WorldWideScience

Sample records for health-hazard evaluation determination

  1. Health Hazard Evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... May 1, 2018 Content source: National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Division of Surveillance, Hazard Evaluation, and Field Studies ... Fear Act OIG 1600 Clifton Road Atlanta , GA 30329-4027 ...

  2. Health hazard evaluation determination report HE-80-71-703, Bear Creek Uranium Company, Douglas, Wyoming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunter, B.J.

    1980-06-01

    An environmental survey was conducted in February 1980 to evaluate exposure to CRC, a cleaning solvent containing perchloroethylene (127184), (PCE) and 1,1,1-trichloroethane (71556) (TCE) at Bear Creek Uranium Company (SIC-1094) in Wyoming. The survey was requested by the company safety engineer. Breathing zone and general room air samples were collected and analyzed. One mine electrician was exposed to 6,500 milligrams per cubic meter (mg/cu m) (PCE recommended OSHA limit is 690mg/cu m). Of the 7 samples of TCE, none exceeded the OSHA standard of 1900mg/cu m. Overexposure did occur when workers used the solvent in confined areas. The authors concluded that a health hazard existed when the solvent was used on confined spaces, and they recommend improved work practices

  3. Determination of a Quantitative Job Severity Score Value for Health Hazards in Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Nayebzadeh

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims   There are numerous types of health hazards in every workplace which threaten the health and well-being of employees. Therefore, various types of engineering and  administrative control approaches have been developed in industry. Control of hazardous agents can be difficult in most conditions due to economical and technical limitations. However, certain types of administrative control methods can be implemented in these cases instead of engineering or process controls. Since creating a safe environment with zero chance of occupational exposures to hazardous agents is practically impossible, it can be expected that every employee may have a certain level of exposure to one or more of hazardous agents. The probability and extent of these  exposures will depend on job's demands or work environment's conditions. Under this condition,  a "job severity score" as a quantitative value can be determined in order to choose and employ the  best possible control methodology and also to create a long-term occupational health plan.   Methods   In this study, the main goal is to develop a questionnaire as a model for assessment of job severity and tasks harmfulness. This questionnaire has five sections in which there are numbers  of questions each with a specified quantitative score.  These scores have been identified according to the brainstorming among the some experienced  experts in the fields safety, occupational health, and industrial psychology. When the final  questionnaire was completed, two well-known industrial sectors were selected as pilot plants for final verification of questionnaire in order to obtain valid questions.    Results & Conclusion   The result of this study was providing a questionnaire which might be used in similar studies for determination of job severity level at any industrial plants.

  4. Health hazard evaluation report HETA 82-361-1437, Kerr-McGee Nuclear Corporation, Grants, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, E.M.; Smith, A.B.; Thun, M.J.; Hills, B.

    1984-03-01

    A health-hazard evaluation at Kerr/McGee Nuclear Corporation's uranium (7440611) mill (SIC-1094) in Grants, New Mexico was conducted in November, 1982. Evaluation was requested because of union concern about exposure and possible nephrotoxic effects of yellowcake, a concentrate of natural uranium, produced at the mill. Personnel records, company environmental and personal monitoring, and urine uranium bioassay data were reviewed. Further medical evaluation at the facility is not warranted as the longest exposure to yellowcake was only 7 years. The authors recommend that Kerr/McGee use the NRC guidelines for assessing exposure. Emission source in the drier and precipitation area should be identified and engineering controls installed to reduce the exposure

  5. Chernobyl - an evaluation of health hazards. 3. enl. and rev. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huber, E.E.; Dersee, T.; Iwert, B.

    1986-01-01

    The pamphlet abstracted contains some general information about the radiation hazards and health risks of nuclear power plants. The consequences of the Chernobyl reactor accident are dealt with by way of summarizing the events and by evaluating the health risks and damage the public should be prepared for. This topical report is completed by a popular presentation of the risks of nuclear power and by definitions of the major terms and measuring units. (DG) [de

  6. Health Hazard Evaluation Report HETA 84-204-1600, Dental Health Associates, Paoli, Pennsylvania. [Nitrous oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crandall, M.S.

    1985-06-01

    Area air and breathing-zone samples were analyzed for nitrous oxide at Dental Health Associates, Paoli, Pennsylvania on August 2, 1984. The evaluation was requested by a dental assistant because of general concern about the extent of nitrous oxide exposure, especially since the office was not equipped with a waste-anesthetic gas-scavenging system. The author recommends installing a waste anesthetic gas scavenging system with a dedicated exhaust. The nitrous oxide delivery and mixing system should be checked for leaks monthly and work practices for handling nitrous oxide should be improved.

  7. Health-hazard evaluation report HETA 87-311-2087, Penick Corporation, Newark, New Jersey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klincewicz, S.; Siwinski, G.; Fleeger, A.; Paulozzi, L.

    1990-11-01

    In response to a request from the International Chemical Workers Union to evaluate symptoms of headache, nausea, and respiratory symptoms among workers, an investigation was begun of possible hazardous working conditions at the Penick Corporation (SIC-2833), Newark, New Jersey. The company produced morphine, codeine, synthetic and semisynthetic narcotics from the raw materials gum opium and poppy straw concentrate. Industrial hygiene monitoring detected substantial exposures to alkaloid dusts throughout the building. A concentration as high as 23,564 micrograms/cubic meter was detected in a short term sample collected during the hand scooping of dry powder. Over exposures were detected to toluene (108883), butanol (71363), methanol (67561), and ethanol (64175) during short term episodic jobs. Thirty-two current employees participated in a study of immunologic parameters. A significant decrease in morphine-6-hemisuccinate/human serum albumin immunoglobulin-G antibody levels was noted in 21 workers who submitted blood specimens during both test periods. Narcotic production workers had greater reactivity to most of the compounds on a quantitative skin prick test with opiates. The authors conclude that workers at Penick Corporation developed asthma from occupational exposure to narcotic dusts. The authors recommend that exposures to narcotic dusts and solvents be reduced, and that workers with suspected work related illnesses be evaluated.

  8. Health-hazard evaluation report GHETA 83-309-1405, Chrysler Corporation Foundry, Indianapolis, Indiana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patil, A.

    1984-01-01

    In response to a request arising out of employee concerns over the medical surveillance program at the Chrysler Corporation Foundry located in Indianapolis, Indiana, an evaluation was made of chest radiographs evaluated by the program with specific concern directed to disagreement on the radiographic diagnosis of pneumoconiosis. The request was made by the Chrysler Corporation and the United Auto Workers National Joint Committee on Health and Safety. Three NIOSH certified B-readers independently interpreted a set of 78 systematically sampled posteroanterior (PA) chest radiographs from the system files. These interpretations were compared among themselves and with company interpretations. While none of the radiographs was deemed unreadable, 35% were classified as having poor technical quality. Only one film was found which had a profusion of small opacities, and the company had interpreted the film as positive. Overall, agreement on proportion of positive readings and agreement on individual films was as good between the company and B-readers as it was between any two of the individual B-readers. The author recommends, however, that in order to avoid future complaints of the nature, the company should use standard radiographic equipment and techniques, NIOSH certified B-readers, and current international classifications of radiographs for pneumoconioses in their medical surveillance program

  9. Health-hazard evaluation report HETA 86-456-1877, South Texas Nuclear Project, Wadsworth, Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinks, T.H.; Hartle, R.W.

    1988-03-01

    An evaluation was made of an outbreak of dermatitis among workers at the South Texas Nuclear Project construction site, Wadsworth, Texas. The dermatitis occurred ten times more frequently among carpenters than other laborers, with the incidence in 1986 being 250% greater than it was in 1985. Some workers demonstrated pruritic, macular/papular lesions. Carpenters working on the inside of the power-project buildings had a higher incidence of skin disease than those employed on the outside of the buildings. Samples of plywood and lumber treated with fire-retardant indicated that they contained 3 and 5% phosphate, respectively. Arsenic was not detected but formaldehyde was detected at 59 parts per million. General environmental air samples were taken with no evidence found of airborne phosphate, melamine, dicyandiamide, or formaldehyde. Concentrations of total particulates ranged from 0.1 to 0.6mg/m 3 . The authors conclude that the workers were probably suffering from a contact dermatitis. The authors recommend specific precautions

  10. Evaluation of natural radioactivity and its associated health hazard indices of a South Indian river

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnamoorthy, N.; Mullainathan, S.; Mehra, R.; Chaparro, Marcos A.E.; Chaparro, Mauro A.E.

    2014-01-01

    The activity concentration of the natural radionuclides 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K was measured for sediment samples collected from thirty-three different locations along the Bharathapuzha river basin by using high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry. The concentrations of the natural radionuclides were found to vary from location to location, and their mean values are 19.6, 82.87 and 19.44 % higher than the worldwide mean values of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K, respectively. The value of 232 Th was found to be higher than that of 226 Ra in 82 % of the samples collected for this study. The calculated values of indoor gamma dose rate (D IN ) ranged between 89.55 and 194.24 nGy h -1 , and the overall mean value is 63.2 % higher than the recommended safe and criterion limit by UNSCEAR. The internal and external hazard indices (H in and H ex ), the representative gamma index and alpha index (I gamma and I alpha ), the annual gonad dose equivalent (AGDE) and the excess lifetime cancer risk (ELCR) were also calculated and compared with the international recommended values. Multivariate statistical analyses were also carried out to determine the relation between the natural radionuclides and various radiological parameters. (authors)

  11. Critical evaluation of key evidence on the human health hazards of exposure to bisphenol A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hengstler, JG; Foth, H; Gebel, T; Kramer, P-J; Lilienblum, W; Schweinfurth, H; Völkel, W; Wollin, K-M; Gundert-Remy, U

    2011-01-01

    Despite the fact that more than 5000 safety-related studies have been published on bisphenol A (BPA), there seems to be no resolution of the apparently deadlocked controversy as to whether exposure of the general population to BPA causes adverse effects due to its estrogenicity. Therefore, the Advisory Committee of the German Society of Toxicology reviewed the background and cutting-edge topics of this BPA controversy. The current tolerable daily intake value (TDI) of 0.05 mg/kg body weight [bw]/day, derived by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), is mainly based on body weight changes in two- and three-generation studies in mice and rats. Recently, these studies and the derivation of the TDI have been criticized. After having carefully considered all arguments, the Committee had to conclude that the criticism was scientifically not justified; moreover, recently published additional data further support the reliability of the two-and three-generation studies demonstrating a lack of estrogen-dependent effects at and below doses on which the current TDI is based. A frequently discussed topic is whether doses below 5 mg/ kg bw/day may cause adverse health effects in laboratory animals. Meanwhile, it has become clear that positive results from some explorative studies have not been confirmed in subsequent studies with higher numbers of animals or a priori defined hypotheses. Particularly relevant are some recent studies with negative outcomes that addressed effects of BPA on the brain, behavior, and the prostate in rodents for extrapolation to the human situation. The Committee came to the conclusion that rodent data can well be used as a basis for human risk evaluation. Currently published conjectures that rats are insensitive to estrogens compared to humans can be refuted. Data from toxicokinetics studies show that the half-life of BPA in adult human subjects is less than 2 hours and BPA is completely recovered in urine as BPA-conjugates. Tissue deconjugation

  12. How credible are the study results? Evaluating and applying internal validity tools to literature-based assessments of environmental health hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooney, Andrew A.; Cooper, Glinda S.; Jahnke, Gloria D.; Lam, Juleen; Morgan, Rebecca L.; Boyles, Abee L.; Ratcliffe, Jennifer M.; Kraft, Andrew D.; Schünemann, Holger J.; Schwingl, Pamela; Walker, Teneille D.; Thayer, Kristina A.; Lunn, Ruth M.

    2016-01-01

    Environmental health hazard assessments are routinely relied upon for public health decision-making. The evidence base used in these assessments is typically developed from a collection of diverse sources of information of varying quality. It is critical that literature-based evaluations consider the credibility of individual studies used to reach conclusions through consistent, transparent and accepted methods. Systematic review procedures address study credibility by assessing internal validity or “risk of bias” — the assessment of whether the design and conduct of a study compromised the credibility of the link between exposure/intervention and outcome. This paper describes the commonalities and differences in risk-of-bias methods developed or used by five groups that conduct or provide methodological input for performing environmental health hazard assessments: the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) Working Group, the Navigation Guide, the National Toxicology Program’s (NTP) Office of Health Assessment and Translation (OHAT) and Office of the Report on Carcinogens (ORoC), and the Integrated Risk Information System of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA-IRIS). Each of these groups have been developing and applying rigorous assessment methods for integrating across a heterogeneous collection of human and animal studies to inform conclusions on potential environmental health hazards. There is substantial consistency across the groups in the consideration of risk-of-bias issues or “domains” for assessing observational human studies. There is a similar overlap in terms of domains addressed for animal studies; however, the groups differ in the relative emphasis placed on different aspects of risk of bias. Future directions for the continued harmonization and improvement of these methods are also discussed. PMID:26857180

  13. Health-hazard-evaluation report HETA 87-376-2018, US Department of Justice, United States Marshals Service, Washington, DC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reh, C.M.; Klein, M.K.

    1990-03-01

    In response to a request from the United States Marshals Service (SIC-9221) in Washington, D.C. for assistance in testing the effect of renovations to the ventilation system of their indoor firing range, lead (7439921) exposures were measured during handgun qualifying sessions. Each qualifying session of firing consisted of 60 rounds fired in 10 to 12 minutes. Personal breathing zone air samples were taken from three shooters and the range officer. Lead exposure concentrations measured were 2073, 1786, 172, and 142 micrograms of lead per cubic meter of air (microg/cu m). Eight hour time weighted average concentrations were calculated to be 194, 167, 101, and 13microg/cu m, respectively. The three shooters were therefore overexposed to lead. Bulk sampling of the sand from the bullet trap indicated it to be contaminated, containing 41% lead by weight. The authors concluded that a health hazard existed from exposure to lead. The authors recommended changes to improve the ventilation system. Following modification of the system, tests were again conducted and 11 of the 12 samples taken were below the limits of detection for the method used. The authors conclude that after modification, a hazard did not exist during qualifying sessions. The authors recommend specific measures to protect personnel from exposure to lead.

  14. Occupational Health Hazards in ICU Nursing Staff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Eri Shimizu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed occupational health hazards for Intensive Care Unit (ICU nurses and nursing technicians, comparing differences in the number and types of hazards which occur at the beginning and end of their careers. A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out with 26 nurses and 96 nursing technicians from a public hospital in the Federal District, Brazil. A Likert-type work-related symptom scale (WRSS was used to evaluate the presence of physical, psychological, and social risks. Data were analyzed with the use of the SPSS, version 12.0, and the Kruskal-Wallis test for statistical significance and differences in occupational health hazards at the beginning and at the end of the workers' careers. As a workplace, ICUs can cause work health hazards, mostly physical, to nurses and nursing technicians due to the frequent use of physical energy and strength to provide care, while psychological and social hazards occur to a lesser degree.

  15. Evaluation of dust-related health hazards associated with air coring at G-Tunnel, Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skaggs, B.J.; Ortiz, L.W.; Burton, D.J.; Isom, B.L.; Vigil, E.A.

    1991-03-01

    The Yucca Mountain Project was established to evaluate the potential for storing high-level radioactive wastes in geologic formations. Hydrologists recommended that drilling or coring in support of characterization tests be performed dry. Dry drilling, or air coring, presents a concern about health protection for the drilling personnel. The rock generally has a high silica content, and natural zeolites are abundant. Some zeolites are fibrous, leading to concerns that inhalation may result in asbestos-like lung diseases. An industrial hygiene study (IH) was conducted as part of an air coring technical feasibility test. The IH study found the potential for exposures to airborne silica and nuisance dusts to be within regulatory requirements and determined the commercial dust control equipment monitored to be effective when used in conjunction with a good area ventilation system and sound IH practices. Fibrous zeolites were not detected. Recommendations for the Yucca Mountain studies are (1) dust collection and control equipment equivalent or superior to that monitored must be used for any dry drilling activity and must be used with good general dilution ventilation and local exhaust ventilation provided on major emission sources; (2) good industrial hygiene work practices must be implemented, including monitoring any area where zeolitic fibers are suspect; and (3) a study should be conducted to determine the biological effects of the fibrous zeolite, mordenite. 25 refs., 17 figs., 14 tabs

  16. OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH HAZARDS AMONG QUARRY ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Key Words: Occupational health hazards, Industrial pollution, Quarry industry, ... fireworks and signaling apparatus and for setting blind rivets and forming ... in the air, physiological risks and psychological trauma (Ajayi & Osibanjo, 1995).

  17. Chernobyl - an evaluation of health hazards. 3. Enl. and Rev. Ed. Tschernobyl - eine Einschaetzung der gesundheitlichen Schaeden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huber, E E; Dersee, T; Iwert, B

    1986-01-01

    The pamphlet abstracted contains some general information about the radiation hazards and health risks of nuclear power plants. The consequences of the Chernobyl reactor accident are dealt with by way of summarizing the events and by evaluating the health risks and damage the public should be prepared for. This topical report is completed by a popular presentation of the risks of nuclear power and by definitions of the major terms and measuring units.

  18. Health-hazard-evaluation report HETA 83-144-2001, Feed Materials Production Center (Westinghouse Materials Company of Ohio), Fernald, Ohio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boiano, J.M.; Moss, C.E.; Burr, G.A.

    1989-12-01

    In response to a request from District 34, International Association of Machinists, an evaluation was made of possible health problems arising among employees at the Feed Materials Production Center, Fernald, Ohio. The company was a large scale integrated uranium metals production facility which converted a variety of chemical forms of depleted or slightly enriched uranium into uranium metal. Approximately 850 workers were employed at the time of this study. A cross sectional study was made of the workers which included evaluations for evidence of lung and kidney disease attributable to uranium exposure. The ratio of the 1 second forced expiratory volume to the forced vital capacity was associated with a job history derived uranium exposure index. Shortness of breath was associated with a self reported history of uranium exposure incidents. Measurements were taken of surface alpha particle radiation contamination at approximately 50 worksites in the facility. In all but one case the levels of contamination exceeded the recommended allowable limits. Air samples indicated nitrogen-dioxide was the only chemical air contaminant which exceeded current criteria. The authors conclude that a potential health hazard existed due to high levels of surface alpha particle contamination. The authors recommend specific measures to lower worker exposures

  19. Health Hazard Evaluation Report HETA 84-412-1612, Drs. Youdelman and Teig, Brentwood, New York. [Nitrous oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crandall, M.S.

    1985-07-01

    Environmental and breathing zone samples were analyzed for nitrous-oxide (10102440) at two oral surgery clinics in Holbrook and Brentwood, New York on July 30 to 31, 1984. The evaluation was requested by the dentists because of general concern regarding the extent of exposure to nitrous oxide. The Brentwood office was equipped with a waste anesthetic gas scavenging system. Recommendations include checking the nitrous-oxide delivery and mixing systems at both clinics, installing a waste anesthetic gas scavenging system with a dedicated exhaust at the Holbrook office, and improving work practices at the Brentwood clinic.

  20. Health-hazard evaluation report No. HETA 85-126-1932, Bryn Mawr Hospital, Bryn Mawr, Pennsylvania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryant, C.J.; Gorman, R.; Stewart, J.; Whong, W.Z.

    1988-09-01

    In response to a request from a group of surgeons at the Bryn Mawr Hospital, located in Bryn Mawr, Pennsylvania, an evaluation was made of possible hazardous working conditions. The surgeons were concerned about emissions generated by electrocautery knives when performing reduction mammoplasty. Several operating room personnel were experiencing acute health effects during this procedure, which does produce a considerable amount of smoke. Symptoms included respiratory and eye irritation, headache, and nausea. Personal and area air samples were taken for hydrocarbons, nitrosamines, total particulates, benzene soluble fraction, and polynuclear aromatic compounds. Total particulate concentrations ranged from 0.4 to 2.0 mg/m3 in personal breathing zone samples and from 0.7 to 9.4 mg/m3 in area samples. During a brief demonstration of the laser cutting technique, a particulate sample was taken which measured 9.4 mg/m3, 7.4 mg/m3 of which was benzene soluble. The benzene soluble fraction exceeded the NIOSH REL and the OSHA PEL in seven of eleven samples collected. Trace amounts of hydrocarbons were identified. The major component of the samples appeared to be a compound or compounds related to fatty acid esters. Solvent extracts of airborne particles collected from the room using cauterization were mutagenic. The authors recommend that engineering ventilation controls be used, that any further acute or chronic health effects be evaluated and documented, and that exposure to electrocautery smoke be reevaluated.

  1. Health hazards of cement dust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meo, Sultan A.

    2004-01-01

    ven in the 21st century, millions of people are working daily in a dusty environment. They are exposed to different types of health hazards such as fume, gases and dust, which are risk factors in developing occupational disease. Cement industry is involved in the development of structure of this advanced and modern world but generates dust during its production. Cement dust causes lung function impairment, chronic obstructive lung disease, restrictive lung disease, pneumoconiosis and carcinoma of the lungs, stomach and colon. Other studies have shown that cement dust may enter into the systemic circulation and thereby reach the essentially all the organs of body and affects the different tissues including heart, liver, spleen, bone, muscles and hairs and ultimately affecting their micro-structure and physiological performance. Most of the studies have been previously attempted to evaluate the effects of cement dust exposure on the basis of spirometry or radiology, or both. However, collective effort describing the general effects of cement dust on different organ and systems in humans or animals, or both has not been published. Therefore, the aim of this review is to gather the potential toxic effects of cement dust and to minimize the health risks in cement mill workers by providing them with information regarding the hazards of cement dust. (author)

  2. Health hazards from environmental pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wichmann, H.E.

    1990-01-01

    Three examples from current research are cited in order to show the health hazards from environmental pollution and to describe methods of risk quantification: (1) The smog situation of January 1985 is analyzed on the basis of detailed morbidity and mortality statistics; (2) The current knowledge on the contribution of radon decay products to lung cancer is discussed; (3) The problem of abandoned industrial sites is illustrated by a population group living on contaminated ground. (orig.) [de

  3. Diesel particles - a health hazard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ege, C.

    2004-08-15

    To all appearances, small particles belong to the pollutants presenting the biggest health hazards. Particles come especially from diesel-powered vehicles. According to researchers, particles cause thousands of early deaths each year in the big cities in Denmark alone, and up to 1,250 of these deaths could be prevented by fitting particle filters on diesel-powered vehicles. That is more than deaths caused by traffic accidents. Especially the elderly are affected. In addition, the small particles seem to aggravate asthma incidences, including the many children with asthma. What makes the small particles so very dangerous is that they can enter the smallest of vessels of the lungs. There is a solution within sight to this grave health hazard. The solution is called particle filters, but they will not come automatically. It requires initiatives in the form of legislation, green taxes and subsidies. The EU is introducing stricter regulations regarding particle emission from heavy vehicles from 2006, though only for new vehicles. It will therefore take many years to abate the problem this way. In the present pamphlet, the Danish Ecological Council offers a number of specific proposals on how to further the introduction of filters on diesel vehicles. The Danish government has taken a small step in the right direction by establishing a subsidy scheme for particle filters. Yet the amount allocated is too small and, because it is not followed up by setting taxes on polluting vehicles, it will have little effect. (au)

  4. Women's Magazines' Coverage of Smoking Related Health Hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Lauren

    1989-01-01

    Examines the extent to which women's magazines with a strong interest in health covered various health hazards associated with smoking. Finds that six major women's magazines have virtually no coverage of smoking and cancer. Suggests that self-censorship may have helped determine editorial content more than pressure from tobacco companies. (RS)

  5. Occupational health hazards in mining: an overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donoghue, A.M. [Alcoa World Alumina Australia, Perth, WA (Australia)

    2004-08-01

    This review article outlines the physical, chemical, biological, ergonomic and psychosocial occupational health hazards of mining and associated metallurgical processes. Mining remains an important industrial sector in many parts of the world and although substantial progress has been made in the control of occupational health hazards, there remains room for further risk reduction. This applies particularly to traumatic injury hazards, ergonomic hazards and noise. Vigilance is also required to ensure exposures to coal dust and crystalline silica remain effectively controlled.

  6. Free-radical chemistry as a means to evaluate lunar dust health hazard in view of future missions to the moon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turci, Francesco; Corazzari, Ingrid; Alberto, Gabriele; Martra, Gianmario; Fubini, Bice

    2015-05-01

    Lunar dust toxicity has to be evaluated in view of future manned missions to the Moon. Previous studies on lunar specimens and simulated dusts have revealed an oxidant activity assigned to HO· release. However, the mechanisms behind the reactivity of lunar dust are still quite unclear at the molecular level. In the present study, a complementary set of tests--including terephthalate (TA) hydroxylation, free radical release as measured by means of the spin-trapping/electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) technique, and cell-free lipoperoxidation--is proposed to investigate the reactions induced by the fine fraction of a lunar dust analogue (JSC-1A-vf) in biologically relevant experimental environments. Our study proved that JSC-1A-vf is able to hydroxylate TA also in anaerobic conditions, which indicates that molecular oxygen is not involved in such a reaction. Spin-trapping/EPR measures showed that the HO· radical is not the reactive intermediate involved in the oxidative potential of JSC-1A-vf. A surface reactivity implying a redox cycle of phosphate-complexed iron via a Fe(IV) state is proposed. The role of this iron species was investigated by assessing the reactivity of JSC-1A-vf toward hydrogen peroxide (Fenton-like activity), formate ions (homolytic rupture of C-H bond), and linoleic acid (cell-free lipoperoxidation). JSC-1A-vf was active in all tests, confirming that redox centers of transition metal ions on the surface of the dust may be responsible for dust reactivity and that the TA assay may be a useful field probe to monitor the surface oxidative potential of lunar dust.

  7. Health hazards related to Soba sewage treatment plant, Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasha Osman Abdelwahab Abdelmoneim

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the health hazards acquired by the residents nearby Soba sewage treatment plant. A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out in Soba locality, Khartoum, Sudan. An interviewer-administrated questionnaire was assigned to 462 residents of the area living in four geographically distributed squares around the sewage plant. The data was analyzed in SPSS; Cronbach’s alpha reliability scale of measurement was used to check the internal validity of six variables related to the quality of life. A logistic regression analysis was used to assess the relationship between the health hazards and the quality of life. Among the 462 residents, difficulty in breathing (37.9% and nausea (37.2 were the principal health hazards. Moreover, the residents had a satisfactory level of awareness (88.7% about the health hazards. The utmost impact on the quality of life was psychological (97.2%. It was statistically correlated with the reported factors, which impacted the quality of life in the district as revealed by the Cronbach’s alpha reliability test with absenteeism (P=0.026, disability (P=0.014, socialization (P=0.032 and death (P=0.016. A logistic regression analysis revealed chemical hazards had a statistically significant association (P<0.05 with quality of life of the residents of Soba district. The study strongly entails the fact that sewage treatment plants crave exceptional consideration from the concerned responsible authorities, together with the fact that the evolved health threats should be confronted with immense responsibility as soon as possible.

  8. Possible health hazards of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kneale, G.W.

    1981-01-01

    In considering the possible health hazards of nuclear power, evidence is examined that official estimates of risks, on which governments may be supposed to base their decisions as to the acceptibility of a nuclear power programme, may be understated. In particular the case that the Hanford survey is more appropriate as a basis of risk estimation than the survey of the survivors of the atomic bombs dropped on Japan, The Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission Study, is discussed. (U.K.)

  9. Forecasting extreme temperature health hazards in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Napoli, Claudia; Pappenberger, Florian; Cloke, Hannah L.

    2017-04-01

    Extreme hot temperatures, such as those experienced during a heat wave, represent a dangerous meteorological hazard to human health. Heat disorders such as sunstroke are harmful to people of all ages and responsible for excess mortality in the affected areas. In 2003 more than 50,000 people died in western and southern Europe because of a severe and sustained episode of summer heat [1]. Furthermore, according to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change heat waves are expected to get more frequent in the future thus posing an increasing threat to human lives. Developing appropriate tools for extreme hot temperatures prediction is therefore mandatory to increase public preparedness and mitigate heat-induced impacts. A recent study has shown that forecasts of the Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI) provide a valid overview of extreme temperature health hazards on a global scale [2]. UTCI is a parameter related to the temperature of the human body and its regulatory responses to the surrounding atmospheric environment. UTCI is calculated using an advanced thermo-physiological model that includes the human heat budget, physiology and clothing. To forecast UTCI the model uses meteorological inputs, such as 2m air temperature, 2m water vapour pressure and wind velocity at body height derived from 10m wind speed, from NWP models. Here we examine the potential of UTCI as an extreme hot temperature prediction tool for the European area. UTCI forecasts calculated using above-mentioned parameters from ECMWF models are presented. The skill in predicting UTCI for medium lead times is also analysed and discussed for implementation to international health-hazard warning systems. This research is supported by the ANYWHERE project (EnhANcing emergencY management and response to extreme WeatHER and climate Events) which is funded by the European Commission's HORIZON2020 programme. [1] Koppe C. et al., Heat waves: risks and responses. World Health Organization. Health and

  10. Occupational health hazards among quarry employees in Ebonyi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Occupational health hazards among quarry employees in Ebonyi state, ... how these problems affect the conditions of employees in such industries in Ebonyi State. ... the level of compliance of safety and protective devices among employees.

  11. Health Issues: Do Cell Phones Pose a Health Hazard?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Procedures Home, Business, and Entertainment Products Cell Phones Health Issues Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... it Email Print Do cell phones pose a health hazard? Many people are concerned that cell phone ...

  12. Beryllium. Health hazards and their control. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lires, O.A.; Delfino, C.A.; Botbol, J.

    1991-01-01

    In this work (continuation of 'Beryllium' series) health hazards, toxic effects, limits of permissible atmospheric contamination and safe exposure to beryllium are described. Guidelines to the design, control operations and hygienic precautions of the working facilities are given. (Author) [es

  13. Computer use and health hazard: perceptions from Nigeria's ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Computer use and health hazard: perceptions from Nigeria's Premier University. ... the combination of headache, vision and ergonomic related problems. ... and pains and Repetitive Strain Injury (RSI) and Carpal Tunnel Syndrome (CTS) as ...

  14. Experiences of frontline nursing staff on workplace safety and occupational health hazards in two psychiatric hospitals in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhassan, Robert Kaba; Poku, Kwabena Adu

    2018-06-06

    Psychiatric hospitals need safe working environments to promote productivity at the workplace. Even though occupational health and safety is not completely new to the corporate society, its scope is largely limited to the manufacturing/processing industries which are perceived to pose greater dangers to workers than the health sector. This paper sought to explore the experiences of frontline nursing personnel on the occupational health and safety conditions in two psychiatric hospitals in Ghana. This is an exploratory cross-sectional study among 296 nurses and nurse-assistants in Accra (n = 164) and Pantang (n = 132) psychiatric hospitals using the proportional stratified random sampling technique. Multivariate Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) regression test was conducted to ascertain the determinants of staff exposure to occupational health hazards and the frequency of exposure to these occupational health hazards on daily basis. Knowledge levels on occupational health hazards was high in Accra and Pantang psychiatric hospitals (i.e. 92 and 81% respectively), but barely 44% of the 296 interviewed staff in the two hospitals said they reported their most recent exposure to an occupational health hazard to hospital management. It was found that staff who worked for more years on the ward had higher likelihood of exposure to occupational health hazards than those who worked for lesser years (p = 0.002). The category of occupational health hazards reported most were the physical health hazards. Psychosocial hazards were the least reported health hazards. Frequency of exposure to occupational health hazards on daily basis was positively associated with work schedules of staff particularly, staff on routine day schedule (Coef = 4.49, p = 0.011) and those who alternated between day and night schedules (Coef = 4.48, p = 0.010). Occupational health and safety conditions in the two hospitals were found to be generally poor. Even though majority of

  15. Potential health hazard of nuclear fuel waste and uranium ore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehta, K.; Sherman, G.R.; King, S.G.

    1991-06-01

    The variation of the radioactivity of nuclear fuel waste (used fuel and fuel reprocessing waste) with time, and the potential health hazard (or inherent radiotoxicity) resulting from its ingestion are estimated for CANDU (Canada Deuterium Uranium) natural-uranium reactors. Four groups of radionuclides in the nuclear fuel waste are considered: actinides, fission products, activation products of zircaloy, and activation products of fuel impurities. Contributions from each of these groups to the radioactivity and to the potential health hazard are compared and discussed. The potential health hazard resulting from used fuel is then compared with that of uranium ore, mine tailings and refined uranium (fresh fuel) on the basis of equivalent amounts of uranium. The computer code HAZARD, specifically developed for these computations, is described

  16. Recognizing Job Health Hazards. Module SH-08. Safety and Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This student module on recognizing job health hazards is one of 50 modules concerned with job safety and health. This module presents the four general categories of environmental conditions or stresses: chemical, physical, biological, and ergonomic. Following the introduction, 14 objectives (each keyed to a page in the text) the student is…

  17. Severe scratcher-reaction: an unknown health hazard?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carsten Sauer Mikkelsen

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Tattoos are well known to cause skin problems and the number of reported adverse reactions after tattooing has increased. Illegally imported tattoo ink is unrestrained and can contain unknown ingredients and contamination thereby posing a serious health hazard. We present a case illustrating the risk of pronounced phototoxic allergic reaction and other severe complications after using home kit tattoo ink.

  18. Quantification of the health hazards associated with different energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reissland, J.A.; Kendall, G.M.; Greenhalgh, J.R.

    1982-01-01

    Comparisons of health hazards which may result from the operation of different types of electrical power-producing systems are a necessary input to the decision-making process of planning future supplies. Although other factors have played a dominant role in the past and will continue to be a major influence, much greater attention is now devoted to a consideration of detriment to health associated with large-scale industrial development. The paper considers only this health aspect of the comparison and concentrates on one aspect of that, namely on how the impact on health of workers and public can be expressed to represent the detriment. Two measures are discussed: the number of deaths and the effective loss of life, both evaluated per GW(e).a. The latter is extended along the same lines as in the ICRP publication 'Problems Involved in Developing an Index of Harm'. The index of harm is a measure of hazard to a worker in a particular industry; the analogous quantity here is a measure of hazard of operating a 1-GW(e) power plant. For illustration, the hazards of coal-fired and nuclear power stations are compared although certain factors are omitted from both cycles which it will be essential to include if the method is extended to bring wind, wave and solar energy sources into the comparison. Inevitably some contributions are very difficult to quantify and it may be more realistic to consider these qualitatively rather than attempt to fold them in with artificial numerical values. The procedure described for the inclusion of quantifiable factors seems to be a reasonable basis for comparison but it is not suggested that any such procedure is adequate by itself. Clearly comparisons should be made on several distinct bases. (author)

  19. The health hazards of depleted uranium munitions. Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    Depleted uranium is a toxic and weakly radioactive metal used for a variety of purposes. Perhaps its most controversial use is in battlefield munitions, where it can be widely dispersed in the form of fine particles and shrapnel that may enter the bodies of combatants and others through inhalation, ingestion or wounding. It is a matter of legitimate public concern whether the use of this material in this way could create unacceptable health hazards or damage to the environment. The objective of our study has been to provide the best scientific understanding of the ways in which the material may be distributed, how it may be taken up by humans, and the potential implications for health. For politicians, any hazards to health have to be balanced against the military advantages that the use of these munitions confers. We have not tried to reach a judgment on these political issues, but we believe that a better scientific understanding of the extent of the hazards will make it easier for these wider questions to be addressed in a more objective way. This report is the first of two, and addresses the likely levels of exposure to depleted uranium, the resulting radiological risks, and the lessons to be learned from epidemiological studies. Our second report will address toxicological risks and environmental issues. So far, we conclude that risks from radiation are low for most soldiers on the battlefield, and for civilians who later return to the area. However, there are uncertainties about the maximal levels of exposure to depleted uranium on the battlefield, and there may be circumstances in which a few soldiers are exposed to levels of depleted uranium that result in a significant risk to health. Further studies are needed to determine the levels of exposure to depleted uranium that might occur on the battlefield and to judge whether such higher risks are likely to occur in practice

  20. The use of animals as a surveillance tool for monitoring environmental health hazards, human health hazards and bioterrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neo, Jacqueline Pei Shan; Tan, Boon Huan

    2017-05-01

    This review discusses the utilization of wild or domestic animals as surveillance tools for monitoring naturally occurring environmental and human health hazards. Besides providing early warning to natural hazards, animals can also provide early warning to societal hazards like bioterrorism. Animals are ideal surveillance tools to humans because they share the same environment as humans and spend more time outdoors than humans, increasing their exposure risk. Furthermore, the biologically compressed lifespans of some animals may allow them to develop clinical signs more rapidly after exposure to specific pathogens. Animals are an excellent channel for monitoring novel and known pathogens with outbreak potential given that more than 60 % of emerging infectious diseases in humans originate as zoonoses. This review attempts to highlight animal illnesses, deaths, biomarkers or sentinel events, to remind human and veterinary public health programs that animal health can be used to discover, monitor or predict environmental health hazards, human health hazards, or bioterrorism. Lastly, we hope that this review will encourage the implementation of animals as a surveillance tool by clinicians, veterinarians, ecosystem health professionals, researchers and governments. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. NIOSH Health Hazard Evaluation for d-Limonene

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-11-01

    of natural hydrocarbons referred to as terpenes (d-limonene is a monoterpene ). The other form of limonene is called 1-limonene, and a mixture of the...as a flavor and fragrance additive in perfumes, soaps, foods, chewing gum and beverages, and is the most widely distribiit. monoterpene ." 4’ The use of...effect and skin irritation of monocyclic monoterpenes . Drug Des Deliv 6:229-238. 29. Hooser SB, Beasley VR, Everitt J1 [1986]. Effects of an

  2. Worrying about terrorism and other acute environmental health hazard events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Michael; Babcock-Dunning, Lauren

    2012-04-01

    To better understand why some people worry more about terrorism compared with others, we measured how much US residents worried about a terrorist event in their area and examined the association of their fears with their concerns about acute and chronic hazards and other correlates. In 2008 (n = 600) and 2010 (n = 651), we performed a random-digit dialing national landline telephone survey. We asked about worries about terrorism and 5 other environmental health hazard issues. We also collected demographic and socioeconomic data. Only 15% worried "a great deal" about a terrorist event in their area and 18% to 33% were greatly concerned about other environmental issues. Fear about acute hazard events was a stronger predictor of a great deal of concern about terrorism than were age, race/ethnicity, gender, educational achievement, and other correlates. Those who worried most about acute environmental health hazard events were most likely to worry about terrorism. Also, those who were older, poorer, Blacks, or Latinos, or who lived in populous urban areas felt they were most vulnerable to terrorist attacks. We recommend methods to involve US citizens as part of disaster planning.

  3. Health hazards due to radon and its daughters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, H.A.; Qureshi, I.E.; Tufail, M.

    1993-01-01

    The health hazards liked to radon and its daughters have become a matter of great public concern. When inhaled, a fraction of radon is dissolved into the lung fluid, from where it is transported to other parts of the body. The radiation damage is caused to the lungs due to alpha decay of radon during its transit time within the respiratory tract. Radon daughters are found to be even more dangerous than radon itself. These daughters attach themselves to dust particles present in the air. Some of the aerosols so produced enter the lungs and enter the blood stream. It has now been confirmed that radon and its daughters contribute about 70% of the internal dose received by an individual from natural radiation sources. The danger of indoor radon and its daughters is even higher for energy-saving houses and those having poor ventilation systems. This paper briefly describes the health hazards due to radon and its daughters. Different methods employed for the measurement of concentrations of radon and their daughters are described. The experience gained from the nation-wide surveys carried out in different countries is also given. (author). 18 refs, 3 figs, 1 tab

  4. Occupational Health Hazards among Healthcare Workers in Kampala, Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rawlance Ndejjo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To assess the occupational health hazards faced by healthcare workers and the mitigation measures. Methods. We conducted a cross-sectional study utilizing quantitative data collection methods among 200 respondents who worked in 8 major health facilities in Kampala. Results. Overall, 50.0% of respondents reported experiencing an occupational health hazard. Among these, 39.5% experienced biological hazards while 31.5% experienced nonbiological hazards. Predictors for experiencing hazards included not wearing the necessary personal protective equipment (PPE, working overtime, job related pressures, and working in multiple health facilities. Control measures to mitigate hazards were availing separate areas and containers to store medical waste and provision of safety tools and equipment. Conclusion. Healthcare workers in this setting experience several hazards in their workplaces. Associated factors include not wearing all necessary protective equipment, working overtime, experiencing work related pressures, and working in multiple facilities. Interventions should be instituted to mitigate the hazards. Specifically PPE supply gaps, job related pressures, and complacence in adhering to mitigation measures should be addressed.

  5. Probabilistic induction of delayed health hazards in occupational radiation workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamad, M.H.M.; Abdel-Ghani, A.H.

    2003-01-01

    Occupational radiation workers are periodically monitored for their personal occupational dose. Various types of radiation measurement devices are used, mostly film badges and thermoluminescent dosimeters. Several thousand occupational radiation workers were monitored over a period of seven years (jan. 1995- Dec. 2001). These included atomic energy personnel, nuclear materials personnel, staff of mediology departments (diagnostic, therapeutic and nuclear medicine) and industrial occupational workers handling industrial radiography equipment besides other applications of radiation sources in industry. The probably of induction of health hazards in these radiation workers was assessed using the nominal probability coefficient adopted by the ICRP (1991) for both hereditary effects and cancer induction. In this treatise, data procured are presented and discussed inthe light of basic postulations of probabilistic occurrence of radiation induced delayed health effects

  6. Age-Related Health Hazards in Old Patients with First-Time Referral to a Rheumatologist: A Descriptive Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. van Lankveld

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To study the prevalence of generic age-related health hazards in elderly patient referred to a rheumatologist. Methods. Patients aged 75 or older referred to a specialized gerontorheumatological outpatient service over a period of 2 years were studied prospectively to determine the prevalence of comorbidities, a history of falls, inactivity, cognitive dysfunction, loneliness, and depression in this patient group. Results. A group of 154 patients were included in the study. Comorbidities were observed in 88% of the patients. At least one fall was reported in the last year by 44% of the patients; 44% of the patients reported low levels of health-enhancing physical activity. Depressed mood and loneliness were elevated in 30% and 31% of the patients, respectively. Mild or moderate cognitive impairment was observed in 13% of the patients. Conclusion. Patients in this study were characterized by poor physical ability, high levels of pain, and high prevalence of age-related health hazards.

  7. Antibiotic, Pesticide, and Microbial Contaminants of Honey: Human Health Hazards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noori Al-Waili

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural contamination with pesticides and antibiotics is a challenging problem that needs to be fully addressed. Bee products, such as honey, are widely consumed as food and medicine and their contamination may carry serious health hazards. Honey and other bee products are polluted by pesticides, heavy metals, bacteria and radioactive materials. Pesticide residues cause genetic mutations and cellular degradation and presence of antibiotics might increase resistant human or animal's pathogens. Many cases of infant botulisms have been attributed to contaminated honey. Honey may be very toxic when produced from certain plants. Ingestion of honey without knowing its source and safety might be problematic. Honey should be labeled to explore its origin, composition, and clear statement that it is free from contaminants. Honey that is not subjected for analysis and sterilization should not be used in infants, and should not be applied to wounds or used for medicinal purposes. This article reviews the extent and health impact of honey contamination and stresses on the introduction of a strict monitoring system and validation of acceptable minimal concentrations of pollutants or identifying maximum residue limits for bee products, in particular, honey.

  8. Developing regulations for occupational exposures to health hazards in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampal, Krishna Gopal; Mohd Nizam, J

    2006-11-01

    In Malaysia exposures in the workplace are regulated under the Factories and Machinery Act (FMA), 1967 and also under the more comprehensive Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA) enacted in 1994. With OSHA 1994 the philosophy of legislating safety and health in the workplace changed from one that was very prescriptive and containing detailed technical provisions under FMA, 1967 to one that is more flexible and encourages self-regulation under OSHA 1994. OSHA 1994 is supported by regulations, codes of practices and guidelines to further clarify the provisions in the Act. Under the FMA 1967 emphasis was on safety while with OSHA 1994 there has been equal emphasis on addressing health hazards in the workplace. Regulations for occupational exposures are developed by the Department of Occupational Safety and Health with tripartite and stakeholder consultation. When developing these regulations International Labor Organization Conventions, laws of other countries and occupational exposure standards adopted internationally are reviewed. The government also conducts surveys to collect information on both exposures and health effects in workplaces to have better understanding on specific occupational health problems. Effective law enforcement is crucial in ensuring compliance to safety and health law. The challenge at the moment is to ensure all employers and employees, particularly those in the small and medium enterprises, understand and comply with the provisions stipulated in the legislation.

  9. Environmental and health hazard ranking and assessment of plastic polymers based on chemical composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lithner, Delilah, E-mail: delilah.lithner@gmail.com; Larsson, Ake; Dave, Goeran

    2011-08-15

    Plastics constitute a large material group with a global annual production that has doubled in 15 years (245 million tonnes in 2008). Plastics are present everywhere in society and the environment, especially the marine environment, where large amounts of plastic waste accumulate. The knowledge of human and environmental hazards and risks from chemicals associated with the diversity of plastic products is very limited. Most chemicals used for producing plastic polymers are derived from non-renewable crude oil, and several are hazardous. These may be released during the production, use and disposal of the plastic product. In this study the environmental and health hazards of chemicals used in 55 thermoplastic and thermosetting polymers were identified and compiled. A hazard ranking model was developed for the hazard classes and categories in the EU classification and labelling (CLP) regulation which is based on the UN Globally Harmonized System. The polymers were ranked based on monomer hazard classifications, and initial assessments were made. The polymers that ranked as most hazardous are made of monomers classified as mutagenic and/or carcinogenic (category 1A or 1B). These belong to the polymer families of polyurethanes, polyacrylonitriles, polyvinyl chloride, epoxy resins, and styrenic copolymers. All have a large global annual production (1-37 million tonnes). A considerable number of polymers (31 out of 55) are made of monomers that belong to the two worst of the ranking model's five hazard levels, i.e. levels IV-V. The polymers that are made of level IV monomers and have a large global annual production (1-5 million tonnes) are phenol formaldehyde resins, unsaturated polyesters, polycarbonate, polymethyl methacrylate, and urea-formaldehyde resins. This study has identified hazardous substances used in polymer production for which the risks should be evaluated for decisions on the need for risk reduction measures, substitution, or even phase out

  10. Is electrosmog a health hazard? Expertise. 2. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaefer, H.

    1995-01-01

    The author summarises the results of his study as follows: Only in cases of very strong fields has it been possible to prove electromagnetic effects to be the cause of impaired well-being. Such fields only occur in industrial plants and areas under strict observation. There is no proof of bodily complaints being caused by electrosmog. Persons exposed to electrosmog show no obvious signs that can be considered detrienental to health. In none of the tests performed was it ascertainable beyond doubt that high-frequency fields from microwave ovens, radios, television sets etc. pose a health hazard to humans or animals. Nor can it be said with absolute certainty that low-frequency fields (50 Hz) are a danger to pregnant women and unborn babies. Disorders reported in this connection may be due to other causes such as excessive time spent in front of a computer screen. Two cues indicative of cancerogenecity were found. Incidence of tumors, particularly cerebral, is above average in the electrical professions. However, as there are many other occupational factors governing the incidence of cancer, this cannot be taken as proof of an electrical causation. Children living in relatively strong magnetic fields appear to develop cancer more often than other children. For adults this correlation is either very weak or not provable. This finding is difficult to interpret. For example, it stems from a study performed exclusively on children which were perceptibly subject to various detrimental influences of an economic and social nature. The incidence of death through cancer has been relatively constant for all age classes since decades. Its rise in older people only reflects their growing proportion in the total population. In children it has been decreasing in recent years, that is, in a period marked by an almost hundredfold increase in the occurrence and strength of magnetic fields. (orig./VHE) [de

  11. Decision support for risk prioritisation of environmental health hazards in a UK city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Mae; Crabbe, Helen; Close, Rebecca; Studden, Mike; Milojevic, Ai; Leonardi, Giovanni; Fletcher, Tony; Chalabi, Zaid

    2016-03-08

    There is increasing appreciation of the proportion of the health burden that is attributed to modifiable population exposure to environmental health hazards. To manage this avoidable burden in the United Kingdom (UK), government policies and interventions are implemented. In practice, this procedure is interdisciplinary in action and multi-dimensional in context. Here, we demonstrate how Multi Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) can be used as a decision support tool to facilitate priority setting for environmental public health interventions within local authorities. We combine modelling and expert elicitation to gather evidence on the impacts and ranking of interventions. To present the methodology, we consider a hypothetical scenario in a UK city. We use MCDA to evaluate and compare the impact of interventions to reduce the health burden associated with four environmental health hazards and rank them in terms of their overall performance across several criteria. For illustrative purposes, we focus on heavy goods vehicle controls to reduce outdoor air pollution, remediation to control levels of indoor radon, carbon monoxide and fitting alarms, and encouraging cycling to target the obesogenic environment. Regional data was included as model evidence to construct a ratings matrix for the city. When MCDA is performed with uniform weights, the intervention of heavy goods vehicle controls to reduce outdoor air pollution is ranked the highest. Cycling and the obesogenic environment is ranked second. We argue that a MCDA based approach provides a framework to guide environmental public health decision makers. This is demonstrated through an online interactive MCDA tool. We conclude that MCDA is a transparent tool that can be used to compare the impact of alternative interventions on a set of pre-defined criteria. In our illustrative example, we ranked the best intervention across the equally weighted selected criteria out of the four alternatives. Further work is needed

  12. Surveillance of Washington OSHA exposure data to identify uncharacterized or emerging occupational health hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lofgren, Don J; Reeb-Whitaker, Carolyn K; Adams, Darrin

    2010-07-01

    Chemical substance exposure data from the Washington State Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) program were reviewed to determine if inspections conducted as a result of a report of a hazard from a complainant or referent may alert the agency to uncharacterized or emerging health hazards. Exposure and other electronically stored data from 6890 health inspection reports conducted between April 2003 and August 2008 were extracted from agency records. A total of 515 (7%) inspections with one or more personal airborne chemical substance samples were identified for further study. Inspections by report of a hazard and by targeting were compared for the following: number of inspections, number and percentage of inspections with workers exposed to substances above an agency's permissible exposure limit, types of industries inspected, and number and type of chemical substances assessed. Report of a hazard inspections documented work sites with worker overexposure at the same rate as agency targeted inspections (approximately 35% of the time), suggesting that complainants and referents are a credible pool of observers capable of directing the agency to airborne chemical substance hazards. Report of a hazard inspections were associated with significantly broader distribution of industries as well as a greater variety of chemical substance exposures than were targeted inspections. Narrative text that described business type and processes inspected was more useful than NAICS codes alone and critical in identifying processes and industries that may be associated with new hazards. Finally, previously identified emerging hazards were found among the report of a hazard data. These findings indicate that surveillance of OSHA inspection data can be a valid tool to identify uncharacterized and emerging health hazards. Additional research is needed to develop criteria for objective review and prioritization of the data for intervention. Federal OSHA and other state

  13. Health Hazards Associated with Consumption of Roof-Collected Rainwater in Urban Areas in Emergency Situations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol Stewart

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The greater Wellington region, New Zealand, is highly vulnerable to large earthquakes because it is cut by active faults. Bulk water supply pipelines cross the Wellington Fault at several different locations, and there is considerable concern about severe disruption of the provision of reticulated water supplies to households and businesses in the aftermath of a large earthquake. A number of policy initiatives have been launched encouraging householders to install rainwater tanks to increase post-disaster resilience. However, little attention has been paid to potential health hazards associated with consumption of these supplies. To assess health hazards for householders in emergency situations, six 200-litre emergency water tanks were installed at properties across the Wellington region, with five tanks being allowed to fill with roof-collected rainwater and one tank being filled with municipal tapwater as a control. Such tanks are predominantly set aside for water storage and, once filled, feature limited drawdown and recharge. Sampling from these tanks was carried out fortnightly for one year, and samples were analysed for E. coli, pH, conductivity, a range of major and trace elements, and organic compounds, enabling an assessment of the evolution of water chemistry in water storage tanks over time. Key findings were that the overall rate of E. coli detections in the rain-fed tanks was 17.7%, which is low in relation to other studies. We propose that low incidences of may be due to biocidal effects of high zinc concentrations in tanks, originating from unpainted galvanised steel roof cladding. Lead concentrations were high compared to other studies, with 69% of rain-fed tank samples exceeding the World Health Organisation’s health-based guideline of 0.01 mg/L. Further work is required to determine risks of short-term consumption of this water in emergency situations.

  14. Health Hazards Associated with Consumption of Roof-Collected Rainwater in Urban Areas in Emergency Situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Carol; Kim, Nick D; Johnston, David M; Nayyerloo, Mostafa

    2016-10-15

    The greater Wellington region, New Zealand, is highly vulnerable to large earthquakes because it is cut by active faults. Bulk water supply pipelines cross the Wellington Fault at several different locations, and there is considerable concern about severe disruption of the provision of reticulated water supplies to households and businesses in the aftermath of a large earthquake. A number of policy initiatives have been launched encouraging householders to install rainwater tanks to increase post-disaster resilience. However, little attention has been paid to potential health hazards associated with consumption of these supplies. To assess health hazards for householders in emergency situations, six 200-litre emergency water tanks were installed at properties across the Wellington region, with five tanks being allowed to fill with roof-collected rainwater and one tank being filled with municipal tapwater as a control. Such tanks are predominantly set aside for water storage and, once filled, feature limited drawdown and recharge. Sampling from these tanks was carried out fortnightly for one year, and samples were analysed for E. coli , pH, conductivity, a range of major and trace elements, and organic compounds, enabling an assessment of the evolution of water chemistry in water storage tanks over time. Key findings were that the overall rate of E. coli detections in the rain-fed tanks was 17.7%, which is low in relation to other studies. We propose that low incidences of may be due to biocidal effects of high zinc concentrations in tanks, originating from unpainted galvanised steel roof cladding. Lead concentrations were high compared to other studies, with 69% of rain-fed tank samples exceeding the World Health Organisation's health-based guideline of 0.01 mg/L. Further work is required to determine risks of short-term consumption of this water in emergency situations.

  15. An assessment of ozone levels, UV radiation and their occupational health hazard estimation during photocopying operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Bhupendra Pratap, E-mail: bpsingh0783@gmail.com; Kumar, Amit; Singh, Deepak; Punia, Monika; Kumar, Krishan; Jain, Vinod Kumar

    2014-06-30

    Highlights: • First quantitative report of ozone level and UV radiation emission from photocopier. • Ozone production is directly proportional with intensity of photocopy operation. • Ozone level from ground floor is significantly higher than basement photocopier. • Ozone production and UV radiation studied has less correlation during photocopy. • Health hazard issue has been evaluated for effect of UV radiation in terms of SED. - Abstract: This study investigates the levels of ozone concentration along with an ultraviolet (UV) and visible spectral radiation at eight photocopy centers in an academic institute, Delhi. Sampling was done in two types of locations, i.e., basement photocopy centers (BPC) and ground floor photocopy centers (GPC) for 8 h. Measurements of levels of ozone, UV and visible radiation were done by ozone analyzer, UV radiometer and Field spectra instrument, respectively. Results show that the hourly mean concentration of ozone was observed to be in the range of 1.8–10.0 ppb and 5.3–45.8 ppb for BPC and GPC, respectively. In terms UV radiations, energy lies between 5.0 × 10{sup −3} and 7.0 × 10{sup −3} mW/cm{sup 2} for ultraviolet A (UVA), 1.0 × 10{sup −3} and 2.0 × 10{sup −3} mW/cm{sup 2} for ultraviolet B (UVB) and 6.0 × 10{sup −3} and 8.0 × 10{sup −3} mW/cm{sup 2} for ultraviolet C (UVC). Correlation between the UV radiations and ozone production observed was statistically insignificant. To know the health hazard occurred to the workers, the standard erythema dose (SED) value was calculated for emitting UV radiation. The SED was estimated to be in the range of 0.02–0.04 and 0.02–0.32 for direct and indirect methods which is less than the guideline prescribed by Commission Internationale del’ Eclairage (CIE). In nutshell, person involved in photocopy operation for their livelihood must be trained and should have knowledge for the long term gradual build up health problems due to ozone and UV production from

  16. Awareness and Self-Reported Health Hazards of Electromagnetic Waves from Mobile Phone Towers in Dhaka, Bangladesh: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheikh Mohammed Shariful Islam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Over the last few years there have been concerns regarding the health effects of electromagnetic waves (EMW produced by mobile phone base transmitter stations (BTS. Data on possible health effects of EMW in developing countries are rare. This study was conducted to determine the awareness and self-reported health hazards of EMW from the mobile phone BTS in Dhaka city. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 220 respondents living around BTS in Dhaka city. Data was collected on sociodemographic characteristics, mobile phone use, BTS and EMW awareness, and self-reported health problems. Results. The majority of respondents (92.7% reported to have seen a BTS but only 29.5% knows how it works and 74.5% had no knowledge about the EMW. 49% respondents experienced sleeping disturbances while recent episodes of headache or dizziness were reported by 47% and mood change or anxiety or depression by 41%. About 22% complained about other physical or mental symptoms. Conclusion. Awareness about the possible health hazards from EMW of BTS is low among the inhabitants of Dhaka city. A number of respondents mentioned recent health effects but the association with BTS could not be established.

  17. Basic topical problems on health hazards from ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobi, W.; Paretzke, H.G.; Merkle, W.; Lechle, M.; Matthies, M.; Messerer, P.; Schindel, F.; Wirth, E.; Eisfeld, K.

    In the framework of this research contract, a number of important questions have been considered which have been of basic interest in radiological protection against low doses of ionizing radiation. In particular, research concentrated on the various statistical concepts for the evaluation of epidemiological data for the purpose of radiation risk analysis, derivation of dose-time-effect-relationships for certain somatic effects, time dependence of selected dose-conversion factors, radiation hazards of carbon-14, tritium, and of radon daughter products. The essential results have been reported in separate publications, and therefore will only be shortly summarized here. (orig./HP) [de

  18. Health hazards to children due to the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kollmann, F; Hartung, K

    1986-01-01

    The article tries to assess the radiation effects as objectively as possible. In conclusion, some steps that should be taken in future are listed, as e.g.: continuous monitoring of the radioactivity levels in air and soil, and recording of data for complete information. Further, investigation and assessment of radiation exposure of children, especially in regions most heavily affected; radioactivity monitoring of the food and milk given to children, and scientific research into the problem by pediatrists, and determination of maximum acceptable radiation doses. (orig./HSCH).

  19. Mapping and Mitigating the International Rip Current Health Hazard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimble, S. M.; Houser, C.

    2016-12-01

    Rip currents are concentrated seaward flows of water originating in the surf zones of beaches. Rips cause hundreds of international drownings each year. Calculating exact numbers is barred by logistical difficulties in obtaining accurate incident reports, but annual rip current fatalities are estimated at 100, 53 and 21 in the United States (US), Costa Rica, and Australia respectively. Notably, Australia's lifeguards rescue 17,600 swimmers from rips each year. This project addresses the geophysical, social, and systematic causes of fatalities in hopes of decreasing the global number of rip-related deaths. We demonstrate a novel method for mapping bathymetry in the surf zone (20m deep or less), specifically within rip channels (topographic low spots in the nearshore that result from feedback amongst waves, substrate, and antecedent bathymetry). We calculate bathymetry using 8-band multispectral imagery from the Digital Globe WorldView2 (WV2) satellite and field measurements of depth, generating maps of the changing nearshore at two embayed, rip-prone beaches: Playa Cocles, Costa Rica, and Bondi Beach, Australia. WV2 has a 1.1 day pass-over rate with 1.84m ground pixel resolution of 8 bands, including `yellow' (585-625 nm) and `coastal blue' (400-450 nm). Methods are tested for consistency amongst dates and locations. Previous research shows drownings result from a combination of the physical environment with personal and group behaviors; for this reason we build on rip-detection by evaluating tourists' and locals' knowledge and understanding of their beach's rip behavior. By combining the geomorphologic maps developed from WV2 with interview data, we evaluate how the physical environment dictates the exposure of certain swimmers. Controls include rip channel location, beach access points, and environmental factors favored by swimmers. The project serves as an evaluation of the landscape's creation of a physical feature that becomes a hazard when vulnerable humans

  20. Women, Work and Health Hazards: A Fact Sheet and Cosmetologists: Health Risks at Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Commission on Working Women, Washington, DC.

    The first part of this document is a fact sheet that provides information on health hazards faced by employed women. It covers the Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA), job-related diseases suffered by workers in female-dominated occupations, employer responsibilities under OSHA, and the lack of statistical reporting on job-related disease.…

  1. An investigation of the health hazards of some of the chemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This short piece takes a limited look at the health hazards of the chemical contents of seven fruit juices sold in The Gambia. All of them have very negative effects on health. The following additives were considered: sweeteners, coloring agents, flavoring agents and acidifiers vis-à-vis established studies. [African Journal of ...

  2. an investigation of the health hazards of some of the chemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Temechegn

    This short piece takes a limited look at the health hazards of the chemical contents of ... With this in mind, the researchers purchased all the powdered fruit juices sold in ... Administration (FDA) or some other regulatory body for low toxicity, ...

  3. Assessment of human health hazard due to metal uptake via fish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of human health hazard due to metal uptake via fish consumption from coastal area of Tanzania. ... The result shows that the concentration and THQ of As in all fish samples ranges from 1.173 – 2.325 which is > 1, hence signified that a daily exposure at this level are in risk of cancer during a person lifetime.

  4. Safety and Equality at Odds: OSHA and Title VII Clash over Health Hazards in the Workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowell, Donald R.; Copus, David A.

    1978-01-01

    Discusses the legal problems presented by job health hazards which have a different effect on men and women. Where methods of eliminating or minimizing exposure, as required by the Occupational Safety and Health Act, affect only one sex, the provisions of Title VII of the Civil Rights Act may be violated. (MF)

  5. A comparative study of health hazards and environmental impacts for electricity generation through nuclear energy hidroelectricity and coal fired thermoeletrical generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guimaraes, C.A.

    1982-01-01

    Environmental impacts and health hazards were comparatively assessed in regard to electricity generation via nuclear energy, hidraulic dams and coal firing. The main aspects covered the nuclear reactor and its associated nuclear fuel cycle, coal fired thermoelectrical power plant its associated coal industry, and hidroelectrical power plant and its dam. Besides specific comparisons of impacts in the air, water, soil and health hazards an evaluation for the Brazilian case was made based on a forecast of electricity demand up to the year 2020. For the nuclear option the consequences were analysed based on American data since no data is yet available for Brazil. Coal firing option was also analised for based heavily on American data due to small Brazilian experience in this sector of energy generation. For hydroelectrical option Brazilian data were used mostly from CESP for comparative purposes. These alternatives for generation of electricity considered in this study are the most relevant for the next four decades for Brazil. (Author) [pt

  6. Drinking water and health hazards in environmental perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zoeteman, B C

    1985-12-01

    Among the present environmental issues drinking water quality and more specifically organic micropollutants receive not the highest priority. The long tradition of potable water quality assurance and the sophisticated evaluation methodologies provide a very useful approach which has great potential for wider application in environmental research and policy making. Water consumption patterns and the relative importance of the drinking water exposure route show that inorganic water contaminants generally contribute much more to the total daily intake than organic micropollutants. An exception is chloroform and probably the group of typical chlorination by-products. Among the carcinogenic organic pollutants in drinking water only chlorination by-products may potentially increase the health risk. Treatment should therefore be designed to reduce chemical oxidant application as much as possible. It is expected that in the beginning of next century organic micropollutants will receive much less attention and that the present focus on treatment by-products will shift to distribution problems. Within the total context of water quality monitoring microbiological tests will grow in relative importance and might once again dominate chemical analysis the next century. As disinfection is the central issue of the present water treatment practice the search for the ideal disinfection procedure will continue and might result in a further reduction in the use of chemical oxidants. 26 references.

  7. Chemical incidents resulted in hazardous substances releases in the context of human health hazards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Pałaszewska-Tkacz

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The research purpose was to analyze data concerning chemical incidents in Poland collected in 1999–2009 in terms of health hazards. Material and Methods: The data was obtained, using multimodal information technology (IT system, from chemical incidents reports prepared by rescuers at the scene. The final analysis covered sudden events associated with uncontrolled release of hazardous chemical substances or mixtures, which may potentially lead to human exposure. Releases of unidentified substances where emergency services took action to protect human health or environment were also included. Results: The number of analyzed chemical incidents in 1999–2009 was 2930 with more than 200 different substances released. The substances were classified into 13 groups of substances and mixtures posing analogous risks. Most common releases were connected with non-flammable corrosive liquids, including: hydrochloric acid (199 cases, sulfuric(VI acid (131 cases, sodium and potassium hydroxides (69 cases, ammonia solution (52 cases and butyric acid (32 cases. The next group were gases hazardous only due to physico-chemical properties, including: extremely flammable propane-butane (249 cases and methane (79 cases. There was no statistically significant trend associated with the total number of incidents. Only with the number of incidents with flammable corrosive, toxic and/or harmful liquids, the regression analysis revealed a statistically significant downward trend. The number of victims reported was 1997, including 1092 children and 18 fatalities. Conclusions: The number of people injured, number of incidents and the high 9th place of Poland in terms of the number of Seveso establishments, and 4 times higher number of hazardous industrial establishments not covered by the Seveso Directive justify the need for systematic analysis of hazards and their proper identification. It is advisable enhance health risk assessment, both qualitative and

  8. Characterization of Montserrat volcanic ash for the assessment of respiratory health hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horwell, Claire Judith

    2002-01-01

    to bio-reactivity and toxicity of dusts within the lung. The surface reactivity of volcanic ash was studied for the first time, to determine if it is capable of producing surface and/or free radicals. Concentrations of hydroxyl radicals are found to be high in respirable volcanic ash in comparison to a known toxic mineral, being 2-3 times higher than a quartz standard. The concentration of free radicals are found to be similar in samples with high and very low cristobalite content. Cristobalite, alone, shows no production of hydroxyl or surface radicals. It is possible, however, that crystalline silica is involved in different mechanisms of toxicity, involving other radicals and pathways. The main cause of high radical productivity is shown to be reduced iron ions (Fe 2+ ) on the surface of ferromagnesian minerals which are known to be particularly reactive in the lung. A new hazard has, therefore, been identified: iron is a major factor that must be considered when assessing the respiratory health hazard of volcanic dusts. (author)

  9. Characterization of Montserrat volcanic ash for the assessment of respiratory health hazards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horwell, Claire Judith

    2002-07-01

    closely linked to bio-reactivity and toxicity of dusts within the lung. The surface reactivity of volcanic ash was studied for the first time, to determine if it is capable of producing surface and/or free radicals. Concentrations of hydroxyl radicals are found to be high in respirable volcanic ash in comparison to a known toxic mineral, being 2-3 times higher than a quartz standard. The concentration of free radicals are found to be similar in samples with high and very low cristobalite content. Cristobalite, alone, shows no production of hydroxyl or surface radicals. It is possible, however, that crystalline silica is involved in different mechanisms of toxicity, involving other radicals and pathways. The main cause of high radical productivity is shown to be reduced iron ions (Fe{sup 2+}) on the surface of ferromagnesian minerals which are known to be particularly reactive in the lung. A new hazard has, therefore, been identified: iron is a major factor that must be considered when assessing the respiratory health hazard of volcanic dusts. (author)

  10. Radiation hygiene survey on human and cattle in Fukushima prefecture no health hazards due to low doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takada, Jun

    2012-01-01

    Radiation hygiene survey has been conducted about Fukushima Dai-Ichi nuclear power station disaster caused by tsunami in the East Japan earthquake area on March 11 th 2011. Our surveys reveal that a public annual dose is 10 mSv following low-dose and health hazards shall not be concluded by the methods of in situ dose evaluation. This study has been focused on internal dosimetries of iodine-131 in thyroid and of cesium-134, 137 in whole body. Especially we continuously have been studing radiation hygiene on cattle livestock in Namie town within 20 km zone around the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station, and found no problem for the recovery. (author)

  11. Air conditioning systems as non-infectious health hazards inducing acute respiratory symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Alexander; Fischer, Axel; Willig, Karl-Heinz; Groneberg, David A

    2006-04-01

    Chronic and acute exposure to toxic aerosols belongs to frequent causes of airway diseases. However, asthma attacks due to long-distance inhalative exposure to organic solvents, transmitted via an air condition system, have not been reported so far. The present case illustrates the possibility of air conditioning systems as non-infectious health hazards in occupational medicine. So far, only infectious diseases such as legionella pneumophila pneumonia have commonly been associated to air-conditioning exposures but physicians should be alert to the potential of transmission of toxic volatile substances via air conditioning systems. In view of the events of the 11th of September 2001 with a growing danger of large building terrorism which may even use air conditioning systems to transmit toxins, facility management security staff should be alerted to possible non-infectious toxic health hazards arising from air-conditioning systems.

  12. Effectuality of Cleaning Workers' Training and Cleaning Enterprises' Chemical Health Hazard Risk Profiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulqadir M. Suleiman

    2015-12-01

    Conclusion: Training of cleaning workers lacks the prerequisite for suitability and effectiveness to counter risks of chemical health hazards. There is dereliction of duty by management in the sector resulting in a lack of competence among the cleaning workers. Instituting acceptable easily attainable safety competence level for cleaners will conduce to risk reduction, and enforcement of attainment of the competence level would be a positive step.

  13. Chemical incidents resulted in hazardous substances releases in the context of human health hazards.

    OpenAIRE

    Palaszewska-Tkacz, Anna; Czerczak, Sławomir; Konieczko, Katarzyna

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: The research purpose was to analyze data concerning chemical incidents in Poland collected in 1999–2009 in terms of health hazards. Material and Methods: The data was obtained, using multimodal information technology (IT) system, from chemical incidents reports prepared by rescuers at the scene. The final analysis covered sudden events associated with uncontrolled release of hazardous chemical substances or mixtures, which may potentially lead to human exposure. Releases of uniden...

  14. Risk Assessment of Physical Health Hazards in Al-Azhar University Hospital in New Damietta, Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed El-Hady Imam*, Raed Mohammed Alazab**,

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Personnel working in hospitals are exposed to many occupational hazards that may threaten their health and safety. Physical hazards that are encountered in hospital working environment include temperature, illumination, noise, electrical injuries, and radiation. Objectives: The objectives of this study were to identify physical health hazards in all departments of Al-Azhar University Hospital in new Damietta, to measure risk level of these hazards, and to recognize safety me...

  15. Occupational health hazards in street sweepers of Chandrapur city, central India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Patil Priyanka

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Street sweepers play an important role in maintaining health and hygiene in cities. They are exposed to road dust and other contaminants while cleaning streets. Exposure of this dust and contaminants irritates respiratory symptoms and airway obstruction. Twenty workers were selected as sample size (10 male and 10 female and 10 individual as control (5 male and 5 female for analysis of occupational health hazards in street sweepers of Chandrapur city. The study was carried out from November 2015 to January 2016. Peak Expiratory Flow Rate analysis which was carried out through Breath-o meter and other occupational health hazards through interview schedule specially designed and developed for this study. The results of the study showed that, Peak Expiratory Flow Rate values were lower in exposed workers (sample population as compared with control group. These workers were exposed to number of environmental and occupational hazards leading to musculoskeletal disorders (100%, respiratory problems (95%, dermatological problems (90%, headache (75% and gastrointestinal problems (15% during work. It was further observed that theses workers were suffering from allergies (100%, cough and cold (75%, asthma and bronchitis lungs (65%, hearing disorder (50%, malaria and typhoid (25%, fever (15% and vomiting (10% after completion of work. To reduce occupational health hazards in sweepers, they must be made alert and aware of potential health risk arising from their work. Reduction in exposure and use of personal protective equipments should be encouraged.INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTVolume-6, Issue-2, Mar-May 2017, Page: 9-18

  16. Review of comparative studies of health hazards associated with electric power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paskievici, W.

    1982-01-01

    Twenty comparative studies on health hazards associated with different methods of energy production were reviewed in order to highlight the methodological problems which are characteristic of this type of study and attempt to bring the results obtained closer together by using a more consistent methodological approach. The main conceptual difficulties lie in the delineation of the boundaries of a fuel cycle, the choice of technologies, dose-effect relationships and health hazard estimates, and in finding equivalent values in the case of real and hypothetical risks and of present and future risks. Practical limitations in predicting the number and gravity of illnesses and accidents both in workers and the population were also reviewed. The health effects associated with the coal, oil, natural gas and uranium cycles were estimated with the following assumptions: exclusion of risks associated with non-fuel resources, use of advanced technologies, use of linear non-threshold dose-effect relationships, exclusion of hypothetical accidents and exclusion or discounting to present worth of long-term risks (>500 years). It can be concluded from these calculations that the health hazards from all the energy sources considered are relatively low and therefore acceptable, natural gas being the safest source followed by uranium, oil and coal in that order. The uncertainty factors are discussed and methods to improve the results are proposed. It is also shown that the radiological risks to workers in the PHWR cycle are approximately half those of the LWR cycle. (author)

  17. Conducting evaluations to determine training effectiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, J. Doug; Yoder, John A. Yoder

    2003-01-01

    Training organizations must answer the question: Is the training program adding value in terms of workforce productivity and safety? To answer this question, one needs to know what circumstances led to the development of training to determine how to measure the result of Gaining. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (ENEEL), under contract with the United States Department Of Energy (U.S. DOE), has conducted extensive research hi the area of training effectiveness. A comprehensive Training Performance Indicator Model has been developed, which has become the basis for a DRAFT document entitled Guidance for Conducting Evaluations to Determine Training Effectiveness'. The indicator Model includes the performance indicators, strategies, and methods for measuring training effectiveness. A common nomenclature is used throughout the DRAFT document to aid in using and understanding training effectiveness evaluations. The model incorporates elements of Dr. Donald L. Kirkpatrick's evaluation model, other models from industry leaders, and the findings of a benchmarking study involving both nuclear and non-nuclear industry professionals. This presentation communicates recent Department of Energy efforts in evaluating effectiveness of training, including valuable lessons learned. (author)

  18. Childhood obesity: Determinants, evaluation, and prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moutusi Raychaudhuri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Childhood obesity is a grave issue, which needs to be addressed urgently because it leads to several medical and psychosocial problems in children. High prevalence is being increasingly reported in children from developing countries as well. The combination of our genetic propensity to store fat, the ready availability of calorie dense foods, and sedentary lifestyle promotes overweight. The child′s food environment at home and parental obesity are strong determinants. Urban poor in developed countries and urban rich in developing countries are both at risk. In developing countries, a number of beliefs passed down over generations are other important determinants. Evaluation includes assessing the child′s lifestyle, excluding weight-promoting medication history; poor linear growth needs endocrine evaluation; genetic syndromes should be considered if there are clinical pointers. Overweight children should be evaluated for hypertension, dyslipidemia, T2DM, and NAFLD. Therapeutic lifestyle changes targeting food habits and physical activity through parental participation and social support are the cornerstones of preventing childhood obesity. Active travel and play by making the built environment more accessible, ban on ′junk′ food advertising, and effective health education through active participation of clinicians, school systems, and the media will go a long way in reversing anticipated trends in childhood obesity.

  19. Evaluating the fermionic determinant of dynamical configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasenfratz, Anna; Alexandru, Andrei

    2002-01-01

    We propose and study an improved method to calculate the fermionic determinant of dynamical configurations. The evaluation or at least stochastic estimation of the ratios of fermionic determinants is essential for a recently proposed updating method of smeared link dynamical fermions. This update creates a sequence of configurations by changing a subset of the gauge links by a pure gauge heat bath or over-relaxation step. The acceptance of the proposed configuration depends on the ratio of the fermionic determinants on the new and original configurations. We study this ratio as a function of the number of links that are changed in the heat bath update. We find that even when every link of a given direction and parity of a 10 fm 4 configuration is updated, the average of the determinant ratio is still close to one and with the improved stochastic estimator the proposed change is accepted with about 20% probability. This improvement suggests that the new updating technique can be efficient even on large lattices and could provide an updating method for dynamical overlap actions

  20. CalEnviroScreen 1.0 (CES) Group, California, 2013, California EPA and Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Developed jointly by the Agency and the Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment (OEHHA), the tool uses data about 11 types of pollution and environmental...

  1. Evaluation of determinative methods for sodium impurities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molinari, Marcelo; Guido, Osvaldo; Botbol, Jose; Ares, Osvaldo

    1988-01-01

    Sodium, universally accepted as heat transfer fluid in fast breeder reactors, requires a special technology for every operation involved in any applicable methodology, due to its well known chemical reactivity. The purpose of this work is: a) to study the sources and effects of chemical species which, as traces, accompany sodium used in the nuclear field; b) to classify, taking into account, the present requirements and resources of the National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA), the procedures found in the literature for determination of the most important impurities which exist in experimental liquid sodium systems and c) to describe the principles of the methods and to evaluate them in order to make a selection. It was concluded the convenience to develop, as a first stage, laboratory procedures to determine carbon, oxygen, hydrogen and non-volatile impurities, which besides serving present needs, will be referential for direct methods with undeferred response. The latter are needed in liquid sodium experimental loops and require, primarily, more complex and extended development. Additionally, a description is made of experimental work performed up-to-now in this laboratory, consisting of a transfer device for sodium sampling and a sodium distillation device, adapted from a previous design, with associated vacuum and inert gas systems. It is intended as a separative technique for indirect determination of oxygen and non-volatile impurities. (Author) [es

  2. Biomarkers of exposure, effect, and susceptibility of arsenic-induced health hazards in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, C.-J.; Hsu, L.-I; Wang, C.-H.

    2005-01-01

    Long-term exposure to inorganic arsenic from drinking water has been documented to induce cancers and vascular diseases in a dose-response relationship. A series of molecular environmental epidemiological studies have been carried out to elucidate biomarkers of exposure, effect, and susceptibility for arsenic-related health hazards in Taiwan. Arsenic levels in urine, hair, and nail are biomarkers for short-term (<1 year) internal dose, skin hyperpigmentation and palmoplantar hyperkeratosis are for long-term (many years) internal dose, and percentage of monomethylarsonic acid in total metabolites of inorganic arsenic in urine may be considered as an exposure marker for biologically effective dose. The biomarkers of early biological effects of ingested inorganic arsenic included blood levels of reactive oxidants and anti-oxidant capacity, genetic expression of inflammatory molecules, as well as cytogenetic changes including sister chromatid exchange, micronuclei, and chromosome aberrations of peripheral lymphocytes. Both mutation type and hot spots of p53 gene were significantly different in arsenic-induced and non-arsenic-induced TCCs. The frequency of chromosomal imbalances analyzed by comparative genomic hybridization and the frequency of loss of heterozygosity were significantly higher in arsenic-induced TCC than non-arsenic-induced TCC at specific sites. Biomarkers of susceptibility to arsenic-induced health hazards included genetic polymorphisms of enzymes involved in xenobiotic metabolism, DNA repair, and oxidative stress, as well as serum level of carotenoids. Gene-gene and gene-environment interactions are involved in arsenic-induced health hazards through toxicological mechanisms including genomic instability and oxidative stress

  3. [Synthetic cannabinoids: spread, addiction biology & current perspective of personal health hazard].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnet, U; Mahler, H

    2015-04-01

    Among the new psychoactive substances (NPS), most frequently synthetic cannabinoids (SCBs) have been found in Europe. These are sold as active compounds in e. g. so-called "herbal blends". When inhaled or ingested, besides intoxication symptoms, as they occur with heavy cannabis use (e. g., tachycardia, myocardial infarction, confusion, hallucinations, panic attacks, and paranoia), harmful effects (severe agitation, coma, catatonic stupor, hypertension, cardiac arrhythmia, dyspnoea, seizures, myoclonus, rhabdomyolysis, hyperthermia, diaphoresis, acute kidney injury, vomiting, headache, and hypokalemia) arise, which are mostly unusual about cannabis use. In addition, the first cases of addiction and death related to SCBs have been reported. Taking into account the newest literature and using an algorithm with two main criteria (addiction potential, toxicity), the authors made a first attempt to rank the personal health hazard of SCBs in comparison to that of other psychoactive drugs. Accordingly, the relative health hazard of SCBs is found to be somewhat higher than that of cannabis and lower than that of synthetic cathinones ("bath salts"). However, the toxicity of SCBs, is significantly greater than the toxicity of cannabis, thus being similar to that of synthetic cathinones and benzodiazepines. The addiction potential appears to be lower than that of synthetic cathinones, benzodiazepines, or cannabis. Due to the fluctuation of substances and the availability in internet resources, legislation is facing a serious "hare-hedgehog" problem to control the manufacture, trade and possession of SCBs. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. The effects of prioritize inspections on occupational health hazards control in workplaces in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Fatemah; Bahrami, Abdolrahman; Fatemi, Farin

    2014-01-01

    Iran, a newly industrializing country in Middle East, has a workforce of 25 million people. Most employees are working in agriculture, manufacturing, services, construction, commerce sectors, carpet weaving and mining. This article aims to explore the improvement of occupational harmful agents in workplaces due to implement "prioritize inspections". In 2012, the system of "prioritize inspections "was defined for surveillance on enterprises replace of routine inspection. From this system, the enterprises classified on four groups based on health hazards and enterprises with high risk were under more surveillance. The information about each enterprise was collected by health centers, in five provinces and reported by a recommended form to Centre of Environmental and Occupational Health (CEOH). At this program, the inspections from high and medium hazards were increased in all of provinces. The results showed there was a significant difference between the control of health hazards in before and after beginning of "prioritize inspections"(P=0.048). The control of noise, fumes and providing of proper illumination increased from 8 to 10%, 9 to 9.5%, 12.9 to 15.4%, respectively, at under study provinces in 2012 compared to 2011. The surveillance based on "prioritize inspections" increased the quality of occupational health inspections that causes to prevent occupational health diseases.

  5. Effectiveness of Awareness Package on Occupational Health Hazards among Ragpickers of New Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwalla, Rashmi; Pathak, Rambha; Singh, Mitasha; Islam, Farzana; Parashar, Mamta

    2017-01-01

    Ragpickers are informal workers who collect recyclable materials to earn a small wage on daily basis. They work in vulnerable conditions and awareness regarding occupational and environmental hazard is essential for them. To study the effectiveness of awareness program on various occupational health hazards among the ragpickers. This interventional study was conducted from May through October 2016 among the ragpickers living near field practice area of Department of Community Medicine and those living in slum areas around HAHC Hospital, New Delhi, India. The awareness regarding occupational and environmental health hazards was assessed using a pretested and predesigned pro forma. Snowball sampling technique was used to select the ragpickers from the various areas. Health awareness and education package was designed for the ragpickers. The package was delivered by medical officers and health workers. A posttest assessment was done 2 weeks after the awareness activity. Among 150 ragpickers, there was significant improvement in knowledge immediate post training on knowledge of occupational hazard and hygiene. Efforts should be put to develop training materials on occupation and environmental health and injury issue relating to waste management.

  6. Effectuality of Cleaning Workers' Training and Cleaning Enterprises' Chemical Health Hazard Risk Profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suleiman, Abdulqadir M; Svendsen, Kristin V H

    2015-12-01

    Goal-oriented communication of risk of hazards is necessary in order to reduce risk of workers' exposure to chemicals. Adequate training of workers and enterprise priority setting are essential elements. Cleaning enterprises have many challenges and the existing paradigms influence the risk levels of these enterprises. Information on organization and enterprises' prioritization in training programs was gathered from cleaning enterprises. A measure of enterprises' conceptual level of importance of chemical health hazards and a model for working out the risk index (RI) indicating enterprises' conceptual risk level was established and used to categorize the enterprises. In 72.3% of cases, training takes place concurrently with task performances and in 67.4% experienced workers conduct the trainings. There is disparity between employers' opinion on competence level of the workers and reality. Lower conceptual level of importance was observed for cleaning enterprises of different sizes compared with regional safety delegates and occupational hygienists. Risk index values show no difference in risk level between small and large enterprises. Training of cleaning workers lacks the prerequisite for suitability and effectiveness to counter risks of chemical health hazards. There is dereliction of duty by management in the sector resulting in a lack of competence among the cleaning workers. Instituting acceptable easily attainable safety competence level for cleaners will conduce to risk reduction, and enforcement of attainment of the competence level would be a positive step.

  7. Arsenic in drinking water and in scalp hair by EDXRF. A major recent health hazard in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, M.; Tarafdar, S.A.

    2003-01-01

    Arsenic content in drinking water and in scalp hair of the arsenic affected areas in Bangladesh were measured using energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) to determine the contribution of drinking water to body burden and health risks. Around 61% of the water analyzed from tube-wells has arsenic content above 0.05 mg/l and about 13% have arsenic content above 0.01 mg/l. The mean concentration of arsenic in contaminated water is about 0.26 mg/l with the maximum level of 0.83 mg/l. The contaminated water thus contributes a significant amount to the arsenic budget in humans in Bangladesh and consequently, to their health hazards. The average concentration of arsenic in hair of a patient group drinking contaminated water is 14.1 mg/kg where the normal levels are <3.0 mg/kg. The distribution of arsenic in water and in hair is compared and discussed with the data reported in the literature. The daily dietary intake value of arsenic by the adult population in Bangladesh is estimated and assessed signifying health effects. (author)

  8. Vaginal douching by women with vulvovaginitis and relation to reproductive health hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaaban, Omar M; Youssef, Alaa Eldin A; Khodry, Mostafa M; Mostafa, Sayed A

    2013-05-14

    Vaginal douching (VD) is a common practice among married women all over the world specially those in the Middle East. It is used for personal hygiene or for other aesthetic reasons in many countries. The current study investigates the prevalence of VD among patients with vulvovaginitis in Egypt. It also compares the reproductive health hazards among women performing routine VD with those using external hygiene. It also investigates why, and how women practice this douching. A cross sectional observational study was conducted in a tertiary university affiliated hospital in Assiut, Egypt. An interview administered questionnaire was administered to 620 women by two trained clinic nurses. Women presented to the outpatient clinic and diagnosed to have any type of vaginal infections were approached for participation. The principle outcome was the history of preterm labor in women who routinely performed VD versus those who did not (upon which sample size was estimated). Other outcome measures were the types of vaginal infections, and reproductive implications comprising, ectopic pregnancy, abortion and pelvic inflammatory disease (PID). The participants were predominantly multiparas from semi-urban background and middle socioeconomic level. Considering VD as a religious duty and a kind of personal cleanliness were the most common reasons for performing VD in 88.9% and 80.6% of the studied population, respectively. History of preterm labor was reported in 19.2% versus 11.9% (p=0.048), while history of PID in 13.2% versus 6.0% (p=0.008) in women performing VD compared to those not performing this habit, respectively. There were no significant differences between the two groups as regard the history of ectopic pregnancy or the number of previous abortions. Vaginal douching is a prevalent practice in Egypt and has traditional and religious roots within the community. There are many misbeliefs around this habit in Egypt. Vaginal douching increases certain reproductive health

  9. A survey of occupational health hazards among 7,610 female workers in China's electronics industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wenlan; Lao, Xiang Qian; Pang, Shulan; Zhou, Jianjiao; Zhou, Anshou; Zou, Jianfang; Mei, Liangying; Yu, Ignatius Tak-sun

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the occupational hazards among Chinese female workers in the electronics industry, the authors systematically sampled a total of 8,300 female workers at random across 4 provinces in a variety of electronics factories. A detailed questionnaire was used to collect information on occupational hazards and the occurrence of occupation-related diseases. The results show that 4,283 female workers (51.9%) were exposed to 1 or more occupational hazards. The most common chemical hazard was organic solvent, and the second most common was heavy metals. The ergonomic hazards included repetitive movements, poor standing posture, and the lifting of heavy goods. More than 60% of the female workers self-reported occupation-related diseases. These results showed that occupational health hazards were common in the electronics industry in China and that they caused serious occupation-related health problems for the female workers therein.

  10. Geotourism and volcanoes: health hazards facing tourists at volcanic and geothermal destinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heggie, Travis W

    2009-09-01

    Volcano tourism and tourism to geothermal destinations is increasingly popular. If such endeavors are to be a sustainable sector of the tourism industry, tourists must be made aware of the potential health hazards facing them in volcanic environments. With the aim of creating awareness amongst the tourism industry and practitioners of travel medicine, this paper reviews the potential influences and effects of volcanic gases such as carbon dioxide (CO(2)), hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S), sulfur dioxide (SO(2)), and hydrogen chloride/hydrochloric acid (HCl). It also reviews the negative health impacts of tephra and ash, lava flows, landslides, and mudflows. Finally, future research striving to quantify the health risks facing volcano tourists is recommended.

  11. Determination of the uranium concentration in public supply drink water wells of the uranium-phosphatic region of the Pernambuco state, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Cleomacio Miguel da; Sousa, Gustavo Henrique; Amaral, Romilton dos Santos

    2002-01-01

    This work was developed for the determination of the uranium levels in the water of the public drink water supply of the region, comparing with levels established by the Ministry of Health, for evaluation of the health hazards of the population by the water consumption

  12. Health hazard evaluation report HETA 92-0361-2343, M-I Drilling Fluids, Greybull, Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Gilder, T.J.; Robinson, L.

    1993-08-01

    In response to a request from the state epidemiologist in Wyoming, an investigation was begun of two cases of acute, febrile hepatitis in employees of M-I Drilling Fluids (SIC-1459), Greybull, Wyoming. The two cases of hepatitis were caused by Coxiella-burnetii, the rickettsia which causes Q-fever. A survey of 39 workers using a self-administered questionnaire and a blood test revealed seven workers with serologic evidence of infection. Three showed evidence of recent infection and four showed evidence of past infection. The major risk factor identified through the questionnaire data was sheep ownership. Risk factors suggestive of either recent or past infection included working outdoors, operating heavy equipment, and hunting.

  13. Health-hazard evaluation report No. HETA-88-377-2120, Armco Coke Oven, Ashland Kentucky

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinnes, G.M.; Fleeger, A.K.; Baron, S.L.

    1991-06-01

    In response to a request from the Oil, Chemical and Atomic Workers International Union, a study was made of possible hazardous working conditions at ARMCO Coke Oven (SIC-3312), Ashland, Kentucky. The facility produces about 1,000,000 tons of coke annually. Of the approximately 400 total employees at the coke oven site, 55 work in the by products area. Air quality sampling results indicated overexposure to both benzene (71432) and coal tar pitch volatiles (CTPVs). Airborne levels of benzene ranged as high as 117 parts per million (ppm) with three of 17 samples being above the OSHA limit of 1ppm. Airborne concentrations of CTPVs ranged as high as 0.38mg/cu m with two of six readings being above OSHA limit of 0.2mg/cu m. Several polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons were also detected. The authors conclude that by products area workers are potentially overexposed to carcinogens, including benzene, CTPVs, and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons. An epidemiologic study is considered unlikely to yield meaningful information at this time, due to the small number of workers and the short follow up period. The authors recommend specific measures for reducing potential employee exposures, including an environmental sampling program, a preventive maintenance program, improved housekeeping procedures, and reducing exposure in operators' booths

  14. Health-hazard evaluation report HETA-86-381-1934, Nuclear Fuel Services, Erwin, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thun, M.J.; Schober, S.

    1988-10-01

    In response to a request from the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, a study was made of excessive kidney disease at Nuclear Fuel Services, Erwin, Tennessee. This facility was the sole producer of nuclear fuel rods for the United States Navy. The major operations involved the production of highly enriched uranium fuel for naval nuclear reactors and the recovery from scrap of low enriched uranium for commercial light water reactors. Highly enriched uranium-hexafluoride was converted to oxides and ultimately into finished nuclear fuel. A medical questionnaire revealed more frequent kidney stones (19%) and urinary tract infections (28%) among the workers than among the guards used as a comparison group, 7 and 12%, respectively. Dairy farmers from a nearby town used as an additional comparison group reported kidney stones more frequently (26 versus 21%) and infections less frequently (20 versus 30%) than the current and former senior workers at the nuclear facility. Kidney function was similar in both groups. Workers in both groups had frequent risk factors for kidney stones, particularly high calcium, oxalate, sodium, uric-acid, phosphorus and low urinary volume on testing. The authors conclude that the urinary tract disorders in the nuclear workers were not the result of occupational hazards at this site

  15. Evaluation of New Methodology for Health Hazard Assessment of Repeated Shock in Military Tactical Ground Vehicles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Alem, Nabih; Hiltz, Ernest; Breaux-Sims, Arlene; Bumgardner, Bradley

    2004-01-01

    .... The research culminated with the development of a new HHA method for repeated jolt that is tailored for TGVs but is valid for most vehicles where the seated occupant is exposed to repeated (multiple) low-level shocks (jolt...

  16. Evaluation of health hazards by exposure to nickel in drinking water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Elsa

    2009-01-01

    % for non-fasting individuals. Nickel is a well-known skin and respiratory sensitizer. Following repeated oral exposure, the developing foetus is the critical target with consistent evidence of toxicity seen (rats) at dose levels from 2.2 mg Ni/kg bw/day (NOAEL 1.1 mg Ni/kg bw/day). A TDI of 5.5 μg Ni/kg bw...

  17. Health hazards and disaster potential of ground gas emissions at Furnas volcano, São Miguel, Azores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Peter J.; Baubron, Jean-Claude; Coutinho, Rui

    1999-09-01

    A health hazard assessment of exposure to soil gases (carbon dioxide and radon) was undertaken in the village of Furnas, located in the caldera of an active volcano. A soil survey to map the area of soil gas flow was undertaken, gas emissions were monitored at fumaroles and in eight houses, and a preliminary radon survey of 23 houses in the main anomaly area was performed. Potential volcanic sources of toxic contamination of air, food, and water were also investigated, and ambient air quality was evaluated. About one-third (41 ha) of the houses were located in areas of elevated carbon dioxide soil degassing. Unventilated, confined spaces in some houses contained levels of carbon dioxide which could cause asphyxiation. Mean indoor radon levels exceeded UK and US action levels in the winter months. A tenfold increase in radon levels in one house over 2 h indicated that large and potentially lethal surges of carbon dioxide could occur without warning. Toxic exposures from the gaseous emissions and from contamination of soil and water were minimal, but sulphur dioxide levels were mildly elevated close to fumaroles. In contrast, evidence of dental fluorosis was manifested in the population of the nearby fishing village of Ribeira Quente where drinking water in the past had contained elevated levels of fluoride. The disaster potential of volcanic carbon dioxide in the area could also be associated with the hydrothermal system storing dissolved carbon dioxide beneath the village. Felt, or unfelt, seismic activity, or magma unrest, especially with a reawakening of explosive volcanic activity (30% probability in the next 100 years) could result in an increase in gas flow or even a gas burst from the hydrothermal system. A survey of all houses in Furnas is advised as structural measures to prevent the ingress of soil gases, including radon, were needed in some of the study houses. Evaluations of the human hazards of volcanic gases should be undertaken in all settlements in

  18. Health hazards versus quality of life of the children in the family environment in Poland between the wars [Zdrowie a jakość życia dziecka w domu rodzinnym, w okresie międzywojennym

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna MAJCHRZYK-MIKUŁA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims at examining the problems of health hazards for the children in the family environment, which are of colossal importance from pedagogical and social perspectives. It mainly concerns the period of the Second Republic in the economic and political conditions unfavourable to support proper development in the care of the youngest. In many cases the financial situation determined health awareness. Poor housing, unsuitable food or a shortage of proper clothing, often unsuited for the season, created many health hazards. It should be noted, though, that those disquieting occurrences originated not only from cultural but also economic changes in the families, particularly the poor ones. The level of parental education determined both knowledge and awareness concerning health hazards. Similarly, family traditionalism was largely responsible for developing several health habits and the health culture. Such behaviours were often passed on from generation to generation. Undoubtedly, it reflected the general living standards of the families. Peoples’ lives went down to mere vegetation due to the absence of elementary knowledge, social awareness, personal hygiene and culture. Neglecting children’s health was a serious impediment to their development. It influenced their further progress. Truth to tell, the state was also responsible for child care, yet the measures undertaken to improve preventive hygiene, in particular in the case of social diseases, were insufficient. All these factors had undoubtedly influenced the poor quality of life of many families, in particular the young generation of Poles

  19. Participatory Research Revealing the Work and Occupational Health Hazards of Cooperative Recyclers in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia M. N. Felipone

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Although informal waste collectors are sometimes organized in cooperatives, their working conditions remain extremely precarious and unsafe. The paper discusses the findings of action oriented, participatory qualitative research with several recycling groups in the metropolitan region of São Paulo, Brazil. During workshops with the recyclers mapping, acting, and drawing methods helped reveal health hazards from collection, separation and transportation of recyclable materials. Major health problems relate to chemical and biological hazards, musculoskeletal damage, mechanical trauma and poor emotional wellbeing. The recent federal legislation on solid waste management opens new avenues for the inclusion of recycling cooperatives in selective waste collection. Nevertheless, we express the need to consider the distinctive characteristics and vulnerabilities of recycling groups, when developing safer work environments in these social businesses. We also suggest that the workspace be ergonomically organized and that public awareness campaigns about selective waste collection are conducted regularly to increase the quality of source separation. The introduction of electric hand pushed carts can further reduce health strains. This research has produced a better understanding of the work of the recyclers and related health risks. The interactive qualitative research methodology has allowed for the co-creation and mobilization of specific knowledge on health and safety in recycling cooperatives.

  20. Health hazards and heavy metals accumulation by summer squash (Cucurbita pepo L.) cultivated in contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galal, Tarek M

    2016-07-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the heavy metal concentration accumulated by summer squash cultivated in contaminated soil and their health hazards for public consumers at south Cairo Province, Egypt. Soil and plants were sampled from contaminated and reference farms, using 1 m(2) quadrats, for biomass estimation and nutrient analysis. The daily intake of metals (DIM) and health risk index (HRI) were estimated. Significant differences in soil variables (except As) between contaminated and reference sites were recognized. Summer squash showed remarkable reduction in fresh and dry biomass, fruit production, and photosynthetic pigments under pollution stress. The inorganic and organic nutrients in the aboveground and belowground parts showed significant reduction in contaminated site. In addition, higher concentrations of heavy metals were accumulated in the edible parts and roots more than shoots. The bioaccumulation factor of summer squash for investigated metals was greater than 1, while the translocation factor did not exceed unity in both contaminated and reference sites. The DIM for all investigated metals in the reference site and in the contaminated site (except Fe and Mn) did not exceed 1 in both adults and children. However, HRI of Ni and Mn in the reference site and Pb, Cd, Cu, Ni, Fe, Mn, and Zn in the contaminated one exceeded unity indicating great potential to pose health risk to the consumers. The author recommends that people living in the contaminated area should not eat large quantities of summer squash, so as to avoid excess accumulation of heavy metals in their bodies.

  1. Spoilage of vegetable crops by bacteria and fungi and related health hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tournas, V H

    2005-01-01

    After harvest, vegetables are often spoiled by a wide variety of microorganisms including many bacterial and fungal species. The most common bacterial agents are Erwinia carotovora, Pseudomonas spp., Corynebacterium, Xanthomonas campestris, and lactic acid bacteria with E. carotovora being the most common, attacking virtually every vegetable type. Fungi commonly causing spoilage of fresh vegetables are Botrytis cinerea, various species of the genera Alternaria, Aspergillus, Cladosporium, Colletotrichum, Phomopsis, Fusarium, Penicillium, Phoma, Phytophthora, Pythium and Rhizopus spp., Botrytis cinerea, Ceratocystis fimbriata, Rhizoctonia solani, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, and some mildews. A few of these organisms show a substrate preference whereas others such as Botrytis cinerea, Colletotrichum, Alternaria, Cladosporium, Phytophthora, and Rhizopus spp., affect a wide variety of vegetables causing devastating losses. Many of these agents enter the plant tissue through mechanical or chilling injuries, or after the skin barrier has been broken down by other organisms. Besides causing huge economic losses, some fungal species could produce toxic metabolites in the affected sites, constituting a potential health hazard for humans. Additionally, vegetables have often served as vehicles for pathogenic bacteria, viruses, and parasites and were implicated in many food borne illness outbreaks. In order to slow down vegetable spoilage and minimize the associated adverse health effects, great caution should be taken to follow strict hygiene, good agricultural practices (GAPs) and good manufacturing practices (GMPs) during cultivation, harvest, storage, transport, and marketing.

  2. Opportunistic insights into occupational health hazards associated with waterpipe tobacco smoking premises in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Bakri, Ali; Jawad, Mohammed; Salameh, Pascale; al'Absi, Mustafa; Kassim, Saba

    2015-01-01

    Smokefree laws aim to protect employees and the public from the dangers of secondhand smoke. Waterpipe premises have significantly increased in number in the last decade, with anecdotal reports of poor compliance with the smokefree law. The literature is bereft of information pertaining to waterpipe premise employees. This study aimed to opportunistically gather knowledge about the occupational health hazards associated with working in waterpipe premises in London, England. Employees from seven convenience-sampled, smokefree-compliant waterpipe premises in London were observed for occupational activities. Opportunistic carbon monoxide (CO) measurements were made among those with whom a rapport had developed. Observations were thematically coded and analysed. Occupational hazards mainly included environmental smoke exposure. Waterpipe-serving employees were required to draw several puffs soon after igniting the coals, thereby providing quality assurance of the product. Median CO levels were 27.5 ppm (range 21-55 ppm) among these employees. Self-reported employee health was poor, with some suggestion that working patterns and smoke exposure was a contributory factor. The smokefree law in England does not appear to protect waterpipe premise employees from high levels of CO. Continued concerns surrounding chronic smoke exposure may contribute to poor self-reported physical and mental wellbeing.

  3. Impact of Stinging Jellyfish Proliferations along South Italian Coasts: Human Health Hazards, Treatment and Social Costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella De Donno

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Stinging jellyfish outbreaks represent a health hazard, causing contact dermatitis and systemic reactions. This study investigated the epidemiology, severity, and treatment protocols of jellyfish stings in a coastal area with high tourist development and frequent stinging jellyfish outbreaks of the central Mediterranean (Salento, Southern Italy, and the associated costs for the Italian National Health Service. In 2007–2011, 1,733 bathers (mostly children and females sought medical assistance following jellyfish stings, the main cause of human pathologies due to contact with marine organisms. The majority of events were reported in the years 2007–2009, whereas the occurrence of cnidarian jellyfish outbreaks has been increasingly reported in the same area since summer 2010. Most symptoms were limited to local and cutaneous reactions; conversely, 8.7% of cases evoked complications, mainly due to allergic reactions. The main drugs used were corticosteroids, locally applied and systemic (46% and 43%, respectively, and with ammonia (74% as the main non-pharmacological treatment. The estimated cost of jellyfish-related first-aid services along the Salento coastline over the 5-year period was approximately 400,000 Euros. Therefore the management of jellyfish outbreak phenomena need coordinated research efforts towards a better understanding of underlying ecological mechanisms, together with the adoption of effective prevention policy, mitigation strategies, and appropriate planning of health services at tourist hot spots.

  4. Modern environmental health hazards: a public health issue of increasing significance in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nweke, Onyemaechi C; Sanders, William H

    2009-06-01

    Traditional hazards such as poor sanitation currently account for most of Africa's environmentally related disease burden. However, with rapid development absent appropriate safeguards for environment and health, modern environmental health hazards (MEHHs) may emerge as critical contributors to the continent's disease burden. We review recent evidence of human exposure to and health effects from MEHHs, and their occurrence in environmental media and consumer products. Our purpose is to highlight the growing significance of these hazards as African countries experience urbanization, industrial growth, and development. We reviewed published epidemiologic, exposure, and environmental studies of chemical agents such as heavy metals and pesticides. The body of evidence demonstrates ongoing environmental releases of MEHHs and human exposures sometimes at toxicologically relevant levels. Several sources of MEHHs in environmental media have been identified, including natural resource mining and processing and automobile exhaust. Biomonitoring studies provided direct evidence of human exposure to metals such as mercury and lead and pesticides such as p,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and organophosphates. Land and water resource pollution and industrial air toxics are areas of significant data gaps, notwithstanding the presence of several emitting sources. Unmitigated MEHH releases and human exposure have implications for Africa's disease burden. For Africans encumbered by conditions such as malnutrition that impair resilience to toxicologic challenges, the burden may be higher. A shift in public health policy toward accommodating the emerging diversity in Africa's environmental health issues is necessary to successfully alleviate the burden of avoidable ill health and premature death for all its communities now and in the future.

  5. Evaluating canalside hedgerows to determine future interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faiers, Adam; Bailey, Alison

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes a project undertaken during 2001/2002 which developed a method for valuing hedgerows adjacent to the inland waterway network of Great Britain. The method enables the landowner, British Waterways, to manage their valuable environmental asset to achieve a good level of biodiversity and robust habitat balanced against the heavy amenity use the 3000 km canal network endures. Valuation techniques were developed using a combination of new and existing ecological indices for components of biodiversity, hedgerow structure and amenity, and synthesised into an index in an innovative combined approach. The resultant index was then applied to a sample 20 km section of hedge alongside the Grand Union Canal in Southeast England. The results obtained reflect the hedgerows' present value, and highlight factors that might improve or limit their future increase in value. The results from the case study application also demonstrate that there is a positive relationship between hedgerow structure and biodiversity, and that hedgerows in urban areas are less biodiverse and structurally sound than those in rural areas. Furthermore, there is a zone within rural areas influenced by the adjacent urban areas and/or higher amenity use. The paper concludes with an assessment of the approaches' strengths and weaknesses with a view to its compatibility with other hedgerow evaluations, such as HEGS, its use by other agencies or landowners, and to aid hedgerow management and future development.

  6. Occupational health hazards in the interventional laboratory: Time for a safer environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Lloyd W; Miller, Donald L; Balter, Stephen; Laskey, Warren; Naito, Neil; Haines, David; Ross, Allan; Mauro, Matthew A; Goldstein, James A

    2018-01-04

    Over the past 30 years, the advent of fluoroscopically guided interventional procedures has resulted in dramatic increments in both X-ray exposure and physical demands that predispose interventionists to distinct occupational health hazards. The hazards of accumulated radiation exposure have been known for years, but until recently the other potential risks have been ill-defined and under-appreciated. The physical stresses inherent in this career choice appear to be associated with a predilection to orthopedic injuries, attributable in great part to the cumulative adverse effects of bearing the weight and design of personal protective apparel worn to reduce radiation risk and to the poor ergonomic design of interventional suites. These occupational health concerns pertain to cardiologists, radiologists and surgeons working with fluoroscopy, pain management specialists performing nonvascular fluoroscopic procedures, and the many support personnel working in these environments. This position paper is the work of representatives of the major societies of physicians who work in the interventional laboratory environment, and has been formally endorsed by all. In this paper, the available data delineating the prevalence of these occupational health risks is reviewed and ongoing epidemiological studies designed to further elucidate these risks are summarized. The main purpose is to publicly state speaking with a single voice that the interventional laboratory poses workplace hazards that must be acknowledged, better understood and mitigated to the greatest extent possible, and to advocate vigorously on behalf of efforts to reduce these hazards. Interventional physicians and their professional societies, working together with industry, should strive toward the ultimate zero radiation exposure work environment that would eliminate the need for personal protective apparel and prevent its orthopedic and ergonomic consequences. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. Copyright © 2008 Wiley

  7. Analytical Diagnostics of Non-Optimal Use of Pesticides and Health Hazards for Vegetable Pickers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zafar, M.; Mehmood, T.; Baig, I. A.; Saboor, A.; Sadiq, S.; Mahmood, K.

    2016-01-01

    Economically pesticides are meant to control pests in the fields. Up to certain optimal use of a typical pesticide, it enhances the yield of crops and vegetables. But, eventually amplified use of pesticides results in contamination of environment (water, soil, and air) and increase the health cost of vegetable pickers. The purpose of this study is to estimate the excessive use of pesticides and economic cost of health hazards for the vegetable pickers in district Vehari. Data from 90 respondents were collected and analyzed. The most common health problems identified during the survey were headache, eye irritation, skin infection, cough and shortness of breath. Health cost consists of costs related to precautionary measure, medication, traveling, the opportunity cost of attended persons and productivity loss. The mean health cost of vegetable pickers in the study area was about Rs. 385 per picker per year. Health cost model was used to measure the health cost of vegetable pickers. The regression results showed that pesticides were being applied non-optimally in the study area i.e., number of pesticide applications for vegetables (7-31) were substantially higher than the recommended dose. Health cost function was significantly different from zero as indicated by F-stat (32.18) and it is also supported by R/sup 2/ that about 70 percent variation in health cost is explained by medication accompanied by productivity loss (Rs. 223), precautionary measure (Rs. 134), attended person cost (Rs. 14) and traveling expenditures (Rs. 16). Hence, strict legislation is required to overcome the availability of hazardous pesticides and to keep the vegetable pickers aware of the optimal use of pesticides through appropriate extension services. (author)

  8. Occupational Health Hazards of Women Working in Brick Kiln and Construction Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. G Vaidya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In brick kiln and construction industry the exposure to carbon monoxide and silica dust is the most common occupational hazard to the workers in these industries. A study on occupational health hazards of working women in these two unorganized sectors was undertaken by Lokmanya Medical Research Centre. Objectives: To study the effect of work site environment on the health of the women working in brick kiln and construction industry. An attempt was also made to study the seasonal changes in the concentration of carbon monoxide and dust at the worksite. Material and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among the working women (age 18-40 years at brick kilns and construction sites during summer and winter season. They were examined primarily to assess the effect of working environment on health. Gasteck Detector Pump of model 800 and air sampling instrument (SKC Air Check–52 were used to measure concentration of carbon monoxide and dust in the air respectively. Results: There were 66% of women who were in the age group of 18-40 years and most of them (94% were married. At brick kiln sites, average CO exposure was 62.8 ppm and 55.5 ppm and average dust exposure was 3 3 146.1 mg/m and 91.4 mg/m in summer and winter season respectively.At construction sites, average dust exposure was 41.5 ppm and 90.8 ppm in summer and winter. Conclusion: Both exposure to CO and dust were more in summer than in winter in brick kiln industry whereas in construction industry the exposure to dust was more in winter season. A high level of morbidity in the form of headache, bodyache, problems with vision, cough and breathlessness were observed in both industries. It is strongly recommended to take pollution control measures.

  9. Occupational health hazards among health care workers of Shahid Sadoughi Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Ghavidel

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and AimsBiological hazards exist throughout all healthcare settings and include airborne and blood borne pathogens. Health care workers are also subject to exposure to hazardous chemicals such as disinfectants and sterilizing agents. In addition to the traditional aforementioned categories of occupational hazards, health care workers experience the stress of being directly responsible for the care of very sick and dying patients, which, coupled with  increasing workloads, can seriously threaten their health and well-being.MethodsThe study population was all hospital staff (# 207, of whom198 health care workers eventually participated in the study. The questionnaires were administered to doctors, nurses and ward orderlies in Shahid Sadoughi Teaching Hospital Yazd, Iran. Data were analyzed by SPSS11.5 software using Fisher's exact and Chi square tests.ResultsThe common occupational health hazards were work-related stress (60.1%, bloodstains on skin (51%, needle-stick injuries (42.9%, assault from patients (21.2%, skin reaction (19.2%, sleep disturbance (15.2%, stew blood on mucosal (3.1% and use of drugs (4.5%. Nearly 4.5% of the staff used tranquilizers to cope with the work stress. A greater percentage of doctors compared to nurses and ward orderlies used safety precautions such as gloves, facemasks and aprons. 70.2% staff employed regular hand-washing after various procedures 68.2% of staff adopted regularly proper disposal of needles and sharps into separate puncture resistant containers. About 55.6% of the staff recap used needles.ConclusionIn according to frequent types of occupational related dangers, corporation between chiefs and members of health care center to decrease these seems wishful and we recommend preparing and distributing necessary guidelines with related awareness among these groups.

  10. Research on Value Assessment and Compensation for Health Hazards of Urban Air Pollution-A Case Study of Urumqi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Yu

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT With the acceleration of urbanization and industrialization, urban air pollution has become a serious threat to the health of urban residents. In this study, to investigate health hazards caused by air pollution for urban residents, concentrations of main air pollutants and annual coal consumption amounts during the period from 2000 to 2013 were analyzed. Our results showed that economic losses of Urumqi caused by air pollution amounted to 63.155 million yuan in 2013, accounting for 0.2 ‰ of its GDP and 5.7% of public utility expenditures for that year. The compensation mechanism analysis suggested that it is necessary to further improve the health care system and increase corporate environmental taxes. More environmental health protection taxes should be levied on key monitoredenterprises in Urumqi to achieve effective compensations for urban residents affected by air pollution-related health hazards.

  11. Research on Value Assessment and Compensation for Health Hazards of Urban Air Pollution-A Case Study of Urumqi

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Chen; Hui, Sun

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT With the acceleration of urbanization and industrialization, urban air pollution has become a serious threat to the health of urban residents. In this study, to investigate health hazards caused by air pollution for urban residents, concentrations of main air pollutants and annual coal consumption amounts during the period from 2000 to 2013 were analyzed. Our results showed that economic losses of Urumqi caused by air pollution amounted to 63.155 million yuan in 2013, accounting for ...

  12. Perception and prevalence of work-related health hazards among health care workers in public health facilities in southern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthil, Arasi; Anandh, Balasubramanian; Jayachandran, Palsamy; Thangavel, Gurusamy; Josephin, Diana; Yamini, Ravindran; Kalpana, Balakrishnan

    2015-01-01

    Health care workers (HCWs) are exposed to occupational related health hazards. Measuring worker perception and the prevalence of these hazards can help facilitate better risk management for HCWs, as these workers are envisaged to be the first point of contact, especially in resource poor settings. To describe the perception of occupational health hazards and self-reported exposure prevalence among HCWs in Southern India. We used cross sectional design with stratified random sampling of HCWs from different levels of health facilities and categories in a randomly selected district in Southern India. Data on perception and exposure prevalence were collected using a structured interview schedule developed by occupational health experts and administered by trained investigators. A total of 482 HCWs participated. Thirty nine percent did not recognize work-related health hazards, but reported exposure to at least one hazard upon further probing. Among the 81·5% who reported exposure to biological hazard, 93·9% had direct skin contact with infectious materials. Among HCWs reporting needle stick injury, 70·5% had at least one in the previous three months. Ergonomic hazards included lifting heavy objects (42%) and standing for long hours (37%). Psychological hazards included negative feelings (20·3%) and verbal or physical abuse during work (20·5%). More than a third of HCWs failed to recognize work-related health hazards. Despite training in handling infectious materials, HCWs reported direct skin contact with infectious materials and needle stick injuries. RESULTS indicate the need for training oriented toward behavioral change and provision of occupational health services.

  13. Siderophores, the answer for micro to nanosized asbestos fibre related health hazard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Shabori; Ledwani, Lalita; John, P. J.

    2016-04-01

    Recent studies on the potential toxicity of High Aspect Ratio Nanoparticles (HARN) has yet once again reinforced the health hazard imposed by asbestos fibres ranging from nano to micro size. Asbestos a naturally occurring fibrous mineral declared a Group I definite carcinogen by IARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer), a unit of WHO in the year 1987, has been extensively used since World War II to the near past for various commercial products. According to the most recent World Health Organization (WHO) estimates, asbestos-related diseases, resulting from exposure at workplace claims more than 107000 lives every year worldwide. The various types of toxic effects induced by asbestos in humans include - i) inflammation and fibrogenesis of lung, ii) mesothelioma iii) asbestosis and iv) bronchogenic carcinoma. The stability of asbestos in natural environment and its biological aggressiveness is related to their fibrous structure and dimensions. The actual risk associated with the exposure to nanosized asbestos, which is still unknown and escapes most regulations worldwide, has been shown in various toxicity assessment studies conducted on various animal models.In an effort to reduce the size of asbestos and therby its toxicity by limiting its biopersistence, oxalic acid treatment of asbestos coupled to power ultrasound treatment was carried out. The nanosized particles formed were still found to retain their hazardous effect. Similar were the results obtained on strong acid treatment of asbestos as well. A probable solution to the asbestos toxicity problem therefore envisaged was bioremediation. This involved the secretion of iron chelating molecules termed siderophores by microbes, which are of significance due to their ability to form very stable and soluble complexes with iron. Iron in asbestos composition is a major factor responsible for its carcinogenicity, removal or extraction of which would prove to be an effective answer to the worldwide problem

  14. Women cotton pickers perceptions about health hazards due to pesticide use in irrigated punjab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbas, M.; Mehmood, I.; Bashir, A.; Hassan, S.

    2015-01-01

    In Pakistan, cotton crop has special importance from the perspective of largest employment generation both for males and females in the production and value chains. Cotton picking is primarily a female specific activity in all cropping zones of Pakistan. Women cotton pickers mostly belong to poor rural society involved in this labour force to feed their families. Cotton pickers in Pakistan face some serious health related problems due to heavy use of pesticides on cotton crop. The present study was designed to investigate the problem faced by women cotton pickers and their role in household decision making. Overall 150 women cotton pickers were interviewed from Bahawalnagar, Sahiwal and Vehari districts of cotton-wheat zone of the Punjab. Summary statistics of women cotton pickers' showed mean average age was 33 years and had 2.4 ears of formal schooling and 10 years of cotton picking experience. The main reasons for cotton picking reported were to reduce family financial burden (30%) followed by better access to food and resource (23%) and better education of children (21%). Majority of the respondents (97.33%) reported that the mode of payments of cotton picking was in cash and the most of the respondents (83.70%) reported that they got wages in time. Only few respondents (8.70%) were aware of health hazards due to pesticides and only 10% women wear protective clothes during cotton picking. Majority of the respondents (76%) wash their clothes after cotton picking whereas almost all the respondents wash their hand after cotton picking. The women cotton pickers faced health problem, tiredness (54.5%), mental disturbance (9.90%) and fatigue (8.00%). More than 58% women reported their involvement in household decision making regarding food and groceries while 30.6% women involved in decision about education of children. It is suggested that the female cotton pickers should be educated about the importance (in terms of disease treatment and long-run health costs

  15. EVALUATION OF ANALYTICAL METHODS FOR DETERMINING PESTICIDES IN BABY FOOD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Three extraction methods and two detection techniques for determining pesticides in baby food were evaluated. The extraction techniques examined were supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), enhanced solvent extraction (ESE), and solid phase extraction (SPE). The detection techni...

  16. NITRITE AND NITRATE DETERMINATIONS IN PLASMA - A CRITICAL-EVALUATION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MOSHAGE, H; KOK, B; HUIZENGA, [No Value; JANSEN, PLM

    Plasma nitrite and nitrate determinations are increasingly being used in clinical chemistry as markers for the activity of nitric oxide synthase and the production of nitric oxide radicals. However, a systematic evaluation of the determination of nitrite and nitrate in plasma has not been performed.

  17. Nitrite and nitrate determinations in plasma: a critical evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moshage, H.; Kok, B.; Huizenga, J. R.; Jansen, P. L.

    1995-01-01

    Plasma nitrite and nitrate determinations are increasingly being used in clinical chemistry as markers for the activity of nitric oxide synthase and the production of nitric oxide radicals. However, a systematic evaluation of the determination of nitrite and nitrate in plasma has not been performed.

  18. Evaluation of Uncertainties in the Determination of Phosphorus by RNAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rick L. Paul

    2000-01-01

    A radiochemical neutron activation analysis (RNAA) procedure for the determination of phosphorus in metals and other materials has been developed and critically evaluated. Uncertainties evaluated as type A include those arising from measurement replication, yield determination, neutron self-shielding, irradiation geometry, measurement of the quantity for concentration normalization (sample mass, area, etc.), and analysis of standards. Uncertainties evaluated as type B include those arising from beta contamination corrections, beta decay curve fitting, and beta self-absorption corrections. The evaluation of uncertainties in the determination of phosphorus is illustrated for three different materials in Table I. The metal standard reference materials (SRMs) 2175 and 861 were analyzed for value assignment of phosphorus; implanted silicon was analyzed to evaluate the technique for certification of phosphorus. The most significant difference in the error evaluation of the three materials lies in the type B uncertainties. The relatively uncomplicated matrix of the high-purity silicon allows virtually complete purification of phosphorus from other beta emitters; hence, minimal contamination correction is needed. Furthermore, because the chemistry is less rigorous, the carrier yield is more reproducible, and self-absorption corrections are less significant. Improvements in the chemical purification procedures for phosphorus in complex matrices will decrease the type B uncertainties for all samples. Uncertainties in the determination of carrier yield, the most significant type A error in the analysis of the silicon, also need to be evaluated more rigorously and minimized in the future

  19. Organizational determinants of evaluation practice in Australian prevention agencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarzman, J; Bauman, A; Gabbe, B; Rissel, C; Shilton, T; Smith, B J

    2018-06-01

    Program evaluation is essential to inform decision making, contribute to the evidence base for strategies, and facilitate learning in health promotion and disease prevention organizations. Theoretical frameworks of organizational learning, and studies of evaluation capacity building describe the organization as central to evaluation capacity. Australian prevention organizations recognize limitations to current evaluation effectiveness and are seeking guidance to build evaluation capacity. This qualitative study identifies organizational facilitators and barriers to evaluation practice, and explores their interactions in Australian prevention organizations. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 40 experienced practitioners from government and non-government organizations. Using thematic analysis, we identified seven key themes that influence evaluation practice: leadership, organizational culture, organizational systems and structures, partnerships, resources, workforce development and training and recruitment and skills mix. We found organizational determinants of evaluation to have multi-level interactions. Leadership and organizational culture influenced organizational systems, resource allocation and support of staff. Partnerships were important to overcome resource deficits, and systems were critical to embed evaluation within the organization. Organizational factors also influenced the opportunities for staff to develop skills and confidence. We argue that investment to improve these factors would allow organizations to address evaluation capacity at multiple levels, and ultimately facilitate effective evaluation practice.

  20. DETERMINATION OF IMPORTANCE EVALUATION FOR THE SUBSURFACE EXPLORATORY STUDIES FACILITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, W.J.

    1999-01-01

    This Determination of Importance Evaluation (DIE) applies to the Subsurface Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF), encompassing the Topopah Spring (TS) Loop from Station 0+00 meters (m) at the North Portal to breakthrough at the South Portal (approximately 78+77 m), the Enhanced Characterization of the Repository Block (ECRB) East-West Cross Drift Starter Tunnel (to approximate ECRB Station 0+26 m), and ancillary test and operation support areas in the TS Loop. This evaluation applies to the construction, operation, and maintenance of these excavations. A more detailed description of these items is provided in Section 6.0. Testing activities are not evaluated in this DIE. Certain construction activities with respect to testing activities are evaluated; but the testing activities themselves are not evaluated. The DIE for ESF Subsurface Testing Activities (BAJ3000000-01717-2200-000111) (CRWMS M and O 1998a) evaluates Subsurface ESF Testing activities. The construction, operation, and maintenance of the TS Loop niches and alcove slot cuts is evaluated herein and is also discussed in CRWMS M and O 1998a. The construction, operation, and maintenance of the Busted Butte subsurface test area in support of the Unsaturated Zone (UZ) Transport Test is evaluated in CRWMS M and O 1998a. Potential test-to-test interference and the waste isolation impacts of testing activities are evaluated in the ESF Subsurface Testing Activities DIE and other applicable evaluation(s) for the Job Package (JP), Test Planning Package (TPP), and/or Field Work Package (FWP). The objectives of this DIE are to determine whether the Subsurface ESF TS Loop and associated excavations, including activities associated with their construction and operation, potentially impact site characterization testing or the waste isolation capabilities of the site. Controls needed to limit any potential impacts are identified. The validity and veracity of the individual tests, including data collection, are the

  1. DETERMINATION OF IMPORTANCE EVALUATION FOR THE SUBSURFACE EXPORATORY STUDIES FACILITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W.J. Clark

    1999-06-28

    This Determination of Importance Evaluation (DIE) applies to the Subsurface Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF), encompassing the Topopah Spring (TS) Loop from Station 0+00 meters (m) at the North Portal to breakthrough at the South Portal (approximately 78+77 m), the Enhanced Characterization of the Repository Block (ECRB) East-West Cross Drift Starter Tunnel (to approximate ECRB Station 0+26 m), and ancillary test and operation support areas in the TS Loop. This evaluation applies to the construction, operation, and maintenance of these excavations. A more detailed description of these items is provided in Section 6.0. Testing activities are not evaluated in this DIE. Certain construction activities with respect to testing activities are evaluated; but the testing activities themselves are not evaluated. The DIE for ESF Subsurface Testing Activities (BAJ3000000-01717-2200-00011 Rev 01) (CRWMS M&O 1998a) evaluates Subsurface ESF Testing activities. The construction, operation, and maintenance of the TS Loop niches and alcove slot cuts is evaluated herein and is also discussed in CRWMS M&O 1998a. The construction, operation, and maintenance of the Busted Butte subsurface test area in support of the Unsaturated Zone (UZ) Transport Test is evaluated in CRWMS M&O 1998a. Potential test-to-test interference and the waste isolation impacts of testing activities are evaluated in the ESF Subsurface Testing Activities DIE and other applicable evaluation(s) for the Job Package (JP), Test Planning Package (TPP), and/or Field Work Package (FWP). The objectives of this DIE are to determine whether the Subsurface ESF TS Loop and associated excavations, including activities associated with their construction and operation, potentially impact site characterization testing or the waste isolation capabilities of the site. Controls needed to limit any potential impacts are identified. The validity and veracity of the individual tests, including data collection, are the responsibility

  2. A Pilot Assessment of Occupational Health Hazards in the US Electronic Scrap Recycling Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceballos, Diana M; Gong, Wei; Page, Elena

    2015-01-01

    The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) surveyed a randomly selected sample of electronic scrap (e-scrap) recycling facilities nationwide to characterize work processes, exposures, and controls. Despite multiple attempts to contact 278 facilities, only 47 responded (17% response rate). Surveyed facilities reported recycling a wide variety of electronics. The most common recycling processes were manual dismantling and sorting. Other processes included shredding, crushing, and automated separation. Many facilities reported that they had health and safety programs in place. However, some facilities reported the use of compressed air for cleaning, a practice that can lead to increased employee dust exposures, and some facilities allowed food and drinks in the production areas, a practice that can lead to ingestion of contaminants. Although our results may not be generalizable to all US e-scrap recycling facilities, they are informative regarding health and safety programs in the industry. We concluded that e-scrap recycling has the potential for a wide variety of occupational exposures particularly because of the frequent use of manual processes. On-site evaluations of e-scrap recyclers are needed to determine if reported work processes, practices, and controls are effective and meet current standards and guidelines. Educating the e-scrap recycling industry about health and safety best practices, specifically related to safe handling of metal dust, would help protect employees.

  3. Evaluation of Drug Quality (III): Determination of Ciprofloxacin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Evaluation of Drug Quality (III): Determination of Ciprofloxacin Hydrochloride ... two methods were interpreted in terms of differences in sensitivities of the methods. It was ..... Agency for Food, Drug Administration and. Control ... regulatory standards and specified identity. Therefore drug analysis requires that drugs meet their.

  4. Epidemiologic investigation on health hazard of potential exposure to ionizing radiation among nuclear workers and residents near nuclear power plants in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Keun Young

    1998-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the health hazard of potential exposure to ionizing radiation among nuclear workers of the KEPCO and community residents nearby nuclear power plants since 1990 in Korea. The objectives of this study encompass 1) to delineate the relationship between cancer occurrence in the target population and radiation possibly emitted from the nuclear power plant, and 2) to provide special health service for health promotion of the community residents including periodic health examinations. The phase I study has been conducted during 1990-1995, which will be followed up by the phase II study until 2003. Hereby the interim report on the phase I study will be presented. As a baseline survey, the cross-sectional comparison shows that there were no significant difference in the health status of nuclear workers and control groups. This prospective study could eventually provide a valid conclusion on the causal relationship of radiation and cancer occurrence among residents nearby nuclear power plants through the phase II study which will be launched out during 1998-2000. (Cho, G. S.)

  5. Seasonal Variations in Health Hazards from Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Bound to Submicrometer Particles at Three Characteristic Sites in the Heavily Polluted Polish Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Kozielska

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Suspended particles with aerodynamic diameters not greater than 1 μm (PM1 were sampled at the urban background; regional background; and urban traffic points in southern Poland. In total, 120 samples were collected between 2 August 2009 and 27 December 2010. Sixteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs were determined in each sample. The samples were collected with a high volume sampler (Digitel. Afterwards, they were chemically analyzed with a gas chromatograph equipped with a flame ionization detector (Perkin Elmer Clarus 500. The mean concentration values of the PAH sum (ΣPAH and particular PAHs; the percentages of carcinogenic PAHs in total PAHs (ΣPAHcarc/ΣPAH; carcinogenic equivalent (CEQ; mutagenic equivalent (MEQ; and TCDD-toxic equivalent (TEQ were much higher in the winter (heating season than in the summer (non-heating one. For both periods, the resulting average values obtained were significantly higher (a few; and sometimes a several dozen times higher in the researched Polish region than the values observed in other areas of the world. Such results indicate the importance of health hazards resulting from PM1 and PM1-bound PAHs in this Polish area.

  6. “Lead Leached into Water from Select Plumbing Fixtures” Could Lead to Health Hazard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramsey Coles

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lead is an inert metal and is resistant to corrosion. It also increases tensile strength of many common materials in daily use. Lead was used during the Roman period to transport water (hence the name plumbing/plumber is common terminology even in the present day. Lead enters the biological system through the air, water, and dust. Fine particles of lead, having diameter less than 5 nm are directly absorbed by lungs. Inorganic lead is absorbed by the gastrointestinal tract, and organic lead is absorbed by the skin. Lead has long been known to be a toxic heavy metal and exposure is associated with many deleterious health effects. Still, lead remains a popular ingredient in products ranging from paint to batteries. The lead content in any given material is estimated using various methods. The least cumbersome method is found to be X-Ray Fluorescence technique (XRF. A portable XRF device was used in the present study. Aim: The main aim of this study to investigate whether lead is present in various commonly used plumbing materials. Material and Methods: All types of branded and commonly used pipes were gathered from a market in Bangalore and tested using the XRF machine. In order to evaluate to what extent lead from the pipes could leach into water, seven pipes were randomly selected and filled with Aquafina water (having undetectable level of lead for a 24 hour period. This water was tested at an NABL accredited laboratory in Bangalore, India for lead content. Result: It was determined that lead was present in many of the samples, at an unacceptable levels ranging from, well above the globally accepted level of 0.01 mg/L proof that lead was able to leach from the samples into water. Conclusions: As lead in drinking water represents a direct pathway for human exposure, the authors recommend that significant measures be taken to prevent use of lead in the plumbing industry for prevention of it’s deleterious effects. Authors have also

  7. Antibiotics in dust originating from a pig-fattening farm: a new source of health hazard for farmers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamscher, Gerd; Pawelzick, Heike Theresia; Sczesny, Silke; Nau, Heinz; Hartung, Jörg

    2003-10-01

    Pig-house dust originates from feed, bedding, feces, and the animals themselves. If the animals receive drugs such as antibiotics, residues of these substances may occur in manure, in the air, or on surfaces of the respective animal house. In a retrospective study, we investigated dust samples collected during two decades from the same piggery for the occurrence of various antibiotics. In 90% of these samples, we detected up to five different antibiotics, including tylosin, various tetracyclines, sulfamethazine, and chloramphenicol, in total amounts up to 12.5 mg/kg dust. High dust exposure in animal confinement buildings is believed to be a respiratory health hazard because of the high content of microorganisms, endotoxins, and allergens. Further risks may arise from the inhalation of dust contaminated with a cocktail of antibiotics. Apart from that, our data provide first evidence for a new route of entry for veterinary drugs in the environment.

  8. Incidence of Aeromonas spp. infection in fish and chicken meat and its related public health hazards: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveen Kumar Praveen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aeromonas is recognized to cause a variety of diseases in man. In humans, they are associated with intestinal and extraintestinal infections. With the growing importance of Aeromonas as an emerging pathogen, it is important to combat this organism. It is indisputable that Aeromonas strains may produce many different putative virulence factors such as enterotoxins, hemolysins or cytotoxins, and antibiotic resistance against different antibiotics. The ability of these bacteria to grow competitively at 5°C may be indicative of their potential as a public health hazard. Comprehensive enteric disease surveillance strategies, prevention and education are essential for meeting the challenges in the years ahead. It is important for us to promote the value of enteric cultures when patients have a gastrointestinal illness or bloody diarrhea or when multiple cases of enteric disease occur after a common exposure. With the growing importance of Aeromonas as an emerging pathogen, it is important to combat this organism. It is indisputable that Aeromonas strains may produce many different putative virulence factors, such as enterotoxins, hemolysins or cytotoxins. It has been established that aerolysin is a virulence factor contributing to the pathogenesis of Aeromonas hydrophila infection. Fish and chicken play an important role in the transmission of this pathogen to humans. In the present study, the high prevalence of toxin-producing strains was found among the Aeromonas isolates. The ability of these bacteria to grow competitively at 5°C may be indicative of their potential as a public health hazard. The present review was constructed with a view to highlight the zoonotic importance of Aeromonas pathogen in fish and chicken meat.

  9. Incidence of Aeromonas spp. infection in fish and chicken meat and its related public health hazards: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praveen, Praveen Kumar; Debnath, Chanchal; Shekhar, Shashank; Dalai, Nirupama; Ganguly, Subha

    2016-01-01

    Aeromonas is recognized to cause a variety of diseases in man. In humans, they are associated with intestinal and extra-intestinal infections. With the growing importance of Aeromonas as an emerging pathogen, it is important to combat this organism. It is indisputable that Aeromonas strains may produce many different putative virulence factors such as enterotoxins, hemolysins or cytotoxins, and antibiotic resistance against different antibiotics. The ability of these bacteria to grow competitively at 5°C may be indicative of their potential as a public health hazard. Comprehensive enteric disease surveillance strategies, prevention and education are essential for meeting the challenges in the years ahead. It is important for us to promote the value of enteric cultures when patients have a gastrointestinal illness or bloody diarrhea or when multiple cases of enteric disease occur after a common exposure. With the growing importance of Aeromonas as an emerging pathogen, it is important to combat this organism. It is indisputable that Aeromonas strains may produce many different putative virulence factors, such as enterotoxins, hemolysins or cytotoxins. It has been established that aerolysin is a virulence factor contributing to the pathogenesis of Aeromonas hydrophila infection. Fish and chicken play an important role in the transmission of this pathogen to humans. In the present study, the high prevalence of toxin-producing strains was found among the Aeromonas isolates. The ability of these bacteria to grow competitively at 5°C may be indicative of their potential as a public health hazard. The present review was constructed with a view to highlight the zoonotic importance of Aeromonas pathogen in fish and chicken meat.

  10. Estimation of health hazards resulting from a radiological terrorist attack in a city

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Kasper Grann; Mikkelsen, Torben; Astrup, Poul

    2008-01-01

    on accidental exposure. The aim of the present study was to illustrate issues that need to be considered in evaluating the radiological consequences of a 'dirty bomb' explosion. This is done through a worked example of simplified calculations of relative dose contributions for a specific 'dirty bomb' scenario...

  11. Review of PAH contamination in food products and their health hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Vasudha; Kim, Ki-Hyun

    2015-11-01

    Public concern over the deleterious effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) has grown rapidly due to recognition of their toxicity, carcinogenicity, and teratogenicity. The aim of this review is to describe the status of PAH pollution among different food types, the route of dietary intake, measures for its reduction, and legislative approaches to control PAH. To this end, a comprehensive review is outlined to evaluate the status of PAH contamination in many important food categories along with dietary recommendations. Our discussion is also extended to describe preventive measures to reduce PAH in food products to help reduce the risks associated with human intake. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Evaluation of kinetic phosphorescence analysis for the determination of uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croatto, P.V.; Frank, I.W.; Johnson, K.D.; Mason, P.B.; Smith, M.M.

    1997-12-01

    In the past, New Brunswick Laboratory (NBL) has used a fluorometric method for the determination of sub-microgram quantities of uranium. In its continuing effort to upgrade and improve measurement technology, NBL has evaluated the commercially-available KPA-11 kinetic phosphorescence analyzer (Chemchek, Richland, WA). The Chemchek KPA-11 is a bench-top instrument which performs single-measurement, quench-corrected analyses for trace uranium. It incorporates patented kinetic phosphorimetry techniques to measure and analyze sample phosphorescence as a function of time. With laser excitation and time-corrected photon counting, the KPA-11 has a lower detection limit than conventional fluorometric methods. Operated with a personal computer, the state-of-the-art KPA-11 offers extensive time resolution and phosphorescence lifetime capabilities for additional specificity. Interferences are thereby avoided while obtaining precise measurements. Routine analyses can be easily and effectively accomplished, with the accuracy and precision equivalent to the pulsed-laser fluorometric method presently performed at NBL, without the need for internal standards. Applications of kinetic phosphorimetry at NBL include the measurement of trace level uranium in retention tank, waste samples, and low-level samples. It has also been used to support other experimental activities at NBL by the measuring of nanogram amounts of uranium contamination (in blanks) in isotopic sample preparations, and the determining of elution curves of different ion exchange resins used for uranium purification. In many cases, no pretreatment of samples was necessary except to fume them with nitric acid, and then to redissolve and dilute them to an appropriate concentration with 1 M HNO 3 before measurement. Concentrations were determined on a mass basis (microg U/g of solution), but no density corrections were needed since all the samples (including the samples used for calibration) were in the same density

  13. Possible health hazards for cardiac pacemaker wearers from exposure to electromagnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-03-01

    Cardiac pacemakers are used to provide electrical stimulation to the heart when the heart's natural rhythm is interrupted. This study shows that they can be susceptible to electromagnetic fields. Pacemakers are well protected against common electromagnetic fields, such as those from household appliances. But intense electomagnetic fields, such as those found in some industrial settings, could affect the functioning of the pacemaker. Such interference may cause the pacemaker wearer to feel dizzy or experience an accelerated heartbeat. While this is not fatal, the pacemaker wearer should try to move away from the source of the interfering field and avoid situations in which interference could arise. After experiencing any of these symptoms, the pacemaker wearer should contact a physician. Potential sources of electromagnetic interference should be identified and characterized to determine if there could be an interference hazard. Exposure to interfering electomagnetic fields should be minimized. 7 refs., 1 fig.

  14. Radon health hazards of some rocks of Iranian origin, frequently used as building stones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noori, H.; Ranjbar, A.H.

    2011-01-01

    Radon exhalation rate from various types of stones, used inside the living buildings, is a major factor for evaluation of the environmental radon level. To verify the significance and lethal impacts of this unknown and obscure source of radiation upon the people around the world, the exhaled radon gas concentrations from the rocks, granodiorite, granite, limestone and aragonite, and the effect of their block sizes on the exhalation rate, have been studied. The block samples, collected from their ores, were transferred to plastic containers in which the CR-39 detectors could properly be placed and air tightened, for concentration measurements. The results show the radon concentration of 7.4 ± 0.8, 6.6 ± 0.6, 0.08 ± 0.02 and 0.09 ± 0.02 kBq m -3 for granodiorite, granite, limestone and aragonite, respectively. The corresponding annual dose values in a closed environment are: 186 ± 20, 166 ± 15, 2.5 ± 1 and 2 ± 1 mSv y -1 . These absorbed dose values indicate that granodiorite and granite when used inside the buildings could increase the risk of various cancers while aragonite and limestone have much lower risks and are recommended for use inside the buildings. The former ones when used in the closure areas remedial action should be implemented. The results do not show obvious dependence between the rock size of the samples and their radon exhalation rate. (author)

  15. Spectroscopic detection of health hazardous contaminants in lipstick using Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gondal, M.A., E-mail: magondal@kfupm.edu.sa [Physics Department and Center of Excellence in Nanotechnology, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia); Seddigi, Z.S. [Chemistry Department, Umm Al-Qura University, Makkah (Saudi Arabia); Nasr, M.M. [Natural Science Departments, Riyadh College of Dentistry and Pharmacy, P.O. Box 321815, Riyadh 11343 (Saudi Arabia); Gondal, B. [Plastic and Reconstructive Aesthetic Surgery, Whitfield Hospital, Waterford (Ireland)

    2010-03-15

    Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) technique was applied to determine the concentrations of different toxic elements like lead, chromium, cadmium and zinc in four different lipstick brands sold at local markets in Saudi Arabia. These samples contain toxic elements like lead, cadmium and chromium which are carcinogen dermatitis, allergic and eczematous. Their extraction from human body takes over 40 years and accumulation in the body cause problems like disruption of nervous systems and kidney damage. They could trigger to systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). In order to test the validity of our LIBS results, standard technique like (ICP-AES) was also applied. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study where LIBS technique was applied for the measurement of toxic substances in lipsticks. The maximum concentration detected in four lipstick brands was much higher than the permissible safe limits for human use and could lead to serious health problems. It is worth mentioning that the lipstick is not a solid rather is in fluid state which is not trivial to analyze using LIBS technique. For this purpose, special treatment of the lipstick samples was necessary to analyze with our LIBS method.

  16. COMPARISON OF COMPOST MATURITY, MICROBIAL SURVIVAL AND HEALTH HAZARDS IN TWO COMPOSTING SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. N.K. Rockson

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Data collected on germination index, temperature, moisture content, pH, total viable count, total coliform count and total fungi count were determined during composting in HV and FA systems at VREL Farms for a period of thirteen weeks and analysed to ascertain the effects of temperature, moisture and pH on compost maturity and microbial survival. There were no significant differences in germination index, pH and moisture content values for both systems as ANOVA results at α = 5% yielded p-values of 0.17, 0.98 and 0.13 respectively. Moisture content and pH values ranged between 40%-70% and 7.20 - 8.30 respectively. Temperature values recorded however were significantly different (p-value = 1.2 x 10-5, α = 5% in both systems and affected the microbial distribution during the process. The temperature recorded in HV and FA systems ranged between 45.19 ºC – 65.44 ºC and 29.00 ºC – 50.83ºC respectively. Germination Index values were >150% in different systems at the end of week 12. Listeria spp., known to be zoonotic, and Staphylococcus spp. survived in compost processed in FA system; and Penicillium spp. in both systems.

  17. Spectroscopic detection of health hazardous contaminants in lipstick using Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gondal, M.A.; Seddigi, Z.S.; Nasr, M.M.; Gondal, B.

    2010-01-01

    Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) technique was applied to determine the concentrations of different toxic elements like lead, chromium, cadmium and zinc in four different lipstick brands sold at local markets in Saudi Arabia. These samples contain toxic elements like lead, cadmium and chromium which are carcinogen dermatitis, allergic and eczematous. Their extraction from human body takes over 40 years and accumulation in the body cause problems like disruption of nervous systems and kidney damage. They could trigger to systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). In order to test the validity of our LIBS results, standard technique like (ICP-AES) was also applied. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study where LIBS technique was applied for the measurement of toxic substances in lipsticks. The maximum concentration detected in four lipstick brands was much higher than the permissible safe limits for human use and could lead to serious health problems. It is worth mentioning that the lipstick is not a solid rather is in fluid state which is not trivial to analyze using LIBS technique. For this purpose, special treatment of the lipstick samples was necessary to analyze with our LIBS method.

  18. Metal poisoning and human health hazards due to contaminated salad vegetables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Husaini, S.N.; Matiullah, J.; Akram, M.; Naeem, K.

    2011-01-01

    The consumption of salad vegetables grown in industrial areas may create adverse affects on human health by causing serious diseases and impairment of the vital organs of human body. To determine the concentrations of toxic metals such as, As, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Sb and Se in salad vegetables namely tomato, cabbage, turnip, radish, carrot, onion, salad leaves, beet and cucumber, the samples were collected within the vicinity of industrial areas of Faisalabad and Gujranwala regions. After processing, the samples were analyzed using neutron activation analysis (NAA) technique. The highest concentrations were observed for arsenic (2.3 ± 0.02 μg/g) in radish, manganese (16 ± 1.3 μg/g) in salad leaves, selenium (0.2 ± 0.02 μg/g) in cabbage and antimony (0.08 ± 0.001 μg/g) in salad leaves respectively which were also higher than those recommended by the National Environmental Quality Control (NEQC) standards and World Health Organization (WHO). Moreover, the amounts of injurious arsenic (2.3 μg/g) and selenium (0.4 μg/g) in all salad vegetables according to standard values of NEQS are two to four times higher (1.0 and 0.1 μg/g), respectively. (author)

  19. Evaluation of Levels, Sources and Health Hazards of Road-Dust Associated Toxic Metals in Jalalabad and Kabul Cities, Afghanistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadoon, Waqar Azeem; Khpalwak, Wahdatullah; Chidya, Russel Chrispine Garven; Abdel-Dayem, Sherif Mohamed Mohamed Ali; Takeda, Kazuhiko; Makhdoom, Masood Arshad; Sakugawa, Hiroshi

    2018-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate selected road-dust associated heavy metals, their relations with natural and anthropogenic sources, and potential human and environmental health risks. For this purpose, 42 and 36 road-dusts samples were collected from Jalalabad and Kabul cities (Afghanistan), respectively. The following elements were found in descending concentrations: Mn, Zn, Pb, Ni, Cu, Cr, Co, and Cd in Jalalabad; and Mn, Zn, Ni, Cu, Cr, Pb, Co, and Cd in Kabul. Except for Ni, all the elemental contents were less than the Canadian permissible limits in residential/parkland soils. Principle Component Analysis and enrichment of Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn pointed to anthropogenic sources, whereas Co, Cr, and Mn indicated crustal inputs. Broadly, Cd monomial risk index ([Formula: see text]) was considerable; however, one site each in both cities showed high risk ([Formula: see text] ≥ 350). The potential ecological risk (RI) is mostly low; however, at some sites, the risk was considerable. Ingestion appeared to be the main exposure route (99%) for heavy metals and contributed > 90% to noncancerous (all residents), as well as 92% (children) and 75-89% (adults) cancerous risks. The noncancerous risks of all metals and their integrated risks for all residents were within acceptable levels. Moreover, potential cancer risks in children from Ni and Cr were slightly higher than the US-EPA safe levels but were within acceptable levels for adults. This study found higher risks to children and therefore recommends proper management and ways to control metals pollution load in these areas to decrease human health and RIs.

  20. Environmental changes and microbiological health risks. Satellite-derived turbidity: an indicator of "health hazard" for surface water in West Africa (Bagre lake, Burkina Faso).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, E.; Grippa, M.; Kergoat, L.; Martinez, J.; Pinet, S.; Gal, L.; Soumaguel, N.

    2015-12-01

    A significant correlation exists between the concentration of parasites, bacteria and some water quality parameters including surface suspended solids (SSS) and turbidity. Suspended particles can carry viruses and pathogenic bacteria affecting human health and foster their development. High SSS, associated with high turbidity, can therefore be considered as a vector of microbiological contaminants, causing diarrheal diseases. Few studies have focused on the turbidity parameter in rural Africa, while many cases of intestinal parasitic infections are due to the consumption of unsafe water from ponds, lakes, and rivers. Monitoring turbidity may therefore contribute to health hazard monitoring. Turbidity refers to the optical properties of water and is known to impact water reflectance in the visible and near-infrared domain. Ideally, its spatial and temporal variability requires the use of high temporal resolution (MODIS) and spatial resolution (Landsat, SPOT, Sentinel-2). Here we investigate turbidity in West-Africa. Various algorithms and indices proposed in the literature for inland waters are applied to MODIS series and to Landsat 7 and 8 CDR images, and SPOT5 images. The data and algorithms are evaluated with field measurements: turbidity, SSS, and hyperspectral ground radiometry. We show that turbidity of the Bagre Lake displays a strong increase over 2000-2015, associated with the corresponding increase of the red and NIR reflectances, as well as a reduction of the seasonal variations. Water level derived from the Jason 2 altimeter does not explain such variations. The most probable hypothesis is a change in land use (increase in bare and degraded soils), that leads to an increase in the particles transported by surface runoff to the lake. Such an increase in turbidity reinforces the health risk. We will discuss the link between turbidity and health in view of data from health centers on diarrheal diseases as well as data on practices and uses of populations.

  1. Recent advances in occupational and environmental health hazards of workers exposed to gasoline compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher E. Ekpenyong

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The impact of health and environmental hazards, associated with the constituents of gasoline, on occupationally exposed workers has been recorded over the past few decades. However, the scientific literature on their pathogenic potential remains incomplete, which could affect the current understanding of the associated health risks. This review provides current information based on recently improved research techniques to evaluate gasoline toxicity profiles for humans. Our current knowledge provides insight into the intricate mechanism of gasoline-induced adverse effects, including the formation of reactive metabolites via bio-activation and subsequent generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS and oxidative stress, which are involved in multiple mechanisms that are central to the aetiology of gasoline-induced toxicity. These mechanisms include covalent binding to deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA, leading to oxidative damage, tumor-suppression gene activity, and activation of pro-oncogenes. Furthermore, it results in induction of autoimmunity and local inflammatory responses, disruption of multiple neurotransmitters and immune cell function, derangement of various enzyme activities (e.g., sodiumpotassium adenosine triphosphate (Na+/K+/ATPase activity, cytochrome P450 (CYP450, nitric oxide synthase (NOS, antioxidant enzyme activities, etc., conjugation of bile, and non-specific cell membrane interaction, leading to damage of the membrane lipid bilayer and proteins. Available data suggests that exposure to gasoline or gasoline constituents have the potential to cause different types of illnesses. The data highlights the need to maintain safety measures via suitable research, medical surveillance, regulatory control, life style modification, early detection, and intervention to minimize exposure and manage suspected cases. They also present novel opportunities to design and develop effective therapeutic strategies against gasoline-induced detrimental

  2. Internet treatment of sexually transmitted infections – a public health hazard?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schelenz Silke

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Owing to the stigma associated with sexually transmitted infections, patients may prefer to keep their illness private, and choose instead to try self-treatment remedies from the internet. However, such remedies may prove hazardous if the sellers do not provide detailed advice on adverse effects, or on avoiding transmission and re-infection. We conducted an internet search to determine the availability of treatments for STIs and the nature of information provided by vendors of these treatments. Methods We conducted a systematic internet search using five different search engines in February 2007. The search term included the words "self treatment" and the name of six different common STIs. We visited the vendors' websites and recorded any information on the formulation, adverse effects, cautions, and prevention of infection. Results We identified a total of 77 treatments from 52 different companies, most of which were sold from the UK and US. The available remedies were predominantly for topical use and consisted mainly of homeopathic remedies. Only a small proportion of the web-listed products gave details on adverse effects, contraindications and interactions (22%, 25% and 9% respectively. Similarly, web vendors seldom provided advice on treatment of sexual contacts (20% of chlamydia and 25% of gonorrhea treatments or on preventive measures (13%. Conversely, evidence of effectiveness was claimed for approximately 50% of the products. Conclusion While treatments for certain STIs are widely available on the internet, purchasers of such products may potentially suffer harm because of the lack of information on adverse effects, interactions and contra-indications. Moreover, we consider the paucity of preventive health advice to be a serious omission, thereby leading to patients being needlessly exposed to, and potentially re-infected with the causative pathogens.

  3. Assessment of health hazard due to natural radioactivity in Kluang District, Johor, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz Saleh, Muneer; Termizi Ramli, Ahmad; Alajerami, Yasser; Damoom, Mohammed; Sadiq Aliyu, Abubakar

    2014-01-01

    The radiation survey of the ambient environment was conducted using two gamma detectors, and the measurement results were used in the computation of the mean external radiation dose rate, mean-weighted dose rate and annual effective dose, which are 144 nGy h(-1), 0.891 mSv y(-1) and 178 μSv, respectively. A high-purity germanium detector was used to determine the activity concentrations of (232)Th, (226)Ra and (40)K in soil samples. The results of the gamma spectrometry of the soil samples show radioactivity concentration ranges from 19±1 to 405±13 Bq kg(-1) with a mean value of 137±5 Bq kg(-1) for (232)Th, from 21±2 to 268±9 Bq kg(-1)with a mean value of 78±3 Bq kg(-1) for (226)Ra and from 23±9 to 1268±58 Bq kg(-1) with a mean value of 207±13 Bq kg(-1) for (40)K. Radium equivalent activity (Raeq) and external hazard index (Hex) were 290 Bq kg(-1) and 0.784, respectively, which were safe for the population. The mean lifetime dose and lifetime cancer risk for each person living in the area with average lifetime (70 y) were 12.46 mSv and 7.25×10(-4) Sv year, respectively. The results were compared with values given in United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation 2000.

  4. Heavy metals in Australian grown and imported rice and vegetables on sale in Australia: health hazard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, M Azizur; Rahman, Mohammad Mahmudur; Reichman, Suzie M; Lim, Richard P; Naidu, Ravi

    2014-02-01

    Dietary exposure to heavy metals is a matter of concern for human health risk through the consumption of rice, vegetables and other major foodstuffs. In the present study, we investigated concentrations of cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) in Australian grown and imported rice and vegetables on sale in Australia. The mean concentrations of Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn in Australian grown rice were 7.5 µg kg(-1), 21 µg kg(-1), 144 µg kg(-1), 2.9 mg kg(-1), 24.4 mg kg(-1), 166 µg kg(-1), 375 µg kg(-1), and 17.1 mg kg(-1) dry weight (d. wt.), respectively. Except Cd, heavy metal concentrations in Australian grown rice were higher than Bangladeshi rice on sale in Australia. However, the concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, and Ni in Indian rice on sale in Australia were higher than Australian grown rice. The concentrations of Cu and Ni in Vietnamese rice, and that of Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, and Pb in Thai rice on sale in Australia were also higher than Australian grown rice. Heavy metal concentrations in Pakistani rice on sale in Australia were substantially lower than that in Australian grown rice. In Australian grown rice varieties, the concentrations of heavy metals were considerably higher in brown rice varieties than white rice varieties, indicating Australian brown rice as a potential source of dietary heavy metals for Australian consumers. The mean concentrations of heavy metals in Australian grown and Bangladeshi vegetables on sale in Australia were also determined. Some of the Australian grown and Bangladeshi vegetables contained heavy metals higher than Australian standard maximum limits indicating them as potential sources of dietary heavy metals for Australian consumers. Further investigation is required to estimate health risks of heavy metals from rice and vegetables consumption for Australian consumers. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Concentrations and potential health hazards of organochlorine pesticides in (shallow) groundwater of Taihu Lake region, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chunfa; Luo, Yongming; Gui, Tong; Huang, Yujuan

    2014-02-01

    A total of 27 shallow groundwater samples were collected from the Taihu Lake region (TLR), to determine the concentrations of 14 organochlorine pesticide (OCP) species, identify their possible sources, and estimate health risk of drinking the shallow groundwater. All OCP species occurred in the shallow groundwater of TLR with high detection frequency except p, p'-dichlorodiphenyldichlorothane (p, p'-DDD) and p, p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (p, p'-DDT). DDTs and hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) were the dominant OCP contaminants in the shallow groundwater of TLR, and they account for 44.2% total OCPs. The low α-HCH/γ-HCH ratio, high β-HCH/(α+γ)-HCH ratio and β-HCH being the dominant HCH isomers for the majority of samples suggest that the HCHs were mainly from the historical use of lindane after a period of degradation. p, p'-DDE being the dominant DDT metabolite for all the samples indicated that the DDTs were mainly from the historical residues. Compositional analysis also suggested that there were fresh input sources of heptachlors, aldrins and endrins in addition to the historical residues. Correlation analysis indicated the hexachlorobenzene (HCB) impurity in the shallow groundwater of TLR was likely from the historical application of lindane and technical HCH (a mixture of HCH isomers that is produced by photochlorination of benzene). Carcinogenic risk values for α-HCH, heptachlor, heptachlor epoxide, aldrins and dieldrin in the shallow groundwater in majority area of TLR were found to be >10(-6), posing a potentially serious cancer risk to those dependant on shallow groundwater for drinking water. © 2013.

  6. DETERMINATION OF IMPORTANCE EVALUATION FOR THE SURFACE EXPLORATORY STUDIES FACILITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    C.J. Byrne

    2000-01-01

    This DIE applies to the surface facilities component of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (W) ESF. The ESF complex-including surface and subsurface accommodations--encompasses an area that is approximately six miles wide and nine miles long (approximately 30,000 acres total) (United States Department of Energy [DOE] 1997, p. 9.04). It is located on federally withdrawn lands, near the southwest border of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) in southern Nevada (DOE 1997, p. 9.04). Site characterization activities are conducted within the subsurface ESF to obtain the information necessary to determine whether the Yucca Mountain Site is suitable as a geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. Most ESF surface facilities are located within the Conceptual Controlled Area Boundary (CCAB) (DOE 1997, p. 9.04), with the exception of the southeastern most portions of the H-Road and the Water Supply System. Various SBT activities are also conducted throughout the Yucca Mountain region as a part of the overall site-characterization effort. In general, the DIE for SBT Activities (Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System [CRWMS] Management and Operating Contractor [M andO] 1998a) evaluates activities associated with SBT. Potential test-to-test interference and waste isolation impacts associated with SBT activities are also evaluated in CRWMS M andO (1998a)

  7. DETERMINATION OF IMPORTANCE EVALUATION FOR THE SURFACE EXPLORATORY STUDIES FACILITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C.J. Byrne

    2000-07-25

    This DIE applies to the surface facilities component of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (W) ESF. The ESF complex-including surface and subsurface accommodations--encompasses an area that is approximately six miles wide and nine miles long (approximately 30,000 acres total) (United States Department of Energy [DOE] 1997, p. 9.04). It is located on federally withdrawn lands, near the southwest border of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) in southern Nevada (DOE 1997, p. 9.04). Site characterization activities are conducted within the subsurface ESF to obtain the information necessary to determine whether the Yucca Mountain Site is suitable as a geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. Most ESF surface facilities are located within the Conceptual Controlled Area Boundary (CCAB) (DOE 1997, p. 9.04), with the exception of the southeastern most portions of the H-Road and the Water Supply System. Various SBT activities are also conducted throughout the Yucca Mountain region as a part of the overall site-characterization effort. In general, the DIE for SBT Activities (Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System [CRWMS] Management and Operating Contractor [M&O] 1998a) evaluates activities associated with SBT. Potential test-to-test interference and waste isolation impacts associated with SBT activities are also evaluated in CRWMS M&O (1998a).

  8. Informal processing of electronic waste at Agbogbloshie, Ghana: workers' knowledge about associated health hazards and alternative livelihoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Emily A; Akormedi, Matthew; Asampong, Emmanuel; Meyer, Christian G; Fobil, Julius N

    2017-12-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the electronic waste workers' knowledge about the potential health hazards associated with their work as well as the livelihood alternatives that they would prefer if they were given the opportunity. A qualitative cross-sectional study was conducted to gather empirical information on e-waste workers' knowledge about the potential hazards associated with their work and the livelihood alternatives to e-waste recycling with a sample consisting of twenty all-male electronic waste workers at the Agbogbloshie scrap metal yard in Accra, Ghana. Electronic waste workers at Agbogbloshie were found to be exposed to a variety of injuries and illnesses. The workers' knowledge of the association between their health status and their work was generally poor. Apart from the physical injuries, they did not believe their work played any negative role in their health conditions. They preferred occupations such as farming or professional driving located in the northern region of Ghana to be closer to their families. The study concludes that the low knowledge level of the workers on the hazards that are associated with their work has implications for them accepting technologies to protect them and the natural environment from contamination. It is therefore imperative for any intervention to consider the current low level of knowledge and actively educate the workers to raise their awareness level, taking into account the provision of opportunities for workers to acquire applicable skills for future employment in other fields.

  9. Environmental health hazards of e-cigarettes and their components: Oxidants and copper in e-cigarette aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lerner, Chad A.; Sundar, Isaac K.; Watson, Richard M.; Elder, Alison; Jones, Ryan; Done, Douglas; Kurtzman, Rachel; Ossip, Deborah J.; Robinson, Risa; McIntosh, Scott; Rahman, Irfan

    2015-01-01

    To narrow the gap in our understanding of potential oxidative properties associated with Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems (ENDS) i.e. e-cigarettes, we employed semi-quantitative methods to detect oxidant reactivity in disposable components of ENDS/e-cigarettes (batteries and cartomizers) using a fluorescein indicator. These components exhibit oxidants/reactive oxygen species reactivity similar to used conventional cigarette filters. Oxidants/reactive oxygen species reactivity in e-cigarette aerosols was also similar to oxidant reactivity in cigarette smoke. A cascade particle impactor allowed sieving of a range of particle size distributions between 0.450 and 2.02 μm in aerosols from an e-cigarette. Copper, being among these particles, is 6.1 times higher per puff than reported previously for conventional cigarette smoke. The detection of a potentially cytotoxic metal as well as oxidants from e-cigarette and its components raises concern regarding the safety of e-cigarettes use and the disposal of e-cigarette waste products into the environment. - Highlights: • E-cigarettes disposal is associated with environmental health hazard/pollution. • Oxidants associated with electronic cigarette components and aerosols. • Metal copper and nanoparticles detected in electronic cigarette aerosols. • Environmental disposal of e-cigarettes components must be regulated with guidelines. - An electronic cigarette with disposable cartomizer exhibits oxidant reactivity similar to conventional cigarettes and releases copper and other particles associated with its aerosols

  10. Health hazard of the Tokai mura nuclear accident. Unnecessary fear and improper health checks should be eliminated

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takebe, Hiraku

    2000-01-01

    Three workers were heavily exposed to radiations in the Tokai mura nuclear accident, and one of them died due to the acute effects of radiations. Doses for the heavily exposed persons were estimated to be 2.5, 10 and 18 Sv, according to the Science and Technology Agency. Workers who tried to stop the chain reaction by breaking the water pipe were estimated to have been exposed up to 120 mSv. Possible doses for other workers and residents in the neighborhoods were estimated to be less than 10 mSv, with a few workers with slightly higher film badge records. After the accident, many reports in mass-media warned that the exposed persons may develop cancers and leukemias in future and follow-up healthcare should be needed. Judging from our knowledge of the extensive epidemiological survey of the atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, these reports are very misleading. There would be absolutely no or extremely small possibility of developing any health hazard among the workers and the residents except for the three unfortunate heavily exposed workers. If so-called follow-up health checks would involve x-ray diagnosis for cancers, the radiation doses by the diagnosis would exceed the exposure by the accident. Also, the test for the DNA damage applied to some workers and residents is not reliable at all, and could cause unnecessary fear among the persons who were mistakingly said to be of high-risk. (author)

  11. Economic assessment of coal-fired and nuclear power generation in the year 2000 -Equal health hazard risk basis-

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seong, Ki Bong; Lee, Byong Whi

    1989-01-01

    On the basis of equal health hazard risk, economic assessment of nuclear was compared with that of coal for the expansion planning of electric power generation in the year 2000. In comparing health risks, the risk of coal was roughly ten times higher than that of nuclear according to various previous risk assessments of energy system. The zero risk condition can never be achievable. Therefore, only excess relative health risk of coal over nuclear was considered as social cost. The social cost of health risk was estimated by calculation of mortality and morbidity costs. Mortality cost was $250,000 and morbidity cost was $90,000 in the year 2000.(1986US$) Through Cost/Benefit Analysis, the optimal emission standards of coal-fired power generation were predicted. These were obtained at the point of least social cost for power generation. In the year 2000, the optimal emission standard of SO x was analyzed as 165ppm for coal-fired power plants in Korea. From this assessment, economic comparison of nuclear and coal in the year 2000 showed that nuclear would be more economical than coal, whereas uncertainty of future power generation cost of nuclear would be larger than that of coal. (Author)

  12. Knowledge, attitudes and beliefs about the health hazards of biomass smoke exposure amongst commercial food vendors in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokogwu, Ndubuisi; Agboghoroma, Orighomisan; Ahmed, Fahmi O.; Mortimer, Kevin

    2018-01-01

    Background Exposure to biomass smoke is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in Africa. Commercial food vendors in Nigeria and elsewhere in Africa are commonly exposed to biomass smoke from open fire cooking both at work and home. Little is known about the knowledge, attitudes and beliefs of food vendors about the health hazards of biomass smoke exposure in Nigeria. Methods We did a descriptive cross sectional survey of the knowledge, attitudes and beliefs of commercial food vendors in the cities of Benin and Calabar in Nigeria. We recruited respondents using a multi-stage approach. Structured interviewer-administered questionnaires were used for data collection. Results We recruited 308 participants (164, 53.2% female). The majority 185(60.2%) were married and had post-primary education 206(67.4%). The average monthly income was electricity or gas fuels were associated with good knowledge of the adverse health effects of biomass smoke exposure whilst female gender and having good knowledge of the adverse health effects of biomass smoke were associated with positive attitudes towards preventing exposure. Conclusion Commercial food vendors in our study had limited knowledge about the adverse health effects of biomass smoke exposure and negative attitudes towards preventing these adverse health effects. We suggest an educational intervention is needed to improve this knowledge. PMID:29377962

  13. Riesgos y daños a la salud derivados del uso de videoterminal Health hazards associated with the use of video display terminals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Tamez González

    2003-06-01

    videoterminal los padecimientos investigados son frecuentes, en especial, los trastornos músculo-esqueléticos en manos. Además, el enriquecimiento de las tareas y el propio control del proceso laboral tuvieron efecto protector contra los trastornos psicosomáticos y la fatiga patológica.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between video display terminal (VDT use and health hazards, occupational risks, and psychosocial factors, in newspaper workers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 1998 in a representative sample (n=68 drawn from a population of 218 VDT operators in Mexico City. Data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire. Data were confirmed by performing physical examinations. The research hypothesis was that both the current and cumulative use of VDT are associated with visual, musculoskeletal system, and skin illnesses, as well as with fatigue and mental or psychosomatic disorders. Occupational health hazards were assessed (visual problems, postural risks, sedentary work, computer mouse use, excessive heat, and overcrowding, as well as psychosocial factors related to work organization (psychological demands, work control, and social support. Prevalence ratios were adjusted for confounding variables like age, sex and schooling. RESULTS: Women were more likely than men to have upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders (MSD, dermatitis, and seborrheic eczema. VDT use was associated with neuro-visual fatigue, upper extremity MSD, dermatitis, and seborrheic eczema. Computer mouse use and postural risks were significantly associated with health problems. Psychosocial factors were mainly associated with mental problems, psychosomatic disorders, and fatigue. CONCLUSIONS: Intense use of video screens has been found to cause musculo-skeletal disorders of the hand. The diversification of tasks and control of labor processes itself had a protective effect against psychosomatic disorders and pathological fatigue.

  14. Determination of spondylolisthesis in low back pain by clinical evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalpakcioglu, Banu; Altinbilek, Turgay; Senel, Kazim

    2009-01-01

    Current guides recommend to evaluate the patients with low back pain complaints with initial clinical assessment and history, and to utilize radiological or other imaging technics, in case of possible diagnosis. The aim of this study was to compare the findings of radiological and clinical assessment, and validate the reliability of spondylolisthesis diagnosed with clinical assessment. This study is conducted on 100 patients with, and 30 patients without (control group) radiological diagnosis of spondylolisthesis, who had applied to Department of Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation, Haydarpasa Numune Hospital with low back pain complaints in one and a half year. Clinic assessment was consisted of 20 parameters including examinations of motor system such as, sign of slipping observed on palpation and inspection, extension of trunk and increase in lumbar lordosis. Antero-posterior, lateral, oblique and lateral flexion/extension radiographies were used for radiological assessment. Slipping degree and lumbar lordosis angle were measured. Women/men patients ratio was 91/9 in spondylolisthesis group and 22/8 in control group. Age of 69% of patients were 50 and over. In both groups, sciatalgia was observed in more than half of the patients, and no significant difference was detected in localization (p > 0.05). In clinical assessment, weak and drooping abdominal wall, paravertebral muscle hypertrophy, increase in lumbar lordosis, sign of slipping observed on palpation and inspection, hamstring muscle spasm, pain during lateral trunk flexion-extension tasks and during double leg raising task were found to be positively correlated with radiological assesment (p < 0.05). In our study, a systematic clinical assessment was proved to be useful in determination of possible spondylolisthesis cases. Radiological assessments are required in order to make the diagnosis clear and to determine the grade and prognosis of spondylolisthesis. Advanced imaging techniques like MRI and CT

  15. Fukushima: what health hazards?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masse, R.

    2011-01-01

    This article gives a preliminary account of the sanitary consequences of the Fukushima accident by comparing it to the Chernobyl accident. The main impact of the Chernobyl accident was the numerous cases of thyroid cancers among children. In the case of the Fukushima accident: -) the less quantity of radionuclides released in the environment (only 10% of what was released at Chernobyl, -) the quick evacuation of the area around the plant, -) the temporary and well-followed interdiction of sale and consumption of local foods and -) the fact that the local population was not deprived of iodine (because of the presence of the sea), mitigate strongly the consequences of iodine contamination on children health. (A.C.)

  16. Evaluation of methods used to determine realized energy savings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boonekamp, Piet G.M.

    2006-01-01

    Most methods to determine realized total energy savings at national or sectoral level make choices, or neglect problems, which hamper the calculation of sound and useful energy-saving figures. Issues are the choice of the right aggregation level, the appropriate variables to construct a reference energy consumption trend, the energy quantities to be applied and interaction between various effects. Uncertainty margins for results lack in most presentations as well. This paper presents six methods, illustrates the adverse effects of certain choices and problems, and investigates how these methods deal with them. The methods are scored with respect to the issues mentioned above. Finally, a number of improvements are suggested, among which the use of final energy demand expressed in primary energy units, and bottom-up analyses at the level of real saving options. The last option is the more important, as it could provide top-down evaluation results (total savings from decomposition) as well as bottom-up policy monitoring results, both being crucial to new European energy-saving policy

  17. Health hazards of child labor in the leather products and surgical instrument manufacturing industries of Sialkot, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junaid, Muhammad; Malik, Riffat Naseem; Pei, De-Sheng

    2017-07-01

    Child labor is a major challenge in the developing countries and comprehensive health hazard identification studies on this issue are still lacking. Therefore, the current study is an effort to highlight the health concerns of child labor exposed in the key small scale industries of Sialkot, Pakistan. Our findings revealed jolting levels of heavy metals in the urine, blood, serum, saliva, and hair samples collected from the exposed children. For example, in the urine samples, Cd, Cr, Ni, and Pb were measured at the respective concentrations of 39.17, 62.02, 11.94 and 10.53 μg/L in the surgical industries, and 2.10, 4.41, 1.04 and 5.35 μg/L in the leather industries. In addition, source apportionment revealed polishing, cutting, and welding sections in the surgical industries and surface coating, crusting, and stitching sections in the leather industries were the highest contributors of heavy metals in the bio-matrices of the exposed children, implying the dusty, unhygienic, and unhealthy indoor working conditions. Further, among all the bio-matrices, the hair samples expressed the highest bioaccumulation factor for heavy metals. In accordance with the heavy metal levels reported in the exposed children, higher oxidative stress was found in the children working in the surgical industries than those from the leather industries. Moreover, among heavy metals' exposure pathways, inhalation of industrial dust was identified as the primary route of exposure followed by the ingestion and dermal contact. Consequently, chemical daily intake (CDI), carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic hazard quotients (HQs) of heavy metals were also reported higher in the exposed children and were also alarmingly higher than the corresponding US EPA threshold limits. Taken all together, children were facing serious health implications in these industries and need immediate protective measures to remediate the current situation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Assessing potential human health hazards and benefits from subtherapeutic antibiotics in the United States: tetracyclines as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Louis Anthony Tony; Popken, Douglas A

    2010-03-01

    Many scientists, activists, regulators, and politicians have expressed urgent concern that using antibiotics in food animals selects for resistant strains of bacteria that harm human health and bring nearer a "postantibiotic era" of multidrug resistant "super-bugs." Proposed political solutions, such as the Preservation of Antibiotics for Medical Treatment Act (PAMTA), would ban entire classes of subtherapeutic antibiotics (STAs) now used for disease prevention and growth promotion in food animals. The proposed bans are not driven by formal quantitative risk assessment (QRA), but by a perceived need for immediate action to prevent potential catastrophe. Similar fears led to STA phase-outs in Europe a decade ago. However, QRA and empirical data indicate that continued use of STAs in the United States has not harmed human health, and bans in Europe have not helped human health. The fears motivating PAMTA contrast with QRA estimates of vanishingly small risks. As a case study, examining specific tetracycline uses and resistance patterns suggests that there is no significant human health hazard from continued use of tetracycline in food animals. Simple hypothetical calculations suggest an unobservably small risk (between 0 and 1.75E-11 excess lifetime risk of a tetracycline-resistant infection), based on the long history of tetracycline use in the United States without resistance-related treatment failures. QRAs for other STA uses in food animals also find that human health risks are vanishingly small. Whether such QRA calculations will guide risk management policy for animal antibiotics in the United States remains to be seen.

  19. Knowledge, attitudes and beliefs about the health hazards of biomass smoke exposure amongst commercial food vendors in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwankwo, Ogonna N O; Mokogwu, Ndubuisi; Agboghoroma, Orighomisan; Ahmed, Fahmi O; Mortimer, Kevin

    2018-01-01

    Exposure to biomass smoke is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in Africa. Commercial food vendors in Nigeria and elsewhere in Africa are commonly exposed to biomass smoke from open fire cooking both at work and home. Little is known about the knowledge, attitudes and beliefs of food vendors about the health hazards of biomass smoke exposure in Nigeria. We did a descriptive cross sectional survey of the knowledge, attitudes and beliefs of commercial food vendors in the cities of Benin and Calabar in Nigeria. We recruited respondents using a multi-stage approach. Structured interviewer-administered questionnaires were used for data collection. We recruited 308 participants (164, 53.2% female). The majority 185(60.2%) were married and had post-primary education 206(67.4%). The average monthly income was biomass smoke exposure is harmful to human health. About three-quarters (221; 71.8%) were unconcerned as to the effect of exposure to fumes from biomass fuels on their health. Less than half of respondents (110, 41.6%) believed biomass smoke was harmful to health. Male gender, being single, having post-primary education and preferring electricity or gas fuels were associated with good knowledge of the adverse health effects of biomass smoke exposure whilst female gender and having good knowledge of the adverse health effects of biomass smoke were associated with positive attitudes towards preventing exposure. Commercial food vendors in our study had limited knowledge about the adverse health effects of biomass smoke exposure and negative attitudes towards preventing these adverse health effects. We suggest an educational intervention is needed to improve this knowledge.

  20. Evaluation of quick tests for phosphorus determination in dairy manures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lugo-Ospina, A. [Animal Manure and By-Products Laboratory, BARC East, Beltsville, MD 20705 (United States); Dao, Thanh H. [Animal Manure and By-Products Laboratory, BARC East, Beltsville, MD 20705 (United States); Van Kessel, J.A. [Animal Waste Pathogens Laboratory, BARC East, Beltsville, MD 20705 (United States); Reeves, J.B. [Animal Manure and By-Products Laboratory, BARC East, Beltsville, MD 20705 (United States)]. E-mail: jreeves@anri.barc.usda.gov

    2005-05-01

    Nutrients in animal manure are valuable inputs in agronomic crop production. Rapid and timely information about manure nutrient content are needed to minimize the risks of phosphorus (P) over-application and losses of dissolved P (DP) in runoff from fields treated with manure. We evaluated the suitability of a commercial hand-held reflectometer, a hydrometer, and an electrical conductivity (EC) meter for determining DP and total P (TP) in dairy manures. Bulk samples (n = 107) collected from farms across CT, MD, NY, PA, and VA were highly variable in total solids (TS) concentration, ranging from 11 to 213 g L{sup -1}, in suspensions' pH (6.3-9.2), and EC (6.2-53.3 dS m{sup -1}). Manure DP concentrations measured using the RQFlex reflectometer (RQFlex-DP{sub s}) were related to molybdate-reactive P (MRP{sub s}) concentrations as follows: RQFlex-DP{sub s} = 0.471 x MRP{sub s} + 1102 (r{sup 2} = 0.29). Inclusion of pH and squared-pH terms improved the prediction of manure DP from RQFlex results (r{sup 2} = 0.66). Excluding five outlier samples that had pH {<=} 6.9 the coefficient of determination (r{sup 2}) for the MRP{sub s} and RQFlex-DP{sub s} relationship was 0.83 for 95% of the samples. Manure TS were related to hydrometer specific gravity readings (r{sup 2} = 0.53) that were in turn related to TP (r{sup 2} = 0.34), but not to either RQFlex-DP or MRP. Relationships between suspensions' EC and DP or TP were non-significant. Therefore, the RQFlex method is the only viable option for on-site quick estimates of DP that can be made more robust when complemented with TS and pH measurements. The DP quick test can provide near real-time information on soluble manure nutrient content across a wide range of handling and storage conditions on dairy farms and quick estimates of potential soluble P losses in runoff following land applications of manure. - The dissolved phosphorous quick test can provide real-time information on soluble manure nutrient control.

  1. Evaluation of quick tests for phosphorus determination in dairy manures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lugo-Ospina, A.; Dao, Thanh H.; Van Kessel, J.A.; Reeves, J.B.

    2005-01-01

    Nutrients in animal manure are valuable inputs in agronomic crop production. Rapid and timely information about manure nutrient content are needed to minimize the risks of phosphorus (P) over-application and losses of dissolved P (DP) in runoff from fields treated with manure. We evaluated the suitability of a commercial hand-held reflectometer, a hydrometer, and an electrical conductivity (EC) meter for determining DP and total P (TP) in dairy manures. Bulk samples (n = 107) collected from farms across CT, MD, NY, PA, and VA were highly variable in total solids (TS) concentration, ranging from 11 to 213 g L -1 , in suspensions' pH (6.3-9.2), and EC (6.2-53.3 dS m -1 ). Manure DP concentrations measured using the RQFlex reflectometer (RQFlex-DP s ) were related to molybdate-reactive P (MRP s ) concentrations as follows: RQFlex-DP s = 0.471 x MRP s + 1102 (r 2 = 0.29). Inclusion of pH and squared-pH terms improved the prediction of manure DP from RQFlex results (r 2 = 0.66). Excluding five outlier samples that had pH ≤ 6.9 the coefficient of determination (r 2 ) for the MRP s and RQFlex-DP s relationship was 0.83 for 95% of the samples. Manure TS were related to hydrometer specific gravity readings (r 2 = 0.53) that were in turn related to TP (r 2 = 0.34), but not to either RQFlex-DP or MRP. Relationships between suspensions' EC and DP or TP were non-significant. Therefore, the RQFlex method is the only viable option for on-site quick estimates of DP that can be made more robust when complemented with TS and pH measurements. The DP quick test can provide near real-time information on soluble manure nutrient content across a wide range of handling and storage conditions on dairy farms and quick estimates of potential soluble P losses in runoff following land applications of manure. - The dissolved phosphorous quick test can provide real-time information on soluble manure nutrient control

  2. Usage of Plastic Bags and Health Hazards: A Study to Assess Awareness Level and Perception about Legislation Among a Small Population of Mangalore City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Aswin; Majgi, Sumanth Mallikarjuna; Kumar, Ganesh S; Prahalad, Raghavendra Babu Yellapur

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Plastic bag users are at risk of number of health hazards. There is paucity of data with regard to awareness of health hazards among general population in India. Aim This study was done to find out the status of awareness of the health hazards associated with the usage of plastic bags among people and their perception towards the legislation prohibiting the usage of plastic bags. Materials and Methods This cross-sectional study conducted in Mangalore city in August 2013. Data was collected by interviewing any adult member (aged above 18 years) in each of the selected households using an interview schedule. Results Mean age of the 250 participants was 32.8±10.8 years. Majority 160(64%) were females educated up to undergraduate level or above 187(74.8%). Among the participants 216(86.4%) were aware of the health hazards associated with the use of plastic bags. Awareness was significantly more amongst females (p=0.027), well-educated participants (p=0.004) and among professionals and semi-professionals (pplastic bags for shopping after initial usage. The cloth bags were used for shopping in place of plastic bags by 13(5.2%) participants. Among the participants 213(85.2%) were aware of the legislation banning the use of plastic bags and out of which 166(77.9%) were in its favour. Semi-professionals and students favoured the ban on plastic bags whereas unskilled and semiskilled workers were against the ban (p=0.01). Conclusion Most of the participants in the settings had the awareness of hazards of plastic bag usage. However, there is a need for spreading the awareness of using alternative strategies and effective implementation of legislation in order to minimize the usage of plastics in the community. PMID:27190841

  3. Usage of Plastic Bags and Health Hazards: A Study to Assess Awareness Level and Perception about Legislation Among a Small Population of Mangalore City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Nitin; Kumar, Aswin; Majgi, Sumanth Mallikarjuna; Kumar, Ganesh S; Prahalad, Raghavendra Babu Yellapur

    2016-04-01

    Plastic bag users are at risk of number of health hazards. There is paucity of data with regard to awareness of health hazards among general population in India. This study was done to find out the status of awareness of the health hazards associated with the usage of plastic bags among people and their perception towards the legislation prohibiting the usage of plastic bags. This cross-sectional study conducted in Mangalore city in August 2013. Data was collected by interviewing any adult member (aged above 18 years) in each of the selected households using an interview schedule. Mean age of the 250 participants was 32.8±10.8 years. Majority 160(64%) were females educated up to undergraduate level or above 187(74.8%). Among the participants 216(86.4%) were aware of the health hazards associated with the use of plastic bags. Awareness was significantly more amongst females (p=0.027), well-educated participants (p=0.004) and among professionals and semi-professionals (pplastic bags for shopping after initial usage. The cloth bags were used for shopping in place of plastic bags by 13(5.2%) participants. Among the participants 213(85.2%) were aware of the legislation banning the use of plastic bags and out of which 166(77.9%) were in its favour. Semi-professionals and students favoured the ban on plastic bags whereas unskilled and semiskilled workers were against the ban (p=0.01). Most of the participants in the settings had the awareness of hazards of plastic bag usage. However, there is a need for spreading the awareness of using alternative strategies and effective implementation of legislation in order to minimize the usage of plastics in the community.

  4. Potential laboratory health hazard of /sup 210/Pb and a simple procedure for separation of /sup 210/Pb from the daughters /sup 210/Bi and /sup 210/Po

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pounds, J G [Arkansas Univ., Little Rock (USA). Medical Center; Blakemore, W M [The National Center for Toxicological Research, Department of Health and Human Services, Food and Drug Administration, Jefferson, AR, USA

    1981-12-01

    Lead 210 (Radium D) is a naturally occurring radionuclide which is frequently used in toxicological studies due to its long half-life. The use of /sup 210/Pb in tracer studies poses two problems. First /sup 210/Pb, along with its daughters /sup 210/Bi and /sup 210/Po, presents a significant health hazard to laboratory personnel. Second, the presence of the daughter products may interfere with the detection of /sup 210/Pb, particularly by techniques which discriminate poorly between different radioactive emissions, e.g. autoradiography. The potential laboratory health hazards of /sup 210/Pb and its daughters are briefly reviewed and a simple dithiozone extraction procedure which allows quantitative separation of /sup 210/Pb from the daughters /sup 210/Po and /sup 210/Bi is described. The purified /sup 210/Pb may then be utilized to reduce the health hazard from the daughter products and to construct calibration curves for the quantitation of /sup 210/Pb in the presence of /sup 210/Bi and /sup 210/Po by liquid scintillation counting.

  5. Evaluation of Gravimetric Tar Determination in Particle Samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hindsgaul, Claus; Henriksen, Ulrik B.; Bentzen, Jens Dall

    2000-01-01

    A comparison of tar determination of particles from a down-draft gasifier using soxhlet extractions (with anisole, dichloromethane and acetone) and pyrolysis of the particles.......A comparison of tar determination of particles from a down-draft gasifier using soxhlet extractions (with anisole, dichloromethane and acetone) and pyrolysis of the particles....

  6. Health hazards of child labor in the leather products and surgical instrument manufacturing industries of Sialkot, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Junaid, Muhammad; Malik, Riffat Naseem; Pei, De-Sheng

    2017-01-01

    Child labor is a major challenge in the developing countries and comprehensive health hazard identification studies on this issue are still lacking. Therefore, the current study is an effort to highlight the health concerns of child labor exposed in the key small scale industries of Sialkot, Pakistan. Our findings revealed jolting levels of heavy metals in the urine, blood, serum, saliva, and hair samples collected from the exposed children. For example, in the urine samples, Cd, Cr, Ni, and Pb were measured at the respective concentrations of 39.17, 62.02, 11.94 and 10.53 μg/L in the surgical industries, and 2.10, 4.41, 1.04 and 5.35 μg/L in the leather industries. In addition, source apportionment revealed polishing, cutting, and welding sections in the surgical industries and surface coating, crusting, and stitching sections in the leather industries were the highest contributors of heavy metals in the bio-matrices of the exposed children, implying the dusty, unhygienic, and unhealthy indoor working conditions. Further, among all the bio-matrices, the hair samples expressed the highest bioaccumulation factor for heavy metals. In accordance with the heavy metal levels reported in the exposed children, higher oxidative stress was found in the children working in the surgical industries than those from the leather industries. Moreover, among heavy metals’ exposure pathways, inhalation of industrial dust was identified as the primary route of exposure followed by the ingestion and dermal contact. Consequently, chemical daily intake (CDI), carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic hazard quotients (HQs) of heavy metals were also reported higher in the exposed children and were also alarmingly higher than the corresponding US EPA threshold limits. Taken all together, children were facing serious health implications in these industries and need immediate protective measures to remediate the current situation. - Highlights: • Children occupational exposure assessment

  7. Evaluation of the precision in fluoride determination in uranium concentrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmieri, Helena E. Leonhardt; Rocha, Zildete; Mata, Maria Olivia Cintra

    1995-01-01

    The fluoride in uranium concentrate is previously separated by steam distillation and then determined by direct potentiometric with an ion-select electrode. The potential of all ion-specific electrodes is a logarithmic function of the concentration of the ion to which the electrode in question responds. This relationship is expressed by the Nernst equation. A calibration curve, potential (mV) versus standard fluoride concentration is established and then the sample concentration is determined by interpolation. A least squares curve-fitting procedure has been used to determine the parameters of this calibration curve equation. Using these parameters are determined the standard deviation, the confidence limits and the precision of the fluoride concentrations. (author). 3 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  8. Evaluation of analytical techniques to determine matals in Sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biancifiori, M.A.; Zappa, G.; Amico, A.

    1985-01-01

    The influence of some instrumental parameters on the analysis of CA, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, and Ni in Sodium solutions, by means of Flame Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (FAAS), is evaluated. The best operating parameters are established and the possibility of application of this analytical technique to the detection of the metallic impurities in Sodium is evaluated, considering the concentration values of nuclear interest

  9. Citation Ranking Versus Subjective Evaluation In The Determination ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These indicators have been shown to have significant correlations with researcher\\'s evaluations of the relative importance of journals in the biomedical sciences, but not in the physical sciences. This paper examines the situation in library and information science and finds a strong correlation between librarian and ...

  10. Evaluating an alternative method for rapid urinary creatinine determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creatinine (CR) is an endogenously-produced chemical routinely assayed in urine specimens to assess kidney function, sample dilution. The industry-standard method for CR determination, known as the kinetic Jaffe (KJ) method, relies on an exponential rate of a colorimetric change,...

  11. An evaluation of the sociodemographic determinants of dental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Studies on anxiety in patients having intra-alveolar extraction as well as the effect of patient's sociodemographic characteristics influencing level of associated anxiety are few in our environment. The aim of this study was to statistically analyze the sociodemographic determinants of dental anxiety in patients ...

  12. Evaluation Of Three Methods Of Sugar Analyses For Determination ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chemical methods developed by Lane and Eynon, Knight and Allen, and colorimetric method by Dubois et al were used to determine reducing sugar in eight fruit samples. The methods showed detection limits as follows: Lane and Eynon (1ppt); Knight and Allen (0.1ppt); and Dubois et al (<2ppm). The coefficients of ...

  13. Evaluation of the Bligh & Dyer lipid determination method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smedes, Foppe; Thomasen, Torsten

    1996-01-01

    . In addition the actual phase compositions and phase volumes of their experiments were determined. Absorption of organic phase to the tissue appeared to be one of the main sources of incomplete extraction. The amount of lipid remaining in the aqueous phase is likely to be negligible, just like adsorption...

  14. Evaluation of diabetes determinants in woolly monkeys (Lagothrix lagotricha)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ange-van Heugten, K.D.; Burns, R.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Jansen, W.L.; Ferket, P.R.; Heugten, E.

    2007-01-01

    Woolly monkeys (Lagothrix lagotricha) are a threatened specie in the wild with limited successful management in captivity due to diagnosed hypertension and suspected diabetic conditions. Six woolly monkeys with known hypertension problems were tested to determine if diabetes mellitus and current

  15. Determinants of mother-baby relationship evaluated during pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Correia, Maria Teresa Pinto Esteves Maia

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background Mental health promotion is supported by a strong body of knowledge and is a matter of public health with the potential of a large impact on society. Mental health promotion programs should be implemented as soon as possible in life, preferably starting during pregnancy. Programs should focus on malleable determinants, introducing strategies to reduce risk factors or their impact on mother and child, and also on strengthening protective factors to increase resilienc...

  16. New developments for determination of uncertainty in phase evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Sheng

    Phase evaluation exists mostly in, but not limited to, interferometric applications that utilize coherent multidimensional signals to modulate the physical quantity of interest into a nonlinear form, represented by repeating the phase modulo of 271 radians. In order to estimate the underlying physical quantity, the wrapped phase has to be unwrapped by an evaluation procedure which is usually called phase unwrapping. The procedure of phase unwrapping will obviously face the challenge of inconsistent phase, which could bring errors in phase evaluation. The main objectives of this research include addressing the problem of inconsistent phase in phase unwrapping and applications in modern optical techniques. In this research, a new phase unwrapping algorithm is developed. The creative idea of doing phase unwrapping between regions has an advantage over conventional pixel-to-pixel unwrapping methods because the unwrapping result is more consistent by using a voting mechanism based on all Zit-discontinuities hints. Furthermore, a systematic sequence of regional unwrapping is constructed in order to achieve a global consistent result. An implementation of the idea is illustrated in dct.il with step-by-step pseudo codes. The performance of the algorithm is demonstrated on real world applications. In order to solve a phase unwrapping problem which is caused by depth discontinuities in 3D shape measurement, a new absolute phase coding strategy is developed. The algorithm presented has two merits: effectively extends the coding range and preserves the measurement sensitivity. The performance of the proposed absolute coding strategy is proved by results of 3D shape measurement for objects with surface discontinuities. As a powerful tool for real world applications a universal software package, Optical Measurement and Evaluation Software (OMES), is designed for the purposes of automatic measurement and quantitative evaluation in 3D shape measurement and laser interferometry

  17. Evaluating OSHA's ethylene oxide standard: exposure determinants in Massachusetts hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaMontagne, A D; Kelsey, K T

    2001-03-01

    This study sought to identify determinants of workplace exposures to ethylene oxide to assess the effect of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's (OSHA's) 1984 ethylene oxide standard. An in-depth survey of all hospitals in Massachusetts that used ethylene oxide from 1990 through 1992 (96% participation, N = 90) was conducted. Three types of exposure events were modeled with logistic regression: exceeding the 8-hour action level, exceeding the 15-minute excursion limit, and worker exposures during unmeasured accidental releases. Covariates were drawn from data representing an ecologic framework including direct and indirect potential exposure determinants. After adjustment for frequencies of ethylene oxide use and exposure monitoring, a significant inverse relation was observed between exceeding the action level and the use of combined sterilizer-aerators, an engineering control technology developed after the passage of the OSHA standard. Conversely, the use of positive-pressure sterilizers that employ ethylene oxide gas mixtures was strongly related to both exceeding the excursion limit and the occurrence of accidental releases. These findings provide evidence of a positive effect of OSHA's ethylene oxide standard and specific targets for future prevention and control efforts.

  18. Classification of Large-Scale Remote Sensing Images for Automatic Identification of Health Hazards: Smoke Detection Using an Autologistic Regression Classifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolters, Mark A; Dean, C B

    2017-01-01

    Remote sensing images from Earth-orbiting satellites are a potentially rich data source for monitoring and cataloguing atmospheric health hazards that cover large geographic regions. A method is proposed for classifying such images into hazard and nonhazard regions using the autologistic regression model, which may be viewed as a spatial extension of logistic regression. The method includes a novel and simple approach to parameter estimation that makes it well suited to handling the large and high-dimensional datasets arising from satellite-borne instruments. The methodology is demonstrated on both simulated images and a real application to the identification of forest fire smoke.

  19. Evaluation of sequential images for photogrammetrically point determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalczyk, M.

    2011-12-01

    Close range photogrammetry encounters many problems with reconstruction of objects three-dimensional shape. Relative orientation parameters of taken photos makes usually key role leading to right solution of this problem. Automation of technology process is hardly performed due to recorded scene complexity and configuration of camera positions. This configuration makes the process of joining photos into one set usually impossible automatically. Application of camcorder is the solution widely proposed in literature for support in 3D models creation. Main advantages of this tool are connected with large number of recorded images and camera positions. Exterior orientation changes barely between two neighboring frames. Those features of film sequence gives possibilities for creating models with basic algorithms, working faster and more robust, than with remotely taken photos. The first part of this paper presents results of experiments determining interior orientation parameters of some sets of frames, presenting three-dimensional test field. This section describes calibration repeatability of film frames taken from camcorder. It is important due to stability of interior camera geometric parameters. Parametric model of systematical errors was applied for correcting images. Afterwards a short film of the same test field had been taken for determination of check points group. This part has been done for controlling purposes of camera application in measurement tasks. Finally there are presented some results of experiments which compare determination of recorded object points in 3D space. In common digital photogrammetry, where separate photos are used, first levels of image pyramids are taken to connect with feature based matching. This complicated process creates a lot of emergencies, which can produce false detections of image similarities. In case of digital film camera, authors of publications avoid this dangerous step, going straightly to area based matching, aiming

  20. Evaluating airborne radionuclide concentrations in the tank farms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gleckler, B.P.

    1993-01-01

    The objective of this study is to determine, through the collection of grab sampling data, that an in-depth resuspension study should or should not be performed. Currently there is not enough data available to determine if a potential health hazard exists due to resuspended contamination in the tank farms. A detailed resuspension study is currently not justified, because the limited quantity of air sample data collected does not indicate the existence of a potential health hazard

  1. Determination and evaluation of toxic elements in Chinese foodstuffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Laiyan; Lu Fengying; Zhou Wenping; Zhen Houxi; Su Rongwei; Liao Qingshang; Li Xuezeng; Wang Huaihui

    1988-01-01

    The concentrations of toxic elements As, Br, Cr, Cu, Pb, Se and Zn in various foodstuffs collected in Beijing, Shanghai, Xian and Wuhan were determined using neutron activation analysis (NAA) and atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) methods were obtained with high or medium precision. According to the average daily intake of various foods, the daily intake of these toxic elements were estimated for each person in the four cities. They (in microgram) were 42.6, 166.3, 1738, 106.8, 7939, 1145 and 67.1 respectively for As, Cr, Cu, Se, Zn, Br and Pb in Beijing, 52.2, 167, 1213, 91.5, 6026, 519 and 89.9 in Shanghai, 46.2, 184, 1782, 119.2, 8729, 1132 and 133.4 in Xian, and 63.2, 142.1, 1556, 76.9, 7882, 528 and 73.7 in Wuhan. (author). 2 refs, 12 tabs

  2. A Modified Rule of Thumb for Evaluating Scale Reproducibilities Determined by Electronic Computers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Richard J.

    1978-01-01

    The Goodenough technique for determining scale error is compared to the Guttman technique and demonstrated to be more conservative than the Guttman technique. Implications with regard to Guttman's evaluative rule of thumb for evaluating a reproducibility are noted. (Author)

  3. Proficiency evaluation of maintenance personnel: Training equivalency determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, W.J.

    1991-01-01

    The nuclear industry has recognized the importance of safe, quality, productive maintenance practices and has taken a number of initiatives that have generally improved maintenance programs. Because proficient maintenance practices are critical to plant safety and reliability, most plants have also recognized the need for reliable, valid testing techniques that demonstrate and assure the competence of their maintenance personnel. Until now, resource demands were too great to develop in-plant testing programs. In the past, maintenance supervisors have exempted personnel from training, using informal judgment of the employees' previous training and experience and informal observation of the employee on the job. While this procedure may have some degree of validity, it fails to provide the documentation for training equivalency that is required to satisfy the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations and Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) guidelines. To assess and demonstrate the proficiency levels of personnel, Calvert Cliffs needed to establish an objective, reliable, time-saving, and valid system to evaluate the competency levels of personnel. This was done in a joint effort with the Electric Power Research Institute

  4. Evaluation of infiltration for the determination of palms water needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benlarbi, Dalila; Boutaoutaou, Djamel; Saggaï, Sofiane

    2018-05-01

    In arid climate conditions, irrigation water requirements increase, but available water resources are limited. And therefore the Saharan regions, large consumers of water can be seriously threatened if they do not make the necessary to become as parsimonious as allow the irrigation techniques whose technological aspect on their improvement has been privileged until now but all the problems are not solved. The objective of this work is to know the process of infiltration of water in the soil, i.e.: to try to determine exactly its value with obtaining the best combination (flow of entry, board length and irrigation time) in order to have a more or less uniform distribution in the soil and especially by avoiding significant water losses that would cause rise in the water table. The infiltration will allow us to calculate at any point the dose of water received that we will compare with the needs of the date palm. For this purpose; we varied the input flow for a constant board length. Then we varied the board length for a constant input rate. In both cases we varied the irrigation time according to the water requirements of the date palm. The flow remains of course constant during the entire feeding period. This study is primarily experimental and aims to meet practical applications but not immediately because it is necessary to continue the experiments with several other combinations to achieve practical results.

  5. Evaluation of a simple colorimetric analysis for urinary malondialdehyde determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Suha Yalçın

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A Suha Yalçın1,2, Ahmet Kılınç2, Burak Cöbek21Department of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, Marmara University, Haydarpaşa-I˙Stanbul Turkey; 2Oksante R&D Laboratory, GOSB Teknopark, Gebze-Kocaeli, TurkeyAbstract: Oxidative stress results when the amount of free radical formation exceeds the capacity of the antioxidant defense system. It is related to a number of pathological conditions including: cardiovascular disease, neurodegenerative disease, cancer, diabetes mellitus, gastrointestinal system disorders, inflammation and aging. It is difficult to quantify free radicals directly due to their reactive nature and short half-life. For this reason, most people prefer to measure antioxidant levels and/or the end products of free radical attack on macromolecules such as lipids, proteins and nucleic acids. In this study we have established a short and easy method to determine urinary levels of malondialdehyde, an end product of lipid peroxidation. The method depends on the spectroscopic measurement of color intensity of the product formed by the reaction of the aldehyde groups with the Schiff reagent. The method is linear at a concentration range of 1–10 µM and correlates with the widely used thiobarbituric acid method.Keywords: urinary malondialdehyde, oxidative stress, Schiff reagent

  6. An evaluation of estimation methods for determining addition in presbyopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittencourt, Leonardo Catunda; Alves, Milton Ruiz; Dantas, Daniel Oliveira; Rodrigues, Pablo Felipe; Santos-Neto, Edson dos

    2013-01-01

    The optical correction of presbyopia must be handled individually. Our aim was to compare the methods used in addition to the refractive near vision, with the final addition used in presbyopic patients. Eighty healthy subjects with a mean age of 49.7 years (range 40 to 60 years) were studied. Tentative near additions were determined using four different techniques: one-half amplitude accommodation with minus lenses (AAL); one-third accommodative demand with positive lens (ADL); balanced range of accommodation with minus and positive lenses (BRA) and crossed cylinder test with initial myopisation (CCT). The power of the addition was then refined to arrive at the final addition. The mean tentative near additions were lower than the final addition for ADL and BRA addition methods. The mean differences between tentative and final additions were low for all the tests examined (less than 0.25 D). The intervals between the 95% limits of agreement differed substantially and were always higher than ±0.50 D. All the methods used displayed similar behavior and provided a tentative addition close to the final addition. The coefficient of agreements (COA) detected suggests that every tentative addition should be adjusted according to the particular needs of the patient.

  7. An evaluation of estimation methods for determining addition in presbyopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Catunda Bittencourt

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The optical correction of presbyopia must be handled individually. Our aim was to compare the methods used in addition to the refractive near vision, with the final addition used in presbyopic patients. METHODS: Eighty healthy subjects with a mean age of 49.7 years (range 40 to 60 years were studied. Tentative near additions were determined using four different techniques: one-half amplitude accommodation with minus lenses (AAL; one-third accommodative demand with positive lens (ADL; balanced range of accommodation with minus and positive lenses (BRA and crossed cylinder test with initial myopisation (CCT. The power of the addition was then refined to arrive at the final addition. RESULTS: The mean tentative near additions were lower than the final addition for ADL and BRA addition methods. The mean differences between tentative and final additions were low for all the tests examined (less than 0.25 D. The intervals between the 95% limits of agreement differed substantially and were always higher than ±0.50 D. CONCLUSION: All the methods used displayed similar behavior and provided a tentative addition close to the final addition. The coefficient of agreements (COA detected suggests that every tentative addition should be adjusted according to the particular needs of the patient.

  8. An evaluation of back stress determination techniques in metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, W.B.; Rohde, R.W.

    1983-01-01

    The desire to develop unified creep-plasticity (UCP) models come from the necessity to design advanced nuclear reactor components for service under conditions which include combined creep and low cycle fatigue. These models should also be physically based since they would be used to extrapolate from laboratory data to predict long service lives. An approach to UCP modelling centers on the hypothesis that the inelastic strain rate is determined by a balance between the competing processes of work hardening and recovery. One class of UCP models is characterized by a power law relationship between strain rate and stress. A state variable common to these models characterizes the isotropic hardening and is allowed to evolve with history according to simultaneous work hardening and recovery. In order to treat behaviours unique to unloading or reverse loading conditions, several models also include a kinematic hardening variable which is also allowed to evolve according to a balance of work hardening and recovery. Such a treatment of inelastic deformation can mathematically treat a wide variety of behaviors. The measured response of 316SS and A800 indicates that the kinematic variable must, in steady state, be taken as a constant fraction (about 0.8) of the applied stress. This experimental result makes it impossible for the simple power law type expression to properly predict the commonly observed power law breakdown behavior in most metals and alloys. It is proposed that an expression for total inelastic strain rate involving the sum of two separate strain rate contributions is more appropriate. Acknowledging that separate expressions and separate mechanisms dominate low stress (engineering service) conditions and high stress (laboratory test) conditions requires that more emphasis be placed on long time, low stress laboratory testing. (orig.)

  9. Determining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahram Andarzian

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Wheat production in the south of Khuzestan, Iran is constrained by heat stress for late sowing dates. For optimization of yield, sowing at the appropriate time to fit the cultivar maturity length and growing season is critical. Crop models could be used to determine optimum sowing window for a locality. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the Cropping System Model (CSM-CERES-Wheat for its ability to simulate growth, development, grain yield of wheat in the tropical regions of Iran, and to study the impact of different sowing dates on wheat performance. The genetic coefficients of cultivar Chamran were calibrated for the CSM-CERES-Wheat model and crop model performance was evaluated with experimental data. Wheat cultivar Chamran was sown on different dates, ranging from 5 November to 9 January during 5 years of field experiments that were conducted in the Khuzestan province, Iran, under full and deficit irrigation conditions. The model was run for 8 sowing dates starting on 25 October and repeated every 10 days until 5 January using long-term historical weather data from the Ahvaz, Behbehan, Dezful and Izeh locations. The seasonal analysis program of DSSAT was used to determine the optimum sowing window for different locations as well. Evaluation with the experimental data showed that performance of the model was reasonable as indicated by fairly accurate simulation of crop phenology, biomass accumulation and grain yield against measured data. The normalized RMSE were 3%, 2%, 11.8%, and 3.4% for anthesis date, maturity date, grain yield and biomass, respectively. Optimum sowing window was different among locations. It was opened and closed on 5 November and 5 December for Ahvaz; 5 November and 15 December for Behbehan and Dezful;and 1 November and 15 December for Izeh, respectively. CERES-Wheat model could be used as a tool to evaluate the effect of sowing date on wheat performance in Khuzestan conditions. Further model evaluations

  10. Evaluation and comparison of two complexometric titration methods for determining of lanthanum in cloridric solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menezes, M.F.; Santos, R.L.C. dos; Goes, M.A.C. de

    1994-01-01

    The fast determination of total rare earth concentration in aqueous solutions is based on titrimetric methods using EDTA as complexing agent. This paper evaluates two among several others titrimetric methods used in the determination of lanthanum in hydrochloric acid solutions, using xylenol orange and a mixture of methyl orange and xylenol orange as indicators. The applied statistical evaluation allowed the determination of the stability, accuracy and adequacy of these methods on a given technical specification. (author). 12 refs., 03 tabs., 01 fig

  11. A Health Hazard Assessment for Blast Overpressure Exposures Subtitle - Biological Response to Blast Overpressure: A Summary of Modeling

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stuhmiller, James

    1996-01-01

    .... For the past 15 years, JAYCOR, working together with the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, has been using modeling, simulation, and data analysis to determine the nature of injury in animal...

  12. Health hazards associated with the use of di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (commonly referred to as DOP) in HEPA filter test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-01-01

    Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), commonly referred to as di-octyl phthalate, is an important production chemical in the US. In addition to its major use as an additive in plastics, DEHP is widely used to evaluate the effectiveness of high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters. Historically, DEHP was also used in quantitative fit testing for respirators. Evaluations of this compound a decade ago showed that it can induce hepatocellular carcinomas in laboratory animals. Although most Department of Energy (DOE) facilities have since discontinued using DEHP in respirator fit testing, DEHP continues to be used for evaluating HEPA filters. This report summarizes available information on the toxicity, mutagenicity, carcinogenicity, and other hazards and problems posed by DEHP, specifically with reference to HEPA filter testing. Information on work practice improvements as well as the availability and suitability of DEHP substitutes are also presented. This material should assist the DOE in the safe use of this material.

  13. The role of self-determination theory and cognitive evaluation theory in home education

    OpenAIRE

    Gina Riley

    2016-01-01

    This article explores the theories of Self-Determination, Cognitive Evaluation, and Intrinsic Motivation as it applies to home education. According to Self-Determination Theory, intrinsic motivation is innate. However, the maintenance and enhancement of intrinsic motivation depends upon the social and environmental conditions surrounding the individual. Deci and Ryan’s Cognitive Evaluation Theory specifically addresses the social and environmental factors that facilitate versus undermine intr...

  14. The Role of Self-Determination Theory and Cognitive Evaluation Theory in Home Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Gina

    2016-01-01

    This article explores the theories of Self-Determination, Cognitive Evaluation, and Intrinsic Motivation as it applies to home education. According to Self-Determination Theory, intrinsic motivation is innate. However, the maintenance and enhancement of intrinsic motivation depends upon the social and environmental conditions surrounding the…

  15. MORPHOMETRIC EVALUATION OF FORAMEN MAGNUM FOR SEX DETERMINATION IN A DOCUMENTED NORTH INDIAN SAMPLE

    OpenAIRE

    Jain; Alok Kumar; Pankaj

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Sex determination is used in anthropology, forensic medicine and medic o - legal cases. It is (1) remarked that “next to the pelvis, the skull is the most easily sexed portion of the skeleton”. It has been suggested (2 - 5) that the measurements of the foramen magnum are useful for determining the sex. There are two osteological techniques used to determine the sex of an individual; the first is visual assessment to evaluate the morphological sex tra...

  16. Preventing smoking during pregnancy: the importance of maternal knowledge of the health hazards and of the treatment options available

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luís Bertani

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To examine the pattern of tobacco use and knowledge about tobacco-related diseases, as well as to identify popular types of electronic media, in pregnant women, in order to improve strategies for the prevention or cessation of smoking among such women. METHODS: A cross-sectional study involving 61 pregnant women, seen at primary care clinics and at a university hospital, in the city of Botucatu, Brazil. For all subjects, we applied the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. For subjects with a history of smoking, we also applied the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence, and we evaluated the level of motivation to quit smoking among the current smokers. RESULTS: Of the 61 pregnant women evaluated, 25 (40.9% were smokers (mean age, 26.4 ± 7.4 years, 24 (39.3% were former smokers (26.4 ± 8.3 years, and 12 (19.8% were never-smokers (25.1 ± 7.2 years. Thirty-nine women (63.9% reported exposure to passive smoking. Of the 49 smokers/former smokers, 13 (26.5% were aware of the pulmonary consequences of smoking; only 2 (4.1% were aware of the cardiovascular risks; 23 (46.9% believed that smoking does not harm the fetus or newborn infant; 21 (42.9% drank alcohol during pregnancy; 18 (36.7% reported increased cigarette consumption when drinking; 25 (51.0% had smoked flavored cigarettes; and 12 (24.5% had smoked a narghile. Among the 61 pregnant women evaluated, television was the most widely available and favorite form of electronic media (in 85.2%, as well as being the form most preferred (by 49.2%. CONCLUSIONS: Among pregnant women, active smoking, passive smoking, and alternative forms of tobacco consumption appear to be highly prevalent, and such women seem to possess little knowledge about the consequences of tobacco use. Educational programs that include information about the consequences of all forms of tobacco use, employing new and effective formats tailored to this particular population, should be developed, in order to promote

  17. Performance evaluation of indigenous controlled potential coulometer for the determination of uranium and plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, H.S.; Jisha, V.; Noronha, D.M.; Sharma, M.K.; Aggarwal, S.K.

    2007-09-01

    We have carried out performance evaluation of indigenously manufactured controlled potential coulometer for the determination of uranium and plutonium respectively in Rb 2 U(SO 4 ) 3 and K 4 Pu(SO 4 ) 4 chemical assay standards. The coulometric results obtained on uranium determination showed an insignificant difference as compared with the biamperometric results at 95% and 99.9% confidence levels while for plutonium determination showed a difference of -0.4% at 95% with respect to expected value. The results obtained show that indigenous coulometer is suitable for uranium and plutonium determination in chemical assay standards. (author)

  18. Determinants of Profit as the Criterion for the Evaluation of the Product Development Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. Fairlie-Clarke

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available There are three main elements of the product development process that are suitable for evaluation: the means employed, the activities and the outcomes. Most available methods provide an evaluation of the outcomes, but this can only provide retrospective information. There is a need to be able to evaluate an existing or proposed process to determine whether it will successfully meet the objectives of a particular project. This can be done by evaluating the planned activities of the process for their effectiveness in addressing the important issues in the project. These issues are called the “determinants of profit”, and a survey and trials in industry show that they provide an effective criterion against which companies can evaluate the activities of their product development process. The determinants of profit can be divided into enabling determinants, which must be addressed above a threshold value of effectiveness in order to produce a viable product, and differentiating determinants, which provide scope for competitive advantage.

  19. The determination of allowed outage time using the evaluation of transition risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, D. I.; Kim, K. Y.; Jang, S. C.

    2001-03-01

    he objectives of this study are to propose a new evaluation method for transition risk and to determine the AOT using the new method. We review and compare the evaluation methods of transition risk which was previously studied. We also identify important assumptions used in previous studies for the evaluation of transition risk. We select general items required for the development of evaluation method for the transition risk. Based on the items selected, we propose a new evaluation method for transition risk. The new evaluation method for the transition risk is based on following assumptions; 1)For the same time span, the risk occurred from the failure to the completion of component repair during power operation is the same as the total risk including the risk occurred from power operation to specific shutdown/low power operation and the risk from specific shutdown/low power operation to power operation. 2)Shutdown operation and the repair of components are initiated just after the identification of the failure of components. The evaluation of the transition risk is performed to incorporate the characteristics of shutdown operation into Ulchin Units 3 and 4 Level 1 internal PSA for power operation. The application results of the new method to the HPSIS and the LPSIS for Ulchin Units 3 and 4 show that the AOT of HPSIS is properly determined and the AOT of LPSIS can be greatly increased. In this study, the main factors affecting the determination of AOT using the evaluation for transition risk are identified as the time of shutdown operation, the consideration of the change on common cause failure probability, and the risk of shutdown operation. It is expected that the evaluation method for the transition risk proposed in this study will be used for the determination of AOT and for the decision, in the case of the components unavailable, whether power operation is continuously performed or shutdown operation is initiated

  20. Determining skeletal maturation stage using cervical vertebrae: evaluation of three diagnostic methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luci Mara Fachardo Jaqueira

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to compare the use of three cervical vertebral evaluation methods (Hassel-Farman, Baccetti et al., and Seedat-Forsberg for determinating skeletal maturation stage in orthodontic patients. Twenty-three radiographs were randomly selected from a private orthodontic practice. Each radiograph was analyzed on three separate occasions by four evaluators (one radiologist and three orthodontists, who determined the skeletal maturation stage using the references established by each of the three methods. Intraevaluator and interevaluator comparisons were performed, and the degree of agreement was established using the weighted Kappa coefficient (95% CI. Good agreement (Kappa between 0.61 and 0.80 was observed between the determinations of most of the evaluators. The three methods demonstrated clinical applicability. However, the method proposed by Baccetti et al. achieved the best results, followed by the Hassel-Farman and the Seedat-Forsberg methods.

  1. Evaluation of EEG based determination of unconsciousness vs. loss of posture in broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, E R; Alphin, R L; Rankin, M K; Caputo, M P; Kinney, C A; Johnson, A L

    2012-10-01

    Evaluation of the loss of consciousness in poultry is an essential component in evaluating bird welfare under a variety of situations and applications. Many current approaches to evaluating loss of consciousness are qualitative and require observation of the bird. This study outlines a quantitative method for determining the point at which a bird loses consciousness. In this study, commercial broilers were individually anesthetized and the brain activity recorded as the bird became unconscious. A wireless EEG transmitter was surgically implanted and the bird anesthetized after a 24-48 h recovery. Each bird was monitored during treatment with isoflurane anesthesia and EEG data was evaluated using a frequency based approach. The alpha/delta (A/D) ratio and loss of posture (LOP) were used to determine the point at which the birds went unconscious. There was no statistically significant difference between time to unconsciousness as measured by A/D ratio or LOP. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Evaluation of photon-absorptiometry for determination of bone mineral content in experimental animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krasznai, I.; Szathmary, M.; Horvath, Cs.; Hollo, G.; Fabu, G.

    1994-01-01

    Instruments commonly used for determination of bone mineral content in human were evaluated for their use in small laboratory animals. By measuring bone phantoms and rat femurs in vitro, authors found 0.015 and 0.034 g/cm sensitivity for (SPA) and (DEXA) methods, respectively. High reproducibility was obtained, with values of relative standard deviations being <2 and approximately 4% for SPA and DEXA, respectively. Both techniques were found suitable for determination of bone mineral content of laboratory animals, but DEXA is suggested as the preferred method for evaluations under in vivo circumstances. (N.T.)

  3. Evaluation of WHO Criteria to Determine Degree of Dehydration in Children with Acute Diarrhea

    OpenAIRE

    Sari, Suprawita; Supriatmo; Margaretha, S. L.; Nafianti, S.; Hasibuan, B.; Sinuhaji, A. B.

    2005-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy and agreement between the 1980 and 1990 WHO criteria for determining the degree of dehydration in children with acute diarrhea. Methods This prospective study was conducted in two hospitals from October 2002 to February 2003. Clinical signs of dehydration all patients were recorded. The degree of dehydration based on the 1980 and 1990 WHO criteria was determined and compared with fluid deficit measured by the difference of body weight on admiss...

  4. Investigations for assessing the health hazards of dichloromethane exposure. Final report; Untersuchungen zur Abschaetzung des gesundheitlichen Risikos infolge Dichlormethanexposition. Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pankow, D. [Halle-Wittenberg Univ., Halle (Germany). Inst. fuer Pharmakologie und Toxikologie

    1994-04-01

    The oxidative CYP2E1-catalyzed dechlorination of dichloremethane (DCM) is a saturable pathway with high affinity and low capacity. In general, due to increasing DCM concentration in the inhaled air COHb values up to 12% are expected, but higher COHb levels were found according to some case reports. It was the aim of this study to characterize the DCM-derived COHb formation and to test effects of DCM on the cardiovascular system using animal models. The results show that a high CYP2E1 activity correlates with enhanced COHb formation. The COHb formation is inhibited and the DCM level in the blood enhanced after simultaneous exposure to DCM and solvents or drugs known as substrates of CYP2E1. Therefore, the risk assessment of DCM exposure must comprimise a possible additional uptake of a substrate or inducer of CYP2E1. Existing PBPK models proved to be an insufficient description in cases of an accidental scenario, a short exposure to very high concentration of DCM. The moderate CO hypoxia following DCM exposure is determined not only by the carboxyhemoglobinemia but also by an inhibition of cytochrome c oxidase activity. Cardiovascular dysfunctions, mainly arrhythmias, are detectable after exposure to relatively high DCM concentration as well as under pathophysiological conditions which per se influenced the cardiovascular system. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die zu CO fuehrende oxydative, CYP2E1-katalysierte Dechlorierung von Dichlormethan (DCM) verfuegt ueber eine hohe Affinitaet bei begrenzter Kapazitaet, es handelt sich um einen saettigbaren Stoffwechselweg. Im allgemeinen werden trotz steigender DCM-Konzentration in der eingeatmeten Luft Werte von 10-12% COHb nicht ueberschritten. Vergiftungsfaelle mit weitaus hoeheren COHb-Spiegeln wurden aber beschrieben. Ziel der tierexperimentellen Untersuchungen war es, die DCM-bedingte COHb-Bildung naeher zu charakterisieren und die Wirkung von DCM auf kardiovaskulaere Funktionen zu pruefen. Die Resultate zeigen, dass es bei

  5. Examining Public Perceptions about Lead in School Drinking Water: A Mixed-Methods Analysis of Twitter Response to an Environmental Health Hazard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekenga, Christine C; McElwain, Cora-Ann; Sprague, Nadav

    2018-01-20

    Exposure to lead has long been a community health concern in St. Louis, Missouri. The objective of this study was to examine public response to reports of elevated lead levels in school drinking water in St. Louis, Missouri via Twitter, a microblogging platform with over 320 million active users. We used a mixed-methods design to examine Twitter user status updates, known as "tweets," from 18 August to 31 December 2016. The number of tweets each day was recorded, and Twitter users were classified into five user types (General Public, Journalist/News, Health Professional/Academic, Politician/Government Official, and Non-Governmental Organization). A total of 492 tweets were identified during the study period. The majority of discourse on Twitter occurred during the two-week period after initial media reports and was driven by members of the General Public. Thematic analysis of tweets revealed four themes: Information Sharing, Health Concerns, Sociodemographic Disparities, and Outrage. Twitter users characterized lead in school drinking water as an issue of environmental inequity. The findings of this study provide evidence that social media platforms can be utilized as valuable tools for public health researchers and practitioners to gauge public sentiment about environmental health issues, identify emerging community concerns, and inform future communication and research strategies regarding environmental health hazards.

  6. On the origin of worries about modern health hazards: Experimental evidence for a conjoint influence of media reports and personality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witthöft, Michael; Freitag, Ina; Nußbaum, Christiane; Bräscher, Anne-Kathrin; Jasper, Fabian; Bailer, Josef; Rubin, G James

    2018-03-01

    Worries about health threatening effects of potential health hazards of modern life (e.g. electric devices and pollution) represent a growing phenomenon in Western countries. Yet, little is known about the causes of this growing special case of affective risk perceptions termed Modern Health Worries (MHW). The purpose of this study is to examine a possible role of biased media reports in the formation of MHW. In two experiments, we investigated whether typical television reports affect MHW. In Study 1, 130 participants were randomly assigned to a film on idiopathic environmental intolerance (IEI) or a control film about cystic fibrosis. In Study 2, 82 participants were randomly assigned to either a film on the dangers of electromagnetic fields or a control condition. Increases in MHW after sensational media reports. In Study 1, only participants high on the personality trait of absorption revealed increased MHW after watching the IEI film. In Study 2, specifically worries about radiation were found to be elevated after watching the film on the dangers of electromagnetic fields compared to the control film. The results of both studies reveal a significant and specific influence of sensational short mass media reports on MHW. The influence of potential moderators such as absorption remains to be clarified.

  7. Using a fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method to determine product usability: A proposed theoretical framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ronggang; Chan, Alan H S

    2017-01-01

    In order to compare existing usability data to ideal goals or to that for other products, usability practitioners have tried to develop a framework for deriving an integrated metric. However, most current usability methods with this aim rely heavily on human judgment about the various attributes of a product, but often fail to take into account of the inherent uncertainties in these judgments in the evaluation process. This paper presents a universal method of usability evaluation by combining the analytic hierarchical process (AHP) and the fuzzy evaluation method. By integrating multiple sources of uncertain information during product usability evaluation, the method proposed here aims to derive an index that is structured hierarchically in terms of the three usability components of effectiveness, efficiency, and user satisfaction of a product. With consideration of the theoretical basis of fuzzy evaluation, a two-layer comprehensive evaluation index was first constructed. After the membership functions were determined by an expert panel, the evaluation appraisals were computed by using the fuzzy comprehensive evaluation technique model to characterize fuzzy human judgments. Then with the use of AHP, the weights of usability components were elicited from these experts. Compared to traditional usability evaluation methods, the major strength of the fuzzy method is that it captures the fuzziness and uncertainties in human judgments and provides an integrated framework that combines the vague judgments from multiple stages of a product evaluation process.

  8. On the importance of cognitive evaluation as a determinant of interpersonal attraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, R Matthew; Horton, Robert S

    2004-05-01

    Three studies examined a model of attraction in which the cognitive evaluation of the target individual was the primary determinant of interpersonal attraction. In Study 1, the cognitive evaluation of the target individual mediated the influence of attitude similarity on interpersonal attraction. In Study 2, a path analysis revealed significant indirect effects of (a) similarity on cognitive evaluation via the valence of information implied by attitudes and (b) the valence of information implied by attitudes on attraction via cognitive evaluation of the target. Study 3 provided empirical and theoretical support for the uniqueness of interpersonal attraction from cognitive evaluation. The implications of these data for existing attraction theory are discussed, and a new model of interpersonal attraction is described.

  9. Determination of heavy metals in groundwater samples - ICP-MS analysis and evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leiterer, M.; Muench, U.

    1994-01-01

    An analytical programme which permits the direct, simultaneous determination of Al, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn in groundwater samples was developed for ICP-MS. Spectral mass interferences, attributable to great differences in groundwater matrices, precision and accuracy have been discussed. The evaluation of analytical results was demonstrated for selected sampling points of the groundwater observation network of Thuringia. (orig.)

  10. Evaluation of techniques for determining the density of fine woody debris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becky Fasth; Mark E. Harmon; Christopher W. Woodall; Jay. Sexton

    2010-01-01

    Evaluated various techniques for determining the density (i.e., bulk density) of fine woody debris during forest inventory activities. It was found that only experts in dead wood inventory may be able to identify fine woody debris stages of decay. Suggests various future research directions such as...

  11. Statistical evaluation of an interlaboratory comparison for the determination of uranium by potentiometric titration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ketema, D.J.; Harry, R.J.S.; Zijp, W.L.

    1990-09-01

    Upon request of the ESARDA working group 'Low enriched uranium conversion - and fuel fabrication plants' an interlaboratory comparison was organized, to assess the precision and accuracy concerning the determination of uranium by the potentiometric titration method. This report presents the results of a statistical evaluation on the data of the first phase of this exercise. (author). 9 refs.; 5 figs.; 24 tabs

  12. Health hazards of international travel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cossar, J H; Reid, D

    1989-01-01

    The growth of travel and the increasing numbers of those affected by travel-related illnesses, some of a serious nature, will cause this subject to demand the attention of the medical profession, the travel trade, travellers themselves and the health authorities of countries receiving tourists. Provision of appropriate advice for the traveller is a shared responsibility, best channelled mainly through travel agencies; it can moreover be shown to be cost-beneficial. Continued monitoring of illness in travellers and provision of information systems geared to this problem and its prevention are fully justified. They should be based on traditional channels of communication and currently-available modern technology, and be readily accessible to medical and related workers. Increased collaboration between medical workers, health educators and those involved in the travel trade would be a positive and useful contribution towards the reduction of illness and discomfort among travellers and the associated expense incurred by the various national health services concerned. There are clearly economic benefits from the development of international tourism, but these have to be balanced in countries accepting tourists by attention to the prevention of illnesses associated with travel.

  13. Health hazards associated with nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattan, Gurulingappa; Kaul, Gautam

    2014-07-01

    Nanotechnology is a major scientific and economic growth area and presents a variety of hazards for human health and environment. It is widely believed that engineered nanomaterials will be increasingly used in biomedical applications (as therapeutics and as diagnostic tools). However, before these novel materials can be safely applied in a clinical setting, their toxicity needs to be carefully assessed. Nanoscale materials often behave different from the materials with a larger structure, even when the basic material is same. Many mammals get exposed to these nanomaterials, which can reach almost every cell of the mammalian body, causing the cells to respond against nanoparticles (NPs) resulting in cytotoxicity and/or genotoxicity. The important key to understand the toxicity of nanomaterials is that their minute size, smaller than cellular organelles, allows them to penetrate the basic biological structures, disrupting their normal function. There is a wealth of evidence for the noxious and harmful effects of engineered NPs as well as other nanomaterials. The rapid commercialization of nanotechnology field requires thoughtful, attentive environmental, animal and human health safety research and should be an open discussion for broader societal impacts and urgent toxicological oversight action. While 'nanotoxicity' is a relatively new concept to science, this comprehensive review focuses on the nanomaterials exposure through the skin, respiratory tract, and gastrointestinal tract and their mechanism of toxicity and effect on various organs of the body. © The Author(s) 2012.

  14. Health hazards of UV radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthes, R.

    1994-01-01

    The author describes the effects and health risks of UV exposure. This includes UV effects on the DNS, the eyes, the immune system, and the skin. Finally, recommendations are given for protection against excessive UV exposure on the basis of the IRPA/INIRC guidelines. (orig.) [de

  15. The Mexican experience in monitoring and evaluation of public policies addressing social determinants of health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle, Adolfo Martinez

    2016-01-01

    Monitoring and evaluation (M&E) have gradually become important and regular components of the policy-making process in Mexico since, and even before, the World Health Organization (WHO) Commission on Social Determinants of Health (CSDH) called for interventions and policies aimed at tackling the social determinants of health (SDH). This paper presents two case studies to show how public policies addressing the SDH have been monitored and evaluated in Mexico using reliable, valid, and complete information, which is not regularly available. Prospera, for example, evaluated programs seeking to improve the living conditions of families in extreme poverty in terms of direct effects on health, nutrition, education and income. Monitoring of Prospera's implementation has also helped policy-makers identify windows of opportunity to improve the design and operation of the program. Seguro Popular has monitored the reduction of health inequalities and inequities evaluated the positive effects of providing financial protection to its target population. Useful and sound evidence of the impact of programs such as Progresa and Seguro Popular plus legal mandates, and a regulatory evaluation agency, the National Council for Social Development Policy Evaluation, have been fundamental to institutionalizing M&E in Mexico. The Mexican experience may provide useful lessons for other countries facing the challenge of institutionalizing the M&E of public policy processes to assess the effects of SDH as recommended by the WHO CSDH.

  16. The Mexican experience in monitoring and evaluation of public policies addressing social determinants of health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adolfo Martinez Valle

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring and evaluation (M&E have gradually become important and regular components of the policy-making process in Mexico since, and even before, the World Health Organization (WHO Commission on Social Determinants of Health (CSDH called for interventions and policies aimed at tackling the social determinants of health (SDH. This paper presents two case studies to show how public policies addressing the SDH have been monitored and evaluated in Mexico using reliable, valid, and complete information, which is not regularly available. Prospera, for example, evaluated programs seeking to improve the living conditions of families in extreme poverty in terms of direct effects on health, nutrition, education and income. Monitoring of Prospera's implementation has also helped policy-makers identify windows of opportunity to improve the design and operation of the program. Seguro Popular has monitored the reduction of health inequalities and inequities evaluated the positive effects of providing financial protection to its target population. Useful and sound evidence of the impact of programs such as Progresa and Seguro Popular plus legal mandates, and a regulatory evaluation agency, the National Council for Social Development Policy Evaluation, have been fundamental to institutionalizing M&E in Mexico. The Mexican experience may provide useful lessons for other countries facing the challenge of institutionalizing the M&E of public policy processes to assess the effects of SDH as recommended by the WHO CSDH.

  17. The Mexican experience in monitoring and evaluation of public policies addressing social determinants of health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle, Adolfo Martinez

    2016-01-01

    Monitoring and evaluation (M&E) have gradually become important and regular components of the policy-making process in Mexico since, and even before, the World Health Organization (WHO) Commission on Social Determinants of Health (CSDH) called for interventions and policies aimed at tackling the social determinants of health (SDH). This paper presents two case studies to show how public policies addressing the SDH have been monitored and evaluated in Mexico using reliable, valid, and complete information, which is not regularly available. Prospera, for example, evaluated programs seeking to improve the living conditions of families in extreme poverty in terms of direct effects on health, nutrition, education and income. Monitoring of Prospera's implementation has also helped policy-makers identify windows of opportunity to improve the design and operation of the program. Seguro Popular has monitored the reduction of health inequalities and inequities evaluated the positive effects of providing financial protection to its target population. Useful and sound evidence of the impact of programs such as Progresa and Seguro Popular plus legal mandates, and a regulatory evaluation agency, the National Council for Social Development Policy Evaluation, have been fundamental to institutionalizing M&E in Mexico. The Mexican experience may provide useful lessons for other countries facing the challenge of institutionalizing the M&E of public policy processes to assess the effects of SDH as recommended by the WHO CSDH. PMID:26928215

  18. An evaluation of fish health-management practices and occupational health hazards associated with Pangasius catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) aquaculture in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phu, TranMinh; Nguyen Thanh, Phuong; Dung, Tu Thanh

    2016-01-01

    released antimicrobials and resistance development. Small-scale farmers were at particular occupational health risks when handling antimicrobials and other chemicals, e.g. mixing medicated feed with bare hands. There is an urgent need to improve knowledge and use innovative approaches, e.g. private......-public partnerships, to assure a prudent use of chemicals, to improve capacity and access to disease diagnosis, particularly for small-scale grow-out farmers and nurseries. Efforts to control use of antimicrobials in aquaculture should be coordinated with the livestock and human health sectors taking an One-Health...

  19. Sex determination based on a thoracic vertebra and ribs evaluation using clinical chest radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsubaki, Shun; Morishita, Junji; Usumoto, Yosuke; Sakaguchi, Kyoko; Matsunobu, Yusuke; Kawazoe, Yusuke; Okumura, Miki; Ikeda, Noriaki

    2017-07-01

    Our aim was to investigate whether sex can be determined from a combination of geometric features obtained from the 10th thoracic vertebra, 6th rib, and 7th rib. Six hundred chest radiographs (300 males and 300 females) were randomly selected to include patients of six age groups (20s, 30s, 40s, 50s, 60s, and 70s). Each group included 100 images (50 males and 50 females). A total of 14 features, including 7 lengths, 5 indices for the vertebra, and 2 types of widths for ribs, were utilized and analyzed for sex determination. Dominant features contributing to sex determination were selected by stepwise discriminant analysis after checking the variance inflation factors for multicollinearity. The accuracy of sex determination using a combination of the vertebra and ribs was evaluated from the selected features by the stepwise discriminant analysis. The accuracies in each age group were also evaluated in this study. The accuracy of sex determination based on a combination of features of the vertebra and ribs was 88.8% (533/600). This performance was superior to that of the vertebra or ribs only. Moreover, sex determination of subjects in their 20s demonstrated the highest accuracy (96.0%, 96/100). The features selected in the stepwise discriminant analysis included some features in both the vertebra and ribs. These results indicate the usefulness of combined information obtained from the vertebra and ribs for sex determination. We conclude that a combination of geometric characteristics obtained from the vertebra and ribs could be useful for determining sex. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Traditional Practicing with Arsenic Rich Water in Fish Industries Leads to Health Hazards in West Bengal and North-Eastern States of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashyap, C. A.

    2014-12-01

    The supply of good quality food is main necessity for economic and social health of urban and rural population throughout the globe. This study comes to know the severity of As in the west Bengal and north-eastern states of the India. Over the 75% large population of India lives in villages and associated with farming and its related work. West Bengal is the densest populated area of India, fish and rice is the staple food as well as in north-eastern states. For the fulfil demand of fish large population the area are used fisheries as the business. Arsenic contamination in ground water is major growing threat to worldwide drinking water resources. High As contamination in water have been reported in many parts of the world Chandrasekharam et al., 2001; Smedley and Kinniburgh, 2002; Farooq et al., 2010). In context to West Bengal and north-east states of India arsenic is main problem in the food chain. These areas are very rich in arsenic many fold higher concentrations of Arsenic than their respective WHO permissible limits have been reported in the water. Over the 36 million people in Bengal delta are at risk due to drinking of As contaminated water (Nordstrom, 2002). The highest concentration of arsenic (535 μg/L Chandrashekhar et al. 2012) was registered from Ngangkha Lawai Mamang Leikai area of Bishnupur district which is fifty fold of the WHO limit for arsenic and tenfold of Indian permissible limit. With the continuous traditional practicing (As rich water pond) and untreated arsenic rich water in fish industries leads to health hazards. A sustainable development in aquaculture should comprise of various fields including environmental, social, cultural and economic aspects. A scientific study has to be needed for the overcome on this problem and rain harvested water may be used for reduce the arsenic problems in fisheries.

  1. Multiple determinants of transfer of evaluative function after conditioning with free-operant schedules of reinforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dack, Charlotte; Reed, Phil; McHugh, Louise

    2010-11-01

    The aim of the four present experiments was to explore how different schedules of reinforcement influence schedule-induced behavior, their impact on evaluative ratings given to conditioned stimuli associated with each schedule through evaluative conditioning, and the transfer of these evaluations through derived stimulus networks. Experiment 1 compared two contrasting response reinforcement rules (variable ratio [VR], variable interval [VI]). Experiment 2 varied the response to reinforcement rule between two schedules but equated the outcome to response rate (differential reinforcement of high rate [DRH] vs. VR). Experiment 3 compared molar and molecular aspects of contingencies of reinforcement (tandem VIVR vs. tandem VRVI). Finally, Experiment 4 employed schedules that induced low rates of responding to determine whether, under these circumstances, responses were more sensitive to the molecular aspects of a schedule (differential reinforcement of low rate [DRL] vs. VI). The findings suggest that the transfer of evaluative functions is determined mainly by differences in response rate between the schedules and the molar aspects of the schedules. However, when neither schedule was based on a strong response reinforcement rule, the transfer of evaluative judgments came under the control of the molecular aspects of the schedule.

  2. Crop Evaluation System Optimization: Attribute Weights Determination Based on Rough Sets Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruihong Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study is mainly a continuation of our previous study, which is about a crop evaluation system development that is based on grey relational analysis. In that system, the attribute weight determination affects the evaluation result directly. Attribute weight is usually ascertained by decision-makers experience knowledge. In this paper, we utilize rough sets theory to calculate attribute significance and then combine it with weight given by decision-maker. This method is a comprehensive consideration of subjective experience knowledge and objective situation; thus it can acquire much more ideal results. Finally, based on this method, we improve the system based on ASP.NET technology.

  3. A critical evaluation of methods applicable to the determination of cyanides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pohlandt, C.; Jones, E.A.; Lee, A.F.

    1983-01-01

    A literature survey of methods suitable for the determination of cyanides in process streams and effluents is presented. Of the large number of methods published, 92 are examined in detail, emphasis being placed on the selectivity of the methods, i.e. the extent to which they enable one to distinguish between ionic cyanide and metal-cyanide complexes. Methods designed for the determination of 'total cyanide' (i.e. ionic cyanide as well as coordinated cyanide) are evaluated critically. Other aspects of the methods are also considered, such as sensitivity, accuracy, speed, and freedom from interferences

  4. Comparative evaluation of iohexol and inulin clearance for glomerular filtration rate determinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindblad, H.G.; Berg, U.B.

    1994-01-01

    The authors have evaluated iohexol as a filtration marker in 150 children. The clearance of iohexol was compared with that of inulin or with a formula clearance. The single-sample clearance of iohexol showed a good correlation with the clearance of inulin. The clearance of iohexol correlated well with the formula clearance. The optimal blood sampling time for iohexol clearance determinations appears to be between 120 and 180 min after injection, at least in patient with relatively normal filtration rates. It is concluded that iohexol clearance is an accurate method of determining the glomerular filtration rate in clinical practice. 25 refs., 5 figs

  5. The role of self-determination theory and cognitive evaluation theory in home education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gina Riley

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the theories of Self-Determination, Cognitive Evaluation, and Intrinsic Motivation as it applies to home education. According to Self-Determination Theory, intrinsic motivation is innate. However, the maintenance and enhancement of intrinsic motivation depends upon the social and environmental conditions surrounding the individual. Deci and Ryan’s Cognitive Evaluation Theory specifically addresses the social and environmental factors that facilitate versus undermine intrinsic motivation and points to three significant psychological needs that must be present in the individual in order to foster self-motivation. These needs are competence, autonomy, and relatedness. Because of curriculum and time constraints, intrinsic motivation may be difficult to facilitate within the traditional classroom. This loss of intrinsic motivation for learning prompts some parents to homeschool their children. One of the most impressive strengths of home education lies in the fact that in many cases, the entire process revolves around a child’s intrinsic motivation to learn.

  6. Cooperative context is a determinant of the social influence on outcome evaluation: An electrophysiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Kenta; Katayama, Jun'ichi

    2016-02-01

    The present study examined whether or not a cooperative context is a determinant of the social influence on the evaluation of two action outcomes: a monetary outcome and a conflict of opinion with other group members. In the present study, three-person groups were randomly assigned to be either a cooperative or individual group and asked to perform a gambling task. The monetary outcomes in the cooperative group were interrelated among group members, whereas those in the individual group did not influence each other. The present results showed that monetary outcomes elicited feedback-related negativity (FRN) and a conflict of opinion with other group members elicited FRN-like negativity, which reflect an evaluation of the motivational significance of action outcomes. The FRN elicited by monetary outcomes was reduced when participants shared decisions with other group members only in the cooperative group, indicating that the cooperative context reduced the motivational significance of monetary outcomes through the diffusion of responsibility. The FRN-like negativity elicited by a conflict of opinion showed a different pattern between the cooperative and individual groups, indicating that the cooperative context can influence the evaluation of a conflict of opinion, possibly via the modulation of group cohesiveness or conflict processing. The present results suggest that a cooperative context, rather than the social setting, is a determinant of the social influence on outcome evaluation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Deliberation before determination: the definition and evaluation of good decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elwyn, Glyn; Miron-Shatz, Talya

    2010-06-01

    In this article, we examine definitions of suggested approaches to measure the concept of good decisions, highlight the ways in which they converge, and explain why we have concerns about their emphasis on post-hoc estimations and post-decisional outcomes, their prescriptive concept of knowledge, and their lack of distinction between the process of deliberation, and the act of decision determination. There has been a steady trend to involve patients in decision making tasks in clinical practice, part of a shift away from paternalism towards the concept of informed choice. An increased understanding of the uncertainties that exist in medicine, arising from a weak evidence base and, in addition, the stochastic nature of outcomes at the individual level, have contributed to shifting the responsibility for decision making from physicians to patients. This led to increasing use of decision support and communication methods, with the ultimate aim of improving decision making by patients. Interest has therefore developed in attempting to define good decision making and in the development of measurement approaches. We pose and reflect whether decisions can be judged good or not, and, if so, how this goodness might be evaluated. We hypothesize that decisions cannot be measured by reference to their outcomes and offer an alternative means of assessment, which emphasizes the deliberation process rather than the decision's end results. We propose decision making comprises a pre-decisional process and an act of decision determination and consider how this model of decision making serves to develop a new approach to evaluating what constitutes a good decision making process. We proceed to offer an alternative, which parses decisions into the pre-decisional deliberation process, the act of determination and post-decisional outcomes. Evaluating the deliberation process, we propose, should comprise of a subjective sufficiency of knowledge, as well as emotional processing and

  8. Evaluating Eye Drop Instillation Technique and Its Determinants in Glaucoma Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinbo Gao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To evaluate eye drop instillation technique and to explore its determinants in glaucoma patients. Methods. One hundred and thirteen patients diagnosed with glaucoma and self-administering topical antiglaucoma eye drops for at least 1 month were evaluated. All patients instilled artificial tear solution in one eye as they would do at home. The whole process was evaluated by two study staff. A comprehensive score system associated with eye drop instillation techniques was used to quantify the instillation technique and explore its determinants such as demographic and clinical characteristics. Results. Half of the patients (48.67% finished the administration of eye drop on first attempt.1.7 eye drops were squeezed out on average. 43 patients (37.17% got contact with ocular surface or adnexa. Only 19.7% patients had eye drop instillation techniques being defined as well. 11 patients (9.7% had prior instruction regarding using eye drops, while only 4 patients knew to occlude the tear duct by pressing the dacryocyst area. Older age and worse visual acuity were found to be independent risk factors for worse instillation technique. Conclusions. Eye drop instillation technique in glaucoma patients deserves great attention from eye care practitioners during their lifelong follow-up, especially those aged older and have worse visual acuity.

  9. Digital Image Quantitative Evaluations for Low Cost Film Digitizers Height Determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khairul Anuar Mohd Salleh; Arshad Yassin; Ahmad Nasir Yusof; Noorhazleena Azaman

    2016-01-01

    Non Destructive Testing (NDT) technology contributes significant improvement to the quality of industrial products, and the integrity of equipment and plants. Introduction of powerful computers and reliable imaging technology has had significant impact on the traditional nuclear based NDT technology. Demand for faster, reliable, low cost, and flexible technology is rapidly increased. With the growing demand for more efficient digital archiving, digital image analysis, and reporting results with a low cost technology, one cannot deny the importance of having another cheaper solution. This project will apply fundamental principle of image digitization to be used in building up a low cost film digitization solution. The height of the film digitization was carefully determined by examining each digital images produced. Three (3) repetitive quantitative evaluations (Modulation Transfer Function [MTF], Characteristic Transfer Curve [CTC], and Contrast to Noise Ratio [CNR]) were performed at different condition to assist with the determination of the low cost film digitizers height. All 3 evaluations were successfully applied and the most appropriate height was successfully determined. (author)

  10. Determination of Importance Evaluation for Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) Subsurface Testing Activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    C.J. Byrne

    2001-01-01

    This Determination of Importance Evaluation (DIE) applies to the Subsurface Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF), encompassing the Topopah Spring (TS) Loop from Station 0+00 meters (m) at the North Portal to breakthrough at the South Portal (approximately 78+77 m), and ancillary test and operation support areas including the Enhanced Characterization of the Repository Block (ECRB) Cross Drift. This evaluation applies specifically to site characterization testing activities ongoing and planned in the Subsurface ESF. ESF site characterization activities are being performed to obtain the information necessary to determine whether the Yucca Mountain Site is suitable as a geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. A more detailed description of these testing activities is provided in Section 6 of this DIE. Generally, the construction and operation of excavations associated with these testing activities are evaluated in the DIE for the Subsurface ESF (CRWMS M and O 1999a) and the DIE for the ESF ECRB Cross Drift (CRWMS M and O 2000a). The scope of this DIE also entails the proposed Unsaturated Zone (UZ) Transport Test at Busted Butte. Although, not a part of the TS Loop or ECRB Cross Drift, the associated testing activities are Subsurface testing activities. Busted Butte is located to the south south-east of the TS Loop and is outside the Conceptual Controlled Area Boundary (CCAB). These activities provide access to the Calico Hills (CH) geologic structure. In the case of Busted Butte, construction and operation of excavations are evaluated herein (since this activity was not previously evaluated in CRWMS M and O 1999a). The objectives of this DIE are to determine whether Subsurface ESF testing, and associated activities, could potentially impact site characterization testing and/or the waste isolation capabilities of the site. Controls needed to limit any potential impacts are identified in Section 13. The validity and veracity of the

  11. Determination of Importance Evaluation for Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) Subsurface Testing Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C.J. Byrne

    2001-02-20

    This Determination of Importance Evaluation (DIE) applies to the Subsurface Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF), encompassing the Topopah Spring (TS) Loop from Station 0+00 meters (m) at the North Portal to breakthrough at the South Portal (approximately 78+77 m), and ancillary test and operation support areas including the Enhanced Characterization of the Repository Block (ECRB) Cross Drift. This evaluation applies specifically to site characterization testing activities ongoing and planned in the Subsurface ESF. ESF site characterization activities are being performed to obtain the information necessary to determine whether the Yucca Mountain Site is suitable as a geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. A more detailed description of these testing activities is provided in Section 6 of this DIE. Generally, the construction and operation of excavations associated with these testing activities are evaluated in the DIE for the Subsurface ESF (CRWMS M&O 1999a) and the DIE for the ESF ECRB Cross Drift (CRWMS M&O 2000a). The scope of this DIE also entails the proposed Unsaturated Zone (UZ) Transport Test at Busted Butte. Although, not a part of the TS Loop or ECRB Cross Drift, the associated testing activities are Subsurface testing activities. Busted Butte is located to the south south-east of the TS Loop and is outside the Conceptual Controlled Area Boundary (CCAB). These activities provide access to the Calico Hills (CH) geologic structure. In the case of Busted Butte, construction and operation of excavations are evaluated herein (since this activity was not previously evaluated in CRWMS M&O 1999a). The objectives of this DIE are to determine whether Subsurface ESF testing, and associated activities, could potentially impact site characterization testing and/or the waste isolation capabilities of the site. Controls needed to limit any potential impacts are identified in Section 13. The validity and veracity of the individual

  12. Statistical evaluation of the analytical method involved in French nuclear glasses leaching rate determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broudic, V.; Marques, C.; Bonnal, M

    2004-07-01

    Chemical durability studies of nuclear glasses involves a large number of water leaching experiments at different temperatures and pressures on both, glasses doped with fission products and actinides and non radioactive surrogates. The leaching rates of these glasses are evaluated through ICPAES analysis of the leachate over time. This work presents a statistical evaluation of the analysis method used to determine the concentrations of various vitreous matrix constituents: Si, B, Na, Al, Ca, Li as major elements and Ba, Cr, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, P, Sr, Zn, Zr as minor elements. Calibration characteristics, limits of detection, limits of quantification and uncertainties quantification are illustrated with different examples of analysis performed on surrogates and on radioactive leachates in glove box. (authors)

  13. Evaluation of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy for the determination of macronutrients in plant materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trevizan, Lilian Cristina [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Av. Centenario 303, 13416-000, Piracicaba-SP (Brazil)], E-mail: lilian@conectcor.com.br; Santos, Dario [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo - UNIFESP, Rua Prof. Artur Riedel 275, 09972-270, Diadema-SP (Brazil); Elgul Samad, Ricardo; Dias Vieira, Nilson [Centro de Lasers e Aplicacoes, IPEN/CNEN-SP, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes 2242, 05508-000, Sao Paulo-SP (Brazil); Seimi Nomura, Cassiana [Centro de Ciencias Naturais e Humanas, Universidade Federal do ABC, Rua Santa Adelia 166, 09210-170, Santo Andre-SP (Brazil); Nunes, Lidiane Cristina [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, Rod. Washington Luis, km 235, 13565-905, Sao Carlos-SP (Brazil); Rufini, Iolanda Aparecida; Krug, Francisco Jose [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Av. Centenario 303, 13416-000, Piracicaba-SP (Brazil)

    2008-10-15

    Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) has become an analytical tool for the direct analysis of a large variety of materials in order to provide qualitative and/or quantitative information. However, there is a lack of information for LIBS analysis of agricultural and environmental samples. In this work a LIBS system has been evaluated for the determination of macronutrients (P, K, Ca, Mg) in pellets of vegetal reference materials. An experimental setup was designed by using a Nd:YAG laser operating at 1064 nm and an Echelle spectrometer with ICCD detector. The plasma temperature was estimated by Boltzmann plots and instrumental parameters such as delay time, lens-to-sample distance and pulse energy were evaluated. Certified reference materials as well as reference materials were used for analytical calibrations of P, K, Ca, and Mg. Most results of the direct analysis of plant samples by LIBS were in reasonable agreement with those obtained by ICP OES after wet acid decomposition.

  14. Evaluation of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy for the determination of macronutrients in plant materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trevizan, Lilian Cristina; Santos, Dario; Elgul Samad, Ricardo; Dias Vieira, Nilson; Seimi Nomura, Cassiana; Nunes, Lidiane Cristina; Rufini, Iolanda Aparecida; Krug, Francisco Jose

    2008-01-01

    Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) has become an analytical tool for the direct analysis of a large variety of materials in order to provide qualitative and/or quantitative information. However, there is a lack of information for LIBS analysis of agricultural and environmental samples. In this work a LIBS system has been evaluated for the determination of macronutrients (P, K, Ca, Mg) in pellets of vegetal reference materials. An experimental setup was designed by using a Nd:YAG laser operating at 1064 nm and an Echelle spectrometer with ICCD detector. The plasma temperature was estimated by Boltzmann plots and instrumental parameters such as delay time, lens-to-sample distance and pulse energy were evaluated. Certified reference materials as well as reference materials were used for analytical calibrations of P, K, Ca, and Mg. Most results of the direct analysis of plant samples by LIBS were in reasonable agreement with those obtained by ICP OES after wet acid decomposition

  15. Statistical evaluation of the analytical method involved in French nuclear glasses leaching rate determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broudic, V.; Marques, C.; Bonnal, M.

    2004-01-01

    Chemical durability studies of nuclear glasses involves a large number of water leaching experiments at different temperatures and pressures on both, glasses doped with fission products and actinides and non radioactive surrogates. The leaching rates of these glasses are evaluated through ICPAES analysis of the leachate over time. This work presents a statistical evaluation of the analysis method used to determine the concentrations of various vitreous matrix constituents: Si, B, Na, Al, Ca, Li as major elements and Ba, Cr, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, P, Sr, Zn, Zr as minor elements. Calibration characteristics, limits of detection, limits of quantification and uncertainties quantification are illustrated with different examples of analysis performed on surrogates and on radioactive leachates in glove box. (authors)

  16. A reactor core/containment status evaluation flowchart for determining protective actions in emergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glissman, M.A.

    1988-01-01

    In the event of an emergency at a power reactor station, there might not be adequate time or sufficient data to fully assess radiological implications and make protective action recommendations based on projected population exposures. Thus, decision-making guidance is needed that is based on readily available plant indicators, not just on time-consuming dose calculations. In the United States, this guidance must be compatible with the recommended by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Environmental Protection Agency, and it must include predetermined, measurable, site-specific parameters for assessing conditions in the reactor core and containment. The preparation of this real time guidance calls for the selection of suitable parameters and the determination of the values for these parameters that will correspond to different levels of protective action. This process is illustrated in this paper by selecting parameters and determining appropriate values for constructing a Core/Containment Status Evaluation Flowchart for an example power plant

  17. Quality parameters evaluation for the determination of available phosphorous in soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Galvis, John Brynner; Ballesteros, Maria Ines

    2006-01-01

    There are some colorimetric procedures for determining available phosphorous in soils, and phosphorous is evaluated by means of a blue complex (phosphomolybdic acid); in one of the methods, color appear when ascorbic acid is used as reductor agent, and in the other when stannous chloride is used. Both methods use the same extractive solution bray i i due to its good response for acid soil cultures, like most Colombian soils are. When the two methodologies were compared it was found that the most sensible method and with the best limit of detection and quantification was the one that uses ascorbic acid, antimonious and potassium tartrate. Its variation coefficients and standard deviation were lower, and for this reason it is considered as the most precise method for phosphorous determination

  18. Evaluation of the LASL automated spectrophotometer for uranium determination at submilligram levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollen, R.M.; Jackson, D.D.; Rein, J.E.

    1977-07-01

    The LASL automated spectrophotometer, designed for determination of 1 to 14 mg of uranium and 0.5 to 14 mg of plutonium, has been evaluated for determination of lower levels of uranium to 0.12 mg. The essentially linear response of absorbance is maintained and the standard deviation for a single measurement is constant at about 0.013 mg of uranium, corresponding to a maximum uncertainty of about 10 percent at the 0.12-mg limit. The instrument was applied to the analysis of a series of low-level-concentration, 0.07- to 0.8-mg/ml uranium samples. The results were not statistically different from those obtained by a manual spectrophotometric method

  19. Age determination in roe deer - a new approach to tooth wear evaluated on known age individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høye, Toke Thomas

    2006-01-01

    A novel, simple, and objective method is presented for ageing roe deer Capreolus capreolus (Linnaeus, 1758) evaluated on 471 lower jaws from roe deer of known age (351 with permanent premolars). It is based on tooth eruption patterns and presence/absence of wear characters in jaws from roe deer...... integrated in a scoring system. Permanent cheek teeth emerge in May-July in the year after birth, which enables precise age determination of individuals with deciduous premolars. For individuals with permanent cheek teeth, the method provides the correct age for all individuals younger than 13 months...... originate from two separated Danish roe deer populations exposed to contrasting habitats, but no difference in wear rate is found between populations. Thus, previous concern about the validity of age determination methods based on tooth wear may have been overstated. The findings demonstrate that objective...

  20. Design and evaluation of radiotracers for determination of regional cerebral blood flow with PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambrecht, R.M.; Duncan, C.C.; Shiue, C.Y.

    1982-01-01

    The tracer kinetics of 4-Fluoro( 18 F)-, 4-Bromo( 82 Br)- and 4-Iodo( 125 I)-antipyrine and 15 O-water were compared in a cat or baboon animal model. First-pass cerebral extraction and clearance with alterations in PaCO 2 were measured for whole brain. The Renkin/Crone model was used to evaluate brain capillary permeability-surface area product for 4- 18 FAP in cats. Positron-emission-tomographic measurements required development of an instrument and technique for control of the arterial concentration of the radiotracer as a ramp function, so that tracer concentration changes due to radioactive decay or altered physiological processes could be accurately described with PET. Pharmacokinetic and tissue-distribution studies in cats were used to determine dosimetry for 4- 18 FAP. 4-Bromoantipyrine labeled with 78 Br (t = 6.5 m) is suggested as a tracer for determination of rCBF with PET

  1. An attempt to evaluate some regression models used for radiometric ash determination in the brown coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karamuz, S.; Urbanski, P.; Antoniak, W.; Wagner, D.

    1984-01-01

    Five different regression models for determination of the ash as well as iron and calcium contents in brown coal using fluorescence and scattering of X-rays have been evaluated. Calculations were done using experimental results obtained from the natural brown coal samples to which appropriate quantities of iron, calcium and silicon oxides were added. The secondary radiation was excited by Pu-238 source and detected by X-ray argone filled proportional counter. The investigation has shown the superiority of the multiparametric models over the radiometric ash determination in the pit-coal applying aluminium filter for the correction of the influence of iron content on the intensity of scattered radiation. Standard error of estimation for the best algorithm is about three time smaler than that for algorithm simulating application of the aluminium filter. Statistical parameters of the considered algorithm were reviewed and discussed. (author)

  2. Determination of dimensions and theoretical evaluation of the performance of electron accelerator structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuhrmann, C.; Setrao, V.A.

    1987-03-01

    A method to calculate the dimensions of a constant gradient disk-loaded structure of a linear accelerator is presented. The method is based on a description of the RF power flux along the structure axis and involves a particular dispersion that includes details of the iris geometry. The dimensions of the v p = c structure and of the buncher section of the CURUMIM linear accelerator, have been determined as an application of the above method. The theoretical performance of the accelerating structure has been evaluated for electron pulse widths ranging from 10 ns to 2 μs and for peak currents up to 10 A. (author) [pt

  3. Evaluation of the uncertainty for the efficiency curve determination of 210Pb by liquid scintillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sampaio, C.S.; Sousa, W.O.; Dantas, B.M.

    2014-01-01

    Methodologies for the evaluation of uncertainties associated with the determination of the efficiency curve of 210 Pb by liquid scintillation counting (LSC) are presented. No statistical difference were found when compared the uncertainties of the curves that represented the counting net before and after the secular equilibrium between 210 Pb and 210 Bi, nether when compared the curves when counting only 210 Pb and the curve with the total count of 210 Pb and 210 Bi, for the same time interval after precipitation. (author)

  4. Evaluation and Classification of Syntax Usage in Determining Short-Text Semantic Similarity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Batanović

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper outlines and categorizes ways of using syntactic information in a number of algorithms for determining the semantic similarity of short texts. We consider the use of word order information, part-of-speech tagging, parsing and semantic role labeling. We analyze and evaluate the effects of syntax usage on algorithm performance by utilizing the results of a paraphrase detection test on the Microsoft Research Paraphrase Corpus. We also propose a new classification of algorithms based on their applicability to languages with scarce natural language processing tools.

  5. Blank evaluation in nitrogen determination in seed grains by 14 MeV neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wasek, M.; Sterlinski, S.

    1987-01-01

    In this work the term 'blank' signifies total radiation of the sample analyzed except that the element to be determined (analyte) is absent. On the basis of the evaluation of the blank components (nuclear and spectral interferences, air-nitrogen between grains, etc.), a semiempirical formula for calculating the nitrogen content in plant grain samples is proposed. The reliability of the results obtained with the use of this formula was demonstrated for five sorts of seeds (rye, wheat, barley, broad bean and soybean) which were analyzed by the Kjeldahl method and 14 MeV neutron activation analysis, respectively. (author)

  6. Evaluation of Botanical Reference Materials for the Determination of Vanadium in Biological Samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heydorn, Kaj; Damsgaard, Else

    1982-01-01

    Three botanical reference materials prepared by the National Bureau of Standards have been studied by neutron activation analysis to evaluate their suitability with respect to the determination of vanadium in biological samples. Various decomposition methods were applied in connection with chemic....... A reference value of 1.15 mg/kg of this material is recommended, based on results from 3 different methods. All three materials are preferable to SRM 1571 Orchard Leaves, while Bowen's Kale remains the material of choice because of its lower concentration....

  7. Xenon-133 determination of muscle blood flow: Use in evaluating cardioactive drugs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wexler, J.P.; Davis, L.; Mancini, D.; Chadwick, B.; Le Jemtel, T.

    1985-01-01

    Cardioactive drugs may effect both the central and peripheral circulatory systems. The effects on the central and peripheral circulatory systems of chronic Captorpril therapy in 7 pts with severe congestive heart failure (CHF) were evaluated simultaneously. Skeletal muscle blood flow (SMBF) determined using 133-Xe washout and a Cd/Te detector, oxygen consumption (VO/sub 2/), and radial artery and femoral vein O/sub 2/ concentration difference (A-V) were determined at rest and peak upright bicycle exercise before (BT) and after (AT) 6-12 weeks of Captopril therapy. In CI pts there was a significant increase in VO/sub 2/ and SMBF AT vs BT. In contrast, in CNC pts there was no change in VO/sub 2/ and a significant decrease in SMBF AT vs BT. In pts with severe CHF who are CI, there is an apparent fall in peripheral vascular resistance (PVR). In contrast, in CNC pts there is an increase in PVR. This study demonstrates that SMBF determines using 133-Xe is an important method for determining the effects of cardioactive drugs

  8. Evaluation of sample preparation methods and optimization of nickel determination in vegetable tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Fernando dos Santos Salazar

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Nickel, although essential to plants, may be toxic to plants and animals. It is mainly assimilated by food ingestion. However, information about the average levels of elements (including Ni in edible vegetables from different regions is still scarce in Brazil. The objectives of this study were to: (a evaluate and optimize a method for preparation of vegetable tissue samples for Ni determination; (b optimize the analytical procedures for determination by Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (FAAS and by Electrothermal Atomic Absorption (ETAAS in vegetable samples and (c determine the Ni concentration in vegetables consumed in the cities of Lorena and Taubaté in the Vale do Paraíba, State of São Paulo, Brazil. By means of the analytical technique for determination by ETAAS or FAAS, the results were validated by the test of analyte addition and recovery. The most viable method tested for quantification of this element was HClO4-HNO3 wet digestion. All samples but carrot tissue collected in Lorena contained Ni levels above the permitted by the Brazilian Ministry of Health. The most disturbing results, requiring more detailed studies, were the Ni concentrations measured in carrot samples from Taubaté, where levels were five times higher than permitted by Brazilian regulations.

  9. Determination of Importance Evaluation for Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) Subsurface Testing Activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodin, S.

    2002-01-01

    This Determination of Importance Evaluation (DIE) applies to the Subsurface Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF), encompassing the Topopah Spring (TS) Loop from Station 0+00 meters (m) at the North Portal to breakthrough at the South Portal (approximately 78+77 m), and ancillary test and operation support areas including the Enhanced Characterization of the Repository Block (ECRB) Cross Drift. This evaluation applies specifically to site characterization testing activities ongoing and planned in the Subsurface ESF. ESF site characterization activities are being performed to obtain the information necessary to determine whether the Yucca Mountain Site is suitable as a geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. A more detailed description of these testing activities is provided in Section 6 of this DIE. Generally, the construction and operation of excavations associated with these testing activities are evaluated in the DIE for the Subsurface ESF (CRWMS M andO 1999a) and the DIE for the ESF ECRB Cross Drift (CRWMS M andO 2000a). The scope of this DIE also entails the proposed Unsaturated Zone (UZ) Transport Test at Busted Butte. Although, not a part of the TS Loop or ECRB Cross Drift, the associated testing activities are Subsurface testing activities. Busted Butte is located to the south south-east of the TS Loop and is outside the Conceptual Controlled Area Boundary (CCAB). These activities provide access to the Calico Hills (CH) geologic structure. In the case of Busted Butte, construction and operation of excavations are evaluated herein (since this activity was not previously evaluated in CRWMS M andO 1999a). The objectives of this DIE are to determine whether Subsurface ESF testing, and associated activities, could potentially impact site characterization testing and/or the waste isolation capabilities of the site. Controls needed to limit any potential impacts are identified in Section 13. The validity and veracity of the

  10. Determinants of 6-minute walk distance in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis undergoing lung transplant evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porteous, Mary K; Rivera-Lebron, Belinda N; Kreider, Maryl; Lee, James; Kawut, Steven M

    2016-03-01

    Little is known about the physiologic determinants of 6-minute walk distance in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. We investigated the demographic, pulmonary function, echocardiographic, and hemodynamic determinants of 6-minute walk distance in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis evaluated for lung transplantation. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of 130 patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis who completed a lung transplantation evaluation at the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania between 2005 and 2010. Multivariable linear regression analysis was used to generate an explanatory model for 6-minute walk distance. After adjustment for age, sex, race, height, and weight, the presence of right ventricular dilation was associated with a decrease of 50.9 m (95% confidence interval [CI], 8.4-93.3) in 6-minute walk distance ([Formula: see text]). For each 200-mL reduction in forced vital capacity, the walk distance decreased by 15.0 m (95% CI, 9.0-21.1; [Formula: see text]). For every increase of 1 Wood unit in pulmonary vascular resistance, the walk distance decreased by 17.3 m (95% CI, 5.1-29.5; [Formula: see text]). Six-minute walk distance in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis depends in part on circulatory impairment and the degree of restrictive lung disease. Future trials that target right ventricular morphology, pulmonary vascular resistance, and forced vital capacity may potentially improve exercise capacity in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

  11. Determination of midsagittal plane for evaluation of facial asymmetry using three-dimensional computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Tae Young; Huh, Kyung Hoe; Choi, Soon Chul; Baik, Jee Seon; Park, Joo Young; Chae, Hwa Sung

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the disagreement of cephalometric analysis depending on the reference determination of midsagittal plane on three-dimensional computed tomography. A total of 102 young women with class III dentofacial deformity were evaluated using three-dimensional computed tomography. The cranial and facial midsagittal planes were defined and the amounts of jaw deviation were calculated. The amounts of jaw deviation were compared with paired t-test (2-tailed) and Bland-Altman plot was drawn. The landmark tracing were reproducible (r≥.978). The jaws relative to the cranial midsagittal plane were 10-17 times more significantly deviated than to the facial midsagittal plane (P<.001). Bland-Altman plot demonstrated that the differences between the amounts of jaw deviation from two midsagittal planes were not normally distributed versus the average of the amounts of jaw deviation from two midsagittal planes. The cephalometric analyses of facial asymmetry were significantly inconsistent depending on the reference determination of midsagittal plane. The reference for midsagittal plane should be carefully determined in three-dimensional cephalometric analysis of facial asymmetry of patients with class III dentofacial deformity.

  12. Evaluation of active sampling strategies for the determination of 1,3-butadiene in air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallecillos, Laura; Maceira, Alba; Marcé, Rosa Maria; Borrull, Francesc

    2018-03-01

    Two analytical methods for determining levels of 1,3-butadiene in urban and industrial atmospheres were evaluated in this study. Both methods are extensively used for determining the concentration of volatile organic compounds in the atmosphere and involve collecting samples by active adsorptive enrichment on solid sorbents. The first method uses activated charcoal as the sorbent and involves liquid desorption with carbon disulfide. The second involves the use of a multi-sorbent bed with two graphitised carbons and a carbon molecular sieve as the sorbent, with thermal desorption. Special attention was paid to the optimization of the sampling procedure through the study of sample volume, the stability of 1,3-butadiene once inside the sampling tube and the humidity effect. In the end, the thermal desorption method showed better repeatability and limits of detection and quantification for 1,3-butadiene than the liquid desorption method, which makes the thermal desorption method more suitable for analysing air samples from both industrial and urban atmospheres. However, sampling must be performed with a pre-tube filled with a drying agent to prevent the loss of the adsorption capacity of the solid adsorbent caused by water vapour. The thermal desorption method has successfully been applied to determine of 1,3-butadiene inside a 1,3-butadiene production plant and at three locations in the vicinity of the same plant.

  13. Evaluation of fourier transform profilometry performance: quantitative waste volume determination under simulated Hanford waste tank conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Ping-Rey; Leone, Teresa; Long, Zhiling; Mott, Melissa A.; Perry Norton, O.; Okhuysen, Walter P.; Monts, David L.

    2007-01-01

    The Hanford Site is currently in the process of an extensive effort to empty and close its radioactive single-shell and double-shell waste storage tanks. Before this can be accomplished, it is necessary to know how much residual material is left in a given waste tank and the chemical makeup of the residue. The objective of Mississippi State University's Institute for Clean Energy Technology's (ICET) efforts is to develop, fabricate, and deploy inspection tools for the Hanford waste tanks that will (1) be remotely operable; (2) provide quantitative information on the amount of wastes remaining; and (3) provide information on the spatial distribution of chemical and radioactive species of interest. A collaborative arrangement has been established with the Hanford Site to develop probe-based inspection systems for deployment in the waste tanks. ICET is currently developing an in-tank inspection system based on Fourier Transform Profilometry, FTP. FTP is a non-contact, 3-D shape measurement technique. By projecting a fringe pattern onto a target surface and observing its deformation due to surface irregularities from a different view angle, FTP is capable of determining the height (depth) distribution (and hence volume distribution) of the target surface, thus reproducing the profile of the target accurately under a wide variety of conditions. Hence FTP has the potential to be utilized for quantitative determination of residual wastes within Hanford waste tanks. We have completed a preliminary performance evaluation of FTP in order to document the accuracy, precision, and operator dependence (minimal) of FTP under conditions similar to those that can be expected to pertain within Hanford waste tanks. Based on a Hanford C-200 series tank with camera access through a riser with significant offset relative to the centerline, we devised a testing methodology that encompassed a range of obstacles likely to be encountered 'in tank'. These test objects were inspected by use

  14. Analytical Evaluation to Determine Selected PAHs by HPLC in a Type 2 Fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Alonso, S.; Perez Pastor, R. M.; Sevillano Castano, M. L.; Escolano Segovia, O.; Garcia Frutos, F. J.

    2009-01-01

    An evaluation of analytical parameters to determine selected PAHs in a fuel oil type II by HPLC coupled to fluorescence and diode detectors is presented. The study was focused on four conventional treatments of these kinds of oil samples and the main objective was giving a measure of confidence level of PAH results in the fuel oil. This study was performed in the frame of the project Assessment of natural attenuation of PAHs in agricultural soil contaminated with fuel from an accidental spill (Spanish National Plain I+D+I, CTM2007-64537). This paper is presented as follows: Analysis of reference material 1582 (NIST) by using the four kinds of sample treatments of interest. Application of variance analysis to compare results obtained from type II fuel by using each sample treatment and chromatographic detector. Finally, a statistic calculation was performed to measure uncertainty components in chromatographic analysis. (Author)

  15. Determination atmospheric conditions by evaluating clearness index, turbidity and brightness of the sky

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kandilli, C.

    2005-01-01

    There are fifteen different sky types which range from totally overcast sky to low turbidity clear sky have been defined by CIE (International Commission on Illumination). For the applications of solar energy engineering and day lighting purposes, it has a great importance to determine the physical characteristics of atmosphere and the sky type. The most important parameters which define the sky type are clearness index, turbidity and brightness. In this study, the parameters of clearness index, turbidity and brightness of the sky belong to Izmir was calculated and their relations with solar radiation and its components were represented according to 10 years data (1994-2004) of meteorology station of Ege University Solar Energy Institute. In this study, clearness index, turbidity, sky clearness and brightness were evaluated to put forward the effects of the these parameters on the atmospheric condition for designing and engineering purposes

  16. Evaluation of errors in determination of DNA melting curve registered with differential scanning calorimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lando, D.Y.; Fridman, A.S.; Galyuk, E.N.; Dalyan, Y.B.; Grigoryan, I.E.; Haroutiunian, S.G.

    2013-01-01

    The differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) is more sensitive than UV absorption spectrophotometry as a tool for the measurement of DNA melting curves. The advantage of DSC is a direct determination of differential melting curves (DMC) obtained without numerical differentiation. However, the difference between the helix-coil transition enthalpies of AT and GC base pairs can cause distortions in the shape of melting curve. Up to date, the errors caused by those distortions were not evaluated. In this study, a simple procedure of recalculation of a calorimetric DMC into a real DMC is developed. It demonstrates that the 'real' melting curve and differential melting curve deviate very slightly from the same two curves calculated from DSC data. The melting temperature and the temperature melting range are usually the same even if the difference in the enthalpies is several times higher than a real one

  17. Evaluating Noise Sensitivity on the Time Series Determination of Lyapunov Exponents Applied to the Nonlinear Pendulum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.F.P. Franca

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This contribution presents an investigation on noise sensitivity of some of the most disseminated techniques employed to estimate Lyapunov exponents from time series. Since noise contamination is unavoidable in cases of data acquisition, it is important to recognize techniques that could be employed for a correct identification of chaos. State space reconstruction and the determination of Lyapunov exponents are carried out to investigate the response of a nonlinear pendulum. Signals are generated by numerical integration of the mathematical model, selecting a single variable of the system as a time series. In order to simulate experimental data sets, a random noise is introduced in the signal. Basically, the analyses of periodic and chaotic motions are carried out. Results obtained from mathematical model are compared with the one obtained from time series analysis, evaluating noise sensitivity. This procedure allows the identification of the best techniques to be employed in the analysis of experimental data.

  18. Evaluation of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for determination of porcine haptoglobin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, H. H.; Nielsen, J. P.; Jensen, A.L.

    2001-01-01

    An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for quantification of haptoglobin in porcine serum was evaluated. Tbe detection limit when expressed as the estimated concentration of a blank sample was 0.0003 mg/ml. The precision of the assay was acceptable with intra-assay coefficients of variation below 4...... % and inter-assay coefficient of variation below 5 % for serum concentrations ranging from 1.0 mg/ml and above. For samples with a concentration below 0.8 mg/ml, the inter-assay coefficient of variation was above 10 %. The assay maintained linearity under dilution. Recovery was proportional. Haemolysis.......2. The maximum allowable analytical imprecision was 2.6 % and the maximum analytical inaccuracy was 9.9 %. The number of samples required to determine, the true haptoglobin value in an individual pig when accounting for the day-to-day fluctuation was 5. In conclusion, the haptoglobin assay was found...

  19. Determination and evaluation of the radiological situation using mobile measurements during the ground phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obrecht, R.; Pohl, H.; Schneider, S.; Grimm, C. [Umweltministerium Baden-Wuerttemberg, Stuttgart (Germany); Neff, Ulrich; Coutinho, Paula; Mueller, Ulrich; Mandel, Carmen [Landesanstalt fuer Umweltschutz, Messungen und Naturschutz Baden-Wuerttemberg, Karlsruhe (Germany); Wilbois, Thomas; Ren, Yongxiang [T-Systems GEI GmbH, Ulm (Germany); Chaves, Fernando [Fraunhofer Inst. IITB, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2009-08-15

    The nuclear reactor remote monitoring system of the state of Baden-Wuerttemberg (Kernreaktor-Fernueberwachung Baden-Wuerttemberg - KFUeBW) is implemented according to the recently renewed ''recommendations for remote monitoring of nuclear power plants''. In Baden-Wuerttemberg, the application area of the system covers both, the surveillance of internal procedures on one hand, and the handling of incidents or accidents on the other. The following paper shows the role of the KFUeregarding the determination and evaluation of the radiological situation in the range of off-site emergency response. Progress is reported on the measurement conception and the technical possibilities for the investigation of the radiological situation after the end of the deposition of radio nuclides (ground phase). (orig.)

  20. Evaluation of botanical reference materials for the determination of vanadium in biological samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heydorn, K.; Damsgaard, E.

    1982-01-01

    Three botanical reference materials prepared by the National Bureau of Standards have been studied by neutron activation analysis to evaluate their suitability with respect to the determination of vanadium in biological samples. Various decomposition methods were applied in connection with chemical or radiochemical separations, and results for vanadium were compared with those found by purely instrumental neutron activation analysis. Significantly lower results indicate losses or incomplete dissolution, which makes SRM 1575 Pine Needles and SRM 1573 Tomato Leaves less satisfactory than SRM 1570 Spinach. A reference value of 1.15 mg/kg of this material is recommended, based on results from 3 different methods. All three materials are preferable to SRM 1571 Orchard Leaves, while Bowen's Kale remains the material of choice because of its lower concentration. (author)

  1. Evaluation of Hanau's formula in determination of lateral condylar guidance: A clinical research study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhawsar, Sanjay Vasant; Marathe, Ashlesha Subhash; Ansari, Sadekh Abdul

    2015-01-01

    Statement of Problem: The accuracy and reliability of the methods used for programming the semi-adjustable articulators determine the accuracy in occlusion. The current recommended average settings using the Hanau's formula commonly used by clinicians is questionable, and thus reassessment is needed. This study was carried out to evaluate and compare the lateral condylar guidance: (1) Using the Hanau's formula and the computerized jaw tracking device (Kinesiograph). (2) On the right and left sides using both these methods. Materials and Methods: A total of 20 completely edentulous patients (14 male and 6 females) within 40–60 years of age were selected. Jaw relation was recorded followed by face bow transfer. Extraoral Gothic arch tracing was recorded; three protrusive records were obtained and condylar guidance was calculated. Lateral condylar guidance was then calculated using Hanau's formula, followed by the computerized jaw tracking device. A comparative evaluation was done of the obtained values. The same investigator worked with each of the study participants for the purpose of standardization. Results: The lateral condylar guidance values obtained using the Hanau's formula ranged from 14 to 17° while those obtained using the computerized K7 jaw tracking device ranged from 8 to 40°. Bennett angle values, obtained using the jaw tracking device and Hanau's formula showed statistically significant differences (P 0.05). Conclusion: Based on the results, dentist and dental technicians should consider reassessing the current recommended average settings and use of the Hanau's formula for programming the semi-adjustable articulators. PMID:26929535

  2. Evaluation of diffusion-perfusion mismatch for determining indication for emergency endovascular revascularization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masuda, Atsushi; Miki, Takanori; Matsumoto, Hiroaki

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated the usefulness of assessing by diffusion-perfusion mismatch (D/P mismatch) whether there is adaptation of neuroendovascular revascularization for acute ischemic stroke out of intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (IV t-PA). We retrospectively analyzed 24 patients who underwent D/P mismatch and endovascular treatment between October 2005 and September 2008. This investigation included stroke patients with a National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score less than 4. Sixteen acute ischemic stroke patients had an NIHSS score greater than 5. Eight patients (50%) had a favorable neurological outcome (modified Rankin Scale 0 to 2). Eight acute ischemic stroke patients had an NIHSS score equal to or less than 4. Four patients who underwent emergency endovascular treatment on admission had a favorable neurological outcome, but 3 patients treated for progressive stroke after admission all had a poor prognosis. Evaluating D/P mismatch was useful for determining the adaptation of emergency neuroendovascular revascularization for acute ischemic stroke out of IV t-PA. Acute ischemic stroke patients with an NIHSS score equal to or less than 4 and diffusion/perfusion mismatch need careful observation to enable endovascular treatment immediately after progressive stroke. (author)

  3. Determinants of continuance intention in a post-adoption satisfaction evaluation of a clinical information system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadji, Brahim; Dupuis, Isabelle; Leneveut, Laurence; Heudes, Didier; Wagner, Jean-François; Degoulet, Patrice

    2014-01-01

    The evaluation of end-user satisfaction is an essential part of any clinical information system (CIS) project. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the determinants of CIS continuance intention in a late post-adoption phase at the Georges Pompidou University Hospital (HEGP) in Paris. We designed an electronic survey instrument based on an IT post-adoption model (ITPAM) developed from three previous models, i.e., the Delone and McLean Information Success Model, the Davis TAM model and the Bhattacherjee information system continuance intention model. 419 questionnaires were collected from CIS users directly involved in patient care. The perceived CIS quality, usefulness and user satisfaction are significantly lower for medical professions than other professional groups. Continuance intention is very high within all professional subgroups. In a multiple regression analysis, the global satisfaction (R(2) = .780) was positively and significantly correlated with CIS quality, confirmation of expectations and perceived CIS usefulness. The continuance intention (R(2) = .392) was positively and significantly correlated with perceived CIS usefulness, confirmation of expectations and global satisfaction. In a late post-adoption CIS deployment phase, continuance intention does not significantly depend on individual end user characteristics but is significantly associated with the perceived CIS usefulness, confirmation of expectations and global satisfaction.

  4. Evaluating multiple determinants of the structure of plant-animal mutualistic networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez, Diego P; Chacoff, Natacha P; Cagnolo, Luciano

    2009-08-01

    The structure of mutualistic networks is likely to result from the simultaneous influence of neutrality and the constraints imposed by complementarity in species phenotypes, phenologies, spatial distributions, phylogenetic relationships, and sampling artifacts. We develop a conceptual and methodological framework to evaluate the relative contributions of these potential determinants. Applying this approach to the analysis of a plant-pollinator network, we show that information on relative abundance and phenology suffices to predict several aggregate network properties (connectance, nestedness, interaction evenness, and interaction asymmetry). However, such information falls short of predicting the detailed network structure (the frequency of pairwise interactions), leaving a large amount of variation unexplained. Taken together, our results suggest that both relative species abundance and complementarity in spatiotemporal distribution contribute substantially to generate observed network patters, but that this information is by no means sufficient to predict the occurrence and frequency of pairwise interactions. Future studies could use our methodological framework to evaluate the generality of our findings in a representative sample of study systems with contrasting ecological conditions.

  5. Evaluation of Annual Allowable Cut (AAC Determination of Teak Forest Plantations in Perum Perhutani, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohman Rohman

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The degradation of teak forest plantations in Java that are managed by Perum Perhutani (PP continues to happen, and this is caused by some risk factors such as illegal logging, grazing, forest fire, and encroachment. However, these risk factors have not been considered by PP notably in annual allowable cut (AAC determination of yield regulation. Therefore, the AAC value could be overestimated. The research was aimed at evaluating the method of AAC determination and proposing an alternative method that considers the risk factors. This research was conducted with a series of data analysis approach from the data on five planning periods. The research result showed that forest damage occurs in varied situations. On average, the rate of deforestation accounted for 0.8% per annum.The calculation of AAC by considering the rate of damage risk in normal condition approximately made up 70.8%. Thus, compared to another method without considering damage risk rate, overestimation constituted 29.2%. In brief, this had an impact on the decline of timber stock.Keywords: teak forest plantation, Perum Perhutani, casualty per cent, AAC

  6. Determination and evaluation of the thermophysical properties of an alkali carbonate eutectic molten salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Xuehui; Cheng, Jinhui; Zhang, Peng; Tang, Zhongfeng; Wang, Jianqiang

    2016-08-15

    The thermal physical properties of Li2CO3-Na2CO3-K2CO3 eutectic molten salt were comprehensively investigated. It was found that the liquid salt can remain stable up to 658 °C (the onset temperature of decomposition) by thermal analysis, and so the investigations on its thermal physical parameters were undertaken from room temperature to 658 °C. The density was determined using a self-developed device, with an uncertainty of ±0.00712 g cm(-3). A cooling curve was obtained from the instrument, giving the liquidus temperature. For the first time, we report the obtainment of the thermal diffusivity using a laser flash method based on a special crucible design and establishment of a specific sample preparation method. Furthermore, the specific heat capacity was also obtained by use of DSC, and combined with thermal diffusivity and density, was used to calculate the thermal conductivity. We additionally built a rotating viscometer with high precision in order to determine the molten salt viscosity. All of these parameters play an important part in the energy storage and transfer calculation and safety evaluation for a system.

  7. Determination of diffusion and adsorption coefficients for some contaminants in clayey soil and rock: Laboratory determination and field evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barone, F S

    1990-01-01

    A laboratory diffusion test determination of diffusion coefficient (D) and adsorption coefficient (K{sub d}) for various inorganic and organic species in a saturated, undisturbed, clayey soil is presented. Diffusion tests conducted for inorganic species (Cl{sup {minus}} , Na{sup +}, K{sup +}, Mg{sup 2+}, and Ca{sup 2+}), involved placing domestic landfill leachate on top of a layer of clay and allowing the chemical constituents to diffuse into the soil. The mathematical model POLLUTE was then used to back-figure (D) and (K{sub d}) for each species. Diffusion tests conducted for organic species (acetone, 1,4-dioxane, aniline, chloroform, and toluene), involved diffusion of the species from a source solution placed on one side of a clay plug, into a distilled water collector solution on the opposite side. Using POLLUTE, D and K{sub d} were then determined by fitting the measured concentration variation with time in both the source and collector solution. In addition to the laboratory study, an investigation of inorganic contaminant diffusion below an existing industrial landfill site was conducted by analyzing soil and pore water specimens from the clay layer underlying the waste. Concentration profiles for Cl{sup {minus}}, So{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}}, Na+, Ca{sup 2+} and Mg{sup 2+}, showed above background levels to a depth of 1.4 m below the waste after 11 years of migration. K{sup +}, B, and NH{sub 3}-N profiles, penetrated to less than 0.5 m below the waste. Field profiles for Na{sup +}, K{sup +}, Cl{sup {minus}}, and SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} were then compared with those predicted using POLLUTE with D and K{sub d} values obtained from diffusion tests using leachate and natural uncontaminated clay from the site. Finally, a laboratory diffusion test determination of Cl{sup {minus}} diffusion coefficient in samples of intact, saturated shale and mudstone is presented.

  8. Evaluation of the furosine and homoarginine methods for determining reactive lysine in rumen-undegraded protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucher, S E; Pedersen, C; Stein, H H; Schwab, C G

    2009-08-01

    Three samples of soybean meal (SBM), 3 samples of expeller SBM (SoyPlus, West Central Cooperative, Ralston, IA), 5 samples of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), and 5 samples of fish meal were used to evaluate the furosine and homoarginine procedures to estimate reactive Lys in the rumen-undegraded protein fraction (RUP-Lys). One sample each of SBM, expeller SBM, and DDGS were subjected to additional heat treatment in the lab to ensure there was a wide range in reactive RUP-Lys content among the samples. Furosine is a secondary product of the initial stages of the Maillard reaction and can be used to calculate blocked Lys. Homoarginine is formed via the reaction of reactive Lys with O-methylisourea and can be used to calculate the concentration of reactive Lys. In previous experiments, each sample was ruminally incubated in situ for 16 h, and standardized RUP-Lys digestibility of the samples was determined in cecectomized roosters. All rumen-undegraded residue (RUR) samples were analyzed for furosine and Lys; however, only 9 of the 16 samples contained furosine, and only the 4 unheated DDGS samples contained appreciable amounts of furosine. Blocked RUP-Lys was calculated from the furosine and Lys concentrations of the RUR. Both the intact feed and RUR samples were evaluated using the homoarginine method. All samples were incubated with an O-methylisourea/BaOH solution for 72 h and analyzed for Lys and homoarginine concentrations. Reactive Lys concentrations of the intact feeds and RUR were calculated. Results of the experiment indicate that blocked RUP-Lys determined via the furosine method was negatively correlated with standardized RUP-Lys digestibility, and reactive RUP-Lys determined via the guanidination method was positively correlated with standardized RUP-Lys digestibility. Reactive Lys concentrations of the intact samples were also highly correlated with RUP-Lys digestibility. In conclusion, the furosine assay is useful in predicting RUP

  9. Application of Mathematical Models for Determination of Microorganisms Growth Rate Kinetic Coefficients for Wastewater Treatment Plant Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Delnavaz

    2017-06-01

    Conclusion: Evaluation of Y, kd, k0 and Ks parameters in operation of Ekbatan wastewater treatment plant showed that ASM1 model could well determine the coefficients and therefore the conditions of biological treatment is appropriate.

  10. Evaluation of non-destructive density determination for QA/QC acceptance testing : research project capsule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-01

    LTRCs Geotechnical and Asphalt groups will be conducting two separate field and laboratory evaluations. The Geotechnical group will evaluate field densities of soil layers and the asphalt group will evaluate field densities on asphalt pavement lay...

  11. Integrated approaches to address the social determinants of health for reducing health inequity.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barten, F.J.M.H.; Mitlin, D.; Mulholland, C.; Hardoy, A.; Stern, R.

    2007-01-01

    The social and physical environments have long since been recognized as important determinants of health. People in urban settings are exposed to a variety of health hazards that are interconnected with their health effects. The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) have underlined the

  12. Evaluation of a visual acuity test using closed Landolt-Cs to determine malingering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kröger, Nils; Jürgens, Clemens; Kohlmann, Thomas; Tost, Frank

    2017-12-01

    To evaluate a visual acuity test (VAT) with unexpected optotypes to detect malingering. We tested two groups. Group 1 consisted of 20 individuals with normal best corrected visual acuity (BCVA). Group 2 included participants with ocular diseases and reduced BCVA. All subjects underwent a VAT proposed by Gräf and Roesen to assess suspected malingering. This test used 36 charts with one Landolt-C per page. The first 20 optotypes were Landolt-Cs, while at positions 21, 26, 30, and 34 closed rings were presented. The testing distance was adapted to 50% of the test person's visual acuity. The test person was requested to name the gap direction of the Landolt-C within 3 s. The complete testing conversation was recorded digitally to determine response latency for each optotype from the audio tracks. The average response time was 0.46 s in group 1 and 0.45 s in group 2 for the first 20 Landolt-Cs. In both groups the response time was significantly extended (p ring compared to the mean of the first 20 Landolt-Cs, (group 1: 2.9 s; group 2: 2.3 s). The following three closed rings had also longer response times. However, these differences were not significant. Our results suggest that the proposed test may be helpful to evaluate ocular malingering. The testing procedure appeared to be feasible and showed good repeatability. The fast training effect may be a limitation for malingering detection.

  13. Evaluation of indicators to determine black sigatoka susceptibility in five banana hybrid cultivars ( Mycosphaerella fijiensis Morelet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinaldo Pérez Armas

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This work had the objective of determining the variation of growth, development and yields indicators of five banana hybrid cultivars. The research was carried in the Agroindustrial Farm Marta Abreu, Cienfuegos, in a carbonated Brown soil. It was made a characterization of the soil and the climatic variables. A field experiment was developed with a design in blocks at random with four repetitions with five banana cultivars as treatments (‘FHIA-18’, ‘FHIA-02’, ‘FHIA-01’, ‘SH-3436 L-9’ and ‘FHIA-23’ . The plots had an area of 56 m2 with 16 plants, been evaluated eight for a total 32 plants for cultivar. The variable evaluated were the spotty youngest leaf, number of leaf by plant, incubation time (PI, evolution time of symptoms (TES and developing time of symptoms (TED, severity index (IS, active photosynthetic index (INHE and infection relative index. The cultivars FHIA-23 and SH 3436 L9 presented a hither time of development of the disease. In a general the more susceptible cultivar to the black Sigatoka under of the farm condition was FHIA-23. The clones FHIA-18, FHIA-01 and FHIA-02 presented the best behavior in the spotted youngest leaf and the number of leaf up to the flowering and the harvest time. The clones FHIA-01 and FHIA-18 have the better response to Black Sigatoka attending to the incubation period, the evolution time of the symptom and develo pment time of the disease

  14. The Evaluation of Anxiety Levels and Determinant Factors in Preoperative Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banu Cevik

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Preoperative anxiety is a prevalent concern with negative effects on perioperative period but is usually ignored. The objectives of this study are to identify the preoperative anxiety levels of surgical patients and to evaluate the associated factors affecting this level. Methods: One hundred volunteer patients scheduled for elective surgery were included the study. Data were collected by using “Personal Information Form “and “State-Trait Anxiety Inventory-I”. Evaluations were based on a significance level of p<0.05. Results: The percentage of female to male patients was 48% and 52%. The mean anxiety levels of both gender were 42.46 ± 8.95 and 42.10 ± 9.49 respectively (p=0.85. There was no difference between females and males in terms of anxiety. Age, occupational condition, marital status, and education level was not found as determinant factors on preoperative anxiety levels. Male individuals of large families were more anxious than the others, but this difference was not significant (p=0.11. Previous surgical experience was not a predictive factor for preoperative anxiety. The anxiety level was significantly high in men using cigarette and alcohol (p<0.01. Fear, apprehension, and stress was highly related with high level of anxiety, but insecurity and inexperience were not a predicting factor. The anxiety levels of cool patients were significantly lower than the others (p<0.01. Conclusions: Preoperative anxiety is a multifactorial issue and must be good handled. The aim must be based on reduction strategies. It must be considered that preoperative information is the best way to decrease preoperative anxiety.

  15. Determination and evaluation of the best conditions for the production of a vaccine against Clostridium chauvoei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Humberto Ossa

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Clostridium chauvoei is responsible for a number of diseases such as symptomatic coal (blackleg and malignant oedema in cattle, sheep and many other domestic and wild animals. Vaccines for the control of this and other livestock diseases caused by various species of clostridia are widely used. For vaccine production it is desirable that high cellular density cultures with high immunogenic power are obtained, mainly because immunity to Clostridium chauvoei is generally considered to be antibacterial rather than antitoxic. Consequently, culture conditions have to be adequately monitored and controlled. The aim of this work was to optimise the production of a vaccine against Clostridium chauvoei based on strains IRP-434, IRP 206, ATCC 10092, ATCC 11957 and LANIP, used by “Empresa Colombiana de Productos Veterinarios”, VECOL, S.A., to determine the culture medium that allows the highest cellular density. Results show that modified clostridium medium allows the highest cellular density production with average values of 31,5X108 cell/ml for the stock IRP 434 and 31,8X108 cell/ml for the stock IRP 206. Once defined the modified clostridium medium, the stock IRP 434,IRP 206 and growth time as the most suitable for optimal biomass production ( 16 – 48 hours, the lethal activity of the stock (LD50 = 106.6 , 106.8 was determined, the immunogenicity was evaluated through a potency test carried out in guinea-pigs. The presence of the flagellar protein was confirmed through the SDS-PAGE electrophoresis technique.

  16. Benchmark Evaluation of True Single Molecular Sequencing to Determine Cystic Fibrosis Airway Microbiome Diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Hahn

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Cystic fibrosis (CF is an autosomal recessive disease associated with recurrent lung infections that can lead to morbidity and mortality. The impact of antibiotics for treatment of acute pulmonary exacerbations on the CF airway microbiome remains unclear with prior studies giving conflicting results and being limited by their use of 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing. Our primary objective was to validate the use of true single molecular sequencing (tSMS and PathoScope in the analysis of the CF airway microbiome. Three control samples were created with differing amounts of Burkholderia cepacia, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Prevotella melaninogenica, three common bacteria found in cystic fibrosis lungs. Paired sputa were also obtained from three study participants with CF before and >6 days after initiation of antibiotics. Antibiotic resistant B. cepacia and P. aeruginosa were identified in concurrently obtained respiratory cultures. Direct sequencing was performed using tSMS, and filtered reads were aligned to reference genomes from NCBI using PathoScope and Kraken and unique clade-specific marker genes using MetaPhlAn. A total of 180–518 K of 6–12 million filtered reads were aligned for each sample. Detection of known pathogens in control samples was most successful using PathoScope. In the CF sputa, alpha diversity measures varied based on the alignment method used, but similar trends were found between pre- and post-antibiotic samples. PathoScope outperformed Kraken and MetaPhlAn in our validation study of artificial bacterial community controls and also has advantages over Kraken and MetaPhlAn of being able to determine bacterial strains and the presence of fungal organisms. PathoScope can be confidently used when evaluating metagenomic data to determine CF airway microbiome diversity.

  17. The environmental impacts of production and use of energy. Part IV - The comparative assessment of the environmental impacts of energy sources. Phase I - Comparative data on the emissions, residuals and health hazards of energy sources. Report of the Executive Director

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tolba, Mostafa K [United Nations Environment Programme, Nairobi (Kenya)

    1985-01-01

    Technical Research Centre of Finland and will represent Phase Two of the Comparative Assessment of the Environmental Impacts of Energy Sources. The intention of this report is to provide basic information on the emissions, residuals and health hazards of energy sources in a comparative way. It is hoped that this report, together with its complementary Phase Two study and the planned Phase Three, on tools and methods for incorporating the environmental factor in the energy decision-making process, will provide information on environmental data and environmental costs and benefits of commercial sources of energy and assist those responsible for decisions to evaluate these factors in a rational way. It is essential that adequate account is taken of environmental factors before a decision is made to adopt a certain policy or to develop an energy mix to satisfy a country's needs. It is also our intention to bring into focus the inadequacies in our knowledge of the environmental impacts of production and use of energy so that these can be given priority by the scientific community.

  18. The environmental impacts of production and use of energy. Part IV - The comparative assessment of the environmental impacts of energy sources. Phase I - Comparative data on the emissions, residuals and health hazards of energy sources. Report of the Executive Director

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolba, Mostafa K.

    1985-01-01

    Technical Research Centre of Finland and will represent Phase Two of the Comparative Assessment of the Environmental Impacts of Energy Sources. The intention of this report is to provide basic information on the emissions, residuals and health hazards of energy sources in a comparative way. It is hoped that this report, together with its complementary Phase Two study and the planned Phase Three, on tools and methods for incorporating the environmental factor in the energy decision-making process, will provide information on environmental data and environmental costs and benefits of commercial sources of energy and assist those responsible for decisions to evaluate these factors in a rational way. It is essential that adequate account is taken of environmental factors before a decision is made to adopt a certain policy or to develop an energy mix to satisfy a country's needs. It is also our intention to bring into focus the inadequacies in our knowledge of the environmental impacts of production and use of energy so that these can be given priority by the scientific community

  19. Reliability of Clinician Rated Physical Effort Determination During Functional Capacity Evaluation in Patients with Chronic Musculoskeletal Pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trippolini, M. A.; Dijkstra, P. U.; Jansen, B.; Oesch, P.; Geertzen, J. H. B.; Reneman, M. F.

    Introduction Functional capacity evaluation (FCE) can be used to make clinical decisions regarding fitness-for-work. During FCE the evaluator attempts to assess the amount of physical effort of the patient. The aim of this study is to analyze the reliability of physical effort determination using

  20. Evaluation of a passive method for determining particle penetration through protective clothing materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaques, Peter A; Portnoff, Lee

    2017-12-01

    The risk of workers' exposure to aerosolized particles has increased with the upsurge in the production of engineered nanomaterials. Currently, a whole-body standard test method for measuring particle penetration through protective clothing ensembles is not available. Those available for respirators neglect the most common challenges to ensembles, because they use active vacuum-based filtration, designed to simulate breathing, rather than the positive forces of wind experienced by workers. Thus, a passive method that measures wind-driven particle penetration through ensemble fabric has been developed and evaluated. The apparatus includes a multidomain magnetic passive aerosol sampler housed in a shrouded penetration cell. Performance evaluation was conducted in a recirculation aerosol wind tunnel using paramagnetic Fe 3 O 4 (i.e., iron (II, III) oxide) particles for the challenge aerosol. The particles were collected on a PVC substrate and quantified using a computer-controlled scanning electron microscope. Particle penetration levels were determined by taking the ratio of the particle number collected on the substrate with a fabric (sample) to that without a fabric (control). Results for each fabric obtained by this passive method were compared to previous results from an automated vacuum-based active fractional efficiency tester (TSI 3160), which used sodium chloride particles as the challenge aerosol. Four nonwoven fabrics with a range of thicknesses, porosities, and air permeabilities were evaluated. Smoke tests and flow modeling showed the passive sampler shroud provided smooth (non-turbulent) air flow along the exterior of the sampler, such that disturbance of flow stream lines and distortion of the particle size distribution were reduced. Differences between the active and passive approaches were as high as 5.5-fold for the fabric with the lowest air permeability (0.00067 m/sec-Pa), suggesting the active method overestimated penetration in dense fabrics

  1. Performance Evaluation of Orbit Determination System during Initial Phase of INSAT-3 Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, B.; Vighnesam, N. V.

    INSAT-3C is the second in the third generation of ISRO's INSAT series of satellites that was launched by ARIANE-SPACE on 23 January 2002 at 23 h 46 m 57 s (lift off time in U.T). The ARIANE-4 Flight Nr.147 took off from Kourou in French Guyana and injected the 2750-kg communications satellite in a geostationary transfer orbit of (571 X 35935) km with an inclination of 4.007 deg at 00 h 07 m 48 s U.T on 24 January 2002 (1252 s after lift off). The satellite was successfully guided into its intended geostationary position of 74 deg E longitude by 09 February 2002 after a series of four firings of its Liquid Apogee Motor (LAM) and four station acquisition (STAQ) maneuvers. Six distinct phases of the mission were categorized based on the orbit characteristics of the INSAT- 3C mission, namely, the pre-launch phase, the launch phase, transfer orbit phase, intermediate orbit phase, drift orbit phase and synchronous orbit phase. The orbit with a perigee height of 571 km at injection of the satellite, was gradually raised to higher orbits with perigee height increasing to 9346 km after Apogee Motor Firing #1 (AMF #1), 18335 km after AMF #2, 32448 km after AMF #3 and 35493 km after AMF #4. The North and South solar panels and the reflectors were deployed at this stage of the mission and the attitude of the satellite with respect to the three axes was stabilized. The Orbit Determination System (ODS) that was used in the initial phase of the mission played a crucial role in realizing the objectives of the mission. This system which consisted of Tracking Data Pre-Processing (TDPP) software, Ephemeris Generation (EPHGEN) software and the Orbit Determination (OD) software, performed rigorously and its results were used for planning the AMF and STAQ strategies with a greater degree of accuracy. This paper reports the results of evaluation of the performance of the apogee-motor firings employed to place the satellite in its intended position where it is collocated with INSAT-1D

  2. Assessment of human health hazards associated with the dietary exposure to organic and inorganic contaminants through the consumption of fishery products in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodríguez-Hernández, Ángel; Camacho, María; Henríquez-Hernández, Luis A.; Boada, Luis D.; Ruiz-Suárez, Norberto; Valerón, Pilar F.; Almeida González, Maira [Toxicology Unit, Research Institute of Biomedical and Health Sciences (IUIBS), University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Plaza Dr. Pasteur s/n, 35016 Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain); Instituto Canario de Investigación del Cáncer (ICIC), Plaza Dr. Pasteur s/n, 35016 Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain); Spanish Biomedical Research Centre in Physiopathology of Obesity and Nutrition (CIBERObn), Plaza Dr. Pasteur s/n, 35016 Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain); Zaccaroni, Annalisa [Large Pelagic Vertebrate Group, Veterinary Faculty, University of Bologna, Viale Vespucci 2, Cesenatico (FC) 47042 (Italy); Zumbado, Manuel [Toxicology Unit, Research Institute of Biomedical and Health Sciences (IUIBS), University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Plaza Dr. Pasteur s/n, 35016 Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain); Instituto Canario de Investigación del Cáncer (ICIC), Plaza Dr. Pasteur s/n, 35016 Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain); Spanish Biomedical Research Centre in Physiopathology of Obesity and Nutrition (CIBERObn), Plaza Dr. Pasteur s/n, 35016 Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain); and others

    2016-07-01

    In this work we have evaluated the potential carcinogenic and acutely toxic risks associated to the exposure to highly prevalent organic and inorganic contaminants through the consumption of fishery products by the Spanish population. The concentrations of 8 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), 18 polychlorinated biphenils (PCBs), 7 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (expressed as benzo[a]pyrene toxic equivalents (B[a]P{sub eq})), and three inorganic toxic elements [arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), and mercury (Hg)] were determined in 93 samples of the most consumed species of white fish, blue fish, cephalopods and seafood species, which were acquired directly in markets and supermarkets in the Canary Islands, Spain. The chemical concentration data were combined with the pattern of consumption of these foodstuffs in order to calculate the daily intake of these contaminants, and on this basis the risk quotients for carcinogenicity and acute toxicity were determined for Spanish adults and children. Our results showed that the daily intake of OCPs, PCBs and B[a]P{sub eq,} which is associated to blue fish consumption was the highest within the fish group. The estimated intake of pollutants can be considered low or very low for the individual contaminants, when compared to reference values, except in the case of HCB and As. All the estimated intakes were below the reported Tolerable Daily Intakes. Considering the additive effects of multiple contaminants, the risk of acute toxic effects can also be considered as low or very low. However, our results reflect that the current consumption of white fish in adults and children, and also the blue fish in the case of adults, poses a moderate carcinogenic risk to Spanish consumers, mainly related to their concentrations of As. The conclusions of this research may be useful for the design of appropriate risk communication campaigns. - Highlights: • The daily intake of persistent pollutants through fish consumption is estimated

  3. Assessment of human health hazards associated with the dietary exposure to organic and inorganic contaminants through the consumption of fishery products in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodríguez-Hernández, Ángel; Camacho, María; Henríquez-Hernández, Luis A.; Boada, Luis D.; Ruiz-Suárez, Norberto; Valerón, Pilar F.; Almeida González, Maira; Zaccaroni, Annalisa; Zumbado, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    In this work we have evaluated the potential carcinogenic and acutely toxic risks associated to the exposure to highly prevalent organic and inorganic contaminants through the consumption of fishery products by the Spanish population. The concentrations of 8 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), 18 polychlorinated biphenils (PCBs), 7 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (expressed as benzo[a]pyrene toxic equivalents (B[a]P_e_q)), and three inorganic toxic elements [arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), and mercury (Hg)] were determined in 93 samples of the most consumed species of white fish, blue fish, cephalopods and seafood species, which were acquired directly in markets and supermarkets in the Canary Islands, Spain. The chemical concentration data were combined with the pattern of consumption of these foodstuffs in order to calculate the daily intake of these contaminants, and on this basis the risk quotients for carcinogenicity and acute toxicity were determined for Spanish adults and children. Our results showed that the daily intake of OCPs, PCBs and B[a]P_e_q_, which is associated to blue fish consumption was the highest within the fish group. The estimated intake of pollutants can be considered low or very low for the individual contaminants, when compared to reference values, except in the case of HCB and As. All the estimated intakes were below the reported Tolerable Daily Intakes. Considering the additive effects of multiple contaminants, the risk of acute toxic effects can also be considered as low or very low. However, our results reflect that the current consumption of white fish in adults and children, and also the blue fish in the case of adults, poses a moderate carcinogenic risk to Spanish consumers, mainly related to their concentrations of As. The conclusions of this research may be useful for the design of appropriate risk communication campaigns. - Highlights: • The daily intake of persistent pollutants through fish consumption is estimated • Dietary

  4. Environmental determinants of tropical forest and savanna distribution: A quantitative model evaluation and its implication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Zhenzhong; Chen, Anping; Piao, Shilong; Rabin, Sam; Shen, Zehao

    2014-07-01

    The distributions of tropical ecosystems are rapidly being altered by climate change and anthropogenic activities. One possible trend—the loss of tropical forests and replacement by savannas—could result in significant shifts in ecosystem services and biodiversity loss. However, the influence and the relative importance of environmental factors in regulating the distribution of tropical forest and savanna biomes are still poorly understood, which makes it difficult to predict future tropical forest and savanna distributions in the context of climate change. Here we use boosted regression trees to quantitatively evaluate the importance of environmental predictors—mainly climatic, edaphic, and fire factors—for the tropical forest-savanna distribution at a mesoscale across the tropics (between 15°N and 35°S). Our results demonstrate that climate alone can explain most of the distribution of tropical forest and savanna at the scale considered; dry season average precipitation is the single most important determinant across tropical Asia-Australia, Africa, and South America. Given the strong tendency of increased seasonality and decreased dry season precipitation predicted by global climate models, we estimate that about 28% of what is now tropical forest would likely be lost to savanna by the late 21st century under the future scenario considered. This study highlights the importance of climate seasonality and interannual variability in predicting the distribution of tropical forest and savanna, supporting the climate as the primary driver in the savanna biogeography.

  5. Evaluation of the accuracy of volume determination on the orbit and eyeball using MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chau, Anson; Fung, Karl; Yap, Maurice

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: This study reports a calibration carried out on phantoms simulating the orbit and eyeball to evaluate the accuracy of volumetric determination using MRI DICOM (Digital Imaging and Communication in Medicine) images. Methods: Ten tailor-made spherical silicon balls ranging in size from 5 to 14 cm 3 and 10 silicon moulds of orbits from 10 human dried skulls were used to simulate the eyes and orbits, respectively. The CISS (Constructive interference in steady state, TR/TE = 16/8 ms) T2-weighted sequence was taken using a Siemens MRI scanner. The volume of each phantom was computed and compared with the known physical volumes. Results: The computed and physical volumes were highly correlated for both eyeball (r = 0.997) and the orbit (r = 0.992) phantoms. Coefficients of variation of the computed and physical volumes were low. Consequently, it is possible to apply a calibration value to the computed volume to derive the physical volume with a high level of confidence. Conclusion: We conclude that with appropriate calibration, it is viable to use MRI DICOM images to derive the volume of the eyeball and the orbit

  6. Evaluation of the accuracy of volume determination on the orbit and eyeball using MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chau, Anson [Department of Optometry and Radiography, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Fung, Karl [Department of Optometry and Radiography, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)]. E-mail: orkarl@polyu.edu.hk; Yap, Maurice [Department of Optometry and Radiography, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)

    2005-02-01

    Purpose: This study reports a calibration carried out on phantoms simulating the orbit and eyeball to evaluate the accuracy of volumetric determination using MRI DICOM (Digital Imaging and Communication in Medicine) images. Methods: Ten tailor-made spherical silicon balls ranging in size from 5 to 14 cm{sup 3} and 10 silicon moulds of orbits from 10 human dried skulls were used to simulate the eyes and orbits, respectively. The CISS (Constructive interference in steady state, TR/TE = 16/8 ms) T2-weighted sequence was taken using a Siemens MRI scanner. The volume of each phantom was computed and compared with the known physical volumes. Results: The computed and physical volumes were highly correlated for both eyeball (r = 0.997) and the orbit (r = 0.992) phantoms. Coefficients of variation of the computed and physical volumes were low. Consequently, it is possible to apply a calibration value to the computed volume to derive the physical volume with a high level of confidence. Conclusion: We conclude that with appropriate calibration, it is viable to use MRI DICOM images to derive the volume of the eyeball and the orbit.

  7. Critical evaluation of distillation procedure for the determination of methylmercury in soil samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Pablo A; Hintelman, Holger; Quiroz, Waldo; Bravo, Manuel A

    2017-11-01

    In the present work, the efficiency of distillation process for extracting monomethylmercury (MMHg) from soil samples was studied and optimized using an experimental design methodology. The influence of soil composition on MMHg extraction was evaluated by testing of four soil samples with different geochemical characteristics. Optimization suggested that the acid concentration and the duration of the distillation process were most significant and the most favorable conditions, established as a compromise for the studied soils, were determined to be a 70 min distillation using an 0.2 M acid. Corresponding limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) were 0.21 and 0.7 pg absolute, respectively. The optimized methodology was applied with satisfactory results to soil samples and was compared to a reference methodology based on isotopic dilution analysis followed by gas chromatography-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (IDA-GC-ICP-MS). Using the optimized conditions, recoveries ranged from 82 to 98%, which is an increase of 9-34% relative to the previously used standard operating procedure. Finally, the validated methodology was applied to quantify MMHg in soils collected from different sites impacted by coal fired power plants in the north-central zone of Chile, measuring MMHg concentrations ranging from 0.091 to 2.8 ng g -1 . These data are to the best of our knowledge the first MMHg measurements reported for Chile. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Evaluating chemical extraction techniques for the determination of uranium oxidation state in reduced aquifer sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoliker, Deborah L.; Campbell, Kate M.; Fox, Patricia M.; Singer, David M.; Kaviani, Nazila; Carey, Minna; Peck, Nicole E.; Barger, John R.; Kent, Douglas B.; Davis, James A.

    2013-01-01

    Extraction techniques utilizing high pH and (bi)carbonate concentrations were evaluated for their efficacy in determining the oxidation state of uranium (U) in reduced sediments collected from Rifle, CO. Differences in dissolved concentrations between oxic and anoxic extractions have been proposed as a means to quantify the U(VI) and U(IV) content of sediments. An additional step was added to anoxic extractions using a strong anion exchange resin to separate dissolved U(IV) and U(VI). X-ray spectroscopy showed that U(IV) in the sediments was present as polymerized precipitates similar to uraninite and/or less ordered U(IV), referred to as non-uraninite U(IV) species associated with biomass (NUSAB). Extractions of sediment containing both uraninite and NUSAB displayed higher dissolved uranium concentrations under oxic than anoxic conditions while extractions of sediment dominated by NUSAB resulted in identical dissolved U concentrations. Dissolved U(IV) was rapidly oxidized under anoxic conditions in all experiments. Uraninite reacted minimally under anoxic conditions but thermodynamic calculations show that its propensity to oxidize is sensitive to solution chemistry and sediment mineralogy. A universal method for quantification of U(IV) and U(VI) in sediments has not yet been developed but the chemical extractions, when combined with solid-phase characterization, have a narrow range of applicability for sediments without U(VI).

  9. Evaluation of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy for the determination of micronutrients in plant materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trevizan, Lilian Cristina; Santos, Dario; Elgul Samad, Ricardo; Dias Vieira, Nilson; Nunes, Lidiane Cristina; Aparecida Rufini, Iolanda; Krug, Francisco Jose

    2009-01-01

    Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) has been evaluated for the determination of micronutrients (B, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn) in pellets of plant materials, using NIST, BCR and GBW biological certified reference materials for analytical calibration. Pellets of approximately 2 mm thick and 15 mm diameter were prepared by transferring 0.5 g of powdered material to a 15 mm die set and applying 8.0 tons cm -2 . An experimental setup was designed by using a Nd:YAG laser operating at 1064 nm (200 mJ per pulse, 10 Hz) and an Echelle spectrometer with ICCD detector. Repeatability precision varied from 4 to 30% from measurements obtained in 10 different positions (8 laser shots per test portion) in the same sample pellet. Limits of detection were appropriate for routine analysis of plant materials and were 2.2 mg kg -1 B, 3.0 mg kg -1 Cu, 3.6 mg kg -1 Fe, 1.8 mg kg -1 Mn and 1.2 mg kg -1 Zn. Analysis of different plant samples were carried out by LIBS and results were compared with those obtained by ICP OES after wet acid decomposition.

  10. Evaluation of the gravimetric tetraphenylarsonium method for the determination of Tc(VII)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacer, R.A.

    1980-01-01

    Solubility losses in the gravimetric tetraphenylarsonium method for determining pertechnetate have been evaluated. Liquid scintillation counting was used to measure the β - activity of 99 Tc in the filtrate, and indicated solubility losses of about 1% in analyses yielding 40 to 50 mg of precipitate. The solubility product of (C 6 H 5 ) 4 AsTcO 4 is estimated to be (8.6 +- 0.2) x 10 -10 at room temperature (24 to 25 0 ), and Ksub(sp) for (C 6 H 5 ) 4 AsReO 4 at approximately 21 to 23 0 is estimated at (2.6 +- 0.3) x 10 -9 . Both values are satisfactory for gravimetric purposes, but to keep solubility losses within 1% at least 40 mg of (C 6 H 5 ) 4 AsTcO 4 or 80 mg of (C 6 H 5 ) 4 AsReO 4 should be obtained (assuming 20 ml of solution, 20 to 30% excess of precipitant, and 6 or 7 washes with 5-ml portions of distilled water). (author)

  11. An Evaluation of Quantitative Methods of Determining the Degree of Melting Experienced by a Chondrule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettles, J. W.; Lofgren, G. E.; Carlson, W. D.; McSween, H. Y., Jr.

    2004-01-01

    Many workers have considered the degree to which partial melting occurred in chondrules they have studied, and this has led to attempts to find reliable methods of determining the degree of melting. At least two quantitative methods have been used in the literature: a convolution index (CVI), which is a ratio of the perimeter of the chondrule as seen in thin section divided by the perimeter of a circle with the same area as the chondrule, and nominal grain size (NGS), which is the inverse square root of the number density of olivines and pyroxenes in a chondrule (again, as seen in thin section). We have evaluated both nominal grain size and convolution index as melting indicators. Nominal grain size was measured on the results of a set of dynamic crystallization experiments previously described, where aliquots of LEW97008(L3.4) were heated to peak temperatures of 1250, 1350, 1370, and 1450 C, representing varying degrees of partial melting of the starting material. Nominal grain size numbers should correlate with peak temperature (and therefore degree of partial melting) if it is a good melting indicator. The convolution index is not directly testable with these experiments because the experiments do not actually create chondrules (and therefore they have no outline on which to measure a CVI). Thus we had no means to directly test how well the CVI predicted different degrees of melting. Therefore, we discuss the use of the CVI measurement and support the discussion with X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) data.

  12. Performance Evaluation of the MyT4 Technology for Determining ART Eligibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitoe, Nádia; Macamo, Rosa; Meggi, Bindiya; Tobaiwa, Ocean; Loquiha, Osvaldo; Bollinger, Timothy; Vojnov, Lara; Jani, Ilesh

    2016-01-01

    In resource-limited countries, CD4 T-cell (CD4) testing continues to be used for determining antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation eligibility and opportunistic infection monitoring. To support expanded access to CD4 testing, simple and robust technologies are necessary. We conducted this study to evaluate the performance of a new Point-of-Care (POC) CD4 technology, the MyT4, compared to conventional laboratory CD4 testing. EDTA venous blood from 200 HIV-positive patients was tested in the laboratory using the MyT4 and BD FACSCalibur™. The MyT4 had an r2 of 0.82 and a mean bias of 12.3 cells/μl. The MyT4 had total misclassifications of 14.7% and 8.8% when analyzed using ART eligibility thresholds of 350 and 500 cells/μl, respectively. We conclude that the MyT4 performed well in classifying patients using the current ART initiation eligibility thresholds in Mozambique when compared to the conventional CD4 technology.

  13. Evaluation of the Determinants of Technological and Managerial Results of Cooperability in Brazilian Multinationals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Rezende da Costa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article was to evaluate the technological and managerial elements that determine the results of the cooperability in Brazilian multinationals (BMN.We conducted a survey among the universe of BMN and the data analysis was supported by Cronbach's Alpha testing, factorial analysis, correlation analysis, principal component analysis and multiple regression analysis. As a conclusion of the study on the elements of the technological trajectory, we found that the greater the experience in R&D in the headquarters, the more effective will be the technological results of cooperability and the greater the accumulated experience in R&D in foreign subsidiaries and international cooperation the more effective will be the managerial results of cooperability. We also found that the greater the degree of relevance of strategies for technological capacity building the more effective will be the results of cooperability, both technological and managerial. The aggregated analysis of technological inputs showed that the higher the investments in R&D and the number of internal and cooperative projects the more effective will be the technological results. However, as the company expands its project portfolio, grow the difficulties regarding alignment and management of the BMN, which may adversely affect the managerial results of cooperability.

  14. [Evaluation of the AOAC 985.29 enzimic gravimetric method for determination of dietary fiber in oat and corn grains].

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Leila Picolli; Ciocca, Maria de Lourdes Santorio; Furlong, Eliana Badiale

    2003-12-01

    The precision attributes and use of the enzymatic-gravimetric method of Prosky et al. (1992) (AOAC 985.29) were evaluated using corn (BR 5202 Pampa) and oat (UFRGS 15) samples. The effect of laboratory batches carried out in different days were evaluated in six laboratory batches, using for each material one duplicate for total fiber (FT) determination, one duplicate for insoluble fiber (FI) determination and blank ones for FT and for FI (both in duplicate). In order to characterize repetitive aspects, five other FT and FI determinations added to each sample were evaluated, summing up 11 data. The low coefficients of variation in the first six batches were considered acceptable as an expression of expected total intralaboratory variation. The repetitive of the method was considered good for FT determinations (CVs gravimetric corrections varies with the kind of the sample and is especially influenced by the protein content.

  15. Evaluation of Demographic Variables and Socio-economic Status ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study evaluated the demographic variables and socio-economic status on the prevalence of health hazards amongst residents of Akure North Local Government, Ondo State, Nigeria. The study was a descriptive research design of the survey type. The population for this study was estimated to be 131,587 residents.

  16. Evaluation of an innovative radiographic technique - parallel profile radiography - to determine the dimensions of dentogingival unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushama R Galgali

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Maintenance of gingival health is a key factor for longevity of the teeth as well as of restorations. The physiologic dentogingival unit (DGU, which is composed of the epithelial and connective tissue attachments of the gingiva, functions as a barrier against microbial entry into the periodontium. Invasion of this space triggers inflammation and causes periodontal destruction. Despite the clinical relevance of the determination of the length and width of the DGU, there is no standardized technique. The length of the DGU can be either determined by histologic preparations or by transgingival probing. Although width can also be assessed by transgingival probing or with an ultrasound device, they are either invasive or expensive Aims: This study sought to evaluate an innovative radiographic exploration technique - parallel profile radiography - for measuring the dimensions of the DGU on the labial surfaces of anterior teeth. Materials and Methods: Two radiographs were made using the long-cone parallel technique in ten individuals, one in frontal projection, while the second radiograph was a parallel profile radiograph obtained from a lateral position. The length and width of the DGU was measured using computer software. Transgingival probing (trans-sulcular was done for these same patients and length of the DGU was measured. The values obtained by the two methods were compared. Pearson product correlation coefficient was calculated to examine the agreement between the values obtained by PPRx and transgingival probing. Results: The mean biologic width by the parallel profile radiography (PPRx technique was 1.72 mm (range 0.94-2.11 mm, while the mean thickness of the gingiva was 1.38 mm (range 0.92-1.77 mm. The mean biologic width by trans-gingival probing was 1.6 mm (range 0.8-2.2mm. Pearson product correlation coefficient (r for the above values was 0.914; thus, a high degree of agreement exists between the PPRx and TGP techniques

  17. Characterization of 12 Capsicum varieties by evaluation of their carotenoid profile and pungency determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuffrida, Daniele; Dugo, Paola; Torre, Germana; Bignardi, Chiara; Cavazza, Antonella; Corradini, Claudio; Dugo, Giacomo

    2013-10-15

    In this research 12 different varieties of Capsicum cultivars belonging to three species (Capsicum chinense, Capsicum annuum, Capsicum frutescens) and of various colour, shape, and dimension have been characterised by their carotenoids and capsaicinoids content. The berries were cultivated in the region Emilia-Romagna, in Northern Italy. The native carotenoid composition was directly investigated by an HPLC-DAD-APCI-MS methodology, for the first time. In total, 52 carotenoids have been identified and considerable variation in carotenoid composition was observed among the various cultivars investigated. Among the cultivars with red colour, some Habanero, Naga morich and Sinpezon showed an high β-carotene content, whereas Serrano, Tabasco and Jalapeno showed an high capsanthin content and the absence of β-carotene. Habanero golden and Scotch Bonnet showed a high lutein, α-carotene and β-carotene amounts, and Habanero orange was rich in antheraxanthin, capsanthin and zeaxanthin. Cis-cryptocapsin was present in high amount in Habanero chocolate. The qualitative and quantitative determination of the capsaicinoids, alkaloids responsible for the pungency level, has also been estimated by a validated chromatographic procedure (HPLC-DAD) after a preliminary drying step and an opportune extraction procedure. Results have also been expressed in Scoville units. Dry matter and water activity have also been established on the fresh berries. The dried peppers of each variety were then submitted to the evaluation of the total nitrogen content, measured by a Dumas system, permitting to provide information on the protein content that was found to be in the range between 7 and 16%. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Health evaluation of energy-generating sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    The American Medical Association's House of Delegates, at its December 1976 Clinical Convention, requested that an evaluation be made of the health hazards of nuclear, fossil, and alternative energy-generating sources, for employees of energy-producing facilities as well as for the general population. This report is a summary evaluation of such hazards prepared in response to that request. This report, which was adopted by the House of Delegates on June 21, 1978, appears here in a revised and corrected version

  19. An empirical investigation into the determinants and persistence of happiness and life evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Chrostek, Pawel

    2013-01-01

    A comparison of measures of happiness and life evaluation indicates significant differences in correlates. Life evaluation is less dependent on external circumstances than happiness. Temporary changes in health, labour market status and income have a smaller impact on life evaluation than on happiness. Despite the differences both types of well-being exhibit a positive relation between current and past well-being. This result contradicts the hypothesis of general habituation.

  20. Determination of reliability of express forecasting evaluation of radiometric enriching ability of non-ferrous ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirpishchikov, S.P.

    1991-01-01

    Use of the data of nuclear physical methods of sampling and logging enables to improve reliability of evaluation of radiometric enriching ability of ores, as well as to evaluate quantitatively this reliability. This problem may be solved by using some concepts of geostatistics. The presented results enable to conclude, that the data of nuclear-physical methods of sampling and logging can provide high reliability of evaluation of radiometric enriching ability of non-ferrous ores and their geometrization by technological types

  1. Empowerment evaluation in Brazil: building capacity and facilitating self-determination

    OpenAIRE

    Fetterman, David

    2004-01-01

    mpowerment evaluation is a global phenomenon. It is being practiced in the United States, Finland, United Kingdom, South Africa, Japan, and Brazil, among many other countries.1 Dr. Thereza Penna Firme recently invited Dr. Fetterman to discuss the most recent developments in empowerment evaluation and provide an empowerment evaluation in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, December 2004. The effort was sponsored by Cesgranrio Foundation. Ana Carolina Letichevsky and Angela Dannemann helped organized the c...

  2. THE APPLICABILITY OF EVALUATION IN THE CASE OF AGRICULTURAL MACHINES REGARDING THE DETERMINATION OF FAIR VALUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Mihaela Onica

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The establishment of the utility of the agricultural machines’ evaluation is based on a well-defined objective within the real estate entity through the fact that it reflects an accurate image of the heritage of the society. The casuistry is based on the display of the evaluation of the tangible assets that belong to an agricultural society where theoretical concepts are founded, in regard to the evaluation, continuing with the concepts that are specific to the appropriate evaluation of these objectives.

  3. Using a fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method to determine product usability: A test case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ronggang; Chan, Alan H S

    2017-01-01

    In order to take into account the inherent uncertainties during product usability evaluation, Zhou and Chan [1] proposed a comprehensive method of usability evaluation for products by combining the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and fuzzy evaluation methods for synthesizing performance data and subjective response data. This method was designed to provide an integrated framework combining the inevitable vague judgments from the multiple stages of the product evaluation process. In order to illustrate the effectiveness of the model, this study used a summative usability test case to assess the application and strength of the general fuzzy usability framework. To test the proposed fuzzy usability evaluation framework [1], a standard summative usability test was conducted to benchmark the overall usability of a specific network management software. Based on the test data, the fuzzy method was applied to incorporate both the usability scores and uncertainties involved in the multiple components of the evaluation. Then, with Monte Carlo simulation procedures, confidence intervals were used to compare the reliabilities among the fuzzy approach and two typical conventional methods combining metrics based on percentages. This case study showed that the fuzzy evaluation technique can be applied successfully for combining summative usability testing data to achieve an overall usability quality for the network software evaluated. Greater differences of confidence interval widths between the method of averaging equally percentage and weighted evaluation method, including the method of weighted percentage averages, verified the strength of the fuzzy method.

  4. Empowerment evaluation in Brazil: building capacity and facilitating self-determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Fetterman

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available mpowerment evaluation is a global phenomenon. It is being practiced in the United States, Finland, United Kingdom, South Africa, Japan, and Brazil, among many other countries.1 Dr. Thereza Penna Firme recently invited Dr. Fetterman to discuss the most recent developments in empowerment evaluation and provide an empowerment evaluation in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, December 2004. The effort was sponsored by Cesgranrio Foundation. Ana Carolina Letichevsky and Angela Dannemann helped organized the conference. This brief discussion highlights the three steps of empowerment evaluation and the 10 principles guiding the approach.

  5. Halogenated Anesthetics Determination in Urine by SPME/GC/MS and Urine Levels Relationship Evaluation with Surgical Theatres Contamination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serena Indelicato

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a new sensitive analytical method has been developed and evaluated for the determination of the most commonly used gaseous anesthetics, desflurane, sevoflurane, and this latter’s hepatic metabolite hexafluoroisopropanol (HFIP in the urine. In addition, an evaluation of anesthetics exposition on the urine levels of a small population of surgical operators has been performed and results are briefly discussed.

  6. The Evaluation of personnel radiation dose and society radiation on RSG-GAS around as proposal determination of ALARA value

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pande Made Udiyani; Puradwi IW

    2007-01-01

    Each nuclear installation to achieve radiation safety has to meet the ALARA concepts. The ALARA value of a nuclear installation should be enacted by regulator body. ALARA value can be determined by evaluation radiation exposure and dose acceptance of nuclear installation operation. As case study in Indonesia, ALARA assessment in nuclear installation is done at RSG-GAS reactor. Intention of this research is to determine gyration reference assess ALARA by evaluate radiation dose acceptance by RSG-GAS radiation personnel and the influence of RSG-GAS operation to presentation of radiation accepted by society which living around its. ALARA of RSG-GAS determined based on evaluation of measurement data of the radiation doses which is accepted by personnel radiation. While evaluation of radiation doses which is accepted by society in the radius 5 km of the RSG-GAS conducted to data result of calculation using program package of CAP-88 and measurement result with method of carborne survey. Result of radiation dose evaluation obtained which not pass dose definition for the radiation worker that is 50 mSv/year, and for society around RSG-GAS that is 5 mSv/year. Based on the result of evaluation hence obtained value of ALARA for RSG-GAS in value of gyration 17 - 50 mSv/year. (author)

  7. Determining the Measurement Quality of a Montessori High School Teacher Evaluation Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setari, Anthony Philip; Bradley, Kelly D.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a psychometric validation of a course evaluation instrument, known as a student evaluation of teaching (SET), implemented in a Montessori high school. The authors demonstrate to the Montessori community how to rigorously examine the measurement and assessment quality of instruments used within Montessori…

  8. Improving Student Evaluation of Teaching: Determining Multiple Perspectives within a Course for Future Math Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramlo, Susan

    2017-01-01

    Instructors in higher education are very familiar with the Likert scale Students' Evaluation of Teaching (SET) used to evaluate teaching. Researchers have raised concerns about biases affecting the results of SET surveys, as well as their validity and reliability and use in high-stakes decision making. Here, we demonstrate that Q methodology,…

  9. Evaluation of the MIT-Scan-T2 for non-destructive PCC pavement thickness determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-07-01

    The MIT-Scan-T2 device is marketed as a non-destructive way to determine pavement thickness on both : HMA and PCC pavements. PCC pavement thickness determination is an important incentivedisincentive : measurement for the Iowa DOT and contractors. Th...

  10. Functional Fit Evaluation to Determine Optimal Ease Requirements in Canadian Forces Chemical Protective Gloves

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tremblay-Lutter, Julie

    1995-01-01

    A functional fit evaluation of the Canadian Forces (CF) chemical protective lightweight glove was undertaken in order to quantify the amount of ease required within the glove for optimal functional fit...

  11. Determination of the size of X-ray tube focal spots: direct digitalization vs optical evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furquim, Tania A.C.; Yanikian, Denise; Costa, Paulo R.

    1996-01-01

    A comparative study between standard techniques for evaluation of X-ray tubes focal spots and a newer one which uses digital resources for image acquisition is presented. Results from measurements by using both methods are presented

  12. Diversity and Density: Lexically Determined Evaluative and Informational Consequences of Linguistic Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradac, James J.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Defines lexical diversity as manifest vocabulary range and lexical density as the ratio of lexical to gramatical items in a unit of discourse. Examines the effects of lexical diversity and density on listeners' evaluative judgments. (MH)

  13. Multitechnique determination of elemental concentrations in NBS Urban Air Particulate SRM 1648 and evaluation of its use for quality assurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gladney, E.S.; Perrin, D.R.; Robinson, R.D.; Trujillo, P.E.

    1984-01-01

    Concentrations of forty-one elements were determined in NBS Urban Air Particulate materials using neutron activation, atomic absorption, and instrumental combustion methods. The usefulness of this reference material is evaluated as a function of composition, certified value availability, matrix format, and cost. (author)

  14. Utility of minor determinants for skin testing in inpatient penicillin allergy evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Bob; Eastman, Jacqueline J; Mori, Karen; Braskett, Melinda; Riedl, Marc A

    2017-09-01

    Most patients with a history of penicillin allergy can tolerate penicillin. Skin testing can identify tolerant patients, but not all known allergenic determinants are commercially available. Protocols exist that use only available reagents, but the sensitivity and safety of these protocols, particularly for hospitalized patients, are controversial. To determine the number of hospitalized patients referred for penicillin skin testing who showed unique positivity to the minor determinants penicilloate and penilloate. A retrospective chart review was conducted of all inpatients who underwent penicillin skin testing at 1 institution. Patients were referred by their treating physician. All patients underwent skin prick testing to benzylpenicilloyl polylysine (major determinant), penicillin G, penicilloate, penilloate (minor determinants), amoxicillin, and positive and negative controls. If the result was negative, then intradermal testing was done with the same penicillin determinants and the negative control. A 4-mm wheal with flare was considered a positive reaction. Inpatient penicillin skin testing was done in 528 subjects. Any positive test reaction was found in 107 subjects (20%). Three subjects (3%) reacted to penilloate only, 25 (23%) reacted to penicilloate only, 2 (2%) reacted to penicillin G only, and 8 (8%) reacted to amoxicillin only. Sixty-eight subjects (64%) reacted to a compound other than the major determinant. This study found a high rate of exclusively positive skin test reactions to the minor determinants penicilloate and penilloate. Because patients with positive test reactions are at increased risk of reaction to drug challenge, these data support the use of these reagents for penicillin skin testing in hospitalized patients. Copyright © 2017 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Evaluation of a method for the determination of chromium in urine by atomic absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, M.; Sardinas, O.; Castaneda, I.; Sanchez, R.

    1990-01-01

    A method for the determination of chromium in urine by atomic absorption spectrometry, using electrothermic atomization with pyrolytic graphite tubes, is proposed. The determinations are performed by standard addition. The method is applicable to biologic monitoring of populations with different degrees of exposition. It is also used in the analysis of chromium in sediments. Results of chromium in urine of a population group non-exposed to the metal are presented. 11 refs

  16. Performance measurement for supply chain management and evaluation criteria determination for reverse supply chain management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kongar, N. Elif

    2004-12-01

    Today, since customers are able to obtain similar-quality products for similar prices, the lead time has become the only preference criterion for most of the consumers. Therefore, it is crucial that the lead time, i.e., the time spent from the raw material phase till the manufactured good reaches the customer, is minimized. This issue can be investigated under the title of Supply Chain Management (SCM). An efficiently managed supply chain can lead to reduced response time for customers. To achieve this, continuous observation of supply chain efficiency, i.e., a constant performance evaluation of the current SCM is required. Widely used conventional performance measurement methods lack the ability to evaluate a SCM since the supply chain is a dynamic system that requires a more thorough and flexible performance measurement technique. Balanced Scorecard (BS) is an efficient tool for measuring the performance of dynamic systems and has a proven capability of providing the decision makers with the appropriate feedback data. In addition to SCM, a relatively new management field, namely reverse supply chain management (RSCM), also necessitates an appropriate evaluation approach. RSCM differs from SCM in many aspects, i.e., the criteria used for evaluation, the high level of uncertainty involved etc., not allowing the usage of identical evaluation techniques used for SCM. This study proposes a generic Balanced Scorecard to measure the performance of supply chain management while defining the appropriate performance measures for SCM. A scorecard prototype, ESCAPE, is presented to demonstrate the evaluation process.

  17. An evaluation of commercial radioisotope methods for the determination of folate and vitamin B12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawson, D.W.

    1980-01-01

    Five commercial kits for the determination of folate and six kits for the determination of vitamin B 12 were investigated. Their performance has been compared with microbiological methods for the two vitamins and with a non-commercial radioisotopic method for B 12 . The results show the importance of the determination of the reference range for an individual laboratory for each method. The precision of the kits varied appreciably, as did their performance using specimens from patients with different haematological disorders. In particular, certain kits failed to detect all patients with pernicious anaemia. The relative accuracy of the kits was assessed. Various factors which should be taken into account in the final selection of a satisfactory kit are discussed. (author)

  18. Evaluation of direct saponification method for determination of cholesterol in meats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, M L; Sullivan, D M; Smith, R L; Richter, E F

    1986-01-01

    A gas chromatographic (GC) method has been developed for determination of cholesterol in meats. The method involves ethanolic KOH saponification of the sample material, homogeneous-phase toluene extraction of the unsaponifiables, derivatization of cholesterol to its trimethylsilylether, and quantitation by GC-flame ionization detection using 5-alpha-cholestane as internal standard. This direct saponification method is compared with the current AOAC official method for determination of cholesterol in 20 different meat products. The direct saponification method eliminates the need for initial lipid extraction, thus offering a 30% savings in labor, and requires fewer solvents than the AOAC method. It produced comparable or slightly higher cholesterol results than the AOAC method in all meat samples examined. Precision, determined by assaying a turkey meat sample 16 times over 4 days, was excellent (CV = 1.74%). Average recovery of cholesterol added to meat samples was 99.8%.

  19. State of the Science Workshop to Discuss Environmental Health and Protection: Personalized Tools to Support Potential and Actual Health Hazards in the Megacity Operational Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-27

    incorporating our understanding of individual resiliency in the role of exposures, and developing disease risk models to explore host response, will...improve our understanding of the routes of exposure, susceptibility factors, resiliency , and the genetic makeup of the host. Additional goals for this...to cast it as a front- runner in determining susceptibility. - If a list of genetic markers that indicate susceptibility to agents, whether chemical

  20. Evaluation of the protein concentration in enzymes via the determination of sulphur by TXRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mertens, M.; Rittmeyer, C.; Kolbesen, B.O.

    2000-01-01

    Total reflection x-ray fluorescence spectrometry (TXRF) offers many advantages for the identification of trace elements in biological samples like enzymes, tissues or plants. Without any preliminary treatment elements may be determined with high accuracy especially transition metals like Fe, Ni, Cu, Mo and the alkaline earth metal Ca. A further aspect of the investigation of enzymes is the simple and simultaneous determination of light elements. Especially sulphur is of interest. The element sulphur exists mainly in the two amino, acids methionine and cysteine as well as in iron-sulphur clusters and may be used for an easy and simultaneous calculation of the protein concentration. Hence the quantitative determination of sulphur by TXRF allows a cross-check regarding of the conventional quantitative determination of protein concentration by, for example, the Lowry method. On the basis of three enzymes of different origins and molecular weights the presentation will show the influence of the bio-organic matrix and different buffer media on element determination by TXRF. As is already known the influence of the matrix on the detection of light elements is stronger than on transition metals. It can be discussed whether layer thickness and layer effects of the drying residues (characterization by SEM and thickness profilometer (ALPHA-step)) and / or self absorption effects as well as the excitation are of significance. The results indicate that with enzymes of low molecular weight a reliable determination of sulphur is possible whereas those with higher molecular weights gave poorer results on account of the matrix effects described. (author)

  1. [Evaluation of fetal lung maturity using a modified lecithin-sphingomyelin determination and Clements' foam test].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, G; Gartzke, J; Faber, G

    1978-01-01

    The modified thin layer chromatographic method for the determination of the phospholipids lecithin and sphingomyelin from amniotic fluid is useful in estimating fetal pulmonary maturity. The foam test of Clements is a simple rapid method for screening of suspicious cases of pregnancies at risk and of great value as bed side test even performing by the doctor. In comparing Clements-Test with thin layer chromatographic for L/S-Ratio determination we found a good correlation of 81,8% of all cases.

  2. Determining Appropriate Criteria in the Evaluation of Correctional Mental Health Treatment for Inmates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Rudolph, Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Notes that, despite changed goals of mental health treatment for inmates, some prison treatment programs still evaluate effects in terms of adjustment indicators. Discusses and critiques proposals in Ohio to use adjustment indicators as outcome measures for new treatment program for mentally ill inmates. Discusses proper outcome measures for…

  3. Determinants of the use of value-based performance measures for managerial performance evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, H.C.; Groot, T.L.C.M.; Schoute, M.; Wiersma, E.

    2012-01-01

    As value-based (VB) performance measures include firms' cost of capital, they are considered more congruent than earnings measures. Prior studies, however, find that their use for managerial performance evaluation is less extensive than their presumed benefits would suggest. We examine how the

  4. Evaluating the Impact and Determinants of Student Team Performance: Using LMS and CATME Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braender, Lynn M.; Naples, Michele I.

    2013-01-01

    Practitioners find it difficult to allocate grades to individual students based on their contributions to the team project. They often use classroom observation of teamwork and student peer evaluations to differentiate an individual's grade from the group's grade, which can be subjective and imprecise. We used objective data from student activity…

  5. Determining Role of Temperature Chart while Evaluating Specific Expenses of Organic Fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Nesenchouk

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers designing principles of operational space continuous heating and heat-treating furnaces at mechanical engineering, automotive and tractor enterprises in theRepublicofBelarus. A role of temperature chart on heating metallic charge while evaluating specific expenses of organic fuel in heating and heat-treating furnaces of mechanical engineering, automotive and tractor industries. 

  6. Evaluation of methods to determine the spectral variations of aerosol optical thickness

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Suresh, T.; Talaulikar, M.; Rodrigues, A.; Desa, E.; Chauhan, P.

    The methods used to derive spectral variations of aerosol optical thickness, AOT are evaluated. For our analysis we have used the AOT measured using a hand held sunphotometer at the coastal station on the west coast of India, Dona-Paula, Goa...

  7. Instructors' Evaluation as an Instrument to Improve Performance and Determine Competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laei, Soosan; Abdi, Ali; Karamaerouz, Mohamad Javad; Shirkhani, Nassim

    2014-01-01

    Experts in human resources management have suggested common objectives for evaluating performance of all organizations, including motivation and improvement of staff performance, identification of competence and skills, identification of educational needs and developmental contexts, etc. Achievement to these objectives is -a responsibility of…

  8. Determination of the effectiveness of two methods for usability evaluation using a CPOE medication ordering system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khajouei, R.; Hasman, A.; Jaspers, M. W. M.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the effectiveness of two usability evaluation methods, cognitive walkthrough (CW) and think aloud (TA), for identifying usability problems and to compare the performance of CW and TA in identifying different types of usability problems. Methods: A CW was performed by two

  9. Determination of Importance Evaluation for the ESF Enhanced Characterization of the Repository Block Cross Drift

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    S. Goodin

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this DIE is to determine whether the ECRB-Cross-Drift-related activities, as identified in Section 6.0, could potentially impact (1) Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP) testing or (2) the waste isolation capabilities of a potential repository at the Yucca Mountain site. Any controls necessary to limit such potential impacts are also identified herein

  10. Determining the quality of Competence Assessment Programs: A self-evaluation procedure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baartman, L.K.J.; Prins, F.J.; Kirschner, P.A.; Vleuten, van der C.P.M.

    2007-01-01

    As assessment methods are changing, the way to determine their quality needs to be changed accordingly. This article argues for the use Competence Assessment Programs (CAPs), combinations of traditional tests and new assessment methods which involve both formative and summative assessments. To

  11. Evaluation of Simple and Inexpensive High-Throughput Methods for Phytic Acid Determination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raboy, Victor; Johnson, Amy; Bilyeu, Kristin

    2017-01-01

    High-throughput/low-cost/low-tech methods for phytic acid determination that are sufficiently accurate and reproducible would be of value in plant genetics, crop breeding and in the food and feed industries. Variants of two candidate methods, those described by Vaintraub and Lapteva (Anal Biochem...... and legume flours regardless of endogenous phytic acid levels or matrix constituents....

  12. Determination of Importance Evaluation for the ESF Enhanced Charcterization of the Repository Block Cross Drift

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Goodin

    2002-01-09

    The objective of this DIE is to determine whether the ECRB-Cross-Drift-related activities, as identified in Section 6.0, could potentially impact (1) Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP) testing or (2) the waste isolation capabilities of a potential repository at the Yucca Mountain site. Any controls necessary to limit such potential impacts are also identified herein.

  13. 东兴市农村环境卫生及健康危害因素水平调查%An investigation on environmental hygiene and health hazard levels in rural area of Dongxing City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林树珍; 冯柏; 庞国庆; 曾敏; 严蓉芯; 王国明

    2013-01-01

    目的 掌握东兴市农村环境卫生健康危害因素水平,客观评价该市农村环境卫生状况,为制定政策措施提供依据和支持.方法 采用分层随机的方法,选择3个镇,共20个行政村作为监测点,同时每村随机选5户入户调查.结果 75.0%的行政村有卫生规划,55.0%有卫生管理制度,20.0%有专职保洁员;农户庭院、室内卫生、厨房卫生均以一般为主,90.0%房屋周围有家禽圈舍;生活性垃圾随意堆放的占55.0%,生活垃圾和工业垃圾焚烧均为75.0%,养殖业垃圾再利用的为69.23%;每日产生污水11 230 t,生活污水、工业污水和养殖业污水分别占70.59%、3.53%和25.88%;工业污水处理率为50.0%,生活性污水处理率仅为5.0%;卫生厕所普及率为76.96%,农村自来水普及率为87.59%.结论 东兴市农村垃圾随意堆放仍存在,污水处理率低,公共卫生设施配套建设还比较滞后,环境卫生有待提高.%[Objective] To understand the health hazard levels in rural environment in Dongxing City,objectively evaluate the sanitary situation in rural area,and provide basis and support for developing policies and measures.[Methods] By using a stratified random sampling method,20 villages from 3 towns were collected as the surveillance points,and 5 households in each village were investigated.[Results]75.0% of villages have formulated the sanitary administration plan,55.0% have got environmental managing regulation,and 20.0% had full time hygiene keepers.The hygiene quality levels in household yards,inner-house and kitchen were not very good.The poultry sheds was found in the surrounding of 90.0% rural family houses.55.0% of households piled up the domestic garbage at random,and both of burning rates of domestic garbage and industrial waste were 75.0%.The reuse rate of breeding waste was 69.23%.There were 11 230 t wastewater in everyday,which domestic sewage,industrial sewage and breeding

  14. Quality evaluation of Shenmaidihuang Pills based on the chromatographic fingerprints and simultaneous determination of seven bioactive constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Sifei; Zhang, Guangrui; Qiu, Ying; Wang, Xiaobo; Guo, Lihan; Zhao, Yanxin; Tong, Meng; Wei, Lan; Sun, Lixin

    2016-12-01

    In this study, we aimed to establish a comprehensive and practical quality evaluation system for Shenmaidihuang pills. A simple and reliable high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode array detection method was developed both for fingerprint analysis and quantitative determination. In fingerprint analysis, relative retention time and relative peak area were used to identify the common peaks in 18 samples for investigation. Twenty one peaks were selected as the common peaks to evaluate the similarities of 18 Shenmaidihuang pills samples with different manufacture dates. Furthermore, similarity analysis was applied to evaluate the similarity of samples. Hierarchical cluster analysis and principal component analysis were also performed to evaluate the variation of Shenmaidihuang pills. In quantitative analysis, linear regressions, injection precisions, recovery, repeatability and sample stability were all tested and good results were obtained to simultaneously determine the seven identified compounds, namely, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, morroniside, loganin, paeonol, paeoniflorin, psoralen, isopsoralen in Shenmaidihuang pills. The contents of some analytes in different batches of samples indicated significant difference, especially for 5-hydroxymethylfurfural. So, it was concluded that the chromatographic fingerprint method obtained by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode array detection associated with multiple compounds determination is a powerful and meaningful tool to comprehensively conduct the quality control of Shenmaidihuang pills. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Asbestos: a perspective. I. An overview. II. An annotated literature collection, 1960--1974. III. A literature compilation, 1974--1977. [Health hazards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huff, J.E.; Hammons, A.S.; Dinger, C.Y.; Kline, B.W.; Whitfield, B.L.; Black, S.A.

    1978-03-01

    Although the general population is widely exposed to asbestos, both by inhalation and ingestion, the hazards of chronic, environmental exposure have not been determined. Reasons conflict but are attributed in part to a paucity of information on human dose response, effects of asbestos ingestion, ambient concentrations and distribution of asbestos in the environment, the environmental cycling of asbestos, and related biological interactions including transmission through foodchains. As distilled from the world's asbestos literature, conclusions representing a majority opinion on the pathological effects of asbestos on man are summarized. (38 references.)

  16. Public control of environmental health hazards (clinical and experimental studies of distal axonopathy--a frequent form of brain and nerve damage produced by environmental chemical hazards)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaumburg, H.H.; Spencer, P.S.

    1979-01-01

    Clinical and pathological studies of the peripheral and central nervous system degeneration (distal dying-back axonopathy) in humans and experimental animals produced by acrylamide monomer and certain hydrocarbon compounds are summarized. The human distal axonopathies include: many of the naturally occurring, genetically determined system disorders/ certain nutritional disorders/ uremic neuropathy/ the neuropathies associated with some malignancies/ and the toxic neuropathies induced by industrial chemicals. The irreversible, subclinical, and clinical effects of distal axonopathies on the human central nervous system are examined. A morphological rationale for previously enigmatic clinical phenomena in the human toxic neuropathies is presented. Neuropathology is potentially useful in the screening of chemicals for neurotoxicity. (7 photos, 24 references)

  17. Quantitative evaluation of visual detection performance in medicine: ROC analysis and determination of diagnostic benefit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metz, C.E.; Starr, S.J.; Lusted, L.B.

    1976-01-01

    An ROC curve provides an empirical description of the trade-offs which are possible among the various types of correct and incorrect decisions as the human decision-maker varies one or more confidence thresholds. Conventional ROC curves measured in simple decision-making situations can, in some cases, be used to predict human decision performance in more complex situations. By considering both the consequences of the various types of diagnostic decisions and the overhead cost of a diagnostic study, one can use the ROC curve to evaluate the diagnostic usefulness of a study in any particular clinical context. Since the ROC curve describes the possible relationships among the probabilities of the various types of correct and incorrect decisions, it plays a central role in optimizing diagnostic strategies using the general techniques of decision analysis. Applications in radiographic image evaluation are described

  18. Pessimistic Determination of Mechanical Conditions and Micro/macroeconomic Evaluation of Mine Pillar Replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qingfa; Zhao, Fuyu

    2017-12-01

    Numerous pillars are left after mining of underground mineral resources using the open stope method or after the first step of the partial filling method. The mineral recovery rate can, however, be improved by replacement recovery of pillars. In the present study, the relationships among the pillar type, minimum pillar width, and micro/macroeconomic factors were investigated from two perspectives, namely mechanical stability and micro/macroeconomic benefit. Based on the mechanical stability formulas for ore and artificial pillars, the minimum width for a specific pillar type was determined using a pessimistic criterion. The microeconomic benefit c of setting an ore pillar, the microeconomic benefit w of artificial pillar replacement, and the economic net present value (ENPV) of the replacement process were calculated. The values of c and w were compared with respect to ENPV, based on which the appropriate pillar type and economical benefit were determined.

  19. Determination of phenolic compounds and evaluation of antioxidant capacity of Campomanesia adamantium leaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coutinho, I.D.; Coelho, R.G.; Honda, N.K.; Silva, J.R.M.; Cardoso, C.A.L. [Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul (UFMS), Campo Grande, MS (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica]. E-mail: claudia@uems.br; Kataoka, V.M.F. [Universidade Estadual de Mato Grosso do Sul, Dourados, MS (Brazil). Curso de Quimica; Vilegas, W. [UNESP, Araraquara, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica Organica

    2008-10-15

    Five flavanones and three chalcones were isolated from Campomanesia adamantium Berg. (Myrtaceae) leaves. The contents of these compounds were determined by HPLC. The phenolic contents were also determined. The monitoring of the antioxidant activity was carried out by inhibition of peroxidation using the linoleic acid system and radical-scavenging (DPPH). The plants were collected from 4 distinct cities of the Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil. The different samples exhibited a range of 4.67-232.35 mg/g chalcones and 15.62-50.71 mg/g flavanones and phenolic contents of the 7.24-21.19 mg/g gallic acid. All extracts showed high antioxidant activity with a wide range of the radical-scavenging (DPPH) from 52.0 to 92.2 % and inhibition oxidation of linoleic acid from 14.6 to 94.2%. (author)

  20. Determination of phenolic compounds and evaluation of antioxidant capacity of Campomanesia adamantium leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coutinho, I.D.; Coelho, R.G.; Honda, N.K.; Silva, J.R.M.; Cardoso, C.A.L.; Kataoka, V.M.F.; Vilegas, W.

    2008-01-01

    Five flavanones and three chalcones were isolated from Campomanesia adamantium Berg. (Myrtaceae) leaves. The contents of these compounds were determined by HPLC. The phenolic contents were also determined. The monitoring of the antioxidant activity was carried out by inhibition of peroxidation using the linoleic acid system and radical-scavenging (DPPH). The plants were collected from 4 distinct cities of the Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil. The different samples exhibited a range of 4.67-232.35 mg/g chalcones and 15.62-50.71 mg/g flavanones and phenolic contents of the 7.24-21.19 mg/g gallic acid. All extracts showed high antioxidant activity with a wide range of the radical-scavenging (DPPH) from 52.0 to 92.2 % and inhibition oxidation of linoleic acid from 14.6 to 94.2%. (author)

  1. Determine Appropriate Post Mining Land Use in Indonesia Coal Mining Using Land Suitability Evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Maryati, Sri; Shimada, Hideki; Hamanaka, Akihiro; Sasaoka, Takashi; Matsui, Kikuo

    2012-01-01

    Coal mining industry gives many benefits for Indonesia including contribution in total Indonesian GDP. Most of coal mines in Indonesia are open pit mining method which disturbs large area of land. One of open pit mining impact is damage land and related to soil erosion occurrences it will degrade land by top soil loses. Indonesia Government has issued mine closure regulation to encourage mining industry provide post mining land use. Determination of post mining land use should be considering ...

  2. Evaluation of Blue Value in different plant materials as a tool for rapid starch determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogusław Samotus

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine the concentration of starch in plant materials from the intensity of the blue iodine complex, it is necessary to know the Blue Value (B.V., which is defined in this paper as the absorbancy of 100 mg of a starch-iodine complex in 100 ml of aqueous solution. An adequate amount of plant material is treated with a hot CaCl2 solution for 1/2 hour and the solute is diluted to 25 ml with CaCl2. This basic solution serves to measure absorbancy, as well as for starch determination. The first measurement is done by the dilution of a proper amount of basic solution with water and after adding a diluted iodine-iodide solution the reading of B.V. is taken off. The second measurement is done by the precipitation of a starch iodine complex from a proper amount of the basic solution, which is then purified, destroyed by Na2SO3 solution, and starch is determined by the anthrone method. These two readings serve for the establishing of B.V. for the starch. Once established, B.V. can be used for starch determination in the proper plant material. A high degree of variation of the B.V. was found. The highest B.V. was obtained for wrinkled pea seeds (17.4; walnut, potato, smooth pea and pear gave values from 12.6 to 11.0, common bean and broad bean - 10.3 and 9.7, Triticale, carrot, rye, wheat and garden parsley from 8.7 to 8.0 and maize, oat, normal rice from 7.6 to 6.2. The B.V. for amylose was 25.3, for potato starch 12.4, soluble starch 11.9, wheat starch 8.8 and for Triticale and rye starches, 8.7.

  3. Entrepreneurial Activity in the EU: An Empirical Evaluation of Its Determinants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Diana Rusu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Entrepreneurship plays a major role in national economies, being considered one of the main engines of economic growth, and an important contributor to creating new jobs and innovations. Identifying the main determinants of entrepreneurial activity is important for helping the decision makers in adopting adequate measures to support the creation and development of new businesses. The turbulent economic environment in recent years dominated by economic and financial crises, resulting in a reduction in economic growth but also in an increase in unemployment, has led decision makers to turn their attention again to the determinant factors of entrepreneurship. Starting from those stated above, through this paper we aim to investigate the impact of some macroeconomic, individual and business environment-related factors on the dynamics of entrepreneurial activity in 18 European Union (EU countries for a period of 14 years (2002–2015. We use three regression models and we apply panel data fixed effect model approach. The results of our study highlight that inflation rate, foreign direct investments, access to finance and total tax rate are the main macroeconomic determinants of entrepreneurship. Also, we find that all individual business-related factors considered in the analysis have a significant impact on total entrepreneurship rate.

  4. Evaluation of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy for cadmium determination in soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Dario; Nunes, Lidiane C.; Trevizan, Lilian C.; Godoi, Quienly; Leme, Flavio O.; Braga, Jez Willian B.; Krug, Francisco Jose

    2009-01-01

    Cadmium is known to be a toxic agent that accumulates in the living organisms and present high toxicity potential over lifetime. Efforts towards the development of methods for microanalysis of environmental samples, including the determination of this element by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS), inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES), and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) techniques, have been increasing. Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is an emerging technique dedicated to microanalysis and there is a lack of information dealing with the determination of cadmium. The aim of this work is to demonstrate the feasibility of LIBS for cadmium detection in soils. The experimental setup was designed using a laser Q-switched (Nd:YAG, 10 Hz, λ = 1064 nm) and the emission signals were collimated by lenses into an optical fiber coupled to a high-resolution intensified charge-coupled device (ICCD)-echelle spectrometer. Samples were cryogenically ground and thereafter pelletized before LIBS analysis. Best results were achieved by exploring a test portion (i.e. sampling spots) with larger surface area, which contributes to diminish the uncertainty due to element specific microheterogeneity. Calibration curves for cadmium determination were achieved using certified reference materials. The metrological figures of merit indicate that LIBS can be recommended for screening of cadmium contamination in soils.

  5. Uranium and plutonium determinations for evaluation of high burnup fuel performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinrich, R.R.; Popek, R.J.; Bowers, D.L.; Essling, A.M.; Callis, E.L.; Persiani, P.J.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose of this work is to experimentally test computational methods being developed for reactor fuel operation. Described are the analytical techniques used in the determination of uranium and plutonium compositions on PWR fuel that has spanned five power cycles, culminating in 55,000 to 57,000 MWd/T burnup. Analyses have been performed on ten samples excised from selected sections of the fuel rods. Hot cell operations required the separation of fuel from cladding and the comminution of the fuel. These tasks were successfully accomplished using a SpectroMil, a ball pestle impact grinding and blending instrument manufactured by Chemplex Industries, Inc., Eastchester, New York. The fuel was dissolved using strong mineral acids and bomb dissolution techniques. Separation of the fuel from fission products was done by solvent (hexone) extraction. Fuel isotopic compositions and assays were determined by the mass spectrometric isotope dilution (MSID) method using NBS standards SRM-993 and SRM-996. Alpha spectrometry was used to determine the 238 Pu composition. Relative correlations of composition with burnup were obtained by gamma-ray spectrometry of selected fission products in the dissolved fuel

  6. Possible health hazards for cardiac pacemaker wearers from exposure to electromagnetic fields. L'exposition aux champs electromagnetiques: Risques pour la sante des porteurs de stimulateur cardiaque

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-03-01

    Cardiac pacemakers are used to provide electrical stimulation to the heart when the heart's natural rhythm is interrupted. This study shows that they can be susceptible to electromagnetic fields. Pacemakers are well protected against common electromagnetic fields, such as those from household appliances. But intense electomagnetic fields, such as those found in some industrial settings, could affect the functioning of the pacemaker. Such interference may cause the pacemaker wearer to feel dizzy or experience an accelerated heartbeat. While this is not fatal, the pacemaker wearer should try to move away from the source of the interfering field and avoid situations in which interference could arise. After experiencing any of these symptoms, the pacemaker wearer should contact a physician. Potential sources of electromagnetic interference should be identified and characterized to determine if there could be an interference hazard. Exposure to interfering electomagnetic fields should be minimized. 7 refs., 1 fig.

  7. Performance evaluation of indigenous thermal ionization mass spectrometer for determination of 235U/238U atom ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alamelu, D.; Parab, A.R.; Sasi Bhushan, K.; Shah, Raju V.; Jagdish Kumar, S.; Rao, Radhika M.; Aggarwal, S.K.; Bhatia, R.K.; Yadav, V.K.; Sharma, Madhavi P.; Tulsyan, Puneet; Chavda, Pradip; Sriniwasan, P.

    2014-07-01

    A magnetic sector based Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometer (TIMS) designed and developed at Technical Physics Division, B.A.R.C., was evaluated for its performance for the determination of 235 U/ 238 U atom ratios in uranium samples. This consisted of evaluating the precision and accuracy on the 235 U/ 238 U atom ratios in various isotopic reference materials as well as indigenously generated uranium samples. The results obtained by the indigenous TIMS were also compared with those obtained using a commercially available TIMS system. The internal and external precision were found to be around 0.1% for determining 235 U/ 238 U atom ratios close to those of natural uranium ( i.e. 0.00730). (author)

  8. In vivo evaluation of potential Tc-99m brain perfusion agents using brain uptake index determination and biodistribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajeckas, A.J.; Watson, A.D.; Subramanyam, V.; Williams, S.J.; Belonga, B.Q.; de Nemours, E.I.D.

    1985-01-01

    In order to evaluate the pharmacological properties of various Tc-99m complexes as potential brain perfusion agents, the authors have employed both biodistribution techniques as well as modified Oldendorf procedure for the determination of the brain uptake index (BUI). A typical BUI determination involves the coinjection of 1 microcurie each of I-125 iodoantipyrine and the Tc-99m complex into the left carotid artery of a pentabarbitol anesthetized rat. The animal is sacrificed at 10 seconds; the right and left hemispheres of the brain are removed and counted for each isotope in a gamma well counter. Biodistribution studies are performed using tail-vein injections in unanesthetized rats. In the evaluation of a series of Tc-99m N/sub 2/S/sub 2/ (diamine dithiol) complexes, they have observed that compounds with a low BUI (less than 50) also have a low brain concentration (less than 1% ID) at 30 seconds post injection

  9. Evaluation of some procedures relevant to the determination of trace elemental components in biological materials by destructive neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, D.L.

    1979-01-01

    The development of a simplified procedure for the analysis of biological materials by destructive neutron activation analysis (DNAA) is described. The sample manipulations preceding gamma ray assay were investigated as five specific stages of processing: (1) pre-irradiation treatment; (2) sample irradiation; (3) removal of the organic matrix; (4) removal of interfering radioactivities; and (5) concentration and separation of analyte activities. Each stage was evaluated with respect to susceptibility to sample contamination, loss of trace elemental components, and compatibility with other operations in the overall DNAA procedures. A complete DNAA procedure was proposed and evaluated for the analysis of standard bovine liver and blood samples. The DNAA system was effective for the determination of As, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mo, Rb, Sb, Se, and Zn without yield determinations and with a minimum turn-around time of approximately 3 days

  10. Evaluation of some procedures relevant to the determination of trace elemental components in biological materials by destructive neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berry, D.L.

    1979-01-01

    The development of a simplified procedure for the analysis of biological materials by destructive neutron activation analysis (DNAA) is described. The sample manipulations preceding gamma ray assay were investigated as five specific stages of processing: (1) pre-irradiation treatment; (2) sample irradiation; (3) removal of the organic matrix; (4) removal of interfering radioactivities; and (5) concentration and separation of analyte activities. Each stage was evaluated with respect to susceptibility to sample contamination, loss of trace elemental components, and compatibility with other operations in the overall DNAA procedures. A complete DNAA procedure was proposed and evaluated for the analysis of standard bovine liver and blood samples. The DNAA system was effective for the determination of As, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mo, Rb, Sb, Se, and Zn without yield determinations and with a minimum turn-around time of approximately 3 days.

  11. Review of models used for determining consequences of UF6 release: Model evaluation report. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nair, S.K.; Chambers, D.B.; Park, S.H.; Radonjic, Z.R.; Coutts, P.T.; Lewis, C.J.; Hammonds, J.S.; Hoffman, F.O.

    1997-11-01

    Three uranium hexafluoride-(UF 6 -) specific models--HGSYSTEM/UF 6 , Science Application International Corporation, and RTM-96; three dense-gas models--DEGADIS, SLAB, and the Chlorine Institute methodology; and one toxic chemical model--AFTOX--are evaluated on their capabilities to simulate the chemical reactions, thermodynamics, and atmospheric dispersion of UF 6 released from accidents at nuclear fuel-cycle facilities, to support Integrated Safety Analysis, Emergency Response Planning, and Post-Accident Analysis. These models are also evaluated for user-friendliness and for quality assurance and quality control features, to ensure the validity and credibility of the results. Model performance evaluations are conducted for the three UF 6 -specific models, using field data on releases of UF 6 and other heavy gases. Predictions from the HGSYSTEM/UF 6 and SAIC models are within an order of magnitude of the field data, but the SAIC model overpredicts beyond an order of magnitude for a few UF 6 -specific data points. The RTM-96 model provides overpredictions within a factor of 3 for all data points beyond 400 m from the source. For one data set, however, the RTM-96 model severely underpredicts the observations within 200 m of the source. Outputs of the models are most sensitive to the meteorological parameters at large distances from the source and to certain source-specific and meteorological parameters at distances close to the source. Specific recommendations are being made to improve the applicability and usefulness of the three models and to choose a specific model to support the intended analyses. Guidance is also provided on the choice of input parameters for initial dilution, building wake effects, and distance to completion of UF 6 reaction with water

  12. Determination of the diffusion coefficient of ionic species in Boom Clay by electromigration. First evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maes, N.; Moors, H.; De Canniere, P.; Aertsens, M.; Put, M.

    1997-03-01

    Classical diffusion experiments for strongly retarded radionuclides take a very long time. The migration can be accelerated considerably by applying an electrical field across a saturated porous medium (electromigration). Under the influence of the electric field, the ions will attain a constant velocity which is related to the diffusion coefficient by the law of Einstein (V=zeED/KT). The displacement of the concentration profile is a direct measure for the diffusion coefficient. A description of the problems of pH-disturbances, electro-osmosis and dispersion is given and an the feasibility of the electromigration method is evaluated

  13. An evaluation framework for multimodal interaction determining quality aspects and modality choice

    CERN Document Server

    Wechsung, Ina

    2014-01-01

    This book presents (1) an exhaustive and empirically validated taxonomy of quality aspects of multimodal interaction as well as respective measurement methods, (2) a validated questionnaire specifically tailored to the evaluation of multimodal systems and covering most of the taxonomy‘s quality aspects, (3) insights on how the quality perceptions of multimodal systems relate to the quality perceptions of its individual components, (4) a set of empirically tested factors which influence modality choice, and (5) models regarding the relationship of the perceived quality of a modality and the actual usage of a modality.

  14. Evaluation of a mass-balance approach to determine consumptive water use in northeastern Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Patrick C.; Duncker, James J.; Over, Thomas M.; Marian Domanski,; ,; Engel, Frank

    2014-01-01

    A principal component of evaluating and managing water use is consumptive use. This is the portion of water withdrawn for a particular use, such as residential, which is evaporated, transpired, incorporated into products or crops, consumed by humans or livestock, or otherwise removed from the immediate water environment. The amount of consumptive use may be estimated by a water (mass)-balance approach; however, because of the difficulty of obtaining necessary data, its application typically is restricted to the facility scale. The general governing mass-balance equation is: Consumptive use = Water supplied - Return flows.

  15. Phamacognostical Evaluation and Determination of Total Phenols of Paeonia sinjiangensis K. Y. Pan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Y. Gong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Paeonia sinjiangensis K. Y. Pan is a perennial herb belonging to the family Ranunculaceae which is one of the most important crude drugs in traditional Chinese medicine, used as an anti-inflammatory, analgesic and sedative agent. This paper deals with the detailed pharmacognostical evaluation of the crude drug P. sinjiangensis K. Y. Pan. The microscopic, physico-chemical, preliminary physicochemical parameters, total phenols contents presented in this paper may be proposed as parameters to establish the authenticity of P. sinjiangensis K. Y. Pan and can possibly help to differentiate the drug from its other species.

  16. Determinants of Food Consumption During Pregnancy in Rural Bangladesh: Examination of Evaluative Data from the Bangladesh Integrated Nutrition Project

    OpenAIRE

    Rezaul Karim; Deepa Bhat; Lisa Troy; Sascha Lamstein; F. James Levinson

    2002-01-01

    The common practice of reducing food consumption during pregnancy is recognized as a primary cause of poor pregnancy outcomes and, in turn, malnutrition among young children in many developing countries including Bangladesh. This paper analyzes data from the 1998 Mid-Term Evaluation of the Bangladesh Integrated Nutrition Project (BINP) to identify the determinants of pregnancy food consumption. The analysis found that information available to the mother (through project-based counseling) was ...

  17. Evaluating Inflation Determinants with a Money Supply Rule in Four Central and Eastern European EU Member States

    OpenAIRE

    Aaron Mehrotra; Tomáš Slacík

    2009-01-01

    We evaluate the monetary determinants of inflation in the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland and Slovakia by using the McCallum rule for money supply. The deviation of actual money growth from the rule is included in the estimation of Phillips curves for the four economies by Bayesian model averaging. We find that money provides information about price developments over a horizon of ten quarters ahead, albeit the estimates are in most cases rather imprecise. Moreover, the effect of excessive mon...

  18. Evaluation of a microwave method for dry matter determination in faecal samples from weaned pigs with or without clinical diarrhoea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Ken Steen; Stege, Helle; Nielsen, Jens Peter

    2011-07-01

    Microwave drying as a procedure for determination of faecal dry matter in weaned pigs was evaluated and clinical relevant cut-off values between faecal consistency scores were determined. Repeatability and reproducibility were evaluated. Overall coefficient of variation was 0.03. The 95% confidence limits for any future faecal subsample examined by any operator in any replica were ± 0.85% faecal dry matter. Robustness in relation to weight of wet faeces was evaluated. The weight categories were 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 3.0 g. Samples of 0.5 g gave significantly different mean faecal dry matter content compared to weighing of 1.0-3.0 g. Agreement with freeze-drying was evaluated. Lin's concordance correlation coefficient was 0.94. On average the faecal dry matter values was 1.7% (SD=1.99%) higher in freeze dried compared to micro waved samples. Non-parametric ROC analyses were used to determine optimal faecal dry matter cut-off values for clinical faecal consistency scores. The 4 consistency scores were score 1=firm and shaped, score 2=soft and shaped, score 3=loose and score 4=watery. The cut-off values were score 1: faecal dry matter content >19.5%, score 2: faecal dry matter content ≤ 19.5% and >18.0%, score 3: faecal dry matter content ≤ 18.0% and >11.3%, score 4: faecal dry matter content ≤ 11.3%. In conclusion, the microwave procedure has an acceptable repeatability/reproducibility and good agreement with freeze drying can be expected. A minimum of 1.0 g of wet faeces must be used for analyses. Faecal dry matter cut-off values between 4 different clinical consistency scores were determined. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Evaluation Parameter to Determine the Sharing of Electricity Production Mix in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syirrazie Che Soh; Mohd Ashhar Khalid

    2011-01-01

    As Malaysia have various possible energy sources based on the fossil fuels and renewable energies, the optimization for the usage of the energy sources to produce electricity should be managed as good as possible. It should be managed based on the desired demand for electricity on distributed location and its activities. In Malaysia, the location is divided with the two categories of Off-grid System and On-Grid System. Thus, this paper discuss on the parameters that could be used to determine the sharing of electricity production mix to meet the electricity demand for a location in Malaysia with for both two types the grid system categories. (author)

  20. Critical evaluation of the determination of zirconium and hafnium by instrumental and radiochemical neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burger, Mario; Kraehenbuehl, Urs

    1991-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis (instrument or radiochemical) is suitable for the determination of zirconium and hafnium in samples of geochemical origin only when sufficient attention is paid to inter-fering nuclides. The size of the necessary correction for INAA depends on the composition of the sample; this problem is discussed. The radio-chemical technique which is recommended involves separation of the samples, precipitations and anion-exchange separation. Results are given for various standard reference materials and for meteorites. (author). 12 refs.; 1 fig.; 9 tabs

  1. Evaluation of pulsed streamer corona experiments to determine the O* radical yield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Heesch, E J M; Winands, G J J; Pemen, A J M

    2008-01-01

    The production of O* radicals in air by a pulsed streamer plasma is studied by integration of a large set of precise experimental data and the chemical kinetics of ozone production. The measured data comprise ozone production, plasma energy, streamer volume, streamer length, streamer velocity, humidity and gas-flow rate. Instead of entering input parameters into a kinetic model to calculate the end products the opposite strategy is followed. Since the amount of end-products (ozone) is known from the measurements the model had to be applied in the reverse direction to determine the input parameters, i.e. the O* radical concentration.

  2. Evaluation of pulsed streamer corona experiments to determine the O* radical yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Heesch, E. J. M.; Winands, G. J. J.; Pemen, A. J. M.

    2008-12-01

    The production of O* radicals in air by a pulsed streamer plasma is studied by integration of a large set of precise experimental data and the chemical kinetics of ozone production. The measured data comprise ozone production, plasma energy, streamer volume, streamer length, streamer velocity, humidity and gas-flow rate. Instead of entering input parameters into a kinetic model to calculate the end products the opposite strategy is followed. Since the amount of end-products (ozone) is known from the measurements the model had to be applied in the reverse direction to determine the input parameters, i.e. the O* radical concentration.

  3. An evaluation of several methods of determining the local angle of attack on wind turbine blades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guntur, Srinivas; Sørensen, Niels N.

    2014-01-01

    Several methods of determining the angles of attack (AOAs) on wind turbine blades are discussed in this paper. A brief survey of the methods that have been used in the past are presented, and the advantages of each method are discussed relative to their application in the BEM theory. Data from...... existing as well as new full rotor CFD computations of the MEXICO rotor are used in this analysis. A more accurate estimation of the AOA is possible from 3D full rotor CFD computations, but when working with experimental data, pressure measurements and sectional forces are often the only data available...

  4. [Evaluation of consumer's acceptance of a peach palm snack (Bactris gasipaes) and determination of its potential as a functional food].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Calvo, Rebeca; Pérez, Ana M; Ivankovich Guillén, Carmen; Calderón Villaplana, Sandra; Pineda Castro, Maria Lourdes

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate consumers' acceptance of a peach palm snack and to determine its potential as a functional food by chemical characterization. An assessment was conducted with 100 consumers to determine the acceptance of different snack formulations and the results were subjected to cluster analysis. This analysis revealed two groups. Group 2 included people that consume snacks and peach palm frequently and showed the highest grades for the snack evaluated characteristics. All the consumers in group 2 and approximately 85% of the consumers in group 1 indicated that they would buy the product suggesting that there is a niche market for the developed peach palm snack. Also, a qualitative evaluation, using mini focus groups, of the two most widely accepted formulas of the snack (chosen according to previously described study) was performed. The sessions considered the opinion of middle class professionals and housewives. It was determined that the combination of tara gum and carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) allows a positive synergistic effect on the sensory characteristics of the snack, highlighting natural peach flavor and improving crunchiness. In a dry basis, the snack contains per 100 g: 9 ± 4 g of fat, 14.0 ± 0.3 g of dietary fiber, 15500 ± 32 µg of carotenoids and has an antioxidant capacity of 4700 ± 8 µmol TE, which demonstrates its potential as a functional food.

  5. Determining the Measurement Quality of a Montessori High School Teacher Evaluation Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Philip Setari

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to conduct a psychometric validation of a course evaluation instrument, known as a student evaluation of teaching (SET, implemented in a Montessori high school. The authors demonstrate to the Montessori community how to rigorously examine the measurement and assessment quality of instruments used within Montessori schools. The Montessori high school community needs an SET that has been rigorously examined for measurement issues. The examined SET was developed by a Montessori high school, and the sample data were collected from Montessori high school students. Using a Rasch partial credit model, the results of the analysis identified several measurement issues, including multidimensionality, misfit items, and inappropriate item difficulty levels. A revised version of the SET underwent the same analysis procedure, and the results indicated that measurement issues persisted. The authors suggest several ways to improve the overall measurement quality of the instrument while keeping the Montessori foundation. Additional validation studies with a revised version of the SET will be needed before the instrument can be endorsed for full implementation in a Montessori setting.

  6. Determination of Satisfaction Index as a tool in evaluation of CME Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuldeep Singh

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Continuing Medical Education is an indispensable part of physician's learning. Welldesigned program based on andragogy principles can enhance learning by motivatingthe learner and providing platform to encourage self directed learning. The presentstudy aimed to explore the impact of program “NAMS-AIIMS Regional Symposiumon Sleep Medicine” in changing the behavior and attitude of participants using“Satisfaction Index” and descriptive analysis of responses as evaluation tools forprogram effectiveness. This descriptive cross sectional study captured the response ofparticipants through a pre-tested and validated questionnaire administered at the end ofsymposium. The result showed almost equal sex distribution (M: F- 27: 34 withmajority being UG students (86%. Reliability of data showed Cronbach's Alpha of0.98 indicating high reliability. Satisfaction index (SI calculated as per WHOEducational Handbook for Health Personnel showed highest satisfaction for conduciveenvironment of symposium (87.87 % followed by provision for time to seekclarifications (87.21%, provision of appropriate Learning Resource material (85.90% and handling of critical comments by organizers (85.57%. Descriptive analysisshowed majority responses as highly positive to our questionnaire with suggestions formore such activity, inclusion of clinical cases and other aspects of practical relevance.Key words : evaluation, program, satisfaction index, Kirkpatrick Model, studentsatisfaction, adult learning, Knowles Theory.

  7. Practical evaluation of clinical image quality (4). Determination of image quality in digital radiography system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katayama, Reiji

    2016-01-01

    Recently, for medical imaging, digital radiography systems are widely used in clinical practices. However, a study in the past reported that a patient radiation exposure level by digital radiography is in fact not lower than that by analog radiography system. High level of attention needs to be paid for over-exposure when using the conventional analog radiography with a screen and a film, as it results in high density of the film. However, for digital radiography systems, since the automatic adjusting function of image density is equipped with them, no attention for radiation dose need to be paid. Thus technologists tend to be careless and results in higher chance for over-exposure. Current digital radiography systems are high-performance in the image properties and capable of patient dose reduction. Especially, the image quality of the flat panel detector system is recognized, higher than that of the computed radiography system by imaging plates, in both objective and subjective evaluations. Therefore, we technologists are responsible for optimizing the balance between the image quality of the digital radiogram and the radiation dose required for each case. Moreover, it is also required for us as medical technologists to make effective use of such evaluation result of medical images for patients. (author)

  8. Determination and evaluation of cadmium, copper, nickel, and zinc in agricultural soils of western Macedonia, Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, A; Prochaska, C; Papadopoulos, F; Gantidis, N; Metaxa, E

    2007-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the levels of major phytotoxic metals--including cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), and zinc (Zn)--in agricultural soils of Western Macedonia, Greece. We also wanted to determine the possible relationships among elements and between soil properties and elemental concentrations. Surface soil samples, n = 570, were collected and analyzed. The results of the elemental analysis showed that the mean metal concentrations were consistent with reported typical concentrations found in Greek agricultural soils in the cases of Zn and Cu. Cd exhibited lower and Ni higher mean concentrations than the typical levels reported in the literature. Metal concentrations in the majority of the examined samples (>69%) were found to be higher than the respective critical plant-deficiency levels. However, only 0.4% and 0.2% of the analyzed soil samples, respectively, exhibited Cd and Ni concentrations higher than the levels that cause plant toxicity, as referenced by other investigators. These results suggest that the soils studied can be considered as unpolluted with respect to the examined food-chain metal contaminants. However, the levels of the metal concentrations in some of the soil samples, and the low correlation of the metals with soil properties, suggest an anthropogenic rather that lithogenic origin.

  9. Evaluating aging in cats: How to determine what is healthy and what is disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellows, Jan; Center, Sharon; Daristotle, Leighann; Estrada, Amara H; Flickinger, Elizabeth A; Horwitz, Debra F; Lascelles, B Duncan X; Lepine, Allan; Perea, Sally; Scherk, Margie; Shoveller, Anna K

    2016-07-01

    Many of the changes that occur with aging are not considered pathologic and do not negatively affect overall wellness or quality of life. Ruling out disease is essential, however, when attempting to determine whether an aged cat can be considered 'healthy'. A clear understanding of the normal and abnormal changes that are associated with aging in cats can help practitioners make decisions regarding medical management, feeding interventions and additional testing procedures for their aged patients. It can be difficult to determine if a cat is displaying changes that are appropriate for age. For example, healthy aged cats may have hematologic or serum biochemistry changes that differ from those of the general feline population. Assessment of behavioral health and cognitive changes, as well as auditory, olfactory and visual changes, can also be challenging in the aged patient. This is the second of two review articles in a Special Issue devoted to feline healthy aging. The goals of the project culminating in these publications included developing a working definition for healthy aging in feline patients and identifying clinical methods that can be used to accurately classify healthy aged cats. This second review proposes criteria for assessing 'healthy aged cats'. There is a paucity of research in feline aging. The authors draw on expert opinion and available data in both the cat and other species. © The Author(s) 2016.

  10. An Automatic Assessment System of Diabetic Foot Ulcers Based on Wound Area Determination, Color Segmentation, and Healing Score Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Pedersen, Peder C; Strong, Diane M; Tulu, Bengisu; Agu, Emmanuel; Ignotz, Ron; He, Qian

    2015-08-07

    For individuals with type 2 diabetes, foot ulcers represent a significant health issue. The aim of this study is to design and evaluate a wound assessment system to help wound clinics assess patients with foot ulcers in a way that complements their current visual examination and manual measurements of their foot ulcers. The physical components of the system consist of an image capture box, a smartphone for wound image capture and a laptop for analyzing the wound image. The wound image assessment algorithms calculate the overall wound area, color segmented wound areas, and a healing score, to provide a quantitative assessment of the wound healing status both for a single wound image and comparisons of subsequent images to an initial wound image. The system was evaluated by assessing foot ulcers for 12 patients in the Wound Clinic at University of Massachusetts Medical School. As performance measures, the Matthews correlation coefficient (MCC) value for the wound area determination algorithm tested on 32 foot ulcer images was .68. The clinical validity of our healing score algorithm relative to the experienced clinicians was measured by Krippendorff's alpha coefficient (KAC) and ranged from .42 to .81. Our system provides a promising real-time method for wound assessment based on image analysis. Clinical comparisons indicate that the optimized mean-shift-based algorithm is well suited for wound area determination. Clinical evaluation of our healing score algorithm shows its potential to provide clinicians with a quantitative method for evaluating wound healing status. © 2015 Diabetes Technology Society.

  11. Determinants and Equity Evaluation for Health Expenditure Among Patients with Rare Diseases in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Xiao-Xiong; Zhao, Liang; Guan, Xiao-Dong; Shi, Lu-Wen

    2016-06-20

    China has not established social security system for rare diseases. Rare diseases could easily impoverish patients and their families. Little research has studied the equity and accessibility of health services for patients with rare diseases in China. This study aimed to explore the factors that influence health expenditure of rare diseases and evaluate its equity. Questionnaire survey about living conditions and cost burden of patients with rare diseases was conducted. Individual and family information, health expenditure and reimbursement in 2014 of 982 patients were collected. The impact of medical insurance, individual sociodemographic characteristics, family characteristics, and healthcare need on total and out-of-pocket (OOP) health expenditures was analyzed through the generalized linear model. Equity of health expenditure was evaluated by both concentration index and Lorenz curve. Of all the surveyed patients, 11.41% had no medical insurance and 92.10% spent money to seek medical treatment in 2014. It was suggested female (P = 0.048), over 50 years of age (P = 0.062), high-income group (P = 0.021), hospitalization (P = 0.000), and reimbursement ratio (RR) (P = 0.000) were positively correlated with total health expenditure. Diseases not needing long-term treatment (P = 0.000) was negatively correlated with total health expenditure. Over 50 years of age (P = 0.065), high-income group (P = 0.018), hospitalization (P = 0.000) and having Urban Employee Basic Medical Insurance (UEBMI) (P = 0.022) were positively correlated with OOP health expenditure. Patient or the head of the household having received higher education (P = 0.044 and P = 0.081) and reimbursement ratio (P = 0.078) were negatively correlated with OOP health expenditure. The equity evaluation found concentration indexes of health expenditure before and after reimbursement were 0.0550 and 0.0539, respectively. OOP health expenditure of patients with UEBMI was significantly more than that of

  12. A laboratory evaluation to determine the compatibility of microbiological control agents with the pollinator Bombus terrestris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mommaerts, Veerle; Sterk, Guido; Hoffmann, Lucien; Smagghe, Guy

    2009-09-01

    This study was undertaken to identify any potential adverse side effects of the use of seven microbiological control agents (MCAs) on the bumblebee, Bombus terrestris L., in the context of combined use in integrated pest management (IPM). AQ10 (Ampelomyces quisqualis), Binab-T-vector (Hypocrea parapilulifera + T. atroviride; 1/1), Prestop-Mix (Gliocladium catenulatum J1446), Serenade (Bacillus subtilis QST713), Trianum-P (Trichoderma harzianum T22), Botanigard (Beauveria bassiana GHA) and Granupom (Cydia pomonella granulovirus), comprising five biofungicides and two bioinsecticides, were investigated. Bumblebee workers were exposed under laboratory conditions to each MCA at its maximum field recommended concentration (MFRC) via three different routes of exposure: dermal contact and orally via either treated sugar water or pollen. The tested MCAs were found to be safe for workers of B. terrestris, with the exception of Botanigard and Serenade. Exposure to Botanigard via contact at its MFRC caused 92% mortality after 11 weeks, while the 1/10 MFRC killed 46% of exposed workers. For Serenade, topical contact and oral delivery via sugar water resulted in 88 and 100% worker mortality respectively. With lower concentrations (1/2, 1/5 and 1/10 MFRC) the toxicity decreased, but the effect depended on the route of exposure. In addition to lethal effects, nests were also evaluated for sublethal effects after treatment with the seven MCAs at their respective MFRCs over 11 weeks. In these bioassays, only Botanigard and Serenade gave rise to a significant (P drone production. Sublethal effects on foraging behaviour were also evaluated, and only Botanigard at its MFRC delivered via treated sugar water induced negative effects. The results demonstrated that most of the MCAs tested can be considered safe for use in combination with B. terrestris, based on the International Organisation for Biological Control of Noxious Animals and Plants (IOBC) classification. However, some can be

  13. Evaluation of methods to determine sperm density for the european eel, anguilla anguilla

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Sune Riis; Gallego, V.; Pérez, L.

    2013-01-01

    , computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA) and flow cytometry (FCM), using Neubauer Improved haemocytometer as benchmark. Initially, relationships between spermatocrit, haemocytometer counts and sperm motility were analysed, as well as the effect of sperm dilution on haemocytometer counts. Furthermore......, accuracy and precision of spermatocrit, applying a range of G-forces, were tested and the best G-force used in method comparisons. We found no effect of dilution on haemocytometer sperm density estimates, whereas motility associated positively with haemocytometer counts, but not with spermatocrit. Results......European eel, Anguilla anguilla, is a target species for future captive breeding, yet best methodology to estimate sperm density for application in in vitro fertilization is not established. Thus, our objectives were to evaluate methods to estimate European eel sperm density including spermatocrit...

  14. Extraction, degree of polymerization determination and prebiotic effect evaluation of inulin from Jerusalem artichoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wancong; Zhang, Jun; Yu, Chunwei; Li, Qing; Dong, Fang; Wang, Gang; Gu, Guodong; Guo, Zhanyong

    2015-05-05

    The tubers of Jerusalem artichoke are rich of inulin, which makes the plant one of primary inulin resources in China. The aim of this study was to extract inulin from tubers and test the degree of polymerization (DP) 10 days before flowering to 80 days after flowering. The DP of inulin reaches a maximum of 19 at 50 days after flowering. The variation tendencies of inulin content and DP were almost the same, which increase rapidly at the beginning and then decrease gradually at a lower speed. Meanwhile, the effects of inulin on probiotics in yogurt have been evaluated. It indicated that inulin with low DP has higher activities. Experimental data improve the understanding of status change of inulin in whole growth of Jerusalem artichoke tubers in Northeastern China and are instructive to get inulin with different properties. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. [Evaluation of psychological methods for determining the degree of psychological stress in children in dentistry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milenin, V V; Ostreĭkov, I F; Vasil'ev, Ia I

    2014-01-01

    The article deals with results of comparative evaluation of system of assessment of children's fear and anxiety in dentistry (SDS test) and other objective and subjective methods for assessing anxiety in pediatric patients. We studied 381 pediatric patients aged from 3 to 7 years. The aim of the study was to prove validity mathematical derived FCD test as a technique of anxiety detection in dentistry. During the study following subjective test were used: MAS, DAS, mYPAS, VAS, STAI, STAIC, EASI, PHBQ, and some history data and stress factors were also considered. Objective data used were vital signs (hemodynamics and respiratory rate). Test SDS has strong correlation with YALE, MAS, DAS, STAIlich, VAS and other parameters such as age, sex, person which is responsible for bringing up a child and so on.

  16. Evaluating Simulation Methodologies to Determine Best Strategies to Maximize Student Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, Yvonne K; Foltz-Ramos, Kelly; Fabry, Donna; Chao, Ying-Yu

    2016-01-01

    Limited evidence exists as to the most effective ways to provide simulation experiences to maximize student learning. This quasi-experimental study investigated 2 different strategies repeated versus 1 exposure and participation versus observation on student outcomes following exposure to a high-fidelity acute asthma exacerbation of asthma scenario. Immediate repeated exposure resulted in significantly higher scores on knowledge, student satisfaction and self-confidence, and clinical performance measures than a single exposure. Significant intergroup differences were found on participants' satisfaction and self-confidence as compared with observers. Implications for nurse educators include expanding the observer role when designing repeated exposure to simulations and integrating technical, cognitive, and behavioral outcomes as a way for faculty to evaluate students' clinical performance. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Evaluating the Coda Phase Delay Method for Determining Temperature Ratios in Windy Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albert, Sarah [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bowman, Daniel [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Rodgers, Arthur [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Seastrand, Douglas [National Security Technologies, LLC. (NSTec), Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2017-07-01

    We evaluate the acoustic coda phase delay method for estimating changes in atmospheric phenomena in realistic environments. Previous studies verifying the method took place in an environment with negligible wind. The equation for effective sound speed, which the method is based upon, shows that the influence of wind is equal to the square of temperature. Under normal conditions, wind is significant and therefore cannot be ignored. Results from this study con rm the previous statement. The acoustic coda phase delay method breaks down in non-ideal environments, namely those where wind speed and direction varies across small distances. We suggest that future studies make use of gradiometry to better understand the effect of wind on the acoustic coda and subsequent phase delays.

  18. Evaluation of an alternative extraction procedure for enterotoxin determination in dairy products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyrand, A; Atrache, V; Bavai, C; Montet, M P; Vernozy-Rozand, C

    1999-06-01

    A concentration protocol based on trichloroacetic acid precipitation was evaluated and compared with the reference method using dialysis concentration. Different quantities of purified staphylococcal enterotoxins were added to pasteurized Camembert-type cheeses. Detection of enterotoxins in these cheeses was performed using an automated detection system. Raw goat milk Camembert-type cheeses involved in a staphylococcal food poisoning were also tested. Both enterotoxin extraction methods allowed detection of the lowest enterotoxin concentration level used in this study (0.5 ng g-1). Compared with the dialysis concentration method, TCA precipitation of staphylococcal enterotoxins was 'user-friendly' and less time-consuming. These results suggest that TCA precipitation is a rapid (1 h), simple and reliable method of extracting enterotoxin from food which gives excellent recovery from dairy products.

  19. Exertion in Kangoo Jumps Aerobic: Evaluation and Interpretation Using Spectroscopic Technique Determinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Popa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Laser photoacoustic spectroscopy (LPAS is growing quickly in its applications to real world problems—one of the problems is to prevent obesity—being a candidate technology for breath analysis applications. The ongoing paper is aiming to investigate the evaluation of oxidative stress in womens practicing Kangoo Jumps (KJ aerobics. Because it is not possible to directly measure free radicals in the body, we approach that by measuring the by-products (breath ethylene that result from free radical reactions. We found out that the mixture of exhaled breath in women's after the KJ exercises contains low concentration of ethylene compared to the exhaled breath of the women before the start of exercise program. This result can add valuable information to the contribution to reduce the generation of prooxidants during and after KJ aerobics.

  20. A Low Cost Shading Analyzer and Site Evaluator Design to Determine Solar Power System Installation Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selami Kesler

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Shading analyzer systems are necessary for selecting the most suitable installation site to sustain enough solar power. Afterwards, changes in solar data throughout the year must be evaluated along with the identification of obstructions surrounding the installation site in order to analyze shading effects on productivity of the solar power system. In this study, the shading analysis tools are introduced briefly, and a new and different device is developed and explained to analyze shading effect of the environmental obstruction on the site on which the solar power system will be established. Thus, exposure duration of the PV panels to the sunlight can be measured effectively. The device is explained with an application on the installation area selected as a pilot site, Denizli, in Turkey.

  1. Development and evaluation of the determination of the polyamines spermine and spermidine by radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, G.G.

    1985-08-01

    In 1975 Bartos et al described a radio-immunoassay for spermine which lacked specificity. In subsequent years the same group has reported the production of a specific antibody to spermidine and to spermine. The availability of specific antibodies potentially transformed the usefulness of radioimmunoassay from a system useful for semi-quantitative screening to one with a much broader applicability in the area of quantitative assay of polyamines. It was claimed that the assay would quantify as little as 10 picogrammes of spermidine or spermine. Up to 1982 when the present project commenced no other groups had reported using the Bartos assay. The present study was therefore indicated in order to determine whether specific antibodies could be produced in laboratories other than those of the Bartos group and to validate the assay by comparing it with the much more widely used and well established HPLC methods currently available

  2. Evaluation of a reconfigurable portable instrument for copper determination based on luminescent carbon dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas-Castillo, Alfonso; Morales, Diego P; Lapresta-Fernández, Alejandro; Ariza-Avidad, María; Castillo, Encarnación; Martínez-Olmos, Antonio; Palma, Alberto J; Capitan-Vallvey, Luis Fermin

    2016-04-01

    A portable reconfigurable platform for copper (Cu(II)) determination based on luminescent carbon dot (Cdots) quenching is described. The electronic setup consists of a light-emitting diode (LED) as the carbon dot optical exciter and a photodiode as a light-to-current converter integrated in the same instrument. Moreover, the overall analog conditioning is simply performed with one integrated solution, a field-programmable analog array (FPAA), which makes it possible to reconfigure the filter and gain stages in real time. This feature provides adaptability to use the platform as an analytical probe for carbon dots coming from different batches with some variations in luminescence characteristics. The calibration functions obtained that fit a modified Stern-Volmer equation were obtained using luminescence signals from Cdots quenching by Cu(II). The analytical applicability of the reconfigurable portable instrument for Cu(II) using Cdots has been successfully demonstrated in tap water analysis.

  3. Evaluation of metal ions in rice samples: extraction and direct determination by ICP OES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Andrea; Cadore, Solange; Baccan, Nivaldo

    2012-01-01

    A method for extraction of metal ions present in rice samples using ammoniacal EDTA solution, pH = 10, as extractor agent is proposed under the following optimized conditions: 0.20 g of rice sample and 5.00 mL of ammoniacal EDTA (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid) solution, with 5 min of ultrasound exposure time. Using robust ICP OES (inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry) conditions, direct analysis of the extraction solution was allowed, and the recovery values obtained were above 90% for most of the studied elements (P, K, Mg, Ca, Zn, Mn, Cu and Mo) with RSD -1 (Mn) - 48.68 mg kg -1 (K), showing adequate detectability for the determination of the analytes. The analysis of different samples indicated that Brazilian 'integral' rice contains higher contents of the constituents studied, followed by 'parboiled' rice, and the 'agulhinha' rice a long and thin grain type. (author)

  4. Evaluation of extraction methods for progesterone determination in rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) feces by radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korndoerfer, Clotilde Maria; Meirelles, Cyro Ferreira; Bueno, Ives Claudio da Silva; Abdalla, Adibe Luiz

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to find a practical procedure for the extraction of progesterone (P 4 ) from feces and to determine if the P4 plasma profiles during pregnancy were reflected in total fecal P4 of pregnant rabbits. The rabbit was used as model for the techniques. Plasma and feces were collected from 11 rabbits during a period of 42 days. Three different methods of P4 extraction were used. The total P4 was measured by solid-phase radioimmunoassay (RIA) with 125 I-P4 as the tracer. Results suggested that it was possible to extract total P4 from rabbit feces with methanol and petroleum ether. Plasma and fecal P4 profiles were compared for both pregnant and ovariectomized rabbits. It was possible to differentiate total P4 extracted from day two through 28 after breeding (p<0.01). (author)

  5. Evaluation of extraction methods for progesterone determination in rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) feces by radioimmunoassay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korndoerfer, Clotilde Maria; Meirelles, Cyro Ferreira; Bueno, Ives Claudio da Silva; Abdalla, Adibe Luiz [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Secao de Ciencias Animais]. E-mail: cfmeirel@esalq.usp.br

    1998-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to find a practical procedure for the extraction of progesterone (P{sub 4}) from feces and to determine if the P4 plasma profiles during pregnancy were reflected in total fecal P4 of pregnant rabbits. The rabbit was used as model for the techniques. Plasma and feces were collected from 11 rabbits during a period of 42 days. Three different methods of P4 extraction were used. The total P4 was measured by solid-phase radioimmunoassay (RIA) with {sup 125} I-P4 as the tracer. Results suggested that it was possible to extract total P4 from rabbit feces with methanol and petroleum ether. Plasma and fecal P4 profiles were compared for both pregnant and ovariectomized rabbits. It was possible to differentiate total P4 extracted from day two through 28 after breeding (p<0.01). (author)

  6. Analytical Evaluation to Determine Selected PAHs in a Contaminated Soil With Type II Fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Alonso, S.; Perez Pastor, R. M.; Sevillano Castano, M. L.; Garcia Frutos, F. J.

    2010-01-01

    A study on the optimization of an ultrasonic extraction method for selected PAHs determination in soil contaminated by type II fuel and by using HPLC with fluorescence detector is presented. The main objective was optimize the analytical procedure, minimizing the volume of solvent and analysis time and avoiding possible loss by evaporation. This work was carried out as part of a project that investigated a remediation process of agricultural land affected by an accidental spillage of fuel (Plan Nacional I + D + i, CTM2007-64 537). The paper is structured as: Optimization of wavelengths in the chromatographic conditions to improve resolution in the analysis of fuel samples. Optimization of the main parameters affecting in the extraction process by sonication. Comparison of results with those obtained by accelerated solvent extraction. (Author) 3 refs.

  7. Evaluation of determining serum α1-microglobulin level for early diagnosis of the diabetic retinopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Quanxin; Han Laixin; Yin Shihua; Meng Lingqiang

    1995-01-01

    The serum α 1 -MG, β 2 -MG and other indices of 35 patients with NIDDM and 15 patients with diabetic retinopathy are determined. The results show that not only the serum α 1 -MG, β 2 -MG of all patients are obviously higher than the normal, but the serum α 1 -MG rises earlier than β 2 -MG. By means of correlation analysis, the serum β 2 -MG is significantly correlative with β 2 -MG and Scr(r = 0.673, r = 0.608). All those indicate that the level of the serum α 1 -MG may be a reliable and sensitive index to the diabetic retinopathy in the early diagnosis

  8. An evaluation of several methods of determining the local angle of attack on wind turbine blades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guntur, S; Sørensen, N N

    2014-01-01

    Several methods of determining the angles of attack (AOAs) on wind turbine blades are discussed in this paper. A brief survey of the methods that have been used in the past are presented, and the advantages of each method are discussed relative to their application in the BEM theory. Data from existing as well as new full rotor CFD computations of the MEXICO rotor are used in this analysis. A more accurate estimation of the AOA is possible from 3D full rotor CFD computations, but when working with experimental data, pressure measurements and sectional forces are often the only data available. The aim of this work is to analyse the reliability of some of the simpler methods of estimating the 3D effective AOA compared some of the more rigorous CFD based methods

  9. Evaluation of 40K in vegetables collected Malaysia by determination total potassium using neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafaei, M.A.; Saion, E.; Naghavi, K.; Wood, K.; Rezaee, Kh.

    2011-01-01

    Some vegetables of important nutritive requirements have been collected from Kuala Lumpur region capital of Malaysia. The vegetables were analyzed in order to determine activity concentration level of potassium using neutron activation analysis (NAA). The NAA results obtained showed the activity concentration of 40 K varied from 379 Bq/kg (Egg-plant) to 1585 Bq/kg (Spinach Red). These results are compared to other researches and are clear that the concentrations of K are relatively high in the Malaysia in compared to rather than vegetables of Pakistan and Jamaican. However, they are seen not to pose any serious internal health burden due to ingestion given the realities of vegetables choice by individuals in the study area. (author)

  10. Evaluating spatial patterns of dioxins in sediments to aid determination of potential implications for marine reptiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermanussen, S.; Gaus, C. [National Research Centre for Environmental Toxicology, Brisbane (Australia); Limpus, C.J. [Queensland Environmental Protection Agency, Brisbane (Australia); Paepke, O. [ERGO Forschungsgesellschaft mbH, Hamburg (Germany); Blanshard, W. [Sea World, Gold Coast (Australia); Connell, D. [School of Public Health, Griffith Univ., Brisbane (Australia)

    2004-09-15

    Recent investigations have identified elevated concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (dioxins) in marine sediments and wildlife of Queensland, Australia. While it has been demonstrated that the contamination is widespread and predominantly land-based, limited information exists on the pathways and fate of these compounds within the near-shore marine system. This environment supports unique and threatened species including green sea turtles (Chelonia mydas). Adult green turtles are predominantly herbivorous, feeding on seagrass and algae. Apart from initial migration to feeding grounds (at {proportional_to}10 years of age) and intermittent migrations to breeding grounds (at {proportional_to}30-50 years and thereafter), green turtles remain and feed within relatively small home ranges. Long life-span (50 years or more), near-shore feeding grounds and highly specialized food requirements render green turtles potentially vulnerable to contaminant exposure. Recent studies have shown a relationship between PCDD/F concentrations found in herbivorous marine wildlife and concentrations in sediments of their habitats. Hence, the spatial evaluation of sediment PCDD/F distribution may assist the assessment of green turtle exposure and its potential implications. The present study provides baseline information on green turtle PCDD/F concentrations in Queensland, Australia and investigates exposure pathways. In addition, spatial distribution of PCDD/Fs in sediments from known green turtle feeding regions is assessed using geographic information systems. This represents the first stage of a large scale investigation into the exposure and sensitivity of marine reptiles to dioxins and dioxin-like compounds and to evaluate whether poor health status observed in some populations may be related to contaminant exposure.

  11. A prospective cohort study to evaluate peridomestic infection as a determinant of dengue transmission: Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez-Vega Ruth

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vector control programs, which have focused mainly on the patient house and peridomestic areas around dengue cases, have not produced the expected impact on transmission. This project will evaluate the assumption that the endemic/epidemic transmission of dengue begins around peridomestic vicinities of the primary cases. Its objective is to assess the relationship between symptomatic dengue case exposure and peridomestic infection incidence. Methods/Design A prospective cohort study will be conducted (in Tepalcingo and Axochiapan, in the state of Morelos, Mexico, using the state surveillance system for the detection of incident cases. Paired blood specimens will be collected from both the individuals who live with the incident cases and a sample of subjects residing within a 25-meter radius of such cases (exposed cohort, in order to measure dengue-specific antibodies. Other subjects will be selected from areas which have not presented any incident cases within 200 meters, during the two months preceding the sampling (non-exposed cohort. Symptomatic/asymptomatic incident infection will be considered as the dependent variable, exposure to confirmed dengue cases, as the principal variable, and the socio-demographic, environmental and socio-cultural conditions of the subjects, as additional explanatory variables. Discussion Results indicating a high infection rate among the exposed subjects would justify the application of peridomestic control measures and call for an evaluation of alternate causes for insufficient program impact. On the other hand, a low incidence of peridomestic-infected subjects would support the hypothesis that infection occurs outside the domicile, and would thus explain why the vector control measures applied in the past have exerted such a limited impact on cases incidence rates. The results of the present study may therefore serve to reassess site selection for interventions of this type.

  12. Antimycobacterial activity evaluation and MIC determination of liophilizated hydroalcoholic extracts of Bixa orellana L., Bixaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata B. Silva

    Full Text Available Bixa orellana is used in popular medicine against several diseases. Extracts of its fruit, root and leaf presented antimicrobial activity, while seed extract showed negative results. This study aimed at verifying the antimycobacterial activity of B. orellanalyophilized hydroalcoholic extracts over Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and determine the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration against five bacteria. Antimycobacterial activity was determined by diffusion technique, while MIC was assessed by diffusion and colorimetric analysis. MICs were 0.3, 0.5 and 0.2 mg/mL respectively, for leaf, root and stem extracts, against M. tuberculosis. Stem's extract showed 1.2 mg/mL for B. cereus, 1.53 mg/mL for S. aureusand S. typhimurium, 4.50 mg/mL for P. aeruginosaand 8.01 mg/mL for P. mirabillis.Leaf extracts showed 0.66 mg/mL for P. aeruginosa, 0.94 mg/mL for P. mirabillis, 1.88 mg/mL for S. aureus, 3.95 mg/mL for B. cereusand 8.37 mg/mL for S. typhimurium. Root's extracts showed 0.25 mg/mL for P. aeruginosa,0.31 mg/mL for S. aureus, 0.62 mg/mL for S. typhimuriumand 3.00 mg/mL for B. cereusand P. mirabillis. Leaf and stem extracts showed antimycobacterial activity. MICs were lower in colorimetric analysis than in agar diffusion. Extracts revealed bacteriostatic activity against the five bacterial.

  13. Hepatotoxic potential of asarones: In vitro evaluation of hepatotoxicity and quantitative determination in herbal products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhavalkumar Narendrabha Patel

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available α and β asarones are natural constituents of some aromatic plants, especially species of the genus Acorus. In addition to beneficial properties of asarones, genotoxicity and carcinogenicity are also reported. Due to potential toxic effects of β-asarone, a limit of exposure from herbal products of approximately 2 μg/kg body weight/day has been set temporarily until a full benefit/risk assessment has been carried out by the European Medicines Agency. Therefore, it is important to monitor levels of β-asarone in herbal products. In this study, we developed a simple, rapid and validated GC-MS method for quantitative determination of asarones and applied it in 20 pediatric herbal products after detecting high concentrations of β-asarone in a product suspected to be implicated in hepatotoxicity in a 3 month old infant. Furthermore, targeted toxicological effects were further investigated in human hepatocytes (THLE-2 cells by employing various in vitro assays, with the goal of elucidating possible mechanisms for the observed toxicity. Results showed that some of the products contained as much as 4 to 25 times greater amounts of β-asarone than the recommended levels. In 4 of 10 samples found to contain asarones, the presence of asarones could not be linked to the labeled ingredients, possibly due to poor quality control. Cell-based investigations in THLE2 cells confirmed the cytotoxicity of -asarone (IC50 = 40.0 ± 2.0 µg/mL which was associated with significant lipid peroxidation and glutathione depletion. This observed cytotoxicity effect is likely due to induction of oxidative stress by asarones. Overall, the results of this study ascertained the usability of this GC-MS method for the quantitative determination of asarones from herbal products, and shed light on the importance of controlling the concentration of potentially toxic asarones in herbal products to safeguard consumer safety. Further investigations of the toxicity of asarones are

  14. The evaluation of an analytical protocol for the determination of substances in waste for hazard classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennebert, Pierre; Papin, Arnaud; Padox, Jean-Marie; Hasebrouck, Benoît

    2013-07-01

    The classification of waste as hazardous could soon be assessed in Europe using largely the hazard properties of its constituents, according to the the Classification, Labelling and Packaging (CLP) regulation. Comprehensive knowledge of the component constituents of a given waste will therefore be necessary. An analytical protocol for determining waste composition is proposed, which includes using inductively coupled plasma (ICP) screening methods to identify major elements and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS) screening techniques to measure organic compounds. The method includes a gross or indicator measure of 'pools' of higher molecular weight organic substances that are taken to be less bioactive and less hazardous, and of unresolved 'mass' during the chromatography of volatile and semi-volatile compounds. The concentration of some elements and specific compounds that are linked to specific hazard properties and are subject to specific regulation (examples include: heavy metals, chromium(VI), cyanides, organo-halogens, and PCBs) are determined by classical quantitative analysis. To check the consistency of the analysis, the sum of the concentrations (including unresolved 'pools') should give a mass balance between 90% and 110%. Thirty-two laboratory samples comprising different industrial wastes (liquids and solids) were tested by two routine service laboratories, to give circa 7000 parameter results. Despite discrepancies in some parameters, a satisfactory sum of estimated or measured concentrations (analytical balance) of 90% was reached for 20 samples (63% of the overall total) during this first test exercise, with identified reasons for most of the unsatisfactory results. Regular use of this protocol (which is now included in the French legislation) has enabled service laboratories to reach a 90% mass balance for nearly all the solid samples tested, and most of liquid samples (difficulties were caused in some samples from polymers in solution and

  15. Evaluating the market splitting determinants: evidence from the Iberian spot electricity prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figueiredo, Nuno Carvalho; Silva, Patrícia Pereira da; Cerqueira, Pedro A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to assess the main determinants on the market splitting behaviour of the Iberian electricity spot markets. Iberia stands as an ideal case-study, where the high level deployment of wind power is observed, together with the implementation of the market splitting arrangement between the Portuguese and the Spanish spot electricity markets. Logit and non-parametric models are used to express the probability response for market splitting of day-ahead spot electricity prices as a function of the explanatory variables representing the main technologies in the generation mix: wind, hydro, thermal and nuclear power, together with the available transfer capacity and electricity demand. Logit models give preliminary indications about market splitting behaviour, and then, notwithstanding the demanding computational challenge, a non-parametric model is applied in order to overcome the limitations of the former models. Results show an increase of market splitting probability with higher wind power generation or, more generally, with higher availability of low marginal cost electricity such as nuclear power generation. The European interconnection capacity target of 10% of the peak demand of the smallest interconnected market might be insufficient to maintain electricity market integration. Therefore, pro-active coordination policies, governing both interconnections and renewables deployment, should be further developed. -- Highlights: •Assess determinants on market splitting behaviour of Iberian electricity markets. •Logit and non-parametric models to express market splitting probability response. •Explanatory variables: wind, hydro, thermal and nuclear power; ATC and demand. •Results: increase of market splitting probability with higher availability of low marginal cost electricity. •Coordination policies governing both interconnections and renewables deployment

  16. Dispersion of the vancomycin resistance genes vanA and vanC of Enterococcus isolated from Nile tilapia on retail sale: A public health hazard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamelia Mahmoud Osman

    2016-08-01

    that aquatic environments are correlated to proximity to anthropogenic activities in determining the antimicrobial resistance patterns of Enterococcus spp. recovered from fish in the river Nile in Giza, Elmounib, Egypt as a continuation of our larger study on the reservoirs of antibiotic resistance in the environment.

  17. Evaluation of acoustic telemetry grids for determining aquatic animal movement and survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Richard T.; Holbrook, Christopher; Vandergoot, Christopher; Stewart, Taylor R.; Faust, Matthew D.; Watkinson, Douglas A.; Charles, Colin; Pegg, Mark; Enders, Eva C.; Krueger, Charles C.

    2018-01-01

    Acoustic telemetry studies have frequently prioritized linear configurations of hydrophone receivers, such as perpendicular from shorelines or across rivers, to detect the presence of tagged aquatic animals. This approach introduces unknown bias when receivers are stationed for convenience at geographic bottlenecks (e.g., at the mouth of an embayment or between islands) as opposed to deployments following a statistical sampling design.We evaluated two-dimensional acoustic receiver arrays (grids: receivers spread uniformly across space) as an alternative approach to provide estimates of survival, movement, and habitat use. Performance of variably-spaced receiver grids (5–25 km spacing) was evaluated by simulating (1) animal tracks as correlated random walks (speed: 0.1–0.9 m/s; turning angle standard deviation: 5–30 degrees); (2) variable tag transmission intervals along each track (nominal delay: 15–300 seconds); and (3) probability of detection of each transmission based on logistic detection range curves (midpoint: 200–1500 m). From simulations, we quantified i) time between successive detections on any receiver (detection time), ii) time between successive detections on different receivers (transit time), and iii) distance between successive detections on different receivers (transit distance).In the most restrictive detection range scenario (200 m), the 95th percentile of transit time was 3.2 days at 5 km grid spacing, 5.7 days at 7 km, and 15.2 days at 25 km; for the 1500 m detection range scenario, it was 0.1 days at 5 km, 0.5 days at 7 km, and 10.8 days at 25 km. These values represented upper bounds on the expected maximum time that an animal could go undetected. Comparison of the simulations with pilot studies on three fishes (walleye Sander vitreus, common carp Cyprinus carpio, and channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus) from two independent large lake ecosystems (lakes Erie and Winnipeg) revealed shorter detection and transit times than what

  18. Technical Evaluation for the Determination of CGI Designation for Safety Class Items Incorporated in Hose-in-Hose Transfer Line Assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BUCHANAN, J.R.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this technical evaluation is to determine whether the secondary hoses are to be categorized as Commercial Grade Items (CGI) or Engineered Equipment. This determination will identify whether or not use of the CGI Dedication process is appropriate

  19. Evaluation of extraction methods for hexavalent chromium determination in dusts, ashes, and soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Ruth E.; Wilson, Stephen A.

    2010-01-01

    One of the difficulties in performing speciation analyses on solid samples is finding a suitable extraction method. Traditional methods for extraction of hexavalent chromium, Cr(VI), in soils, such as SW846 Method 3060A, can be tedious and are not always compatible with some determination methods. For example, the phosphate and high levels of carbonate and magnesium present in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Method 3060A digestion for Cr(VI) were found to be incompatible with the High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS) detection method used by our laboratory. Modification of Method 3060A by eliminating the use of the phosphate buffer provided improved performance with the detection method, however dilutions are still necessary to achieve good chromatographic separation and detection of Cr(VI). An ultrasonic extraction method using a 1 mM Na2CO3 - 9 mM NaHCO3 buffer solution, adapted from Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Method ID215, has been used with good results for the determination of Cr(VI) in air filters. The average recovery obtained for BCR-545 - Welding Dust Loaded on Filter (IRMM, Belgium) using this method was 99 percent (1.2 percent relative standard deviation) with no conversion of Cr(VI) to Cr(III) during the extraction process. This ultrasonic method has the potential for use with other sample matrices, such as ashes and soils. Preliminary investigations using NIST 2701 (Hexavalent Chromium in Contaminated Soil) loaded onto quartz filters showed promising results with approximately 90 percent recovery of the certified Cr(VI) value. Additional testing has been done using NIST 2701 and NIST 2700 using different presentation methods. Extraction efficiency of bulk presentation, where small portions of the sample are added to the bottom of the extraction vessel, will be compared with supported presentation, where small portions of the sample are loaded onto a

  20. The evaluation of an analytical protocol for the determination of substances in waste for hazard classification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hennebert, Pierre, E-mail: pierre.hennebert@ineris.fr [INERIS – Institut National de l’Environnement Industriel et des Risques, Domaine du Petit Arbois BP33, F-13545 Aix-en-Provence (France); Papin, Arnaud [INERIS, Parc Technologique ALATA, BP No. 2, 60550 Verneuil en Halatte (France); Padox, Jean-Marie [INERIS – Institut National de l’Environnement Industriel et des Risques, Domaine du Petit Arbois BP33, F-13545 Aix-en-Provence (France); Hasebrouck, Benoît [INERIS, Parc Technologique ALATA, BP No. 2, 60550 Verneuil en Halatte (France)

    2013-07-15

    Highlights: • Knowledge of wastes in substances will be necessary to assess HP1–HP15 hazard properties. • A new analytical protocol is proposed for this and tested by two service laboratories on 32 samples. • Sixty-three percentage of the samples have a satisfactory analytical balance between 90% and 110%. • Eighty-four percentage of the samples were classified identically (Seveso Directive) for their hazardousness by the two laboratories. • The method, in progress, is being normalized in France and is be proposed to CEN. - Abstract: The classification of waste as hazardous could soon be assessed in Europe using largely the hazard properties of its constituents, according to the the Classification, Labelling and Packaging (CLP) regulation. Comprehensive knowledge of the component constituents of a given waste will therefore be necessary. An analytical protocol for determining waste composition is proposed, which includes using inductively coupled plasma (ICP) screening methods to identify major elements and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC–MS) screening techniques to measure organic compounds. The method includes a gross or indicator measure of ‘pools’ of higher molecular weight organic substances that are taken to be less bioactive and less hazardous, and of unresolved ‘mass’ during the chromatography of volatile and semi-volatile compounds. The concentration of some elements and specific compounds that are linked to specific hazard properties and are subject to specific regulation (examples include: heavy metals, chromium(VI), cyanides, organo-halogens, and PCBs) are determined by classical quantitative analysis. To check the consistency of the analysis, the sum of the concentrations (including unresolved ‘pools’) should give a mass balance between 90% and 110%. Thirty-two laboratory samples comprising different industrial wastes (liquids and solids) were tested by two routine service laboratories, to give circa 7000 parameter

  1. An analytical method for evaluating the uncertainty in personal air sampler determinations of plutonium intakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birchall, A.; Muirhead, C.R.; James, A.C.

    1985-10-01

    The parameters defining aerosol particle size and activity distributions are reviewed. When considering statistical variation in sampled activity, it is convenient to express the activity in terms of the number of median units of particle activity. The aerosol size distribution is characterised by the activity median aerodynamic diameter and geometric standard deviation. Numerical values are given for the median and arithmetic mean of these activity distributions, for the range of plutonium aerosols encountered in air at the workplace. The methods used by Meggitt (1979) to evaluate (i) the probability density distribution of activity p(m/w) dm, sampled from a fixed concentration w, and (ii) the posterior probability density of concentration p(w/m) dw following a single measurement m, are also reviewed. These methods involve approximating the k-sum distribution, formed by summing the activity of k random particles from a log-normal population, by a shifted log-normal function. Meggitt's approximation of the k-sum distribution was found to be inadequate. An improved approximation is given, based on a transformed normal distribution. (author)

  2. Using Preferred Attribute Elicitation to Determine How Males and Females Evaluate Beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muggah, Elizabeth M; McSweeney, Matthew B

    2017-08-01

    The variety of beers available for consumption has increased due to the recent emergence of many craft brewing operations and it has been suggested that this is affecting how consumers evaluate beer. Currently, beer consumers are mostly male and only 20% of women are primarily beer drinkers. The main objective of this project is to compare and contrast descriptions of beer products created by males and females. The preferred attribute elicitation (PAE) method was used to create a description of 4 beers common to residents of Nova Scotia, Canada. Four PAE sessions were held: 2 sessions consisted of females (n = 16 and 15) and 2 sessions of males (n = 11 and 17). Four beer samples were chosen from locally available commercial beers, 2 of these samples were considered to be craft-brewed beer and the other samples were nationally available brands (macrobrewed). Both the males and females generated descriptions that included 5 identical terms; however, they differed in the importance they assigned to each attribute. Notably, bitterness was perceived to be of more importance to female panelists. Throughout all PAE sessions, the craft-brewed beers were associated with considerably more sensory attributes than the macrobrewed beers. It can be concluded that both the female and male groups found discernible differences between the craft and macrobrewed beers; however, they place importance on different sensory attributes. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  3. Clinical evaluation of a computer-aided diagnosis system for determining cancer aggressiveness in prostate MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litjens, Geert J.S.; Barentsz, Jelle O.; Karssemeijer, Nico; Huisman, Henkjan J.

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the added value of computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) on the diagnostic accuracy of PIRADS reporting and the assessment of cancer aggressiveness. Multi-parametric MRI and histopathological outcome of MR-guided biopsies of a consecutive set of 130 patients were included. All cases were prospectively PIRADS reported and the reported lesions underwent CAD analysis. Logistic regression combined the CAD prediction and radiologist PIRADS score into a combination score. Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) analysis and Spearman's correlation coefficient were used to assess the diagnostic accuracy and correlation to cancer grade. Evaluation was performed for discriminating benign lesions from cancer and for discriminating indolent from aggressive lesions. In total 141 lesions (107 patients) were included for final analysis. The area-under-the-ROC-curve of the combination score was higher than for the PIRADS score of the radiologist (benign vs. cancer, 0.88 vs. 0.81, p = 0.013 and indolent vs. aggressive, 0.88 vs. 0.78, p < 0.01). The combination score correlated significantly stronger with cancer grade (0.69, p = 0.0014) than the individual CAD system or radiologist (0.54 and 0.58). Combining CAD prediction and PIRADS into a combination score has the potential to improve diagnostic accuracy. Furthermore, such a combination score has a strong correlation with cancer grade. (orig.)

  4. Determination of optimal angiographic viewing angles: Basic principles and evaluation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumay, A.C.M.; Reiber, J.H.C.; Gerbrands, J.J.

    1994-01-01

    Foreshortening of vessel segments in angiographic (biplane) projection images may cause misinterpretation of the extent and degree of coronary artery disease. The views in which the object of interest are visualized with minimum foreshortening are called optimal views. In this paper the authors present a complete approach to obtain such views with computer-assisted techniques. The object of interest is first visualized in two arbitrary views. Two landmarks of the object are manually defined in the two projection images. With complete information of the projection geometry, the vector representation of the object in the three-dimensional space is computed. This vector is perpendicular to a plane in which the views are called optimal. The user has one degree of freedom to define a set of optimal biplane views. The angle between the central beams of the imaging systems can be chosen freely. The computation of the orientation of the object and of corresponding optimal biplane views have been evaluated with a simple hardware phantom. The mean and the standard deviation of the overall errors in the calculation of the optimal angulation angles were 1.8 degree and 1.3 degree, respectively, when the user defined a rotation angle

  5. Evaluation of the informatician perspective: determining types of research papers preferred by clinicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ru, Boshu; Wang, Xiaoyan; Yao, Lixia

    2017-07-05

    To deliver evidence-based medicine, clinicians often reference resources that are useful to their respective medical practices. Owing to their busy schedules, however, clinicians typically find it challenging to locate these relevant resources out of the rapidly growing number of journals and articles currently being published. The literature-recommender system may provide a possible solution to this issue if the individual needs of clinicians can be identified and applied. We thus collected from the CiteULike website a sample of 96 clinicians and 6,221 scientific articles that they read. We examined the journal distributions, publication types, reading times, and geographic locations. We then compared the distributions of MeSH terms associated with these articles with those of randomly sampled MEDLINE articles using two-sample Z-test and multiple comparison correction, in order to identify the important topics relevant to clinicians. We determined that the sampled clinicians followed the latest literature in a timely manner and read papers that are considered landmarks in medical research history. They preferred to read scientific discoveries from human experiments instead of molecular-, cellular- or animal-model-based experiments. Furthermore, the country of publication may impact reading preferences, particularly for clinicians from Egypt, India, Norway, Senegal, and South Africa. These findings provide useful guidance for developing personalized literature-recommender systems for clinicians.

  6. DETERMINANTS OF BANK COMPETITION IN MOROCCO AND EVALUATION OF STRUCTURAL REFORMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afifa Hakam

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The empirical results of this paper indicate that the degree of competition in the banking system is determined by several macroeconomic aggregates that describe the relevance of the policies implemented in financial Morocco. Thus, the result shows that there is a positive relationship between the index of competition and concentration there by verifies our theoretical perception. On another note, economic growth is negatively correlated with the competition, which unfortunately indicates that when there are sustained economic growth banks does not behave concurrently and try to retain their market share stimulated by a high concentration sector. This is also dependent on conditions in the credit market, which indicates that when the demand is constant, banks tend to have fewer competing behaviors. In addition, the development of positive market impact of competition which is consistent with liberal theory. Thus, the use of financial market intensifies competition between banks to produce services being able to attract more customers to compensate for those who chose the stock market. Finally, in the implementation of monetary policy, the indicator of interbank interest rate has a positive impact on competition.

  7. Evaluation of Pound concept in determination of mediolateral mandibular posterior teeth position

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Naser Khaki

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The ideal teeth arrangement is an important step for success in complete denture fabrication. There are different methods for determining the posterior denture teeth location. The purpose of this study was the comparison of posterior mandibular teeth location in the study group with Pound or Misch theory. Material and methods: An alginate mandibular impression of 80 dentate patients was taken and poured with dental stone. Retromolar pad area, mesial of canine and the lingual cusps of each posterior tooth marked on the cast and then transferred to the graded paper. Distance of each lingual cusp from the internal line of Pound triangle was measured. Data were analyzed with SPSS version 16.0. Result: In the study group, the average distance of lingual mandibular cusp from the internal line of Pound triangle was 1.69 mm in first premolars, 0.94 mm in second premolars, 0.7 mm in first molars and 0.75 mm in second molars. Conclusion: In most cases, distance of lingual mandibular cusps was within 1 mm of Pound triangle. Results were more similar to the Pound rather than the Misch theory.

  8. Methods for determining unimpeded aircraft taxiing time and evaluating airport taxiing performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Zhang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to improve the methods of determining unimpeded (nominal taxiing time, which is the reference time used for estimating taxiing delay, a widely accepted performance indicator of airport surface movement. After reviewing existing methods used widely by different air navigation service providers (ANSP, new methods relying on computer software and statistical tools, and econometrics regression models are proposed. Regression models are highly recommended because they require less detailed data and can serve the needs of general performance analysis of airport surface operations. The proposed econometrics model outperforms existing ones by introducing more explanatory variables, especially taking aircraft passing and over-passing into the considering of queue length calculation and including runway configuration, ground delay program, and weather factors. The length of the aircraft queue in the taxiway system and the interaction between queues are major contributors to long taxi-out times. The proposed method provides a consistent and more accurate method of calculating taxiing delay and it can be used for ATM-related performance analysis and international comparison.

  9. Targeted Next-generation Sequencing and Bioinformatics Pipeline to Evaluate Genetic Determinants of Constitutional Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilliott, Allison A; Farhan, Sali M K; Ghani, Mahdi; Sato, Christine; Liang, Eric; Zhang, Ming; McIntyre, Adam D; Cao, Henian; Racacho, Lemuel; Robinson, John F; Strong, Michael J; Masellis, Mario; Bulman, Dennis E; Rogaeva, Ekaterina; Lang, Anthony; Tartaglia, Carmela; Finger, Elizabeth; Zinman, Lorne; Turnbull, John; Freedman, Morris; Swartz, Rick; Black, Sandra E; Hegele, Robert A

    2018-04-04

    Next-generation sequencing (NGS) is quickly revolutionizing how research into the genetic determinants of constitutional disease is performed. The technique is highly efficient with millions of sequencing reads being produced in a short time span and at relatively low cost. Specifically, targeted NGS is able to focus investigations to genomic regions of particular interest based on the disease of study. Not only does this further reduce costs and increase the speed of the process, but it lessens the computational burden that often accompanies NGS. Although targeted NGS is restricted to certain regions of the genome, preventing identification of potential novel loci of interest, it can be an excellent technique when faced with a phenotypically and genetically heterogeneous disease, for which there are previously known genetic associations. Because of the complex nature of the sequencing technique, it is important to closely adhere to protocols and methodologies in order to achieve sequencing reads of high coverage and quality. Further, once sequencing reads are obtained, a sophisticated bioinformatics workflow is utilized to accurately map reads to a reference genome, to call variants, and to ensure the variants pass quality metrics. Variants must also be annotated and curated based on their clinical significance, which can be standardized by applying the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics Pathogenicity Guidelines. The methods presented herein will display the steps involved in generating and analyzing NGS data from a targeted sequencing panel, using the ONDRISeq neurodegenerative disease panel as a model, to identify variants that may be of clinical significance.

  10. The determination of the radical power - an in vitro test for the evaluation of cosmetic products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrling, T; Seifert, M; Sandig, G; Jung, K

    2016-06-01

    Cosmetic formulations are influenced by environmental impacts and ageing, resulting in rancidity and change of colour and structure. These changes are caused by free radicals (FRs). The sensitivity of cosmetics generating FRs is a metric for its quality and should be determined. Electron spin resonance spectroscopy in combination with UV irradiation tested cosmetics such as creams, milks, lotions and fragrances. The probes were directly measured without expensive preparation. Nine formulations are tested for its radical generation and ranked corresponding to the radical power. The transformation of the FR properties of three formulations to skin is measured by the radical skin status factor (RSF) method. It shows that the higher the radical power (RP) is, the lower the radical status RSF of skin will be. The knowledge of the sensitivity of cosmetics to generate FRs is necessary for its stabilization and prevention of potential damages to skin. It is a new way in development of cosmetics which has to be considered. © 2015 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  11. Factor value determination and applicability evaluation of universal soil loss equation in granite gneiss region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-hai Zhang

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Six types of runoff plots were set up and an experimental study was carried out to examine natural rate of soil and water loss in the granite gneiss region of northern Jiangsu Province in China. Through correlation analysis of runoff and soil loss during 364 rainfall events, a simplified and convenient mathematical formula suitable for calculating the rainfall erosivity factor (R for the local region was established. Other factors of the universal soil loss equation (USLE model were also determined. Relative error analysis of the soil loss of various plots calculated by the USLE model on the basis of the observed values showed that the relative error ranged from -3.5% to 9.9% and the confidence level was more than 90%. In addition, the relative error was 5.64% for the terraced field and 12.36% for the sloping field in the practical application. Thus, the confidence level was above 87.64%. These results provide a scientific basis for forecasting and monitoring soil and water loss, for comprehensive management of small watersheds, and for soil and water conservation planning in the region.

  12. Evaluating the Influence of Nutrition Determinants on Construction Workers' Food Choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okoro, Chioma Sylvia; Musonda, Innocent; Agumba, Justus

    2017-11-01

    Nutritional knowledge as well as economic, social, biological, and cultural factors have been known to determine an individual's food choices. Despite the existence of research on the factors which influence nutrition globally, there is little known about the extent to which these factors influence the food choices of construction workers, which in turn influence their health and safety during construction activities. The present article investigates the extent to which construction workers' nutrition is influenced by nutritional knowledge, as well as economic, environmental, social, psychological, and physiological factors. A field questionnaire survey was conducted on site construction workers in the Gauteng Province of South Africa. Principal components analysis and multiple regression analysis were used to analyze the data. Findings revealed that consumption of foods termed alternative foods including dairy products, eggs, nuts, fish, and cereals, was influenced by nutritional knowledge and resources. Foods termed traditional core foods were influenced by cultural background; foods termed secondary core foods comprising fruits and vegetables were influenced by economic factors, resources, and cultural background; while foods termed core foods were mostly influenced by nutritional knowledge. By providing evidence of the factors which most influence selection and consumption of certain foods by construction workers, relevant nutrition interventions will be designed and implemented, taking cognizance of these factors.

  13. Comparative evaluation of two radioenzymatic procedures designed to determine noradrenaline in the plasma (COMT assay and PNMT assay)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barth, A.

    1984-01-01

    A comparative evaluation of two radioenzymatic procedures to determine the concentration of noradrenaline in the plasma - with linearity, sensitivity, specifity and accuracy serving as test criteria - led to the following results: In view of a probability of error in the order of 2% both methods were judged to show a satisfactory sensitivity. The specific of the COMT assay, by contrast with that of the PNMT assay, was found to be wanting, as the noradrenaline measurements in the presence of other biogenic amines were biassed in such a way that the values determined were higher than the actual concentrations. During antihypertensive treatment even minimal changes in the noradrenaline concentration can be ascertained on a quantitative basis. If suitable hardware is available, the COMT assay permits up to 25 single determinations to be carried out per day, while the number of double determinations is restricted to 7 per day. One advantage, however, lies in the fact that several catecholamines in the plasma can be detected simultaneously, if required. In cases where the noradrenaline concentration alone is to be determined for clinical purposes, preference should be given to the PNMT assay, as both tests showed equal linearity and sensitivity. (TRV) [de

  14. Comparison and evaluation of methods for the determination of flammability limits, applied to methane/hydrogen/air mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoor, F. van den; Hermanns, R.T.E.; Oijen, J.A. van; Verplaetsen, F.; Goey, L.P.H. de

    2008-01-01

    Different methods, both experimental and numerical, to determine the flammability limits are compared and evaluated, exemplified by a determination of the flammability limits of methane/hydrogen/air mixtures for hydrogen fuel molar fractions of 0, 0.2, 0.4 and 0.6, at atmospheric pressure and ambient temperature. Two different experimental methods are used. The first method uses a glass tube with visual observation of the flame, whereas the second method uses a closed spherical vessel with a pressure rise criterion to determine whether flame propagation has occurred. In addition to these experiments, the flammability limits are determined numerically. Unsteady planar and spherically expanding flames are calculated with a one-dimensional flame code with the inclusion of radiation heat loss in the optically thin limit. Comparison of the experimental results with the results of the planar flame calculations shows large differences, especially for lean mixtures. These differences increase with increasing hydrogen content in the fuel. Better agreement with the experimental results is found for the spherically expanding flame calculations. A limiting burning velocity of 5 cm/s is found to predict the upper flammability limit determined with the tube method very well, whereas the limiting flame temperature approach was found to give poorer agreement. Further analysis indicates that the neglect of flame front instabilities is the probable cause of the large differences between experimental and numerical results at the lower flammability limit

  15. [Evaluation of uncertainty for determination of tin and its compounds in air of workplace by flame atomic absorption spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Qiuning; Wei, Yuan; Liu, Fangfang; Ding, Yalei

    2015-10-01

    To investigate the method for uncertainty evaluation of determination of tin and its compounds in the air of workplace by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The national occupational health standards, GBZ/T160.28-2004 and JJF1059-1999, were used to build a mathematical model of determination of tin and its compounds in the air of workplace and to calculate the components of uncertainty. In determination of tin and its compounds in the air of workplace using flame atomic absorption spectrometry, the uncertainty for the concentration of the standard solution, atomic absorption spectrophotometer, sample digestion, parallel determination, least square fitting of the calibration curve, and sample collection was 0.436%, 0.13%, 1.07%, 1.65%, 3.05%, and 2.89%, respectively. The combined uncertainty was 9.3%.The concentration of tin in the test sample was 0.132 mg/m³, and the expanded uncertainty for the measurement was 0.012 mg/m³ (K=2). The dominant uncertainty for determination of tin and its compounds in the air of workplace comes from least squares fitting of the calibration curve and sample collection. Quality control should be improved in the process of calibration curve fitting and sample collection.

  16. Analysis of the public debate on health hazards due to high-voltage transmission lines. Recommendations for the radiation protection related communication with respect of grid extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, Florian; Kuehne, Olaf; Jenal, Corinna; Sanio, Tina; Langer, Kerstin; Igel, Michael

    2016-01-01

    highlights the decisive role played by different social systems and their specific logics in any evaluative judgment. While industry and politics argue from the technological and economic need for new long-distance power lines, and urge this as the basis for their legitimacy, citizens' initiatives base their objections on emotional and aesthetic grounds, rejecting the change to their domestic and social environment as a looming threat, with all its negative connotations. Plans are regularly criticized for their impact on landscape, nature conservation, local economies, tourism, and health. Citizens' initiatives almost unanimously cite health risks and fears in connection with electro/magnetic fields, while the advocates of grid extension - the Federal Network Agency and transmission system operators - take a variety of approaches to this matter. The Federal Network Agency generally marginalizes health issues, and does so in specialist language, or in terms that demand in-depth study. On the other hand Amprion GmbH, as one of the operators, uses language that is readily accessible to laypeople, and its explanations leave less room for doubt than do those of the Federal Network Agency. Amprion argues that it can fulfill its task within the existing legislative framework. Nevertheless, health issues are not the company's main concern. TenneT TSO GmbH takes a more comprehensive approach, and its statements are more readily understandable, even though they also tend to use specialist language, citing scientific studies and generally softening risk. Sound scientific results are so far notably lacking, but improved communication of the known pros and cons of this technology is also urgently required. Another consistent factor is the problematic light in which previous grid extension plans and implementation processes are typically set, and the massive civic protests to which this has at various times given rise. Transmission system operators should have learnt by now

  17. Determining suitable dimensions for dairy goat feeding places by evaluating body posture and feeding reach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keil, Nina M; Pommereau, Marc; Patt, Antonia; Wechsler, Beat; Gygax, Lorenz

    2017-02-01

    Confined goats spend a substantial part of the day feeding. A poorly designed feeding place increases the risk of feeding in nonphysiological body postures, and even injury. Scientifically validated information on suitable dimensions of feeding places for loose-housed goats is almost absent from the literature. The aim of the present study was, therefore, to determine feeding place dimensions that would allow goats to feed in a species-appropriate, relaxed body posture. A total of 27 goats with a height at the withers of 62 to 80 cm were included in the study. Goats were tested individually in an experimental feeding stall that allowed the height difference between the feed table, the standing area of the forelegs, and a feeding area step (difference in height between forelegs and hind legs) to be varied. The goats accessed the feed table via a palisade feeding barrier. The feed table was equipped with recesses at varying distances to the feeding barrier (5-55 cm in 5-cm steps) at angles of 30°, 60°, 90°, 120°, or 150° (feeding angle), which were filled with the goats' preferred food. In 18 trials, balanced for order across animals, each animal underwent all possible combinations of feeding area step (3 levels: 0, 10, and 20 cm) and of difference in height between feed table and standing area of forelegs (6 levels: 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 cm). The minimum and maximum reach at which the animals could reach feed on the table with a relaxed body posture was determined for each combination. Statistical analysis was performed using mixed-effects models. The animals were able to feed with a relaxed posture when the feed table was at least 10 cm higher than the standing height of the goats' forelegs. Larger goats achieved smaller minimum reaches and minimum reach increased if the goats' head and neck were angled. Maximum reach increased with increasing height at withers and height of the feed table. The presence of a feeding area step had no influence on minimum and

  18. Evaluation of pre transplant T-cell activation status by soluble CD 30 determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Khawar; Muzaffar, Rana; Zafar, Mirza Naqi; Mubarak, Muhammad; Naqvi, Syed Ali Anwar; Rizvi, Syed Adibul Hassan

    2009-04-01

    To evaluate the utility of serum CD30 (sCD30) levels as predictor of early acute graft rejection in live related renal transplant programme. This prospective study included 50 consecutive renal transplant recipients who received their first live related renal allograft at the Sindh Institute of Urology and Transplantation (SIUT) between October 2006 and March 2007. Blood samples were obtained one day before transplantation and on the third and fourteenth posttransplant days. Blood samples were also obtained from 50, age and sex matched healthy control individuals. Levels of serum sCD30 were measured by Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). Donor-recipient blood group matching was identical in all patients. Pre-transplant lymphocyte crossmatch for T and B cells was negative, and panel reactive antibodies (PRA) were 0% for all recipients. The mean age of recipients was 31.6 +/- 10.23 years (range 5 to 55 years), while mean donor age was 32.74 +/- 8.48 years (range 21-50 years). Eleven (22%) recipients and donors were HLA identical while remaining (78%) were one haplotype match. Average serum sCD30 pre-transplant levels (37.8 +/- 4.97U/ml) were significantly higher than those of healthy individual's mean value of 8.48 +/- 4.97 U/ml, (P = 0.001). Eight (16%) patients developed acute rejection episode during this follow up period. Rejections were described and classified according to BANFF 97 classification. In this small single center study the serum levels of sCD30 did not show any significant difference between rejection and non rejection group in our transplant population.

  19. Determination of ventilatory liver movement via radiographic evaluation of diaphragm position

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balter, James M.; Dawson, Laura A.; Kazanjian, Sahira; McGinn, Cornelius; Brock, Kristy K.; Lawrence, Theodore; Haken, Randall ten

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the accuracy of estimation of liver movement inferred by observing diaphragm excursion on radiographic images. Methods and Materials: Eight patients with focal liver cancer had platinum embolization microcoils implanted in their livers during catheterization of the hepatic artery for delivery of regional chemotherapy. These patients underwent fluoroscopy, during which normal breathing movement was recorded on videotape. Movies of breathing movement were digitized, and the relative projected positions of the diaphragm and coils were recorded. For 6 patients, daily radiographs were also acquired during treatment. Retrospective measurements of coil position were taken after the diaphragm was aligned with the superior portion of the liver on digitally reconstructed radiographs. Results: Coil movement of 4.9 to 30.4 mm was observed during normal breathing. Diaphragm position tracked inferior-superior coil displacement accurately (population σ 1.04 mm) throughout the breathing cycle. The range of coil movement was predicted by the range of diaphragm movement with an accuracy of 2.09 mm (σ). The maximum error observed measuring coil movement using diaphragm position was 3.8 mm for a coil 9.8 cm inferior to the diaphragm. However, the distance of the coil from the top of the diaphragm did not correlate significantly with the error in predicting liver excursion. Analysis of daily radiographs showed that the error in predicting coil position using the diaphragm as an alignment landmark was 1.8 mm (σ) in the inferior-superior direction and 2.2 mm in the left-right direction, similar in magnitude to the inherent uncertainty in alignment. Conclusions: This study demonstrated that the range of ventilatory movement of different locations within the liver is predicted by diaphragm position to an accuracy that matches or exceeds existing systems for ventilatory tracking. This suggests that the diaphragm is an acceptable anatomic landmark for radiographic

  20. Evaluation of chosen determinants of the positive practice environments (PPE at Polish nursing wards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Kilańska

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: At many Polish hospitals, insufficient attention is given to positive work environment. In many cases nurses, similarly to the representatives of other professional groups, are not provided with facilities or tools to perform their professional tasks in safe conditions. The aspects of recruitment and retention of employees are often ignored. The aim of this study has been to assess the chosen determinants of work environment of nurses in Poland using the concept of the Positive Practice Environments (PPE. Material and Methods: The survey was carried out from 2008 to 2011 among 1049 nursing students of 3 randomly selected public medical universities that provided nursing education at the graduate level of the Master of Science. All the people qualified for the study group were practising nurses or midwives. The Polish Nursing Association coordinated the project, obtained the tool, translated it and adjusted it to the Polish conditions. The areas covered in the survey were: a place of employment, selected physical and social elements influencing the work conditions, and biographical information. Results: Access to as many as 8 factors identified as attributes of friendly environments was found unsatisfactory by over 50% of the nurses. For the purpose of objective assessment, the results were compared with the results obtained in the group of nurses in England. Conclusions: The majority of the surveyed nurses were not satisfied with their work environments. Polish nurse managers should ensure that aspects of recognized attributes of friendly, positive practice environments for nurses are established to support nurses’ satisfaction as a pre-condition for patients’ safety. Med Pr 2016;67(1:11–19

  1. Power of isotopic fine structure for unambiguous determination of metabolite elemental compositions: In silico evaluation and metabolomic application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagao, Tatsuhiko; Yukihira, Daichi; Fujimura, Yoshinori; Saito, Kazunori; Takahashi, Katsutoshi; Miura, Daisuke; Wariishi, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • We developed a method to determine elemental composition of metabolites. • The method was based on mass spectral data and empirical constraints. • In the validation study, the method succeeded for 70% of detected peaks. - Abstract: In mass spectrometry (MS)-based metabolomics studies, reference-free identification of metabolites is still a challenging issue. Previously, we demonstrated that the elemental composition (EC) of metabolites could be unambiguously determined using isotopic fine structure, observed by ultrahigh resolution MS, which provided the relative isotopic abundance (RIA) of 13 C, 15 N, 18 O, and 34 S. Herein, we evaluated the efficacy of the RIA for determining ECs based on the MS peaks of 20,258 known metabolites. The metabolites were simulated with a ≤25% error in the isotopic peak area to investigate how the error size effect affected the rate of unambiguous determination of the ECs. The simulation indicated that, in combination with reported constraint rules, the RIA led to unambiguous determination of the ECs for more than 90% of the tested metabolites. It was noteworthy that, in positive ion mode, the process could distinguish alkali metal-adduct ions ([M + Na] + and [M + K] + ). However, a significant degradation of the EC determination performance was observed when the method was applied to real metabolomic data (mouse liver extracts analyzed by infusion ESI), because of the influence of noise and bias on the RIA. To achieve ideal performance, as indicated in the simulation, we developed an additional method to compensate for bias on the measured ion intensities. The method improved the performance of the calculation, permitting determination of ECs for 72% of the observed peaks. The proposed method is considered a useful starting point for high-throughput identification of metabolites in metabolomic research

  2. Determination of total arsenic in fish by hydride-generation atomic absorption spectrometry: method validation, traceability and uncertainty evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugraha, W. C.; Elishian, C.; Ketrin, R.

    2017-03-01

    Fish containing arsenic compound is one of the important indicators of arsenic contamination in water monitoring. The high level of arsenic in fish is due to absorption through food chain and accumulated in their habitat. Hydride generation (HG) coupled with atomic absorption spectrometric (AAS) detection is one of the most popular techniques employed for arsenic determination in a variety of matrices including fish. This study aimed to develop a method for the determination of total arsenic in fish by HG-AAS. The method for sample preparation from American of Analytical Chemistry (AOAC) Method 999.10-2005 was adopted for acid digestion using microwave digestion system and AOAC Method 986.15 - 2005 for dry ashing. The method was developed and validated using Certified Reference Material DORM 3 Fish Protein for trace metals for ensuring the accuracy and the traceability of the results. The sources of uncertainty of the method were also evaluated. By using the method, it was found that the total arsenic concentration in the fish was 45.6 ± 1.22 mg.Kg-1 with a coverage factor of equal to 2 at 95% of confidence level. Evaluation of uncertainty was highly influenced by the calibration curve. This result was also traceable to International Standard System through analysis of Certified Reference Material DORM 3 with 97.5% of recovery. In summary, it showed that method of preparation and HG-AAS technique for total arsenic determination in fish were valid and reliable.

  3. Establishment and evaluation of sex determination method from 12 th thoracic vertebrae based on three-dimensional reconstructed models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Ming; Hou Weibin; Jing Yue; Li Youqiong; Zhou Jianying

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To establish the method of using the 12 th vertebrae for sex determination of adult Chinese and evaluate its effect. Methods: The 12 th thoracic vertebrae were developed by the clinic abdomen CT images. A total of 25 linear measurements on 7 aspects of the vertebrae were measured and 4 ratios were calculated. The items were selected which had the significant difference to establish the sex determination equation and its effect was evaluated. Results: Of the total 29 traits, 27 were sexually dimorphic (P<0.05), the accuracy was 56.3% - 89.2%, 8 traits had the accuracies mean or over 80.0%. The trait iVL had the highest accuracy of 89.2%. A function with four variables predicting sex with 90.8% accuracy was derived by using stepwise method of discriminant function analysis: Y=2.98 x iBDsm + 1.97 x PH + 3.37 x BHp + 3.27 x sVL/BHa - 32.80 (mean centroids= -7.69). Conclusion: The method of using the selected traits for sex determination of adult Chinese is practicable and it has a relatively high accuracy. (authors)

  4. [Clinical usefulness of the determination of fibroblast growth factor 23 in the evaluation of patients with osteomalacia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gifre, Laia; Martínez de Osaba, Maria Jesús; Monegal, Ana; Guañabens, Núria; Peris, Pilar

    2014-05-20

    The aim of the present study was to analyze the usefulness of the determination of fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), a regulatory hormone of phosphate metabolism, in the evaluation of patients with osteomalacia of different causes. Seventeen patients with osteomalacia were included: 12 hypophosphatemic osteomalacia (by several causes), 4 vitamin D-deficiency osteomalacia and one with hypophosphatasia. Plasma C-terminal FGF23 was determined in all patients. FGF23 levels were increased in 6/12 (50%) of patients with hypophosphatemic osteomalacia (2 X-linked, one autosomal dominant, one related HIV therapy and 2 not elucidated). No patient with vitamin D-deficiency osteomalacia or hypophosphatasia presented increased FGF23 levels. The determination of FGF23 could be useful in the evaluation of the different types of hypophosphatemic osteomalacia and also in the identification of their associated etiopathogenic mechanisms. Thus, depending on the cause, 50% of the patients with hypophosphatemic osteomalacia showed increased FGF23 values, whereas in vitamin D-deficiency osteomalacia and in hypophosphatasia FGF23 levels were normal. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  5. Prevalence of dental disorders in degus and evaluation of diagnostic methods to determine dental disease and its prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Bolhuis, Hester; van Hoffen, Lotte; van Zijll Langhout, Martine; van Engeldorp Gastelaars, Heleen; Hendriks, Wouter; Lamberts, Marnix; Kik, Marja

    2017-12-01

    Degus ( Octodon degus ) are prone to develop dental disease with deleterious health effects. The two studies reported here aimed to determine the prevalence of dental disorders in degus and to identify and evaluate diagnostic tools for determination of prognosis of these disorders. In study A, health data from 225 degus at AAP, Rescue Center for Exotic Animals in the Netherlands, were collated and the prevalence of dental disorders and differences in sex and age at clinical onset of symptoms associated with dental disorders were described. The prevalence was 34.7 per cent and higher (P<0.01) in males than in females. The occurrence of cheek teeth malocclusion was highly positively (P<0.0001) correlated to mortality. In study B, 36 skulls were examined by macroscopic evaluation, radiography and histology. Additionally, the calcium:phosphorus (Ca:P) of mandibular bone in degus with and without dental disorders were determined. There was no significant (P=0.10) difference in Ca:P between the two groups. Quantifying mandibular apical cheek teeth elongation via macroscopic evaluation was highly correlated (P<0.01) to the results obtained via radiography. Examination for apical elongation by palpation and diagnostic imaging should be included in routine health monitoring of degus. Apical elongation appeared to develop before coronal elongation and when cheek teeth malocclusion occurred, prognosis for recovery of dental disease was poor. © British Veterinary Association (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  6. Determination of reliable force platform parameters and number of trial to evaluate sit-to-stand movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chorin, Frédéric; Rahmani, Abderrahmane; Beaune, Bruno; Cornu, Christophe

    2015-08-01

    Sit-to-stand (STS) movement is useful for evaluating lower limb muscle function, especially from force platforms. Nevertheless, due to a lack of standardization of the STS movement (e.g., position, subject's instructions, etc.), it is difficult to compare results obtained in previous studies. The aim of the present study was to determine the most relevant condition, parameters, and number of trial to perform STS movements. In this study, STS mechanical (maximal and mean force, impulse) and temporal parameters were measured in the vertical, medio-lateral and antero-posterior axes using a force platform. Five STS conditions (i.e., with or without armrests, variation of the height of the chair and the movement speed) were analyzed to evaluate repeatability of different standardized procedures. Most of the mechanical and temporal parameters were influenced by the STS condition (p movement.

  7. INAA for the determination of trace elements and evaluation of their enrichment factors in lichens of high altitude areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergamaschi, L.; Rizzio, E.; Giaveri, G.; Profumo, A.; Gallorini, M.; Giordani, L.

    2005-01-01

    Trace element (TE) characterization and analysis in epiphytic lichens collected in different areas of the Himalayas (Nepal) and of the Alps (Italy) is presented. The results give information for the assessment of TE distribution present in the two different areas. The evaluation of the enrichment factors may provide information for many elements about their association to long-distance atmospheric transport phenomena. To this purpose, samples of superficial soils, collected in the same areas of those of the lichens, have also been analyzed. Most of the trace elements were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), while lead and cadmium measurements were carried out with electrothermal atomic absorption spectroscopy (ET-AAS). (author)

  8. Evaluation of enhanced chemiluminescence enzymeimmunoassay(CLEIA) in the determination of thyrotropin(TSH) using amerlite system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Chae H.; Kim, Hwan k.; Kim, Jin Gyu

    1989-01-01

    The determination of thyrotropin(TSH) is useful in diagnosis of thyroid diseases. And the widely-used method for the determination of thyrotropin is radioimmunoassay so far because of its sensitivity. But its radiohazard and relatively short half-life of isotopes necessitates alternative methods. So many novel non-isotopic immunoassays are developed and now replacing RIA in routine laboratory measurements. We evaluated the enhanced chemiluminescence enzymeimmunoassay (Amerlite, Amersham International plc., U.K.) for the determination of serum TSH. We got good precision result with control sera. Within-assay and between-assay precision revealed less than 10%(C.V.) respectively. And comparision with CLEIA to RIA showed good correlation (y=0.648x + 0.170, r=0.978, y=value of CLEIA, x=values of RIA, n=35). We also got good correlation between singletons and duplicates result from 35 patients sera (y=0.967x + 0.0281, r=0.997, y=values of singletons, x=values of duplicates). We concluded that CLEIA is vary reliable and economic method for the determination of human TSH substitutive for RIA because of its precision and unnecessary duplicate measurements. (Author)

  9. Evaluation of Factors Influencing Lab-Scale Studies to Determine Heavy Metal Removal by Six Sorbents for Stormwater Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximilian Huber

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available For the development of decentralized treatment systems for road runoff, the determination of pollutant removal capacities is essential. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of boundary conditions on the simultaneous removal of copper, nickel, and zinc by six sorbents used for urban stormwater treatment (i.e., granular activated alumina, anthracite, granular reactivated carbon, granular ferric hydroxide, calcium carbonate, and granular activated lignite. For batch experiments, capacities were determined at initial concentrations within the range of 2.5–180 mg/L with a rotary shaker. Further influences were investigated: the use of a horizontal shaker for concentrations of up to 1080 mg/L, a variation of the initial pH value (5 and 7, and the presence of a buffer. Furthermore, the influences of the filtration process on the capacities were studied. Kinetic experiments were conducted for contact times between 5 min and 120 min. Lab-scale column experiments with inflow concentrations of 2.5 mg/L (copper and nickel and 5.0 mg/L (zinc at an initial pH of 5 and a contact time of 11 min were performed for comparison. Selected experiments were subsequently carried out with changes in initial concentrations and contact time. One result is that it is essential to conduct batch experiments with the metals of interest. The capacities determined by column experiments deviated from batch experiments. Batch experiments under well-defined conditions can be used to evaluate different production batches. Column experiments give a more faithful capacity by considering realistic boundary conditions and should be preferred to determine efficiencies and service lives.

  10. Validity of proxies and correction for proxy use when evaluating social determinants of health in stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skolarus, Lesli E; Sánchez, Brisa N; Morgenstern, Lewis B; Garcia, Nelda M; Smith, Melinda A; Brown, Devin L; Lisabeth, Lynda D

    2010-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate stroke patient-proxy agreement with respect to social determinants of health, including depression, optimism, and spirituality, and to explore approaches to minimize proxy-introduced bias. Stroke patient-proxy pairs from the Brain Attack Surveillance in Corpus Christi Project were interviewed (n=34). Evaluation of agreement between patient-proxy pairs included calculation of intraclass correlation coefficients, linear regression models (ProxyResponse=alpha(0)+alpha(1)PatientResponse+delta, where alpha(0)=0 and alpha(1)=1 denotes no bias) and kappa statistics. Bias introduced by proxies was quantified with simulation studies. In the simulated data, we applied 4 approaches to estimate regression coefficients of stroke outcome social determinants of health associations when only proxy data were available for some patients: (1) substituting proxy responses in place of patient responses; (2) including an indicator variable for proxy use; (3) using regression calibration with external validation; and (4) internal validation. Agreement was fair for depression (intraclass correlation coefficient, 0.41) and optimism (intraclass correlation coefficient, 0.48) and moderate for spirituality (kappa, 0.48 to 0.53). Responses of proxies were a biased measure of the patients' responses for depression, with alpha(0)=4.88 (CI, 2.24 to 7.52) and alpha(1)=0.39 (CI, 0.09 to 0.69), and for optimism, with alpha(0)=3.82 (CI, -1.04 to 8.69) and alpha(1)=0.81 (CI, 0.41 to 1.22). Regression calibration with internal validation was the most accurate method to correct for proxy-induced bias. Fair/moderate patient-proxy agreement was observed for social determinants of health. Stroke researchers who plan to study social determinants of health may consider performing validation studies so corrections for proxy use can be made.

  11. Has radiation protection become a health hazard?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rockwell, T.

    1996-01-01

    Scientists and engineers have a responsibility to speak out when their findings and recommendations lead to public harm. This can happen in several ways. One is when the media misinterpret or sensationalize a scientific fact misleading the public and creating unwarranted fear. Another is when regulations or public policy decision are purportedly based on scientific data but are, in fact, scientifically invalid. Fear of radiation has been far more detrimental to health than radiation itself. The author knows of no deaths to the public from accidental release of radiation, but the consequences of fear have been deadly

  12. Human exposure, health hazards, and environmental regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinemann, Anne

    2004-01-01

    United States environmental regulations, intended to protect human health, generally fail to address major sources of pollutants that endanger human health. These sources are surprisingly close to us and within our control, such as consumer products and building materials that we use within our homes, workplaces, schools, and other indoor environments. Even though these indoor sources account for nearly 90% of our pollutant exposure, they are virtually unregulated by existing laws. Even pollutant levels found in typical homes, if found outdoors, would often violate federal environmental standards. This article examines the importance of human exposure as a way to understand and reduce effects of pollutants on human health. Results from exposure studies challenge traditional thinking about pollutant hazards, and reveal deficiencies in our patchwork of laws. And results from epidemiological studies, showing increases in exposure-related diseases, underscore the need for new protections. Because we cannot rely solely on regulations to protect us, and because health effects from exposures can develop insidiously, greater efforts are needed to reduce and prevent significant exposures before they occur. Recommendations include the development and use of safer alternatives to common products, public education on ways to reduce exposure, systematic monitoring of human exposure to pollutants, and a precautionary approach in decision-making

  13. Natural radioactivity inside rooms - a health hazard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiter, R.

    1984-01-01

    In continuation of an article published in the previous issue, results of radon measurements in closed rooms are presented as well as some daily curves of radon concentrations. Radium concentrations were measured in the most relevant building materials. The findings are discussed under the aspect of radiation exposure. The results of studies on health, genetic effects and mortality rates of exposed families are presented along with a short bibliography. (MG) [de

  14. Health hazards of environmental cadmium pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordberg, G F

    1974-01-01

    Cadmium, a metal widely used in industrial processes, has been recognized to be a highly toxic and dangerous environmental pollutant. In this study the author describes the sources and occurrence of cadmium, and the intake by human beings. He states that present standards for daily intake do not allow sufficient safety margins. The fate and known effects of cadmium in human beings are summarized; some effects associated with cadmium are renal (kidney) damage, anemia, hypertension, and liver damage. Cadmium was identified as the main cause of the Itai-Itai disease in Japan, and epidemiological studies from various areas of Japan are presented. 64 references, 9 figures, 5 tables.

  15. Environment, pollution and growing health hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehmud, S.

    1987-01-01

    The atmosphere surround the planet like a mantle and compositions of atmosphere also changes. The role of high concentration in the stratosphere is vital in as much as it act as a very effective filter for absorbing ultraviolet rays. Different type of wastes that is industrial waste, domestic waste, etc. are being mixed in the environment. The procedure for monitoring pollution in the atmosphere involves the use of a laser radar (LIDAR). Laser beam is sent out in the atmosphere and point of the laser beam back-scattered by the pollutants. Aerosols to the laser radar which receives and processes it with the help of a high speed digital computer. (A.B.)

  16. Possible Health Hazards from Genetically Engineered Crops ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paradox of Genetic Engineering of crops is evident from the unending revolution in the seeding and growth of new multibillion naira industries while it also poses the greatest hazards to life on the planet Earth. Recombination DNA technology is used to insert, delete, transpose and substitute new genes in plants that ...

  17. ACADEMIC MOBBING: HIDDEN HEALTH HAZARD AT WORKPLACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KHOO SB

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Academic mobbing is a non-violent, sophisticated, ‘ganging up’ behaviour adopted by academicians to “wear and tear” a colleague down emotionally through unjustified accusation, humiliation, general harassment and emotional abuse. These are directed at the target under a veil of lies and justifications so that they are “hidden” to others and difficult to prove. Bullies use mobbing activities to hide their own weaknesses and incompetence. Targets selected are often intelligent, innovative high achievers, with good integrity and principles. Mobbing activities appear trivial and innocuous on its own but the frequency and pattern of their occurrence over long period of time indicates an aggressive manipulation to “eliminate” the target. Mobbing activities typically progress through five stereotypical phases that begins with an unsolved minor conflict between two workers and ultimately escalates into a senseless mobbing whereby the target is stigmatized and victimized to justify the behaviours of the bullies. The result is always physical, mental, social distress or illness and, most often, expulsion of target from the workplace. Organizations are subjected to great financial loss, loss of key workers and a tarnished public image and reputation. Public awareness, education, effective counselling, establishment of anti-bullying policies and legislations at all levels are necessary to curb academic mobbing. General practitioners (GPs play an important role in supporting patients subjected to mental and physical health injury caused by workplace bullying and mobbing.

  18. Low Wages as Occupational Health Hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leigh, J Paul; De Vogli, Roberto

    2016-05-01

    The history of occupational medicine has been characterized by ever-widening recognition of hazards, from fires in 1911 to asbestos in the 1960s, to job strain in the 1990s. In this essay, we argue for broadening the recognition further to include low wages. We first review possible mechanisms explaining the effects of wages on health or health behaviors. Mechanisms involve self-esteem, job satisfaction, deprivation, social rank, the "full" price of bad health, patience, and the ability to purchase health-producing goods and services. Second, we discuss empirical studies that rely on large, typically national, data sets and statistical models that use either instrumental variables or natural experiments and also account for other family income. Finally, we draw implications for laws governing minimum wages and labor unions.

  19. The health hazards of not going nuclear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yaffe, L.

    1979-01-01

    The author argues that the potential danger of nuclear energy has been overemphasized in comparison with actual accidents and diseases caused by conventional sources of energy. He adduces some examples of tanker explosions and gas explosions, dam failures, and statistics of black lung disease. Radioactive and other undesirable substances in the smoke from burning coal are mentioned. Illustrations are given of the insignificance of radiation doses to the general public from the operation of nuclear power stations. Some facts and figures on oil an coal reserves are taken to show the need for nuclear energy. (N.D.H.)

  20. Potential health hazards of radiation. Fact Sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    During World War II and the Cold War, the federal government developed and operated industrial facilities for the research, production, and testing of nuclear weapons, as well as other scientific and engineering research. These processes left a legacy of radioactive and chemical waste, environmental contamination, and hazardous facilities and materials at well over 100 sites. Some of these sites processed uranium and vanadium, and upon closure, left behind millions of cubic yards of mill tailings on the sites and throughout the nearby communities. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) administers the cleanup of these areas to minimize the risks to the public and environment from exposure to the tailings and the radon gas they produce

  1. Antibiotic Residues - A Global Health Hazard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisha A.R.

    Full Text Available Use of Antibiotic that might result in deposition of residues in meat, milk and eggs must not be permitted in food intended for human consumption. If use of antibiotics is necessary as in prevention and treatment of animal diseases, a withholding period must be observed until the residues are negligible or no longer detected. The use of antibiotics to bring about improved performance in growth and feed efficiency, to synchronize or control of reproductive cycle and breeding performance also often lead to harmful residual effects. Concern over antibiotic residues in food of animal origin occurs in two times; one which produces potential threat to direct toxicity in human, second is whether the low levels of antibiotic exposure would result in alteration of microflora, cause disease and the possible development of resistant strains which cause failure of antibiotic therapy in clinical situations. A withdrawal period is established to safeguard human from exposure of antibiotic added food. The withdrawal time is the time required for the residue of toxicological concern to reach safe concentration as defined by tolerance. It is the interval from the time an animal is removed from medication until permitted time of slaughter. Heavy responsibility is placed on the veterinarian and livestock producer to observe the period for a withdrawal of a drug prior to slaughter to assure that illegal concentration of drug residue in meat, milk and egg do not occur. Use of food additives may improve feed efficiency 17% in beef cattle, 10% in lambs, 15% in poultry and 15% in swine. But their indiscriminate use will produce toxicity in consumers. WHO and FAO establish tolerances for a drug, pesticide or other chemical in the relevant tissues of food producing animals. The tolerance is the tissue concentration below, which a marker residue for the drug or chemical must fall in the target tissue before that animal edible tissues are considered safe for human consumption. Tolerances are established based on extensive toxicological studies of potential hazards of consumption to human. [Vet. World 2008; 1(12.000: 375-377

  2. Teenage pregnancy: A socially inflicted health hazard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banerjee Bratati

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Early marriage and confinement are contributing factors to high maternal and perinatal mortality and morbidity. Objective: To assess the magnitude of the problem of teenage pregnancy and its complications. Materials and Methods: A hospital-based cohort study was undertaken over 4 months among women admitted to a rural hospital in West Bengal. The study cohort comprised of teenage mothers between 15-19 years old and a control cohort of mothers between 20-24 years old. Data included demographic variables, available medical records, and complications viz. anemia, preterm delivery, and low birth weight. Anemia was defined as a hemoglobin level below 10 gm% during the last trimester of pregnancy, preterm delivery was defined as occurring within 37 weeks of gestation, and low birth weight was defined as babies weighing less than 2500 grams at birth. Result: Teenage pregnancy comprised 24.17% of total pregnancies occurring in the hospital during the study period. The study group had 58 subjects and the control group had 91 subjects. The prevalence of anemia was significantly higher ( P < 0.05 in the women in the teenage group (62.96% than in the women in the control group (43.59%. However, severe anemia with a hemoglobin level below 8 gm% was only found in the control group. Preterm delivery occurred significantly more ( P < 0.001 in the study group (51.72% than in the control group (25.88%. The incidence of low birth weight was significantly higher ( P < 0.0001 among the group of teenagers (65.52% than among the women in the control group (26.37%. Not a single newborn was above 3 kg in the study group, while none were below 1.5 kg in the control group. The mean birth weight was 2.36 kg in the study group and 2.74 kg in the control group; the difference was strongly significant ( P < 0.001. Conclusion: The study shows that anemia, preterm delivery, and low birth weight were more prevalent among teenagers than among women who were 20-24 years old. This indicates the need for enhancing family welfare measures to delay the age at first pregnancy, thereby reducing the multiple complications that may occur in the young mother and her newborn baby.

  3. Academic mobbing: hidden health hazard at workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoo, Sb

    2010-01-01

    Academic mobbing is a non-violent, sophisticated, 'ganging up' behaviour adopted by academicians to "wear and tear" a colleague down emotionally through unjustified accusation, humiliation, general harassment and emotional abuse. These are directed at the target under a veil of lies and justifications so that they are "hidden" to others and difficult to prove. Bullies use mobbing activities to hide their own weaknesses and incompetence. Targets selected are often intelligent, innovative high achievers, with good integrity and principles. Mobbing activities appear trivial and innocuous on its own but the frequency and pattern of their occurrence over long period of time indicates an aggressive manipulation to "eliminate" the target. Mobbing activities typically progress through five stereotypical phases that begins with an unsolved minor conflict between two workers and ultimately escalates into a senseless mobbing whereby the target is stigmatized and victimized to justify the behaviours of the bullies. The result is always physical, mental, social distress or illness and, most often, expulsion of target from the workplace. Organizations are subjected to great financial loss, loss of key workers and a tarnished public image and reputation. Public awareness, education, effective counselling, establishment of anti-bullying policies and legislations at all levels are necessary to curb academic mobbing. General practitioners (GPs) play an important role in supporting patients subjected to mental and physical health injury caused by workplace bullying and mobbing.

  4. Health Hazards of Xylene: A Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    T. Rajan, Sharada; Malathi, N.

    2014-01-01

    Xylene, an aromatic hydrocarbon is widely used in industry and medical laboratory as a solvent. It is a flammable liquid that requires utmost care during its usage. On exposure the vapours are rapidly absorbed through the lungs and the slowly through the skin. Prolonged exposure to xylene leads to significant amount of solvent accumulation in the adipose and muscle tissue. This article reviews the various acute and chronic health effects of xylene through various routes of exposure.

  5. High Peak Power Microwaves: A Health Hazard

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-12-01

    administration of specific drugs, including beta blockers , can significantly enhance these effects, as evidenced by a lowered damage threshold exposure...impotence, hot flashes, weight gain, palpitations, sle.p disruption, muscle cramps, bladder spasms, hallucinations, salivation increased, tremors , scizurcs

  6. Health hazards to children in agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilk, V A

    1993-09-01

    Children comprise a significant portion of the agricultural workforce and are exposed to many workplace hazards, including farm machinery, pesticides, poor field sanitation, unsafe transportation, and fatigue from doing physically demanding work for long periods. Migrant farmworker children face the additional hazard of substandard or nonexistent housing in the fields. Children account for a disproportionate share of agricultural workplace fatalities and disabling injuries, with more than 300 deaths and 27,000 injuries per year. The most common cause of fatal and nonfatal injury among children in agriculture is farm machinery, with tractors accounting for the greatest number. Remedies to the problems of child labor must take into account family economics and the need for child care. Labor law reform and rigorous enforcement of existing laws and of workplace health and safety requirements are vital to better protect the children and adults working in agriculture.

  7. Consumer health hazards in international food trade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achterbosch, T.J.

    2007-01-01

    Emerging risks have been defined as potential food-borne, feed-borne, or diet-related hazards that may become a risk for human health in the future. This study disentangles how emerging risks relate to international trade. It develops a basic framework for the economic analysis of emerging risks,

  8. Validating and Determining the Weight of Items Used for Evaluating Clinical Governance Implementation Based on Analytic Hierarchy Process Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaheh Hooshmand

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background The purpose of implementing a system such as Clinical Governance (CG is to integrate, establish and globalize distinct policies in order to improve quality through increasing professional knowledge and the accountability of healthcare professional toward providing clinical excellence. Since CG is related to change, and change requires money and time, CG implementation has to be focused on priority areas that are in more dire need of change. The purpose of the present study was to validate and determine the significance of items used for evaluating CG implementation. Methods The present study was descriptive-quantitative in method and design. Items used for evaluating CG implementation were first validated by the Delphi method and then compared with one another and ranked based on the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP model. Results The items that were validated for evaluating CG implementation in Iran include performance evaluation, training and development, personnel motivation, clinical audit, clinical effectiveness, risk management, resource allocation, policies and strategies, external audit, information system management, research and development, CG structure, implementation prerequisites, the management of patients’ non-medical needs, complaints and patients’ participation in the treatment process. The most important items based on their degree of significance were training and development, performance evaluation, and risk management. The least important items included the management of patients’ non-medical needs, patients’ participation in the treatment process and research and development. Conclusion The fundamental requirements of CG implementation included having an effective policy at national level, avoiding perfectionism, using the expertise and potentials of the entire country and the coordination of this model with other models of quality improvement such as accreditation and patient safety.

  9. Validating and determining the weight of items used for evaluating clinical governance implementation based on analytic hierarchy process model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooshmand, Elaheh; Tourani, Sogand; Ravaghi, Hamid; Vafaee Najar, Ali; Meraji, Marziye; Ebrahimipour, Hossein

    2015-04-08

    The purpose of implementing a system such as Clinical Governance (CG) is to integrate, establish and globalize distinct policies in order to improve quality through increasing professional knowledge and the accountability of healthcare professional toward providing clinical excellence. Since CG is related to change, and change requires money and time, CG implementation has to be focused on priority areas that are in more dire need of change. The purpose of the present study was to validate and determine the significance of items used for evaluating CG implementation. The present study was descriptive-quantitative in method and design. Items used for evaluating CG implementation were first validated by the Delphi method and then compared with one another and ranked based on the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) model. The items that were validated for evaluating CG implementation in Iran include performance evaluation, training and development, personnel motivation, clinical audit, clinical effectiveness, risk management, resource allocation, policies and strategies, external audit, information system management, research and development, CG structure, implementation prerequisites, the management of patients' non-medical needs, complaints and patients' participation in the treatment process. The most important items based on their degree of significance were training and development, performance evaluation, and risk management. The least important items included the management of patients' non-medical needs, patients' participation in the treatment process and research and development. The fundamental requirements of CG implementation included having an effective policy at national level, avoiding perfectionism, using the expertise and potentials of the entire country and the coordination of this model with other models of quality improvement such as accreditation and patient safety. © 2015 by Kerman University of Medical Sciences.

  10. [Determination of eight pesticide residues in tea by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and its uncertainty evaluation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Beizhen; Cai, Haijiang; Song, Weihua

    2012-09-01

    A method was developed for the determination of eight pesticide residues (fipronil, imidacloprid, acetamiprid, buprofezin, triadimefon, triadimenol, profenofos, pyridaben) in tea by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The sample was extracted by accelerated solvent extraction with acetone-dichloromethane (1:1, v/v) as solvent, and the extract was then cleaned-up with a Carb/NH2 solid phase extraction (SPE) column. The separation was performed on a Hypersil Gold C, column (150 mm x 2. 1 mm, 5 microm) and with the gradient elution of acetonitrile and 0. 1% formic acid. The eight pesticides were determined in the modes of electrospray ionization (ESI) and multiple reaction monitoring (MRM). The analytes were quantified by matrix-matched internal standard method for imidacloprid and acetamiprid, by matrix-matched external standard method for the other pesticides. The calibration curves showed good linearity in 1 - 100 microg/L for fipronil, and in 5 -200 microg/L for the other pesticides. The limits of quantification (LOQs, S/N> 10) were 2 p.g/kg for fipronil and 10 microg/kg for the other pesticides. The average recoveries ranged from 75. 5% to 115.0% with the relative standard deviations of 2.7% - 7.7% at the spiked levels of 2, 5, 50 microg/kg for fipronil and 10, 50, 100 microg/kg for the other pesticides. The uncertainty evaluation for the results was carried out according to JJF 1059-1999 "Evaluation and Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement". Items constituting measurement uncertainty involved standard solution, weighing of sample, sample pre-treatment, and the measurement repeatability of the equipment were evaluated. The results showed that the measurement uncertainty is mainly due to sample pre-treatment, standard curves and measurement repeatability of the equipment. The method developed is suitable for the conformation and quantification of the pesticides in tea.

  11. Radiometric method for the determination of uranium in soil and air: single-laboratory evaluation and interlaboratory collaborative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casella, V.R.; Bishop, C.T.; Glosby, A.A.

    1980-02-01

    Results of a single-laboratory evaluation and an interlaboratory collaborative study of a method for determining uranium isotopes in soil and air samples are presented. The method is applicable to 10-gram soil samples and to both glass fiber and polystyrene (Microsorban) air filter samples. Sample decomposition is accomplished with a nitric-hydrofluoric acid dissolution. After a solvent extraction step to remove most of the iron present, the uranium is isolated by anion exchange chromatography and electrodeposition. Alpha spectrometry is used to measure the uranium isotopes. Two soil samples, a glass fiber air filter sample, and a polystyrene air filter sample were used to evaluate the method for uranium concentrations ranging from a few tenths to about one hundred disintegrations per minute per sample. Tracer recoveries for the single-laboratory evaluation averaged 78%, while the tracer recoveries for the collaborative study averaged 66%. Although the precision of the collaborative study results did not approach counting statistics errors, the measured uranium concentrations for these samples agreed to within 5% of the reference concentrations when the uranium concentration was greater than one disintegration per minute per gram of soil or one disintegration per minute per air filter

  12. Continued Evaluation of the Pulse-Echo Ultrasonic Instrument for Critical Velocity Determination during Hanford Tank Waste Transfer Operations - 12518

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denslow, Kayte M.; Bontha, Jagannadha R.; Adkins, Harold E.; Jenks, Jeromy W.J.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Schonewill, Philip P.; Hopkins, Derek F. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99354 (United States); Thien, Michael G.; Wooley, Theodore A. [Washington River Protection Solutions, Richland, Washington 99354 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The delivery of Hanford double-shell tank waste to the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) will be governed by specific Waste Acceptance Criteria that are identified in ICD 19 - Interface Control Document for Waste Feed. Waste must be certified as acceptable before it can be delivered to the WTP. The fluid transfer velocity at which solid particulate deposition occurs in waste slurry transport piping (critical velocity) is a key waste parameter that must be accurately characterized to determine if the waste is acceptable for transfer to the WTP. In 2010 Washington River Protection Solutions and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory began evaluating the ultrasonic PulseEcho instrument to accurately identify critical velocities in a horizontal slurry transport pipeline for slurries containing particles with a mean particle diameter of >50 micrometers. In 2011 the PulseEcho instrument was further evaluated to identify critical velocities for slurries containing fast-settling, high-density particles with a mean particle diameter of <15 micrometers. This two-year evaluation has demonstrated the ability of the ultrasonic PulseEcho instrument to detect the onset of critical velocity for a broad range of physical and rheological slurry properties that are likely encountered during the waste feed transfer operations between the Hanford tank farms and the WTP. (authors)

  13. Evaluation and determination of soil remediation schemes using a modified AHP model and its application in a contaminated coking plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xingang; Li, Jia; Sui, Hong; He, Lin; Cao, Xingtao; Li, Yonghong

    2018-07-05

    Soil remediation has been considered as one of the most difficult pollution treatment tasks due to its high complexity in contaminants, geological conditions, usage, urgency, etc. The diversity in remediation technologies further makes quick selection of suitable remediation schemes much tougher even the site investigation has been done. Herein, a sustainable decision support hierarchical model has been developed to select, evaluate and determine preferred soil remediation schemes comprehensively based on modified analytic hierarchy process (MAHP). This MAHP method combines competence model and the Grubbs criteria with the conventional AHP. It not only considers the competence differences among experts in group decision, but also adjusts the big deviation caused by different experts' preference through sample analysis. This conversion allows the final remediation decision more reasonable. In this model, different evaluation criteria, including economic effect, environmental effect and technological effect, are employed to evaluate the integrated performance of remediation schemes followed by a strict computation using above MAHP. To confirm the feasibility of this developed model, it has been tested by a benzene workshop contaminated site in Beijing coking plant. Beyond soil remediation, this MAHP model would also be applied in other fields referring to multi-criteria group decision making. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Evaluation of the DSC technique in the determination of the terminal temperature solubility of hydrogen in Zircaloy 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vizcaino, Pablo; Banchik, Abraham D.

    1999-01-01

    The determination of the terminal temperature solubility of hydrogen in the zirconium alloys is a matter of our interest, since the hydride precipitation in these materials make them susceptible to the delay hydrogen cracking (DHC). Nowadays efforts are directed to the determination of this parameter on irradiated materials. In this frame we have begun a program to determine these curves on irradiated zirconium alloys like Zircaloys, Zr 2.5% Nb, Zr 1% Nb, zirconium sponge and high oxygen zirconium with different microstructures using the differential scanning calorimeter technique. The earlier task that we have imposed to us is the evaluation the reproducibility of this technique and the influence of the heating and cooling rates on the results. With these objectives we have initiated this work measuring the terminal temperature solubility (TTS) in unirradiated recrystallized and cold worked Zircaloy-4. We have found that the reproducibility of the technique is good; the average values (TSSD) and (TSSP) agree within the experimental error and the dispersions are low. Variance analysis indicates that the values of TSSD and TSSP do not depend on the heating and cooling rates. Within the rank analyzed the differences in the measurements are only possible to be attributed to statistical and/or experimental errors. The obtained curves of solubility show to a good agreement with the values obtained by others authors until 200 ppm (weight) of hydrogen. Similar comparisons between precipitation curves have not been made in regard to which these values depend on the maximum temperature reached in the experience. (author)

  15. Are We Practicing What We Are Preaching? An Evaluation of Self-Determination Instructional Components in IEPs at a Midwestern High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Nancy; Stoner, Julia B.

    2017-01-01

    Promoting self-determination in students with disabilities is recognized as an integral component of education today. For most students with disabilities, self-determination should be addressed through instruction and in the Individualized Education Program (IEP). Yet, IEPs are rarely evaluated to determine if goals targeting self-determination…

  16. Methods of evaluating protective clothing relative to heat and cold stress: thermal manikin, biomedical modeling, and human testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Catherine; Blanchard, Laurie A; Cadarette, Bruce S; Endrusick, Thomas L; Xu, Xiaojiang; Berglund, Larry G; Sawka, Michael N; Hoyt, Reed W

    2011-10-01

    Personal protective equipment (PPE) refers to clothing and equipment designed to protect individuals from chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear, and explosive hazards. The materials used to provide this protection may exacerbate thermal strain by limiting heat and water vapor transfer. Any new PPE must therefore be evaluated to ensure that it poses no greater thermal strain than the current standard for the same level of hazard protection. This review describes how such evaluations are typically conducted. Comprehensive evaluation of PPE begins with a biophysical assessment of materials using a guarded hot plate to determine the thermal characteristics (thermal resistance and water vapor permeability). These characteristics are then evaluated on a thermal manikin wearing the PPE, since thermal properties may change once the materials have been constructed into a garment. These data may be used in biomedical models to predict thermal strain under a variety of environmental and work conditions. When the biophysical data indicate that the evaporative resistance (ratio of permeability to insulation) is significantly better than the current standard, the PPE is evaluated through human testing in controlled laboratory conditions appropriate for the conditions under which the PPE would be used if fielded. Data from each phase of PPE evaluation are used in predictive models to determine user guidelines, such as maximal work time, work/rest cycles, and fluid intake requirements. By considering thermal stress early in the development process, health hazards related to temperature extremes can be mitigated while maintaining or improving the effectiveness of the PPE for protection from external hazards.

  17. Development and evaluation of a gas chromatographic method for the determination of triazine herbicides in natural water samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinheimer, T.R.; Brooks, M.G.

    1984-01-01

    A multi-residue method is described for the determination of triazine herbicides in natural water samples. The technique uses solvent extraction followed by gas chromatographic separation and detection employing nitrogen-selective devices. Seven compounds can be determined simultaneously at a nominal detection limit of 0.1 ??g/L in a 1-litre sample. Three different natural water samples were used for error analysis via evaluation of recovery efficiencies and estimation of overall method precision. As an alternative to liquid-liquid partition (solvent extraction) for removal of compounds of interest from water, solid-phase extraction (SPE) techniques employing chromatographic grade silicas with chemically modified surfaces have been examined. SPE is found to provide rapid and efficient concentration with quantitative recovery of some triazine herbicides from natural water samples. Concentration factors of 500 to 1000 times are obtained readily by the SPE technique.A multi-residue method is described for the determination of triazine herbicides in natural water samples. The technique uses solvent extraction followed by gas chromatographic separation and detection employing nitrogen-selective devices. Seven compounds can be determined simultaneously at a nominal detection limit of 0. 1 mu g/L in a 1-litre sample. As an alternative to liquid-liquid partition (solvent extraction) for removal of compounds of interest from water, solid-phase extraction (SPE) techniques employing chromatographic grade silicas with chemically modified surfaces have been examined. SPE is found to provide rapid and efficient concentration with quantitative recovery of some triazine herbicides from natural water samples. Concentration factors of 500 to 1000 times are obtained readily by the SPE technique.

  18. Application and evaluation of the mass spectrometric isotope dilution technique in the determination of rare earths in geological materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moraes, N.M.P. de.

    1988-01-01

    Establishment of the experimental procedures employed in the rare earth element determination of geological samples by mass spectrometric isotope dilution analysis is discussed in the present work. The procedures involve preparation and calibration of the isotope tracers isotope dilution, dissolution in a teflon pressure vessel, chemical separation and isotope analysis using a fully automated Micromass VG ISOTOPES model 354 thermal ionization mass spectrometer. For the initial chemical separation of total rare earths the cationic resin was employed and HC1 and HNO 3 acids as eluents. In the second step rare earths elements were separated into individual (La, Ce and Nd) and subgroups (Sm-Eu-Gd, Yb-Er-Dy) fractions using the same cationic resin and α-HIBA as eluent. Nine elements La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Dy, Er and Yb are determined by this method in the ''United States Geological Survey'' (USGS) standard samples GSP-1, AGV-1 and G-2, with an overall precision of +- 1 to 2% and an accuracy of 5%. The concentration of rare earth element determined in the standard sample PCC-1 showed that the total analytical blanks are in submicrogram levels. The concentration of rare earth elements in the same USGS standard samples were also determined by Instrumental neutron activation analysis, neutron activation analysis with chemical separation before irradiation and inductively coupled argon plasma spectroscopy. The chemical procedures employed for these methods are the same as that used for mass spectrometric isotope dilution. Based on the results obtained, each method was evaluated pointing out their merits and defects. The study clearly showed that the chemical procedure employed for all these techniques was satisfactory. (author) [pt

  19. Comparative Evaluation of the Efficacy of Hand-Wrist and Cervical Vertebrae Radiography for the Determination of Skeletal Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoseini, Mohammadhashem; Zamaheni, Sara; Bashizadeh Fakhar, Hourieh; Akbari, Forough; Chalipa, Javad; Rahmati, Afsaneh

    2016-01-01

    Background Prediction of skeletal growth is necessary for growth modification and surgical orthodontic treatments and is usually done by assessing skeletal maturity indicators in hand-wrist radiographs. The use of growth stages of cervical vertebrae in lateral cephalograms has been suggested to avoid overexposure. Objectives This study seeks to assess the degree of agreement between hand-wrist and cervical vertebrae maturation stages for skeletal age determination and prediction of the peak growth spurt (PGS). Patients and Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted with 67 boys and 66 girls between 8 and 18 years of age, divided into 11 age groups; 266 hand-wrist radiographs and lateral cephalograms were obtained and analyzed. Hand-wrist maturation stages were evaluated according to the Grave and Brown, Bjork system (stages 1 - 9). The cervical vertebral maturation stage (CVMS) was determined on lateral cephalograms based on a system described by Baccetti et al. (CVMS 1-5). To apply the Cohen’s kappa index, the stages of growth were reduced to 5 intervals (A - E) to relate the 5 CVMS to the 9 stages of Bjork hand-wrist analysis. Results In all age groups, the skeletal maturity stages of the hand and wrist bones and the cervical vertebrae of the girls were ahead of the boys. Cohen’s kappa test revealed a low level of agreement between the two methods [Kappa (95% CI) = 0.312 (0.290 - 0.377)]; concordance was slightly higher in males (K = 0.33 for males versus 0.27 for females). Evaluation of concordance coefficients between the stages determined by the two methods indicated the highest concordance in 8- and 9-year-olds and the lowest in 12- and 14-year-olds. The level of agreement between the two methods was only acceptable in 8- and 9-year-olds of both genders and 10-year-old boys. The level of agreement between the two methods in other age groups was not acceptable. Conclusion The level of agreement between the two methods was low; thus, they cannot be

  20. The practical approach to the evaluation of methods used to determine the disintegration time of orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brniak, Witold; Jachowicz, Renata; Pelka, Przemyslaw

    2015-09-01

    Even that orodispersible tablets (ODTs) have been successfully used in therapy for more than 20 years, there is still no compendial method of their disintegration time evaluation other than the pharmacopoeial disintegration test conducted in 800-900 mL of distilled water. Therefore, several alternative tests more relevant to in vivo conditions were described by different researchers. The aim of this study was to compare these methods and correlate them with in vivo results. Six series of ODTs were prepared by direct compression. Their mechanical properties and disintegration times were measured with pharmacopoeial and alternative methods and compared with the in vivo results. The highest correlation with oral disintegration time was found in the case of own-construction apparatus with additional weight and the employment of the method proposed by Narazaki et al. The correlation coefficients were 0.9994 (p disintegration time determination is eligible and scientifically justified.

  1. Evaluation of acid leaching method for the determination of uranium in fecal samples from occupational workers at Tarapur

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raveendran, Nanda; Dubla, Rupali; Yadav, J.R.; Rao, D.D.; Baburajan, A.

    2015-01-01

    Assessment of internal contamination due to inhalation, ingestion or injection of radionuclides to occupational workers is carried out by analysis of excreta samples and whole body counting. Routine monitoring of radiation workers for assessing actinides intake are done either by urine or fecal sample analysis. This paper deals with the evaluation of analytical method for the determination of isotopes of uranium in fecal samples submitted by occupational workers from operating plants at Tarapur. The method involves sample ashing, addition of 232 U tracer for radiochemical recovery and acid leaching preconcentration stage followed by anion exchange separation. Thirteen routine fecal samples submitted by radiation workers under their routine monitoring practices were collected and analyzed. Radiochemical tracer recovery was obtained in the range of 52% to 86.4 % with a mean and standard deviation of 64.7% and 12.3% respectively. (author)

  2. Assets Held for Sale and Discontinued Operations – Evaluation of Liquidity – Determination of Ratio – or Necessity of Adjustment?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grazyna Voss

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The change in the use of an asset results from economic conditions and requires that a company revalue the asset and adjusts its value by costs of sale or liquidation. The current value of the asset determined in that way influences the financial result of the company and enables the movement of value from non-current assets to current assets. This change has an impact on the evaluation of financial situation and financial ratios.The aim of this article is to describe principles of measurement and presentation of assets held for sale and application of financial analysis in order to assess risks by potential investors. The purpose of this work constitutes part of a wide-ranging discussion on the directions of changes in financial reporting and principles of effective investing.

  3. [Determination of serum acetaminophen based on the diazo reaction and its application in the evaluation of gastric emptying].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cai-na; Sun, Su-juan; Shen, Zhu-fang

    2015-05-01

    This study aims to establish a method to determine the serum acetaminophen concentration based on diazo reaction, and apply it in the gastric emptying evaluation. Theoretically, acetaminophen could take hydrolysis reaction in hydrochloric acid solution to produce p-aminophenol, which could then take diazo reaction resulting in a product with special absorption peak at 312 nm. Then the serum acetaminophen concentration and recovery rate were calculated according to the standard curve drawn with absorbance at 312 nm. ICR mice were given a dose of acetaminophen (500 mg x kg(-1)) by gavage and the serum acetaminophen was dynamically measured through the diazo reaction. Besides, ICR mice were subcutaneously injected with the long-acting GLP-1 analog GW002 before the gavage of acetaminophen, and serum acetaminophen concentration was measured as above to study how GW002 could influence the gastric emptying. The data showed acetaminophen ranging from 0 to 160 μg x mL(-1) could take diazo reaction with excellent linear relationship, and the regression equation was y = 0.0181 x +0.0104, R2 = 0.9997. The serum acetaminophen was also measured with good linear relationship (y = 0.0045 x + 0.0462, R = 0.9982) and the recovery rate was 97.4%-116.7%. The serum concentration of acetaminophen reached peak at about 0.5 h after gavage, and then gradually decreased. GW002 could significantly lower the serum acetaminophen concentration and make the area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) decrease by 28.4%. In conclusion, a method for the determination of serum acetaminophen based on the diazo reaction was established with good accuracy and could be used in the evaluation of gastric emptying.

  4. Orbit Determination of the SELENE Satellites Using Multi-Satellite Data Types and Evaluation of SELENE Gravity Field Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goossens, S.; Matsumoto, K.; Noda, H.; Araki, H.; Rowlands, D. D.; Lemoine, F. G.

    2011-01-01

    The SELENE mission, consisting of three separate satellites that use different terrestrial-based tracking systems, presents a unique opportunity to evaluate the contribution of these tracking systems to orbit determination precision. The tracking data consist of four-way Doppler between the main orbiter and one of the two sub-satellites while the former is over the far side, and of same-beam differential VLBI tracking between the two sub-satellites. Laser altimeter data are also used for orbit determination. The contribution to orbit precision of these different data types is investigated through orbit overlap analysis. It is shown that using four-way and VLBI data improves orbit consistency for all satellites involved by reducing peak values in orbit overlap differences that exist when only standard two-way Doppler and range data are used. Including laser altimeter data improves the orbit precision of the SELENE main satellite further, resulting in very smooth total orbit errors at an average level of 18m. The multi-satellite data have also resulted in improved lunar gravity field models, which are assessed through orbit overlap analysis using Lunar Prospector tracking data. Improvements over a pre-SELENE model are shown to be mostly in the along-track and cross-track directions. Orbit overlap differences are at a level between 13 and 21 m with the SELENE models, depending on whether l-day data overlaps or I-day predictions are used.

  5. Evaluation of Chemical and Physical-morphological Factors as Potential Determinants of Biomphalaria pfeifferi (Krauss, 1848 Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Utzinger Jürg

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out in five sites along a small perennial river system in south-central Tanzania, which had been identified as the focus for transmission of intestinal schistosomiasis in the area. Malacological surveys preceding the study showed a focal distribution of Biomphalaria pfeifferi, intermediate host snail of Schistosoma mansoni, the snails being present in three sites but absent from the other two sites. The objective of this study was to evaluate to what extent chemical and/or physical-morphological factors determine the distribution of B. pfeifferi between these five sites. It was found that none of the chemical constituents in the waters examined were outside the tolerance range of B. pfeifferi snails. Moreover, the composition of water from B. pfeifferi-free sites was not different from that in those sites where snails occurred. Furthermore, none of the physical-morphological constituents seemed likely to be a determinant for the absence of B. pfeifferi. In view of these findings, and those of previous studies, it is concluded that the focal distribution of B. pfeifferi cannot be associated with a single environmental factor and is rather the result of more complex interactions of habitat factors

  6. Performance Evaluation of Monolith Based Immobilized Acetylcholinesterase Flow-Through Reactor for Copper(II Determination with Spectrophotometric Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parawee Rattanakit

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A monolith based immobilized acetylcholinesterase (AChE flow-through reactor has been developed for the determination of copper(II using flow injection spectrophotometric system. The bioreactor was prepared inside a microcapillary column by in situ polymerization of butyl methacrylate, ethylene dimethacrylate, and 2,2-dimethoxy-1,2-diphynyletane-1-one in the presence of 1-decanol, followed by vinyl azlactone functionalization and AChE immobilization. The behavior of AChE before and after being immobilized on the monolith was evaluated by kinetic parameters from Lineweaver and Burk equation. The detection was based on measuring inhibition effect on the enzymatic activity of AChE by copper(II using Ellman’s reaction with spectrophotometric detection at 410 nm. The linear range of the calibration graph was obtained over the range of 0.02–3.00 mg L−1. The detection limit, defined as 10% inhibition (I10, was found to be 0.04 mg L−1. The repeatability was 3.35 % (n=5 for 1.00 mg L−1 of copper(II. The proposed method was applied to the determination of copper(II in natural water samples with sampling rate of 4 h−1.

  7. Evaluation of immunologic effect of Enniatin A and quantitative determination in feces, urine and serum on treated Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juan, Cristina; Manyes, Lara; Font, Guillermina; Juan-García, Ana

    2014-09-01

    Study of dietary supplementation with ENN A mycotoxin during 28 days of exposure time on Wistar rats to determinate its levels in serum, urine and feces and, to evaluate the immunologic effect in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) is presented. The first method for ENN A extraction, determination and detection by LC-MS/MS in serum, urine and feces samples is reported. ENN A food dose administrated was detected in serum samples and influenced lymphocyte phenotyping. Levels in serum were founded from the second week of the experiment; reaching values of 4.76 μg/ml on the fourth week, which corresponds to 3.24 μg/ml in blood. PBL as T helper (CD4(+)) were presented in greater percentages compared to control (p ≤ 0.001), while T cytotoxic (CD8(+)) decreased significantly compared to control (p ≤ 0.001). ENN A treatment significantly increased CD4(+)/CD3(+) and CD4(+)/CD8(+) ratios but significantly decreased CD8(+)/CD3(+) ratio. CD4(+)/CD8(+) ratio was 2.94:1, indicating that PBL surface antigen expression and immune status in Wistar rats treated were impaired by the ENN A mycotoxin. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Development of a simple chromatographic method for the determination of piracetam in human plasma and its pharmacokinetic evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkat, K; Ahmad, M; Minhas, M U; Malik, M Z; Sohail, M

    2014-07-01

    The objective of study was to develop an accurate and reproducible HPLC method for determination of piracetam in human plasma and to evaluate pharmacokinetic parameters of 800 mg piracetam. A simple, rapid, accurate, precise and sensitive high pressure liquid chromatography method has been developed and subsequently validated for determination of piracetam. This study represents the results of a randomized, single-dose and single-period in 18 healthy male volunteers to assess pharmacokinetic parameters of 800 mg piracetam tablets. Various pharmacokinetic parameters were determined from plasma for piracetam and found to be in good agreement with previous reported values. The data was analyzed by using Kinetica® version 4.4 according to non-compartment model of pharmacokinetic analysis and after comparison with previous studies, no significant differences were found in present study of tested product. The major pharmacokinetic parameters for piracetam were as follows: t1/2 was (4.40 ± 0.179) h; Tmax value was (2.33 ± 0.105) h; Cmax was (14.53 ± 0.282) µg/mL; the AUC(0-∞) was (59.19 ± 4.402) µg · h/mL. AUMC(0-∞) was (367.23 ± 38.96) µg. (h)(2)/mL; Ke was (0.16 ± 0.006) h; MRT was (5.80 ± 0.227) h; Vd was (96.36 ± 8.917 L). A rapid, accurate and precise high pressure liquid chromatography method was developed and validated before the study. It is concluded that this method is very useful for the analysis of pharmacokinetic parameters, in human plasma and assured the safety and efficacy of piracetam, can be effectively used in medical practice. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  9. Evaluation of two commercially available ELISA kits for the determination of melatonin concentrations in amniotic fluid throughout pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagci, Soyhan; Altuntas, Özlem; Katzer, David; Berg, Christoph; Willruth, Arne; Reutter, Heiko; Bartmann, Peter; Müller, Andreas; Zur, Berndt

    2017-01-01

    Background The aim of the present study is to evaluate the utility of extraction versus non-extraction-based commercial melatonin ELISA kits for determining the melatonin concentration in amniotic fluid obtained in early and late pregnancy. Methods Pregnancy duration less than 28 weeks was defined as early and from 28 weeks until delivery as late gestation. Nine samples were obtained in early and 18 in late pregnancy. Two commercially available melatonin ELISA kits (melatonin ELISA RE54021, including methanol-based extraction and direct saliva melatonin ELISA RE 54041, not including an extraction step, both from IBL-International, Germany) were used to determine melatonin concentrations in amniotic fluid. Results The mean melatonin concentration in ELISAs assayed by the non-extraction was significantly lower than those assayed after extraction. Subgroup analysis showed that there was no significant difference between melatonin concentration measured by non-extraction versus extraction ELISA in early pregnancy (11.2 ± 7.4 vs. 12.2 ± 7.7, respectively, P = 0.463) but that the mean melatonin concentration in late pregnancy was significantly lower when assayed by non-extraction ELISA than when assayed by extraction ELISA (14.8 ± 9.3 vs. 145.1 ± 179.3, respectively; P pregnancy was rather poor (r 2  = 0.271, P = 0.022), as opposed to the good correlation found in early pregnancy (r 2  = 0.929, P melatonin assay without an extraction step, such as direct saliva ELISA, does not seem to be a valid method to determine the melatonin concentration of amniotic fluid, especially in late gestation.

  10. A trans-disciplinary approach to the evaluation of social determinants of health in a Hispanic population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulin, Michael F; Tapp, Hazel; Smith, Heather A; de Hernandez, Brisa Urquieta; Coffman, Maren J; Ludden, Tom; Sorensen, Janni; Furuseth, Owen J

    2012-09-11

    Individual and community health are adversely impacted by disparities in health outcomes among disadvantaged and vulnerable populations. Understanding the underlying causes for variations in health outcomes is an essential step towards developing effective interventions to ameliorate inequalities and subsequently improve overall community health. Working at the neighborhood scale, this study examines multiple social determinates that can cause health disparities including low neighborhood wealth, weak social networks, inadequate public infrastructure, the presence of hazardous materials in or near a neighborhood, and the lack of access to primary care services. The goal of this research is to develop innovative and replicable strategies to improve community health in disadvantaged communities such as newly arrived Hispanic immigrants. This project is taking place within a primary care practice-based research network (PBRN) using key principles of community-based participatory research (CBPR). Associations between social determinants and rates of hospitalizations, emergency department (ED) use, and ED use for primary care treatable or preventable conditions are being examined. Geospatial models are in development using both hospital and community level data to identify local areas where interventions to improve disparities would have the greatest impact. The developed associations between social determinants and health outcomes as well as the geospatial models will be validated using community surveys and qualitative methods. A rapidly growing and underserved Hispanic immigrant population will be the target of an intervention informed by the research process to impact utilization of primary care services and designed, deployed, and evaluated using the geospatial tools and qualitative research findings. The purpose of this intervention will be to reduce health disparities by improving access to, and utilization of, primary care and preventative services. The results

  11. Epidemiology and air pollution. A report of the Committee on the Epidemiology of Air Pollutants, Board on Toxicology and Environmental Health Hazards, Commission on Life Sciences, National Research Council

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    This report examines the role of epidemiology in the study of the health effects of air pollution. The four health effects of concern in the report art acute respiratory infection, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma and lung cancer. The five types of pollution said to be of continuing concern are woodsmoke, nitrogen oxides, persistant ozone and acid aerosols, episodic ozone and acid aerosol haze and radon. The advantages of using epidemiological studies are discussed. They include: direct determination of public health problems and estimation of their magnitude; evaluation of the impact of decreases in exposure; and defining characteristics of the problem that can guide intervention even before the mechanics are understood

  12. Hydrology, vegetation, and soils of four north Florida River flood plains with an evaluation of state and federal wetland determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Light, H.M.; Darst, M.R.; MacLaughlin, M.T.; Sprecher, S.W.

    1993-01-01

    A study of hydrologic conditions, vegetation, and soils was made in wetland forests of four north Florida streams from 1987 to 1990. The study was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Florida Department of Environmental Regulation to support State and Federal efforts to improve wetland delineation methodology in flood plains. Plant communities and soils were described and related to topographic position and long-term hydrologic conditions at 10 study plots located on 4 streams. Detailed appendixes give average duration, frequency, and depth of flooding; canopy, subcanopy, and ground-cover vegetation; and taxonomic classification, series, and profile descriptions of soils for each plot. Topographic relief, range in stage, and depth of flooding were greatest on the alluvial flood plain of the Ochlockonee River, the largest of the four streams. Soils were silty in the lower elevations of the flood plain, and tree communities were distinctly different in each topographic zone. The Aucilla River flood plain was dominated by levees and terraces with very few depressions or low backwater areas. Oaks dominated the canopy of both lower and upper terraces of the Aucilla flood plain. Telogia Creek is a blackwater stream that is a major tributary of the Ochlockonee River. Its low, wet flood plain was dominated by Wyssa ogeche (Ogeechee tupelo) trees, had soils with mucky horizons, and was inundated by frequent floods of very short duration. The St. Marks River, a spring-fed stream with high base flow, had the least topographic relief and lowest range in stage of the four streams. St. Marks soils had a higher clay content than the other streams, and limestone bedrock was relatively close to the surface. Wetland determinations of the study plots based on State and Federal regulatory criteria were evaluated. Most State and Federal wetland determinations are based primarily on vegetation and soil characteristics because hydrologic records are usually not

  13. Evaluating Potential of MODIS-based Indices in Determining “Snow Gone” Stage over Forest-dominant Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navdeep S. Sekhon

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available “Snow gone” (SGN stage is one of the critical variables that describe the start of the official forest fire season in the Canadian Province of Alberta. In this paper, our objective is to evaluate the potential of MODIS-based indices for determining the SGN stage. Those included: (i enhanced vegetation index (EVI, (ii normalized difference water index (NDWI using the shortwave infrared (SWIR spectral bands centered at 1.64 µm (NDWI1.64µm and at 2.13 µm (NDWI2.13µm, and (iii normalized difference snow index (NDSI. These were calculated using the 500 m 8-day gridded MODIS-based composites of surface reflectance data (i.e., MOD09A1 v.005 for the period 2006–08. We performed a qualitative evaluation of these indices over two forest fire prone natural subregions in Alberta (i.e., central mixedwood and lower boreal highlands. In the process, we generated and compared the natural subregion-specific lookout tower sites average: (i temporal trends for each of the indices, and (ii SGN stage using the ground-based observations available from Alberta Sustainable Resource Development. The EVI-values were found to have large uncertainty at the onset of the spring and unable to predict the SGN stages precisely. In terms of NDSI, it showed earlier prediction capabilities. On the contrary, both of the NDWI’s showed distinct pattern (i.e., reached a minimum value before started to increase again during the spring in relation to observed SGN stages. Thus further analysis was carried out to determine the best predictor by comparing the NDWI’s predicted SGN stages with the ground-based observations at all of the individual lookout tower sites (approximately 120 in total across the study area. It revealed that NDWI2.13µm demonstrated better prediction capabilities (i.e., on an average approximately 90% of the observations fell within ±2 periods or ±16 days of deviation in comparison to NDWI1.64µm (i.e., on an average approximately 73% of the

  14. Diagnostic performance of quantitative shear wave elastography in the evaluation of solid breast masses: determination of the most discriminatory parameter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Au, Frederick Wing-Fai; Ghai, Sandeep; Moshonov, Hadas; Kahn, Harriette; Brennan, Cressida; Dua, Hemi; Crystal, Pavel

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this article is to assess the diagnostic performance of quantitative shear wave elastography in the evaluation of solid breast masses and to determine the most discriminatory parameter. B-mode ultrasound and shear wave elastography were performed before core biopsy of 123 masses in 112 women. The diagnostic performance of ultrasound and quantitative shear wave elastography parameters (mean elasticity, maximum elasticity, and elasticity ratio) were compared. The added effect of shear wave elastography on the performance of ultrasound was determined. The mean elasticity, maximum elasticity, and elasticity ratio were 24.8 kPa, 30.3 kPa, and 1.90, respectively, for 79 benign masses and 130.7 kPa, 154.9 kPa, and 11.52, respectively, for 44 malignant masses (p shear wave elastography parameter was higher than that of ultrasound (p shear wave elastography parameters to the evaluation of BI-RADS category 4a masses, about 90% of masses could be downgraded to BI-RADS category 3. The numbers of downgraded masses were 40 of 44 (91%) for mean elasticity, 39 of 44 (89%) for maximum elasticity, and 42 of 44 (95%) for elasticity ratio. The numbers of correctly downgraded masses were 39 of 40 (98%) for mean elasticity, 38 of 39 (97%) for maximum elasticity, and 41 of 42 (98%) for elasticity ratio. There was improvement in the diagnostic performance of ultrasound of mass assessment with shear wave elastography parameters added to BI-RADS category 4a masses compared with ultrasound alone. Combined ultrasound and elasticity ratio had the highest improvement, from 35.44% to 87.34% for specificity, from 45.74% to 80.77% for positive predictive value, and from 57.72% to 90.24% for accuracy (p shear wave elastography parameters of benign and malignant solid breast masses. By adding shear wave elastography parameters to BI-RADS category 4a masses, we found that about 90% of them could be correctly downgraded to BI-RADS category 3, thereby avoiding biopsy. Elasticity ratio

  15. SU-E-P-12: Pinnacle-Based Tool to Evaluate the Effect of Prostate Rotation as Determined by Calypso

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narayanan, S; Velasco-Schmitz, R; Claeys, K; Cho, P

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: When the Calypso reports a large prostate rotation and one does not have the means to make corrections, it is helpful to quantify its dosimetric effects. We have devised a simple scheme to achieve this in Pinnacle TPS. If it is determined that the PTV margin is inadequate, an alternate larger-margin plan may be adapted for the day. Methods: A three-step process using the Pinnacle Image fusion module was formulated to analyze the clinical effect of prostate rotation. The process includes (1) translating the image set such that the rotational axis is about the isocenter, (2) performing 3D rotations of the structures of interest, and (3) restoring the coordinates associated with the plan. The rotated structures are imported and overlayed on the original plan for evaluation. The tool was applied to three prostate cancer patients with relatively large rotations (95 fractions total). Prostate rotations are primarily due to variations in bladder and rectal filling, which may also affect the seminal vesicles. It is difficult to estimate the perturbation of seminal vesicles for a given prostate rotation. Therefore, the Calypso-derived rotation matrix was applied only to CTV and PTV (CTV+5mm). Results: The rotations were predominantly in the pitch direction with an absolute value ranging from 0–29 degrees (Median = 10°, Average = 14.5°). For various magnitudes of rotation, the CTV V100 decreased from the original 100% to 99.6%/99%/95% for 10°/15°/29° rotations, respectively. Likewise, the PTV V100 diminished from 95% to 92%/89%/82%. Conclusion: A tool, consisting only of features within a TPS, was used to evaluate the dosimetric effect of prostate rotation. Our study shows that under large uncorrected rotations, the tumor coverage is degraded and may require intervention in the form of plan adaptation. To this end, alternate plans with variable margins can be generated in advance for daily adaption

  16. Quantitative determination, Metal analysis and Antiulcer evaluation of Methanol seeds extract of Citrullus lanatus Thunb (Cucurbitaceae in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okunrobo O. Lucky

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The use of herbs in treatment of diseases is gradually becoming universally accepted especially in non industrialized societies. Citrullus lanatus Thunb (Cucurbitaceae commonly called water melon is widely consumed in this part of the world as food and medicine. This work was conducted to investigate the phytochemical composition, proximate and metal content analysis of the seed of Citrullus lanatus and to determine the antiulcer action of the methanol seed extract. Methods: Phytochemical screening, proximate and metal content analysis was done using the standard procedures and the antiulcer activity was evaluated against acetylsalicylic acid-induced ulcers. Results: The results revealed the presence of the following phytochemicals; flavonoids, saponins, tannins, alkaloids, glycosides. Proximate analysis indicated high concentration of carbohydrate, protein and fat while metal analysis showed the presence of sodium, calcium, zinc, magnesium at levels within the recommended dietary intake. Antiulcer potential of the extract against acetylsalicylic acid induced ulceration of gastric mucosa of Wister rats was evaluated at three doses (200mg/kg, 400mg/kg, and 800mg/kg. The ulcer parameters investigated included ulcer number, ulcer severity, ulcer index and percentage ulcer protection. The antiulcer activity was compared against ranitidine at 20mg/kg. The extract exhibited a dose related antiulcer activity with maximum activity at 800mg/kg (P<0.001. Conclusions: Proximate and metal content analysis of the seeds provides information that the consumption of the seeds of Citrullus lanatus is safe. This present study also provides preliminary data for the first time that the seeds of Citrullus lanatus possesses antiulcer activity in animal model.

  17. Evaluation of the Accuracy of Polymer Gels for Determining Electron Dose Distributions in the Presence of Small Heterogeneities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asl, R Ghahraman; Nedaie, H A; Banaee, N

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the application and accuracy of polymer gels for determining electron dose distributions in the presence of small heterogeneities made of bone and air. Different cylindrical phantoms containing MAGIC (Methacrylic and Ascorbic acid in Gelatin Initiated by Copper) normoxic polymer gel were used under the slab phantoms during irradiation. MR images of the irradiated gel phantoms were obtained to determine their R2 (spin-spin) relaxation maps for conversion to absorbed dose. One- and 2-dimensional lateral dose profiles were acquired at depths of 1 and 4 cm for 8 and 15 MeV electron beams. The results were compared with the doses measured by a diode detector at the same positions. In addition, the dose distribution in the axial orientation was measured by the gel dosimeter. The slope and intercept for the R2 versus dose curve were 0.509 ± 0.002 Gy s and 4.581 ± 0.005 s, respectively. No significant variation in dose-R2 response was seen for the two electron energies within the applied dose ranges. The mean dose difference between the measured gel dose profiles was smaller than 3% compared to those measured by the diode detector. These results provide further demonstration that electron dose distributions are significantly altered in the presence of tissue inhomogeneities such as bone and air cavity and that MAGIC gel is a useful tool for 3-dimensional dose visualization and qualitative assessment of tissue inhomogeneity effects in electron beam dosimetry.

  18. Accuracy evaluation of distance inverse square law in determining virtual electron source location in Siemens Primus linac.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douk, Hamid Shafaei; Aghamiri, Mahmoud Reza; Ghorbani, Mahdi; Farhood, Bagher; Bakhshandeh, Mohsen; Hemmati, Hamid Reza

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the accuracy of the inverse square law (ISL) method for determining location of virtual electron source ( S Vir ) in Siemens Primus linac. So far, different experimental methods have presented for determining virtual and effective electron source location such as Full Width at Half Maximum (FWHM), Multiple Coulomb Scattering (MCS), and Multi Pinhole Camera (MPC) and Inverse Square Law (ISL) methods. Among these methods, Inverse Square Law is the most common used method. Firstly, Siemens Primus linac was simulated using MCNPX Monte Carlo code. Then, by using dose profiles obtained from the Monte Carlo simulations, the location of S Vir was calculated for 5, 7, 8, 10, 12 and 14 MeV electron energies and 10 cm × 10 cm, 15 cm × 15 cm, 20 cm × 20 cm and 25 cm × 25 cm field sizes. Additionally, the location of S Vir was obtained by the ISL method for the mentioned electron energies and field sizes. Finally, the values obtained by the ISL method were compared to the values resulted from Monte Carlo simulation. The findings indicate that the calculated S Vir values depend on beam energy and field size. For a specific energy, with increase of field size, the distance of S Vir increases for most cases. Furthermore, for a special applicator, with increase of electron energy, the distance of S Vir increases for most cases. The variation of S Vir values versus change of field size in a certain energy is more than the variation of S Vir values versus change of electron energy in a certain field size. According to the results, it is concluded that the ISL method can be considered as a good method for calculation of S Vir location in higher electron energies (14 MeV).

  19. Evaluation of the stability of fluoxetine in pluronic lecithin organogel and the determination of an appropriate beyond-use date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peacock, Gina F; Sauvageot, Jurgita

    2014-01-01

    Fluoxetine is a commonly prescribed psychotropic medication for a variety of behavioral diagnoses in veterinary practice, and fluoxetine in Pluronic lecithin organogel has been used successfully in treating inappropriate urine spraying in felines. Historically, pharmacists have assigned a variety of beyond-use dates to extemporaneously compound drugs in Pluronic lecithin organogel. The objective of this study was to evaluate the stability of fluoxetine in Pluronic lecithin organogel over a period of six months and to determine an appropriate beyond-use date. A stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatography method for fluoxetine in Pluronic lecithin organogel was validated in our laboratory. Fluoxetine-Pluronic lecithin organogel 50 mg/mL was prepared by a local compounding pharmacy and analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatograph at 0, 7, 14, 21, 28, 45, 60, 90, and 180 days. Physical stability was also assessed by visual observation. At each time point percent of initial concentration was calculated. The beyond-use date was determined as the time period that the samples maintained at least 90 percent of the initial concentration. At 180 days, the mean percent of initial concentration was 99 +/- 1.5 and, visually, the fluoxetine-Pluronic lecithin organogel retained the original color and consistency, without detectable separation of the different phases of Pluronic lecithin organogel. Since fluoxetine was physically stable and retained greater than 90 percent of initial concentration in Pluronic lecithin organogel for 180 days when stored at room temperature and protected from light, a beyond-use date of 180 days is appropriate.

  20. Evaluation of factors that affect analytic variability of urine protein-to-creatinine ratio determination in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Gabriele; Giori, Luca; Campagnola, Simona; Zatelli, Andrea; Zini, Eric; Paltrinieri, Saverio

    2012-06-01

    To determine whether preanalytic and analytic factors affect evaluation of the urinary protein-to-creatinine (UPC) ratio in dogs. 50 canine urine samples. The UPC ratio was measured to assess the intra-assay imprecision (20 measurements within a single session), the influence of predilution (1:10, 1:20, and 1:100) for urine creatinine concentration measurement, and the effect of storage at room temperature (approx 20°C), 4°C, and -20°C. The coefficient of variation at room temperature determined with the 1:20 predilution was samples with a low protein concentration or low urine specific gravity. This variability could result in misclassification of samples with UPC ratios close to the thresholds defined by the International Renal Interest Society to classify dogs as nonproteinuric (0.2), borderline proteinuric (0.21 to 0.50), or proteinuric (> 0.51). A proportional bias was found in samples prediluted 1:10, compared with samples prediluted 1:20 or 1:100. At room temperature, the UPC ratio did not significantly increase after 2 and 4 hours. After 12 hours at room temperature and at 4°C, the UPC ratio significantly increased. The UPC ratio did not significantly change during 3 months of storage at -20°C. The intra-assay precision of the UPC ratio was sufficiently low to avoid misclassification of samples, except for values close to 0.2 or 0.5. The optimal predilution ratio for urine creatinine concentration measurement was 1:20. A 1:100 predilution is recommended in samples with a urine specific gravity > 1.030. The UPC ratio must be measured as soon as samples are collected. Alternatively, samples should be immediately frozen to increase their stability and minimize the risk of misclassification of proteinuria.

  1. An evaluation of the sociodemographic determinants of dental anxiety in patients scheduled for intra-alveolar extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter E. Egbor

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Studies on anxiety in patients having intra-alveolar extraction as well as the effect of patient's sociodemographic characteristics influencing level of associated anxiety are few in our environment. The aim of this study was to statistically analyze the sociodemographic determinants of dental anxiety in patients scheduled for intra-alveolar extraction. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 93 consecutive patients attending the outpatient clinic of the Department of Maxillofacial Surgery, University of Benin Teaching Hospital for intra-alveolar extraction in the months of November and December 2013. An interview-based questionnaire, Corah Dental Anxiety Scale Revised (DAS-R, was administered to evaluate levels of dental anxiety. Sociodemographic characteristics of the subjects were recorded. Descriptive statistics and regression models were done with the independent variables (sociodemographic factors and the dependent variable being the DAS-R. A P<0.05 was considered significant. Results: The internal consistency of the scale used as determined by Cronbach alpha was 0.76. Mean DAS score was 8.12±2.58. Dental anxiety and age of subjects showed significant inverse relationship. Females had a higher mean DAS score (8.76 than the males (7.37 (P=0.006. Residence (urban/rural was not statistically significant. Singles reported the highest DAS score (9.41 (P=0.006. The educational level attained was significantly related to dental anxiety (P=0.005. Those with secondary school education had the highest DAS score (9.26. Class V social status had the highest mean anxiety score (P=0.012. Stepwise linear regression showed that the best predictors for dental anxiety were sex (P=0.008 and marital status (P=0.026. Conclusion: This present study demonstrates that sex and marital status are the predictive factors for dental anxiety in the overall management of patients indicated for intra-alveolar extraction.

  2. Field evaluation of a tailor-made new passive sampler for the determination of NO2 levels in ambient air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozden, Ozlem; Dogeroglu, Tuncay

    2008-07-01

    This study describes the field evaluation of a tailor-made new glass passive sampler developed for the determination of NO(2), based on the collection on triethanolemine (TEA)-coated fibre filter paper. The sampler has been derived from a Palmes design. The overall uncertainty of the sampler was determined by using Griess-Saltzman ASTM D 1607 standard test method as a reference method. The agreement between the results of the passive sampler and the reference method was +/-7.90% with the correlation coefficient of 0.90. Method precision in terms of coefficient of variance (CV) for three simultaneously applied passive samplers was 8.80%. The uptake rate of NO(2) was found to be 2.49 ml/min in a very good agreement with the value calculated from theory (2.63 ml/min). Sampler detection limit was 1.99 microg/m(3) for an exposure period of 1 week and the sampler can be stored safely for a period of up to 6 weeks before exposure. A comparison of the sampler performance was conducted against a commercially available diffusion tube (Gradko diffusion tube). The results from the applied statistical paired t test indicated that there was no significant difference between the performances of two passive samplers (R (2) > 0.90). Also, another statistical comparison was carried out between the dark and transparent glass passive samplers. The results from the dark-colour sampler were higher than that from the transparent sampler (approximately 25%) during the summer season because of the possible photodegradation of NO(2)-TEA complex.

  3. Determination of the Optimum Conditions in Evaluation of Kiwi Juice as Green Corrosion Inhibitor of Steel in Hydrochloric Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Hamid Rasheed

    2018-08-01

    Full Text Available The corrosion protection of low carbon steel in 2.5 M HCl solution by kiwi juice was studied at different temperatures and immersion times by weight loss technique. To study the determination of the optimum conditions from statistical design in evaluation of a corrosion inhibitor, three variables, were considered as the most dominant variables. These variables are: temperature, inhibitor concentration (extracted kiwi juice and immersion time at static conditions. These three variables are manipulated through the experimental work using central composite rotatable Box – Wilson Experimental Design (BWED where second order polynomial model was proposed to correlate the studied variables with the corrosion rate of low carbon steel alloy to estimate the coefficients by nonlinear regression analysis method based on Rosenbrock and Quasi-Newton estimation method in as few experiments as possible to determinate of the optimum conditions of the proposed polynomial adopted via STATISTICA software. The parametric study on corrosion inhibition process using response surface methodology (RSM is presented in this paper. The study shows that the immersion time and temperature of corroding medium had shown negative dependence of great significance in increase the corrosion rate while the other studied variable (i.e. inhibitor concentration had shown large positive dependence in reduce the corrosion rate of low carbon steel alloy. Optimum conditions for achieving the minimum corrosion rate are obtained from optimizing the above correlation and are found as follow: 42.86 °C temperature of corroding medium, 29.29 cm3/L inhibitor concentration and 2.65 h immersion time. In these circumstances, the value of inhibition efficiency obtained was 96.09 %. It could be concluded that Box-Wilson experimental design was adequately applicable in the optimization of process variables and that kiwi juice sufficiently inhibited the corrosion for low carbon steel at the

  4. Objectively Determining the Educational Potential of Computer and Video-Based Courseware; or, Producing Reliable Evaluations Despite the Dog and Pony Show.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Andrew J.; And Others

    The Center for Interactive Technology, Applications, and Research at the College of Engineering of the University of South Florida (Tampa) has developed objective and descriptive evaluation models to assist in determining the educational potential of computer and video courseware. The computer-based courseware evaluation model and the video-based…

  5. Sensory Evaluation as a Tool in Determining Acceptability of Innovative Products Developed by Undergraduate Students in Food Science and Technology at the University of Trinidad and Tobago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh-Ackbarali, Dimple; Maharaj, Rohanie

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the comprehensive and practical training that was delivered to students in a university classroom on how sensory evaluation can be used to determine acceptability of food products. The report presents how students used their training on sensory evaluation methods and analysis and applied it to improving and predicting…

  6. Communication, Ethics and Values: The Effect of Attitude toward Capital Punishment on the Evaluation of Evidence and the Determination of Guilt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, K. Phillip; Buchanan, Raymond W.

    A study examined the effect of attitude toward capital punishment on the evaluation of evidence and the determination of guilt. Subjects were 224 undergraduate students who read a description of a murder. They then received two, four, or six items of evidence relevant to the defendant's guilt. Subjects were asked to determine a verdict and…

  7. Evaluating the Determinants of Sugary Beverage Consumption among Overweight and Obese Adults: An Application of the Integrative Model of Behavioural Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collado-Rivera, Maria; Branscum, Paul; Larson, Daniel; Gao, Haijuan

    2018-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the determinants of sugary drink consumption among overweight and obese adults attempting to lose weight using the Integrative Model of Behavioural Prediction (IMB). Design: Cross-sectional design. Method: Determinants of behavioural intentions (attitudes, perceived norms and perceived…

  8. Ideological roadblocks to humanizing dentistry, an evaluative case study of a continuing education course on social determinants of health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lévesque, Martine C; Levine, Alissa; Bedos, Christophe

    2015-04-30

    Front line providers of care are frequently lacking in knowledge on and sensitivity to social and structural determinants of underprivileged patients' health. Developing and evaluating approaches to raising health professional awareness and capacity to respond to social determinants is a crucial step in addressing this issue. McGill University, in partnership with Université de Montréal, Québec dental regulatory authorities, and the Québec anti-poverty coalition, co-developed a continuing education (CE) intervention that aims to transfer knowledge and improve the practices of oral health professionals with people living on welfare. Through the use of original educational tools integrating patient narratives and a short film, the onsite course aims to elicit affective learning and critical reflection on practices, as well as provide staff coaching. A qualitative case study was conducted, in Montreal Canada, among members of a dental team who participated in this innovative CE course over a period of four months. Data collection consisted in a series of semi-structured individual interviews conducted with 15 members of the dental team throughout the training, digitally recorded group discussions linked to the CE activities, clinic administrative documents and researcher-trainer field notes and journal. In line with adult transformative learning theory, interpretive analysis aimed to reveal learning processes, perceived outcomes and collective perspectives that constrain individual and organizational change. The findings presented in this article consist in four interactive themes, reflective of clinic culture and context, that act as barriers to humanizing patient care: 1) belief in the "ineluctable" commoditization of dentistry; 2) "equal treatment", a belief constraining concern for equity and the recognition of discriminatory practices; 3) a predominantly biomedical orientation to care; and 4) stereotypical categorization of publically insured patients into

  9. Determination of underivatized amino acids to evaluate quality of beer by capillary electrophoresis with online sweeping technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Tian; Ke, Jing; Xie, Yunfei; Dong, Yuming

    2017-10-01

    Capillary electrophoresis (CE) with ultraviolet detection was applied to determine underivatized amino acids in beer, based on the coordination interaction of copper ions and amino acids. An online sweeping technique was combined with CE to improve detection sensitivity. Using the United Nations Food Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization model of essential amino acid pattern and flavor of amino acids, the quality and taste in three kinds of beer were evaluated. It was found that Beer2 had higher quality than the other two kinds and the content of phenylalanine, proline, serine, and isoleucine was relatively large in all three kinds of beers with a great influence on beer flavor. Optimal conditions for separation were as follows: 50mM CuSO 4 at pH 4.40 as buffer; total length of fused silica capillary, 73 cm; effective length, 65 cm; separation voltage, 22.5 kV; and optimized sweeping condition, 70 seconds. In the appropriate range, linearity (r 2  > 0.9989), precision with a relative standard deviation amino acids in beer and to perform quantitative analysis directly without derivatization for the first time. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Evaluation of a method to determine the natural occurrence of aflatoxins in commercial traditional herbal medicines from Malaysia and Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, N; Hashim, N H; Saad, B; Safan, K; Nakajima, M; Yoshizawa, T

    2005-12-01

    Traditional herbal medicines, popularly known as 'jamu' and 'makjun' in Malaysia and Indonesia, are consumed regularly to promote health. In consideration of their frequent and prolonged consumption, the natural occurrence of aflatoxins (AF) in these products was determined using immunoaffinity column clean-up and high-performance liquid chromatography with pre-column derivatization. The evaluated method, which entails dilution of sample extracts with Tween 20-phosphate buffered saline (1:9, v/v) and a chromatographic system using isocratic mobile phase composed of water-methanol-acetonitrile (70:20:10, v/v/v), was effective in separating AFB1, AFG1 and AFG2 from interference at their retention times. Results were confirmed using post-column derivatization with photochemical reactor. For 23 commercial samples analyzed, mean levels (incidence) of AFB(1), AFB(2) and AFG1 in positive samples were 0.26 (70%), 0.07 (61%) and 0.10 (30%) microg/kg, respectively; one sample was positive for AFG2 at a level of 0.03 (4%) microg/kg. In contrast to the high levels of AF in crude herbal drugs and medicinal plants reported previously by other researchers, the low contamination levels reported in this study may be attributed to the higher selectivity to AF of the method applied. Based on the AFB1 levels and the daily consumption of positive samples, a mean probable daily intake of 0.022 ng/kg body weight was calculated.

  11. The evaluation of the classical Kirby-Bauer antibiogram method for the determination of antibiotic resistant microorganisms in tap water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siedlecka Agata

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Water supply systems are the main source of potable water for many inhabitants. The European Union and Polish laws demand high quality of tap water, but the aspect of antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB is not mentioned. The special emphasis is placed on the presence of pathogenic microorganisms in water, determining by the presence of chosen indicators. Although these regulations provide quite good quality of drinking water, the neglect of resistance vectors could lead to a serious threat to human health. In this study the randomly chosen sample of water from the Wroclaw water supply system was tested in order to evaluate the usefulness of Kirby-Bauer antibiogram method for the assessment of the presence of ARB. The susceptibility testing with 6 chosen antibiotics was performed on bacterial strains isolated from the sample. The diameters of growth inhibition zones were measured and the preliminary identification of strains was carried out, including Gram staining and bacterial cellular morphologies assessments. Although full recognition of the drug resistance phenomenon demands the identification of bacterial species for the comparison with susceptibility testing guidelines, this preliminary research could answer the question, whether the Kirby-Bauer method is sufficient for investigations of ARB dwelling in Wroclaw tap water or the other solution should be applied.

  12. Evaluation of the influence of parameters that determine the mean glandular dose in mammography using different detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, K.; Nogueira, M. S.

    2015-10-01

    Full text: Mammography is a test used for early detection of breast cancer. The mean glandular dose (MGD) is dosimetric greatness accepted as indicative of carcinogenic risk induced by ionizing radiation in the breasts of women undergoing mammography exams. MGD value is estimated from the incident air kerma (k i), associated with conversion factors which depend on the half-value layer (HVL), the breast composition and thickness compressed breast. This study aims to evaluate the influence of the parameters used to determine the MGD using different measurement detectors. Measurements were performed on a Siemens Mammomat Model 300 Nova mammography equipment; this has the combinations Anode/Filter of Mo/Mo, Mo/Rh and W/Rh. Detectors used were the ionization chamber Model 10X6-6M manufactured by Radcal Co., two solid-state detectors, one Model AGMS-M manufactured by Radcal Co. and other Model Xi Mammo manufactured by UNFORS. The detectors measures were compared and the MGD value was estimated; differences between measurements and the reference values were higher in HVL and k i parameters. The results are displayed according to other published works. (Author)

  13. Determination and evaluation of the metals and metalloids in the Chapeu-de-couro (Echinodorus macrophyllus (Kunth) Micheli).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Uenderson Araujo; dos Santos, Ivanice Ferreira; dos Santos, Ana Maria Pinto; dos Santos, Debora Correia; da Costa, Grenivel Mota

    2013-09-01

    The Chapeu-de-couro (Echinodorus macrophyllus (Kunth) Micheli) is a native plant from Brazil, which has been mainly used in medicinal application being a potent antirheumatic and diuretic, in the production of soft drinks, and also in the ornamentation of aquariums. In this paper, the metals and metalloids for the leaves of chapeu-de-couro collected in the Paraguacu River from the city Cachoeira, Bahia State, Brazil, was determined and evaluated using multivariate analysis. The samples were digested using nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide and were analyzed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The accuracy of the method was confirmed by analysis of a certified reference material of apple leaves, furnished by National Institute of Standard and Technology. The study involved 15 samples of the Paraguacu River. The results expressed as milligrams of element per kilogram of sample demonstrated that the concentration ranges varied: 1.39-5.27 for chromium, 44.85-165.39 for manganese, 0.55-0.84 for arsenic, 0.01-3.94 for antimony, and 0.18-0.31 for lead. The principal component analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis evidenced that the concentrations of the metals and metalloids varied according with the variations in the water of the Paraguacu.

  14. Determination of photosynthetic and enzymatic biomarkers sensitivity used to evaluate toxic effects of copper and fludioxonil in alga Scenedesmus obliquus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dewez, David; Geoffroy, Laure; Vernet, Guy; Popovic, Radovan

    2005-01-01

    Modulated PAM fluorometry and Plant Efficiency Analyser methods were used to investigate photosynthetic fluorescence parameters of alga Scenedesmus obliquus exposed to inhibitory effect of fungicides copper sulphate and fludioxonil (N-(4-nitrophenyl)-N'-propyl-uree). The change of those parameters were studied when alga S. obliquus have been exposed during 48 h to different concentrations of fungicides (1, 2 and 3 mg l -1 ). Under the same condition, enzymatic activities of catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, glutathione reductase and glutathione S-transferase were investigated to evaluate antioxidative response to fungicides effects. The change of sensitivity of those parameters was dependent to the mode of fungicide action, their concentration and time of exposure. For copper effects, the most indicative photosynthetic biomarkers were parameters Q N as non-photochemical fluorescence quenching, Q Emax as the proton induced fluorescence quenching and ABS/RC as the antenna size per photosystem II reaction center. Copper induced oxidative stress was indicated by increased activity of catalase serving as the most sensitive and valuable enzymatic biomarker. On the other hand, fludioxonil effect on photosynthetic parameters was very negligible and consequently not very useful as biomarkers. However, fludioxonil induced strong antioxidative activities associated with cytosol enzymes, as we found for catalase, ascorbate peroxidase and glutathione S-transferase activities. By obtained results, we may suggest for the activation of those enzymes to be sensitive and valuable biomarkers of oxidative stress induced by fludioxonil. Determination of biomarkers sensitivity may offer advantages in providing real criteria to use them for ecotoxicological diagnostic studies

  15. The determination of methylmercury, total mercury and total selenium in human hair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This Reference Method describes the determination of methylmercury in human hair by gas liquid chromatography. It is designed for biological monitoring of selected individuals and population groups with a possible intake of methylmercury exceeding the recommended Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake (PTWI) through contaminated seafood, as part of a project on the evaluation of methylmercury in Mediterranean populations and related health hazards. The method, however, is also applicable to other regions. The method involves direct determination of methylmercury by gas liquid chromatography. The sample is disintegrated in a solution of sodium hydroxide, methylmercury is extracted from an aliquot of the solution into toluene and, after purification, a small volume is injected into a chromatographic column, filled with polyethyleneglycol succinate on Diatomite AW. Methylmercury in the gaseous mixture is detected with an electron capture detector and its amount determined by comparing the peak height with those of appropriate standards. The next Reference Method describes the determination of selenium in human hair (and other indicative tissues) by gas liquid chromatography and is designed for biological monitoring of selected individuals and population groups in the Mediterranean region with a possible intake of methylmercury exceeding the recommended Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake (PTWI) through contaminated seafood. The data are intended to establish a possible correlation between methylmercury intake and levels of selenium in the subjects monitored. Selenium in the solvent phase is determined by gas liquid chromatography using an electron capture detector. The above method has been selected because selenium is determined in conjunction with methylmercury, both of which require competence in gas chromatographic techniques. Reliable result for total selenium, however, will also be obtained by the following techniques: a) Atomic absorption spectrophotometry; b

  16. Aflatoxin M1 in milk by immunoaffinity column cleanup with TLC/HPLC determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shundo Luzia

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available During 2002 and 2003, a total of 107 samples of raw, pasteurized and ultrahigh treated temperature (UHT milk commercialized in the cities of São Paulo and Marília (SP were analyzed for the presence of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1. AFM1 was detected in 79 (73.8% of milk samples, ranging from <0.02 to 0.26 mug/L.The samples were analyzed using an immunoaffinity column for cleanup and a thin layer chromatography for determining AFM1. The parameters, such as recovery, repeatibility, detection and quantification limit were evaluated to optimize this method (in-house. Based on spiked samples, the recovery values ranged from 85.83 to 73.86% at levels of 0.010-0.50 mug/L, respectively, and the relative standard deviation for repeatibility ranged from 7.73 to 2.08%. The quantification limit was 0.02 mug/L. The results of some samples analyzed by this method demonstrated a satisfatory correlation when compared with High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC. In conclusion, immunoaffinity column cleanup gave excellent results for recovery, sensibility and sample through put. Despite the high rate of occurrence of AFM1 in samples in both cities, the contamination level could not be considered a serious public health hazard, according to Brazilian legislation.

  17. Experimental determination and evaluation of the friction behavior of geosynthetics; Experimentelle Ermittlung und Bewertung des Reibungsverhaltens von Geokunststoffen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinemann, Maik

    2016-08-17

    In many fields of geotechnical engineering geosynthetics have established itself as an alternative to common used earth materials. Particularly in landfill sealing systems many different types of geosynthetics are used together. In embankments geosynthetics form inclined planes. The safety against sliding must be proved for all contact surfaces. For this purpose, the knowledge of the friction behavior of the geosynthetics is required. Normally, the friction behavior is modeled analytically with the Coulomb failure criterion. The Coulomb friction parameters usually must be determined experimentally. In spite of the good state of the art and numerous studies into geosynthetics, in detail, there are still issues relating to the determination of friction behavior of geosynthetics, to the application of the Coulomb failure criterion and to the assessment of the friction parameters with a view to the time- and temperature-dependent behavior of synthetics. The main objective of this work is to contribute to a reliable determination of the friction behavior and to a correct assessment of the evaluated test results as the basis for a reliable and economical dimensioning of structures with geosynthetics. For this, the measurement technique of a standard large direct shear box was upgraded by the author, so that the effective normal stress can be measured below the test surface. Also tests with very small normal stresses can be carried out with this modification. Furthermore, a force-controlled test device was designed for studies of the influences arising from long-term combined compressive and shear loads and temperature. Based on experimental investigations inadequacies in the current experimental procedure are identified. In addition, the impact of factors are quantified, which are often ignored or considered to be marginal in practice. With further experimental investigations it is demonstrated that the linear Coulomb failure criterion is valid for limited normal stress

  18. Analytical evaluation of work ability index and its determining factors among workers of a car manufacturing industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Eyvazlou

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available   Background and aims : The ability of work is the basis of well-being for all of us. Many factors affect the work ability such as work and work condition, work organization and human resource. The aim of this study was to assess the work ability among car manufacturing workers and determine the relationship between the work ability index with individual characteristics and life style factors.   Methods : The study was a descriptive cross-sectional investigation. The subjects comprised of 271 workers­ with mean age of 35 years who occupied by a car manufacturing Company. They completed the Work Ability Index Questionnaire during semi interview sessions. The job groups of Painting Shop, assembling line, office department, and technical section were studied. Statistical tests including one-way­ ANOVA, t-test, Kruskal wallis were used for analyzing the relationship between work ability index and individual characteristic as well as life style factors. To test the distribution of work ability index score categories, a chi-square test was used and finally, Spearman correlation coefficient was used in order to determine correlation between the final of work ability index score with any of questionnaire items.   Results : The mean value of work ability index in this study was (37.67 with SD=5.87. The WAI categories were 17.71% in "excellent", 38.75% in "good", 36.16% in "moderate", and 7.4% in "poor" levels. Association between life style factors (obesity, smoking, exercise and WAI was statistically significant (P< .0.001 . Lower WAI was associated with increasing the age, high work experience and lower education (P<.0.001. Meanwhile, physical demand of the jobs was strongly associated with the WAI score (P<.0.001. Conclusion : On the basis of Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, the value of work ability in current study was in good category(37-43; but, concerning the mean age (35 years of the studied population the mean value of work

  19. Evaluation of the effectiveness of different methods for the remediation of contaminated groundwater by determining the petroleum hydrocarbon content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voyevoda, Maryna; Geyer, Wolfgang; Mothes, Sibylle [Department of Analytical Chemistry, UFZ, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, Leipzig (Germany); Mosig, Peter [Centre for Environmental Biotechnology, UFZ, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, Leipzig (Germany); Seeger, Eva M. [Department of Environmental Biotechnology, UFZ, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, Leipzig (Germany)

    2012-08-15

    The effectiveness of different remediation procedures for decreasing the amount of TPH (total petroleum hydrocarbons) in contaminated groundwater was evaluated at the site of a former refinery. The investigations were carried out on samples taken from several gravel based HSSF (horizontal subsurface flow) constructed wetlands (CW) which differed in relation to their filter material additives (no additive, charcoal, and ferric oxides additives) and examined the potential effect of these additives on the overall treatment efficiency. Samples of the following gravel based HSSF CW were investigated. No filter additive (system A), 0.1% activated carbon (system B), 0.5% iron(III) hydroxide (system C), and the reference (system D). Systems A-C were planted with common reed (Phragmites australis), whereas system D remained unplanted. In addition, the influence of seasonal conditions on the reduction of these hydrocarbons and the correlation between the amounts of TPH and BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene isomers), on the one hand, and methyl tert-butyl ether, on the other, was investigated. The study was carried out by using a modified GC-FID approach and multivariate methods. The investigations carried out in the first year of operation demonstrated that the effectiveness of the petroleum hydrocarbon removal was highest and reached a level of 93 {+-} 3.5% when HSSF filters with activated carbon as a filter additive were used. This remediation method allowed the petroleum hydrocarbon content to be reduced independently of seasonal conditions. The correlation between the reduction of TPH and BTEX was found to be R = 0.8824. Using this correlation coefficient, the time-consuming determination of the BTEX content was no longer necessary. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  20. Determination of isosteviol by LC-MS/MS and its application for evaluation of pharmacokinetics of isosteviol in rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bazargan M.

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Isosteviol has been found to have potential preventive or therapeutic effects against hypertension, ischemia reperfusion injury, diabetes and cancer, but little is known about the pharmacokinetics (PK of the compound. The aim of this study was to develop a liquid chromatographic-tandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS method for determination of isosteviol in rat plasma and to assess in a preliminary manner the PK of isosteviol after intravenous bolus injection.Ions of analytes were generated using electro-spray ionization and detected in the positive-ion mode in LC-MS/MS. Multiple reaction monitoring was performed, using the precursor product ion combination for isosteviol m/z 319.4→273.4. Progesterone was used as an internal standard. Nitrogen was used as the nebulising gas and unit resolution was set for Q1 and Q3. Isosteviol solution was injected through the penile vein of rats at a dose of 8 mg/kg. Blood samples were collected from a jugular vein cannula. The PK parameters were calculated using a two - compartment PK model.The LC-MS/MS assay for isosteviol in rat plasma was linear over the range of 0.5-80 μg/ml. The terminal half life of isosteviol (t 1/2 was 406 ± 31.7 min and clearance (CL was 2.9 ± 0.3 ml/min/kg. A sensitive LC-MS/MS assay for isosteviol in plasma has been successfully established and used in a preliminary PK evaluation of isosteviol in rats.