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Sample records for health worker motivation

  1. Factors associated with motivation of health workers in Moshi rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vihar

    Motivation of health workers and availability of working equipments in Moshi rural is highest in religious health facilities, moderate in .... reasons accounting for the observed staffing ... money after office hours(85.7%) and lastly, inadequate ...

  2. Identifying Factors for Worker Motivation in Zambia's Rural Health Facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Samuel S; Baernholdt, Dr Marianne

    2017-01-01

    Within Zambia there is a shortage of health workers in rural areas. This study aims to identify motivating factors for retaining rural health workers. Sixty rural health workers completed surveys and 46 were interviewed. They rated the importance of six motivating factors and discussed these and other factors in interviews. An interview was conducted with a Government Human Resources Manager (HR Manager) to elicit contextual information. All six factors were identified as being very important motivators, as were two additional factors. Additional career training was identified by many as the most important factor. Comparison of results and the HR Manager interview revealed that workers lacked knowledge about opportunities and that the HR manager was aware of barriers to career development. The Zambian government might better motivate and retain rural health workers by offering them any combination of identified factors, and by addressing the barriers to career development.

  3. Motivation Types and Mental Health of UK Hospitality Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotera, Yasuhiro; Adhikari, Prateek; Van Gordon, William

    2018-01-01

    The primary purposes of this study were to (i) assess levels of different types of work motivation in a sample of UK hospitality workers and make a cross-cultural comparison with Chinese counterparts and (ii) identify how work motivation and shame-based attitudes towards mental health explain the variance in mental health problems in UK hospitality workers. One hundred three UK hospitality workers completed self-report measures, and correlation and multiple regression analyses were conducted to identify significant relationships. Findings demonstrate that internal and external motivation levels were higher in UK versus Chinese hospitality workers. Furthermore, external motivation was more significantly associated with shame and mental health problems compared to internal motivation. Motivation accounted for 34-50% of mental health problems. This is the first study to explore the relationship between motivation, shame, and mental health in UK hospitality workers. Findings suggest that augmenting internal motivation may be a novel means of addressing mental health problems in this worker population.

  4. Are health workers motivated by income? Job motivation of Cambodian primary health workers implementing performance-based financing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khim, Keovathanak

    2016-01-01

    Financial incentives are widely used in performance-based financing (PBF) schemes, but their contribution to health workers' incomes and job motivation is poorly understood. Cambodia undertook health sector reform from the middle of 2009 and PBF was employed as a part of the reform process. This study examines job motivation for primary health workers (PHWs) under PBF reform in Cambodia and assesses the relationship between job motivation and income. A cross-sectional self-administered survey was conducted on 266 PHWs, from 54 health centers in the 15 districts involved in the reform. The health workers were asked to report all sources of income from public sector jobs and provide answers to 20 items related to job motivation. Factor analysis was conducted to identify the latent variables of job motivation. Factors associated with motivation were identified through multivariable regression. PHWs reported multiple sources of income and an average total income of US$190 per month. Financial incentives under the PBF scheme account for 42% of the average total income. PHWs had an index motivation score of 4.9 (on a scale from one to six), suggesting they had generally high job motivation that was related to a sense of community service, respect, and job benefits. Regression analysis indicated that income and the perception of a fair distribution of incentives were both statistically significant in association with higher job motivation scores. Financial incentives used in the reform formed a significant part of health workers' income and influenced their job motivation. Improving job motivation requires fixing payment mechanisms and increasing the size of incentives. PBF is more likely to succeed when income, training needs, and the desire for a sense of community service are addressed and institutionalized within the health system.

  5. Health sector reform and public sector health worker motivation: a conceptual framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Lynne Miller; Bennett, Sara; Kanfer, Ruth

    2002-04-01

    Motivation in the work context can be defined as an individual's degree of willingness to exert and maintain an effort towards organizational goals. Health sector performance is critically dependent on worker motivation, with service quality, efficiency, and equity, all directly mediated by workers' willingness to apply themselves to their tasks. Resource availability and worker competence are essential but not sufficient to ensure desired worker performance. While financial incentives may be important determinants of worker motivation, they alone cannot and have not resolved all worker motivation problems. Worker motivation is a complex process and crosses many disciplinary boundaries, including economics, psychology, organizational development, human resource management, and sociology. This paper discusses the many layers of influences upon health worker motivation: the internal individual-level determinants, determinants that operate at organizational (work context) level, and determinants stemming from interactions with the broader societal culture. Worker motivation will be affected by health sector reforms which potentially affect organizational culture, reporting structures, human resource management, channels of accountability, types of interactions with clients and communities, etc. The conceptual model described in this paper clarifies ways in which worker motivation is influenced and how health sector reform can positively affect worker motivation. Among others, health sector policy makers can better facilitate goal congruence (between workers and the organizations they work for) and improved worker motivation by considering the following in their design and implementation of health sector reforms: addressing multiple channels for worker motivation, recognizing the importance of communication and leadership for reforms, identifying organizational and cultural values that might facilitate or impede implementation of reforms, and understanding that reforms

  6. Motivation Of Health Care Workers In Tanzania: A Case Study Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Motivation Of Health Care Workers In Tanzania: A Case Study Of Muhimbili National Hospital. ... workers were female. ... between workers and management, lack of participation in decision-making processes, and a general lack of concern for ...

  7. Measuring and understanding motivation among community health workers in rural health facilities in India-a mixed method study

    OpenAIRE

    Tripathy, Jaya Prasad; Goel, Sonu; Kumar, Ajay M. V.

    2016-01-01

    Background Motivated human resource is the key to improve health system performance and retention of health workers. There is scanty literature on measuring motivation of health workers in India. Thus, the objective of this study was to measure and identify important aspects of health workers? motivation in North India. Methods A mixed method study design was adopted. Under the quantitative component, we interviewed randomly selected 62 community health workers (CHWs) in 18 sub-centres in two...

  8. Health care workers' influenza vaccination: motivations and mandatory mask policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorribo, V; Lazor-Blanchet, C; Hugli, O; Zanetti, G

    2015-12-01

    Vaccination of health care workers (HCW) against seasonal influenza (SI) is recommended but vaccination rate rarely reach >30%. Vaccination coverage against 2009 pandemic influenza (PI) was 52% in our hospital, whilst a new policy requiring unvaccinated HCW to wear a mask during patient care duties was enforced. To investigate the determinants of this higher vaccination acceptance for PI and to look for an association with the new mask-wearing policy. A retrospective cohort study, involving HCW of three critical departments of a 1023-bed, tertiary-care university hospital in Switzerland. Self-reported 2009-10 SI and 2009 PI vaccination statuses, reasons and demographic data were collected through a literature-based questionnaire. Descriptive statistics, uni- and multivariate analyses were then performed. There were 472 respondents with a response rate of 54%. Self-reported vaccination acceptance was 64% for PI and 53% for SI. PI vaccination acceptance was associated with being vaccinated against SI (OR 9.5; 95% CI 5.5-16.4), being a physician (OR 7.7; 95% CI 3.1-19.1) and feeling uncomfortable wearing a mask (OR 1.7; 95% CI 1.0-2.8). Main motives for refusing vaccination were: preference for wearing a surgical mask (80% for PI, not applicable for SI) and concerns about vaccine safety (64%, 50%) and efficacy (44%, 35%). The new mask-wearing policy was a motivation for vaccination but also offered an alternative to non-compliant HCW. Concerns about vaccine safety and efficiency and self-interest of health care workers are still main determinants for influenza vaccination acceptance. Better incentives are needed to encourage vaccination amongst non-physician HCW. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Motivation and job satisfaction of health workers in a specialized health institution in Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djordjević, Dragan; Petrović, Dejan; Vuković, Dejana; Mihailović, Dobrivoje; Dimić, Aleksandar

    2015-08-01

    Health care system is specific for each country, and therefore involves different motivation and job satisfaction factors. The aim of this study was to confirm the validity and applicability of the General Nordic Questionnaire translated into Serbian for analyzing motivation and job satisfaction, as well as to analyze the motivation factors and job satisfaction of health workers at the Institute for Treatment and Rehabilitation "Niska Banja". The General Nordic Questionnaire was translated into Serbian. It included 73 questions (5 answers by the Likert scale), which formed 24 scales. In May, 2012, 196 (82.3%) health workers filled in the questionnaire. A correlation of Ceronbach's alpha values between the Scandinavian study results and the results of Serbian study was statistically significant (r = 0.424; p motivation positively correlated with all the scales of organizational module, apart from inequality. Within this module, the degree of extrinsic motivation correlated with the support from the superior and coworkers, with fair leadership and human resources primacy. A negative correlation appeared with inequality. The general Nordic Questionnaire can be applied to a great extent to the conditions in our country. Our study shows a low consistency of the scales learning job demands, control of decision, control of work pacing, so the questions in them should be adjusted to the conditions in our country. Extrinsic motivation resulted in higher values than the values of intrinsic motivation in our workers, which is opposite to the results of the original questionnaire.

  10. Understanding informal payments in health care: motivation of health workers in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stringhini, Silvia; Thomas, Steve; Bidwell, Posy; Mtui, Tina; Mwisongo, Aziza

    2009-06-30

    There is growing evidence that informal payments for health care are fairly common in many low- and middle-income countries. Informal payments are reported to have a negative consequence on equity and quality of care; it has been suggested, however, that they may contribute to health worker motivation and retention. Given the significance of motivation and retention issues in human resources for health, a better understanding of the relationships between the two phenomena is needed. This study attempts to assess whether and in what ways informal payments occur in Kibaha, Tanzania. Moreover, it aims to assess how informal earnings might help boost health worker motivation and retention. Nine focus groups were conducted in three health facilities of different levels in the health system. In total, 64 health workers participated in the focus group discussions (81% female, 19% male) and where possible, focus groups were divided by cadre. All data were processed and analysed by means of the NVivo software package. The use of informal payments in the study area was confirmed by this study. Furthermore, a negative relationship between informal payments and job satisfaction and better motivation is suggested. Participants mentioned that they felt enslaved by patients as a result of being bribed and this resulted in loss of self-esteem. Furthermore, fear of detection was a main demotivating factor. These factors seem to counterbalance the positive effect of financial incentives. Moreover, informal payments were not found to be related to retention of health workers in the public health system. Other factors such as job security seemed to be more relevant for retention. This study suggests that the practice of informal payments contributes to the general demotivation of health workers and negatively affects access to health care services and quality of the health system. Policy action is needed that not only provides better financial incentives for individuals but also

  11. Understanding informal payments in health care: motivation of health workers in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bidwell Posy

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is growing evidence that informal payments for health care are fairly common in many low- and middle-income countries. Informal payments are reported to have a negative consequence on equity and quality of care; it has been suggested, however, that they may contribute to health worker motivation and retention. Given the significance of motivation and retention issues in human resources for health, a better understanding of the relationships between the two phenomena is needed. This study attempts to assess whether and in what ways informal payments occur in Kibaha, Tanzania. Moreover, it aims to assess how informal earnings might help boost health worker motivation and retention. Methods Nine focus groups were conducted in three health facilities of different levels in the health system. In total, 64 health workers participated in the focus group discussions (81% female, 19% male and where possible, focus groups were divided by cadre. All data were processed and analysed by means of the NVivo software package. Results The use of informal payments in the study area was confirmed by this study. Furthermore, a negative relationship between informal payments and job satisfaction and better motivation is suggested. Participants mentioned that they felt enslaved by patients as a result of being bribed and this resulted in loss of self-esteem. Furthermore, fear of detection was a main demotivating factor. These factors seem to counterbalance the positive effect of financial incentives. Moreover, informal payments were not found to be related to retention of health workers in the public health system. Other factors such as job security seemed to be more relevant for retention. Conclusion This study suggests that the practice of informal payments contributes to the general demotivation of health workers and negatively affects access to health care services and quality of the health system. Policy action is needed that not only

  12. Determinants and consequences of health worker motivation in hospitals in Jordan and Georgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Lynne Miller; Bennett, Sara; Kanfer, Ruth; Stubblebine, Patrick

    2004-01-01

    Health worker motivation reflects the interactions between workers and their work environment. Because of the interactive nature of motivation, local organizational and broader sector policies have the potential to affect motivation of health workers, either positively or negatively, and as such to influence health system performance. Yet little is known about the key determinants and outcomes of motivation in developing and transition countries. This exploratory research, unique in its broader study of a whole range of motivational determinants and outcomes, was conducted in two hospitals in Jordan and two in Georgia. Three complementary approaches to data collection were used: (1) a contextual analysis; (2) a qualitative 360-degree assessment; and (3) a quantitative in-depth analysis focused on the individual determinants and outcomes of the worker's motivational process. A wide range of psychometric scales was used to assess personality differences, perceived contextual factors and motivational outcomes (feelings, thoughts and behaviors) on close to 500 employees in each country. Although Jordan and Georgia have very different cultural and socio-economic environments, the results from these two countries exhibited many similarities among key determinants: self-efficacy, pride, management openness, job properties, and values had significant effects on motivational outcomes in both countries. Where results were divergent, differences between the two countries highlight the importance of local culture on motivational issues, and the need to tailor motivational interventions to the specific issues related to particular professional or other groupings in the workforce. While workers themselves state that financial reward is critical for their work satisfaction, the data suggest a number of non-financial interventions that may be more effective means to improve worker motivation. This research highlights the complexity of worker motivation, and the need for a more

  13. Motivation and retention of health workers in developing countries: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blaauw Duane

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A key constraint to achieving the MDGs is the absence of a properly trained and motivated workforce. Loss of clinical staff from low and middle-income countries is crippling already fragile health care systems. Health worker retention is critical for health system performance and a key problem is how best to motivate and retain health workers. The authors undertook a systematic review to consolidate existing evidence on the impact of financial and non-financial incentives on motivation and retention. Methods Four literature databases were searched together with Google Scholar and 'Human Resources for Health' on-line journal. Grey literature studies and informational papers were also captured. The inclusion criteria were: 1 article stated clear reasons for implementing specific motivations to improve health worker motivation and/or reduce medical migration, 2 the intervention recommended can be linked to motivation and 3 the study was conducted in a developing country and 4 the study used primary data. Results Twenty articles met the inclusion criteria. They consisted of a mixture of qualitative and quantitative studies. Seven major motivational themes were identified: financial rewards, career development, continuing education, hospital infrastructure, resource availability, hospital management and recognition/appreciation. There was some evidence to suggest that the use of initiatives to improve motivation had been effective in helping retention. There is less clear evidence on the differential response of different cadres. Conclusion While motivational factors are undoubtedly country specific, financial incentives, career development and management issues are core factors. Nevertheless, financial incentives alone are not enough to motivate health workers. It is clear that recognition is highly influential in health worker motivation and that adequate resources and appropriate infrastructure can improve morale significantly.

  14. Motivation and job satisfaction of health workers in a specialized health institution in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević Dragan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Health care system is specific for each country, and therefore involves different motivation and job satisfaction factors. The aim of this study was to confirm the validity and applicability of the General Nordic Questionnaire translated into Serbian for analyzing motivation and job satisfaction, as well as to analyze the motivation factors and job satisfaction of health workers at the Institute for Treatment and Rehabilitation "Niška Banja". Methods. The General Nordic Questionnaire was translated into Serbian. It included 73 questions (5 answers by the Likert scale, which formed 24 scales. In May, 2012, 196 (82.3% health workers filled in the questionnaire. Results. A correlation of Ceronbach’s alpha values between the Scandinavian study results and the results of Serbian study was statistically significant (r = 0.424; p < 0.05. The lowest Cronbach’ alfa coefficient was for the scale “learning demand in job demands” (alpha 0.28. The other scale with no satisfactory reliability was “control of work pacing” (alpha 0.46. Intrinsic motivation positively correlated with all the scales of organizational module, apart from inequality. Within this module, the degree of extrinsic motivation correlated with the support from the superior and coworkers, with fair leadership and human resources primacy. A negative correlation appeared with inequality. Conclusion. The general Nordic Questionnaire can be applied to a great extent to the conditions in our country. Our study shows a low consistency of the scales learning job demands, control of decision, control of work pacing, so the questions in them should be adjusted to the conditions in our country. Extrinsic motivation resulted in higher values than the values of intrinsic motivation in our workers, which is opposite to the results of the original questionnaire.

  15. Improving motivation among primary health care workers in Tanzania: a health worker perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manongi, Rachel N; Marchant, Tanya C; Bygbjerg, Ib Christian

    2006-01-01

    shortages, a desire for more structured and supportive supervision from managers, and improved transparency in career development opportunities. Further, suggestions were made for inter-facility exchanges, particularly on commonly referred cases.The discussion highlights the context of some of the problems...... identified in the results and suggests that some of the preferences presented by the health workers be discussed at policy level with a view to adding value to most services with minimum additional resources....

  16. Measuring and understanding motivation among community health workers in rural health facilities in India-a mixed method study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathy, Jaya Prasad; Goel, Sonu; Kumar, Ajay M V

    2016-08-09

    Motivated human resource is the key to improve health system performance and retention of health workers. There is scanty literature on measuring motivation of health workers in India. Thus, the objective of this study was to measure and identify important aspects of health workers' motivation in North India. A mixed method study design was adopted. Under the quantitative component, we interviewed randomly selected 62 community health workers (CHWs) in 18 sub-centres in two blocks of District Ambala, Haryana, India using a structured motivation scale. In-depth interviews were also carried out with 18 CHWs to explore the sources of motivation. The age of respondents and training in the past 12 months were found to be significantly associated with motivation. Job burnout, poor personal health, job insecurity and less career development opportunities were the individual level de-motivators, whereas not being able to fulfil family roles and poor supportive supervision were identified as environmental factors for poor motivation. Love for work, and financial incentives were individual level motivators, while community support and recognition, organizational commitment and pride, regular training were identified as environmental level motivators. Non-financial motivators such as interpersonal relations, family support, skill and career development opportunities require more attention. Regular need-based training is essential to maintain high levels of motivation.

  17. 'Your health our concern, our health whose concern?': perceptions of injustice in organizational relationships and processes and frontline health worker motivation in Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aberese-Ako, M.; van Dijk, H.; Gerrits, T.; Arhinful, D.K.; Agyepong, I.A.

    2014-01-01

    Taking a perspective of frontline health workers as internal clients within health systems, this study explored how perceived injustice in policy and organizational matters influence frontline health worker motivation and the consequent effect on workers’ attitudes and performance in delivering

  18. Your health our concern, our health whose concern? : perceptions of injustice in organizational relationships and processes and frontline health worker motivation in Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aberese-Ako, M.; Dijk, van H.; Gerrits, T.; Arhinful, D.K.; Agyepong, I.A.

    2014-01-01

    Taking a perspective of frontline health workers as internal clients within health systems, this study explored how perceived injustice in policy and organizational matters influence frontline health worker motivation and the consequent effect on workers’ attitudes and performance in delivering

  19. Association between health worker motivation and healthcare quality efforts in Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Alhassan, Robert Kaba; Spieker, Nicole; van Ostenberg, Paul; Ogink, Alice; Nketiah-Amponsah, Edward; de Wit, Tobias F Rinke

    2013-01-01

    Background Ghana is one of the sub-Saharan African countries making significant progress towards universal access to quality healthcare. However, it remains a challenge to attain the 2015 targets for the health related Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) partly due to health sector human resource challenges including low staff motivation. Purpose This paper addresses indicators of health worker motivation and assesses associations with quality care and patient safety in Ghana. The aim is to i...

  20. Developing a tool to measure health worker motivation in district hospitals in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilson Lucy

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We wanted to try to account for worker motivation as a key factor that might affect the success of an intervention to improve implementation of health worker practices in eight district hospitals in Kenya. In the absence of available tools, we therefore aimed to develop a tool that could enable a rapid measurement of motivation at baseline and at subsequent points during the 18-month intervention study. Methods After a literature review, a self-administered questionnaire was developed to assess the outcomes and determinants of motivation of Kenyan government hospital staff. The initial questionnaire included 23 questions (from seven underlying constructs related to motivational outcomes that were then used to construct a simpler tool to measure motivation. Parallel qualitative work was undertaken to assess the relevance of the questions chosen and the face validity of the tool. Results Six hundred eighty-four health workers completed the questionnaires at baseline. Reliability analysis and factor analysis were used to produce the simplified motivational index, which consisted of 10 equally-weighted items from three underlying factors. Scores on the 10-item index were closely correlated with scores for the 23-item index, indicating that in future rapid assessments might be based on the 10 questions alone. The 10-item motivation index was also able to identify statistically significant differences in mean health worker motivation scores between the study hospitals (p Conclusion The 10-item score developed may be useful to monitor changes in motivation over time within our study or be used for more extensive rapid assessments of health worker motivation in Kenya.

  1. Factors affecting job motivation among health workers: a study from Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daneshkohan, Abbas; Zarei, Ehsan; Mansouri, Tahere; Maajani, Khadije; Ghasemi, Mehri Siyahat; Rezaeian, Mohsen

    2014-11-26

    Human resources are the most vital resource of any organizations which determine how other resources are used to accomplish organizational goals. This research aimed to identity factors affecting health workers' motivation in Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences (SBUMS). This is a cross-sectional survey conducted with participation of 212 health workers of Tehran health centers in November and December 2011. The data collection tool was a researcher-developed questionnaire that included 17 motivating factors and 6 demotivating factors and 8 questions to assess the current status of some factors. Validity and reliability of the tool were confirmed. Data were analyzed with descriptive and analytical statistical tests. The main motivating factors for health workers were good management, supervisors and managers' support and good working relationship with colleagues. On the other hand, unfair treatment, poor management and lack of appreciation were the main demotivating factors. Furthermore, 47.2% of health workers believed that existing schemes for supervision were unhelpful in improving their performance. Strengthening management capacities in health services can increase job motivation and improve health workers' performance. The findings suggests that special attention should be paid to some aspects such as management competencies, social support in the workplace, treating employees fairly and performance management practices, especially supervision and performance appraisal.

  2. Association between health worker motivation and healthcare quality efforts in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhassan, Robert Kaba; Spieker, Nicole; van Ostenberg, Paul; Ogink, Alice; Nketiah-Amponsah, Edward; de Wit, Tobias F Rinke

    2013-08-14

    Ghana is one of the sub-Saharan African countries making significant progress towards universal access to quality healthcare. However, it remains a challenge to attain the 2015 targets for the health related Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) partly due to health sector human resource challenges including low staff motivation. This paper addresses indicators of health worker motivation and assesses associations with quality care and patient safety in Ghana. The aim is to identify interventions at the health worker level that contribute to quality improvement in healthcare facilities. The study is a baseline survey of health workers (n = 324) in 64 primary healthcare facilities in two regions in Ghana. Data collection involved quality care assessment using the SafeCare Essentials tool, the National Health Insurance Authority (NHIA) accreditation data and structured staff interviews on workplace motivating factors. The Spearman correlation test was conducted to test the hypothesis that the level of health worker motivation is associated with level of effort by primary healthcare facilities to improve quality care and patient safety. The quality care situation in health facilities was generally low, as determined by the SafeCare Essentials tool and NHIA data. The majority of facilities assessed did not have documented evidence of processes for continuous quality improvement and patient safety. Overall, staff motivation appeared low although workers in private facilities perceived better working conditions than workers in public facilities (P motivation interventions should be integrated into quality improvement strategies especially in government-owned healthcare facilities where working conditions are perceived to be the worst.

  3. Value of training on motivation among health workers in Narok County, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momanyi, George Osoro; Adoyo, Maureen Atieno; Mwangi, Eunice Muthoni; Mokua, Dennis Okari

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Training, as an additive human resources intervention is decisive to organizational performance. Employees require constant update of formal and informal knowledge alongside positive attitudes that have been defined as necessary in motivation leading to effectiveness in performance hence workplace training is tied to achieving organizational aims and objectives. The objective of this study was to determine the influence of training on motivation among health workers in Narok County, Kenya. Methods A cross-sectional study utilizing a self administered questionnaire, targeting 237 health workers and 21 health managers was used. Data analysis was done using SPSS version 21 using descriptive statistics. Factor analysis was done on the training perception in relation to motivation. Results Majority of the respondents rated their motivation between 7 and 9 in the current health facility (35.4%), Sub-county (33.8%) and County (32.9%) with the median motivation level of 5. Majority of health workers 194 (81.9%) had received a form of training, of whom 191 (98.5%) indicated that on-job training was relevant to their tasks and that it motivated 192 (99.0%) of them to perform better due to coining skills to motivation. Training significantly predicted general motivation (p-value = 0.013), job satisfaction (p-value = .001), intrinsic job satisfaction (p-value = .001) and organisational commitment (p-value motivated health workforce in Narok County and recommended strengthening of current training initiatives by ensuring trainings are more regular and involvement of health workers in discussing their career development prospects. PMID:27516826

  4. Value of training on motivation among health workers in Narok County, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momanyi, George Osoro; Adoyo, Maureen Atieno; Mwangi, Eunice Muthoni; Mokua, Dennis Okari

    2016-01-01

    Training, as an additive human resources intervention is decisive to organizational performance. Employees require constant update of formal and informal knowledge alongside positive attitudes that have been defined as necessary in motivation leading to effectiveness in performance hence workplace training is tied to achieving organizational aims and objectives. The objective of this study was to determine the influence of training on motivation among health workers in Narok County, Kenya. A cross-sectional study utilizing a self administered questionnaire, targeting 237 health workers and 21 health managers was used. Data analysis was done using SPSS version 21 using descriptive statistics. Factor analysis was done on the training perception in relation to motivation. Majority of the respondents rated their motivation between 7 and 9 in the current health facility (35.4%), Sub-county (33.8%) and County (32.9%) with the median motivation level of 5. Majority of health workers 194 (81.9%) had received a form of training, of whom 191 (98.5%) indicated that on-job training was relevant to their tasks and that it motivated 192 (99.0%) of them to perform better due to coining skills to motivation. Training significantly predicted general motivation (p-value = 0.013), job satisfaction (p-value = .001), intrinsic job satisfaction (p-value = .001) and organisational commitment (p-value motivated health workforce in Narok County and recommended strengthening of current training initiatives by ensuring trainings are more regular and involvement of health workers in discussing their career development prospects.

  5. The relationship between leadership style and health worker motivation, job satisfaction and teamwork in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musinguzi, Conrad; Namale, Leticia; Rutebemberwa, Elizeus; Dahal, Aruna; Nahirya-Ntege, Patricia; Kekitiinwa, Adeodata

    2018-01-01

    Leadership is key to strengthening performance of Health Systems. Leadership styles are important organizational antecedents, especially in influencing employee's motivation, job satisfaction, and teamwork. There is limited research exploring this relationship among health workers in resource-limited settings such as Uganda. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between transformational, transactional, and laissez-faire leadership styles and motivation, job satisfaction, and teamwork of health workers in Uganda. We conducted a cross-sectional study in 3 geographic regions of Uganda in November 2015, using self-administered questionnaires with 564 health workers from 228 health facilities. Data were collected on health workers' perception of leadership styles displayed by their facility leaders, their level of motivation, job satisfaction, and team work. Using Pearson correlation, relationships among variables were identified and associations of the components of leadership styles with motivation, job satisfaction, and teamwork was found using multivariable logistic regression. Health workers in Uganda preferred leaders who were transformational (62%) compared with being transactional (42%) or laissez-faire (14%). Transformational leadership was positively correlated with motivation ( r =0.32), job satisfaction ( r =0.38), and team work ( r =0.48), while transactional leadership was positively correlated with job satisfaction ( r =0.21) and teamwork ( r =0.18). Motivation was positively associated with leaders who displayed idealized influence-behavior (odds ratio [OR]=3.7; 95% CI, 1.33-10.48) and intellectual stimulation (OR=2.4; 95% CI, 1.13-5.15) but negatively associated with management by exception (OR=0.4; 95% CI, 0.19-0.82). Job satisfaction was positively associated with intellectual stimulation (OR=5.7; 95% CI, 1.83-17.79). Teamwork was positively associated with idealized influence-behavior (OR=1.07-8.57), idealized influence-attributed (OR

  6. Work motivation and job satisfaction of health workers in urban and rural areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grujičić Maja

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Motivated and job satisfied health professionals represent a basis of success of modern health institutions. The aim of this study was to investigate whether there was a difference in work motivation and job satisfaction between health workers in urban and rural areas in the region of Central Serbia. Methods. The study included 396 health professionals from urban setting, and 436 from a rural area, employed in four randomly selected health facilities. An anonymous questionnaire was used for data gathering. Statistical analysis was performed using χ2, Student t-test, Spearman's correlation coefficient, and logistic regression analysis. Results. Urban health professionals were significantly more motivated and job satisfied than respondents from rural area. In relation to work motivation factors and job satisfaction of health professionals in urban and rural areas, there were no significant differences in working conditions and current equipment, and in terms of job satisfaction there were no significant differences in relation to income either. Conclusion. In order to increase the level of work motivation and job satisfaction of health workers in rural areas, apart from better income, they should get more assistance and support from their supervisors, and awards for good job performance; interpersonal relationships, promotion and advancement opportunities, managerial performance and cooperation at work should be improved; employment security should be provided, as well as more independence at work, with professional supervision of health workers.

  7. Work motivation and job satisfaction of health workers in urban and rural areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grujičić, Maja; Jovičić-Bata, Jelena; Rađen, Slavica; Novaković, Budimka; Šipetić-Grujičić, Sandra

    2016-08-01

    Motivated and job satisfied health professionals represent a basis of success of modern health institutions. The aim of this study was to investigate whether there was a difference in work motivation and job satisfaction between health workers in urban and rural areas in the region of Central Serbia. The study included 396 health professionals from urban setting, and 436 from a rural area, employed in four randomly selected health facilities. An anonymous questionnaire was used for data gathering. Statistical analysis was performed using χ2, Student t-test, Spearman's correlation coefficient, and logistic regression analysis. Urban health professionals were significantly more motivated and job satisfied than respondents from rural area. In relation to work motivation factors and job satisfaction of health professionals in urban and rural areas, there were no significant differences in working conditions and current equipment, and in terms of job satisfaction there were no significant differences in relation to income either. In order to increase the level of work motivation and job satisfaction of health workers in rural areas, apart from better income, they should get more assistance and support from their supervisors, and awards for good job performance; interpersonal relationships, promotion and advancement opportunities, managerial performance and cooperation at work should be improved; employment security should be provided, as well as more independence at work, with professional supervision of health workers.

  8. The relationship between leadership style and health worker motivation, job satisfaction and teamwork in Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musinguzi, Conrad; Namale, Leticia; Rutebemberwa, Elizeus; Dahal, Aruna; Nahirya-Ntege, Patricia; Kekitiinwa, Adeodata

    2018-01-01

    Background Leadership is key to strengthening performance of Health Systems. Leadership styles are important organizational antecedents, especially in influencing employee’s motivation, job satisfaction, and teamwork. There is limited research exploring this relationship among health workers in resource-limited settings such as Uganda. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between transformational, transactional, and laissez-faire leadership styles and motivation, job satisfaction, and teamwork of health workers in Uganda. Method We conducted a cross-sectional study in 3 geographic regions of Uganda in November 2015, using self-administered questionnaires with 564 health workers from 228 health facilities. Data were collected on health workers’ perception of leadership styles displayed by their facility leaders, their level of motivation, job satisfaction, and team work. Using Pearson correlation, relationships among variables were identified and associations of the components of leadership styles with motivation, job satisfaction, and teamwork was found using multivariable logistic regression. Results Health workers in Uganda preferred leaders who were transformational (62%) compared with being transactional (42%) or laissez-faire (14%). Transformational leadership was positively correlated with motivation (r=0.32), job satisfaction (r=0.38), and team work (r=0.48), while transactional leadership was positively correlated with job satisfaction (r=0.21) and teamwork (r=0.18). Motivation was positively associated with leaders who displayed idealized influence-behavior (odds ratio [OR]=3.7; 95% CI, 1.33–10.48) and intellectual stimulation (OR=2.4; 95% CI, 1.13–5.15) but negatively associated with management by exception (OR=0.4; 95% CI, 0.19–0.82). Job satisfaction was positively associated with intellectual stimulation (OR=5.7; 95% CI, 1.83–17.79). Teamwork was positively associated with idealized influence-behavior (OR=1.07–8

  9. Incentives for retaining and motivating health workers in Pacific and Asian countries

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    Tulloch Jim

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper was initiated by the Australian Agency for International Development (AusAID after identifying the need for an in-depth synthesis and analysis of available literature and information on incentives for retaining health workers in the Asia-Pacific region. The objectives of this paper are to: 1. Highlight the situation of health workers in Pacific and Asian countries to gain a better understanding of the contributing factors to health worker motivation, dissatisfaction and migration. 2. Examine the regional and global evidence on initiatives to retain a competent and motivated health workforce, especially in rural and remote areas. 3. Suggest ways to address the shortages of health workers in Pacific and Asian countries by using incentives. The review draws on literature and information gathered through a targeted search of websites and databases. Additional reports were gathered through AusAID country offices, UN agencies, and non-government organizations. The severe shortage of health workers in Pacific and Asian countries is a critical issue that must be addressed through policy, planning and implementation of innovative strategies – such as incentives – for retaining and motivating health workers. While economic factors play a significant role in the decisions of workers to remain in the health sector, evidence demonstrates that they are not the only factors. Research findings from the Asia-Pacific region indicate that salaries and benefits, together with working conditions, supervision and management, and education and training opportunities are important. The literature highlights the importance of packaging financial and non-financial incentives. Each country facing shortages of health workers needs to identify the underlying reasons for the shortages, determine what motivates health workers to remain in the health sector, and evaluate the incentives required for maintaining a competent and motivated health workforce

  10. The match between motivation and performance management of health sector workers in Mali

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    Touré Hamadassalia

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Human resources for health (HRH play a central role in improving accessibility to services and quality of care. Their motivation influences this. In Mali, operational research was conducted to identify the match between motivation and the range and use of performance management activities. Objectives To describe the factors motivating and demotivating health workers in Mali and match the motivators with the implementation of performance management. Methods First an exploratory qualitative study was conducted: 28 interviews and eight group discussions were held. This was followed by a cross-sectional survey, during which 370 health workers were interviewed. The study population consisted of health workers of eight professional groups. The following issues were investigated: • motivating and demotivating factors; • experiences with performance management, including: job descriptions, continuous education, supervision, performance appraisal and career development. Findings The study showed that the main motivators of health workers were related to responsibility, training and recognition, next to salary. These can be influenced by performance management (job descriptions, supervisions, continuous education and performance appraisal. Performance management is not optimally implemented in Mali, as job descriptions were not present or were inappropriate; only 13% of interviewees received 4× per year supervision, and training needs were not analysed. Some 48% of the interviewees knew their performance had been appraised in the last two years; the appraisals were perceived as subjective. No other methods were in place to show recognition. The results enabled the research team to propose adaptations or improvements upon existing performance management. Conclusion The results showed the importance of adapting or improving upon performance management strategies to influence staff motivation. This can be done by matching performance management

  11. Pushing the boundaries of research on human resources for health: fresh approaches to understanding health worker motivation.

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    Bhatnagar, Aarushi; Scott, Kerry; Govender, Veloshnee; George, Asha

    2018-04-01

    A country's health workforce plays a vital role not only in serving the health needs of the population but also in supporting economic prosperity. Moreover, a well-funded and well-supported health workforce is vital to achieving universal health coverage and Sustainable Development Goal 3 to ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages. This perspective article highlights the potential of underutilized health policy and systems research (HPSR) approaches for developing more effective human resources for health policy. The example of health worker motivation is used to showcase four types of HPSR (exploratory, influence, explanatory and emancipatory) that move beyond describing the extent of a problem. Most of the current literature aiming to understand determinants and dynamics of motivation is descriptive in nature. While this is an important basis for all research pursuits, it often gives little information about mechanisms to improve motivation and strategies for intervention. Motivation is an essential determinant of health worker performance, particularly for those working in difficult conditions, such as those facing many health workers in low- and middle-income countries. Motivation mediates health workforce performance in multiple ways: internally governing health worker behaviour; informing decisions on becoming a health worker; workplace location and ability to perform; and influencing willingness to engage politically. The four fresh research approaches described can help policy-makers better understand why health workers behave the way they do, how interventions can improve performance, the mechanisms that lead to change, and strategies for empowering health workers to be agents of change themselves.

  12. Factors influencing motivation and job satisfaction among supervisors of community health workers in marginalized communities in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Akintola, Olagoke; Chikoko, Gamuchirai

    2016-01-01

    Background Management and supervision of community health workers are factors that are?critical to the success of community health worker programmes. Yet few studies have explored the perspectives of supervisors in these programmes. This study explored factors influencing motivations of supervisors in community health worker programmes. Methods We conducted qualitative interviews with 26 programme staff providing supervision to community health workers in eight community-based organizations i...

  13. Motivation of health workers and associated factors in public hospitals of West Amhara, Northwest Ethiopia

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    Weldegebriel Z

    2016-02-01

    burnout scale. Professional category, age, type of the hospital, nonfinancial motivators like performance evaluation and management, staffing and work schedule, staff development and promotion, availability of necessary resources, and ease of communication were found to be strong predictors of health worker motivation. Across the hospitals and professional categories, health workers’ overall level of motivation with absolute level of compensation was not significantly associated with their overall level of motivation.  Conclusion: The strongest drivers of all motivation dimensions were found to be nonfinancial human resource management tools, so policy makers and health workforce stake holders should focus on these tools to alleviate motivation problems. Keywords: motivation, health workers, public hospitals, West Amhara, Northwest Ethiopia

  14. Job satisfaction and motivation of health workers in public and private sectors: cross-sectional analysis from two Indian states.

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    Peters, David H; Chakraborty, Subrata; Mahapatra, Prasanta; Steinhardt, Laura

    2010-11-25

    Ensuring health worker job satisfaction and motivation are important if health workers are to be retained and effectively deliver health services in many developing countries, whether they work in the public or private sector. The objectives of the paper are to identify important aspects of health worker satisfaction and motivation in two Indian states working in public and private sectors. Cross-sectional surveys of 1916 public and private sector health workers in Andhra Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh, India, were conducted using a standardized instrument to identify health workers' satisfaction with key work factors related to motivation. Ratings were compared with how important health workers consider these factors. There was high variability in the ratings for areas of satisfaction and motivation across the different practice settings, but there were also commonalities. Four groups of factors were identified, with those relating to job content and work environment viewed as the most important characteristics of the ideal job, and rated higher than a good income. In both states, public sector health workers rated "good employment benefits" as significantly more important than private sector workers, as well as a "superior who recognizes work". There were large differences in whether these factors were considered present on the job, particularly between public and private sector health workers in Uttar Pradesh, where the public sector fared consistently lower (P public sector, where all 17 items had greater discordance for public sector workers than for workers in the private sector (P < 0.001). There are common areas of health worker motivation that should be considered by managers and policy makers, particularly the importance of non-financial motivators such as working environment and skill development opportunities. But managers also need to focus on the importance of locally assessing conditions and managing incentives to ensure health workers are motivated in

  15. The relationship between leadership style and health worker motivation, job satisfaction and teamwork in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musinguzi C

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Conrad Musinguzi,1 Leticia Namale,1 Elizeus Rutebemberwa,2 Aruna Dahal,1 Patricia Nahirya-Ntege,1 Adeodata Kekitiinwa1 1Directorate of Health Systems Strengthening, Baylor College of Medicine Children’s Foundation, Kampala, Uganda; 2Department of Health Policy, Planning and Management, School of Public Health Uganda, College of Health Sciences, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda Background: Leadership is key to strengthening performance of Health Systems. Leadership styles are important organizational antecedents, especially in influencing employee’s motivation, job satisfaction, and teamwork. There is limited research exploring this relationship among health workers in resource-limited settings such as Uganda. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between transformational, transactional, and laissez-faire leadership styles and motivation, job satisfaction, and teamwork of health workers in Uganda. Method: We conducted a cross-sectional study in 3 geographic regions of Uganda in November 2015, using self-administered questionnaires with 564 health workers from 228 health facilities. Data were collected on health workers’ perception of leadership styles displayed by their facility leaders, their level of motivation, job satisfaction, and team work. Using Pearson correlation, relationships among variables were identified and associations of the components of leadership styles with motivation, job satisfaction, and teamwork was found using multivariable logistic regression. Results: Health workers in Uganda preferred leaders who were transformational (62% compared with being transactional (42% or laissez-faire (14%. Transformational leadership was positively correlated with motivation (r=0.32, job satisfaction (r=0.38, and team work (r=0.48, while transactional leadership was positively correlated with job satisfaction (r=0.21 and teamwork (r=0.18. Motivation was positively associated with leaders who displayed idealized

  16. Listening to the rural health workers in Papua New Guinea - the social factors that influence their motivation to work.

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    Razee, Husna; Whittaker, Maxine; Jayasuriya, Rohan; Yap, Lorraine; Brentnall, Lee

    2012-09-01

    Despite rural health services being situated and integrated within communities in which people work and live, the complex interaction of the social environment on health worker motivation and performance in Low Middle Income Countries has been neglected in research. In this article we investigate how social factors impact on health worker motivation and performance in rural health services in Papua New Guinea (PNG). Face-to-face in-depth interviews were conducted with 33 health workers from three provinces (Central, Madang, and Milne Bay) in PNG between August and November 2009. They included health extension officers, community health workers and nursing officers, some of whom were in charge of the health centres. The health centres were a selection across church based, government and private enterprise health facilities. Qualitative analysis identified the key social factors impacting on health worker motivation and performance to be the local community context, gender roles and family related issues, safety and security and health beliefs and attitudes of patients and community members. Our study identified the importance of strong supportive communities on health worker motivation. These findings have implications for developing sustainable strategies for motivation and performance enhancement of rural health workers in resource poor settings. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Job satisfaction and motivation of health workers in public and private sectors: cross-sectional analysis from two Indian states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahapatra Prasanta

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ensuring health worker job satisfaction and motivation are important if health workers are to be retained and effectively deliver health services in many developing countries, whether they work in the public or private sector. The objectives of the paper are to identify important aspects of health worker satisfaction and motivation in two Indian states working in public and private sectors. Methods Cross-sectional surveys of 1916 public and private sector health workers in Andhra Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh, India, were conducted using a standardized instrument to identify health workers' satisfaction with key work factors related to motivation. Ratings were compared with how important health workers consider these factors. Results There was high variability in the ratings for areas of satisfaction and motivation across the different practice settings, but there were also commonalities. Four groups of factors were identified, with those relating to job content and work environment viewed as the most important characteristics of the ideal job, and rated higher than a good income. In both states, public sector health workers rated "good employment benefits" as significantly more important than private sector workers, as well as a "superior who recognizes work". There were large differences in whether these factors were considered present on the job, particularly between public and private sector health workers in Uttar Pradesh, where the public sector fared consistently lower (P P Conclusion There are common areas of health worker motivation that should be considered by managers and policy makers, particularly the importance of non-financial motivators such as working environment and skill development opportunities. But managers also need to focus on the importance of locally assessing conditions and managing incentives to ensure health workers are motivated in their work.

  18. Linking Emotional Labor, Public Service Motivation, and Job Satisfaction: Social Workers in Health Care Settings.

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    Roh, Chul-Young; Moon, M Jae; Yang, Seung-Bum; Jung, Kwangho

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the determinants of emotional laborers'--social workers in health care organizations--job satisfaction and their public service motivation in using a structural equation model and provides empirical evidence regarding what contributes to job satisfaction or burnout in these workers. Among several latent variables, this study confirmed that false face significantly decreases the job satisfaction of social worker and is positively associated with burnout. In addition, commitment to public interest increases social workers' job satisfaction significantly. This study has implications for the management of emotional labor. By educating emotional laborers to reappraise situations to increase their job satisfaction and avoid burnout, reappraisal training and education are expected to result in increases in positive emotions and decreases in negative emotions, and to improve employees' performance in their organizations.

  19. Motivation of health workers and associated factors in public hospitals of West Amhara, Northwest Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weldegebriel, Zemichael; Ejigu, Yohannes; Weldegebreal, Fitsum; Woldie, Mirkuzie

    2016-01-01

    Health professionals' motivation reflects the interaction between health professionals and their work environment. It can potentially affect the provision of health services; however, this important attribute of the workplace climate in public hospitals is not usually given serious attention to the desired level. For this reason, the authors of this study have assessed the level of motivation of health professionals and associated factors in public hospitals of West Amhara, Northwest Ethiopia. A facility based cross-sectional study was conducted in eight public hospitals of West Amhara from June 1 to July 30, 2013. A total of 304 health professionals were included in this study. The collected data were analyzed using SPSS software version 20. The reliability of the instrument was assessed through Cronbach's α. Factor scores were generated for the items found to represent the scales (eigenvalue greater than one in varimax rotation) used in the measurement of the variables. The scores were further analyzed using one-way analysis of variance, t-tests, Pearson's correlation, and hierarchical multiple linear regression analyses. The cut-off point for the regression analysis to determine significance was set at β (95% confidence interval, Pmotivation scores (as the percentage of maximum scale scores) were 58.6% for the overall motivation score, 71.0% for the conscientiousness scale, 52.8% for the organizational commitment scale, 58.3% for the intrinsic motivation scale, and 64.0% for organizational burnout scale. Professional category, age, type of the hospital, nonfinancial motivators like performance evaluation and management, staffing and work schedule, staff development and promotion, availability of necessary resources, and ease of communication were found to be strong predictors of health worker motivation. Across the hospitals and professional categories, health workers' overall level of motivation with absolute level of compensation was not significantly

  20. Barriers and motivators affecting tuberculosis infection control practices of Russian health care workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woith, W; Volchenkov, G; Larson, J

    2012-08-01

    Five in-patient and out-patient tuberculosis (TB) care facilities in two regions of Russia. To identify barriers and motivators to the use of infection control measures among Russian TB health care workers. In this qualitative study, a convenience sample of 96 health care workers (HCWs) was used to generate 15 homogeneous focus groups, consisting of physicians, nurses, and laboratory or support staff. Barriers and motivators related to knowledge, attitudes and beliefs, and practices were identified. The three main barriers were 1) knowledge deficits, including the belief that TB was transmitted by dust, linens and eating utensils; 2) negative attitudes related to the discomfort of respirators; and 3) practices with respect to quality and care of respirators. Education and training, fear of infecting loved ones, and fear of punishment were the main motivators. Our results point to the need for evaluation of current educational programs. Positive health promotion messages that appeal to fear might also be successful in promoting TB infection control. Individualized rewards based on personal motivators or group rewards that build on collectivist theory could be explored.

  1. Motivation and satisfaction among community health workers in Morogoro Region, Tanzania: nuanced needs and varied ambitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mpembeni, Rose N M; Bhatnagar, Aarushi; LeFevre, Amnesty; Chitama, Dereck; Urassa, David P; Kilewo, Charles; Mdee, Rebecca M; Semu, Helen; Winch, Peter J; Killewo, Japhet; Baqui, Abdullah H; George, Asha

    2015-06-05

    In 2012, the Ministry of Health and Social Welfare (MOHSW), Tanzania, approved national guidelines and training materials for community health workers (CHWs) in integrated maternal, newborn and child health (Integrated MNCH), with CHWs trained and deployed across five districts of Morogoro Region soon after. To inform future scale up, this study assessed motivation and satisfaction among these CHWs. A survey of all CHWs trained by the Integrated MNCH Programme was conducted in the last quarter of 2013. Motivation and satisfaction were assessed using a five-point Likert scale with 29 and 27 items based on a literature review and discussions with CHW programme stakeholders. Exploratory factor analysis was conducted to identify motivation and satisfaction determinants. Out of 238 eligible CHWs, 96 % were included in the study. Findings showed that respondents were motivated to become CHWs due to altruism (work on MNCH, desire to serve God, work hard) and intrinsic needs (help community, improve health, pride) than due to external stimuli (monetary incentives, skill utilization, community respect or hope for employment). CHWs were satisfied by relationships with health workers and communities, job aids and the capacity to provide services. CHWs were dissatisfied with the lack of transportation, communication devices and financial incentives for carrying out their tasks. Factors influencing motivation and satisfaction did not differ across CHW socio-demographic characteristics. Nonetheless, older and less educated CHWs were more likely to be motivated by altruism, intrinsic needs and skill utilization, community respect and hope for employment. Less educated CHWs were more satisfied with service and quality factors and more wealthy CHWs satisfied with job aids. A combination of financial and non-financial incentives is required to support motivation and satisfaction among CHWs. Although CHWs joined mainly due to their altruistic nature, they became discontented with

  2. 203: THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN LEADERSHIP STYLES AND HEALTH WORKER MOTIVATION, TEAMWORK AND JOB SATISFACTION IN HEALTH FACILITIES IN UGANDA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musinguzi, Conrad; Rutebemberwa, Elizeus; Namale, Leticia; Dahal, Aruna

    2017-01-01

    Background and aims Some studies have shown that poor leadership is associated with lack of effective teamwork and a demotivated workforce leading to poor service delivery. There is scanty data in Uganda on how leadership styles relate to service delivery. This study was done to identify the leadership style in health facilities in Uganda and their relationship with health workers' motivation, job satisfaction and teamwork. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in eastern, Rwenzori and west Nile regions of Uganda in November 2015 using self-administered questionnaires distributed and picked the same day from 564 health workers in 270 health facilities. These questionnaires collected information on the health workers' perception of leadership styles of their facility in-charges, their level of motivation and job satisfaction; and the level of team work. Factor analysis was used to identify and confirm latent variables for constructs on leadership styles, motivation, job satisfaction and team work. Relationships were assessed using Pearson correlation. Results A total of 368/564 (64.3%) health workers indicated that transformational leadership was frequent or fairly often, while for transactional leadership it was 304/564 (54.4%) and laissez faire, it was 64/564 (11.4%). There was high correlation between transformational leadership with job satisfaction (r=0.31) and team work (r=0.47) and less correlation with motivation (r=0.18). Transactional leadership was highly correlated with teamwork (r=0.45) but low correlation with motivation (r=0.20) and job satisfaction (r=0.25). Laissez was negatively correlated with motivation at (r=−0.0002), job satisfaction (r=−0.21) and team work (r=−0.19). Conclusion Health workers who perceived their leaders to display transformational leadership had a strong likelihood of being satisfied with their jobs and working in teams. However, those who perceived their in-charges as having a laissez faire leadership style were

  3. Motivating health workers up to a limit: partial effects of performance-based financing on working environments in Nigeria.

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    Bhatnagar, Aarushi; George, Asha S

    2016-09-01

    In 2012, the Nigerian government launched performance-based financing (PBF) in three districts providing financial incentives to health workers based on the quantity and quality of service provision. They were given autonomy to use funds for operational costs and performance bonuses. This study aims to understand changes in perceived motivation among health workers with the introduction of PBF in Wamba district, Nigeria. The study used a qualitative research design to compare perceptions of health workers in facilities receiving PBF payments in the pilot district of Wamba to those that were not. In-depth semi-structured interviews (n = 39) were conducted with health workers from PBF and non-PBF facilities along with managers of the PBF project. Framework analysis was used to identify patterns and variations in responses. Facility records were collated and triangulated with qualitative data. Health workers receiving PBF payments reported to be 'awakened' by performance bonuses and improved working environments including routine supportive supervision and availability of essential drugs. They recounted being more punctual, hard working and proud of providing better services to their communities. In comparison, health workers in non-PBF facilities complained about the dearth of basic equipment and lack of motivating strategies. However, health workers from both sets of facilities considered there to be a severe shortage of manpower resulting in excessive workload, fatigue and general dissatisfaction. PBF strategies can succeed in motivating health workers by bringing about a change in incentives and working conditions. However, such programmes need to be aligned with human resource reforms including timely recruitment and appropriate distribution of health workers to prevent burn out and attrition. As people working on the frontline of constrained health systems, health workers are responsive to improved incentives and working conditions, but need more

  4. Measuring health workers' motivation composition: validation of a scale based on Self-Determination Theory in Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohmann, Julia; Souares, Aurélia; Tiendrebéogo, Justin; Houlfort, Nathalie; Robyn, Paul Jacob; Somda, Serge M A; De Allegri, Manuela

    2017-05-22

    Although motivation of health workers in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) has become a topic of increasing interest by policy makers and researchers in recent years, many aspects are not well understood to date. This is partly due to a lack of appropriate measurement instruments. This article presents evidence on the construct validity of a psychometric scale developed to measure motivation composition, i.e., the extent to which motivation of different origin within and outside of a person contributes to their overall work motivation. It is theoretically grounded in Self-Determination Theory (SDT). We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 1142 nurses in 522 government health facilities in 24 districts of Burkina Faso. We assessed the scale's validity in a confirmatory factor analysis framework, investigating whether the scale measures what it was intended to measure (content, structural, and convergent/discriminant validity) and whether it does so equally well across health worker subgroups (measurement invariance). Our results show that the scale measures a slightly modified version of the SDT continuum of motivation well. Measurements were overall comparable between subgroups, but results indicate that caution is warranted if a comparison of motivation scores between groups is the focus of analysis. The scale is a valuable addition to the repository of measurement tools for health worker motivation in LMICs. We expect it to prove useful in the quest for a more comprehensive understanding of motivation as well as of the effects and potential side effects of interventions intended to enhance motivation.

  5. Motivating and demotivating factors for community health workers: A qualitative study in urban slums of Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Mathew Sunil; Pant, Shradha; Devasenapathy, Niveditha; Ghosh-Jerath, Suparna; Zodpey, Sanjay P

    2017-04-01

    Background Community health workers play an important role in delivering health-care services, especially to underserved populations in low- and middle-income countries. They have been shown to be successful in providing a range of preventive, promotive and curative services. This qualitative study investigated the factors motivating or demotivating community health workers in urban settings in Delhi, India. Methods In this sub-study of the ANCHUL (Ante Natal and Child Healthcare in Urban Slums) implementation research project, four focus-group discussions and nine in-depth interviews were conducted with community health workers and medical officers. Utilizing a reflexive and inductive qualitative methodology, the data set was coded, to allow categories of motivating and demotivating factors to emerge. Results Motivating factors identified were: support from family members for their work, improved self-identity, job satisfaction and a sense of social responsibility, prior experiences of ill health, the opportunity to acquire new skills and knowledge, social recognition and status conferred by the community, and flexible work and timings. Negative experiences in the community and at health centres, constraints in the local health system in response to the demand generated by the community health workers, and poor pay demotivated community health workers in this study, even causing some to quit their jobs. Conclusion Community-health-worker programmes that focus on ensuring the technical capacity of their staff may not give adequate attention to the factors that motivate or discourage these workers. As efforts get under way to ensure universal access to health care, it is important that these issues are recognized and addressed, to ensure that community health worker programmes are effective and sustainable.

  6. Keeping community health workers in Uganda motivated: key challenges, facilitators, and preferred program inputs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunie, Aurélie; Wamala-Mucheri, Patricia; Otterness, Conrad; Akol, Angela; Chen, Mario; Bufumbo, Leonard; Weaver, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: In the face of global health worker shortages, community health workers (CHWs) are an important health care delivery strategy for underserved populations. In Uganda, community-based programs often use volunteer CHWs to extend services, including family planning, in rural areas. This study examined factors related to CHW motivation and level of activity in 3 family planning programs in Uganda. Methods: Data were collected between July and August 2011, and sources comprised 183 surveys with active CHWs, in-depth interviews (IDIs) with 43 active CHWs and 5 former CHWs, and service statistics records. Surveys included a discrete choice experiment (DCE) to elicit CHW preferences for selected program inputs. Results: Service statistics indicated an average of 56 visits with family planning clients per surveyed CHW over the 3-month period prior to data collection. In the survey, new skills and knowledge, perceived impact on the community, and enhanced status were the main positive aspects of the job reported by CHWs; the main challenges related to transportation. Multivariate analyses identified 2 correlates of CHWs being highly vs. less active (in terms of number of client visits): experiencing problems with supplies and not collaborating with peers. DCE results showed that provision of a package including a T-shirt, badge, and bicycle was the program input CHWs preferred, followed by a mobile phone (without airtime). IDI data reinforced and supplemented these quantitative findings. Social prestige, social responsibility, and aspirations for other opportunities were important motivators, while main challenges related to transportation and commodity stockouts. CHWs had complex motivations for wanting better compensation, including offsetting time and transportation costs, providing for their families, and feeling appreciated for their efforts. Conclusion: Volunteer CHW programs in Uganda and elsewhere need to carefully consider appropriate combinations of

  7. Health worker (internal customer) satisfaction and motivation in the public sector in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agyepong, Irene Akua; Anafi, Patricia; Asiamah, Ebenezer; Ansah, Evelyn K; Ashon, Daniel A; Narh-Dometey, Christiana

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes factors affecting health worker motivation and satisfaction in the public sector in Ghana. The data are from a survey of public sector health care providers carried out in January 2002 and repeated in August 2003 using an interviewer administered structured questionnaire. It is part of a continuous quality improvement (CQI) effort in the health sector in the Greater Accra region of Ghana. Workplace obstacles identified that caused dissatisfaction and de-motivated staff in order of the most frequently mentioned were low salaries such that obtaining basic necessities of daily living becomes a problem; lack of essential equipment, tools and supplies to work with; delayed promotions; difficulties and inconveniences with transportation to work; staff shortages; housing, additional duty allowances and in-service (continuous) training. Others included children's education, vehicles to work with such as ambulances and pickups, staff transfer procedures, staff pre-service education inadequate for job requirements, and the effect of the job on family and other social factors. There were some differences in the percentages of staff selecting a given workplace obstacle between the purely rural districts, the highly urbanized Accra metropolis and the districts that were a mixture of urbanized and rural. It is unlikely that the Ghana Health Service can provide high quality of care to its end users (external customers) if workplace obstacles that de-motivate staff (internal customers) and negatively influence their performance are not properly recognized and addressed as a complex of inter-related problems producing a common result--dissatisfied poorly motivated staff and resulting poor quality services.

  8. The effects of health worker motivation and job satisfaction on turnover intention in Ghana: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonenberger, Marc; Aikins, Moses; Akweongo, Patricia; Wyss, Kaspar

    2014-08-09

    Motivation and job satisfaction have been identified as key factors for health worker retention and turnover in low- and middle-income countries. District health managers in decentralized health systems usually have a broadened 'decision space' that enables them to positively influence health worker motivation and job satisfaction, which in turn impacts on retention and performance at district-level. The study explored the effects of motivation and job satisfaction on turnover intention and how motivation and satisfaction can be improved by district health managers in order to increase retention of health workers. We conducted a cross-sectional survey in three districts of the Eastern Region in Ghana and interviewed 256 health workers from several staff categories (doctors, nursing professionals, allied health workers and pharmacists) on their intentions to leave their current health facilities as well as their perceptions on various aspects of motivation and job satisfaction. The effects of motivation and job satisfaction on turnover intention were explored through logistic regression analysis. Overall, 69% of the respondents reported to have turnover intentions. Motivation (OR = 0.74, 95% CI: 0.60 to 0.92) and job satisfaction (OR = 0.74, 95% CI: 0.57 to 0.96) were significantly associated with turnover intention and higher levels of both reduced the risk of health workers having this intention. The dimensions of motivation and job satisfaction significantly associated with turnover intention included career development (OR = 0.56, 95% CI: 0.36 to 0.86), workload (OR = 0.58, 95% CI: 0.34 to 0.99), management (OR = 0.51. 95% CI: 0.30 to 0.84), organizational commitment (OR = 0.36, 95% CI: 0.19 to 0.66), and burnout (OR = 0.59, 95% CI: 0.39 to 0.91). Our findings indicate that effective human resource management practices at district level influence health worker motivation and job satisfaction, thereby reducing the likelihood for

  9. The effects of health worker motivation and job satisfaction on turnover intention in Ghana: a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Motivation and job satisfaction have been identified as key factors for health worker retention and turnover in low- and middle-income countries. District health managers in decentralized health systems usually have a broadened ‘decision space’ that enables them to positively influence health worker motivation and job satisfaction, which in turn impacts on retention and performance at district-level. The study explored the effects of motivation and job satisfaction on turnover intention and how motivation and satisfaction can be improved by district health managers in order to increase retention of health workers. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional survey in three districts of the Eastern Region in Ghana and interviewed 256 health workers from several staff categories (doctors, nursing professionals, allied health workers and pharmacists) on their intentions to leave their current health facilities as well as their perceptions on various aspects of motivation and job satisfaction. The effects of motivation and job satisfaction on turnover intention were explored through logistic regression analysis. Results Overall, 69% of the respondents reported to have turnover intentions. Motivation (OR = 0.74, 95% CI: 0.60 to 0.92) and job satisfaction (OR = 0.74, 95% CI: 0.57 to 0.96) were significantly associated with turnover intention and higher levels of both reduced the risk of health workers having this intention. The dimensions of motivation and job satisfaction significantly associated with turnover intention included career development (OR = 0.56, 95% CI: 0.36 to 0.86), workload (OR = 0.58, 95% CI: 0.34 to 0.99), management (OR = 0.51. 95% CI: 0.30 to 0.84), organizational commitment (OR = 0.36, 95% CI: 0.19 to 0.66), and burnout (OR = 0.59, 95% CI: 0.39 to 0.91). Conclusions Our findings indicate that effective human resource management practices at district level influence health worker motivation and job satisfaction

  10. 'Your health our concern, our health whose concern?': perceptions of injustice in organizational relationships and processes and frontline health worker motivation in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aberese-Ako, Matilda; van Dijk, Han; Gerrits, Trudie; Arhinful, Daniel Kojo; Agyepong, Irene Akua

    2014-09-01

    Taking a perspective of frontline health workers as internal clients within health systems, this study explored how perceived injustice in policy and organizational matters influence frontline health worker motivation and the consequent effect on workers' attitudes and performance in delivering maternal and neonatal health care in public hospitals. It consisted of an ethnographic study in two public hospitals in Southern Ghana. Participant observation, conversation and in-depth interviews were conducted over a 16-month period. Ethical approval and consent were obtained from relevant persons and authorities. Qualitative analysis software Nvivo 8 was used for coding and analysis of data. Main themes identified in the analysis form the basis for interpreting and reporting study findings. Findings showed that most workers perceived injustice in distributive, procedural and interactional dimensions at various levels in the health system. At the national policy level this included poor conditions of service. At the hospital level, it included perceived inequity in distribution of incentives, lack of protection and respect for workers. These influenced frontline worker motivation negatively and sometimes led to poor response to client needs. However, intrinsically motivated workers overcame these challenges and responded positively to clients' health care needs. It is important to recognize and conceptualize frontline workers in health systems as internal clients of the facilities and organizations within which they work. Their quality needs must be adequately met if they are to be highly motivated and supported to provide quality and responsive care to their clients. Meeting these quality needs of internal clients and creating a sense of fairness in governance arrangements between frontline workers, facilities and health system managers is crucial. Consequently, intervention measures such as creating more open door policies, involving frontline workers in decision making

  11. ‘Your health our concern, our health whose concern?’: perceptions of injustice in organizational relationships and processes and frontline health worker motivation in Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, Han; Gerrits, Trudie; Arhinful, Daniel Kojo; Agyepong, Irene Akua

    2014-01-01

    Taking a perspective of frontline health workers as internal clients within health systems, this study explored how perceived injustice in policy and organizational matters influence frontline health worker motivation and the consequent effect on workers’ attitudes and performance in delivering maternal and neonatal health care in public hospitals. It consisted of an ethnographic study in two public hospitals in Southern Ghana. Participant observation, conversation and in-depth interviews were conducted over a 16-month period. Ethical approval and consent were obtained from relevant persons and authorities. Qualitative analysis software Nvivo 8 was used for coding and analysis of data. Main themes identified in the analysis form the basis for interpreting and reporting study findings. Findings showed that most workers perceived injustice in distributive, procedural and interactional dimensions at various levels in the health system. At the national policy level this included poor conditions of service. At the hospital level, it included perceived inequity in distribution of incentives, lack of protection and respect for workers. These influenced frontline worker motivation negatively and sometimes led to poor response to client needs. However, intrinsically motivated workers overcame these challenges and responded positively to clients’ health care needs. It is important to recognize and conceptualize frontline workers in health systems as internal clients of the facilities and organizations within which they work. Their quality needs must be adequately met if they are to be highly motivated and supported to provide quality and responsive care to their clients. Meeting these quality needs of internal clients and creating a sense of fairness in governance arrangements between frontline workers, facilities and health system managers is crucial. Consequently, intervention measures such as creating more open door policies, involving frontline workers in decision

  12. Mammography Screening Uptake among Female Health Care Workers in Primary Health Care Centers in Palestine - Motivators and Barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazzal, Zaher; Sholi, Hisham; Sholi, Suha; Sholi, Mohammad; Lahaseh, Rawya

    2016-01-01

    Early detection remains the cornerstone of breast cancer control in terms of outcome and survival. Thus far the only breast cancer screening method proven effective is mammography. The awareness of female health care workers (HCW) about breast cancer prevention is of vital importance, as their beliefs and behavior may have a major impact on other women. This study was designed to assess mammography screening uptake among female healthcare workers at primary healthcare centers, and to identify the primary motivators and barriers that affect uptake results. A cross sectional study design was used to assess mammography screening by 299 female healthcare workers who completed a self-administered questionnaire that assessed demographics, screening uptake, motivators and barriers. The mean age was 46 years (within age of risk). The majority (95.1%) demonstrated adequate knowledge about breast cancer and mammography screening and 50% of the participants reported having at least one mammogram; however only 21% of them had regularly scheduled mammograms. The most frequent reported motivator was the perceived benefit that early detection of breast cancer is important for its management (89.6%), followed by the belief that mammography can detect breast cancer before its symptoms appear (84.4%). On the other hand, the most frequent barrier reported was being busy (46.7%), followed by the lack of perceived susceptibility (41.5%). Mammography screening was found to be sub-optimal in a population of HCW's with 50 % stating that they received a mammogram at least once, and a minority reported regular screening. There is a pressing need for educational programs aimed at removing the barriers that limit compliance with recommendations for mammography screening, and to emphasize the importance of early detection in breast cancer treatment. Ensuring the availability and accessibility of screening services, particularly for healthcare workers within their work settings are other

  13. Motivating the Knowledge Worker

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Herzberg . The Two - factor Theory asserts that motivators and de-motivators are mutually exclusive sets of factors . This research supports...various theories of motivation and the data collected from this effort, the author developed a two -dimensional model of the factors that motivate... Theory X/ Theory Y Two - factor Theory Cognitive Evaluation Theory Operant Conditioning Protection Motivation Theory

  14. Health worker motivation in Africa: the role of non-financial incentives and human resource management tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imhoff Ingo

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a serious human resource crisis in the health sector in developing countries, particularly in Africa. One of the challenges is the low motivation of health workers. Experience and the evidence suggest that any comprehensive strategy to maximize health worker motivation in a developing country context has to involve a mix of financial and non-financial incentives. This study assesses the role of non-financial incentives for motivation in two cases, in Benin and Kenya. Methods The study design entailed semi-structured qualitative interviews with doctors and nurses from public, private and NGO facilities in rural areas. The selection of health professionals was the result of a layered sampling process. In Benin 62 interviews with health professionals were carried out; in Kenya 37 were obtained. Results from individual interviews were backed up with information from focus group discussions. For further contextual information, interviews with civil servants in the Ministry of Health and at the district level were carried out. The interview material was coded and quantitative data was analysed with SPSS software. Results and discussion The study shows that health workers overall are strongly guided by their professional conscience and similar aspects related to professional ethos. In fact, many health workers are demotivated and frustrated precisely because they are unable to satisfy their professional conscience and impeded in pursuing their vocation due to lack of means and supplies and due to inadequate or inappropriately applied human resources management (HRM tools. The paper also indicates that even some HRM tools that are applied may adversely affect the motivation of health workers. Conclusion The findings confirm the starting hypothesis that non-financial incentives and HRM tools play an important role with respect to increasing motivation of health professionals. Adequate HRM tools can uphold and strengthen the

  15. Health worker motivation in Africa: the role of non-financial incentives and human resource management tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathauer, Inke; Imhoff, Ingo

    2006-08-29

    There is a serious human resource crisis in the health sector in developing countries, particularly in Africa. One of the challenges is the low motivation of health workers. Experience and the evidence suggest that any comprehensive strategy to maximize health worker motivation in a developing country context has to involve a mix of financial and non-financial incentives. This study assesses the role of non-financial incentives for motivation in two cases, in Benin and Kenya. The study design entailed semi-structured qualitative interviews with doctors and nurses from public, private and NGO facilities in rural areas. The selection of health professionals was the result of a layered sampling process. In Benin 62 interviews with health professionals were carried out; in Kenya 37 were obtained. Results from individual interviews were backed up with information from focus group discussions. For further contextual information, interviews with civil servants in the Ministry of Health and at the district level were carried out. The interview material was coded and quantitative data was analysed with SPSS software. The study shows that health workers overall are strongly guided by their professional conscience and similar aspects related to professional ethos. In fact, many health workers are demotivated and frustrated precisely because they are unable to satisfy their professional conscience and impeded in pursuing their vocation due to lack of means and supplies and due to inadequate or inappropriately applied human resources management (HRM) tools. The paper also indicates that even some HRM tools that are applied may adversely affect the motivation of health workers. The findings confirm the starting hypothesis that non-financial incentives and HRM tools play an important role with respect to increasing motivation of health professionals. Adequate HRM tools can uphold and strengthen the professional ethos of doctors and nurses. This entails acknowledging their

  16. Motivation or demotivation of health workers providing maternal health services in rural areas in Vietnam: findings from a mixed-methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thu, Nguyen Thi Hoai; Wilson, Andrew; McDonald, Fiona

    2015-12-02

    Motivation is an important driver for health professionals to maintain their professional competencies, continue in the workforce and make a positive contribution to their workplace. While there is some research about the motivation of health workers in low- to middle-income countries, maternal morbidity and mortality remains high and this can be lowered by improving the quality of maternal health services and the training and maintenance of the skills of maternal health workers. This study examines the impact of motivation on maintenance of professional competence among maternal health workers in Vietnam using mixed methods. The study consisted of a survey using a self-administered questionnaire of 240 health workers in five districts across two Vietnamese provinces and in-depth interviews with 43 health workers and health managers at the commune, district and provincial level to explore external factors that influenced motivation. The questionnaire includes a 23-item motivation instrument based on the Kenyan health context, modified for Vietnamese language and culture. The 240 responses represented an estimated 95% of the target sample. Multivariate analysis showed that three factors contributed to the motivation of health workers: access to training (β = -0.14, P = 0.03), ability to perform key tasks (β = 0.22, P = 0.001) and shift schedule (β = -0.13, P = 0.05). Motivation was higher in health workers self-identifying as competent or who were enabled to provide more maternal care services. Motivation was lower in those who worked more frequent night shifts and those who had received training in the last 12 months. The interviews identified that the latter was because they felt the training was irrelevant to them, and in some cases, they do not have the opportunity to practice their learnt skills. The qualitative data also showed other factors relating to service context and organisational management practices contributed to

  17. Factors influencing motivation and job satisfaction among supervisors of community health workers in marginalized communities in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akintola, Olagoke; Chikoko, Gamuchirai

    2016-09-06

    Management and supervision of community health workers are factors that are critical to the success of community health worker programmes. Yet few studies have explored the perspectives of supervisors in these programmes. This study explored factors influencing motivations of supervisors in community health worker programmes. We conducted qualitative interviews with 26 programme staff providing supervision to community health workers in eight community-based organizations in marginalized communities in the greater Durban area of South Africa from July 2010 to September 2011. Findings show that all the supervisors had previous experience working in the health or social services sectors and most started out as unpaid community health workers. Most of the participants were poor women from marginalized communities. Supervisors' activities include the management and supply of material resources, mentoring and training of community health workers, record keeping and report writing. Supervisors were motivated by intrinsic factors like making a difference and community appreciation and non-monetary incentives such as promotion to supervisory positions; acquisition of management skills; participation in capacity building and the development of programmes; and support for educational advancement like salary, bonuses and medical benefits. Hygiene factors that serve to prevent dissatisfaction are salaries and financial, medical and educational benefits attached to the supervisory position. Demotivating factors identified are patients' non-adherence to health advice and alienation from decision-making. Dissatisfiers include working in crime-prevalent communities, remuneration for community health workers (CHWs), problems with material and logistical resources, job insecurity, work-related stressors and navigating the interface between CHWs and management. While participants were dissatisfied with their low remuneration, they were not demotivated but continued to be motivated

  18. The match between motivation and performance management of health sector workers in Mali

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dieleman, Marjolein; Toonen, Jurrien; Touré, Hamadassalia; Martineau, Tim

    2006-01-01

    UNLABELLED: Human resources for health (HRH) play a central role in improving accessibility to services and quality of care. Their motivation influences this. In Mali, operational research was conducted to identify the match between motivation and the range and use of performance management

  19. Assessing the Impact of Community Engagement Interventions on Health Worker Motivation and Experiences with Clients in Primary Health Facilities in Ghana: A Randomized Cluster Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Kaba Alhassan

    Full Text Available Health worker density per 1000 population in Ghana is one of the lowest in the world estimated to be 2.3, below the global average of 9.3. Low health worker motivation induced by poor working conditions partly explain this challenge. Albeit the wage bill for public sector health workers is about 90% of domestic government expenditure on health in countries such as Ghana, staff motivation and performance output remain a challenge, suggesting the need to complement financial incentives with non-financial incentives through a community-based approach. In this study, a systematic community engagement (SCE intervention was implemented to engage community groups in healthcare quality assessment to promote mutual collaboration between clients and healthcare providers, and enhance health worker motivation levels. SCE involves structured use of existing community groups and associations to assess healthcare quality in health facilities. Identified quality gaps are discussed with healthcare providers, improvements made and rewards given to best performing facilities for closing quality care gaps.To evaluate the effect of SCE interventions on health worker motivation and experiences with clients.The study is a cluster randomized trial involving health workers in private (n = 38 and public (n = 26 primary healthcare facilities in two administrative regions in Ghana. Out of 324 clinical and non-clinical staff randomly interviewed at baseline, 234 (72% were successfully followed at end-line and interviewed on workplace motivation factors and personal experiences with clients. Propensity score matching and difference-in-difference estimations were used to estimate treatment effect of the interventions on staff motivation.Intrinsic (non-financial work incentives including cordiality with clients and perceived career prospects appeared to be prime sources of motivation for health staff interviewed in intervention health facilities while financial incentives were

  20. Assessing the Impact of Community Engagement Interventions on Health Worker Motivation and Experiences with Clients in Primary Health Facilities in Ghana: A Randomized Cluster Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhassan, Robert Kaba; Nketiah-Amponsah, Edward; Spieker, Nicole; Arhinful, Daniel Kojo; Rinke de Wit, Tobias F

    2016-01-01

    Health worker density per 1000 population in Ghana is one of the lowest in the world estimated to be 2.3, below the global average of 9.3. Low health worker motivation induced by poor working conditions partly explain this challenge. Albeit the wage bill for public sector health workers is about 90% of domestic government expenditure on health in countries such as Ghana, staff motivation and performance output remain a challenge, suggesting the need to complement financial incentives with non-financial incentives through a community-based approach. In this study, a systematic community engagement (SCE) intervention was implemented to engage community groups in healthcare quality assessment to promote mutual collaboration between clients and healthcare providers, and enhance health worker motivation levels. SCE involves structured use of existing community groups and associations to assess healthcare quality in health facilities. Identified quality gaps are discussed with healthcare providers, improvements made and rewards given to best performing facilities for closing quality care gaps. To evaluate the effect of SCE interventions on health worker motivation and experiences with clients. The study is a cluster randomized trial involving health workers in private (n = 38) and public (n = 26) primary healthcare facilities in two administrative regions in Ghana. Out of 324 clinical and non-clinical staff randomly interviewed at baseline, 234 (72%) were successfully followed at end-line and interviewed on workplace motivation factors and personal experiences with clients. Propensity score matching and difference-in-difference estimations were used to estimate treatment effect of the interventions on staff motivation. Intrinsic (non-financial) work incentives including cordiality with clients and perceived career prospects appeared to be prime sources of motivation for health staff interviewed in intervention health facilities while financial incentives were ranked

  1. Assessing the Impact of Community Engagement Interventions on Health Worker Motivation and Experiences with Clients in Primary Health Facilities in Ghana: A Randomized Cluster Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhassan, Robert Kaba; Nketiah-Amponsah, Edward; Spieker, Nicole; Arhinful, Daniel Kojo; Rinke de Wit, Tobias F.

    2016-01-01

    Background Health worker density per 1000 population in Ghana is one of the lowest in the world estimated to be 2.3, below the global average of 9.3. Low health worker motivation induced by poor working conditions partly explain this challenge. Albeit the wage bill for public sector health workers is about 90% of domestic government expenditure on health in countries such as Ghana, staff motivation and performance output remain a challenge, suggesting the need to complement financial incentives with non-financial incentives through a community-based approach. In this study, a systematic community engagement (SCE) intervention was implemented to engage community groups in healthcare quality assessment to promote mutual collaboration between clients and healthcare providers, and enhance health worker motivation levels. SCE involves structured use of existing community groups and associations to assess healthcare quality in health facilities. Identified quality gaps are discussed with healthcare providers, improvements made and rewards given to best performing facilities for closing quality care gaps. Purpose To evaluate the effect of SCE interventions on health worker motivation and experiences with clients. Methods The study is a cluster randomized trial involving health workers in private (n = 38) and public (n = 26) primary healthcare facilities in two administrative regions in Ghana. Out of 324 clinical and non-clinical staff randomly interviewed at baseline, 234 (72%) were successfully followed at end-line and interviewed on workplace motivation factors and personal experiences with clients. Propensity score matching and difference-in-difference estimations were used to estimate treatment effect of the interventions on staff motivation. Results Intrinsic (non-financial) work incentives including cordiality with clients and perceived career prospects appeared to be prime sources of motivation for health staff interviewed in intervention health facilities while

  2. How to do (or not to do)… Measuring health worker motivation in surveys in low- and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghi, J; Lohmann, J; Dale, E; Meheus, F; Goudge, J; Oboirien, K; Kuwawenaruwa, A

    2018-03-01

    A health system's ability to deliver quality health care depends on the availability of motivated health workers, which are insufficient in many low income settings. Increasing policy and researcher attention is directed towards understanding what drives health worker motivation and how different policy interventions affect motivation, as motivation is key to performance and quality of care outcomes. As a result, there is growing interest among researchers in measuring motivation within health worker surveys. However, there is currently limited guidance on how to conceptualize and approach measurement and how to validate or analyse motivation data collected from health worker surveys, resulting in inconsistent and sometimes poor quality measures. This paper begins by discussing how motivation can be conceptualized, then sets out the steps in developing questions to measure motivation within health worker surveys and in ensuring data quality through validity and reliability tests. The paper also discusses analysis of the resulting motivation measure/s. This paper aims to promote high quality research that will generate policy relevant and useful evidence. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine.

  3. How to do (or not to do)… Measuring health worker motivation in surveys in low- and middle-income countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghi, J; Lohmann, J; Dale, E; Meheus, F; Goudge, J; Oboirien, K; Kuwawenaruwa, A

    2018-01-01

    Abstract A health system’s ability to deliver quality health care depends on the availability of motivated health workers, which are insufficient in many low income settings. Increasing policy and researcher attention is directed towards understanding what drives health worker motivation and how different policy interventions affect motivation, as motivation is key to performance and quality of care outcomes. As a result, there is growing interest among researchers in measuring motivation within health worker surveys. However, there is currently limited guidance on how to conceptualize and approach measurement and how to validate or analyse motivation data collected from health worker surveys, resulting in inconsistent and sometimes poor quality measures. This paper begins by discussing how motivation can be conceptualized, then sets out the steps in developing questions to measure motivation within health worker surveys and in ensuring data quality through validity and reliability tests. The paper also discusses analysis of the resulting motivation measure/s. This paper aims to promote high quality research that will generate policy relevant and useful evidence. PMID:29165641

  4. Predicting influenza vaccination uptake among health care workers: what are the key motivators?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corace, Kimberly; Prematunge, Chatura; McCarthy, Anne; Nair, Rama C; Roth, Virginia; Hayes, Thomas; Suh, Kathryn N; Balfour, Louise; Garber, Gary

    2013-08-01

    Health care worker (HCW) vaccination was critical to protecting HCW during the H1N1 pandemic. However, vaccine uptake rates fell below recommended targets. This study examined motivators and barriers influencing HCW pH1N1 vaccination to identify modifiable factors that can improve influenza vaccine uptake. A cross-sectional survey was conducted at a large Canadian tertiary care hospital. HCW (N = 3,275) completed measures of demographics, vaccination history, influenza risk factors, and attitudes toward pH1N1 vaccination. Self-reported vaccination was verified with staff vaccination records. Of the total sample, 2,862 (87.4%) HCW received the pH1N1 vaccine. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to predict HCW vaccination. HCW attitudes toward vaccination significantly predicted vaccination, even after adjusting for demographics, vaccine history, and influenza risk factors. This model correctly predicted 95% (confidence interval [CI]: 0.93-0.96) of HCW vaccination. Key modifiable factors driving HCW vaccination include (1) desire to protect family members and patients, (2) belief that vaccination is important even if one is healthy, (3) confidence in vaccine safety, and (4) supervisor and physician encouragement. This research identified fundamental reasons why HCW get vaccinated and provides direction for future influenza vaccination programs. To enhance vaccine uptake, it is important to target HCW attitudes in influenza vaccine campaigns and create a culture of vaccine promotion in the workplace, including strong messaging from supervisors and physicians. Copyright © 2013 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Identifying factors for job motivation of rural health workers in North Viet Nam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dieleman, Marjolein; Cuong, Pham Viet; Anh, Le Vu; Martineau, Tim

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In Viet Nam, most of the public health staff (84%) currently works in rural areas, where 80% of the people live. To provide good quality health care services, it is important to develop strategies influencing staff motivation for better performance. METHOD: An exploratory qualitative

  6. Primary health care workers' views of motivating factors at individual, community and organizational levels: a qualitative study from Nasarawa and Ondo states, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatnagar, Aarushi; Gupta, Shivam; Alonge, Olakunle; George, Asha S

    2017-04-01

    Current efforts to motivate primary health workers in Nigeria focus on better financial incentives, and the role of other motivating factors has received less attention. The aim of this study is to explore individual and organizational determinants, their interactions and effects on motivation. Exploratory qualitative research, involving semi-structured interviews with 29 primary health workers (doctors, nurses, midwives and community health workers), was conducted in Nasarawa and Ondo states in Nigeria. Nine key informant interviews were conducted with government officials. Interviews were digitally recorded, transcribed and coded. Thematic analysis was conducted to identify common themes, as well as unique narratives. Results from this study suggest that health workers are motivated by individual (vocation, religion, humanity and self-efficacy) and organizational (monetary incentives, good working environment) factors and community recognition. Supervision and leadership provided by the officer in charge as compared with that by external agencies appeared to have a positive effect on motivation. Policy makers and donor agencies should take into account a broader range of factors while designing strategies to motivate the health workforce. The study also underscores how officer in charges with enhanced skills are likely to motivate health workers by creating a more supportive environment. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Frontline health worker motivation in the provision of maternal and neonatal health care in Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aberese-Ako, Matilda

    2016-01-01

    The health of mothers and neonates is a concern for many countries, because they form the future of every society. In Ghana efforts have been made to address quality health care in order to accelerate progress in maternal and child health and reduce maternal and

  8. When health care workers perceive high-commitment HRM will they be motivated to continue working in health care? It may depend on their supervisor and intrinsic motivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    drs Limke Schopman; dr Corine Boon; dr Karianne Kalshoven

    2015-01-01

    In this health care field study, we examined the link between human resource management (HRM), transformational leadership, intrinsic motivation and motivation to continue to work. Based on the social exchange theory, we proposed a mediation model linking HRM to motivation to continue to work in

  9. When health care workers perceive high-commitment HRM will they be motivated to continue working in health care? It may depend on their supervisor and intrinsic motivation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schopman, L.M.; Kalshoven, K.; Boon, C.

    2017-01-01

    In this health care field study, we examined the link between human resource management (HRM), transformational leadership, intrinsic motivation and motivation to continue to work. Based on the social exchange theory, we proposed a mediation model linking HRM to motivation to continue to work in

  10. Healthcare quality in Ghana : Improving healthcare quality and health worker motivation to promote sustainable health insurance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alhassan, R.K.

    2017-01-01

    This thesis is about promoting a sustainable National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) in Ghana through improved client-centred quality care and effective community engagement in quality care assessment. The thesis comprises of two main parts. Part one reports on findings from baseline surveys

  11. Crowding out or no crowding out? A Self-Determination Theory approach to health worker motivation in performance-based financing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohmann, Julia; Houlfort, Nathalie; De Allegri, Manuela

    2016-11-01

    Performance-based financing (PBF) is a common health system reform approach in low and middle income countries at present. Although increasing evidence on the effectiveness of PBF and knowledge of principles of good design are available, research is still lacking in regards to other aspects. Among these are a yet limited understanding of the complex role of health worker motivation in PBF and of potential side effects, for instance on intrinsic motivation. Our article aims to support meaningful future research by advancing the theoretical discussion around health worker motivation and PBF. We argue that an in-depth understanding of the motivational mechanisms and consequences of PBF at health worker level are of high practical relevance and should be at the heart of the PBF research agenda, and that predominant unidimensional conceptualizations of health worker motivation and descriptive rather than explanatory research approaches are insufficient to fully understand whether, how, and why PBF schemes alter health workers' motivational structures, mindsets, affect, and behavior. We introduce and apply Self-Determination Theory to the context of PBF as a valuable theoretical framework for future empirical exploration. From this, we conclude that PBF interventions are unlikely to have a generally adverse effect on intrinsic motivation as feared by parts of the PBF community. Rather, we posit that PBF can have positive and negative effects on both intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, to varying degrees depending on the specific design, implementation, and results of a particular intervention and on health workers' perceptions and evaluations of it. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Work stress, work motivation and their effects on job satisfaction in community health workers: a cross-sectional survey in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Hu, Hongyan; Zhou, Hao; He, Changzhi; Fan, Lihua; Liu, Xinyan; Zhang, Zhong; Li, Heng; Sun, Tao

    2014-06-05

    It is well documented that both work stress and work motivation are key determinants of job satisfaction. The aim of this study was to examine levels of work stress and motivation and their contribution to job satisfaction among community health workers in Heilongjiang Province, China. Cross-sectional survey. Heilongjiang Province, China. The participants were 930 community health workers from six cities in Heilongjiang Province. Multistage sampling procedures were used to measure socioeconomic and demographic status, work stress, work motivation and job satisfaction. Logistic regression analysis was performed to assess key determinants of job satisfaction. There were significant differences in some subscales of work stress and work motivation by some of the socioeconomic characteristics. Levels of overall stress perception and scores on all five work stress subscales were higher in dissatisfied workers relative to satisfied workers. However, levels of overall motivation perception and scores on the career development, responsibility and recognition motivation subscales were higher in satisfied respondents relative to dissatisfied respondents. The main determinants of job satisfaction were occupation; age; title; income; the career development, and wages and benefits subscales of work stress; and the recognition, responsibility and financial subscales of work motivation. The findings indicated considerable room for improvement in job satisfaction among community health workers in Heilongjiang Province in China. Healthcare managers and policymakers should take both work stress and motivation into consideration, as two subscales of work stress and one subscale of work motivation negatively influenced job satisfaction and two subscales of work motivation positively influenced job satisfaction. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  13. Work stress, work motivation and their effects on job satisfaction in community health workers: a cross-sectional survey in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Hu, Hongyan; Zhou, Hao; He, Changzhi; Fan, Lihua; Liu, Xinyan; Zhang, Zhong; Li, Heng; Sun, Tao

    2014-01-01

    Objective It is well documented that both work stress and work motivation are key determinants of job satisfaction. The aim of this study was to examine levels of work stress and motivation and their contribution to job satisfaction among community health workers in Heilongjiang Province, China. Design Cross-sectional survey. Setting Heilongjiang Province, China. Participants The participants were 930 community health workers from six cities in Heilongjiang Province. Primary and secondary outcome measures Multistage sampling procedures were used to measure socioeconomic and demographic status, work stress, work motivation and job satisfaction. Logistic regression analysis was performed to assess key determinants of job satisfaction. Results There were significant differences in some subscales of work stress and work motivation by some of the socioeconomic characteristics. Levels of overall stress perception and scores on all five work stress subscales were higher in dissatisfied workers relative to satisfied workers. However, levels of overall motivation perception and scores on the career development, responsibility and recognition motivation subscales were higher in satisfied respondents relative to dissatisfied respondents. The main determinants of job satisfaction were occupation; age; title; income; the career development, and wages and benefits subscales of work stress; and the recognition, responsibility and financial subscales of work motivation. Conclusions The findings indicated considerable room for improvement in job satisfaction among community health workers in Heilongjiang Province in China. Healthcare managers and policymakers should take both work stress and motivation into consideration, as two subscales of work stress and one subscale of work motivation negatively influenced job satisfaction and two subscales of work motivation positively influenced job satisfaction. PMID:24902730

  14. Motivators and barriers to mammography screening uptake by female health-care workers in primary health-care centres: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazzal, Zaher; Sholi, Hisham; Sholi, Suha B; Sholi, Mohammad B; Lahaseh, Rawya

    2018-02-21

    Mammography screening is an effective tool for early detection and management of breast cancer. Female health-care workers' awareness of breast cancer screening is important because their beliefs and behaviours could influence other women. The aim of this study was to assess mammography screening uptake by female health-care workers at primary health-care centres and to identify the primary motivators and barriers that affect uptake. This cross-sectional study included all governmental primary health-care centres in the West Bank. Governorates were grouped into three regions as follows: north West Bank (Nablus, Jenin, Tulkarm, Tubas, Qalqiliya, and Salfit), middle West Bank (Jerusalem, Jericho, and Ramallah), and south West Bank (Hebron, and Bethlehem). The study population included all female health-care workers older than 40 years. Those who performed mammography for a suspected mass or other breast abnormalities were excluded. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data on demographic characteristics, knowledge about mammography screening, the extent and regularity of mammography screening, and motivators and barriers influencing their mammography screening uptake. The rate of mammography screening uptake was calculated. χ 2 test and t tests were used to assess screening motivators and barriers. The study was approved by the Institutional Review Board of the An-Najah National University. Participation was voluntary, and written consent was obtained from each participant. 299 female health-care workers completed a self-administered questionnaire. The mean age of the participants was 46 years (SD 4·7). 284 (95%) women had adequate knowledge about breast cancer and mammography screening, and 149 (50%) women reported having had at least one mammogram. 62 (21%) women had had regular scheduled mammograms. The most frequent reported motivators were the perceived benefit that early detection of breast cancer is important for its management (269 [90

  15. Perceived Impact of Health Sector Reform on Motivation of Health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Perceived Impact of Health Sector Reform on Motivation of Health Workers and Quality of Health Care in Tanzania: the Perspectives of Healthcare Workers and District Council Health Managers in Four Districts.

  16. Signaling and Screening of Workers' Motivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Delfgaauw (Josse); A.J. Dur (Robert)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractThis paper develops a model in which workers to a certain extent like to exert effort at the workplace. We examine the implications of workers' motivation for optimal monetary incentive schemes. We show that in the optimum motivated workers work harder and are willing to work for a lower

  17. How does performance-based financing affect health workers' intrinsic motivation? A Self-Determination Theory-based mixed-methods study in Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohmann, Julia; Muula, Adamson S; Houlfort, Nathalie; De Allegri, Manuela

    2018-07-01

    "Intrinsic motivation crowding out", the erosion of high-quality, sustainable motivation through the introduction of financial incentives, is one of the most frequently discussed but yet little researched potential unfavorable consequence of Performance-based Financing (PBF). We used the opportunity of the introduction of PBF in Malawi to investigate whether and how PBF affected intrinsic motivation, using a mixed-methods research design theoretically grounded in Self-Determination Theory (SDT). The quantitative component served to estimate the impact of PBF on intrinsic motivation, relying on a controlled pre- and post-test design, with data collected from health workers in 23 intervention and 10 comparison facilities before (March/April 2013; n = 70) and approximately two years after (June/July 2015; n = 71) the start of the intervention. The qualitative component, relying on in-depth interviews with health workers in selected intervention facilities one (April 2014; n = 21) and two (September 2015; n = 20) years after the start of PBF, served to understand how PBF did or did not bring about change in intrinsic motivation. Specifically, it allowed us to examine how the various motivation-relevant elements and consequences of PBF impacted health workers' basic psychological needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness, which SDT postulates as central to intrinsic motivation. Our results suggest that PBF did not affect health workers' overall intrinsic motivation levels, with the intervention having had both positive and negative effects on psychological needs satisfaction. To maximize positive PBF effects on intrinsic motivation, our results underline the potential value of explicit strategies to mitigate unintended negative impact of unavoidable design, implementation, and contextual challenges, for instance by building autonomy support activities into PBF designs. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Understanding motivators and barriers of hospital-based obstetric and pediatric health care worker influenza vaccination programs in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuckerman, Jane L; Shrestha, Lexa; Collins, Joanne E; Marshall, Helen S

    2016-07-02

    Understanding motivators and barriers of health care worker (HCW) vaccination programs is important for determining strategies to improve uptake. The aim of this study was to explore key drivers and HCW decision making related to recommended vaccines and seasonal influenza vaccination programs. We used a qualitative approach with semi-structured one-to-one interviews with 22 HCWs working at a tertiary pediatric and obstetric hospital in South Australia. A thematic analysis and coding were used to examine data. Key motivators that emerged included: sense of responsibility, convenience and ease of access, rotating trolleys, the influenza vaccine being free, basic knowledge about influenza and influenza vaccination, peer pressure, personal values and family culture, as well as the culture of support for the program. Personal decisions were the major barrier to HCWs receiving the influenza vaccine which were predominantly self-protection related or due to previous experience or fear of adverse reactions. Other barriers that emerged were misconceptions about the influenza vaccine, needle phobia and privacy concerns. This study identified both attitudinal and structural barriers that could be addressed to improve uptake of the seasonal influenza vaccine.

  19. 'The money can be a motivator, to me a little, but mostly PBF just helps me to do better in my job.' An exploration of the motivational mechanisms of performance-based financing for health workers in Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohmann, Julia; Wilhelm, Danielle; Kambala, Christabel; Brenner, Stephan; Muula, Adamson S; De Allegri, Manuela

    2018-03-01

    Performance-based financing (PBF) is assumed to improve health care delivery by motivating health workers to enhance their work performance. However, the exact motivational mechanisms through which PBF is assumed to produce such changes are poorly understood to date. Although PBF is increasingly recognized as a complex health systems intervention, its motivational effect for individual health workers is still often reduced to financial 'carrots and sticks' in the literature and discourse. Aiming to contribute to the development of a more comprehensive understanding of the motivational mechanisms, we explored how PBF impacted health worker motivation in the context of the Malawian Results-based Financing for Maternal and Newborn Health (RBF4MNH) Initiative. We conducted in-depth interviews with 41 nurses, medical assistants and clinical officers from primary- and secondary-level health facilities 1 and 2 years after the introduction of RBF4MNH in 2013. Six categories of motivational mechanisms emerged: RBF4MNH motivated health workers to improve their performance (1) by acting as a periodic wake-up call to deficiencies in their day-to-day practice; (2) by providing direction and goals to work towards; (3) by strengthening perceived ability to perform successfully at work and triggering a sense of accomplishment; (4) by instilling feelings of recognition; (5) by altering social dynamics, improving team work towards a common goal, but also introducing social pressure; and (6) by offering a 'nice to have' opportunity to earn extra income. However, respondents also perceived weaknesses of the intervention design, implementation-related challenges and contextual constraints that kept RBF4MNH from developing its full motivating potential. Our results underline PBF's potential to affect health workers' motivation in ways which go far beyond the direct effects of financial rewards to individuals. We strongly recommend considering all motivational mechanisms more explicitly

  20. Motivation and job satisfaction among multipurpose health workers in hilly and non-hilly areas of Jashpur District, Chhattisgarh: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakra, George Jeevan; Kadam, Shridhar; Hussain, Mohammad Akhtar; Pati, Sanghamitra; Sharma, Kavya; Zodpey, Sanjay

    2012-09-01

    It is essential to have a capable and motivated health workforce for building an effective, responsive health system and in turn achieve national health goals. The present cross sectional study was conducted in Chhattisgarh, India to assess the level of motivation and job satisfaction among multipurpose health workers (MPWs) and to study factors influencing them. A pre-tested semistructured questionnaire was used to obtain information about the respondents' perceived importance of various job characteristics and perceived job satisfaction. The majority of MPWs were not satisfied with their existing job conditions. Motivators or satisfiers like career advancement and achievement had low scores for all the participants. Working conditions and salary were found to be the dissatisfiers with low scores. The present study suggests that, although financial incentives are important, they are not sufficient to motivate personnel to perform better.

  1. Association between health worker motivation and healthcare quality efforts in Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alhassan, Robert Kaba; Spieker, Nicole; van Ostenberg, Paul; Ogink, Alice; Nketiah-Amponsah, Edward; Rinke de Wit, Tobias F.

    2013-01-01

    Ghana is one of the sub-Saharan African countries making significant progress towards universal access to quality healthcare. However, it remains a challenge to attain the 2015 targets for the health related Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) partly due to health sector human resource challenges

  2. Using theory and formative research to design interventions to improve community health worker motivation, retention and performance in Mozambique and Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strachan, Daniel Llywelyn; Källander, Karin; Nakirunda, Maureen; Ndima, Sozinho; Muiambo, Abel; Hill, Zelee

    2015-04-30

    Community health workers (CHWs) are increasingly being used in low-income countries to address human resources shortages, yet there remain few effective, evidence-based strategies for addressing the enduring programmatic constraints of worker motivation, retention and performance. This paper describes how two interventions were designed by the Innovations at Scale for Community Access and Lasting Effects (inSCALE) project to address these constraints in Uganda and Mozambique drawing on behavioural theory and formative research results. A review of the work motivation and CHW motivation literature--incorporating influences on retention and performance--was conducted on articles sourced through electronic web searches. Formative research with a focus on the barriers and facilitators to CHW motivation, retention and performance was conducted with community health workers and key stakeholders in Uganda and Mozambique. An analytical induction approach to the thematic analysis of transcripts from 98 in-depth interviews and 26 focus group discussions was adopted across the country settings. From the theoretical review, it was determined that the interventions should promote CHWs as members of a collective by highlighting a sense of shared experience, focus on alignment between worker and programme goals, and emphasise the actions that lead to good performance. The Social Identity Approach was selected as the theory most likely to lead to the development of effective, scalable and sustainable interventions by addressing the identified gap in the literature of the influence of CHW working context. The formative research indicated that CHWs value feedback and feeling connected to the health system and their community, are motivated by status and community standing, and want to be provided with the necessary tools to perform. Two interventions based on these results were developed: a participatory, local community approach and an information communication technology (ICT

  3. There's No App for That: Assessing the Impact of mHealth on the Supervision, Motivation, Engagement, and Satisfaction of Community Health Workers in Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallières, Frédérique; McAuliffe, Eilish; van Bavel, Bianca; Wall, Patrick J; Trye, Augustine

    The unprecedented access to mobile phones in resource-poor settings has seen the emergence of mobile-health (mHealth) applications specific for low- and middle-income contexts. One such application is the Mobile Technology for Community Health Suite (MOTECH Suite). Given the importance of community health worker (CHW) perceptions of a health program toward its successful implementation, this study explores whether the introduction of an mHealth application, as a human resource management tool, is associated with changes in CHW perceived supervision, motivation, work engagement, and job satisfaction over time. We employed a 3-arm randomized longitudinal cohort design in Bonthe District, Sierra Leone. Three hundred twenty-seven CHWs were assessed over an 18-month period, with 3 different rounds of data collection. CHWs were assigned to 3 different intervention groups and given either a mobile phone with access to both the application and to a closed user group; a phone set up on a closed user group but with no application; or no mobile phone but the same level of training as the previous 2 groups. Findings indicated that there were no initial or sustained differences in perceived supervision and motivation across the 3 experimental groups over time with the introduction of the MOTECH Suite as a human resource management tool. Furthermore, there was no significant change in the self-reported measures of work engagement and job satisfaction across each of the intervention groups over time. Findings suggest that there are no systematic changes in perceived supervision, work engagement, job satisfaction, or motivation between CHWs who received a mobile phone set up on a closed user group with the MOTECH Suite application and those who either only received a phone with the closed user group or no phone at all. Therefore, the results of this study do not provide sufficient evidence to support the use of mobile technology or mHealth applications to strengthen these

  4. Evaluating the effect of innovative motivation and supervision approaches on community health worker performance and retention in Uganda and Mozambique: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Källander, Karin; Strachan, Daniel; Soremekun, Seyi; Hill, Zelee; Lingam, Raghu; Tibenderana, James; Kasteng, Frida; Vassall, Anna; Meek, Sylvia; Kirkwood, Betty

    2015-04-12

    If trained, equipped and utilised, community health workers (CHWs) delivering integrated community case management for sick children can potentially reduce child deaths by 60%. However, it is essential to maintain CHW motivation and performance. The inSCALE project aims to evaluate, using a cluster randomised controlled trial, the effect of interventions to increase CHW supervision and performance on the coverage of appropriate treatment for children with diarrhoea, pneumonia and malaria. Participatory methods were used to identify best practices and innovative solutions. Quantitative community based baseline surveys were conducted to allow restricted randomisation of clusters into intervention and control arms. Individual informed consent was obtained from all respondents. Following formative research and stakeholder consultations, two intervention packages were developed in Uganda and one in Mozambique. In Uganda, approximately 3,500 CHWs in 39 clusters were randomised into a mobile health (mHealth) arm, a participatory community engagement arm and a control arm. In Mozambique, 275 CHWs in 12 clusters were randomised into a mHealth arm and a control arm. The mHealth interventions encompass three components: 1) free phone communication between users; 2) data submission using phones with automated feedback, messages to supervisors for targeted supervision, and online data access for district statisticians; and 3) motivational messages. The community engagement arm in Uganda established village health clubs seeking to 1) improve the status and standing of CHWs, 2) increase demand for health services and 3) communicate that CHWs' work is important. Process evaluation was conducted after 10 months and end-line surveys will establish impact after 12 months in Uganda and 18 months in Mozambique. Main outcomes include proportion of sick children appropriately treated, CHW performance and motivation, and cost effectiveness of interventions. Study strengths include a user

  5. Are demographics, work and health associated with the ability and motivation to continue working until the age of 65 in construction workers?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Hengel, K.; Blatter, B.; Geuskens, G.; Koppes, L.; Bongers, P.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: Because of the ageing and decreasing working population in the construction industry, it is important to encourage workers to prolong their working life. The objective of this study was to explore factors associated with the ability and motivation to continue working until the age of 65

  6. Globalization and workers' health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawachi, Ichiro

    2008-10-01

    The global integration of economies worldwide has led to increased pressure for "labor flexibility". A notable aspect of this trend has been the rise in non-standard work arrangements, which include part-time work, temporary agency-based work, fixed-term contingent work, and independent contracting. Although non-standard work arrangements are convenient for employers, they are often associated with poor pay, absence of pension and health benefits, as well as lack of protection from unions and labor laws. Studies have begun to address the question of whether these "precarious" jobs pose a health hazard for workers. The challenge for causal inference is that precarious workers are likely to differ from non-precarious workers in a variety of characteristics that also influence health outcomes, i.e. there is confounding and selection bias. However, even after taking account of these biases--through propensity score-matched analysis--there is evidence to suggest that non-standard work may be damaging to workers' health. Policies modeled after the European Union's Directive on Part-Time Work may help to mitigate some of the health hazards associated with precarious work.

  7. Motivation of health surveillance assistants in Malawi: A qualitative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Motivation of health workers is a critical component of performance and is shaped by multiple factors. This study explored factors that influence motivation of health surveillance assistants (HSAs) in Malawi, with the aim of identifying interventions that can be applied to enhance motivation and performance of ...

  8. Where Do Female Sex Workers Seek HIV and Reproductive Health Care and What Motivates These Choices? A Survey in 4 Cities in India, Kenya, Mozambique and South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yves Lafort

    Full Text Available A baseline cross-sectional survey among female sex workers (FSWs was conducted in four cities within the context of an implementation research project aiming to improve FSWs' access to HIV, and sexual and reproductive health (SRH services. The survey measured where FSWs seek HIV/SRH care and what motivates their choice.Using respondent-driven sampling (RDS, FWSs were recruited in Durban, South Africa (n = 400, Tete, Mozambique (n = 308, Mombasa, Kenya (n = 400 and Mysore, India (n = 458 and interviewed. RDS-adjusted proportions were estimated by non-parametric bootstrapping, and compared across cities using post-hoc pairwise comparison tests.Across cities, FSWs most commonly sought care for the majority of HIV/SRH services at public health facilities, most especially in Durban (ranging from 65% for condoms to 97% for HIV care. Services specifically targeting FSWs only had a high coverage in Mysore for STI care (89% and HIV testing (79%. Private-for-profit clinics were important providers in Mombasa (ranging from 17% for STI care and HIV testing to 43% for HIV care, but not in the other cities. The most important reason for the choice of care provider in Durban and Mombasa was proximity, in Tete 'where they always go', and in Mysore cost of care. Where available, clinics specifically targeting FSWs were more often chosen because of shorter waiting times, perceived higher quality of care, more privacy and friendlier personnel.The place where care is sought for HIV/SRH services differs substantially between cities. Targeted services have limited coverage in the African cities compared to Mysore. Convenience appears more important for choosing the place of care than aspects of quality of care. The best model to improve access, linking targeted interventions with general health services, will need to be tailored to the specific context of each city.

  9. Motivation of workers in a particular company

    OpenAIRE

    ŽÁKOVÁ, Lenka

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this work is to analyse the current system of motivation of employees in the chosen company following suggestions of changes and recommendations for improving management in this area. The theoretical part contents basic ideas of motivation and employee benefits. The practical part is based on an analysis of the company. The purpose of changes should be a more sophisticated and long-term motivation of employees. Proposals for better solutions in the field of employee motivation shou...

  10. Retention of health workers in Malawi: perspectives of health workers and district management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MacLachlan Malcolm

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Shortage of human resources is a major problem facing Malawi, where more than 50% of the population lives in rural areas. Most of the district health services are provided by clinical health officers specially trained to provide services that would normally be provided by fully qualified doctors or specialists. As this cadre and the cadre of enrolled nurses are the mainstay of the Malawian health service at the district level, it is important that they are supported and motivated to deliver a good standard of service to the population. This study explores how these cadres are managed and motivated and the impact this has on their performance. Methods A quantitative survey measured health workers' job satisfaction, perceptions of the work environment and sense of justice in the workplace, and was reported elsewhere. It emerged that health workers were particularly dissatisfied with what they perceived as unfair access to continuous education and career advancement opportunities, as well as inadequate supervision. These issues and their contribution to demotivation, from the perspective of both management and health workers, were further explored by means of qualitative techniques. Focus group discussions were held with health workers, and key-informant interviews were conducted with members of district health management teams and human resource officers in the Ministry of Health. The focus groups used convenience sampling that included all the different cadres of health workers available and willing to participate on the day the research team visited the health facility. The interviews targeted district health management teams in three districts and the human resources personnel in the Ministry of Health, also sampling those who were available and agreed to participate. Results The results showed that health workers consider continuous education and career progression strategies to be inadequate. Standard human resource

  11. Retention of health workers in Malawi: perspectives of health workers and district management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manafa, Ogenna; McAuliffe, Eilish; Maseko, Fresier; Bowie, Cameron; MacLachlan, Malcolm; Normand, Charles

    2009-07-28

    Shortage of human resources is a major problem facing Malawi, where more than 50% of the population lives in rural areas. Most of the district health services are provided by clinical health officers specially trained to provide services that would normally be provided by fully qualified doctors or specialists. As this cadre and the cadre of enrolled nurses are the mainstay of the Malawian health service at the district level, it is important that they are supported and motivated to deliver a good standard of service to the population. This study explores how these cadres are managed and motivated and the impact this has on their performance. A quantitative survey measured health workers' job satisfaction, perceptions of the work environment and sense of justice in the workplace, and was reported elsewhere. It emerged that health workers were particularly dissatisfied with what they perceived as unfair access to continuous education and career advancement opportunities, as well as inadequate supervision. These issues and their contribution to demotivation, from the perspective of both management and health workers, were further explored by means of qualitative techniques.Focus group discussions were held with health workers, and key-informant interviews were conducted with members of district health management teams and human resource officers in the Ministry of Health. The focus groups used convenience sampling that included all the different cadres of health workers available and willing to participate on the day the research team visited the health facility. The interviews targeted district health management teams in three districts and the human resources personnel in the Ministry of Health, also sampling those who were available and agreed to participate. The results showed that health workers consider continuous education and career progression strategies to be inadequate. Standard human resource management practices such as performance appraisal and the

  12. The role of community health workers in supporting South Africa's ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Community health workers deployed around South Africa's primary health care clinics, supply indispensable support for the world's largest HIV/AIDS treatment programme. Interviews with these workers illuminated the contribution they make to anti-retroviral treatment (ART) of HIV/AIDS patients and the motivations that ...

  13. MOTIVATION AND COMPENSATION IN HEALTH SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. N. Borisov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available By the definition accepted by WHO, «health» it is not simple absence of an illness, but a condition of full physical, moral, mental and social wellbeing. By this definition forms of behavior and a way of life of the people, allowing prolonging the period of active, creative and happy life are meant. Health of each person – the main value for modern society. A crisis state of population as open social system, it is shown by its indignation in reply to stressful influences of negative socio-economic factors. It is accompanied by change of a condition of the public health which level refl ects depth of occurring changes. In the conditions of market managing also, the policy in the field of compensation, material encouragement and social support of medical workers essentially changes. A certain level of compensation regardless of should be guaranteed to the medical worker, whether mechanisms of economic incentives of its work are used or not. At the same time, the desire of the worker to hold a position with higher salary and desire to work on it is productive and is qualitative – far not same. Increase of material compensation not always leads to increase of labor motivation and aspiration it is better to work. Socially psychological bases of labor motivation of medical workers are those new approaches that will allow solving problems of increase of labor motivation more effectively. In article the assessment of labor motivation is analyzed by medical workers, measures for increase of labor motivation and according to improvement of quality of medical care are off ered. The majority of the western experts inefficiency of management recognize as the main problem of health care ofRussia. The conclusion that medical institutes, academies and institutes of a post degree obrazoyovaniye, professional development faculties, and, probably, and institutes an upravleyoniya, should adapt foreign experience (motivational, conceptual, technological and

  14. MOTIVATION AND COMPENSATION IN HEALTH SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. N. Borisov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available By the defi nition accepted by WHO, «health» it is not simple absence of an illness, but a condition of full physical, moral, mental and social wellbeing. By this defi nition forms of behavior and a way of life of the people, allowing prolonging the period of active, creative and happy life are meant. Health of each person – the main value for modern society. A crisis state of population as open social system, it is shown by its indignation in reply to stressful infl uences of negative socio-economic factors. It is accompanied by change of a condition of the public health which level refl ects depth of occurring changes. In the conditions of market managing also, the policy in the fi eld of compensation, material encouragement and social support of medical workers essentially changes. A certain level of compensation regardless of should be guaranteed to the medical worker, whether mechanisms of economic incentives of its work are used or not. At the same time, the desire of the worker to hold a position with higher salary and desire to work on it is productive and is qualitative – far not same. Increase of material compensation not always leads to increase of labor motivation and aspiration it is better to work. Socially psychological bases of labor motivation of medical workers are those new approaches that will allow solving problems of increase of labor motivation more eff ectively. In article the assessment of labor motivation is analyzed by medical workers, measures for increase of labor motivation and according to improvement of quality of medical care are off ered. The majority of the western experts ineffi ciency of management recognize as the main problem of health care ofRussia. The conclusion that medical institutes, academies and institutes of a post degree obrazoyovaniye, professional development faculties, and, probably, and institutes an upravleyoniya, should adapt foreign experience (motivational, conceptual, technological

  15. Prosocial motivation, stress and burnout among direct support workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickey, Robert

    2014-03-01

    This study explores whether the desire to engage in work that is beneficial to others moderates the effects of stress on burnout. Based on a survey of 1570 direct support professionals in Ontario, this study conducted linear regression analyses and tested for the interaction effects of prosocial motivation on occupational stress and burnout. Prosocial motivation significantly moderated the association of emotional exhaustion (EE) and role boundary stress with depersonalization (DP). Prosocial motivation also moderated the effects of role ambiguity stress with a direct support worker's sense of personal accomplishment. In contrast, prosocial motivation magnified feelings of EE when interacted with a sense of personal accomplishment. Prosocial motivation plays an important role in explaining the relatively low levels of DP in the sector. The study advances our understanding of the key components of burnout among direct support workers. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Documentation Requirements, Intrinsic Motivation, and Worker Absence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lotte Bøgh; Kristensen, Nicolai; Holm Pedersen, Lene

    2015-01-01

    Command systems are widely used to monitor public service provision, but little is known about unintended effects on individual workers’ motivation and work effort. Using insights from motivation crowding theory, we estimate a SEM model that captures how Danish childcare assistants and social/hea......—and by drawing attention to possible downsides of command-and-control. Even though command systems can also have positive disciplining effects, knowledge about potential drawbacks is important for public managers.......Command systems are widely used to monitor public service provision, but little is known about unintended effects on individual workers’ motivation and work effort. Using insights from motivation crowding theory, we estimate a SEM model that captures how Danish childcare assistants and social...

  17. Health of radiation workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, D.K.

    1979-11-01

    Radiation workers are healthier than the average person in the general population and appear to be as healthy as workers in other ΣsafeΣ industries. It is, however, assumed that there is no safe dose of radiation and that any exposure to radiation will cause a small increase in the incidence of cancer, this increase being directly proportional to the total radiation dose. On the basis of the risk estimates given by ICRP, radiation exposures up to 1 rem per year for 47 years are predicted to cause fewer work-related deaths than expected for the average worker in Canadian industry. Radiation exposures of 5 rem per year from age 18 to 65 would result in predicted risk which is about four times higher than that for most workers in Canada and might increase the chances of death before age 75 to nearly the same level as for the average member of the general public. (auth)

  18. Mental health workers. Graduation daze.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Carol

    2003-09-11

    PCTs are likely to miss the national target on employment of graduate mental health workers. Pilots are showing success in reducing referrals. Managers must address career progression problems and define roles more clearly.

  19. [Health behavior change: motivational interviewing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pócs, Dávid; Hamvai, Csaba; Kelemen, Oguz

    2017-08-01

    Public health data show that early mortality in Hungary could be prevented by smoking cessation, reduced alcohol consumption, regular exercise, healthy diet and increased adherence. Doctor-patient encounters often highlight these aspects of health behavior. There is evidence that health behavior change is driven by internal motivation rather than external influence. This finding has led to the concept of motivational interview, which is a person-centered, goal-oriented approach to counselling. The doctor asks targeted questions to elicit the patient's motivations, strengths, internal resources, and to focus the interview around these. The quality and quantity of the patient's change talk is related to better outcomes. In addition, the interview allows the patient to express ambivalent feelings and doubts about the change. The doctor should use various communication strategies to resolve this ambivalence. Furthermore, establishing a good doctor-patient relationship is the cornerstone of the motivational interview. An optimal relationship can evoke change talk and reduce the patient's resistance, which can also result in a better outcome. The goal of the motivational interview is to focus on the 'why' to change health behavior rather than the 'how', and to utilize internal motivation instead of persuasion. This is the reason why motivational interview has become a widely-accepted evidence based approach. Orv Hetil. 2017; 158(34): 1331-1337.

  20. Incentives and Workers' Motivation in the Public Sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Delfgaauw (Josse); A.J. Dur (Robert)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractCivil servants have a bad reputation of being lazy. However, citizens' personal experiences with civil servants appear to be significantly better. We develop a model of an economy in which workers differ in laziness and in public service motivation, and characterise optimal incentive

  1. Balancing workload, motivation and job satisfaction in Rwanda: assessing the effect of adding family planning service provision to community health worker duties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin-Quee, Dawn; Mugeni, Cathy; Nkunda, Denis; Uwizeye, Marie Rose; Stockton, Laurie L; Wesson, Jennifer

    2016-01-06

    Task shifting from higher cadre providers to CHWs has been widely adopted to address healthcare provider shortages, but the addition of any service can potentially add to an already considerable workload for CHWs. Objective measures of workload alone, such as work-related time and travel may not reflect howCHWs actually perceive and react to their circumstances. This study combined perception and objectivemeasures of workload to examine their effect on quality of services, worker performance, and job and clientsatisfaction. Three hundred eighty-three CHWs from control and intervention districts, where the intervention group was trained to provide contraceptive resupply, completed diaries of work-related activities for one month. Interviews were also conducted with a subset of CHWs and their clients. CHW diaries did not reveal significant differences between intervention and control groups in time spent on service provision or travel. Over 90% of CHWs reported workload manageability, job satisfaction, and motivation to perform their jobs. Clients were highly satisfied with CHW services and most stated preference for future services from CHWs. The study demonstrated that adding resupply of hormonal contraceptives to CHWs' tasks would not place undue burden on them. Accordingly, the initiative was scaled up in all 30 districts in the country.

  2. Intrinsic motivation and organizational identification among on-demand workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockmann, Kevin W; Ballinger, Gary A

    2017-09-01

    On-demand firms provide services for clients through a network of on-demand workers ready to complete specific tasks for a set contractual price. Given such on-demand work is defined by payment on short-term contracts with no obligation for continued employment, there is little reason to believe on-demand workers experience more than extrinsic motivation and a transactional relationship with the on-demand firm. However, using self-determination theory, we argue that to the degree that on-demand work fulfills innate psychological needs individual on-demand workers will develop intrinsic motivation, which further leads to organizational identification with the on-demand firm. Across 2 survey-based studies we find support for this path to organizational identification. This adds to the literature on motivation and identification by strengthening the link between individual needs and the individual-organizational relationship. Implications for theory and for the management of on-demand workers are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. [Motivation to quit smoking among ex-smoker university workers and students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behn, V; Sotomayor, H; Cruz, M; Naveas, R

    2001-05-01

    In Chile, 10% of deaths in adults are directly attributed to smoking. To identify intrinsic and extrinsic motivations to quit smoking among a group of subjects that quitted without external help. The motivations to quit smoking were measured using the 20 items Reasons for Quitting Scale (RFQ), in 145 ex smokers (80 students and 65 workers at The University of Conception). The scale identifies intrinsic motivations in the categories health and self control and extrinsic motivations in the categories immediate reinforcement and social pressure. Factorial analysis with orthogonal rotation of the 20 items of the scale, suggested an optimal solution with five factors, that had a maximal impact of 0.43 and explained the motivations in up to a 66% of workers and 65% of students. The factors with the greater impact were the items of immediate reinforcement, social pressure and self control. The category health had only a 6% influence in the modification of smoking habits. The most important motivations to quit smoking in this sample were an immediate reinforcement, social pressure and self control. The analysis of motivations will help to orient smoking cessation programs.

  4. Health management of radiation workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunugita, Naoki; Igari, Kazuyuki

    2013-01-01

    People in Japan have expressed great anxiety about possible radiation and radioactivity after the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant of Tokyo Electric Power Company's (TEPCO), due to the great earthquake and tsunami in eastern Japan on 11 March 2011. A large number of workers were engaged in response and recovery operations, and they were possibly exposed to high doses of radiation as compared to the general population. In the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant in 1986, high doses of radiation to 134 plant staff and emergency personnel resulted in acute radiation syndrome (ARS), which proved fatal for 28 of them. In the Fukushima accident, six workers were exposed to more than 250 mSv of radiation during the initial response phase, but no one showed ARS. It is necessary to continue registration of radiation doses for all workers who were exposed to radiation to facilitate suitable healthcare management in the future. In addition to radiation exposure, a group of workers were also exposed to other health hazards. Frequent occurrence of heat disorders has been a concern for the workers wearing protective clothing with poor ventilation. A comprehensive program to prevent heat illness was implemented by TEPCO under the guidance of the Ministry of Health, Labour, and Welfare. It is important to provide effective systems not only for prevention of radiation exposure but also for general management of other health risks including heat disorders and infection. (author)

  5. The motivational safety helmet : Redesign suggestions improving the intrinsic motivation of construction site workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beldman, T. (Teunis); Boer, de J. (Johannes); Lemmens, P. (Pim); Stilma, M. (Margot)

    2014-01-01

    In reaction to the lack of intrinsic motivation of construction site workers, to wear their safety helmets at all times, a series of research projects studied causes and possible solutions. Goal is to gain an inspirational discussion to get the design onto the next level. This paper describes a

  6. Here's health, U workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swiegers, W.R.S.

    1987-01-01

    It was decided to embark on an occupational health research program at Roessing Uranium Mine because there was a real need for a well-planned prospective epidemiological study which could contribute towards the better understanding of the etiology and natural history of occupational diseases. The main objective of this study is to correlate the respiratory health status in relation to occupational exposure and smoking in a uranium mining and milling environment

  7. Labor Rights of Health Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Bonilla-Medina

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The claim of health workers to the way they are outraged in the exercise of their profession has become reiterative. Let's start with the inadequate input of supplies to care agencies. Because of the dreadful 100 law, the poor working conditions in the different hospitals, especially public hospitals, are well known.

  8. Health protection of radiation workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norwood, W.D.

    1975-01-01

    Essential information on the health protection of radiation workers which has accumulated since the advent of nuclear fission thirty years ago is presented in simple terms. Basic facts on ionizing radiation, its measurement, and dosimetry are presented. Acute and chronic somatic and genetic effects are discussed with emphasis on prevention. Radiation protection standards and regulations are outlined, and methods for maintaining these standards are described. Diagnosis and treatment of radiation injury from external radiation and/or internally deposited radionuclides is considered generally as well as specifically for each radioisotope. The medical supervision of radiation workers, radiation accidents, atomic power plants, and medicolegal problems is also covered. (853 references) (U.S.)

  9. Health protection of radiation workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norwood, W.D.

    1975-01-01

    This textbook is addressed to all those concerned with the protection of radiation workers. It provides full coverage of the implications of radiation in exposed workers, and, after a chapter outlining, in simple terms, the basic facts about radiation, deals with measurement of ionising radiation; radiation dosimetry; effectiveness of absorbed dose; general biological effects of ionising radiation; somatic effects of radiation; the acute radiation syndrome; other somatic effects; hereditary effects; radiation protection standards and regulations; radiation protection; medical supervision of radiation workers; general methods of diagnosis and treatment; metabolism and health problems of some radioisotopes; plutonium and other transuranium elements; radiation accidents; emergency plans and medical care; atomic power plants; medico-legal problems

  10. Factors associated with motivation and hesitation to work among health professionals during a public crisis: a cross sectional study of hospital workers in Japan during the pandemic (H1N1) 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, Hissei; Matsuishi, Kunitaka; Ito, Atsushi; Mouri, Kentaro; Kitamura, Noboru; Akimoto, Keiko; Mino, Koichi; Kawazoe, Ayako; Isobe, Masanori; Takamiya, Shizuo; Mita, Tatsuo

    2010-11-04

    The professionalism of hospital workers in Japan was challenged by the pandemic (H1N1) 2009. To maintain hospital function under critical situations such as a pandemic, it is important to understand the factors that increase and decrease the willingness to work. Previous hospital-based studies have examined this question using hypothetical events, but so far it has not been examined in an actual pandemic. Here, we surveyed the factors that influenced the motivation and hesitation of hospital workers to work in Japan soon after the pandemic (H1N1) 2009. Self-administered anonymous questionnaires about demographic character and stress factors were distributed to all 3635 employees at three core hospitals in Kobe city, Japan and were collected from June to July, 2009, about one month after the pandemic (H1N1) in Japan. Of a total of 3635 questionnaires distributed, 1693 (46.7%) valid questionnaires were received. 28.4% (N = 481) of workers had strong motivation and 14.7% (N = 249) had strong hesitation to work. Demographic characters and stress-related questions were categorised into four types according to the odds ratios (OR) of motivation and hesitation to work: some factors increased motivation and lowered hesitation; others increased motivation only; others increased hesitation only and others increased both motivation and hesitation. The strong feeling of being supported by the national and local governments (Multivariate OR: motivation; 3.5; CI 2.2-5.4, hesitation; 0.2; CI 0.1-0.6) and being protected by hospital (Multivariate OR: motivation; 2.8; CI 2.2-3.7, hesitation; 0.5; CI 0.3-0.7) were related to higher motivation and lower hesitation. Here, protection included taking precautions to prevent illness among workers and their families, providing for the care of those who do become ill, reducing malpractice threats, and financial support for families of workers who die on duty. But 94.1% of the respondents answered protection by the national and local

  11. Older Workers and the Motivation for Foreign Language Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateja Letnar

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available As an inevitable process facing modern societies, an aging population brings with it new and different challenges for social actors. The extension of working life requires increased investments in an older workforce, in order for these people to retain their employability and productivity. Globalisation and the ubiquity of information communication technology place increasing importance on foreign language knowledge – an area of deficiency among older workers.  Knowledge of what motivates learners to learn foreign languages is thus also gaining importance. In conducting a survey of language school learners, we found that the motivation for learning foreign languages differs significantly between younger and older generations. As a result, employers, as well as language schools, will need to reconsider their current practices.

  12. Older workers motivation to continue to work: five meanings of age: A conceptual review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lange, de Annet; Jansen, Paul; Kooij, Dorien

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Little is known about the motivation for older workers to work and to remain active in the labor market. Research on age and motivation is limited and, moreover, conceptually diverse. In this study, we address age-related factors that influence the work motivation of older workers. More

  13. Older workers' motivation to continue to work : five meanings of age. A conceptual review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooij, Dorien; de lange, Annet; Jansen, Paul; Dikkers, Josje

    2008-01-01

    Purpose - Little is known about the motivation for older workers to work and to remain active in the labor market. Research on age and motivation is limited and, moreover, conceptually diverse. This paper aims to address age-related factors that influence the work motivation of older workers. More

  14. Cancer patients' motives for psychosocial consultation-Oncology social workers' perceptions of 226 patient cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaksson, Joakim; Lilliehorn, Sara; Salander, Pär

    2018-04-01

    Although oncology social workers (OSWs) have emerged as a core profession in the provision of psychosocial services, there is a lack of empirical studies that describe their daily clinical work with patients. The overall aim of this study was to explore cancer patients' motives for consulting an OSW. From a nationwide survey, we used data from 226 patient cases that OSWs met face to face. The OSWs were asked to describe how the case was referred to them, the patient's characteristics, and what they perceived as the patient's motives for contacting them as well as additional motives that came up during the consultations. Patients have different motives for consulting an OSW, and these motives change over the course of consultations; while feelings associated with being diagnosed with cancer were often the initial motive, questions associated with moving on in life and dealing with relationships and the overall life situation were added over time. The results show that Swedish OSWs' function is multifaceted and that the initial motives among patients rarely predict the content in consultations over time. Based on the diversity of motives, it seems obvious that OSWs (at least in Sweden) need a broad education in the psychology of counselling. It also seems obvious that even if patients initially were referred by health care staff to the OSW due to psychological reactions to being ill, staff should also be attentive to the fact that relational and socio-economic/juridical issues are of great concern for the patients. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. [Burnout in volunteer health workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argentero, P; Bonfiglio, N S; Pasero, R

    2006-01-01

    While diverse studies carried out in nursing and medical personnel have demonstrated that health workers can be subject to burnout, little effort has been focused on investigating burnout in volunteer hospital workers. The aim of the present study was to verify if burnout exists with volunteer auxiliary personnel and investigate what organizational conditions may favour it. The study was carried out on 80 volunteer workers of the Red Cross of Mortara (PV), subdivided into two categories: those performing emergency interventions and those performing routine services. For the evaluation of burnout, the Italian version of the Maslach Burnout Inventory was used, together with a qualitative type of methodology. A 5-factor multivariate analysis (sex x shift x team x seniority x role), having as dependent variables the three scales of the MBI, showed that the highest values of depersonalization and fulfillment are found in the emergency team, and that subjects with least seniority are those who are least satisfied or fulfilled. The category of team-leader resulted as that with the highest values of emotional burnout, while sex- and shift-based differences were restricted to routine service workers. Despite these differences, findings showed that subjects are minimally affected by problems linked to burnout, although some relational and organizational difficulties emerged with the medical staff that underlie a certain degree of professional dissatisfaction.

  16. Privatizing community animal health worker based veterinary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Privatizing community animal health worker based veterinary services delivery system in West Kordofan, Southern Sudan; The needed roles of community animal health assistant (CAHA) and Pastoral unions.

  17. HIV self-testing practices among Health Care Workers: feasibility ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HIV self-testing practices among Health Care Workers: feasibility and options for ... is required to increase the rate of HIV testing and expand treatment services. ... 244(80%) of the HCWs had motivation or interest to be tested by themselves.

  18. Towards improving workers' health by matching work and workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zoer, I.

    2014-01-01

    From an occupational health perspective, the match between work and workers was the central topic in this thesis. The term ‘work’ was used to encompass a combination of physical, mental and psychosocial work demands. The term ‘workers’ represents the resources of workers, in terms of physical,

  19. Motivation of health surveillance assistants in Malawi: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikaphupha, Kingsley R; Kok, Maryse C; Nyirenda, Lot; Namakhoma, Ireen; Theobald, Sally

    2016-06-01

    Motivation of health workers is a critical component of performance and is shaped by multiple factors. This study explored factors that influence motivation of health surveillance assistants (HSAs) in Malawi, with the aim of identifying interventions that can be applied to enhance motivation and performance of HSAs. A qualitative study capturing the perspectives of purposively selected participants was conducted in two districts: Salima and Mchinji. Participants included HSAs, health managers, and various community members. Data were collected through focus group discussions (n = 16) and in-depth interviews (n = 44). The study sample was comprised of 112 women and 65 men. Qualitative data analysis was informed by existing frameworks on factors influencing health worker motivation. Our analysis identified five key themes shaping HSA motivation: salary, accommodation, human resource management, supplies and logistics, and community links. Each of these played out at different levels-individual, family, community, and organisational-with either positive or negative effects. Demotivating factors related primarily to the organisational level, while motivating factors were more often related to individual, family, and community levels. A lack of financial incentives and shortages of basic supplies and materials were key factors demotivating HSAs. Supervision was generally perceived as unsupportive, uncoordinated, and top-down. Most HSAs complained of heavy workload. Many HSAs felt further recognition and support from the Ministry of Health, and the development of a clear career pathway would improve their motivation. Factors shaping motivation of HSAs are complex and multilayered; experiences at one level will impact other levels. Interventions are required to enhance HSA motivation, including strengthening the supervision system, developing career progression pathways, and ensuring clear and transparent incentives. HSAs have unique experiences, and there is need to hear

  20. A Study into the Motivation of Knowledge Workers: Using an adapted version of the MOCC model of motivation to explain the motivational tendencies of project managers and engineers

    OpenAIRE

    Hammond, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    There is a general need across organisations to better understand the motivation of knowledge workers. Based on our own empirical findings, research into early and contemporary motivation theories and use of Sharp et al.’s (2009) Motivators, Outcomes, Context, and Characteristics (MOCC) motivational model we adapted our own model. Through adapting the content of the model but keeping the framework intact, we were able to explain the various aspects of motivation in project management and engi...

  1. Recruitment and retention of mental health workers in Ghana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Jack

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The lack of trained mental health workers is a primary contributor to the mental health treatment gap worldwide. Despite the great need to recruit and retain mental health workers in low-income countries, little is known about how these workers perceive their jobs and what drives them to work in mental health care. Using qualitative interviews, we aimed to explore factors motivating mental health workers in order to inform interventions to increase recruitment and retention. METHODS: We conducted 28 in-depth, open-ended interviews with staff in Ghana's three public psychiatric hospitals. We used the snowballing method to recruit participants and the constant comparative method for qualitative data analysis, with multiple members of the research team participating in data coding to enhance the validity and reliability of the analysis. The use of qualitative methods allowed us to understand the range and depth of motivating and demotivating factors. RESULTS: Respondents described many factors that influenced their choice to enter and remain in mental health care. Motivating factors included 1 desire to help patients who are vulnerable and in need, 2 positive day-to-day interactions with patients, 3 intellectual or academic interest in psychiatry or behavior, and 4 good relationships with colleagues. Demotivating factors included 1 lack of resources at the hospital, 2 a rigid supervisory hierarchy, 3 lack of positive or negative feedback on work performance, and 4 few opportunities for career advancement within mental health. CONCLUSIONS: Because many of the factors are related to relationships, these findings suggest that strengthening the interpersonal and team dynamics may be a critical and relatively low cost way to increase worker motivation. The data also allowed us to highlight key areas for resource allocation to improve both recruitment and retention, including risk pay, adequate tools for patient care, improved hospital work

  2. Keys to Successful Community Health Worker Supervision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duthie, Patricia; Hahn, Janet S.; Philippi, Evelyn; Sanchez, Celeste

    2012-01-01

    For many years community health workers (CHW) have been important to the implementation of many of our health system's community health interventions. Through this experience, we have recognized some unique challenges in community health worker supervision and have highlighted what we have learned in order to help other organizations effectively…

  3. Work motivation in health care: a scoping literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perreira, Tyrone A; Innis, Jennifer; Berta, Whitney

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this scoping literature review was to examine and summarize the factors, context, and processes that influence work motivation of health care workers. A scoping literature review was done to answer the question: What is known from the existing empirical literature about factors, context, and processes that influence work motivation of health care workers? This scoping review used the Arksey and O'Malley framework to describe and summarize findings. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were developed to screen studies. Relevant studies published between January 2005 and May 2016 were identified using five electronic databases. Study abstracts were screened for eligibility by two reviewers. Following this screening process, full-text articles were reviewed to determine the eligibility of the studies. Eligible studies were then evaluated by coding findings with descriptive labels to distinguish elements that appeared pertinent to this review. Coding was used to form groups, and these groups led to the development of themes. Twenty-five studies met the eligibility criteria for this literature review. The themes identified were work performance, organizational justice, pay, status, personal characteristics, work relationships (including bullying), autonomy, organizational identification, training, and meaningfulness of work. Most of the research involved the use of surveys. There is a need for more qualitative research and for the use of case studies to examine work motivation in health care organizations. All of the studies were cross-sectional. Longitudinal research would provide insight into how work motivation changes, and how it can be influenced and shaped. Several implications for practice were identified. There is a need to ensure that health care workers have access to training opportunities, and that autonomy is optimized. To improve work motivation, there is a need to address bullying and hostile behaviours in the workplace. Addressing the factors that

  4. Proactive Personality and Training Motivation among Older Workers: A Mediational Model of Goal Orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setti, Ilaria; Dordoni, Paola; Piccoli, Beatrice; Bellotto, Massimo; Argentero, Piergiorgio

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims at examining the relationship between proactive personality and training motivation among older workers (aged over 55 years) in a context characterized by the growing ageing of the global population. First, the authors hypothesized that proactive personality predicts the motivation to learn among older workers and that…

  5. Health disparities among health care workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mawn, Barbara; Siqueira, Eduardo; Koren, Ainat; Slatin, Craig; Devereaux Melillo, Karen; Pearce, Carole; Hoff, Lee Ann

    2010-01-01

    In this article we describe the process of an interdisciplinary case study that examined the social contexts of occupational and general health disparities among health care workers in two sets of New England hospitals and nursing homes. A political economy of the work environment framework guided the study, which incorporated dimensions related to market dynamics, technology, and political and economic power. The purpose of this article is to relate the challenges encountered in occupational health care settings and how these could have impacted the study results. An innovative data collection matrix that guided small-group analysis provided a firm foundation from which to make design modifications to address these challenges. Implications for policy and research include the use of a political and economic framework from which to frame future studies, and the need to maintain rigor while allowing flexibility in design to adapt to challenges in the field.

  6. Motivation of Scandinavian Knowledge Workers : a survey of methods and their effectiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Rasmussen, Frode A S Storesund and Janus G

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to identify and examine contemporary motivational theories and see how they fit to the Scandinavian knowledge worker. Two theories (SDT and 4-drive) were selected for empirical research. One survey of a total of 139 respondents from organisations located in Scandinavia showed that the SDT theory cannot be considered more effective than other motivational theories when it comes to motivation of Scandinavian knowledge workers. It was further shown that 4-drive theory ...

  7. Work environments for healthy and motivated public health nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Naoko; Yamamoto, Takeshi; Kitaike, Tadashi

    2016-01-01

    Objectives By defining health as mental health and productivity and performance as work motivation, the study aimed to identify work environments that promote the health and motivation of public health nurses, using the concept of a healthy work organizations, which encompasses the coexistence of excellent health for each worker and the productivity and performance of the organization.Methods Self-administered questionnaires were sent to 363 public health nurses in 41 municipal public health departments in Chiba prefecture. The questions were comprised of the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) for mental health and the Morale Measurement Scale (5 items) for work motivation. Demographic data, workplace attributes, workload, and workplace environment were set as independent variables. The Comfortable Workplace Survey (35 items in 7 areas) was used to assess workers' general work environments. The "Work Environment for Public Health Nurses" scale (25 items) was developed to assess the specific situations of public health nurses. While aggregation was carried out area by area for the general work environment, factor analysis and factor-by-factor aggregation were used for public health nurse-specific work environments. Mental health and work motivation results were divided in two based on the total scores, which were then evaluated by t-tests and χ(2) tests. Items that showed a significant correlation were analyzed using logistic regression.Results The valid responses of 215 participants were analyzed (response rate: 59.2%). For the general work environment, high scores (the higher the score, the better the situation) were obtained for "contributions to society" and "human relationships" and low scores were obtained for "career building and human resource development." For public health nurse-specific work environments, high scores were obtained for "peer support," while low scores were obtained for "easy access to advice and training" and

  8. It's all about the money? A qualitative study of healthcare worker motivation in urban China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millar, Ross; Chen, Yaru; Wang, Meng; Fang, Liang; Liu, Jun; Xuan, Zhidong; Li, Guohong

    2017-07-07

    China's healthcare reform programme continues to receive much attention. Central to these discussions has been how the various financial incentives underpinning reform efforts are negatively impacting on the healthcare workforce. Research continues to document these trends, however, qualitative analysis of how these incentives impact on the motivation of healthcare workers remains underdeveloped. Furthermore, the application of motivational theories to make sense of healthcare worker experiences has yet to be undertaken. The purpose of our paper is to present a comparative case study account of healthcare worker motivation across urban China. It draws on semi structured interviews (n = 89) with a range of staff and organisations across three provinces. In doing so, the paper analyses how healthcare worker motivation is influenced by a variety of financial incentives; how motivation is influenced by the opportunities for career development; and how motivation is influenced by the day to day pressures of meeting patient expectations. The experience of healthcare workers in China highlights how a reliance on financial incentives has challenged their ability to maintain the values and ethos of public service. Our findings suggest greater attention needs to be paid to the motivating factors of improved income and career development. Further work is also needed to nurture and develop the motivation of healthcare workers through the building of trust between fellow workers, patients, and the public. Through the analysis of healthcare worker motivation, our paper presents a number of ways China can improve its current healthcare reform efforts. It draws on the experience of other countries in calling for policy makers to support alternative approaches to healthcare reform that build on multiple channels of motivation to support healthcare workers.

  9. Motivational influences on the safer sex behavior of agency-based male sex workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michael D; Seal, David W

    2008-10-01

    Although indoor male sex workers (MSWs) have been found to engage in lower rates of HIV risk behavior with clients than street-based MSWs, few studies have examined the motivations behind such practices. We interviewed 30 MSWs working for the same escort agency regarding their safer sex practices with clients and their reasons for these. As in other research, MSWs reported little risk behavior with clients. Five motivational themes related to safer sex on the job emerged: health concerns, emotional intimacy, client attractiveness, relationships, and structural work factors. Results suggest that participants engaged in rational decision-making relative to sex with clients, facilitated by reduced economic incentive for riskier behavior and a supportive social context. MSWs desired a safe sexual work place, personal integrity, and minimal negative consequences to personal relationships. Collaborating with sex work employers to study their role in encouraging a safer workplace may be important to future research.

  10. Worker Sorting, Taxes and Health Insurance Coverage

    OpenAIRE

    Kevin Lang; Hong Kang

    2007-01-01

    We develop a model in which firms hire heterogeneous workers but must offer all workers insurance benefits under similar terms. In equilibrium, some firms offer free health insurance, some require an employee premium payment and some do not offer insurance. Making the employee contribution pre-tax lowers the cost to workers of a given employee premium and encourages more firms to charge. This increases the offer rate, lowers the take-up rate, increases (decreases) coverage among high (low) de...

  11. Comparative Assessment of Health Workers Performance and The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparative Assessment of Health Workers Performance and The Performance ... had very high significant effect on performance of health workers which was independent of ... Keywords: Health Worker Performance Factors Hospitals Nigeria ...

  12. Does workplace health promotion reach shift workers?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nabe-Nielsen, Kirsten; Garde, Anne Helene; Clausen, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: One reason for health disparities between shift and day workers may be that workplace health promotion does not reach shift workers to the same extent as it reaches day workers. This study aimed to investigate the association between shift work and the availability of and participation...... in workplace health promotion. METHODS: We used cross-sectional questionnaire data from a large representative sample of all employed people in Denmark. We obtained information on the availability of and participation in six types of workplace health promotion. We also obtained information on working hours, ie......). RESULTS: In the general working population, fixed evening and fixed night workers, and employees working variable shifts including night work reported a higher availability of health promotion, while employees working variable shifts without night work reported a lower availability of health promotion...

  13. Attitudes towards money and motivational orientation to work in Brazilian young workers

    OpenAIRE

    Monteiro, Danielli Leite Campos; Peñaloza, Verónica; Pinto, Francisco Roberto; Denegri Coria, Marianela del Carmen; Orellana Calderón, Ligia María

    2015-01-01

    Self-determination theory assumes that there are two motivational orientations: intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. Money is a means to different ends, thus considered an external source of motivation, but individuals may also attribute other meanings to it. The aim of this research was to study the relationship between motivational orientation and the attitude towards money in young employees in Brazil. The sample consisted of 163 young workers attending a Business Administration program at ...

  14. Brazilian union actions for workers' health protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolpho Repullo Junior

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Many authors have emphasized the importance of worker strength through unionized organizations, in relation to the improvement of working procedures, and have reported on the decisiveness of labor movement actions in achieving modifications within the field of work and health. OBJECTIVE: To describe the ways in which Brazilian unions have tried to intervene in health-illness and work processes, identifying the existence of commonality in union actions in this field. TYPE OF STUDY: Qualitative study. SETTING: Postgraduate Program, Environmental Health Department, Faculdade de Saúde Pública, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: Union health advisers and directors were interviewed. Documents relating to union action towards protecting workers' health were collected and analyzed. RESULTS: Unions articulate actions regarding workers' health of a technical and political nature that involve many aspects and high complexity. These have been divided into thematic categories for better analysis. DISCUSSION: Union actions regarding workers' health in Brazil are restricted to some unions, located mainly in the southern, southeastern and northeastern regions of the country. Nonetheless, the unions undertaking such actions represent many professions of great economic and political importance. CONCLUSIONS: The recent changes in health and safety at work regulations, recognition of professional diseases, creation of workers' health services and programs within the unified health system, and operational improvements in companies' specialized safety and occupational medicine services, all basically result from union action. There is commonality of union action in this field in its seeking of technical and political strengthening for all workers and their general and local representation. This has the objective of benefiting collective bargaining between employers and workers. Inter-institutional action on behalf of workers' rights

  15. The Great Recession and Workers' Health Benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Kanghyock

    2018-03-01

    During a recession, cost-sharing of employer-sponsored health benefits could increase to reduce labor costs in the U.S. Using a variation in the severity of recession shocks across industries, I find evidence that the enrollment rate of high deductible health plans (HDHPs) among workers covered by employer-sponsored health benefits increased more among firms in industries that experienced severe recession shocks. As potential mechanisms, I study employer-side and worker-side mechanisms. I find that employers changed health benefit offerings to force or incentivize workers to enroll in HDHPs. But I find little evidence of an increase in workers' demand for HDHPs due to a reduction in income. These results suggest that the HDHP enrollment rate increased during the Great Recession, as employers tried to save costs of offering health benefits. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Sources of motivation and frustration among healthcare workers administering antiretroviral treatment for HIV in rural Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, C; Scott, K; Madenhire, C; Nyamukapa, C; Gregson, S

    2011-07-01

    The roll-out of accessible and affordable antiretroviral (ARV) drugs for people living with HIV in low-income countries is drastically changing the nature of HIV-related healthcare. The Zimbabwean Ministry of Health has renewed efforts to make antiretroviral treatment (ART) for HIV free and publically available across the country. This paper describes the findings from a multi-method qualitative study including interviews and a focus group with healthcare workers (mostly nurses), totalling 25 participants, and field notes from over 100 hours of ethnographic observation in three rural Zimbabwean health centres. These health centres began providing free ARV drugs to HIV-positive people over one year prior to the research period. We examined sources of motivation and frustration among nurses administering ART in these resource-poor health centres. The findings suggest that healthcare workers administering ART in challenging circumstances are adept at drawing strength from the dramatic physical and emotional recoveries made possible by ART and from their personal memories of the suffering caused by HIV/AIDS among close friends or family. However, healthcare staff grappled with extreme resource shortages, which led to exhaustion and frustration. Surprisingly, only one year into ART provision, healthcare workers did not reference the professional challenges of their HIV work before ART became available, suggesting that medical breakthroughs such as ART rapidly come to be seen as a standard element of nursing. Our findings provide a basis for optimism that medical breakthroughs such as ART can reinvigorate healthcare workers in the short term. However, we caution that the daily challenges of nursing in poor environments, especially administering an ongoing and resource-intensive regime such as ART, must be addressed to enable nurses to continue delivering high-quality ART in sub-Saharan Africa.

  17. Motivation Strategies for Knowledge Workers: Evidences and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Petroni

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have been performed previously to investigate different theories of motivation and, more specifically, how to motivate technical professionals. Through a questionnaire survey carried out on 376 development engineers, identified as “knowledge workers” by managers in their firms, this study identifies what methods are used in industry to motivate these individuals, what works and what does not. While many aspects of standard incentives and reward systems used to motivate technical professionals in general are also motivating for technical visionaries, these results indicate that they are motivated by additional factors not generally discussed in the literature.

  18. Factors shaping interactions among community health workers in rural Ethiopia: rethinking workplace trust and teamwork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dynes, Michelle M; Stephenson, Rob; Hadley, Craig; Sibley, Lynn M

    2014-01-01

    Worldwide, a shortage of skilled health workers has prompted a shift toward community-based health workers taking on greater responsibility in the provision of select maternal and newborn health services. Research in mid- and high-income settings suggests that coworker collaboration increases productivity and performance. A major gap in this research, however, is the exploration of factors that influence teamwork among diverse community health worker cadres in rural, low-resource settings. The purpose of this study is to examine how sociodemographic and structural factors shape teamwork among community-based maternal and newborn health workers in Ethiopia. A cross-sectional survey was conducted with health extension workers, community health development agents, and traditional birth attendants in 3 districts of the West Gojam Zone in the Amhara region of Ethiopia. Communities were randomly selected from Maternal and Newborn Health in Ethiopia Partnership (MaNHEP) sites; health worker participants were recruited using a snowball sampling strategy. Fractional logit modeling and average marginal effects analyses were carried out to identify the influential factors for frequency of work interactions with each cadre. One hundred and ninety-four health workers participated in the study. A core set of factors-trust in coworkers, gender, and cadre-were influential for teamwork across groups. Greater geographic distance and perception of self-interested motivations were barriers to interactions with health extension workers, while greater food insecurity (a proxy for wealth) was associated with increased interactions with traditional birth attendants. Interventions that promote trust and gender sensitivity and improve perceptions of health worker motivations may help bridge the gap in health services delivery between low- and high-resource settings. Inter-cadre training may be one mechanism to increase trust and respect among diverse health workers, thereby increasing

  19. Investigation on the Status Quo of Migrant Workers’ Motivation for Vocational Training

    OpenAIRE

    HE, Jianhua; ZUO, Lu

    2013-01-01

    The understanding of migrant workers’ motivation for training is of significant importance to promote the vocational training effectiveness. The survey study of 626 migrant workers in Guangdong province identified that occupational development motivation is the most intensive, followed by the social environment and job responsibility while cognitive interest and interrelationship are among the least. Therefore, the authors suggest that appropriate guidance should be conducted to facilitate ...

  20. Essays on Intrinsic Motivation of Students and Workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. van Lent (Max)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractThis thesis focuses on intrinsic motivation. In the first part of the thesis I examine the effects of motivating university students to set goals on study performance. In particular I study whether encouraging students to set a grade goal and further motivating them to set a more

  1. Employee motivation in health care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Rosak-Szyrocka

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Employees of any organization are the most central part so they need to be influenced and persuaded towards task fulfillment. Examinations connected with medical services were carried out using the Servqual method. It was stated that care of employees and their motivation to work is a very important factor regarding employee engagement but also about the overall success of an organization.

  2. Occupational health care of radiation exposed workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Rahim Rahman Hamzah

    1995-01-01

    The medical problems encountered by the earlier pioneer workers in radiation at the turn of the century are well known. In the 1928, the ICRP (International Committee for Radiological Protection) was instituted and the ALARA principle of radiation protection was evolved. Occupational health care is about maintaining the health and safety of workers in their workplaces. This involves using medical, nursing and engineering practices to achieve its objectives. In certain occupations, including those where workers are exposed to ionising radiation, some of these principles are enshrined in the legislation and would require statutory compliance. Occupational health care of radiation workers seek to prevent ill health arising from exposure to radiation by consolidating the benefits of exposures control and dosimetry. This is via health surveillance for spillages, contamination and exposures to unsealed sources of radiation. It is unlikely that can plan and hope to cater for a Chernobyl type of disaster. However, for the multitude of workers in industry exposed to radiation, control models are available. These are from the more in industrialize countries with a nuclear based energy industry, and where radioactive gadgetry are used in places ranging from factories and farms to construction sites. These models involve statutory requirements on the standard of work practices, assessment of fitness to work and the monitoring of both the worker and the workplace. A similar framework of activity is present in Malaysia. This will be further enhanced with the development of her general health and safety at work legislation. (author)

  3. Health and safety of the older worker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrow, A; Reynolds, F

    2012-01-01

    In the UK, increasing numbers of paid employees are over 60 years with further increases expected as the state pension age rises. Some concern surrounds possible increased work-related illness and accidents for people working beyond the age of 60. To identify the available evidence for health and safety risks of workers over age 60 years with respect to factors associated with injuries and accidents. Databases searched included PUBMED, OSHUpdate, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSHTIC-2), SafetyLit, the UK The Health and Safety Executive (HSELINE) and the Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety until December 2009. Inclusion criteria were workers aged over 60 years. Findings were grouped into occupational accidents and injuries and individual and workplace factors that may have influenced risk of injury to the over-60s. Very little direct evidence was found concerning safety practices and health risks of workers over age 60. Some safety risks were associated with specific physical declines such as age-related hearing loss. Overall, these workers had fewer accidents and injuries but these were more likely to be serious or fatal when they occurred. There was no strong evidence that work patterns, including shift work or overtime, affected safety. Protective, compensatory strategies or experience may maintain safe working practices. Implications for health and safety risks cannot be assessed without longitudinal research on workforces with substantial numbers of workers over age 60 in order to address the healthy worker effect.

  4. The Relationship between Workplace Climate, Motivation and Learning Approaches for Knowledge Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanthournout, Gert; Noyens, Dorien; Gijbels, David; Van den Bossche, Piet

    2014-01-01

    Workplace learning is becoming a central tenet for a large proportion of today's employees. This seems especially true for so-called knowledge workers. Today, it remains unclear how differences in the quality of workplace learning are affected by differences in perception of the workplace environment and the motivation of knowledge workers to…

  5. Minimum Wages and Workers' "Motivation": An approach using an economic experiment (Japanese)

    OpenAIRE

    MORI Tomoharu

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of minimum wages on workers' effort levels (motivation) using an economic experiment conducted in a laboratory. Under the gift-exchange theory, if firms pay higher wages, workers exert more effort. Vice versa, if firms pay lower wages, workers exert less effort. Minimum wages affect the judgment as to whether the wages being paid are high or low. In general, wages near the minimum appear unattractive. However, it is possible that the same level of wage will ...

  6. Motivators and barriers to HIV testing among street-based female sex workers in St. Petersburg, Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Elizabeth J; Maman, Suzanne; Dudina, Victoria I; Moracco, Kathryn E; Bowling, J Michael

    2017-07-01

    Female sex workers are particularly susceptible to HIV-infection in Russia. However, a dearth of information exists on their utilisation of HIV services. A mixed-methods, cross-sectional study was conducted to examine motivators and barriers to HIV testing among street-based sex workers in St. Petersburg, Russia. The health belief model was the theoretical framework for the study. Twenty-nine sex workers participated in in-depth interviews, and 139 sex workers completed interviewer-administered surveys between February and September 2009. Barriers to getting an HIV test were fear of learning the results, worrying that other people would think they were sick, and the distance needed to travel to obtain services. Motivators for getting tested were protecting others from infection, wanting to know one's status and getting treatment if diagnosed. Logistic regression analysis demonstrated that knowing people living with HIV [aOR = 6.75, 95% CI (1.11, 41.10)] and length of time since start of injection drug use [aOR = 0.30, 95% CI (0.09, 0.97)] were significantly associated with recently getting tested. These results are important to consider when developing public health interventions to help female sex workers in Russia learn their HIV status and get linked to care and treatment services if needed.

  7. Motivation patterns of a sample of African workers employed at a colliery in Mpumalanga

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    M.Phil. (Labour Law and Employment Relations) The purpose of this study is to determine the work motivation pattern of African workers and the factors that motivate them In the workplace. The research was carried out within the framework of the Herzberg Motivation-Hygiene Theory. The research was conducted within the coal mining industry. The data was collected by means ofa TIMS Attitude Survey questionnaire and review of secondary data relevant to the research. The research results indica...

  8. Knowledge of Health Care Workers in a Nigerian Tertiary Health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Percutaneous transmission of HIV is a significant occupational risk among health workers. Post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) for HIV is an intervention that is recommended for people at risk of accidental exposure to HIV. The objective of this study was to determine the knowledge of health care workers in OOUTH, Sagamu ...

  9. Health promoting behaviors in industrial workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulay Yilmazel

    2015-04-01

    CONCLUSIONS: Health promoting behaviors were found to be in moderate level among cement factory workers. In our country, health protection and development programs at the national level would be useful to standardize for employees in the industrial sector. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2015; 14(2.000: 153-162

  10. Community Health Workers' Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the moderate knowledge on good practices of malaria prevention and management hence improvement with accurate knowledge through ... received basic health training and work in the community .... CHWs (a binome comprising of a man and a women for general ..... health workers empowerment activities are required to.

  11. Developing Community Health Worker Diabetes Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, W. J.; Lemay, C. A.; Hargraves, J. L.; Gorodetsky, T.; Calista, J.

    2012-01-01

    We designed, implemented and evaluated a 48-hour training program for community health workers (CHWs) deployed to diabetes care teams in community health centers (CHCs). The curriculum included core knowledge/skills with diabetes content to assist CHWs in developing patient self-management goals. Our qualitative evaluation included…

  12. Mobile health monitoring system for community health workers

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Sibiya, G

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available of hypertension as it provides real time information and eliminates the need to visit a healthcare facility to take blood pressure readings. Our proposed mobile health monitoring system enables faster computerization of data that has been recorded... pressure, heart rate and glucose readings. These reading closely related to most common NCDs. D. Feedback to health worker and the subject of care Community health workers are often not professionally trained on health. As a result they are not expected...

  13. Daily practices of health among sex workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elouyse Fernandes Leitão

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To describe the health practices adopted by sex workers in their daily lives. Methods: A qualitative study that took place at bars where sex workers of Maceió –AL, Brazil, work. The universe of participant subjects was integrated by 15 female sex workers, aged between 20 and 39 years, assisted by the team of a Street Clinic. The research took place between August and October 2011 and women were randomly selected. Data was collected through semi-structured interviews, which were all audio-recorded and transcribed for further analysis and interpretation. Results: Thematic analysis of the data produced and the theoretical framework of health promotion enabled the categorization of the health practices in daily life of these women, such as: prevention of sexually transmitted diseases, body care and aesthetics, physical activity, nutrition, leisure, interpersonal relationships, consumption of alcohol and others drugs, self-medication, and quest for health services. The ways they appropriate themselves of such practices are conditioned by the social vulnerability and economic and sociocultural context they are in. Conclusion: Despite the deficiencies found in the development of these practices, sex workers seek to preserve habits that improve their physical, social and mental health, as well as the pursuit of professional care and services to promote their health.

  14. Applying a typology of health worker migration to non-EU migrant doctors in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphries, Niamh; McAleese, Sara; Tyrrell, Ella; Thomas, Steve; Normand, Charles; Brugha, Ruairí

    2015-06-26

    Research on health worker migration in the Irish context has categorized migrant health workers by country or region of training (for example, non-EU nurses or doctors) or recruitment mechanism (for example, actively recruited nurses). This paper applies a new typology of health worker migrants - livelihood, career-oriented, backpacker, commuter, undocumented and returner migrants (European Observatory on Health Systems and Policies and WHO, vol. 2:129-152, 2014) - to the experiences of non-EU migrant doctors in Ireland and tests its utility for understanding health worker migration internationally. The paper draws on quantitative survey (N = 366) and qualitative interview (N = 37) data collected from non-EU migrant doctors in Ireland between 2011 and 2013. Categorizing non-EU migrant doctors in Ireland according to the typology (European Observatory on Health Systems and Policies and WHO, vol. 2:129-152, 2014) offers insight into their differing motivations, particularly on arrival. Findings suggest that the career-oriented migrant is the most common type of doctor among non-EU migrant doctor respondents, accounting for 60 % (N = 220) of quantitative and 54 % (N = 20) of qualitative respondents. The authors propose a modification to the typology via the addition of two additional categories - the family migrant and the safety and security migrant. Employing a typology of health worker migration can facilitate a more comprehensive understanding of the migrant medical workforce, a necessary prerequisite for the development of useful policy tools (European Observatory on Health Systems and Policies and WHO, vol. 2:129-152, 2014). The findings indicate that there is some fluidity between categories, as health worker motivations change over time. This indicates the potential for policy levers to influence migrant health worker decision-making, if they are sufficiently "tuned in" to migrant health worker motivation.

  15. Healthcare organization-education partnerships and career ladder programs for health care workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dill, Janette S; Chuang, Emmeline; Morgan, Jennifer C

    2014-12-01

    Increasing concerns about quality of care and workforce shortages have motivated health care organizations and educational institutions to partner to create career ladders for frontline health care workers. Career ladders reward workers for gains in skills and knowledge and may reduce the costs associated with turnover, improve patient care, and/or address projected shortages of certain nursing and allied health professions. This study examines partnerships between health care and educational organizations in the United States during the design and implementation of career ladder training programs for low-skill workers in health care settings, referred to as frontline health care workers. Mixed methods data from 291 frontline health care workers and 347 key informants (e.g., administrators, instructors, managers) collected between 2007 and 2010 were analyzed using both regression and fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis (QCA). Results suggest that different combinations of partner characteristics, including having an education leader, employer leader, frontline management support, partnership history, community need, and educational policies, were necessary for high worker career self-efficacy and program satisfaction. Whether a worker received a wage increase, however, was primarily dependent on leadership within the health care organization, including having an employer leader and employer implementation policies. Findings suggest that strong partnerships between health care and educational organizations can contribute to the successful implementation of career ladder programs, but workers' ability to earn monetary rewards for program participation depends on the strength of leadership support within the health care organization. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Motivational interviewing in the health care setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcohol use disorders are related to many negative health, emotional, societal, and economic consequences. These disorders are often difficult to treat because individuals suffering from them tend to be ambivalent about and resistant to change. Motivational interviewing (MI) provides healthcare prov...

  17. A Social Psychological Exploration of Power Motivation Among Disadvantaged Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitin, Teresa Ellen

    An extensive review of the literature on the social psychology of social power led to the conclusion that the area contains many unrelated, noncumulative theoretical and empirical works. Three conceptual distinctions were introduced to facilitate the systematic study of social power. Effectance motivation was used to describe the joint, often…

  18. Prosocial Motivation, Stress and Burnout among Direct Support Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickey, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Aim: This study explores whether the desire to engage in work that is beneficial to others moderates the effects of stress on burnout. Method: Based on a survey of 1570 direct support professionals in Ontario, this study conducted linear regression analyses and tested for the interaction effects of prosocial motivation on occupational stress and…

  19. among health workers in south western Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To appraise the level of awareness about prenatal diagnosis among health workers in southwestern Nigeria and its utilization. Methodology: ... awareness about it, and upon which the right attitude of referral is developed. In our ... information on religion, location of practice, field of practice and years in practice.

  20. Community Health Workers' knowledge, attitudes and practices ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Community Health Workers (CHWs) have significantly contributed to the decrease of malaria prevalence and related mortality among under five children in Rwanda. This study aimed to explore the knowledge, attitudes and practices of CHWs about malaria prevention in a selected District of Rwanda. Methods: ...

  1. A trial of a job-specific workers' health surveillance program for construction workers: study protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boschman, J.S.; van der Molen, H.F.; van Duivenbooden, C.; Sluiter, J.K.; Frings-Dresen, M.H.W.

    2011-01-01

    Dutch construction workers are offered periodic health examinations. This care can be improved by tailoring this workers health surveillance (WHS) to the demands of the job and adjust the preventive actions to the specific health risks of a worker in a particular job. To improve the quality of the

  2. Valuable human capital: the aging health care worker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Sandra K; Collins, Kevin S

    2006-01-01

    With the workforce growing older and the supply of younger workers diminishing, it is critical for health care managers to understand the factors necessary to capitalize on their vintage employees. Retaining this segment of the workforce has a multitude of benefits including the preservation of valuable intellectual capital, which is necessary to ensure that health care organizations maintain their competitive advantage in the consumer-driven market. Retaining the aging employee is possible if health care managers learn the motivators and training differences associated with this category of the workforce. These employees should be considered a valuable resource of human capital because without their extensive expertise, intense loyalty and work ethic, and superior customer service skills, health care organizations could suffer severe economic repercussions in the near future.

  3. Effect of motivational group interviewing-based safety education on Workers' safety behaviors in glass manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navidian, Ali; Rostami, Zahra; Rozbehani, Nasrin

    2015-09-19

    Worker safety education using models that identify and reinforce factors affecting behavior is essential. The present study aimed to determine the effect of safety education based on motivational interviewing on awareness of, attitudes toward, and engagement in worker safety in the glass production industry in Hamedan, Iran, in 2014. This was a quasi-experimental interventional study including a total of 70 production line workers at glass production facilities in Hamedan. The workers were randomly assigned to either an intervention or a control group, with 35 workers in each group. Participants in the control group received four one-hour safety education sessions, in the form of traditional lectures. Those in the intervention group received four educational sessions based on motivational group interviewing, which were conducted in four groups of eight to ten participants each. The instruments used included a researcher-developed questionnaire with checklists addressing safety awareness, and attitude and performance, which were completed before and 12 weeks after the intervention. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, independent and paired t-tests, and chi-squared tests. Having obtained the differences in scores before and after the intervention, we determined mean changes in the scores of awareness, attitude, and use of personal protective equipment among workers who underwent motivational group interviewing (3.74 ± 2.16, 1.71 ± 3.16, and 3.2 ± 1.92, respectively, p work environment.

  4. Occupational hazards to health of port workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yukun; Zhan, Shuifen; Liu, Yan; Li, Yan

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this article is to reduce the risk of occupational hazards and improve safety conditions by enhancing hazard knowledge and identification as well as improving safety behavior for freight port enterprises. In the article, occupational hazards to health and their prevention measures of freight port enterprises have been summarized through a lot of occupational health evaluation work, experience and understanding. Workers of freight port enterprises confront an equally wide variety of chemical, physical and psychological hazards in production technology, production environment and the course of labor. Such health hazards have been identified, the risks evaluated, the dangers to health notified and effective prevention measures which should be put in place to ensure the health of the port workers summarized. There is still a long way to go for the freight port enterprises to prevent and control the occupational hazards. Except for occupational hazards and their prevention measures, other factors that influence the health of port workers should also be paid attention to, such as age, work history, gender, contraindication and even the occurrence and development rules of occupational hazards in current production conditions.

  5. China's "market economics in command": footwear workers' health in jeopardy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, M S; Chan, A

    1999-01-01

    This study of occupational safety and health (OSH) problems in the footwear industry in China, the world's largest shoemaker, is based on four years of research in China supplemented by research in Taiwan, Australia, and the United States. With the advent of the economic reforms of the early 1980s, the Chinese state is being driven by an economic imperative under which the profit motive overrides other concerns, causing a deterioration in OSH conditions. Footwear workers are being exposed to high levels of benzene, toluene, and other toxic solvents contained in the adhesives used in the shoe-making process. Many workers have been afflicted with aplastic anemia, leukemia, and other health problems. Most of China's current permissible exposure limits to toxins are either outdated or underenforced. As a result, the Chinese state's protection of footwear workers' health is inadequate. The article aims to draw the attention of the international OSH community to the importance of setting specific exposure standards for the footwear industry worldwide.

  6. Musculoskeletal 2: Are demographics, work and health associated with the ability and motivation to continue working until the age of 65 in construction workers? Oral presentations: Day 3: Friday, September 9, 2011. 22nd International Conference on Epidemiology in Occupational Health EPICOH 2011 September 7-9, 2011, Oxford, UK

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Hengel, K.; Blatter, B.; Geuskens, G.; Koppes, L.; Bongers, P.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: Because of the ageing and decreasing working population in the construction industry, it is important to encourage workers to prolong their working life. The objective of this study was to explore factors associated with the ability and motivation to continue working until the age of 65

  7. Eight myths on motivating social services workers: theory-based perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latting, J K

    1991-01-01

    A combination of factors has made formal motivational and reward systems rare in human service organizations generally and virtually non-existent in social service agencies. The author reviews eight of these myths by reference to eight motivational theories which refute them: need theory, expectancy theory, feedback theory, equity theory, reinforcement theory, cognitive evaluation theory, goal setting theory, and social influence theory. Although most of these theories have been developed and applied in the private sector, relevant research has also been conducted in social service agencies. The author concludes with a summary of guidelines suggested by the eight theories for motivating human service workers.

  8. Pen of Health Care Worker as Vector of Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant Patil

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Nosocomial infections are the major concern in tertiary hospitals. Health care workers and their belonging are known to act as vector in transmission of infections. In present study, the writing pen of health care workers was worked out for carrying infection. The swab from writing pen of health care workers were cultured for any growth of microorganism and compared with swab from pen of the non health care workers. It was found that the rate of growth of microorganism were more in pen of health care workers. Similarly the organism attributed to the nosocomial infection was grown from the pens of health care workers. These organisms might be transmitted from the hands of health care workers. The writing pen which health care worker are using became the vectors of transmission of infection. So to prevent it, the most important way is to wash the hands and pen properly after examining the patients.

  9. Hepatitis B vaccination status among health workers in Enugu, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Subjects were health workers likely to be exposed to patients and or their body fluids. The tool was a self administered pre-tested questionnaire and analysis was ... and no post exposure prophylaxis among health workers in UNTH, Enugu.

  10. Innovation and motivation in public health professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Goñi, Manuel; Maroto, Andrés; Rubalcaba, Luis

    2007-12-01

    Innovations in public health services promote increases in the health status of the population. Therefore, it is a major concern for health policy makers to understand the drivers of innovation processes. This paper focuses on the differences in behaviour of managers and front-line employees in the pro-innovative provision of public health services. We utilize a survey conducted on front-line employees and managers in public health institutions across six European countries. The survey covers topics related to satisfaction, or attitude towards innovation or their institution. We undertake principal components analysis and analysis of variance, and estimate a multinomial ordered probit model to analyse the existence of different behaviour in managers and front-line employees with respect to innovation. Perception of innovation is different for managers and front-line employees in public health institutions. While front-line employees' attitude depends mostly on the overall performance of the institution, managers feel more involved and motivated, and their behaviour depends more on individual and organisational innovative profiles. It becomes crucial to make both managers and front-line employees at public health institutions feel participative and motivated in order to maximise the benefits of technical or organisational innovative process in the health services provision.

  11. Dominant Achievement Goals of Older Workers and Their Relationship with Motivation-Related Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lange, Annet H.; Van Yperen, Nico W.; Van der Heijden, Beatrice I. J. M.; Bal, P. Matthijs

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to increase our insight into older employees' achievement motivation by examining the prevalence of dominant achievement goals among a "unique" group of 172 Dutch workers who remained active after their post-statutory retirement age. Moreover, we investigated how their dominant achievement goals were linked to…

  12. Dominant achievement goals of older workers and their relationship with motivation-related outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Lange, Annet H.; Van Yperen, Nico W.; Van der Heijden, Beatrice I. J. M.; Bal, P. Matthijs

    The aim of this study was to increase our insight into older employees' achievement motivation by examining the prevalence of dominant achievement goals among a "unique" group of 172 Dutch workers who remained active after their post-statutory retirement age. Moreover, we investigated how their

  13. Faithful but Different: Clinical Social Workers Speak Out about Career Motivation and Professional Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Carolyn; Maschi, Tina; O'Brien, Helen; Morgen, Keith; Ward, Kelly

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe licensed clinical social workers' (LCSWs) professional motivation to pursue a social work career and the decision to enter clinical practice. It used a probability sample of 245 New Jersey LCSWs and the Social Work Values Survey as part of an anonymous self-administered mail survey. Descriptive analyses…

  14. Occuptional Health and Safety and Employer Motivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Per Langå

    2004-01-01

    It is often argued and supported by a number of case studies that investment in human factors and occupational health and safety can pay. But any employer has a number of possible in-vestments, and many of these may have a larger marginal utility than health and safety. In addition it is often...... difficult to calculate the exact pay off for human factors and health and safety – how to calculate higher motivation for instance. The economic benefit as a possible driving force for improvement of occupational health and safety is likely to exist but it must be considered a relatively weak force. Another...... important driving force for improvements in health and safety. No employer likes to be ‘branded’ as immoral, manifested in fines by the labour inspectors or media attention to an unsafe conduct. Strategies to im-prove health and safety therefore need to focus on the legitimacy as the probably strongest...

  15. Occupational Health and Safety and Employer Motivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasle, Peter; Jensen, Per Langå

    2004-01-01

    It is often argued and supported by a number of case studies that investment in human factors and occupational health and safety can pay. But any employer has a number of possible in-vestments, and many of these may have a larger marginal utility than health and safety. In addition it is often...... difficult to calculate the exact pay off for human factors and health and safety – how to calculate higher motivation for instance. The economic benefit as a possible driving force for improvement of occupational health and safety is likely to exist but it must be considered a relatively weak force. Another...... important driving force for improvements in health and safety. No employer likes to be ‘branded’ as immoral, manifested in fines by the labour inspectors or media attention to an unsafe conduct. Strategies to im-prove health and safety therefore need to focus on the legitimacy as the probably strongest...

  16. [Calculation of workers' health care costs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydlewska-Liszkowska, Izabela

    2006-01-01

    In different health care systems, there are different schemes of organization and principles of financing activities aimed at ensuring the working population health and safety. Regardless of the scheme and the range of health care provided, economists strive for rationalization of costs (including their reduction). This applies to both employers who include workers' health care costs into indirect costs of the market product manufacture and health care institutions, which provide health care services. In practice, new methods of setting costs of workers' health care facilitate regular cost control, acquisition of detailed information about costs, and better adjustment of information to planning and control needs in individual health care institutions. For economic institutions and institutions specialized in workers' health care, a traditional cost-effect calculation focused on setting costs of individual products (services) is useful only if costs are relatively low and the output of simple products is not very high. But when products form aggregates of numerous actions like those involved in occupational medicine services, the method of activity based costing (ABC), representing the process approach, is much more useful. According to this approach costs are attributed to the product according to resources used during different activities involved in its production. The calculation of costs proceeds through allocation of all direct costs for specific processes in a given institution. Indirect costs are settled on the basis of resources used during the implementation of individual tasks involved in the process of making a new product. In this method, so called map of processes/actions consisted in the manufactured product and their interrelations are of particular importance. Advancements in the cost-effect for the management of health care institutions depend on their managerial needs. Current trends in this regard primarily depend on treating all cost reference

  17. Features of burnout syndrome development in healthcare workers with different types of work motivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vezhnovets T.A.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of researches of peculiarities of burnout syndrome formation in healthcare workers with different types of work motivation. It is discovered that the syndrome is formed for each motivational type as mechanism of psychological protection against the action of certain stressful factors, namely: for instrumental type – an excessive concentration on obtaining material rewards; for professional type – an excessive control of emotions in substantial professional communications and high psycho-emotional overload; for patriotic type – high level of dependence on social approval, a high level of communicative activity, a high level of psycho-emotional overload, for economical type – distrust, for lumpenized – any labor. Prevention of burnout syndrome in healthcare workers has to be realized taking into account peculiarities of psycho-traumatic factors depending on the type of work motivation.

  18. The narrative psychology of community health workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Michael; Ziegler, Friederike

    2015-03-01

    Community health psychology is an approach which promotes community mobilisation as a means of enhancing community capacity and well-being and challenging health inequalities. Much of the research on this approach has been at the more strategic and policy level with less reference to the everyday experiences of community workers who are actively involved in promoting various forms of community change. This article considers the narrative accounts of a sample of 12 community workers who were interviewed about their lives. Their accounts were analysed in terms of narrative content. This revealed the tensions in their everyday practice as they attempted to overcome community divisions and management demands for evidence. Common to all accounts was a commitment to social justice. These findings are discussed with reference to opportunities and challenges in the practice of community work. © The Author(s) 2015.

  19. Allergy to latex in health workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fajardo-Zapata, Álvaro L.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A common and growing problem in hospitals is hypersensitivity to rubber latex antigens, since many products, including gloves, are manufactured from this material, with the consequent possibility of producing allergy in persons who use them. Objective: To find out if health workers at a fourth level clinic in Bogotá, Colombia, are allergic to rubber latex, in relation to the use of gloves. Materials and methods: Descriptive, cross-sectional study of a non-probabilistic intentional-type sample in each one of four hospital units. A survey was applied to participants. Results: 16 of the 26 persons (61.5% with history of allergic processes manifested some kind of reaction when they had contact with latex gloves; the problem was more significant in the nursing personnel compared to physicians. Conclusions: The exposure to latex gloves may be generating the appearance of allergic occupational disease in health workers.

  20. Preserving heritage and technical professional motivation of antiquary workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuñez, P. J.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted at "Francisco Sánchez Betancourt" trade school. It is aimed at developing environmental education and professional and technical motivation by means of the heritage preserving work in masonry trainees. Theoretical research methods were used for systematizing referents, likewise observation, interviews, surveys and experiments were used to advance the proposal consisting of a system of tasks for the subject "Technology of Masonry" based on organized visits to historical buildings and sites. These visits allow masonry trainees to know about the importance of preserving heritage the ways to accomplish it. In addition lectures, video showing sections, book sales and other activities were carried out for promoting students enrolment.

  1. Poor retention does not have to be the rule: retention of volunteer community health workers in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwick, Teralynn; Brenner, Jennifer L; Kyomuhangi, Teddy; Wotton, Kathryn A; Kabakyenga, Jerome Kahuma

    2014-05-01

    Globally, health worker shortages continue to plague developing countries. Community health workers are increasingly being promoted to extend primary health care to underserved populations. Since 2004, Healthy Child Uganda (HCU) has trained volunteer community health workers in child health promotion in rural southwest Uganda. This study analyses the retention and motivation of volunteer community health workers trained by HCU. It presents retention rates over a 5-year period and provides insight into volunteer motivation. The findings are based on a 2010 retrospective review of the community health worker registry and the results of a survey on selection and motivation. The survey was comprised of qualitative and quantitative questions and verbally administered to a convenience sample of project participants. Between February 2004 and July 2009, HCU trained 404 community health workers (69% female) in 175 villages. Volunteers had an average age of 36.7 years, 4.9 children and some primary school education. Ninety-six per cent of volunteer community health workers were retained after 1 year (389/404), 91% after 2 years (386/404) and 86% after 5 years (101/117). Of the 54 'dropouts', main reasons cited for discontinuation included 'too busy' (12), moved (11), business/employment (8), death (6) and separation/divorce (6). Of 58 questionnaire respondents, most (87%) reported having been selected at an inclusive community meeting. Pair-wise ranking was used to assess the importance of seven 'motivational factors' among respondents. Those highest ranked were 'improved child health', 'education/training' and 'being asked for advice/assistance by peers', while the modest 'transport allowance' ranked lowest. Our findings suggest that in our rural, African setting, volunteer community health workers can be retained over the medium term. Community health worker programmes should invest in community involvement in selection, quality training, supportive supervision and

  2. Community health workers adherence to referral guidelines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lal, Sham; Ndyomugenyi, Richard; Paintain, Lucy

    2016-01-01

    artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) and recognize symptoms in children that required immediate referral to the nearest health centre. Intervention arm CHWs had additional training on how to conduct an RDT; CHWs in the control arm used a presumptive diagnosis for malaria using clinical signs......Background Many malaria-endemic countries have implemented national community health worker (CHW) programmes to serve remote populations that have poor access to malaria diagnosis and treatment. Despite mounting evidence of CHWs’ ability to adhere to malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs...

  3. Mental disorders among health workers in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berenice Scaletzky Knuth

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe scope of this article is to deter mine the prevalence of common mental disorders (CMD and Depression among Community Health Agents (CHA and employees of Psychosocial Care Centers (CAPS. It is a cross-sectional descriptive study involving the target population of Community Health Workers and Psychosocial Care Center workers, linked to the Municipal Health Department of Pelotas in the Brazilian State of Rio Grande do Sul. The presence of common mental disorders was considered when the Self Report Questionnaire (SRQ was > 7 and the occurrence of depression when BDI > 12. In total, 257 professionals participated in the study. Among mental health professionals (n = 119, the prevalence of CMDs was 25.2% and depression was 23.5%, while the prevalence of CMDs was 48.6% and depression was 29% among CHA (n = 138. The ratio of CMDs between the two groups of professionals was statistically different (p < 0.001. In this study, it was observed that the CAPS professionals are more adapted to work issues, with less perceived health problems arising from work and with a lower prevalence of mental disorders compared to CHA.

  4. Occupational safety among dental health-care workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimoji, Shigehiro; Ishihama, Kohji; Yamada, Hidefumi; Okayama, Masaki; Yasuda, Kouichi; Shibutani, Tohru; Ogasawara, Tadashi; Miyazawa, Hiroo; Furusawa, Kiyofumi

    2010-01-01

    Compared to other health-care workers, dental health-care workers come in close contact with patients and use a variety of sharp and high-speed rotating instruments. It is important to understand the characteristics of the occupational accidents that occur. We reviewed incident reports from April 1, 2005, to March 31, 2010, at Matsumoto Dental University Hospital. In addition, questionnaires dealing with identification of occupational safety issues, especially splash exposures, were conducted for dentists, dental hygienists, and nurses. Thirty-two occupational injuries were reported during the study period, including 23 sharp instrument injuries (71.9%), 6 splash exposures (18.8%), and 3 others. Of the six splash exposures, only two cases involved potential contamination with blood or other potentially infectious patient material. Of the 66 workers who experienced sharps injuries, 20 workers (30.3%, 20/66) reported them to the hospital work safety team. The questionnaire revealed high incident of splash exposures and conjunctiva exposures: 87.9% (51/58) and 60.3% (35/58) in dentists and 88.6% (39/44) and 61.4% (27/44) in dental hygienists. The compliance rate for routine use of protective eyewear was 60.3% (35/58) for dentists and 34.1% (15/44) for hygienists. Of the presented informational items included in the questionnaire, those that strongly persuaded respondents to use protective eyewear were ‘splatters from the patient’s mouth contain blood’ (90%, 99/110) and ‘dental operations at our clinic are performed based only on a questionnaire without serious examinations for HBV, HCV, and HIV’ (71.8%, 79/110). The reason of low compliance of protective eyewear among dentists might relate to fine dental procedures. Appropriate information is important for the motive of wearing personal protective equipment, and an early educational program may have a potential to increase compliance with the use of that equipment. PMID:23745061

  5. mutual participation in the health worker-patient relationship

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Medunsa) ... Keywords: mutual participation, health worker-patient relationship, decision ... The importance of a mutual participatory model in medical care and decision ... workers become aware of differences in opinion or in the balance of power, ...

  6. Determinants of Work Motivation and Work Ability among Older Workers and Implications for the Desire for Continued Employment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Büsch

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In times of demographic change, with the associated challenges for social security systems and the looming lack of skilled workers, extending working life becomes increasingly significant. According to the continuity theory (Atchley 1989 we can assume that individuals who are satisfied with their structures and performance will stay at work longer. We will therefore examine whether motivation and perceived work ability have an influence on the desire for continued employment. In addition, we will answer the question of whether factors that have a positive influence on motivation and work ability also have a direct influence on continued employment. Besides objective factors such as enterprise size and occupational status, we will examine subjective factors, such as assessment of recognition, the demands, and the meaningfulness of the work for their contributions to the explanation. The following analysis is based on a survey taken in May 2008 together with the Bundesinstitut für Bevölkerungsforschung (BiB. It enables us to identify the desire for continued employment in old age, the existing work motivation, and the state of health. The core results of the statistical analysis show that in men high motivation is linked to the desire for continued employment in retirement age. This does not apply to women; for them, work ability is the decisive criterion. In general, we observe that a positive assessment of the subjective influencing factors strengthen work motivation. In addition, with regard to objective factors it was ascertained that for men the working hour regime (full-time work and occupation status (salaried “white-collar” employees correlate positively with the desire for continued employment. In particular, meaningful work increases motivation among men and work ability increases motivation among women. It appears important that enterprises convince their employees of the meaningfulness of the work.

  7. Job satisfaction: rural versus urban primary health care workers' perception in Ogun State of Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, P C; Ebuehi, O M

    2011-01-01

    Job satisfaction implies doing a job one enjoys, doing it well, and being suitably rewarded for one' efforts. Several factors affect job satisfaction. To compare factors influencing job satisfaction amongst rural and urban primary health care workers in southwestern Nigeria. A cross sectional comparative study recruited qualified health workers selected by multi stage sampling technique from rural and urban health facilities in four local government areas (LGAs) of Ogun State in Southwestern Nigeria. Data were collected and analysed using Epi info V 3.5.1 RESULTS: The response rates were 88(88%) and 91(91%) respectively in the rural and urban areas. While urban workers derived satisfaction from availability of career development opportunities, materials and equipment, in their current job, rural workers derived satisfaction from community recognition of their work and improved staff relationship. Major de-motivating factors common to both groups were lack of supportive supervision, client-provider relationship and lack of in-service training. However more rural 74(84.1%) than urban 62(68.1%) health workers would prefer to continue working in their present health facilities (p=0.04). There was a statistically significant difference between the two groups in job satisfaction with respect to tools availability and career development opportunities (pfactors influencing job satisfaction between rural and urban healthcare workers. There is need for human resource policy to be responsive to the diverse needs of health workers particularly at the primary level.

  8. [Awareness and attitude toward suicide in community mental health professionals and hospital workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soung Nam; Lee, Kang Sook; Lee, Seon Young; Yu, Jae Hee; Hong, A Rum

    2009-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate community mental health professionals and hospital workers attitude and awareness towards suicide. This study investigated 264 community mental health professionals and 228 hospital workers. SOQs (Suicidal Opinion Questionnaires) were used from July 2007 to September 2007. After a factor analysis for the attitude towards suicide, the items on ethics, mental illness, religion, risk, and motivation were included in the subsequent analysis. There were significant differences in the attitude towards suicide according to religion, age, educational background, the marriage status, the economic position, and different professional licenses. Hospital workers' view was different from the community workers'. The hospital workers judged that suicide was due to mental illness, and suicide was high for the people in a special environment and who lacked motivation, which caused them to fall in a dangerous situation. For the lower educational group, they thought that suicide was attributable to mental illness. The awareness for suicide was significantly higher in the group with a postgraduate education, unmarried people, mental health professionals and the persons who had concern and experience with suicide. The factors that had an influence on the awareness of suicide were the items of mental illness, religion, risk and motivational factors. This study suggested that the factors to increase the awareness and attitude for suicide were the experience of increased education and case management of suicide. Therefore, education dealing with suicide and reinforcement of crisis management programs should be developed.

  9. Investigation of the Motivation Parameters in Health Care Establishments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman Durmaz

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the factors that influence the motivation of employees in the health sector with the aim of finding articles and research are examined. As far as can be seen in reviews in this field, various studies have been conducted in different countries. The specific findings of this research were concluded. When these findings are examined, particularly in the area of Health ‘Management’ and ‘working conditions’ had positive effect on the motivation of health personnel was observed. However, the tools of economic motivation, tools to motivate health employees, psychosocial factors have been identified as the most important managerial tools and organizational tools to motivate.

  10. Usefulness of the protection motivation theory in explaining hearing protection device use among male industrial workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melamed, S; Rabinowitz, S; Feiner, M; Weisberg, E; Ribak, J

    1996-05-01

    The present study examined the usefulness of personal variables: noise annoyance, and components of the protection motivation theory (R. W. Rogers, 1983) along with social-organizational factors in explaining hearing protection device (HPD) use among Israeli manufacturing workers. Participants were 281 men exposed to harmful noise levels for which routine HPD use is required by regulation. In practice, 3 HPD user groups were identified: nonusers (n = 38), occasional users (n = 125), and regular users (n = 118). HPD use was objectively verified. HPD use was primarily related to the personal variables but not to management pressure, coworker pressure, or family support. The most powerful predictors of HPD use were perceived self-efficacy (for long-term HPD use), perceived susceptibility (to hearing loss), and noise annoyance, together explaining 48% of the outcome variance. These findings have implications for interventions aimed at motivating workers to use HPDs regularly.

  11. Social Workers' Role in the Canadian Mental Health Care System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towns, Ashley M.; Schwartz, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Using Canadian survey data this research provides social workers in Canada with a better understanding of their role in the Canadian mental health care system. Methods: By analyzing data from the Canadian Community Health Survey, Cycle 1.2 Mental Health and Well-being, the role of social workers in the Canadian mental health system was…

  12. The home health workforce: a distinction between worker categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Robyn; Sutton, Janet P; Bryant, Natasha; Adams, Annelise; Squillace, Marie

    2013-01-01

    The demand for home health aides is expected to rise, despite concerns about the sustainability of this workforce. Home health workers receive low wages and little training and have high turnover. It is difficult to recruit and retain workers to improve clinical outcomes. This study presents national estimates to examine how home health workers and the subgroup of workers differ in terms of sociodemographic characteristics, compensation, benefits, satisfaction, and retention. Hospice aides fare better than other categories of workers and are less likely to leave their job. Policymakers should consider strategies to increase the quality and stability of this workforce.

  13. Integration of community health workers into health systems in developing countries: Opportunities and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collins Otieno Asweto

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Developing countries have the potential to reach vulnerable and underserved populations marginalized by the country’s health care systems by way of community health workers (CHWs. It is imperative that health care systems focus on improving access to quality continuous primary care through the use of CHWs while paying attention to the factors that impact on CHWs and their effectiveness. Objective: To explore the possible opportunities and challenges of integrating CHWs into the health care systems of developing countries. Methods: Six databases were examined for quantitative, qualitative, and mixed-methods studies that included the integration of CHWs, their motivation and supervision, and CHW policy making and implementation in developing countries. Thirty-three studies met the inclusion criteria and were double read to extract data relevant to the context of CHW programs. Thematic coding was conducted and evidence on the main categories of contextual factors influencing integration of CHWs into the health system was synthesized. Results: CHWs are an effective and appropriate element of a health care team and can assist in addressing health disparities and social determinants of health. Important facilitators of integration of CHWs into health care teams are support from other health workers and inclusion of CHWs in case management meetings. Sustainable integration of CHWs into the health care system requires the formulation and implementation of polices that support their work, as well as financial and nonfinancial incentives, motivation, collaborative and supportive supervision, and a manageable workload. Conclusions: For sustainable integration of CHWs into health care systems, high-performing health systems with sound governance, adequate financing, well-organized service delivery, and adequate supplies and equipment are essential. Similarly, competent communities could contribute to better CHW performance through sound

  14. From Worker Health To Citizen Health: Moving Upstream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepulveda, Martin-Jose

    2014-01-01

    New rapid growth economies, urbanization, health systems crises and “big data” are causing fundamental changes in social structures and systems including health. These forces for change have significant consequences for occupational and environmental medicine and will challenge the specialty to think beyond workers and workplaces as the principal locus of innovation for health and performance. These trends are placing great emphasis on upstream strategies for addressing the complex systems dynamics of the social determinants of health. The need to engage systems in communities for healthier workforces is a shift in orientation from worker and workplace centric to citizen and community centric. This change for occupational and environmental medicine requires extending systems approaches in the workplace to communities which are systems of systems and which require different skills, data, tools and partnerships. PMID:24284749

  15. Preventive actions taken by workers after workers' health surveillance: a controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boschman, J S; Van der Molen, H F; Frings-Dresen, M H W; Sluiter, J K

    2013-12-01

    To evaluate construction workers' preventive actions and occupational physician's (OPs) recommendations after a job-specific workers' health surveillance (WHS) compared with the currently used generic WHS. After the WHS, the OPs' written recommendations were captured. At the 3-month follow-up, the workers were asked about the preventive actions they had undertaken. A generalized linear mixed model was used to compare proportions of workers. At follow-up, the proportion of workers who reported taking preventive actions was significantly higher in the intervention group (80%, 44/55) than in the control group (67%, 80 of 121), (P = 0.04). In the intervention group, the OPs provided a higher proportion of workers with written recommendations (82%, 63 of 77, vs 57%, 69 of 121; P = 0.03). The job-specific WHS aided OPs in providing workers with recommendations and workers in undertaking (job-specific) preventive actions.

  16. Analysis of hepatitis B vaccination behavior and vaccination willingness among migrant workers from rural China based on protection motivation theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rugang; Li, Youwei; Wangen, Knut R; Maitland, Elizabeth; Nicholas, Stephen; Wang, Jian

    2016-05-03

    With China's accelerating urbanization, migrant workers comprise up to 40% of the urban population of China's largest cities. More mobile than non-migrant urban dwellers, migrants are more likely to contract and spread hepatitis B (HB) than non-migrants. Due to the mandatory system of household registration (hukou), migrants are less likely to be covered by national HB immunization programs and also to have more limited access to public health services where they work than non-migrants. Migrants form a significant sub-group in all Chinese cities posing unique public policy vaccination challenges. Using protection motivation theory (PMT), we developed and measured HB cognitive variables and analyze the factors affecting HB vaccination behavior and willingness to vaccinate by migrant workers. We propose public policy interventions to increase HB vaccination rates of migrant workers. We developed a questionnaire to collect information on the HB vaccination characteristics of 1684 respondents from 6 provinces and Beijing. Exploratory factor analysis was used to create PMT variables and a binary logistic regression model was used to analyze the factors affecting migrant workers' HB vaccination behavior and willingness to vaccinate. Vulnerability and response-efficacy were significant PMT cognition factors determining HB vaccination behavior. The HB vaccination rate for migrants decreased with increasing age and was smaller for the primary education than the high education group. The vaccination rate of the medical insurance group was significantly greater than the non-insured group, and the vaccination probability was significantly higher for the self-rated good health compared to the self-rated poor health group. Geographical birth location mattered: the vaccination rate for Beijing city and Ningxia province migrants were higher than for Hebei province and the vaccination rate was lower for migrants born far from health facilities compared to those located middle

  17. 48 CFR 923.7002 - Worker safety and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Information and Protection of Worker Safety and Health” or “952.223-77, Conditional Payment of Fee or Profit—Protection of Worker Safety and Health” implement the requirements of section 234C of the Atomic Energy Act... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Worker safety and health...

  18. Dust exposure and health of workers in duck hatcheries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Thérèse Guillam

    2017-07-01

    Hatchery workers were at increased risk of compromised respiratory health due to dust exposure, particularly those who work in sorting rooms. Asthma and rhinitis were in excess in this population of workers. Thorough clinical examination of these workers should be performed and all exposures assessed.

  19. Meeting community health worker needs for maternal health care service delivery using appropriate mobile technologies in Ethiopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Little

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mobile health applications are complex interventions that essentially require changes to the behavior of health care professionals who will use them and changes to systems or processes in delivery of care. Our aim has been to meet the technical needs of Health Extension Workers (HEWs and midwives for maternal health using appropriate mobile technologies tools. METHODS: We have developed and evaluated a set of appropriate smartphone health applications using open source components, including a local language adapted data collection tool, health worker and manager user-friendly dashboard analytics and maternal-newborn protocols. This is an eighteen month follow-up of an ongoing observational research study in the northern of Ethiopia involving two districts, twenty HEWs, and twelve midwives. RESULTS: Most health workers rapidly learned how to use and became comfortable with the touch screen devices so only limited technical support was needed. Unrestricted use of smartphones generated a strong sense of ownership and empowerment among the health workers. Ownership of the phones was a strong motivator for the health workers, who recognised the value and usefulness of the devices, so took care to look after them. A low level of smartphones breakage (8.3%,3 from 36 and loss (2.7% were reported. Each health worker made an average of 160 mins of voice calls and downloaded 27Mb of data per month, however, we found very low usage of short message service (less than 3 per month. CONCLUSIONS: Although it is too early to show a direct link between mobile technologies and health outcomes, mobile technologies allow health managers to more quickly and reliably have access to data which can help identify where there issues in the service delivery. Achieving a strong sense of ownership and empowerment among health workers is a prerequisite for a successful introduction of any mobile health program.

  20. Client retention and health among sex workers in Nairobi, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izugbara, Chimaraoke O

    2012-12-01

    It is still a small body of research that directly addresses female sex workers' relationships with their regular commercial male partners. I used ethnographic data from Nairobi, Kenya to interrogate motivations and strategies for recruiting and retaining regular male clients among female sex workers (FSWs). Regular commercial male partners, popularly called customer care, wera or wesh by Nairobi's FSWs, played diverse roles in their lives. Client retention enabled sex workers to manage the risk of reduced marriage prospects, guaranteed them steady work, livelihoods, and incomes, and prevented their victimization and harassment. To retain clients, sex workers obliged them a great deal, pretended they had quit prostitution, and sometimes resorted to magical practices. However, these strategies were also accompanied by risks that reinforced the vulnerability of sex workers. Lack of critical attention to sex workers' practices for managing perceived risks in their particular type of work may hamper current programmatic efforts to make their job safer.

  1. occupational health problems studied among the workers of lime

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RAMGANES

    In present study, an extensive health survey of 573 lime kiln workers of Maihar and Jhukehi region of ... Among the observed health anomalies, ..... Health benefits of air pollution control in ... “Association of Indoor and Outdoor Particulate.

  2. Assessing Health Workers Knowledge on the Determinants of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The participants were interviewed with a structured questionnaire used to elicit the knowledge of health workers on health determinants. Results: When individual factors were considered, a greater percentage of health workers, believed that safe drinking water (98.9%), where a person lives (96.6%) and a balanced diet, ...

  3. Job-specific workers’ health surveillance for construction workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boschman, J.S.

    2013-01-01

    Workers’ health surveillance (WHS) aims at the assessment of workers’ health and work ability by detecting any clinical or preclinical abnormalities. In that way, it can be verified whether the occupational exposures have any detrimental effect on the health of workers and whether the worker is fit

  4. Improving occupational health care for construction workers: a process evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boschman, Julitta S.; van der Molen, Henk F.; Sluiter, Judith K.; Frings-Dresen, Monique H. W.

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the process of a job-specific workers' health surveillance (WHS) in improving occupational health care for construction workers. From January to July 2012 were 899 bricklayers and supervisors invited for the job-specific WHS at three locations of one occupational health service

  5. Stereotypes on Nodding syndrome: responses of health workers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To identify stereotypes and negative attitudes held by primary care health workers about nodding syndrome. Method: Of one hundred health workers invited by the Uganda Ministry of Health for training on nodding syndrome from the three most affected districts of Pader, Lamwo and Kitgum forty were interviewed ...

  6. Purchasing power of civil servant health workers in Mozambique ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Health workers' purchasing power is an important consideration in the development of strategies for health workforce development. This work explores the purchasing power variation of Mozambican public sector health workers, between 1999 and 2007. In general, the calculated purchasing power increased ...

  7. Prevalence of depression among health workers in Enugu, South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aims: Determination of the prevalence and distribution of depression among health workers at tertiary level of health care delivery in Enugu South East Nigeria. Settings and Design: A cross‑sectional descriptive survey of depression in health workers at tertiary level. Subjects and Methods: By proportional quota sampling, ...

  8. Health workers' ICT literacy in a Nigerian University Teaching Hospital

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the ICT literacy among the health workers of Igbinedion University Teaching Hospital. The emergence of Internet for Telemedicine and health information revolution necessitates that issue of computer and other communication technology literacy among the health workers of Igbinedion University ...

  9. [Development of a scale for work motivation of home care workers and influencing factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakatani, Yasuhisa; Sugiura, Keiko; Mikami, Hiroshi

    2009-02-01

    To develop a scale for home care workers focusing on work motivation and to determine influential underlying factors. This study was an anonymous mailed survey of home care workers who provided home help services in July 2007. We collected information in the following areas: demographics of home care workers and care-recipients, burnout, stress, job satisfaction, life satisfaction, and self-esteem (SE). Hierarchical regression analysis was performed in order to identify factors related to work motivation. Construct validity was analyzed by factor analysis. Two subscales were obtained by the analysis and designated as "positive appraisal of the current state" (9 items) and "uplift of morale" (3 items). Content validity was analyzed by good-poor and item-total, and all correlations were strongly positive. Reliability was analyzed by internal consistency. Cronbach's ? values were 0.94 and 0.77, respectively. Concurrent validity was analyzed by correlation coefficient and a significant negative correlation was seen between the two subscales and burnout (r = -0.23--0.50), while positive correlations were noted for job or life satisfaction (r= 0.24-0.49). The positive influential factors on "positive appraisal of the current state" were satisfaction in 1) relation to care-recipients, 2) work environment for skill improvement and 3) the wages. The positive influential factors on "uplift of morale" were satisfaction with relation to care-recipients and their own life. This scale has sufficient reliability and validity. "Positive appraisal of the current state" and "uplift of morale" were confirmed as appropriate work motivation subscales for home care workers. Thus, support to augment job satisfaction with the work environment and wages appears to enhance "positive appraisal of the current state" and support to augment life satisfaction appears to enhance "uplift of morale".

  10. Microeconomic institutions and personnel economics for health care delivery: a formal exploration of what matters to health workers in Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serneels, Pieter; Lievens, Tomas

    2018-01-26

    Most developing countries face important challenges regarding the quality of health care, and there is a growing consensus that health workers play a key role in this process. Our understanding as to what are the key institutional challenges in human resources, and their underlying driving forces, is more limited. A conceptual framework that structures existing insights and provides concrete directions for policymaking is also missing. To gain a bottom-up perspective, we gather qualitative data through semi-structured interviews with different levels of health workers and users of health services in rural and urban Rwanda. We conducted discussions with 48 health workers and 25 users of health services in nine different groups in 2005. We maximized within-group heterogeneity by selecting participants using specific criteria that affect health worker performance and career choice. The discussion were analysed electronically, to identify key themes and insights, and are documented with a descriptive quantitative analysis relating to the associations between quotations. The findings from this research are then revisited 10 years later making use of detailed follow-up studies that have been carried out since then. The original discussions identified both key challenges in human resources for health and driving forces of these challenges, as well as possible solutions. Two sets of issues were highlighted: those related to the size and distribution of the workforce and those related to health workers' on-the-job performance. Among the latter, four categories were identified: health workers' poor attitudes towards patients, absenteeism, corruption and embezzlement and lack of medical skills among some categories of health workers. The discussion suggest that four components constitute the deeper causal factors, which are, ranked in order of ease of malleability, incentives, monitoring arrangements, professional and workplace norms and intrinsic motivation. Three

  11. In depth analysis of motivational factors at work in the health industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajwa, Sukhminder Jit Singh; Virdi, Sandeep Singh; Bajwa, Sukhwinder Kaur; Ghai, Gagandeep Kaur; Singh, Kamaljit; Rana, Chandeep Singh; Singh, J P; Raj, Sahil; Puri, Anju

    2010-01-01

    Motivation of health workers is necessary to generate the organizational commitment towards the patients and the hospital and therefore the knowledge about what motivates and satisfies them is very essential.The aim of the project was to investigate and analyze the various factors that help in motivation of the health workers while performing their clinical duties in the hospital. A simple random study was conducted among 100 employees of our institute, which included doctors, staff nurses and paramedical staff. One hundred employees from Gian Sagar Institute were chosen randomly for the purpose of our study. All the employees were enquired by the questionnaire method as well as by individual interviews regarding the various motivating and demotivating factors at the work place. Detailed enquiries were performed regarding the various aspects concerning the job factors and work satisfaction. All the answers and findings were observed and recorded. Simple non-parametric tests like mean, percentages and chi square tests were employed to analyze the data.The demographic profile of all the employees showed only minor differences which were statistically non-significant. Skills, task identity, task significance, autonomy, feedback, environment, job security and compensation were observed to be the important factors for the motivation of employees. The depth and the extent to which these factors were studied at work in the hospital showed remarkable differences. All the factors studied in this project are essential basis for organizational commitment, but feedback represents the factor with the highest motivation potential especially among the younger population.

  12. Sustaining the work ability and work motivation of lower-educated older workers: Directions for work redesign

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanders, J.; Dorenbosch, L.; Grundemann, R.; Blonk, R.W.B.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines directions for work redesign which might lead to the creation of sustainable jobs for lower-educated older workers (45 years or over, ISCED 0-2) and thus motivate and enable them to extend their working lives. We use longitudinal data on 1,264 older Dutch workers collected by the

  13. Study of Determinants of Lung Cancer Protective Behaviors in Esfahan Steel Company Workers Based On Protection Motivation Theory

    OpenAIRE

    mohammadali Morowatisharifabad; Leila Hadi varnamkhavasti; Mohammadjavad Zare; Hossein Fallahzadeh; zohre Karimiankakolaki

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Lung cancer is known the leading cause of death among cancers. Since in our country a comprehensive scientific information not available on the determinants of protective behavior of lung cancer among workers, this study, aimed to examine determinants of lung cancer protective behaviors among Esfahan Steel Company (ESCO) workers based on protection motivation theory. Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed on 253 workers of the ESCO who were randomly selected. In th...

  14. Health workers' experiences of coping with the Ebola epidemic in Sierra Leone's health system: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raven, Joanna; Wurie, Haja; Witter, Sophie

    2018-04-05

    The 2014 Ebola Virus Disease epidemic evolved in alarming ways in Sierra Leone spreading to all districts. The country struggled to control it against a backdrop of a health system that was already over-burdened. Health workers play an important role during epidemics but there is limited research on how they cope during health epidemics in fragile states. This paper explores the challenges faced by health workers and their coping strategies during the Ebola outbreak in four districts - Bonthe, Kenema, Koinadugu and Western Area - of Sierra Leone. We used a qualitative study design: key informant interviews (n = 19) with members of the District Health Management Teams and local councils, health facility managers and international partners; and in depth interviews with health workers (n = 25) working in public health facilities and international health workers involved with the treatment of Ebola patients. There were several important coping strategies including those that drew upon existing mechanisms: being sustained by religion, a sense of serving their country and community, and peer and family support. Externally derived strategies included: training which built health worker confidence in providing care; provision of equipment to do their job safely; a social media platform which helped health workers deal with challenges; workshops that provided ways to deal with the stigma associated with being a health worker; and the risk allowance, which motivated staff to work in facilities and provided an additional income source. Supportive supervision, peer support networks and better use of communication technology should be pursued, alongside a programme for rebuilding trusting relations with community structures. The challenge is building these mechanisms into routine systems, pre-empting shocks, rather than waiting to respond belatedly to crises.

  15. Mobility of primary health care workers in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Limei

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rural township health centres and urban community health centres play a crucial role in the delivery of primary health care in China. Over the past two-and-a-half decades, these health institutions have not been as well developed as high-level hospitals. The limited availability and low qualifications of human resources in health are among the main challenges facing lower-level health facilities. This paper aims to analyse the mobility of health workers in township and community health centres. Methods Data used in this paper come from a nationwide survey of health facilities in 2006. Ten provinces in different locations and of varying levels of economic development were selected. From these provinces, 119 rural township health centres and 89 urban community health centres were selected to participate in a questionnaire survey. Thirty key informants were selected from these health facilities to be interviewed. Results In 2005, 8.1% and 8.9% of health workers left township and community health centres, respectively. The health workers in rural township health centres had three to 13 years of work experience and typically had received a formal medical education. The majority of the mobile health workers moved to higher-level health facilities; very few moved to other rural township health centres. The rates of workers leaving township and community health centres increased between 2000 and 2005, with the main reasons for leaving being low salaries, limited opportunities for professional development and poor living conditions. Conclusion In China, primary health workers in township health centres and community health centres move to higher-level facilities due to low salaries, limited opportunities for promotion and poor living conditions. The government already has policies in place to counteract this migration, but it must step up enforcement if rural township health centres and urban community centres are to retain health

  16. Motivation of schoolchildren and students for health related tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.V. Mulyk

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: determination of schoolchildren’s and students’ motivation for different kinds of health related tourism. Material: In the research 50 pupils of 5-9 forms and 50 first and forth year students participated. They were offered to attentively read 15 motives and assess their significance by 10-points scale. Results: questioning permitted to study schoolchildren’s and students’ motivation for tourism. It was found that with age priority of motivation for health related tourism changes. For example, motives of health as well as social ones are to larger extent intrinsic to students. At the same time emotional motives (enjoyment with trainings are important for schoolchildren. Conclusions: the highest motivation was found in wish to develop physical qualities (1217 points, pleasant spending of time (1135 points and enjoying with trainings (1240 points.

  17. Workplace mobbing and effects on workers' health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meseguer de Pedro, Mariano; Soler Sánchez, María Isabel; Sáez Navarro, María Concepción; García Izquierdo, Mariano

    2008-05-01

    In this work, we analyze various consequences of the phenomenon of mobbing on the health of a work sector with special characteristics: the agro fruit sector. For this purpose, we collected data from a sample of 396 workers (61 men and 331 women) belonging to this sector in the Region of Murcia (Spain). A questionnaire with the following measurement instruments was administered: a Spanish adaptation of the revised Negative Acts Questionnaire (Sáez, García, & Llor, 2003), the Psychosomatic Problems Questionnaire (Hock, 1988), and a measure of absenteeism. The results revealed a significant and positive relation between workplace mobbing and psychosomatic symptoms, but not with absenteeism. The implications of the results for future research are discussed.

  18. Current patient and healthcare worker attitudes to eHealth and the personally controlled electronic health record in major hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armani, R; Mitchell, L E; Allen-Graham, J; Heriot, N R; Kotsimbos, T; Wilson, J W

    2016-06-01

    The current health system in Australia is comprised of both electronic- and paper-based medical records. The Federal Government has approved funding for the development of an individual health identifier and a universally adopted online health repository. To determine attitudes and beliefs of patients and healthcare workers regarding the use of stored medical information and the personally controlled electronic health record (PCEHR) in selected major hospitals in Victoria. Qualitative survey of patients and healthcare workers (n = 600 each group) conducted during 2014 across five major hospitals in Melbourne to measure the awareness, attitudes and barriers to electronic health and the PCEHR. Of the patients, 93.3% support the concept of a shared electronic healthcare record, 33.7% were aware of the PCEHR and only 11% had registered. The majority of healthcare workers believed that the presence of a shared health record would result in an increased appropriateness of care and patient safety by reducing adverse drug events and improving the timeliness of care provided. However, only 46% of healthcare workers were aware of the PCEHR. This study provides a baseline evaluation of perceptions surrounding eHealth and PCHER in acute health services in five metropolitan centres. While there appears to be a readiness for adoption of these strategies for healthcare documentation, patients require motivation to register for the PCEHR, and healthcare workers require more information on the potential benefits to them to achieve more timely and efficient care. © 2016 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  19. Protection motivation theory and adolescent drug trafficking: relationship between health motivation and longitudinal risk involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ying; Stanton, Bonita F; Li, Xiaoming; Galbraith, Jennifer; Cole, Matthew L

    2005-03-01

    To assess health protection motivation as explained by the constructs of protection motivation theory (PMT) and its association with drug trafficking over 2 years. The sample included 817 African American youth (13-16 years old) participating in an adolescent risk-reduction program. We developed an instrument measuring the level of health protection motivation (LHPM) using factor analysis. Changes in LHPM over time were examined among drug traffickers, abstainers, initiators, and nonrisk youths. In sum, 151 participants reported selling and/or delivering drugs during the study period. The significant inverse correlation between drug-trafficking intention and health protection motivation was consistent with PMT. Changes in LHPM were strongly associated with the dynamics of behavior over 2 years. Adolescent drug trafficking can be predicted by an overall level of health protection motivation. PMT and related theories should be considered in the design of drug-trafficking prevention intervention.

  20. Health Care Workers' Experiences of Aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Katelyn; Oram, Joanne; Tinson, Helen; Shum, David

    2017-10-01

    To identify the prevalence of patient aggression against health care workers, the consequences and coping mechanisms. Retrospective cross-sectional design. 50 participants comprised 37 nurses, 1 ward staff, 12 allied health staff employed in two brain injury wards with experience ranging from 3months to 34years. Neurosciences and Brain Injury Rehabilitation wards of a metropolitan tertiary hospital in Brisbane. Researcher designed self-report questionnaire. 98% of respondents had experienced aggression during their health care careers with an average of 143.93 events. Physical injuries had been sustained by 40% of staff, psychological injury by 82%, but only 12% sought treatment. Verbal aggression related to receiving a psychological injury (r=0.305, paggression made it more likely the person would also experience the other types of aggression. Verbal aggression was correlated with physical aggression (r=0.429, paggression (r=0.286, paggression was correlated with non-verbal aggression (r=0.333, paggression is prevalent and of serious concern for staff working in hospital settings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Work environment and health among Swedish livestock workers

    OpenAIRE

    Kolstrup, Christina

    2008-01-01

    During the last decades, Swedish livestock farming has undergone considerable structural changes and technical development, which have influenced the work environment and health of the workers in several ways. The general aim of the studies was to investigate the work environment and health among Swedish livestock workers on large modern dairy and pig farms. The studies were mainly based on questionnaires. The results showed that the livestock workers reported high frequencies of musculoskele...

  2. Health and Occupational Outcomes Among Injured, Nonstandard Shift Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Imelda S; Smith, Peter M; Mustard, Cameron A; Gignac, Monique A M

    2015-11-01

    This study compares health and occupational outcomes following a work-related injury for nonstandard and day-shift workers. National Population Health Survey data were used to explore outcomes 2 years post-work injury. Retrospective-matched cohort analyses examined main effects and interactions of shift schedule and work injury with changes in health, shift schedule, and labor force status. Models were adjusted for respondent characteristics, baseline health status, and occupational strength requirements. Injured nonstandard shift workers reported lower health utility index scores, compared with uninjured and injured daytime workers and uninjured nonstandard-shift workers. No significant interactions between shift and injury were found with schedule change and leaving the labor force. Injured nonstandard-shift workers are as likely to remain employed as other groups, but may be vulnerable in terms of diminished health.

  3. Work characteristics, motivational orientations, psychological work ability and job mobility intentions of older workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcover, Carlos-María; Topa, Gabriela

    2018-01-01

    Drawing on job design theories and a conceptual framework of work-related goals and motivation in later adulthood, the aim of this paper is to explore how work-related and individual factors are separately and jointly related to psychological work ability and bridge employment intentions via late job mobility. The cross-sectional study is based on a sample of 171 older Spanish workers aged 45-65 and beyond. We differentiated between groups of older workers in mid career (45-55 years of age) and in their later careers (56 years and beyond). Our results confirm that task characteristics and, secondarily, knowledge characteristics are the most relevant factors in perceptions of psychological work ability among aged workers. Both age groups display a very marked personal mastery trait, which mediates the relationships between job characteristics and both psychological work ability and late job mobility intentions. The paper concludes with a discussion of theoretical and practical implications and suggestions for future research on the issues implied in the psychological adjustment of older workers in their mid and late careers.

  4. Work characteristics, motivational orientations, psychological work ability and job mobility intentions of older workers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos-María Alcover

    Full Text Available Drawing on job design theories and a conceptual framework of work-related goals and motivation in later adulthood, the aim of this paper is to explore how work-related and individual factors are separately and jointly related to psychological work ability and bridge employment intentions via late job mobility. The cross-sectional study is based on a sample of 171 older Spanish workers aged 45-65 and beyond. We differentiated between groups of older workers in mid career (45-55 years of age and in their later careers (56 years and beyond. Our results confirm that task characteristics and, secondarily, knowledge characteristics are the most relevant factors in perceptions of psychological work ability among aged workers. Both age groups display a very marked personal mastery trait, which mediates the relationships between job characteristics and both psychological work ability and late job mobility intentions. The paper concludes with a discussion of theoretical and practical implications and suggestions for future research on the issues implied in the psychological adjustment of older workers in their mid and late careers.

  5. Health workers' use of electronic information concerning children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Information regarding young children who experience barriers to the development of listening, language and learning is limited in the South African context. Health workers, in particular those ... These health workers also have access to and are active users of computers and the Internet. They may therefore benefit from ...

  6. Health Workers' Knowledge of Preventing Mother-To-Child ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Health Workers' Knowledge of Preventing Mother-To-Child Transmission of HIV in Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria. ... The proportion of health workers with poor, fair, and good knowledge of the national guidelines on PMTCT was 8.5%, 30.4% and 61.1% respectively. Knowledge of the national guidelines was significantly ...

  7. Health problems among sawmill workers in Abakaliki and workplace ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Sawmill workers are exposed to hazards and subsequent health problems. A workplace risk assessment and risk control measures will reduce morbidity and mortality. The objectives of this study are to identify health problems and carry out a workplace risk assessment among sawmill workers in Abakaliki.

  8. Effects of office innovation on office workers' health and performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, Eline M.; Frings-Dresen, Monique H. W.; Sluiter, Judith K.

    2009-01-01

    The implementation of an innovative office concept (e.g. open-plan, flexible workplaces and a paperless office concept) on health and productivity among office workers was evaluated with questionnaires of 138 workers at baseline and 6 and 15 months afterwards. Work-related fatigue, general health,

  9. Assessment of burnout among health workers and bankers in Aba ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: To determine the prevalence of burnout among health workers and bankers in Aba South Local Government Area in Abia State. Materials and Methods: A cross.sectional, descriptive study was carried out in 2013 among health workers and bankers in Aba metropolis. By multistage sampling method, proportionate ...

  10. Vaccines for preventing hepatitis B in health-care workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Weikeng; Gluud, C

    2005-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) causes acute and chronic liver diseases. Hepatitis B vaccination is recommended for health-care workers.......Hepatitis B virus (HBV) causes acute and chronic liver diseases. Hepatitis B vaccination is recommended for health-care workers....

  11. Occupational safety among dental health-care workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigehiro Shimoji

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Shigehiro Shimoji1, Kohji Ishihama1,2, Hidefumi Yamada1, Masaki Okayama1, Kouichi Yasuda1,3, Tohru Shibutani3,4, Tadashi Ogasawara2,5, Hiroo Miyazawa2,3, Kiyofumi Furusawa11Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Matsumoto Dental University, Shiojiri, Japan; 2Infection Control Team, 3Risk Management Working Team, Matsumoto Dental University Hospital, Shiojiri, Japan; 4Department of Dental Anesthesiology, 5Department of Special Care Dentistry, Matsumoto Dental University, Shiojiri, JapanAbstract: Compared to other health-care workers, dental health-care workers come in close contact with patients and use a variety of sharp and high-speed rotating instruments. It is important to understand the characteristics of the occupational accidents that occur. We reviewed incident reports from April 1, 2005, to March 31, 2010, at Matsumoto Dental University Hospital. In addition, questionnaires dealing with identification of occupational safety issues, especially splash exposures, were conducted for dentists, dental hygienists, and nurses. Thirty-two occupational injuries were reported during the study period, including 23 sharp instrument injuries (71.9%, 6 splash exposures (18.8%, and 3 others. Of the six splash exposures, only two cases involved potential contamination with blood or other potentially infectious patient material. Of the 66 workers who experienced sharps injuries, 20 workers (30.3%, 20/66 reported them to the hospital work safety team. The questionnaire revealed high incident of splash exposures and conjunctiva exposures: 87.9% (51/58 and 60.3% (35/58 in dentists and 88.6% (39/44 and 61.4% (27/44 in dental hygienists. The compliance rate for routine use of protective eyewear was 60.3% (35/58 for dentists and 34.1% (15/44 for hygienists. Of the presented informational items included in the questionnaire, those that strongly persuaded respondents to use protective eyewear were ‘splatters from the patient’s mouth contain blood

  12. Can workers answer their questions about occupational safety and health: challenges and solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhebergen, Martijn; Van Dijk, Frank; Hulshof, Carel

    2012-01-01

    Many workers have questions about occupational safety and health (OSH). Answers to these questions empower them to further improve their knowledge about OSH, make good decisions about OSH matters and improve OSH practice when necessary. Nevertheless, many workers fail to find the answers to their questions. This paper explores the challenges workers may face when seeking answers to their OSH questions. Findings suggest that many workers may lack the skills, experience or motivation to formulate an answerable question, seek and find information, appraise information, compose correct answers and apply information in OSH practice. Simultaneously, OSH knowledge infrastructures often insufficiently support workers in answering their OSH questions. This paper discusses several potentially attractive strategies for developing and improving OSH knowledge infrastructures: 1) providing courses that teach workers to ask answerable questions and to train them to find, appraise and apply information, 2) developing information and communication technology tools or facilities that support workers as they complete one or more stages in the process from question to answer and 3) tailoring information and implementation strategies to the workers' needs and context to ensure that the information can be applied to OSH practice more easily.

  13. Assessment of Service Availability and Health Care Workers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Health care workers' (HCWs') opinions about sexual and reproductive health ... women ignore information they receive about HIV and pregnancy prevention. ... for young women; all recognized the importance of condoms for dual protection.

  14. Assessment of job satisfaction among health workers in a tertiary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of job satisfaction among health workers in a tertiary hospital in Zaria ... factors affecting job satisfaction and retention of health professionals working in ... help the hospital management to increase their employee's job satisfaction.

  15. Cell Phones in support of Community Health Workers | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Cell Phones in support of Community Health Workers ... the diagnosis and treatment of childhood pneumonia at a level 4 health centre (county level). Oximetry is a non-invasive method of monitoring the amount of oxygen in the patient's blood.

  16. Health Workers' Knowledge of Preventing Mother-To-Child ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the monk

    7-12 different groups of health workers in the country. Previous studies ... 7 managing a pregnant woman infected with HIV. Using this prevalence and allowing for a non- ..... Human Resources for ... Analysis in the Health Sciences, 7th edition,.

  17. Motivation of human resources for health: a case study at rural district level in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinnen, Véronique; Paul, Elisabeth; Mwisongo, Aziza; Nyato, Daniel; Robert, Annie

    2012-01-01

    An increasing number of studies explore the association between financial and non-financial incentives and the retention of health workers in developing countries. This study aims to contribute to empirical evidence on human resource for health motivation factors to assist policy makers in promoting effective and realistic interventions. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in four rural Tanzanian districts to explore staff stability and health workers' motivation. Data were collected using qualitative and quantitative techniques, covering all levels and types of health facilities. Stability of staff was found to be quite high. Public institutions remained very attractive with better job security, salary and retirement benefits. Satisfaction over working conditions was very low owing to inadequate working equipment, work overload, lack of services, difficult environment, favouritism and 'empty promotions'. Positive incentives mentioned were support for career development and supportive supervision. Attracting new staff in rural areas appeared to be more difficult than retaining staff in place. The study concluded that strategies to better motivate health personnel should focus on adequate remuneration, positive working and living environment and supportive management. However, by multiplying health facilities, the latest Tanzanian human resource for health plan could jeopardize current positive results. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Preventive actions taken by workers after workers' health surveillance: a controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boschman, J. S.; van der Molen, H. F.; Frings-Dresen, M. H. W.; Sluiter, J. K.

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate construction workers' preventive actions and occupational physician's (OPs) recommendations after a job-specific workers' health surveillance (WHS) compared with the currently used generic WHS. After the WHS, the OPs' written recommendations were captured. At the 3-month follow-up, the

  19. Process Evaluation of a Workers' Health Surveillance Program for Meat Processing Workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Holland, Berry J; Brouwer, Sandra; de Boer, Michiel R; Reneman, Michiel F; Soer, Remko

    2017-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the implementation process of a workers' health surveillance (WHS) program in a Dutch meat processing company. Methods Workers from five plants were eligible to participate in the WHS program. The program consisted of four evaluative components and an intervention component.

  20. Process Evaluation of a Workers' Health Surveillance Program for Meat Processing Workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Holland, Berry; Brouwer, Sandra; de Boer, Michiel R; Reneman, Michiel F; Soer, Remko

    Objective To evaluate the implementation process of a workers' health surveillance (WHS) program in a Dutch meat processing company. Methods Workers from five plants were eligible to participate in the WHS program. The program consisted of four evaluative components and an intervention component.

  1. Perceptions of working conditions amongst health workers in state ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Though salaries were important, presence of conflict at work, freedom of expression, managerial support for staff welfare, managerial support for staff career development, availability of tools and consumables in the workplace and progress towards personal professional goals appear to play a role in worker motivation.

  2. Exploring the influence of trust relationships on motivation in the health sector: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okello, Dickson R O; Gilson, Lucy

    2015-03-31

    Dedicated and motivated health workers (HWs) play a major role in delivering efficient and effective health services that improve patients' experience of health care. Growing interest in HW motivation has led to a global focus on pay for performance strategies, but less attention has been paid to nurturing intrinsic motivation. Workplace trust relationships involve fair treatment and respectful interactions between individuals. Such relationships enable cooperation among HWs and their colleagues, supervisors, managers and patients and may act as a source of intrinsic motivation. This paper presents findings from a qualitative systematic review of empirical studies providing evidence on HW motivation, to consider what these studies suggest about the possible influence of workplace trust relationships over motivation. Five electronic databases were searched for articles reporting research findings about HW motivation for various cadres published in the 10-year period 2003 to 2013 and with available full free text in the English language. Data extraction involved consideration of the links between trust relationships and motivation, by identifying how studies directly or indirectly mention and discuss relevant factors. Twenty-three articles from low- and middle-income countries and eight from high-income countries that met predetermined quality and inclusion criteria were appraised and subjected to thematic synthesis. Workplace trust relationships with colleagues, supervisors and managers, employing organisation and patients directly and indirectly influence HW motivation. Motivational factors identified as linked to trust include respect; recognition, appreciation and rewards; supervision; teamwork; management support; autonomy; communication, feedback and openness; and staff shortages and resource inadequacy. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first systematic review on trust and motivation in the health sector. Evidence indicates that workplace trust

  3. Self-reported reasons for hand hygiene in 3 groups of health care workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Anne Collins; Walsh, Fran

    2012-09-01

    The hands of health care workers continue to be the main vector for nosocomial infection in hospitals. The purpose of the current research was to capture the health beliefs and self-reported behaviors of US health care workers to better understand why workers avoid hand hygiene and what prompts them to wash. An online survey of health care workers assessed their reasons for washing their hands, reasons for not washing, and what cues prompted the decision to wash or not wash in a variety of locations. The findings were that hand hygiene could be cued by an external situation but tended to be motivated internally. Hand hygiene was avoided because of situational barriers. The reasons for performing hand hygiene can be situated in the internally motivated Theory of Planned Behavior; however, the reasons for not performing hand hygiene tend to be situational and affected by the environment. The results may be used to design programs, products, and systems that promote appropriate hand hygiene practices. Principles for design of these programs and products are provided. Copyright © 2012 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Ethical Issues in Integrated Health Care: Implications for Social Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reamer, Frederic G

    2018-05-01

    Integrated health care has come of age. What began modestly in the 1930s has evolved into a mature model of health care that is quickly becoming the standard of care. Social workers are now employed in a wide range of comprehensive integrated health care organizations. Some of these settings were designed as integrated health care delivery systems from their beginning. Others evolved over time, some incorporating behavioral health into existing primary care centers and others incorporating primary care into existing behavioral health agencies. In all of these contexts, social workers are encountering complex, sometimes unprecedented, ethical challenges. This article identifies and discusses ethical issues facing social workers in integrated health care settings, especially related to informed consent, privacy, confidentiality, boundaries, dual relationships, and conflicts of interest. The author includes practical resources that social workers can use to develop state-of-the-art ethics policies and protocols.

  5. Listening to community health workers: how ethnographic research can inform positive relationships among community health workers, health institutions, and communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maes, Kenneth; Closser, Svea; Kalofonos, Ippolytos

    2014-05-01

    Many actors in global health are concerned with improving community health worker (CHW) policy and practice to achieve universal health care. Ethnographic research can play an important role in providing information critical to the formation of effective CHW programs, by elucidating the life histories that shape CHWs' desires for alleviation of their own and others' economic and health challenges, and by addressing the working relationships that exist among CHWs, intended beneficiaries, and health officials. We briefly discuss ethnographic research with 3 groups of CHWs: volunteers involved in HIV/AIDS care and treatment support in Ethiopia and Mozambique and Lady Health Workers in Pakistan. We call for a broader application of ethnographic research to inform working relationships among CHWs, communities, and health institutions.

  6. Health services reform in Bangladesh: hearing the views of health workers and their professional bodies

    OpenAIRE

    Cockcroft, Anne; Milne, Deborah; Oelofsen, Marietjie; Karim, Enamul; Andersson, Neil

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background In Bangladesh, widespread dissatisfaction with government health services did not improve during the Health and Population Sector Programme (HPSP) reforms from 1998-2003. A 2003 national household survey documented public and health service users' views and experience. Attitudes and behaviour of health workers are central to quality of health services. To investigate whether the views of health workers influenced the reforms, we surveyed local health workers and held evide...

  7. Community health workers in Lesotho: Experiences of health promotion activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seutloali, Thato; Napoles, Lizeka; Bam, Nomonde

    2018-02-27

    Lesotho adopted primary health care in 1979, and community health workers (CHWs) were included in the programme to focus on health promotion, particularly to reach people in underserved rural areas. Although the CHW programme has been successful, the heavy burden of disease because of HIV and/or AIDS and tuberculosis shifted resources from health promotion to home-based care. The study explored the lived experience of CHWs in conducting health promotion activities in Lesotho. The study was conducted in four health centres in Berea district, Lesotho. A qualitative study was conducted using an interviewer guide translated from English into Sesotho for four CHW focus group discussions, four individual interviews of key informants and four semi-structured interviews with the health centre nurses. The roles of CHWs in health promotion ranged from offering basic first aid and home-based care to increasing access to health care services by taking patients to the facilities and promoting behaviour change through health education. Their perceived successes included increased access to health care services and reduced mortality rates. CHW challenges involved their demotivation to carry out their work because of lack of or inconsistent financial incentives and supplies, work overload which compromises quality of their work and limited community involvement. This study concludes that CHWs are beneficial to health promotion and its various activities. They had a clear understanding of their roles and responsibilities, although they did not fully comprehend that what they were describing was, in fact, health promotion. When it came to advocacy, CHWs did not fully understand it, nor did they consider it as part of their roles, although they acknowledged its importance. Their role of increasing access to health care services by accompanying patients to the facilities has increased considerably because of changes in disease burden. This is affecting their ability to practise other

  8. Community Health Workers as Support for Sickle Cell Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Lewis L.; Green, Nancy S.; Ivy, E. Donnell; Neunert, Cindy; Smaldone, Arlene; Johnson, Shirley; Castillo, Sheila; Castillo, Amparo; Thompson, Trevor; Hampton, Kisha; Strouse, John J.; Stewart, Rosalyn; Hughes, TaLana; Banks, Sonja; Smith-Whitley, Kim; King, Allison; Brown, Mary; Ohene-Frempong, Kwaku; Smith, Wally R.; Martin, Molly

    2016-01-01

    Community health workers are increasingly recognized as useful for improving health care and health outcomes for a variety of chronic conditions. Community health workers can provide social support, navigation of health systems and resources, and lay counseling. Social and cultural alignment of community health workers with the population they serve is an important aspect of community health worker intervention. Although community health worker interventions have been shown to improve patient-centered outcomes in underserved communities, these interventions have not been evaluated with sickle cell disease. Evidence from other disease areas suggests that community health worker intervention also would be effective for these patients. Sickle cell disease is complex, with a range of barriers to multifaceted care needs at the individual, family/friend, clinical organization, and community levels. Care delivery is complicated by disparities in health care: access, delivery, services, and cultural mismatches between providers and families. Current practices inadequately address or provide incomplete control of symptoms, especially pain, resulting in decreased quality of life and high medical expense. The authors propose that care and care outcomes for people with sickle cell disease could be improved through community health worker case management, social support, and health system navigation. This report outlines implementation strategies in current use to test community health workers for sickle cell disease management in a variety of settings. National medical and advocacy efforts to develop the community health workforce for sickle cell disease management may enhance the progress and development of “best practices” for this area of community-based care. PMID:27320471

  9. Integrating Community Health Workers (CHWs) into Health Care Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Julianne; Razi, Sima; Emery, Kyle; Quattrone, Westleigh; Tardif-Douglin, Miriam

    2017-10-01

    Health care organizations increasingly employ community health workers (CHWs) to help address growing provider shortages, improve patient outcomes, and increase access to culturally sensitive care among traditionally inaccessible or disenfranchised patient populations. Scholarly interest in CHWs has grown in recent decades, but researchers tend to focus on how CHWs affect patient outcomes rather than whether and how CHWs fit into the existing health care workforce. This paper focuses on the factors that facilitate and impede the integration of the CHWs into health care organizations, and strategies that organizations and their staff develop to overcome barriers to CHW integration. We use qualitative evaluation data from 13 awardees that received Health Care Innovation Awards from the Centers of Medicare and Medicaid Innovation to enhance the quality of health care, improve health outcomes, and reduce the cost of care using programs involving CHWs. We find that organizational capacity, support for CHWs, clarity about health care roles, and clinical workflow drive CHW integration. We conclude with practical recommendations for health care organizations interested in employing CHWs.

  10. Health-care users, key community informants and primary health care workers' views on health, health promotion, health assets and deficits: qualitative study in seven Spanish regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pons-Vigués, Mariona; Berenguera, Anna; Coma-Auli, Núria; Pombo-Ramos, Haizea; March, Sebastià; Asensio-Martínez, Angela; Moreno-Peral, Patricia; Mora-Simón, Sara; Martínez-Andrés, Maria; Pujol-Ribera, Enriqueta

    2017-06-13

    Although some articles have analysed the definitions of health and health promotion from the perspective of health-care users and health care professionals, no published studies include the simultaneous participation of health-care users, primary health care professionals and key community informants. Understanding the perception of health and health promotion amongst these different stakeholders is crucial for the design and implementation of successful, equitable and sustainable measures that improve the health and wellbeing of populations. Furthermore, the identification of different health assets and deficits by the different informants will generate new evidence to promote healthy behaviours, improve community health and wellbeing and reduce preventable inequalities. The objective of this study is to explore the concept of health and health promotion and to compare health assets and deficits as identified by health-care users, key community informants and primary health care workers with the ultimate purpose to collect the necessary data for the design and implementation of a successful health promotion intervention. A descriptive-interpretive qualitative research was conducted with 276 participants from 14 primary care centres of 7 Spanish regions. Theoretical sampling was used for selection. We organized 11 discussion groups and 2 triangular groups with health-care users; 30 semi-structured interviews with key community informants; and 14 discussion groups with primary health care workers. A thematic content analysis was carried out. Health-care users and key community informants agree that health is a complex, broad, multifactorial concept that encompasses several interrelated dimensions (physical, psychological-emotional, social, occupational, intellectual, spiritual and environmental). The three participants' profiles consider health promotion indispensable despite defining it as complex and vague. In fact, most health-care users admit to having

  11. Organizational Wellbeing among Workers in Mental Health Services: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sancassiani, Federica; Campagna, Marcello; Tuligi, Francesco; Machado, Sergio; Cantone, Elisa; Carta, Mauro Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    Organizational wellbeing in mental health services influences the outcomes of users and their families. Workers should be motivated, have a positive morale and be able to recognize values and the deep meaning of their work. This survey aims to examine the organizational wellbeing of the services provided by the Department of Mental Health (DSM) in Lanusei (Italy) and the correlations between job satisfaction and the psychosomatic health of its workers. Descriptive-correlational study on a population of 43 mental health workers. Organizational wellbeing, as well as workers' job satisfaction and psychosomatic health, were measured using the "Multidimensional Organizational Health Questionnaire" (MOHQ). It is a self-report questionnaire able to examine 14 dimensions of organizational wellbeing, 14 indicators about individual discomfort, 12 indicators about individual wellbeing, 8 psychosomatic symptoms related to job distress. 31 workers (72%) participated in the survey. Regarding the organizational wellbeing of DSM, the general profile mean±sd was 2.66±0.28 (values from 1 to 4: 1=never, 4=often). Job satisfaction was negatively correlated with headaches and concentration difficulties (R=-.584, p=0.001), nervousness, restlessness, anxiety (R=-.571, p=0.001), sense of excessive fatigue (R=-.634, p=0.000) and sense of depression (R=-.558, p=0.001) reported by workers. Data denoted an overall healthy state of the DSM. There were significant correlations between workers' job satisfaction and their psychosomatic health. The recognition and restitution about the weakness and strengths of the services could be useful to point out some organizational development perspectives.

  12. Effects of cutbacks on motivating factors among nurses in primary health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halldorsdottir, Sigridur; Einarsdottir, Emilia J; Edvardsson, Ingi Runar

    2018-03-01

    When financial cuts are made, staff redundancies and reorganisation in the healthcare system often follow. Little is known how such cutbacks affect work motivation of nurses in primary health care. Examine the effects of cutbacks on motivating factors among nurses in primary health care. A phenomenological approach involving a purposeful sample of ten nurses in primary health care. Average age 44. The participants identified the job itself, autonomy, independence, good communication with co-workers, and the potential for professional training, learning and development as the main internal motivational factors related to their work. However, increased stress and uncertainty, growing fatigue and understaffing were starting to have a negative impact on these internal motivational factors. Moreover, reduced opportunities for professional training and development had negative effects on the participants. Many saw these opportunities as a vital part of recognition for their job performance. Regarding external motivation, the factors identified were job security, salaries and rewards, and interaction with management. The participants expressed their interest in more consultation with managers and most preferred an increased flow of information from managers to staff members during cutbacks. Salaries, professional training opportunities and appreciation were rewards named by participants for a job well done. All agreed that salaries are stronger motivational factors than before cutbacks. In the case of cutbacks, nursing managers should increase consultations with staff and make sure that nurses maintain their independence, autonomy, opportunities for professional training as well as appreciation for job well done. © 2017 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  13. Health workers' attitudes toward euthanasia in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeo, K; Satoh, K; Minamisawa, H; Mitoh, T

    1991-01-01

    Despite impressive life-saving medical advancements, diseases for which there are no cure still exist. In the past doctors and health workers in Japan often preferred not to disclose the diagnosis of an incurable disease--particularly cancer--to patients. A 1980 study revealed that only 17% of the Japanese doctors questioned actually had the experience of informing their patients they had cancer, while reportedly in the US 98% of doctors inform patients they have cancer. This attitude in Japan, however, is changing. And with this change such issues as care of the terminally ill after being informed about their diagnosis, human rights problems and other issues have arisen. In fact, euthanasia, although highly criticized when first introduced, is now being increasingly preferred to medical treatment that prolongs life in the presence of severe pain associated with an incurable disease. After reading a 1982 survey that revealed that 84% of the Japanese people interviewed would prefer to die with dignity rather than prolong life with a machine, four researchers decided to examine terminal care more fully, this time from the viewpoint of the medical staff. Below, their study results.

  14. Motivation of health professionals and associates to perform daily job activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suvada Švrakić

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Motivation is one of the most complex elements of human behavior, it is the subject of debates by which we answer to the question of why someone behaves in a certain way. The aim of this study wasto examine the factors of motivation for health workers and staff in working with diffi cult patients in intensive care units and to evaluate implementation of motivation factors by managers in their daily work with a team of health professionals.Methods: The study was designed as prospective. It was conducted on 27 employees who work in intensive care units in Clinical Center of Sarajevo University. The survey questionnaire was used with a clear andconcise questions , aimed at testing the factors of motivation for daily work with diffi cult patients, as well as implementation of motivational factors by managers in the organizational unit (OU.Results: Respondents indicated that motivates them, good organization of work - 10 of them (37%, while 26% of respondents indicated that they are motivated by fi nancial gain. In our study 21 (77% of respondentssaid that their managers infuenced the motivation for a better job. Mobbing at the workplace did not had 80% of respondents, while 8% of respondents stated that they had some form of mobbing, and 12% of respondents give partial response.Conclusions: The survey showed that most respondents have a good motivation factors for the performance of daily activities to work with diffi cult patients. As the main motivating factors respondents reportedgood organization of work, as well as positive examples of their managers.

  15. Retention of health workers in rural Sierra Leone: findings from life histories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurie, Haja R; Samai, Mohamed; Witter, Sophie

    2016-02-01

    Sierra Leone has faced a shortage and maldistribution of staff in its post-conflict period. This long-standing challenge is now exacerbated by the systemic shock and damage wrought by Ebola. This study aimed to investigate the importance of different motivation factors in rural areas in Sierra Leone and thus to contribute to better decisions on financial and non-financial incentive packages, here and in similar contexts. This article is based on participatory life histories, conducted in 2013 with 23 health workers (doctors, nurses, midwives and Community Health Officers) in four regions of Sierra Leone who had worked in the sector since 2000. Although the interviews covered a wide range of themes, here we present findings on motivating and demotivating factors for staff, especially those in rural areas, based on thematic analysis of transcripts. Rural health workers face particular challenges, some of which stem from the difficult terrain, which add to common disadvantages of rural living (poor social amenities, etc.). Poor working conditions, emotional and financial costs of separation from families, limited access to training, longer working hours (due to staff shortages) and the inability to earn from other sources make working in rural areas less attractive. Moreover, rules on rotation which should protect staff from being left too long in rural areas are not reported to be respected. By contrast, poor management had more resonance in urban areas, with reports of poor delegation, favouritism and a lack of autonomy for staff. Tensions within the team over unclear roles and absenteeism are also significant demotivating factors in general. This study provides important policy-focused insights into motivation of health workers and can contribute towards building a resilient and responsive health system, incorporating the priorities and needs of health workers. Their voices and experiences should be taken into account as the post-Ebola landscape is shaped.

  16. Social motivation and health in college club swimming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Austin R; Ramos, William D

    2018-03-22

    Participation in recreational sport clubs on campus is a popular student activity nationwide. These sport-based organizations provide a host of benefits within recognized dimensions of health and wellness. Understanding participants' motives for engaging in these types of activities can provide insight in design and delivery and enhance participant health. This study focuses on outcomes related to the social motivations for participation in a recreational sport swim club and their potential relationship to social health. Current members of recreational swimming clubs were contacted for participation in the study from March-April 2016. A Leisure Motivation Scale (LMS) survey was sent electronically to 196 collegiate swim clubs nationwide. Aggregate and multivariate analyses from 1011 responses were conducted to examine the social motivation and motivational differences of participants. Social motivations emerged as the predominate motivational construct, indicating important implications for social health improvement through participation. Demographically, results indicated no statistically significant differences in social motivation factors based on participant gender, and statistically significant differences within participant race, university affiliation and practice frequency. Impacts of these findings are important for practitioners and participants when evaluating the potential these programs have to influence participant social health.

  17. Promoting Occupational Safety and Health for Cambodian Entertainment Sector Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Lee-Nah; Howard, Richard; Torriente, Anna Maria; Por, Chuong

    2016-08-01

    Cambodia has developed booming textile, garment, tourism, and entertainment service industries since the mid-1990s. The 2007 global financial crisis pushed many garment workers, who lost their jobs, into the entertainment sector. Entertainment workers are typically engaged informally by their employers and are subjected to long working hours, sexual harassment, and violence. Many who sell beverages are forced into excessive alcohol consumption as part of their work. Many are also expected by their employers and clients to provide sexual services. To address unsafe and unhealthy working conditions for these workers, an innovative occupational safety and health regulation was adopted in 2014. This first-of-its-kind occupational safety and health regulation was developed jointly by the Cambodian Ministry of Labour and Vocational Training and employers' and workers' organizations in the entertainment sector. The implementation of this regulation can also be a viable contribution of occupational safety and health to HIV interventions for these workers. © The Author(s) 2016.

  18. Epidemiological study of health hazards among workers handling engineered nanomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liou, Saou-Hsing; Tsou, Tsui-Chun; Wang, Shu-Li; Li, Lih-Ann; Chiang, Hung-Che; Li, Wan-Fen; Lin, Pin-Pin; Lai, Ching-Huang; Lee, Hui-Ling; Lin, Ming-Hsiu; Hsu, Jin-Huei; Chen, Chiou-Rong; Shih, Tung-Sheng; Liao, Hui-Yi; Chung, Yu-Teh

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish and identify the health effect markers of workers with potential exposure to nanoparticles (20–100 nm) during manufacturing and/or application of nanomaterials. For this cross-sectional study, we recruited 227 workers who handled nanomaterials and 137 workers for comparison who did not from 14 plants in Taiwan. A questionnaire was used to collect data on exposure status, demographics, and potential confounders. The health effect markers were measured in the medical laboratory. Control banding from the Nanotool Risk Level Matrix was used to categorize the exposure risk levels of the workers. The results showed that the antioxidant enzyme, superoxide dismutase (SOD) in risk level 1 (RL1) and risk level 2 (RL2) workers was significantly (p RL1 > RL2). Another antioxidant, glutathione peroxidase (GPX), was significantly lower only in RL1 workers than in the control workers. The cardiovascular markers, fibrinogen and ICAM (intercellular adhesion molecule), were significantly higher in RL2 workers than in controls and a significant dose–response with an increasing trend was found for these two cardiovascular markers. Another cardiovascular marker, interleukin-6, was significantly increased among RL1 workers, but not among RL2 workers. The accuracy rate for remembering 7-digits and reciting them backwards was significantly lower in RL2 workers (OR = 0.48) than in controls and a significantly reversed gradient was also found for the correct rate of backward memory (OR = 0.90 for RL1, OR = 0.48 for RL2, p < 0.05 in test for trend). Depression of antioxidant enzymes and increased expression of cardiovascular markers were found among workers handling nanomaterials. Antioxidant enzymes, such as SOD and GPX, and cardiovascular markers, such as fibrinogen, ICAM, and interluekin-6, are possible biomarkers for medical surveillance of workers handling engineered nanomaterials.

  19. Feasibility and acceptability of workers' health surveillance for fire fighters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plat, Marie-Christine J.; Frings-Dresen, Monique H. W.; Sluiter, Judith K.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to test the feasibility and acceptability of a new workers' health surveillance (WHS) for fire fighters in a Dutch pilot-implementation project. In three fire departments, between November 2007 and February 2009, feasibility was tested with respect to i) worker intent

  20. Hanford-worker health study: a status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marks, S.; Tolley, H.D.; Gilbert, E.S.; Petersen, G.R.

    1983-02-01

    Analysis of the workers' health at the Hanford plant produced no startling changes. Multiple myeloma is the only cancer type that shows a statistically significant trend of mortality with increasing radiation exposure. The study populations will be augmented by the addition of a group of construction workers in the future. Methodologic studies based on this data set are continuing

  1. Migrant Workers and Their Occupational Health and Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyce, Sally C; Schenker, Marc

    2018-04-01

    In 2015, approximately 244 million people were transnational migrants, approximately half of whom were workers, often engaged in jobs that are hazardous to their health. They work for less pay, for longer hours, and in worse conditions than do nonmigrants and are often subject to human rights violations, abuse, human trafficking, and violence. Worldwide, immigrant workers have higher rates of adverse occupational exposures and working conditions, which lead to poor health outcomes, workplace injuries, and occupational fatalities. Health disparities of immigrant workers are related to environmental and occupational exposures and are a result of language/cultural barriers, access to health care, documentation status, and the political climate of the host country. Recommendations on global and local scales are offered as potential solutions to improving the health of immigrant workers.

  2. African Immigrants in Low-Wage Direct Health Care: Motivations, Job Satisfaction, and Occupational Mobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covington-Ward, Yolanda

    2017-06-01

    This study explores motivations, job satisfaction, and overall perceived occupational mobility for African immigrants working in low-wage direct health care occupations. The study uses qualitative semi-structured interviews with a sample of thirty African immigrant workers in the greater Pittsburgh metropolitan area. Results show that four major themes captured the motivations of interviewees for doing direct care work: passion for care work, quick money, easily obtained employment, and direct care work as a pathway to other health occupations. The majority of the interviewees were satisfied with their jobs, yet almost all of them saw their occupations as temporary or transitional employment. Most of the interviewees also saw their jobs as lacking occupational mobility. In light of the increased national demand for direct care workers, the growing numbers of immigrants in the direct care labor force, and the high turnover and low retention rates of direct care workers overall, the study suggests that more must be done to make direct care work attractive and rewarding for African immigrant workers.

  3. Adolescent Health-Compromising Behaviors: Motivating School Counselors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagel, Liza; Scherer, David G.; Lee, William

    2000-01-01

    Investigated middle and high school counselors' perceptions of adolescent health-compromising behaviors and motivations to intervene. Data from a survey based on protection motivation theory showed differences in counselors' perceptions of the severity of risk-taking behaviors. Perceptions were highly correlated with intentions to seek out…

  4. Motivation and Factors Affecting It among Health Professionals in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Motivation is an individual's degree of willingness to exert and maintain an effort towards organizational goals. This study assessed motivational status and factors affecting it among health professionals in public hospitals of West Shoa Zone, Oromia Region. METHOD: Facility based cross-sectional survey ...

  5. Motivation and job satisfaction of Health Surveillance Assistants in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Malawi, hardly any research has been done on factors that motivate this cadre. This qualitative assessment was undertaken to identify factors that influence motivation and job satisfaction of health surveillance assistants (HSAs) in Mwanza district, Malawi, in order to inform development of strategies to influence staff ...

  6. Health screening of migrant workers- serological investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mustafa, M.

    2009-01-01

    The paper review the serological investigations for parasitic infection among migrant workers. The tests were performed on serum samples for parasitic infection. The serum samples were found to be positive for antibody for Ameobiasis [28%], Malaria [27 percentage], Echonococcus [18 percentage] and Schistosomiasis [12 percentage]. Female samples were positive for Ameobiasis [39 percentage], and Filariasis [W.b] 33.3 percentage. Foreign workers from Bangladesh showed the highest percentage on seropositive for most parasitic diseases. (author)

  7. Associations Between Motivation and Mental Health in Sport: A Test of the Hierarchical Model of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation

    OpenAIRE

    Rachel B. Sheehan; Matthew P. Herring; Matthew P. Herring; Mark J. Campbell

    2018-01-01

    Motivation has been the subject of much research in the sport psychology literature, whereas athlete mental health has received limited attention. Motivational complexities in elite sport are somewhat reflected in the mental health literature, where there is evidence for both protective and risk factors for athletes. Notably, few studies have linked motivation to mental health. Therefore, the key objective of this study was to test four mental health outcomes in the motivational sequence posi...

  8. Office home care workers' occupational health: associations with workplace flexibility and worker insecurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeytinoglu, Isik U; Denton, Margaret; Davies, Sharon; Plenderleith, Jennifer Millen

    2009-05-01

    Office home care workers provide support to visiting staff, although their work tends to be invisible in many respects. This paper focuses on managers, supervisors, coor dinators, case managers and office administrative staff in home care. We examine the effects of workplace flexibility and worker insecurity on office home care workers' occupational health, particularly their self-reported stress and musculoskeletal disorders. Data come from our survey of 300 home care office staff in a mid-sized city in Ontario. Results show that workers' perceptions of insecurity are positively associated with musculoskeletal disorders but not workplace flexibility measures. We recommend that managers and other decision-makers in the home care field pay attention to the perceptions of workers' insecurity in initiating workplace flexibility measures.

  9. Potential Roles of Mhealth for Community Health Workers: Formative Research With End Users in Uganda and Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thondoo, Meelan; Strachan, Daniel Ll; Nakirunda, Maureen; Ndima, Sozinho; Muiambo, Abel; Källander, Karin; Hill, Zelee

    2015-07-23

    Community health workers are reemerging as an essential component of health systems in low-income countries. However, there are concerns that unless they are adequately supported, their motivation and performance will be suboptimal. mHealth presents an opportunity to improve support for community health workers; however, most interventions to date have been designed through a top-down approach, rarely involve the end user, and have not focused on motivation. To use formative research to explore the views of community health workers in Uganda and Mozambique on the potential role of mHealth in their work delivering integrated community case management of children. We conducted 24 in-depth interviews and 5 focus group discussions with community health workers in Uganda and Mozambique. Data were collected on: current phone use, preferred phone and charger characteristics, and perceptions of a range of potential mHealth interventions. Interviews were conducted in the local language, were audio recorded and converted into expanded notes. Interviews were coded for key thematic areas using both deductive and inductive codes. Deductive codes included mHealth's potential impact on motivation and performance. The most salient roles of mHealth in improving performance and motivation were reducing the need for travel, improving efficiency and planning, receiving feedback and information, and improving communication with supervisors and other community health workers. This was mostly through improved voice and short message service (SMS) text communication. Specific components of mHealth interventions that participants felt could improve motivation included increasing their visibility and credibility through branding of phones; providing an SMS response to data submission; and sending SMS messages about the importance of their work and achievements, rather than just reminders or technical messages. Participants identified feasibility issues related to the language of SMS

  10. The Canadian Natural Health Products (NHP) regulations: industry compliance motivations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laeeque, Hina; Boon, Heather; Kachan, Natasha; Cohen, Jillian Clare; D'Cruz, Joseph

    2007-06-01

    This qualitative study explores corporations' motivations to comply with new natural health products (NHP) Regulations in Canada. Interviews were conducted with representatives from 20 Canadian NHP companies. Findings show that the rationale for compliance differs for large compared to small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Large firms are motivated to comply with the regulations because of the deterrent fear of negative media coverage, social motivations, ability to comply and maintaining a competitive market advantage. In contrast, SMEs are motivated to comply due to the deterrent fear of legal prosecution and a sense of duty.

  11. Occupational health programme for lead workers in battery plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byung-Kook

    The realization of problems resulting from the exposure to undue high lead levels of workers in lead-using industries, particularly in storage battery plants, has given rise to a new occupational health service, the so-called type specific (harmful agent specific) group occupational health. In 1988, the Korean Ministry of Labor designated the Institute of Industrial Medicine, Soonchunhyang University, as an authorized organization to take care of lead workers in lead industries. The following occupational health services are provided by the Institute: (i) physical health examination; (ii) biological monitoring with zinc protoporphyrin, urine δ-aminolevulinic acid and blood lead; (iii) respiratory protection with maintenance-free respirators; (iv) measurement of the environmental condition of workplaces; (v) health education. A three-year occupational health programme for lead workers has contributed to improvements in the working conditions of lead industries, particularly in large-scale battery plants, and has decreased the unnecessary high lead burden of workers through on-going medical surveillance with biological monitoring and health education schemes. The strong commitment of both employers and the government to improve the working conditions of lead industries, together with the full cooperation of lead workers, has served to reduce the high lead burdens of lead workers. This decreases the number of lead-poisoning cases and provides more comfortable workplaces, particularly in battery plants.

  12. Potential allergy and irritation incidents among health care workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamgir, Hasanat; Yu, Shicheng; Chavoshi, Negar; Ngan, Karen

    2008-07-01

    This study describes the types, causes, and outcomes of potential irritation and allergy incidents among workers in British Columbia's health care industry. Data on occupation-induced allergy and irritation incidents were extracted from a standardized database using the number of productive hours obtained from payroll data as a denominator during a 1-year period from three British Columbia health regions. Younger workers, female workers, facility support service workers, laboratory assistants and technicians, and maintenance and acute care workers were found to be at higher risk for allergy and irritation incidents. Major causes of allergy and irritation incidents included chemicals, blood and body fluids, food and objects, communicable diseases, air quality, and latex. A larger proportion of chemically induced incidents resulted in first aid care only, whereas non-chemical incidents required more emergency room visits.

  13. Simplified Clinical Tools and Educational Outreach for Health Workers

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The training will focus on mid-level healthcare workers, that is, nurses, medical ... Registered Trustees of the Research for Equity and Community Health ... Call for new OWSD Fellowships for Early Career Women Scientists now open.

  14. Job Satisfaction and Its Determinants among Health Workers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Job Satisfaction and Its Determinants among Health Workers in Jimma University ... insufficient training opportunities and inadequate number of human resources. ... salary increment, establishing good administration management system and ...

  15. Building policy leadership among HIV/AIDS health workers | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-04-21

    Apr 21, 2016 ... Health workers need research, leadership, and policy skills to help ... the regions hardest hit by the pandemic, by building these skills among ... Nowhere in the world has AIDS had a more devastating effect than in Africa.

  16. Building policy leadership among HIV/AIDS health workers | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Learn more: Read a journal article on the reliability of data collected by community health workers for policy and planning in Kenya. Read project summaries​ of the Teasdale-Corti Global Research Partnership Program (PDF, 275KB) ...

  17. [A Literature Review of Health Effects on Workers in Disasters].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igarashi, Yu; Mori, Koji

    2015-09-01

    Various types of disasters, such as natural disasters, industrial accidents and crimes, often occur in the workplace and many workers are involved in them. They are not only directly injured but also exposed to health hazards, such as terrible experiences and chemical materials. Occupational health specialists are expected to act to minimize the adverse health effects from them speedily and appropriately. It is assumed that learning from past cases is effective for such occupational health activities. Accordingly, we conducted a literature review about the health effects on workers in disasters. Relevant literature was searched in PubMed. Twenty four studies were extracted by our criteria. In this review, subjects were limited to general workers by excluding professional workers, such as emergency services and firefighters. The health effects were examined as follows: mental health (13 articles), respiratory (5), cardiovascular (2), musculoskeletal (1), skin (1), nervous (1), and general (1). It was obvious that few studies on general workers were published when considering large number of disasters in the past. Factors that affect health outcomes were categorized into ① those related to devastation of environment of work and life due to disaster, and ② those related to health hazards due to disasters. Knowledge from the review will support the activities of occupational health specialists during disasters, but additional studies are needed.

  18. Behavioral lifestyle and mental health status of Japanese factory workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezoe, S; Morimoto, K

    1994-01-01

    Lifestyle factors, sometimes associated with physical health and mortality, have also been known to be associated with mental health status. This study seeks to correlate behavioral lifestyles with major components of mental health among Japanese factory workers. We administered the 28-item version of the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28) and a questionnaire concerning eight personal health practices to 2,132 male and 668 female factory workers at a camera-manufacturing company in Japan. There were strong negative relationships of a higher total number of favorable lifestyles as indicated by the Health Practice Index (HPI) to psychological distress and its components: somatic symptoms, anxiety-insomnia, and social dysfunction. After controlling for the effects of confounding factors that included age, marital status, and somatic condition, multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that five of the eight health factors among male workers--mental stress, nutritional balance, eating breakfast regularly, physical exercise, and working hours--were significantly related to the grade of psychological distress or its three components. Among female workers, five health practices, i.e., mental stress, physical exercise, sleeping hours, working hours, and cigarette smoking, were significantly associated with the grade of psychological distress or its three components. Good health practices might be individually and as a whole associated with better mental health status in factory workers.

  19. Qualitative motivators and barriers to pandemic vs. seasonal influenza vaccination among healthcare workers: a content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prematunge, Chatura; Corace, Kimberly; McCarthy, Anne; Nair, Rama C; Roth, Virginia; Suh, Kathryn N; Garber, Gary

    2014-12-12

    Influenza is a major concern across healthcare environments. Annual vaccination of healthcare workers (HCW) remains a key mode of influenza prevention in healthcare settings. Yet influenza vaccine coverage among HCWs continues to be below recommended targets, in pandemic and non-pandemic settings. Thus, the primary objective of this analysis is to identify motivators and barriers to pandemic (panINFLU) and seasonal influenza vaccination (sINFLU) through the qualitative analysis of HCW provided reasons driving HCW's personal vaccination decisions. Data were collected from a multi-professional sample of HCWs via a cross-sectional survey study, conducted at a tertiary-care hospital in Ontario, Canada. HCW provided and ranked qualitative reasons for personal (1) panINFLU (pH1N1) and (2) sINFLU (2008/2009 season) vaccine uptake and avoidance were used to identify key vaccination motivators and barriers through content analysis methodology. Most HCW vaccination motivators and barriers were found to be similar for panINFLU and sINFLU vaccines. Personal motivators had the greatest impact on vaccination (panINFLU 29.9% and sINFLU 33.9%). Other motivators included preventing influenza in loved ones, patients, and community, and awareness of HCW role in influenza transmission. In contrast, concerns of vaccine safety and limited HCW knowledge of influenza vaccines (panINFLU 46.2% and sINFLU 37.3%). HCW vaccination during the pandemic was motivated by panINFLU related fear, epidemiology, and workplace pro-vaccination policies. HCW perceptions of accelerated panINFLU vaccine development and vaccine safety compromises, negative views of external sources (i.e. media, pharmaceutical companies, and regulatory agencies) and pandemic management strategies were barriers specific to panINFLU vaccine. HCW panINFLU and sINFLU vaccine coverage can increase if future vaccination programs (1) highlight personal vaccination benefits (2) emphasize the impact HCW non-vaccination on family

  20. Public Health Services for Foreign Workers in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Normah Awang; Wahab, Haris Abd; Bakar Ah, Siti Hajar Abu; Islam, M Rezaul

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to know the status of the foreign workers' access to public health services in Malaysia based on their utilization pattern. The utilization pattern covered a number of areas, such as frequency of using health services, status of using health services, choice and types of health institutions, and cost of health treatment. The study was conducted on six government hospitals in the Klang Valley area in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Data were collected from 600 foreign patients working in the country, using an interview method with a structured questionnaire. The results showed that the foreign workers' access to public health services was very low. The findings would be an important guideline to formulate an effective health service policy for the foreign workers in Malaysia.

  1. The motivational needs of primary health care nurses to acquire ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The motivational needs of primary health care nurses to acquire power as leaders in ... Ethical considerations were adhered to and respondents gave written ... Validity and reliability principles were applied during the entire research process.

  2. The motivational needs of primary health care nurses to acquire ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Karien Jooste

    for a significant part of service delivery in the health system. Professional nurses' .... motivational needs of PHC nurses to acquire power in the workplace at mine clinic .... recognition through rewards and status (Jooste, 2009, p. 165). 10.1.1.

  3. A trial of a job-specific workers' health surveillance program for construction workers: study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boschman, Julitta S; van der Molen, Henk F; van Duivenbooden, Cor; Sluiter, Judith K; Frings-Dresen, Monique H W

    2011-09-29

    Dutch construction workers are offered periodic health examinations. This care can be improved by tailoring this workers health surveillance (WHS) to the demands of the job and adjust the preventive actions to the specific health risks of a worker in a particular job. To improve the quality of the WHS for construction workers and stimulate relevant job-specific preventive actions by the occupational physician, we have developed a job-specific WHS. The job-specific WHS consists of modules assessing both physical and psychological requirements. The selected measurement instruments chosen, are based on their appropriateness to measure the workers' capacity and health requirements. They include a questionnaire and biometrical tests, and physical performance tests that measure physical functional capabilities. Furthermore, our job-specific WHS provides occupational physicians with a protocol to increase the worker-behavioural effectiveness of their counselling and to stimulate job-specific preventive actions. The objective of this paper is to describe and clarify our study to evaluate the behavioural effects of this job-specific WHS on workers and occupational physicians. The ongoing study of bricklayers and supervisors is a nonrandomised trial to compare the outcome of an intervention (job-specific WHS) group (n = 206) with that of a control (WHS) group (n = 206). The study includes a three-month follow-up. The primary outcome measure is the proportion of participants who have undertaken one or more of the preventive actions advised by their occupational physician in the three months after attending the WHS. A process evaluation will be carried out to determine context, reach, dose delivered, dose received, fidelity, and satisfaction. The present study is in accordance with the TREND Statement. This study will allow an evaluation of the behaviour of both the workers and occupational physician regarding the preventive actions undertaken by them within the scope of a job

  4. A trial of a job-specific workers' health surveillance program for construction workers: study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sluiter Judith K

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dutch construction workers are offered periodic health examinations. This care can be improved by tailoring this workers health surveillance (WHS to the demands of the job and adjust the preventive actions to the specific health risks of a worker in a particular job. To improve the quality of the WHS for construction workers and stimulate relevant job-specific preventive actions by the occupational physician, we have developed a job-specific WHS. The job-specific WHS consists of modules assessing both physical and psychological requirements. The selected measurement instruments chosen, are based on their appropriateness to measure the workers' capacity and health requirements. They include a questionnaire and biometrical tests, and physical performance tests that measure physical functional capabilities. Furthermore, our job-specific WHS provides occupational physicians with a protocol to increase the worker-behavioural effectiveness of their counselling and to stimulate job-specific preventive actions. The objective of this paper is to describe and clarify our study to evaluate the behavioural effects of this job-specific WHS on workers and occupational physicians. Methods/Design The ongoing study of bricklayers and supervisors is a nonrandomised trial to compare the outcome of an intervention (job-specific WHS group (n = 206 with that of a control (WHS group (n = 206. The study includes a three-month follow-up. The primary outcome measure is the proportion of participants who have undertaken one or more of the preventive actions advised by their occupational physician in the three months after attending the WHS. A process evaluation will be carried out to determine context, reach, dose delivered, dose received, fidelity, and satisfaction. The present study is in accordance with the TREND Statement. Discussion This study will allow an evaluation of the behaviour of both the workers and occupational physician regarding the

  5. Age-differences in work motivation and job satisfaction. The influence of age on the relationships between work characteristics and workers' outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boumans, Nicolle P G; de Jong, Ad H J; Janssen, Sara M

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of age on the relationship between work characteristics and workers' work motivation and job satisfaction. In total, 1036 workers of a Dutch division of a multinational organization participated. Data were collected by a digital questionnaire. Two interaction terms in the regression on work motivation were significant. The first interaction showed that the positive correlation between Motivating Potential Score (MPS) and motivation was much stronger for older than for younger employees. So, to remain motivated, older employees seem more in need of intrinsic challenging and fulfilling jobs. The second significant interaction indicated that the positive association between career opportunities and motivation was much stronger for younger employees than for older employees. This means that, especially, younger workers' motivation increases as they are offered more career opportunities. Careful career mentoring by the supervisor as part of an aging policy can contribute to the maintenance of workers of any age.

  6. Tuberculosis in hospital department health care workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Saleiro

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Tuberculosis (TB is considered an occupational disease in health care workers (HCW and its transmission in health care facilities is an important concern. Some hospital departments are at higher risk of infection. Objective: To describe TB cases detected after TB screening in HCW from a hospital department (Ear, Nose and Throat – ENT who had had contact with active TB cases. Material and methods: All HCW (73 from Hospital São João's ENT Unit who had been in contact with two in-patients with active TB underwent TB screening. Those who had symptoms underwent chest X-ray and mycobacteriological sputum exam. Results: Of 73 HCW who underwent TB screening, TB diagnosis was established in 9 (8 female; median age: 30 years; 1 doctor, 6 nurses, 2 nursing auxiliaries. Pulmonary TB was found in 8 and extra- -pulmonary TB in 1. Microbiology diagnosis was obtained in 7 cases by sputum smear, n = 2; culture exam in bronchial lavage, n = 4 and histological exam of pleural tissue, n = 1. In 4 cases, Mycobacterium tuberculosis genomic DNA was extracted from cultures and molecular typing was done. All cases had identical MIRU types, which allowed identification of the epidemiological link. Conclusion: Nosocomial TB is prominent and efforts should be made to implement successful infection control measures in health care facilities and an effective TB screening program in HCW. Molecular typing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis facilitates cluster identification. Resumo: Introdução: A tuberculose é considerada uma doença ocupacional nos profissionais de saúde e a sua transmissão, nas instituições de saúde, constitui um problema importante. Alguns serviços hospitalares estão particularmente expostos a risco de infecção. Objectivo: Caracterizar os casos de tuberculose detectados na sequência de um rastreio efectuado aos profissionais de saúde de um serviço hospitalar

  7. Purchasing power of civil servant health workers in Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrinho, Fátima; Amaral, Marta; Russo, Giuliano; Ferrinho, Paulo

    2012-01-01

    Health workers' purchasing power is an important consideration in the development of strategies for health workforce development. This work explores the purchasing power variation of Mozambican public sector health workers, between 1999 and 2007. In general, the calculated purchasing power increased for most careers under study, and the highest percentage increase was observed for the lowest remuneration careers, contributing in this way for a relative reduction in the difference between the higher and the lower salaries. This was done through a simple and easy-to-apply methodology to estimate salaries' capitalization rate, by means of the accumulated inflation rate, after taking wage revisions into account. All the career categories in the Ministry of Health and affiliated public sector institutions were considered. Health workers' purchasing power is an important consideration in the development of strategies for health workforce development. This work explores the purchasing power variation of Mozambican public sector health workers, between 1999 and 2007. In general, the calculated purchasing power increased for most careers under study, and the highest percentage increase was observed for the lowest remuneration careers, contributing in this way for a relative reduction in the difference between the higher and the lower salaries. These results seem to contradict a commonly held assumption that health sector pay has deteriorated over the years, and with substantial damage for the poorest. Further studies appear to be needed to design a more accurate methodology to better understand the evolution and impact of public sector health workers' remunerations across the years.

  8. The community health worker cultural mentoring project: preparing professional students for team work with health workers from urban communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwen, Laurie N; Schwolsky-Fitch, Elena; Rodriquez, Romelia; Horta, Greg; Lopez, Ivanna

    2007-01-01

    Community Health Workers or CHWs (also known by a variety of alternative titles) are health workers drawn from communities to provide access to care for members of their communities. CHWs have been documented as effective in delivering a variety of services in a culturally-sensitive manner, and in providing a bridge between health professionals and underserved or minority communities. Yet, CHWs have not been well incorporated into interdisciplinary health care teams. The majority of health professionals are not even aware of the possible role and skills of CHWs. Believing that the best time to educate professionals about this valuable health worker and ensure that CHWs become part of interdisciplinary health care teams is during the student years, the Hunter College Schools of the Health Professions, and the Community Health Worker Network of New York City developed a pilot project, the Community Health Worker Cultural Mentoring Project. Community Health Workers, who were members of the Network, served as "community mentors" for health professions students drawn from the programs of community health education, nursing, and nutrition. CHWs worked with faculty of selected courses in each of the professional programs, and served as panelists in these courses, presenting information about health beliefs and alternative health practices of diverse cultural groups in communities of New York City. Class sessions were first held in the fall of 2004; subsequent sessions were held in following semesters. Approximately 40 students participated in 7 classes, with 6 CHWs serving as mentors - two per class. At the end of the classroom presentations, students wrote reflections relating to their understanding of the CHW role and relevance for their future interdisciplinary practice. The majority of reflections met the goal of increasing professional students' understanding of the CHW role and skills. At this point, quantitative and qualitative data will need to be collected to

  9. Motivational Interviewing for Workers with Disabling Musculoskeletal Disorders: Results of a Cluster Randomized Control Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Joanne; Esmail, Shaniff; Rayani, Fahreen; Norris, Colleen M; Gross, Douglas P

    2018-06-01

    Purpose Although functional restoration programs appear effective in assisting injured workers to return-to-work (RTW) after a work related musculoskeletal (MSK) disorder, the addition of Motivational Interviewing (MI) to these programs may result in higher RTW. Methods We conducted a cluster randomized controlled trial with claimants attending an occupational rehabilitation facility from November 17, 2014 to June 30, 2015. Six clinicians provided MI in addition to the standard functional restoration program and formed an intervention group. Six clinicians continued to provide the standard functional restoration program based on graded activity, therapeutic exercise, and workplace accommodations. Independent t tests and chi square analysis were used to compare groups. Multivariable logistic regression was used to obtain the odds ratio of claimants' confirmed RTW status at time of program discharge. Results 728 workers' compensation claimants with MSK disorders were entered into 1 of 12 therapist clusters (MI group = 367, control group = 361). Claimants were predominantly employed (72.7%), males (63.2%), with moderate levels of pain and disability (mean pain VAS = 5.0/10 and mean Pain Disability Index = 48/70). Claimants were stratified based on job attachment status. The proportion of successful RTW at program discharge was 12.1% higher for unemployed workers in the intervention group (intervention group 21.6 vs. 9.5% in control, p = 0.03) and 3.0% higher for job attached workers compared to the control group (intervention group 97.1 vs. 94.1% in control, p = 0.10). Adherence to MI was mixed, but RTW was significantly higher among MI-adherent clinicians. The odds ratio for unemployed claimants was 2.64 (0.69-10.14) and 2.50 (0.68-9.14) for employed claimants after adjusting for age, sex, pain intensity, perceived disability, and therapist cluster. Conclusion MI in addition to routine functional restoration is more effective than routine

  10. Shift work and burnout among health care workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisetborisut, A; Angkurawaranon, C; Jiraporncharoen, W; Uaphanthasath, R; Wiwatanadate, P

    2014-06-01

    Burnout, defined as a syndrome derived from prolonged exposure to stressors at work, is often seen in health care workers. Shift work is considered one of the occupational risks for burnout in health care workers. To identify and describe the association between shift work and burnout among health care workers. A cross-sectional study of health care workers in Chiang Mai University Hospital, Thailand. Data were collected via an online self-answered questionnaire and included details of shift work and burnout. Burnout was measured by the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI). Two thousand seven hundred and seventy two health care workers participated, a 52% response rate. Burnout was found more frequently among shift workers than those who did not work shifts (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.4, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.0-1.9). Among shift workers, over 10 years of being a shift worker was associated with increasing burnout (aOR 1.7, 95% CI: 1.2-2.6) and having 6-8 sleeping hours per day was associated with having less burnout (aOR 0.7, 95% CI: 0.5-0.9). Nurses who had at least 8 days off per month had lower odds of burnout compared with those with fewer than 8 days off (aOR 0.6, 95% CI: 0.5-0.8). Shift work was associated with burnout in this sample. Increased years of work as a shift worker were associated with more frequent burnout. Adequate sleeping hours and days off were found to be possible protective factors. Policies on shift work should take into account the potential of such work for contributing towards increasing burnout. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Latex Allergy In Health Care Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayriye Sarıcaoğlu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Design: We aimed to determine the frequency of latex allergy in our hospital and to to evaluate the clinical and demographical features of the cases.Materials and Methods: A detailed questionnaire was administered to healthcare workers by a physician. Skin prick test with latex and patch test with rubber chemicals and a piece of latex glove were performed for all healthcare workers. Latex-specific IgE was measured in serum.Results: The study sample consisted of 36 nurses, 14 doctors, and 50 healthcare workers. While 46 subjects had symptoms, 54 subjects had no symptoms. The relationship of clinical disease with working duration, exposure duration (hour/day, history of atopy, and drug/food allergies was statistically significant. Five nurses and 1 healthcare worker had positive skin prick test. Two of them had positive latex-specific IgE. Positive skin prick test statistically significantly correlated with occupation, working duration, exposure duration (hour/day and positive latex-specific IgE. Two nurses and 2 healthcare workers had positive latex-specific IgE. Two of them had positive skin prick test. Positive latexspecific IgE statistically significantly correlated with working duration, exposure duration, and positive skin prick test. Patch test with a piece of latex glove was negative in all subjects. Three healthcare workers had positive patch test with thiuram-mix, one of them had also positive patch test with mercaptobenzothiazole.Discussion: One of the risk factors for latex allergy is occupations involving frequent exposure to latex products. Latex allergy should be taken into consideration if type I hypersensitivity reactions occur in occupational groups at risk for anaphylactic reaction.

  12. Estimating workers' marginal valuation of employer health benefits: would insured workers prefer more health insurance or higher wages?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royalty, Anne Beeson

    2008-01-01

    In recent years the cost of health insurance has been increasing much faster than wages. In the face of these rising costs, many employers will have to make difficult decisions about whether to cut back health benefits or to compensate workers with lower wages or lower wage growth. In this paper, we ask the question, "Which do workers value more -- one additional dollar's worth of health benefits or one more dollar in their pockets?" Using a new approach to obtaining estimates of insured workers' marginal valuation of health benefits this paper estimates how much, on average, employees value the marginal dollar paid by employers for their workers' health insurance. We find that insured workers value the marginal health premium dollar at significantly less than the marginal wage dollar. However, workers value insurance generosity very highly. The marginal dollar spent on health insurance that adds an additional dollar's worth of observable dimensions of plan generosity, such as lower deductibles or coverage of additional services, is valued at significantly more than one dollar.

  13. Effects of Hurricane Hugo: Mental Health Workers and Community Members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzekari, Louis H.; And Others

    This paper reports the effects of Hurricane Hugo on mental health workers and indigenous community members. The response and perceptions of mental health staff from the South Carolina Department of Mental Health (Go Teams) from areas unaffected by the hurricane were compared and contrasted with those of a subsequent Hugo Outreach Support Team…

  14. In depth analysis of motivational factors at work in the health industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukhminder Jit Singh Bajwa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Motivation of health workers is necessary to generate the organizational commitment towards the patients and the hospital and therefore the knowledge about what motivates and satisfies them is very essential.The aim of the project was to investigate and analyze the various factors that help in motivation of the health workers while performing their clinical duties in the hospital. Materials and Methods: A simple random study was conducted among 100 employees of our institute, which included doctors, staff nurses and paramedical staff. One hundred employees from Gian Sagar Institute were chosen randomly for the purpose of our study. All the employees were enquired by the questionnaire method as well as by individual interviews regarding the various motivating and demotivating factors at the work place. Detailed enquiries were performed regarding the various aspects concerning the job factors and work satisfaction. All the answers and findings were observed and recorded. Results: Statistical Analysis Used: Simple non-parametric tests like mean, percentages and chi square tests were employed to analyze the data.The demographic profile of all the employees showed only minor differences which were statistically non-significant. Skills, task identity, task significance, autonomy, feedback, environment, job security and compensation were observed to be the important factors for the motivation of employees. The depth and the extent to which these factors were studied at work in the hospital showed remarkable differences. Conclusion: All the factors studied in this project are essential basis for organizational commitment, but feedback represents the factor with the highest motivation potential especially among the younger population.

  15. Stress Underestimation and Mental Health Outcomes in Male Japanese Workers: a 1-Year Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izawa, Shuhei; Nakamura-Taira, Nanako; Yamada, Kosuke Chris

    2016-12-01

    Being appropriately aware of the extent of stress experienced in daily life is essential in motivating stress management behaviours. Excessive stress underestimation obstructs this process, which is expected to exert adverse effects on health. We prospectively examined associations between stress underestimation and mental health outcomes in Japanese workers. Web-based surveys were conducted twice with an interval of 1 year on 2359 Japanese male workers. Participants were asked to complete survey items concerning stress underestimation, depressive symptoms, sickness absence, and antidepressant use. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that high baseline levels of 'overgeneralization of stress' and 'insensitivity to stress' were significantly associated with new-onset depressive symptoms (OR = 2.66 [95 % CI, 1.54-4.59], p stress underestimation, including stress insensitivity and the overgeneralization of stress, could exert adverse effects on mental health.

  16. Field tests of a participatory ergonomics toolkit for Total Worker Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobrega, Suzanne; Kernan, Laura; Plaku-Alakbarova, Bora; Robertson, Michelle; Warren, Nicholas; Henning, Robert

    2017-04-01

    Growing interest in Total Worker Health ® (TWH) programs to advance worker safety, health and well-being motivated development of a toolkit to guide their implementation. Iterative design of a program toolkit occurred in which participatory ergonomics (PE) served as the primary basis to plan integrated TWH interventions in four diverse organizations. The toolkit provided start-up guides for committee formation and training, and a structured PE process for generating integrated TWH interventions. Process data from program facilitators and participants throughout program implementation were used for iterative toolkit design. Program success depended on organizational commitment to regular design team meetings with a trained facilitator, the availability of subject matter experts on ergonomics and health to support the design process, and retraining whenever committee turnover occurred. A two committee structure (employee Design Team, management Steering Committee) provided advantages over a single, multilevel committee structure, and enhanced the planning, communication, and teamwork skills of participants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Field tests of a participatory ergonomics toolkit for Total Worker Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kernan, Laura; Plaku-Alakbarova, Bora; Robertson, Michelle; Warren, Nicholas; Henning, Robert

    2018-01-01

    Growing interest in Total Worker Health® (TWH) programs to advance worker safety, health and well-being motivated development of a toolkit to guide their implementation. Iterative design of a program toolkit occurred in which participatory ergonomics (PE) served as the primary basis to plan integrated TWH interventions in four diverse organizations. The toolkit provided start-up guides for committee formation and training, and a structured PE process for generating integrated TWH interventions. Process data from program facilitators and participants throughout program implementation were used for iterative toolkit design. Program success depended on organizational commitment to regular design team meetings with a trained facilitator, the availability of subject matter experts on ergonomics and health to support the design process, and retraining whenever committee turnover occurred. A two committee structure (employee Design Team, management Steering Committee) provided advantages over a single, multilevel committee structure, and enhanced the planning, communication, and team-work skills of participants. PMID:28166897

  18. Informal payments and the quality of health care: Mechanisms revealed by Tanzanian health workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mæstad, Ottar; Mwisongo, Aziza

    2011-02-01

    Informal payments for health services are common in many transitional and developing countries. The aim of this paper is to investigate the nature of informal payments in the health sector of Tanzania and to identify mechanisms through which informal payments may affect the quality of health care. Our focus is on the effect of informal payments on health worker behaviours, in particular the interpersonal dynamics among health workers at their workplaces. We organised eight focus groups with 58 health workers representing different cadres and levels of care in one rural and one urban district in Tanzania. We found that health workers at all levels receive informal payments in a number of different contexts. Health workers sometimes share the payments received, but only partially, and more rarely within the cadre than across cadres. Our findings indicate that health workers are involved in 'rent-seeking' activities, such as creating artificial shortages and deliberately lowering the quality of service, in order to extract extra payments from patients or to bargain for a higher share of the payments received by their colleagues. The discussions revealed that many health workers think that the distribution of informal payments is grossly unfair. The findings suggest that informal payments can impact negatively on the quality of health care through rent-seeking behaviours and through frustrations created by the unfair allocation of payments. Interestingly, the presence of corruption may also induce non-corrupt workers to reduce the quality of care. Positive impacts can occur because informal payments may induce health workers to increase their efforts, and maybe more so if there is competition among health workers about receiving the payments. Moreover, informal payments add to health workers' incomes and might thus contribute to retention of health workers within the health sector. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Young adult conservation jobs and worker health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathleen L. Wolf; Elizabeth Housley

    2017-01-01

    Decades of research studies demonstrate links between healthy environment, healthy lifestyles, and healthy people. This study evaluated the correlations between young adult conservation workers’ perceived stress, personal effectiveness, and nature experience using quantitative and qualitative social science methods. The study cohort numbered nearly 300 individuals...

  20. Age-Differences in Work Motivation and Job Satisfaction. The Influence of Age on the Relationships between Work Characteristics and Workers' Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boumans, Nicolle P. G.; de Jong, Ad H. J.; Janssen, Sara M.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of age on the relationship between work characteristics and workers' work motivation and job satisfaction. In total, 1036 workers of a Dutch division of a multinational organization participated. Data were collected by a digital questionnaire. Two interaction terms in the regression on work motivation were…

  1. Improving occupational health care for construction workers: a process evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boschman, Julitta S; van der Molen, Henk F; Sluiter, Judith K; Frings-Dresen, Monique H W

    2013-03-11

    To evaluate the process of a job-specific workers' health surveillance (WHS) in improving occupational health care for construction workers. From January to July 2012 were 899 bricklayers and supervisors invited for the job-specific WHS at three locations of one occupational health service throughout the Netherlands. The intervention aimed at detecting signs of work-related health problems, reduced work capacity and/or reduced work functioning. Measurements were obtained using a recruitment record and questionnaires at baseline and follow-up. The process evaluation included the following: reach (attendance rate), intervention dose delivered (provision of written recommendations and follow-up appointments), intervention dose received (intention to follow-up on advice directly after WHS and remembrance of advice three months later), and fidelity (protocol adherence). The workers scored their increase in knowledge from 0-10 with regard to health status and work ability, their satisfaction with the intervention and the perceived (future) effect of such an intervention. Program implementation was defined as the mean score of reach, fidelity, and intervention dose delivered and received. Reach was 9% (77 workers participated), fidelity was 67%, the intervention dose delivered was 92 and 63%, and the intervention dose received was 68 and 49%. The total programme implementation was 58%. The increases in knowledge regarding the health status and work ability of the workers after the WHS were graded as 7.0 and 5.9, respectively. The satisfaction of the workers with the entire intervention was graded as 7.5. The perceived (future) effects on health status were graded as 6.3, and the effects on work ability were graded with a 5.2. The economic recession affected the workers as well as the occupational health service that enacted the implementation. Programme implementation was acceptable. Low reach, limited protocol adherence and modest engagement of the workers with respect

  2. Revision of the occupational health examination form for radiation workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Chang'an; Chen Erdong

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To revise the Occupational Health Examination Form for Radiation Workers, which is served as annex 3 of Management Regulations for Occupational Health Surveillance (Decree No.23 of Ministry of Health, P.R. China), so as to further improve and standardize the occupational health management for radiation workers. Methods: Based on corresponding laws, standards and general principles of occupational medicine. Results: The new version of the Form was established and passed auditing. Conclusion: The theoretical foundation, intention and methods of the revision process are briefly introduced. Requirements and necessary recommendations for implement the new Form are also described. (authors)

  3. Mastery Motivation and Secure Attachment among Preschool Children in the Light of Depending on Domestic Workers in the Saudi Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulfattah, Azza Khalil; Badawood, Asma Saeid

    2017-01-01

    The current study aims to verify the impact of children's secure attachment to their mothers on their mastery motivation in the light of the dependence on domestic workers' phenomenon in the Saudi society. To achieve the goals of the study, a random sample of Saudi children was selected from Riyadh city in Saudi Arabia, whose favorable economic…

  4. Evaluation of Healthy Lifestyle Behaviors in Health Care Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meltem Yalcinkaya

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted as a descriptive study for the purpose of determining the healthy lifestyle behaviors of health care workers employed at university and state hospitals in Afyon and Denizli. There were 1779 health care personnel in the sample who were employed at university and state hospitals in Afyon and Denizli. It was planned conducted the research on the entire population however some health care workers did not want to participate a total of 316 health care workers were included in the study sample. Data were collected between 15 June-15 Agust 2006 using a demografik questionnaire form and the Healthy Lifestyle Behaviors Scale. In the evaluation data gained, Number-percentage calculations, t-test, One Way ANOVA, Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests were used. This study was determined that 84.5% of the health care workers were nurses, 55.7% were in the 20-30 year old age group, 75.0% were married, 39.2% worked on surgical units, 69.6% ate regular meals, only 22.8% were interested in sports, 61.1% did not smoke cigarettes. A statistically significant difference was found health care workers between for age group, gender, educational level, years of employment, hospital unit where they worked, status of eating regular meals, status of being interested in sports, use of alcohol, hospital where employed and the health care workers' healthy lifestyle behaviors (p<0.05. For development health care behaviors lifestyle the main factor which is avoid risk behavior life. Healt care workers must play an important role on the issue. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2007; 6(6.000: 409-420

  5. Evaluation of Healthy Lifestyle Behaviors in Health Care Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meltem Yalcinkaya

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted as a descriptive study for the purpose of determining the healthy lifestyle behaviors of health care workers employed at university and state hospitals in Afyon and Denizli. There were 1779 health care personnel in the sample who were employed at university and state hospitals in Afyon and Denizli. It was planned conducted the research on the entire population however some health care workers did not want to participate a total of 316 health care workers were included in the study sample. Data were collected between 15 June-15 Agust 2006 using a demografik questionnaire form and the Healthy Lifestyle Behaviors Scale. In the evaluation data gained, Number-percentage calculations, t-test, One Way ANOVA, Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests were used. This study was determined that 84.5% of the health care workers were nurses, 55.7% were in the 20-30 year old age group, 75.0% were married, 39.2% worked on surgical units, 69.6% ate regular meals, only 22.8% were interested in sports, 61.1% did not smoke cigarettes. A statistically significant difference was found health care workers between for age group, gender, educational level, years of employment, hospital unit where they worked, status of eating regular meals, status of being interested in sports, use of alcohol, hospital where employed and the health care workers' healthy lifestyle behaviors (p<0.05. For development health care behaviors lifestyle the main factor which is avoid risk behavior life. Healt care workers must play an important role on the issue. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2007; 6(6: 409-420

  6. Nonwage losses associated with occupational injury among health care workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman, Jaime; Ibrahimova, Aybaniz; Tompa, Emile; Koehoorn, Mieke; Alamgir, Hasanat

    2013-08-01

    To examine nonwage losses after occupational injury among health care workers and the factors associated with the magnitude of these losses. Inception cohort of workers filing an occupational injury claim in a Canadian province. Worker self-reports were used to calculate (1) the nonwage economic losses in 2010 Canadian dollars, and (2) the number of quality-adjusted days of life lost on the basis of the EuroQOL Index. Most workers (84%; n = 123) had musculoskeletal injuries (MSIs). Each MSI resulted in nonwage economic losses of Can$3131 (95% confidence interval, Can$3035 to Can$3226), lost wages of Can$5286, and 7.9 quality-adjusted days of life lost within 12 weeks after injury. Losses varied with type of injury, region of the province, and occupation. Non-MSIs were associated with smaller losses. These estimates of nonwage losses should be considered in workers' injury compensation policies and in economic evaluation studies.

  7. Influence of reward preferences in attracting, retaining, and motivating knowledge workers in South African information technology companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Bussin

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The world of work is evolving and the nature of relationships between knowledge workers and their employers has changed distinctly, leading to a change in the type of rewards they prefer. The nature of these preferences in the South African, industry-specific context is poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to deepen understanding of the reward preferences of Information technology (IT knowledge workers in South Africa, specifically as these relate to the attraction, retention and motivation of knowledge workers. Design: The research design included a quantitative, empirical and descriptive study of reward preferences, measured with a self-administered survey and analysed using non-parametric tests for variance between dependent and independent groups and non-parametric analysis of variance. Findings: This study found that there are specific reward preferences in knowledge workers in the IT sector in South Africa and that these preferences apply differently when related to the attraction, retention and motivation of employees. It identified the most important reward components in the competition for knowledge workers and also demonstrated that demographic characteristics play a statistically significant role in determining reward preferences. Practical implications: The study’s findings show that a holistic approach to total rewards is required, failing which, companies will find themselves facing increased turnover and jobhopping. Importantly, the study also highlights that different rewards need to form part of knowledge workers’ relationship with their employer in three different scenarios: attraction, retention and motivation.

  8. Health Worker Focused Distributed Simulation for Improving Capability of Health Systems in Liberia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, Thomas C E; Chatterjee, Arunangsu; Mellor, Nicholas E; Allan, Richard J

    2016-04-01

    The main goal of this study was to produce an adaptable learning platform using virtual learning and distributed simulation, which can be used to train health care workers, across a wide geographical area, key safety messages regarding infection prevention control (IPC). A situationally responsive agile methodology, Scrum, was used to develop a distributed simulation module using short 1-week iterations and continuous synchronous plus asynchronous communication including end users and IPC experts. The module contained content related to standard IPC precautions (including handwashing techniques) and was structured into 3 distinct sections related to donning, doffing, and hazard perception training. Using Scrum methodology, we were able to link concepts applied to best practices in simulation-based medical education (deliberate practice, continuous feedback, self-assessment, and exposure to uncommon events), pedagogic principles related to adult learning (clear goals, contextual awareness, motivational features), and key learning outcomes regarding IPC, as a rapid response initiative to the Ebola outbreak in West Africa. Gamification approach has been used to map learning mechanics to enhance user engagement. The developed IPC module demonstrates how high-frequency, low-fidelity simulations can be rapidly designed using scrum-based agile methodology. Analytics incorporated into the tool can help demonstrate improved confidence and competence of health care workers who are treating patients within an Ebola virus disease outbreak region. These concepts could be used in a range of evolving disasters where rapid development and communication of key learning messages are required.

  9. Health worker preferences for performance-based payment schemes in a rural health district in Burkina Faso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurice Yé

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: One promising way to improve the motivation of healthcare providers and the quality of healthcare services is performance-based incentives (PBIs also referred as performance-based financing. Our study aims to explore healthcare providers’ preferences for an incentive scheme based on local resources, which aimed at improving the quality of maternal and child health care in the Nouna Health District. Design: A qualitative and quantitative survey was carried out in 2010 involving 94 healthcare providers within 34 health facilities. In addition, in-depth interviews involving a total of 33 key informants were conducted at health facility levels. Results: Overall, 85% of health workers were in favour of an incentive scheme based on the health district's own financial resources (95% CI: [71.91; 88.08]. Most health workers (95 and 96% expressed a preference for financial incentives (95% CI: [66.64; 85.36] and team-based incentives (95% CI: [67.78; 86.22], respectively. The suggested performance indicators were those linked to antenatal care services, prevention of mother-to-child human immunodeficiency virus transmission, neonatal care, and immunization. Conclusions: The early involvement of health workers and other stakeholders in designing an incentive scheme proved to be valuable. It ensured their effective participation in the process and overall acceptance of the scheme at the end. This study is an important contribution towards the designing of effective PBI schemes.

  10. Challenges facing community health workers in Brazil's Family Health Strategy: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman-Kahn, Rebecca; Schoen, Julia; Mallett, John William; Brentani, Alexandra; Kaselitz, Elizabeth; Heisler, Michele

    2017-09-21

    Community health worker (CHW) programs are implemented in many low- and middle-income countries such as Brazil to increase access to and quality of care for underserved populations; CHW programs have been found to improve certain indicators of health, but few studies have investigated the daily work of CHWs, their perspectives on what both helps and hinders them from fulfilling their roles, and ways that their effectiveness and job satisfaction could be increased. To examine these questions, we observed clinic visits, CHW home visits, and conducted semistructured interviews with CHWs in 7 primary care centers in Brazil-2 in Salvador, Bahia, and 5 in São Paulo, SP-in which CHWs are incorporated into the work of all primary care health teams. In addition to enhancing communication between the medical system and the community, CHWs consider their key roles to be helping persuade community members to seek medical care and increasing health professionals' awareness of the social conditions affecting their patients' health. Key obstacles that CHWs face include failure to be fully integrated into the primary care team, inability to follow-up on identified health needs due to limited resources, as well as community members' lack of understanding of their work and undervaluing of preventative medicine. Increased training, better incorporation of CHWs into clinic flow and decision making, and establishing a clear community awareness of the roles and value of CHWs will help increase the motivation and effectiveness of CHWs in Brazil. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Community Health Workers in Health-Related Missouri Agencies: Role, Professional Development and Health Information Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visker, Joseph; Rhodes, Darson; Cox, Carol

    2017-01-01

    Community Health Workers (CHWs) serve an indispensable but oftten misunderstood and unrecognized role in public health. These individuals constitute the frontline of health care in many communities and are relied upon to provide an assortment of services. Unfortunately, the full extent to which CHWs are utilized is unknown and there is little…

  12. MOTIVATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    Introduction What is the difference between instrumental and integrative motivation? What kind of motivations do students have? How can our knowledge of motivation help the language learning process? Motivation can be very important in language teaching. Students can do very well when they are motivated. Teachers, with their knowledge of motivation, can make their classes more efficient and successful. Middle school teachers, in addition to learning about the English language itself, and about teaching methods, should also learn more about motivation and how this affects our students. "When we consider language teaching, motivation can be classified as either integrative or instrumental motivation" (Luxon)

  13. A Study on the Effects of Managers' Behaviors and Attitudes on Job Satisfaction and Motivation of Workers in the Directorate of Sports and Youth Services through the Eyes of Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, Akin

    2013-01-01

    This study dealt with how managers' behaviors and attitudes affected the job satisfaction and motivation of workers in the Directorate of Sports and Youth Services in the eyes of workers. The study used a qualitative method. It focused on the workers' ideas of how they were affected by their managers' attitudes and behaviors in terms of job…

  14. Associations Between Motivation and Mental Health in Sport: A Test of the Hierarchical Model of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, Rachel B.; Herring, Matthew P.; Campbell, Mark J.

    2018-01-01

    Motivation has been the subject of much research in the sport psychology literature, whereas athlete mental health has received limited attention. Motivational complexities in elite sport are somewhat reflected in the mental health literature, where there is evidence for both protective and risk factors for athletes. Notably, few studies have linked motivation to mental health. Therefore, the key objective of this study was to test four mental health outcomes in the motivational sequence posited by the Hierarchical Model of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation: motivational climate → basic psychological needs → motivation → mental health outcomes. Elite team-sport athletes (140 females, 75 males) completed seven psychometric inventories of motivation-related and mental health variables. Overall, the athletes reported positive motivational patterns, with autonomous motivation and task climate being more prevalent than their less adaptive counterparts. Elevated depressive symptoms and poor sleep quality affected nearly half of the cohort. Structural equation modeling supported pathways between motivational climate, basic needs, motivation, and mood, depressive symptoms, sleep quality, and trait anxiety. Specifically, a task climate was positively associated with the three basic psychological needs, and an ego climate was positively associated with competence. Autonomy and relatedness had positive and negative associations with autonomous and controlled forms of motivation, respectively. Controlled motivation regulations were positively associated with the four mental health outcomes. Integrated regulation had a negative association with anxiety, and intrinsic regulation had a positive association with depressive symptoms. These findings highlight the complexities of and interrelations between motivation and mental health among athletes, and support the importance of considering mental health as an outcome of motivation. PMID:29867672

  15. Associations Between Motivation and Mental Health in Sport: A Test of the Hierarchical Model of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel B. Sheehan

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Motivation has been the subject of much research in the sport psychology literature, whereas athlete mental health has received limited attention. Motivational complexities in elite sport are somewhat reflected in the mental health literature, where there is evidence for both protective and risk factors for athletes. Notably, few studies have linked motivation to mental health. Therefore, the key objective of this study was to test four mental health outcomes in the motivational sequence posited by the Hierarchical Model of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation: motivational climate → basic psychological needs → motivation → mental health outcomes. Elite team-sport athletes (140 females, 75 males completed seven psychometric inventories of motivation-related and mental health variables. Overall, the athletes reported positive motivational patterns, with autonomous motivation and task climate being more prevalent than their less adaptive counterparts. Elevated depressive symptoms and poor sleep quality affected nearly half of the cohort. Structural equation modeling supported pathways between motivational climate, basic needs, motivation, and mood, depressive symptoms, sleep quality, and trait anxiety. Specifically, a task climate was positively associated with the three basic psychological needs, and an ego climate was positively associated with competence. Autonomy and relatedness had positive and negative associations with autonomous and controlled forms of motivation, respectively. Controlled motivation regulations were positively associated with the four mental health outcomes. Integrated regulation had a negative association with anxiety, and intrinsic regulation had a positive association with depressive symptoms. These findings highlight the complexities of and interrelations between motivation and mental health among athletes, and support the importance of considering mental health as an outcome of motivation.

  16. Associations Between Motivation and Mental Health in Sport: A Test of the Hierarchical Model of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, Rachel B; Herring, Matthew P; Campbell, Mark J

    2018-01-01

    Motivation has been the subject of much research in the sport psychology literature, whereas athlete mental health has received limited attention. Motivational complexities in elite sport are somewhat reflected in the mental health literature, where there is evidence for both protective and risk factors for athletes. Notably, few studies have linked motivation to mental health. Therefore, the key objective of this study was to test four mental health outcomes in the motivational sequence posited by the Hierarchical Model of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation: motivational climate → basic psychological needs → motivation → mental health outcomes. Elite team-sport athletes (140 females, 75 males) completed seven psychometric inventories of motivation-related and mental health variables. Overall, the athletes reported positive motivational patterns, with autonomous motivation and task climate being more prevalent than their less adaptive counterparts. Elevated depressive symptoms and poor sleep quality affected nearly half of the cohort. Structural equation modeling supported pathways between motivational climate, basic needs, motivation, and mood, depressive symptoms, sleep quality, and trait anxiety. Specifically, a task climate was positively associated with the three basic psychological needs, and an ego climate was positively associated with competence. Autonomy and relatedness had positive and negative associations with autonomous and controlled forms of motivation, respectively. Controlled motivation regulations were positively associated with the four mental health outcomes. Integrated regulation had a negative association with anxiety, and intrinsic regulation had a positive association with depressive symptoms. These findings highlight the complexities of and interrelations between motivation and mental health among athletes, and support the importance of considering mental health as an outcome of motivation.

  17. Oral health knowledge of health care workers in special children's center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyne, Amjad; Hammad, Nouf; Splieth, Christian

    2015-01-01

    To determine the oral health knowledge of health care workers in special children's center. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect following information: demographics, oral hygiene practices, importance of fluoride, dental visits, cause of tooth decay, gingival health, and sources of oral health information. The study was conducted at Riyadh Center for Special Children in Riyadh City from December 2013 to May 2014. All 60 health care workers in the center completed the questionnaire. A great majority (95%) of the workers brushed their teeth twice or more daily. More than two-third (71.7%) of the workers knew that fluoride helps in caries prevention. One in five (21.7%) workers thought that a dental visit only becomes necessary in case of a dental problem. Similarly, 13.3% of the workers thought to "wait till there is some pain in case of a dental cavity" before seeking dental treatment. The workers ranked soft drinks/soda (98.3%), flavored fizzy drinks (60%) and sweetened/flavored milks (43.3%) as top three cariogenic drinks. A great majority (95%) of the workers correctly responded that blood on toothbrush most probably is a sign of "gum disease". Dentists (50%) and media (45%) were the main source of their oral health information. There was no significant difference (p > 0.05) in workers' response in relation to their specific job. The special health care workers in the disabled children's center generally had satisfactory oral health knowledge and practices.

  18. Probabilistic induction of delayed health hazards in occupational radiation workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamad, M.H.M.; Abdel-Ghani, A.H.

    2003-01-01

    Occupational radiation workers are periodically monitored for their personal occupational dose. Various types of radiation measurement devices are used, mostly film badges and thermoluminescent dosimeters. Several thousand occupational radiation workers were monitored over a period of seven years (jan. 1995- Dec. 2001). These included atomic energy personnel, nuclear materials personnel, staff of mediology departments (diagnostic, therapeutic and nuclear medicine) and industrial occupational workers handling industrial radiography equipment besides other applications of radiation sources in industry. The probably of induction of health hazards in these radiation workers was assessed using the nominal probability coefficient adopted by the ICRP (1991) for both hereditary effects and cancer induction. In this treatise, data procured are presented and discussed inthe light of basic postulations of probabilistic occurrence of radiation induced delayed health effects

  19. Work and health conditions of sugar cane workers in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Fernanda Ludmilla Rossi; Marziale, Maria Helena Palucci; Hong, Oi-Saeng

    2010-12-01

    This is an exploratory research, with a quantitative approach, developed with the objective of analyzing the work and of life situations that can offer risks to the workers' health involved in the manual and automated cut of the sugar cane. The sample was composed by 39 sugar cane cutters and 16 operators of harvesters. The data collection occurred during the months of July and August of 2006, by the technique of direct observation of work situations and workers' homes and through interviews semi-structured. The interviews were recorded and later transcribed. Data were analyzed according to Social Ecological Theory. It was observed that the workers deal with multiple health risk situations, predominantly to the risks of occurrence of respiratory, musculoskeletal and psychological problems and work-related accidents due to the work activities. The interaction of individual, social and environmental factors can determine the workers' tendency to falling ill.

  20. Health and safety concerns os migrant workers: the experience of tunisian workers in modena, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faïçal Daly

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the relatively under-researched field of healthand safety of migrant workers, with special reference to Tunisian construction workers in the city of Modena in the Italian region of Emilia-Romagna. The empirical material comes from questionnaires and interviews with Tunisian migrants, plus smaller numbers of interviews with employers and trade union representatives in Modena. The paper starts by critically reviewing the scattered literature onthe health and safety of minority workers, most of which refers to the United States and the United Kingdom. The discussion then moves to a consideration of migrant health and safety questions in the contexts of racism, discrimination, social class, working conditions, labour market segmentation and (non- regulation. Specialattention is given to the failed role of trade unions in defending the rights of minority workers, in advanced countries generally and in Italy in particular. A case study is then made of the construction sector in Italy, enriched by personal accounts of the experiences of Tunisian migrant workers in Modena. Employer and tradeunion interviews reveal a lack of concern and ability to tackle the relevant issues. Barriers to health and safety awareness training are outlined. In the conclusion, recommendations are made for policy initiatives in this area.

  1. Do immigrants improve the health of native workers?

    OpenAIRE

    Giuntella, Osea

    2014-01-01

    Public debate on immigration focuses on its effects on wages and employment, yet the discussion typically fails to consider the effects of immigration on working conditions that affect workers' health. There is growing evidence that immigrants are more likely than natives to work in risky jobs, as they are more inclined to take on physically intensive tasks. Recent studies show that as immigration rises, native workers are pushed into less demanding jobs. Such market adjustments have positive...

  2. Paying health workers for performance in Battagram district, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javeed Sarah

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a growing interest in using pay-for-performance mechanisms in low and middle-income countries in order to improve the performance of health care providers. However, at present there is a dearth of independent evaluations of such approaches which can guide understanding of their potential and risks in differing contexts. This article presents the results of an evaluation of a project managed by an international non-governmental organisation in one district of Pakistan. It aims to contribute to learning about the design and implementation of pay-for-performance systems and their impact on health worker motivation. Methods Quantitative analysis was conducted of health management information system (HMIS data, financial records, and project documents covering the period 2007-2010. Key informant interviews were carried out with stakeholders at all levels. At facility level, in-depth interviews were held, as were focus group discussions with staff and community members. Results The wider project in Battagram had contributed to rebuilding district health services at a cost of less than US$4.5 per capita and achieved growth in outputs. Staff, managers and clients were appreciative of the gains in availability and quality of services. However, the role that the performance-based incentive (PBI component played was less clear--PBI formed a relatively small component of pay, and did not increase in line with outputs. There was little evidence from interviews and data that the conditional element of the PBIs influenced behaviour. They were appreciated as a top-up to pay, but remained low in relative terms, and only slightly and indirectly related to individual performance. Moreover, they were implemented independently of the wider health system and presented a clear challenge for longer term integration and sustainability. Conclusions Challenges for performance-based pay approaches include the balance of rewarding individual

  3. Health survey of radiation workers. Results of questionnaire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morikawa, Kaoru; Aoyama, Takashi; Kawagoe, Yasumitsu; Sunayashiki, Tadashi; Tanaka, Kiyoshi; Nishitani, Motohiro; Yoshinaga, Nobuharu

    1998-01-01

    The Japanese Society of Radiological Technology asked radiation workers about the radiation doses and the state of their health as well as family. The reports by the Health and Welfare Ministry were referenced to compare radiation workers with others. The questionnaire was sent to about 4,000 members, and returned from 2,479. The survey showed that 684 persons (27.6%) felt health anxiety, 455 persons (18.4%) had medical check for recent one year, and 1,645 persons (66.4%) had anamnesis. Radiation doses for one year and cumulated doses varied according to engaging duration. (K.H.)

  4. The rite of passage of becoming a humanitarian health worker: experiences of retention in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albuquerque, Sara; Eriksson, Anneli; Alvesson, Helle M

    2018-01-01

    Low retention of humanitarian workers poses constraints on humanitarian organisations' capacity to respond effectively to disasters. Research has focused on reasons for humanitarian workers leaving the sector, but little is known about the factors that can elucidate long-term commitment. To understand what motivates and supports experienced humanitarian health workers to remain in the sector. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 10 experienced nurses who had been on at least three field missions with Médecins Sans Frontières Sweden. Interviews explored factors influencing the decision to go on missions, how nurses were supported and how they looked back on those experiences. Transcripts were analysed through content analysis informed by van Gennep's concept of 'Rite of Passage', combined with elements of the self-determination theory. The findings indicate that their motivations and how nurses thought of themselves, as individuals and professionals, changed over time. For initiation and continued engagement in humanitarian work, participants were motivated by several personal and professional ambitions, as well as altruistic principles of helping others. When starting their first humanitarian missions, nurses felt vulnerable and had low self-esteem. However, through experiencing feelings of autonomy, competence and relatedness during missions, they underwent a process of change and gradually adjusted to new roles as humanitarian health workers. Reintegration in their home community, while maintaining the new roles and skills from the missions, proved very challenging. They individually found their own ways of overcoming the lack of social support they experienced after missions in order to sustain their continuation in the sector. The findings highlight the importance of social environments that facilitate and support the adjustment of individuals during and after field missions. Learning from positive examples, such as nurses with several years of

  5. Sociocultural contexts and worker safety and health: findings of a study with Chinese immigrant restaurant workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Jenny; Bruck, Annie

    2009-02-01

    More immigrants are seeking employment in restaurants. Drawing data from an ethnographic study, this article discusses what and how sociocultural contexts shape the safety and health of immigrant restaurant workers. Eighteen Chinese immigrants from China, Hong Kong, and Taiwan participated in the study. Data generation methods included a questionnaire, individual and focus group interviews, and participant observations. Ethnographic analysis revealed that immigration mechanisms, demands of English proficiency for employment, and existence of networks and ethnic communities shaped the participants' employment choices. Working hours and schedules, interpersonal relationships at work, job design and training, occupational safety and health training, and national events and economy further influenced the participants' occupational experiences and well-being. Issues were noted with job security, mental health, family relationships, and risks for occupational injuries and illnesses. Implications for occupational health nursing research and practice to reduce immigrant workers' vulnerability to poor safety and health outcomes conclude this article.

  6. Occupational health and safety among commercial sex workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Michael W; Crisp, Beth R; Månsson, Sven-Axel; Hawkes, Sarah

    2012-03-01

    The concept of occupational health and safety (OHS) for commercial sex workers has rarely been investigated, perhaps because of the often informal nature of the workplace, the associated stigma, and the frequently illegal nature of the activity. We reviewed the literature on health, occupational risks, and safety among commercial sex workers. Cultural and local variations and commonalities were identified. Dimensions of OHS that emerged included legal and policing risks, risks associated with particular business settings such as streets and brothels, violence from clients, mental health risks and protective factors, alcohol and drug use, repetitive strain injuries, sexually transmissible infections, risks associated with particular classes of clients, issues associated with male and transgender commercial sex workers, and issues of risk reduction that in many cases are associated with lack of agency or control, stigma, and legal barriers. We further discuss the impact and potential of OHS interventions for commercial sex workers. The OHS of commercial sex workers covers a range of domains, some potentially modifiable by OHS programs and workplace safety interventions targeted at this population. We argue that commercial sex work should be considered as an occupation overdue for interventions to reduce workplace risks and enhance worker safety.

  7. Performance of community health workers : situating their intermediary position within complex adaptive health systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, Maryse C; Broerse, Jacqueline E W; Theobald, Sally; Ormel, Hermen; Dieleman, Marjolein; Taegtmeyer, Miriam

    2017-01-01

    Health systems are social institutions, in which health worker performance is shaped by transactional processes between different actors.This analytical assessment unravels the complex web of factors that influence the performance of community health workers (CHWs) in low- and middle-income

  8. Do Dutch workers seek and find information on occupational safety and health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhebergen, Martijn D F; Lenderink, Annet F; van Dijk, Frank J H; Hulshof, Carel T J

    2012-03-01

    Currently, little is known about workers' occupational safety and health (OSH) information-seeking behavior. We assessed whether Dutch workers have (OSH) questions, what motivates them to seek information or advice to solve these questions, and whether workers actually find the information they are looking for. A random sample of 888 workers from a large business panel were sent an online questionnaire. In total, 535 workers, likely parallel to the Dutch working population, returned the questionnaire (response rate 60%). In the last year, 380 of the 535 respondents (71%) had at least one OSH question. In total, 159 of the 380 respondents (42%) with an OSH question actively searched for information or advice. In a logistic regression analysis, three factors were identified to influence workers' information seeking: cognitions about personal benefits or costs of solving the question (OR = 2.8, 95% CI: 1.8-4.5), emotions that accompany the question (OR = 1.8, 95% CI: 1.1-3.0), and encouragement by the social environment (OR = 1.8, 95% CI: 1.0-3.0). In total, 50% of the respondents seeking information indicated they could not find (all) the information they sought. The barrier most often mentioned (47%) was the poor applicability of the information. Although most workers have OSH questions, only 40% seek information or advice to answer their questions. Moreover, many OSH questions remain unanswered by common information facilities. This study provides input on how to develop campaigns and new facilities that may induce workers to seek information and that offer more applicable information. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Violence against health workers in Family Medicine Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Turki, Nouf; Afify, Ayman AM; AlAteeq, Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    Background Health care violence is a significant worldwide problem with negative consequences on both the safety and well-being of health care workers as well as workplace activities. Reports examining health care violence in Saudi Arabia are limited and the results are conflicting. Objective To estimate the prevalence and determine the demographic and occupational characteristics associated with workplace violence in primary care centers in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Methods A cross-sectional study included 270 health care workers in 12 family medicine centers in Riyadh during November and December 2014. A structured self-administered questionnaire was used to estimate the frequency, timing, causes, reactions, and consequences of workplace violence plus participants’ demographic and occupational data. Results A total 123 health care workers (45.6%) experienced some kind of violence over 12 months prior to the study. These included physical (6.5%) and nonphysical violence (99.2%), including verbal violence (94.3%) and intimidation (22.0%). Offenders were patients (71.5%) in the majority of cases, companions (20.3%), or both (3.3%). Almost half (48.0%) of health care workers who experienced violence did nothing, 38.2% actively reported the event, and 13.8% consulted a colleague. A significant association of workplace violence was found with working multiple shifts, evening or night shift, and lack of an encouraging environment to report violence. Conclusion Workplace violence is still a significant problem in primary care centers. The high frequency of violence together with underreporting may indicate the inefficiency of the current safety program. More safety programs and training activities for health care workers, efficient reporting system, and zero tolerance policies need to be implemented to minimize workplace violence against health workers. PMID:27330300

  10. Violence against health workers in Family Medicine Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Turki, Nouf; Afify, Ayman Am; AlAteeq, Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    Health care violence is a significant worldwide problem with negative consequences on both the safety and well-being of health care workers as well as workplace activities. Reports examining health care violence in Saudi Arabia are limited and the results are conflicting. To estimate the prevalence and determine the demographic and occupational characteristics associated with workplace violence in primary care centers in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional study included 270 health care workers in 12 family medicine centers in Riyadh during November and December 2014. A structured self-administered questionnaire was used to estimate the frequency, timing, causes, reactions, and consequences of workplace violence plus participants' demographic and occupational data. A total 123 health care workers (45.6%) experienced some kind of violence over 12 months prior to the study. These included physical (6.5%) and nonphysical violence (99.2%), including verbal violence (94.3%) and intimidation (22.0%). Offenders were patients (71.5%) in the majority of cases, companions (20.3%), or both (3.3%). Almost half (48.0%) of health care workers who experienced violence did nothing, 38.2% actively reported the event, and 13.8% consulted a colleague. A significant association of workplace violence was found with working multiple shifts, evening or night shift, and lack of an encouraging environment to report violence. Workplace violence is still a significant problem in primary care centers. The high frequency of violence together with underreporting may indicate the inefficiency of the current safety program. More safety programs and training activities for health care workers, efficient reporting system, and zero tolerance policies need to be implemented to minimize workplace violence against health workers.

  11. Strengthening practical wisdom: mental health workers' learning and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksen, Kristin Ådnøy; Dahl, Hellen; Karlsson, Bengt; Arman, Maria

    2014-09-01

    Practical wisdom, understood as knowing how to be or act in any present situation with clients, is believed to be an essential part of the knowledge needed to be a professional mental health worker. Exploring processes of adapting, extending knowledge and refining tacit knowledge grounded in mental health workers' experiences with being in practice may bring awareness of how mental health workers reflect, learn and practice professional 'artistry'. The aim of the article was to explore mental health workers' processes of development and learning as they appeared in focus groups intended to develop practical wisdom. The main research question was 'How might the processes of development and learning contribute to developing practical wisdom in the individual as well as in the practice culture?' The design was multi-stage focus groups, and the same participants met four times. A phenomenological hermeneutical method for researching lived experience guided the analysis. Eight experienced mental health workers representing four Norwegian municipalities participated. The research context was community-based mental health services. The study was reported to Norwegian Social Data Services, and procedures for informed consent were followed. Two examples of processes of re-evaluation of experience (Association, Integration, Validation, Appropriation and Outcomes and action) were explored. The health workers had developed knowledge in previous encounters with clients. In sharing practice experiences, this knowledge was expressed and developed, and also tested and validated against the aims of practice. Discussions led to adapted and extended knowledge, and as tacit knowledge was expressed it could be used actively. Learning to reflect, being ready to be provoked and learning to endure indecisiveness may be foundational in developing practical wisdom. Openness is demanding, and changing habits of mind is difficult. Reflection on, and confrontation with, set practices are

  12. Prevalence of Musculoskeletal Symptoms among Dental Health Workers, Southern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somsiri Decharat

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The objective of this study was to describe the socioeconomic situation of dental health work and work characteristics and to evaluate the prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms among dental health workers. Material and Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 124 dental health workers and 124 persons in the reference group, matched to dental health workers by gender, were recruited from the workers who worked at the same 17 community hospitals in Nakhon Si Thammarat province, Thailand. Information was collected by using questionnaire. Data analysis comprised descriptive and analytical components. Results and Discussion. 75.8% were female and 24.2% were male dental health workers. 91.9% of subjects had worked >5 years. Most subjects worked for >8 hours per day and worked >6 days per week, at 63.7% and 53.2%, respectively. 100% of subjects worked in public institutions, and 68% also worked in both public and private institutions. Most subjects (52.4% did not exercise. Daily activity, gender, duration of work, hours worked per day, days worked per week, and physical activity were significantly associated with musculoskeletal symptoms at <0.001. Conclusion. The prevention and reduction of MSDs among dentists should include improving their education in dental ergonomics.

  13. Sickness absence among health workers in belo horizonte, brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassi, Iara; Assunção, Ada Ávila; Pimenta, Adriano Marçal; Benavides, Fernando G; Ubalde-Lopez, Monica

    2016-05-25

    To describe the prevalence of sickness absence and to analyze factors associated with the outcome according to gender in a sample of healthcare workers at the Belo Horizonte Health Department. This study was based on a Belo Horizonte Health Department survey carried out between September 2008 and January 2009. From a randomly selected sample of 2,205 workers, 1,808 agreed to participate. Workers were classified into Health Staff or Health Care. Other explanatory variables were social and demographic data, work characteristics, and personal health. The Poisson regression was applied to analyze factors associated with sickness absence by the prevalence ratio (PR). The overall prevalence of sickness absence was 31.5% (23.8% for men and 34.6% for women). In the final model, we found higher rates of sickness absence in both male and female workers involved in tasks with high psychosocial demands (PR=1.86 men; PR=1.38 women) and in those that reported using medication for treating chronic diseases (PR=1.96 men; PR=1.50 women). Women having a permanent job contract had a higher prevalence of sickness absence than those having a temporary job contract (PR=1.71). Our findings suggest a paradox in how healthcare is organized: good results in terms of its global objective of providing healthcare for citizens contrast with lack of effective measures for protecting healthcare workers.

  14. Health Workers' Incentives in South Sudan (IMCHA) | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The findings from this project will address gaps in knowledge for cost-effective measures, such as non-financial incentives, to improve access to health care for mothers and children in high conflict contexts. The results will directly inform, strengthen, and scale community health-worker program efforts implemented by BRAC ...

  15. The relationship between mental health workers and family members

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Bovenkamp, H.M.; Trappenburg, M.J.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To study the relationship between family members and mental health care workers to learn more about the support available to family members of mental health patients. Methods Eighteen interviews were conducted with family members, seven with professionals and two with patients.

  16. Burnout and physical and mental health among Swedish healthcare workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peterson, U.; Demerouti, E.; Bergström, G.; Samuelsson, M.; Asberg, M.; Nygren, A.

    2008-01-01

    Title. Burnout and physical and mental health among Swedish healthcare workers Aim. This paper is a report of a study to investigate how burnout relates to self-reported physical and mental health, sleep disturbance, memory and lifestyle factors. Background. Previous research on the possible

  17. Health Care Access for Migrant Domestic Workers (Philippines ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This translates into an absence of protection and recognition of human rights, including access to health services. Migrant workers are exposed to conditions of vulnerability throughout the migration cycle and often endure abuse, exploitation, violence, discrimination, work-related accidents and injuries, mental health ...

  18. Influence of age on community health worker's knowledge and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Influence of age on community health worker's knowledge and service provision for maternal, newborn, and child health in Morogoro region, Tanzania. ... However there was a statistically significant difference (p<0.05) in marital status, education levels, use of English language, number of dependants, and income from ...

  19. Older and Younger Workers: The Equalling Effects of Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Vanessa; Quinn, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to consider the statistical evidence on the effects that ill health has on labour market participation and opportunities for younger and older workers in the East Midlands (UK). Design/methodology/approach: A statistical analysis of Labour Force Survey data was undertaken to demonstrate that health issues…

  20. EXPOSURES AND HEALTH OF FARM WORKER CHILDREN IN CALIFORNIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The EPA STAR Program Center of Excellence in Children's Environmental Health and Disease Prevention Research at the University of California at Berkeley is currently conducting exposure and health studies for children of farm workers in the Salinas Valley of California. The Exp...

  1. Evaluating Health Workers' Knowledge Following the Introduction of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    African Journal of Reproductive Health September 2015; 19 (3): 118. ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE. Evaluating Health Workers' ... of Clinical Mentoring in Jigawa State, Northern Nigeria. .... Organization (WHO) in 2011 estimates the maternal ... International ..... Dental Education: Supporting doctors and dentists at work: ...

  2. Health care options for commercial farm workers in Namibia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Beer, I.; Coutinho, H.M.; Guariguata, L.; Fortsch, H.T.; Hough, R.; Rinke de Wit, T.F.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Limited access to health care in rural areas is a challenge in Namibia. In 2007 a survey was conducted among employers of commercial farms to assess the feasibility of introducing private, affordable health insurance that including HIV/AIDS coverage for commercial farm workers in

  3. Study of the Working Conditions of Health Extension Workers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Coverage: 2005-2009” of which “The Health Extension Program (HEP)” is a major component”. Objective: The study focuses on the first batch of Health Extension Workers (HEWs) with the overall objective of assessing the working conditions of HEWs and their job satisfaction. Methods: An in-depth field study was carried ...

  4. Perceived heat stress and health effects on construction workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Priya; Rajiva, Ajit; Andhare, Dileep; Azhar, Gulrez Shah; Tiwari, Abhiyant; Sheffield, Perry

    2015-01-01

    Increasing heat waves-particularly in urban areas where construction is most prevalent, highlight a need for heat exposure assessment of construction workers. This study aims to characterize the effects of heat on construction workers from a site in Gandhinagar. This study involved a mixed methods approach consisting of a cross sectional survey with anthropometric measurements (n = 219) and four focus groups with construction workers, as well as environmental measurements of heat stress exposure at a construction site. Survey data was collected in two seasons i.e., summer and winter months, and heat illness and symptoms were compared between the two time periods. Thematic coding of focus group data was used to identify vulnerability factors and coping mechanisms of the workers. Heat stress, recorded using a wet bulb globe temperature monitor, was compared to international safety standards. The survey findings suggest that heat-related symptoms increased in summer; 59% of all reports in summer were positive for symptoms (from Mild to Severe) as compared to 41% in winter. Focus groups revealed four dominant themes: (1) Non-occupational stressors compound work stressors; (2) workers were particularly attuned to the impact of heat on their health; (3) workers were aware of heat-related preventive measures; and (4) few resources were currently available to protect workers from heat stress. Working conditions often exceed international heat stress safety thresholds. Female workers and new employees might be at increased risk of illness or injury. This study suggests significant health impacts on construction workers from heat stress exposure in the workplace, showed that heat stress levels were higher than those prescribed by international standards and highlights the need for revision of work practices, increased protective measures, and possible development of indigenous work safety standards for heat exposure.

  5. Workplace health promotion for older workers: a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poscia, Andrea; Moscato, Umberto; La Milia, Daniele Ignazio; Milovanovic, Sonja; Stojanovic, Jovana; Borghini, Alice; Collamati, Agnese; Ricciardi, Walter; Magnavita, Nicola

    2016-09-05

    Aging of the workforce is a growing problem. As workers age, their physical, physiological and psychosocial capabilities change. Keeping older workers healthy and productive is a key goal of European labor policy and health promotion is a key to achieve this result. Previous studies about workplace health promotion (WHP) programs are usually focused on the entire workforce or to a specific topic. Within the framework of the EU-CHAFEA ProHealth65+ project, this paper aims to systematically review the literature on WHP interventions specifically targeted to older workers (OWs). This systematic review was conducted by making a comprehensive search of MEDLINE, ISI Web of Science, SCOPUS, The Cochrane Library, CINAHL and PsychINFO databases. Search terms included ageing (and synonyms), worker (and synonyms), intervention (and synonyms), and health (and synonyms). The search was limited to papers in English or Italian published between January, 1(st) 2000 and May, 31(st) 2015. Relevant references in the selected articles were also analyzed. Of the 299 articles initially identified as relating to the topic, 18 articles met the inclusion criteria. The type, methods and outcome of interventions in the WHP programs retrieved were heterogenous, as was the definition of the age at which a worker is considered to be 'older'. Most of the available studies had been conducted on small samples for a limited period of time. Our review shows that, although this issue is of great importance, studies addressing WHP actions for OWs are few and generally of poor quality. Current evidence fails to show that WHP programs improve the work ability, productivity or job retention of older workers. In addition, there is limited evidence that WHP programs are effective in improving lifestyles and concur to maintain the health and well-being of older workers. There is a need for future WHP programs to be well-designed so that the effectiveness and cost-benefit of workplace interventions can be

  6. Unraveling the Importance of the Quantity and the Quality of Workers' Motivation for Well-Being: A Person-Centered Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Broeck, Anja; Lens, Willy; De Witte, Hans; Van Coillie, Hermina

    2013-01-01

    The current study compares the quantitative and the qualitative viewpoints on work motivation by relying on Self-Determination Theory's differentiation between autonomous and controlled motivation. Specifically, we employed a person-centered approach to identify workers' naturally occurring motivational profiles and compared them in terms of…

  7. Health promotion in the workplace among among sedentary workers aged 45 to 64

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjelholt, Katja Arnoldi; Andresen, Mette

    et al, 2009) and "motivational interview" (Jørgensen K F et al, 2009). This intervention among 18 sedentary workers aged 45-64 years sought to investigate employees’ resources, concrete visions and wishes for lifestyle changes rather than providing them with information on healthy lifestyle...... and predefined exercises etc. Therefore, a 12 week tailored program was initiated by focus group interviews exploring employees’ experiences of physical activity, healthy dieting and social support as well as how they described their needs, motivation and suggestions for changes in these areas. The overall aim......This presentation focuses on the Danish contribution to the EU project PROGRESS 2wards Healthy Ageing (www.progresshealthyageing.eu). A unique model of health promotion intervention in the workplace was developed. The model was based on a combination of "the democratic health paradigm" (Jensen BB...

  8. Feasibility of Workplace Health Promotion for Restaurant Workers, Seattle, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Claire L; Hammerback, Kristen; Harris, Jeffrey R; Hannon, Peggy A; Parrish, Amanda T

    2015-10-08

    Restaurant workers are a large population at high risk for tobacco use, physical inactivity, and influenza. They are difficult to reach with health care interventions and may be more accessible through workplaces, yet few studies have explored the feasibility of workplace health promotion in this population. This study sought to identify barriers and facilitators to promotion of tobacco cessation, physical activity, and influenza vaccination in restaurants. Moderators conducted 7 focus groups, 3 with restaurant owners and managers, 2 with English-speaking workers, and 2 with Spanish-speaking workers. All groups were recorded, and recordings were transcribed and uploaded to qualitative-analysis software. Two researchers coded each transcript independently and analyzed codes and quotations for common themes. Seventy people from the restaurant industry participated. Barriers to workplace health promotion included smoking-break customs, little interest in physical activity outside of work, and misinformation about influenza vaccinations. Facilitators included creating and enforcing equitable break policies and offering free, on-site influenza vaccinations. Spanish-speakers were particularly amenable to vaccination, despite their perceptions of low levels of management support for health promotion overall. Owners required a strong business case to consider investing in long-term prevention for their employees. Tobacco cessation and influenza vaccinations are opportunities for health promotion among restaurant workers, whereas physical activity interventions face greater challenges. Promotion of equitable breaks, limited smoking-break policies, and free, on-site influenza vaccinations could improve health for restaurant workers, who often do not have health insurance. Workplace interventions may be particularly important for Hispanic workers who have additional access barriers.

  9. Stigma-related mental health knowledge and attitudes among primary health workers and community health volunteers in rural Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mutiso, Victoria N.; Musyimi, Christine W.; Nayak, Sameera S.; Musau, Abednego M.; Rebello, Tahilia; Nandoya, Erick; Tele, Albert K.; Pike, Kathleen; Ndetei, David M.

    2017-01-01

    Background: The study was conducted in rural Kenya and assessed stigma in health workers from primary health facilities. Aims: This study compared variations in stigma-related mental health knowledge and attitudes between primary health workers (HWs) and community health volunteers (CHVs). Methods:

  10. Mental, physical and social health problems of call centre workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Bhuyar

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Call centre workers in BPO face unique occupational hazards - mental, physical and psychosocial. Material & Method: A sample 100 call centre workers of both sexes and from two cities Pune and Mumbai were surveyed by both qualitative and quantitative methods for the above health problems. Results: A high proportion of workers faced sleep disturbances and associated mental stress and anxiety. Sleep disturbance and anxiety was significantly more in international call centres compared to domestic. There was also disturbance in circadian rhythms due to night shift. Physical problems such as musculoskeletal disorders, obesity, eye, and hearing problems were also present. Psychosocial problems included disruption in family life, use of tobacco and alcohol, and faulty eating habits. Conclusion: Better personal management, health education and more research is indicated to study the health problems in this emerging occupation.

  11. Lay Worker Health Literacy: A Concept Analysis and Operational Definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadman, Kathleen Paco

    2017-10-01

    The concept of lay worker health literacy is created by concurrently analyzing and synthesizing two intersecting concepts, lay workers and health literacy. Articulation of this unique intersection is the result of implementing a simplified Wilson's Concept Analysis Procedure. This process incorporates the following components: a) selecting a concept, b) determining the aims/purposes of analysis, c) identifying all uses of the concept, d) determining defining attributes, e) identifying a model case, f) identifying borderline, related, contrary, and illegitimate cases, g) identifying antecedents and consequences, and h) defining empirical referents. Furthermore, as current literature provides no operational definition for lay worker health literacy, one is created to contribute cohesion to the concept. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. VIOLENCE AGAINST HEALTH CARE WORKERS: A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hacer ATAMAN

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As violence in society is increasing in recent years it is an important problem in health institutions as well. Changes in health systems, rising socio-economic levels of people, and changes in expectations for health services led to violence in health sector. This study was conducted for the purpose of examining work place violence against health care workers. This retrospective-descriptive study covers a period from December 2011 to April 2015. 136 notifications about work place violence reported by health workers to quality management unit of a hospital were taken into account. Research findings show that 43,4% of the victims of violence was physicians, 37,5% was nurses and health officers and 19,1% were from other professions. 63,2% of the health workers were women, 36,8% were male. Additionally health workers were exposed to violence by 47.3% of the patients and 52.7% by their relatives. 69.7% of the people applied violence were male and 30.3% were female. 63,2% of the health workers exposed to violence were women, 36,8% were male. According to our results male physicians were exposed to workplace violence more than other workers and this was significant ( χ 2=31,634, p<0,01. When place of violence occurred was investigated it was seen that while most of physicians were exposed to violence in polyclinics, nurses were exposed to violence in inpatient services (χ2=18,231, p<0,01. Male physicians were exposed to verbal violence most. On the other hand nurses experienced both verbal and physical violence (χ2=34,639,p<0.01. Patient relatives applied verbal violence and the others applied physical violence (χ2=22,073, p<0,01. As a result, in order to reduce / prevent violence in work place , it is considered necessary to increase consciousness of patients and their relatives, to increase security measures in health institutions, to provide health workers to report work place violence to management , to improve physical working conditions and

  13. [A survey of occupational health among polyether-exposed workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xu-ying; Yu, Bin; Zhang, Chun-ping; Zheng, Guan-hua; Bai, Lan; Zhang, Pan-pan

    2013-06-01

    To investigate the occupational health of the workers simultaneously exposed to acrylonitrile, epoxyethane, epoxypropane, and styrene. A questionnaire survey was conducted in 70 front-line workers simultaneously exposed to acrylonitrile, epoxyethane, epoxypropane, and styrene (exposure group) and 50 managers (control group) in a polyether manufacturer; in addition, air monitoring at workplace and occupational health examination were also performed. The obtained data were analyzed. The female workers in exposure group and the spouses of male workers in exposure group had significantly higher spontaneous abortion rates than their counterparts in control group (P polyether-exposed working years had significantly higher mean levels of DNA damage than the control group (P polyether-exposed working years and those with not less than 20 polyether-exposed working years had significantly higher mean micronucleus rates than the control group (P polyether-exposed working years (P > 0.05); the workers with not less than 5 and less than 20 polyether-exposed working years and workers with not less than 20 polyether-exposed working years had significantly higher mean micronucleus rates than those with less than 5 polyether-exposed working years (P polyether manufacturer.

  14. Adverse health problems among municipality workers in alexandria (egypt).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El-Wahab, Ekram W; Eassa, Safaa M; Lotfi, Sameh E; El Masry, Sanaa A; Shatat, Hanan Z; Kotkat, Amira M

    2014-05-01

    Solid waste management has emerged as an important human and environmental health issue. Municipal solid waste workers (MSWWs) are potentially exposed to a variety of occupational biohazards and safety risks. The aim of this study was to describe health practices and safety measures adopted by workers in the main municipal company in Alexandria (Egypt) as well as the pattern of the encountered work related ill health. A cross-sectional study was conducted between January and April 2013. We interviewed and evaluated 346 workers serving in about 15 different solid waste management activities regarding personal hygiene, the practice of security and health care measures and the impact of solid waste management. Poor personal hygiene and self-care, inadequate protective and safety measures for potentially hazardous exposure were described. Impact of solid waste management on health of MSWWs entailed high prevalence of gastrointestinal, respiratory, skin and musculoskeletal morbidities. Occurrence of accidents and needle stick injuries amounted to 46.5% and 32.7% respectively. The risk of work related health disorders was notably higher among workers directly exposed to solid waste when compared by a group of low exposure potential particularly for diarrhea (odds ratio [OR] = 2.2, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.2-3.8), vomiting (OR = 2.7, 95% CI = 1.1-6.6), abdominal colic (OR = 1.9, 95% CI = 1.1-3.2), dysentery (OR = 3.6, 95% CI = 1.3-10), dyspepsia (OR = 1.8, 95% CI = 1.1-3), low back/sciatic pain (OR = 3.5, 95% CI = 1.8-7), tinnitus (OR = 6.2, 95% CI = 0.3-122) and needle stick injury (OR = 3.4, 95% CI = 2.1-5.5). Workers exposed to solid waste exhibit significant increase in risk of ill health. Physician role and health education could be the key to assure the MSWWs health safety.

  15. Factors affecting the performance of community health workers in India: a multi-stakeholder perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reetu Sharma

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Community health workers (CHWs form a vital link between the community and the health department in several countries. In India, since 2005 this role is largely being played by Accredited Social Health Activists (ASHAs, who are village-level female workers. Though ASHAs primarily work for the health department, in a model being tested in Rajasthan they support two government departments. Focusing on the ASHA in this new role as a link worker between two departments, this paper examines factors associated with her work performance from a multi-stakeholder perspective. Design: The study was done in 16 villages from two administrative blocks of Udaipur district in Rajasthan. The findings are based on 63 in-depth interviews with ASHAs, their co-workers and representatives from the two departments. The interviews were conducted using interview guides. An inductive approach with open coding was used for manual data analysis. Results: This study shows that an ASHA's motivation and performance are affected by a variety of factors that emerge from the complex context in which she works. These include various personal (e.g. education, professional (e.g. training, job security, and organisational (e.g. infrastructure factors along with others that emerge from external work environment. The participants suggested various ways to address these challenges. Conclusion: In order to improve the performance of ASHAs, apart from taking corrective actions at the professional and organisational front on a priority basis, it is equally essential to promote cordial work relationships amongst ASHAs and other community-level workers from the two departments. This will also have a positive impact on community health.

  16. Factors affecting the performance of community health workers in India: a multi-stakeholder perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Reetu; Webster, Premila; Bhattacharyya, Sanghita

    2014-01-01

    Community health workers (CHWs) form a vital link between the community and the health department in several countries. In India, since 2005 this role is largely being played by Accredited Social Health Activists (ASHAs), who are village-level female workers. Though ASHAs primarily work for the health department, in a model being tested in Rajasthan they support two government departments. Focusing on the ASHA in this new role as a link worker between two departments, this paper examines factors associated with her work performance from a multi-stakeholder perspective. The study was done in 16 villages from two administrative blocks of Udaipur district in Rajasthan. The findings are based on 63 in-depth interviews with ASHAs, their co-workers and representatives from the two departments. The interviews were conducted using interview guides. An inductive approach with open coding was used for manual data analysis. This study shows that an ASHA's motivation and performance are affected by a variety of factors that emerge from the complex context in which she works. These include various personal (e.g. education), professional (e.g. training, job security), and organisational (e.g. infrastructure) factors along with others that emerge from external work environment. The participants suggested various ways to address these challenges. In order to improve the performance of ASHAs, apart from taking corrective actions at the professional and organisational front on a priority basis, it is equally essential to promote cordial work relationships amongst ASHAs and other community-level workers from the two departments. This will also have a positive impact on community health.

  17. Susceptibility to varicella zoster virus infection in health care workers.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gallagher, J

    2012-02-03

    Varicella zoster virus (VZV) is an occupational hazard for a percentage of health care staff. Nine hundred and seventy staff members attending the Occupational Health Department at Cork University Hospital took part in the survey. A latex agglutination assay was used to determine the health care workers immune status to VZV. Of the 970 workers tested, 928 (95.7%) were immune to VZV. The sensitivity, specificity and predictive value of an enquiry regarding a history of chicken-pox was determined on a sample of 206 health care workers. The positive predictive value was 95% (119\\/125) and the negative predictive value was 11% (4\\/35). The sensitivity of the enquiry was 79% (119\\/150), the specificity was 40% (4\\/10), reducing to 61% (119\\/195) and 36% (4\\/11) respectively when individuals with uncertain histories were included in the calculations. The advantages and disadvantages of selective staff screening are discussed. In the authors\\' opinion all health care workers involved in the clinical care of patients should be screened by serology for past VZV infection before taking up duty and those who are susceptible to VZV should be made aware of the risks and health effects associated with VZV if contracted.

  18. Violence against health workers in Family Medicine Centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Turki N

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Nouf Al-Turki,1 Ayman AM Afify,1 Mohammed AlAteeq2 1Family Medicine Department, Prince Sultan Military Medical City, 2Department of Family Medicine and PHC, King Abdul-Aziz Medical City, National Guard Health Affairs, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Background: Health care violence is a significant worldwide problem with negative consequences on both the safety and well-being of health care workers as well as workplace activities. Reports examining health care violence in Saudi Arabia are limited and the results are conflicting.Objective: To estimate the prevalence and determine the demographic and occupational characteristics associated with workplace violence in primary care centers in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.Methods: A cross-sectional study included 270 health care workers in 12 family medicine centers in Riyadh during November and December 2014. A structured self-administered questionnaire was used to estimate the frequency, timing, causes, reactions, and consequences of workplace violence plus participants’ demographic and occupational data.Results: A total 123 health care workers (45.6% experienced some kind of violence over 12 months prior to the study. These included physical (6.5% and nonphysical violence (99.2%, including verbal violence (94.3% and intimidation (22.0%. Offenders were patients (71.5% in the majority of cases, companions (20.3%, or both (3.3%. Almost half (48.0% of health care workers who experienced violence did nothing, 38.2% actively reported the event, and 13.8% consulted a colleague. A significant association of workplace violence was found with working multiple shifts, evening or night shift, and lack of an encouraging environment to report violence.Conclusion: Workplace violence is still a significant problem in primary care centers. The high frequency of violence together with underreporting may indicate the inefficiency of the current safety program. More safety programs and training activities for health care

  19. Health, ethics and environment: a qualitative study of vegetarian motivations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Nick; Ward, Katie

    2008-01-01

    This qualitative study explored the motivations of vegetarians by means of online ethnographic research with participants in an international message board. The researcher participated in discussions on the board, gathered responses to questions from 33 participants, and conducted follow-up e-mail interviews with 18 of these participants. Respondents were predominantly from the US, Canada and the UK. Seventy per cent were females, and ages ranged from 14 to 53, with a median of 26 years. Data were analysed using a thematic approach. While this research found that health and the ethical treatment of animals were the main motivators for participants' vegetarianism, participants reported a range of commitments to environmental concerns, although in only one case was environmentalism a primary motivator for becoming a vegetarian. The data indicate that vegetarians may follow a trajectory, in which initial motivations are augmented over time by other reasons for sustaining or further restricting their diet.

  20. The mother's card: a simplified aid for primary health workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, K P; Shah, P M

    1981-02-01

    The Mother's Card and its use are described. The card is filled out by the health worker and provides data on the mother concerning family planning, menstrual cycles, pregnancy period (including whether at risk, state of nutrition, immunization against tetanus, and expected date of birth), and breastfeeding. The card is kept by the mother, and the health worker keeps a copy. Each card has space for 10 years and up to 4 pregnancies. The cards have been used successfully in India since 1976 and in Somalia since early 1980, and were useful in strengthening family planning programs as well as identifying pregnancies at risk for special attention.

  1. Performance of community health workers:situating their intermediary position within complex adaptive health systems

    OpenAIRE

    Kok, Maryse. C; Broerse, Jacqueline E.W; Theobald, Sally; Ormel, Hermen; Dieleman, Marjolein; Taegtmeyer, Miriam

    2017-01-01

    Health systems are social institutions, in which health worker performance is shaped by transactional processes between different actors. This analytical assessment unravels the complex web of factors that influence the performance of community health workers (CHWs) in low- and middle-income countries. It examines their unique intermediary position between the communities they serve and actors in the health sector, and the complexity of the health systems in which they operate. The assessment...

  2. Oral health knowledge of health care workers in special?children?s center

    OpenAIRE

    Wyne, Amjad; Hammad, Nouf; Splieth, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the oral health knowledge of health care workers in special children?s center. Methods: A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect following information: demographics, oral hygiene practices, importance of fluoride, dental visits, cause of tooth decay, gingival health, and sources of oral health information. The study was conducted at Riyadh Center for Special Children in Riyadh City from December 2013 to May 2014. Results: All 60 health care workers in the ...

  3. Motivation for primary health care in Machinga district

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article describes work which has taken place in Liwonde ... workers on linked issues of Health, Literacy and. Agriculture. ... make cooperation with Liwonde P.H.C. Unit the centre of their ... topic should become the focus of the first dramatic ...

  4. Cultural competence and perceptions of community health workers' effectiveness for reducing health care disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobula, Linda M; Okoye, Mekam T; Boulware, L Ebony; Carson, Kathryn A; Marsteller, Jill A; Cooper, Lisa A

    2015-01-01

    Community health worker (CHW) interventions improve health outcomes of patients from underserved communities, but health professionals' perceptions of their effectiveness may impede integration of CHWs into health care delivery systems. Whether health professionals' attitudes and skills, such as those related to cultural competence, influence perceptions of CHWs, is unknown. A questionnaire was administered to providers and clinical staff from 6 primary care practices in Maryland from April to December 2011. We quantified the associations of self-reported cultural competence and preparedness with attitudes toward the effectiveness of CHWs using logistic regression adjusting for respondent age, race, gender, provider/staff status, and years at the practice. We contacted 200 providers and staff, and 119 (60%) participated. Those reporting more cultural motivation had higher odds of perceiving CHWs as helpful for reducing health care disparities (odds ratio [OR] = 9.66, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 3.48-28.80). Those reporting more frequent culturally competent behaviors also had higher odds of believing CHWs would help reduce health disparities (OR = 3.58, 95% CI = 1.61-7.92). Attitudes toward power and assimilation were not associated with perceptions of CHWs. Cultural preparedness was associated with perceived utility of CHWs in reducing health care disparities (OR = 2.33, 95% CI = 1.21-4.51). Providers and staff with greater cultural competence and preparedness have more positive expectations of CHW interventions to reduce healthcare disparities. Cultural competency training may complement the use of CHWs and support their effective integration into primary care clinics that are seeking to reduce disparities. © The Author(s) 2014.

  5. [Health problems and illness of female workers in textile industries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soonthorndhada, K

    1989-07-01

    This paper examines 3 major health-related issues: 1) existing health problems and illnesses resulting from physical environmental conditions at workplaces; 2) female workers' perception on illness and health protection; and 3) the relationship between illness and risk factors. The study area is textile factories in Bangkok and its peripheries. Data are drawn from the 1987 Survey of Occupational Health and Textile Industrial Development in Thailand: Effect on Health and Socioeconomics of Female Migrant Workers. This study shows that about 20% of female workers have ill-health problems and illness after a period of working mainly due to high levels of dust and noise, and inadequate light. These conditions are hazardous to the respiratory system (resulting in cough and chest tightness), the hearing system (pains as well as impaired and hearing loss), eye systems (irritation, reduced visual capacity) and skin allergy. Such illnesses are intensified in the long- run. The analysis of variances reveals that education, section of work, perception (particularly mask and ear plug) significantly affect these illnesses. This study concludes that health education and occupational health should be provided in factories with emphasis on health prevention and promotion.

  6. A job analysis of selected health workers in a district health system in KwaZulu Natal - Part three: Other categories of health workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Groenewald

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available This article described the third part of a study aimed at doing a job analysis of nurses and non-professional health workers in a district health system. This article describes the tasks of five categories of workers, their training and their work-load over an ordinary week.

  7. Work activities and workers' health in broiler production: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M do CB de Alencar

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of health related symptoms and to analyze the work activities of workers in contracted non-mechanized broiler farms in two regions of the state of Paraná in order to determine possible factors associated to those symptoms. The methods consisted in selecting the houses and the workers, and to apply a questionnaire that included demographic data, questions related to work, the Nordic Questionnaire for Musculoskeletal Symptoms, other symptoms (runny nose, skin itching, throat and eye irritation. In addition, workers were asked if they enjoyed their job, if the supervisor motivated them to work, and if they were afraid to lose their job. Activities were submitted to systematic observations, adapted from Ergonomics, and the loads carried were analyzed and some instruments weighted. The study included 80 workers of both genders between 16 and 59 years, being 40 from each region. There were evidences of low back pain risk in the activities of filling drinkers and washing bell drinkers, with a higher prevalence in region A, where automated systems were less frequently used. The study suggests that mechanized filling of feeders, and the use of nipple drinkers may prevent health problems. It was also found that psychosocial aspects were associated to musculoskeletal symptoms. Promoting better working conditions is essential, as these aspects can affect human behavior at work.

  8. Frequency of COPD in health care workers who smoke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Kopitovic

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: COPD is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Health care providers should counsel their smoking patients with COPD to quit smoking as the first treatment step. However, in countries with high prevalences of smoking, health care workers may also be smokers. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency and severity of COPD in health care workers who smoke. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study. All health care workers who smoke, from nine health care centers in Serbia, were invited to participate in the study and perform spirometry. The diagnosis of COPD was based on a post-bronchodilator FEV1/FVC ratio of < 0.70. All patients completed the COPD Assessment Test and the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence. Results: The study involved 305 subjects, and 47 (15.4% were male. The mean age of the participants was 49.0 ± 6.5 years. Spirometry revealed obstructive ventilatory defect in 33 subjects (10.8%; restrictive ventilatory defect, in 5 (1.6%; and small airway disease, in 96 (31.5%. A diagnosis of COPD was made in 29 patients (9.5%, 25 (86.2% of whom were newly diagnosed. On the basis of the Global Initiative for COPD guidelines, most COPD patients belonged to groups A or B (n = 14; 48.2%, for both; 1 belonged to group D (3.6%; and none, to group C. Very high nicotine dependence was more common in those with COPD than in those without it (20.7% vs. 5.4%, p = 0.01. Conclusions: In this sample of health care workers, the frequency of COPD was comparable with that in the general population. The presence of COPD in health care workers who smoke was associated with higher nicotine dependence.

  9. Turnover among Community Mental Health Workers in Ohio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukach, Ashley M; Ejaz, Farida K; Dawson, Nicole; Gitter, Robert J

    2017-01-01

    This study examined turnover of community mental health workers in 42 randomly selected mental health agencies in Ohio. The turnover rate in 2011 was 26 %. A regression analysis indicated that agencies with lower turnover offered higher maximum pay and were smaller in size, while those offering career advancement opportunities, such as career ladder programs, had higher turnover. The findings suggest that improving wages for workers is likely to reduce turnover. It is also possible that smaller agencies have lower turnover due to stronger relationships with workers and/or more successful hiring practices. Furthermore, turnover that occurs as a result of career advancement could have positive effects and should be examined separate from other types of turnover in the future.

  10. What do health workers in Timor-Leste want, know and do? Findings from a national health labour market survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Xiaohui; Witter, Sophie; Zaman, Rashid U; Engelhardt, Kay; Hafidz, Firdaus; Julia, Fernanda; Lemiere, Christophe; Sullivan, Eileen B; Saldanha, Estanislau; Palu, Toomas; Lievens, Tomas

    2016-11-18

    The objectives of this study were to understand the labour market dynamics among health workers, including their preferences and concerns, and to assess the skills, competence and performance (i.e. the 'know-do gap') of doctors working in Timor-Leste. This cross-sectional survey was implemented in all 13 districts of Timor-Leste in 2014. We surveyed 443 health workers, including 175 doctors, 150 nurses and 118 midwives (about 20% of the health workers in the country). We also observed 632 clinical consultations with doctors, including 442 direct clinical observations, and tested 190 vignettes. The study highlights some positive findings, including the gender balance of health workers overall, the concentration of doctors in rural areas, the high overall reported satisfaction of staff with their work and high motivation, the positive intention to stay in the public sector, the feeling of being well prepared by training for work, the relatively frequent and satisfactory supervisions, and the good attitudes towards patients as identified in observations and vignettes. However, some areas require more investigations and investments. The overall clinical performance of the doctors was very good in terms of attitude and moderate in regard to history taking, health education and treatment. However, the average physical examination performance score was low. Doctors performed better with simulated cases than the real cases in general, which means they have better knowledge and skills than they actually demonstrated. The factors that were significantly associated with the clinical performance of doctors were location of the health facility (urban doctors were better) and consultation time (cases with more consultation time were better). Regression analysis suggests that lack of knowledge was significantly associated with lack of performance, while lack of motivation and equipment were not significant. The survey provides essential information for workforce planning and for

  11. Promotores de salud and community health workers: an annotated bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    WestRasmus, Emma K; Pineda-Reyes, Fernando; Tamez, Montelle; Westfall, John M

    2012-01-01

    For underserved and disenfranchised communities in the United States, affordable, effective health care can be nearly inaccessible, which often leads to the exclusion of these communities from relevant medical information and care. Barriers to care are especially salient in minority communities, where language, traditions and customs, socioeconomics, and access to education can serve as additional roadblocks to accessing health care information and services. These factors have contributed to a national health disparity crisis that unnecessarily places some communities in a vulnerable position without adequate prevention and treatment opportunities. One solution to the exclusion some communities face in the health care system may be the promotores de salud (PdS)/community health worker (CHW), an approach to culturally competent health care delivery whose popularity in the mainstream health care system has been steadily growing in recent decades. Known by a wide variety of names and broad in the spectrum of health issues they address, the PdS/CHW serves as cultural brokers between their own community and the formal health care system and can play a crucial role in promoting health and wellness within their community. This annotated bibliography was created to educate the reader about the history, definition, key features, utility, outcomes, and broad potential of the CHW approach in a variety of populations. Intended to serve as a reference point to a vast body of information on the CHW/PdS approach, this document is a resource for those wishing to effect change in the disparities within the health care system, and to improve the access to, quality, and cost of health care for underserved patients and their communities. Promotores de Salud is a Spanish term that translates to Health Promoter. A female health worker may be referred to as a Promotora, a male as a Promotor, and the plural of both is Promotores. For the purposes of this bibliography, the terms community

  12. Positive and negative psychological impact after secondary exposure to politically motivated violence among body handlers and rehabilitation workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiri, Shimon; Wexler, Isaiah D; Alkalay, Yasmin; Meiner, Zeev; Kreitler, Shulamith

    2008-12-01

    The positive and negative psychological impact of secondary exposure to politically motivated violence was examined among body handlers and hospital rehabilitation workers, 2 groups that differed in their proximity and immediacy to violent events. Survivors of politically motivated violence served as a comparison group. Body handlers experienced high levels of positive psychological impact and traumatic stress symptoms. Levels of positive psychological impact among on-scene body handlers were higher than those experienced by rehabilitation workers. Traumatic stress symptoms predicted positive psychological impact among body handlers. These findings indicate that proximity to stressors is associated with higher levels of positive and negative psychological impact. Physical proximity is a major contributory factor to both positive and negative psychological effects of secondary exposure to trauma.

  13. Work Process in Primary Health Care: action research with Community Health Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordeiro, Luciana; Soares, Cassia Baldini

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this article was to describe and analyze the work of community health workers (CHW). The main objective of study was to analyze the development process of primary health care practices related to drug consumption. The study is based on the Marxist theoretical orientation and the action research methodology, which resulted in the performance of 15 emancipatory workshops. The category work process spawned the content analysis. It exposed the social abandonment of the environment in which the CHWs work is performed. The latter had an essential impact on the identification of the causes of drug-related problems. These findings made it possible to criticize the reiterative, stressful actions that are being undertaken there. Such an act resulted in raising of the awareness and creating the means for political action. The CHWs motivated themselves to recognize the object of the work process in primary health care, which they found to be the disease or addiction in the case of drug users. They have criticized this categorization as well as discussed the social division of work and the work itself whilst recognizing themselves as mere instruments in the work process. The latter has inspired the CHW to become subjects, or co-producers of transformations of social needs.

  14. Respiratory health and lung function in Chinese restaurant kitchen workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Tze Wai; Wong, Andromeda H S; Lee, Frank S C; Qiu, Hong

    2011-10-01

    To measure air pollutant concentrations in Chinese restaurant kitchens using different stove types and assess their influence on workers' respiratory health. 393 kitchen workers from 53 Chinese restaurants were surveyed over 16 months: 115 workers from 21 restaurants using only electric stoves and 278 workers from 32 restaurants using only gas stoves. Workers were interviewed about their respiratory symptoms and had their lung function tested. Concentrations of nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)), carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO(2)), methane (CH(4)), non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC), total volatile organic compounds (TVOC) and fine particulate matter (PM(2.5)) were measured using portable monitors and air-bag sampling. Temperature and noise levels were assessed. Median concentrations of NO, NO(2) and CO were 7.4, 1.5 and 1.6 times higher in gas-fuelled kitchens than in electric ones and average concentrations of PM(2.5) and TVOC were 81% and 78% higher, respectively. Differences were smaller for CH(4) and NMHC. Electricity-run kitchens were 4.5°C cooler and 9 dBA less noisy than gas-fuelled ones. Workers using electric cookers had significantly better lung function than their gas-using counterparts and their mean FEV(1) and FVC values were 5.4% and 3.8% higher, respectively, after adjustment for confounders. Wheeze, phlegm, cough and sore throat were more prevalent in workers using gas. The adjusted OR for having phlegm regularly was significantly higher. The poorer lung function and higher prevalence of respiratory symptoms among workers in gas-fuelled kitchens compared to those in electricity-powered kitchens may be associated with exposure to higher concentrations of toxic air pollutants generated during gas cooking.

  15. Motivators, enablers, and barriers to building allied health research capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pager, Susan; Holden, Libby; Golenko, Xanthe

    2012-01-01

    Purpose A sound, scientific base of high quality research is needed to inform service planning and decision making and enable improved policy and practice. However, some areas of health practice, particularly many of the allied health areas, are generally considered to have a low evidence base. In order to successfully build research capacity in allied health, a clearer understanding is required of what assists and encourages research as well as the barriers and challenges. Participants and methods This study used written surveys to collect data relating to motivators, enablers, and barriers to research capacity building. Respondents were asked to answer questions relating to them as individuals and other questions relating to their team. Allied health professionals were recruited from multidisciplinary primary health care teams in Queensland Health. Eighty-five participants from ten healthcare teams completed a written version of the research capacity and culture survey. Results The results of this study indicate that individual allied health professionals are more likely to report being motivated to do research by intrinsic factors such as a strong interest in research. Barriers they identified to research are more likely to be extrinsic factors such as workload and lack of time. Allied health professionals identified some additional factors that impact on their research capacity than those reported in the literature, such as a desire to keep at the “cutting edge” and a lack of exposure to research. Some of the factors influencing individuals to do research were different to those influencing teams. These results are discussed with reference to organizational behavior and theories of motivation. Conclusion Supporting already motivated allied health professional individuals and teams to conduct research by increased skills training, infrastructure, and quarantined time is likely to produce better outcomes for research capacity building investment. PMID

  16. Building teams in primary care: what do nonlicensed allied health workers want?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saba, George W; Taché, Stephanie; Ward, Lisa; Chen, Ellen H; Hammer, Hali

    2011-01-01

    Nonlicensed allied health workers are becoming increasingly important in collaborative team care, yet we know little about their experiences while filling these roles. To explore their perceptions of working as health coaches in a chronic-disease collaborative team, the teamlet model, we conducted a qualitative study to understand the nature and dynamics of this emerging role. During semistructured interviews, 11 health coaches reflected on their yearlong experience in the teamlet model at an urban underserved primary care clinic. Investigators conducted a thematic analysis of transcriptions of the interviews using a grounded theory process. Four themes emerged: 1) health-coach roles and responsibilities included acting as a patient liaison between visits, providing patient education and cultural brokering during medical visits, and helping patients navigate the health care system; 2) communication and relationships in the teamlet model of care were defined by a triad of the patient, health coach, and resident physician; 3) interest in the teamlet model was influenced by allied health workers' prior education and health care roles; and 4) factors influencing the effectiveness of the model were related to clinical and administrative time pressures and competing demands of other work responsibilities. Nonlicensed allied health workers participating in collaborative teams have an important role in liaising between patients and their primary care physicians, advocating for patients through cultural brokering, and helping patients navigate the health care system. To maximize their job satisfaction, their selection should involve strong consideration of motivation to participate in these expanded roles, and protected time must be provided for them to carry out their responsibilities and optimize their effectiveness.

  17. Does Indonesian National Health Insurance serve a potential for improving health equity in favour of workers in informal economy?

    OpenAIRE

    Kartika, Dwintha Maya

    2015-01-01

    This study examines whether Indonesian national health insurance system promotes health equity in favour of informal economy workers. It first lays out the theoretical justification on the need of social protection, particularly health protection for informal workers. The paper argues that the absence of health protection for vulnerable informal workers in Indonesia has reinforced health inequity between formal and informal workers, thus provides a justification on extending health protection...

  18. Health Profile of Construction Workers in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Wen; Chan, Albert

    2016-12-13

    Construction is a manual, heavy, and complex sector concerning the most fatal accidents and high incidence of occupational illnesses and injuries resulting in days away from work. In Hong Kong, "Pilot Medical Examination Scheme for Construction Workers" was launched in 2014 to detect the health problems of their construction workforce. All registered workers under the Construction Workers Registration Board are eligible to join the scheme. The purpose of this paper is to assess the physical condition, physiological status, and musculoskeletal disorders of 942 construction workers in Hong Kong. This study adopted a two-phase design, which includes a basic medical examination to measure the workers' physiological parameters, such as blood pressure, resting heart rate, glucose, cholesterol, uric acid, liver function test, and renal function test; as well as a face-to-face interview following the medical examination to collect their demographic information and pain experience. Individual characteristics, including gender, age, obesity, alcohol drinking habit, and sleeping habit influenced the health condition of construction workers. Among the participants, 36.1% and 6.5% of them were overweight and obese, respectively. In addition, 43.0%, 38.4%, 16.2%, and 13.9% of the participants exceeded the thresholds of cholesterol, blood pressure, urea nitrogen, and uric urea, correspondingly. Moreover, 41.0% of the participants suffered musculoskeletal pain, where the most frequent painful parts occur in the lower back, shoulder, knees, leg, and neck. Through these findings, a series of important issues that need to be addressed is pointed out in terms of maintaining the physical well-being and reducing musculoskeletal disorders of construction workers. The finding may have implications for formulating proper intervention strategies for the sustainable development of Hong Kong's construction industry.

  19. Worker Attitudes towards Mental Health Problems and Disclosure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CS Dewa

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is a significant proportion of workers with mental disorders who either are struggling at work or who are trying to return to work from a disability leave. Objective: Using a population-based survey of working adults in Ontario, Canada, this paper examines the perceptions of workers towards mental disorders in the workplace. Methods: Data are from a sample of 2219 working adults identified through random digit dialing who either completed a telephone questionnaire administered by professional interviewers or a web-based survey. Results: A third of workers would not tell their managers if they experienced mental health problems. Rather than a single factor, workers more often identified a combination of factors that would encourage disclosure to their managers. One of the most identified disincentives was the fear of damaging their careers. The most pervasive reasons for concerns about a colleague with a mental health problem included safety and the colleague's reliability. Conclusion: Although critical for workers who experience a mental disorder and who find work challenging, a significant proportion do not seek support. One barrier is fear of negative repercussions. Organizations' policies can create safe environments and the provision of resources and training to managers that enable them to implement them. By making disclosure safe, stigma and the burden of mental disorders in the workplace can be decreased.

  20. Auditory and Respiratory Health Disorders Among Workers in an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For early detection of respiratory and auditory disorders, spirometry and audiometry should be included in the periodic medical examination. Accurate health records of workers, so, those at risk can be monitored, and/or pre-placed. Using personal protective equipments especially masks and ear muffles as well as prohibit ...

  1. Investigation of nasal colonization of health care workers by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Investigation of nasal colonization of health care workers by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus with using new generation real-time PCR assay: Discussing of risks. Y Zer, I Karaoglan, M Namýduru, I Balci, ID Karagoz, M Ozaslan, HI Kilic, A Suner ...

  2. Awareness and pattern of needlestick injuries among health workers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Awareness and pattern of needlestick injuries among health workers at University Teaching Hospital Ilorin, Nigeria. SA Medubi, TM Akande, GK Osagbemi. Abstract. No Abstract. African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology Vol. 7(3) 2006: 183-188. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  3. Obesity and health problems among South African healthcare workers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Obesity has reached epidemic proportions globally. In South Africa, 56% of white men, 49% of black men and 75% of black women have been reported to be overweight or obese. The focus of this study is on South African healthcare workers (HCW), because they are considered role models for health for ...

  4. Non-mental health workers' attitudes and social distance towards ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Non-mental health workers' attitudes and social distance towards people with mental illness in a. Nigerian teaching hospital. Olatunji F. Ainaa, O. Yewande Oshodia, Adebayo R. Erinfolamia, Joseph D. Adeyemia, and Tajudeen. F Suleimanb a Department of Psychiatry, College of Medicine, University of Lagos, PMB 12003, ...

  5. Travel vaccines: Information for health care workers | Schellack ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This review briefly examines some of the important vaccine preventable diseases related to travel. We then outline diseases known to Africa and other similar parts of the world, and potential approaches for preventing these conditions. The paper provides practical advice for health care workers when consulting with the ...

  6. The concept and attitudes of primary health care workers towards ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evil spirit possession and native charm/juju were incorrectly mentioned by half of the respondents as causes of mental illness while alcohol/drug abuse, emotional problems and marijuana smoking were correctly implicated by more than 70% of respondents. Although 90% of the primary health care workers preferred ...

  7. Challenges confronting health care workers in government's ARV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Challenges confronting health care workers in government's ARV rollout: rights and responsibilities. ... Potchefstroom Electronic Law Journal/Potchefstroomse Elektroniese Regsblad ... Unless the rights of HCWs are recognised and their needs adequately addressed, the best laid plans of government will be at risk.

  8. Workplace health promotion programs for older workers in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnavita, Nicola; Capitanelli, Ilaria; Garbarino, Sergio; La Milia, Daniele Ignazio; Moscato, Umberto; Pira, Enrico; Poscia, Andrea; Ricciardi, Walter

    2017-10-27

    Italy is the European country with the highest number of citizens over the age of sixty. In recent years, the unsustainability of the social security system has forced the Italian government to raise the retirement age and reduce the chances of early exit, thus sharply increasing the age of the workforce. Consequently, a significant proportion of older workers are currently obliged to do jobs that were designed for young people. Systematic health promotion intervention for older workers is therefore essential. The European Pro Health 65+ project aims at selecting and validating best practices for successful/active aging. In this context we set out to review workplace health promotion projects carried out in Italy. To ascertain examples of workplace health promotion for older workers (WHPOW), we carried out a review of the scientific and grey literature together with a survey of companies. We detected 102 WHPOW research studies conducted in conjunction with supranational organizations, public institutions, companies, social partners, NGOs and educational institutions. The main objectives of the WHPOW were to improve the work environment, the qualifications of older workers and attitudes towards the elderly, and, in many cases, also to improve work organization. The best way to promote effective WHPOW interventions is by disseminating awareness of best practices and correct methods of analysis. Our study suggests ways of enhancing WHPOW at both a national and European level.

  9. Stress, burnout, and job dissatisfaction in mental health workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rössler, Wulf

    2012-11-01

    As the industrial world has transformed toward a service economy, a particular interest has developed in mental health problems at the workplace. The risk for burnout is significantly increased in certain occupations, notably for health care workers. Beyond the effects of an extensive workload, many working hours, or long night shifts, the medical field has specific stressors. Physicians work in emotionally demanding environments with patients, families, or other medical staff. They must make quick decisions while faced with a quite frequent information overload. All of these stressors have to be weighed against a rapidly changing organizational context within medicine. Today, economics objectives have priority over medical values in health care. In principal, mental health workers should experience similar work stressors and the same contextual factors as health professionals from other medical disciplines. However, several studies have identified stressors that are unique to the psychiatric profession. These challenges range from the stigma of this profession, to particularly demanding relationships with patients and difficult interactions with other mental health professionals as part of multidisciplinary teams to personal threats from violent patients. Other sources of stress are a lack of positive feedback, low pay, and a poor work environment. Finally, patient suicide is a major stressor, upon which a majority of mental health workers report post-traumatic stress symptoms.

  10. Job satisfaction among health care workers in Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korac, Vesna; Vasic, Milena; Krstic, Maja; Markovic, Roberta

    2010-01-01

    According to literature review there seems to be a general agreement that job satisfaction among doctors is declining. This study's objective was to identify job satisfaction levels and their causes among health care workers, employed at the public health institutions. A job satisfaction survey of health care workers was therefore carried out in 197 public health centers in the Republic of Serbia, 157 primary health care centers and 40 general hospitals, in 2008. A satisfaction questionnaire, containing 24 items was used to investigate job satisfaction. Respondents (23.259), working in primary health care, indicated an average job satisfaction level of 3.08 +/- 0.67 on a 5-point scale. Respondents (11.302), working in general hospitals, indicated a lower average job satisfaction level of 2.96 +/- 0.63. The reported level of satisfaction was the highest for their opportunities to use their abilities, cooperation with colleagues and fellow workers, and freedom to choose their own methods of work. Doctors, working in primary health care centers, reported higher level of job satisfaction than hospital doctors. Overall, job satisfaction of doctors and nurses is relatively low. Increased pay rate and more adequate equipment, as well as possibilities for education and career improvement, would enhance their job satisfaction.

  11. Global Governance for Health: how to motivate political change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeill, D; Ottersen, O P

    2015-07-01

    In this article, we address a central theme that was discussed at the Durham Health Summit: how can politics be brought back into global health governance and figure much more prominently in discussions around policy? We begin by briefly summarizing the report of the Lancet - University of Oslo Commission on Global Governance for Health: 'The Political Origins of Health Inequity' Ottersen et al. In order to provide compelling evidence of the central argument, the Commission selected seven case studies relating to, inter alia, economic and fiscal policy, food security, and foreign trade and investment agreements. Based on an analysis of these studies, the report concludes that the problems identified are often due to political choices: an unwillingness to change the global system of governance. This raises the question: what is the most effective way that a report of this kind can be used to motivate policy-makers, and the public at large, to demand change? What kind of moral or rational argument is most likely to lead to action? In this paper we assess the merits of various alternative perspectives: health as an investment; health as a global public good; health and human security; health and human development; health as a human right; health and global justice. We conclude that what is required in order to motivate change is a more explicitly political and moral perspective - favouring the later rather than the earlier alternatives just listed. Copyright © 2015 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Workplace threats to health and job turnover among women workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gucer, Patricia W; Oliver, Marc; McDiarmid, Melissa

    2003-07-01

    Is job turnover related to concern about workplace health risks? Using data from a national sample of working women, we examined the relationships among workplace risk communications, worker concerns about workplace threats from hazardous substances, indoor air quality, and job change. Eight percent reported changing a job as a result of concern over workplace threats to health. Previous workplace injury predicted concern about hazardous materials and indoor air quality as well as job change, but employer communication about workplace health risks was associated with less job change and less concern about indoor air quality. Women worry about workplace threats to their health enough to change their jobs, but employers may have the power to cut turnover costs and reduce disruption to workers' lives through the use of risk communication programs.

  13. Examining national trends in worker health with the National Health Interview Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luckhaupt, Sara E; Sestito, John P

    2013-12-01

    To describe data from the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), both the annual core survey and periodic occupational health supplements (OHSs), available for examining national trends in worker health. The NHIS is an annual in-person household survey with a cross-sectional multistage clustered sample design to produce nationally representative health data. The 2010 NHIS included an OHS. Prevalence rates of various health conditions and health behaviors among workers based on multiple years of NHIS core data are available. In addition, the 2010 NHIS-OHS data provide prevalence rates of selected health conditions, work organization factors, and occupational exposures among US workers by industry and occupation. The publicly available NHIS data can be used to identify areas of concern for various industries and for benchmarking data from specific worker groups against national averages.

  14. The role of community health workers in improving child health programmes in Mali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altmann Mathias

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mortality of children under the age of five remains one of the most important public health challenges in developing countries. In rural settings, the promotion of household and community health practices through community health workers (CHWs is among the key strategies to improve child health. The objective of this study was to assess the performance of CHWs in the promotion of basic child heath services in rural Mali. Methods A community-based cross-sectional survey was undertaken using multi-stage cluster sampling of wards and villages. Data was collected through questionnaires among 401 child-caregivers and registers of 72 CHWs. Results Of 401 households suppose to receive a visit by a CHW, 219 (54.6%; confidence interval 95%; 49.6-59.5 had received at least one visit in the last three months before the survey. The mother is the most important caregiver (97%; high percentage being illiterate. Caregivers treat fever and diarrhoea with the correct regimen in 40% and 11% of cases respectively. Comparative analysis between households with and without CHW visits showed a positive influence of CHWs on family health practices: knowledge on the management of child fever (p = Conclusion Continuous training, transport means, adequate supervision and motivation of CHWs through the introduction of financial incentives and remuneration are among key factors to improve the work of CHWs in rural communities. Poor performance of basic household health practices can be related to irregular supply of drugs and the need of appropriate follow-up by CHWs.

  15. Toxicology primer: understanding workplace hazards and protecting worker health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arble, Janice

    2004-06-01

    Hazardous substances are ubiquitous in the environment and common in industrialized societies. Serious harm can occur with sufficient exposures under certain conditions. However, much harm can be avoided if hazardous substances are handled with respect and appreciation for their use and potential. Occupational health nurses must be aware of potential hazards to employees in the work environment and apply scientific principles to their practice of promoting worker safety and health.

  16. Implications for hospitals, health workers, and patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Banta, H.D.

    1993-01-01

    Minimally invasive surgery is one of the great innovations of health care in the 20th century. It promises to revolutionise surgery by allowing many more operations to be performed with minimal hospitalisation. Pressure from patients has caused many techniques to spread rapidly before they have been

  17. Communication beetwen health workers and laringectomic person

    OpenAIRE

    Milanović, Nataša; Momić, Jelena; Rošić, Mladenka; Sabatti, Lara

    2016-01-01

    Speach is basic simbolic and comunication activity, process of making vocal signs. Many illnesses can partially or totaly unable the speach. For patient who underwent total laryngectomy, speaking is unabled what makes comunication difficult. New state leads to many psychological and social problems. However, with improvement in medicine and continuous education of health providers, today this problem can be solved.

  18. Infant motivation in dental health: attitude without constant reinforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira Alves, Fabiana Bucholdz; Kuhn, Eunice; Bordin, Danielle; Kozlowski, Vitoldo Antonio; Raggio, Daniela Procida; Fadel, Cristina Berger

    2014-01-01

    Social factors determine the child's behavior and motivation is an important task in the teaching-learning process. This longitudinal and cross-sectional study aimed to analyze the effectiveness of a motivational activity program for oral hygiene habits formation after motivation and without constant reinforcement. The sample was constituted of 26 children (mean 6 years old) from a Public Kindergarten School in Ponta Grossa, PR, Brazil. Data were collected applying a test-chart, with figures reporting the process of dental health/illness. Some figures were considered positive to dental health (dentist/Cod 1, toothbrush/Cod 3, dentifrice/dental floss/Cod 6, fruits/vegetables/Cod 7 and tooth without caries lesion/Cod 8) and negative on dental health (sweets/Cod 2, bacteria/Cod 4, tooth with caries lesion/Cod 5). The figures presentation occurred in three different stages: First stage - figures were presented to children without previous knowledge; second stage - following the motivational presentation, and third stage - 30 days after the first contact. On the first stage, most children select good for the figures considered harmful to their teeth (Cod 2-88%; Cod 4-77% and Cod 5-65%). On the second stage, there was a lower percentage: 23% (P dental care.

  19. Violence against health workers in Family Medicine Centers

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Turki, Nouf; Afify, Ayman AM; AlAteeq, Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    Nouf Al-Turki,1 Ayman AM Afify,1 Mohammed AlAteeq2 1Family Medicine Department, Prince Sultan Military Medical City, 2Department of Family Medicine and PHC, King Abdul-Aziz Medical City, National Guard Health Affairs, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Background: Health care violence is a significant worldwide problem with negative consequences on both the safety and well-being of health care workers as well as workplace activities. Reports examining health care violence in Saudi Arabia are lim...

  20. Motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, David W

    2007-01-01

    Motivation is short-term focused energy. The oldest theories of motivation explain motivated activity as effort to overcome primary deficiencies, such as hunger or boredom. Such theories are difficult to apply because individuals learn idiosyncratic secondary motives as alternative ways of responding to these needs. Three prominent needs theories are discussed: Herzberg's theory of hygiene and motivational factors; McClelland's needs for achievement, power, and affiliation; and Maslow's hierarchy and theory of self-actualization. A second approach to motivation holds that individuals may be thought of as engaging in rational processes to maximize their self-interests. The presented examples of this approach include Vroom's expectancy theory, Adam's theory of inequality, and the Porter-Lawler model that addresses the question of whether satisfaction leads to high performance or vice versa. Finally, several theories of motivation as life orientation are developed.

  1. Effects of changes in the pre-licensure education of health workers on health-worker supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pariyo, George W; Kiwanuka, Suzanne N; Rutebemberwa, Elizeus; Okui, Olico; Ssengooba, Freddie

    2009-04-15

    The current and projected crisis because of a shortage of health workers in low and middle-income countries (LMICs) requires that effective strategies for expanding the numbers of health workers are quickly identified in order to inform action by policymakers, educators, and health managers. To assess the effect of changes in the pre-licensure education of health professionals on health-worker supply. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2007, Issue 3), EMBASE, Ovid (1980 to week 3, October 2007), MEDLINE, Ovid (1950 to week 3, October 2007), CINAHL (October 2007), LILACS (week 4, November 2007), ERIC (1966 to week 3, February 2008), and Sociological Abstracts (October 2007). We searched WHO (WHOLIS) (February 2008), World Bank, Google Scholar, and human resources on health-related websites to obtain grey literature. Key experts in human resources for health were contacted to identify unpublished studies. The reference lists of included studies were searched for additional articles. Randomised controlled trials, non-randomised controlled trials, controlled before and after studies, and interrupted time-series studies that measured increased numbers of health workers ultimately available for recruitment into the health workforce or improved patient to health professional ratios as their primary outcomes were considered. Although the focus of the review was on LMIC, we included studies regardless of where they were done. Heterogeneity between the two included studies precluded meta-analysis; therefore, data were presented separately for each study. Two studies of the 7880 identified from searching the electronic databases met the inclusion criteria. Both studies were controlled before and after studies, of moderate to high risk of bias, that explored the effects of interventions to improve retention of minority groups in health professional training institutions. These studies reported that an intervention

  2. The proper contributions of social workers in health practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntington, J

    1986-01-01

    Current and potential future contributions of social workers to health practice are considered at the three levels of direct service to patients, influence on the processes and procedures of the health setting and influence on its future planning and service development. The capacity of U.S.A. and U.K. social work to contribute at these levels is compared in the light of their contrasting relationships to the health system. U.S.A. social work in health care is practised as employees of the health setting or as private practitioners and contains the majority of U.S.A. social workers. It remains a specialism that sustains a major body of published work, commitment to knowledge-building, standard setting and performance review, and a psycho-social orientation shared by a growing number of medical and nursing professionals. Its approach to the health system is that of the pursuit of professional credibility in the secondary setting by adopting the professional-technical practice model of the clinician. U.K. social work since the early 1970s has been committed to generic education and practice and to the development of its own primary setting in social services departments which now employ almost all U.K. social workers. Area team social work in these departments, typified by statutory work with the most deprived sections of the population, has become the dominant culture of British social work, with implications for the occupational identity and career prospects of those social workers who are outposted or attached to health settings but no longer employed by them. British social work and its management now approach the health system from a position of organizational independence which should strengthen their capacity to influence the health system. The cultural differences between social work and medicine, however, are experienced more keenly than ever as many social workers adopt a socio-political practice model that is at odds with the professional-technical model

  3. Migrant women farm workers in the occupational health literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Rima R; Fathallah, Fadi A

    2012-01-01

    Little attention has been given to the vulnerable populations of migrant women agricultural workers. A systemic review in PubMed was carried out (1990-2008) using terms related to migrant agricultural workers, with specific focus on women. Case studies from Lebanon and California are presented to highlight key physical, psychosocial, and cultural risk factors among these working populations. The review revealed a host of potential problems that span from pesticide exposure and musculoskeletal disorders to socio-cultural barriers. Comprehensive exposure-outcome and intervention studies focusing specifically on migrant women in agriculture are lacking. In depth studies focusing on the work environment of migrant women workers in the agricultural sector are needed. Personal and environmental factors that influence health should be considered in any effective intervention aiming to influence policy making and have a positive impact on these vulnerable working populations.

  4. Grain dust and respiratory health in South African milling workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, M; Myers, J E

    1991-01-01

    Respiratory health was investigated in 224 grain milling workers. The likelihood of respiratory symptoms and chronic airflow limitation was raised for workers exposed to dust independent of the effects of smoking. Smokers were more likely than non-smokers to respond to a bronchodilator at the end of the working week. Dust was more strongly associated with most abnormal outcomes than was smoking. Subjective categories of exposure to dust were more strongly associated with most abnormal outcomes than were objective categories. The prevalence of all symptoms at the time of a survey conducted at the mill six years before was higher in workers who subsequently left the mill than in those who remained employed although the differences were not significant. PMID:1931723

  5. Biological monitoring of toxic metals - steel workers respiratory health survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinheiro, T.; Almeida, A. Bugalho de; Alves, L.; Freitas, M.C.; Moniz, D.; Alvarez, E.; Monteiro, P.; Reis, M.

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this work is to search for respiratory system aggressors to which workers are submitted in their labouring activity. Workers from one sector of a steel plant in Portugal, Siderurgia Nacional (SN), were selected according to the number of years of exposure and labouring characteristics. The work reports on blood elemental content alterations and lung function tests to determine an eventual bronchial hyper-reactivity. Aerosol samples collected permit an estimate of indoor air quality and airborne particulate matter characterisation to further check whether the elemental associations and alterations found in blood may derive from exposure. Blood and aerosol elemental composition was determined by PIXE and INAA. Respiratory affections were verified for 24% of the workers monitored. There are indications that the occurrence of affections can be associated with the total working years. The influence of long-term exposure, health status parameters, and lifestyle factors in blood elemental variations found was investigated

  6. Improving health worker performance : in search of promising practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dieleman, M.A.; Harnmeijer, JW

    2006-01-01

    Qualified and motivated human resources (HR) are essential for adequate health service provision, but HR shortages have now reached critical levels in many resource-poor settings, especially in rural areas. Strategies improving performance are essential to address shortages of the existing

  7. Do health-related feared possible selves motivate healthy eating?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samar Noureddine

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The question of what motivates individuals to assume healthy eating habits remains unanswered. The purpose of this descriptive survey is to explore health-related feared possible selves in relation to dietary beliefs and behavior in adults. A convenience sample of 74 middle-aged employees of a health maintenance organization completed self-administered questionnaires. Health-related feared selves, current health perception, knowledge of diet-health association, dietary self-efficacy, dietary intention and intake were measured. Health-related fears were the most frequently reported feared selves, but very few of those represented illnesses and none were related to dietary intake. The number of health and body weight related fears was significantly associated with lower dietary self-efficacy and weaker intention to eat in a healthy manner. Multivariate analysis showed self-efficacy to be the only significant predictor of dietary intention. These adults may not have perceived being at risk for diet-associated illnesses, and so their feared selves did not motivate them to eat in a healthy manner. Research on the effect of hoped for health related possible selves and the perceived effectiveness of diet in reducing health risk are recommended.

  8. Motivation and incentive preferences of community health officers in Ghana: an economic behavioral experiment approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiratori, Sakiko; Agyekum, Enoch Oti; Shibanuma, Akira; Oduro, Abraham; Okawa, Sumiyo; Enuameh, Yeetey; Yasuoka, Junko; Kikuchi, Kimiyo; Gyapong, Margaret; Owusu-Agyei, Seth; Ansah, Evelyn; Hodgson, Abraham; Jimba, Masamine

    2016-08-22

    Health worker shortage in rural areas is one of the biggest problems of the health sector in Ghana and many developing countries. This may be due to fewer incentives and support systems available to attract and retain health workers at the rural level. This study explored the willingness of community health officers (CHOs) to accept and hold rural and community job postings in Ghana. A discrete choice experiment was used to estimate the motivation and incentive preferences of CHOs in Ghana. All CHOs working in three Health and Demographic Surveillance System sites in Ghana, 200 in total, were interviewed between December 2012 and January 2013. Respondents were asked to choose from choice sets of job preferences. Four mixed logit models were used for the estimation. The first model considered (a) only the main effect. The other models included interaction terms for (b) gender, (c) number of children under 5 in the household, and (d) years worked at the same community. Moreover, a choice probability simulation was performed. Mixed logit analyses of the data project a shorter time frame before study leave as the most important motivation for most CHOs (β 2.03; 95 % CI 1.69 to 2.36). This is also confirmed by the largest simulated choice probability (29.1 %). The interaction effect of the number of children was significant for education allowance for children (β 0.58; 95 % CI 0.24 to 0.93), salary increase (β 0.35; 95 % CI 0.03 to 0.67), and housing provision (β 0.16; 95 % CI -0.02 to 0.60). Male CHOs had a high affinity for early opportunity to go on study leave (β 0.78; 95 % CI -0.06 to 1.62). CHOs who had worked at the same place for a long time greatly valued salary increase (β 0.28; 95 % CI 0.09 to 0.47). To reduce health worker shortage in rural settings, policymakers could provide "needs-specific" motivational packages. They should include career development opportunities such as shorter period of work before study leave and financial policy in the

  9. The Latino Migrant Worker HIV Prevention Program: building a community partnership through a community health worker training program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Jesús; Silva-Suarez, Georgina; Serna, Claudia A; De La Rosa, Mario

    2012-01-01

    There is limited information on the impact of the HIV/AIDS epidemic on Latino migrant workers (LMWs), although available data indicate that this community is being disproportionally affected. The need for prevention programs that address the specific needs of LMWs is becoming well recognized. HIV prevention interventions that train and employ community health workers are a culturally appropriate way to address the issues of community trust and capacity building in this community. This article describes the Latino Migrant Worker HIV Prevention Program and its efforts to train and engage community health workers in the prevention of HIV among LMWs in South Florida.

  10. Multinomial logistic regression in workers' health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grilo, Luís M.; Grilo, Helena L.; Gonçalves, Sónia P.; Junça, Ana

    2017-11-01

    In European countries, namely in Portugal, it is common to hear some people mentioning that they are exposed to excessive and continuous psychosocial stressors at work. This is increasing in diverse activity sectors, such as, the Services sector. A representative sample was collected from a Portuguese Services' organization, by applying a survey (internationally validated), which variables were measured in five ordered categories in Likert-type scale. A multinomial logistic regression model is used to estimate the probability of each category of the dependent variable general health perception where, among other independent variables, burnout appear as statistically significant.

  11. Protecting health care workers from tuberculosis: a 10-year experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welbel, Sharon F; French, Audrey L; Bush, Patricia; DeGuzman, Delia; Weinstein, Robert A

    2009-10-01

    Cook County Hospital (CCH) is an inner-city, large public hospital. Twenty-five percent of Chicago's tuberculosis (TB) cases are diagnosed at CCH. We wanted to review and analyze interventions implemented over a 10-year period at CCH to prevent TB infection in health care workers. We performed a retrospective review of interventions to prevent health care-associated tuberculosis. We collated and analyzed tuberculin skin test conversions in our employees for the same time period. From 1990 to 2002, we cared for over 1800 in-patients with tuberculosis. During 1992-1997, multiple interventions to eliminate health care-associated spread of tuberculosis were implemented. Tuberculin skin test conversions in our employees decreased markedly from January 1994 through December 2002. Two drops in tuberculin skin test conversion rates occurred: one after introduction of basic administrative and engineering controls and a second after we experienced a decrease in missed TB cases and the introduction of N-95 personal respirators with 1-time qualitative fit testing. Our annual health care worker skin test conversion rate fell significantly when our primary interventions were relatively simple administrative and engineering controls. Educating health care workers to promptly recognize patients with TB and placing exhaust fans to create negative-pressure respiratory isolation rooms were probably our 2 most potent infection control measures.

  12. Analysis of health condition of workers RHMK Trepca - Zvecan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galjak Milivoje

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Working conditions in RMHK Trepca directly conditioned by exposure to a wide variety of harmful causes of the diseases, both physical, and chemical hazards and occupational exposure to heavy metals. The aim is to analyze the health status of workers metarluškog-Mining-Chemical Combine Trepca - Zvečan (RMHK Trepca. The research was conducted at the Health Zvecan in Zvecan using the results of the periodic inspection of employees RMHK Trepca. The study included 738 employees in 2014 and 628 employees in 2015. Department of Occupational Health of the Health Zvečan organized and done these examinations in accordance with the rules on conducting preliminary and periodic medical examinations of employees at the workplace with increased risk to health, and as an additional source of data used is referred to a periodic review of employee (form no. 2 containing information on sex, age, occupation, place of work, qualification, education level, the drive, the total working age, the expository seniority, the requirements in the workplace, working conditions and workers' exposure to harmful agents or elements of job description city of the Act on risk assessment specific workplace. Diseases of the heart and blood vessels after the hearing damage to the second place in both 2014 (28.86% and in 2015 (18.47%. Followed by diseases of the urinary tract, respiratory organs. Able to work at the workplace with increased risk to the health worker was 92.67% in 2014 and 83.44% of workers in 2015. Preventive measures should be directed towards reducing occupational hazards and adverse working conditions and to insist on the strict implementation of safety measures. Periodic medical examinations to the full extent and quality prescribed in the rules are of great importance for the prevention of occupational morbidity, trauma and disability.

  13. Health-related ad information and health motivation effects on product evaluations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chrysochou, Polymeros; Grunert, Klaus G

    2014-01-01

    This study tests the effect of health-related ad information on perceived product healthfulness and purchase intention. Also, the study investigates whether consumers' health motivation moderates the effects, because of the way health motivation affects processing of health-related information...... in ads. Three types of healthrelated ad elements are distinguished: functional claims, process claims and health imagery. These elements were combined in mock ads and an online experiment was run to test the study hypotheses. Results show that health imagery has the largest impact on consumers' product...

  14. Health check on radiation workers in the nuclear energy industry using Todai Health Index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuchiya, Takehiko; Norimura, Toshiyuki; Kumashiro, Masaharu; Sudo, Seiji; Hashimoto, Tetsuaki.

    1986-01-01

    In the nuclear energy industry, the plants are located far from urban areas and the working environments are generally separate from each other for radiation protection purposes. The health investigation on radiation workers in the nuclear energy industry was carried out using the Todai Health Index questionnaire in 1982, 1983 and 1984. As a control study non-radiation workers on the other several working fields were investigated in the same manner. The results showed that the status of radiation workers in the nuclear energy industry is similar to that of the workers in the other working fields and the THI questionnaire is useful to know health and working status of a group of workers. (author)

  15. Infant motivation in dental health: Attitude without constant reinforcement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Bucholdz Teixeira Alves

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Social factors determine the child′s behavior and motivation is an important task in the teaching-learning process. This longitudinal and cross-sectional study aimed to analyze the effectiveness of a motivational activity program for oral hygiene habits formation after motivation and without constant reinforcement. Materials and Methods: The sample was constituted of 26 children (mean 6 years old from a Public Kindergarten School in Ponta Grossa, PR, Brazil. Data were collected applying a test-chart, with figures reporting the process of dental health/illness. Some figures were considered positive to dental health (dentist/Cod 1, toothbrush/Cod 3, dentifrice/dental floss/Cod 6, fruits/vegetables/Cod 7 and tooth without caries lesion/Cod 8 and negative on dental health (sweets/Cod 2, bacteria/Cod 4, tooth with caries lesion/Cod 5. The figures presentation occurred in three different stages: First stage - figures were presented to children without previous knowledge; second stage - following the motivational presentation, and third stage - 30 days after the first contact. Results: On the first stage, most children select good for the figures considered harmful to their teeth (Cod 2-88%; Cod 4-77% and Cod 5-65%. On the second stage, there was a lower percentage: 23% (P < 0.0001, 8% (P < 0.0001, and 23% (P = 0.0068 related to the Cod 2, 4, and 5. On the third stage, the results showed again an association with the good choice to these figures considered harmful (Cod 2-85%, Cod 4-65% and Cod 5-54% similar the results obtained on the first stage. Conclusion: The motivational programs performed without constant reinforcement does not have a positive influence in changing the child′s behavior related to a better dental care.

  16. Process Evaluation of a Workers' Health Surveillance Program for Meat Processing Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Holland, Berry J; Brouwer, Sandra; de Boer, Michiel R; Reneman, Michiel F; Soer, Remko

    2017-09-01

    Objective To evaluate the implementation process of a workers' health surveillance (WHS) program in a Dutch meat processing company. Methods Workers from five plants were eligible to participate in the WHS program. The program consisted of four evaluative components and an intervention component. Qualitative and quantitative methods were used to evaluate seven process aspects. Data were gathered by interviews with stakeholders, participant questionnaires, and from registries of the company and occupational health service. Results Two recruitment strategies were used: open invitation or automatic participation. Of the 986 eligible workers, 305 participated in the program. Average reach was 53 %. Two out of five program components could not be assessed on dose delivered, dose received and fidelity. If components were assessable, 85-100 % of the components was delivered, 66-100 % of the components was received by participants, and fidelity was 100 %. Participants were satisfied with the WHS program (mean score 7.6). Contextual factors that facilitated implementation were among others societal developments and management support. Factors that formed barriers were program novelty and delayed follow-up. Conclusion The WHS program was well received by participants. Not all participants were offered the same number of program components, and not all components were performed according to protocol. Deviation from protocol is an indication of program failure and may affect program effectiveness.

  17. Human resource management interventions to improve health workers' performance in low and middle income countries: a realist review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van der Wilt Gert Jan

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Improving health workers' performance is vital for achieving the Millennium Development Goals. In the literature on human resource management (HRM interventions to improve health workers' performance in Low and Middle Income Countries (LMIC, hardly any attention has been paid to the question how HRM interventions might bring about outcomes and in which contexts. Such information is, however, critical to assess the transferability of results. Our aim was to explore if realist review of published primary research provides better insight into the functioning of HRM interventions in LMIC. Methodology A realist review not only asks whether an intervention has shown to be effective, but also through which mechanisms an intervention produces outcomes and which contextual factors appear to be of critical influence. Forty-eight published studies were reviewed. Results The results show that HRM interventions can improve health workers' performance, but that different contexts produce different outcomes. Critical implementation aspects were involvement of local authorities, communities and management; adaptation to the local situation; and active involvement of local staff to identify and implement solutions to problems. Mechanisms that triggered change were increased knowledge and skills, feeling obliged to change and health workers' motivation. Mechanisms to contribute to motivation were health workers' awareness of local problems and staff empowerment, gaining acceptance of new information and creating a sense of belonging and respect. In addition, staff was motivated by visible improvements in quality of care and salary supplements. Only a limited variety of HRM interventions have been evaluated in the health sector in LMIC. Assumptions underlying HRM interventions are usually not made explicit, hampering our understanding of how HRM interventions work. Conclusion Application of a realist perspective allows identifying which HRM

  18. A Framework for Culturally Relevant Online Learning: Lessons from Alaska's Tribal Health Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cueva, Katie; Cueva, Melany; Revels, Laura; Lanier, Anne P; Dignan, Mark; Viswanath, K; Fung, Teresa T; Geller, Alan C

    2018-03-22

    Culturally relevant health promotion is an opportunity to reduce health inequities in diseases with modifiable risks, such as cancer. Alaska Native people bear a disproportionate cancer burden, and Alaska's rural tribal health workers consequently requested cancer education accessible online. In response, the Alaska Native Tribal Health Consortium cancer education team sought to create a framework for culturally relevant online learning to inform the creation of distance-delivered cancer education. Guided by the principles of community-based participatory action research and grounded in empowerment theory, the project team conducted a focus group with 10 Alaska Native education experts, 12 culturally diverse key informant interviews, a key stakeholder survey of 62 Alaska Native tribal health workers and their instructors/supervisors, and a literature review on distance-delivered education with Alaska Native or American Indian people. Qualitative findings were analyzed in Atlas.ti, with common themes presented in this article as a framework for culturally relevant online education. This proposed framework includes four principles: collaborative development, interactive content delivery, contextualizing learning, and creating connection. As an Alaskan tribal health worker shared "we're all in this together. All about conversations, relationships. Always learn from you/with you, together what we know and understand from the center of our experience, our ways of knowing, being, caring." The proposed framework has been applied to support cancer education and promote cancer control with Alaska Native people and has motivated health behavior change to reduce cancer risk. This framework may be adaptable to other populations to guide effective and culturally relevant online interventions.

  19. Oral health knowledge of health care workers in special children’s center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyne, Amjad; Hammad, Nouf; Splieth, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the oral health knowledge of health care workers in special children’s center. Methods: A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect following information: demographics, oral hygiene practices, importance of fluoride, dental visits, cause of tooth decay, gingival health, and sources of oral health information. The study was conducted at Riyadh Center for Special Children in Riyadh City from December 2013 to May 2014. Results: All 60 health care workers in the center completed the questionnaire. A great majority (95%) of the workers brushed their teeth twice or more daily. More than two-third (71.7%) of the workers knew that fluoride helps in caries prevention. One in five (21.7%) workers thought that a dental visit only becomes necessary in case of a dental problem. Similarly, 13.3% of the workers thought to “wait till there is some pain in case of a dental cavity” before seeking dental treatment. The workers ranked soft drinks/soda (98.3%), flavored fizzy drinks (60%) and sweetened/flavored milks (43.3%) as top three cariogenic drinks. A great majority (95%) of the workers correctly responded that blood on toothbrush most probably is a sign of “gum disease”. Dentists (50%) and media (45%) were the main source of their oral health information. There was no significant difference (p > 0.05) in workers’ response in relation to their specific job. Conclusion: The special health care workers in the disabled children’s center generally had satisfactory oral health knowledge and practices. PMID:25878636

  20. Who wants to work in a rural health post? The role of intrinsic motivation, rural background and faith-based institutions in Ethiopia and Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serneels, Pieter; Montalvo, Jose G; Pettersson, Gunilla; Lievens, Tomas; Butera, Jean Damascene; Kidanu, Aklilu

    2010-05-01

    To understand the factors influencing health workers' choice to work in rural areas as a basis for designing policies to redress geographic imbalances in health worker distribution. A cohort survey of 412 nursing and medical students in Rwanda provided unique contingent valuation data. Using these data, we performed a regression analysis to examine the determinants of future health workers' willingness to work in rural areas as measured by rural reservation wages. These data were also combined with those from an identical survey in Ethiopia to enable a two-country analysis. Health workers with higher intrinsic motivation - measured as the importance attached to helping the poor - as well as those who had grown up in a rural area and Adventists who had participated in a local bonding scheme were all significantly more willing to work in a rural area. The main result for intrinsic motivation in Rwanda was strikingly similar to the result obtained for Ethiopia and Rwanda combined. Intrinsic motivation and rural origin play an important role in health workers' decisions to work in a rural area, in addition to economic incentives, while faith-based institutions can also influence the decision.

  1. Job characteristics and mental health for older workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mc Carthy, V J C; Cronly, J; Perry, I J

    2017-07-01

    Adverse job characteristics have been linked with increased incidence of depression and anxiety in working populations. However, the association between job characteristics and mental health, in an older working population while controlling for personality traits, is less well known. To examine the association between job characteristics (job demands and job control) and mental health (depression and anxiety) for older workers while controlling for personality traits. A sample of workers aged 50-69 years were recruited from a primary health care clinic in Southern Ireland. Job characteristics were measured using the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire; demands (quantitative and cognitive) and control (influence at work and possibilities for development). Personality traits were measured using the Ten-Item Personality Inventory, depression was measured using the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale and anxiety was measured using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Descriptive analysis, simple and multiple linear regression analyses were conducted. The final sample size was 1025 with an initial 67% response rate. Multiple linear regression analysis showed job characteristics (in particular, job demands) to be significant positive predictors of symptoms of depression and anxiety. The inverse was true for job control variables and symptoms of depression. Neither possibilities for development nor influence at work were associated with symptoms of anxiety. Our findings indicate that despite potential confounders, higher demands at work can impact the worker's mental health negatively. Reducing job demands and encouraging role development may benefit the mental health of older workers. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  2. Stress underestimation and mental health literacy of depression in Japanese workers: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura-Taira, Nanako; Izawa, Shuhei; Yamada, Kosuke Chris

    2018-04-01

    Appropriately estimating stress levels in daily life is important for motivating people to undertake stress-management behaviors or seek out information on stress management and mental health. People who exhibit high stress underestimation might not be interested in information on mental health, and would therefore have less knowledge of it. We investigated the association between stress underestimation tendency and mental health literacy of depression (i.e., knowledge of the recognition, prognosis, and usefulness of resources of depression) in Japanese workers. We cross-sectionally surveyed 3718 Japanese workers using a web-based questionnaire on stress underestimation, mental health literacy of depression (vignettes on people with depression), and covariates (age, education, depressive symptoms, income, and worksite size). After adjusting for covariates, high stress underestimation was associated with greater odds of not recognizing depression (i.e., choosing anything other than depression). Furthermore, these individuals had greater odds of expecting the case to improve without treatment and not selecting useful sources of support (e.g. talk over with friends/family, see a psychiatrist, take medication, see a counselor) compared to those with moderate stress underestimation. These relationships were all stronger among males than among females. Stress underestimation was related to poorer mental health literacy of depression. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Qualitative study of perceived causes of tuberculosis treatment default among health care workers in Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kizub, D; Ghali, I; Sabouni, R; Bourkadi, J E; Bennani, K; El Aouad, R; Dooley, K E

    2012-09-01

    In Morocco, tuberculosis (TB) treatment default is increasing in some urban areas. To provide a detailed description of factors that contribute to patient default and solutions from the point of view of health care professionals who participate in TB care. In-depth interviews were conducted with 62 physicians and nurses at nine regional public pulmonary clinics and local health clinics. Participants had a median of 24 years of experience in health care. Treatment default was seen as a result of multilevel factors related to the patient (lack of means, being a migrant worker, distance to treatment site, poor understanding of treatment, drug use, mental illness), medical team (high patient load, low motivation, lack of resources for tracking defaulters), treatment organization (poor communication between treatment sites, no systematic strategy for patient education or tracking, incomplete record keeping), and health care system and society. Tailored recommendations for low- and higher-cost interventions are provided. Interventions to enhance TB treatment completion should take into account the local context and multilevel factors that contribute to default. Qualitative studies involving health care workers directly involved in TB care can be powerful tools to identify contributing factors and define strategies to help reduce treatment default.

  4. Efficacy of 'Tailored Physical Activity' in reducing sickness absence among health care workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard Andersen, Lotte; Juul-Kristensen, Birgit; Roessler, Kirsten Kaya

    2013-01-01

    Health care workers have high physical work demands, involving patient handling and manual work tasks. A strategy for prevention of work-related musculoskeletal disorders can enhance the physical capacity of the health care worker. The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of 'Tailored...... Physical Activity' for health care workers in the Sonderborg Municipality....

  5. Perceptions and experiences of childhood vaccination communication strategies among caregivers and health workers in Nigeria: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oku, Afiong; Oyo-Ita, Angela; Glenton, Claire; Fretheim, Atle; Ames, Heather; Muloliwa, Artur; Kaufman, Jessica; Hill, Sophie; Cliff, Julie; Cartier, Yuri; Owoaje, Eme; Bosch-Capblanch, Xavier; Rada, Gabriel; Lewin, Simon

    2017-01-01

    Effective vaccination communication with parents is critical in efforts to overcome barriers to childhood vaccination, tackle vaccine hesitancy and improve vaccination coverage. Health workers should be able to provide information to parents and other caregivers and support them in reaching decisions about vaccinating their children. Limited information exists regarding the perceptions of caregivers and health workers on the vaccination communication strategies employed in Nigeria. This study, which forms part of the 'Communicate to vaccinate' (COMMVAC) project, aims to explore the perceptions and experiences of caregivers and health workers in Nigeria on vaccination communication strategies implemented in their settings. We conducted the study in two States: Bauchi in Northern Nigeria and Cross River in the south. We carried out observations (n = 40), in-depth interviews (n = 14) and focus group discussions (FGDs) (n = 12) amongst 14 purposively selected health workers, two community leaders and 84 caregivers in the two states. We transcribed data verbatim and analysed the data using a framework analysis approach. Caregivers were informed about vaccination activities through three main sources: health facilities (during health education sessions conducted at antenatal or immunization clinics); media outlets; and announcements (in churches/mosques, communities and markets). Caregivers reported that the information received was very useful. Their preferred sources of information included phone text messages, town announcers, media and church/mosque announcements. Some caregivers perceived the clinic environment, long waiting times and health worker attitudes as barriers to receiving vaccination information.When delivering communication interventions, health workers described issues tied to poor communication skills; poor motivation; and attitudes of community members, including vaccine resistance. Communication about vaccination involves more than the message but is

  6. Perceptions and experiences of childhood vaccination communication strategies among caregivers and health workers in Nigeria: A qualitative study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afiong Oku

    Full Text Available Effective vaccination communication with parents is critical in efforts to overcome barriers to childhood vaccination, tackle vaccine hesitancy and improve vaccination coverage. Health workers should be able to provide information to parents and other caregivers and support them in reaching decisions about vaccinating their children. Limited information exists regarding the perceptions of caregivers and health workers on the vaccination communication strategies employed in Nigeria. This study, which forms part of the 'Communicate to vaccinate' (COMMVAC project, aims to explore the perceptions and experiences of caregivers and health workers in Nigeria on vaccination communication strategies implemented in their settings.We conducted the study in two States: Bauchi in Northern Nigeria and Cross River in the south. We carried out observations (n = 40, in-depth interviews (n = 14 and focus group discussions (FGDs (n = 12 amongst 14 purposively selected health workers, two community leaders and 84 caregivers in the two states. We transcribed data verbatim and analysed the data using a framework analysis approach.Caregivers were informed about vaccination activities through three main sources: health facilities (during health education sessions conducted at antenatal or immunization clinics; media outlets; and announcements (in churches/mosques, communities and markets. Caregivers reported that the information received was very useful. Their preferred sources of information included phone text messages, town announcers, media and church/mosque announcements. Some caregivers perceived the clinic environment, long waiting times and health worker attitudes as barriers to receiving vaccination information.When delivering communication interventions, health workers described issues tied to poor communication skills; poor motivation; and attitudes of community members, including vaccine resistance.Communication about vaccination involves more than the

  7. Authenticity at Work: Its Relations With Worker Motivation and Well-being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralph Van den Bosch

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Drawing on Self-Determination Theory (SDT; Deci et al., 2017, this study examines the associations between authenticity at work, motivation and well-being, assuming that motivation would at least partly mediate the association between authenticty and well-being. Since authentic behavior refers to the degree to which a person acts in agreement with their true self (i.e., one's own core values, high levels of authenticity at work should relate positively to more intrinsic types of motivation regulation and negatively to more extrinsic types of motivation regulation. Moreover, high levels of authenticity should be associated with higher well-being at work (i.e., higher work engagement and lower burnout. Structural equation modeling using cross-sectional data from 546 participants revealed that self-determined motivation (i.e., autonomous motivation showed positive associations with authenticity at work and that non-self-determined motivation (i.e., controlled motivation and amotivation showed negative associations with authenticity at work. The positive associations increased in strength with increasing self-determined motivation. A similar—but reversed—pattern was found for the negative associations. Parallel mediation analysis revealed that self-determined motivation partially mediated the relationship between authenticity and well-being at work.

  8. Patients' and health professionals' use of social media in health care: Motives, barriers and expectations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antheunis, M.L.; Tates, K.; Nieboer, T.E.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate patients' and health professionals' (a) motives and use of social media for health-related reasons, and (b) barriers and expectations for health-related social media use. METHODS: We conducted a descriptive online survey among 139 patients and 153 health care professionals

  9. [History of the health protection of construction workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riva, M A; Cesana, G; Mosconi, G

    2012-01-01

    Construction has been one of the first sectors in which an organized system of occupational health protection has been implemented, as shown by the Egyptian physicians caring for workers and artisans in building sites. During the Middle Ages, first examples of accident prevention legislation in this field may be found among the Lombards. In the same period, craft organizations led to greater social recognition of skilled workers, without a improvement in their health conditions. Ramazzini accurately described some risks of stonemasons and brick-makers (chemical and microclimatic hazards). In the following centuries, the Industrial Revolution led to a population growth in metropolitan areas and increased employment as well as accidents in the construction sector, as demonstrated by some ex-voto paintings in churches. This phenomenon became more evident in postwar recovery, forcing Italy to adopt modern accident prevention rules. Nowadays Italian legislation, complying with EU directive, provides new challenges for occupational physician.

  10. Health problems of nursing workers in a public educational institution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Luiza Bernardes

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify the issues occurred with nursing workers through a Health Monitoring System for Nursing Workers (SIMOSTE and to describe the consequences of those problems. Method: This is a quantitative, exploratory and descriptive study realized in a teaching hospital in the west region of the city of São Paulo. Results: From the SIMOSTE, 1.847 occurrences were registered in a six month period. Within the main occurrences, medical licenses, work related accidents with and without removals; psychiatric consultations and psychotherapy were highlighted. Conclusion: The data points out to the need for the development of new health vigilance actions to notify accidents and illness related to work, besides the prevention of issues.

  11. Ergonomics on the Build Colombian Health of Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairo Ernesto Luna García

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The health of workers in Colombia traverses multiple challenges and difficulties, starting from the national, political and economic context, crossroads living social security system and the trends in the world of work. Faced with this situation, the ergonomics as a field of knowledge and action has multiple possibilities of contribution, which depend on not to see this disciplined reduced to a technical dimension, but encourage their contribution within a framework of action located and contextualized. Although it has emphasized the action of ergonomics in its contribu-tion to the prevention of muscle-skeletal disorders, their contribution to the health of workers can be very important, in a setting of search of the labor and social welfare as a complement to the prevention of occupational risks.

  12. Social determinants of workers' health in Central America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragón, Aurora; Partanen, Timo; Felknor, Sarah; Corriols, Marianela

    2011-01-01

    This communication summarizes the available data on work-related determinants of health in Central America. The Central American working population is young and moving from agriculture toward industry and services. Ethnicity, gender, migration, subemployment and precarious work, informality, rural conditions, low-level educational, poverty, ubiquitous worksite health hazards, insufficient occupational health services, low labor inspection density, and weak unions define the constellation of social determinants of workers' health in Central America. Data are, however, scanty both for hazards and work-related illnesses and injuries. Governments and industries have the responsibility of opening decent work opportunities, especially for those facing multiple inequalities in social determinants of health. A first step would be the ratification and implementation of the ILO Convention (187) on occupational safety and health by the seven national governments of the region.

  13. Health services reform in Bangladesh: hearing the views of health workers and their professional bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cockcroft Anne

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Bangladesh, widespread dissatisfaction with government health services did not improve during the Health and Population Sector Programme (HPSP reforms from 1998-2003. A 2003 national household survey documented public and health service users' views and experience. Attitudes and behaviour of health workers are central to quality of health services. To investigate whether the views of health workers influenced the reforms, we surveyed local health workers and held evidence-based discussions with local service managers and professional bodies. Methods Some 1866 government health workers in facilities serving the household survey clusters completed a questionnaire about their views, experience, and problems as workers. Field teams discussed the findings from the household and health workers' surveys with local health service managers in five upazilas (administrative sub-districts and with the Bangladesh Medical Association (BMA and Bangladesh Nurses Association (BNA. Results Nearly one half of the health workers (45% reported difficulties fulfilling their duties, especially doctors, women, and younger workers. They cited inadequate supplies and infrastructure, bad behaviour of patients, and administrative problems. Many, especially doctors (74%, considered they were badly treated as employees. Nearly all said lack of medicines in government facilities was due to inadequate supply, not improved during the HPSP. Two thirds of doctors and nurses complained of bad behaviour of patients. A quarter of respondents thought quality of service had improved as a result of the HPSP. Local service managers and the BMA and BNA accepted patients had negative views and experiences, blaming inadequate resources, high patient loads, and patients' unrealistic expectations. They said doctors and nurses were demotivated by poor working conditions, unfair treatment, and lack of career progression; private and unqualified practitioners sought to

  14. Health services reform in Bangladesh: hearing the views of health workers and their professional bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockcroft, Anne; Milne, Deborah; Oelofsen, Marietjie; Karim, Enamul; Andersson, Neil

    2011-12-21

    In Bangladesh, widespread dissatisfaction with government health services did not improve during the Health and Population Sector Programme (HPSP) reforms from 1998-2003. A 2003 national household survey documented public and health service users' views and experience. Attitudes and behaviour of health workers are central to quality of health services. To investigate whether the views of health workers influenced the reforms, we surveyed local health workers and held evidence-based discussions with local service managers and professional bodies. Some 1866 government health workers in facilities serving the household survey clusters completed a questionnaire about their views, experience, and problems as workers. Field teams discussed the findings from the household and health workers' surveys with local health service managers in five upazilas (administrative sub-districts) and with the Bangladesh Medical Association (BMA) and Bangladesh Nurses Association (BNA). Nearly one half of the health workers (45%) reported difficulties fulfilling their duties, especially doctors, women, and younger workers. They cited inadequate supplies and infrastructure, bad behaviour of patients, and administrative problems. Many, especially doctors (74%), considered they were badly treated as employees. Nearly all said lack of medicines in government facilities was due to inadequate supply, not improved during the HPSP. Two thirds of doctors and nurses complained of bad behaviour of patients. A quarter of respondents thought quality of service had improved as a result of the HPSP.Local service managers and the BMA and BNA accepted patients had negative views and experiences, blaming inadequate resources, high patient loads, and patients' unrealistic expectations. They said doctors and nurses were demotivated by poor working conditions, unfair treatment, and lack of career progression; private and unqualified practitioners sought to please patients instead of giving medically

  15. Related factors to workers' use of hearing protection device in knitting & ppinning factories of Yazd city based on Protection Motivation Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Barkhordi

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and aimsNoise-Induced Hearing Loss (NIHL is an important occupational disorder. High percentage of workers in occupational environments did not use the hearing protection device against harmful noise. This study was carried out to study factors related to workers' use of Hearing protection Device in Knitting & spinning factories of Yazd city based on protection motivation theory.MethodsIn this cross-sectional analytical study 280 workers of the knitting & spinning factories of Yazd City who exposed to harmful noise (over 85dB selected among the three factories by cluster sampling. The data gathered via exclusive interviews with selected workers  using the questionnaire designed based on protection motivation theory and were analyzedResults42/5 percent of workers permanently used hearing protection devices, and 20/7 percent of workers never use.There was a significant correlation between the age of workers and the mean score components of PMT; perceived severity, perceived vulnerability, perceived response efficacy and protection motivation. There was also a significant correlation between the work experience and the mean score of PMT factors; perceived severity, perceived response efficacy and perceived vulnerability. Also there was a significant correlation between workers' education level and the mean score of perceived response efficacy and there was a significant correlation between protection motivation and the mean score components of PMT; perceived vulnerability, perceived self-efficacy, perceived response efficacy, perceived costs and behaviorConclusionRegarding the significant correlations between the more constructs of PMT and protection motivation of workers for using hearing protective device, designing educational program based on PMT to increase hearing protection devices usage among workers is recommended.

  16. Decentralization's impact on the health workforce: Perspectives of managers, workers and national leaders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolehmainen-Aitken Riitta-Liisa

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Designers and implementers of decentralization and other reform measures have focused much attention on financial and structural reform measures, but ignored their human resource implications. Concern is mounting about the impact that the reallocation of roles and responsibilities has had on the health workforce and its management, but the experiences and lessons of different countries have not been widely shared. This paper examines evidence from published literature on decentralization's impact on the demand side of the human resource equation, as well as the factors that have contributed to the impact. The elements that make such an impact analysis exceptionally complex are identified. They include the mode of decentralization that a country is implementing, the level of responsibility for the salary budget and pay determination, and the civil service status of transferred health workers. The main body of the paper is devoted to examining decentralization's impact on human resource issues from three different perspectives: that of local health managers, health workers themselves, and national health leaders. These three groups have different concerns in the human resource realm, and consequently, have been differently affected by decentralization processes. The paper concludes with recommendations regarding three key concerns that national authorities and international agencies should give prompt attention to. They are (1 defining the essential human resource policy, planning and management skills for national human resource managers who work in decentralized countries, and developing training programs to equip them with such skills; (2 supporting research that focuses on improving the knowledge base of how different modes of decentralization impact on staffing equity; and (3 identifying factors that most critically influence health worker motivation and performance under decentralization, and documenting the most cost-effective best

  17. Decentralization's impact on the health workforce: Perspectives of managers, workers and national leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolehmainen-Aitken, Riitta-Liisa

    2004-05-14

    Designers and implementers of decentralization and other reform measures have focused much attention on financial and structural reform measures, but ignored their human resource implications. Concern is mounting about the impact that the reallocation of roles and responsibilities has had on the health workforce and its management, but the experiences and lessons of different countries have not been widely shared. This paper examines evidence from published literature on decentralization's impact on the demand side of the human resource equation, as well as the factors that have contributed to the impact. The elements that make such an impact analysis exceptionally complex are identified. They include the mode of decentralization that a country is implementing, the level of responsibility for the salary budget and pay determination, and the civil service status of transferred health workers.The main body of the paper is devoted to examining decentralization's impact on human resource issues from three different perspectives: that of local health managers, health workers themselves, and national health leaders. These three groups have different concerns in the human resource realm, and consequently, have been differently affected by decentralization processes. The paper concludes with recommendations regarding three key concerns that national authorities and international agencies should give prompt attention to. They are (1) defining the essential human resource policy, planning and management skills for national human resource managers who work in decentralized countries, and developing training programs to equip them with such skills; (2) supporting research that focuses on improving the knowledge base of how different modes of decentralization impact on staffing equity; and (3) identifying factors that most critically influence health worker motivation and performance under decentralization, and documenting the most cost-effective best practices to improve them

  18. Initial experiences and innovations in supervising community health workers for maternal, newborn, and child health in Morogoro region, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberton, Timothy; Applegate, Jennifer; Lefevre, Amnesty E; Mosha, Idda; Cooper, Chelsea M; Silverman, Marissa; Feldhaus, Isabelle; Chebet, Joy J; Mpembeni, Rose; Semu, Helen; Killewo, Japhet; Winch, Peter; Baqui, Abdullah H; George, Asha S

    2015-04-09

    Supervision is meant to improve the performance and motivation of community health workers (CHWs). However, most evidence on supervision relates to facility health workers. The Integrated Maternal, Newborn, and Child Health (MNCH) Program in Morogoro region, Tanzania, implemented a CHW pilot with a cascade supervision model where facility health workers were trained in supportive supervision for volunteer CHWs, supported by regional and district staff, and with village leaders to further support CHWs. We examine the initial experiences of CHWs, their supervisors, and village leaders to understand the strengths and challenges of such a supervision model for CHWs. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected concurrently from CHWs, supervisors, and village leaders. A survey was administered to 228 (96%) of the CHWs in the Integrated MNCH Program and semi-structured interviews were conducted with 15 CHWs, 8 supervisors, and 15 village leaders purposefully sampled to represent different actor perspectives from health centre catchment villages in Morogoro region. Descriptive statistics analysed the frequency and content of CHW supervision, while thematic content analysis explored CHW, supervisor, and village leader experiences with CHW supervision. CHWs meet with their facility-based supervisors an average of 1.2 times per month. CHWs value supervision and appreciate the sense of legitimacy that arises when supervisors visit them in their village. Village leaders and district staff are engaged and committed to supporting CHWs. Despite these successes, facility-based supervisors visit CHWs in their village an average of only once every 2.8 months, CHWs and supervisors still see supervision primarily as an opportunity to check reports, and meetings with district staff are infrequent and not well scheduled. Supervision of CHWs could be strengthened by streamlining supervision protocols to focus less on report checking and more on problem solving and skills development

  19. Occupational allergic diseases in kitchen and health care workers: an underestimated health issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilge, Ugur; Unluoglu, Ilhami; Son, Nazan; Keskin, Ahmet; Korkut, Yasemin; Unalacak, Murat

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the frequencies of allergic symptoms and rate of upper respiratory infections during the past year in the general population, kitchen workers (KW) and health care workers (HCW). The European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS) was used to inquire retrospectively about asthma and asthma-like symptoms and the number of treatments required for previous upper respiratory tract infections (URTI: acute pharyngitis, acute sinusitis, etc.) during the past year for health care workers, kitchen workers, and members of the general population. Adjusted odds ratios by gender, age, and smoking status were calculated. 579 subjects (186 from the general population, 205 KW, and 188 HCW; 263 females, 316 males) participated in the study. Noninfectious (allergic) rhinitis was significantly higher in the HCW and KW groups than in the general population (P issue. Health care providers should become familiar with workplace environments and environmental causes of occupational rhinitis and asthma.

  20. SICKNESS PRESENCE AND STRESSFUL LIFE EVENTS OF HEALTH CARE WORKERS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Škerjanc, Alenka; Fikfak, Metoda Dodič

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the study is to investigate the relationship between sickness presence and stressful life events among health care workers. Data were gathered from all health care workers at the University Medical Centre Ljubljana employed there in the period between 1 January 2010 and 31 December 2010. Each employee obtained a questionnaire composed of two standardized international questionnaires. There were 57% of sickness present health care workers among the participants. The sickness present reported to have more diseases of family member than the non-sickness present (OR = 1.5; 95% CI = 1.2-2.0), loan (OR = 1.4; 95% CI = 1.1-1.6), their partner lost job (OR = 1.4; 95% CI = 1.0-1.8), or they changed the place of living (OR = 1.4; 95% CI = 1.0-2.0). The results of the study indicate that stressful life events with economic consequences might have an important influence on sickness presence.

  1. The health information seeking behaviour and needs of community health workers in Chandigarh in Northern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, Sonika; Sharma, Vijay Lakshmi; Singh, Amarjeet; Goel, Sonu

    2015-06-01

    This article represents two-firsts for the feature--it is the first to report on a study outside the UK and the first to examine the health information needs of community health workers. Sonika Raj is pursuing PhD at the Centre for Public Health, Panjab University, Chandigarh, in India and she conducted her research in Chandigarh. The article outlines the important role that health workers at community level play in determining health outcomes in the developing world, including Chandigarh. It demonstrates that while those workers recognise their information needs, there are many issues affecting their ability to access health information effectively, not least their limited access to appropriate technology and training. AM. © 2015 Health Libraries Group.

  2. Lung health and heart rate variability changes in salt workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glad Mohesh, M I; Sundaramurthy, A

    2016-04-01

    India is the third largest salt producing country in the World, with a global annual production of 230 million tonnes. Large number of salt workers get employed in these salt milling plants risking their life from the effects of salt. Recent foreign evidences reported that these salt workers are exposed to aerosol salt particles that disturb their lung and cardiovascular autonomic control. To compare the status of lung health, cardiovascular autonomic control and biochemical changes in a group of salt industry workers with that of the age-matched normal subjects. Volunteers of both sexes (25-35 years) were divided into Group I (n=10) controls and Group II (n=10) non-brine salt workers in salt milling plants. From fasting blood sample, complete blood count, plasma electrolyte and lipid profile estimation were done. After resting for 15min, blood pressure and lead II ECG were recorded. Spirometry was done using RMS Helios spirometer. Data collected were later analysed using GraphPad Prism 5.0 with statistical significance set at p4.0, 112.8±1.7, pindustry has shown a little or no impact on the respiratory system, however there are changes in the blood and cardiovascular system, which need to be further studied to understand the long-term influences of salt in this population. Copyright © 2015 Tuberculosis Association of India. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Designing smartphone mental health applications for emergency service workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deady, M; Peters, D; Lang, H; Calvo, R; Glozier, N; Christensen, H; Harvey, S B

    2017-08-01

    Emergency service workers are often exposed to trauma and have increased risk of a range of mental health (MH) conditions. Smartphone applications have the potential to provide this group with effective psychological interventions; however, little is known about the acceptability and preferences regarding such initiatives. To describe the preferences and opinions of emergency service workers regarding the use of smartphone MH applications and to examine the impact of age on these preferences. Participants were recruited from four metropolitan Fire and Rescue NSW stations and responded to questionnaire items covering three key domains: current smartphone use, potential future use and preferences for design and content as well as therapeutic techniques. Overall, approximately half the sample (n = 106) claimed they would be interested in trying a tailored emergency-worker MH smartphone application. There were few differences between age groups on preferences. The majority of respondents claimed they would use an app for mental well-being daily and preferred terms such as 'well-being' and 'mental fitness' for referring to MH. Confidentiality, along with a focus on stress, sleep, exercise and resiliency were all considered key features. Behavioural therapeutic techniques were regarded most favourably, compared with other therapies. Emergency workers were interested in utilizing smartphone applications focused on MH, but expressed clear preferences regarding language used in promotion, features required and therapeutic techniques preferred. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  4. How female community health workers navigate work challenges and why there are still gaps in their performance: a look at female community health workers in maternal and child health in two Indian districts through a reciprocal determinism framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarin, Enisha; Lunsford, Sarah Smith

    2017-07-01

    Accredited Social Health Activists (ASHAs) are community health workers tasked to deliver health prevention in communities and link them with the health care sector. This paper examines the social, cultural, and institutional influences that either facilitate or impede ASHAs' abilities to deliver services effectively through the lens of the reciprocal determinism framework of social cognitive theory. We conducted 98 semi-structured, in-depth interviews with ASHAs (n = 49) and their family members (n = 49) in Gurdaspur and Mewat districts. Data were analyzed by comparing and contrasting codes leading to the identification of patterns which were explained with the help of a theoretical framework. We found that while the work of ASHAs led to some positive health changes in the community, thus providing them with a sense of self-worth and motivation, community norms and beliefs as well as health system attitudes and practices limited their capacity as community health workers. We outline potential mechanisms for improving ASHA capacity such as improved sensitization about religious, cultural, and gender norms; enhanced communication skills; and sensitization and advocating their work with health and state officials.

  5. Effects of Teaching Health Care Workers on Diagnosis and Treatment of Pesticide Poisonings in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibani, Claudia; Jessen, Kristian Kjaer; Tekin, Bircan; Nabankema, Victoria; Jørs, Erik

    2017-01-01

    Acute pesticide poisoning in developing countries is a considerable problem, requiring diagnosis and treatment. This study describes how training of health care workers in Uganda affects their ability to diagnose and manage acute pesticide poisoning. A postintervention cross-sectional study was conducted using a standardized questionnaire. A total of 326 health care workers in Uganda were interviewed on knowledge and handling of acute pesticide poisoning. Of those, 173 health care workers had received training, whereas 153 untrained health care workers from neighboring regions served as controls. Trained health care workers scored higher on knowledge of pesticide toxicity and handling of acute pesticide poisoning. Stratification by sex, profession, experience, and health center level did not have any influence on the outcome. Training health care workers can improve their knowledge and treatment of pesticide poisonings. Knowledge of the subject is still insufficient among health care workers and further training is needed.

  6. Health incentives: the science and art of motivating healthy behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Barry

    2008-01-01

    Employers seeking to motivate and encourage healthy behaviors among their employees are increasingly turning to incentive rewards. In fact, a recent Buck Consultants survey of 555 employers, titled Working Well: A Global Survey of Health Promotion and Workplace Wellness Strategies, predicts the use of such rewards to more than double over the next two to three years. This article provides an overview of the key considerations for employers seeking to maximize the value of incentive rewards. Discussion includes incentive strategies, types of rewards, reward amounts and regulatory considerations under the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) and the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA).

  7. Health workers' attitudes toward sexual and reproductive health services for unmarried adolescents in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilahun, Mesfin; Mengistie, Bezatu; Egata, Gudina; Reda, Ayalu A

    2012-09-03

    Adolescents in developing countries face a range of sexual and reproductive health problems. Lack of health care service for reproductive health or difficulty in accessing them are among them. In this study we aimed to examine health care workers' attitudes toward sexual and reproductive health services to unmarried adolescents in Ethiopia. We conducted a descriptive cross-sectional survey among 423 health care service providers working in eastern Ethiopia in 2010. A pre-tested structured questionnaire was used to collect data. Descriptive statistics, chi-square tests and logistic regression were performed to drive proportions and associations. The majority of health workers had positive attitudes. However, nearly one third (30%) of health care workers had negative attitudes toward providing RH services to unmarried adolescents. Close to half (46.5%) of the respondents had unfavorable responses toward providing family planning to unmarried adolescents. About 13% of health workers agreed to setting up penal rules and regulations against adolescents that practice pre-marital sexual intercourse. The multivariate analysis indicated that being married (OR 2.15; 95% CI 1.44 - 3.06), lower education level (OR 1.45; 95% CI 1.04 - 1.99), being a health extension worker (OR 2.49; 95% CI 1.43 - 4.35), lack of training on reproductive health services (OR 5.27; 95% CI 1.51 - 5.89) to be significantly associated with negative attitudes toward provision of sexual and reproductive services to adolescents. The majority of the health workers had generally positive attitudes toward sexual and reproductive health to adolescents. However, a minority has displayed negatives attitudes. Such negative attitudes will be barriers to service utilization by adolescents and hampers the efforts to reduce sexually transmitted infections and unwanted pregnancies among unmarried adolescents. We therefore call for a targeted effort toward alleviating negative attitudes toward adolescent

  8. Synthetic social support: Theorizing lay health worker interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, Nicola K; Kenyon, Sara; MacArthur, Christine; Jolly, Kate; Hope, Lucy

    2018-01-01

    Levels of social support are strongly associated with health outcomes and inequalities. The use of lay health workers (LHWs) has been suggested by policy makers across the world as an intervention to identify risks to health and to promote health, particularly in disadvantaged communities. However, there have been few attempts to theorize the work undertaken by LHWs to understand how interventions work. In this article, the authors present the concept of 'synthetic socialsupport' and distinguish it from the work of health professionals or the spontaneous social support received from friends and family. The authors provide new empirical data to illustrate the concept based on qualitative, observational research, using a novel shadowing method involving clinical and non-clinical researchers, on the everyday work of 'pregnancy outreach workers' (POWs) in Birmingham, UK. The service was being evaluated as part of a randomized controlled trial. These LHWs provided instrumental, informational, emotional and appraisal support to the women they worked with, which are all key components of social support. The social support was 'synthetic' because it was distinct from the support embedded in spontaneous social networks: it was non-reciprocal; it was offered on a strictly time-limited basis; the LHWs were accountable for the relationship, and the social networks produced were targeted rather than spontaneous. The latter two qualities of this synthetic form of social support may have benefits over spontaneous networks by improving the opportunities for the cultivation of new relationships (both strong and weak ties) outside the women's existing spontaneous networks that can have a positive impact on them and by offering a reliable source of health information and support in a chaotic environment. The concept of SSS can help inform policy makers about how deploying lay workers may enable them to achieve desired outcomes, specify their programme theories and evaluate

  9. Motivations for Health and Their Associations With Lifestyle, Work Style, Health, Vitality, and Employee Productivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheppingen, A.R. van; Vroome, E.M.M. de; Have, K.C.J.M. ten; Zwetsloot, G.I.J.M.; Bos, E.H.; Mechelen, W. van

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Investigate employees' underlying motivational regulatory styles toward healthy living and their associations with lifestyle, work style, health, vitality, and productivity. Methods: Regression analyses on cross-sectional data from Dutch employees (n = 629), obtained as baseline

  10. Motivations for Health and Their Associations With Lifestyle, Work Style, Health, Vitality, and Employee Productivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Scheppingen, A.R.; de Vroome, E.M.M.; ten Have, K.C.J.M.; Zwetsloot, G.I.J.M.; Bos, E.H.; van Mechelen, W.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:: Investigate employees' underlying motivational regulatory styles toward healthy living and their associations with lifestyle, work style, health, vitality, and productivity. METHODS:: Regression analyses on cross-sectional data from Dutch employees (n = 629), obtained as baseline

  11. Health concern, food choice motives, and attitudes toward healthy eating: the mediating role of food choice motives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yu-Hua Christine

    2008-07-01

    This study addresses how various health concerns might influence not only consumers' food choice motives but also consumers' subsequent attitudes toward healthy eating. This study expects that those consumers with greater health concerns would have different food choice motives and better attitudes toward healthy eating. A self-completion questionnaire was used to gather information. Participants, a random sample of 500 undergraduate students from a national university in Taipei, Taiwan, provided a total of 456 usable questionnaires, representing a valid response rate of 91%. The average age of the respondents at the time of the survey was 21 years and 63% of respondents were females. The relationship between health concern and healthy eating attitudes was confirmed. The relationship between health concern of developing diseases and attitudes toward healthy eating was fully mediated by food choice motives. However, the relationship between calorie consumption health concern and healthy eating attitudes was only partially mediated by food choice motives. Implications of these findings are discussed.

  12. Does decentralization influence efficiency of health units? A study of opinion and perception of health workers in Odisha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhuputra Panda

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health systems in low and middle income countries are struggling to improve efficiency in the functioning of health units of which workforce is one of the most critical building blocks. In India, Rogi Kalyan Samiti (RKS was established at every health unit as institutions of local decision making in order to improve productive efficiency and quality. Measuring efficiency of health units is a complex task. This study aimed at assessing the perception (opinion and satisfaction of health workers about influence of RKS on improving efficiency of peripheral decision making health units (DMHU; examining differences between priority and non-priority set-ups; identifying predictors of satisfaction at work; and discussing suggestions to improve performance. Methods Following a cross-sectional, comparative study design, 130 health workers from 30 institutions were selected through a multi-stage stratified random sampling. A semi-structured questionnaire was administered to assess perception and opinion of health workers about influence of RKS on efficiency of decision making at local level, motivation and performance of staff, and availability of funds; improvement of quality of services, and coordination among co-workers; and participation of community in local decision making. Three districts with highest infant mortality rate (IMR, one each, from 3 zones of Odisha and 3 with lowest IMR were selected on the basis of IMR estimates of 2011. The former constituted priority districts (PD and the latter, non-priority districts (NPD. Composite scores were developed and compared between PD and NPD. Adjusted linear regression was conducted to identify predictors of satisfaction at work. Results A majority of respondents felt that RKS was efficient in decision making that resulted in improvement of all critical parameters of health service delivery, including quality; this was significantly higher in PD. Further, higher proportion of

  13. Workplace violence against homecare workers and its relationship with workers health outcomes: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Ginger C; Perrin, Nancy A; Moss, Helen; Laharnar, Naima; Glass, Nancy

    2015-01-17

    Consumer-driven homecare models support aging and disabled individuals to live independently through the services of homecare workers. Although these models have benefits, including autonomy and control over services, little evidence exists about challenges homecare workers may face when providing services, including workplace violence and the negative outcomes associated with workplace violence. This study investigates the prevalence of workplace violence among homecare workers and examines the relationship between these experiences and homecare worker stress, burnout, depression, and sleep. We recruited female homecare workers in Oregon, the first US state to implement a consumer driven homecare model, to complete an on-line or telephone survey with peer interviewers. The survey asked about demographics and included measures to assess workplace violence, fear, stress, burnout, depression and sleep problems. Homecare workers (n = 1,214) reported past-year incidents of verbal aggression (50.3% of respondents), workplace aggression (26.9%), workplace violence (23.6%), sexual harassment (25.7%), and sexual aggression (12.8%). Exposure was associated with greater stress (p workplace aggression buffered homecare workers against negative work and health outcomes. To ensure homecare worker safety and positive health outcomes in the provision of services, it is critical to develop and implement preventive safety training programs with policies and procedures that support homecare workers who experience harassment and violence.

  14. The Role of Age and Occupational Future Time Perspective in Workers' Motivation to Learn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochoian, Nané; Raemdonck, Isabel; Frenay, Mariane; Zacher, Hannes

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to better understand the relationship between employees' chronological age and their motivation to learn, by adopting a lifespan perspective. Based on socioemotional selectivity theory, we suggest that occupational future time perspective mediates the relationship between age and motivation to learn. In accordance with…

  15. Authenticity at Work: Its Relations with Worker Motivation and Well-being

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bosch, Ralph; Taris, T.W.

    Drawing on Self-Determination Theory (SDT; Deci et al., 2017), this study examines the associations between authenticity at work, motivation and well-being, assuming that motivation would at least partly mediate the association between authenticty and well-being. Since authentic behavior refers to

  16. Organizational Communication Based on Organizational Justice Theory for Motivating Workers with Different Cultural Values

    OpenAIRE

    山口,生史

    2002-01-01

    This study is based on organizational justice theory. Although organizational justice theory is useful for explaining organizational behavior, it has not focused on motivation, per se. ln this study, the linkage between organizational justice and motivation is explored with the mediating effect of interpersonal communication in an organization (i.e.,organizational communication).

  17. Predictors of consistent condom use among Chinese female sex workers: an application of the protection motivation theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liying; Li, Xiaoming; Zhou, Yuejiao; Lin, Danhua; Su, Shaobing; Zhang, Chen; Stanton, Bonita

    2015-01-01

    We utilized Protection Motivation Theory to assess predictors of intention and behavior of consistent condom use among Chinese female sex workers (FSWs). A self-administered questionnaire was used in a cross-sectional survey among 700 FSWs in Guangxi, China. Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that extrinsic and intrinsic rewards, self-efficacy, and response costs predicted consistent condom use intention and behavior among FSWs. Sexually transmitted infection/ HIV prevention programs need to reduce FSWs' perceptions of positive extrinsic rewards and intrinsic rewards for engaging in consistent condom use, reduce FSWs' perception of response costs for using a condom, and increase condom use self-efficacy among FSWs.

  18. Worker Safety and Health Issues Associated with the DOE Environmental Cleanup Program: Insights From the DOE Laboratory Directors' Environmental and Occupational/Public health Standards Steering Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    M.C. Edelson; Samuel C. Morris; Joan M. Daisey

    2001-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Laboratory Directors' Environmental and Occupational/Public Health Standards Steering Group (or ''SSG'') was formed in 1990. It was felt then that ''risk'' could be an organizing principle for environmental cleanup and that risk-based cleanup standards could rationalize clean up work. The environmental remediation process puts workers engaged in cleanup activities at risk from hazardous materials and from the more usual hazards associated with construction activities. In a real sense, the site remediation process involves the transfer of a hypothetical risk to the environment and the public from isolated contamination into real risks to the workers engaged in the remediation activities. Late in its existence the SSG, primarily motivated by its LANL representative, Dr. Harry Ettinger, actively investigated issues associated with worker health and safety during environmental remediation activities. This paper summarizes the insights noted by the SSG. Most continue to be pertinent today

  19. Busting the myth of low motivation in low-skilled workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mariager-Anderson, Kristina; Cort, Pia

    2016-01-01

    Should low-skilled workers continuously adapt to the needs of the labour market to ensure their own employability? The preoccupation with low-skilled people and their reluctance to be lifelong learners is apparent in surveys and research projects attempting to identify low-skilled workers’ barrie...... to learning: Are low-skilled workers unable to do what is right according to policies? Should they continuously adapt to the needs of the labour market and ensure their own employability? This policy narrative of ‘unmotivated’ low-skilled workers needs to be questioned....

  20. EVALUATION OF LABOR CONDITIONS BY PUBLIC HEALTH WORKERS IN THE RUSSIAN FAR EAST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. V. Kirik

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to analyze the conditions and organization of work of public health workers of state medical organizations in the Far East of Russia according to a medical and sociological survey. Materials and methods. A questionnaire survey was chosen. There are 835 people took part in the poll. To gather social information, three groups of respondents were selected: 1 senior and middle managers, 2 heads of structural units; 3 doctors, various clinical specialties, included in the reserve of management personnel. The collection of statistical data was conducted in 2015- 2017. Statistical analysis of the data was carried out using the methods of calculating relative values, calculating the average values, and ANOVA. Results. According to the obtained results, all groups of respondents believe that present healthcare industry in Russia is developed satisfactorily. Participants in the survey estimate the current state of resources of public health institutions rather low. According to the survey results, health workers give an unsatisfactory assessment of the technical condition of the buildings of medical organizations, of the provision of doctors and middle medical personnel. Among the proposed motivational factors of labor activity, healthcare workers and give a satisfactory assessment of such factors as: the discipline of work, the amount of work, the safety in the workplace, the stability of the workplace and interpersonal relations with colleagues. Opinion of medical workers does not coincide in the assessment of factors: wages, technical support of the workplace, the volume of document circulation, the opportunity for professional development, self-realization and career growth. Senior and middle managers assess these factors as «satisfactory», doctors give an assessment of «unsatisfactory». Heads of structural subdivisions assess the factors of technical support for the workplace, the size of wages and volume of document

  1. Motivations of persons with psychiatric disabilities to work in mental health peer services: a qualitative study using self-determination theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Galia Sharon; Russinova, Zlatka; Yim, Jung Yeon; Sprague, Catherine

    2014-03-01

    Individuals with psychiatric disabilities have low rates of employment and occupational rehabilitation success. Mental health peer services are a new occupational modality that opened a promising occupational path: persons with serious mental illnesses employed to provide support to others with psychiatric conditions. However challenges to successful peer work exist. Work motivation is central to understanding and supporting peer workers, yet little is known about sources of motivation to work as mental health peer providers. The aim of this study was to identify what drives individuals to mental health peer work using self determination theory (SDT). Motivations of 31 mental health peer workers were explored as part of a larger study. A theory driven approach was employed to emerging qualitative data using SDT concepts: external motivation and internally regulated motivations derived from basic needs (autonomy, competence, relatedness). External motivations included generic occupational goals and getting away from negative work experiences. Internal motivations corresponded with SDT basic needs: autonomy met-needs was reflected in having freedom to disclose and finding that work accords with personal values; competence met-needs was reflected in using personal experience as a resource to help others; and relatedness met-needs were reflected in having opportunity to connect intimately and reciprocate with consumers. This study identified external and internal motivations of persons with psychiatric disabilities to work as peer providers-a novel occupation in mental health. Employing personal experience and enabling peer contact emerge as major motivational tenets of mental health peer work. According to SDT instrumental occupational goals are considered more external than satisfaction of basic psychological needs. The study demonstrates the applicability of SDT in the design of autonomy supported environments to promote work engagement and sustenance of mental

  2. Comparing the job satisfaction and intention to leave of different categories of health workers in Tanzania, Malawi, and South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaauw, Duane; Ditlopo, Prudence; Maseko, Fresier; Chirwa, Maureen; Mwisongo, Aziza; Bidwell, Posy; Thomas, Steve; Normand, Charles

    2013-01-24

    Job satisfaction is an important determinant of health worker motivation, retention, and performance, all of which are critical to improving the functioning of health systems in low- and middle-income countries. A number of small-scale surveys have measured the job satisfaction and intention to leave of individual health worker cadres in different settings, but there are few multi-country and multi-cadre comparative studies. The objective of this study was to compare the job satisfaction and intention to leave of different categories of health workers in Tanzania, Malawi, and South Africa. We undertook a cross-sectional survey of a stratified cluster sample of 2,220 health workers, 564 from Tanzania, 939 from Malawi, and 717 from South Africa. Participants completed a self-administered questionnaire, which included demographic information, a 10-item job satisfaction scale, and one question on intention to leave. Multiple regression was used to identify significant predictors of job satisfaction and intention to leave. There were statistically significant differences in job satisfaction and intention to leave between the three countries. Approximately 52.1% of health workers in South Africa were satisfied with their jobs compared to 71% from Malawi and 82.6% from Tanzania (χ2=140.3, pjob satisfaction is statistically related to intention to leave. We have shown differences in the levels of job satisfaction and intention to leave between different groups of health workers from Tanzania, Malawi, and South Africa. Our results caution against generalising about the effectiveness of interventions in different contexts and highlight the need for less standardised and more targeted HRH strategies than has been practised to date.

  3. Comparing the job satisfaction and intention to leave of different categories of health workers in Tanzania, Malawi, and South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaauw, Duane; Ditlopo, Prudence; Maseko, Fresier; Chirwa, Maureen; Mwisongo, Aziza; Bidwell, Posy; Thomas, Steve; Normand, Charles

    2013-01-01

    Background Job satisfaction is an important determinant of health worker motivation, retention, and performance, all of which are critical to improving the functioning of health systems in low- and middle-income countries. A number of small-scale surveys have measured the job satisfaction and intention to leave of individual health worker cadres in different settings, but there are few multi-country and multi-cadre comparative studies. Objective The objective of this study was to compare the job satisfaction and intention to leave of different categories of health workers in Tanzania, Malawi, and South Africa. Methods We undertook a cross-sectional survey of a stratified cluster sample of 2,220 health workers, 564 from Tanzania, 939 from Malawi, and 717 from South Africa. Participants completed a self-administered questionnaire, which included demographic information, a 10-item job satisfaction scale, and one question on intention to leave. Multiple regression was used to identify significant predictors of job satisfaction and intention to leave. Results There were statistically significant differences in job satisfaction and intention to leave between the three countries. Approximately 52.1% of health workers in South Africa were satisfied with their jobs compared to 71% from Malawi and 82.6% from Tanzania (χ2=140.3, pjob satisfaction is statistically related to intention to leave. Conclusions We have shown differences in the levels of job satisfaction and intention to leave between different groups of health workers from Tanzania, Malawi, and South Africa. Our results caution against generalising about the effectiveness of interventions in different contexts and highlight the need for less standardised and more targeted HRH strategies than has been practised to date. PMID:23364090

  4. Motives underlying food choice: dentists, porters and dietary health promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossley, M L; Khan, S N

    2001-08-25

    Differences in dental decay and disease amongst socioeconomic groups are thought to derive, in part, from variations in dietary practices and differences in education. The aim of this exploratory study was to examine whether differences in motivating factors affecting food choice could be found in a comparison of two groups at very different ends of the social spectrum: dentists and porters/cleaners. A convenience sample of 100 people (51 porters/cleaners and 49 dentists) working in the dental school at a university in the North West of England were approached to interview face-to-face and complete the Food Choice Questionnaire (FCQ), a previously validated measure designed to assess nine main factors relevant to peoples' food choices. A sample size of 100 was chosen because it was adequate to test validity (using a two-group Chi-square test with a 0.050 two sided significance). Findings were analysed using independent sample t-test and multiple linear regression. Results indicated significant differences between porters/cleaners and dentists in terms of their motives for food choice on six of the nine FCQ factors. These included convenience (p motivational factors affecting food choice between different social groups is important to dental practitioners who are being taught to play an increasing role in health promotion. If dental practitioners are to partake meaningfully in such a role, it is necessary for them to be aware not only of their own motives in food selection, but also of the way in which those motives may differ from those of their clients.

  5. Epidemiology of Late Health Effects in Ukrainian Chornobyl Cleanup Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazyka, Dimitry; Prysyazhnyuk, Anatoly; Gudzenko, Natalya; Dyagil, Iryna; Belyi, David; Chumak, Vadim; Buzunov, Volodymyr

    2018-07-01

    This article summarizes the results of 30 y of follow-up of cancer and noncancer effects in Ukrainian cleanup workers after the Chornobyl accident. The number of power plant employees and first responders with acute radiation syndrome under follow-up by the National Research Center for Radiation Medicine decreased from 179 in 1986-1991 to 105 in 2011-2015. Cancers and leukemia (19) and cardiovascular diseases (21) were the main causes of deaths among acute radiation syndrome survivors (54) during the postaccident period. Increased radiation risks of leukemia in the Ukrainian cohort of 110,645 cleanup workers exposed to low doses are comparable to those among survivors of the atomic bomb explosions in Japan in 1945. Additionally, an excess of chronic lymphocytic leukemia was demonstrated in the cleanup workers cohort for 26 y after the exposure. A significant excess of multiple myeloma incidence [standardized incidence rate (SIR) 1.61 %, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.01-2.21], thyroid cancer (SIR 4.18, 95% CI 3.76-4.59), female breast cancer (SIR 1.57 CI 1.40-1.73), and all cancers combined (SIR 1.07; 95% CI 1.05-1.09) was registered. High prevalence was demonstrated for cardio- and cerebrovascular diseases and mental health changes. However, the reasons for the increases require further investigation. To monitor other possible late effects of radiation exposure in Chornobyl cleanup workers, analytical cohort and case-control studies need to include cardiovascular pathology, specifically types of potentially radiogenic cancers using a molecular epidemiology approach. Possible effects for further study include increased rates of thyroid, breast, and lung cancers and multiple myeloma; reduction of radiation risks of leukemia to population levels; and increased morbidity and mortality of cleanup workers from cardio- and cerebrovascular pathology.

  6. Workers' Health Surveillance in the Meat Processing Industry : Work and Health Indicators Associated with Work Ability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Holland, Berry J.; Soer, Remko; de Boer, Michiel R.; Reneman, Michiel F.; Brouwer, Sandra

    Background Workers' health surveillance (WHS) programs commonly measure a large number of indicators addressing health habits and health risks. Recently, work ability and functional capacity have been included as important risk measures in WHS. In order to address work ability appropriately,

  7. Employee health and frequency of workers' compensation and disability claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhnen, Ann E; Burch, Steven P; Shenolikar, Rahul A; Joy, Karen A

    2009-09-01

    To assess the relationship between self-assessed employee health risk status and future workers' compensation (WC) and short-term disability (STD) claims. A historical cohort study linking Health Risk Assessment (HRA) survey data with subsequent WC and STD claims. HRA participants who developed a WC or STD claim in the subsequent 12 months were identified as cases and compared with HRA participants who did not develop a claim in the subsequent 12 months. High-risk participants had higher odds of filing a WC claim, when compared with low-risk participants (OR: 2.99, 95% CI: 1.22 to 7.32) despite adjustment for demographic factors including job type. Medium-risk participants had 1.5 times higher odds, when compared with low-risk participants to file for STD (OR: 1.45, 95% CI: 1.15 to 1.82). Other relationships trended similarly but did not reach statistical significance. Self-assessed personal health risk does impact future lost productivity in WC and STD claims even after adjustment for demographic, health factors, and job type (WC only). Employers wishing to reduce the impact of lost productivity should consider a worker's personal health risks as predictors of future lost productivity and may want to address this in broad risk reduction programs.

  8. HEALTH WORKER AND FIBROMYALGIA: relationship between pain, and physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Cristina Costa

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present article is to address the concept of fibromyalgie, as well as the painful symptomatology and physical exercise as a therapeutic manner, stressing the importance of this alteration in the field of workers health. It is in fact a revision, carried out through consultations of scientific articles selected in periodicals indexed at the basis of the Scientific Electronic Library Online – SciELO and PubMed. In spite of the absence of scientific evidences that point to physical efforts as factors that cause fibromyalgie, there are some studies relating the repetitive microtrauma stemming from work as ethiological agent. It is characterized as a syndrome whose main symptom is pain, which is utilized as a manner of evaluation and pathology follow-up, through such tools as scales. With regard to the treatment, physical exercises are able to minimize the algie and other symptoms. Finally, all related research works pursue correct and deep understanding of this pathology, so as to define more appropriate treatments, whilst keeping the person’s position as worker, under the assistance of specialized workers health services, thus providing quality of life.

  9. [Effect of highway driving on the health of factory workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uramoto, Hidetaka

    2008-06-01

    Commuting transportation is one of the important factors in the administration of safety management in industries. Most workers commute to work by car and are certain to make use of highways, mainly because of the special condition of factory locations. In this study, we investigated the effect of communicating by car on the health of factory workers. The proportion of males was significantly higher in the highway (HW) group than in the non-highway (NHW) group, and the former was younger than the latter. BMI, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and total cholesterol deteriorated significantly in the NHW group after 5-year periodic medical checkups. However, in the HW group, those factors did not change except for systolic blood pressure and significant improvements in triglyceride. The percentage of those who follow a good lifestyle regarding excise and nutrition, and have a solution for stress, was lower in the HW group than in the NHW group. Nevertheless, the percentage of those who did not feel stress was significantly higher in the HW group than in the NHW group, suggesting a stress-relieving effect of highway driving. Highway driving might have an unexpectedly good impact on the health of factory workers.

  10. MOTIVATION OF EMPLOYEES AND BEHAVIOUR MODIFICATION IN HEALTH CARE ORGANISATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snezana Miljkovic

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available All health care organizations deal with proposed actions for achievement of goals with the best use of human resources. In that respect, close attention must be paid to motivation of individuals by means of initiative, rewards, leadership, and organizational context within which the work is being organized. The goal is to develop organizational processes and workplace environment that will help them to show the expected results. Motivation is the process of initiation, an activity aimed at achieving specific goals. Employees who do not have clear goals or have no goals at all work slowly, execute given tasks poorly, show lack of interest and complete fewer tasks than the employees who have clear and challenging goals. Employees with clearly defined goals are energetic and more productive. Behavior modification includes the use of four means to achieve this goal, known as intervention strategies. These strategies are: positive incentive, negative incentive, punishment and lack of reaction.

  11. Enhancing health worker performance in Ethiopia with mHealth ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2018-01-29

    Jan 29, 2018 ... ... in maternal and child health and tuberculosis (TB) control, priority health areas. ... Carried out in collaboration with the Liverpool School of Tropical ... HEWs to visit expectant mothers during the weeks leading up to the birth.

  12. Health Worker Opinion/Perception of Health Services provided to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nancy Kamau

    VDH Industrial Hygiene CC.PO. Box ... conducted to establish relations of mining activities to human health at Selebi. Phikwe is called for. .... Table 1: Demographic data of health service providers and patients in the study area. Medical ...

  13. Training of trainers for community primary health care workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cernada, G P

    1983-01-01

    Training community-based health care workers in "developing" countries is essential to improving the quality of life in both rural and urban areas. Two major obstacles to such training are the tremendous social distance gap between these community workers and their more highly-educated and upper-class trainers (often medical officers) and the didactic, formal educational system. Bridging this gap demands a participant-centered, field-oriented approach which actively involves the trainee in the design, implementation and evaluation of the training program. A description of a philosophic learning approach based on self-initiated change, educational objectives related to planning, organizing, conducting and evaluating training, and specific learning methodologies utilizing participatory learning, non-formal educational techniques, field experience, continuing feedback and learner participation are reviewed. Included are: role playing, story telling, case studies, self-learning and simulation exercises, visuals, and Portapak videotape.

  14. Analysis of accidents with organic material in health workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Mariana; Padilha, Maria Itayra; Pinheiro, Regina Dal Castel

    2011-01-01

    This retrospective and descriptive study with a quantitative design aimed to evaluate occupational accidents with exposure to biological material, as well as the profile of workers, based on reporting forms sent to the Regional Reference Center of Occupational Health in Florianópolis/SC. Data collection was carried out through a survey of 118 reporting forms in 2007. Data were analyzed electronically. The occurrence of accidents was predominantly among nursing technicians, women and the mean age was 34.5 years. 73% of accidents involved percutaneous exposure, 78% had blood and fluid with blood, 44.91% resulted from invasive procedures. It was concluded that strategies to prevent the occurrence of accidents with biological material should include joint activities between workers and service management and should be directed at improving work conditions and organization.

  15. Burnout and Physical Health among Social Workers: A Three-Year Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hansung; Ji, Juye; Kao, Dennis

    2011-01-01

    The high risk of burnout in the social work profession is well established, but little is known about burnout's impact on the physical health of social workers. This article examines the relationship between burnout and physical health, using data from a longitudinal study of social workers. California-registered social workers (N = 406) were…

  16. MOTIVATION AT WORK - STUDY ON THE SATISFACTION LEVEL OF WORKERS IN A CLOTHING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roseli Vieira Pires

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Motivation is a relevant fact because they come from intimate human, what motivates you, in case the company should offer tools to facilitate the work of its employees, continuous improvement employee requires changes in organizational environment by requiring mainly that is proposed, means for the employee can show that he can be considered excellent, leading him to stimuli increasing its capacity, dedication, persistence, responsibility and commitment, this paper aims to conduct a study on the level of motivation employees of a confection, as a theoretical foundation was based on: motivation, motivation at work and in some theories on the subject, so much has been used as a method applying a questionnaire with sample equivalent to 50% of the company's employees through the data analysis it is perceived that they are not motivated, the befitting for her not using motivational policies, and that the relationship with the boss imposes a psychological pressure to the desktop repressing contributor to efficiently perform its function.

  17. Workers' involvement--a missing component in the implementation of occupational safety and health management systems in enterprises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podgórski, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    Effective implementation of occupational safety and health (OSH) legislation based on European Union directives requires promotion of OSH management systems (OSH MS). To this end, voluntary Polish standards (PN-N-18000) have been adopted, setting forth OSH MS specifications and guidelines. However, the number of enterprises implementing OSH MS has increased slowly, falling short of expectations, which call for a new national policy on OSH MS promotion. To develop a national policy in this area, a survey was conducted in 40 enterprises with OSH MS in place. The survey was aimed at identifying motivational factors underlying OSH MS implementation decisions. Specifically, workers' and their representatives' involvement in OSH MS implementation was investigated. The results showed that the level of workers' involvement was relatively low, which may result in a low effectiveness of those systems. The same result also applies to the involvement of workers' representatives and that of trade unions.

  18. Strengthening and expanding the capacity of health worker education in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelo, Charles; Zulu, Joseph Mumba; Simuyemba, Moses; Andrews, Benjamin; Katubulushi, Max; Chi, Benjamin; Njelesani, Evariste; Vwalika, Bellington; Bowa, Kasonde; Maimbolwa, Margaret; Chipeta, James; Goma, Fastone; Nzala, Selestine; Banda, Sekelani; Mudenda, John; Ahmed, Yusuf; Hachambwa, Lotti; Wilson, Craig; Vermund, Sten; Mulla, Yakub

    2017-01-01

    Zambia is facing a chronic shortage of health care workers. The paper aimed at understanding how the Medical Education Partnership Initiative (MEPI) program facilitated strengthening and expanding of the national capacity and quality of medical education as well as processes for retaining faculty in Zambia. Data generated through documentary review, key informant interviews and observations were analyzed using a thematic approach. The MEPI program triggered the development of new postgraduate programs thereby increasing student enrollment. This was achieved by leveraging of existing and new partnerships with other universities and differentiating the old Master in Public Health into specialized curriculum. Furthermore, the MEPI program improved the capacity and quality of training by facilitating installation and integration of new technology such as the eGranary digital library, E-learning methods and clinical skills laboratory into the Schools. This technology enabled easy access to relevant data or information, quicker turn around of experiments and enhanced data recording, display and analysis features for experiments. The program also facilitated transforming of the academic environment into a more conducive work place through strengthening the Staff Development program and support towards research activities. These activities stimulated work motivation and interest in research by faculty. Meanwhile, these processes were inhibited by the inability to upload all courses on to Moodle as well as inadequate operating procedures and feedback mechanisms for the Moodle. Expansion and improvement in training processes for health care workers requires targeted investment within medical institutions and strengthening local and international partnerships.

  19. Occupational Health Hazards among Healthcare Workers in Kampala, Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rawlance Ndejjo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To assess the occupational health hazards faced by healthcare workers and the mitigation measures. Methods. We conducted a cross-sectional study utilizing quantitative data collection methods among 200 respondents who worked in 8 major health facilities in Kampala. Results. Overall, 50.0% of respondents reported experiencing an occupational health hazard. Among these, 39.5% experienced biological hazards while 31.5% experienced nonbiological hazards. Predictors for experiencing hazards included not wearing the necessary personal protective equipment (PPE, working overtime, job related pressures, and working in multiple health facilities. Control measures to mitigate hazards were availing separate areas and containers to store medical waste and provision of safety tools and equipment. Conclusion. Healthcare workers in this setting experience several hazards in their workplaces. Associated factors include not wearing all necessary protective equipment, working overtime, experiencing work related pressures, and working in multiple facilities. Interventions should be instituted to mitigate the hazards. Specifically PPE supply gaps, job related pressures, and complacence in adhering to mitigation measures should be addressed.

  20. Worker health is good for the economy: union density and psychosocial safety climate as determinants of country differences in worker health and productivity in 31 European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dollard, Maureen F; Neser, Daniel Y

    2013-09-01

    Work stress is recognized globally as a social determinant of worker health. Therefore we explored whether work stress related factors explained national differences in health and productivity (gross domestic product (GDP)). We proposed a national worker health productivity model whereby macro market power factors (i.e. union density), influence national worker health and GDP via work psychosocial factors and income inequality. We combined five different data sets canvasing 31 wealthy European countries. Aggregated worker self-reported health accounted for 13 per cent of the variance in national life expectancy and in national gross domestic product (GDP). The most important factors explaining worker self-reported health and GDP between nations were two levels of labor protection, macro-level (union density), and organizational-level (psychosocial safety climate, PSC, i.e. the extent of management concern for worker psychological health). The majority of countries with the highest levels of union density and PSC (i.e., workplace protections) were Social Democratic in nature (i.e., Sweden, Finland, Denmark, Norway). Results support a type of society explanation that social and economic factors (e.g., welfare regimes, work related policies) in concert with political power agents at a national level explain in part national differences in workplace protection (PSC) that are important for worker health and productivity. Attention should be given across all countries, to national policies to improve worker health, by bolstering national and local democratic processes and representation to address and implement policies for psychosocial risk factors for work stress, bullying and violence. Results suggest worker health is good for the economy, and should be considered in national health and productivity accounting. Eroding unionism may not be good for worker health or the economy either. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Examining domains of community health nurse satisfaction and motivation: results from a mixed-methods baseline evaluation in rural Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacks, Emma; Alva, Soumya; Magalona, Sophia; Vesel, Linda

    2015-10-08

    A strong health system requires a competent and caring workforce. A more satisfied and motivated health workforce should be more willing to serve in difficult areas, have lower turnover, and theoretically provide better care to patients. This paper examines the motivation, satisfaction, and correlation with clinical knowledge, of community health nurses (CHNs), a cadre of provider focused on maternal, newborn and child health in rural Ghana. This study employed three methods of evaluation. Two quantitative measurements were used: (1) a survey of health worker satisfaction and motivation and (2) a clinical knowledge assessment focusing on maternal, newborn and child health. Both were administered to all rostered CHNs working in the five sampled districts in the Greater Accra and Volta regions in Eastern Ghana (N = 205). Qualitative interviews (N = 29) and focus group discussions (N = 4) were held with selected CHNs in the same districts. These data were analysed using NVivo (Version 10) and Stata (Version 13.0) based on domains of extrinsic and intrinsic motivation including general satisfaction, work environment and access to resources, respect and recognition received and opportunities for advancement. CHNs desired more training, especially those who were posted at the community level (a Community-based Health Planning and Services post or "CHPS") versus at a health facility. CHNs working at CHPS believed their work to be more difficult than those posted at health facilities, due to challenges associated with foot travel to visit patients at home, and they were more likely to report having insufficient resources to do their jobs (48% vs 36%). However, CHNs posted at health facilities were more likely to report insufficient opportunities for career advancement than the CHPS nurses (49% vs 33%). CHNs generally reported good relationships with colleagues and being respected by patients but desired more respect from supervisors. The median score on the

  2. Health impacts of exposure to second hand smoke (SHS) amongst a highly exposed workforce: survey of London casino workers.