studies. More importantly, we found that ALFF values of the left medial OFC and left precuneus were positively correlated with the duration of OGA in adolescents with OGA. The ALFF values of the left medial OFC were also correlated with the color-word Stroop test performance. Our results suggested that the abnormal spontaneous neuronal activity of these regions may be implicated in the underlying pathophysiology of OGA.

  5. Amplitude of low frequency fluctuation abnormalities in adolescents with online gaming addiction.

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    Kai Yuan

    Full Text Available The majority of previous neuroimaging studies have demonstrated both structural and task-related functional abnormalities in adolescents with online gaming addiction (OGA. However, few functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI studies focused on the regional intensity of spontaneous fluctuations in blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD during the resting state and fewer studies investigated the relationship between the abnormal resting-state properties and the impaired cognitive control ability. In the present study, we employed the amplitude of low frequency fluctuation (ALFF method to explore the local features of spontaneous brain activity in adolescents with OGA and healthy controls during resting-state. Eighteen adolescents with OGA and 18 age-, education- and gender-matched healthy volunteers participated in this study. Compared with healthy controls, adolescents with OGA showed a significant increase in ALFF values in the left medial orbitofrontal cortex (OFC, the left precuneus, the left supplementary motor area (SMA, the right parahippocampal gyrus (PHG and the bilateral middle cingulate cortex (MCC. The abnormalities of these regions were also detected in previous addiction studies. More importantly, we found that ALFF values of the left medial OFC and left precuneus were positively correlated with the duration of OGA in adolescents with OGA. The ALFF values of the left medial OFC were also correlated with the color-word Stroop test performance. Our results suggested that the abnormal spontaneous neuronal activity of these regions may be implicated in the underlying pathophysiology of OGA.

  6. Dysfunctional feedback processing in adolescent males with conduct disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yidian; Chen, Haiyan; Jia, Huiqiao; Ming, Qingsen; Yi, Jinyao; Yao, Shuqiao

    2016-01-01

    Abnormalities in neural feedback-processing systems may play a role in the development of dysfunctional behavior in individuals diagnosed with conduct disorder (CD). The present study investigated the relation between CD adolescents and feedback processing by measuring event-related potentials (ERPs) in a single outcome gambling task, which included reward valence (loss and gain) and reward magnitude (10 and 50cents) as outcomes. N2 and P3 components have been established as effective indicators in studies of behavioral disinhibition, reward processing, and decision-making. Eighteen adolescent males (age: 13-17years) diagnosed with CD and 19 healthy age-matched male controls were recruited. Compared to healthy controls, CD individuals exhibited reduced N2 amplitudes in response to loss condition. There was also a significant decreased P3 amplitude in all conditions. The amplitudes of P3 were negatively correlated with impulsivity scores across both groups, and the amplitudes of N2 were positively correlated with impulsivity scores across both groups. Our findings suggest that adolescents with CD may be impaired in neural sensitivity feedback and the processing of environmental cues compared to healthy controls. Moreover, N2 and P3 may be reliable indices to detect different sensitivity in reward and punishment feedback processing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Evaluation of self-esteem and dermatological quality of life in adolescents with atopic dermatitis

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    İjlal Erturan

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Design: Atopic dermatitis is a chronic, inflammatory skin disease characterized by itchy skin lesions. Since adolescents are intensely interested in their physical appearance, chronic skin diseases in this period can adversely affect the development of self esteem. Atopic dermatitis is a skin disease that affects the appearance and there is an heightened attention to the body image in adolescence which is an important period of time in the development of self-esteem. Therefore, we aimed to investigate self-esteem and dermatological quality of life in adolescents with atopic dermatitis. Materials and Methods: Thirty-three patients with atopic dermatitis and 33 healthy controls were included in the study. The Piers-Harris Children’s Self-Concept Scale and the Children’s Dermatology Life Quality Index (CDLQI were used for determining self-esteem and quality of life. The Scoring of Atopic Dermatitis (SCORAD Index was used to assess the severity of atopic dermatitis. Results: It was found that patient group had lower self-esteem than healthy controls according to the Piers-Harris Children’s Self-Concept Scale. A statistically significant difference was observed in happiness/satisfaction and anxiety subscale scores between the patients and healthy controls while there was no significant difference between the other sub-scale scores. Mean value of dermatological quality of life in patients with atopic dermatitis was significantly lower than in healthy controls. A moderate negative correlation was found between self-esteem and CDLQI scores among adolescents with atopic dermatitis. Discussion: This study results have shown that self-esteem and dermatological quality of life were adversely affected in adolescents with atopic dermatitis irrespective of gender. These patients should be examined psychiatrically besides dermatological examination and treatment. We suggest that improvement will be observed in self-esteem and quality of

  8. Healthy active living for children and youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-05-01

    Poor lifestyle habits, such as unhealthy eating and physical inactivity, are major contributors to increased adult morbidity and mortality from chronic diseases. Over the past decade there has been an increase in sedentary lifestyle and obesity in children and adolescents, both in North America and worldwide. Physicians need to be aware of the scope of this problem, provide anticipatory guidance to families and promote healthy active living in their practices.

  9. Emotional Variability in Mother-Adolescent Conflict Interactions and Internalizing Problems of Mothers and Adolescents: Dyadic and Individual Processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Giessen, D.; Hollenstein, T.; Hale, W.W.; Koot, H.M.; Meeus, W.H.J.; Branje, S.J.T.

    2015-01-01

    Emotional variability reflects the ability to flexibly switch among a broad range of positive and negative emotions from moment-to-moment during interactions. Emotional variability during mother-adolescent conflict interactions is considered to be important for healthy socio-emotional functioning of

  10. Impulse oscillometry, spirometry, and passive smoking in healthy children and adolescents

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    C.I.S. Schivinski

    2017-11-01

    Conclusion: Children and adolescents exposed to PS had lower values for the spirometric variables and higher values for the oscillometric variables, indicating changes in forced and quiet parameters of lung function compared to the NPSG.

  11. Gender Differences in Food Preferences of School-Aged Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caine-Bish, Natalie L.; Scheule, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    Background: Schools have the opportunity, through the National School Lunch Program and Local School Wellness Policies, to have a significant impact on healthy eating behaviors. An understanding of children's and adolescents' food preferences in relation to gender and age will facilitate the successful creation of both healthy and financially…

  12. Health promotion behaviors in adolescents: prevalence and association with mental health status in a statewide sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrian, Molly; Charlesworth-Attie, Sarah; Vander Stoep, Ann; McCauley, Elizabeth; Becker, Linda

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to estimate the proportion of adolescents meeting Healthy People 2020 health behavior recommendations for the prevention of chronic disease and to determine the association between mental health status (depression and/or conduct problems) and the likelihood of meeting these recommendations. The data used for this study are from the 2010 Washington State Healthy Youth Survey. Descriptive statistics and linear regression were utilized to estimate the proportion of adolescents meeting recommendations and associations between youth mental health status indicators and health-promoting behaviors. A small minority (5.8 %) of youth met all six recommendations in domains of tobacco abstinence, substance use abstinence, daily physical activity, breakfast consumption, weight below obese levels, and adequate sleep, though most (84.3 %) met at least three. At the aggregate level, the proportion of Washington State youth who met Healthy People 2020 guidelines exceeded targets, with the exception of substance use abstinence. A minority of youth reported guideline levels of daily physical activity (23.3 %) and sleep (39.8 %). Mental health status was strongly associated with the number of health-promoting behaviors adolescents endorsed. Interventions to increase the adoption of sleep hygiene and exercise habits should be added to an integrative positive youth development framework within school-, community-, and primary care-based adolescent health initiatives. Attention to adolescent mental health and shared risk factors may be critical for reducing barriers to healthy behavior.

  13. Increased carotid intima-media thickness in Brazilian adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusaro, Maria Fernanda Gontijo Sepulveda; Zanini, Jovita Lane Soares Santos; Silva, Ivani Novato

    2016-01-01

    Increased carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT), a marker of subclinical atherosclerosis, is an independent predictor of future cardiovascular events, and has been reported in children with various chronic diseases, including type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM1). Evaluate CIMT and its association with cardiovascular risk factors in Brazilian adolescents with DM1. Cross-sectional study of 118 adolescents, 57 with DM1 and no chronic complications related to the disease, and 61 healthy individuals. Clinical, biochemical, and high-resolution B-mode ultrasonographic evaluations according to the Consensus Statement of the American Society of Echocardiography CIMT Task Force were performed. Adolescents with diabetes (66.6% female) were 14.5 ± 2.9 years old and had 9.0 ± 4.0 years of disease duration. The healthy adolescents (62.3% female) were 14.3 ± 2.6 years old. All the adolescents had blood pressure within their reference ranges. In 66% of DM1 adolescents the systolic blood pressure was >50th percentile. Increased CIMT was observed in adolescents with diabetes compared with those in the control group: 0.53 vs 0.51 mm (p Brazilian adolescents with DM1, and was associated with cardiovascular risk factors. CIMT assessment may be useful for the early identification and monitoring of cardiovascular risk in this age group.

  14. Effects of sex on the levels of metals and metalloids in the hair of a group of healthy Spanish adolescents (13 to 16 years old).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña-Fernández, Antonio; Del Carmen Lobo-Bedmar, Maria; González-Muñoz, Maria José

    2017-10-01

    Human biomonitoring can be a reliable tool to protect the health of the citizens of major urban environments. Human hair may be an invaluable specimen to determine chronic exposure to any environmental contaminant in an individual, especially in the young population. However, different factors including a lack of studies that have established reference values for metals and metalloids (trace elements) in human scalp hair make the use of this matrix controversial. A monitoring study was performed to establish possible normal or tentative reference values of Al, As, Be, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Pb, Sn, Ti, Tl and Zn in adolescents' (aged 13-16) hair who have lived since birth in Alcalá de Henares, Madrid region (Spain). Strict inclusion criteria were followed to study the effect of sex on the hair metal content, and the levels of the above contaminants were also studied in park topsoils from Alcalá de Henares. Scalp hair samples were collected from 96 healthy adolescents (28 boys and 68 girls), and reference values were calculated following the recommendations of the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry. The levels of Cd, Cu, Pb, Sn and Zn in hair of adolescents from Alcalá de Henares show a sex dependency, being significantly higher in female participants. Sex should be a factor taken into account when developing future reference values and hair metal content. Soil metal contamination was not correlated with the levels found in hair. To conclude, the values of metals and metalloids here analysed and discussed could be considered as tentative reference values for Spanish adolescents aged 13-16 years living in the Madrid region, and may be used to identify the level of exposure of adolescents in this Spanish region to the various metals and metalloids.

  15. The Effect of Electronic Education of Healthy Lifestyle on the Elderly’s Awareness and Satisfaction

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    Ghassem Abedi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and purpose:The major motivation behind all human communities’ efforts and transformation is to promote and advance human beings health. This study aimed at to compare the effect of a healthy lifestyle electronic education on the knowledge and satisfaction of the elderly. Materials and Methods:This semi-experimental method has been done along with pre- and post-test for people 65 and older at Sari-based retirement Club in 2011. A total of 30 elderly people have been chosen through simple random sampling in two distinct 15 individual classes for women and men. The learners’ knowledge about nutrition has been assessed by using the standard questionnaire. The data have been described by SPSS software, using descriptive statistics and inferential statistics. Results:Mean score of elderly’s awareness before electronic education was 1.72 with the standard deviation of 0.71 which increased to 2.37 for the mean and 0.90 for the standard deviation after the education. The correlated t-test with 3.20, the observed difference is significant at the error level of 0.05. The mean of elderly’s awareness before education was 11.55 with the standard deviation of 1.56 that increased after education 6.38 and 1.48, respectively. The level of satisfaction in the elderly was 52.73 with the standard deviation of 5.16. Conclusion:The result showed that training through educational film has been more effective on the elderly people’s nutritional knowledge and also the old people have been satisfied with the healthy lifestyle training through educational film. Thus, training via film and other educational means is recommended to promote the elderly’s health as a more efficient and effective method.

  16. Social representations of adolescents on quality of life: structurally-based study

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    Ramon Missias Moreira

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study sought to conduct a comparatively analysis and describe the contents of the structure of the social representations of adolescents on quality of life. It involves descriptive, quantitative research, with the benchmark of a structural approach to social representations. The informants included 316 adolescents from three public schools in Jequié in the State of Bahia. The Spontaneous Word-Choice Eliciting Technique using the key expression "Quality of Life" was used for data collection. The responses were processed using Evoc 2003 software, which generated the Four-House Chart. The results reveal the core nucleus of the terms: healthy eating; physical activity; money; and sex. In the 1st outer circle, the words absence of disease, condoms, liberty, marijuana, housing, work and living well are featured. In the 2nd outer circle, there appeared the words difficulty, family, peace and power, and the contrasting elements of well-being and soccer. The overall consensus is that adolescents associate quality of life with sports and other healthy behavior activities, and are influenced by the desires and curiosities of adolescence.

  17. Parenting Stress and Emotional/Behavioral Problems in Adolescents with Primary Headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Operto, Francesca Felicia; Craig, Francesco; Peschechera, Antonia; Mazza, Roberta; Lecce, Paola Alessandra; Margari, Lucia

    2017-01-01

    Primary headache is a frequent and disabling disorder, common among children and adolescents, and it is a painful syndrome often accompanied by functional impairment and associated with emotional and behavior problems. The aim of this study was to investigate parenting stress and emotional/behavioral problems in adolescents affected by primary headache compared with healthy adolescents. The study population consisted of 35 adolescents and a control group of 23 healthy subjects. The assessment included the administration of clinical standardized scales such as Parent Stress Index-Short Form, Pediatric Migraine Disability Assessment Score Questionnaire, and Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). Headache group and control group did not differ in terms of parenting stress ( p  = 0.29). On the contrary, headache group showed more internalizing problems ( p  = 0.023), affective problems ( p  = 0.01), anxious ( p  = 0.001), and somatic complaints ( p  headache group. The findings emphasize the need for expanded intervention in the clinical treatment of pediatric headache, a treatment that may also include the family members. Further research is needed.

  18. [Healthy eating according to teenagers: perceptions, barriers, and expected characteristics of teaching materials].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toral, Natacha; Conti, Maria Aparecida; Slater, Betzabeth

    2009-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate perceptions, barriers, and characteristics of teaching materials to promote healthy eating, as described by teenagers. Four focus groups were conducted with 25 adolescents, including questions on: perceptions regarding diet and motivations to change; concepts of (and barriers to) healthy eating; and characteristics needed for teaching materials to promote healthy eating. The teens were often undecided when attempting to classify a diet as healthy. They generally reported feeling insecure about making dietary changes, but showed adequate notions of healthy eating. The main barriers involved personal and social characteristics: temptation, food flavors, parental influence, and lack of time and options for healthy snacks at school. According to these teenagers, educational materials for promotion of healthy eating should emphasize the immediate benefits and emphasize high-impact messages on the health risks of unhealthy diet.

  19. Perceived not actual overweight is associated with excessive school absenteeism among U.S. adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Dustin T; Hansen, Andrew R; Woo Baidal, Jennifer; Lyn, Rodney; Hill, Ashley; Zhang, Jian

    Excess body weight has been reported to be associated with excessive school absenteeism (ESA), but less is known about the association with perceived body weight. The study objective was to weigh the relative influence of perceived and measured weight status on school attendance. We used the data from 3113 adolescents age 12-19 years who were interviewed as a part of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES), 2003-2008. Body weight and height were measured during the physical examination, while self-perceived body weight and the number of school days missed was assessed using questionnaires. Missing one or more days per school month (nine days per school year) was defined as, and indicative of, experiencing ESA. ESA was reported from 12.31 (SE=0.89) % of adolescents. The highest prevalence occurred among healthy weight adolescents who erroneously self-perceived as overweight [21.6 (4.77) %], two times higher than adolescents with obesity who self-perceived as "just right weight" [10.3 (2.87) %]. The adjusted prevalence ratio (PR) of ESA for healthy weight adolescents who erroneously self-perceived as "overweight" was 1.91 (95%CI=1.10-3.32) compared to healthy weight peers who correctly self-perceived as "just right" (reference group). The PRs were 0.99 (0.48-2.06) and 1.41 (0.86-2.32) respectively for adolescents with obesity who believed that their body weight was "just right" or "overweight". No significant differences were observed between boys and girls, young (12-15 years) and older adolescents (16-19 years). Perceived overweight rather than actual overweight is significantly associated ESA among adolescents. Copyright © 2016 Asia Oceania Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Differences in serum zinc levels in acutely ill and remitted adolescents and young adults with bulimia nervosa in comparison with healthy controls – a cross-sectional pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zepf FD

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Florian D Zepf,1,2 Pradeep Rao,1,3 Kevin Runions,3,4 Richard M Stewart,1 Julia K Moore,1,5 Janice WY Wong,1,4 Maike Linden,1,2,6 Idil Sungurtekin,7 Franziska Glass,8 Linda Gut,8 Dirk Peetz,9,10 Gudrun Hintereder,11 Michael Schaab,12 Fritz Poustka,8 Lars Wöckel8,13 1Centre and Discipline of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Psychosomatics and Psychotherapy, University of Western Australia, 2Specialised Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services (CAMHS, Department of Health in Western Australia, 3Community Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services, Department of Health in Western Australia, 4Telethon Kids Institute, University of Western Australia, 5Paediatric Consultation-Liaison Program, Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services, Department of Health in Western Australia, Perth, WA, Australia; 6Clinic for Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Psychosomatics and Psychotherapy, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, 7Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Central Institute of Mental Health, Mannheim, 8Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Psychosomatics and Psychotherapy, Goethe University, Frankfurt am Main, 9Institute of Laboratory Medicine, HELIOS Klinikum Berlin-Buch, Berlin, 10Department of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine, University Center of the Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Mainz, 11Department of Laboratory Medicine, Goethe University, Frankfurt am Main, 12Institute of Laboratory Medicine, Clinical Chemistry and Molecular Diagnostics, University of Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany; 13Center of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Clienia Littenheid AG, Littenheid, Switzerland Background: Research has implicated that changes in zinc (Zn metabolism may be associated with the biological underpinnings of eating disorders, in particular anorexia nervosa. However, to date research on the role of Zn in patients with bulimia nervosa (BN is scarce.Objective: We aimed to explore serum Zn

  1. Fasting guidelines for diabetic children and adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azad, Kiswhar; Mohsin, Fauzia; Zargar, Abdul Hamid; Zabeen, Bedowra; Ahmad, Jamal; Raza, Syed Abbas; Tayyeb, Samin; Bajaj, Sarita; Ishtiaq, Osama; Kalra, Sanjay

    2012-01-01

    Fasting during the month of Ramadan, the ninth month of Islamic lunar calendar, is obligatory for all healthy adult and adolescent Muslims from the age of 12 years. Fasting starts from early dawn (Sohur/Sehri) till sunset (Iftar). During this period one has to abstain from eating and drinking. Islam has allowed many categories of people to be exempted from fasting, for example, young children, travelers, the sick, the elderly, pregnant, and lactating women. According to expert opinion, patients with type 1 diabetes (type 1 DM) who fast during Ramadan are at a very high risk to develop adverse events. However, some experienced physicians are of the opinion that fasting during Ramadan is safe for type 1 DM patients, including adolescents and older children, with good glycemic control who do regular self-monitoring and are under close professional supervision. The strategies to ensure safety of type 1 diabetic adolescents who are planning to fast include the following: Ramadan-focused medical education, pre-Ramadan medical assessment, following a healthy diet and physical activity pattern, modification in insulin regimen, and blood glucose monitoring as advised by the physician. PMID:22837907

  2. Fasting guidelines for diabetic children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiswhar Azad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Fasting during the month of Ramadan, the ninth month of Islamic lunar calendar, is obligatory for all healthy adult and adolescent Muslims from the age of 12 years. Fasting starts from early dawn (Sohur/Sehri till sunset (Iftar. During this period one has to abstain from eating and drinking. Islam has allowed many categories of people to be exempted from fasting, for example, young children, travelers, the sick, the elderly, pregnant, and lactating women. According to expert opinion, patients with type 1 diabetes (type 1 DM who fast during Ramadan are at a very high risk to develop adverse events. However, some experienced physicians are of the opinion that fasting during Ramadan is safe for type 1 DM patients, including adolescents and older children, with good glycemic control who do regular self-monitoring and are under close professional supervision. The strategies to ensure safety of type 1 diabetic adolescents who are planning to fast include the following: Ramadan-focused medical education, pre-Ramadan medical assessment, following a healthy diet and physical activity pattern, modification in insulin regimen, and blood glucose monitoring as advised by the physician.

  3. Preventing High-Risk Sexual Behavior, Sexually Transmitted Diseases, and Pregnancy among Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagrestano, Lynda M.; Paikoff, Roberta L.

    Adolescent sexual activity and the resulting pregnancy and transmission of sexually transmitted diseases have been on the rise during the past several decades. This chapter addresses each of the three objectives regarding sexual behavior outlined in the Healthy People 2000 initiative. Background data and trends in adolescent sexual behavior are…

  4. Health Information Needs of d/Deaf Adolescent Females: A Call to Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Chad E.; Massey-Stokes, Marilyn; Lieberth, Ann

    2012-01-01

    Adolescent health and health literacy are critical health topics recognized in Healthy People 2020. Evidence indicates that adolescents who are d/Deaf have unique health-related needs, yet health communication efforts have not reached them. Despite the Internet's exponential growth and the growth of online health information-seeking behavior among…

  5. Folate and vitamin B12 concentrations are associated with plasma DHA and EPA fatty acids in European adolescents: the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence (HELENA) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesia, I; Huybrechts, I; González-Gross, M; Mouratidou, T; Santabárbara, J; Chajès, V; González-Gil, E M; Park, J Y; Bel-Serrat, S; Cuenca-García, M; Castillo, M; Kersting, M; Widhalm, K; De Henauw, S; Sjöström, M; Gottrand, F; Molnár, D; Manios, Y; Kafatos, A; Ferrari, M; Stehle, P; Marcos, A; Sánchez-Muniz, F J; Moreno, L A

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the association between vitamin B6, folate and vitamin B12 biomarkers and plasma fatty acids in European adolescents. A subsample from the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence study with valid data on B-vitamins and fatty acid blood parameters, and all the other covariates used in the analyses such as BMI, Diet Quality Index, education of the mother and physical activity assessed by a questionnaire, was selected resulting in 674 cases (43 % males). B-vitamin biomarkers were measured by chromatography and immunoassay and fatty acids by enzymatic analyses. Linear mixed models elucidated the association between B-vitamins and fatty acid blood parameters (changes in fatty acid profiles according to change in 10 units of vitamin B biomarkers). DHA, EPA) and n-3 fatty acids showed positive associations with B-vitamin biomarkers, mainly with those corresponding to folate and vitamin B12. Contrarily, negative associations were found with n-6:n-3 ratio, trans-fatty acids and oleic:stearic ratio. With total homocysteine (tHcy), all the associations found with these parameters were opposite (for instance, an increase of 10 nmol/l in red blood cell folate or holotranscobalamin in females produces an increase of 15·85 µmol/l of EPA (P value DHA (P value acids might suggest underlying mechanisms between B-vitamins and CVD and it is worth the attention of public health policies.

  6. Decision-making in adolescent females who deliberately self-harm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rigler Tristan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Self-harming behaviour most commonly begins in adolescence and is more frequent among adolescent females. We explored the hypothesis that adolescent females who deliberately selfharm were more likely to perform worse on a decision-making task. Previous research in adolescents who self-harm reported impaired decision-making. However, research put little emphasis on older adolescents and the emotional learning. In our research, we presented the Iowa Gambling Task to 35 adolescent females who self-harmed and were treated at a psychiatric clinic, and to 35 healthy female controls. Our results show that in comparison to the control group the adolescents who self-harm took more risky decisions and were less concerned about the outcome. In addition, the clinical group also focused more on immediate gains and showed a reduced ability to learn from poor decisions in the past. Further research is suggested to explore the potential neurological correlates of decision-making and selfharming behaviour.

  7. Nutrition knowledge in adolescents: perception of parents and peers behavior and stimulus

    OpenAIRE

    Ferro-Lebres, Vera; Ribeiro, José Carlos; Moreira, Pedro; Silva, Gustavo Gonçalves da; Aires, Luísa

    2010-01-01

    It is well known the influence that parents and peers have in children and adolescent choices and behaviors, including eating habits and physical activity practice. No work has been done yet about parents and peers influence in nutrition knowledge. This work aims to study the relation between adolescents’ perception of parents and peers food habits, physical activity practice, stimulus to the adolescent to follow a healthy diet and be physically active and adolescents Nut...

  8. Food and eating behaviors among adolescents with type 1 diabetes and their parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) management involves constant attention to food. In addition to glycemic goals, healthy weight and BMI are important clinical targets, especially in adolescence. Adolescence is a sensitive time for discussions around eating and weight, and risks are elevated for disordered eatin...

  9. Neural correlates of self-perceptions in adolescents with major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Kailyn A L; Colcombe, Stan; Henderson, Sarah E; Alonso, Carmen M; Milham, Michael P; Gabbay, Vilma

    2016-06-01

    Alteration in self-perception is a salient feature in major depression. Hyperactivity of anterior cortical midline regions has been implicated in this phenomenon in depressed adults. Here, we extend this work to depressed adolescents during a developmental time when neuronal circuitry underlying the sense of self matures by using task-based functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and connectivity analyses. Twenty-three depressed adolescents and 18 healthy controls (HC) viewed positive and negative trait words in a scanner and judged whether each word described them ('self' condition) or was a good trait to have ('general' condition). Self-perception scores were based on participants' endorsements of positive and negative traits during the fMRI task. Depressed adolescents exhibited more negative self-perceptions than HC. Both groups activated cortical midline regions in response to self-judgments compared to general-judgments. However, depressed adolescents recruited the posterior cingulate cortex/precuneus more for positive self-judgments. Additionally, local connectivity of the dorsal medial prefrontal cortex was reduced during self-reflection in depressed adolescents. Our findings highlight differences in self-referential processing network function between depressed and healthy adolescents and support the need for further investigation of brain mechanisms associated with the self, as they may be paramount to understanding the etiology and development of major depressive disorder. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Neural correlates of self-perceptions in adolescents with major depressive disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kailyn A.L. Bradley

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Alteration in self-perception is a salient feature in major depression. Hyperactivity of anterior cortical midline regions has been implicated in this phenomenon in depressed adults. Here, we extend this work to depressed adolescents during a developmental time when neuronal circuitry underlying the sense of self matures by using task-based functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI and connectivity analyses. Twenty-three depressed adolescents and 18 healthy controls (HC viewed positive and negative trait words in a scanner and judged whether each word described them (‘self’ condition or was a good trait to have (‘general’ condition. Self-perception scores were based on participants’ endorsements of positive and negative traits during the fMRI task. Depressed adolescents exhibited more negative self-perceptions than HC. Both groups activated cortical midline regions in response to self-judgments compared to general-judgments. However, depressed adolescents recruited the posterior cingulate cortex/precuneus more for positive self-judgments. Additionally, local connectivity of the dorsal medial prefrontal cortex was reduced during self-reflection in depressed adolescents. Our findings highlight differences in self-referential processing network function between depressed and healthy adolescents and support the need for further investigation of brain mechanisms associated with the self, as they may be paramount to understanding the etiology and development of major depressive disorder.

  11. Family leadership styles and adolescent dietary and physical activity behaviors: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Katie L; Wilson, Alexandra H; Perlmutter, Lisa S; Beauchamp, Mark R

    2012-04-30

    Transformational leadership is conceptualized as a set of behaviors designed to inspire, energize and motivate others to achieve higher levels of functioning, and is associated with salient health-related outcomes in organizational settings. Given (a) the similarities that exist between leadership within organizational settings and parenting within families, and (b) the importance of the family environment in the promotion of adolescent health-enhancing behaviors, the purpose of this exploratory study was to examine the cross-sectional relationships between parents' transformational leadership behaviors and adolescent dietary and physical activity behaviors. 857 adolescents (aged 13-15, mean age = 14.70 yrs) completed measures of transformational parenting behaviors, healthful dietary intake and leisure-time physical activity. Regression analyses were conducted to examine relationships between family transformational leadership and adolescent health outcomes. A further 'extreme group analysis' was conducted by clustering families based on quartile splits. A MANCOVA (controlling for child gender) was conducted to examine differences between families displaying (a) HIGH levels of transformational parenting (consistent HIGH TP), (b) LOW levels of transformational parenting (consistent LOW TP), and (c) inconsistent levels of transformational parenting (inconsistent HIGH-LOW TP). Results revealed that adolescents' perceptions of family transformational parenting were associated with both healthy dietary intake and physical activity. Adolescents who perceived their families to display the highest levels of transformational parenting (HIGH TP group) displayed greater healthy eating and physical activity behaviors than adolescents who perceived their families to display the lowest levels of transformational parenting behaviors (LOW TP group). Adolescents who perceived their families to display inconsistent levels of transformational parenting behaviors (HIGH-LOW TP group

  12. How adolescents with anorexia nervosa and their parents perceive family functioning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laghi, Fiorenzo; Pompili, Sara; Zanna, Valeria; Castiglioni, Maria Chiara; Criscuolo, Michela; Chianello, Ilenia; Mazzoni, Silvia; Baiocco, Roberto

    2017-02-01

    This study aims at examining whether adolescent girls diagnosed with anorexia nervosa and their parents differ in perceiving the different aspects of family functioning. Moreover, the discrepancy between adolescent girls and healthy controls on Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scales dimensions, family communication, and family satisfaction is investigated. The study includes 36 female anorexia patients and their parents and 36 healthy controls. The results showed a different view between mothers and their daughters with regard to the dimension of rigidity. In addition, girls with anorexia nervosa were less satisfied about family environment and rated their families as less communicative, flexible, cohesive, and more disengaged, compared to controls.

  13. The home environment: A mediator of nutrition knowledge and diet quality in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabbakh, Tamara; Freeland-Graves, Jean H

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this research was to assess adherence to the Healthy Eating Index-2010 of mothers and their adolescents (11-14 years old) and to examine the role of the home environment as a mediator of maternal nutrition knowledge and adolescent diet quality. It is hypothesized that mothers with greater knowledge impact the diet quality of their adolescents by creation of healthier home environments. A sample of 206 mother-adolescent dyads separately completed the Multidimensional Home Environment Scale, a Food Frequency Questionnaire, and a Nutrition Knowledge Scale. Body mass index-for-age percentiles were derived from weight and height measurements obtained by researcher; diet quality was estimated via the Healthy Eating Index (HEI)-2010. Percent of maximum score on nutrition knowledge for both mothers and adolescents were poor, with lowest scores on recommendations of healthy eating and physical activity (48% and 19%, respectively). A model of maternal nutrition knowledge (independent variable) and adolescent diet quality (dependent variable) indicated that greater knowledge was associated with higher scores on total fruit (p = 0.02), whole grains (p = 0.05), seafood and plant proteins (p = 0.01), and overall diet quality (p empty calories (p = 0.01). Inclusion of the home environment as a mediator yielded significant estimates of the indirect effect (β = 0.61, 95% CI: 0.3-1.0). Within the home environment, psychological (β = 0.46), social (β = 0.23), and environmental (β = 0.65) variables were all significant mediators of nutrition knowledge on diet quality. These results emphasize the importance of maternal nutrition knowledge and the mediating effect of the home environment on the diet quality of adolescents. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Polycystic ovary syndrome in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, Deborah A

    2003-11-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common disorder among reproductive-age women, yet the diagnosis may be overlooked during adolescence. Although the clinical and metabolic features are similar to those found in adult women, it can be difficult to distinguish the young woman with PCOS from a normal adolescent. Irregular menses, anovulatory cycles, and acne are not uncommon in adolescent women. Adolescents with a history of premature pubarche, a family history of PCOS, Caribbean-Hispanic and African-American ancestry, and/or obesity are at risk for PCOS and deserve close surveillance. The laboratory evaluation of the adolescent with suspected PCOS or hyperandrogenism should be individualized based on the history, symptoms, and examination findings. The cornerstone of management of PCOS in adolescence includes either a combination oral contraceptive or progestin. Consideration of insulin-sensitizing agents, antiandrogens, topical treatments for acne, and various treatments for hair removal are dependent on the patient's symptoms and concerns. Healthy eating, regular exercise, and for the overweight adolescent, weight reduction, are encouraged to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and type II diabetes mellitus. Numerous studies have shown that weight loss and exercise decrease androgen levels, improve insulin sensitivity, and lead to the resumption of ovulation. Although initial studies suggest that Metformin may be particularly useful for treating the PCOS adolescent with insulin resistance and obesity, additional studies are needed to determine the efficacy and long-term outcome. Management of the adolescent with PCOS is challenging and requires a supportive, multidisciplinary team approach for optimal results.

  15. Ethnic Differences in the Food Intake Patterns and Its Associated Factors of Adolescents in Kelantan, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Nurul-Fadhilah; Teo, Pey Sze; Foo, Leng Huat

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the study was to identify the ethnic differences in dietary patterns and its association with socio-economic, dietary and lifestyle practices among adolescents in Kelantan, Malaysia. Methods: A population-based study of 454 adolescents aged 12 to 19 years was included. A validated food frequency questionnaire was used to assess dietary patterns and three dietary patterns were identified based on the principal component analysis method. Results: Malay adolescents had significantly higher scores for the Western-based food pattern and local-based food pattern, whereas Chinese adolescents showed higher scores for the healthy-based food pattern. Multivariate analyses show that age and physical activity (PA) levels were positively associated with healthy-based food pattern in Malay (All, p obesity and metabolic-related disorders during these critical years of growth. PMID:27626444

  16. Parent and family associations with weight-related behaviors and cognitions among overweight adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cromley, Taya R.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Story, Mary; Boutelle, Kerri

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To examine parent and family variables in relation to adolescent weight control and eating behaviors, body satisfaction, and importance of thinness among overweight adolescents. Methods This study examined parent-reported use of weight control behaviors (i.e., healthy and unhealthy behaviors, behavioral changes, other diet strategies), parent psychosocial functioning (i.e., depression, self-esteem, body satisfaction, importance of thinness), and family functioning (i.e., cohesion and adaptability) in relation to adolescent weight control and eating behaviors, body satisfaction, and importance of thinness. Surveys were completed by 103 overweight (BMI ≥ 85th percentile) adolescents, ages 12 to 20, and their parents. Height and weight were also measured. Linear regression equations were used for continuous outcomes and logistic regression equations for dichotomous outcomes. Results Adolescent report of lower body satisfaction and engagement in more “severe” or less healthy forms of weight control behavior were associated with parent weight control behaviors. Adolescent report of overeating was associated with lower scores of family cohesion and adaptability. Adolescent report of lower body satisfaction was positively associated with parent report of body satisfaction and self-esteem. Adolescent report of greater importance placed on thinness was associated with parent report of lower self-esteem. Conclusions Findings indicate that several parent and family variables are associated with weight control behaviors, episodes of overeating, and body satisfaction and importance of thinness among overweight adolescents. Parent weight control behaviors and adolescent cognitions about body image may be important variables to target within intervention research and treatment programs for overweight youth. PMID:20708565

  17. Adolescent Major Depressive Disorder: Neuroimaging Evidence of Sex Difference during an Affective Go/No-Go Task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie-Yu Chuang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Compared to female major depressive disorder (MDD, male MDD often receives less attention. However, research is warranted since there are significant sex differences in the clinical presentation of MDD and a higher rate of suicide in depressed men. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI study with a large sample addressing putative sex differences in MDD during adolescence, a period when one of the most robust findings in psychiatric epidemiology emerges; that females are twice as likely to suffer from MDD than males. Twenty-four depressed and 10 healthy male adolescents, together with 82 depressed and 24 healthy female adolescents, aged 11–18 years, undertook an affective go/no-go task during fMRI acquisition. In response to sad relative to neutral distractors, significant sex differences (in the supramarginal gyrus and group-by-sex interactions (in the supramarginal gyrus and the posterior cingulate cortex were found. Furthermore, in contrast to the healthy male adolescents, depressed male adolescents showed decreased activation in the cerebellum with a significant group-by-age interaction in connectivity. Future research may consider altered developmental trajectories and the possible implications of sex-specific treatment and prevention strategies for MDD.

  18. Adolescent Major Depressive Disorder: Neuroimaging Evidence of Sex Difference during an Affective Go/No-Go Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Jie-Yu; Hagan, Cindy C; Murray, Graham K; Graham, Julia M E; Ooi, Cinly; Tait, Roger; Holt, Rosemary J; Elliott, Rebecca; van Nieuwenhuizen, Adrienne O; Bullmore, Edward T; Lennox, Belinda R; Sahakian, Barbara J; Goodyer, Ian M; Suckling, John

    2017-01-01

    Compared to female major depressive disorder (MDD), male MDD often receives less attention. However, research is warranted since there are significant sex differences in the clinical presentation of MDD and a higher rate of suicide in depressed men. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study with a large sample addressing putative sex differences in MDD during adolescence, a period when one of the most robust findings in psychiatric epidemiology emerges; that females are twice as likely to suffer from MDD than males. Twenty-four depressed and 10 healthy male adolescents, together with 82 depressed and 24 healthy female adolescents, aged 11-18 years, undertook an affective go/no-go task during fMRI acquisition. In response to sad relative to neutral distractors, significant sex differences (in the supramarginal gyrus) and group-by-sex interactions (in the supramarginal gyrus and the posterior cingulate cortex) were found. Furthermore, in contrast to the healthy male adolescents, depressed male adolescents showed decreased activation in the cerebellum with a significant group-by-age interaction in connectivity. Future research may consider altered developmental trajectories and the possible implications of sex-specific treatment and prevention strategies for MDD.

  19. High and low use of electronic media during nighttime before going to sleep: A comparative study between adolescents attending a morning or afternoon school shift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrona-Palacios, Arturo

    2017-12-01

    This study compared the effects of time spent on electronic media devices during nighttime before going to sleep on the sleep-wake cycle, daytime sleepiness, and chronotype in 568 Mexican students (288 girls, mean age = 14.08) attending a double school shift system (287 from morning shift and 281 from afternoon shift). Students completed anonymous self-report questionnaires. Results suggest that high exposure to an electronic media device may have an impact on their sleep-wake cycle, regardless of their school shift. Adolescents from the afternoon shift reported more time spent on devices. Those from the morning shift reported daytime sleepiness with the use of MP3 player, and from the afternoon shift with the use of computer, MP3 player, and television. Both school shifts reported an intermediate chronotype with all electronic media devices, but the afternoon shift with a tendency towards eveningness with the use of the computer, smartphone, and MP3 player. Copyright © 2017 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Sex differences in adult outcomes by changes in weight status from adolescence to adulthood: results from Add Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Arlene E; Skinner, Asheley Cockrell; Maslow, Gary R; Halpern, Carolyn T; Perrin, Eliana M

    2014-01-01

    Changes in weight status from adolescence to adulthood may be associated with varying social, vocational, economic, and educational outcomes, which may differ by sex. We studied whether there are differences in adult outcomes by sex for different weight status changes in the transition to adulthood. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, participants were categorized by weight status from adolescence into adulthood. We examined self-reported outcomes in adulthood for living with parents, being married, being a parent, employment, receipt of public assistance, income, and college graduation by weight groupings (healthy-healthy, healthy-overweight/obese, overweight/obese-overweight/obese, overweight/obese-healthy). The effect of changes in weight status on the adult outcomes was modeled, controlling for sex, age, parental education, and race/ethnicity. There were differences by sex for many of the self-reported outcomes, especially educational and economic outcomes. Female subjects who became overweight/obese between adolescence and adulthood or remained so had worse economic and educational findings as adults compared to male subjects. Overall, for female subjects, becoming and remaining overweight/obese was associated with worse outcomes, while for male subjects, adolescent obesity was more important than isolated adult obesity. The relationship between obesity and life situations may be more negative for female subjects in the transition to adulthood. The findings emphasize that adolescent obesity, and not just obesity isolated in adulthood, is important for characteristics achieved in adulthood. Copyright © 2014 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Social support influences on eating awareness in children and adolescents: the mediating effect of self-regulatory strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspar de Matos, Margarida; Palmeira, Antonio L; Gaspar, Tania; De Wit, John B F; Luszczynska, Aleksandra

    2016-01-01

    The impact of the social environment on healthy eating awareness results from complex interactions among physical, economic, cultural, interpersonal and individual characteristics. This study investigated the impact of social support and social influence on healthy eating awareness, controlling for socio-economic status, gender and age. Additionally, the mediating effect of self-regulation strategies was examined. A total of 2764 children and adolescents aged 10-17 from four European countries completed self-report measures on healthy eating awareness, social influence and the use of self-regulation strategies. Healthy eating awareness and the use of self-regulation strategies were more likely to occur among younger participants. An interaction between gender and age was related to the use of some self-regulation strategies; compared to girls, boys decreased the use of self-regulation strategies more from pre-adolescence to adolescence. Peer social influence was associated with more unhealthy eating in older participants. Results suggest a need to promote self-regulatory competences among young people in order to assist them with regulating their eating behaviours, especially in the presence of peers. Both school-based interventions and family-based interventions, focusing on self-regulation cognitions and social (peer) influence, could help children and adolescents to use self-regulatory strategies which are essential to eat healthier.

  2. Attention networks in adolescent anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinbach, Noam; Sher, Helene; Lock, James D; Henik, Avishai

    2018-03-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) usually develops during adolescence when considerable structural and functional brain changes are taking place. Neurocognitive inefficiencies have been consistently found in adults with enduring AN and were suggested to play a role in maintaining the disorder. However, such findings are inconsistent in children and adolescents with AN. The current study conducted a comprehensive assessment of attention networks in adolescents with AN who were not severely underweight during the study using an approach that permits disentangling independent components of attention. Twenty partially weight-restored adolescents with AN (AN-WR) and 24 healthy adolescents performed the Attention Network Test which assesses the efficiency of three main attention networks-executive control, orienting, and alerting. The results revealed abnormal function in the executive control network among adolescents with AN-WR. Specifically, adolescents with AN-WR demonstrated superior ability to suppress attention to task-irrelevant information while focusing on a central task. Moreover, the alerting network modulated this ability. No difference was found between the groups in the speed of orienting attention, but reorienting attention to a target resulted in higher error rates in the AN-WR group. The findings suggest that adolescents with AN have attentional abnormalities that cannot be explained by a state of starvation. These attentional dysregulations may underlie clinical phenotypes of the disorder such as increased attention of details.

  3. A shift from underweight to overweight and obesity in Asian children and adolescents with congenital heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chun-An; Wang, Jou-Kou; Lue, Hung-Chi; Hua, Yu-Chuan; Chang, Mei-Hwei; Wu, Mei-Hwan

    2012-07-01

    In Western countries, obesity is a common problem in children with congenital heart disease (CHD). However, this problem may have racial difference, and little is known about the shift of this trend as patients grow up. The present study sought to investigate the prevalence and trends of being underweight, overweight and obesity in an Asian CHD cohort using a 5-year citywide school survey database. Patient group consisted of 705 first grade elementary school students (children) and 219 first grade senior high school students (adolescents), while 18753 healthy children and 15014 healthy adolescents served as controls. Body mass index (BMI) percentile was calculated to define underweight (BMI obesity (BMI ≥ 95(th) percentile). In CHD children, the prevalence of underweight and overweight/obesity was 21.0% (control 16%, P obese than children with non-cyanotic CHD. The prevalence of underweight (23.3%) and overweight/obesity (26.5%) in CHD adolescents became close to that in controls. From childhood to adolescence, different shifts in BMI distribution were noted; controls became more underweight and overweight/obese for males and more underweight and less overweight/obese for females, while CHD patients became more overweight/obese for both genders, including cyanotic CHD. In this Asian CHD cohort, we demonstrates a shift of BMI distribution from more underweight and less overweight/obese compared with healthy children, to a pattern similar to that in healthy adolescents. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. [Physical activity and electronic media use in children and adolescents: results of the KiGGS study: first follow-up (KiGGS wave 1)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manz, K; Schlack, R; Poethko-Müller, C; Mensink, G; Finger, J; Lampert, T

    2014-07-01

    Physical activity during childhood and adolescence has numerous health benefits, while sedentary behavior, especially electronic media use, is associated with the development of overweight. Therefore, the promotion of physical activity during childhood and adolescence is an integral part of national public health efforts. The aim of this article is to describe the physical activity behavior of German children and adolescents based on the nationwide data of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS wave 1). Furthermore, the association between physical activity and sports participation and use of screen-based media in youth aged 11 to 17 years was analyzed. The analyses included data from 10,426 children and adolescents aged 3-17 years collected by telephone interviews. Children older than 11 years answered the questions by themselves, whereas a parent was interviewed for younger children. The descriptive analyses were performed under consideration of social and demographic factors. According to the results of KiGGS wave 1 a total of 77.5% (95% Cl 76.0-78.9 %) of the children and adolescents participated in sports activities, and 59.7% (58.1-61.3 %) were members of a sports club. The recommendation of the World Health Organization (WHO) to be physically active at least 60 min per day was achieved by 27.5% (26.0-28.9 %). Children and adolescents with a low socioeconomic status (SES) participated less in sports activities than children of higher SES groups. Excessive use of screen-based media was more likely to be associated with lack of sports participation than with a lack of physical activity. In the future, preventive measures should promote the daily physical activity of children and adolescents and additionally encourage children and adolescents with low SES to participate in sports activities.

  5. Don’t tell me what I should do, but what others do: The influence of descriptive and injunctive peer norms on fruit consumption in adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stok, F.M.; Ridder, de D.T.D.; Vet, de E.; Wit, J.B.F.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: While healthy eating patterns are of high importance in adolescence, most adolescents portray quite unhealthy eating behaviour. One reason for this may be that social norms among peers tend to be unsupportive of healthy eating. The current study investigates whether communicating

  6. Short-term Clinical Course of Knee Pain in Children and Adolescents: A Feasibility Study Using Electronic Methods of Data Collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, Michael S; Kamper, Steven J; Maher, Chris G; Latimer, Jane; Broderick, Carolyn; McKay, Damien; Henschke, Nicholas

    2017-10-01

    Musculoskeletal disorders, such as knee pain, are common in children and adolescents, but there is a lack of high quality research that evaluates the clinical course of these conditions. The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of conducting a prospective study of children and adolescents with knee pain using electronic methods of data collection. Children and adolescents with knee pain that presented to primary care physiotherapy clinics were enrolled and followed-up on a weekly basis via short messaging service (SMS) until their knee pain had recovered (i.e. two consecutive weeks of no pain). Feasibility was assessed in terms of recruitment, retention and response rates to SMS and an online questionnaire. Baseline and 6-month follow-up measures included pain, disability, physical function, physical activity and health related quality of life. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was used to estimate the median time to knee pain recovery. Thirty participants (mean age 13.0 ± 2.2 years, 53% boys) were recruited over 26 months. The overall response rate to weekly SMS follow-up was 71.3% (809 received/1135 sent). One third of participants stopped responding to SMS prior to recovery, and these participants typically had a much lower response rate during the time they remained in the study. At 6-month follow-up, 80% of the cohort completed the final online questionnaire, and 29% of participants still reported current knee pain (≥1/10 VAS). The median time for knee pain recovery was 8 weeks (95%CI: 5, 10). Electronic data collection alone seems insufficient to track pain recovery in young people and may need to be supplemented with more traditional data collection methods. Researchers should consider further measures to address slow recruitment rates and high attrition when designing large prospective studies of children and adolescents in the future. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. What is the Difference in Morphologic Features of the Thoracic Pedicle Between Patients With Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis and Healthy Subjects? A CT-based Case-control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Bo; Gao, Wenjie; Chen, Chong; Wang, Qinghua; Lin, Shaochun; Xu, Caixia; Huang, Dongsheng; Su, Peiqiang

    2017-11-01

    Describing the morphologic features of the thoracic pedicle in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis is necessary for placement of pedicle screws. Previous studies showed inadequate reliability owing to small sample size and heterogeneity of the patients surveyed. To use CT scans (1) to describe the morphologic features of 2718 thoracic pedicles from 60 female patients with Lenke Type 1 adolescent idiopathic scoliosis and 60 age-, sex-, and height-matched controls; and (2) to classify the pedicles in three types based on pedicle width and analyze the distribution of each type. A total of 2718 pedicles from 60 female patients with Lenke Type 1 adolescent idiopathic scoliosis and 60 matched female controls were analyzed via CT. All patients surveyed were diagnosed with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis, Lenke Type 1, at the First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, and all underwent pedicle screw fixation between January 2008 and December 2013 with preoperative radiographs and CT images on file. We routinely obtained CT scans before these procedures; all patients who underwent surgery during that period had CT scans, and all were available for analysis here. Control subjects had CT scans for other clinical indications and had no abnormal findings of the spine. The control subjects were chosen to match patients in terms of age (15 ± 2.6 years versus 15 ± 2.6 years) and sex. Height of the two groups also was matched (154 ± 9 cm versus 155 ± 10 cm; mean difference, -1.06 cm; 95% CI, -1.24 to -0.81 cm; p adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (22%; 293 of 1322) compared with controls (13%; 178 of 1396) (odds ratio [OR] = 0.51; 95% CI, 0.42-0.63; p adolescent idiopathic scoliosis, they commonly occurred on the concave side 34% (228 of 661) and on the AV-SC region (32%; 43 of 136). Pedicle width on the concave side was narrower than pedicle width on the convex side and pedicle width in healthy control subjects. The apical vertebra in the structural curve was

  8. Neural Responses to Peer Rejection in Anxious Adolescents: Contributions from the Amygdala-Hippocampal Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Jennifer Y. F.; Guyer, Amanda E.; Tone, Erin B.; Jenness, Jessica; Parrish, Jessica M.; Pine, Daniel S.; Nelson, Eric E.

    2012-01-01

    Peer rejection powerfully predicts adolescent anxiety. While cognitive differences influence anxious responses to social feedback, little is known about neural contributions. Twelve anxious and twelve age-, gender- and IQ-matched, psychiatrically healthy adolescents received "not interested" and "interested" feedback from unknown peers during a…

  9. The effect of the solution-focused approach on nutrition-exercise attitudes and behaviours of overweight and obese adolescents: Randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akgul Gundogdu, Nurcan; Sevig, Emine Umit; Guler, Nuran

    2018-04-01

    To assess the effect of the solution-focused approach interview technique on overweight/obese adolescents' nutrition-exercise attitudes and behaviours. Obesity is a serious health problem for all age groups, particularly adolescents; therefore, it is important for adolescents to develop healthy nutrition habits and acquire exercise behaviours. Unless healthy nutrition-exercise behaviours are acquired, obesity can develop in adolescence, continue in adulthood. Focusing on solutions can be effective for overweight/obese adolescents to develop healthy nutrition-exercise behaviours. A pretest-post-test randomised controlled trial design was used. The study included 32 overweight/obese adolescents (16 for intervention group, 16 for control group) aged 12-13 years who attended a health centre and met the inclusion criteria. The solution-focused Approach interview technique was applied to the intervention group. Eight solution-focused interviews were conducted with each adolescent at 2-week intervals (interview length 30-45 min). For each group, anthropometric, metabolic measurement follow-ups were conducted in the first and sixth months. The data were evaluated using independent samples t test, Mann-Whitney U, Wilcoxon test, respectively, for normally, non-normally distributed variables. The categorical variables were compared using chi-square test. The value p exercise attitude and behaviour scale scores were higher in the sixth month follow-up; difference between the follow-ups was significant (p exercise attitude and behaviour scores. Eight interviews during 6 months were adequate for positive development of their nutrition-exercise attitudes and behaviours; significant decrease in their weight, BMI percentile, BMI-SDS values; and normal metabolic values. The solution-focused approach interview technique enabled overweight/obese adolescents' weight and blood glucose to be controlled against obesity. It helped them acquire healthy nutrition-exercise behaviours

  10. [Assessment of Body-Related Avoidance Behaviour: Validation of the German Version of the Body Image Avoidance Questionnaire (BIAQ) in Adolescents with Anorexia and Bulimia Nervosa and Healthy Controls].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinfeld, Beate; Waldorf, Manuel; Bauer, Anika; Huber, Thomas J; Braks, Karsten; Vocks, Silja

    2018-03-01

    Body image avoidance is conceptualised as a behavioural manifestation of body image disturbance, and describes efforts to avoid confrontation with one's own body. While studies have provided hints that body image avoidance in adulthood contributes to the development and maintenance of eating disorders, so far, there are no corresponding findings for adolescence. The Body Image Avoidance Questionnaire (BIAQ) is the most widely used international questionnaire for measuring body-related avoidance behaviour. As its German version has only been validated in an adult sample, the aim of the present study is to statistically test the questionnaire in adolescents with eating disorders. In total, N=127 female adolescents, including n=57 with Anorexia Nervosa, n=24 with Bulimia Nervosa, and n=46 healthy controls, answered the BIAQ as well as various other instruments for assessing body image disturbance and eating disorder symptoms. The factor structure assumed for the original English version, comprising the higher-order factor "body-related avoidance behaviour" and the 4 subfactors "clothing", "social activities", "eating restraint" and "grooming and weighing", was confirmed by a confirmatory factor analysis. With the exception of the scale "grooming and weighing", all scales showed mostly acceptable internal consistencies, test-retest reliability, differential validity and construct validity. Due to their satisfying psychometric properties, the use of the BIAQ scales "clothing", "social activities" and "eating restraint" can be recommended in research and practice for adolescence. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. On aggressiveness and violence in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flechner, Silvia

    2005-10-01

    When considering aggressiveness and violence during adolescence, we must take into account multiple senses, which range from the healthy assertion of one's own space before others to the repetition of traumatic violent experiences such as the violation of bodily and spatial-temporal boundaries. The author presents a survey of the views of different authors within psychoanalytical literature which allows us to question these terms, and turn then to the exploration of clinical practice. In studying the latter, acting out is brought to the fore, noting that not every adolescent act connotes a risk. The acts tackled in this case are those that, owing to their characteristics, may often endanger the very life of the adolescent. The author presents clinical material that focuses on adolescent acting out, highlighting the question of how to create, through the transference-countertransference axis, a space within the analytic session where the patient's capacity to think may be incorporated, thus allowing the anticipation of action.

  12. Habitual diet assessment in adolescents with the down’s syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivandra Mari Roieski

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The eating habits formation of the individuals with the Down’s syndrome deserves special attention because, besides specific anatomical and physiological alterations, some aspects also interfere in this process. Among them, the parents’behavior is the one that counts most, and it’s essential to establish a healthy diet. Facing this, the objective in this study was to assess the habitual diet in eight overweight adolescents with the Down’s syndrome living in the South Region of Tocantins State. These adolescents are between 10 and 19 years of age. To instrumentalize the referred assessment, the Food Frequency Questionnaire for Adolescents was applied and it was compared with the Adapted Food Pyramid recommendations. It was observed 82% of the adolescents used to eat less than the recommended amount of the vegetables and cereal/bread/tubers/roots; 68% eat less fruits and 87% eat less milk/dairy products groups. It was also detected an exaggeration in the consumption of grains, meat/eggs and sugar/candy groups. It was concluded that the adolescents habitually keep a diet out of the pattern considered healthy. It’s predominantly easy chewing food and high in calories, what may bring risks of getting overweight and even obese. Thus, it’s vital to go through an eating re-education process, in whichthe family has participation, so that changes in the eating habits may be achieved.

  13. Health indicators and social gradient in adolescent immigrants' health risk and healthcare experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlotnick, Cheryl; Birenbaum-Carmeli, Daphna; Goldblatt, Hadass; Dishon, Yael; Taychaw, Omer; Shadmi, Efrat

    2018-02-01

    Few studies have assessed healthcare experiences in apparently healthy adolescents, or whether healthcare attitudes are linked to the two leading adolescent health indicators, smoking and obesity. Even fewer have examined these relationships in adolescent immigrant groups or made comparisons to adolescent non-immigrants. Using a cross-sectional study, healthcare experiences were compared among three groups of adolescents (n = 589) including Russian immigrants (n = 154), Ethiopian immigrants (n = 54), and non-immigrants (n = 381). Bootstrap estimates indicated positive healthcare experiences were less common among Russian adolescent immigrants (OR = 0.38, CI = 0.17, 0.86) compared to non-immigrants, unless the Russian adolescent immigrants reported above average socioeconomic status, in which case they were more likely than non-immigrant adolescents to report positive healthcare experiences (OR = 3.22, CI = 1.05, 9.85). Positive healthcare experiences were less likely among adolescents who were smokers (OR = 0.50, CI = 0.27, 0.91), and more likely for adolescents with a normal or low BMI (OR = 3.16, CI = 1.56, 6.40) and for those relying on parents for health information (OR = 1.97, CI = 1.05, 3.70). Findings suggest a social gradient in which positive healthcare experiences were more common among adolescence with higher socioeconomic status for some immigrants (Russian adolescents) but not for others. The two leading health indicators were related to healthcare experiences, but as adolescent smokers were less likely to have positive healthcare experiences, proactive efforts are needed to engage this group. What is Known: • Health indicators (such as obesity) and healthcare attitudes are linked to healthcare service use among adolescents sampled from outpatient and inpatient populations. What is New: • A social gradient involving socioeconomic status and being an adolescent immigrant was found regarding

  14. The longitudinal link between mothers' and adolescents' snacking: The moderating role of television viewing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, N. van den; Larsen, J.K.; Verhagen, M.; Eisinga, R.N.; Burk, W.J.; Vink, J.M.

    2018-01-01

    A large proportion of adolescents eats too many energy-dense snacks, which is detrimental for their current and future health. To understand how to promote healthy dietary behaviors in adolescents, we need to identify factors that affect their snacking. While previous cross-sectional work has shown

  15. The relationships between environmental factors and violent behaviors in adolescent students of Isfahan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razieh Omidi

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: Our findings confirmed love and affection and healthy pastime (e.g. watching comedy and drama movies in the family to reduce violent behaviors in adolescents. In contrast, aggressive behaviors in the family, watching crime, police, and action movies were found to increase violent behaviors in adolescents.

  16. Food and eating behaviors among adolescents with type 1 diabetes and their parents [abstract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) management involves constant attention to food. In addition to glycemic goals, healthy weight and BMI are important clinical targets, especially in adolescence. Adolescence is a sensitive time for discussions around eating and weight, and risks are elevated for disordered eatin...

  17. Adolescents' unhealthy eating habits are associated with meal skipping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Paulo Rogério Melo; Luiz, Ronir Raggio; Monteiro, Luana Silva; Ferreira, Márcia Gonçalves; Gonçalves-Silva, Regina Maria Veras; Pereira, Rosangela Alves

    2017-10-01

    Meal consumption and diet quality are important for healthy development during adolescence. The aim of this study was to determine the association between meal habits and diet quality in Brazilian adolescents. A school-based, cross-sectional study was conducted in 2008 with a probabilistic sample of adolescents ages 14 to 19 y (N = 1139) from high schools in central-western Brazil. Consumption of breakfast, morning snack, lunch, afternoon snack, and dinner was assessed to evaluate adolescents' meal profile. The Brazilian Healthy Eating Index-Revised (BHEI-R) was calculated to evaluate diet quality. The association between meal profile and BHEI-R (global estimates and components) was assessed using multivariate linear regression models. Diet was characterized by unhealthy eating: a low consumption of fruits, vegetables, and milk/dairy, and a high consumption of fats and sodium. An unsatisfactory meal profile was observed in 14% of adolescents, whereas daily consumption of breakfast, lunch, and dinner was reported by 47%, 78%, and 52% of adolescents, respectively. Meal profile was positively associated with diet quality. Daily consumption of breakfast was associated with higher BHEI-R scores, lower sodium intake, and greater consumption of fruits and milk/dairy. Daily consumption of lunch was associated with greater consumption of vegetables and "meats, eggs, and legumes," whereas consumption of dinner was associated with an increased consumption of "whole fruits." This study showed a parallelism between daily consumption of meals with healthier eating and greater adherence to traditional Brazilian food habits. Skipping meals was associated with a low-quality diet, especially concerning to the low consumption of fruits and vegetables and a high intake of sodium and calories from solid fats, added sugars, and alcoholic beverages. Therefore, the adoption of regular meal habits may help adolescents improve their diet quality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All

  18. The Peer Education Approach in Adolescents- Narrative Review Article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdi, Fatemeh; Simbar, Masoumeh

    2013-11-01

    Adolescence is an important stage of human life span, which crucial developmental processes occur. Since peers play a critical role in the psychosocial development of most adolescents, peer education is currently considered as a health promotion strategy in adolescents. Peer education is defined as a system of delivering knowledge that improves social learning and provides psychosocial support. As identifying the outcomes of different educational approaches will be beneficial in choosing the most effective programs for training adolescents, the present article reviewed the impact of the peer education approach on adolescents. In this review, databases such as PubMed, EMBASE, ISI, and Iranian databases, from 1999 to 2013, were searched using a number of keywords. Peer education is an effective tool for promoting healthy behaviors among adolescents. The development of this social process depends on the settings, context, and the values and expectations of the participants. Therefore, designing such programs requires proper preparation, training, supervision, and evaluation.

  19. Online communication and adolescent relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subrahmanyam, Kaveri; Greenfield, Patricia

    2008-01-01

    Over the past decade, technology has become increasingly important in the lives of adolescents. As a group, adolescents are heavy users of newer electronic communication forms such as instant messaging, e-mail, and text messaging, as well as communication-oriented Internet sites such as blogs, social networking, and sites for sharing photos and videos. Kaveri Subrahmanyam and Patricia Greenfield examine adolescents' relationships with friends, romantic partners, strangers, and their families in the context of their online communication activities. The authors show that adolescents are using these communication tools primarily to reinforce existing relationships, both with friends and romantic partners. More and more they are integrating these tools into their "offline" worlds, using, for example, social networking sites to get more information about new entrants into their offline world. Subrahmanyam and Greenfield note that adolescents' online interactions with strangers, while not as common now as during the early years of the Internet, may have benefits, such as relieving social anxiety, as well as costs, such as sexual predation. Likewise, the authors demonstrate that online content itself can be both positive and negative. Although teens find valuable support and information on websites, they can also encounter racism and hate messages. Electronic communication may also be reinforcing peer communication at the expense of communication with parents, who may not be knowledgeable enough about their children's online activities on sites such as the enormously popular MySpace. Although the Internet was once hailed as the savior of education, the authors say that schools today are trying to control the harmful and distracting uses of electronic media while children are at school. The challenge for schools is to eliminate the negative uses of the Internet and cell phones in educational settings while preserving their significant contributions to education and social

  20. Recovery of decreased bone mineral mass after lower-limb fractures in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceroni, Dimitri; Martin, Xavier E; Delhumeau, Cécile; Farpour-Lambert, Nathalie J; De Coulon, Geraldo; Dubois-Ferrière, Victor; Rizzoli, René

    2013-06-05

    Loss of bone mineral mass, muscle atrophy, and functional limitations are predictable consequences of immobilization and subsequent weight-bearing restriction due to leg or ankle fractures. The aim of this study was to prospectively determine whether decreased bone mineral mass following lower-limb fractures recovers at follow-up durations of six and eighteen months in adolescents. In the present study, we included fifty adolescents who underwent cast immobilization for a leg or ankle fracture. Dual x-ray absorptiometry scans of four different sites (total hip, femoral neck, entire lower limb, and calcaneus) were performed at the time of the fracture, at cast removal, and at follow-ups of six and eighteen months. Patients with fractures were paired with healthy controls according to sex, age, and ethnicity. Dual x-ray absorptiometry values were compared between groups and between injured and non-injured legs in adolescents with fractures. Among those with fractures, lower-limb bone mineral variables were significantly lower at the injured side compared with the non-injured side at cast removal, with differences ranging from 6.2% to 31.7% (p < 0.0001). Similarly, injured adolescents had significantly lower bone mineral values at the level of the injured lower limb compared with healthy controls (p < 0.0001). At the six-month follow-up, there were still significant residual differences between injured and non-injured legs in adolescents with fractures (p < 0.0001). However, a significant residual difference between healthy controls and injured adolescents was present only for femoral neck bone mineral density (p = 0.011). At the eighteen-month follow-up, no significant difference was observed at any lower-limb site. Bone mineral loss following a fracture of the lower limb in adolescents is highly significant and affects the lower limb both proximal to and distal to the fracture site. In contrast to observations in adults, a rapid bone mass reversal occurs with full

  1. Differences in physical activity, eating habits and risk of obesity among Kuwaiti adolescent boys and girls: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badr, Hanan E; Lakha, S Fatima; Pennefather, Peter

    2017-06-17

    The study aimed to assess gender differences among Kuwaiti adolescents in healthy living choices that impact the risk of obesity. A cross-sectional multistage cluster design was employed with a representative sample of 2672 students aged 13-15 years who completed a self-administered Global School-based Student Health (GSHS) survey. The study found that around 48.0% of adolescents were overweight and obese. More boys than girls were obese (28.2% vs. 22.3%, p gender, skipping breakfast and physical inactivity were significantly correlated with the risk of overweight and obesity among adolescents. These results suggest that lifestyle education for promoting healthy body masses targeting adolescents should take gender into account.

  2. Using a computational model to quantify the potential impact of changing the placement of healthy beverages in stores as an intervention to "Nudge" adolescent behavior choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Michelle S; Nau, Claudia; Kharmats, Anna Yevgenyevna; Vedovato, Gabriela Milhassi; Cheskin, Lawrence J; Gittelsohn, Joel; Lee, Bruce Y

    2015-12-23

    Product placement influences consumer choices in retail stores. While sugar sweetened beverage (SSB) manufacturers expend considerable effort and resources to determine how product placement may increase SSB purchases, the information is proprietary and not available to the public health and research community. This study aims to quantify the effect of non-SSB product placement in corner stores on adolescent beverage purchasing behavior. Corner stores are small privately owned retail stores that are important beverage providers in low-income neighborhoods--where adolescents have higher rates of obesity. Using data from a community-based survey in Baltimore and parameters from the marketing literature, we developed a decision-analytic model to simulate and quantify how placement of healthy beverage (placement in beverage cooler closest to entrance, distance from back of the store, and vertical placement within each cooler) affects the probability of adolescents purchasing non-SSBs. In our simulation, non-SSB purchases were 2.8 times higher when placed in the "optimal location"--on the second or third shelves of the front cooler--compared to the worst location on the bottom shelf of the cooler farthest from the entrance. Based on our model results and survey data, we project that moving non-SSBs from the worst to the optional location would result in approximately 5.2 million more non-SSBs purchased by Baltimore adolescents annually. Our study is the first to quantify the potential impact of changing placement of beverages in corner stores. Our findings suggest that this could be a low-cost, yet impactful strategy to nudge this population--highly susceptible to obesity--towards healthier beverage decisions.

  3. A School Based Intervention for Combating Food Insecurity and Promoting Healthy Nutrition in a Developed Country Undergoing Economic Crisis: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalma, A.; Veloudaki, A.; Petralias, A.; Mitraka, K.; Zota, D.; Kastorini, C.-M.; Yannakoulia, M.; Linos, A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Aiming at reducing the rates of food insecurity and promoting healthy diet for children and adolescents, we designed and implemented the Program on Food Aid and Promotion of Healthy Nutrition-DIATROFI, a school-based intervention program including the daily provision of a free healthy mid-day meal in disadvantaged areas across…

  4. School-based intervention to prevent overweight and disordered eating in secondary school Malaysian adolescents: a study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif Ishak, Sharifah Intan Zainun; Chin, Yit Siew; Mohd Taib, Mohd Nasir; Mohd Shariff, Zalilah

    2016-10-20

    Obesity, eating disorders and unhealthy weight-loss practices have been associated with diminished growth in adolescents worldwide. Interventions that address relevant behavioural dimensions have been lacking in Malaysia. This paper describes the protocol of an integrated health education intervention namely 'Eat Right, Be Positive About Your Body and Live Actively' (EPaL), a primary prevention which aimed to promote healthy lifestyle in preventing overweight and disordered eating among secondary school adolescents aged 13-14 years old. Following quasi-experimental design, the intervention is conducted in two secondary schools located in the district of Hulu Langat, Selangor, Malaysia. Adolescents aged 13-14 years will be included in the study. A peer-education strategy is adopted to convey knowledge and teach skills relevant to achieving a healthy lifestyle. The intervention mainly promoted: healthy eating, positive body image and active lifestyle. The following parameters will be assessed: body weight, disordered eating status, stages of change (for healthy diet, breakfast, food portion size, screen viewing and physical activity), body image, health-related quality of life, self-esteem, eating and physical activity behaviours; and knowledge, attitude and practice towards a healthy lifestyle. Assessment will be conducted at three time points: baseline, post-intervention and 3-month follow-up. It is hypothesized that EPaL intervention will contribute in preventing overweight and disordered eating by giving the positive effects on body weight status, healthy lifestyle behaviour, as well as health-related quality of life of peer educators and participants. It may serve as a model for similar future interventions designed for the Malaysian community, specifically adolescents. UMIN Clinical Trial Registration UMIN000024349 (Date of registration: 11th. October 2016, retrospectively registered).

  5. The association between healthy lifestyle behaviors and health-related quality of life among adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José J. Muros

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: The aim of this research was to examine the association between body mass index, physical activity, adherence to the Mediterranean diet, and health-related quality of life in a sample of Spanish adolescents. Method: The study involved 456 adolescents aged between 11 and 14 years. They completed questionnaires on the Mediterranean diet (KIDMED, physical activity (Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children [PAQ-C], and quality of life (KIDSCREEN-27. Body mass index was calculated. Hierarchical linear regression analyses were used to determine whether health-related quality of life could be predicted by the measured variables. The variables were analyzed in a stepwise manner, with Mediterranean diet entered in the first step, body mass index in the second, and physical activity in the third. Results: Mediterranean diet accounted for 4.6% of the variance in adolescent's health-related quality of life, with higher adherence to the Mediterranean diet predicting higher health-related quality of life-scores. Body mass index accounted for a further 4.1% of the variance, with a higher body mass index predicting lower health-related quality of life scores. Finally, physical activity explained an additional 11.3% of the variance, with a higher level of physical activity being associated with higher health-related quality of life scores. Together, these variables explained 20% of the variance in the adolescents' health-related quality of life. Conclusions: Physical activity, body mass index, and adherence to the Mediterranean diet are important components to consider when targeting improvements in the health-related quality of life of adolescents, with physical activity representing the component with the greatest influence.

  6. Separation-individuation and assertiveness in late adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aslan, Sevda

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available An adolescent can experience some problems regarding assertiveness during the course of separation-individuation from their caregivers. The purpose of this study is to describe the relationship between separation-individuation and assertiveness, which was examined in terms of how assertiveness predicts the separation-individuation of Turkish late adolescents. The sampling group consisted of 283 university students. The data gathered were analyzed by involving several simple regression analysis method. The findings revealed that aassertiveness predicts separation anxiety in a meaningful way. Furthermore, the assertiveness predicts engulfment anxiety, peer enmeshment, need denial, practicing-mirroring, rejection expectancy, and healthy separation. These findings suggest that psycho-educational studies improving assertiveness can be carried out for the late adolescents who experience separation-individuation problems.

  7. Dejavniki, ki vplivajo na kajenje mladostnikov: Influences on adolescent smoking:

    OpenAIRE

    Koprivnikar, Helena

    2011-01-01

    There are numerous and intertwining factors that influence adolescent smoking and have to be considered when we develop and implement programmes and measures for the prevention and reduction of adolescent smoking. In different environments (schools, health system, local communities) we have to reduce risk factors and strenghten protective factors through programmes incorporatedin the system. The protective factors are low prevalence of smoking, healthy lifestyle, physical activity and good me...

  8. Gender Difference in Body Fat for Healthy Chinese Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Bin; Wu, Qiulian; Gong, Jian; Xiao, Zeyu; Tang, Yongjin; Shang, Jingjie; Cheng, Yong; Xu, Hao

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to establish gender-related differences and the percentile curves for total body fat mass percentage (Total FM%), trunk/appendicular fat mass ratio (TrAppFMR), and fat mass ratio as % fat trunk/% fat lower limb (TrLLFMR) in Chinese children and adolescents using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Children (n = 1541; 764 girls) and adolescents aged 5 to 19 years were recruited from southern China. Total FM% and regional FM were measured by DXA. TrAppFMR values were calculated as trunk FM divided by appendicular FM, and TrLLFMR values were calculated as the ratio between the percentage of trunk FM and the percentage of lower limb FM. Total FM% peaks for boys were at approximately age 11 years and continued to increase for girls throughout adolescence. Median Total FM% at the age of 19 years was 15.53% and 28.06% for boys and girls, respectively. Median TrAppFMR and TrLLFMR increases were 61% and 81% from 5 to 19 years of age in boys compared with those in girls, 31% and 54%. The curves for median TrAppFMR and TrLLFMR in girls were relatively flat, with TrAppFMR and TrLLFMR remaining near 1.0 after 16 years of age, whereas in boys, median TrAppFMR and TrLLFMR increased with age until approximately 19 years. Gender differences in the patterns of proportion and distribution of body fat were found. We present sex-specific percentile curves for Total FM%-age, TrAppFMR-age, and TrLLFMR-age relationships in this population.

  9. Coping in adolescents and young adults with chronic digestive disorders: impact on school and leisure activities.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calsbeek, H.; Rijken, M.; Bekkers, M.J.T.M.; Berge Henegouwen, G.P. van; Dekker, J.

    2006-01-01

    Coping strategies were compared across adolescents and young adults with several chronic digestive disorders and healthy peers, and across age groups. Subsequently, the impact of coping on performance in school and leisure activities was investigated. Participants were adolescents and young adults

  10. Validity of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment Screener in Adolescents and Young Adults With and Without Congenital Heart Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pike, Nancy A; Poulsen, Marie K; Woo, Mary A

    Cognitive deficits are common, long-term sequelae in children and adolescents with congenital heart disease (CHD) who have undergone surgical palliation. However, there is a lack of a validated brief cognitive screening tool appropriate for the outpatient setting for adolescents with CHD. One candidate instrument is the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) questionnaire. The purpose of the research was to validate scores from the MoCA against the General Memory Index (GMI) of the Wide Range Assessment of Memory and Learning, 2nd Edition (WRAML2), a widely accepted measure of cognition/memory, in adolescents and young adults with CHD. We administered the MoCA and the WRAML2 to 156 adolescents and young adults ages 14-21 (80 youth with CHD and 76 healthy controls who were gender and age matched). Spearman's rank order correlations were used to assess concurrent validity. To assess construct validity, the Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare differences in scores in youth with CHD and the healthy control group. Receiver operating characteristic curves were created and area under the curve, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value were also calculated. The MoCA median scores in the CHD versus healthy controls were (23, range 15-29 vs. 28, range 22-30; p young adults aged 14-21 with CHD when a cutoff score of 26 is used to differentiate youth with and without significant cognitive impairment. Future studies are needed in other adolescent disease groups with known cognitive deficits and healthy populations to explore the generalizability of validity of MoCA scores in adolescents and young adults.

  11. Eating Habits and Food Additive Intakes Are Associated with Emotional States Based on EEG and HRV in Healthy Korean Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin Young; Kang, Hye Lim; Kim, Dae-Keun; Kang, Seung Wan; Park, Yoo Kyoung

    2017-07-01

    Recent study suggests that psychological issues and eating habits are closely related. In this study, we aimed to find the association between eating habits and intakes of artificial sweeteners with emotional states of schoolchildren using quantitatively analyzing objective biosignals. The study was conducted at the National Standard Reference Data Center for Korean EEG as a cross-sectional study. Three hundred eighteen healthy children who have not been diagnosed with neurologic or psychiatric disorders were evaluated (168 girls and 150 boys; mean age of 11.8 ± 3.6 years). Analysis indicators were a dietary intake checklist for children's nutrition-related behavior score (NBS), consisting of 19 items; food frequency questionnaires (FFQs), consisting of 76 items; the Child Depression Inventory (CDI); State-Trait Anxiety Inventory-State (STAI-S); State-Trait Anxiety Inventory-Trait (STAI-T); electroencephalograph (EEG); and heart rate variability (HRV). Higher scores on the CDI, STAI-S, and STAI-T indicate negative emotions, and these scores were significantly decreased from the first to the fourth quartiles. The HRV results showed that the standard deviation of all normal-to-normal (SDNN) intervals was significantly higher in the first quartile than in the fourth quartile (p healthy children and adolescents.

  12. Adolescent health, stress and life satisfaction: the paradox of indulgent parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coccia, Catherine; Darling, Carol A; Rehm, Marsha; Cui, Ming; Sathe, Shridhar K

    2012-08-01

    A survey of adolescents aged 15 to 16 years was used to examine the relationship between their perceptions of indulgent parenting and adolescent weight status to overall satisfaction with life, as associated with adolescent perceptions of body image, health and stress. In addition, perceptions of parental indulgence were examined in terms of their association with adolescent eating behaviours and health. The results revealed a paradox related to indulgent parenting, with both positive and negative outcomes for adolescents. Structural equation analyses showed that parental indulgence was not only related to lower stress and higher life satisfaction, but also to unhealthy eating behaviours. Path analysis indicated that both positive and negative eating outcomes for adolescents were related to parental indulgence. This research has many implications for both parent and adolescent health education, focusing on parenting styles, stress and healthy lifestyles. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Initial evaluation of an electronic symptom diary for adolescents with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baggott, Christina; Gibson, Faith; Coll, Beatriz; Kletter, Richard; Zeltzer, Paul; Miaskowski, Christine

    2012-12-11

    The delivery of optimal care depends on accurate communication between patients and clinicians regarding untoward symptoms. Documentation of patients' symptoms necessitates reliance on memory, which is often imprecise. We developed an electronic diary (eDiary) for adolescents and young adults (AYAs) with cancer to record symptoms. The purpose of this paper is to describe the utility of an eDiary designed for AYAs with cancer, including dependability of the mobile application, the reasons for any missing recorded data, patients' adherence rates to daily symptom queries, and patients' perceptions of the usefulness and acceptability of symptom data collection via mobile phones. Our team developed an electronic symptom diary based on interviews conducted with AYAs with cancer and their clinicians. This diary included daily severity ratings of pain, nausea, vomiting, fatigue, and sleep. The occurrence of other selected physical sequelae was assessed daily. Additionally, patients selected descriptors of their mood. A 3-week trial of the eDiary was conducted with 10 AYA cancer patients. Mobile phones with service plans were loaned to patients who were instructed to report their symptoms daily. Patients completed a brief questionnaire and were interviewed to elicit their perceptions of the eDiary and any technical difficulties encountered. Overall adherence to daily symptom reports exceeded 90%. Young people experienced few technical difficulties and reported benefit from daily symptom reports. Symptom occurrence rates were high and considerable inter- and intra-patient variability was noted in symptom and mood reports. We demonstrated the utility of an eDiary that may contribute insight into patients' symptom patterns to promote effective symptom management.

  14. Adolescents' Help-Seeking Behavior and Intentions Following Adolescent Dating Violence: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bundock, Kerrie; Chan, Carmen; Hewitt, Olivia

    2018-01-01

    The review aimed to systematically identify and summarize empirical work examining adolescent victims' help-seeking behaviors and intentions in relation to their own experience of adolescent dating violence (ADV) and to critically evaluate the literature. Three main objectives were addressed: identify factors associated with help seeking, identify help-seeking source (who adolescents disclose to), and explore the barriers and facilitators for help seeking. Results were separated into actual help seeking and help-seeking intentions. A systematic search was conducted via an electronic search on February 10, 2017. Studies were identified by systematically searching the following electronic databases: Amed, BNI, CINAHL, EMBASE, Health Business Elite, HMIC, Medline, PsychINFO, and PubMed. Nineteen studies were included in the review. Adolescents were more likely to go to informal sources of support, with friends being the most commonly reported source. The majority of studies found females were more likely than males to seek help; however, inconsistencies in gender differences emerged. The variation in measurement and definition of ADV and help seeking included in this review impacts on its conclusions. Adolescents identify a number of barriers to help seeking for ADV. Emotional factors were identified as important barriers to seeking help; however, very little research in this review explored this area. Further research is required on age and cultural differences, use of the Internet, and preference for different sources for different types of abuse. There is a need for a greater focus on help seeking to ensure government campaigns are appropriately meeting the needs of young people experiencing ADV.

  15. [The adolescent with a chronic somatic disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettschart, W

    1992-01-25

    Adolescence, a period of psychic reorganization which allows for new adjustments in order to face future life and reorganize the experience of the past, is one of the critical phases of existence. It is described as a "new birth", a successful achievement of individuation and separation processes. For the adolescent with an infirmity or chronic illness, and for his family, there exist specific problems in addition to those encountered by a healthy adolescent. The painful realization of social, professional and relational barriers is reactivated. The feeling of failure and helplessness, the impairment of self-esteem, and anger at being the victim of the unfairness of destiny, represent a supplementary affective burden for the adolescent and his family. This results in a risk of deterioration, either towards affective and social withdrawal expressed by overadaptation and weakening of psychic functions, or towards autoaggressive acting-out or various forms of marginalization. Preventive and therapeutic action by the individual and the family are discussed in the light of the case history of an adolescent suffering from a facial malformation.

  16. Recovery of physical activity levels in adolescents after lower limb fractures: a longitudinal, accelerometry-based activity monitor study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceroni, Dimitri; Martin, Xavier; Lamah, Léopold; Delhumeau, Cécile; Farpour-Lambert, Nathalie; De Coulon, Geraldo; Ferrière, Victor Dubois

    2012-07-25

    In adolescents, loss of bone mineral mass usually occurs during phases of reduced physical activity (PA), such as when an injured extremity spends several weeks in a cast. We recorded the PA of adolescents with lower limb fractures during the cast immobilization, at 6 and at 18 months after the fracture, and we compared these values with those of healthy controls. Fifty adolescents with a first episode of limb fracture and a control group of 50 healthy cases were recruited for the study through an advertisement placed at the University Children's Hospital of Geneva, Switzerland. PA was assessed during cast immobilization and at 6- and 18-month follow-up by accelerometer measurement (Actigraph(®) 7164, MTI, Fort Walton Beach, FL, USA). Patients and their healthy peers were matched for gender and age. Time spent in PA at each level of intensity was determined for each participant and expressed in minutes and as a percentage of total valid time. From the 50 initial teenagers with fractures, 44 sustained functional evaluations at 6 months follow-up, whereas only 38 patients were studied at 18 months. The total PA count (total number of counts/min) was lower in patients with lower limb fractures (-62.4%) compared with healthy controls (plower by 76.6% (plower limb injuries compared to healthy controls values. At 6 and 18 months after the fracture, the mean PA level of injured adolescents was comparable to those of healthy teenagers (-2.3%, and -1.8%, respectively).Importantly, we observed that time spent in vigorous PA, which reflects high-intensity forces beneficial to skeletal health, returned to similar values between both groups from the six month follow-up in adolescents who sustained a fracture. However, a definitive reduction in time spent in moderate PA was observed among patients with a lower limb fracture at 18 months, when comparing with healthy controls values (p = 0.0174). As cast immobilization and reduced PA are known to induce bone mineral loss, this

  17. The Adolescents Overview with Healthy Sexual Behavior in the Risky Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djannah, Sitti Nur

    2017-01-01

    Teens today have experienced a shift in morality, thought and behavior patterns because they are influenced by foreign cultures. This is due to lack of progress, especially in the field of transport and telecommunications that are spreading globally at youth culture. Negative attitudes towards adolescent health, such as sexual activity also tend…

  18. The alteration of gray matter volume and cognitive control in adolescents with internet gaming disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongmei eWang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Internet gaming disorder (IGD has been investigated by many behavioral and neuroimaging studies, for it has became one of the main behavior disorders among adolescents. However, few studies focused on the relationship between alteration of gray matter volume (GMV and cognitive control feature in IGD adolescents. Methods: Twenty-eight participants with IAD and twenty-eight healthy age and gender matched controls participated in the study. Brain morphology of adolescents with IGD and healthy controls was investigated using an optimized voxel-based morphometry (VBM technique. Cognitive control performances were measured by Stroop task, and correlation analysis was performed between brain structural change and behavioral performance in IGD group. Results: The results showed that GMV of the bilateral anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, precuneus, supplementary motor area (SMA, superior parietal cortex, left dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC, left insula, and bilateral cerebellum decreased in the IGD participants compared with healthy controls. Moreover, GMV of the ACC was negatively correlated with the incongruent response errors of Stroop task in IGD group. Conclusion: Our results suggest that the alteration of GMV is associated with the performance change of cognitive control in adolescents with IGD, which indicating substantial brain image effects induced by IGD.

  19. Feasibility and impact study of a reward-based mobile application to improve adolescents' snacking habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Cock, Nathalie; Van Lippevelde, Wendy; Vangeel, Jolien; Notebaert, Melissa; Beullens, Kathleen; Eggermont, Steven; Deforche, Benedicte; Maes, Lea; Goossens, Lien; Verbeken, Sandra; Moens, Ellen; Vervoort, Leentje; Braet, Caroline; Huybregts, Lieven; Kolsteren, Patrick; Van Camp, John; Lachat, Carl

    2018-04-02

    Adolescents' snacking habits are driven by both explicit reflective and implicit hedonic processes. Hedonic pathways and differences in sensitivity to food rewards in addition to reflective determinants should be considered. The present study evaluated the feasibility and impact of a mobile phone-delivered intervention, incorporating explicit reflective and implicit rewarding strategies, on adolescents' snack intake. Adolescents (n 988; mean age 14·9 (sd 0·70) years, 59·4 % boys) completed a non-randomized clustered controlled trial. Adolescents (n 416) in the intervention schools (n 3) were provided with the intervention application for four weeks, while adolescents (n 572) in the control schools (n 3) followed the regular curriculum. Outcomes were differences in healthy snacking ratio and key determinants (awareness, intention, attitude, self-efficacy, habits and knowledge). Process evaluation data were collected via questionnaires and through log data of the app. No significant positive intervention effects on the healthy snack ratio (b=-3·52 (se 1·82), P>0·05) or targeted determinants were observed. Only 268 adolescents started using the app, of whom only fifty-five (20·5 %) still logged in after four weeks. Within the group of users, higher exposure to the app was not significantly associated with positive intervention effects. App satisfaction ratings were low in both high and low user groups. Moderation analyses revealed small positive intervention effects on the healthy snack ratio in high compared with low reward-sensitive boys (b=1·38 (se 0·59), P<0·05). The intervention was not able to improve adolescents' snack choices, due to low reach and exposure. Future interventions should consider multicomponent interventions, teacher engagement, exhaustive participatory app content development and tailoring.

  20. E-Cigarette Use Among Adolescents Not Susceptible to Using Cigarettes

    OpenAIRE

    Kowitt, Sarah D.; Osman, Amira; Ranney, Leah M.; Heck, Courtney; Goldstein, Adam O.

    2018-01-01

    Introduction Research suggests that adolescents who use electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), including adolescents not susceptible to smoking cigarettes (ie, those who have never smoked cigarettes and are not attitudinally susceptible to using cigarettes), are more likely to initiate using cigarettes or other combustible tobacco products than adolescents who do not use e-cigarettes. In this study, we examined correlates of e-cigarette use and susceptibility among adolescents not susceptible ...

  1. N-acetyl Aspartate Levels in Adolescents With Bipolar and/or Cannabis Use Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitter, Samantha M.; Weber, Wade A.; Chu, Wen-Jang; Adler, Caleb M.; Eliassen, James C.; Strakowski, Stephen M.; DelBello, Melissa P.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Bipolar and cannabis use disorders commonly co-occur during adolescence, and neurochemical studies may help clarify the pathophysiology underlying this co-occurrence. This study compared metabolite concentrations in the left ventral lateral prefrontal cortex among: adolescents with bipolar disorder (bipolar group; n=14), adolescents with a cannabis use disorder (cannabis use group, n=13), adolescents with cannabis use and bipolar disorders (bipolar and cannabis group, n=25), and healthy adolescents (healthy controls, n=15). We hypothesized that adolescents with bipolar disorder (with or without cannabis use disorder) would have decreased N-acetyl aspartate levels in the ventral lateral prefrontal cortex compared to the other groups, and that the bipolar and cannabis group would have the lowest N-acetyl aspartate levels of all groups. Methods N-acetyl aspartate concentrations in the left ventral lateral prefrontal cortex were obtained using Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy. Results Adolescents with bipolar disorder showed significantly lower left ventral lateral prefrontal cortex N-acetyl aspartate levels, but post-hoc analyses indicated that this was primarily due to increased N-acetyl aspartate levels in the cannabis group. The cannabis use disorder group had significantly higher N-acetyl aspartate levels compared to the bipolar disorder and the bipolar and cannabis groups (p=0.0002 and p=0.0002, respectively). Pearson correlations revealed a significant positive correlation between amount of cannabis used and N-acetyl aspartate concentrations. Conclusions Adolescents with cannabis use disorder showed higher levels of N-acetyl aspartate concentrations that were significantly positively associated with the amount of cannabis used; however, this finding was not present in adolescents with comorbid bipolar disorder. PMID:24729763

  2. Differential representation of feedback and decision in adolescents and adults

    OpenAIRE

    Javadi, A. H.; Schmidt, D. H. K.; Smolka, M. N.

    2014-01-01

    It is widely accepted that brain maturation from adolescence to adulthood contributes to substantial behavioural changes. Despite this, however, knowledge of the precise mechanisms is still sparse. We used fMRI to investigate developmental differences between healthy adolescents (age range 14–15) and adults (age range 20–39) in feedback-related decision making using a probabilistic reversal learning task. Conventionally groups are compared based on continuous values of blood oxygen level depe...

  3. Immunogenicity and safety of a novel quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccine (MenACWY-CRM) in healthy Korean adolescents and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hoan Jong; Chung, Moon-Hyun; Kim, Woo Joo; Hong, Young Jin; Choi, Kyong Min; Lee, Jina; Oh, Chi Eun; Welsch, Jo Anne; Kim, Kyung-Hyo; Hong, Ki Bae; Dagnew, Alemnew F; Bock, Hans; Dull, Peter M; Odrljin, Tatjana

    2014-11-01

    This phase III placebo-controlled study evaluated the immunogenicity and safety of MenACWY-CRM vaccination in healthy Korean adolescents and adults. Serum bactericidal activity with human complement (hSBA) was measured before and 1 month after vaccination against all four meningococcal serogroups. The IgG concentration specific for serogroup W capsular polysaccharide was measured in a subset of subjects in a post-hoc analysis. Adverse reactions were monitored throughout the study. Four hundred and fifty subjects were randomized 2:1 to receive MenACWY-CRM (N=297) or a saline placebo (N=153). MenACWY-CRM induced a good immune response against all four serogroups, with seroprotection rates (hSBA titers ≥8) of 79%, 99%, 98%, and 94% for serogroups A, C, W, and Y, respectively. Seroresponse rates were high for serogroups A, C, and Y, i.e. 76%, 86%, and 69%, respectively; the rate for serogroup W was 28%. MenACWY-CRM vaccine induced serum bactericidal antibodies against all four serogroups in a majority of subjects regardless of their baseline hSBA titers. MenACWY-CRM was generally well tolerated with most reactions being transient and mild to moderate in severity. Findings of this first study of a quadrivalent meningococcal polysaccharide conjugate vaccine in Korean adults and adolescents demonstrated that a single dose of MenACWY-CRM was well tolerated and immunogenic, as indicated by the percentages of subjects with hSBA titers ≥8 (79%, 99%, 98%, and 94% of subjects) and geometric mean titers (48, 231, 147, and 107) against serogroups A, C, W, and Y, respectively, at 1 month post-vaccination.

  4. HABITUAL DIET ASSESSMENT IN ADOLESCENTS WITH THE DOWN’S SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivandra Mari Roieski

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The eating habits formation of the individuals with the Down’s syndrome deserves special attention because, besides specific anatomical and physiological alterations, some aspects also interfere in this process. Among them, the parents’ behavior is the one that counts most, and it’s essential to establish a healthy diet. Facing this, the objective in this study was to assess the habitual diet in eight overweight adolescents with the Down’s syndrome living in the South Region of Tocantins State. These adolescents are between 10 and 19 years of age. To instrumentalize the referred assessment, the Food Frequency Questionnaire for Dieta de adolescentes com Síndrome de Down Adolescents was applied and it was compared with the Adapted Food Pyramid recommendations. It was observed 82% of the adolescents used to eat less than the recommended amount of the vegetables and cereal/bread/tubers/roots; 68% eat less fruits and 87% eat less milk/dairy products groups. It was also detected an exaggeration in the consumption of grains, meat/eggs and sugar/candy groups. It was concluded that the adolescents habitually keep a diet out of the pattern considered healthy. It’s predominantly easy chewing food and high in calories, what may bring risks of getting overweight and even obese. Thus, it’s vital to go through an eating re-education process, in which the family has participation, so that changes in the eating habits may be achieved.

  5. [Emotion Regulation and Emotional Vulnerability in Adolescents with Anxiety Disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Peter; Iwanski, Alexandra; Çelik, Fatma

    2015-01-01

    From an attachment perspective, insecure attachment patterns in both infancy and adolescence are risk factors for the development of anxiety disorders in adolescence. Dysfunctional emotion regulation and biased social information processing are possible mediating processes. This study examines differences in emotion regulation, emotional vulnerability, and behaviour inhibition in adolescents with clinical diagnosis of anxiety disorder and healthy controls. Adolescents with anxiety disorder reported more maladaptive emotion regulation depending on the specific emotion and a higher incidence of reporting hurt feelings in social interactions. In contrast, behaviour inhibition did not explain additional variance. The results suggest that adolescents with anxiety disorders show a bias in the interpretation of social interactions as frequently emotionally hurting, and the use of dysfunctional emotion regulation strategies that minimize the possibility for effective social emotion regulation by close others or therapists. The results are interpreted within attachment framework.

  6. Comparison of the balance accelerometer measure and balance error scoring system in adolescent concussions in sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furman, Gabriel R; Lin, Chia-Cheng; Bellanca, Jennica L; Marchetti, Gregory F; Collins, Michael W; Whitney, Susan L

    2013-06-01

    High-technology methods demonstrate that balance problems may persist up to 30 days after a concussion, whereas with low-technology methods such as the Balance Error Scoring System (BESS), performance becomes normal after only 3 days based on previously published studies in collegiate and high school athletes. To compare the National Institutes of Health's Balance Accelerometer Measure (BAM) with the BESS regarding the ability to detect differences in postural sway between adolescents with sports concussions and age-matched controls. Cohort study (diagnosis); Level of evidence, 2. Forty-three patients with concussions and 27 control participants were tested with the standard BAM protocol, while sway was quantified using the normalized path length (mG/s) of pelvic accelerations in the anterior-posterior direction. The BESS was scored by experts using video recordings. The BAM was not able to discriminate between healthy and concussed adolescents, whereas the BESS, especially the tandem stance conditions, was good at discriminating between healthy and concussed adolescents. A total BESS score of 21 or more errors optimally identified patients in the acute concussion group versus healthy participants at 60% sensitivity and 82% specificity. The BAM is not as effective as the BESS in identifying abnormal postural control in adolescents with sports concussions. The BESS, a simple and economical method of assessing postural control, was effective in discriminating between young adults with acute concussions and young healthy people, suggesting that the test has value in the assessment of acute concussions.

  7. Weak central coherence in weight-restored adolescent anorexia nervosa: Characteristics and remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinbach, Noam; Perry, Amit; Sher, Helene; Lock, James D; Henik, Avishai

    2017-08-01

    Weak central coherence (WCC) refers to a bias towards processing details (local processing) at the expense of paying attention to the bigger picture (global processing). Multiple studies reported WCC in adults with anorexia nervosa (AN). Evidence for WCC in adolescents with AN has been inconsistent. The current study characterizes WCC in weight-restored adolescents with AN (WR-AN) using a direct measure of WCC, and examines whether WCC can be remediated by increasing alertness level-a manipulation that was found useful in enhancing global processing in healthy individuals and clinical populations. 40 adolescents (18 WR-AN and 22 healthy adolescents) performed a global/local processing task (Navon task). Auditory alerting cues that elevate alertness level were integrated into the task. Both groups processed global information faster than local information. However, compared with controls, adolescents with WR-AN were better at ignoring an irrelevant bigger picture while attending to details (smaller global interference) and had greater difficulty ignoring irrelevant details while attending to the bigger picture (larger local interference). These differences were attenuated when adolescents with WR-AN were under a state of high alertness. Additionally, the local interference effect was positively correlated with three independent self-report questionnaires assessing eating disorders symptomatology. This study suggests that abnormal interference by irrelevant global and local information is a central characteristic of WCC in adolescents with WR-AN that cannot be accounted for by enduring illness or malnourishment. Additionally, this study demonstrates that WCC can be temporarily remediated by encouraging a state of high alertness. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Influence of parents and friends on children's and adolescents' food intake and food selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvy, Sarah-Jeanne; Elmo, Alison; Nitecki, Lauren A; Kluczynski, Melissa A; Roemmich, James N

    2011-01-01

    The influence of parents versus friends on youths' eating behavior has not been directly compared, and little is known about the developmental effects of social influences on their eating behavior. The objective was to compare the effects of mothers and friends on children's and adolescents' energy intake from sandwiches and from healthy and unhealthy snacks and dessert foods. Twenty-three children (ages 5-7 y) and 27 adolescents (ages 13-15 y) ate a meal with their mother on one occasion and with a same-sex friend on another occasion. Male and female children consumed less energy from unhealthy snacks when in the presence of their mothers than when in the company of their friends. Conversely, female adolescents consumed less energy from unhealthy snacks and more energy from healthy snacks when they were with their friends than when with their mothers. Food selection is differentially influenced by the source of social influence and the age and sex of the child. Parents may act as an inhibitory influence on unhealthy eating for younger children. Adolescent girls may try to convey a good impression of healthy eating when eating with same-sex friends, but the eating habits of teenage boys are not as influenced by the social context. This trial is registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00875576.

  9. School-based intervention to prevent overweight and disordered eating in secondary school Malaysian adolescents: a study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharifah Intan Zainun Sharif Ishak

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity, eating disorders and unhealthy weight-loss practices have been associated with diminished growth in adolescents worldwide. Interventions that address relevant behavioural dimensions have been lacking in Malaysia. This paper describes the protocol of an integrated health education intervention namely ‘Eat Right, Be Positive About Your Body and Live Actively’ (EPaL, a primary prevention which aimed to promote healthy lifestyle in preventing overweight and disordered eating among secondary school adolescents aged 13–14 years old. Methods/Design Following quasi-experimental design, the intervention is conducted in two secondary schools located in the district of Hulu Langat, Selangor, Malaysia. Adolescents aged 13–14 years will be included in the study. A peer-education strategy is adopted to convey knowledge and teach skills relevant to achieving a healthy lifestyle. The intervention mainly promoted: healthy eating, positive body image and active lifestyle. The following parameters will be assessed: body weight, disordered eating status, stages of change (for healthy diet, breakfast, food portion size, screen viewing and physical activity, body image, health-related quality of life, self-esteem, eating and physical activity behaviours; and knowledge, attitude and practice towards a healthy lifestyle. Assessment will be conducted at three time points: baseline, post-intervention and 3-month follow-up. Discussion It is hypothesized that EPaL intervention will contribute in preventing overweight and disordered eating by giving the positive effects on body weight status, healthy lifestyle behaviour, as well as health-related quality of life of peer educators and participants. It may serve as a model for similar future interventions designed for the Malaysian community, specifically adolescents. Trial registration UMIN Clinical Trial Registration UMIN000024349 (Date of registration: 11th. October 2016

  10. The role of the parent in adolescent substance use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Janet F; Burton, Rosalinda Strano; Warzinski, Suyen Schneegans

    2014-10-01

    The overall goal of adolescent development is personal emancipation through individuation. The parent is considered an adolescent's most powerful formative influence and role model regarding health attitudes, behavioral norms, and social boundaries. For adolescents, engaging in risk-taking behaviors can be a normal maturational "rewarding" response or a strategy to cope with perceived stress and express emotions. Effective stress management is an important skill set for the developing adolescent who may experiment with a range of unhealthy strategies for coping or personal expression despite their high potential for hazardous consequences. Parenting the adolescent poses the immense challenge of promoting the adolescent's development of life skills while enabling stimulating healthy opportunities during a time of increased access and vulnerability to risky choices, including substance use. Effective parenting includes consistency, communication, respect and safety-based boundaries as well as monitoring the adolescents' friends and activities, particularly media use. Not only are parents important in deterring, suspecting, and at times detecting their adolescents' substance use, they can facilitate the evaluation or interventions that may be needed to stop substance use, start recovery, and sustain it. The role of parents is to guide adolescents in developing strengths and resilience, and fulfilling their fullest life potential. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.

  11. Active gaming in Dutch adolescents: a descriptive study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simons, M.; Bernaards, C.; Slinger, J.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Adequate levels of physical activity are part of a healthy lifestyle and in this way linked to better health outcomes. For children and adolescents, the physical activity guideline recommends at least 60 minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity every day. However, many

  12. Impact of unhealthy lifestyle behaviors and obesity on cholesteryl ester transfer protein among adolescent males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschler, Valeria; Meroño, Tomas; Maccallini, Gustavo; Gomez Rosso, Leonardo; Aranda, Claudio; Brites, Fernando

    2011-01-01

    Cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) has been proposed to be associated with high risk of cardiovascular disease. Increased CETP activity was previously reported in obese adults, although its association with lifestyle behaviors has not been assessed in healthy adolescents. We undertook this study to determine the association between CETP activity and overweight/obesity, insulin resistance markers, components of the metabolic syndrome and lifestyle behaviors in healthy adolescent males. Data were collected from 164 adolescents from an amateur rugby club. Body mass index (BMI), blood pressure (BP), Tanner stages, lipids, glucose, insulin and CETP activity were measured. Questionnaires for daily intake of breakfast, sweet drinks, milk, and hours of TV watching were completed. About 26% of the adolescents were obese and 23% overweight. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 6.7%. CETP activity was higher in obese than in normal and overweight adolescents (174 ± 35, 141 ± 30, and 149 ± 38%/ml/min, respectively; p 2 h/day (r = 0.17; p 0.02), and milk intake >3 glasses/day (r = 0.16; p = 0.03). Multivariate analysis showed that triglycerides, LDL-C, HDL-C, TV watching >2 h/day, milk intake >3 glasses/day and BMI were significant independent predictors for CETP (R(2) = 0.41). Unhealthy lifestyle habits such as TV watching >2 h daily and milk intake higher than three glasses per day and the increase in BMI were shown to be closely associated with high CETP activity in apparently healthy adolescent males. Future longitudinal studies should be performed to confirm these findings. Copyright © 2011 IMSS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Food-related parenting practices and child and adolescent weight and weight-related behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loth, K; Fulkerson, J A; Neumark-Sztainer, D

    2014-03-01

    The prevalence of overweight and obesity in children has reached a concerning plateau in the past three decades, with overweight or obesity impacting approximately one-third of youth. Unhealthy weight-related behaviors, including dieting, unhealthy weight control practices and binge eating, are also a great public health concern for young people given both their high prevalence and harmful consequences. Food-related parenting practices, including food restriction and pressure-to-eat, have been associated with higher weight status, as well as the use of unhealthy weight-related behaviors, in children and adolescents. Physicians and other health care providers who work with families should discourage parents from using food restriction and pressure-to-eat parenting practices with their child or adolescent. Alternatively, parents should be empowered to promote healthy eating by focusing on making nutritious food items readily available within their home and modeling healthy food choices for their child or adolescent.

  14. I Should but I Can't: Controlled Motivation and Self-Efficacy Are Related to Disordered Eating Behaviors in Adolescents With Type 1 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Miriam H; Lipsky, Leah M; Dempster, Katherine W; Liu, Aiyi; Nansel, Tonja R

    2016-11-01

    Among adolescents with type 1 diabetes, disordered eating behaviors (DEBs) are more prevalent and have more serious health implications than in adolescents without diabetes, necessitating identification of modifiable correlates of DEB in this population. This study hypothesized that (1) autonomous motivation and (2) controlled motivation for healthy eating (i.e., eating healthfully because it is important to oneself vs. important to others, respectively) are associated with DEB among adolescents with type 1 diabetes. The third hypothesis was that baseline healthy eating self-efficacy moderates these associations. Adolescents with type 1 diabetes (n = 90; 13-16 years) participating in a behavioral nutrition intervention efficacy trial reported DEB, controlled and autonomous motivation, and self-efficacy at baseline, 6, 12, and 18 months. Linear-mixed models estimated associations of controlled and autonomous motivation with DEB, adjusting for treatment group, body mass index, socioeconomic status, age, and gender. Separate models investigated the interaction of self-efficacy with each motivation type. Controlled motivation was positively associated with DEB (B = 2.18 ± .33, p motivation was not associated with DEB (B = -.70 ± .43, p = .11). Findings identify controlled motivation for healthy eating as a novel correlate of DEB among adolescents with type 1 diabetes and show that self-efficacy can modify this association. Motivation and self-efficacy for healthy eating represent potential intervention targets to reduce DEB in adolescents with type 1 diabetes. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. I Should but I Can’t: Controlled Motivation and Self-efficacy are Related to Disordered Eating Behaviors in Adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Miriam H.; Lipsky, Leah M.; Dempster, Katherine; Liu, Aiyi; Nansel, Tonja R.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Among adolescents with type 1 diabetes, disordered eating behaviors (DEB) are more prevalent and have more serious health implications than in adolescents without diabetes, necessitating identification of modifiable correlates of DEB in this population. This study hypothesized that 1) autonomous motivation and 2) controlled motivation for healthy eating (i.e., eating healthfully because it’s important to oneself versus important to others respectively) are associated with DEB among adolescents with type 1 diabetes. The third hypothesis was that baseline healthy eating self-efficacy moderates these associations. Methods Adolescents with T1D (n = 90; 13–16 years) participating in a behavioral nutrition intervention efficacy trial reported DEB, controlled and autonomous motivation, and self-efficacy at baseline, 6, 12, and 18 months. Linear mixed models estimated associations of controlled and autonomous motivation with DEB, adjusting for treatment group, BMI, socio-economic status, age, and gender. Separate models investigated the interaction of self-efficacy with each motivation type. Results Controlled motivation was positively associated with DEB (B=2.18±.33, pmotivation was not associated with DEB (B=−.70± .43, p=.11). Conclusions Findings identify controlled motivation for healthy eating as a novel correlate of DEB among adolescents with type 1 diabetes and show that self-efficacy can modify this association. Motivation and self-efficacy for healthy eating represent potential intervention targets to reduce DEB in adolescents with type 1 diabetes. PMID:27567063

  16. Genital size: a common adolescent male concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Peter A; Reiter, Edward O

    2002-02-01

    Long before adolescence, males hear insinuations about adequacy of penis size. This concern may heighten during teen years and persist to varying degrees into adulthood. Men tend to underestimate their own penis size. This chapter provides objective information about anatomy and growth of the penis, including data about normal sizes. Published data indicate that, although full growth may be reached at different ages during adolescence, size is similar for most adult males. Hopefully, this information will provide the basis for teenaged males to develop a healthy perspective and to avoid intimidation by unfounded claims about sexual enhancement or size enlargement techniques.

  17. Prevalence of headache in adolescents and association with use of computer and videogames.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xavier, Michelle Katherine Andrade; Pitangui, Ana Carolina Rodarti; Silva, Georgia Rodrigues Reis; Oliveira, Valéria Mayaly Alves de; Beltrão, Natália Barros; Araújo, Rodrigo Cappato de

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of headache in adolescents and its association with excessive use of electronic devices and games. The sample comprised 954 adolescents of both sexes (14 to 19 years) who answered a questionnaire about use of computers and electronic games, presence of headache and physical activity. The binary and multinomial logistic regression, with significance level of 5% was used for inferential analysis. The prevalence of headache was 80.6%. The excessive use of electronics devices proved to be a risk factor (OR = 1.21) for headache. Subjects aged between 14 and 16 years were less likely to report headache (OR = 0.64). Regarding classification, 17.9% of adolescents had tension-type headache, 19.3% had migraine and 43.4% other types of headache. The adolescents aged form 14 to 16 years had lower chance (OR ≤ 0.68) to report the tension-type headache and other types of headache. The excessive use of digital equipment, electronic games and attending the third year of high school proved to be risk factors for migraine-type development (OR ≥ 1.84). There was a high prevalence of headache in adolescents and high-time use of electronic devices. We observed an association between excessive use of electronic devices and the presence of headache, and this habit is considered a risk factor, especially for the development of migraine-type.

  18. Psychopathological traits of adolescents with functional hypothalamic amenorrhea: a comparison with anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bomba, Monica; Corbetta, Fabiola; Bonini, Luisa; Gambera, Alessandro; Tremolizzo, Lucio; Neri, Francesca; Nacinovich, Renata

    2014-03-01

    Functional hypothalamic amenorrhea (FHA) is a form of anovulation, due to the suppression of hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis, not related to identifiable organic causes. Like adolescents with anorexia nervosa (AN), subjects with FHA show dysfunctional attitudes, low self-esteem, depressive mood, anxiety and inability to cope with daily stress. The aim of the study is to examine similarities and differences between FHA and AN in terms of clinical profiles and psychological variables. 21 adolescents with FHA, 21 adolescents with anorexia nervosa, and 21 healthy adolescents were included in the study. All the teenagers completed a battery of self-administered psychological tests for the detection of behaviors and symptoms attributable to the presence of an eating disorder (EDI-2), depression (CDI), and alexithymia (TAS-20). Different from healthy controls, subjects with FHA and with AN shared common psychopathological aspects, such as maturity issues, social insecurity and introversion, a tendency to depression, excessive concerns with dieting, and fear of gaining weight. Nevertheless, adolescents with AN presented a more profound psychopathological disorder as observed at test comparisons with subjects with FHA. Results show a clinical spectrum that includes AN and FHA and suggest the necessity to treat FHA with a multidisciplinary approach for both organic and psychological aspects.

  19. Decreased dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate levels in adolescents with post-traumatic stress disorder after single sexual trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usta, Mirac Baris; Tuncel, Ozgur Korhan; Akbas, Seher; Aydin, Berna; Say, Gokce Nur

    2016-01-01

    Recent evidence shows that the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis can be dysregulated in chronic sexual abuse victims with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). We hypothesized that PTSD in adolescents exposed to a single sexual trauma may function as a chronic stressor leading to HPA-axis dysregulation. The objective of this study was to assess dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEA-S) and cortisol levels in female adolescents |with single sexual trauma-related PTSD compared to healthy controls. We assessed 20 female adolescent (age 12-18) single sexual trauma victims with PTSD from the Ondokuz Mayis University Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry between December 2013 and December 2014. PTSD symptoms were assessed using the Child Depression Inventory (CDI) and Child Posttraumatic Stress Reaction Index (CPSRI). Blood cortisol and DHEA-S were measured in 20 female adolescent sexual abuse victims with PTSD and 20 healthy adolescents after 12-h fasting using the chemiluminescence method. Compared to age-matched controls, female adolescent sexual abuse victims with PTSD had significantly lower DHEA-S levels (U = 70.00, Z = - 3.517, p = 0.01, r = 0.55). There was also a significant negative correlation between DHEA-S and CDI scores (Spearman r = - 0.522, p < 0.01). Decreased DHEA-S levels and correlation with depressive symptoms are evidence for a dysregulated HPA-axis in female adolescent single sexual trauma victims with PTSD. Further research is now recommended with large patient groups in order to maximize generalizations.

  20. Healthy Teens: Facing the Challenges of Young Lives. A Practical Guide for Parents, Caregivers, Educators, and Health Professionals. Third Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Alice R.

    This monograph is a guide to teen development and the world of 11-18 year olds in contemporary America. It provides practical suggestions to parents and other concerned adults as they guide children through adolescence. The 12 chapters are: (1) "Healthy Bodies, Healthy Minds"; (2) "Teens, Families, and Schools"; (3) "Teens…

  1. Ghrelin gene: identification of missense variants and a frameshift mutation in extremely obese children and adolescents and healthy normal weight students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinney, Anke; Hoch, Anne; Geller, Frank; Schäfer, Helmut; Siegfried, Wolfgang; Goldschmidt, Hanspeter; Remschmidt, Helmut; Hebebrand, Johannes

    2002-06-01

    Ghrelin induces obesity via central and peripheral mechanisms. Administration of ghrelin leads to increased food intake and decreased fat utilisation in rodents. Ghrelin levels are decreased in obese individuals. Recently, a polymorphism (Arg-51-Gln) within the ghrelin gene (GHRL) was described to be associated with obesity. We screened the GHRL coding region in 215 extremely obese German Children and adolescents (study group 1) and 93 normal weight students (study group 2) by single strand conformation polymorphism analysis (SSCP). We found the two previously described single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP: Arg-51-Gln and Leu-72-Met) in similar frequencies in study groups 1 and 2 (allele frequencies were: 0.019 and 0.016 for the 51-Gln allele and 0.091 and 0.086 for the 72-Met allele, respectively). Hence, we could not confirm the previous finding. Additionally, two novel variants were identified within the coding region: (1) We detected one healthy normal weight individual with a frameshift mutation (2bp deletion at codon 34). This frameshift mutation affects the coding region of the mature ghrelin. Hence, it is highly likely that the normal weight student is haplo-insufficient for ghrelin. (2) An A to T transversion leads to an amino acid exchange from Gln to Leu at amino acid position 90. The frequency of the 90-Leu allele was significantly higher in the extremely obese children and adolescents (0.063) than in the normal weight students (0.016; nominal p = 0.011). Additionally, we genotyped 134 underweight students and 44 normal weight adults for this SNP. Genotype frequencies were similar in extremely obese children and adolescents, underweight students and normal weight adults (p > 0.8). In conclusion, we identified four sequence variants in the coding region of the ghrelin gene in individuals belonging to different weight extremes. A frameshift mutation was detected in a normal weight individual. None of the variants seem to influence weight regulation.

  2. Parental Rearing Behavior Prospectively Predicts Adolescents' Risky Decision-Making and Feedback-Related Electrical Brain Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Euser, Anja S.; Evans, Brittany E.; Greaves-Lord, Kirstin; Huizink, Anja C.; Franken, Ingmar H. A.

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the role of parental rearing behavior in adolescents' risky decision-making and the brain's feedback processing mechanisms. Healthy adolescent participants ("n" = 110) completed the EMBU-C, a self-report questionnaire on perceived parental rearing behaviors between 2006 and 2008 (T1). Subsequently, after an…

  3. Self-esteem and hopefulness in adolescents with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, M A

    2001-02-01

    Increased survivorship in childhood cancer has raised questions about adolescents' psychosocial functioning during the treatment experience and long-term adaptation as cancer survivors. This descriptive correlation study examines the relationships among the stages of adolescence, gender, self-esteem, and hopefulness in a sample of 45 adolescents with cancer. The perceived level of self-esteem was measured by using the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory; the amount of hopefulness was measured by using the Hopefulness Scale for Adolescents. Mean scores for self-esteem and hopefulness were comparable to normative data reported for healthy adolescents on each scale. Perceived level of self-esteem and hopefulness did not significantly differ between boys and girls overall; early, middle, and late adolescents; or between boys and girls within each stage of adolescence. A stepwise multiple regression analysis showed self-esteem and the early stage of adolescence accounted for 27.3% (R2 = .306) of the variance in hopefulness scores. Self-esteem was the most significant predictor (F = 12.456, p = .001), explaining 20.7% of the variance (R2 = .225, p = .001). This study contributes to nursing the knowledge of the psychosocial response and the treatment experience in adolescents with cancer. These results can be used in future research to develop and test nursing actions that can influence a perceived sense of self-esteem and hopefulness and potentially allow for continued psychosocial development and effective coping among these adolescents during treatment and into survivorship.

  4. Fitness level and body composition indices: cross-sectional study among Malaysian adolescent

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The importance of fitness level on the well-being of children and adolescent has long been recognised. The aim of this study was to investigate the fitness level of school-going Malaysian adolescent, and its association with body composition indices. Methods 1071 healthy secondary school students participated in the fitness assessment for the Malaysian Health and Adolescents Longitudinal Research Team (MyHEART) study. Body composition indices such as body mass index for age, waist circumference and waist height ratio were measured. Fitness level was assessed with Modified Harvard Step Test. Physical Fitness Score was calculated using total time of step test exercise and resting heart rates. Fitness levels were divided into 3 categories - unacceptable, marginally acceptable, and acceptable. Partial correlation analysis was used to determine the association between fitness score and body composition, by controlling age, gender, locality, ethnicity, smoking status and sexual maturation. Multiple regression analysis was conducted to determine which body composition was the strongest predictor for fitness. Results 43.3% of the participants were categorised into the unacceptable fitness group, 47.1% were considered marginally acceptable, and 9.6% were acceptable. There was a significant moderate inverse association (p fitness score (r = -0.360, -0.413 and -0.403 for body mass index for age, waist circumference and waist height ratio, respectively). Waist circumference was the strongest and significant predictor for fitness (ß = -0.318, p = 0.002). Conclusion Only 9.6% of the students were fit. There was also an inverse association between body composition and fitness score among apparently healthy adolescents, with waist circumference indicated as the strongest predictor. The low fitness level among the Malaysian adolescent should necessitate the value of healthy lifestyle starting at a young age. PMID:25436933

  5. Adolescent Health Risk Behaviors: Parental Concern and Concordance Between Parent and Adolescent Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gersh, Elon; Richardson, Laura P; Katzman, Katherine; Spielvogle, Heather; Arghira, Adriana Cristina; Zhou, Chuan; McCarty, Carolyn A

    We investigated which adolescent health risk behaviors are of concern to parents generally, according to adolescent age, gender, and in the context of perceived risk. We compared adolescent and parent reports of the presence of health-risk behaviors and factors predicting agreement. Three hundred adolescents aged 13 to 18 years (mean, 14.5 years; 52% female) who presenting for well care completed an electronic screening tool used to assess health-risk behaviors. Parents completed parallel measures of their child's behavior and parental concern. Adolescent and parent reports were compared using McNemar test. Hierarchical linear regression was used to examine predictors of agreement. High parental concern was most commonly reported for screen time and diet. When parents identified their adolescent as at-risk, high parental concern was near universal for mental health but less commonly reported for substance use. There were no differences in parental concern according to adolescent gender. Parents of older adolescents expressed more concern regarding physical activity and alcohol. Compared with adolescents, parents were more likely to report risk regarding anxiety, fruit and vegetable consumption, and physical activity, and less likely to report risk regarding screen time, sleep, and marijuana use. Younger adolescent age and higher family relationship quality were predictive of stronger parent-adolescent agreement. Parents in well-care visits commonly have concerns about adolescent lifestyle behaviors. Although parents are more likely to report concern when they know about a behavior, parental concern is not always aligned with parental awareness of risk, particularly for substance use. Parent report of higher prevalence of some risk behaviors suggests their input might assist in risk identification. Copyright © 2017 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Development and initial feedback about a human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine comic book for adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Mira L; Oldach, Benjamin R; Goodwin, Jennifer; Reiter, Paul L; Ruffin, Mack T; Paskett, Electra D

    2014-06-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination rates do not meet the Healthy People 2020 objective of 80% coverage among adolescent females. We describe the development and initial feedback about an HPV vaccine comic book for young adolescents. The comic book is one component of a multilevel intervention to improve HPV vaccination rates among adolescents. Parents suggested and provided input into the development of a HPV vaccine comic book. Following the development of the comic book, we conducted a pilot study to obtain initial feedback about the comic book among parents (n = 20) and their adolescents ages 9 to 14 (n = 17) recruited from a community-based organization. Parents completed a pre-post test including items addressing HPV knowledge, HPV vaccine attitudes, and about the content of the comic book. Adolescents completed a brief interview after reading the comic book. After reading the comic book, HPV knowledge improved (2.7 to 4.6 correct answers on a 0-5 scale; p book's content was acceptable and adolescents liked the story, found it easy to read, and thought the comic book was a good way to learn about being healthy. Parents provided valuable information in the development of a theoretically-based comic book and the comic book appears to be an acceptable format for providing HPV vaccine information to adolescents. Future research will include the comic book in an intervention study to improve HPV vaccination rates.

  7. The relationship between TV/computer time and adolescents' health-promoting behavior: a secondary data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mei-Yen; Liou, Yiing-Mei; Wu, Jen-Yee

    2008-03-01

    Television and computers provide significant benefits for learning about the world. Some studies have linked excessive television (TV) watching or computer game playing to disadvantage of health status or some unhealthy behavior among adolescents. However, the relationships between watching TV/playing computer games and adolescents adopting health promoting behavior were limited. This study aimed to discover the relationship between time spent on watching TV and on leisure use of computers and adolescents' health promoting behavior, and associated factors. This paper used secondary data analysis from part of a health promotion project in Taoyuan County, Taiwan. A cross-sectional design was used and purposive sampling was conducted among adolescents in the original project. A total of 660 participants answered the questions appropriately for this work between January and June 2004. Findings showed the mean age of the respondents was 15.0 +/- 1.7 years. The mean numbers of TV watching hours were 2.28 and 4.07 on weekdays and weekends respectively. The mean hours of leisure (non-academic) computer use were 1.64 and 3.38 on weekdays and weekends respectively. Results indicated that adolescents spent significant time watching TV and using the computer, which was negatively associated with adopting health-promoting behaviors such as life appreciation, health responsibility, social support and exercise behavior. Moreover, being boys, being overweight, living in a rural area, and being middle-school students were significantly associated with spending long periods watching TV and using the computer. Therefore, primary health care providers should record the TV and non-academic computer time of youths when conducting health promotion programs, and educate parents on how to become good and healthy electronic media users.

  8. Examining the development and sexual behavior of adolescent males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Mary A

    2010-04-01

    A careful examination of young men's sexuality by health professionals in pediatrics, primary care, and reproductive health is foundational to adolescent male sexual health and healthy development. Through a review of existing published data, this article provides background and a developmental framework for sexual health services for adolescent boys. The article first defines and provides an overview of adolescent boys' sexual health, and then discusses developmentally focused research on the following topics: (1) early romantic relationships and the evolution of power and influence within these relationships; (2) developmental "readiness" for sex and curiosity; (3) boys' need for closeness and intimacy; (4) adopting codes of masculinity; (5) boys' communicating about sex; and (6) contextual influences from peers, families, and providers. This article concludes by examining the implications of these data for sexual health promotion efforts for adolescent males, including human papillomavirus vaccination.

  9. Vaping as a Catalyst for Smoking? An Initial Model on the Initiation of Electronic Cigarette Use and the Transition to Tobacco Smoking Among Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Sven; Diehl, Katharina

    2016-05-01

    The popularity of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) among adolescents is growing worldwide. A more accurate model than the much discussed but inadequate Gateway Hypothesis is needed to explain some adolescents' initial preference for e-cigarettes over tobacco cigarettes, as well as any transition from e-cigarettes to tobacco smoking. Our aim was to summarize the diffuse fear that adolescents will be indirectly encouraged to begin smoking tobacco via the use of e-cigarettes and to systematize the disparate causal hypotheses used thus far in relevant literature. We summarized the vague and fragmented hypotheses formulated thus far in literature on both trajectories from abstinence to e-cigarette use and from there to tobacco smoking into a set of empirically testable hypotheses and organized them into a comprehensive model. Our results indicate that the perceived health risks, specific product characteristics (such as taste, price and inconspicuous use), and higher levels of acceptance among peers and others potentially make e-cigarettes initially more attractive to adolescents than tobacco cigarettes. Later, increasing familiarity with nicotine could lead to the reevaluation of both electronic and tobacco cigarettes and subsequently to a potential transition to tobacco smoking. The suggested "catalyst model" takes variations in the nicotine content of e-cigarettes as well as the dual use of different substances into account. Our model provides causal hypotheses for the initiation of e-cigarette use and for the potential transition to tobacco smoking which, after being tested in empirical studies, could lead to the formulation of concrete recommendations for healthcare intervention and prevention measures. We developed a model that provides causal hypotheses for the initiation of e-cigarette use and for the potential transition to tobacco smoking. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco

  10. Adolescent Purchasing Behavior at McDonald's and Subway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesser, Lenard I; Kayekjian, Karen C; Velasquez, Paz; Tseng, Chi-Hong; Brook, Robert H; Cohen, Deborah A

    2013-10-01

    To assess whether adolescents purchasing food at a restaurant marketed as "healthy" (Subway) purchase fewer calories than at a competing chain (McDonald's). We studied 97 adolescents who purchased a meal at both restaurants on different days, using each participant as his or her control. We compared the difference in calories purchased by adolescents at McDonald's and Subway in a diverse area of Los Angeles, CA. Adolescents purchased an average of 1,038 calories (standard error of the mean [SEM]: 41) at McDonald's and 955 calories (SEM 39) at Subway. The difference of 83 calories (95% confidence interval [CI]: -20 to 186) was not statistically significant (p = .11). At McDonald's, participants purchased significantly more calories from drinks (151 vs. 61, p McDonald's vs. 35 at Subway, p McDonald's (.15 vs. .57 cups, p McDonald's. Although Subway meals had more vegetables, meals from both restaurants are likely to contribute to overeating. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Predicting weight status stability and change from fifth grade to eighth grade: the significant role of adolescents' social-emotional well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yiting; Gable, Sara

    2013-04-01

    The primary objective of this study was to predict weight status stability and change across the transition to adolescence using parent reports of child and household routines and teacher and child self-reports of social-emotional development. Data were from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Cohort (ECLS-K), a nationally representative sample of children who entered kindergarten during 1998-1999 and were followed through eighth grade. At fifth grade, parents reported on child and household routines and the study child and his/her primary classroom teacher reported on the child's social-emotional functioning. At fifth and eighth grade, children were directly weighed and measured at school. Nine mutually-exclusive weight trajectory groups were created to capture stability or change in weight status from fifth to eighth grade: (1) stable obese (ObeSta); (2) obese to overweight (ObePos1); (3) obese to healthy (ObePos2); (4) stable overweight (OverSta); (5) overweight to healthy (OverPos); (6) overweight to obese (OverNeg); (7) stable healthy (HelSta); (8) healthy to overweight (HelNeg1); and (9) healthy to obese (HelNeg2). Except for breakfast consumption at home, school-provided lunches, nighttime sleep duration, household and child routines did not predict stability or change in weight status. Instead, weight status trajectory across the transition to adolescence was significantly predicted by measures of social-emotional functioning at fifth grade. Assessing children's social-emotional well-being in addition to their lifestyle routines during the transition to adolescence is a noteworthy direction for adolescent obesity prevention and intervention. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Increased carotid intima-media thickness in Brazilian adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Fernanda Gontijo Sepulveda Fusaro

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increased carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT, a marker of subclinical atherosclerosis, is an independent predictor of future cardiovascular events, and has been reported in children with various chronic diseases, including type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM1. Objectives Evaluate CIMT and its association with cardiovascular risk factors in Brazilian adolescents with DM1. Methods Cross-sectional study of 118 adolescents, 57 with DM1 and no chronic complications related to the disease, and 61 healthy individuals. Clinical, biochemical, and high-resolution B-mode ultrasonographic evaluations according to the Consensus Statement of the American Society of Echocardiography CIMT Task Force were performed. Results Adolescents with diabetes (66.6% female were 14.5 ± 2.9 years old and had 9.0 ± 4.0 years of disease duration. The healthy adolescents (62.3% female were 14.3 ± 2.6 years old. All the adolescents had blood pressure within their reference ranges. In 66% of DM1 adolescents the systolic blood pressure was >50th percentile. Increased CIMT was observed in adolescents with diabetes compared with those in the control group: 0.53 vs 0.51 mm (p < 0.004 on the right side, and 0.55 vs 0.51 mm (p < 0.001 on the left side. CIMT presented independent and positive associations with diabetes duration, total cholesterol level, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level, and systolic blood pressure percentile in DM1 adolescents. Conclusions Increased CIMT was observed in young Brazilian adolescents with DM1, and was associated with cardiovascular risk factors. CIMT assessment may be useful for the early identification and monitoring of cardiovascular risk in this age group.

  13. Electronic media communication with friends from 2002 to 2006 and links to face-to-face contacts in adolescence: an HBSC study in 31 European and North American countries and regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuntsche, Emmanuel; Simons-Morton, Bruce; ter Bogt, Tom; Queija, Inmaculada Sánchez; Tinoco, Victoria Muñoz; Gaspar de Matos, Margarida; Santinello, Massimo; Lenzi, Michela

    2009-09-01

    Because the potential for electronic media communication (EMC) has increased greatly, it is of interest to describe trends in EMC between adolescents and their friends and to investigate whether EMC facilitate or supersede face-to-face contacts among peers. Answers of 275,571 adolescents concerning contacting friends by means of the phone, text messages, and the internet (i. e. EMC), the number of close friends, and the number of afternoons and evenings per week spent out with friends were analysed by means of chi(2)-tests and multiple regression. In 2006, between more than one third (11-year olds) and nearly two thirds (15-year olds) communicated electronically with their friends daily or nearly daily. From 2002 to 2006, EMC increased in almost all participating countries. Particularly high increases were found in Eastern Europe. Across countries, the higher the frequency of EMC the higher the number of afternoons and evenings spent with friends. The results are surprisingly consistent across the 31 countries and suggest that EMC among adolescents facilitate rather than supersede face-to-face peer contacts.

  14. Indian adolescents' perceptions of the home food environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathi, Neha; Riddell, Lynn; Worsley, Anthony

    2018-01-22

    The home food environment has the potential to influence the eating behaviour of adolescents. This investigation aimed to understand Indian adolescents' perspectives of their home food environments. Adolescents aged 14-16 years (n = 1026, 65.3% girls) attending private secondary schools in Kolkata completed a paper-based questionnaire during school time which included questions about family food rules, availability and accessibility of foods at home, and domestic cooking responsibility. Boys' and girls' opinions and experiences were compared through cross-tabulation analyses. Almost all the adolescents reported that fruits (91.6%) and vegetables (95.7%) were always available in their homes. Approximately two-fifths reported that sugar-sweetened beverages (36.2%) and salty snack foods (38.0%) were readily available. In 56.1% households, adolescents were expected to follow certain food rules during mealtimes (e.g. not talking with my mouth full). The majority of the respondents (80.4%) identified mothers as the primary meal providers, only a minority reported that fathers (5.1%) were responsible for preparation of family meals. This understanding of the family-environmental determinants of adolescent dietary habits provides useful directions for nutrition promotion interventions. Health and educational professionals associated with adolescents could communicate about the development of healthy home food environments to provide positive health benefits for adolescents and their families.

  15. Adolescent sleep misalignment: a chronic jet lag and a matter of public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touitou, Yvan

    2013-09-01

    Sleep is a key element, both physiologically and psychologically, in adolescent development. The prevalence of sleep disorders in western countries is important, as with age the sleep-wake cycle of adolescents becomes irregular and delayed in relation with later sleep onset and waking time resulting in rhythm desynchronization. A large number of adolescents sleep for 7-8h instead of 9-10h per night, which can lead to a cumulative sleep debt with fatigue, behavioral problems and poor academic achievement. The effect of electronic media use (such as television, mobile phone, computer, and electronic gaming) on sleep has been the object of several international studies, though pubertal changes may also impact adolescent sleep. Adolescents and their parents should be educated by professionals, including physicians and nurses, on the key role of sleep in adolescent well being and quality of life. A number of basic rules are proposed to improve sleep in adolescents. The permanent social jet lag experienced by a number of adolescents should be considered as a matter of public health. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Frequent cellular phone use modifies hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis response to a cellular phone call after mental stress in healthy children and adolescents: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geronikolou, Styliani A; Chamakou, Aikaterini; Mantzou, Aimilia; Chrousos, George; KanakaGantenbein, Christina

    2015-12-01

    The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is the main "gate-keeper" of the organism's response to every somatic or mental stress. This prospective study aims to investigate the HPA-axis response to a cellular phone call exposure after mental stress in healthy children and adolescents and to assess the possible predictive role of baseline endocrine markers to this response. Two groups of healthy school-age children aged 11-14 (12.5±1.5) years were included in the study, the one comprising those who are occasional users of a cellular phone (Group A) while the second those who do regularly use one (Group B). Blood samples were obtained from all participants at 8.00 am after a 12-hour overnight fasting for thyroid hormone, glucose, insulin, and cortisol levels determination. The participants performed the Trier Social Stress Test for Children (TSST-C) (5 minoral task followed by 5 min arithmetic task). Salivary cortisol samples were obtained at baseline, 10' and 20' min after the TSST-C and 10' and 20' after a 5 minute cellular phone call. Significant changes in the salivary cortisol levels were noted between 10' and 20' mins after the cellular phone call with different responses between the two groups. Baseline thyroid hormone levels seem to predict the cortisol response to mental stress mainly in group A, while HOMA had no impact on salivary cortisol response at any phase of the test, in either group. HPA axis response to cellular phone after mental stress in children and adolescents follow a different pattern in frequent users than in occasional users that seems to be influenced by the baseline thyroid hormone levels. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Adolescents' Views about a Proposed Rewards Intervention to Promote Healthy Food Choice in Secondary School Canteens

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEvoy, C. T.; Lawton, J.; Kee, F.; Young, I. S.; Woodside, J. V.; McBratney, J.; McKinley, M. C.

    2014-01-01

    Using rewards may be an effective method to positively influence adolescent eating behaviour, but evidence regarding this approach is limited. The aim of this study was to explore young adolescent views about a proposed reward intervention associated with food choice in school canteens. Focus groups were held in 10 schools located in lower…

  18. Preliminary evidence of altered biomechanics in adolescents with juvenile fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sil, Soumitri; Thomas, Staci; DiCesare, Christopher; Strotman, Daniel; Ting, Tracy V; Myer, Gregory; Kashikar-Zuck, Susmita

    2015-01-01

    Juvenile fibromyalgia (FM) is characterized by chronic musculoskeletal pain and marked reduction in physical activity. Despite recommendations for exercise to manage juvenile FM pain, exercise adherence is poor. Because of pain and activity avoidance, adolescents with juvenile FM are at risk for altered joint mechanics that may make them susceptible to increased pain and reduced tolerance for exercise. The primary aim of this study was to assess functional deficits in patients with juvenile FM compared to healthy controls using objective biomechanical assessment. Female adolescent patients with juvenile FM (n = 17) and healthy controls (n = 14) completed biomechanical assessments, including gait analysis and tests of lower extremity strength (isokinetic knee extension/flexion and hip abduction) and functional performance (drop vertical jump test) along with self-reported measures of disability (Functional Disability Inventory), pain intensity, depressive symptoms (Children's Depression Inventory), and fear of movement (Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia). Patients with juvenile FM demonstrated mild deficiencies in walking gait and functional performance (P < 0.05 for both) and significantly lower left knee extension and flexion strength (18-22% deficit) and bilateral hip abduction strength (34-38%) compared with healthy controls (P < 0.008 for all). Patients with juvenile FM reported significantly higher functional disability, pain intensity, depressive symptoms, and fear of movement relative to controls (P < 0.01 for all). This study showed that adolescents with juvenile FM exhibited objective alterations in biomechanics and self-reported fear of movement that may have reinforced their activity avoidance. Interventions for juvenile FM should include a focus on correcting functional deficits and instilling greater confidence in adolescents with juvenile FM to engage in exercise to improve functional outcomes. Copyright © 2015 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  19. Snacking Behavior and Obesity among Female Adolescents in Isfahan, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azadbakht, Leila; Hajishafiee, Maryam; Golshahi, Jafar; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad

    2016-07-01

    The high prevalence of obesity in the pediatric age groups draws attention to lifestyle factors including diet and physical activity. Data on obesity in adolescents and their snacking behavior are conflicting. This study aimed to assess the association of snacking behavior and obesity among female adolescents in Isfahan, Iran. This cross-sectional study was carried out on 265 female Isfahanian students who were chosen by systematic cluster random sampling. Dietary intake was assessed using a validated self-administered semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire that included 53 food items. Snacking behavior was defined by healthy snack score in combination with the frequency of snack intake. Individuals who consumed more healthy snacks and those with snacking frequency of 4 times a day or more had significantly lower weight, body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference (p associated with a greater chance of being overweight, generally obese, and abdominally obese among adolescents (odds ratio [OR] = 1.98; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.00-3.14, ptrend = 0.04 and OR = 2.10; 95% CI, 1.01-3.13, ptrend = 0.04, respectively). Frequency of snack intake was inversely related to overweight, general obesity, and abdominal obesity (OR = 3.23; 95% CI, 1.73-5.61, ptrend = 0.03 and OR = 1.84; 95% CI, 1.05-3.20, ptrend = 0.04, respectively). Healthy snack score in combination with frequency of snacking showed that those in the lowest tertile of snacking who consumed snacks less than 4 times/day had the highest risk of obesity compared to other categories (OR = 2.09, 95% CI, 1.11-3.20, p associated with decreased prevalence of overweight, general obesity, and abdominal obesity in adolescents. Further studies, in particular of a prospective nature, are required to examine this association in other populations.

  20. Eating habits, body image and health and behavioural problems of adolescents : The role of school and family context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holubcikova, Jana

    2016-01-01

    Healthy eating habits in adolescence support optimal health, growth and intellectual development of the individual. In Slovakia, the prevalence of unhealthy eating habits among adolescents is rather high. During the last decade, regular consumption of soft drinks and energy drinks has become very

  1. The quality of school wellness policies and energy-balance behaviors of adolescent mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haire-Joshu, Debra; Yount, Byron W; Budd, Elizabeth L; Schwarz, Cynthia; Schermbeck, Rebecca; Green, Scoie; Elliott, Michael

    2011-03-01

    In this study, we 1) compared the quality of school wellness policies among schools participating in Moms for a Healthy Balance (BALANCE), a school- and home-based weight loss study conducted with postpartum adolescents in 27 states; and 2) assessed the relationship between policy quality with energy-balance behaviors and body mass index z scores of postpartum adolescents. As a part of BALANCE, we collected data on high-calorie food and beverage consumption, minutes spent walking, and height and weight for 647 participants. The School Wellness Policy Coding Tool was used to assess the strength and comprehensiveness of school district wellness policies from 251 schools attended by participating adolescent mothers. Schools averaged low scores for wellness policy comprehensiveness and strength. When compared with participants in schools with the lowest policy comprehensiveness scores, adolescent mothers in schools with the highest scores reported consuming significantly fewer daily calories from sweetened beverages while reporting higher consumption of water (P = .04 and P = .01, respectively). School wellness policy strength was associated with lower BMI z scores among adolescent mothers (P = .01). School wellness policies associated with BALANCE may be limited in their ability to promote a healthy school environment. Future studies are needed to evaluate the effect of the strength and comprehensiveness of policy language on energy balance in high-risk postpartum adolescents. Evidence from this work can provide additional guidance to federal or state government in mandating not only policy content, but also systematic evaluation.

  2. Psychosocial impact of adolescent gynecomastia: a prospective case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuzzi, Laura C; Cerrato, Felecia E; Erickson, Cameron R; Erikson, Cameron R; Webb, Michelle L; Rosen, Heather; Walsh, Erika M; DiVasta, Amy D; Greene, Arin K; Labow, Brian I

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the physical and psychosocial impact of gynecomastia and its severity on adolescents seeking treatment as compared with healthy adolescent males. The following surveys were administered to adolescents with gynecomastia and healthy male controls, aged 12 to 21 years: Short Form-36 Version 2, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and the Eating Attitudes Test-26. Demographic variables were compared between the two groups, and controls were administered a short chest symptoms survey. Linear regression models, unadjusted and adjusted for body mass index category, were fit to determine the effect of case status and graded severity of gynecomastia on survey score. Forty-seven patients with gynecomastia and 92 male control subjects participated in this study. There was no difference in mean age between the groups, although patients with gynecomastia had a significantly higher body mass index. Gynecomastia subjects had three lower Short Form-36 domain and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale scores independent of body mass index category as compared with controls, although there was no difference in Eating Attitudes Test-26 scores between the groups. Graded gynecomastia severity had no effect on survey scores, all independent of body mass index category. Gynecomastia has a significant negative impact on primarily the psychosocial well-being of affected adolescent patients, specifically in regard to social functioning, mental health, and self-esteem. Psychosocial impact was not affected by graded severity of disease. Health care providers and patients should be aware of the psychosocial impairments associated with gynecomastia and consider early treatment for adolescents suffering from this condition, regardless of severity.

  3. Effects of Equine-Assisted Activities and Therapies on the Affective Network of Adolescents with Internet Gaming Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Kyoung Doo; Jung, Tae Woon; Park, In Hui; Han, Doug Hyun

    2018-04-26

    Internet gaming disorder (IGD) has been suggested to be a mental health disorder. Attachment and emotional status in IGD patients are important for understanding the etiology and progression of IGD because both parameters are considered to be associated with the affective network. Equine-assisted activities and therapies (EAAT) have been reported to improve emotional status and attachment in subjects. We hypothesized that EAAT would improve attachment in IGD adolescents with insecure attachment issues and increase functional connectivity (FC) within the affective network. Subjects completed a demographic questionnaire, the Korean Experiences in Close Relationships Scale Revised version (K-ECRS), the Child Depression Inventory, Young's Internet Addiction Scale, the Korean Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Rating Scale, and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging at baseline at the end of EAAT. Fifteen IGD adolescents with insecure attachment issues and 15 healthy comparison adolescents with secure attachment agreed to participate in this study. After 7 days of EAAT, K-ECRS avoidance and anxiety scores improved in all