WorldWideScience

Sample records for health visitors contribute

  1. How do nurses, midwives and health visitors contribute to protocol-based care? A synthesis of the UK literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilott, Irene; Booth, Andrew; Rick, Jo; Patterson, Malcolm

    2010-06-01

    To explore how nurses, midwives and health visitors contribute to the development, implementation and audit of protocol-based care. Protocol-based care refers to the use of documents that set standards for clinical care processes with the intent of reducing unacceptable variations in practice. Documents such as protocols, clinical guidelines and care pathways underpin evidence-based practice throughout the world. An interpretative review using the five-stage systematic literature review process. The data sources were the British Nursing Index, CINAHL, EMBASE, MEDLINE and Web of Science from onset to 2005. The Journal of Integrated Care Pathways was hand searched (1997-June 2006). Thirty three studies about protocol-based care in the United Kingdom were appraised using the Qualitative Assessment and Review Instrument (QARI version 2). The literature was synthesized inductively and deductively, using an official 12-step guide for development as a framework for the deductive synthesis. Most papers were descriptive, offering practitioner knowledge and positive findings about a locally developed and owned protocol-based care. The majority were instigated in response to clinical need or service re-design. Development of protocol-based care was a non-linear, idiosyncratic process, with steps omitted, repeated or completed in a different order. The context and the multiple purposes of protocol-based care influenced the development process. Implementation and sustainability were rarely mentioned, or theorised as a change. The roles and activities of nurses were so understated as to be almost invisible. There were notable gaps in the literature about the resource use costs, the engagement of patients in the decision-making process, leadership and the impact of formalisation and new roles on inter-professional relations. Documents that standardise clinical care are part of the history of nursing as well as contemporary evidence-based care and expanded roles. Considering the

  2. Early Parent-infant Interactions; Are Health Visitors' Observations Reliable?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Ingeborg Hedegaard; Simonsen, Marianne; Trillingsgaard, Tea

    2014-01-01

    Early Parent-infant Interactions: Are Health Visitors’ Observations Reliable? Cross-sectional study of Danish Marte Meo Therapists’ Competence The quality of parent-infant relations is essential for infant development, and its assessment by health visitors is potentially important to promote...... visitors working in the area. The study population consisted of 121 health visitors, 36 had a standardized parenting program education (certified Marte Meo therapists) and 85 had no standardized parenting program education. Measures: A self-reported questionnaire assessing intention, self...... to the Infant CARE-Index. Health visitors individually reviewed each video twice august 2013. Data analyzed in STATA estimating frequencies, associations and comparing answers from the two groups of health visitors. Both groups had high intentions and self-efficacy according to working with parent...

  3. What do health visitors gain from behavioural workshops?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, K; Hobday, A; Crawford, W

    1989-01-01

    Health visitors' ratings of their role, competence, methods and effectiveness in resolving each of seven common types of preschool behaviour problem were obtained both prior to attending a behavioural training workshop and about 9 months later. At follow-up a structured interview examined their current practice in relation to preschool behaviour problems. Results suggest that these experienced health visitors perceived themselves as reasonably self-sufficient in dealing with these problems prior to training. Training had a significant but consolidating effect on these views. Possible mismatches between the health visitor's view of herself as a behaviour change agent and her training experiences in behavioural methods are examined and some suggestions are made regarding future liaison between health visitors and clinical child psychologists.

  4. What blocks health visitors from taking on a leadership role?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyett, Erika

    2003-07-01

    Current government documents in the United Kingdom call for all nurses to take on a greater leadership role. This paper critically considers some of the management factors that block one group of specialist nurses (health visitors) from fulfilling their leadership role. Health visitors have a key role to play in meeting the public health targets of local primary care trusts, known as local health improvement plans. But to take on a greater public health role, health visitors need to move away from working independently within separate general practitioner surgeries and to work in teams which share the vision and goals of the primary care trusts. The paper explores different styles of management that promote transformational leadership and relate to practice. It is suggested that use of the Servant-Leader model of management should encourage the empowerment of staff, and through empowerment health visitors should be able to instigate change and become more innovative in their practice. Persistent recruitment and retention problems have resulted in little time being available to focus on the effectiveness of services. The future management of health visitors will be to primarily run the service while supporting staff in accessing and influencing those in power.

  5. Depression in the work of British health visitors: clinical facets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard, M

    1996-12-01

    The primary health care setting has been established as a key venue for identifying and working with depression. Despite this, and the high risk of depression experienced by women in the post-natal period, maternal depression has been little examined in the work of health visitors. This study focuses on clinical facets of this work, including the rate and content of depression amongst health visitor attenders, the capacity of health visitors to identify accurately the presence of depression, the relationship between depression and child abuse and child behavioural issues, variations in the practice of health visitors and work with other professionals. In a cohort of 701, 11% of women were depressed, with distinguishing symptoms including fatigability, disgust/hate of herself and a sense of failure. Health visitors were not generally accurate in their identification of depression, were significantly more likely to see depressed women at home (than at clinic), but there was little difference in mean frequency of consultations according to whether or not the women were depressed. Urban health visitors had a higher mean frequency of consultations, but rural health visitors showed a rather greater tendency to increase frequency of consultation with the presence of depression. Child abuse concerns and behavioural problems were significantly associated with depression and these were three times as frequent amongst depressed women with no children aged under one compared with women in their post-natal year. Depressed women were far more likely to be involved with other agencies, but the GP was by far the most likely other professional to be involved. Health visitors are in a strategic position to help women with depression, and it is important that they are able to identify its presence. The association with child abuse is very important and indicates the need for multi-professional involvement, particularly with social workers, to a greater degree than was evident. The

  6. Competency, confidence and conflicting evidence: key issues affecting health visitors' use of research evidence in practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calnan Michael

    2009-04-01

    concerns, particularly when there is apparently conflicting evidence. Health visitors' relative lack of confidence about research on immunisation suggests there is still a job to be done in rebuilding confidence in evidence on childhood immunisation. Further research on what makes evidence more comprehensible, convincing and useable would contribute to understanding how to bridge the gulf between evidence and practice.

  7. 2016 National Park visitor spending effects: Economic contributions to local communities, states, and the Nation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullinane Thomas, Catherine; Koontz, Lynne

    2017-01-01

    The National Park Service (NPS) manages the Nation’s most iconic destinations that attract millions of visitors from across the Nation and around the world. Trip-related spending by NPS visitors generates and supports a considerable amount of economic activity within park gateway communities. This economic effects analysis measures how NPS visitor spending cycles through local economies, generating business sales and supporting jobs and income. In 2016, the National Park System received an estimated 330,971,689 recreation visits. Visitors to National Parks spent an estimated $18.4 billion in local gateway regions (defined as communities within 60 miles of a park). The contribution of this spending to the national economy was 318 thousand jobs, $12.0 billion in labor income, $19.9 billion in value added, and $34.9 billion in economic output. The lodging sector saw the highest direct contributions with $5.7 billion in economic output directly contributed to local gateway economies nationally. The sector with the next greatest direct contributions was the restaurants and bars sector, with $3.7 billion in economic output directly contributed to local gateway economies nationally. Results from the Visitor Spending Effects report series are available online via an interactive tool. Users can view year-by-year trend data and explore current year visitor spending, jobs, labor income, value added, and economic output effects by sector for national, state, and local economies. This interactive tool is available at https://www.nps.gov/subjects/socialscience/vse.htm.

  8. 2015 National Park visitor spending effects: Economic contributions to local communities, states, and the nation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullinane Thomas, Catherine M.; Koontz, Lynne

    2016-01-01

    The National Park Service (NPS) manages the Nation’s most iconic destinations that attract millions of visitors from across the Nation and around the world. Trip-related spending by NPS visitors generates and supports a considerable amount of economic activity within park gateway communities. This economic effects analysis measures how NPS visitor spending cycles through local economies, generating business sales and supporting jobs and income.In 2015, the National Park System received over 307.2 million recreation visits. NPS visitors spent \\$16.9 billion in local gateway regions (defined as communities within 60 miles of a park). The contribution of this spending to the national economy was 295 thousand jobs, \\$11.1 billion in labor income, \\$18.4 billion in value added, and \\$32.0 billion in economic output. The lodging sector saw the highest direct contributions with \\$5.2 billion in economic output directly contributed to local gateway economies nationally. The sector with the next greatest direct contributions was the restaurants and bar sector, with \\$3.4 billion in economic output directly contributed to local gateway economies nationally.Results from the Visitor Spending Effects report series are available online via an interactive tool. Users can view year-by-year trend data and explore current year visitor spending, jobs, labor income, value added, and economic output effects by sector for national, state, and local economies. This interactive tool is available at http://go.nps.gov/vse.

  9. CHARACTERISTICS OF ALCOHOL CONSUMPTION AMONG VISITORS OF TOMSK HEALTH CENTERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. S. Kobyakova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze the data of visitors ofTomskhealth centers in order to assess the use of alcohol as a risk factor for NCD in the period from 2010 to 2012.Material and methods. During the period 2010–2012 examination at the health centers was lead with 9302 people, including 7466 women and 1836 men aged 18 to 88, the average age of visitors was 49.2 ± 15.6. The generated sample statistically dominated by women. Contacting the center each visitor filled “Medical card of the health center”. Everyone was interviewed by the nature of alcohol (patient chooses one answer: casual, small, often, do not drink alcohol and strengthen of alcoholic beverages (spirits or alcoholic beverages, the fact of smoking.Results: information about alcohol use was reported in 8730 people among 9302 visitors of health centers in the analyzed period. Maximum prevalence of alcohol consumption was recorded in the age groups 20–29 and 30–39 (85.4 and 85.5% and decreased in accordance with age, reaching a minimum value in a group of users 70 years and older. Regular alcohol consumption reported in the group of significantly younger people (46.8 ± 14.86 vs 54.01 ± 15.9; p < 0.05. The analysis of the consumed beverages’ for-tress shows that most residents consume alcoholic beverages (5068 peoples, 71.9%, while hard liquor is preferred by only one of three visitors (2191 peoples, 31.1%. It should be noted that younger people prefer low-alcohol drinks and older – strong (46.65 ± 15.26 vs 50.72 ± 13.95; p < 0.05. Urban residents consumed alcohol significantly more often (77.7% than rural (72.3% (OR = 1.33; 95% CI 1.15–1.54. Alcohol consumption among workers was 82.7%, which was significantly more frequent (OR = 1.66; 95% CI 1.47–1.88 as compared to non-performing – 73.4%. The frequency of alcohol consumption was significantly higher among those with higher education and amounted to 80.87% as compared to visitors who do not have higher

  10. Targeting health visitor care: lessons from Starting Well.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, C M; Jeffrey, S K; Ross, M K; Wallis, L; Wood, R

    2009-01-01

    UK child health promotion guidelines expect health visitors to assess family needs before new babies are aged 4 months and offer targeted care on that basis thereafter. Data from an intensive family support programme were used to assess how accurately family needs can be predicted at this stage. A population based cohort of 1202 families with new babies receiving an intensive health visiting programme. Analysis of routinely recorded data. Starting Well project, Glasgow, UK. Health visitor rating of family needs. Families receiving high visiting rates or referred to social work services. Of 302 families rated high need, only 143 (47%) were identified by age 4 months. Visiting rates in the first year for those initially rated high need were nearly double those for the remainder, but around two thirds of those with high contact rates/referred to social work were not initially rated high need. Six family characteristics (no income, baby born preterm, multiple pregnancy, South Asian, prior social work/criminal justice involvement, either parent in care as a child) were identified as the commonest/strongest predictors of contact rates; 1003 (83%) families had one such characteristics and/or lived in a highly deprived area, including 228 (93%) of those with high contact rates and 157 (96%) of those referred to social work. Most families at risk will not be identified on an individual basis in the early weeks. Most families in deprived areas need continued input if the most vulnerable families are to be reliably identified.

  11. A qualitative study exploring parental perspectives and involvement in health visiting services during the Health Visitor Implementation Plan in the South West of England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brook, Judy; Salmon, Debra

    2017-03-01

    Internationally, there is a strong interest in engaging the public more widely in both the development and governance of public services. This study aimed to explore family perspectives on the introduction of a new policy initiative called the 'Health Visitor Implementation Plan' (Department of Health [2011] Health Visitor Implementation Plan 2011-15: A Call to Action) and their experiences of the new health visitor service provision. The policy aimed to increase the health visitor workforce by 4200 additional practitioners between 2011 and 2015, in parallel with introducing a new service model to provide comprehensive and accessible support for parents with children 0-5 years. Using a qualitative approach, data were collected via semi-structured interviews and focus groups with 22 parents between March 2013 and March 2014. Questions focused around the extent to which the new service met parental expectation and need. Participants were recruited through Children's Centres and interviewed during established group sessions. Analysis was conducted using thematic analysis and constant comparative methods. The participants were asked to share their experiences of the health visiting service and their views on this national policy initiative. Although asked to comment on the policy at nation and local level, their responses were predominantly around personal experience. Parents welcomed the increase in workforce capacity and positive experiences centred on health visitors who were caring, knowledgeable, skilled and facilitated positive outcomes. Many of the negative experiences were seen to be due to poor relationships between the parent and the health visitor. Parents were influenced by the communication skills and personal attributes of the individual health visitors, including time to listen. The strength of parental opinion indicated that parents are willing to contribute to service development, consequently policy makers and health visitors themselves need to have

  12. Home visitors and child health in England: advances and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Cowley

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing interest in the early years as a focus for reducing health inequalities as well as one that is important for the children themselves. This paper describes the introduction in England of Sure Start Local Programmes, which included home visiting within a community development approach, and an intensive home visiting programme, the Nurse-Family partnership, for disadvantaged teenage mothers. It reflects on changes and challenges in service provision to mothers and their pre-school children in England, explaining that a long tradition of home visiting was, paradoxically, reduced as attention focused on the newer initiatives. This is now being addressed, with attention to a range of evidence based programmes and a specific focus on heath visitor provision.

  13. Patterns of evaluations of accents amongst health visitor students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brettell, K M

    1988-01-01

    The rationale for a research-orientated approach to health visiting is discussed and the application of research material adapted from the behavioural sciences to the study of health visiting practice is considered. A study using the 'matched guise' technique was conducted to determine health visitor student attitudes to accent. The sample consisted of 72 female students from three colleges in the south east of England. Each set of students was randomly divided into a control and variable group. An actor read the stimulus material in four different guises: south east educated accent, Birmingham, Yorkshire and Asian accented English. The control group heard the prestige south east educated accent and the second group heard one of three other accents which acted as the variable. The subjects were then asked to rate the speaker's personality on 17 bipolar scales of personality traits. Significant results were obtained on the personality ratings, but this pattern did not reflect previous research findings. Overall subject scores showed that the speaker was rated as favourably when using the Birmingham, Yorkshire and south east accented English, but significantly less favourably when using the Asian accented English. The possible reasons for these results and the implications for health visiting are discussed.

  14. English health visitors' perceptions of conducting indoor environmental assessments: barriers and facilitators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, George; Eick, Susan Ann

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this qualitative research was to explore health visitors' perceptions of assessing their clients' homes and providing evidence-informed advice about environmental health. Between 2004 and 2007, an explorative study was conducted in Plymouth, England, during which interviews were held with health visitors trained to conduct environmental assessments in combination with routine visits. Face-to-face, semi-structured interviews were conducted. Content analysis was used to explore emergent themes. The health visitors perceived that assessing the indoor environment was relevant to their role; however, conducting environmental measurements within routine visits was not feasible. The main barriers were the changing roles of health visitors (reducing time available), the time implications of being perceived as an environmental expert, and the impact on clients, such as raising expectations, imposing opinions on the state of clients' homes, and expecting clients to implement advice. Facilitators included the natural link to health visitors' roles, the ability to provide evidence of an environmental risk, and the satisfaction of observing clients implementing advice. Health visitors lacked propositional knowledge on the indoor environment, highlighting a need for more training. Access to an environmental assessment system increased the health visitors' confidence in dealing with indoor environmental issues. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Working in partnership: the application of shared decision-making to health visitor practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astbury, Ruth; Shepherd, Ashley; Cheyne, Helen

    2017-01-01

    To explore the processes that support shared decision-making when health visitors and parents are creating plans to improve the well-being of babies and children. Worldwide, there is a focus on promoting children's well-being to enhance the population health. Within the United Kingdom, health visitors have a key responsibility for working in partnership with parents to support this agenda. Despite evidence that the application of 'shared decision-making' frameworks can increase patient participation, improve patient satisfaction and improve health outcomes, there is limited research linking shared decision-making with health visitor practice. A qualitative, descriptive study. The study was undertaken in two phases: in Phase 1, data were collected by audio recording two health visitor-parent decision-making conversations, in the absence of the researcher, where decisions around planning for a baby or child were being made as part of usual care, and then the participants' experiences were sought through individual questionnaires. In Phase 2, semistructured interviews were conducted with nine health visitors and nine parents in relation to their recent experiences of planning care. Evidence of supportive processes included having a shared understanding around the issue needing to be addressed; being able to identify interventions that were accessible for the family; engaging in decision-making through deep, meaningful conversations using sensitive and responsive approaches; and establishing positive relationships between health visitors and parents, significant others within the family and other professionals. Despite evidence of strong, trusting relationships between parents and health visitors, there were times when shared decision-making was unable to take place due to the absence of supportive processes. Health visitors are aware that planning interventions with parents can be complex. These findings indicate the value of using a shared decision-making framework

  16. ARE HEALTH VISITORS' OBSERVATIONS OF EARLY PARENT-INFANT INTERACTIONS RELIABLE? A CROSS-SECTIONAL DESIGN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, Ingeborg H; Trillingsgaard, Tea; Simonsen, Marianne; Kronborg, Hanne

    2017-03-01

    Health visitors need competences to promote healthy early parent-infant relationships. The aims of this study were to explore whether there are differences between groups of health visitors with and without additional parenting program education in terms of their knowledge of infant-parent interaction and their observation and assessment skills of such interactions. The cross-sectional study included 36 health visitors' certified Marte Meo therapists and 85 health visitors without additional parenting program education. Health visitors' observation skills were measured assessing five video-recorded mother-infant interactions. A questionnaire was used to measure their intention, self-efficacy, and knowledge. More certified Marte Meo therapists than health visitors without additional parenting program education reported a significantly higher mean level of knowledge of the early relationship, 6.42 (95% CI; 6.18-6.66) versus 5.05 (95% CI; 4.86-6.10), p = .04; and more certified Marte Meo therapists than health visitors without additional parenting program education reported a higher mean level of knowledge of infant self-regulation, 2.44 (95% CI; 2.18-2.71) versus 1.83 (95% CI; 1.62-2.03), p < .001. In the latter group, 54% (95% CI; 0.43-0.64) reported a significantly higher need for further education versus 22% (95% CI; 0.11-0.39), p = .001. Compared to health visitors without any parenting program education, health visitors certified as Marte Meo therapists reported a significantly higher frequency of correct assessment of mothers' sensitivity in two of five video-recordings, with 77.78% (95% CI; 0.61-0.87) compared to 45.88% (95% CI; 0.35-0.57) in Video 3, p = .001, and 69.44% (95% CI; 0.52-0.82) compared to 49.41% (95% CI; 0.39-0.60) in Video 4, p = .04, respectively. The results of the present study support the use of video-based education of health visitors to increase their knowledge of and skills in assessing parent-infant interactions. Randomized controlled

  17. Health visitors and breastfeeding support: influence of knowledge and self-efficacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kronborg, Hanne; Væth, Michael; Olsen, Jørn

    2008-01-01

    the health visitors' knowledge of breastfeeding practice. After the intervention period the health visitors in the intervention group had increased their self-efficacy in helping mothers with common breastfeeding problems. The mothers in the intervention group reported more informational and instrumental...... they were reflected in practice. METHODS: A randomized intervention study enrolled 52 health visitors in the intervention group and 57 in the comparison group. The intervention group participated in an 18-hour pre-study training course that focused on knowledge about lactation and how to guide the mother...... to learn the mechanisms of breastfeeding. Data were collected through self-administered questionnaires before the intervention and after the follow-up period. One hundred and six (97%) health visitors and 1302 (82%) mothers responded. RESULTS: At baseline no substantial differences were seen between...

  18. 2014 National Park visitor spending effects: economic contributions to local communities, states, and the nation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullinane Thomas, Catherine; Huber, Christopher; Koontz, Lynne

    2015-01-01

    The National Park System covers more than 84 million acres and is comprised of more than 401 sites across the Nation. These lands managed by the National Park Service (NPS) serve as recreational destinations for visitors from across the Nation and around the world. On vacations or on day trips, NPS visitors spend time and money in the gateway communities surrounding NPS sites. Spending by NPS visitors generates and supports a considerable amount of economic activity within park gateway economies. The NPS has been measuring and reporting visitor spending and economic effects for the past 25 years. The 2012 analysis marked a major revision to the NPS visitor spending effects analyses, with the development of the Visitor Spending Effects model (VSE model) which replaced the previous Money Generation Model (see Cullinane Thomas et al. (2014) for a description of how the VSE model differs from the previous model). This report provides updated VSE estimates associated with 2014 NPS visitation.

  19. 2012 National Park visitor spending effects: economic contributions to local communities, states, and the nation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullinane Thomas, Catherine; Huber, Christopher C.; Koontz, Lynne

    2014-01-01

    The National Park Service (NPS) manages the nation's most iconic destinations that attract millions of visitors from across the nation and around the world. Trip-related spending by NPS visitors generates and supports a considerable amount of economic activity within park gateway communities. This economic effects analysis measures how NPS visitor spending cycles through local economies, generating business sales and supporting jobs and income.

  20. 2013 National Park visitor spending effects: economic contributions to local communities, states, and the nation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullinane Thomas, Catherine M.; Huber, Christopher C.; Koontz, Lynne

    2014-01-01

    The National Park Service (NPS) manages the nation's most iconic destinations that attract millions of visitors form across the nation and around the world. Trip-related spending by NPS visitors generates and supports a considerable amount of economic activity within park gateway communities. This economic effects analysis measures how NPS visitor spending cycles through local economies, generating business sales and supporting jobs and income.

  1. Exploring the support mechanisms health visitors use in safeguarding and child protection practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooke, Justine

    2015-10-01

    Health visitors lead the Healthy Child Programme (HCP), a universal public health service designed to give children the best start in life. Running through the HCP are responsibilities to safeguard and protect children. Supporting the role of the health visitor is essential to ensure quality interventions and improved outcomes for children. This article describes an empirical study. It explores the experiences and views of health visitors on the mechanisms of support they use for working in child protection and safeguarding. A qualitative approach was used to collect data from two focus groups. The data produced was transcribed and a thematic analysis used to produce the results. The results demonstrate that health visitors gain the majority of their support from their colleagues and from supervision processes. Also identified from the data analysis were three factors which health visitors felt supported their role. These were support for managing the emotions associated with child protection work, feeling safe and effective in practice and having time to reflect and evaluate casework.

  2. Do travel clinic visitors read information on sexual risk abroad in travel health brochures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croughs, Mieke; de Gouw, Annemarie; Remmen, Roy; Van den Ende, Jef

    2016-01-01

    Background: A substantial proportion of travel clinic visitors have sexual encounters while abroad. Hence, guidelines on travel health recommend discussing sexual risk in a pre-travel consultation. However, previous studies showed that it often is not discussed. Although travel clinic visitors usually do receive written information on sexual risk abroad, few data are available on whether this information is read. Therefore, this prospective cohort study in travel clinic visitors was performed. Methods: Travel clinic visitors were invited to complete a questionnaire after return from their journey. Results: A total of 130 travellers (55%) responded. Half of them recorded they read the information on sexual risk. Male gender (OR 9.94 95% CI 3.12 – 31.63) and ‘travelling with others’ (OR 2.7 95% CI 1.29 – 5.78) were significant independent predictors of reading the information on sexual risk. High risk travellers, i.e. those travelling without a steady partner, were less likely to have read it. Although websites and apps were mentioned as better methods of providing information, none of the participants visited the websites on sexual behaviour and sexually transmitted infections recommended in the travel health brochure. Conclusion: Only half of travel clinic visitors read information on sexual risk in the health brochure received in the clinic and none of them visited the related websites mentioned in the brochure. Further research to identify the most effective way to inform travellers about sexual risk is needed. PMID:28989499

  3. Do travel clinic visitors read information on sexual risk abroad in travel health brochures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croughs, Mieke; de Gouw, Annemarie; Remmen, Roy; Van den Ende, Jef

    2017-01-01

    A substantial proportion of travel clinic visitors have sexual encounters while abroad. Hence, guidelines on travel health recommend discussing sexual risk in a pre-travel consultation. However, previous studies showed that it often is not discussed. Although travel clinic visitors usually do receive written information on sexual risk abroad, few data are available on whether this information is read. Therefore, this prospective cohort study in travel clinic visitors was performed. Travel clinic visitors were invited to complete a questionnaire after return from their journey. A total of 130 travellers (55%) responded. Half of them recorded they read the information on sexual risk. Male gender (OR 9.94 95% CI 3.12 - 31.63) and 'travelling with others' (OR 2.7 95% CI 1.29 - 5.78) were significant independent predictors of reading the information on sexual risk. High risk travellers, i.e. those travelling without a steady partner, were less likely to have read it. Although websites and apps were mentioned as better methods of providing information, none of the participants visited the websites on sexual behaviour and sexually transmitted infections recommended in the travel health brochure. Only half of travel clinic visitors read information on sexual risk in the health brochure received in the clinic and none of them visited the related websites mentioned in the brochure. Further research to identify the most effective way to inform travellers about sexual risk is needed.

  4. Shared learning between health visitors and district nurses: placebo or panacea?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damant, M

    1994-04-01

    There is an assumption that shared learning between health visitors and district nurses at the time of their initial preparation for the professional role promotes positivity and fosters team-working. The present study addressed a gap within the current state of scientific knowledge and understanding of the effect of shared learning between health visitor and district nurse students. The results suggest that shared learning is likely to be a more positive experience for some students than for others. The practical implications are discussed and recommendations made for educational practice.

  5. Health visitor views on consultation using the Solihull approach: a grounded theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanopoulou, Evgenia; Coker, Sian; Greenshields, Maria; Pratt, Richard

    2011-07-01

    Consultation is integral to maintaining competence for health professionals and involves a collaborative relationship between specialist and primary care services. Although consultation aims to support them in their work, existing literature exploring health visitors' experiences of consultation is limited. This study explored health visitors' experiences of consultation in relation to their clinical practice, their experience of their work and its impact on the wider service. In all, 10 health visitors were interviewed using a semi-structured guide and analysis was subjected to a grounded theory framework. Participants' views were influenced by a combination of factors--consultants' training specific to their role, their communication and engagement, consultation's support of joint-working and/or transitions, and its relevance to and impact upon practice. Findings suggest that such interface activities require effective co-ordination, communication and structuring strategies, highlighting the importance of future initiatives in developing health visitors' mental health role further. Given the comparative lack of evaluation of such activities, these findings may inform policy-making and service development to ensure high quality of service delivery.

  6. The mental health of visitors of web-based support forums for bereaved by suicide.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kramer, J.; Boon, B.; van Ballegooijen, W.; Schotanus-Dijkstra, M.; Kerkhof, A.; van der Poel, A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Persons bereaved by suicide are reluctant to ask for social support when they experience feelings of guilt and blame. A web-based peer forum may provide a safe and anonymous place for mutual support. Aims: This study examined the mental health changes of visitors of two online support

  7. Mothers' and health visitors' perceptions of the support provided to mothers who have experienced domestic violence: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eynon, Julia; Carrier, Judith; Rees, Sally; Cartwright, Annie

    2012-01-01

    Domestic violence has been described as a public health epidemic, with victims of domestic violence encountered in all health care settings. Within the United Kingdom the role of the health visitor (specialist community public health nurse) is to promote health in the whole community; every family with a child under five years has a named health visitor. Preparation for the health visitor role is unique to the United Kingdom. Health visitors are particularly well placed to identify and support mothers who are experiencing domestic violence. The objective of this review was to synthesise the best available evidence relating to support provided by UK health visitors for mothers who have experienced domestic violence, from both the mothers and the health visitors' perspectives. The participants of interest were mothers who have experienced domestic violence and health visitors who offer support to those mothers.The self reported experiences of health visitor support provided to mothers who have experienced domestic violence, from the perspective of both the mothers and the health visitors providing the support.This review considered studies that focus on qualitative data including, but not limited to, designs such as ethnography, phenomenology, grounded theory, action research and feminist research. Studies published up to April 2011 were included in the review. The search was restricted to English language studies. The databases searched were: Medline, CINAHL, PsycINFO, PsycARTICLES, EMBASE, British Nursing Index and Archive, ASSIA and TRIP. Studies were assessed for methodological quality using the standardised critical appraisal instruments from the Joanna Briggs Institute. Data were extracted using standardised data extraction tools from the Joanna Briggs Institute. Data synthesis used the Joanna Briggs Institute approach for meta-synthesis by meta-aggregation. Findings were synthesised into categories, which were aggregated into synthesised findings. Four

  8. Health Visitors' experiences of Family Group Conferences in relation to child protection planning: a phenomenological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Fiona; Jasper, Melanie

    2003-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore Health Visitors' experiences of Family Group Conferences as part of Child Protection Planning in Hampshire, England. The aim was to identify good practice, recognizing the challenges of the approach and enabling recommendations for improved collaboration to be framed. The Family Group Conferences model is based on partnership, decision-making and family involvement and presents an alternative to case conferences. A Husserlian phenomenological approach was adopted, using taped semi-structured interviews with four health visitors who had experience of Family Group Conferences. Colaizzi's seven stages of phenomenological analysis were used. The four key categories related to the ability of the Family Group Conference model to empower families; the need for health visitors to receive appropriate education and training; organizational; and professional issues. Health visitors believed that Family Group Conferences could empower families, but they felt unprepared to attend. Concerns were identified regarding confidentiality and responsibility. Although the health visitors supported the principles underpinning Family Group Conferences, they were unsure about how to put theory into practice. The need for more education and training was strongly supported to enable the model to move from marginal to mainstream use. They also considered that Family Group Conferences could threaten interagency working, associated with issues relating to professional responsibility. The results identified training and procedural issues that need to be addressed if Family Group Conferences are to be introduced successfully within mainstream child protection practice. Insights from this study have led to inclusion of Family Group Conferences in the local child protection guidelines, with emphasis applied to interdisciplinary working, empowerment of families and professional staff, and education and training.

  9. Economic contribution of recreating visitors to the Florida Keys/Key West

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald B.K. English; Warren Kriesel; Vernon R Leeworthy; Peter C. Wiley

    1996-01-01

    This report provides estimates of the economic impact that visitors to the Florida Keys have on both the Monroe County and larger South Florida regional economies. Estimates are made for output/sales, income, and employment and include both direct and secondary economic impacts. This report provides the basis for demonstrating the income-producing asset value of the...

  10. Paraprofessional Home Visitors' Perspectives on Addressing Poor Mental Health, Substance Abuse, and Domestic Violence: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandon, S. Darius; Mercer, Constance D.; Saylor, Elizabeth L.; Duggan, Anne K.

    2008-01-01

    This research was conducted to understand paraprofessional home visitors' perceptions of their training in addressing poor mental health, substance abuse, and domestic violence, and their actions in working with families in addressing these issues. Five focus groups were conducted with a total of 28 paraprofessional home visitors. Three main…

  11. The effect of early postpartum home visits by health visitors: a natural experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kronborg, Hanne; Væth, Michael; Kristensen, Ingeborg

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess if the absence of early home visits influenced the mothers’ breastfeeding duration and use of medical services. Design: Data from mothers who had given birth during a strike period were compared to data from a reference period with usual work practice. Sample: The study...... included 3834 newborn and 375 health visitors, 75 of whom worked during the strike period. Intervention: All families were offered non- standardized home visits after discharge in the reference period. During the strike, the service was based on individual risk assessment. Results: Overall, no difference....... The mothers’ needs for postnatal visits differed depending on parity: primiparae underlined uncertainty, multiparae underlined previous breastfeeding experience. Mothers had missed out on guidance on all areas of the health visitors’ service. Conclusion: Non-standardized home visits by health visitors were...

  12. Talking about domestic abuse: Crucial conversations for health visitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradbury-Jones, Caroline

    2015-12-01

    Domestic abuse is a serious problem across the world and it is considered a public health issue. Nurses play a crucial role in recognising and responding to domestic abuse but they sometimes lack confidence in dealing with the issue. In this article, two recently completed studies are used to extract lessons for health visiting practice. The first study investigated primary healthcare professionals' beliefs about domestic abuse. Many healthcare professionals were confident in dealing with domestic abuse. However, there was disinclination among some to discuss the issue. People who experience abuse rarely discuss it unless asked. So the study highlighted a potential dynamic of silence between health professionals and abused people in their care. The second study investigated student nurses and student midwives experiences of learning about domestic abuse. The student nurses had learned less than the student midwives. They had not been taught about domestic abuse in university and many had not had the opportunity to learn about it in clinical placement. They reported reluctance among some mentors to discuss the issue with them, with a resulting silencing of the issue. Both of these studies have important lessons for health visiting practice regarding opening up crucial conversations about domestic abuse.

  13. Application of HACCP principles to control visitor health threats on dairy farms open to the general public.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barten, M; Noordhuizen, J P M; Lipman, L J A

    2008-10-01

    An increasing number of Dutch dairy farmers have diversified their activities, often opening their farm up to visitors (tourist accommodation, farm shop, contact with livestock, etc). It is essential to prevent these visitors from having accidents or becoming ill, which could result in financial claims and might harm the reputation of the agricultural sector. This article describes how the hazard analysis critical control points concept and principles (HACCP) can be applied to these activities and integrated with on-farm operational herd health and production management programmes.

  14. Formative evaluation of home visitors' role in addressing poor mental health, domestic violence, and substance abuse among low-income pregnant and parenting women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandon, S Darius; Parillo, Kathleen M; Jenkins, Carrie; Duggan, Anne K

    2005-09-01

    This research assessed home visitor effectiveness in communicating about and responding to poor mental health, domestic violence, and substance abuse among pregnant and parenting women home visited as part of a comprehensive family support strategy in seven urban communities. Cross-sectional studies were conducted with mothers (n = 189) actively engaged in home visitation programs and home visitors (n = 45). Maternal interviews assessed need for and receipt of mental health, domestic violence, and substance abuse services, and home visitor discussion of these risk areas. Home visitor surveys assessed perceived adequacy of training and personal effectiveness in addressing these risk areas. Over half of mothers needed mental health, domestic violence, or substance abuse services; however, only 27% of mothers in need of service received services. Most mothers reported having communicated with their home visitor about the three risk areas, but there were no differences in communication frequency based on whether services were needed. Most home visitors perceived themselves as effective in communicating about and responding to these risk factors but rated the training they had received in these areas as less than adequate. Home visitors could benefit from more intensive training in the formal assessment of risks and the protocols for communication about those risks with their clients. Home visitors could also receive support from and work in collaboration with professionals in addressing client risks. Further research on home visit content is needed to determine which strategies facilitate home visitors' ability to effectively communicate about and address client risks.

  15. Maintaining equilibrium in professional role identity: a grounded theory study of health visitors' perceptions of their changing professional practice context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machin, Alison I; Machin, Tony; Pearson, Pauline

    2012-07-01

    This article reports the study of a group of United Kingdom health visitors' interactions with their changing practice context, focusing on role identity and influences on its stability. United Kingdom policies have urged health visitors to refocus their role as key public health nurses. Reduced role identity clarity precipitated the emergence of different models of health visiting public health work. An inconsistent role standard can lead to role identity fragmentation and conflict across a group. It may precipitate individual role crisis, affecting optimum role performance. Seventeen health visitors in two United Kingdom community healthcare organizations participated in a grounded theory study, incorporating constant comparative analysis. Direct observations and individual interviews were undertaken between 2002 and 2008. Four interlinked categories emerged: professional role identity (core category); professional role in action; interprofessional working; and local micro-systems for practice; each influencing participants' sense of identity and self-worth. The Role Identity Equilibrium Process explains interactive processes occurring at different levels of participants' practice. Re-establishing equilibrium and consistency in health visiting identity is a priority. This study's findings have significance for other nurses and health professionals working in complex systems, affected by role change and challenges to role identity. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. Policy and Management Recommendations Informed by the Health Benefits of Visitor Experiences in Alberta's Protected Areas

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Christopher J Lemieux; Sean T Doherty; Paul F J Eagles; Mark W Groulx; Glen T Hvenegaard; Joyce Gould; Elizabeth Nisbet; Francesc Romagosa

    2016-01-01

    ...-being. In this paper, we report on the results of a multi-year study that surveyed 1,515 visitors to three Provincial Parks and three Kananaskis Country Provincial Recreation Areas in Alberta, Canada...

  17. New perspectives on health professions students' e-learning: Looking through the lens of the "visitor and resident" model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druce, Maralyn; Howden, Stella

    2017-07-01

    The growth of e-learning in health professional education reflects expansion of personal use of online resources. Understanding the user perspective in a fast-changing digital world is essential to maintain the currency of our approach. Mixed methods were used to investigate a cohort of postgraduate, e-learning healthcare students' perspectives on their use of online resources for personal and/or professional roles, via questionnaire and student-constructed diagrams, capturing use of online resources (underpinned by White's model of "resident" and "visitor" online engagement). Semistructured interviews explored the use and value of resources afforded via the online environment. The 45 study participants described a range of prior experiences with online resources in personal and professional capacities, but overall students tended to use online "tools" ("visitor" mode) rather than highly collaborative networks ("resident" mode). In relation to e-learning, the dominant interview theme was valuing knowledge transfer from the tutor and using "visitor" behaviors to maximize knowledge acquisition. Peer-learning opportunities were less valued and barriers to collaborative "resident" modes were identified. These findings help to inform e-learning course design to promote engagement. The results enable recommendations for use of the "Visitor and Residents" model and for planning activities that learners might utilize effectively.

  18. Women's experiences of health visitor delivered listening visits as a treatment for postnatal depression: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Katrina M; Chew-Graham, Carolyn; Folkes, Liz; Sharp, Deborah

    2010-02-01

    To explore women's experiences of health visitor delivered listening visits as a treatment for postnatal depression. In-depth interviews with 22 women who had received listening visits as a treatment for postnatal depression. All the women reported the visits as beneficial, although many of them had required additional intervention to manage their symptoms. Women who had a previous history of depression and women whose depression was not attributed to events in the postnatal period perceived the listening visits to be less beneficial. Receiving visits from a research health visitor, rather than their practice health visitor, was felt to be advantageous. Women with postnatal depression may report listening visits as helpful but insufficient to manage their depression. The extent to which women report listening visits as beneficial appears to be linked to the causes of their depression, the way in which the visits are delivered and by whom. Practitioners managing women with postnatal depression should discuss possible causes and previous episodes of depression before suggesting listening visits as a treatment. They need to explain what the visits will entail, ensure that additional types of treatment remain available and encourage women to utilise other forms of support. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The effect of health visitors' postpartum home visit frequency on first-time mothers: cluster randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christie, Janice; Bunting, Brendan

    2011-06-01

    Postpartum home visiting by nurses can benefit higher-risk families. Yet, little is known about the effects of universal services which provide care for all families including those at lowest risk (e.g., provision by health visitors-United Kingdom specialist community public health nurses). It was to determine the effect of frequency of health visitors' home visits on 'low-risk' first-time families' outcomes to 8 weeks postpartum and 7 months follow-up. A cluster randomised controlled trial. Within one health and social care managerial area in Northern Ireland. First-time 'low risk' mothers who had given birth during 2002-2004 and were visited by a health visitor who had agreed to take part in the study, were invited to participate. In total, n=39 health visitors were allocated to 'intervention' and n=41 to 'control'. Of n=295 'low-risk' first-time mothers who agreed to take part, n=136 with intervention health visitors were offered six home visits 2-8 weeks postpartum and n=159 within the control group were offered one planned visit. Self-completed measures of parenting, maternal wellbeing and service use were gathered pre-intervention, 8 weeks and 7 months postpartum. The main outcome was the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). At 8 weeks and 7 months postpartum, n=129 and n=115 intervention mothers, also n=151 and n=141 control mothers completed outcome measures. An intention to treat analysis was performed using multilevel modelling analysis which statistically controlled for pre-home visit outcomes, clinic attendance and antenatal contact. The intervention had no impact on most outcomes, however, it was associated with an increased EPDS score (after adjustment: 0.16, 2.36 95% CI) at 8 weeks (before accounting for outliers) but not at 7 months (-0.62, 1.65 95% CI). Intervention mothers had higher service satisfaction (7.7, 21.28, 95% CI 8 weeks; 4.69, 22.71, 7 months) and were less likely to have used emergency medical services for their infants to 8

  20. Focus on vulnerable populations and promoting equity in health service utilization--an analysis of visitor characteristics and service utilization of the Chinese community health service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xiaoxin; Liu, Ling; Cao, Shiyi; Yang, Huajie; Song, Fujian; Yang, Chen; Gong, Yanhong; Wang, Yunxia; Yin, Xiaoxu; Xu, Xing; Xie, Jun; Sun, Yi; Lu, Zuxun

    2014-05-26

    Community health service in China is designed to provide a convenient and affordable primary health service for the city residents, and to promote health equity. Based on data from a large national study of 35 cities across China, we examined the characteristics of the patients and the utilization of community health institutions (CHIs), and assessed the role of community health service in promoting equity in health service utilization for community residents. Multistage sampling method was applied to select 35 cities in China. Four CHIs were randomly chosen in every district of the 35 cities. A total of 88,482 visitors to the selected CHIs were investigated by using intercept survey method at the exit of the CHIs in 2008, 2009, 2010, and 2011. Descriptive analyses were used to analyze the main characteristics (gender, age, and income) of the CHI visitors, and the results were compared with that from the National Health Services Survey (NHSS, including CHIs and higher levels of hospitals). We also analyzed the service utilization and the satisfactions of the CHI visitors. The proportions of the children (2.4%) and the elderly (about 22.7%) were lower in our survey than those in NHSS (9.8% and 38.8% respectively). The proportion of the low-income group (26.4%) was apparently higher than that in NHSS (12.5%). The children group had the lowest satisfaction with the CHIs than other age groups. The satisfaction of the low-income visitors was slightly higher than that of the higher-income visitors. The utilization rate of public health services was low in CHIs. The CHIs in China appears to fulfill the public health target of uptake by vulnerable populations, and may play an important role in promoting equity in health service utilization. However, services for children and the elderly should be strengthened.

  1. Visitor Registration System

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — Visitor Registration System (VRS) streamlines visitor check-in and check-out process for expediting visitors into USAID. The system captures visitor information...

  2. Comparison of direct microscopic examination and culture methods sensitivity for diagnosis of Trichomonas vaginalis in Tabriz health care centers visitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    rasoul Jamali

    2007-01-01

    Results: Clinical examination of 2630 health center visitors showed that 1575 person (59.88% had vaginal signs and 1055 person were asymptomatic. 92 out of 2630 patients were positive for T. vaginalis by wet mount examination (3.46%. The growth of T. vaginalis was observed in 120 samples (4.56%. Conclusion: Although wet preparation is the only test widely available for diagnosis of T. vaginalis, its sensitivity is poor. In this study, using culture as a gold standard, the sensitivity of wet preparation was 75% and specificity was 99%. The results suggest that direct examination with parasite cultivation can be the method of choice for detection of trichomoniasis.

  3. Epidemiology of Sexually Transmitted Infections in Visitors for the London 2012 Olympic Games: A Review of Attendees at Sexual Health Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sile, Bersabeh; Mohammed, Hamish; Crook, Paul; Hughes, Gwenda; Mercer, Catherine; Cassel, Jackie; Coyne, Katherine; Hartley, Anna; Hall, Victoria; Brook, Gary

    2015-12-01

    Mass gatherings and large sporting events, such as the Olympics, may potentially pose a risk of increased sexually transmitted infection (STI) transmission and increase burden on local STI services. The objectives of this analysis were to assess whether the STI profile of Olympic visitors differed from that of the local STI clinic population and to investigate what impact these visitors had on local STI services. Self-administered questionnaires (completed by 29,292 patients) were used to determine the visitor status of patients attending 20 STI clinics, between July 20, 2012, and September 16, 2012, in the host cities, London and Weymouth. Using routine surveillance data from the Genitourinary Medicine Clinic Activity Dataset version 2, Olympic visitors were compared with usual attendees (local residents and non-Olympic visitors) in terms of their demographic characteristics, services utilized, and STIs diagnosed using univariate and multivariate methods. Compared with usual attendees, Olympic visitors were more likely to be heterosexual males (56.0% vs. 34.9%, P = 0.001), aged between 15 and 24 years of age (47.1% vs. 34.0%, P = 0.001), of white ethnicity (81.9% vs. 66.4%, P = 0.001), and born in Australasia, Asia, North America, or South America (18.8% vs. 12.0%, P = 0.006). Olympic visitors constituted 1% of new clinic attendances and were less likely to be diagnosed as having a new STI (adjusted odds ratio, 0.69; 95% confidence interval, 0.48-0.98; P = 0.040). In this first multisite study to examine the effect of Olympic visitors on local sexual health services, the 2012 Olympic Games was found to have minimal impact. This suggests that a "business as usual" approach would have been sufficient.

  4. New models to support the professional education of health visitors: A qualitative study of the role of space and place in creating 'community of learning hubs'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donetto, Sara; Malone, Mary; Sayer, Lynn; Robert, Glenn

    2017-07-01

    In response to a policy-driven workforce expansion in England new models of preparing health visitors for practice have been implemented. 'Community of Learning hubs' (COLHs) are one such model, involving different possible approaches to student support in clinical practice placements (for example, 'long arm mentoring' or 'action learning set' sessions). Such models present opportunities for studying the possible effects of spatiality on the learning experiences of students and newly qualified health visitors, and on team relationships more broadly. To explore a 'community of learning hub' model in health visitor education and reflect on the role of space and place in the learning experience and professional identity development of student health visitors. Qualitative research conducted during first year of implementation. Three 'community of learning hub' projects based in two NHS community Trusts in London during the period 2013-2015. Managers and leads (n=7), practice teachers and mentors (n=6) and newly qualified and student health visitors (n=16). Semi-structured, audio-recorded interviews analysed thematically. Participants had differing views as to what constituted a 'hub' in their projects. Two themes emerged around the spaces that shape the learning experience of student and newly qualified health visitors. Firstly, a generalised need for a 'quiet place' which allows pause for reflection but also for sharing experiences and relieving common anxieties. Secondly, the role of physical arrangements in open-plan spaces to promote access to support from more experienced practitioners. Attention to spatiality can shed light on important aspects of teaching and learning practices, and on the professional identities these practices shape and support. New configurations of time and space as part of educational initiatives can surface new insights into existing practices and learning models. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Serological findings and health complaints in exhibitors working on the 1999 Westfriese Flora in Bovenkarspel. A study following the outbreak of Legionnaires' Disease in visitors of the Westfriese

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boshuizen HC; Neppelenbroek SE; Vliet JA van; Schellekens JFP; Boer JW den; Peeters MF; Verbakel H; Heijnen M-L A; Conyn-van Spaendonck MAE; IMA; CIE; LIS

    2000-01-01

    This study was aimed at contributing to finding the source of a epidemic of Legionnaire's disease (LD) in visitors of the Westfriese Flora 1999 (West-Frisian Flower-show). The Westfriese Flora is a yearly flower exhibition combined with an agricultural and consumer products fair. The study targeted

  6. Street-level bureaucracy and policy implementation in community public health nursing: a qualitative study of the experiences of student and novice health visitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Alison; Condon, Louise

    2016-11-01

    Aim To explore the experiences of student and novice health visitors in implementing health visiting policy reform pre- and post-qualification. In England, public health nursing has been subject to major policy reform. The Health Visitor Implementation Plan (2011) set out a plan to recruit increasing numbers of nurses and midwives to the profession to deliver an expanded and refocussed health visiting service. Exploring this policy change from the viewpoint of those new to health visiting offers a unique perspective into how a specific policy vision is translated into nursing practice. A descriptive qualitative study in which participants were enrolled on a one-year post-graduate health visiting course at a University in South West of England. Qualitative data were collected pre- and post-qualification. A total of 16 interviews and a focus group were conducted with nine participants between September 2012 and March 2013. Findings Descriptive data were interpreted using Lipsky's theoretical framework of street-level bureaucracy. Three themes emerged which relate to this 'bottom-up' perspective on policy implementation; readiness to operationalise policy, challenges in delivering the service vision; and using discretion in delivering the vision. Community public health nurses operate as street-level bureaucrats in negotiating the demands of policy and practice, and by this means, attempt to reconcile professional values with institutional constraints. Barriers to policy implementation at a local level mediate the effects of policy reform, ultimately impacting upon outcomes for children and families.

  7. [Primary health care contributes to global health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aabenhus, Mette Morre; Schriver, Michael; Kallestrup, Per

    2012-05-28

    Global health interventions often focus on specific diseases, thus forming vertical programmes. Studies show that vertical programmes perform poorly, which underlines the need for a horizontal basis: universal community-based primary health care, which improves health equity and outcomes. The diagonal approach supports an integrated patient-centered health-care system. The ''15% by 2015''-initiative suggests that vertical programmes invest 15% of their budgets in strengthening integrated primary health care. Strategies depend on local context.

  8. Evaluation of a brief intervention to assist health visitors and community practitioners to engage with fathers as part of the healthy child initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphries, Heatha; Nolan, Mary

    2015-07-01

    To improve engagement of Health Visitors and Community Practitioners delivering the Healthy Child Programme with fathers. To evaluate a one-day, father-focused workshop with a supporting handbook for Practitioners. To identify institutional and organisational barriers to engagement with fathers. The UK government policy encourages health professionals to engage with fathers. This derives from robust evidence that fathers' early involvement with their children impacts positively on emotional, behavioural and educational development. Yet, there is little evidence that the importance of engaging fathers is reflected in Health Visitor training or that primary-care services are wholly embracing father-inclusive practice. The Fatherhood Institute (FI), a UK charity, has developed a workshop for Practitioners delivering the Healthy Child Programme. A 'before and after' evaluation study, comprising a survey followed by telephone interviews, evaluated the impact of the FI workshop on Health Visitors' and Community Practitioners' knowledge, attitudes and behaviour in practice. A total of 134 Health Visitors and Community Practitioners from eight NHS Trusts in England attended the workshop from November 2011 to January 2014 at 12 sites. A specially constructed survey, incorporating a validated questionnaire, was administered before the workshop, immediately afterwards and three months later. Telephone interviews further explored participants' responses. Analysis of the questionnaire data showed that the workshop and handbook improved participants' knowledge, attitudes and behaviour in practice. This was sustained over a three-month period. In telephone interviews, most participants said that the workshop had raised their awareness of engaging fathers and offered them helpful strategies. However, they also spoke of barriers to engagement with fathers. NHS Trusts need to review the training and education of Health Visitors and Community Practitioners and take a more strategic

  9. Health Risks and Travel Preparation Among Foreign Visitors and Expatriates During the 2008 Beijing Olympic and Paralympic Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jentes, Emily S.; Davis, Xiaohong M.; MacDonald, Susan; Snyman, P. Johann; Nelson, Hugh; Quarry, Doug; Lai, Irene; van Vliet, Erik W. N.; Balaban, Victor; Marano, Cinzia; Mues, Katherine; Kozarsky, Phyllis; Marano, Nina

    2010-01-01

    During the 2008 Olympic and Paralympic Games, we conducted surveillance of illnesses among travelers at six Beijing clinics. Surveys asked about demographic, pre-travel, and vaccination information, and physician-provided diagnoses. Of 807 respondents, 38% and 57% were classified as foreign visitors (FV) and expatriates, respectively. Less than one-half of FV sought pre-travel advice; sources included health-care providers and friends/family. FV vaccination rate was also low; however, most vaccines given were recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The most common FV diagnoses were respiratory, injury/musculoskeletal, and gastrointestinal illnesses; for expatriates, injury/musculoskeletal, respiratory, and dermatologic were the most common illnesses. Respiratory illnesses in expatriates were significantly less in 2008 than during 2004–2007 (χ2 = 10.2; P = 0.0014), suggesting that control programs may have reduced pollutants/respiratory irritants during the 2008 Games. We found no previous studies of health outcomes among expatriates living in cities with mass travel events. These findings highlight the need to continuously disseminate information to health-care providers advising travelers. PMID:20207875

  10. Maternal anxiety and satisfaction following infant hearing screening: a comparison of the health visitor distraction test and newborn hearing screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crockett, Rachel; Baker, Holly; Uus, Kai; Bamford, John; Marteau, Theresa M

    2005-01-01

    Newborn hearing screening is currently replacing the health visitor distraction test (HVDT) conducted at eight months. Our previous research indicates that recall for further tests following newborn hearing screening can have a negative impact on the emotional well being of mothers, but it is not known if this is greater than that caused by recall following the distraction test. To compare the impact on maternal anxiety and satisfaction of recall following newborn hearing screening and the HVDT. Four groups participated: 27 mothers of babies receiving a satisfactory result and 21 mothers of babies recalled after the HVDT 26 mothers of babies receiving a satisfactory result and 16 mothers of babies recalled after newborn hearing screening. Questionnaires assessing maternal anxiety, worry and certainty about the babies' hearing, satisfaction with and attitudes towards the screening test were sent to mothers three weeks and six months following screening. Comparison of the effects of receipt of different results showed no significant differences in maternal anxiety, worry and certainty between the two tests. Those mothers whose babies had a newborn hearing screening test were significantly more satisfied, regardless of the result received. Those who received a satisfactory result on the newborn hearing screening programme also had more positive attitudes towards that screening test than those receiving a satisfactory result following the HVDT. These results suggest that newborn hearing screening does not have a more negative emotional impact than the HVDT.

  11. Wilderness visitors, experiences, and visitor management

    Science.gov (United States)

    David N. Cole; Stephen F. McCool

    2000-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the Wilderness science in a time of change conference-Volume 4: Wilderness visitors, experiences, and visitor management. Wilderness areas are managed to protect their wilderness character, but they also provide opportunities for recreation use. Decades ago, relatively few people sought wilderness experiences, and...

  12. Contributions of bioethics to health sector leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodelín, Ricardo; Fuentes, Damaris

    2012-07-01

    Leadership is the perception or acceptance by members of a group of their superior's ability to inspire, influence and motivate them to meet their goals and contribute to the achievement of shared objectives. This article analyzes the characteristics of bioethics and the profile of the bioethicist in relation to the comprehensive development required of health leaders. We address this relationship in the areas of research and clinical practice; intersectoral activity; health sciences education; bioethicist's profile; and influence on organizational structures, functioning and decisionmaking, with particular reference to development and current situation of these aspects in Cuba. KEYWORDS Bioethics, leadership, medical education, health professional education, health, values, workplace stress, Cuba.

  13. Ecology and conservation: contributions to One Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleaveland, S; Borner, M; Gislason, M

    2014-08-01

    Although One Health is widely promoted as a more effective approach towards human, animal and ecosystem health, the momentum is still driven largely by health professionals, predominantly from the veterinary sector. While few can doubt the merits of interdisciplinary One Health approaches to tackle complex health problems, operating across the disciplines still presents many challenges. This paper focuses on the contributions of partners from ecology and conservation to One Health approaches, and identifies four broad areas which could act as a focus for practical engagement and bring ecological and conservation objectives more to the forefront of the One Health agenda: i) developing initiatives with shared conservation and health objectives, particularly in and around protected areas and including programmes addressing human reproductive health and mental health; ii) broadening concepts of health to extend beyond indicators of disease to include the assessment of ecological impacts; iii) the integration of ecological and epidemiological monitoring systems within protected areas to support conservation management and wildlife disease surveillance; iv) building partnerships to bring conservation, health, development and animal welfare agencies together to combat threats to global biodiversity and health from the international trade in wildlife and wildlife products.

  14. HEALTH INSURANCE: FIXED CONTRIBUTION AND REIMBURSEMENT MAXIMA

    CERN Document Server

    Human Resources Division

    2001-01-01

    Affected by the salary adjustments on 1 January 2001 and the evolution of the staff members and fellows population, the average reference salary, which is used as an index for fixed contributions and reimbursement maxima, has changed significantly. An adjustment of the amounts of the reimbursement maxima and the fixed contributions is therefore necessary, as from 1 January 2001. Reimbursement maxima The revised reimbursement maxima will appear on the leaflet summarizing the benefits for the year 2001, which will be sent out with the forthcoming issue of the CHIS Bull'. This leaflet will also be available from the divisional secretariats and from the UNIQA office at CERN. Fixed contributions The fixed contributions, applicable to some categories of voluntarily insured persons, are set as follows (amounts in CHF for monthly contributions) : voluntarily insured member of the personnel, with normal health insurance cover : 910.- (was 815.- in 2000) voluntarily insured member of the personnel, with reduced heal...

  15. Health Care Ergonomics: Contributions of Thomas Waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole Wilson, Tiffany; Davis, Kermit G

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the contributions of Thomas Waters's work in the field of health care ergonomics and beyond. Waters's research of safe patient handling with a focus on reducing musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) in health care workers contributed to current studies and prevention strategies. He worked with several groups to share his research and assist in developing safe patient handling guidelines and curriculum for nursing students and health care workers. The citations of articles that were published by Waters in health care ergonomics were evaluated for quality and themes of conclusions. Quality was assessed using the Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool and centrality to original research rating. Themes were documented by the type of population the citing articles were investigating. In total, 266 articles that referenced the top seven cited articles were evaluated. More than 95% of them were rated either medium or high quality. The important themes of these citing articles were as follows: (a) Safe patient handling is effective in reducing MSDs in health care workers. (b) Shift work has negative impact on nurses. (c) There is no safe way to manually lift a patient. (d) Nurse curriculums should contain safe patient handling. The research of Waters has contributed significantly to the health care ergonomics and beyond. His work, in combination with other pioneers in the field, has generated multiple initiatives, such as a standard safe patient-handling curriculum and safe patient-handling programs. © 2016, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

  16. Contributions of Public Health to nursing practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Káren Mendes Jorge de; Seixas, Clarissa Terenzi; David, Helena Maria Scherlowski Leal; Costa, Aline Queiroz da

    2017-01-01

    Analyze the perceptions of undergraduate nursing students about the contributions of public health to nursing practice in the Unified Health System. Qualitative Descriptive Study. Data collection was carried out through semi-directed interviews with 15 students. The language material was analyzed according to content and thematic analysis. Thematic categories were established, namely: "Perceptions about Public Health" and "Contribution of Public Health to nursing practice in the Unified Health System". Perceptions about Public Health are diversified, but converge to the recognition of this field as the basis for training nurses qualified to work in the SUS with technical competence, autonomy and focusing on the integrality in health care. Analisar as percepções de alunos do curso de bacharelado em Enfermagem acerca das contribuições da Saúde Coletiva para o trabalho de enfermeiros no Sistema Único de Saúde. Estudo descritivo, com abordagem qualitativa. A coleta de dados foi realizada mediante a técnica da entrevista semidirigida com 15 alunos. O material de linguagem foi analisado segundo a técnica de análise de conteúdo temático-categorial. Foram produzidas as categorias temáticas "Percepções acerca da Saúde Coletiva" e "Contribuição da Saúde Coletiva ao trabalho do enfermeiro no Sistema Único de Saúde". As percepções sobre a Saúde Coletiva são plurais, mas convergem para o reconhecimento desse campo como base de sustentação da formação de enfermeiros habilitados a trabalhar no SUS com competência técnica, autonomia e com foco na integralidade do cuidado em saúde.

  17. Why did employee health insurance contributions rise?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Jonathan; McKnight, Robin

    2003-11-01

    We explore the causes of the dramatic rise in employee contributions to health insurance over the past two decades. In 1982, 44% of those who were covered by their employer-provided health insurance had their costs fully financed by their employer, but by 1998 this had fallen to 28%. We discuss the theory of why employers might shift premiums to their employees, and empirically model the role of four factors suggested by the theory. We find that there was a large impact of falling tax rates, rising eligibility for insurance through the Medicaid system, rising medical costs, and increased managed care penetration. Overall, this set of factors can explain more than one-half of the rise in employee premiums over the 1982-1996 period.

  18. CERN fellows and visitors

    CERN Multimedia

    Penney, R. W.

    1963-01-01

    This article describes the Fellowship and Visitor Programme as it is at present, detailing the various headings under which the visitors come and indicating the methods by which they are chosen. The way in which their work is integrated into the general scientific activity of CERN is discussed briefly.

  19. Breastfeeding, infant formula, and introduction to complementary foods - comparing data obtained by questionnaires and health visitors' reports to weekly short message service text messages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Signe; Buhl, Susanne; Husby, Steffen

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies on prevalence and effects of breastfeeding call for reliable and precise data collection to optimize infant nutrition, growth, and health. Data on breastfeeding and infant nutrition are at risk of, for example, recall bias or social desirability bias. OBJECTIVE: The aim...... weeks, and the mean age when introduced to complementary foods from 19 to 21 weeks. The mean duration of any breastfeeding was 33 weeks across methods. CONCLUSIONS: Compared with the weekly SMS questions, the self-administered questionnaires and the health visitors' reports resulted in a greater...... of the present analysis was to compare data on infant nutrition, that is, breastfeeding, use of infant formula, and introduction to complementary foods, obtained by four different methods. We assumed that weekly short message service (SMS) questions were the most reliable method, to which the other methods were...

  20. Forecasting visitor accession trend of two prominent Indian Health Journal websites for the period 2015-2020 using time series analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidhi Dwivedi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the pattern and forecast visitor accession trend of two national academic journal website: Indian Journal of Community Medicine (IJCM and Indian Journal of Public Health (IJPH for the period 2015-2020. Materials and Methods: The visitor accession details (number of times journal issue accessed online for the period 2000-2014 (15 years were collected and recorded on Microsoft Excel sheet. Time series analysis was then applied on the dataset using different forecasting models to predict the future trend of accession and value of a real dataset using R software (version 3.1. Results: Both the Indian journals are managed by independent professional bodies, but IJCM journal website was made online in 2007, 3 years ahead of IJPH (2010, leading to a very high accession (a proxy indicator for volume of readership of IJCM during this period ranging between 100,000 and 120,000 counts, and thereafter accession was noticed to be slightly higher for IJPH than IJCM. The time series sequence showed that both had similar pattern, i.e., first stage: they have initial slow rise; second stage: sudden increasing trend from 2007 to 2010 (IJCM; and 2010 to 2012 (IJPH, respectively; and third stage: Both have then a decreasing trend with superimposed seasonal fluctuations. Future predicted accession details of IJCM and IJPH for 2015-2020 by Holt-Winter fitting model suggest stagnation with online accession of journal issue ranging from 30,360 to 31,860 counts for IJPH and 20,997 to 25,581 counts for IJCM though the range of accession for IJCM (4584 was higher than IJPH (1500, thereby reflecting that IJPH will attain stagnation earlier then IJCM. Autoregressive integrated moving average model also reflected similar results. Ljung-Box test indicated that the model was found statistically correct (P = 0.825 for IJCM and P = 0.50 (IJPH, and there was no statistically significant difference between actual values and predicted values by model. For

  1. INTERFACING INFANT MENTAL HEALTH KNOWLEDGE SYSTEMS: REFLECTIONS ON THE NARRATIVES OF LAY HOME VISITORS' EXPERIENCES OF LEARNING AND APPLYING RELATIONAL CONCEPTS OF DEVELOPMENT IN A SOUTH AFRICAN INTERVENTION PROGRAM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baradon, Tessa; Bain, Katherine

    2016-07-01

    The question of interfacing research and clinically generated knowledge in the field of infant mental health (IMH) with local cultural knowledge and belief systems has provoked extended discussion in recent years. This article explores convergences and divergences between current research-based, relational IMH mental health models and "community" knowledge held by a group of South African lay home visitors from a socioeconomically deprived township. These women were trained in a psychoanalytic and attachment-informed infant mental health program that promotes a relational model of infant development. They provide an intervention that supports high risk mother-infant relationships in the same locality. A two-tiered approach was taken to the analysis of the home visitor interviews and focused on the home visitors' constructed narratives of infant development posttraining as well as the personal impact of the training and work on the home visitors themselves. The study found that psychoanalytic and attachment-informed thinking about development makes sense to those operating within the local South African cultural context, but that the accommodation of this knowledge is a complex and challenging process. © 2016 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  2. Does investment in home visitors lead to better psychological health for HIV-affected families? Results from a quasi-experimental evaluation in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurman, Tonya R; Kidman, Rachel; Taylor, Tory M

    2014-01-01

    Children and families affected by HIV are at considerable risk for psychological distress. Community-based home visiting is a common mechanism for providing basic counseling and other services to HIV-affected families. While programs emphasize home visitor training and compensation as means to promote high-quality service delivery, whether these efforts result in measurable gains in beneficiaries' well-being remains largely unanswered. This study employs a longitudinal quasi-experimental design to explore whether these kinds of investments yield concomitant gains in psychological outcomes among beneficiaries. Baseline and follow-up data were collected over a two-year period from children aged 10-17 at the time of program enrollment and their caregivers, with 80% retention. In this sample of 1487 children and 918 caregivers, the psychological health outcomes of those enrolled in programs with home visitors who receive intensive training, organizational support, and regular compensation (termed "paraprofessional") were compared to those enrolled in programs offering limited home visiting services from lay volunteers. Applying multilevel logistic regression, no measurable improvements were found among paraprofessional enrollees, and three outcomes were significantly worse at follow-up regardless of program model. Children's behavior problems became more prevalent even after adjusting for other factors, increasing from 29% to 35% in girls and from 28% to 43% in boys. Nearly one-quarter of girl and boys reported high levels of depression at follow-up, and this was a significant rise over time for boys. Rates of poor family functioning also significantly worsened over time, rising from 30% to 59%. About one-third of caregivers reported high levels of negative feelings at follow-up, with no improvements observed in the paraprofessional group. Results highlight that children's and caregivers' psychological outcomes may be relatively impervious to change even in

  3. HEALTH INSURANCE: CONTRIBUTIONS AND REIMBURSEMENT MAXIMAL

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Division

    2000-01-01

    Affected by both the salary adjustment index on 1.1.2000 and the evolution of the staff members and fellows population, the average reference salary, which is used as an index for fixed contributions and reimbursement maximal, has changed significantly. An adjustment of the amounts of the reimbursement maximal and the fixed contributions is therefore necessary, as from 1 January 2000.Reimbursement maximalThe revised reimbursement maximal will appear on the leaflet summarising the benefits for the year 2000, which will soon be available from the divisional secretariats and from the AUSTRIA office at CERN.Fixed contributionsThe fixed contributions, applicable to some categories of voluntarily insured persons, are set as follows (amounts in CHF for monthly contributions):voluntarily insured member of the personnel, with complete coverage:815,- (was 803,- in 1999)voluntarily insured member of the personnel, with reduced coverage:407,- (was 402,- in 1999)voluntarily insured no longer dependent child:326,- (was 321...

  4. Overseas visitor deaths in Australia, 2001 to 2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leggat, Peter A; Wilks, Jeff

    2009-01-01

    The health and safety of international visitors remain an important issue for Australia and other tourist destinations. The death of visitors remains an important indicator of safety. The aim of this study was to provide updated figures on deaths of overseas travelers in Australia. Data were sourced from the Australian Bureau of Statistics concerning deaths of overseas visitors for the years 2001 to 2003. There were 1,068 overseas visitor deaths (701 males, 66%) during the study period 2001 to 2003. Death by natural causes increased with age, while deaths associated with accidents were more frequent among younger age groups. The majority of deaths were from natural causes (782, 73%), particularly ischemic heart diseases (26%). There were a total of 247 accidental deaths (23% of all deaths) with the main causes being transportation accidents (14% of all deaths) and accidental drowning/submersion (5% of all deaths). The countries contributing the most deaths were the UK (247, 23%), New Zealand (108, 10%) Melanesia/Micronesia (95, 9%), and the United States (57, 5%). Australia remains a relatively safe destination for international travelers, at least in terms of fatalities, which appear to be declining. Most deaths of overseas tourists in Australia are due to natural causes with cardiovascular disease being the predominant cause of death in this group. Accidents remain the most common preventable cause of death of travelers, with road and water safety being the major issues. It is important that tourism and travel medicine groups continue to advocate for improved health and safety of international travelers visiting Australia.

  5. Employer Contribution and Premium Growth in Health Insurance

    OpenAIRE

    Yiyan Liu; Ginger Zhe Jin

    2013-01-01

    We study whether employer premium contribution schemes could impact the pricing behavior of health plans and contribute to rising premiums. Using 1991-2011 data before and after a 1999 premium subsidy policy change in the Federal Employees Health Benefits Program (FEHBP), we find that the employer premium contribution scheme has a differential impact on health plan pricing based on two market incentives: 1) consumers are less price sensitive when they only need to pay part of the premium incr...

  6. ATLAS Visitors Centre

    CERN Multimedia

    claudia Marcelloni

    2009-01-01

    ATLAS Visitors Centre has opened its shiny new doors to the public. Officially launched on Monday February 23rd, 2009, the permanent exhibition at Point 1 was conceived as a tour resource for ATLAS guides, and as a way to preserve the public’s opportunity to get a close-up look at the experiment in action when the cavern is sealed.

  7. Visitor combination and traversal control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M.W. Visser (Joost)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractThe emph{Visitor design pattern allows the encapsulation of polymorphic behavior outside the class hierarchy on which it operates. A common application of emph{Visitor is the encapsulation of tree traversals. Unfortunately, visitors resist composition and allow little traversal control.

  8. Visitors' conceptualizations of wilderness experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erin Seekamp; Troy Hall; David Cole

    2012-01-01

    Despite 50 years of wilderness visitor experience research, it is not well understood how visitors conceptualize a wilderness experience. Diverging from etic approaches to wilderness visitor experience research, the research presented in this paper applied an emic approach to identify wilderness experience attributes. Specifically, qualitative data from 173 on-site...

  9. [Contribution of Health Care Research to Establishing Social Equality in Health and Health Care Opportunities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaff, H; Pförtner, T-K

    2016-02-01

    Social inequalities in health and health care services represent issues of major concern. Findings in this area reveal inequalities in health and health care indicating disadvantages for individuals with a low socioeconomic background. Although the health care system plays a marginal role in the explanation of inequalities in health, health services research can be an important part in the development of equal health opportunities. The current article describes the causal associations between social inequalities, health inequalities and the health care service. Health services research can make a contribution to increasing equal opportunities in health and health care service. Against this background, we discuss the existing potential and need of research in the area of health services. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  10. Epidemiology of Sexually Transmitted Infections in Visitors for the London 2012 Olympic Games: A Review of Attendees at Sexual Health Services

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sile, Bersabeh; Mohammed, Hamish; Crook, Paul; Hughes, Gwenda; Mercer, Catherine; Cassel, Jackie; Coyne, Katherine; Hartley, Anna; Hall, Victoria; Brook, Gary

    2015-01-01

    ... (completed by 29,292 patients) were used to determine the visitor status of patients attending 20 STI clinics, between July 20, 2012, and September 16, 2012, in the host cities, London and Weymouth...

  11. Prevalence and related factors for choosing self-medication among pharmacies visitors based on health belief model in Hamadan Province, west of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalilian, Farzad; Hazavehei, Seyed Mohammad Mehdi; Vahidinia, Ali Asghar; Jalilian, Mohsen; Moghimbeigi, Abbas

    2013-05-29

    Self-medication has increased in the last decade in Iran; can be followed several complications. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and factors influencing self-medication based on health belief model. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1400 Hamadan Province pharmacies visitors, during spring and summer 2012 which was randomly selected with the proportional to size among different pharmacy at Hamadan for participation in this study. A structured questionnaire was applied for collecting data, which were analyzed by SPSS version 16 using bivariate correlations and logistic regression statistical tests. 35.4% of the participants had self-medication. Pain medication (10.6%), antibiotics (7.3%) and anti-cough and cold medications (4.5%) had the largest consumption. The main reasons of self-medication among participants were previous use of medication, symptoms improve and similar prescribed. The best predictor for self-medication was perceived severity with odds ratio estimate of 0.790 [95% CI: 0.694, 0.900]. It seems that designing and implementation of educational programs to increase seriousness about side effect of self-medication may be usefulness of the results in order to prevent of self-medication.

  12. An online survey of knowledge of the weaning guidelines, advice from health visitors and other factors that influence weaning timing in UK mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Amanda P; Milligan, Peter; Goff, Louise M

    2014-07-01

    The UK weaning guidelines recommend the introduction of solid food at or around 6 months. The evidence suggests that knowledge of the guidelines is high, although only a small minority of parents wait until 6 months to wean. The aim of this study was to assess understanding of the UK weaning guidelines in a sample of UK parents and investigate the associations of this understanding with weaning timing, and in comparison to other influencing factors. This study conducted an online survey of UK parents. Eligible participants had weaned a child since the introduction of the current guidelines. Of 3607 participants, 86% accurately understood the guidelines. Eighty-seven per cent of health visitors were reported to have advised weaning at or around 6 months. Knowledge of the guidelines was associated with later weaning (independently of demographic factors) (P guidelines. Younger mothers (P guidelines was the most reliable predictor of early weaning (P = 0.021) together with young maternal age (P = 0.014). Following the baby-led weaning approach was the most reliable predictor of those weaning at 26 weeks, together with the Internet being the most influential source of advice. Understanding of the current weaning guidelines is high and is a key independent predictor of weaning age in this population. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Pattern of diseases among visitors to Mina health centers during the Hajj season, 1429 H (2008 G).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzahrani, Abdullah G; Choudhry, Abdul Jamil; Al Mazroa, Mohammad A; Turkistani, Abdul Hafiz M; Nouman, Ghassan S; Memish, Ziad A

    2012-03-01

    While performing the Hajj, hajjis face different risks related to the environment, their behaviors and their health conditions that can result in a variety of diseases. The objective of this study was to determine the pattern of diseases among pilgrims seeking medical services in Mina primary health care centers (PHCCs) during the Hajj season in 1429 (2008). This is a descriptive study based on the medical records of a random sample of 4136 patients who attended 13 randomly selected Mina PHCCs from 8 to 12 Dhu-Alhijja, 1429 H (6-10 December 2008). The majority of the patients were men (70.7%), and most of the patients were between 45 and 64 years of age (42.8%). One-fifth (20.2%) of the patients suffered from multiple diseases. Respiratory diseases were the most common (60.8%), followed by musculoskeletal (17.6%), skin (15.0%) and gastrointestinal (13.1%) diseases. Diabetes, asthma and hypertension each constituted less than 3% of the total diseases. Respiratory diseases were the most common independent of nationality or the day of visit, while the frequency of the other diseases varied according to nationality and the day of visit. The most frequently prescribed drugs were analgesics, antipyretics, antibiotics and cough syrups. This study describes the pattern of diseases among pilgrims attending Mina PHCCs, which may aid in providing the best possible health care services to pilgrims. Copyright © 2011 King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. 28 CFR 540.43 - Frequency of visits and number of visitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Frequency of visits and number of visitors. 540.43 Section 540.43 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE... visitor must travel, frequency of the inmate's visits, or health problems of the inmate or visitor. ...

  15. Contributions of Global Health Diplomacy to Health Systems in Sub ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The research will look at three examples of global health diplomacy important to sub-Saharan Africa: 1) the implementation of the World Health Organization's Code on International Recruitment of Health Personnel; 2) new collaboration on access to essential drugs through South-South relationships involving Africa, China, ...

  16. A qualitative evaluation of the effectiveness of health visiting practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worth, A; Hogg, R

    2000-05-01

    The evaluation of health visiting interventions is a contentious issue and there is a need to develop methods of evaluation which move beyond organizationally-led targets. This article presents the findings of a study which explored the effectiveness of health visiting interventions from the perspectives of parents and health visitors. A qualitative approach was used which allowed the views of parents and health visitors to be examined within the context of their understanding of the parenting role. It is argued that this approach contributes to the evidence base of health visiting. Findings support the value of the health visitor-client relationship, formed mainly through home visiting, as the cornerstone of successful interventions. Parents in this study welcomed the health visitor's support in helping them to develop their parenting skills against a background of social change. At a time when the roles of health visitors are being renegotiated, the findings demonstrate the relevance of health visiting in contemporary society.

  17. Perspectives on visitors in the emergency department: their role and importance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Totten, Vicken Y; Bryant, Tara K; Chandar, Apoorva K; Hoch, Wyatt B; Hunter, Stephanie L; Patel, Nikita J; Brenner, Barry E

    2014-01-01

    Visitors may play a significant role in patient care by interceding on patients' behalf and advocating proper care. The objectives of this study were to determine the percentage of emergency department (ED) patients with visitors, whether this varied by gender or race, and to compare patient and visitor perspectives on the role and importance of visitors. This cross-sectional study was done in a 46,035 adult-visit, urban ED during a consecutive 96-h period. A "visitor" was defined as any non-health-care provider present in a patient's room. Perspectives of visitors' role were assessed in five domains: transportation, emotional support, physical care, communication, and advocacy. Forty-two percent of patients had at least one visitor during their ED stay. Visitor presence was unaffected by patients' age, gender, or triage score; however, 57% of white patients had at least one visitor during their stay, compared to 39% for non-Whites (p = 0.02). When patients had one or more visitors, gender and triage score did not influence the number of visitors; however, older patients and nonwhite patients had greater numbers of visitors (age ≥ 40 years, 1.5 ± 0.8 vs. age visitors/patient; p = 0.03 and nonwhite patients, 1.4 ± 0.7 vs. white patients, 1.1 ± 0.3 visitors/patient; p = 0.03). Seventy-eight percent of patients felt that visitors were important to their care. Visitors represent a valuable resource for patients, and methods of partnering with visitors to improve outcomes merit further work. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Employer contribution and premium growth in health insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yiyan; Jin, Ginger Zhe

    2015-01-01

    We study whether employer premium contribution schemes could impact the pricing behavior of health plans and contribute to rising premiums. Using 1991-2011 data before and after a 1999 premium subsidy policy change in the Federal Employees Health Benefits Program (FEHBP), we find that the employer premium contribution scheme has a differential impact on health plan pricing based on two market incentives: 1) consumers are less price sensitive when they only need to pay part of the premium increase, and 2) each health plan has an incentive to increase the employer's premium contribution to that plan. Both incentives are found to contribute to premium growth. Counterfactual simulation shows that average premium would have been 10% less than observed and the federal government would have saved 15% per year on its premium contribution had the subsidy policy change not occurred in the FEHBP. We discuss the potential of similar incentives in other government-subsidized insurance systems such as the Medicare Part D and the Health Insurance Marketplace under the Affordable Care Act. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Characteristics of HIV seroprevalence of visitors to public health centers under the national HIV surveillance system in Korea: cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Sung-Soon

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Korea, the cumulative number of HIV-infected individuals was smaller than those of other countries. Mandatory HIV tests, dominating method until 1990's, have been gradually changed to voluntary HIV tests. We investigated HIV seroprevalence status and its characteristics of visitors to Public Health Centers (PHCs, which conducted both mandatory test and voluntary test under the national HIV/STI surveillance program. Methods We used HIV-testing data from 246 PHCs in 2005 through the Health Care Information System. The number of test taker was calculated using the code distinguished by the residential identification number. The subjects were classified into four groups by reason for testing; General group, HIV infection suspected group (HIV ISG, HIV test recommended group (HIV TRG, and sexually transmitted infection (STI risk group. Results People living with HIV/AIDS were 149 (124 male and 25 female among 280,456 individuals tested at PHCs. HIV seroprevalence was 5.3 per 10,000 individuals. Overall, the male revealed significantly higher seroprevalence than the female (adjusted Odds Ratio (adj. OR: 6.2; CI 3.8–10.2. Individuals aged 30–39 years (adj. OR: 2.6; CI 1.7–4.0, and 40–49 years (adj. OR: 3.8; CI 2.4–6.0 had higher seroprevalence than 20–29 years. Seroprevalence of HIV ISG (voluntary test takers and cases referred by doctors was significantly higher than those of others. Foreigners showed higher seroprevalence than native Koreans (adj. OR: 3.8; CI 2.2–6.4. HIV ISG (adj. OR: 4.9; CI 3.2–7.5, and HIV TRG (adj. OR: 2.6; CI 1.3–5.4 had higher seroprevalence than General group. Conclusion A question on the efficiency of current mandatory test is raised because the seroprevalence of mandatory test takers was low. However, HIV ISG included voluntary test takers was high in our result. Therefore, we suggest that Korea needs to develop a method encouraging more people to take voluntary tests at PHCs, also to

  20. CERN Health Insurance Scheme (CHIS) Contributions – Changes for 2012

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2012-01-01

    Following the 2010 five-yearly review of financial and social conditions, which included the CERN Health Insurance Scheme (CHIS), the CERN Council decided in December 2010 to progressively increase the level of contributions over the period 2011-2015.   For 2012, the contribution rate of active and retired CHIS members will be 4.41%. The amounts of the fixed premiums for voluntarily insured members (e.g. users and associates) as well as the supplementary contributions for spouses with income from a professional activity increase accordingly : Voluntary contributions The full contribution based on Reference Salary II is now 1094 CHF per month. This fixed amount contribution is applied to voluntarily affiliated users and associates with normal coverage. Half of this amount (547 CHF) is applied to apprentices as well as to voluntarily affiliated users and associates with reduced coverage. Finally, an amount of 438 CHF is applied to children maintaining their insurance cover on a voluntary and tempo...

  1. Contribution of Psychosocial Factors to Socioeconomic Differences in Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmot, Michael G.; Fuhrer, Rebecca; Ettner, Susan L.; Marks, Nadine F.; Bumpass, Larry L.; Ryff, Carol D.

    1998-01-01

    The National Survey of Mid-life Developments in the United States (MIDUS) is one of several studies that demonstrate socioeconomic gradients in mortality during midlife. When MIDUS findings on self-reported health, waist to hip ratio, and psychological well-being were analyzed for their possible roles in generating socioeconomic differences in health, they revealed clear educational gradients for women and men (i.e., higher education predicted better health). Certain potential mediating variables, like household income, parents’ education, smoking behavior, and social relations, contributed to an explanation of the socioeconomic gradient. In addition, two census-based measures, combined into an area poverty index, independently predicted ill health. The results suggest that a set of both early and current life circumstances cumulatively contribute toward explaining why people of lower soeioeconomic status have worse health and lower psychological well-being. PMID:9738169

  2. Contribution to Aaron Antonovsky to modern health understanding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minić Jelena Lj.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is an attempt to present the basic contribution to the formulation of Antonovsky salutogenic orientation (salutogenesis and salutogenic model of health as a central term sense of coherence. Partially it presents the different health models and basic principles of the salutogenic helth model, the short biographies and Aaron Antonovsky research work and a brief overview of the model. It also shows the importance and use of the salutogenic health model and sense of coherence model for researchers in this country and around the world as well. The conclusion is that the contribution of the scientific establishment Antonovsky salutogenic model of health as an undeniable contemporary understanding of health, it makes his life interesting and his professional career enviable. .

  3. Small Island Visitor Attractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haven Allahar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes a process framework for developing and managing visitor attractions (VA in small island developing states with Trinidad and Tobago, a two-island state in the Caribbean, as the case study. An extensive literature review was conducted, supported by field observations, individual depth interviews, and small and large focus group meetings. The process framework identified four sets of processes: national policy formulation and legislation; inventory, classification, evaluation, and ranking of VA; general operations management involving project management activities; and site specific activities of development, operations, and maintenance. The value of the framework lies in the fact that no similar framework applicable to small islands was covered in the literature and validation was obtained from a panel of experts and a cross section of tourism stakeholders in Tobago.

  4. Improving customer generation by analysing website visitor behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Ramlall, Shalini

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation describes the creation of a new integrated Information Technology (IT) system that assisted in the collection of data about the behaviour of website visitors as well as sales and marketing data for those visitors who turned into customers. A key contribution to knowledge was the creation of a method to predict the outcome of visits to a website from visitors’ browsing behaviour. A new Online Tracking Module (OTM) was created that monitored visitors’ behaviour while they brow...

  5. Visitor characteristics and alcohol-based hand sanitizer dispenser locations at the hospital entrance: Effect on visitor use rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, Mary A; Robinson, Susan; Neyens, David M; Steed, Connie

    2016-03-01

    Hospital visitors' hand hygiene (HH) is an important aspect of preventing health care-associated infections, but little is known about visitors' use of alcohol-based hand sanitizers (AHS). The study aim was to examine if use of AHS is influenced by visitor characteristics and the location of AHS within the lobby of a large hospital. An observational study was conducted with AHS placed in 3 different locations. The data included visitor characteristics and if AHS were used. The results suggest that visitors are 5.28 times (95% confidence interval [CI], 3.68-7.82) more likely to use AHS when dispensers are located in the middle of the lobby with limited landmarks or barriers, 1.35 times more likely to use the AHS in the afternoon compared with the morning, or when they are younger visitors (adjusted odds ratio, 1.47; 95% CI, 1.09-1.97). Individuals in a group are more likely (adjusted odds ratio, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.06-1.84) to use AHS. In addition to location, time of day, and age, there is a group effect that results in visitors being more likely to use AHS when in a group. The increased use related to groups may serve as a mechanism to encourage visitor HH. The results suggest future research opportunities to investigate the effect of group dynamics and social pressure on visitor AHS use and to identify strategies for improving visitor HH. Copyright © 2015 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Implementation of respiratory protection measures: Visitors of residential care homes for the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Diana T F; Yu, Doris S F; Ip, Margaret; Tang, Jennifer Y M

    2017-02-01

    To evaluate the implementation of respiratory protection measures for and by visitors of residential care homes for the elderly in Hong Kong, a territory-wide cross-sectional survey was conducted. A total of 87 infection control officers, 1,763 health care workers, and 520 visitors from 87 homes completed the questionnaires. Rules on respiratory protection for visitors were found to vary across residential care homes for the elderly. Uncooperative visitors and inadequate resources were identified as major barriers in the implementation of such measures for visitors. Copyright © 2017 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Self - congruity Influence on Tourist Behavior: Repeat Visitors versus Non - Visitors and First - Time Visitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mithat Üner

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the role of prior experience on the impact of actual self and ideal self-congruity on tourists’ intention to visit Turkey for leisure purposes. The study draws from an empirical study with 648 subjects conducted in cooperation with the Turkish Ministry of Culture and Tourism. Results suggest that the effect of actual self-congruity on intention to visit differs according to different levels of tourist experience. While self-congruity has a positive effect on intenti on to visit for the non-visitors and first-time visitors --implying that the relationship between self-congruity and intention does not vary between non-visitors and first-time visitors --this effect loses its significance for repeat visitors. These findings partially support the previous proposed moderating role of prior experience on the impact of self congruity on intention to visit a destination and expand the discussion on this topic raising new questions

  8. Tropical plants in health care delivery in Nigeria: Contributions of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Method of preparation and administration include infusions, decoctions, maceration and pounding, drying and steam baths. Conclusions: The abundance of species and variety of ailments treated justify further research on the contributions of Compositae in Nigeria. Key words: Tropical plants, Health care, Nigeria.

  9. An American surgeon's contribution to Chinese health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shumacker, H B

    1981-03-01

    A prominent American thoracic surgeon, Leo Eloesser, while serving with UNICEF, contributed significantly to the health care of the Chinese people in the late 1940s, during the final years of the civil war and before the establishment of the People's Republic of China. The concepts he developed, especially concerning rural health service in poor, medically deprived nations, and the factors he felt must be taken into account in developing a health care system in any nation had lasting value. The story of the origin of his plan and his efforts to implement it is briefly related.

  10. An Empirical Investigation of the Relationships between Service Quality, Satisfaction and Behavioral Intentions among Visitors to a Wildlife Refuge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian-Cole, Shu; Crompton, John L.; Willson, Victor L.

    2002-01-01

    Collected data from wildlife refuge visitors to examine relationships between service quality, satisfaction, and behavioral intentions. Specific psychological benefits visitors obtained from the visit did not significantly contribute to perceptions of service quality. Results verified the existence of service quality and visitor satisfaction at…

  11. Pathways and mechanisms in adolescence contribute to adult health inequalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Due, Pernille; Krølner, Rikke; Rasmussen, Mette

    2011-01-01

    AIMS: This paper presents a model that encompasses pathways and mechanisms working over adolescence that contribute to adult health inequalities. We review evidence on the four mechanisms: socially differential exposure, tracking, socially differential tracking, and socially differential vulnerab......AIMS: This paper presents a model that encompasses pathways and mechanisms working over adolescence that contribute to adult health inequalities. We review evidence on the four mechanisms: socially differential exposure, tracking, socially differential tracking, and socially differential...... in adolescence and track into adulthood, with higher risks of adverse outcomes among individuals from lower socioeconomic positions. Adolescent health behaviours track into adulthood. Smoking, physical activity, and especially fruit and vegetable intake are socially patterned, while evidence for social...... the social patterning of the above indicators over time or studied social vulnerability of these indicators from adolescence to adulthood. However, all four mechanisms seem to be active in establishing social differences in adult educational attainment. CONCLUSIONS: We find the Adolescent Pathway Model...

  12. Nurses Contribution to Swedish eHealth Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Törnvall, Eva

    2012-01-01

    In 2005 the Swedish government identified the need of common development of information and communication technology in health and social care. The purpose of this paper is to describe nurses' contribution to the establishment of a national cooperation concerning eHealth development in health and social care. The Swedish strategy of eHealth have six actions areas eServices for accessibility and empowerment, Usable and accessible information (for staff), Knowledge management, innovation and learning, Creating a common technical infrastructure, Creating a common information structure and Bringing laws and regulations into line with extended use of ICT. Nurses are involved in all action areas and emphasize the empowerment and safety of the patient and account of ethical values. Patients' possibility to take part of the information and adding information in their own patient health record, nurses' education and safe IT support in medication are areas that need further development.

  13. Hospital admissions for traumatic brain injury of Austrian residents vs. of visitors to Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauritz, Walter; Brazinova, Alexandra; Majdan, Marek; Leitgeb, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    The goal was to compare epidemiology of hospital admissions for traumatic brain injury (TBI) in Austrian residents vs. visitors to Austria. Data on all hospital admissions due to TBI (ICD-10 codes S06.0-S06.9; years 2009-2011) was provided by the Austrian Statistical Office. Data on Austrian population and on tourism (visitor numbers, nights spent) was retrieved from www.statistik.at . Age, sex, mechanism of injury, season and mortality was analysed for Austrian residents vs. visitors. Visitors contributed 3.9% to the total population and 9.2% of all TBI cases. Incidence of hospital admissions was 292/100,000/year in Austrian residents and was 727/100,000/year in visitors. Male:female ratio was 1.39:1 in Austrian residents and 1.55:1 in visitors. Austrian cases were older than visitors' cases (mean age 41 vs. 28 years). Austrian cases were distributed evenly over the seasons, while 75% of the visitors' cases happened during winter and spring. The most frequently observed causes of TBI in Austrian residents were private accidents, while sports caused almost half of the visitors' cases. Hospital mortality was lower in visitors than in Austrian residents (0.8 vs. 2.1%). Sports-related TBI of visitors causes a significant workload for Austrian hospitals. Better prevention is warranted.

  14. International collaboration in mental health: Contributions, opportunities, and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pratap Sharan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Arising from the push for global health, the movement for global mental health has established itself as a distinct identity in the last few decades. Collaboration between donors, international agencies, institutions, and individuals of different countries has been an essential component in this endeavor. Methods: We review relevant reports in the literature that describe the process of collaboration between individuals and institutions in the area of mental health, in order to describe current patterns in international collaboration. Results and Discussion: In the last decade, international collaboration for mental health has increased substantially. Newer international professional associations; centers for global mental health at academic centers in Europe, USA, and Australia; and international health aid agencies have joined more established agencies, to provide platforms for collaboration. A number of priority-setting exercises have been undertaken that have stressed service development for mental health. International consortia for genetics and neuroimaging have demonstrated successful research collaboration. However, barriers to collaboration persist—these include a continuing failure to prioritize mental healthcare at a policy level, as well as difficulties in arriving at a consensus on conceptualization, transcultural issues, and priority-setting for mental health research. Going forward, the challenge for “global mental health” is to establish a framework that recognizes the unique contributions of all stakeholders and emphasizes equitable partnerships, while adapting knowledge across settings and health systems. Such an approach would be essential to achieve the stated aims of this movement.

  15. [The dialogues between anthropology and health: contributions to public policies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langdon, Esther Jean

    2014-04-01

    In order to examine the development of anthropological paradigms and their dialogue with medicine, I divide the discussion into two general, but non-exclusive, approaches: one that focuses on health and disease as social and cultural experience and construction, and another that examines health from an interactional and political perspective. For the first approach, I focus on North American and French theories that find resonance in the anthropological dialogue in Brazil. For the second political approach, the discussion originates in the dialogue among anthropologists in Latin America who have been developing models to contribute to an interdisciplinary approach necessary for health policies and intervention in health. The concepts of practices in self-care and intermedicality, among others, are explored due to their contribution in anthropology to public policies in health. These anthropologists have argued that health practices should be understood through the notions of autonomy, collectivity, agency and praxis, as opposed to the notions of the biomedical perspective characterized as being universalist, biological, individualist and a-historical.

  16. Contributing to Balkan public health: a school for Skopje.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levett, Jeffrey

    2002-04-01

    medical dominance. According to a related mission statement, the School is to be implemented as an academic center of excellence and innovation, with the worthy purpose of improving the health of the population, with particular attention to the disadvantaged, underserved, and vulnerable. It can aid policy enactment, capacity building, and vulnerability research, promote the development of new training curricula for human rights and public health, and contribute to regional public health. The implementation of the School has a symbolism attached to it as a Balkan response for the elimination of the causes for political violence.

  17. The contribution of traditional healers' clinics to public health care system in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birhan Wubet

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ethiopian people have been using traditional medicine since time immemorial with 80% of its population dependent on traditional medicines. However, the documentation of traditional healers' clinics contribution to modern public health system in cosmopolitan cities is scanty. Studies conducted so far are limited and focused on the perceptions and practices of modern and traditional health practitioners about traditional medicine. Thus, a cross sectional study was conducted from February to May 2010 to assess the contribution of traditional healers' clinics to public health care system in Addis Ababa. Materials and methods Ten traditional healers who were willing to participate in the study and 306 patients who were visiting these traditional healers' clinics were interviewed using two types of semi-structured questionnaires. Data were summarized using percentages, tables and bar chart. Results The diseases mostly treated by traditional healers were wound, inflammation, herpes zoster, hemorrhoids, fracture, paralysis, back-pain, liver diseases, cancer and eczema. This study showed that traditional healers' clinics considerably contribute to public health care in Addis Ababa. Fifty two percent of patients reported that traditional healers' clinics were their first choice when they faced health problems. The reasons for visiting these clinics were 175 (57.2% efficacy, 109 (35.6% dissatisfaction with modern medicine, 10 (3.3% dissatisfaction with modern medicine and efficacy, 6 (2.0% cost and 6 (2.0% dissatisfaction and cost. Females (55.2%, young age (20-40 years, 65.0%, never married (56.9%, orthodox (73.9%, Amhara (52.3%, educational status above grade 12 (34.6% and government employees (29.4% were frequent visitors. Healers reported that there was no form of cooperation with modern health professionals. The reasons were lack of motivation to collaborate and communicate with modern health service workers. Family based

  18. First-time versus repeat visitors at the Kruger National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martinette Kruger

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this research is to segment visitors at the Kruger National Park based on the frequency of visitation in order to distinguish between first-time and repeat park visitors.Problem investigated: The Kruger National Park (KNP in South Africa is one of the world’s most renowned wildlife reserves. The KNP is in great demand because it is regarded as anall-inclusive holiday destination that provides tourists with a unique nature and leisure experience. As a result, the park attracts over one million visitors per annum and is one of the top five international tourist destinations in the country. For the KNP to sustain its visitor numbers, park managers should realise that both first-time and repeat visitor groups play a fundamental role in the overall competitiveness and success of the park, and they should strive to achieve a balance between first-time and repeat visitors. Therefore, the park management should know which attributes of the park attract first-time visitors group and which attract repeat visitors.Design and methodology and approach: A research survey was done at various rest camps inthe KNP from 26 December 2010 to 03 January 2011; a total of 436 visitor questionnaires were completed. Two-way frequency tables and chi-square tests as well as analysis of variance and Tukey’s multiple comparisons were used to analyse the data and segment first-time and repeat visitors based on socio-demographics and behavioural characteristics as well as travel motivations.Findings and implications: The results indicated that first-time visitors are long-haul visitors, are younger and pay for fewer people whilst repeat visitors are mainly motivated by escape and plan their trips well in advance. These differences indicate that the KNP should follow a two pronged marketing approach aimed at both visitor markets. This would greatly contribute to the long-term sustainability and competitiveness of the KNP.

  19. Immunology and world health: key contributions from the global community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nossal, G J V

    2013-04-01

    The contributions of immunology to world health must be seen in the context of the severe disadvantage prevailing in many countries. Low life expectancy, high infant and maternal mortality rates, and continued prevalence of infections as causes of preventable deaths highlight what vaccines can do to improve the situation. This paper will briefly review some major new international health programs, including the GAVI Alliance; the Global Polio Eradication Initiative; the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria; the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief; and the Global Malaria Action Plan. It will also outline the state of research progress for vaccines that are not yet licensed but that, in many cases, appear within reach. Of course, vaccines are not the be-all and the end-all of global health, so brief reference will be made to nutrition, vector biology and control, and the emergence of noncommunicable diseases as threats. © 2013 New York Academy of Sciences.

  20. Workplace design contributions to mental health and well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veitch, Jennifer A

    2011-01-01

    People spend much of their waking time in their workplaces (approximately 33% on a weekly basis), which raises the possibility that the conditions they experience at work influence their health and well-being. The workplace design literature has given scant attention to mental health outcomes, instead focusing on healthy populations. Conversely, the mental health literature gives scant attention to the potential contribution of workplace design in preventing mental health problems; nor does it provide much insight into facilitating return to work. Taken together, however, the literature does suggest both lines of research and possible interventions. Existing knowledge proposes that workplace design can influence mental health via the effects of light exposure on circadian regulation, social behaviour and affect; the effects of aesthetic judgement on at-work mood and physical well-being and at-home sleep quality; access to nature and recovery from stressful experiences; and privacy regulation and stimulus control. This paper includes a short review of the literature in this area, proposals for new research directions and consideration of the implications of this information on the design choices made by business owners, designers and facility managers. Providing suitable working conditions for all employees avoids stigmatizing employees who have mental health problems, while facilitating prevention and return to work among those who do. Copyright © 2011 Longwoods Publishing.

  1. Unique contributions of Keraleeya Ayurveda in pediatric health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandran, Seetha; Dinesh, K S; Patgiri, B J; Dharmarajan, Prasanth

    2018-02-19

    Childhood is considered as the most important phase in life, which determines the quality of health, well being, learning and behaviour across the lifespan. This may be the reason for giving the foremost position for Balacikitsa among Ashtangas (8 branches) of Ayurveda. The regional growth of indigenous medicine gave significant contribution for the development of primary health care. Kerala has major contribution of many authentic textbooks of Balacikitsa like Arogyakalpadruma, Vaidya Tarakam etc. These are more practically oriented and it can be considered as a physician's quick reference hand book. Many new diseases which are not mentioned in classical textbooks have found their place in these books. Medications like Praakaara yoga, Uramarunnuprayoga were administered in children as a mode of immunization, which helps in the maintenance of health and prevention of disease. Many diseases like Karappan (balavisarpa), Shakarogas etc. were common in Kerala and various indigenous treatment modalities were developed for such diseases. Single drug Prayogas with herbs like Mayaphal (galls), Tripadi (DesmodiumTriflorum L.), etc. and yogams like Nalikerakwatha (Putapakakalpana), Mukkuti (Takrakalpana) etc. were practiced commonly. Many effective therapies like Shashtikapindasweda, Thalapothichil (Sirolepa) etc. are an inevitable part of Balacikitsa. In this paper, an attempt is made to compile the theoretical concepts and unique practices of Balacikitsa in Kerala and to convey it's importance. The present article also addresses, how these vernacular books and traditional knowledge waned away from the Mainstream Ayurveda. Copyright © 2017 Transdisciplinary University, Bangalore and World Ayurveda Foundation. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Public health leadership development: factors contributing to growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Linda G

    2013-01-01

    This study compares pre- and posttest Leadership Practices Inventory (LPI-Self) scores for public health leaders who completed the Regional Institute for Health and Environmental Leadership (RIHEL) training program at least 2 years earlier; it seeks to identify factors contributing to changes in practices and overall leadership development for public health and environment leaders. Sixty-seven alumni who completed the yearlong RIHEL program between 1999 and 2002 participated through mailed surveys and phone interviews. The Leadership Practices Inventory, an alumni leadership development survey, and interviews provided evidence for positive change in leadership practices. Alumni experienced significant increases in pre- to post-LPI scores, collaborative leadership practices, and communication skills consistent with those taught in the RIHEL program. Women presented higher Encourage the Heart scores than men. Years of public health service negatively correlated with Total Change scores of LPI. The RIHEL program as a training intervention was credited significantly with changes in leadership practices for alumni studied. Nine influencing factors were identified for leadership development and are embedded in a Leadership Development Influence Model. These include self-awareness, a leadership development framework, and skills important in multiple leadership situations. Confidence was both an encouraging factor and a resulting factor to the increased exemplary leadership practices. Leadership development in public health must include multiple factors to create consistent increases in exemplary leadership practices. While the study focused on the leadership development process itself, RIHEL training was reported as having a positive, significant impact overall in participant leadership development. This study adds research data as a foundation for training content areas of focus. Studies to further test the Leadership Development Influence Model will allow public health

  3. [Shared governance and reasonableness as ethical contributions to health policy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa-Alcaraz, Ana M; Calvo-Rigual, Fernando; Siurana-Aparisi, Juan Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Health is one of the fundamental human rights. Recognizing it as a right means that the State has an obligation to ensure a minimum level of opportunities is maintained, and to restore it when lost. This minimum level may not be covered in periods of economic crisis, such as the one we are currently experiencing.Managed care, focused on economic questions, emerged after the crisis of 1973 in order to help make clinical decisions based on economic factors. In practice, the result of managed care was to turn economic cost control into an end in itself while forgetting about equity; something for which it has been challenged from an ethical perspective. Since then, many authors have attempted to reconcile efficiency and equity in health management, but the debate remains open.In this article, and basing our approach on the theories of P. Ruger and Norman Daniels, we argue that shared health governance and accountability for reasonableness can offer significant ethical contributions in the process of achieving an efficient and fair health system. In the model we propose, citizens, professionals and health institutions all play an active role in capacity building in the field of health. These capacities are related to healthy lifestyles, accessible and transparent information, the promotion of self-care, the acquisition of knowledge, skills and appropriate attitudes, leadership based on values and co-responsibility to achieve set goals in a reasonable way. If we develop these capacities, we will have used the current economic crisis as an opportunity for improving ethical practice in the field of health.

  4. Supplementary contribution payable to the Health Insurance Scheme for spouses

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    Staff members, fellows and pensioners are reminded that any change in their marital status, as well as any change in their spouse or registered partner’s income or health insurance cover, must be reported to CERN in writing within 30 calendar days, in accordance with Articles III 6.01 to 6.03 of the Rules of the CERN Health Insurance Scheme (CHIS). Such changes may affect the conditions of the spouse or registered partner’s membership of the CHIS or the payment of the supplementary contribution to it for the spouse or registered partner’s insurance cover. For more information see: http://cern.ch/chis/contribsupp.asp From 1.1.2008, the indexed amounts of the supplementary monthly contribution for the different monthly income brackets are as follows, expressed in Swiss francs: more than 2500 CHF and up to 4250 CHF: 134.- more than 4250 CHF and up to 7500 CHF: 234.- more than 7500 CHF and up to 10,000 CHF: 369.- more than 10,000 CHF: 470.- It is in the member of the ...

  5. Food and health-contribute of agri-food economics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Baraldi

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the relationship between food and health in a context of innovation, safety and welfare is carried out considering the view of agri-food economists. Relationships and meanings are addressed defining by the scope of observation and choices. We adopt a qualitative and quantitative analysis of the scientific contributions of Italian economists (publications, conferences, etc. in this field. In particular we have examined the contributions published in some of the main Italian journals and the conferences organized in Italy and in Europe from the major scientific societies. We propose a classification that is consistent with the analysis and is in the span of time 2000/2007. The classification adopted for the analysis of the contributions of research exploits similar research carried out at the international level. By reading these studies we were able to process and define a model to interpret findings of the previous literature. An analysis of database information is useful to study: the type of investigation (case study, bibliographic, sectorial, generic, etc. the branches of more diffused research (field production, retail, consumption, etc., the types of adopted methodologies (quantitative, qualitative, etc., the involvement among research groups (universities, public and private institutions, involvement of foreign researchers, etc., the beneficiaries of research (pure research, policy makers, businesses, etc.. The results will be expressed on the basis of different approaches, tools and considering the possible exogenous variables affecting reality. The analysis will allow to identify the areas of research which involve the relationship between food and health and in which agri-food economists are more involved. In addition, we can describe the most promising areas of research which should be undertaken or strengthened. Attention will be placed also in highlighting the link between research and production in the broadest sense

  6. Food and health-contribute of agri-food economics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Spadoni

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the relationship between food and health in a context of innovation, safety and welfare is carried out considering the view of agri-food economists. Relationships and meanings are addressed defining by the scope of observation and choices. We adopt a qualitative and quantitative analysis of the scientific contributions of Italian economists (publications, conferences, etc. in this field. In particular we have examined the contributions published in some of the main Italian journals and the conferences organized in Italy and in Europe from the major scientific societies. We propose a classification that is consistent with the analysis and is in the span of time 2000/2007. The classification adopted for the analysis of the contributions of research exploits similar research carried out at the international level. By reading these studies we were able to process and define a model to interpret findings of the previous literature. An analysis of database information is useful to study: the type of investigation (case study, bibliographic, sectorial, generic, etc. the branches of more diffused research (field production, retail, consumption, etc., the types of adopted methodologies (quantitative, qualitative, etc., the involvement among research groups (universities, public and private institutions, involvement of foreign researchers, etc., the beneficiaries of research (pure research, policy makers, businesses, etc.. The results will be expressed on the basis of different approaches, tools and considering the possible exogenous variables affecting reality. The analysis will allow to identify the areas of research which involve the relationship between food and health and in which agri-food economists are more involved. In addition, we can describe the most promising areas of research which should be undertaken or strengthened. Attention will be placed also in highlighting the link between research and production in the broadest sense

  7. Pharmacist Contributions to the U.S. Health Care System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon C. Schommer, PhD

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The overall goal for this study was to conduct a segment analysis of the pharmacist workforce during 2009 based upon time spent in medication providing and in patient care services. Methods: Data for this study were obtained from the 2009 National Pharmacist Workforce Survey in which a random sample of 3,000 pharmacists was selected. Cluster analysis was used for identifying pharmacist segments and descriptive statistics were used for describing and comparing segments.Results: Of the 2,667 surveys that were presumed to be delivered to a pharmacist, 1,395 were returned yielding a 52.3% overall response rate. Of these, 1,200 responses were usable for cluster analysis. Findings from this study revealed five segments ofpharmacists: (1 Medication Providers, (2 Medication Providers who also Provide Patient Care, (3 Other Activity Pharmacists, (4 Patient Care Providers Who also Provide Medication, and (5 Patient Care Providers. The results showed that, in 2009, 41% of U.S. pharmacists were devoted wholly to medication providing (Medication Providers. Forty-three percent of pharmacists contributed significantly to patient care service provision (Medication Providers who also Provide Patient Care, Patient Care Providers who also Provide Medication, and Patient Care Providers and the remaining 16% (Other Activity Pharmacists contributed most of their time to business / organization management, research, education, and other health-system improvement activities. Conclusions: Based on the findings, we propose that the pharmacy profession currently has, and will continue to build, capacity for contributing to the U.S. health care system in new roles for which they have been identified. However, as shifts in professional roles occur, a great deal of capacity is required related to new service provision. Resources are scarce, so an understanding of the most appropriate timing for making such changes can lead to cost-effective use of limited

  8. More items on visitors' menu

    CERN Document Server

    2005-01-01

    Visitors to CERN will now be able to appreciate first-hand the sheer scale of the computing challenge associated with the LHC, during guided visits to the Computing Centre. Two more of CERN's experimental facilities have recently been added to the itineraries offered to the public by the Visits Service. The general public will now be able to see the COMPASS experiment and CERN's Computing Centre. Over the past few years, there has been an increasing demand for visits. Last year, 25 000 visitors came to see sites at CERN. 'Visitors to CERN are impressed by the sheer scale of the experiments, interested to find out how they work and amazed at how they are often located underground,' says Dominique Bertola, Head of the CERN Visits Service. COMPASS is the first fixed-target experiment available for viewing to the general public. The linear structure of the detector makes it an ideal exhibit for the visitors, because it permits them to see the different stages of the experiment and intuitively appreciate how it ...

  9. 75 FR 27452 - Visitor Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-17

    ... include all areas where standard amenity, expanded amenity, and special recreation permit fees are charged... to require the BLM to publish supplementary rules for each area for failure to pay recreation fees... recreation fee management regulations, including the requirement that visitors pay fees before occupying a...

  10. Seney National Wildlife Refuge Visitor Services Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Visitor Services Plan covers background information, objectives, strategies and goals of the Visitor Services program at Seney NWR for the next 15 years. It...

  11. Reducing health inequities: the contribution of core public health services in BC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauly, Bernadette Bernie; MacDonald, Marjorie; Hancock, Trevor; Martin, Wanda; Perkin, Kathleen

    2013-06-06

    Within Canada, many public health leaders have long identified the importance of improving the health of all Canadians especially those who face social and economic disadvantages. Future improvements in population health will be achieved by promoting health equity through action on the social determinants of health. Many Canadian documents, endorsed by government and public health leaders, describe commitments to improving overall health and promoting health equity. Public health has an important role to play in strengthening action on the social determinants and promoting health equity. Currently, public health services in British Columbia are being reorganized and there is a unique opportunity to study the application of an equity lens in public health and the contribution of public health to reducing health inequities. Where applicable, we have chosen mental health promotion, prevention of mental disorders and harms of substance use as exemplars within which to examine specific application of an equity lens. This research protocol is informed by three theoretical perspectives: complex adaptive systems, critical social justice, and intersectionality. In this program of research, there are four inter-related research projects with an emphasis on both integrated and end of grant knowledge translation. Within an overarching collaborative and participatory approach to research, we use a multiple comparative case study research design and are incorporating multiple methods such as discourse analysis, situational analysis, social network analysis, concept mapping and grounded theory. An important aim of this work is to help ensure a strong public health system that supports public health providers to have the knowledge, skills, tools and resources to undertake the promotion of health equity. This research will contribute to increasing the effectiveness and contributions of public health in reducing unfair and inequitable differences in health among population groups

  12. Reducing health inequities: the contribution of core public health services in BC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Within Canada, many public health leaders have long identified the importance of improving the health of all Canadians especially those who face social and economic disadvantages. Future improvements in population health will be achieved by promoting health equity through action on the social determinants of health. Many Canadian documents, endorsed by government and public health leaders, describe commitments to improving overall health and promoting health equity. Public health has an important role to play in strengthening action on the social determinants and promoting health equity. Currently, public health services in British Columbia are being reorganized and there is a unique opportunity to study the application of an equity lens in public health and the contribution of public health to reducing health inequities. Where applicable, we have chosen mental health promotion, prevention of mental disorders and harms of substance use as exemplars within which to examine specific application of an equity lens. Methods/design This research protocol is informed by three theoretical perspectives: complex adaptive systems, critical social justice, and intersectionality. In this program of research, there are four inter-related research projects with an emphasis on both integrated and end of grant knowledge translation. Within an overarching collaborative and participatory approach to research, we use a multiple comparative case study research design and are incorporating multiple methods such as discourse analysis, situational analysis, social network analysis, concept mapping and grounded theory. Discussion An important aim of this work is to help ensure a strong public health system that supports public health providers to have the knowledge, skills, tools and resources to undertake the promotion of health equity. This research will contribute to increasing the effectiveness and contributions of public health in reducing unfair and inequitable differences

  13. POTENTIAL POLLINATORS AND FLORAL VISITORS OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    2013-05-06

    May 6, 2013 ... the visitor foraging for pollen, nectar, both or other floral parts. For the observations in Zambia, we determined the visiting time per inflorescence for the 2 most abundant visitors. Each time when the most abundant visitor came; we timed how long it stayed on an inflorescence and on a tree, for. 104 random ...

  14. Wildland fire and the wilderness visitor experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierra L. Schroeder; Ingrid E. Schneider

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand wilderness visitors' perceptions of wildland fire and describe visitors' wilderness recreational experience following wildland fire in the Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness (BWCAW). Qualitative interviews revealed visitors' perceptions of burned areas as well as if and how activities and behaviors were...

  15. 27 February 2012 - Director of the Health Directorate at the Research DG European Commission R. Draghia-Akli in the ATLAS visitor centre with ATLAS Former Collaboration Spokesperson P. Jenni and Head of CERN EU Projects Office S. Stavrev; in the LHC superconducting magnet test hall with E. Todesco; and signing the guest book with CERN Director-General R. Heuer.

    CERN Multimedia

    Michel Blanc

    2012-01-01

    27 February 2012 - Director of the Health Directorate at the Research DG European Commission R. Draghia-Akli in the ATLAS visitor centre with ATLAS Former Collaboration Spokesperson P. Jenni and Head of CERN EU Projects Office S. Stavrev; in the LHC superconducting magnet test hall with E. Todesco; and signing the guest book with CERN Director-General R. Heuer.

  16. Making health care safer: What is the contribution of health psychology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Charles; Wearden, Alison; French, David P

    2015-11-01

    While health care brings great benefits, all treatments, and many investigations, carry some risk. As patients, we should be told of the risks of specific treatments but we are also at risk from failings in the health care system itself. We suggest that, while there are many examples of individual health psychologists who have made important contributions, this has not yet translated into a broader disciplinary engagement. Health psychologists have devoted much more attention to patients and devoted much less attention to the potentially huge impact of studying and intervening with staff, clinical practice, and organizations. We believe that there are considerable opportunities for health psychology to engage more closely with patient safety and, more importantly, that this would be of great benefit to both patients and staff. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? While health care brings great benefits, all treatments, and many investigations, carry some risk. Patients are also at risk from failings in the health care system itself. Studies using review of medical records in many countries have found that between 8% and 12% of patients in hospital suffer an unintended harm due to health care. What does this study add? There are many examples of individual psychologists who have made important contributions, but this has not yet translated into a broader disciplinary engagement. There are considerable opportunities for health psychology to engage more closely with patient safety. These include health behaviour change, teamwork, communication after medical error, diagnosis and decision making, organisational culture, and improving compliance with rules and standards. Psychologists providing a clinical service to specialist services in any area could expand their remit from supporting patients to a more general support and engagement with safety and quality initiatives. Health psychologists have models to understand the behaviour of people

  17. The Contribution of Civil Society Organizations in Achieving Health ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Global gaps in health care The World Health Organization's Health for All declaration in 1978 called for addressing global public health challenges by incorporating a people-centered approach to national health systems. ... Strengthening Governance in Health Systems for Reproductive Health and Rights in Pakistan.

  18. Primary health care contribution to improve health outcomes in Bogota-Colombia: a longitudinal ecological analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Colombia has a highly segmented and fragmented national health system that contributes to inequitable health outcomes. In 2004 the district government of Bogota initiated a Primary Health Care (PHC) strategy to improve health care access and population health status. This study aims to analyse the contribution of the PHC strategy to the improvement of health outcomes controlling for socioeconomic variables. Methods A longitudinal ecological analysis using data from secondary sources was carried out. The analysis used data from 2003 and 2007 (one year before and 3 years after the PHC implementation). A Primary Health Care Index (PHCI) of coverage intensity was constructed. According to the PHCI, localities were classified into two groups: high and low coverage. A multivariate analysis using a Poisson regression model for each year separately and a Panel Poisson regression model to assess changes between the groups over the years was developed. Dependent variables were infant mortality rate, under-5 mortality rate, infant mortality rate due to acute diarrheal disease and pneumonia, prevalence of acute malnutrition, vaccination coverage for diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus (DPT) and prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding. The independent variable was the PHCI. Control variables were sewerage coverage, health system insurance coverage and quality of life index. Results The high PHCI localities as compared with the low PHCI localities showed significant risk reductions of under-5 mortality (13.8%) and infant mortality due to pneumonia (37.5%) between 2003 and 2007. The probability of being vaccinated for DPT also showed a significant increase of 4.9%. The risk of infant mortality and of acute malnutrition in children under-5 years was lesser in the high coverage group than in the low one; however relative changes were not statistically significant. Conclusions Despite the adverse contextual conditions and the limitations imposed by the Colombian health

  19. University of Global Health Equity's Contribution to the Reduction of Education and Health Services Rationing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binagwaho, Agnes

    2017-05-29

    The inadequate supply of health workers and demand-side barriers due to clinical practice that heeds too little attention to cultural context are serious obstacles to achieving universal health coverage and the fulfillment of the human rights to health, especially for the poor and vulnerable living in remote rural areas. A number of strategies have been deployed to increase both the supply of healthcare workers and the demand for healthcare services. However, more can be done to improve service delivery as well as mitigate the geographic inequalities that exist in this field. To contribute to overcoming these barriers and increasing access to health services, especially for the most vulnerable, Partners In Health (PIH), a US non-governmental organization specializing in equitable health service delivery, has created the University of Global Health Equity (UGHE) in a remote rural district of Rwanda. The act of building this university in such a rural setting signals a commitment to create opportunities where there have traditionally been few. Furthermore, through its state-of-the-art educational approach in a rural setting and its focus on cultural competency, UGHE is contributing to progress in the quest for equitable access to quality health services. © 2017 The Author(s); Published by Kerman University of Medical Sciences. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

  20. Bad Jobs, Bad Health? How Work and Working Conditions Contribute to Health Disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgard, Sarah A; Lin, Katherine Y

    2013-08-01

    In this review, we touch on a broad array of ways that work is linked to health and health disparities for individuals and societies. First focusing on the health of individuals, we discuss the health differences between those who do and do not work for pay, and review key positive and negative exposures that can generate health disparities among the employed. These include both psychosocial factors like the benefits of a high status job or the burden of perceived job insecurity, as well as physical exposures to dangerous working conditions like asbestos or rotating shift work. We also provide a discussion of the ways differential exposure to these aspects of work contributes to social disparities in health within and across generations. Analytic complexities in assessing the link between work and health for individuals, such as health selection, are also discussed. We then touch on several contextual level associations between work and the health of populations, discussing the importance of the occupational structure in a given society, the policy environment that prevails there, and the oscillations of the macroeconomy for generating societal disparities in health. We close with a discussion of four areas and associated recommendations that draw on this corpus of knowledge but would push the research on work, health and inequality toward even greater scholarly and policy relevance.

  1. Contribution of health workforce to health outcomes: empirical evidence from Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Mai Phuong; Mirzoev, Tolib; Le, Thi Minh

    2016-11-16

    In Vietnam, a lower-middle income country, while the overall skill- and knowledge-based quality of health workforce is improving, health workers are disproportionately distributed across different economic regions. A similar trend appears to be in relation to health outcomes between those regions. It is unclear, however, whether there is any relationship between the distribution of health workers and the achievement of health outcomes in the context of Vietnam. This study examines the statistical relationship between the availability of health workers and health outcomes across the different economic regions in Vietnam. We constructed a panel data of six economic regions covering 8 years (2006-2013) and used principal components analysis regressions to estimate the impact of health workforce on health outcomes. The dependent variables representing the outcomes included life expectancy at birth, infant mortality, and under-five mortality rates. Besides the health workforce as our target explanatory variable, we also controlled for key demographic factors including regional income per capita, poverty rate, illiteracy rate, and population density. The numbers of doctors, nurses, midwives, and pharmacists have been rising in the country over the last decade. However, there are notable differences across the different categories. For example, while the numbers of nurses increased considerably between 2006 and 2013, the number of pharmacists slightly decreased between 2011 and 2013. We found statistically significant evidence of the impact of density of doctors, nurses, midwives, and pharmacists on improvement to life expectancy and reduction of infant and under-five mortality rates. Availability of different categories of health workforce can positively contribute to improvements in health outcomes and ultimately extend the life expectancy of populations. Therefore, increasing investment into more equitable distribution of four main categories of health workforce

  2. CERN Health Insurance Scheme (CHIS): Monthly Contributions for 2016

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2015-01-01

    For 2016, the contribution rate for active and retired CHIS members will be 4.86%. The amounts of the fixed contributions for voluntarily insured members (e.g. users and other associates), as well as the supplementary contributions for spouses with income from a professional activity or with a retirement pension (including a CERN pension), are thus as follows:   1. Voluntary contributions The full contribution based on Reference Salary II is 1218 CHF per month. This fixed contribution is applied to voluntarily affiliated users and other associates with normal coverage. Half of this amount, 609 CHF, is applied to voluntarily affiliated users and other associates with reduced coverage. Finally, an amount of 487 CHF is applied to children maintaining their insurance cover on a voluntary and temporary basis. 2. Supplementary contributions The supplementary contribution for the spouse or registered partner of a staff member, fellow or pensioner is now as follows, according to the spouse’s month...

  3. Will woody plant encroachment impact the visitor experience and economy of conservation areas?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma F. Gray

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Woody plant encroachment into savannas is a globally prevalent phenomenon and impacts ecosystem goods and services such as biodiversity, carbon storage, nutrient cycling, grazing and hydrology. The direct ecological and economic consequences for rangelands have been fairly well studied, but, to our knowledge, the economic impact on conservation efforts has not been investigated. African savannas are important as conservation areas because they support large numbers of the world’s remaining megafauna. This study used visitor surveys and long-term mammal distribution data to investigate how an increase in tree density might affect the visibility of animals in a conservation area, which could reduce the satisfaction of visitors to the area. We found that apparent herd sizes and density of animals were much reduced in woody areas, suggesting that visibility is negatively impacted. Visitor surveys determined that a large fraction (almost half of potential future visitors to the park may be lost if animals became more difficult to see and that the majority of these would be the higher-spending visitors. Responses differed depending on the origin of visitors, with international visitors being more interested in seeing animals, whilst local visitors were more content with just being away from the city. The results suggest that woody plant encroachment may have significant impacts on visitor numbers to savanna conservation areas, whilst animal numbers and densities may also be significantly impacted.Conservation implications: The results pointed to potentially significant economic consequences for conservation efforts as visitors become less satisfied with their experience. Perceptions of visitors are important for management decisions as park fees contribute significantly to conservation efforts. This could ultimately result in a reduced capacity for African conservation areas to conserve their biodiversity effectively. The results suggest that

  4. Determinants of Visitor Pro-Environmental Intentions on Two Small Greek Islands: Is Ecotourism Possible at Coastal Protected Areas?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafyri, Andriani; Hovardas, Tasos; Poirazidis, Konstantinos

    2012-07-01

    A relatively under-researched question is whether there is a possibility of influencing environmentally aware tourists regarding ecotourism at destinations that continue to develop under a pattern of mass `seaside' tourism. Our objective was to assess the pro-environmental intentions of visitors at two small Greek islands, which are within a Natura 2000 site, specifically Paxoi and Antipaxoi. Intentions involved willingness to receive information about the protected area, willingness to accept pro-environmental limitations on recreational experience, and willingness-to-pay a conditional environmental conservation value added tax. In addition, we aimed to identify determinants of visitor pro-environmental intentions among visitor and visit characteristics, visitor satisfaction, and self-reported environmental knowledge, as well as anticipated outcomes of tourism development and suggestions for protected area management. We randomly collected 324 usable questionnaires during the summer season; 242 (74.69 %) by Greek visitors and 82 (25.31 %) by foreign visitors. Visitor satisfaction was quite high; however, visitors reported low levels of environmental knowledge. Our findings showed that the unique characteristics of the destination were not salient among visitors and that there is a lack of effective outreach campaigns, interpretation, and on-site environmental education programs. However, our study revealed high levels of visitor pro-environmental intentions that might support the promotion of ecotourism on the two islands. We provide recommendations based on determinants of visitor pro-environmental intentions, which might assist towards advancing visitor participation in environmental education projects, environmentally responsible behavior among visitors, and financial contribution to environmental conservation by visitors.

  5. Determinants of visitor pro-environmental intentions on two small Greek islands: is ecotourism possible at coastal protected areas?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafyri, Andriani; Hovardas, Tasos; Poirazidis, Konstantinos

    2012-07-01

    A relatively under-researched question is whether there is a possibility of influencing environmentally aware tourists regarding ecotourism at destinations that continue to develop under a pattern of mass 'seaside' tourism. Our objective was to assess the pro-environmental intentions of visitors at two small Greek islands, which are within a Natura 2000 site, specifically Paxoi and Antipaxoi. Intentions involved willingness to receive information about the protected area, willingness to accept pro-environmental limitations on recreational experience, and willingness-to-pay a conditional environmental conservation value added tax. In addition, we aimed to identify determinants of visitor pro-environmental intentions among visitor and visit characteristics, visitor satisfaction, and self-reported environmental knowledge, as well as anticipated outcomes of tourism development and suggestions for protected area management. We randomly collected 324 usable questionnaires during the summer season; 242 (74.69 %) by Greek visitors and 82 (25.31 %) by foreign visitors. Visitor satisfaction was quite high; however, visitors reported low levels of environmental knowledge. Our findings showed that the unique characteristics of the destination were not salient among visitors and that there is a lack of effective outreach campaigns, interpretation, and on-site environmental education programs. However, our study revealed high levels of visitor pro-environmental intentions that might support the promotion of ecotourism on the two islands. We provide recommendations based on determinants of visitor pro-environmental intentions, which might assist towards advancing visitor participation in environmental education projects, environmentally responsible behavior among visitors, and financial contribution to environmental conservation by visitors.

  6. The contribution of international health volunteers to the health workforce in sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogaert Isa

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In this paper, we aim to quantify the contribution of international health volunteers to the health workforce in sub-Saharan Africa and to explore the perceptions of health service managers regarding these volunteers. Methods Rapid survey among organizations sending international health volunteers and group discussions with experienced medical officers from sub-Saharan African countries. Results We contacted 13 volunteer organizations having more than 10 full-time equivalent international health volunteers in sub-Saharan Africa and estimated that they employed together 2072 full-time equivalent international health volunteers in 2005. The numbers sent by secular non-governmental organizations (NGOs is growing, while the number sent by development NGOs, including faith-based organizations, is mostly decreasing. The cost is estimated at between US$36 000 and US$50 000 per expatriate volunteer per year. There are trends towards more employment of international health volunteers from low-income countries and of national medical staff. Country experts express more negative views about international health volunteers than positive ones. They see them as increasingly paradoxical in view of the existence of urban unemployed doctors and nurses in most countries. Creating conditions for employment and training of national staff is strongly favoured as an alternative. Only in exceptional circumstances is sending international health volunteers viewed as a defendable temporary measure. Conclusion We estimate that not more than 5000 full-time equivalent international health volunteers were working in sub-Saharan Africa in 2005, of which not more than 1500 were doctors. A distinction should be made between (1 secular medical humanitarian NGOs, (2development NGOs, and (3 volunteer organizations, as Voluntary Service Overseas (VSO and United Nations volunteers (UNV. They have different views, undergo different trends and are differently

  7. Visitor Capacity in the National Park System

    OpenAIRE

    Haas, Dr. Glenn E.; National Park Service; Department of the Interior, U.S.

    2001-01-01

    This paper reviews social science research on visitor capacity relevant to units of the National Park System (NPS). Visitor capacity is defined as a prescribed number and type of people that an area will accommodate given the desired natural/cultural resource conditions, visitor experiences, and management program. Some 40 years of scientific investigation illustrate the complexity of the interaction between human use and park resources. This paper provides insights from environmental psyc...

  8. From "One Health" to "One Communication": The Contribution of Communication in Veterinary Medicine to Public Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipolla, Micaela; Bonizzi, Luigi; Zecconi, Alfonso

    2015-07-15

    Despite the fact that health communication is a discipline developed only recently, its importance in human medicine is well recognized. However, it is less considered in veterinary medicine, even if it has the potential to improve public health because of the role of veterinary medicine in public health. For this reason, an One Health approach is useful for communication as well. This approach leads to a "One Communication" concept, which is the result of the synergy in communicative efforts both in human and in veterinary medicine. Our analysis explores the potential of communication in several veterinary fields: institutions, food safety, companion animal and food-producing animal practice, pharmacology and drugs, wildlife fauna and environment. In almost all the areas of veterinary activity communication can contribute to human health. It takes many forms and use several channels, and this variety of communicative opportunities represent a challenge for veterinarians. For this reason, the communication course should be included in the curricula of Veterinary Medicine Schools. As One Health, One Communication is a strategy for expanding collaborations in health communication and it will enhance public health.

  9. Towards A Contextual Turn in Visitor Studies: Evaluating Visitor Segmentation and Identity-Related Motivations

    OpenAIRE

    E Dawson; Jensen, E.

    2011-01-01

    This article assesses the use of audience segmentation in visitor studies by analyzing its application in the identity model of visitors proposed by J. Falk (2009) and J. Falk et al. (2007). As a leading example of visitor segmentation, the authors examine this model's application in a specific case at U.S. zoos to elaborate some of its limitations. Conventional short-term, episodic approaches to visitor research should be challenged and supplemented by a more contextually sensitive framework...

  10. Radical Trust Works: An Investigation of Digital Visitor Generated Content and Visitor Engagement in Museum Spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Ross, C.S.

    2014-01-01

    Visitor generated content projects are becoming increasingly significant in the development and delivery of engaging visitor experiences in museums in the UK, but the rationale behind them and the impact they are having on not only visitor engagement but also museum practice are not always clear. There is a requirement to understand and articulate the impact of digital visitor co-creation in the museum environment and to discuss the challenges of implementing digital innovation projects in mu...

  11. Assessing Psychological Health: The Contribution of Psychological Strengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macaskill, Ann; Denovan, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Balanced assessment of mental health involves assessing well-being and strengths as well as psychopathology. The character strengths of curiosity, gratitude, hope, optimism and forgiveness are assessed in 214 new undergraduates and their relationships to mental health, subjective well-being and self-esteem explored. Scoring the mental health scale…

  12. International collaboration in mental health: Contributions, opportunities, and challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Pratap Sharan; Vijay Krishnan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Arising from the push for global health, the movement for global mental health has established itself as a distinct identity in the last few decades. Collaboration between donors, international agencies, institutions, and individuals of different countries has been an essential component in this endeavor. Methods: We review relevant reports in the literature that describe the process of collaboration between individuals and institutions in the area of mental health, in order to ...

  13. Experiential Benefits, Place Meanings, and Environmental Setting Preferences Between Proximate and Distant Visitors to a National Scenic Trail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kil, Namyun; Holland, Stephen M.; Stein, Taylor V.

    2015-05-01

    Effective management of conserved natural areas often requires a good understanding of recreation visitors who possess various values for those areas. This study examined differences in experiential benefits sought, place meanings, and environmental setting preferences between proximate and distant visitors to a publicly managed national scenic trail, which transects a variety of conserved public lands. Data were collected using on-site post-hike interviews with visitors at low, moderate, and high use trailheads. Proximate visitors sought mental and physical health more strongly than distant visitors, while distant visitors sought environmental exploration more strongly than proximate visitors. No significant difference in family bonding and achievement benefits existed between the two groups. Meanings related to place dependence, family identity, community identity, and place identity were more strongly ascribed by proximate visitors, and both groups rated ecological integrity meanings highly. Distant visitors showed stronger tendencies toward preferring a lesser level of trail development, lower level of encounters with other groups, and higher level of natural landscapes, which indicated an inclination toward natural settings. These findings indicate a managerially relevant role of the degree of proximity to environmental resources on individuals' recreation behaviors, meanings ascribed to the resources and setting conditions. Understanding differences and similarities between groups dichotomized by proximity to natural resources should advance more effective management of recreation and benefit opportunities for diverse visitor groups.

  14. The Contribution of Civil Society Organizations in Achieving Health ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Since then, despite such efforts as including substantial social and economic reform, inequities have increased, resulting in widening gaps between the haves and have-nots. Global public health challenges Since HfA, there have been numerous national, regional, and international efforts to address global public health ...

  15. Information seeking behaviour of online museum visitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Mette

    two research projects on online museum visitors. The first case study will illustrate the information seeking and searching characteristics of online museum visitors at the National Museum of Military History in Copenhagen. Participants in this case study are characterised as special interest museum...

  16. DETERMINANTS OF VISITORS' PREFERENCE FOR WILD ANIMAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Omotesho

    this increasingly important sector. This study examined the determinants of visitors' preference for wild animal species in Kwara State, Nigeria. It determined the animal species preference in the state and highlighted the desired animal characteristics that endeared animals to zoo visitors.A structured questionnaire was used ...

  17. Mecca Hills: Visitor research case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah Chavez; John Baas; Patricia Winter

    1993-01-01

    This "Case Study" represents the first in a series of reports which provide insight into specific management environments and the factors significant to an understanding of the expectations and demands of public land visitors in the West. The study describes the methods and results of a two year inventory of visitors in a wildland area in the desert...

  18. 22 CFR 41.62 - Exchange visitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exchange visitors. 41.62 Section 41.62 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE VISAS VISAS: DOCUMENTATION OF NONIMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND... intends to participate, in an exchange visitor program designated by the Bureau of Education and Cultural...

  19. Home Visitor Job Satisfaction and Turnover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchbinder, Sharon B.; Duggan, Anne K.; Young, Elizabeth; Fuddy, Loretta; Sia, Cal

    This paper summarizes findings of a 3-year study of the job satisfaction and turnover of home visitors, both professional and paraprofessional, in programs which link families-at-risk for impaired functioning to medical home care and other resources. Specifically, the study examined: (1) home visitor personal characteristics that influence…

  20. Survey of Visitors to Bornholm 1996

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartl, Ann; Rassing, Charlotte

    The overall objective was to provide a comprehensive description of visitors to Bornholm that was in keeping with the standard analysis of destination surveys.......The overall objective was to provide a comprehensive description of visitors to Bornholm that was in keeping with the standard analysis of destination surveys....

  1. Building program understanding tools using visitor combinators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. van Deursen (Arie); J.M.W. Visser (Joost)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractProgram understanding tools manipulate program representations, such as abstract syntax trees, control-flow graphs, or data-flow graphs. This paper deals with the use of visitor combinators to conduct such manipulations. Visitor combinators are an extension of the well-known

  2. Contributions of national and global health estimates to monitoring health-related sustainable development goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bundhamcharoen, Kanitta; Limwattananon, Supon; Kusreesakul, Khanitta; Tangcharoensathien, Viroj

    2016-01-01

    The millennium development goals triggered an increased demand for data on child and maternal mortalities for monitoring progress. With the advent of the sustainable development goals and growing evidence of an epidemiological transition toward non-communicable diseases, policymakers need data on mortality and disease trends and distribution to inform effective policies and support monitoring progress. Where there are limited capacities to produce national health estimates (NHEs), global health estimates (GHEs) can fill gaps for global monitoring and comparisons. This paper discusses lessons learned from Thailand's burden of disease (BOD) study on capacity development on NHEs and discusses the contributions and limitations of GHEs in informing policies at the country level. Through training and technical support by external partners, capacities are gradually strengthened and institutionalized to enable regular updates of BOD at national and subnational levels. Initially, the quality of cause-of-death reporting in death certificates was inadequate, especially for deaths occurring in the community. Verbal autopsies were conducted, using domestic resources, to determine probable causes of deaths occurring in the community. This method helped to improve the estimation of years of life lost. Since the achievement of universal health coverage in 2002, the quality of clinical data on morbidities has also considerably improved. There are significant discrepancies between the Global Burden of Disease 2010 study estimates for Thailand and the 1999 nationally generated BOD, especially for years of life lost due to HIV/AIDS, and the ranking of priority diseases. National ownership of NHEs and an effective interface between researchers and decision-makers contribute to enhanced country policy responses, whereas subnational data are intended to be used by various subnational partners. Although GHEs contribute to benchmarking country achievement compared with global health

  3. Implementation of A Better Choice Healthy Food and Drink Supply Strategy for staff and visitors in government-owned health facilities in Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jane; Lee, Amanda; Obersky, Natalie; Edwards, Rachael

    2015-06-01

    The present paper reports on a quality improvement activity examining implementation of A Better Choice Healthy Food and Drink Supply Strategy for Queensland Health Facilities (A Better Choice). A Better Choice is a policy to increase supply and promotion of healthy foods and drinks and decrease supply and promotion of energy-dense, nutrient-poor choices in all food supply areas including food outlets, staff dining rooms, vending machines, tea trolleys, coffee carts, leased premises, catering, fundraising, promotion and advertising. An online survey targeted 278 facility managers to collect self-reported quantitative and qualitative data. Telephone interviews were sought concurrently with the twenty-five A Better Choice district contact officers to gather qualitative information. Public sector-owned and -operated health facilities in Queensland, Australia. One hundred and thirty-four facility managers and twenty-four district contact officers participated with response rates of 48.2% and 96.0%, respectively. Of facility managers, 78.4% reported implementation of more than half of the A Better Choice requirements including 24.6% who reported full strategy implementation. Reported implementation was highest in food outlets, staff dining rooms, tea trolleys, coffee carts, internal catering and drink vending machines. Reported implementation was more problematic in snack vending machines, external catering, leased premises and fundraising. Despite methodological challenges, the study suggests that policy approaches to improve the food and drink supply can be implemented successfully in public-sector health facilities, although results can be limited in some areas. A Better Choice may provide a model for improving food supply in other health and workplace settings.

  4. [Contributions from the critical leisure field to the health promotion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacheladenski, Miguel Sidenei; Matiello Júnior, Edgard

    2010-08-01

    The studies about leisure for health promotion still tend to choose the active body occupation in the free-time (leisure activities), revealing the influence of the functionalist way of thinking, which trying to reduce the links between society and health-disease process, undoubtedly do not keep with the purpose of population health promotion. Focusing on this idea, and keeping in mind the premise that in the Brazilian physical training there are different opinions since the earliest 80s which try to achieve the purpose to avoid the ideas of the functionalist way of thinking. However, those opinions are almost unknown both in the Brazilian public health system and the collective health system, once the bibliography revision about leisure activities development was made in the country, looking for ideas taken in common knowledge for health promotion presuppositions, this report has the aim to show critical and alternatives concepts of leisure in the way it is linked to healthy as a real social change, using a political-pedagogical proposal called lazerania. In general, this is an emancipatory concept of leisure, which comes from the sport phenomenon as a problem and provides the feeling, thinking and behavior of the population, trying to build a society based on solidarity and consumer participation.

  5. Contribution of university departments of rural health to rural health research: An analysis of outputs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gausia, Kaniz; Thompson, Sandra C; Lindeman, Melissa A; Brown, Leanne J; Perkins, David

    2015-04-01

    To assess the research contribution of eleven University Departments of Rural Health (UDRH) which were established as a rural health workforce program in the late 1990s through analysis of peer-reviewed journal output. Descriptive study based on validated publications from publication output reported in annual key performance indicator (KPI) reports to the Commonwealth Department of Health, Australia. In addition to counts and the type of publications, articles were examined to assess fields of research, evidence of research collaboration, and potential for influencing policy. Funding acknowledgement was examined to provide insight into funding sources and research consultancies. Of the 182 peer-reviewed articles, UDRH staff members were the first and corresponding author for 45% (n = 82); most (69%, n = 126) were original research. Most publications examined included Australian data only (80%, n = 101). Over half (56%; n = 102) of the articles addressed rural health issues; Aboriginal health was the main subject in 14% (n = 26). Thirty-three articles (18%) discussed the policy implications of the research and only half (51%, n = 93) of the articles listed sources of funding. Number of authors per article ranged from 1-19, with a mean of 5 (SD = 3.2) authors per article, two-thirds of articles included authors from 2-5 universities/organisations but only 5% of articles included an author from more than one UDRH. Staff from UDRHs are regularly publishing peer-reviewed articles, and research productivity demonstrated cooperation with external partners. Better collaboration between UDRH staff and others may help increase the quality and value of Australian rural health research. © 2015 National Rural Health Alliance Inc.

  6. Contribution of organically grown crops to human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Eva; Hussain, Abrar; Kuktaite, Ramune; Andersson, Staffan C; Olsson, Marie E

    2014-04-08

    An increasing interest in organic agriculture for food production is seen throughout the world and one key reason for this interest is the assumption that organic food consumption is beneficial to public health. The present paper focuses on the background of organic agriculture, important public health related compounds from crop food and variations in the amount of health related compounds in crops. In addition, influence of organic farming on health related compounds, on pesticide residues and heavy metals in crops, and relations between organic food and health biomarkers as well as in vitro studies are also the focus of the present paper. Nutritionally beneficial compounds of highest relevance for public health were micronutrients, especially Fe and Zn, and bioactive compounds such as carotenoids (including pro-vitamin A compounds), tocopherols (including vitamin E) and phenolic compounds. Extremely large variations in the contents of these compounds were seen, depending on genotype, climate, environment, farming conditions, harvest time, and part of the crop. Highest amounts seen were related to the choice of genotype and were also increased by genetic modification of the crop. Organic cultivation did not influence the content of most of the nutritional beneficial compounds, except the phenolic compounds that were increased with the amounts of pathogens. However, higher amounts of pesticide residues and in many cases also of heavy metals were seen in the conventionally produced crops compared to the organic ones. Animal studies as well as in vitro studies showed a clear indication of a beneficial effect of organic food/extracts as compared to conventional ones. Thus, consumption of organic food seems to be positive from a public health point of view, although the reasons are unclear, and synergistic effects between various constituents within the food are likely.

  7. Contribution of Organically Grown Crops to Human Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Eva; Hussain, Abrar; Kuktaite, Ramune; Andersson, Staffan C.; Olsson, Marie E.

    2014-01-01

    An increasing interest in organic agriculture for food production is seen throughout the world and one key reason for this interest is the assumption that organic food consumption is beneficial to public health. The present paper focuses on the background of organic agriculture, important public health related compounds from crop food and variations in the amount of health related compounds in crops. In addition, influence of organic farming on health related compounds, on pesticide residues and heavy metals in crops, and relations between organic food and health biomarkers as well as in vitro studies are also the focus of the present paper. Nutritionally beneficial compounds of highest relevance for public health were micronutrients, especially Fe and Zn, and bioactive compounds such as carotenoids (including pro-vitamin A compounds), tocopherols (including vitamin E) and phenolic compounds. Extremely large variations in the contents of these compounds were seen, depending on genotype, climate, environment, farming conditions, harvest time, and part of the crop. Highest amounts seen were related to the choice of genotype and were also increased by genetic modification of the crop. Organic cultivation did not influence the content of most of the nutritional beneficial compounds, except the phenolic compounds that were increased with the amounts of pathogens. However, higher amounts of pesticide residues and in many cases also of heavy metals were seen in the conventionally produced crops compared to the organic ones. Animal studies as well as in vitro studies showed a clear indication of a beneficial effect of organic food/extracts as compared to conventional ones. Thus, consumption of organic food seems to be positive from a public health point of view, although the reasons are unclear, and synergistic effects between various constituents within the food are likely. PMID:24717360

  8. Contribution of Organically Grown Crops to Human Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Johansson

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available An increasing interest in organic agriculture for food production is seen throughout the world and one key reason for this interest is the assumption that organic food consumption is beneficial to public health. The present paper focuses on the background of organic agriculture, important public health related compounds from crop food and variations in the amount of health related compounds in crops. In addition, influence of organic farming on health related compounds, on pesticide residues and heavy metals in crops, and relations between organic food and health biomarkers as well as in vitro studies are also the focus of the present paper. Nutritionally beneficial compounds of highest relevance for public health were micronutrients, especially Fe and Zn, and bioactive compounds such as carotenoids (including pro-vitamin A compounds, tocopherols (including vitamin E and phenolic compounds. Extremely large variations in the contents of these compounds were seen, depending on genotype, climate, environment, farming conditions, harvest time, and part of the crop. Highest amounts seen were related to the choice of genotype and were also increased by genetic modification of the crop. Organic cultivation did not influence the content of most of the nutritional beneficial compounds, except the phenolic compounds that were increased with the amounts of pathogens. However, higher amounts of pesticide residues and in many cases also of heavy metals were seen in the conventionally produced crops compared to the organic ones. Animal studies as well as in vitro studies showed a clear indication of a beneficial effect of organic food/extracts as compared to conventional ones. Thus, consumption of organic food seems to be positive from a public health point of view, although the reasons are unclear, and synergistic effects between various constituents within the food are likely.

  9. The relationship between visitor characteristics and learning-associated behaviors in a science museum discovery space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozowski Boisvert, Dorothy; Jochums Slez, Brenda

    As informal educational institutions, science museums must do more than entertain and amaze visitors. Museum educators must design exhibits that attract and hold the attention of visitors long enough so that the visitors become engaged with the exhibits and learn from them. In order for museum educators to develop such exhibits, more information is needed about the variables associated with learning in museums. This study contributes to the growing body of knowledge on informal education by examining the relationship between visitor characteristics and attraction, holding power, and visitor engagement.One hundred fifty-four visitors to a science museum discovery space were observed as they interacted freely with the exhibits. Trained volunteers recorded the subjects' movements including the exhibits at which they stopped (attraction), the amount of time spent at each exhibit (holding power), and behaviors indicative of subjects' engagement levels with the exhibits. Data indicated significant differences between age group and the holding power of exhibits. Though not significant statistically, a similar trend was noted between age group and attraction and visitor engagement level. No significant differences were found between gender or social grouping and attraction, holding power, or engagement levels.

  10. [Health care system sustainability and the contribution of emergency departments].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbanos-Garrido, Rosa María; López-Valcárcel, Beatriz G

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the main proposals for ensuring national health service sustainability, in the light of a review of the most relevant diagnostic reports and guidelines published since the onset of the economic crisis. The following proposals are among the most frequently mentioned in the literature: selective financing of technology, reorganization to provide more care for chronic conditions and better coordination between levels of care and the network of social and health care services, and the reinforcement of primary care. Also commonly suggested is the reform of health care governance. Likewise, the authors briefly examine the measures adopted to date to promote the system's sustainability and discuss how the emergency department can further this aim.

  11. The contributions of Edward H. Angle to dental public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, S

    2009-09-01

    The genius of Edward Hartley Angle, (1855-1930), the founder of the dental specialty of orthodontics, to create order from chaos in the study and treatment of positional discrepancies of the teeth, jaws and face advanced greatly the cause of dental public health. Angle's innovations that had the most public health impact were (1) his identification of dental occlusion, not simply tooth irregularity, as a prime concern, (2) his development of an uncomplicated classification system for occlusal conditions, (3) his introduction of prefabricated orthodontic appliances and (4) his framing of orthodontics as a dental specialty by organizing the world's first educational program to train orthodontists.

  12. How social policy contributes to the distribution of population health: the case of gender health equity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckfield, Jason; Morris, Katherine Ann; Bambra, Clare

    2017-07-01

    In this study we aimed to analyze gender health equity as a case of how social policy contributes to population health. We analyzed three sets of social-investment policies implemented in Europe and previously hypothesized to reduce gender inequity in labor market outcomes: childcare; active labor market programs; and long-term care. We use 12 indicators of social-investment policies from the OECD Social Expenditure Database, the OECD Family Database, and the Social Policy Indicators' Parental Leave Benefit Dataset. We draw outcome data from the 2015 Global Burden of Disease for years lived with disability and all-cause mortality among men and women ages 25-54 for 18 European nations over the 1995-2010 period. We estimate 12 linear regression models each for mortality and morbidity (i.e. years lived with disability), one per social-investment indicator. All models use country fixed-effects and cluster-robust standard errors. For years lived with disability, women benefit more from social investment for most indicators. The only exception is the percentage of young children in publicly funded childcare or schooling, which equally benefits men. For all-cause mortality, men benefit more or equally from social investment for most indicators, while women benefit more from government spending on direct job creation through civil employment. Social policy contributes to the distribution of population health. Social-investment advocates argue such policies in particular enhance economic gender equity. Our results show that these polices have ambiguous effects on gender health equity and even differential improvements among men for some outcomes.

  13. IMPACT ON CONTRIBUTIONS FUMES FROM WELDING PROCEDURES WELDER HEALTH OPERATORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe AMZA

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a series of investigations undertaken to establish the impact of gas welding results in fusion welding procedures and welders health operators who work in departments making welded construction. Are the main gases that occur in fusion welding and main effects of short-term and long on the human body.

  14. The South African Health Department's contribution to Social ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adele

    2004-05-20

    May 20, 2004 ... try, we have to face the fact that international migration of skills will continue. But to address this challenge, we have pressed for the adop- tion of the code of conduct for recruitment of health workers within the Commonwealth. The code seeks to ensure that recruitment is trans- parent and does not harm the ...

  15. The contribution of vegetarian diets to human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabaté, Joan

    2003-01-01

    Our knowledge is far from complete regarding the relationship between vegetarian diets and human health. However, scientific advances in the last decades have considerably changed the role that vegetarian diets may play in human nutrition. Components of a healthy vegetarian diet include a variety of vegetables, fruits, whole grain cereals, legumes and nuts. Numerous studies show important and quantifiable benefits of the different components of vegetarian diets, namely the reduction of risk for many chronic diseases and the increase in longevity. Such evidence is derived from the study of vegetarians as well as other populations. While meat intake has been related to increased risk for a variety of chronic diseases, an abundant consumption of vegetables, fruits, cereals, nuts, and legumes all have been independently related with a lower risk for several chronic degenerative diseases, such as ischemic heart disease, diabetes, obesity, and many cancers. Hence, whole foods of plant origin seem to be beneficial on their own merit for chronic disease prevention. This is possibly more certain than the detrimental effects of meats. Vegetarian diets, as any other diet pattern, have potential health risks, namely marginal intake of essential nutrients. However, from the public health viewpoint the health benefits of a well-planned vegetarian diet far outweigh the potential risks.

  16. Factors contributing to patients' satisfaction with public health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cross-sectional study was carried out among patients to assess the factor structure of their satisfaction with Primary Health Care (PHC) services. Using a structured questionnaire, we conducted exit interviews with a sample of 19 136 patients aged 18+ years in 266 PHC facilities, Eastern Cape, South Africa. To determine ...

  17. Resolute large scale mining company contribution to health services of

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: In 1995 Tanzanian Government reformed the mining industry and the new policy allowed an involvement of multinational companies but the communities living near new large scale gold mines were expected to benefit from the industry in terms of socio economic, health, education, employment, safe drinking ...

  18. Documenting Community Health Worker Roles in Primary Care: Contributions to Evidence-Based Integration Into Health Care Teams, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinschmidt, Kerstin M; Ingram, Maia; Morales, Stephanie; Sabo, Samantha J; Blackburn, John; Murrieta, Lucy; David, Cassalyn; Carvajal, Scott C

    The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act provided community health workers (CHWs) with new opportunities, and current efforts develop evidence-based guidelines for CHW integration into clinical teams. This qualitative study documents CHW roles and activities in 3 federally qualified health care centers in southern Arizona. Community health worker clinical roles, activities, and integration varied by health center and were in flux. Integration included complementary roles, scheduled and everyday communications with team members, and documentation in the electronic health records. These findings contribute to evidence-based guidelines for CHW integration into clinical teams that are critical to maximizing CHW contributions to patient health improvements.

  19. Three-Stage Dynamic Games of Government-Park-Visitor in Visitor Education Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongping Wei

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The government-park-visitor three-stage multiplayers dynamic game G(S1m,S2n,S3k,RG,R,U is established to solve the significant problem regarding the investment in the visitor education. The game reveals that the visitor education intervention should form a positive interaction mechanism of government leading, tourism enterprise implementing, and tourist participating. The visitor education system in the tourism market has not been established at the initial stage. Stakeholders are hesitant to invest resources to push the establishment of visitor education system. The government should set up an induction fund which can encourage the parks and tourism companies to invest money on visitor education. When visitor education system develops to a certain stage with the help of government induction fund, it can run autonomously without the external factors. And the win-win-win situation of the government, parks, and visitors is obtained when the Nash equilibrium state of the game is reached. Furthermore, the game also reveals that visitor education mainly includes the behavior intervention and knowledge services which are important for the park’s visitor education.

  20. The contribution of typography and information design to health communication

    OpenAIRE

    Walker, Sue

    2017-01-01

    This chapter is about the role that information design, and typography and graphic communication play in effective public health communication. It introduces the way that information designers work, particularly in relation to what have been called ‘functional texts’ – those that enable people to take some kind of action, or to better understand something. Examples of late-nineteenth- and early-twentieth-century printed ephemera are used to draw attention to the ways that language and visual ...

  1. Analysis of the CMS visitors feedback Poster

    CERN Multimedia

    Davis, Siona Ruth

    2016-01-01

    CMS welcomed over 5500 visitors underground during the 2013 CERN Open Days and more than 4500 during the Neighbourhood Days of 2014 on the occasion of CERN’s 60th anniversary. During the latter event, visitors gave their feedback on the visit experience by answering three questions: • In one sentence, what will you tell your friends about what you saw today? • What fact or story that you heard today impressed you the most? • Describe the CMS detector in three words. This poster will show the analysis of the answers given by visitors.

  2. Analysis of the CMS visitors feedback Poster

    CERN Multimedia

    Davis, Siona Ruth

    CMS welcomed over 5500 visitors underground during the 2013 CERN Open Days and more than 4500 during the Neighbourhood Days of 2014 on the occasion of CERN’s 60th anniversary. During the latter event, visitors gave their feedback on the visit experience by answering three questions: • In one sentence, what will you tell your friends about what you saw today? • What fact or story that you heard today impressed you the most? • Describe the CMS detector in three words. This poster will show the analysis of the answers given by visitors.

  3. The Contribution of Health Technology Assessment, Health Needs Assessment, and Health Impact Assessment to the Assessment and Translation of Technologies in the Field of Public Health Genomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenkotter, N.; Vondeling, H.; Blancquaert, I.

    2011-01-01

    The European Union has named genomics as one of the promising research fields for the development of new health technologies. Major concerns with regard to these fields are, on the one hand, the rather slow and limited translation of new knowledge and, on the other hand, missing insights...... into the impact on public health and health care practice of those technologies that are actually introduced. This paper aims to give an overview of the major assessment instruments in public health [ health technology assessment (HTA), health needs assessment (HNA) and health impact assessment (HIA)] which could...... contribute to the systematic translation and assessment of genomic health applications by focussing at population level and on public health policy making. It is shown to what extent HTA, HNA and HIA contribute to translational research by using the continuum of translational research (T1-T4) in genomic...

  4. Hobby-related information-seeking behaviour of highly dedicated online museum visitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Mette

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. This paper explores the characteristics of online museum visitors in an everyday life, information-seeking context. Method. A triangulation of research methods was applied. A Web questionnaire survey gave initial, quantitative information about online museum visitors to a military...... to the research area of everyday life information seeking within serious leisure. It also contributes to the emerging field of museum informatics by adding to the characteristics of the online museum visitor....... museum. Follow-up interviews (n = 24) obtained rich, qualitative data to validate and elaborate the characteristics of online museum visitors' information-seeking behaviour. Analysis. Based on the serious leisure perspective, data analysis led to the identification of two different user groups named...

  5. Governance and mental health: contributions for public policy approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Castro, Lina; Arredondo, Armando; Pelcastre-Villafuerte, Blanca Estela; Hufty, Marc

    2017-01-30

    To analyze the conceptualization of the term governance on public mental health programs. In this systematic review, we analyzed the scientific literature published in the international scenario during 15 years (from 2000 to 2015). The databases analyzed were: Medline, CINAHL, PsycINFO and PubMed. Governance and mental health were the descriptors. We included relevant articles according to our subject of study and levels of analysis: (i) the concept of governance in mental health; (ii) process and decision spaces; (iii) strategic and pertinent actors who operate in the functioning of the health system, and (iv) social regulations. We excluded letters to the editor, news articles, comments and case reports, incomplete articles and articles whose approach did not include the object of study of this review. We have found five conceptualizations of the term governance on mental health in the area of provision policies and service organization. The agents were both those who offer and those who receive the services: we identified several social norms. The concept of governance in mental health includes standards of quality and attention centered on the patient, and incorporates the consumers of mental healthcare in the decision-making process. Analizar la conceptualización del término gobernanza en las políticas de salud mental. En esta revisión sistemática se analizó literatura científica publicada en el ámbito internacional durante 15 años (de 2000 hasta 2015). Las bases de datos analizadas fueron: Medline, CINAHL, PsycINFO y PubMed. Los descriptores fueron gobernanza y salud mental. Fueron incluidos artículos relevantes de acuerdo a nuestro objeto de estudio y niveles de análisis: (i) concepto de gobernanza en salud mental; (ii) proceso y espacios de decisión; (iii) actores estratégicos y de interés que intervienen en el funcionamiento del sistema de salud, y (iv) normas sociales. Se excluyeron cartas al editor, noticias, comentarios y reporte de caso

  6. [Contribution to one world, one health: a dog with demodicosis.].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyazit, Ayşen; Inceboz, Tonay; Over, Leyla

    2010-01-01

    Dogs are the most preferred pet animal in the world. Canine demodicosis is a skin disease of dogs in which there is proliferation of Demodex canis, an acarine parasite of canine hair follicles, and is typically manifested by alopecia as well as inflammation of hair follicles and sebaceous glands. Secondary bacterial infection often induces pustule and a crusting dermatitis. Two years ago, a police dog eight years old, without any previous health problem, was brought to a private veterinary clinic for edematous and inflammatory lesions on the soles of its feet. In the clinic, antibacterial and antimicotics were applied for treatment of the lesions, but ten months after completion of the therapy the lesions relapsed and the treatment was repeated. But again six months after the last treatment, the lesions spread widely and the general health status of the dog began to worsen. Finally the dog was brought for treatment to the Izmir Bornova Veterinary Research Institution. Microscopic examination of all the skin scrapings revealed the presence of 10-15 adult Demodex mites per cm(2) and the diagnosis was pododemodicosis. Treatment was performed with ivermectin, antibacterial drugs and beta-glucan. The density of Demodex was reduced after two months of therapy and there was clinical and microscopical improvement. Six months after completion of the therapy the lesions disappeared completely.

  7. The contribution of childhood circumstances, current circumstances and health behaviour to educational health differences in early adulthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Härkänen Tommi

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The life course approach emphasises the contribution of circumstances in childhood and youth to adult health inequalities. However, there is still a lot to know of the contribution of living conditions in childhood and youth to adult health inequalities and how later environmental and behavioural factors are connected with the effects of earlier circumstances. This study aims to assess a how much childhood circumstances, current circumstances and health behaviour contribute to educational health differences and b to which extent the effect of childhood circumstances on educational health differences is shared with the effects of later living conditions and health behaviour in young adults. Methods The data derived from the Health 2000 Survey represent the Finnish young adults aged 18–29 in 2000. The analyses were carried out on 68% (n = 1282 of the sample (N = 1894. The cross-sectional data based on interviews and questionnaires include retrospective information on childhood circumstances. The outcome measure was poor self-rated health. Results Poor self-rated health was much more common among subjects with primary education only than among those in the highest educational category (OR 4.69, 95% CI 2.63 to 8.62. Childhood circumstances contributed substantially (24% to the health differences between these educational groups. Nearly two thirds (63% of this contribution was shared with behavioural factors adopted by early adulthood, and 17% with current circumstances. Health behaviours, smoking especially, were strongly contributed to educational health differences. Conclusion To develop means for avoiding undesirable trajectories along which poor health and health differences develop, it is necessary to understand the pathways to health inequalities and know how to improve the living conditions of families with children.

  8. ViSIT: Visitor Survey Information Tool

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — ViSIT is an interactive web tool created by USGS to visualize the data collected as part of the National Wildlife Refuge Visitor Survey. The national survey was...

  9. Arrowwood National Wildlife Refuge visitor survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The US Fish and Wildlife Service and the US Geological Survey are conducting this survey to learn more about refuge visitors in order to improve the management of...

  10. Triggers Contributing to Health Care Clinicians' Disruptive Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Sung-Heui; Dang, Deborah; Karlowicz, Karen A; Kim, Miyong T

    2016-11-02

    This study's objective was to explore the possible triggers of clinicians' disruptive behavior and to consider whether the type of trigger resulting in disruptive behavior differed by type of clinician, clinician characteristics, professional role, and ethnic background. Using data collected from 1559 clinicians working at an urban academic medical center in the United States, we examined intrapersonal, interpersonal, and organizational triggers. In addition, we measured 3 subscales of disruptive behavior including incivility, psychological aggression, and violence. Multivariate regression and logit models were used to examine the relationship between triggers and disruptive behavior. We found that higher levels of intrapersonal, interpersonal, and organizational triggers related to a greater frequency of disruptive behaviors after controlling for clinician characteristics. Among nurses, all 3 types of triggers were significantly related to disruptive behaviors with the same direction and magnitude of difference. However, in the physician/affiliate group, only intrapersonal and interpersonal triggers were statistically significant factors for disruptive behavior. In the present study, important triggers were found to contribute to clinicians' disruptive behaviors. Strategies to prevent disruptive behaviors should be multipronged and reflect intrapersonal and interpersonal features for both clinician groups. For nurses, organizational triggers should be addressed through process and system improvements. Because disruptive behavior continues to be frequent among clinicians, efforts to implement evidence-based practices to prevent disruptive behaviors must continue, and future research should evaluate them.

  11. Hospital visitors' experiences at the nurses' station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, Janet

    2017-04-19

    Aim To investigate participants' experiences of visiting hospitalised friends and family members in adult acute medical or surgical wards in NHS hospitals in England, to improve knowledge of hospital visiting practices and to inform future policy-making and professional practice. Method A review of the contextual influences and the literature identified that hospital visitors might experience many of the characteristics of liminality, which is a state of being between two social structures or ways of being. In 2013, a total of 17 semi-structured, recorded and transcribed interviews were conducted with participants who had been hospital visitors in the period 2011-2013. The transcribed interviews underwent a thematic analysis. Liminality was then used as an analytic lens, and was central to the theoretical framework that was constructed to further consider the experiences of hospital visitors. Findings Participants experienced the hospitalisation of their friend or family member and their subsequent role as hospital visitors as a suspension of their everyday lives. Liminality was a predominant and consistent theme of the interviews. Five main themes of liminality were identified in relation to hospital visitors' experiences: total obedience; loss of status; ambiguity and being betwixt and between; uncertainty; and structure and communitas. The findings suggested that nurses consider the area behind the nurses' station as 'back stage'; a place they can use for downtime, socialising and computer work. In contrast, hospital visitors perceive the nurses' station to be a continuation of the ward, where they expect professional 'front stage behaviour' from staff. Conclusion When hospital visitors, already discomfited in their liminal status, encounter nurses' 'back-stage behaviour' at the nurses' station, their feelings of marginalisation, exclusion and mistrust increase. This may lead them to judge that the nurses lack professionalism and care, which can lead them to

  12. Activity-based market segmentation of visitors to thermal spring ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It was found that the main divisions between visitors are, firstly, between 'active' visitors who generally desire and make use of facilities and organised entertainment, and 'passive' visitors, who make little to no use of facilities and organised entertainment; and secondly, between visitors who choose activities mainly for ...

  13. Zoo Visitor Knowledge and Attitudes toward Gorillas and Chimpanzees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukas, K. E.; Ross, S. R.

    2005-01-01

    The authors conducted an evaluation of visitor knowledge and conservation attitudes toward African apes at Chicago's Lincoln Park Zoo. Using S. R. Kellert's and J. Dunlap's (1989) analysis of zoo visitor knowledge and attitudes as a model, they modified and administered a survey to 1,000 visitors to the ape facility. On average, visitors correctly…

  14. Monitoring the visitor experience at Buck Island Reef National Monument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alan R. Graefe; Roger L. Moore

    1992-01-01

    This paper examines relationships between visitor density levels and perceptions of crowding at a Caribbean coral reef. Reef visitors were more likely to report that the quality of their experience was enhanced, rather than reduced, by their encounters with other visitors. Perceived crowding was related to visitors' previous experience and the location of...

  15. Glutamate. Its applications in food and contribution to health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinap, S; Hajeb, P

    2010-08-01

    This article reviews application of glutamate in food and its benefits and role as one of the common food ingredients used. Monosodium glutamate is one of the most abundant naturally occurring amino acids which frequently added as a flavor enhancer. It produced a unique taste that cannot be provided by other basic taste (saltiness, sourness, sweetness and bitterness), referred to as a fifth taste (umami). Glutamate serves some functions in the body as well, serving as an energy source for certain tissues and as a substrate for glutathione synthesis. Glutamate has the potential to enhance food intake in older individuals and dietary free glutamate evoked a visceral sensation from the stomach, intestine and portal vein. Small quantities of glutamate used in combination with a reduced amount of table salt during food preparation allow for far less salt to be used during and after cooking. Because glutamate is one of the most intensely studied food ingredients in the food supply and has been found safe, the Joint Expert Committee on Food Additives of the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization and World Health Organization placed it in the safest category for food additives. Despite a widespread belief that glutamate can elicit asthma, migraine headache and Chinese Restaurant Syndrome (CRS), there are no consistent clinical data to support this claim. In addition, findings from the literature indicate that there is no consistent evidence to suggest that individuals may be uniquely sensitive to glutamate. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Health Promotion of University Students: contributions of community therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cintia Poleto Buzeli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available With this experience report of a master’s degree and two teachers of graduate Nursing School of Nursing Federal University of Mato Grosso, we sought to reflect on the Community Therapy (TC as a practice of collective care offered to students university students. Our goal is to report the experience of performing TC wheels in an academic environment, offer theoretical and methodological principles for the structuring and implementation of this practice care to college students at other universities. Was used for data collection direct observation of the wheels of TC the professional experiences as nurses and therapists community and appreciation of documents of such as the registration form filled out by the TC meetings and therapist co-therapist after each wheel TC. The reported experience has demonstrated the effectiveness of TC for the promotion of health thin this group, showing its importance as a practice for the creation and strengthening of ties between the community, the establishment of solidarity networks among students, as being a space speech and listening to their sufferings, their appreciation of life and its potential for promoting self-esteem and to encourage the development of a democract and civic consciousness.

  17. Development of the Virtual Visitor Center at SLAC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDunn, Ruth

    1999-11-17

    The Virtual Visitor Center (VVC) web site (www2.slac.stanford.edu/vvc) is a ''virtual'' version of the Visitor Center, a mini science museum that opened at SLAC in 1996. The VVC was made public in December 1998. Both centers contribute to SLAC mission regarding education of the next generation and increasing scientific awareness of the public. The site is designed to mimic the real visitor center and allow a larger audience to the information. The intent was to reach the 8th-12th grade audience. Considerable effort was made to organize the content, including color-coding graphical elements for each main topic area. Tables of contents, a search tool, several photo tours, as well as graphical and non-graphical menu bars allow users many methods of navigating the site. The site was developed over almost two years using an estimated .95 FTE, split between a program manager, graphic designer, content provider (theoretical physicist), and a summer intern (high school teacher). As of November 1999, the site consists of 1,147 files, 935 images, 3,080 internal hyperlinks, and 190 external hyperlinks. The site has had over 1 million hits between January and mid-October 1999 and averages about 600 page views each day. Future plans include bringing the web site into compliance with the W3Cs Web Content Accessibility guidelines, thoroughly integrating the glossary terms, continued incorporation of current research at SLAC, and adding more interactivity.

  18. Dentists can contribute expertise in a major public health disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galligan, Joyce M

    2004-08-01

    The time for dental professionals to educate themselves to respond to, and assist with, a catastrophic medical disaster is here. California dental healthcare workers must understand the various duties they may be asked to perform if a large-scale disaster were to occur. This article explores the various duties, which may need to be performed in the event of a medical disaster, and the duties a dentist, or dental auxiliary, may be able to complete, with minimal additional training. California dentists must be educated, at minimum, to recognize the symptoms of exposure to biological agents or naturally occurring diseases, such as avian flu and SARs, in their patients. Dentists must be further educated to correctly counsel their patients who exhibit such symptoms. Finally, dentists must alert the appropriate public health authorities of such exposure. California should consider amending the California Dental Practice Act to provide for the expansion of the definition of the practice of dentistry in the event of a declared healthcare emergency. The new definition should, at minimum, allow dentists to administer vaccines and dispense medications at a mass prophylactic distribution site. The definition could be further expanded to allow dentists to perform more complicated or invasive duties in the event of a disaster with large numbers of bodily injuries. In either event, California will also need to provide limited liability to dentists who do participate in emergency situations, similar to the Good Samaritan laws, which currently apply to physicians and surgeons. Dentists and their dental auxiliaries can augment the existing medical professionals, in responding to a declared medical emergency. In order to be ready to respond, dentists and their dental auxiliaries must receive additional training through continuing education courses developed specifically to train them in recognizing symptoms of exposure to biological agents.

  19. A theory of how rural health services contribute to community sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Jane; Prior, Maria; Taylor, Judy

    2012-11-01

    Study and opinion suggest that health services play a significant role in supporting the social fabric of fragile rural communities. We draw on empirical evidence about the added-value contributions of health services to communities and unite it with theory of capitals to propose a theoretical model depicting how rural health services contribute to community sustainability. While providing an analytical framework, the paper also points to construction of a measurement tool for enabling planners to measure the contributions of diverse sectors to community sustainability and predict or measure the impact of changes to models of service delivery on the future of rural communities. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. [Health and the good life: contributions by Amartya Sen's capability approach to ethical reasoning in public health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restrepo-Ochoa, Diego Alveiro

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this article is to analyze the contribution by Amartya Sen's capability approach to ethical reasoning in public health. Based on critiques by the capability approach towards utilitarianism, the article proposes a concept of health based on four characteristics: a pluralistic notion of good life, expansion of freedom as the ethical foundation for health actions, a concept of person as agent, and recognition of the inner view of health based on positional objectivity. The contribution by the capability approach to ethical reasoning in public health can be summarized in four points: insufficiency of healthcare as a criterion for individual advantage, health equity as a part of social justice, the relevance of individual self-rated health, and the development of capability as an ultimate goal of public policies in public health.

  1. The Contribution of Sociotechnical Factors to Health Information Technology-Related Sentinel Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Gerard M; Buczkowski, Lisa; Hafner, Joanne M

    2016-02-01

    An understanding of how health information technology (health IT) can contribute to sentinel events is necessary to learn how to safely implement and use health IT. An analysis was conducted to explore how health IT may contribute to adverse events that result in death or severe harm to the patient. For 3,375 de-identified sentinel events voluntarily reported to The Joint Commission between January 1, 2010, and June 30, 2013, categorical and keyword queries were used to search for potential health IT-related events. Each of the identified events was reviewed on the basis of findings from root cause analyses (RCAs) to determine if health IT contributed to or caused the event, and if so, how and why. The contributing factors were classified using a composite of existing classification schemes. A total of 120 health IT-related sentinel events (affecting 125 patients) were identified. More than half resulted in patient death, 30% resulted in unexpected or additional care, and 11% resulted in permanent loss of function. The three most frequently identified event types were (1) medication errors, (2) wrong-site surgery (including the wrong side, wrong procedure, and wrong patient), and (3) delays in treatment. Contributing factors were most frequently associated with the human-computer interface, workflow and communication, and clinical content-related issues. The classification of health IT-related contributing factors indicates that health IT-related events are primarily associated with the sociotechnical dimensions of human-computer interface, workflow and communication, and clinical content. Improved identification of health IT-related contributing factors in the context of the sociotechnical dimensions may help software developers, device manufacturers, and end users in health care organizations proactively identify vulnerabilities and hazards, ultimately reducing the risk of harm to patients.

  2. From periphery to the centre: Towards repositioning churches for a meaningful contribution to public health care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vhumani Magezi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The role of communities in health care has gained prominence in the last few years. Churches as community structures have been identified as instrumental in health-care delivery. Whilst it is widely acknowledged that churches provide important health services, particularly in countries where there are poorly-developed health sectors, the role of churches in health care is poorly understood and often overlooked. This article discusses some causes of this lacuna and makes suggestions for repositioning churches for a meaningful contribution to health care. Firstly, the article provides a context by reviewing literature on the church and health care. Secondly, it clarifies the nature of interventions and the competencies of churches. Thirdly, it discusses the operational meaning of church and churches for assessing health-care contributions. Fourthly, it explores the health-care models that are discerned in church and health-care literature. Fifthly, it discusses the contribution of churches within a multidisciplinary health team. Sixthly, it proposes an appropriate motivation that should drive churches to be involved in health care and the ecclesiological design that underpins such health care interventions.

  3. Visitor Assessment of the Mandatory Alternative Transportation System at Zion National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mace, Britton L.; Marquit, Joshua D.; Bates, Scott C.

    2013-11-01

    Transportation infrastructure in national parks has historically been designed for the automobile. With more vehicles in the parks, visitors found themselves in circumstances more reminiscent of a city than a park. Traffic jams, overcrowding, illegal parking, horn honking, and idling vehicles became common, creating stress and contributing to air and noise pollution, the very things visitors were hoping to get away from. Park managers began searching for alternatives, including shuttle systems. Many national parks have implemented optional shuttle systems, but relatively few have completely closed roads to vehicles, transporting visitors on mandatory shuttles. Zion National Park instituted a mandatory shuttle system in May 2000 to relieve crowding and congestion in the main canyon and to protect natural resources. Taking a longitudinal approach, attributes of the shuttle (e.g., crowding, accessibility, freedom, efficiency, preference, and success) were assessed with experiential park factors (e.g., scenic beauty, naturalness, solitude, tranquility, air quality, and soundscape) in 2000, 2003, and 2010 by surveying shuttle-riding park visitors. While visitors initially reported a few reservations about the shuttle system, by 2003, the majority rated the system successful. Ratings of all shuttle-related variables, except crowding, improved over the decade. Improvements were greatest for freedom, accessibility, and efficiency. Multiple regression found overall shuttle success to be mediated by preference, freedom, accessibility, efficiency, and comfort. Experiential variables assessing park conditions followed a similar pattern, with improved ratings as the decade progressed. Results provide important insights into the visitor experience with mandatory alternative shuttle systems in national parks.

  4. Visitor spending effects: assessing and showcasing America's investment in national parks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koontz, Lynne; Cullinane Thomas, Catherine; Ziesler, Pamela; Olson, Jeffrey; Meldrum, Bret

    2017-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the evolution, future, and global applicability of the U.S. National Park Service's (NPS) visitor spending effects framework and discusses the methods used to effectively communicate the economic return on investment in America's national parks. The 417 parks represent many of America's most iconic destinations: in 2016, they received a record 331 million visits. Competing federal budgetary demands necessitate that, in addition to meeting their mission to preserve unimpaired natural and cultural resources for the enjoyment of the people, parks also assess and showcase their contributions to the economic vitality of their regions and the nation. Key approaches explained include the original Money Generation Model (MGM) from 1990, MGM2 used from 2001, and the visitor spending effects model which replaced MGM2 in 2012. Detailed discussion explains the NPS's visitor use statistics system, the formal program for collecting, compiling, and reporting visitor use data. The NPS is now establishing a formal socioeconomic monitoring (SEM) program to provide a standard visitor survey instrument and a long-term, systematic sampling design for in-park visitor surveys. The pilot SEM survey is discussed, along with the need for international standardization of research methods.

  5. Social class in childhood and general health in adulthood: questionnaire study of contribution of psychological attributes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Bosma (Hans); H. van de Mheen (Dike); J.P. Mackenbach (Johan)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVE: To determine the contribution of psychological attributes (personality characteristics and coping styles) to the association between social class in childhood and adult health among men and women. DESIGN: Partly retrospective, partly cross sectional study

  6. The influence of wilderness restoration programs on visitor experience and visitor opinions of managers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph P. Flood; Leo H. McAvoy

    2000-01-01

    Wilderness campsites heavily damaged by recreational use pose a significant management challenge that threatens the integrity of the wilderness resource and the quality of the visitors’ experience. This study, conducted in the Mission Mountains Wilderness of northwestern Montana, surveyed 293 visitors to determine what influence heavily damaged campsites and site...

  7. Factors Influencing the Contribution of Staff to Health Education in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jourdan, Didier; McNamara, Patricia Mannix; Simar, Carine; Geary, Tom; Pommier, Jeanine

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the contribution of the whole-school staff to health education (HE) is an important goal in HE research. This study aimed to identify the views of staff (principals; teachers; school nurses and doctors; counsellors and administrative, maintenance, canteen and cleaning staff) regarding the nature of their contribution to HE. The…

  8. Research methods from social science can contribute much to the health sciences.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wensing, M.J.P.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Research methods from social science, such as social network analysis, random coefficient modeling, and advanced measurement techniques, can contribute much to the health sciences. There is, however, a slow rate of transmission of social science methodology into the health sciences. This

  9. Exploring the Contributions of School Belonging to Complete Mental Health Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffa, Kathryn; Dowdy, Erin; Furlong, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Considering the many positive outcomes associated with adolescents' sense of school belonging, including psychological functioning, it is possible that including an assessment of school belonging within a complete mental health screening process could contribute to the prediction of students' future mental health status. This exploratory study…

  10. Contribution of mobile health applications to self-management by consumers: review of published evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Kevin; Emmerton, Lynne M

    2015-12-18

    Objective The aim of the present study was to review the contribution of mobile health applications ('apps') to consumers' self-management of chronic health conditions, and the potential for this practice to inform health policy, procedures and guidelines.Methods A search was performed on the MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, ProQuest and Global Health (Ovid) databases using the search terms 'mobile app*', 'self-care', 'self-monitoring', 'trial', 'intervention*' and various medical conditions. The search was supplemented with manual location of emerging literature and government reports. Mapping review methods identified relevant titles and abstracts, followed by review of content to determine extant research, reports addressing the key questions, and gaps suggesting areas for future research. Available studies were organised by disease state, and presented in a narrative analysis.Results Four studies describing the results of clinical trials were identified from Canada, England, Taiwan and Australia; all but the Australian study used custom-made apps. The available studies examined the effect of apps in health monitoring, reporting positive but not robust findings. Australian public policy and government reports acknowledge and support self-management, but do not address the potential contribution of mobile interventions.Conclusions There are limited controlled trials testing the contribution of health apps to consumers' self-management. Further evidence in this field is required to inform health policy and practice relating to self-management.What is known about the topic? Australian health policy encourages self-care by health consumers to reduce expenditure in health services. A fundamental component of self-care in chronic health conditions is self-monitoring, which can be used to assess progress towards treatment goals, as well as signs and symptoms of disease exacerbation. An abundance of mobile health apps is available for self-monitoring.What does this study add

  11. The contribution of nurse consultants in England to the public health leadership agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franks, Helen

    2014-12-01

    To examine the contribution of nurse consultants in relation to UK public health outcomes by contrasting the health and public health skills frameworks with a study of the role of nurse consultants. Nurse consultants are the most senior advanced nurse practitioners in the UK. They work clinically, lead, research, develop policy and disseminate knowledge. A synthesis of research and data from the UK professional skills frameworks with data from a mixed-methods study of the role of nurse consultants. Data collected from nurse consultants and stakeholders in England (n = 10) were analysed to identify issues impacting on the skills, competencies and effectiveness of advanced nurses. This was contrasted with the skills and career frameworks for public health and advanced healthcare practice. Nurse consultants use their clinical expertise to lead practice, facilitate change and monitor effectiveness. Within healthcare organisations, they contribute servicewide to the implementation of public health policy, service delivery and policy development, mirroring expected competencies and improved health outcomes. Two barriers were identified. First, that there was little time or will for nurse consultants to undertake research, precluding them from demonstrating their value. Second, that a lack of interprofessional understanding and support of their roles meant that their worth was often not appreciated by decision-makers. Nurse consultants lead and influence public health on many levels and need support to develop needs-led and evidence-based local, national and international public health practice and policy development. This research contributes to the global discussion currently being held about the nomenclature of advanced nurse practitioner roles, their scope and influence. The challenge for nurses to contribute meaningfully to public health structures at an advanced level is a concern for all nations seeking the common goal of addressing public health needs within their

  12. Survey of Visitors to Bornholm 2002

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartl, Ann

    of destination surveys. Because the survey has been conducted for seven and a half year altogether, the data can also disclose trends in visitor patterns. The passenger survey carried out by the Centre for Regional and Tourism Research is, to our knowledge, the largest of its kind carried out in Denmark.......In July 1995 the Research Centre of Bornholm (now: Centre for Regional and Tourism Research) began conducting a survey among visitors to Bornholm. The survey was conducted in order to assess the nature of tourism demand in peripheral areas, using Bornholm as a case example for the purposes...

  13. Survey of Visitors to Bornholm 2001

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartl, Ann; Rassing, Charlotte

    of destination surveys. Because the survey has been conducted for six and a half year (since July 1995) the data can also disclose trends in visitor patterns. The passenger survey carried out by the Centre for Regional and Tourism Research is, to our knowledge, the largest of its kind carried out in Denmark.......In July 1995 the Research Centre of Bornholm (now: Centre for Regional and Tourism Research) began conducting a survey among visitors to Bornholm. The survey is being conducted in order to assess the nature of tourism demand in peripheral areas, using Bornholm as a case example for the purposes...

  14. Household Financial Contribution to the Health System in Shiraz, Iran in 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Kavosi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background One common challenge to social systems is achieving equity in financial contributions and preventing financial loss. Because of the large and unpredictable nature of some costs, achieving this goal in the health system presents important and unique problems. The present study investigated the Household Financial Contributions (HFCs to the health system. Methods The study investigated 800 households in Shiraz. The study sample size was selected using stratified sampling and cluster sampling in the urban and rural regions, respectively. The data was collected using the household section of the World Health Survey (WHS questionnaire. Catastrophic health expenditures were calculated based on the ability of the household to pay and the reasons for the catastrophic health expenditures by a household were specified using logistic regression. Results The results showed that the fairness financial contribution index was 0.6 and that 14.2% of households were faced with catastrophic health expenditures. Logistic regression analysis revealed that household economic status, the basic and supplementary insurance status of the head of the household, existence of individuals in the household who require chronic medical care, use of dental and hospital care, rural location of residences, frequency of use of outpatient services, and Out-of-Pocket (OOP payment for physician visits were effective factors for determining the likelihood of experiencing catastrophic health expenditure. Conclusion It appears that the current method of health financing in Iran does not adequately protect households against catastrophic health expenditure. Consequently, it is essential to reform healthcare financing.

  15. Social inequalities in health: measuring the contribution of housing deprivation and social interactions for Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbanos-Garrido, Rosa M

    2012-12-14

    Social factors have been proved to be main determinants of individuals' health. Recent studies have also analyzed the contribution of some of those factors, such as education and job status, to socioeconomic inequalities in health. The aim of this paper is to provide new evidence about the factors driving socioeconomic inequalities in health for the Spanish population by including housing deprivation and social interactions as health determinants. Cross-sectional study based on the Spanish sample of European Statistics on Income and Living Conditions (EU-SILC) for 2006. The concentration index measuring income-related inequality in health is decomposed into the contribution of each determinant. Several models are estimated to test the influence of different regressors for three proxies of ill-health. Health inequality favouring the better-off is observed in the distribution of self-assessed health, presence of chronic diseases and presence of limiting conditions. Inequality is mainly explained, besides age, by social factors such as labour status and financial deprivation. Housing deprivation contributes to pro-rich inequality in a percentage ranging from 7.17% to 13.85%, and social interactions from 6.16% to 10.19%. The contribution of some groups of determinants significantly differs depending on the ill-health variable used. Health inequalities can be mostly reduced or shaped by policy, as they are mainly explained by social determinants such as labour status, education and other socioeconomic conditions. The major role played on health inequality by variables taking part in social exclusion points to the need to focus on the most vulnerable groups.

  16. CERN Health Insurance Scheme (CHIS) Monthly Contributions – Changes for 2013

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Department

    2013-01-01

    Following the 2010 five-yearly review of financial and social conditions, which included the CERN Health Insurance Scheme (CHIS), the CERN Council decided in December 2010 to progressively increase the level of contributions over the period 2011-2015.   For 2013, the contribution rate of active and retired CHIS members will be 4.55%. The amounts of the fixed premiums for voluntarily insured members (e.g. users and associates) as well as the supplementary contributions for spouses with income from a professional activity will increase accordingly: 1. Voluntary contributions The full contribution based on Reference Salary II is now 1116 CHF per month. This fixed amount contribution is applied to voluntarily affiliated users and associates with normal coverage. Half of this amount (558 CHF) is applied to voluntarily affiliated users and associates with reduced coverage. Finally, an amount of 446 CHF is applied to children maintaining their insurance cover on a voluntary and temporarily basis. More ...

  17. CERN Health Insurance Scheme (CHIS) Monthly Contributions – Changes for 2015

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2015-01-01

    Following the 2010 five-yearly review of financial and social conditions, which included the CERN Health Insurance Scheme (CHIS), the CERN Council decided in December 2010 to progressively increase the level of contributions over the period 2011-2015.   For 2015, the contribution rate of active and retired CHIS members will be 4.86%. The amounts of the fixed premiums for voluntarily insured members (e.g. users and associates) as well as the supplementary contributions for spouses with income from a professional activity or with a retirement pension (including the CERN pension) increase accordingly : 1. Voluntary contributions The full contribution based on Reference Salary II is now 1208 CHF per month. This fixed amount contribution is applied to voluntarily affiliated users and associates with normal coverage. Half of this amount (604 CHF) is applied to voluntarily affiliated users and associates with reduced coverage. Finally, an amount of 483 CHF is applied to children maintaining their insur...

  18. CERN Health Insurance Scheme (CHIS) Monthly Contributions – Changes for 2014

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    Following the 2010 five-yearly review of financial and social conditions, which included the CERN Health Insurance Scheme (CHIS), the CERN Council decided in December 2010 to progressively increase the level of contributions over the period 2011-2015.   For 2014, the contribution rate of active and retired CHIS members will be 4.7%. The amounts of the fixed premiums for voluntarily insured members (e.g. users and associates) as well as the supplementary contributions for spouses with income from a professional activity or with a retirement pension (including the CERN pension) will increase accordingly: Voluntary contributions The full contribution based on Reference Salary II is now 1161 CHF per month. This fixed amount contribution is applied to voluntarily affiliated users and associates with normal coverage. Half of this amount (580 CHF) is applied to voluntarily affiliated users and associates with reduced coverage. Finally, an amount of 464 CHF is applied to children maintaining their ins...

  19. Why and How Political Science Can Contribute to Public Health? Proposals for Collaborative Research Avenues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, France; Bergeron, Pierre; Clavier, Carole; Fafard, Patrick; Martin, Elisabeth; Blouin, Chantal

    2017-01-01

    Written by a group of political science researchers, this commentary focuses on the contributions of political science to public health and proposes research avenues to increase those contributions. Despite progress, the links between researchers from these two fields develop only slowly. Divergences between the approach of political science to public policy and the expectations that public health can have about the role of political science, are often seen as an obstacle to collaboration between experts in these two areas. Thus, promising and practical research avenues are proposed along with strategies to strengthen and develop them. Considering the interdisciplinary and intersectoral nature of population health, it is important to create a critical mass of researchers interested in the health of populations and in healthy public policy that can thrive working at the junction of political science and public health. PMID:28949461

  20. How will changes in health insurance tax policy and employer health plan contributions affect access to health care and health care costs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquis, M S; Buchanan, J L

    To understand how changes in federal taxation of and employer contributions to health insurance benefits affect the decisions of firms to offer insurance, the willingness of households to purchase different health plans, and the resultant health expenditures. Economic policy simulation. Secondary data analysis. A total of 18,343 sampled families (representing 77 million total families throughout the United States) with a working household head from the 1988 Current Population Survey who were not covered by either Medicare, Medicaid, or CHAMPUS (Civilian Health and Medical Program of the Uniformed Services) insurance. One intervention limits the amounts of tax-free employer contributions to health insurance premiums to 80% of our estimate of the base plan in the market and assumes that employer contributions will also be limited to this maximum. A second intervention eliminates the favorable tax treatment of employer-paid premiums altogether and assumes that employees will pay the full price of insurance. Change in the number of working families offered employment-based insurance, change in insurance plan choice, and change in medical spending. Capping the favorable tax treatment and employer contributions decreases the number of families offered employment-based insurance by approximately 91,000, increases the number of families selecting the least generous insurance plan from 20% under the current situation to 33%, and reduces overall health spending by less than 2%. By eliminating the tax exemption altogether, the number of families offered employment-based insurance decreases by approximately half a million families, the number of families selecting the least generous plan goes from 20% to 40%, and overall spending falls by about $16 billion. Eliminating the tax subsidy and limiting employer-paid contributions to the low-cost plan substantially increases the number of low-income uninsured under a voluntary insurance system, decreases overall spending only

  1. The contribution of health technology assessment, health needs assessment, and health impact assessment to the assessment and translation of technologies in the field of public health genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenkötter, N; Vondeling, H; Blancquaert, I; Mekel, O C L; Kristensen, F B; Brand, A

    2011-01-01

    The European Union has named genomics as one of the promising research fields for the development of new health technologies. Major concerns with regard to these fields are, on the one hand, the rather slow and limited translation of new knowledge and, on the other hand, missing insights into the impact on public health and health care practice of those technologies that are actually introduced. This paper aims to give an overview of the major assessment instruments in public health [health technology assessment (HTA), health needs assessment (HNA) and health impact assessment (HIA)] which could contribute to the systematic translation and assessment of genomic health applications by focussing at population level and on public health policy making. It is shown to what extent HTA, HNA and HIA contribute to translational research by using the continuum of translational research (T1-T4) in genomic medicine as an analytic framework. The selected assessment methodologies predominantly cover 2 to 4 phases within the T1-T4 system. HTA delivers the most complete set of methodologies when assessing health applications. HNA can be used to prioritize areas where genomic health applications are needed or to identify infrastructural needs. HIA delivers information on the impact of technologies in a wider scope and promotes informed decision making. HTA, HNA and HIA provide a partly overlapping and partly unique set of methodologies and infrastructure for the translation and assessment of genomic health applications. They are broad in scope and go beyond the continuum of T1-T4 translational research regarding policy translation. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Mike Pentz showing visitors around CESAR

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1964-01-01

    Mike Pentz, leader of the CESAR Group, shows visitors around the 2 MeV electron storage ring. Here they are in the vault of the injector (a 2 MV van de Graaff generator), next to the 2 beam lines, one leading to the ring, the other to the spectrometer.

  3. A new visitor centre for CMS

    CERN Document Server

    2001-01-01

    At the inauguration of the new CMS visitor centre. The CMS experiment inaugurated a new visitor centre at its Cessy site on 14 June. This will allow the thousands of people who come to CERN each year to follow the construction of one the Laboratory's flagship experiments first-hand. CERN receives over 20,000 visitors each year. Until recently, many of them were taken on a guided tour of one of the LEP experiments. With the closure of LEP, however, trips underground are no longer possible, and the Visits' Service has put in place a number of other itineraries (Bulletin 46/2000). Since the CMS detector will be almost entirely constructed in a surface hall, it is now taking a big share of the limelight. The CMS visitor centre has been built on a platform overlooking CMS construction. It contains a set of clear descriptive posters describing the experiment, along with a video projection showing animations and movies about CMS construction. In the coming weeks, a display of CMS detector elements will be added, as...

  4. Understanding the Inarticulateness of Museum Visitors' Experience ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper is based on a study of museum visitors' experience of paintings: in particular, the experience of adult non-art specialists. Phenomenology, a form of inquiry that seeks to articulate lived experience, provided the philosophical and methodological framework for the study. Descriptions and themes relating to the ...

  5. A close-up on laboratory visitors

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    "Inside the Big Black Box" is a European survey of responses by visitors to five laboratories, including CERN. Its findings will be presented at a two-day meeting to be held at CERN on 29 and 30 March. Can the visits programme of a research laboratory, such as a particle physics laboratory, satisfy the public's curiosity? What are the impressions of visitors to such laboratories? "Inside the Big Black Box" (IN3B), a study sponsored by the European Commission, provides the answers to these previously unanswered questions. The results of this survey, conducted among 4000 visitors to five laboratories (CERN in Switzerland, LNGS in Italy, Demokritos in Greece and DESY and Forschungszentrum Jülich in Germany), will be presented at a meeting hosted by CERN on 29 and 30 March. The detailed programme and a registration form for those wishing to attend can be found at: http://www.cern.ch/info/IN3B. Visitors to the DESY laboratory inside the hall of the TESLA (Tera Electr...

  6. 28 CFR 540.44 - Regular visitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Regular visitors. 540.44 Section 540.44... and if there exists no reason to exclude them. (c) Friends and associates. The visiting privilege ordinarily will be extended to friends and associates having an established relationship with the inmate...

  7. 76 FR 33993 - Exchange Visitor Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-10

    ... due to this employment and accordingly, such students will be deemed to be in valid J-1 Exchange... Part 62 RIN 1400-ZA20 Exchange Visitor Program AGENCY: Department of State. ACTION: Notice of... Libyan students. This action is necessary to mitigate the adverse impact upon these students due to...

  8. Visitors speak openly on the Open Day

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    On Open Day, CERN was filled with visitors from around Europe—and beyond—who toured the LHC detector sites and visited a multitude of experimental halls and workshops across the Meyrin and Prevessin sites, the vast majority in buildings normally closed to the public.

  9. 22 CFR 62.28 - International visitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... nationals and Americans and American institutions. (b) Selection. The Department of State and third parties assisting the Department of State shall adequately screen and select prospective international visitors to... the exclusive use of the Department of State. Programs under this section are for foreign nationals...

  10. Response to conflict among wilderness visitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingrid Schneider

    2000-01-01

    Previous conceptual efforts suggest that response to recreational conflict should be framed within an adapted stresscoping response model. An important element in understanding response to conflict is the context of the experience. A basic underlying component of the wilderness experience is privacy, which indicates wilderness visitors are interested in releasing—...

  11. Evaluation and development of a university visitor parking management framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    Visitors constitute an important component of a university business. Given that visitors are typically unfamiliar with university : campus layouts, special assistance may be needed to assist them with their parking needs. For example, personal and : ...

  12. Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge : Visitor Access Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is an interim (five year) visitor access plan designed to provide for the safety of visitors to the Rocky Mountain Arsenal during its remediation and transition...

  13. SVM to detect the presence of visitors in a smart home environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Johanna; Larimer, Nicole; Kaye, Jeffrey A; Pavel, Misha; Hayes, Tamara L

    2012-01-01

    With the rising age of the population, there is increased need to help elderly maintain their independence. Smart homes, employing passive sensor networks and pervasive computing techniques, enable the unobtrusive assessment of activities and behaviors of the elderly which can be useful for health state assessment and intervention. Due to the multiple health benefits associated with socializing, accurately tracking whether an individual has visitors to their home is one of the more important aspects of elders' behaviors that could be assessed with smart home technology. With this goal, we have developed a preliminary SVM model to identify periods where untagged visitors are present in the home. Using the dwell time, number of sensor firings, and number of transitions between major living spaces (living room, dining room, kitchen and bathroom) as features in the model, and self report from two subjects as ground truth, we were able to accurately detect the presence of visitors in the home with a sensitivity and specificity of 0.90 and 0.89 for subject 1, and of 0.67 and 0.78 for subject 2, respectively. These preliminary data demonstrate the feasibility of detecting visitors with in-home sensor data, but highlight the need for more advanced modeling techniques so the model performs well for all subjects and all types of visitors.

  14. Factors contributing to late breast cancer presentation for health care amongst women in Kumasi, Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Comfort Asoogo

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Delay in presenting breast cancer for health care is dangerous because it can increase the mortality rate amongst affected women. Delaying health care and treatment makes it difficult to manage advanced breast cancer successfully. Understanding the factors that contribute to delays in presentation for health care can save lives.Objectives: The purpose of the study was to describe the factors which contribute to the latepresentation of Ghanaian women with breast cancer for health care at a tertiary hospital in Kumasi, Ghana.Method: A descriptive qualitative research design was utilised to answer the research question: ‘What factors contribute to presenting with late breast cancer for health care amongst Ghanaian women who were treated for breast cancer at a tertiary hospital in Kumasi, Ghana?’ A sample of 30 women diagnosed with breast cancer and presented with Stage II and Stage III participated in the study. Semi-structured interviews and field notes were conducted for data collection. Content data analysis was used in line with the research question.Findings: Five themes were discovered as findings. These were: lack of knowledge about breast cancer; fear of cancer treatment and its outcomes; poverty; traditional and spiritual beliefs and treatments and caring for others.Conclusions: We recommend the development of breast cancer awareness programmes and health education at primary health care level.

  15. Use density, visitor experience, and limiting recreational use in wilderness: progress to date and research needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayne A. Freimund; David N. Cole

    2001-01-01

    Recent increases in demand have revitalized interest and controversy surrounding use limits and the effect of visitor density on wilderness experiences. A workshop held in Missoula, Montana, in June of 2000 addressed the potential for social science to contribute to understanding and managing increasingly populated wilderness conditions. Scientists identified progress...

  16. Using destination image to predict visitors' intention to revisit three Hudson River Valley, New York, communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudy M. Schuster; Laura Sullivan; Duarte Morais; Diane Kuehn

    2009-01-01

    This analysis explores the differences in Affective and Cognitive Destination Image among three Hudson River Valley (New York) tourism communities. Multiple regressions were used with six dimensions of visitors' images to predict future intention to revisit. Two of the three regression models were significant. The only significantly contributing independent...

  17. Visitor use density and wilderness experiences: a historical review of research

    Science.gov (United States)

    David N. Cole

    2001-01-01

    Considerable research on the relationship between use density and wilderness visitor experiences has been conducted over the past four decades. This paper focuses on early work on this topic, tracing the development and languishing of different research themes suggested by this early work. Research—particularly that conducted in the normative tradition—has contributed...

  18. Visitor use density and wilderness experience: proceedings; 2000 June 13; Missoula, MT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayne A. Freimund; David N. Cole

    2001-01-01

    The workshop was convened to assess progress and offer further ideas regarding scientific contributions to (1) understanding relationships between visitor use density and wilderness experiences and (2) applying such knowledge to decisions about use limitation in wilderness and parks. The first paper provides an overview of the topic and the papers presented at the...

  19. Research on the visitor flow pattern of Expo 2010

    OpenAIRE

    FAN, CHAO; Guo, Jin-Li

    2011-01-01

    Expo 2010 Shanghai China was a successful, splendid and unforgettable event, remaining us with valuable experiences. The visitor flow pattern of Expo is investigated in this paper. The Hurst exponent, mean value and standard deviation of visitor volume prove that the visitor flow is fractal with long-term stability and correlation as well as obvious fluctuation in short period. Then the time series of visitor volume is converted to complex network by visibility algorithm. It can be inferred f...

  20. Using indicators to determine the contribution of human rights to public health efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Laura

    2009-01-01

    Abstract There is general agreement on the need to integrate human rights into health policies and programmes, although there is still reluctance to go beyond rhetorical acknowledgement of their assumed significance. To determine the actual value of human rights for the effectiveness of public health efforts requires clarity about what their incorporation looks like in practice and how to assess their contribution. Despite the pervasive use of indicators in the public health field, indicators that specifically capture human rights concerns are not well developed and those that exist are inconsistently used. Even though “health and human rights indicators” are increasingly being constructed, it is often the case that health indicators are used to draw conclusions about some interaction between human rights and health; or that law and policy or other indicators, traditionally the domain of the human rights community, are used to make conclusions about health outcomes. To capture the added value that human rights bring to health, the differences in the contributions offered by these indicators need to be understood. To determine the value of different measures for advancing programme effectiveness, improving health outcomes and promoting human rights, requires questioning the intended purpose behind the construction of an indicator, who uses it, the kind of indicator it is, the extent to which it provides information about vulnerable populations, as well as how the data are collected and used. PMID:19784452

  1. Contributions of new approaches to the formation of alternative public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marleny Valencia A

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThis article discusses the possibility of a different way from traditional to raise health problems in public health context, answering its guiding question: How the contemporary approaches to public heath help to understand it and size its projection in the coming years? Initially, we will make a brief characterization of conventional public health, in order to show its limitations to answer people’s health problems. Then we enter to the contemporary approaches or tendencies, specifically those developed in the critical school framework, because it’s on them where the approaches that significantly contribute to the health public conformation converge. Among the selected currents we have: the critical theory, the social medicine, the collective health, social determinants of health, the gender approach and the complexity theory, approaches that contribute to a different way of public health working and to have always in mind the importance of the subject in the boarding of health problems. Likewise, the technologic reason directed knowledge must be changed in order to reach the multiculturalism, this accepting other knows as valid to the construction of know.

  2. Visitor-based Attribute Grammars with Side Effect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middelkoop, A.; Dijkstra, A.; Swierstra, S.D.

    2011-01-01

    The visitor design pattern is often applied to program traversal algorithms over Abstract Syntax Trees (ASTs). It defines a visitor, an object with a visit method that is executed for each node in the AST. These visitors have the advantage that the order of traversal is explicitly under control of

  3. Visitor attitudes towards fire and wind disturbances in wilderness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert G. Dvorak; Erin D. Small

    2011-01-01

    This study examines visitor attitudes across the Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness regarding the effects of natural disturbances on visitor planning and wilderness conditions. Visitors were intercepted at entry points and permit distribution locations during 2007. Results suggest that respondents were aware of recent wind and fire disturbances. Few respondents...

  4. Investigating Visitor Profiles as a Valuable Addition to Museum Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewalter, Doris; Phelan, Siëlle; Geyer, Claudia; Specht, Inga; Grüninger, Rahel; Schnotz, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    There is a long tradition of museum research assessing visitors' personal background. In this article, we suggest an insightful way to enhance and intensify visitor analyses and adopt a more integrative approach. To this end, we draw attention to Latent Class Analysis (LCA), a classification method that allows us to investigate visitor profiles…

  5. [Reflections on and contributions to the Ministry of Health's Integrated Plan on Health Surveillance Actions for People Exposed to Pesticides].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moisés, Marcia; Machado, Jorge Mesquita Huet; Peres, Frederico; Hennington, Elida; Beltrami, Aramis Cardoso; Beltrami Neto, Adelcki Camilo

    2011-08-01

    This paper highlights the issue of human and environmental contamination caused by abusive and undue use of pesticides and of its consequences for human health and the environment. It seeks to present reflections on and contributions to the Ministry of Health's Integrated Plan on Health Surveillance Actions for People Exposed to Pesticides arising from the Federal District Assessment and Control Project for Human and Environmental Exposure. The methodology used in this study consisted of reading and analysis of reports from the aforementioned projects, as well as participating in preliminary meetings for drafting the General Coordination Plan for Environmental Health Surveillance and the workshop entitled "The integration of Occupational Health Surveillance and Sanitary Vigilance: the information issue." This was coordinated by the Occupational Health Working Group of the Brazilian Public Health Association and in meetings and workshops of the Federal District Project. The outcome of the discussions suggests that the investigation strategy used is a positive contribution and that the Federal District Project may serve as a pilot project for the Ministry of Health's Integrated Plan.

  6. University of Global Health Equity’s Contribution to the Reduction of Education and Health Services Rationing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes Binagwaho

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The inadequate supply of health workers and demand-side barriers due to clinical practice that heeds too little attention to cultural context are serious obstacles to achieving universal health coverage and the fulfillment of the human rights to health, especially for the poor and vulnerable living in remote rural areas. A number of strategies have been deployed to increase both the supply of healthcare workers and the demand for healthcare services. However, more can be done to improve service delivery as well as mitigate the geographic inequalities that exist in this field. To contribute to overcoming these barriers and increasing access to health services, especially for the most vulnerable, Partners In Health (PIH, a US non-governmental organization specializing in equitable health service delivery, has created the University of Global Health Equity (UGHE in a remote rural district of Rwanda. The act of building this university in such a rural setting signals a commitment to create opportunities where there have traditionally been few. Furthermore, through its state-of-the-art educational approach in a rural setting and its focus on cultural competency, UGHE is contributing to progress in the quest for equitable access to quality health services.

  7. Do health care workforce, population, and service provision significantly contribute to the total health expenditure? An econometric analysis of Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santric-Milicevic, M; Vasic, V; Terzic-Supic, Z

    2016-08-15

    In times of austerity, the availability of econometric health knowledge assists policy-makers in understanding and balancing health expenditure with health care plans within fiscal constraints. The objective of this study is to explore whether the health workforce supply of the public health care sector, population number, and utilization of inpatient care significantly contribute to total health expenditure. The dependent variable is the total health expenditure (THE) in Serbia from the years 2003 to 2011. The independent variables are the number of health workers employed in the public health care sector, population number, and inpatient care discharges per 100 population. The statistical analyses include the quadratic interpolation method, natural logarithm and differentiation, and multiple linear regression analyses. The level of significance is set at P < 0.05. The regression model captures 90 % of all variations of observed dependent variables (adjusted R square), and the model is significant (P < 0.001). Total health expenditure increased by 1.21 standard deviations, with an increase in health workforce growth rate by 1 standard deviation. Furthermore, this rate decreased by 1.12 standard deviations, with an increase in (negative) population growth rate by 1 standard deviation. Finally, the growth rate increased by 0.38 standard deviation, with an increase of the growth rate of inpatient care discharges per 100 population by 1 standard deviation (P < 0.001). Study results demonstrate that the government has been making an effort to control strongly health budget growth. Exploring causality relationships between health expenditure and health workforce is important for countries that are trying to consolidate their public health finances and achieve universal health coverage at the same time.

  8. What can alienation theory contribute to an understanding of social inequalities in health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crinson, Iain; Yuill, Chris

    2008-01-01

    This article examines both the contribution and the limitations of research that has sought to develop a causal understanding of the psychosocial dimension of inequalities in health. The article seeks to revive interest in Marx's theory of alienation in developing the case for an alternative materialist conceptualization that is able to postulate the pathways from alienation as a psychosocial generative structure to social inequalities in health outcomes within late modern societies.

  9. Factors Contributing to Increases in Prescription Drug Expenditures Borne by National Health Insurance in South Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Jo, Jeong-Sook; Kim, Young-Man; Paek, Kyung Won; Bea, Min Hee; Chun, Kihong; Lee, Soojin

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Rapid growth of prescription drug expenditures is a problem in South Korea. The objective of this study was to assess the contributions of four variables (therapeutic choice, drug-mix, original use, and price changes) to increases in drug expenditures paid by the National Health Insurance (NHI) in Korea. Materials and Methods A retrospective cohort study was conducted between January 1, 2008 and June 30, 2012 utilizing data from the NHI Claims Database of the Health Insurance Review a...

  10. Concurrent and Longitudinal Contribution of Exposure to Bullying in Childhood to Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singham, Timothy; Viding, Essi; Schoeler, Tabea; Arseneault, Louise; Ronald, Angelica; Cecil, Charlotte M.; McCrory, Eamon; Rijsdijk, Frülhing

    2017-01-01

    Importance Exposure to bullying is associated with poor mental health. However, the degree to which observed associations reflect direct detrimental contributions of exposure to bullying to mental health remains uncertain, as noncausal relationships may arise from genetic and environmental confounding (eg, preexisting vulnerabilities). Determining to what extent exposure to bullying contributes to mental health is an important concern, with implications for primary and secondary interventions. Objective To characterize the concurrent and longitudinal contribution of exposure to bullying to mental health in childhood and adolescence using a twin differences design to strengthen causal inference. Design, Setting, and Participants Participants were drawn from the Twins Early Development Study, a population-based cohort recruited from population records of births in England and Wales between January 1, 1994, and December 31, 1996. Data collection took place when the participants were between 11 and 16 years of age from December 1, 2005, to January 31, 2013. Data analysis was conducted from January 1, 2016, to June 20, 2017. Exposures Participants completed the Multidimensional Peer-Victimization Scale at 11 and 14 years of age. Main Outcomes and Measures Mental health assessments at 11 and 16 years of age included anxiety, depression, hyperactivity and impulsivity, inattention, conduct problems, and psychotic-like experiences (eg, paranoid thoughts or cognitive disorganization). Results The 11 108 twins included in the final sample (5894 girls and 5214 boys) were a mean age of 11.3 years at the first assessment and 16.3 years at the last assessment. The most stringent twin differences estimates (monozygotic) were consistent with causal contribution of exposure to bullying at 11 years to concurrent anxiety, depression, hyperactivity and impulsivity, inattention, and conduct problems. Effects decreased over time; that is, substantial concurrent contributions to anxiety

  11. Do Israeli health promoting schools contribute to students' healthy eating and physical activity habits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayek, Samah; Tessler, Riki; Bord, Shiran; Endevelt, Ronit; Satran, Carmit; Livne, Irit; Khatib, Mohammed; Harel-Fisch, Yosi; Baron-Epel, Orna

    2017-10-04

    The Israeli Health Promoting School Network (HPSN) is actively committed to enhancing a healthy lifestyle for the entire school population. This study aimed to explore the contribution of school participation in the HPSN and students' individual characteristics to healthy eating and physical activity habits among Israeli school children aged 10-12 years. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 4166 students in grades 4-6 from 28 schools. The schools were selected from a sample of HPSN affiliated and non-HPSN schools. The contribution of individual characteristics (grade, gender and subjective self-reported health education activities at school) and school characteristics (school type, population group, deprivation score) to healthy eating and physical activity habits was analyzed using multi-level hierarchical models. Multi-level analysis indicated that student's individual characteristic was significantly associated with healthy eating and physical activity habits. The subjective self-reported health education received at school was statistically significant factor associated with students' health behaviors. The school's affiliation with the HPSN was not associated with higher healthy eating and physical activity scores after adjusting for individual factors. These findings suggest that Israeli HPSN schools do not contribute to children's health behaviors more than other schools. Therefore, health promoting activities in HPSN schools need to be improved to justify their recognition as members of the HPS network and to fulfill their mission. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Holistic and sustainable health improvement: the contribution of the settings-based approach to health promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dooris, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Highlighting the need for holistic and sustainable health improvement, this paper starts by reviewing the origins, history and conceptualization of the settings approach to health promotion. It then takes stock of current practice both internationally and nationally, noting its continuing importance worldwide and its inconsistent profile and utilization across the four UK countries. It goes on to explore the applicability and future development of settings-based health promotion in relation to three key issues: inequalities and inclusion; place-shaping and systems-based responses to complex problems. Concluding that the settings approach remains highly relevant to 21st century public health, the paper calls on the new "Royal" to provide much-needed leadership, thereby placing settings-based health promotion firmly on the national agenda across the whole of the UK.

  13. The contribution of health discussion groups with students to campus health promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Sabine; Stock, Christiane; Krämer, Alexander

    2007-03-01

    Based on the idea of implementing health promotion in the university setting, this project is aimed at identifying determinants of health and well-being in the working and living environment of students and at developing targeted health interventions. The approach of health discussion groups is a well-established tool in workplace health promotion to enable participation and empowerment. This concept was innovatively applied and evaluated with the student body. There were seven sessions held at the University of Bielefeld with students from five different areas, a representative of the university management and a representative from the compulsory accident assurance. Process evaluation was done through standardized questionnaires and guided interviews with the participants while its impact was assessed in a follow-up period of 3 years by the amount of effects. Data included 11 distinct topics from the areas of study conditions, learning and their living environment with a total of 46 ideas for health-promoting actions. The process evaluation showed highly positive results, both in quantitative as well as qualitative approaches. Critical points were the resistances of students to participate in health discussion groups and the low confidence of students in the implementation of the proposed measures. The follow-up after 3 years showed that 11% of proposed actions could not be implemented, while 43% have resulted in recommendations for policy guidelines, 20% were fully implemented and 26% is still in progress. In conclusion, the health discussion group proved to be a useful instrument for student participation in university-based health promotion. Special emphasis should be given towards decreasing barriers for participation. The implementation of the proposed actions is highly depending on well-established structures of health promotion, such as a steering committee, and the commitment of the university management.

  14. Factors associated with patient and visitor violence experienced by nurses in general hospitals in Switzerland: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Sabine; Müller, Marianne; Needham, Ian; Dassen, Theo; Kok, Gerjo; Halfens, Ruud J G

    2010-12-01

    To explore nurses' experiences with patient and visitor violence, as well as other related factors, in Swiss general hospital settings. Patient and visitor violence is a complex occupational hazard among health care professions, with nursing in general, experiencing the highest rate of patient and visitor violence. International research has found that staff and patient attributes, interaction between staff and patients, as well as environmental characteristics are important factors associated with the occurrence of patient and visitor violence. Previous studies, however, have only partially described these factors in the general hospital setting. Mainland European general hospital settings are even less well researched. A retrospective cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2007. A total of 291 nurses working in different clinical departments in general hospitals provided data. The questionnaire used was a modified German version of the Survey of Violence Experienced by Staff. The findings revealed that 72% of nurses had experienced verbal patient and visitor violence and 42% physical patient and visitor violence in the past 12 months. Also, 23% were physically injured and 1.4% took one or more days of sick leave. Patient and visitor violence was distressing for the nursing staff. A higher risk for patient and visitor violence was observed with registered nurses nursing anxious or cognitively impaired patients, for rehabilitation units with longer-term nurse-patient/nurse-relative interactions and for workplaces with an absence of formal procedures for patient and visitor violence. The results indicate that the clinical setting has little impact on the occurrence of patient and visitor violence. Patient and visitor violence appears to be influenced more by the additional factors specific to the type of interaction and situation. Research should follow up on these specific findings to further improve policies, procedures and intervention strategies. To prevent

  15. Motivations for contributing to health-related articles on Wikipedia: an interview study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farič, Nuša; Potts, Henry W W

    2014-12-03

    Wikipedia is one of the most accessed sources of health information online. The current English-language Wikipedia contains more than 28,000 articles pertaining to health. The aim was to characterize individuals' motivations for contributing to health content on the English-language Wikipedia. A set of health-related articles were randomly selected and recent contributors invited to complete an online questionnaire and follow-up interview (by Skype, by email, or face-to-face). Interviews were transcribed and analyzed using thematic analysis and a realist grounded theory approach. A total of 32 Wikipedians (31 men) completed the questionnaire and 17 were interviewed. Those completing the questionnaire had a mean age of 39 (range 12-59) years; 16 had a postgraduate qualification, 10 had or were currently studying for an undergraduate qualification, 3 had no more than secondary education, and 3 were still in secondary education. In all, 15 were currently working in a health-related field (primarily clinicians). The median period for which they have been an active editing Wikipedia was 3-5 years. Of this group, 12 were in the United States, 6 were in the United Kingdom, 4 were in Canada, and the remainder from another 8 countries. Two-thirds spoke more than 1 language and 90% (29/32) were also active contributors in domains other than health. Wikipedians in this study were identified as health professionals, professionals with specific health interests, students, and individuals with health problems. Based on the interviews, their motivations for editing health-related content were summarized in 5 strongly interrelated categories: education (learning about subjects by editing articles), help (wanting to improve and maintain Wikipedia), responsibility (responsibility, often a professional responsibility, to provide good quality health information to readers), fulfillment (editing Wikipedia as a fun, relaxing, engaging, and rewarding activity), and positive attitude to

  16. 22 CFR 41.57 - International cultural exchange visitors and visitors under the Irish Peace Process Cultural and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... visitors under the Irish Peace Process Cultural and Training Program Act (IPPCTPA). 41.57 Section 41.57... visitors and visitors under the Irish Peace Process Cultural and Training Program Act (IPPCTPA). (a... operation of the Irish Peace Process Cultural and Training Program (IPPCTP) which establishes at a minimum...

  17. The Contributions of Physical Activity and Fitness to Optimal Health and Wellness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohuruogu, Ben

    2016-01-01

    The paper examined the role of physical activity and fitness more especially in the area of disease prevention and control by looking at the major ways by which regular physical activity and fitness contributes to optimal health and wellness. The Surgeor General's Report (1996), stressed that physical inactivity is a national problem which…

  18. Contribution of Self-Compassion to Competence and Mental Health in Social Work Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Yu-Wen

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the potential contribution of self-compassion to perceived competence and mental health in master's of social work students (N=65). It was hypothesized that the components of self-compassion (i.e., mindfulness, common humanity, self-kindness, overidentification, isolation, and self-judgment) would impact perceived competence…

  19. Children in Divorce, Custody and Access Situations: The Contribution of the Mental Health Professional.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fine, Stuart

    1980-01-01

    Reviews literature concerned with the contribution of mental health professionals to the well-being of children of divorce. Topics include effects of divorce on children, divorce prevention, predivorce counseling, custody conflicts, postdivorce counseling, and changes in social and educational practices. (Author/DB)

  20. [Possibility for the health sector to actively contribute to peace-making and peace-keeping].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhmann, Caecilie Böck

    2006-09-04

    Conflict is one of the leading causes of death, disease and suffering. In the past, physicians mainly contributed to peace processes through humanitarian relief of suffering. Physicians can also play an active role in the prevention of violent conflict and in rehabilitation in post-conflict societies. This article is a brief overview of current knowledge about the active role which health personnel can play in peace processes. This is described in more detail in international scientific journals under the terms ''Peace through Health'' and ''Health as a Bridge to Peace''.

  1. Social marketing's unique contribution to mental health stigma reduction and HIV testing: two case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thackeray, Rosemary; Keller, Heidi; Heilbronner, Jennifer Messenger; Dellinger, Laura K Lee

    2011-03-01

    Since its inception in 2005, articles in Health Promotion Practice's social marketing department have focused on describing social marketing's unique contributions and the application of each to the practice of health promotion. This article provides a brief review of six unique features (marketing mix, consumer orientation, segmentation, exchange, competition, and continuous monitoring) and then presents two case studies-one on reducing stigma related to mental health and the other a large-scale campaign focused on increasing HIV testing among African American youth. The two successful case studies show that social marketing principles can be applied to a wide variety of topics among various population groups.

  2. A joint urban planning and public health framework: contributions to health impact assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northridge, Mary E; Sclar, Elliott

    2003-01-01

    A joint urban planning and public health perspective is articulated here for use, in health impact assessment. Absent a blueprint for a coherent and supportive structure on which to test our thinking, we are bound to fall flat. Such a perspective is made necessary by the sheer number of people living in cities throughout the world, the need for explicit attention to land use and transportation systems as determinants of population health, and the dearth of useful indicators of the built environment for monitoring progress. If explicit attention is not paid to the overarching goals of equality and democracy, they have little if any chance of being realized in projects, programs, and policies that shape the built environment and therefore the public's health.

  3. A Joint Urban Planning and Public Health Framework: Contributions to Health Impact Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northridge, Mary E.; Sclar, Elliott

    2003-01-01

    A joint urban planning and public health perspective is articulated here for use, in health impact assessment. Absent a blueprint for a coherent and supportive structure on which to test our thinking, we are bound to fall flat. Such a perspective is made necessary by the sheer number of people living in cities throughout the world, the need for explicit attention to land use and transportation systems as determinants of population health, and the dearth of useful indicators of the built environment for monitoring progress. If explicit attention is not paid to the overarching goals of equality and democracy, they have little if any chance of being realized in projects, programs, and policies that shape the built environment and therefore the public’s health. PMID:12511400

  4. Cultural Centre, Destination Cultural Offer and Visitor Satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benxiang Zeng

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to establish the link between tourists’ perceptions on cultural offers and their overall satisfaction, and explore the implication of this link for sustainable tourist destination management. Assessing online customers’ reviews, this study identifies a positive correlation between visitors’ perspectives and experiences at the on-site cultural centre and visitors’ destination satisfaction. It suggests that the on-site cultural centre plays a critical role in building up visitors’ perception on cultural attributes of the destination, and its impact on visitor satisfaction is a double-edged sword. Visitors’ positive perspectives on the cultural centre enhance visitors’ experiences and contribute to their destination satisfaction; however, not only does a negative perspective on their cultural and spiritual experience compromise visitors’ satisfaction, but also subsequent negative online reviews damage the destination image and discourage visitor return/visit. The findings help destination management organisations to better understand visitors’ preference for cultural centres and therefore to improve visitors’ cultural experience. This paper appeals for further study of on-site cultural centres’ role in forming destination cultural attributes, and of social media’s potential in enriching cultural experience.

  5. Realist evaluation of an enhanced health visiting programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doi, Lawrence; Jepson, Ruth; Hardie, Samantha

    2017-01-01

    The health visitors' role in many countries is changing. In Scotland, the role has undergone substantial changes through the introduction of an enhanced health visiting programme, which includes increased, structured home visits. This evaluation was conducted within NHS Ayrshire and Arran, one of the 14 Scottish Health Boards. Our aim was to understand and explain how, and why, the programme could contribute to improving health and wellbeing outcomes for children and families. We used a realist evaluation approach, conducted in three phases. In phase one, eight managerial staff involved in developing and implementing the programme provided data, which were used to develop initial programme theories. In phase two, the programme theories were tested using qualitative data from 25 health visitors and 22 parents. The programme theories were refined through analyses and interpretation of data in phase three. The home visiting context provided by the programme interacted with the mechanisms of the programme and produced outcomes such as early identification of health and wellbeing issues amongst families who needed more support, leading to referral and engagement with sources of additional help. The home visits facilitated development of parent-health visitor relationships, and parents considered health visitors as their first point of contact on children's wellbeing and developmental-related issues. Moreover, the programme provided more clarity to health visitors' role, which in turn enhanced partnership working. However, there were aspects of the programme that may require further development. For instance, both parents and health visitors were concerned about the wide gaps between some home visits. The enhanced health visiting programme increased opportunities for monitoring and early identification of health and wellbeing concerns. It created structures for a more efficient partnership working and ensured that the needs of children and families were supported. These

  6. A NEW APPROACH TO THE ANALYSIS OF VISITOR PERCEPTIONS TOWARDS A TOURISM DESTINATION: THE ROLE OF FOOD AND WINE EXPERIENCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta CAPITELLO

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to propose a new approach to analyse visitor perceptions and experiences in a tourism destination. The purpose is to discuss how the discrete choice models can contribute to the analysis of the tourism destination in the visitor experience perspective. The study pays particular attention to the role of food and wine supply in thetourism experience and the destination perception. This research deepens the theoretical approach to the analysis of visitor perceptions for a tourist urban destination. The proposed framework has been applied to the city of Verona. The findings concern an exploratory survey and the subsequent building of the causal analysis. The discrete choice model application and the development of the experimental design are discussed, in order to take the role of food and wine attractions into account. The exploratory survey identified seven relevant themes for visitors. Among them, food and wine specialties may play a relevant role in the assessment of a tourist destination. Attributes and levels have been outlined to apply the discrete choice models. A survey questionnaire has been developed to be submitted to a large sample of visitors or potential visitors of Verona. The methodological contribution of this study is the application of the discrete choice models to the study of tourism experiences. The empirical innovation consists in a different marketing perspective for an urban tourist destination, whose competitiveness is strengthened by the agrofood industry.

  7. Implementation of the court visitor program in a clinical nursing curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stowell, Jane M; Pihlak, Mary Rose; Matzke, Amanda; O'Keefe, Mary

    2013-12-01

    The State of Texas has more than 19,000 individuals who lack the physical or mental ability to provide for their need for shelter, financial management, or physical care. These individuals have been designated as wards of the court and placed under guardianship. Texas probate courts appoint individuals known as court visitors to make annual visits to wards of the court to assess their well-being under guardianship. Although the 10 statutory probate courts have court visitor programs, many county courts do not. This article describes the details of a service-learning experience using an online distance educational program to train undergraduate nursing students in a mental health course to become court visitors. This information may be useful to others looking for nontraditional clinical experiences and service-learning opportunities for undergraduate nursing students.

  8. Are social franchises contributing to universal access to reproductive health services in low-income countries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundari Ravindran, T K; Fonn, Sharon

    2011-11-01

    A social franchise in health is a network of for-profit private health practitioners linked through contracts to provide socially beneficial services under a common brand. The early 21st century has seen considerable donor enthusiasm for promoting social franchises for the provision of reproductive health services. Based on a compendium of descriptive information on 45 clinical social franchises, located in 27 countries of Africa, Asia and Latin America, this paper examines their contribution to universal access to comprehensive reproductive health services. It finds that these franchises have not widened the range of reproductive health services, but have mainly focused on contraceptive services, and to a lesser extent, maternal health care and abortion. In many instances, coverage had not been extended to new areas. Measures taken to ensure sustainability ran counter to the objective of access for low-income groups. In almost two-thirds of the franchises, the full cost of all services had to be paid out of pocket and was unaffordable for low-income women. While standards and protocols for quality assurance were in place in all franchises, evidence on adherence to these was limited. Informal interviews with patients indicated satisfaction with services. However, factors such as difficulties in recruiting franchisees and significant attrition, franchisees' inability to attend training programmes, use of lay health workers to deliver services without support or supervision, and logistical problems with applying quality assurance tools, all raise concerns. The contribution of social franchises to universal access to reproductive health services appears to be uncertain. Continued investment in them for the provision of reproductive health services does not appear to be justified until and unless further evidence of their value is forthcoming. Copyright © 2011 Reproductive Health Matters. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Board Of Visitors Holds Quarterly Meeting

    OpenAIRE

    Hincker, Lawrence

    2003-01-01

    At its quarterly meeting today, the Virginia Tech Board of Visitors approved creation of a new M.A. in Communication in the College of Liberal Arts and Human Sciences. The new degree program spins off from the popular graduate option in the Department of English. The new program will offer students advanced study in public and mass communication research. The 36-hour program is expected to enroll 12-16 students annually.

  10. Wilderness science in a time of change conference-Volume 4: Wilderness visitors, experiences, and visitor management; 1999 May 23-27; Missoula, MT

    Science.gov (United States)

    David N. Cole; Stephen F. McCool; William T. Borrie; Jennifer O' Loughlin

    2000-01-01

    Thirty-seven papers are presented on wilderness visitors, experiences, and visitor management. Three overview papers synthesize knowledge and research about wilderness visitors, management of visitor experiences, and wilderness recreation planning. Other papers contain the results of specific research projects on wilderness visitors, information and education, and...

  11. How can country, spirituality, music and arts contribute to Indigenous mental health and wellbeing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerin, Pauline; Guerin, Bernard; Tedmanson, Deirdre; Clark, Yvonne

    2011-07-01

    Mental health and social and emotional wellbeing (SEWB) have been linked as outcomes of attachment to country, spirituality, and engagement in music and arts, particularly for Indigenous Australians. It is not clear how this occurs, even though the links seem substantial. We explore how mental health and SEWB may be linked to attachment to country, spirituality, and engagement in music and arts by reviewing literature and presenting examples from our research with Indigenous communities. Rather than abstracting, our goal is to describe specific examples encompassing the rich contextual details needed to understand the factors contributing to mental health and SEWB. While engagement in music is often seen as benefiting mental health because thoughts and feelings can be expressed in less public ways, it can also lead to employment and access to economic and social resources. Attachment to country also shows a plethora of positive outcomes which can contribute to mental health and SEWB even when not explicitly aimed at doing so, such as reducing conflictual situations. We conclude that more detailed, contextual research is required to fully explore the links between creative enterprises and mental health and SEWB outcomes.

  12. Airway inflammation contributes to health status in COPD: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kauffman Henk F

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is characterized by irreversible airflow limitation and airway inflammation, accompanied by decreased health status. It is still unknown which factors are responsible for the impaired health status in COPD. We postulated that airway inflammation negatively contributes to health status in COPD. Methods In 114 COPD patients (99 male, age: 62 ± 8 yr, 41 [31–55] pack-years, no inhaled or oral corticosteroids, postbronchodilator FEV1: 63 ± 9% pred, FEV1/IVC: 48 ± 9% we obtained induced sputum and measured health status (St. George's respiratory questionnaire (SGRQ, postbronchodilator FEV1, hyperinflation (RV/TLC, and airway hyperresponsiveness to methacholine (PC20. Sputum was induced by hypertonic saline and differential cell counts were obtained in 102 patients. Results Univariate analysis showed that SGRQ total and symptom score were positively associated with % sputum macrophages (r = 0.20, p = 0.05; and r = 0.20, p = 0.04, respectively. Multiple regression analysis confirmed these relationships, providing significant contributions of % sputum macrophages (B = 0.25, p = 0.021 and RV/TLC (B = 0.60, p = 0.002 to SGRQ total score. Furthermore, SGRQ symptom score was associated with % sputum macrophages (B = 0.30, p = 0.03 and RV/TLC (B = 0.48, p = 0.044, whilst SGRQ activity score was associated with % sputum macrophages (B = 0.46, p = 0.002, RV/TLC (B = 0.61, p = 0.015, and PC20 (B = -9.3, p = 0.024. Current smoking and FEV1 were not significantly associated with health status in the multiple regression analysis. Conclusion We conclude that worse health status in COPD patients is associated with higher inflammatory cell counts in induced sputum. Our findings suggest that airway inflammation and hyperinflation independently contribute to impaired health status in COPD. This may provide a rationale for anti-inflammatory therapy in this disease.

  13. Innovation in the web marketing programs of American convention and visitor bureaus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zach, Florian; Gretzel, Ulrike; Xiang, Zheng

    2010-01-01

    , and continuity of innovation in Web marketing efforts and the perceived contribution of this investment to the overall success of the bureau's Web marketing program. The findings indicate that American convention and visitor bureaus have invested substantially in their websites and continue redesigning them...... as new technology and Web marketing trends emerge. However, it appears that there is a substantial gap between bureau investments in innovative website features and related activities and their perceived contribution to overall Web marketing success....

  14. Linking international research to global health equity: the limited contribution of bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Bridget; Loff, Bebe

    2013-05-01

    Health research has been identified as a vehicle for advancing global justice in health. However, in bioethics, issues of global justice are mainly discussed within an ongoing debate on the conditions under which international clinical research is permissible. As a result, current ethical guidance predominantly links one type of international research (biomedical) to advancing one aspect of health equity (access to new treatments). International guidelines largely fail to connect international research to promoting broader aspects of health equity - namely, healthier social environments and stronger health systems. Bioethical frameworks such as the human development approach do consider how international clinical research is connected to the social determinants of health but, again, do so to address the question of when international clinical research is permissible. It is suggested that the narrow focus of this debate is shaped by high-income countries' economic strategies. The article further argues that the debate's focus obscures a stronger imperative to consider how other types of international research might advance justice in global health. Bioethics should consider the need for non-clinical health research and its contribution to advancing global justice. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. The health literacy dyad: the contribution of future GPs in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groene, Oana R; Wills, Jane; Crichton, Nicola; Rowlands, Gill; Rudd, Rima R

    2017-09-01

    Health literacy studies have primarily focused on the cognitive and social skills of individuals needed to gain access to, understand, and use health information. This area of study is undergoing a paradigm shift with increased attention being paid to the skills of practitioners and an examination of their contribution to the link between literacy and health outcomes. The aim of this study was to describe the health literacy related competencies of General Practice (GP) trainees who will soon be responsible for the clinical encounter. A cross-sectional survey of a convenience sample of 206 GP trainees was conducted online. Univariate and bivariate analysis methods were used to describe GP trainees' health literacy-related competencies. GP trainees overestimated the numeracy and literacy levels of the English population and did not regard the improvement of patient health literacy as a GP responsibility. GP trainees rated their general communication skills highly but the skills that are important for patients in health decision-making such as coaching skills, explaining risk and using visual aids to clarify were rated low. This study demonstrates that health literacy is insufficiently addressed in the undergraduate and postgraduate medical education of GPs to enable them to fulfil the core competence which is part of building an effective partnership with patients.

  16. The social production of health: critical contributions from evolutionary, biological, and cultural anthropology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Betty Wolder; Browner, C H

    2005-08-01

    In 1946, the newly formed World Health Organization boldly sought to conceptualize "health" as wellbeing in the positive sense, "not merely the absence of disease or infirmity." Yet nearly six decades later, researchers are still principally concerned with pathology and its characteristics and consequences. This special issue is the result of an effort to broaden the focus. Anthropologists working from evolutionary, biological and sociocultural perspectives and in diverse geographic regions were asked to examine meanings associated with health and/or to identify social conditions and practices that have contributed to positive physiological and psychological states in particular cultures, times, or across time. Most notable, perhaps, was discovering how difficult it is for Western social scientists to move beyond pathology-based thinking; most authors represented here regard health primarily as the absence of disease. Still, these papers articulate and address questions key to understanding health in and of itself, including: How is health conceptualized? What kinds of social conditions lead to health? And, how do social inequalities affect health? This introduction critically discusses previous work on the subject to contextualize the original research papers offered here.

  17. The sociology of health in the United States: recent theoretical contributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockerham, William C

    2014-04-01

    This paper examines recent trends in theory in health sociology in the United States and finds that the use of theory is flourishing. The central thesis is that the field has reached a mature state and is in the early stage of a paradigm shift away from a past focus on methodological individualism (in which the individual is the primary unit of analysis) toward a growing utilization of theories with a structural orientation This outcome is materially aided by research methods (e.g. hierarchal linear modeling, biomarkers) providing measures of structural effects on the health of the individual that were often absent or underdeveloped in the past. Structure needs to be accounted for in any social endeavor and contemporary medical sociology appears to be doing precisely that as part of the next stage of its evolution. The recent contributions to theory in the sociology of health discussed in this paper are fundamental cause, medicalization, social capital, neighborhood disadvantage, and health lifestyle theories.

  18. Why and How Political Science Can Contribute to Public Health? Proposals for Collaborative Research Avenues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, France; Bergeron, Pierre; Clavier, Carole; Fafard, Patrick; Martin, Elisabeth; Blouin, Chantal

    2017-04-05

    Written by a group of political science researchers, this commentary focuses on the contributions of political science to public health and proposes research avenues to increase those contributions. Despite progress, the links between researchers from these two fields develop only slowly. Divergences between the approach of political science to public policy and the expectations that public health can have about the role of political science, are often seen as an obstacle to collaboration between experts in these two areas. Thus, promising and practical research avenues are proposed along with strategies to strengthen and develop them. Considering the interdisciplinary and intersectoral nature of population health, it is important to create a critical mass of researchers interested in the health of populations and in healthy public policy that can thrive working at the junction of political science and public health. © 2017 The Author(s); Published by Kerman University of Medical Sciences. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

  19. [Efficiency indicators to contribute to sustainability of health services in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, E I; Mira Solves, J J; Guilabert Mora, M

    2014-01-01

    Identifying a minimum set of efficiency indicators calculated from current information sources. Interventions adopted from the analysis of these indicators could contribute to health services sustainability. We applied the discussion group technique. A total of 23 quality coordinators from around the country and the representatives of the regional quality societies in SECA (Spanish Society for Quality in Healthcare) participated. Ten efficiency indicators useful for integrated management areas were identified and accepted, 5 in the area of primary care and 5 for hospital management. The efficiency indicators agreed upon could contribute to the sustainability of the health system without this affecting the quality of care. Copyright © 2014 SECA. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  20. Factors Contributing to Psycho-Social Ill-Health in Male Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Gurpreet Singh Chhabra; Manmeet Kaur Sodhi

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To study the prevalence of psychosocial problems in male adolescents and find out various factors contributing to psycho-social ill health. Methods: 500 adolescents were interviewed using a pre-tested structured questionnaire to elicit the information about the psychosocial problems including depression, suicidal thoughts and suicidal attempts. Association of academic performance, family problems, psychological problems and substance abuse was also included. Results: More than one ...

  1. Accessibility to the contributing regime of health in Colombia: the case of the migrant rural population.

    OpenAIRE

    Arroyo, Santiago; Tovar, Luís

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this document is to analyze the determinants of the probability that the migrant rural population colombian, will acceded to the contributing regime of health in 2006. We consider a logit model and data of the Encuesta Continua de Hogares, which is applied by the Departamento Administrativo Nacional de Estadística (DANE). The model contains variables such as: sex, age, civil state, head of household, education,education of the head of household and reason of the migration. Al...

  2. Enhancing the contribution of research to health care policy-making : A case study of the Dutch Health Care Performance Report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hegger, I.; Marks, L.K.; Janssen, S.W.J.; Schuit, A.J.; van Oers, J.A.M.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The Dutch Health Care Performance Report, issued by the National Institute of Public Health and the Environment, aims to monitor health care performance in The Netherlands. Both the National Institute and the Ministry of Health wish to increase the contribution of the Report to health

  3. Training of occupational therapists for Primary Health Care (PHC: contributions to the debate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella Maris Nicolau

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Herein presented are the topics debated at the research group meeting on Training of OccupationalTherapists for Primary Health Care (PHC that took place during the First National Seminar on OccupationalTherapy in PHC, at the XII Brazilian Congress and IX Latin American Congress of Occupational Therapy inOctober 2011 in Sao Paulo, Brazil. In addition, the field of vocational training for PHC is situated within the context of the Unified Health System (UHS and its importance for the training of occupational therapists. Wepresent relevant aspects of specific National Curriculum Guidelines suggested for the professional training atthis level of care, which have also been addressed by the Reorientation of Vocational Training in Health Policy(PRO Health. Experiences gained by the authors’ educational institutions when training at this level of care arealso presented. It was possible to conclude that undergraduate studies at this level of care enables students andteachers to come into close contact with health demands and needs, health-disease process and its determinants,within a scenario closer to the everyday life of the people being cared and the service they receive. The teachingof Occupational Therapy (OT at PHC further allows the debate of its contributions in promoting health andpreventing disease, early diagnosis, treatment and rehabilitation, which may facilitate the access to populationspreviously not considered priority by the PHC. This seminar was important for discussing the challenges oflinking the OT profession to the UHS.

  4. The promotion of children's health and wellbeing: the contributions of England's charity sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Persaud Albert

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sports and arts based services for children have positive impacts on their mental and physical health. The charity sector provides such services, often set up in response to local communities expressing a need. The present study maps resilience promoting services provided by children's charities in England. Specifically, the prominence of sports and arts activities, and types of mental health provisions including telephone help-lines, are investigated. Findings The study was a cross-sectional web-based survey of chief executives, senior mangers, directors and chairs of charities providing services for children under the age of 16. The aims, objectives and activities of participating children's charities and those providing mental health services were described overall. In total 167 chief executives, senior managers, directors and chairs of charities in England agreed to complete the survey. From our sample of charities, arts activities were the most frequently provided services (58/167, 35%, followed by counselling (55/167, 33% and sports activities (36/167, 22%. Only 13% (22/167 of charities expected their work to contribute to the health legacy of the 2012 London Olympics. Telephone help lines were provided by 16% of the charities that promote mental health. Conclusions Counselling and arts activities were relatively common. Sports activities were limited despite the evidence base that sport and physical activity are effective interventions for well-being and health gain. Few of the charities we surveyed expected a health legacy from the 2012 London Olympics.

  5. Which symptoms contribute the most to patients' perception of health in multiple sclerosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Rivka; Cutter, Gary; Friendly, Michael; Kister, Ilya

    2017-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis is a polysymptomatic disease. Little is known about relative contributions of the different multiple sclerosis symptoms to self-perception of health. To investigate the relationship between symptom severity in 11 domains affected by multiple sclerosis and self-rated health. Multiple sclerosis patients in two multiple sclerosis centers assessed self-rated health with a validated instrument and symptom burden with symptoMScreen, a validated battery of Likert scales for 11 domains commonly affected by multiple sclerosis. Pearson correlations and multivariate linear regressions were used to investigate the relationship between symptoMScreen scores and self-rated health. Among 1865 multiple sclerosis outpatients (68% women, 78% with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis, mean age 46.38 ± 12.47 years, disease duration 13.43 ± 10.04 years), average self-rated health score was 2.30 ('moderate to good'). Symptom burden (composite symptoMScreen score) highly correlated with self-rated health (r = 0.68, P multiple sclerosis outpatients' perception of health, followed by gait dysfunction and fatigue. These findings suggest that 'invisible disability' may be more important to patients' sense of wellbeing than physical disability, and challenge the notion that physical disability should be the primary outcome measure in multiple sclerosis.

  6. Psycho-ophthalmology: Contributions of Health psychology to the assessment and treatment of glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez-Ulrich, Jorge Luis; Sanz, Antoni

    2017-03-01

    Asymptomatic in its early stages, glaucoma is the second leading cause of blindness worldwide. While psychosocial factors are taken into consideration for a host of diseases such as cancer, heart disease and autoimmune conditions, to date, psychological issues have been ignored in the clinical management of glaucoma. This work reviews the most relevant contributions from a health psychology perspective for the assessment and treatment of glaucoma, which is emerging in the field of psycho-ophthalmology. To provide scientific evidence regarding contributions of psychology to the comprehension of glaucoma, a bibliographic review of three databases (Psicodoc, PsycInfo and Medline) was conducted, spanning the period between 1940 and 2016. This review yielded a total of 66 studies published in the period analysed and identified three areas where health psychology has made substantive contributions to glaucoma screening, monitoring and treatment: the emotional impact on patients suffering from glaucoma, the adherence to treatment and the effects of stress on intraocular pressure. A health psychology approach for research and therapy of glaucoma must focus on the management of the negative affect associated with the diagnosis, the optimisation of treatment adherence and the stress management of the intraocular pressure measurements.

  7. Natural disasters and communicable diseases in the Americas: contribution of veterinary public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Maria Cristina; Tirado, Maria Cristina; Rereddy, Shruthi; Dugas, Raymond; Borda, Maria Isabel; Peralta, Eduardo Alvarez; Aldighieri, Sylvain; Cosivi, Ottorino

    2012-01-01

    The consequences of natural disasters on the people living in the Americas are often amplified by socio-economic conditions. This risk may be increased by climate-related changes. The public health consequences of natural disasters include fatalities as well as an increased risk of communicable diseases. Many of these diseases are zoonotic and foodborne diseases. The aim of this article is to provide an overview of the importance of natural disasters for the Americas and to emphasise the contribution of veterinary public health (VPH) to the management of zoonotic and foodborne disease risks. An analysis was conducted of natural disasters that occurred in the Americas between 2004 and 2008. Five cases studies illustrating the contributions of VPH in situations of disaster are presented. The data shows that natural disasters, particularly storms and floods, can create very important public health problems. Central America and the Caribbean, particularly Haiti, presented a higher risk than the other areas of the Americas. Two priority areas of technical cooperation are recommended for this region, namely: reducing the risk of leptospirosis and other vector-borne disease outbreaks related to floods and hurricanes and improving food safety. The contribution of different disciplines and sectors in disaster preparedness and response is of paramount importance to minimise morbidity and mortality.

  8. Contribution of occupational factors to social inequalities in self-reported health among French employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murcia, Marie; Chastang, Jean-François; Cohidon, Christine; Niedhammer, Isabelle

    2013-07-01

    Social inequalities in health have been widely demonstrated. However, the mechanisms underlying these inequalities are not completely understood. The objective of the study was to examine the contribution of various types of occupational exposures to social inequalities in self-reported health (SRH). The study population was based on a random sample of 3,463 men and 2,593 women of the population of employees in west central France (response rate: 85-90 %). Data were collected through a voluntary network of 110 occupational physicians in 2006-2007. Occupational factors included biomechanical, physical, chemical and psychosocial exposures. All occupational factors were collected by occupational physicians, except psychosocial work factors, which were measured using a self-administered questionnaire. Social position was measured using occupational groups. Strong social gradients were observed for a large number of occupational factors. Marked social gradients were also observed for SRH, manual workers and clerks/service workers being more likely to report poor health. After adjustment for occupational factors, social inequalities in SRH were substantially reduced by 76-134 % according to gender and occupational groups. The strongest impacts in reducing these inequalities were observed for biomechanical exposures and decision latitude. Differences in the contributing occupational factors were observed according to gender and occupational groups. This study showed that poor working conditions contributed to explain social inequalities in SRH. It also provided elements for developing specific preventive actions for manual workers and clerks/service workers. Prevention towards reducing all occupational exposures may be useful to improve occupational health and also to reduce social inequalities in health.

  9. The contribution of veterinary medicine to public health and poverty reduction in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muma, John B; Mwacalimba, Kennedy K; Munang'andu, Hetron M; Matope, Gift; Jenkins, Akinbowale; Siamudaala, Victor; Mweene, Aaron S; Marcotty, Tanguy

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have explicitly examined the linkages between human health, animal disease control and poverty alleviation. This paper reviews the contribution that veterinary medicine can make to poverty alleviation in sub-Saharan Africa. Our analysis attempts to explore aspects of this contribution under five themes: food production; food safety; impact and control of zoonotic infections; promotion of ecotourism; and environmental protection. While these areas of human activity have, more or less, fallen under the influence of the veterinary profession to varying degrees, we attempt to unify this mandate using a 'One Health' narrative, for the purpose of providing clarity on the linkages between the veterinary and other professions, livestock production and poverty alleviation. Future opportunities for improving health and reducing poverty in the context of developing African countries are also discussed. We conclude that veterinary science is uniquely positioned to play a key role in both poverty reduction and the promotion of health, a role that can be enhanced through the reorientation of the profession's goals and the creation of synergies with allied and related professions.

  10. Research methods from social science can contribute much to the health sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wensing, Michel

    2008-06-01

    Research methods from social science, such as social network analysis, random coefficient modeling, and advanced measurement techniques, can contribute much to the health sciences. There is, however, a slow rate of transmission of social science methodology into the health sciences. This paper identifies some of the barriers for adoption and proposes ideas for the future. Commentary. Contributions of social science to the health sciences are not always recognized as such. It may help if the professional profile of social science in the health sciences would be higher and if its focus would be more on making useful predictions. Clinical epidemiologists may assume that their discipline includes all relevant methods and that social science is largely based on qualitative research. These perceptions need to be challenged in order to widen the scope of clinical epidemiology and include relevant methods from other sciences. New methods help to ask new research questions and to provide better to old questions. This paper has sketched challenges for both social science researchers and clinical epidemiologists.

  11. Addressing domestic violence through antenatal care in Sri Lanka's plantation estates: Contributions of public health midwives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infanti, Jennifer J; Lund, Ragnhild; Muzrif, Munas M; Schei, Berit; Wijewardena, Kumudu

    2015-11-01

    Domestic violence in pregnancy is a significant health concern for women around the world. Globally, much has been written about how the health sector can respond effectively and comprehensively to domestic violence during pregnancy via antenatal services. The evidence from low-income settings is, however, limited. Sri Lanka is internationally acknowledged as a model amongst low-income countries for its maternal and child health statistics. Yet, very little research has considered the perspectives and experiences of the key front line health providers for pregnant women in Sri Lanka, public health midwives (PHMs). We address this gap by consulting PHMs about their experiences identifying and responding to pregnant women affected by domestic violence in an underserved area: the tea estate sector of Badulla district. Over two months in late 2014, our interdisciplinary team of social scientists and medical doctors met with 31 estate PHMs for group interviews and a participatory workshop at health clinics across Badulla district. In the paper, we propose a modified livelihoods model to conceptualise the physical, social and symbolic assets, strategies and constraints that simultaneously enable and limit the effectiveness of community-based health care responses to domestic violence. Our findings also highlight conceptual and practical strategies identified by PHMs to ensure improvements in this complex landscape of care. Such strategies include estate-based counselling services; basic training in family counselling and mediation for PHMs; greater surveillance of abusive men's behaviours by male community leaders; and performance evaluation and incentives for work undertaken to respond to domestic violence. The study contributes to international discussions on the meanings, frameworks, and identities constructed at the local levels of health care delivery in the global challenge to end domestic violence. In turn, such knowledge adds to international debates on the roles

  12. Contributions of national and global health estimates to monitoring health-related Sustainable Development Goals in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bundhamcharoen, Kanitta; Limwattananon, Supon; Kusreesakul, Khanitta; Tangcharoensathien, Viroj

    2017-01-01

    The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) triggered increased demand for data on child and maternal mortality for monitoring progress. With the advent of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and growing evidence of an epidemiological transition towards non-communicable diseases, policy makers need data on mortality and disease trends and distribution to inform effective policies and support monitoring progress. Where there are limited capacities to produce national health estimates (NHEs), global health estimates (GHEs) can fill gaps for global monitoring and comparisons. This paper draws lessons learned from Thailand's burden of disease study (BOD) on capacity development for NHEs, and discusses the contributions and limitation of GHEs in informing policies at country level. Through training and technical support by external partners, capacities are gradually strengthened and institutionalized to enable regular updates of BOD at national and sub-national levels. Initially, the quality of cause of death reporting in the death certificates was inadequate, especially for deaths occurring in the community. Verbal autopsies were conducted, using domestic resources, to determine probable causes of deaths occurring in the community. This helped improve the estimation of years of life lost. Since the achievement of universal health coverage in 2002, the quality of clinical data on morbidities has also considerably improved. There are significant discrepancies between the 2010 Global Burden of Diseases (GBD) estimates for Thailand and the 1999 nationally generated BOD, especially for years of life lost due to HIV/AIDS, and the ranking of priority diseases. National ownership of NHEs and effective interfaces between researchers and decision makers contribute to enhanced country policy responses, while sub-national data are intended to be used by various sub-national-level partners. Though GHEs contribute to benchmarking country achievement compared with global health

  13. How do exhibition visitors describe aesthetic qualities?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Bente Dahl; Ravn, Anders Peter

    2007-01-01

    In this investigation, visitors to an art and design exhibition have used an interactive computer program to express the qualities they consider important for an art or design object (artefact). They have then used the program with their individually selected qualities to assess the artefacts....... In this article, we present the experiment and its results. They indicate that with such a setting it is relatively easy to reach a degree of consensus about criteria. Such an interactive program can therefore be very useful, for instance when choosing among design proposals or when selecting artefacts...

  14. The untold story: how the health care systems in developing countries contribute to maternal mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundari, T K

    1992-01-01

    This article attempts to put together evidence from maternal mortality studies in developing countries of how an inadequate health care system characterized by misplaced priorities contributes to high maternal mortality rates. Inaccessibility of essential health information to the women most affected, and the physical as well as economic and sociocultural distance separating health services from the vast majority of women, are only part of the problem. Even when the woman reaches a health facility, there are a number of obstacles to her receiving adequate and appropriate care. These are a result of failures in the health services delivery system: the lack of minimal life-saving equipment at the first referral level; the lack of equipment, personnel, and know-how even in referral hospitals; and worst of all, faulty patient management. Prevention of maternal deaths requires fundamental changes not only in resource allocation, but in the very structures of health services delivery. These will have to be fought for as part of a wider struggle for equity and social justice.

  15. 77 FR 65166 - Information Collection; Request for Comment; Visitor Permit and Visitor Registration Card

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-25

    ... travel, number of people, number of dogs and number of pack and saddle stock (that is, the number of... stay, method of travel, number of people, number of dogs, number of pack and saddle stock (that is, the... forests to benefit both land and people. The information collected from the Visitor's Permit (FS-2300-30...

  16. National wildlife refuge visitor survey results: 2010/2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sexton, Natalie R.; Dietsch, Alia M.; Don Carolos, Andrew W.; Miller, Holly M.; Koontz, Lynne M.; Solomon, Adam N.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service) collaborated with the U.S. Geological Survey to conduct a national survey of visitors regarding their experiences on national wildlife refuges. The survey was conducted to better understand visitor needs and experiences and to design programs and facilities that respond to those needs. The survey results will inform Service performance planning, budget, and communications goals. Results will also inform Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCPs), Visitor Services, and Transportation Planning processes. The survey was conducted on 53 refuges across the National Wildlife Refuge System (Refuge System) to better understand visitor needs and experiences and to design programs and facilities that respond to those needs. A total of 14,832 visitors agreed to participate in the survey between July 2010 and November 2011. In all, 10,233 visitors completed the survey for a 71% response rate. This report provides a summary of visitor and trip characteristics; visitor opinions about refuges and their offerings; and visitor opinions about alternative transportation and climate change, two Refuge System topics of interest. The Refuge System, established in 1903 and managed by the Service, is the leading network of protected lands and waters in the world dedicated to the conservation of fish, wildlife and their habitats. There are 556 National Wildlife Refuges and 38 wetland management districts nationwide, encompassing more than 150 million acres. The Refuge System attracts more than 45 million visitors annually, including 25 million people per year to observe and photograph wildlife, over 9 million to hunt and fish, and more than 10 million to participate in educational and interpretation programs. Understanding visitors and characterizing their experiences on national wildlife refuges are critical elements of managing these lands and meeting the goals of the Refuge System. These combined results are based on surveying at 53 participating

  17. Visitor Intake Processing Re-write Management Information

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The data store houses detail information pertaining to visitors' wait times, visits, calls, and other customer relationship information relating to VIPR and CHIP....

  18. 75 FR 48555 - Exchange Visitor Program-Trainees and Interns

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-11

    ... philosophy and principles set forth in that Executive Order. Training and Internship exchange programs... Interns. (a) Introduction. These regulations govern Exchange Visitor Programs under which foreign...

  19. Dietary habits contributing to the cancer prevention among health college students in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogay, Nalan Hakime; Akinci, Ayse Cil; Sert, Havva; Kurtulus, Zeynep; Gedik, Selda

    2012-01-01

    This descriptive study was made to evaluate the dietary habits contributing to cancer prevention of 319 health college students. Data collection form included questions about demographic characteristics and 33 statements which evaluate dietary habits contributing to cancer prevention. Among the students, 56.1% consumed fast food outside the home/dormitory twice a week or more and 47% never exercised. Moreover, 63.9% of the students reported that their dietary habits changed negatively and 69% stated that their fruit and vegetable consumption decreased after starting the health college. The students mostly paid attention to preserving food and water consumption while they paid least attention to maintaining healthy weight and whole grain consumption. Female students, those who paid attention to the amount and calorie of the food they consumed, students who did not consume fast food, and students who exercised twice a week or three times a week had better dietary habits contributing to cancer prevention (pfast food consumption and increase fruit and vegetable consumption and exercising in university students should be implemented. For this purpose, appropriate conditions for preparing and preserving healthy food should be provided as well as increasing the frequency of vegetable containing meals and providing fruits and salads in every meal at school cafeterias.

  20. Factors Contributing to Increases in Prescription Drug Expenditures Borne by National Health Insurance in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Jeong Sook; Kim, Young Man; Paek, Kyung Won; Bea, Min Hee; Chun, Kihong; Lee, Soojin

    2016-07-01

    Rapid growth of prescription drug expenditures is a problem in South Korea. The objective of this study was to assess the contributions of four variables (therapeutic choice, drug-mix, original use, and price changes) to increases in drug expenditures paid by the National Health Insurance (NHI) in Korea. A retrospective cohort study was conducted between January 1, 2008 and June 30, 2012 utilizing data from the NHI Claims Database of the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service. The number of target drug types for final analysis was 13959. To analyze the growth rates of drug expenditures, this study used Fisher ideal index and the Laspeyres and Paasche indexes. With the exception of 2012, therapeutic choice contributed to about 40-60% of the increase in drug expenditures every year, while drug-mix contributed to another 30-40%. The rapid growth in prescription drug expenditure was found to be largely due to drug-mix and therapeutic choice over time. Original use had little impact on drug spending.

  1. REMINDER: SUPPLEMENTARY CONTRIBUTION PAYABLE TO THE HEALTH INSURANCE SCHEME FOR THE SPOUSE'S COVERAGE

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Staff Members, Fellows and Pensioners are reminded that any change in the marital status of members of the personnel, as well as any change in the spouse's income or health insurance cover, shall be notified in writing to CERN, within 30 calendar days of the change, in accordance with Article R IV 1.17 of the Staff Regulations. Such changes may have consequences on the conditions of the spouse's affiliation to the CERN Health Insurance Scheme (CHIS) or on the payment of the supplementary contribution to the CHIS for the coverage of the spouse. In 2003, for the following income brackets, the indexed amounts in Swiss francs of the supplementary contribution are : - more than 30'000 CHF and up to 50'000 CHF: 134.- - more than 50'000 CHF and up to 90'000 CHF: 234.- - more than 90'000 CHF and up to 130'000 CHF: 369.- - more than 130'000 CHF: 468.- It is in the member of the personnel's interest to declare as soon as possible a change in the annual income of his spouse in order that the contribution is adjusted w...

  2. The Global Public Health Intelligence Network and early warning outbreak detection: a Canadian contribution to global public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mykhalovskiy, Eric; Weir, Lorna

    2006-01-01

    The recent SARS epidemic has renewed widespread concerns about the global transmission of infectious diseases. In this commentary, we explore novel approaches to global infectious disease surveillance through a focus on an important Canadian contribution to the area--the Global Public Health Intelligence Network (GPHIN). GPHIN is a cutting-edge initiative that draws on the capacity of the Internet and newly available 24/7 global news coverage of health events to create a unique form of early warning outbreak detection. This commentary outlines the operation and development of GPHIN and compares it to ProMED-mail, another Internet-based approach to global health surveillance. We argue that GPHIN has created an important shift in the relationship of public health and news information. By exiting the pyramid of official reporting, GPHIN has created a new monitoring technique that has disrupted national boundaries of outbreak notification, while creating new possibilities for global outbreak response. By incorporating news within the emerging apparatus of global infectious disease surveillance, GPHIN has effectively responded to the global media's challenge to official country reporting of outbreak and enhanced the effectiveness and credibility of international public health.

  3. Supplementary contribution payable to the health insurance scheme for the spouse's coverage

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2007-01-01

    Staff Members, Fellows and Pensioners are reminded that any change in their marital status, as well as any change in the spouse or registered partner's income or health insurance cover, shall be notified in writing to CERN, within 30 calendar days of the change, in accordance with Articles III 6.01 to 6.03 of the Rules of the CERN Health Insurance Scheme. Such changes may have consequences on the conditions of the spouse or registered partner's affiliation to the CERN Health Insurance Scheme (CHIS) or on the payment of the supplementary contribution to the CHIS for the coverage of the spouse or registered partner. From 1.1.2007, for the following monthly income brackets, the indexed amounts in Swiss francs of the monthly supplementary contribution are: more than 2'500 CHF and up to 4'250 CHF: 134.- more than 4'250 CHF and up to 7'500 CHF: 234.- more than 7'500 CHF and up to 10'000 CHF: 369.- more than 10'000 CHF: 461.- It is in the member of the personnel's interest to declare a change in the annual ...

  4. How clinician-patient communication contributes to health improvement: modeling pathways from talk to outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Street, Richard L

    2013-09-01

    Although researchers have long investigated relationships between clinician-patient communication and health outcomes, much of the research has produced null, inconsistent, or contradictory findings. This essay examines challenges in the study of how clinician-patient communication contributes to a patient's health and offers recommendations for future research. Communication may directly impact outcomes, but more often it will have an indirect effect through its influence on intervening variables (e.g., patient understanding, clinician-patient agreement on treatment, adherence to treatment). For example, a patient communication skills intervention may not directly improve pain control for cancer patients. However, it may do so indirectly by activating patients to talk about cancer pain, which prompts the physician to change pain medication, which leads to better pain control. Additionally, communication measurement is complicated because relationships among communication behavior, meaning, and evaluation are complex. Researchers must do more to model pathways linking clinician-patient communication to the outcomes of interest, particularly pathways in which the communication effects are indirect or mediated through other variables. To better explicate how communication contributes to health outcomes, researchers must critically reflect on the assumptions they are making about communication process and choose measures consistent with those assumptions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Genetic Variation in the Social Environment Contributes to Health and Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelie Baud

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Assessing the impact of the social environment on health and disease is challenging. As social effects are in part determined by the genetic makeup of social partners, they can be studied from associations between genotypes of one individual and phenotype of another (social genetic effects, SGE, also called indirect genetic effects. For the first time we quantified the contribution of SGE to more than 100 organismal phenotypes and genome-wide gene expression measured in laboratory mice. We find that genetic variation in cage mates (i.e. SGE contributes to variation in organismal and molecular measures related to anxiety, wound healing, immune function, and body weight. Social genetic effects explained up to 29% of phenotypic variance, and for several traits their contribution exceeded that of direct genetic effects (effects of an individual's genotypes on its own phenotype. Importantly, we show that ignoring SGE can severely bias estimates of direct genetic effects (heritability. Thus SGE may be an important source of "missing heritability" in studies of complex traits in human populations. In summary, our study uncovers an important contribution of the social environment to phenotypic variation, sets the basis for using SGE to dissect social effects, and identifies an opportunity to improve studies of direct genetic effects.

  6. Contribution of health motive to cannabis use among high-school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabrol, Henri; Beck, Charline; Laconi, Stéphanie

    2017-01-01

    The Marijuana Motives Measure (MMM), which is derived from a scale measuring alcohol use motives, has been the main instrument used to explore the role of motives in cannabis use and related problems. Two studies attempted to developed specific cannabis use motives but none of them showed a unique association to cannabis use and problems when controlling for MMM motives. The aim of our study was to examine if additional motives contributed to problematic use beyond MMM motives and psychopathological symptoms. Participants were 249 high-school students who completed the Cannabis Use Disorder Identification Test-Revised (CUDIT-R) assessing cannabis use and problematic use, the MMM and a new scale measuring motives derived from clinical experience with adolescents using cannabis (CED motives), and scales measuring anxiety and depressive symptoms and borderline personality traits. Among the 107 participants using cannabis, 39 reached the cut-off score for problematic cannabis use. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses controlling for psychopathological variables showed that only one CED motives, Health (sleep, form, energy, appetite, health), was a significant predictor of both frequency of use and problematic use symptoms. The importance of Health motive may be linked to the role of depressive symptoms and may have implication for treatment. We suggest to add the Health subscale to the MMM and to further study the role of health motive in both use and dependence. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Do Zoo Visitors Come to Learn? An Internationally Comparative, Mixed-Methods Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roe, Katie; McConney, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Zoo visitors go to see animals, but are they there to learn? This mixed-methods study examines visitor learning from both zoos' and visitors' perspectives using qualitative and quantitative data. Five hundred and forty zoo visitor interviews from nine case studies provide insight into visitor intentions, which indicate that the majority of…

  8. Regional Disparities in Romania. Contribution of the Regional Operational Program to Health Infrastructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VICTOR PLATON

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Health infrastructure is one of the weaknesses of socio-economic development in Romania and in other European states. In order to get a better picture of the Romanian health system issues, this paper analyzes a number of statistical indicators considered representative for the national and European health infrastructure for a 20 years period, between 1990 and 2010. Our paper has three main objectives: (a to identify the main trends for health infrastructure in some of the European Union countries; (b to describe the evolution of the health system in Romania, the comparative situation at the European level as well as regional level indicators dynamics; (c to overview the Regional Operational Program in Romania, how much does it help the regional health infrastructure in our country. At the European level, there is a constant decrease in the number of hospital beds. For this indicator, Romania has slightly higher values than the European average. We must mention that the hospital beds indicator offers limited information on health infrastructure which also includes medical equipment and specific devices and practices. The number of hospitals in Romania increased with 18.9% during the last 20 years (1990-2010. During the observed timeline, the number of hospitals in Romania had a constant positive evolution at regional level. The number of doctors in hospitals has an increasing trend at the local as well as at the international level. Romania has a number of doctors twice lower than the European average (3.6 doctors for one thousand inhabitants. The Regional Operational Program (ROP has a limited influence in achieving the objectives stated in Applicants Guide for Priority Axis 3. Major Intervention Area 3.1. This happens because supporting infrastructure improvements will not create institutional modernization. The financial contribution through ROP will result in the modernization of 11% of the existing hospitals in Romania.

  9. Obstetrical nursing and health education: contributions to the experience of process of parturition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Silveira de Quadros

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to understand the contributions of obstetrical nursing to health education activities aimed at the parturition process. Methods: qualitative research conducted with ten hospitalized puerperal women who had vaginal delivery in a maternity ward. Results: two categories emerged from the data of this research: Weaknesses of prenatal care for pregnant women and The obstetrical nurse as potentiator of humanized care. Conclusion: obstetrical nursing, through educational work, strives to promote a reframing of the process of parturition, rescuing parturition as a physiological process, and emphasizing the use of natural resources in the evolution of labor and delivery.

  10. [A biographical profile of Nelson Chaves and his contribution to nutrition in public health in Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Assis Guedes de Vasconcelos, F

    2001-01-01

    This study focuses on the academic and intellectual career of scientist Nelson Chaves, founder of the Nutritionists School and the Institute of Nutrition at the Federal University in Pernambuco. The methodology was based on quantitative and qualitative analyses of this author's scientific production, published from 1932 to 1982. Beginning with his search for solutions to malnutrition children from the Zona da Mata region in Pernambuco, this scientist created what is commonly called the humanist-ecological paradigm of the Brazilian nutritional issue, thus contributing to the institutionalization of the field of nutrition in public health throughout Brazil.

  11. Camping impact management at Isle Royale National Park: an evaluation of visitor activity containment policies from the perspective of social conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, T.A.; Marion, J.L.

    2000-01-01

    A survey of backcountry and wilderness campsites at Isle Royale National Park reveals that the park?s policies for managing visitor impacts have been remarkably effective in limiting the areal extent of camping-related disturbance. However, the dense spatial arrangement of designated campsites within backcountry campgrounds has also contributed to problems with visitor crowding and conflict. Only 9% of the sites had no other sites visible, while 22% had three or more other sites visible. Mean intersite distance was only 76 feet, and 34% of the sites are within 50 feet of another site. Visitor education programs and selected relocation of sites could reduce these social problems.

  12. Does Milk Consumption Contribute to Cardiometabolic Health and Overall Diet Quality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamarche, Benoît; Givens, D Ian; Soedamah-Muthu, Sabita; Krauss, Ronald M; Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre; Bischoff-Ferrari, Heike A; Pan, An; Després, Jean-Pierre

    2016-08-01

    Although milk consumption is recommended in most dietary guidelines around the world, its contribution to overall diet quality remains a matter of debate in the scientific community as well as in the public domain. This article summarizes the discussion among experts in the field on the place of milk in a balanced healthy diet. The evidence to date suggests at least a neutral effect of milk intake on health outcomes. The possibility that milk intake is simply a marker of diets higher in nutritional quality cannot be ruled out. This review also identifies a number of key research gaps pertaining to the impact of milk consumption on health. These need to be addressed to better inform future dietary guidelines. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Addressing the Security Concerns of Locals and Visitors for the Sustainable Development of Tourist Destinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rob I. Mawby

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Tourism has long been recognized as a crime generator. This poses a dilemma in the sustainable development context: is continued tourist expansion sustainable if it generates increased law and order problems? Using the example of Brașov, Romania, this article considers the ways in which criminal justice agencies and the tourism sector have operated in partnership to ensure the security of both local residents and visitors. We argue that the success of the initiative depends on multi-agency working at the local level, but that the involvement of local residents is also crucial. This commitment may be tested as the nature of tourism changes. The research consists of an analysis of primary and secondary data. The results revealed that among the main security issues mentioned by tourists are not only robberies and other social and situational features that contributed to tourists feeling anxious or unsafe, but also the need to have access to good health services and easy access to money changing facilities, information centers, etc. Some improvements are suggested for the local Sustainable Development Strategy of Brașov.

  14. [Health insurance in the contributive and subsidized regimes and its impact on the service providers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prada, Luis M

    2004-01-01

    The performance of 18 private Health-promoting (EPS) and Family Compensation (CCF) entities, as well as their general balances for 1997, 1998 and 1999, were studied to determine the profit margins achieved by EPS's in their work of administering health insurance. The average behavior of each EPS balance sheet was analyzed to reduce the effect produced by extreme cases; each EPS's value was thus weighted by the number of its affiliated people. The expected behavior of the costs and expenses of companies whose main business is providing health insurance could thus become determined. The main source of operational income for a private EPS is the contributive regime's per capita unit of payment (UPC). Subsidized regime participation and that of other sources of income has decreased year by year. By contrast, public EPS's have shown decreasing participation in income obtained from UPC (contributive and subsidized) and growing dependence on other sources of income; this can be interpreted as being a symptom of weak commercial management. According to the balance sheets provided by the SNS, the EPS (public, private and Family Compensation entities), including the Social Security Institute (ISS), together obtained a total of 4.18 billion pesos operational income in 1999, an increase of 21.7% as compared to 1998. Income received from the ISS amounted to 1.93 billion dollars in 1999 (46% of the total). At 2000 prices, the total amount of operational income was 4.54 billion pesos in 1999 (15.6% real increase). Taking the behavior of 4 EPS's as our reference point (Sanitas, Humana Vivir, Coomeva and Famisanar), it can be concluded that an EPS whose main business is health insurance needs a 17.2% gross margin to cover its operational and non-operational costs and a 1.1% margin before tax.

  15. Gender inequalities in health: exploring the contribution of living conditions in the intersection of social class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmusi, Davide; Vives, Alejandra; Benach, Joan; Borrell, Carme

    2014-12-01

    Women experience poorer health than men despite their longer life expectancy, due to a higher prevalence of non-fatal chronic illnesses. This paper aims to explore whether the unequal gender distribution of roles and resources can account for inequalities in general self-rated health (SRH) by gender, across social classes, in a Southern European population. Cross-sectional study of residents in Catalonia aged 25-64, using data from the 2006 population living conditions survey (n=5,817). Poisson regression models were used to calculate the fair/poor SRH prevalence ratio (PR) by gender and to estimate the contribution of variables assessing several dimensions of living conditions as the reduction in the PR after their inclusion in the model. Analyses were stratified by social class (non-manual and manual). SRH was poorer for women among both non-manual (PR 1.39, 95% CI 1.09-1.76) and manual social classes (PR 1.36, 95% CI 1.20-1.56). Adjustment for individual income alone eliminated the association between sex and SRH, especially among manual classes (PR 1.01, 95% CI 0.85-1.19; among non-manual 1.19, 0.92-1.54). The association was also reduced when adjusting by employment conditions among manual classes, and household material and economic situation, time in household chores and residential environment among non-manual classes. Gender inequalities in individual income appear to contribute largely to women's poorer health. Individual income may indicate the availability of economic resources, but also the history of access to the labour market and potentially the degree of independence and power within the household. Policies to facilitate women's labour market participation, to close the gender pay gap, or to raise non-contributory pensions may be helpful to improve women's health.

  16. The sociology of health in the United States: recent theoretical contributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William C Cockerham

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines recent trends in theory in health sociology in the United States and finds that the use of theory is flourishing. The central thesis is that the field has reached a mature state and is in the early stage of a paradigm shift away from a past focus on methodological individualism (in which the individual is the primary unit of analysis toward a growing utilization of theories with a structural orientation This outcome is materially aided by research methods (e.g. hierarchal linear modeling, biomarkers providing measures of structural effects on the health of the individual that were often absent or underdeveloped in the past. Structure needs to be accounted for in any social endeavor and contemporary medical sociology appears to be doing precisely that as part of the next stage of its evolution. The recent contributions to theory in the sociology of health discussed in this paper are fundamental cause, medicalization, social capital, neighborhood disadvantage, and health lifestyle theories.

  17. Early unemployment can contribute to adult health problems: results from a longitudinal study of school leavers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammarstrom, A; Janlert, U

    2002-01-01

    Study objective: To investigate the long term effects of early unemployment (a total of more than half a year of unemployment between the ages of 16 and 21) on health behaviour and psychological and somatic symptoms. Design: A 14 year follow up of a cohort of school leavers was conducted from 1981 to 1995. Information was collected by questionnaires. Setting: An industrial town in northern Sweden. Participants: The original cohort was defined as all pupils in a middle sized municipality in the last year of compulsory school at age 16 (n=1083). The participants were followed up between the ages of 16 and 30. The analysis included 96% of the original sample, 547 men and 497 women Main results: After controlling for initial health behaviour and symptoms as well as for working class background and late unemployment, early unemployment among young men and women showed a significant explanatory effect on smoking, psychological symptoms and—among men only—somatic symptoms after a follow up of 14 years. No correlation was found between early unemployment and late excess alcohol consumption. Conclusions: Early unemployment can contribute to adult health problems. Thus, youth unemployment constitutes a significant public health problem, which to a certain extent remains in adult age. PMID:12118056

  18. The contribution of vegetarian diets to health and disease: a paradigm shift?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabaté, Joan

    2003-09-01

    Advances in nutrition research during the past few decades have changed scientists' understanding of the contribution of vegetarian diets to human health and disease. Diets largely based on plant foods, such as well-balanced vegetarian diets, could best prevent nutrient deficiencies as well as diet-related chronic diseases. However, restrictive or unbalanced vegetarian diets may lead to nutritional deficiencies, particularly in situations of high metabolic demand. If some vegetarian diets are healthier than diets largely based on animal products, this constitutes an important departure from previous views on dietary recommendations to prevent disease conditions. Based on different paradigms, 3 models are presented depicting the population health risks and benefits of vegetarian and meat-based diets. This series of models encapsulates the evolution of scientific understanding on the overall effects of these dietary patterns on human health. Recent scientific advances seem to have resulted in a paradigm shift: diets largely based on plant foods, such as well-balanced vegetarian diets, are viewed more as improving health than as causing disease, in contrast with meat-based diets.

  19. A visitor-focused assessment of new product launch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, G.; Tussyadiah, Iis; Zach, F.

    2010-01-01

    , Quilt Gardens Tour , in Northern Indiana's Amish Country. The data were analyzed using geo-visualization of tourist spatiotemporal mobility, descriptive statistics, and qualitative analysis of visitors' descriptions. The results show that the visitors are central role players in a new product...

  20. Determinants of visitors' preference for wild animal spieces (A case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The enormous potentials of tourism in recreation, community and economic development can be maximised through focusing on visitors' preference in ensuring the sustainability of this increasingly important sector. This study examined the determinants of visitors' preference for wild animal species in Kwara State, Nigeria.

  1. Park signs and visitor behavior: A research summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    P.L. Winter

    2008-01-01

    National park staffs rely on sign to inform visitors of a great variety of expected behaviors. Where park rangers or volunteers physically cannot be present to remind visitors of important rules, signs can be especially helpful. However, as any ranger will attest, signs vary in eff ectiveness. The reasons for this are numerous, but message content is a critical factor...

  2. Street choice logit model for visitors in shopping districts

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kawada, Ko; Yamada, Takashi; Kishimoto, Tatsuya

    2014-01-01

    .... The second model is a street choice model for visitors using multinomial logit model. We performed a questionnaire survey on the field to investigate the strolling routes of 46 visitors and obtained a total of 1211 street choices in their routes...

  3. Awareness of infection control practices among visitors to Intensive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: This was a prospective, questionnaire-based observational study. Printed questionnaires were distributed to the visitors of medical, surgical and neurosurgical ICU patients to determine awareness of basic infection control practices among visitors to an ICU. All the ICU staff, including nurses, doctors, consultant ...

  4. Research needs for a better understanding of wilderness visitor experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen F. McCool; Chad P. Dawson

    2012-01-01

    What information is needed to facilitate enhanced management of visitor experiences in wilderness? The final session of the workshop comprised a facilitated process with the 20 participants to identify research and information needs to support wilderness visitor experience management. The Wilderness Act and the previous presentations and discussions not only provided a...

  5. Managing coastal recreation impacts and visitor experience using GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anna M. T. Gajda; Judson Brown; Grant Peregoodoff; Patrick Bartier

    2000-01-01

    A campsite monitoring program was initiated in Gwaii Haanas National Park Reserve/Haida Heritage Site to determine baseline levels of visitor impacts. These data were necessary to evaluate visitor management strategies and to act as reference points to measure changes in impacts over time. Using GIS, survey data were integrated with an ecological land classification,...

  6. Carrying capacity & visitor experience: Cape Hatteras National Seashore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jason A. Strother; Hans Vogelsong

    2003-01-01

    The number of people living the United States is expected to increase by 63 million by the year 2025, bringing the total population to over 300 million. As population size increases, recreation and park managers can expect to experience an increase in the number of visitors/users. In 2000, the National Park Service recorded nearly 300 million visitors throughout the...

  7. Visitors' perceptions of tourism development in West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinyang Deng; Maureen Young Bender

    2008-01-01

    Previous studies indicate that tourists' destination choices are increasingly influenced by perceptions of sustainability but research into tourists' insights and sensitivities about sustainability is lacking. This study examines how visitors to West Virginia perceive tourism development in the state. Findings indicate that visitors' perceptions are...

  8. Ecotourism Experiences ofIntemational Visitors to the Owabi Wildlife ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article examines the ecotourism experiences of international visitors to the Owabi Wildlife Sanctuary in Ghana for the period 2003-2008. Through the content analysis method, written comments and observations made by the visitors upon the completion of their tours of the sanctuary were analyzed. The results revealed ...

  9. Attendance motivations and visitor segments within a university agricultural festival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carla Barbieri; Yasuharu Katsube; Christine. Tew

    2010-01-01

    Festivals attract a variety of visitors driven by a complex set of motivations. The objective of this study was to identify and classify motivations for attending the South Farm Showcase (SFS), a university-based agricultural festival in Missouri. The study further developed a motivation-based segmentation of festival visitors and examined their distinct...

  10. Will Volunteers in a Youth Sports Event Become Paying Visitors?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahadevan, Renuka; Ren, Carina Bregnholm

    2017-01-01

    This article explores possible factors that influence the willingness of volunteers to reattend as paying visitors. Using the 2016 Arctic Winter Games in Greenland as a case study, it was found that 47% of the volunteers were willing to reattend as paying visitors; some self-related benefits and ...

  11. Potential pollinators and floral visitors of introduced tropical biofuel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, we report on J. curcas flower visitors observed in two Southern African countries, Zambia and Malawi. A total of 41 insects and 2 Arachnida in Zambia and 29 insect species in Malawi visited J. curcas flowers. Diptera and Hymenoptera were the largest groups. The most abundant insect visitors were Apis ...

  12. Conservation caring: measuring the influence of zoo visitors' connection to wildlife on pro-conservation behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skibins, Jeffrey C; Powell, Robert B

    2013-01-01

    Zoos in the 21st century are striving to make effective contributions to conservation. Although zoos are extremely popular and host over 600 million visitors worldwide, one challenge zoos face is how to effectively engage visitors and raise awareness and action for conservation. To this end, zoos commonly rely on charismatic megafauna, which have been shown to elicit a connection with zoo visitors. However, little is known about how to measure a connection to a species or how this connection may influence conservation behaviors. This study had two sequential objectives. The first was to develop a scale to measure visitors' connection to a species (Conservation Caring). The second was to investigate the relationship of Conservation Caring to pro-conservation behaviors, following a zoo experience. Pre- (n = 411) and post-visit (n = 452) responses were collected from three sites in order to assess the reliability and validity of a scale to measure Conservation Caring. Structural equation modeling was used to explore the relationship between Conservation Caring and pro-conservation behaviors. Conservation Caring was deemed a valid and reliable scale and was a strong predictor of species oriented behaviors (β = 0.62), for example, "adopting" an animal, but a weak predictor for biodiversity oriented behaviors (β = 0.07), for example, supporting sustainability policies. Results support the role zoos can play in fostering a connection to wildlife and stimulating pro-conservation behaviors. Additionally, visitors connected to a wide array of animals. On the basis of these results, zoos may recruit a wider assemblage of species as potential flagships. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Supplementary contribution for spouses and registered partners payable to the health insurance scheme

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    Staff members, fellows and pensioners are reminded that they must notify CERN of any change in their marital status and any change in the income or health insurance cover of their spouse or registered partner, in writing and within 30 calendar days of the change, in accordance with Articles III 6.01 to 6.03 of the Rules of the CERN Health Insurance Scheme (CHIS). Such changes may affect the conditions of the spouse or registered partner’s membership of the CHIS or the payment of the supplementary contribution to the CHIS. For more information see: http://cern.ch/chis/contribsupp.asp From 1.1.2009 onwards, the following indexed monthly supplementary contributions, expressed in Swiss francs, are payable for the various monthly income brackets: •\tmore than 2’500 CHF and up to 4’250 CHF: 134.- •\tmore than 4’250 CHF and up to 7’500 CHF: 234.- •\tmore than 7’500 CHF and up to 10’000 CHF: 369.- •\tmore than 10’000 CHF: 485.- It is in the member of...

  14. Colombian public policies contributing to the achievement of Millennium Development Goals in the health sector, 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina M. Grisales

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available During the General Assembly of the United Nations, in September 2000,189 countries (including Colombia committed to eight objectives leading to a more human and fairer world. Such objectives are called the Millennium Development Goals (mdg and to achieve them it is crucial to incorporate them in the action agendas of each country. The purpose of this monograph is to recognize current public policies in Colombia and Antioquia leading the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals, specifically those related to the reduction of mortality among children less than 5 years of age, improvement of maternal health and fighting against hiv/aids, malaria and dengue.In Colombia, Conpes 91 of 2005 is the only guideline given by the Government establishing goals and strategies to achieve the Millennium Development Goals in 2015. Nevertheless, other policies, programs and projects before and even after the Millennium Statement (but without explicit purpose contribute to achieving such goals. Revision of those policies is an effort for the research project “Degree of contribution of public policies to the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals related to the health sector, Antioquia, 2006”, which will evaluate the impact these guidelines have had in the achievement of the development goals in that particular sector.

  15. Supplementary contribution payable to the health insurance scheme for the spouse's coverage

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Department

    2005-01-01

    Staff Members, Fellows and Pensioners are reminded that any change in the marital status of members of the personnel, as well as any change in the spouse's income or health insurance cover, shall be notified in writing to CERN, within 30 calendar days of the change, in accordance with Article R IV 1.17 of the Staff Regulations. Such changes may have consequences on the conditions of the spouse's affiliation to the CERN Health Insurance Scheme (CHIS) or on the payment of the supplementary contribution to the CHIS for the coverage of the spouse. Changes to the rules and simplification to the system are currently being prepared and should be operational by mid-2005. Meanwhile from 1.1.2005, for the following income brackets, the indexed amounts in Swiss francs of the monthly supplementary contribution are: more than 30'000 CHF and up to 50'000 CHF: 134.- more than 50'000 CHF and up to 90'000 CHF: 234.- more than 90'000 CHF and up to 130'000 CHF: 369.- more than 130'000 CHF: 459.- It is in the member o...

  16. REMINDER THE SUPPLEMENTARY CONTRIBUTION PAYABLE TO THE HEALTH INSURANCE SCHEME FOR THE SPOUSE'S COVERAGE

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2001-01-01

    Staff Members and Fellows are reminded that any change in the marital status of members of the personnel, as well as any change in the spouse's income or health insurance cover, shall be notified in writing to CERN, within 30 calendar days of the change, in accordance with Article R IV 1.17 of the Staff Regulations. Such changes may have consequences on the affiliation of the spouse to the CERN Health Insurance Scheme (CHIS) or on the payment of the supplementary contribution to the CHIS for the coverage of the spouse. In the latter case, it is in the member of the personnel's interest to declare such a change as soon as possible in order that the contribution is adjusted with a minimum of backdating. To notify a change, staff members and fellows are required to fill in the form 'confidential declaration of family situation' and to send it to Mrs. Patricia Cattan (HR-SOC), indicating the effective date of the change. This form is available from divisional secretariats or from the web at the following address:...

  17. Contribution of smoking and air pollution exposure in urban areas to social differences in respiratory health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranft Ulrich

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Socio-economic status, smoking, and exposure to increased levels of environmental air pollution are associated with adverse effects on respiratory health. We assessed the contribution of occupational exposures, smoking and outdoor air pollution as competing factors for the association between socio-economic status and respiratory health indicators in a cohort of women from the Ruhr area aged 55 at the time of investigation between 1985 and 1990. Methods Data of 1251 women with spirometry and complete questionnaire information about respiratory diseases, smoking and potential confounders were used in the analyses. Exposure to large-scale air pollution was assessed with data from monitoring stations. Exposure to small-scale air pollution was assessed as traffic-related exposure by distance to the nearest major road. Socio-economic status was defined by educational level. Multiple regression models were used to estimate the contribution of occupational exposures, smoking and outdoor air pollution to social differences in respiratory health. Results Women with less than 10 years of school education in comparison to more than 10 years of school education were more often occupationally exposed (16.4% vs. 10.1%, smoked more often (20.3% vs. 13.9%, and lived more often close to major roads (26.0% vs. 22.9%. Long-term exposure to increased levels of PM10 was significantly associated with lower school education. Women with low school education were more likely to suffer from respiratory symptoms and had reduced lung function. In the multivariate analysis the associations between education and respiratory health attenuated after adjusting for occupational exposure, smoking and outdoor air pollution. The crude odds ratio for the association between the lung function indicator FEV1 less than 80% of predicted value and educational level (10 years of school education was 1.83 (95% CI: 1.22–2.74. This changed to 1.56 (95% CI: 1.03–2

  18. 77 FR 73974 - Information Collection: Arapaho-Roosevelt National Forest Visitor Surveys for Recreation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-12

    ..., and facilities to the residents of Colorado and visitors throughout the nation and around the world... the following: 1. Visitor experience (including perceptions of crowding, etc.), 2. Visitor travel...

  19. The role of civic engagement for men's health and well being in Norway-a contribution to public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goth, Ursula S; Småland, Erik

    2014-06-18

    Using the example of older men volunteering on teams that restore historic ships, this article examines the effects of volunteering on the well-being of older adults. We consider particularly how volunteering impacts levels of social engagement and explore how the men's reminiscences as they bond with their fellows in highly skilled work helps integrate their life experiences. Data are based on 14 in-depth interviews with volunteers working on historic vessels in Norway. Self-rated health, functional dependency, and well-being measures were collected using semi-structured questionnaire. Volunteering in a context of skilled, group-bonded, culturally prestigious activity adds considerably to social capital among elderly men in Norway. Respondents explain their involvement in terms of prior relationships and current social benefits. They spoke of the value of maintaining past personal connections to a particular ship, shipping company, or local community. These were reinforced by current social benefits, such as the experience of companionship, unity, and the feeling of making an important contribution to the society. The group dynamics and strong collective aspect of these voluntary associations maintains internal cohesion, and members only leave when forced by increasing age, poor health, or insufficient financial resources. This article illuminates a case study of gender-specific engagement of older adults in volunteer roles returning high benefits both to participants and society, and adds knowledge to public-health programs and policies in the volunteer- and cultural-heritage sector.

  20. The independent contribution of executive functions to health related quality of life in older women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marra Carlo A

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cognition is a multidimensional construct and to our knowledge, no previous studies have examined the independent contribution of specific domains of cognition to health related quality of life. To determine whether executive functions are independently associated with health related quality of life assessed using Quality Adjusted Life Years (QALYs calculated from the EuroQol EQ-5D (EQ-5D in older women after adjusting for known covariates, including global cognition. Therefore, we conducted a secondary analysis of community-dwelling older women aged 65-75 years who participated in a 12-month randomized controlled trial of resistance training. We assessed global cognition using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE and executive functions using the: 1 Stroop Test; 2 Trail Making Test (Part B and 3 Digits Verbal Span Backwards Test. We calculated QALYs from the EQ-5D administered at baseline, 6 months and 12 months. Results Our multivariate linear regression model demonstrated the specific executive processes of set shifting and working memory, as measured by Trail Making Test (Part B and Digits Verbal Span Backward Test (p Conclusions Our study highlights the specific executive processes of set shifting and working memory were independently associated with QALYs -- a measure of health related quality of life. Given that executive functions explain variability in QALYs, clinicians may need to consider assessing executive functions when measuring health related quality of life. Further, the EQ-5D may be used to track changes in health status over time and serve as a screening tool for clinicians. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00426881.

  1. [Opportunities for physical therapy contributions to primary health care in the South of Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Cristina Dutra; Soares, Maria Cristina Flores

    2014-08-01

    To identify opportunities for physical therapy contributions in an area covered by the Family Health Strategy in the South of Brazil. In this cross-sectional study, 629 households were visited and information on 2 316 people was collected using a semi-structured instrument investigating the occurrence of health problems that could benefit from physical therapy (diabetes, hypertension, musculoskeletal diseases, neurological disorders, respiratory diseases in adults and children). When health problems were identified, we investigated whether the families or patients had received guidance to improve quality of life, and which professionals had provided advice. Finally, we investigated whether respondents were familiar with physical therapy and if they had required this type of care in their lifetime or in the past 12 months. The following health problems were reported by 629 participating families: diabetes (11.9%), hypertension (46.9%), musculoskeletal disorders (36.7%), neurological diseases (3.4%), respiratory diseases in adults (18.9%) and children (15.7%) and developmental delay (3.8%). Specific guidance was provided to 57.3% of people with diabetes, 64.1% of people with hypertension, 39.8% of people with musculoskeletal disorders, 45.5% of neurological patients, 26.9% of adults and 60.6% of children with respiratory diseases and 62.5% of children with developmental delay. Regarding knowledge about the profession, 92.4% of respondents were familiar with physical therapy. Of these, 41% reported having had the need for physical therapy, mostly (54.4%) for trauma/orthopedic disorders. The present results warrant the inclusion of physical therapists as part of the Family Health Strategy team in Brazil.

  2. Visitor employed photography: its potential and use in evaluating visitors' perceptions of resource impacts in trail and park settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catherine E. Dorwart; Roger L. Moore; Yu-Fai Leung

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine visitors' perceptions and to determine how their perceptions affected overall recreation experiences along a 2.9-mile segment of the Appalachian Trail in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park. A purposive sample of 28 visitors was selected for this study. The study consisted of three parts, including a trail impact...

  3. Visitor meanings of place: using computer content analysis to examine visitor meanings at three national capitol sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei-Li Jasmine Chen; Chad L. Pierskalla; Theresa L. Goldman; David L. Larsen

    2002-01-01

    A mix method study designed to explore the meanings, interest, and connections visitors ascribe to three National Park Service sites: National Capital Parks Central, Rock Creek Park, and George Washington Memorial Parkway's Great Falls Park. The researchers employed the focus group interview technique and asked visitors prior to and then after an interpretive...

  4. Factors Contributing to Psycho-Social Ill-Health in Male Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurpreet Singh Chhabra

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the prevalence of psychosocial problems in male adolescents and find out various factors contributing to psycho-social ill health. Methods: 500 adolescents were interviewed using a pre-tested structured questionnaire to elicit the information about the psychosocial problems including depression, suicidal thoughts and suicidal attempts. Association of academic performance, family problems, psychological problems and substance abuse was also included. Results: More than one third (39.6% adolescents were having psychological problems. These problems were significantly higher in middle adolescence (14-16 years, large extended families (> 8 members and lower socioeconomic status. Residence had no significant relation to psychological problems in the adolescents. On correlation, these adolescents with psychological problems were having significantly more academic problems, family disputes, domestic violence, lesser number of close friends and greater substance abuse. Conclusion: Considering that male adolescents from large families with lesser education and lower income had higher prevalence of psychosocial problems, it is essential for health care planners to design comprehensive family and health education programs for the adolescents. The family support, teacher student rapport and peer group communication should be strengthened to counteract unsafe behaviours in the adolescents.

  5. Inequalities in oral health: Understanding the contributions of education and income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Julie; Phillips, Rebecca C; Singhal, Sonica; Quiñonez, Carlos

    2017-09-14

    To quantify the extent to which income and education explain gradients in oral health outcomes. Using data from the Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS 2003), binary logistic regression models were constructed to examine the relationship between income and education on self-reported oral health (SROH) and chewing difficulties (CD) while controlling for age, sex, ethnicity, employment status and dental insurance coverage. The relative index of inequality (RII) was utilized to quantify the extent to which income and education explain gradients in poor SROH and CD. Income and education gradients were present for SROH and CD. From fully adjusted models, income inequalities were greater for CD (RIIinc = 2.85) than for SROH (RIIinc = 2.75), with no substantial difference in education inequalities between the two. Income explained 37.4% and 42.4% of the education gradient in SROH and CD respectively, whereas education explained 45.2% and 6.1% of income gradients in SROH and CD respectively. Education appears to play a larger role than income when explaining inequalities in SROH; however, it is the opposite for CD. In this sample of the Canadian adult population, income explained over one third of the education gradient in SROH and CDs, whereas the contribution of education to income gradients varied by choice of self-reported outcome. Results call for stakeholders to improve affordability of dental care in order to reduce inequalities in the Canadian population.

  6. Finding the key to success: A visitors' perspective at a National Arts Festival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Saayman

    2012-12-01

    influence their experience of the event. Escapists rated Venues and Shows and Stalls as the most important KSF in managing the festival, whereas Festival Junkies and Culture Seekers rated Safety and Personnel and Shows and Stalls as the most important. The value of the research: This research provides several insights. First, travel motives are a good base or foundation for segmenting visitors to arts festivals. Hence, it is important to have an in-depth understanding of why visitors attend the arts festival and what they expect to experience at the arts festival. Second, this research makes a contribution to the literature around travel motives, market segmentation, festival management and need satisfaction. Finally, the results show that festival organisers cannot base their planning on a general evaluation of visitors, but that different markets have different needs and also regard different factors are important to their overall experience. Conclusion: This research can help festival organisers understand what visitors want to experience at an arts festival and how they want to experience it.

  7. Tackling complexities in understanding the social determinants of health: the contribution of ethnographic research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Mridula

    2011-11-25

    The complexities inherent in understanding the social determinants of health are often not well-served by quantitative approaches. My aim is to show that well-designed and well-conducted ethnographic studies have an important contribution to make in this regard. Ethnographic research designs are a difficult but rigorous approach to research questions that require us to understand the complexity of people's social and cultural lives. I draw on an ethnographic study to describe the complexities of studying maternal health in a rural area in India. I then show how the lessons learnt in that setting and context can be applied to studies done in very different settings. I show how ethnographic research depends for rigour on a theoretical framework for sample selection; why immersion in the community under study, and rapport building with research participants, is important to ensure rich and meaningful data; and how flexible approaches to data collection lead to the gradual emergence of an analysis based on intense cross-referencing with community views and thus a conclusion that explains the similarities and differences observed. When using ethnographic research design it can be difficult to specify in advance the exact details of the study design. Researchers can encounter issues in the field that require them to change what they planned on doing. In rigorous ethnographic studies, the researcher in the field is the research instrument and needs to be well trained in the method. Ethnographic research is challenging, but nevertheless provides a rewarding way of researching complex health problems that require an understanding of the social and cultural determinants of health.

  8. Contribution of science to farm-level aquatic animal health management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsin, F; Giorgetti, G; Mohan, C V

    2007-01-01

    The contribution of science to farm level disease management is a story of two worlds. The development of effective vaccines has allowed for the control of important salmonid diseases such as furunculosis, yersiniosis and vibriosis and has significantly reduced farmers' reliance on antibiotics. Control of diseases for which cost-effective vaccines have yet to be developed has been achieved through the development of increasingly targeted antibiotics and chemotherapeutants. Increasingly, accurate and rapid diagnostic and water quality tests have allowed farmers to improve farm-level aquatic animal health management. In developed countries, these achievements have been possible thanks to the strong link between science and farm management. This link has been assisted by the presence of strong farmer organizations capable of coordinating research projects and hosting meetings at which scientific information is discussed and disseminated. Although Asia is responsible for the production of about 90% of aquaculture products, it presents a rather different picture from the above. Science has indeed made significant progress in health management but the links with farm management are still weak. Management practices capable of preventing important health problems in shrimp and fish farming are still poorly adopted by farmers. This is largely due to constraints in the dissemination of information to the large number of producers involved, the limited resources of both producers and their countries and the lack of effective farmer organizations capable of liaising with the scientific world. Recently, the Asian region has witnessed some successful examples of aquatic animal health management through the adoption of simple Better Management Practices. Efforts so far have been largely focused on shrimp farming, although activities have been initiated to adopt a similar approach to other commodities. The need for both observational and experimental epidemiological studies to

  9. Tackling complexities in understanding the social determinants of health: the contribution of ethnographic research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bandyopadhyay Mridula

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective The complexities inherent in understanding the social determinants of health are often not well-served by quantitative approaches. My aim is to show that well-designed and well-conducted ethnographic studies have an important contribution to make in this regard. Ethnographic research designs are a difficult but rigorous approach to research questions that require us to understand the complexity of people’s social and cultural lives. Approach I draw on an ethnographic study to describe the complexities of studying maternal health in a rural area in India. I then show how the lessons learnt in that setting and context can be applied to studies done in very different settings. Results I show how ethnographic research depends for rigour on a theoretical framework for sample selection; why immersion in the community under study, and rapport building with research participants, is important to ensure rich and meaningful data; and how flexible approaches to data collection lead to the gradual emergence of an analysis based on intense cross-referencing with community views and thus a conclusion that explains the similarities and differences observed. Conclusion When using ethnographic research design it can be difficult to specify in advance the exact details of the study design. Researchers can encounter issues in the field that require them to change what they planned on doing. In rigorous ethnographic studies, the researcher in the field is the research instrument and needs to be well trained in the method. Implication Ethnographic research is challenging, but nevertheless provides a rewarding way of researching complex health problems that require an understanding of the social and cultural determinants of health.

  10. How do the design features of health hackathons contribute to participatory medicine?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Day

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The Hackathon concept is attracting interest as a vehicle for participatory development in both Health and Information systems. Publically available datasets, cloud based data storage, and increasingly sophisticated analytical methods, combined with user friendly development tools for mobile devices are inspiring innovation in the participatory medicine space. This has the potential to disrupt traditional methods and deliver solutions more rapidly, and in a form more likely to meet requirements. In health applications this involves putting the patient and their supports at the centre of design. This work contributes to solving the challenges involved in bringing a diverse cohort of designers, developers, problem owners, healthcare providers, patients, and citizens together to solve user-driven self-care problems using technology. We use a descriptive case study approach focussing on two weekend-long hackathons dubbed “Health Hackathon: Solving Self-care”. We gather thick data from multiple sources according to the process defined by Geertz (1994 first, to provide a rich picture of the role of hackathons in participatory medicine and second, to contribute evidence to the practise of running a hackathon. Some key originalities of our work include seeking more candid responses via self-serve interviews. Through this, controversially, we noted a marked emphasis on the creative process over concerns for privacy and ethics around the personal data cloud created by hackathon products. We build on existing theories of participatory medicine and emerging methodologies for conducting hackathons to provide evidence of the efficacy of the hacking approach both in terms of outcome and team dynamics. Through interviews, observation, twitter feeds and a pre-survey, we identify a number of success factors including (1 group size, (2 maturity of the idea, (3 level of involvement of a mentor, and (4 involvement of students. In addition we identify five skills

  11. Insight into the contribution of isoprostanoids to the health effects of omega 3 PUFAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joumard-Cubizolles, Laurie; Lee, Jetty Chung-Yung; Vigor, Claire; Leung, Ho Hang; Bertrand-Michel, Justine; Galano, Jean-Marie; Mazur, André; Durand, Thierry; Gladine, Cecile

    2017-11-01

    Omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids have been reported to confer beneficial health effects notably in the field of cardiovascular and inflammatory diseases. The current knowledge suggests a significant portion of the effects of omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids are mediated by their oxygenated metabolites. This review attempts to cover the current literature about the contribution of specific omega 3 oxygenated metabolites, namely omega 3 isoprostanoids, which are produced through free-radical mediated oxidation. A special emphasis has been given to the most biologically relevant omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids namely the α-linolenic, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids. The review includes a comprehensive description of the biosynthetic pathways, a summary of studies related to the biological significance of omega 3 isoprostanoids as well as a critical description of analytical development in the field of omega 3 isoprostanoids profiling in biological samples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. System of actions for health promotion to contribute to the sexual education in adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saray Sánchez Martínez

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A descriptive longitudinal study was made with the aim of designing a system of actions to contribute to the promotion of sexual education in adolescents in Cabaiguan Municipality, period from 2009 until the first half of 2013. Population was constituted by 203 pregnant adolescents who entered into the palace of motherhood, coinciding with the sample. Data were collected in the book of hospital and impact surveys to diagnose the factors that influence in the appearances of teenage pregnancy. Interview was conducted to comprehensively Specialists General Medicine and Obstetrics and Gynecology Specialists know their views and proposals on the subject. As a result of the work it confirms that there are deficiencies in the information that have teenagers about this theme which leads the author to the design of actions for promoting health in the municipality, to improve this situation.

  13. Urban Green Space Perception and Its Contribution to Well-Being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothencz, Gyula; Kolcsár, Ronald; Cabrera-Barona, Pablo; Szilassi, Péter

    2017-07-12

    Individual perceptions are essential when evaluating the well-being benefits from urban green spaces. This study predicted the influence of perceived green space characteristics in the city of Szeged, Hungary, on two well-being variables: the green space visitors' level of satisfaction and the self-reported quality of life. The applied logistic regression analysis used nine predictors: seven perceived green space characteristics from a questionnaire survey among visitors of five urban green spaces of Szeged; and the frequency of green space visitors' crowd-sourced recreational running paths and photographs picturing green space aesthetics. Results revealed that perceived green space characteristics with direct well-being benefits were strong predictors of both dependent variables. Perceived green space characteristics with indirect, yet fundamental, well-being benefits, namely, regulating ecosystem services had minor influence on the dependent variables. The crowd-sourced geo-tagged data predicted only the perceived quality of life contributions; but revealed spatial patterns of recreational green space use and aesthetics. This study recommends that regulating ecosystem services should be planned with a focus on residents' aesthetic and recreational needs. Further research on the combination of green space visitors´ perceptions and crowd-sourced geo-tagged data is suggested to promote planning for well-being and health benefits of urban green spaces.

  14. [A priceless contribution to the theory and practice of military public health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chizh, I M

    1994-09-01

    The article is dedicated to the outstanding figure in national medicine--colonel-general MD E.I. Smirnov (1904-1989), the Hero of Socialist Labour, member of the Academy of Medical Sciences of the USSR, who was the Head of the Main Military Sanitary Department of the Red Army during the Great Patriotic war, and the Minister of Health of the USSR in the post-war period. The main attention of the author is drawn on the contribution of E.I. Smirnov to the development of military medicine. The article makes a detailed analysis of the role of E. Smirnov in the development and practical implementation of military medical doctrine and the antiepidemic support system during the years of the Great Patriotic War, as well as his contribution for organizational arrangement of field therapy as an independent scientific discipline and as a subject of study in the system of medical education; his merits in organization of specialized medical care; formation of an institution of senior medical specialists; reforms in military medical education. The article contains many concrete examples which characterize a celebrated personality of E.I. Smirnov and his leadership qualities.

  15. Visitor circulation and nonhuman animal welfare: an overlooked variable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davey, Gareth; Henzi, Peter

    2004-01-01

    This article investigates visitor circulation and behaviors within a gallery of primate exhibits in relation to their possible implications for nonhuman animal welfare. When entering a primate house, the majority of visitors (84%) turned right, a pattern upheld throughout all times of the day. These findings demonstrate the existence of the "right-turn" principle, a concept previously identified and investigated in the museum setting. The existence of this circulation pattern in zoos has important implications for the practical management of animal welfare issues because unbalanced or large numbers of visitors at specific enclosures could present a stressful influence. The "direction bias" could not be attributed to demographic or behavioral traits, therefore suggesting that the principle, like similar findings from museum research, generalizes across visitor populations and, therefore, zoos. A visitor sample at another exhibit (located outside the exhibit gallery) did not display a direction bias, suggesting that the marked circulation pattern may be specific to exhibit galleries. The article discusses the significance and consequences of visitor circulation with respect to visitor management and animal welfare.

  16. Rochester's Healthy Home: A community-based innovation to promote environmental health action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korfmacher, Katrina Smith; Kuholski, Kate

    2008-09-16

    Environmental hazards in the home can contribute significantly to disease. These hazards disproportionately affect low income, urban, and minority children. Childhood lead poisoning and asthma are prime examples of health concerns to which poor housing conditions may contribute significantly. A community-academic partnership in Rochester, New York created a model Healthy Home, an interactive museum in a typical city home, to help residents, property owners, contractors, and community groups reduce environmental hazards. The Healthy Home project educates visitors about home environmental health hazards, demonstrates low-cost methods for reducing home hazards, and helps visitors develop individualized strategies for action. In its first year of operation, over 700 people visited the Healthy Home. Evaluation surveys indicate that the Healthy Home experience motivated visitors to take action to reduce environmental hazards in their homes. Follow-up phone interviews indicate that most visitors took some action to reduce home environmental hazards. The Healthy Home has established a diverse Advisory Council to share its messages more broadly, invite input into future directions, and recruit visitors. This paper presents experiences from the Healthy Home's first year, highlighting the partnership principles that guided its development and lessons learned from the process.

  17. The effects of environmental and visitor variables on the behavior of free-ranging ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta) in captivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Courtney; Corkery, Ilse; Haigh, Amy; McKeown, Sean; Quirke, Thomas; O'Riordan, Ruth

    2017-07-01

    The effect of the zoo environment on captive animals is an increasingly studied area of zoo research, with visitor effects and exhibit design recognized as two of the factors that can contribute to animal welfare in captivity. It is known that in some situations, visitors may be stressful to zoo-housed primates, and this may be compounded by environmental factors such as the weather, the time of day, and zoo husbandry routines. Exhibit design and proximity of the public are also known to influence behavioral response of primates to visitors; however, there is minimal research on free-ranging zoo animals, even though they are potentially subjected to intense interactions with visitors. The current study explores the effect of the zoo environment, several visitor variables and specific animal-visitor interactions on the behavior of free-ranging ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta) at Fota Wildlife Park, Ireland. Data were obtained through scan samples collected over 18 months (n = 12,263) and analyzed using a range of statistical tests, including general estimating equations (GEE). Results demonstrate that the free-ranging lemurs' behavior at Fota Wildlife Park is affected by season, weather and time of day. Similarities in feeding behavior exist between the free-ranging group and lemurs in the wild when resources are plentiful. Visitor variables had a limited effect on lemur behavior and behavioral diversity level. Lemurs rarely reacted to visitors when specific interactions were considered. Generally, the results indicate that the ring-tailed lemurs in this study have adapted well to the zoo environment and habituated to visitors. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Contribution of world health organization in the global acceptance of ayurveda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Chaudhary

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Amongst the mandates of United Nations, health of mankind is the thrust area of UN through World Health Organization (WHO. Planning and execution of policies for mainstreaming of traditional medicines (TRM of respective countries along with conventional system of medicine (allopathy, first in the country of origin followed by the international arena, is the priority agenda of operations of WHO. Within Indian context, WHO accorded prime focus to Ayurveda in its activities related to TRM.Sponsorship and encouragement of studies substantiating parameters of standardization, safety and efficacy of herbal medicines of Ayurveda are under chief consideration of WHO. In this review, several guidelines of WHO are summarized. Department of Ayurveda, Yoga and Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha and Homoeopathy (AYUSH, Central Council of Research in Ayurveda and Siddha and numerous other collaborative centers of WHO in India are assigned with several Appraisal Project Work (APW and Direct Financial Cooperation (DFC projects that will strengthen Ayurveda as evidence-based medicine for its global acceptance. Implementation of pharmacovigilance program in Ayurveda, publication of documents for rational use and initiatives to prepare consumer guidelines for appropriate use of Ayurvedic medicines are some other contributions of WHO toward advancement of Ayurveda at national as well as global level. Here, we suggest further exploration, interaction and interpretation of traditional knowledge in the light of contemporary core sciences and biomedical sciences that can pave the way for accreditation of Ayurveda worldwide as an established system of medicine.

  19. Contribution of world health organization in the global acceptance of Ayurveda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Anand; Singh, Neetu

    2011-10-01

    Amongst the mandates of United Nations, health of mankind is the thrust area of UN through World Health Organization (WHO). Planning and execution of policies for mainstreaming of traditional medicines (TRM) of respective countries along with conventional system of medicine (allopathy), first in the country of origin followed by the international arena, is the priority agenda of operations of WHO. Within Indian context, WHO accorded prime focus to Ayurveda in its activities related to TRM.Sponsorship and encouragement of studies substantiating parameters of standardization, safety and efficacy of herbal medicines of Ayurveda are under chief consideration of WHO. In this review, several guidelines of WHO are summarized. Department of Ayurveda, Yoga and Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha and Homoeopathy (AYUSH), Central Council of Research in Ayurveda and Siddha and numerous other collaborative centers of WHO in India are assigned with several Appraisal Project Work (APW) and Direct Financial Cooperation (DFC) projects that will strengthen Ayurveda as evidence-based medicine for its global acceptance. Implementation of pharmacovigilance program in Ayurveda, publication of documents for rational use and initiatives to prepare consumer guidelines for appropriate use of Ayurvedic medicines are some other contributions of WHO toward advancement of Ayurveda at national as well as global level. Here, we suggest further exploration, interaction and interpretation of traditional knowledge in the light of contemporary core sciences and biomedical sciences that can pave the way for accreditation of Ayurveda worldwide as an established system of medicine.

  20. Scaffolding the Next Wave of Digital Visitor Interaction in Museums

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudloff, Maja

    2013-01-01

    that when designing for user interaction and participation, museums must carefully consider the complexities of user participation with new technologies. If the design and conceptual frame becomes too complex, it can actually limit the intended visitor experience with the museum subject matter. By combining...... insights from communication and design theory with conceptual models for scaffolding the museum visitor experience, this paper uses a Danish digital museum case called the WALL created by the Museum of Copenhagen to consider the special implications of designing technology for museum visitor interaction...

  1. Educational inequalities in general and mental health: differential contribution of physical activity, smoking, alcohol consumption and diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtze, Nanna; Eikemo, Terje A; Kamphuis, Carlijn B M

    2013-04-01

    Behavioural, material and psychosocial risk factors may explain educational inequalities in general health. To what extent these risk factors have similar or different contributions to educational inequalities in mental health is unknown. Data were derived from the Norwegian Survey of Level of Living from 2005, comprising 5791 respondents aged ≥ 25 years. The study objectives were addressed by means of a series of logistic regression analyses in which we examined: (i) educational inequalities in self-reported general and mental health; (ii) the associations between behavioural, material and psychosocial risk factors and general and mental health, controlled for sex, age and education; and (iii) the contribution of risk factors to the observed health gradients. The lower educated were more likely to be in poor health [odds ratio (OR): 3.46 (95% confidence interval, CI: 2.84-4.21)] and to be in poor mental health [OR: 1.41 (95% CI: 1.12-1.78)] than the highest educated. The joint contribution of behavioural, material and psychosocial risk factors explained all the variations of mental health inequalities, whereas these were able to explain ~40% of the inequalities in general health. Both behavioural and material risk factors contributed substantially to the explanation of general and mental health inequalities, whereas the psychosocial risk factor (i.e. having close persons to communicate with) only seemed to make a larger difference for the explanation of mental health inequalities. Policies and interventions to reduce health inequalities should have a broad focus. Combined strategies should be applied to improve physical activity, decrease smoking and improve material and psychosocial conditions among lower educated groups, to achieve the true potential of reducing inequalities in both general and mental health.

  2. R&D in micro-nano-bio systems and contribution to pHealth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lymberis, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    The capacity to research, develop and manufacture systems that employ components based on nano- and microstructures with biological functionality, and are capable to share, ubiquitously, information is at the forefront of worldwide competition. A new generation of advanced materials, processes and emerging technologies is building up enabling highly integrated, miniaturized and smart micro-nano-bio-systems to be engineered. These fast technology developments are also stimulating the explosive growth in life sciences, which is leading to an ever increasing understanding of life at the sub-cellular and molecular level. By bringing these parallel developments to biomedicine and health, ultrafast and sensitive systems can be developed to prevent illness, to support lifestyle, to make early diagnosis or treat diseases with high accuracy and less invasiveness, and to support body functions or to replace lost functionality. Such systems will enable the delivery of individualized health services with better access and outcomes at lower costs than previously deemed possible, making a substantial contribution to bringing healthcare expenditures under control and increase its productivity. The MNBS (Micro-Nano-Bio Systems) group of EU funded projects aims at speeding up the convergence of micro- and nanotechnology with the life sciences and accelerating the development of highly integrated diagnostic, monitoring and therapeutics devices. This paper presents R&D activities supported through the MNBS group that are relevant to pHealth and discusses directions to be taken in order to overcome the current problems. Finally, it addresses future challenges to build highly integrated and reliable systems including innovation and usability issues.

  3. CONTRIBUTION OF STAKEHOLDER ENGAGEMENT TO THE IMPACT OF A HEALTH TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT: AN IRISH CASE STUDY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Máirín; Moran, Patrick S; Harrington, Patricia; Murphy, Linda; O'Neill, Michelle; Whelan, Marty; Teljeur, Conor

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to illustrate the contribution of stakeholder engagement to the impact of health technology assessment (HTA) using an Irish HTA of a national public access defibrillation (PAD) program. In response to draft legislation that proposed a PAD program, the Minister for Health requested that Health Information and Quality Authority undertake an HTA to inform the design and implementation of a national PAD program and the necessary underpinning legislation. The draft legislation outlined a program requiring widespread installation and maintenance of automatic external defibrillators in specified premises. Stakeholder engagement to optimize the impact of the HTA included one-to-one interviews with politicians, engagement with an Expert Advisory Group, public and targeted consultation, and positive media management. The HTA quantified the clinical benefits of the proposed PAD program as modest, identified that substantial costs would fall on small/medium businesses at a time of economic recession, and that none of the programs modeled were cost-effective. The Senator who proposed the Bill actively publicized the HTA process and its findings and encouraged participation in the public consultation. Participation of key stakeholders was important for the quality and acceptability of the HTA findings and advice. Media management promoted public engagement and understanding. The Bill did not progress. The HTA informed the decision not to progress with legislation for a national PAD program. Engagement was tailored to ensure that key stakeholders including politicians and the public were informed of the HTA process, the findings, and the advice, thereby maximizing acceptance. Appropriate stakeholder engagement optimizes the impact of HTA.

  4. An assessment of innovation in web marketing: Investigating American convention and visitor bureaus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zach, Florian; Xiang, Zheng; Fesenmaier, Daniel R.

    2007-01-01

    Innovation has become an increasingly important issue for tourism businesses. The goal of this study was to evaluate innovation in Web marketing by American convention and visitors bureaus and the contribution of website features to the overall success of their Web marketing programs. The results...... indicate that innovation in Web marketing has been limited in that the majority of the American CVBs focus on basic content provision and website promotional activities. The findings also indicate that there is a perceived gap between the investment in innovative website features and their contribution...... to the overall Web marketing success....

  5. An evaluation of hand hygiene in an intensive care unit: Are visitors a potential vector for pathogens?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birnbach, David J; Rosen, Lisa F; Fitzpatrick, Maureen; Arheart, Kristopher L; Munoz-Price, L Silvia

    2015-01-01

    Patients in an intensive care unit (ICU) are frequently immunocompromised and might be highly susceptible to infection. Visitors to an ICU who do not adequately clean their hands could carry pathogenic organisms, resulting in risk to a vulnerable patient population. This observational study identifies pathogens carried on the hands of visitors into an ICU and investigates the effect of hand hygiene. Two observers, one stationed outside and one inside the ICU, evaluated whether visitors performed hand hygiene at any of the wall-mounted alcohol-based hand sanitizer dispensers prior to reaching a patient's room. Upon reaching a patient's room, the dominant hand of all of the participants was cultured. Of the 55 participating visitors, 35 did not disinfect their hands. Among the cultures of those who failed to perform hand hygiene, eight cultures grew Gram-negative rods and one grew methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Of the cultures of the 20 individuals who performed hand hygiene, 14 (70%) had no growth on the cultures, and the remaining six (30%) showed only the usual skin flora. The visitors who do not perform hand hygiene might carry pathogens that pose a risk to ICU patients. Copyright © 2015 King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A Contribution of Beef to Human Health: A Review of the Role of the Animal Production Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Pighin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Meat and meat products constitute important source of protein, fat, and several functional compounds. Although beef consumption may implicate possible negative impacts on human health, its consumption can also contribute to human health. Quality traits of beef, as well as its nutritional properties, depend on animal genetics, feeding, livestock practices, and post mortem procedures. Available data show that emerging beef production systems are able to improve both, quality and nutritional traits of beef in a sustainable way. In this context, Argentina’s actions are aimed at maximising beef beneficial effects and minimising its negative impact on human health, in a way of contributing to global food security.

  7. A Contribution of Beef to Human Health: A Review of the Role of the Animal Production Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pighin, Dario; Pazos, Adriana; Chamorro, Verónica; Paschetta, Fernanda; Cunzolo, Sebastián; Godoy, Fernanda; Messina, Valeria; Pordomingo, Anibal; Grigioni, Gabriela

    2016-01-01

    Meat and meat products constitute important source of protein, fat, and several functional compounds. Although beef consumption may implicate possible negative impacts on human health, its consumption can also contribute to human health. Quality traits of beef, as well as its nutritional properties, depend on animal genetics, feeding, livestock practices, and post mortem procedures. Available data show that emerging beef production systems are able to improve both, quality and nutritional traits of beef in a sustainable way. In this context, Argentina's actions are aimed at maximising beef beneficial effects and minimising its negative impact on human health, in a way of contributing to global food security.

  8. Evaluation of visitor profiles and motivations at Ankara museums

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eda Gürel

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Museums all over the world appear to be targeting their visitors for resources, thanks to diminishing state support. The purpose of this study is to recognize the profiles and motivations of visitors to museums in Ankara, in order to provide for the development of strategies that will help translate these visits to regular active participation. The results of the study conducted at Ankara’s five principal museums show that these museums play a significant part in education for the visitors. Certain internal and external factors – such as advertising and promotion – are essential to boost museum visits. Study results call attention to external factors in particular, as driving forces for recurrent museum visitors.

  9. VDOT Chincoteague Visitor Transportation Study Final Presentation December 1998

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — To assess transportation impacts, travel patterns, and mobility needs of visitors to Chincoteague and Assateague Islands during the peak tourist season. Chincoteague...

  10. Perceived Authenticity of the Visitor Experience in Museums

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hede, Anne-Marie; Garma, Romana; Josiassen, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    of perceived authenticity, resonating with Bal's (1996) research in this area. Findings also confirm that consumer scepticism and expectations are antecedents to perceived authenticity of the visitor experience in museums, and that perceived authenticity in turn affects visitor satisfaction and perceived......Purpose -This paper aims to investigate the authenticity concept and its antecedents and consequences within the context of museums. Design/methodology/approach - A higher-order scale of authenticity is developed and then tested for reliability and validity using a sample of museum visitors....... To investigate authenticity in a model with two antecedents and two outcomes, an additional data set was collected. Hypotheses were tested using structural equation modelling. Findings -The results show that perceived authenticity of the museum, the visitor and the materials in the museum are dimensions...

  11. Visitor satisfaction of international cultural events in Belgrade

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zečević Bojan; Đorđević Aleksandar; Nikolić Jelena

    2016-01-01

    .... Consumer satisfaction (service user) is one of the basic elements in managing tourism development generally seen, and thus it is also important to manage and measure the satisfaction of event visitors...

  12. Agassiz National Wildlife Refuge : Hunting Chapter of Visitor Service Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Hunting Chapter precedes the overall Visitor Services Plan for Agassiz National Wildlife Refuge (Agassiz NWR). This chapter includes specific guidelines for...

  13. National Wildlife Refuge Visitor Survey Results: 2010/2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service) collaborated with the U.S. Geological Survey to conduct a national survey of visitors regarding their experiences on...

  14. National Wildlife Refuge Visitor Survey 2012: Individual Refuge Results

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service collaborated with the U.S. Geological Survey to conduct a national survey of visitors regarding their experiences on National...

  15. Compartmentalization in Plant-Insect Flower Visitor Webs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    L. V. Dicks; S. A. Corbet; R. F. Pywell

    2002-01-01

    1. Interactions between entomophilous flowering plants and their insect visitors were recorded at two mesotrophic grassland communities in Norfolk, and a diagrammatic quantitative web produced for each community. 2...

  16. Pharmacist contributions for basic care from the perspective of professionals of familial health care teams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gecioni Loch-Neckel

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the social representations of professionals included in the team of Family Health Strategy (physicians, nurses and dentists respecting the action possibilities and contributions of the pharmacist for the basic care, and based on social psychology and, particularly, on the theory of social representations. The epistemological basis of the research is qualitative, and the data were collected by means of individual semi-structured interviews, which were submitted to analysis of categorical thematic content. Apparently, the majority of professionals already inserted in the team know and recognize the importance of professional pharmacists in the basic care, as well as their potential contribution to this topic. The representations were constructed according to the following parameters: a the study object and the intervention area, b the individual practice of every professional and c his/her action in specific cases. The quality of the professional or personal experience concerning the action of these professionals has contributed for the knowledge about the possibilities of pharmacists' intervention in basic care.Este estudo teve por objetivo investigar as representações sociais dos profissionais incluídos na equipe de Estratégia em Saúde da Família (médico, enfermeiro e odontólogo, sobre as possibilidades de atuação e as contribuições do farmacêutico na atenção básica, tendo por fundamento a psicologia social e, particularmente, a teoria das representações sociais. A base epistemológica da pesquisa é qualitativa, sendo os dados coletados por meio de entrevistas individuais semi-estruturadas e analisados por meio de análise de conteúdo categorial temático. Constatou-se que a maioria dos profissionais já inseridos na equipe conhece e reconhece a importância do profissional farmacêutico na atenção básica e as suas possibilidades de contribuição. As representações foram construídas a

  17. A Visitor Control Policy for Martin Army Hospital,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-04-05

    Medical Activity, or the Dental 7 -. ...’ ’.. ’ ’ " .. . .-..- .. ... .... -, .... ... ... .. Activity -- not entering for the purpose of conducting...Activity or the Dental Activity. (3) Visitor Control: Any action taken to restrict the movement of visitors within the facility, any action taken that...o:,en back safety pin Cost: $130.00 per thousand $130.00 3.50 per background : dolor 31.50 change x 9 Total: $161.50 Badge Number 2 = ID card type

  18. Weather and Tourism: Thermal Comfort and Zoological Park Visitor Attendance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R. Perkins

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Weather events have the potential to greatly impact business operations and profitability, especially in outdoor-oriented economic sectors such as Tourism, Recreation, and Leisure (TRL. Although a substantive body of work focuses on the macroscale impacts of climate change, less is known about how daily weather events influence attendance decisions, particularly relating to the physiological thermal comfort levels of each visitor. To address this imbalance, this paper focuses on ambient thermal environments and visitor behavior at the Phoenix and Atlanta zoos. Daily visitor attendances at each zoo from September 2001 to June 2011, were paired with the Physiologically Equivalent Temperature (PET to help measure the thermal conditions most likely experienced by zoo visitors. PET was calculated using hourly atmospheric variables of temperature, humidity, wind speed, and cloud cover from 7 a.m. to 7 p.m. at each zoological park location and then classified based on thermal comfort categories established by the American Society of Heating and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE. The major findings suggested that in both Phoenix and Atlanta, optimal thermal regimes for peak attendance occurred within “slightly warm” and “warm” PET-based thermal categories. Additionally, visitors seemed to be averse to the most commonly occurring thermal extreme since visitors appeared to avoid the zoo on excessively hot days in Phoenix and excessively cold days in Atlanta. Finally, changes in the daily weather impacted visitor attendance as both zoos experienced peak attendance on days with dynamic changes in the thermal regimes and depressed attendances on days with stagnant thermal regimes. Building a better understanding of how weather events impact visitor demand can help improve our assessments of the potential impacts future climate change may have on tourism.

  19. How do visitor density and anthropogenic change in frontcountry wilderness settings affect recreation benefits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey R. Behan; Merton T. Richards; Martha E. Lee

    2000-01-01

    Effects on recreation benefits were assessed using questionnaires and image sets depicting visitor density ranges and anthropogenic setting changes at two heavily-visited wilderness sites. Visitor benefits were less affected by high visitor densities at the more accessible of the two sites. New age medicine wheels had a positive effect on visitor benefits, as did trail...

  20. Responses to olfactory signals reflect network structure of flower-visitor interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junker, Robert R; Höcherl, Nicole; Blüthgen, Nico

    2010-07-01

    1. Network analyses provide insights into the diversity and complexity of ecological interactions and have motivated conclusions about community stability and co-evolution. However, biological traits and mechanisms such as chemical signals regulating the interactions between individual species--the microstructure of a network--are poorly understood. 2. We linked the responses of receivers (flower visitors) towards signals (flower scent) to the structure of a highly diverse natural flower-insect network. For each interaction, we define link temperature--a newly developed metric--as the deviation of the observed interaction strength from neutrality, assuming that animals randomly interact with flowers. 3. Link temperature was positively correlated to the specific visitors' responses to floral scents, experimentally examined in a mobile olfactometer. Thus, communication between plants and consumers via phytochemical signals reflects a significant part of the microstructure in a complex network. Negative as well as positive responses towards floral scents contributed to these results, where individual experience was important apart from innate behaviour. 4. Our results indicate that: (1) biological mechanisms have a profound impact on the microstructure of complex networks that underlies the outcome of aggregate statistics, and (2) floral scents act as a filter, promoting the visitation of some flower visitors, but also inhibiting the visitation of others.

  1. The Microbiome in Mental Health: Potential Contribution of Gut Microbiota in Disease and Pharmacotherapy Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flowers, Stephanie A; Ellingrod, Vicki L

    2015-10-01

    The gut microbiome is composed of ~10(13) -10(14) microbial cells and viruses that exist in a symbiotic bidirectional communicative relationship with the host. Bacterial functions in the gut have an important role in healthy host metabolic function, and dysbiosis can contribute to the pathology of many medical conditions. Alterations in the relationship between gut microbiota and host have gained some attention in mental health because new evidence supports the association of gut bacteria to cognitive and emotional processes. Of interest, illnesses such as major depressive disorder are disproportionately prevalent in patients with gastrointestinal illnesses such as inflammatory bowel disease, which pathologically has been strongly linked to microbiome function. Not only is the microbiome associated with the disease itself, but it may also influence the effectiveness or adverse effects associated with pharmacologic agents used to treat these disorders. This field of study may also provide new insights on how dietary agents may help manage mental illness both directly as well as though their influence on the therapeutic and adverse effects of psychotropic agents. © 2015 Pharmacotherapy Publications, Inc.

  2. Towards a developmental ethology: exploring Deleuze's contribution to the study of health and human development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duff, Cameron

    2010-11-01

    This article explores the work of French thinker Gilles Deleuze and argues for the application of his central ideas to the study of health and human development. Deleuze's work furnishes a host of ontological and epistemological resources for such analysis, ushering in new methods and establishing new objects of inquiry. Of principal interest are the inventive conceptualizations of affect, multiplicity and relationality that Deleuze proposes, and the novel reading of subjectivity that these concepts support. This article introduces a developmental ethology in exploring Deleuze's contributions to the study of human development and its varied courses and processes. Taken from a Deleuzean perspective, human development will be characterized as a discontinuous process of affective and relational encounters. It will be argued further that human development is advanced in the provision of new affective sensitivities and new relational capacities. This course is broadly consistent with existing approaches to human development--particularly those associated with Amartya Sen's capabilities model--with the considerable advantage of offering a more viable working theory of the ways in which developmental capacities are acquired, cultivated and maintained. A provisional research agenda consistent with this developmental ethology is offered by way of conclusion.

  3. Contribution of the Nordic School of Public Health to the public mental health research field: a selection of research initiatives, 2007-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsman, Anna K; Fredén, Lars; Lindqvist, Rafael; Wahlbeck, Kristian

    2015-08-01

    The field of public mental health has been defined by an expert group convened by the Nordic School of Public Health (NHV) as encompassing the experience, occurrence, distribution and trajectories of positive mental health and mental health problems and their determinants; mental health promotion and prevention of mental disorders; as well as mental health system policies, governance and organization. The mental health priorities of the Nordic Council of Ministers in 2010 signalled a mutual Nordic exchange of knowledge in the following thematic areas: child and adolescent mental health; working life and mental health; mental health in older people; strengthening the role of primary care in mental health service provision; stronger involvement of users and carers; and reduction of use of coercion in psychiatric care. Efforts to realize these priorities included commissioning the Nordic Research Academy for Mental Health, an NHV-based network of research institutions with a common interest in mental health research across the Nordic countries, to develop, organize and follow-up projects on public mental health. The research initiatives included mental health policy analysis, register-based research and research focused on the users' perspective in a Nordic context, as well as EU-level research policy analysis. The public mental health research conducted at the NHV highlighted the complexity of mental health and emphasized that the broad determinants of mental health need to be increasingly addressed in both public health research and practice. For example, health promotion actions, improved access to health care, a healthy alcohol policy and prevention of suicides and violence are all needed to reduce the life expectancy gap - a red flag indicator of public health inequalities. By exchanging knowledge and best practice, the collaboration between the Nordic countries contributes to the welfare of the region. The expertise and traditions developed at the NHV are of

  4. The Impact of Hospital Visiting Hour Policies on Pediatric and Adult Patients and their Visitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Lisa; Medves, Jennifer; Harrison, Margaret B; Tranmer, Joan; Waytuck, Brett

    2009-01-01

    Policies concerning restricted or open visiting hours are being challenged in health care institutions internationally, with no apparent consensus on the appropriateness of the visiting hour policies for pediatric and adult patients. The rules that govern practice are often based on the institutional precedent and assumptions of staff, and may have little or no evidence to support them. Policy and practice related to visiting hours is of pressing concern in Canada, and in Ontario specifically, following the reaction to the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) outbreak in 2003 and subsequent changes in visiting policies in most health care settings. A systematic investigation of the impact of hospital visiting hours on visitors (including patients, families, and significant others) would inform decision-makers who are responsible for hospital policies about the best available evidence. The objective of this review was to appraise and synthesize the best available evidence on the impact of hospital visiting hours on patients and their visitors. Types of participants This review considered studies that included both pediatric and adult hospital patients and their visitors. Participants were either patients, visitors, or health care providers in the following hospital settings: medical/surgical units, critical care (ICU, CCU, NICU), pediatrics, maternity, or general hospital wards.Articles were excluded if participants came from the following settings: post-operative and post-anaesthesia care units (PACU), dementia wards, long-term care settings or retirement homes, or delivery rooms. PACUs were excluded because there are aspects of the presence of visitors to these units that are very specific, and differ from the general visits to patients who are not in the immediate post-operative stage. Dementia wards, long-term care settings and retirement homes were excluded because these were considered to be their "home", so visiting would be quite different from that on

  5. Sexual behaviour among youth clinic visitors in Sweden: knowledge and experiences in an HIV perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, E; Jarlbro, G

    1992-02-01

    To study the knowledge and experience of sexuality, contraception and sexually transmitted diseases among sexually active adolescents in Sweden. Youth clinic visitors. Seventy-four youth clinics from all over the country of Sweden. A questionnaire with 17 multiple choice and nine open questions was distributed to all visitors at participating youth clinics during a 2-month period. A total of 9277 young persons answered the questionnaire. Their mean age was 17.5 years. Ninety-three percent were females. Knowledge on STD and STD protection was wide-spread and good. Chlamydia and HIV was recognised as STDs by 90% and 87% respectively. More than 99% knew of the condom method as a means for STD protection. Knowledge on contraceptive methods for pregnancy protection was also good. Ninety-three percent of the investigated adolescents had had coitus. Nine percent had experienced pregnancies and 17% STDs. The mean number of life-time sexual partners was 3.2. In spite of good knowledge on preventive measures among Swedish youth clinic visitors their sexual behaviour carriers risks for future health. Further interventions are needed to minimise these risks.

  6. "The moment is all we have": patients and visitors reflect on a staff Christmas choir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Callaghan, Clare C; Hornby, Colin J; Pearson, Elizabeth J; Ball, David L

    To examine how performances by the Staff Christmas Choir of the Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre ("Peter Mac") affected inpatients, outpatients and visitors in 2008. During the Christmas season 2008, the Peter Mac Staff Christmas Choir gave seven performances at the Centre. Locations included inpatient wards, outpatient waiting areas and a cafeteria. To assess their response to the choir, oncology inpatients, outpatients and visitors (including early-departing bystanders) were given anonymous, semi-structured questionnaires during and after performances. To analyse the responses, we used a constructivist research approach informed by grounded theory. Participants' descriptions of the choir's effects on them. Questionnaires were returned by 111 people. The performances were received favourably by 93.7% of respondents, including nine from Jewish, Hindu or atheist backgrounds. Many said the music aroused positive emotions and memories. Several described transformative thoughts and physical reactions, felt affirmed by the Christmas spirit or message, and/or appreciated the peaceful or enlivened and social atmosphere. The choir also elicited personal perspectives about Christmas and Judaism, and the importance of "enjoying the moment". Only three respondents (2.7%) reported adverse effects, relating to emotional and audible intrusiveness. The Staff Christmas Choir created a supportive and uplifting atmosphere for many oncology patients and their visitors. However, responses from people from non-Christian backgrounds were limited, and further investigation is warranted to extend our understanding of the effect of Christmas music in Australian public health settings.

  7. Room for Death--International museum-visitors' preferences regarding the end of their life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindqvist, Olav; Tishelman, Carol

    2015-08-01

    Just as pain medications aim to relieve physical suffering, supportive surrounding for death and dying may facilitate well-being and comfort. However, little has been written of the experience of or preferences for the surroundings in which death and dying take place. In this study, we aim to complement our research from perspectives of patients, family members and staff, with perspectives from an international sample of the general public. Data derives from a project teaming artists and craftspeople together to create prototypes of space for difficult conversations in end-of-life (EoL) settings. These prototypes were presented in a museum exhibition, "Room for Death", in Stockholm in 2012. As project consultants, palliative care researchers contributed a question to the public viewing the exhibition, to explore their reflections: "How would you like it to be around you when you are dying?" Five-hundred and twelve responses were obtained from visitors from 46 countries. While preliminary analysis pointed to many similarities in responses across countries, continued analysis with a phenomenographic approach allowed us to distinguish different foci related to how preferences for surroundings for EoL were conceptualized. Responses were categorized in the following inductively-derived categories: The familiar death, The 'larger-than life' death, The lone death, The mediated death, The calm and peaceful death, The sensuous death, The 'green' death, and The distanced death. The responses could relate to a single category or be composites uniting different categories in individual combinations, and provide insight into different facets of contemporary reflections about death and dying. Despite the selective sample, these data give reason to consider how underlying assumptions and care provision in established forms for end-of-life care may differ from people's preferences. This project can be seen as an example of innovative endeavors to promote public awareness of issues

  8. Let's not contribute to disparities: the best methods for teaching clinicians how to overcome language barriers to health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond, Lisa C; Jacobs, Elizabeth A

    2010-05-01

    Clinicians should be educated about how language barriers contribute to disparities for patients with limited English proficiency (LEP). However, educators must avoid developing educational interventions that increase health disparities for LEP patients. For example, studies suggest that teaching "Medical Spanish" or related courses may actually contribute to health care disparities if clinicians begin using these non-English language skills inappropriately with patients. We discuss the risks and benefits of teaching specific cultural competence skills and make evidence-based recommendations for the teaching content and methods for educational interventions focused on overcoming language barriers in health care. At minimum, we suggest such interventions include: (1) the role of language barriers in health disparities, (2) means of overcoming language barriers, (3) how to work with interpreters, (4) identifying and fixing problems in interpreted encounters, and (5) appropriate and safe use of one's own limited non-English language skills.

  9. Can school meal provision contribute to the reduction of social inequalities in health and improve learning outcomes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Bent Egberg

    2013-01-01

    This case study focuses on school meal provision and its potential contribution to reducing social inequalities in health and improving learning outcomes among children and adolescents, using national approaches to school food services in Denmark and Sweden as examples. It describes the overall...... structure of the provision of school meals in the two countries and presents three cases in which participation, social inequalities in health and learning outcomes have been addressed. These cases contribute to the debate on the future of school meal provision and the potential for such provision to play...... a more active role in shaping young people’s health and promoting health equality by making healthy choices more widely available to those from disadvantaged families....

  10. Conceptualizing the healthscape: contributions of time geography, location technologies and spatial ecology to place and health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainham, Daniel; McDowell, Ian; Krewski, Daniel; Sawada, Mike

    2010-03-01

    Geomatics and related technologies allow for the application of integrated approaches to the analysis of individual spatial and temporal activities in the context of place and health research. The ability to track individuals as they make decisions and negotiate space may provide a fundamental advance. This paper introduces the need to move beyond conventional place-based perspectives in health research, and invokes the theoretical contributions of time geography and spatial ecology as opportunities to integrate human agency into contextual models of health. Issues around the geographical representation of place are reviewed, and the concept of the healthscape is introduced as an approach to operationalizing context as expressed by the spatial and temporal activities of individuals. We also discuss how these concepts have the potential to influence and contribute to empirical place and health research. 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. How Do Zoos "Talk" to Their General Visitors? Do Visitors "Listen"? A Mixed Method Investigation of the Communication between Modern Zoos and Their General Visitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roe, Katie; McConney, Andrew; Mansfield, Caroline F.

    2014-01-01

    Modern zoos utilise a variety of education tools for communicating with visitors. Previous research has discussed the benefits of providing multiple education communications, yet little research provides an indication of what communications are being employed within zoos today. This research is a two-phased, mixed-methods investigation into the…

  12. Concurrent and Longitudinal Contribution of Exposure to Bullying in Childhood to Mental Health: The Role of Vulnerability and Resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singham, Timothy; Viding, Essi; Schoeler, Tabea; Arseneault, Louise; Ronald, Angelica; Cecil, Charlotte M; McCrory, Eamon; Rijsdijk, Frülhing; Pingault, Jean-Baptiste

    2017-11-01

    Exposure to bullying is associated with poor mental health. However, the degree to which observed associations reflect direct detrimental contributions of exposure to bullying to mental health remains uncertain, as noncausal relationships may arise from genetic and environmental confounding (eg, preexisting vulnerabilities). Determining to what extent exposure to bullying contributes to mental health is an important concern, with implications for primary and secondary interventions. To characterize the concurrent and longitudinal contribution of exposure to bullying to mental health in childhood and adolescence using a twin differences design to strengthen causal inference. Participants were drawn from the Twins Early Development Study, a population-based cohort recruited from population records of births in England and Wales between January 1, 1994, and December 31, 1996. Data collection took place when the participants were between 11 and 16 years of age from December 1, 2005, to January 31, 2013. Data analysis was conducted from January 1, 2016, to June 20, 2017. Participants completed the Multidimensional Peer-Victimization Scale at 11 and 14 years of age. Mental health assessments at 11 and 16 years of age included anxiety, depression, hyperactivity and impulsivity, inattention, conduct problems, and psychotic-like experiences (eg, paranoid thoughts or cognitive disorganization). The 11 108 twins included in the final sample (5894 girls and 5214 boys) were a mean age of 11.3 years at the first assessment and 16.3 years at the last assessment. The most stringent twin differences estimates (monozygotic) were consistent with causal contribution of exposure to bullying at 11 years to concurrent anxiety, depression, hyperactivity and impulsivity, inattention, and conduct problems. Effects decreased over time; that is, substantial concurrent contributions to anxiety (β = 0.27; 95% CI, 0.22-0.33) persisted for 2 years (β = 0.12; 95% CI, 0.04-0.20) but not

  13. Predicting self-rated mental and physical health: the contributions of subjective socioeconomic status and personal relative deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callan, Mitchell J; Kim, Hyunji; Matthews, William J

    2015-01-01

    Lower subjective socioeconomic status (SSS) and higher personal relative deprivation (PRD) relate to poorer health. Both constructs concern people's perceived relative social position, but they differ in their emphasis on the reference groups people use to determine their comparative disadvantage (national population vs. similar others) and the importance of resentment that may arise from such adverse comparisons. We investigated the relative utility of SSS and PRD as predictors of self-rated physical and mental health (e.g., self-rated health, stress, health complaints). Across six studies, self-rated physical and mental health were on the whole better predicted by measures of PRD than by SSS while controlling for objective socioeconomic status (SES), with SSS rarely contributing unique variance over and above PRD and SES. Studies 4-6 discount the possibility that the superiority of PRD over SSS in predicting health is due to psychometric differences (e.g., reliability) or response biases between the measures.

  14. Designing museum exhibits that facilitate visitor reflection and discussion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skydsgaard, Morten Arnika; Andersen, Hanne Møller; King, Heather

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores how four design principles (curiosity, challenge, narratives and participation) facilitate reflection and discussion among young visitors in the issues-based exhibition Dear, Difficult Body. The investigation is based on a mixed-method approach combining questionnaire and inte......This paper explores how four design principles (curiosity, challenge, narratives and participation) facilitate reflection and discussion among young visitors in the issues-based exhibition Dear, Difficult Body. The investigation is based on a mixed-method approach combining questionnaire...... and interview data. The implementation of design principles resulted in a variety of exhibits which variously prompted reflection and discussion on the part of visitors. Exhibits with narratives, for example, here defined as both personal and expert narratives, were found to be effective in facilitating...... pupils’ attention but also worked well with other design principles to engage the pupils in sustained reflection and discussion. While other contextual factors remain significant in determining visitor responses, this paper argues that the use of design principles can help create visitor experiences...

  15. Visitor satisfaction of international cultural events in Belgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zečević Bojan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In modern tourism, events are of great importance. The increase in the number of events on a global scale has influenced the growth of competitive pressure and the need for a marketing approach in managing event development. Consumer satisfaction (service user is one of the basic elements in managing tourism development generally seen, and thus it is also important to manage and measure the satisfaction of event visitors. The satisfaction of event visitors is important bearing in mind its influence onto passing over positive experience, re-visits and tourism affirmation in areas where the event takes place. The paper analyzes the visitor satisfaction of three most important cultural events in Belgrade-BITEF, Jazz Festival and Belgrade book fair. The focus of the analysis is on visitor satisfaction which is the result of event participation, the contents which the event offers, as well as the following tourism contents of Belgrade, as a tourism destination. The analysis has been conducted based on an empirical research in which 450 participants, event visitors, took part in.

  16. [From sociology in medicine to the sociology of collective health: contributions toward a necessary reflexivity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Roberto

    2016-03-01

    This text looks at the difference between sociology in medicine (collaborator of health institutions) and the sociology of medicine (independent of health institutions). If consistent, sociology in medicine should become a sociology of medicine. As an example, it is shown how the study of the social determinants of health and illness begins by assuming non-problematically the ontological reality of health and illness, but ends up problematizing the very concept of health-disease, demonstrating that the study of health determinants also requires the study of the determinants of the social construction of disease. The urgent necessity of objectifying collective health itself is argued. By applying sociological tools we can examine the so-called objective factors in the determination of health and disease, the socially constructed nature of these categories of knowledge, and the struggles and power relations that determine whether or not such categories are viable.

  17. Placental contribution to the origins of sexual dimorphism in health and diseases: sex chromosomes and epigenetics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gabory, Anne; Roseboom, Tessa J; Moore, Tom; Moore, Lorna G; Junien, Claudine

    2013-01-01

    .... The placenta plays a key role in fetal growth and development and, as such, affects the fetal programming underlying subsequent adult health and accounts, in part for the developmental origin of health and disease (DOHaD...

  18. The Importance of Parenting and Financial Contributions in Promoting Fathers' Psychological Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Holly S.

    2010-01-01

    This study explores the relationship between residential, biological fathers' parental engagement, financial contributions, and psychological well-being in 2-parent families. Specifically, this study focuses on how fathers' parental engagement and financial contributions are related to their self-esteem, self-efficacy, and psychological distress.…

  19. Understanding a Nonlinear Causal Relationship Between Rewards and Physicians’ Contributions in Online Health Care Communities: Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Background The online health care community is not just a place for the public to share physician reviews or medical knowledge, but also a physician-patient communication platform. The medical resources of developing countries are relatively inadequate, and the online health care community is a potential solution to alleviate the phenomenon of long hospital queues and the lack of medical resources in rural areas. However, the success of the online health care community depends on online contributions by physicians. Objective The aim of this study is to examine the effect of incentive mechanisms on physician’s online contribution behavior in the online health community. We addressed the following questions: (1) from which specialty area are physicians more likely to participate in online health care community activities, (2) what are the factors affecting physician online contributions, and (3) do incentive mechanisms, including psychological and material rewards, result in differences of physician online contributions? Methods We designed a longitudinal study involving a data sample in three waves. All data were collected from the Good Doctor website, which is the largest online health care community in China. We first used descriptive statistics to investigate the physician online contribution behavior in its entirety. Then multiple linear and quadratic regression models were applied to verify the causal relationship between rewards and physician online contribution. Results Our sample included 40,300 physicians from 3607 different hospitals, 10 different major specialty areas, and 31 different provinces or municipalities. Based on the multiple quadratic regression model, we found that the coefficients of the control variables, past physician online contributions, doctor review rating, clinic title, hospital level, and city level, were .415, .189, –.099, –.106, and –.143, respectively. For the psychological (or material) rewards, the standardized

  20. eHealth Literacy: In the Quest of the Contributing Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xesfingi, Sofia; Vozikis, Athanassios

    2016-05-25

    Understanding the factors that influence eHealth in a country is particularly important for health policy decision makers and the health care market, as it provides critical information to develop targeted and tailored interventions for relevant patient-consumer segments, and further suggests appropriate strategies for training the health illiterate part of the population. The objective of the study is to assess the eHealth literacy level of Greek citizens, using the eHealth Literacy Scale (eHEALS), and further explore the factors that shape it and are associated with it. This empirical study relies on a unique sample of 1064 citizens in Greece in the year 2013. The participants were requested to answer various questions about their ability to solve health-related issues using the Internet, and to provide information about their demographic characteristics and life-style habits. Ordered logit models were used to describe a certain citizen's likelihood of being eHealth literate. The demographic factors show that the probability of an individual being eHealth literate decreases by 23% (P=.001) when the individual ages and increases by 53% (Phigher level of education. Among the life-style variables, physical exercise appears to be strongly and positively associated with the level of eHealth literacy (P=.001). Additionally, other types of technology literacies, such as computer literacy and information literacy, further enhance the eHealth performance of citizens and have the greatest impact among all factors. The factors influencing eHealth literacy are complex and interdependent. However, the Internet is a disruptive factor in the relationship between health provider and health consumer. Further research is needed to examine how several factors associate with eHealth literacy, since, the latter is not only related to health care outcomes but also can be a tool for disseminating social inequalities.

  1. Contributions of training to the promotion of health in State Health Services: comparative analysis in eight states in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Elizabeth Alcalde-Rabanal

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the results of the training provided by the National Public Health Institute (INSP per its abbreviation in Spanish in health promotion to institutional staff of local health services during 2007 and 2008. Materials and methods. A non-experimental evaluative research with comparison group was conducted, in which quantitative and qualitative methods were used. Results. In states intervened a better conceptualization of health promotion, social  participation and components of the Health Promotion Operating Model was observed; participatory action research was the basic strategy to work in the community and management showed a tendency to be more participatory and inclusive. Conclusion. A better conceptualization of health promotion has allowed health personnel develop more sustainable work processes in the community and has driven the search for consent and participatory management.

  2. Perceptions of government knowledge and control over contributions of aid organizations and INGOs to health in Nepal: a qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Almost 50% of the Nepali health budget is made up of international aid. International Non-Governmental Organizations working in the field of health are able to channel their funds directly to grass root level. During a 2010 conference, the Secretary of Population stated that the government has full knowledge and control over all funds and projects coming to Nepal. However, there are no documents to support this. The study aims to assess government and partner perceptions on whether Government of Nepal currently has full knowledge of contributions of international aid organizations and International Non-Governmental Organizations to health in Nepal and to assess if the government is able to control all foreign contributions to fit the objectives of Second Long Term Health Plan (1997–2017). Methods A qualitative study was performed along with available literature review. Judgmental and snowball sampling led to 26 in depth interviews with key informants from the government, External Development Partners and International Non-Governmental Organizations. Results were triangulated based on source of data. Representatives of the Department of Health Services declined to be interviewed. Data collection was done until researchers felt data saturation had been reached with each group of key informants. Results While Ministry of Health and Population leads the sector wide approach that aims to integrate all donor and International Non-Governmental Organization contributions to health and direct them to the government’s priority areas, questions were raised around its capacity to do so. Similarly, informants questioned the extent to which Social Welfare Council was able to control all International Non-Governmental Organizations contributions. Political tumult, corruption in the government, lack of human resources in the government, lack of coordination between government bodies, convoluted bureaucracy, and unreliability of donor and International Non

  3. Making mental health an integral part of sustainable development: the contribution of a social determinants framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Silva, M J

    2015-04-01

    There have been repeated calls to include mental health in the sustainable development goals (SDGs), arguing that progress in development will not be made without improvements in mental health. Although these calls are starting to gain political traction, currently only a tiny fraction of international development work includes mental health. A social determinants framework may be useful in incorporating mental health into sustainable development because it promotes a multi-sectorial and multi-disciplinary approach which is the corner stone of good development practice. Two approaches are suggested to make mental health a part of sustainable development: (1) integrate mental health into existing development programmes to promote social and economic environments that prevent mental health problems developing; (2) ensure that mental health programmes are better at promoting sustainable development by preventing the negative social and economic consequences of mental illness. Real-world examples of these approaches are provided. To achieve this, the mental health impact of wider development programmes, and the social and economic consequences of mental health interventions, must be evaluated. Development agencies should ensure that they have equity for mental health in all their policies, and investment must be increased for those mental health prevention, promotion and treatment programmes which have the greatest impact on sustainable development. The SDGs bring the promise of a more holistic approach to development. It is now the task of global mental health to demonstrate not just that mental health is an integral part of sustainable development, but that affordable and effective solutions exist which can improve mental health and development more broadly.

  4. Assessing the Health of a Business Ecosystem: The Contribution of the Anchoring Actor in the Formation Phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuomas Lappi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Business ecosystem concept takes ideas from ecological ecosystems into analysis of complex networks. Business ecosystems emerge either as managed initiatives or organically, impacted by internal or external stimuluses. Ecosystem formation is unpredictable and challenging to control transferring project front-end into an operational ecosystem. The theme of this research is how to form a healthy business ecosystem. If defines a framework for formation analysis and introduces the concept of the anchoring actor as a role leading the formation. Ecosystem health assessment through actors and relationships provides information to support ecosystem formation. Through a case study in Taiwanese health and wellbeing domain, this research presents how the anchoring actors can be identified and how they contribute to ecosystem formation. Building on the anchoring actors’ contribution, the research defines a model for ecosystem health assessment. Practitioners can use the findings to facilitate the ecosystem formation and to monitor the ecosystem health. This research contributes to the business ecosystem and business network literatures by introducing the anchoring actor as an important role for ecosystem formation and by presenting how ecosystem health can be assessed.

  5. Contribution of modern medical imaging technology to radiation health effects in exposed populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabrikant, J.I,

    1980-11-01

    The introduction of technically-advanced imaging systems in medicine carries with it potential health hazards, particularly from ionizing and nonionizing radiation exposure of human populations. This paper will discuss what we know and what we do not know about the health effects of low-level radiation, how the risks of radiation-induced health effects may be estimated, the sources of the scientific data, the dose-response models used, the uncertainties which limit precision of estimation of excess health risks from low-level radiation, and what the implications might be for radiation protection in medicine and public health policy.

  6. Health, fairness and New Zealand's contribution to global post-2020 climate change action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Hayley; Macmillan, Alex; Jones, Rhys

    2015-05-29

    Health and wellbeing have been largely ignored in discussions around climate change targets and action to date. The current public consultation around New Zealand's post-2020 climate target is an opportunity for health professionals to highlight the health implications of climate change. Without urgent global efforts to bring down global GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions, the world is heading towards high levels of global warming, which will have devastating impacts on human health and wellbeing. New Zealand's action to bring down GHG emissions (as part of the global effort) has potential to improve health and reduce costs on the health sector, if health and fairness are put at the centre of policies to address climate change. New Zealand should commit to at least 40 % reductions in GHG emissions by 2030, and zero carbon emissions before 2050, with healthy and fair policies across sectors to enable reaching these targets.

  7. BJSM social media contributes to health policy rethink: a physical activity success story in Hertfordshire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiler, Richard; Neyndorff, Christine

    2013-06-01

    Strategies to modernise the National Health Service (NHS) in England have brought about the development of local organisations called Health and Wellbeing (H&WB) boards through the Health and Social Care Act 2012. These boards were intended to become a forum where key leaders and stakeholders from health and care systems work together to improve the health and well-being of their local population and reduce health inequalities. Throughout England these boards have been drafting their strategies, largely ignoring the importance of physical activity in health and well-being. In the county of Hertfordshire, the initial draft priorities were released in 2012 and physical activity promotion was not included. Using a BJSM blog, BJSM online poll, Twitter and email, an attempt was made to generate as much interest and formal feedback as possible to the draft strategy, in order to ensure the inclusion of physical activity as a priority in the revised strategy.

  8. Modeling Navigation Patterns of Visitors of Unstructured Websites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balog, K.; Hofgesang, P.; Kowalczyk, W.

    In this paper we describe a practical approach for modeling navigation patterns of visitors of unstructured websites. These patterns are derived from web logs that are enriched with 3 sorts of information: (1) content type of visited pages, (2) visitor type, and (3) location of the visitor. We developed an intelligent Text Mining system, iTM, which supports the process of classifying web pages into a number of pre-defined categories. With help of this system we were able to reduce the labeling effort by a factor 10-20 without affecting the accuracy of the final result too much. Another feature of our approach is the use of a new technique for modeling navigation patterns: navigation trees. They provide a very informative graphical representation of most frequent sequences of categories of visited pages.

  9. Who can afford health care? Evaluating the socio-economic conditions and the ability to contribute to health care in a post-conflict area in DR Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerstl, Sibylle; Sauter, Justin; Kasanda, Joseph; Kinzelbach, Alfred

    2013-01-01

    The Democratic Republic of the Congo is today one of the poorest countries in the world; the health status of the population ranks among the worst in Sub-Saharan Africa. Public health services charge user fees and drug prices. Since 2008, north-eastern Congo is facing a guerrilla war. Malteser International is assisting with free health care for internally displaced persons as well as the general population. Before the incursion the health system was based on user fees. The aim of this study was to determine the socio-economic conditions of the population and to assess their ability to contribute to health care. Heads of 552 randomly selected households in 23 clusters in two health zones were interviewed using a standardised questionnaire. The demographic description and socio-economic conditions of the study population were homogenous. Major source of income was agriculture (57%); 47% of the households earned less than US$ 5.5/week. Ninety-two percent of the interviewed households estimated that they would be able to contribute to consultation fees (maximum amount of US$ 0.27) and 79% to the drug prices (maximum amount of US$ 1.10). Six percent opted for free consultations and 19% for free drugs. Living conditions were very basic; the estimated income of the study population was low. Almost half of the population perceived their current living situation as fairly good/good. More than 90% of the study population estimated to be able to contribute to consultation fees and 80% to drug prices. As a result Malteser International suggested introducing flat-rates for health care services. Once the project ends, the population will have to pay again for their health service. One solution would be the introduction of a health care financing system with the goal to reach universal coverage to health care.

  10. Who can afford health care? Evaluating the socio-economic conditions and the ability to contribute to health care in a post-conflict area in DR Congo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibylle Gerstl

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The Democratic Republic of the Congo is today one of the poorest countries in the world; the health status of the population ranks among the worst in Sub-Saharan Africa. Public health services charge user fees and drug prices. Since 2008, north-eastern Congo is facing a guerrilla war. Malteser International is assisting with free health care for internally displaced persons as well as the general population. Before the incursion the health system was based on user fees. The aim of this study was to determine the socio-economic conditions of the population and to assess their ability to contribute to health care. METHODOLOGY: Heads of 552 randomly selected households in 23 clusters in two health zones were interviewed using a standardised questionnaire. FINDINGS: The demographic description and socio-economic conditions of the study population were homogenous. Major source of income was agriculture (57%; 47% of the households earned less than US$ 5.5/week. Ninety-two percent of the interviewed households estimated that they would be able to contribute to consultation fees (maximum amount of US$ 0.27 and 79% to the drug prices (maximum amount of US$ 1.10. Six percent opted for free consultations and 19% for free drugs. CONCLUSIONS: Living conditions were very basic; the estimated income of the study population was low. Almost half of the population perceived their current living situation as fairly good/good. More than 90% of the study population estimated to be able to contribute to consultation fees and 80% to drug prices. As a result Malteser International suggested introducing flat-rates for health care services. Once the project ends, the population will have to pay again for their health service. One solution would be the introduction of a health care financing system with the goal to reach universal coverage to health care.

  11. The Accuracy of Behavioural Data Collected by Visitors in a Zoo Environment: Can Visitors Collect Meaningful Data?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel L. Williams

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Volunteer data collection can be valuable for research. However, accuracy of such data is often a cause for concern. If clear, simple methods are used, volunteers can monitor species presence and abundance in a similar manner to professionals, but it is unknown whether volunteers could collect accurate data on animal behaviour. In this study, visitors at a Wetlands Centre were asked to record behavioural data for a group of captive otters by means of a short questionnaire. They were also asked to provide information about themselves to determine whether various factors would influence their ability to collect data. Using a novel analysis technique based on PCA, visitor data were compared to baseline activity budget data collected by a trained biologist to determine whether visitor data were accurate. Although the response rate was high, visitors were unable to collect accurate data. The principal reason was that visitors exceeded the observation time stated in the instructions, rather than being unable to record behaviours accurately. We propose that automated recording stations, such as touchscreen displays, might prevent this as well as other potential problems such as temporal autocorrelation of data and may result in accurate data collection by visiting members of the public.

  12. 75 FR 24964 - Proposed Information Collection; OMB Control Number 1018-NEW; Refuge Daily Visitor Use Report and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-06

    ... will be a vital tool in meeting refuge objectives and maintaining quality visitor experiences. The.... Distribute visitor permits to ensure safety of visitors. Ensure a quality visitor experience. Minimize... Visitor Use Report and Check-In Permit AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice...

  13. Midwives’ views on factors that contribute to health care inequalities among immigrants in Sweden: a qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Ethnic and socioeconomic inequalities in the Swedish health care system have increased. Most indicators suggest that immigrants have significantly poorer health than native Swedes. The purpose of this study was to explore the views of midwives on the factors that contribute to health care inequality among immigrants. Methods Data were collected via semi-structured interviews with ten midwives. These were transcribed and related categories identified through content analysis. Results The interview data were divided into three main categories and seven subcategories. The category “Communication” was divided into subcategories “The meeting”, “Cultural diversity and language barriers” and “Trust and confidence”. The category “Potential barriers to the use of health care services” contained two subcategories, “Seeking health care” and “Receiving equal treatment”. Finally, the category “Transcultural health care” had subcategories “Education on transcultural health care” and “The concept”. Conclusions This study suggests that midwives believe that health care inequality among immigrants can be the result of miscommunication which may arise due to a shortage of meeting time, language barriers, different systems of cultural beliefs and practices and limited patient-caregiver trust. Midwives emphasized that education level, country of origin and length of stay in Sweden play a role when an immigrant seeks health care. Immigrants face more difficulties when seeking health care and in receiving adequate levels of care. However, different views among the midwives were also observed. Some midwives were sensitive to individual and intra-group differences, while some others viewed immigrants as a group of “others”. Midwives’ beliefs about subgroup-specific health services vs. integrating immigrants’ health care into mainstream health care services should be investigated further. Patients’ perspective should also be

  14. Midwives' views on factors that contribute to health care inequalities among immigrants in Sweden: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhavan, Sharareh

    2012-08-18

    Ethnic and socioeconomic inequalities in the Swedish health care system have increased. Most indicators suggest that immigrants have significantly poorer health than native Swedes. The purpose of this study was to explore the views of midwives on the factors that contribute to health care inequality among immigrants. Data were collected via semi-structured interviews with ten midwives. These were transcribed and related categories identified through content analysis. The interview data were divided into three main categories and seven subcategories. The category "Communication" was divided into subcategories "The meeting", "Cultural diversity and language barriers" and "Trust and confidence". The category "Potential barriers to the use of health care services" contained two subcategories, "Seeking health care" and "Receiving equal treatment". Finally, the category "Transcultural health care" had subcategories "Education on transcultural health care" and "The concept". This study suggests that midwives believe that health care inequality among immigrants can be the result of miscommunication which may arise due to a shortage of meeting time, language barriers, different systems of cultural beliefs and practices and limited patient-caregiver trust. Midwives emphasized that education level, country of origin and length of stay in Sweden play a role when an immigrant seeks health care. Immigrants face more difficulties when seeking health care and in receiving adequate levels of care. However, different views among the midwives were also observed. Some midwives were sensitive to individual and intra-group differences, while some others viewed immigrants as a group of "others". Midwives' beliefs about subgroup-specific health services vs. integrating immigrants' health care into mainstream health care services should be investigated further. Patients' perspective should also be considered.

  15. Midwives’ views on factors that contribute to health care inequalities among immigrants in Sweden: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhavan Sharareh

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Ethnic and socioeconomic inequalities in the Swedish health care system have increased. Most indicators suggest that immigrants have significantly poorer health than native Swedes. The purpose of this study was to explore the views of midwives on the factors that contribute to health care inequality among immigrants. Methods Data were collected via semi-structured interviews with ten midwives. These were transcribed and related categories identified through content analysis. Results The interview data were divided into three main categories and seven subcategories. The category “Communication” was divided into subcategories “The meeting”, “Cultural diversity and language barriers” and “Trust and confidence”. The category “Potential barriers to the use of health care services” contained two subcategories, “Seeking health care” and “Receiving equal treatment”. Finally, the category “Transcultural health care” had subcategories “Education on transcultural health care” and “The concept”. Conclusions This study suggests that midwives believe that health care inequality among immigrants can be the result of miscommunication which may arise due to a shortage of meeting time, language barriers, different systems of cultural beliefs and practices and limited patient-caregiver trust. Midwives emphasized that education level, country of origin and length of stay in Sweden play a role when an immigrant seeks health care. Immigrants face more difficulties when seeking health care and in receiving adequate levels of care. However, different views among the midwives were also observed. Some midwives were sensitive to individual and intra-group differences, while some others viewed immigrants as a group of “others”. Midwives’ beliefs about subgroup-specific health services vs. integrating immigrants’ health care into mainstream health care services should be investigated further. Patients

  16. What contribution can international relations make to the evolving global health agenda?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Sara E

    2010-01-01

    This article presents two approaches that have dominated International Relations in their approach to the international politics of health. The statist approach, which is primarily security-focused, seeks to link health initiatives to a foreign or defence policy remit. The globalist approach, in contrast, seeks to advance health not because of its intrinsic security value but because it advances the well-being and rights of individuals. This article charts the evolution of these approaches and demonstrates why both have the potential to shape our understanding of the evolving global health agenda. It examines how the statist and globalist perspectives have helped shape contemporary initiatives in global health governance and suggests that there is evidence of an emerging convergence between the two perspectives. This convergence is particularly clear in the articulation of a number of UN initiatives in this area - especially the One World, One Health Strategic Framework and the Oslo Ministerial Declaration (2007) which inspired the first UN General Assembly resolution on global health and foreign policy in 2009 and the UN Secretary-General's note "Global health and foreign policy: strategic opportunities and challenges". What remains to be seen is whether this convergence will deliver on securing states' interest long enough to promote the interests of the individuals who require global efforts to deliver local health improvements.

  17. Contribution of Oswaldo Paulo Forattini to public health: analysis of scientific production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Juliana Gonçalves; Kobayashi, Keilla Miki; Ueno, Helene Mariko; Ribeiro, Cristiane Martins; Cardoso, Telma Abdalla de Oliveira

    2016-12-22

    To analyze the main characteristics of the scientific production of Oswaldo Paulo Forattini, researcher and, for 40 years, editor of Revista de Saúde Pública. Descriptive study with bibliometric approach conducted in three steps. (1) identification of bibliographic records using the following search strategy: "Oswaldo Paulo Forattini" OR "Forattini OP" OR "Forattini" up information sources Google Scholar, Web of Science, and PubMed, in July 2016, which retrieved 867 records. (2) composition of research corpus, in which we included 351 bibliographic records of articles, books, book chapters, editorials, book reviews, informative notes and annual reports of the RSP and excluded 516 duplicates and acknowledgement notes, obituary notes, and nonretrievable citations. (3) data organization and analysis, in which we built databases for descriptive analysis and development of the MeSH coauthors and terms networks in VOSviewer software. For analysis of editorials, three reviewers read the full text of each editorial and categorized them according to subject, historical context and perspectives, relating them with historical milestones. Forattini's scientific production occurred from 1946 to 2009, most consisting of articles (n = 218; 62.1%), editorials (n = 43; 12.3%), and books (n = 13; 3.7%). The main subjects were Culicidae (36.8%), Triatominae (12.5%), and Epidemiology (10.0%). The coauthors of articles were his professors, colleagues of his generation, and graduate students. His editorials addressed critical reflections on the production of knowledge, research priorities, and factors that contributed to or hindered progress. The scope of subjects is broad, referring to socioeconomic and scientific development, public health issues in developed countries, or global health. The analysis shows Forattini's commitment with public health, research with vectors, training of researchers, and scientific communication. Analisar as principais características da produ

  18. [Research on professional health training in the MERCOSUR: a contribution to regional integration policies for training health technicians].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Marise

    2007-01-01

    Progress with regional economic integration in the Southern Cone raises the problem of workers' circulation, requiring reciprocal recognition of curricula and mechanisms for professional certification. The Escola Politécnica de Saúde Joaquim Venâncio (Joaquim Venâncio Polytechnic Health School) of the Fundação Oswaldo Cruz (Oswaldo Cruz Foundation), as a WHO Collaborating Center for Technical Education in Health, has focused on this issue by conducting studies and standardizations for the integration of training policies for health technicians within the MERCOSUR. An important challenge is to identify and systematize the quantitative and qualitative supply of technical education in health in the MERCOSUR member countries, to help establish commonalities between prevailing curricular regulations, titles, diplomas, and professional work codes in the respective countries. The purpose of the current article is to situate this challenge vis-à-vis the relationship between work, education, and health.

  19. LGBT Health Care Access: Considering the Contributions of an Invitational Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonnell, Judith A.

    2014-01-01

    Lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) people have historically, and continue today to encounter barriers to accessing health services. This has been attributed to the well-documented heterosexism, homophobia, biphobia, and transphobia that shape all health and social institutions. In this paper, invitational theory offers insight into the…

  20. How behavioural science can contribute to health partnerships: the case of The Change Exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne-Davis, Lucie M T; Bull, Eleanor R; Burton, Amy; Dharni, Nimarta; Gillison, Fiona; Maltinsky, Wendy; Mason, Corina; Sharma, Nisha; Armitage, Christopher J; Johnston, Marie; Byrne, Ged J; Hart, Jo K

    2017-06-12

    Health partnerships often use health professional training to change practice with the aim of improving quality of care. Interventions to change practice can learn from behavioural science and focus not only on improving the competence and capability of health professionals but also their opportunity and motivation to make changes in practice. We describe a project that used behavioural scientist volunteers to enable health partnerships to understand and use the theories, techniques and assessments of behavioural science. This paper outlines how The Change Exchange, a collective of volunteer behavioural scientists, worked with health partnerships to strengthen their projects by translating behavioural science in situ. We describe three case studies in which behavioural scientists, embedded in health partnerships in Uganda, Sierra Leone and Mozambique, explored the behaviour change techniques used by educators, supported knowledge and skill development in behaviour change, monitored the impact of projects on psychological determinants of behaviour and made recommendations for future project developments. Challenges in the work included having time and space for behavioural science in already very busy health partnership schedules and the difficulties in using certain methods in other cultures. Future work could explore other modes of translation and further develop methods to make them more culturally applicable. Behavioural scientists could translate behavioural science which was understood and used by the health partnerships to strengthen their project work.

  1. The Contribution of the Pharmaceutical Industry to the Health Status of the developing World

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muniz Pereira Urias, E.; Fu, Xiaolan; Ghauri, Pervez N; Väätänen, Juha

    2017-01-01

    There is sufficient evidence to prove that the improved health status of a nation’s citizens results in economic growth and development via improved functionality and productivity of labor. It is also commonly accepted that healthcare expenditure significantly influences health status through, for

  2. Sources of traffic and visitors' preferences regarding online public reports of quality: web analytics and online survey results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardach, Naomi S; Hibbard, Judith H; Greaves, Felix; Dudley, R Adams

    2015-05-01

    In the context of the Affordable Care Act, there is extensive emphasis on making provider quality transparent and publicly available. Online public reports of quality exist, but little is known about how visitors find reports or about their purpose in visiting. To address this gap, we gathered website analytics data from a national group of online public reports of hospital or physician quality and surveyed real-time visitors to those websites. Websites were recruited from a national group of online public reports of hospital or physician quality. Analytics data were gathered from each website: number of unique visitors, method of arrival for each unique visitor, and search terms resulting in visits. Depending on the website, a survey invitation was launched for unique visitors on landing pages or on pages with quality information. Survey topics included type of respondent (eg, consumer, health care professional), purpose of visit, areas of interest, website experience, and demographics. There were 116,657 unique visitors to the 18 participating websites (1440 unique visitors/month per website), with most unique visitors arriving through search (63.95%, 74,606/116,657). Websites with a higher percent of traffic from search engines garnered more unique visitors (P=.001). The most common search terms were for individual hospitals (23.25%, 27,122/74,606) and website names (19.43%, 22,672/74,606); medical condition terms were uncommon (0.81%, 605/74,606). Survey view rate was 42.48% (49,560/116,657 invited) resulting in 1755 respondents (participation rate=3.6%). There were substantial proportions of consumer (48.43%, 850/1755) and health care professional respondents (31.39%, 551/1755). Across websites, proportions of consumer (21%-71%) and health care professional respondents (16%-48%) varied. Consumers were frequently interested in using the information to choose providers or assess the quality of their provider (52.7%, 225/427); the majority of those choosing a

  3. National wildlife refuge visitor survey 2012--Individual refuge results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietsch, Alia M.; Sexton, Natalie R.; Koontz, Lynne M.; Conk, Shannon J.

    2013-01-01

    The National Wildlife Refuge System (Refuge System), established in 1903 and managed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), is the leading network of protected lands and waters in the world dedicated to the conservation of fish, wildlife and their habitats. There are 560 national wildlife refuges and 38 wetland management districts nationwide, encompassing more than 150 million acres. The Refuge System attracts nearly 45 million visitors annually, including 34.8 million people who observe and photograph wildlife, 9.6 million who hunt and fish, and nearly 675,000 teachers and students who use refuges as outdoor classrooms. Understanding visitor perceptions of refuges and characterizing their experiences on refuges are critical elements of managing these lands and meeting the goals of the Refuge System. The Service collaborated with the U.S. Geological Survey to conduct a national survey of visitors regarding their experiences on national wildlife refuges. The purpose of the survey was to better understand visitor experiences and trip characteristics, to gauge visitors’ levels of satisfaction with existing recreational opportunities, and to garner feedback to inform the design of programs and facilities. The survey results will inform performance, planning, budget, and communications goals. Results will also inform Comprehensive Conservation Plans (CCPs), visitor services, and transportation planning processes. This Data Series consists of 25 separate data files. Each file describes the results of the survey for an individual refuge and contains the following information: • Introduction: An overview of the Refuge System and the goals of the national surveying effort. • Methods: The procedures for the national surveying effort, including selecting refuges, developing the survey instrument, contacting visitors, and guidance for interpreting the results.• Refuge Description: A brief description of the refuge location, acreage, purpose, recreational

  4. HCI and mobile health interventions: How human-computer interaction can contribute to successful mobile health interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Erika S

    2013-12-01

    Advances in mobile computing offer the potential to change when, where, and how health interventions are delivered. Rather than relying on occasional in-clinic interactions, mobile health (mHealth) interventions may overcome constraints due to limited clinician time, poor patient adherence, and inability to provide meaningful interventions at the most appropriate time. Technological capability, however, does not equate with user acceptance and adoption. How then can we ensure that mobile technologies for behavior change meet the needs of their target audience? In this paper, we argue that overcoming acceptance and adoption barriers requires interdisciplinary collaborations, bringing together not only technologists and health researchers but also human-computer interaction (HCI) experts. We discuss the value of human-computer interaction research to the nascent field of mHealth and demonstrate how research from HCI can offer complementary insights on the creation of mobile health interventions. We conclude with a discussion of barriers to interdisciplinary collaborations in mobile health and suggest ways to overcome them.

  5. The role of social media for patients and consumer health. Contribution of the IMIA Consumer Health Informatics Working Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, A Y S; Siek, K A; Fernandez-Luque, L; Tange, H; Chhanabhai, P; Li, S Y W; Elkin, P L; Arjabi, A; Walczowski, L; Ang, C S; Eysenbach, G

    2011-01-01

    : To provide an overview on social media for consumers and patients in areas of health behaviours and outcomes. A directed review of recent literature. : We discuss the limitations and challenges of social media, ranging from social network sites (SNSs), computer games, mobile applications, to online videos. An overview of current users of social media (Generation Y), and potential users (such as low socioeconomic status and the chronically ill populations) is also presented. Future directions in social media research are also discussed. : We encourage the health informatics community to consider the socioeconomic class, age, culture, and literacy level of their populations, and select an appropriate medium and platform when designing social networked interventions for health. Little is known about the impact of second-hand experiences faciliated by social media, nor the quality and safety of social networks on health. Methodologies and theories from human computer interaction, human factors engineering and psychology may help guide the challenges in designing and evaluating social networked interventions for health. Further, by analysing how people search and navigate social media for health purposes, infodemiology and infoveillance are promising areas of research that should provide valuable insights on present and emergening health behaviours on a population scale.

  6. From “One Health” to “One Communication”: The Contribution of Communication in Veterinary Medicine to Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipolla, Micaela; Bonizzi, Luigi; Zecconi, Alfonso

    2015-01-01

    Despite the fact that health communication is a discipline developed only recently, its importance in human medicine is well recognized. However, it is less considered in veterinary medicine, even if it has the potential to improve public health because of the role of veterinary medicine in public health. For this reason, an One Health approach is useful for communication as well. This approach leads to a “One Communication” concept, which is the result of the synergy in communicative efforts both in human and in veterinary medicine. Our analysis explores the potential of communication in several veterinary fields: institutions, food safety, companion animal and food-producing animal practice, pharmacology and drugs, wildlife fauna and environment. In almost all the areas of veterinary activity communication can contribute to human health. It takes many forms and use several channels, and this variety of communicative opportunities represent a challenge for veterinarians. For this reason, the communication course should be included in the curricula of Veterinary Medicine Schools. As One Health, One Communication is a strategy for expanding collaborations in health communication and it will enhance public health. PMID:29061938

  7. From “One Health” to “One Communication”: The Contribution of Communication in Veterinary Medicine to Public Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micaela Cipolla

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Despite the fact that health communication is a discipline developed only recently, its importance in human medicine is well recognized. However, it is less considered in veterinary medicine, even if it has the potential to improve public health because of the role of veterinary medicine in public health. For this reason, an One Health approach is useful for communication as well. This approach leads to a “One Communication” concept, which is the result of the synergy in communicative efforts both in human and in veterinary medicine. Our analysis explores the potential of communication in several veterinary fields: institutions, food safety, companion animal and food-producing animal practice, pharmacology and drugs, wildlife fauna and environment. In almost all the areas of veterinary activity communication can contribute to human health. It takes many forms and use several channels, and this variety of communicative opportunities represent a challenge for veterinarians. For this reason, the communication course should be included in the curricula of Veterinary Medicine Schools. As One Health, One Communication is a strategy for expanding collaborations in health communication and it will enhance public health.

  8. The Contribution of Health Technology Assessment, Health Needs Assessment, and Health Impact Assessment to the Assessment and Translation of Technologies in the Field of Public Health Genomics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosenköttera, N.; Vondeling, Hindrik; Blancquaert, I.; Mekel, O.C.L.; Kristensen, F.B.; Brand, A.

    2011-01-01

    The European Union has named genomics as one of the promising research fields for the development of new health technologies. Major concerns with regard to these fields are, on the one hand, the rather slow and limited translation of new knowledge and, on the other hand, missing insights into the

  9. Tourism, Reef Health, and Visitor Enjoyment in Watamu Marine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reef-based tourism is known to put environmental pressure on reefs, but how does this interact with the ecological and economical sustainability of Marine Protected Areas? Previous research suggest that if reef conditions decline then the tourism to the reef will also suffer, but is this always the case? This study investigated ...

  10. Can a regional government's social inclusion initiative contribute to the quest for health equity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Fran; Newman, Lareen; Biedrzycki, Katherine; Patterson, Jan

    2010-12-01

    Despite decades of concern about reducing health inequity, the Commission on the Social Determinants of Health (CSDH) painted a picture of persistent and, in some cases, increasing health inequity. It also made a call for increased evaluation of interventions that might reduce inequities. This paper describes such an intervention-the Social Inclusion Initiative (SII) of the South Australian Government-that was documented for the Social Exclusion Knowledge Network of the CSDH. This initiative is designed to increase social inclusion by addressing key determinants of health inequity-in the study period these were education, homelessness and drug use. Our paper examines evidence from a rapid appraisal to determine whether a social inclusion initiative is a useful aspect of government action to reduce health inequity. It describes achievements in each specific area and the ways they can be expected to affect health equity. Our study highlighted four factors central to the successes achieved by the SII. These were the independent authority and influence of the leadership of the SII, the whole of government approach supported by an overarching strategic plan which sets clear goals for government and the clear and unambiguous support from the highest level of government. We conclude that a social inclusion approach can be valuable in the quest to reduce inequities and that further research on innovative social policy approaches is required to examine their likely impact on health equity.

  11. A grander challenge: the case of how Makerere University College of Health Sciences (MakCHS contributes to health outcomes in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Groves Sara

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background “Grand challenges” in global health have focused on discovery and development of technologies to save lives. The “grander challenge” involves building institutions, systems, capacity and demand to effectively deliver strategies to improve health. In 2008, Makerere University began a radical institutional change to bring together four schools under one College of Health Sciences. This paper’s objective is to demonstrate how its leadership in training, research, and services can improve health in Uganda and internationally, which lies at the core of the College’s vision. Methods A comprehensive needs assessment involved five task forces that identified MakCHS’s contribution to the Ugandan government health priorities. Data were collected through analysis of key documents; systematic review of MakCHS publications and grants; surveys of patients, students and faculty; and key informant interviews of the College’s major stakeholders. Four pilot projects were conducted to demonstrate how the College can translate research into policy and practice, extend integrated outreach community-based education and service, and work with communities and key stakeholders to address their priority health problems. Results MakCHS inputs to the health sector include more than 600 health professionals graduating per year through 23 degree programs, many of whom assume leadership positions. MakCHS contributions to processes include strengthened approaches to engaging communities, standardized clinical care procedures, and evidence-informed policy development. Outputs include the largest number of outpatients and inpatient admissions in Uganda. From 2005-2009, MakCHS also produced 837 peer-reviewed research publications (67% in priority areas. Outcomes include an expanded knowledge pool, and contributions to coverage of health services and healthy behaviors. Impacts include discovery and applications of global significance, such as

  12. Governance within the World Health Assembly: a 13-year analysis of WHO Member States' contribution to global health governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Rijt, Tess; Pang Pangestu, Tikki

    2015-03-01

    There is a widespread perception that developed countries in the Western world dictate the shaping and governance of global health. While there are many bodies that engage in global health governance, the World Health Organisation (WHO) is the only entity whereby 194 countries are invited to congregate together and engage in global health governance on an equal playing field. This paper examines the diversity of governance within the World Health Assembly (WHA), the supreme decision-making body of the WHO. It explores the degree and balance of policy influence between high, middle and low-income countries and the relevance of the WHO as a platform to exercise global governance. It finds that governance within the WHA is indeed diverse: relative to the number of Member States within the regions, all regions are well represented. While developed countries still dominate WHA governance, Western world countries do not overshadow decision-making, but rather there is evidence of strong engagement from the emerging economies. It is apparent that the WHO is still a relevant platform whereby all Member States can and do participate in the shaping of global health governance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Health Informatics in Developing Countries: Systematic Review of Reviews. Contribution of the IMIA Working Group Health Informatics for Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, D; Otero, C; Marcelo, A

    2013-01-01

    An evidence-base is important for medicine and health informatics. Despite numerous publications showing the benefits of health informatics, the emergence of health information systems in developing countries has been slower than expected. The aim of this paper is to identify systematic reviews on the domain of health informatics in developing countries, and classify the different types of applications covered. A systematic review of reviews was conducted. The literature search spanned the time period between 2000 and 2012 and included PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, Scopus, Cochrane Systematic Reviews, LILACS, and Google Scholar. The search term was 'systematic reviews of health informatics in developing countries', and transparent and systematic procedures were applied to limit bias at all stages. Of the 982 identified articles, only 10 met the inclusion criteria and one more article was added in a second manual search, resulting in a total of 11 systematic reviews for the analysis. Although it was difficult to find high quality resources on the selected domain, the best evidence available allowed us to generate this report and create an incipient review of the state of the art in health informatics in the developing countries. More studies will be needed to optimize the results.

  14. Contribution of household health care expenditure to poverty in Oyo State, South West Nigeria: A rural and urban comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olayinka Stephen Ilesanmi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The financial burden of health care costs in Nigeria is borne almost entirely by the individuals and household members as health care financing is still mostly from out of pocket (OOP payments. OOP payments can lead households into poverty. This study aimed to estimate the contribution of household health care expenditure to poverty in rural and urban communities in Oyo state, Nigeria. Method: This is a comparative cross-sectional study using a tested and adapted version of the Living Standard Survey questionnaire to collect data on 5,696 household members from 1,434 household representatives. Representatives were selected using a multistage sampling method. Information was collected from 714(49.8% and 720(50.2% households in the urban and rural Local Government Area (LGA, respectively. International poverty line of $1.25 per day was used. Poverty level was measured with and without household health expenditure. An exact McNemar’s test was used to determine the difference in the proportion of poor, gross and net payment for health care services. SPSS software was used for data analysis. Results: Health care was utilised by 1,006 (70.2% of the 1,434 households studied. Of urban and rural households, 637(89.2% and 369(51.3% utilized health care services, respectively. Only 513(29.8% were poor while 1519(88.2% were poor after considering the cost of utilising health care. Increase in poverty of 66.2% occurred because of health care utilisation (p<0.001. Conclusion: Health care expenditure increased the proportion of household members living below poverty line. To protect against poverty free basic health care services is required in Nigeria.

  15. Data Mashups: Potential Contribution to Decision Support on Climate Change and Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Lora E.; Haines, Andy; Golding, Brian; Kessel, Anthony; Cichowska, Anna; Sabel, Clive E.; Depledge, Michael H.; Sarran, Christophe; Osborne, Nicholas J.; Whitmore, Ceri; Cocksedge, Nicola; Bloomfield, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Linking environmental, socioeconomic and health datasets provides new insights into the potential associations between climate change and human health and wellbeing, and underpins the development of decision support tools that will promote resilience to climate change, and thus enable more effective adaptation. This paper outlines the challenges and opportunities presented by advances in data collection, storage, analysis, and access, particularly focusing on “data mashups”. These data mashups are integrations of different types and sources of data, frequently using open application programming interfaces and data sources, to produce enriched results that were not necessarily the original reason for assembling the raw source data. As an illustration of this potential, this paper describes a recently funded initiative to create such a facility in the UK for use in decision support around climate change and health, and provides examples of suitable sources of data and the purposes to which they can be directed, particularly for policy makers and public health decision makers. PMID:24499879

  16. How primary care can contribute to good mental health in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Sunjai; Jenkins, Rachel; Spicer, John; Marks, Marina; Mathers, Nigel; Hertel, Lise; Calamos Nasir, Laura; Wright, Fiona; Ruprah-Shah, Baljeet; Fisher, Brian; Morris, David; Stange, Kurt C; White, Robert; Giotaki, Gina; Burch, Tony; Millington-Sanders, Catherine; Thomas, Steve; Banarsee, Ricky; Thomas, Paul

    2018-01-01

    The need for support for good mental health is enormous. General support for good mental health is needed for 100% of the population, and at all stages of life, from early childhood to end of life. Focused support is needed for the 17.6% of adults who have a mental disorder at any time, including those who also have a mental health problem amongst the 30% who report having a long-term condition of some kind. All sectors of society and all parts of the NHS need to play their part. Primary care cannot do this on its own. This paper describes how primary care practitioners can help stimulate such a grand alliance for health, by operating at four different levels - as individual practitioners, as organisations, as geographic clusters of organisations and as policy-makers.

  17. E-business in health care: does it contribute to strengthen consumer interest?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kertzman, Ed; Janssen, Richard; Ruster, Marijn

    2003-04-01

    One of the goals of the reforms in the European health-care systems over the last two decades has been to make the health-care system more demand-oriented. There is not much known about the possible impact of E-business like approaches on this goal. This paper describes the concept of E-business. Two cases are introduced to illustrate the use of a simple E-business approach in a health-care setting. On the basis of these case studies, we aspect a reduction of the information disadvantages of patients. In our analysis, we also apply new institutional economy concepts, namely agency theory and transaction costs economics to focus on the position of the patient. Concluded is that it is more probable that preferences of demanders are answered by the suppliers of health care.

  18. The nature, development and contribution of social marketing to public health practice since 2004 in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Jeff

    2009-11-01

    Social marketing is a highly systematic approach to health improvement that sets out unambiguous success criteria focused on behaviour change. This paper reviews the key concepts and principles of social marketing and its recent rapid development across government in England in the public health field. This paper outlines the role of the National Social Marketing Centre and concludes with a discussion of the probable future impact of social marketing on public health practice. The paper argues that there is a close ideological match between social marketing and liberal democratic imperatives. Social marketing's focus on outcome, return on investment and its emphasis on developing interventions that can respond to diverse needs, means it is probable that social marketing will increasingly be required by governments as a standard part of public health programmes.

  19. Does Milk Consumption Contribute to Cardiometabolic Health and Overall Diet Quality?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamarche, Benoît; Givens, D.I.; Soedamah-Muthu, Sabita; Krauss, Ronald M.; Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre; Bischoff-Ferrari, Heike A.; Pan, An; Després, Jean Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Although milk consumption is recommended in most dietary guidelines around the world, its contribution to overall diet quality remains a matter of debate in the scientific community as well as in the public domain. This article summarizes the discussion among experts in the field on the place of

  20. Action Learning on the Edge: Contributing to a Master's Programme in Human Resources for Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmonstone, John; Robson, Jean

    2014-01-01

    This account of practice describes the introduction of an accredited postgraduate management qualification which used action learning as a major contribution to a blended learning approach in a fragile cross-border setting on the edge of Europe. Conventional management education has frequently been challenged on the grounds of relevance, efficacy…

  1. 78 FR 33450 - Submission for Review: Report of Withholdings and Contributions for Health Benefits, Life...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-04

    ... changes to the Federal Employees Retirement System (FERS). First, beginning in 2013, new employees (as designated in the statute) will have to pay significantly higher employee contributions, an increase of 2.3... proper performance of the functions of OPM, including whether the information will have practical utility...

  2. 78 FR 52579 - Submission for Review: Report of Withholdings and Contributions for Health Benefits, Life...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-23

    ... employee contributions, an increase of 2.3 percent of salary. Second, new Members of Congress and... performance of the functions of OPM, including whether the information will have practical utility; 2... of 2012,'' makes two significant changes to the Federal Employees' Retirement System (FERS). First...

  3. Engagement and Action for Health: The Contribution of Leaders’ Collaborative Skills to Partnership Success

    OpenAIRE

    Ansari, Walid El; Oskrochi, Reza; Phillips, Ceri

    2009-01-01

    A multi-site evaluation (survey) of five Kellogg-funded Community Partnerships (CPs) in South Africa was undertaken to explore the relationship between leadership skills and a range of 30 operational, functional and organisational factors deemed critical to successful CPs. The CPs were collaborative academic-health service-community efforts aimed at health professions education reforms. The level of agreement to eleven dichotomous (‘Yes/No’) leadership skills items was used to compute two mea...

  4. QUALITY MANAGEMENT IN HEALTH CARE - CONTRIBUTING TO PATIENT SAFETY AND EFFICIENCY OF BUSINESS OPERATION

    OpenAIRE

    Nevenka Kovac

    2014-01-01

    In order to ensure efficient and effective health care, of equal high quality and accessibility, at all the levels of healthcare and across the entire Croatian territory, all operators in health services are required to establish, develop and maintain a system for assuring and improving the quality in healthcare. Legal requirement to introduce quality management systems into healthcare institutions notwithstanding, a quality management system is equally important in regard to the provision of...

  5. 78 FR 25669 - Exchange Visitor Program-Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-02

    ... stated purpose, the teacher exchange program is not to be used to recruit and train foreign teachers for... Department as best practices and positive program models. Teacher Eligibility Current regulations state that... Part 62 RIN 1400-AC60 Exchange Visitor Program--Teachers AGENCY: Department of State. ACTION: Proposed...

  6. Segmentation of culturally diverse visitors' values in forest recreation management

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. Li; H.C. Zinn; G.E. Chick; J.D. Absher; A.R. Graefe; Y. Hsu

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the potential utility of HOFSTEDE’s measure of cultural values (1980) for group segmentation in an ethnically diverse population in a forest recreation context, and to validate the values segmentation, if any, via socio-demographic and service quality related variables. In 2002, the visitors to the Angeles National Forest (ANF)...

  7. Numerical visitor capacity: a guide to its use in wilderness

    Science.gov (United States)

    David Cole; Thomas Carlson

    2010-01-01

    Despite decades of academic work and practical management applications, the concept of visitor capacity remains controversial and inconsistently operationalized. Nevertheless, there are situations where development of a numerical estimate of capacity is important and where not doing so has resulted in land management agencies being successfully litigated. This report...

  8. Management of movement of visitors in a sports facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuzović Duško

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Management of movement of visitors in a facility is essential for a successful organization of a sports event. From a visitor's entrance into the premises of the sports facility to its place on the stands, corridors have to be defined. Depending on its position, a corridor is additionally divided into logical zones: a zone between a border of the plot and the facility, an outer zone, an internal zone, a zone of seats or stands. Precise specification of needs within a zone is used to organize movement of visitors safely and efficiently. Communications can be horizontal and vertical. Each group has set rules for design and maintenance. Depending on the applied technical solution, entrances have a defined capacity that must be taken into account when a sporting event is organized. Besides the entrance for visitors, there are many entrances dedicated to specific groups such as competitors, VIP, security, service, medical assistance, media, persons with special needs, etc. Management of movement of users in a facility must be a subject of careful analysis because it is of a great importance for the general impression on the quality of a sports facility.

  9. Forest Service National Visitor Use Monitoring Process: Research Method Documentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald B.K. English; Susan M. Kocis; Stanley J. Zarnoch; J. Ross Arnold

    2002-01-01

    In response to the need for improved information on recreational use of National Forest System lands, the authors have developed a nationwide, systematic monitoring process. This report documents the methods they used in estimating recreational use on an annual basis. The basic unit of measure is exiting volume of visitors from a recreation site on a given day. Sites...

  10. Flowering phenology and floral visitors of Piliostigma reticulatum in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nymphalidae (Lepidoptera), Syrphidae (Diptera), Apidae (Hymenoptera) and Sphecidae (Hymenoptera) were regarded as main potential pollinators of P. reticulatum. Apidae (Apis mellifera) was the most abundant and frequent visitor. We found that August was the peak flowering period for both male and female individuals ...

  11. Coordination and Human Resource Planning in the Hawaii Visitor Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawaii State Commission on Manpower and Full Employment, Honolulu.

    This report was undertaken in response to a request by the Sixth Legislature, which expressed its concern with the lack of coordination and overall human resource planning in the visitor industry and that the findings of the January 6-7, 1970 Travel Industry Congress had not been fully implemented. The State Commission on Manpower and Full…

  12. Museum Web search behavior of special interest visitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Mette; Ingwersen, Peter

    2014-01-01

    There is a current trend to make museum collections widely accessible by digitising cultural heritage collections for the Internet. The present study takes a user perspective and explores the characteristics of online museum visitors' web search behaviour. A combination of quantitative and qualit...

  13. Examining winter visitor use in Yellowstone National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mae A. Davenport; Wayne A. Freimund; William T. Borrie; Robert E. Manning; William A. Valliere; Benjamin Wang

    2000-01-01

    This research was designed to assist the managers of Yellowstone National Park (YNP) in their decision making about winter visitation. The focus of this report is on winter use patterns and winter visitor preferences. It is the author’s hope that this information will benefit both the quality of winter experiences and the stewardship of the park resources. This report...

  14. Recognizing patterns of movements in visitor flows in nature areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ligtenberg, A.; Marwijk, van R.; Moelans, B.; Kuijpers, B.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents some approaches for geo-spatial analysis of movement behavior of visitors of recreational areas. The approaches are bases on the use of moving object databases containing Temporary Annotated Sequences (TAS). The TAS result from the use of GPS or mobile phones for tracking

  15. Wilderness visitor experiences: Lessons from 50 years of research

    Science.gov (United States)

    David N. Cole; Daniel R. Williams

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviews 50 years of research on the experiences of wilderness visitors. Research on the nature of experiences began with an emphasis on motivations for taking wilderness trips and a focus on the experiential outcomes of wilderness visits. This perspective has been complemented by recent work that more deeply explores the lived experience in wilderness, its...

  16. National Wildlife Refuge Visitor Survey Results: 2010/2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — ViSIT is an interactive web tool created by USGS to visualize the data collected as part of the National Wildlife Refuge Visitor Survey. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife...

  17. Northern Virginia wineries: understanding visitor motivations for market segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cammeral Geide; Laurie Harmon; Robert Baker

    2009-01-01

    The wine industry is a rapidly growing sector of Virginia's economy, yet little research has been done on this topic. The purpose of this study was to obtain a better understanding of northern Virginia winery visitors' motivations to help winery operators better focus their marketing efforts. This exploratory research project collected basic information about...

  18. 76 FR 10498 - Exchange Visitor Program-Fees and Charges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-25

    ... finds that educational and cultural exchanges are both the cornerstone of U.S. public diplomacy and an... Cultural exchange program. Accordingly, 22 CFR part 62 is amended as follows: PART 62--EXCHANGE VISITOR..., 1977 Comp. p. 200; E.O. 12048 of March 27, 1978; 3 CFR, 1978 Comp. p. 168; the Illegal Immigration...

  19. Communicating Climate Change to Visitors of Informal Science Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koepfler, Jes A.; Heimlich, Joe E.; Yocco, Victor S.

    2010-01-01

    This article reports findings on visitors' preferences for content presentation of a future global warming and climate change exhibit. The study was conducted with two groups: one from the Marian Koshland Science Museum of the National Academy of Sciences in Washington, DC, and the other at the Center of Science and Industry in Columbus, Ohio. The…

  20. Standardizing Interpretive Training to Create a More Meaningful Visitor Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Rob

    2016-01-01

    Implementing a standardized interpretive training and mentoring program across multiple departments has helped created a shared language that staff and volunteers use to collaborate and evaluate interpretive programs and products. This has led to more efficient and effective training and measurable improvements in the quality of the visitor's…

  1. Visitor preferences for managing wilderness recreation after wildfire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan N.K. Brown; Randall S. Rosenberger; Jeffrey D. Kline; Troy E. Hall; Mark D. Needham

    2008-01-01

    The 2003 Bear Butte and Booth (B&B) Fires burned much of the Mount Jefferson Wilderness in the Deschutes and Willamette National Forests, Oregon. A question for managers is how best to manage recreation in fire-affected areas in ways that minimize adverse impacts on visitor experiences and the recovering landscape. To help address this question, we used onsite...

  2. Recreation settings, scenery, and visitor experiences: a research assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel R. Williams

    2007-01-01

    A core task of recreation research is to understand the relation between settings, scenery, and visitor experiences. This paper uses environmental psychology to describe four conceptual models underlying these relations: inherent/aesthetic, opportunity/goal-directed, symbolic, and expressive. The paper then describes some challenges to applying results to recreation...

  3. Projections on museum exhibits - engaging visitors in the museum setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basballe, Ditte Amund; Halskov, Kim

    2010-01-01

    Using animation, text, and visual effects as elements of projections on the Danish rune stone, Mejlbystenen (the Mejlby stone), we have explored approaches to engaging museum visitors. The installation positions itself in the field of previous installations and experiments exploring projection on...

  4. Biodiversity Hotspots and Visitor Flows in Oulanka National Park, Finland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lyon, K.; Cottrell, S.P.; Siikamaki, P.; Marwijk, van R.B.M.

    2011-01-01

    Oulanka National Park, Finland aims to ensure nature conservation while providing high quality visitor experiences. The growth of outdoor recreation and nature tourism, however, has fueled concern about consequent pressures on the natural resources of the park. This analysis assessed the spatial

  5. Managing outdoor recreation in California: visitor contact studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah J. Chavez

    2001-01-01

    Findings from 30 outdoor recreation visitor contact studies that wereconducted in California between 1989 and 1998 are summarized. Analyses focuson recreationist profiles, patterns of participation, beliefs and opinions,communication patterns, and depreciative behaviors. Although the “typical”respondent to the survey sites was white, there were many sites where...

  6. Tourism package preferences of West Virginia state park visitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    William Gravley; John Dengler; Roy Ramthun; Chad Pierskalla

    2009-01-01

    This study was a preliminary examination of the activity and spending behavior of visitors to Pipestem State Park in West Virginia. This state park is being used as a case study area to determine whether a new fish stocking program accompanied by appropriate marketing activities can increase park visitation by anglers and other sports-oriented people. The research was...

  7. Visitors' perceptions of environmental impacts of the 2010 FIFA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    While a neglected area of research, the environmental impacts of hosting mega events have increasingly been highlighted with a focus on the carbon footprint of mega events and the notion of the greening of events. This article examines visitor perceptions of environmental impacts of the 2010 FIFA World Cup in Durban ...

  8. Providing Value to New Health Technology: The Early Contribution of Entrepreneurs, Investors, and Regulatory Agencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehoux, Pascale; Miller, Fiona A.; Daudelin, Geneviève; Denis, Jean-Louis

    2017-01-01

    Background: New technologies constitute an important cost-driver in healthcare, but the dynamics that lead to their emergence remains poorly understood from a health policy standpoint. The goal of this paper is to clarify how entrepreneurs, investors, and regulatory agencies influence the value of emerging health technologies. Methods: Our 5-year qualitative research program examined the processes through which new health technologies were envisioned, financed, developed and commercialized by entrepreneurial clinical teams operating in Quebec’s (Canada) publicly funded healthcare system. Results: Entrepreneurs have a direct influence over a new technology’s value proposition, but investors actively transform this value. Investors support a technology that can find a market, no matter its intrinsic value for clinical practice or healthcare systems. Regulatory agencies reinforce the "double" value of a new technology—as a health intervention and as an economic commodity—and provide economic worth to the venture that is bringing the technology to market. Conclusion: Policy-oriented initiatives such as early health technology assessment (HTA) and coverage with evidence may provide technology developers with useful input regarding the decisions they make at an early stage. But to foster technologies that bring more value to healthcare systems, policy-makers must actively support the consideration of health policy issues in innovation policy. PMID:28949463

  9. Providing Value to New Health Technology: The Early Contribution of Entrepreneurs, Investors, and Regulatory Agencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehoux, Pascale; Miller, Fiona A; Daudelin, Geneviève; Denis, Jean-Louis

    2017-01-25

    New technologies constitute an important cost-driver in healthcare, but the dynamics that lead to their emergence remains poorly understood from a health policy standpoint. The goal of this paper is to clarify how entrepreneurs, investors, and regulatory agencies influence the value of emerging health technologies. Our 5-year qualitative research program examined the processes through which new health technologies were envisioned, financed, developed and commercialized by entrepreneurial clinical teams operating in Quebec's (Canada) publicly funded healthcare system. Entrepreneurs have a direct influence over a new technology's value proposition, but investors actively transform this value. Investors support a technology that can find a market, no matter its intrinsic value for clinical practice or healthcare systems. Regulatory agencies reinforce the "double" value of a new technology-as a health intervention and as an economic commodity-and provide economic worth to the venture that is bringing the technology to market. Policy-oriented initiatives such as early health technology assessment (HTA) and coverage with evidence may provide technology developers with useful input regarding the decisions they make at an early stage. But to foster technologies that bring more value to healthcare systems, policy-makers must actively support the consideration of health policy issues in innovation policy.

  10. How Economic Analysis Can Contribute to Understanding the Links between Housing and Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Ralph; Preval, Nicholas; Howden-Chapman, Philippa

    2017-08-31

    An economic analysis of housing's linkages to health can assist policy makers and researchers to make better decisions about which housing interventions and policies are the most cost-beneficial. The challenge is to include cobenefits. The adoption in 2015 of the UN Sustainable Development Goals underscores the importance of understanding how policies interact, and the merit of comprehensively evaluating cobenefits. We explain our approach to the empirical assessment of such cobenefits in the housing and health context, and consider lessons from empirical economic appraisals of the impact of housing on health outcomes. Critical assumptions relating to cobenefits are explicitly examined. A key finding is that when wider policy outcome measures are included, such as mental health impacts and carbon emission reductions, it is important that effects of assumptions on outcomes are considered. Another is that differing values underlie appraisal, for example, the weight given to future generations through the discount rate. Cost-benefit analyses (CBAs) can better facilitate meaningful debate when they are based on explicit assumptions about values. In short, the insights drawn from an economic framework for housing-and-health studies are valuable, but nonetheless contingent. Given that housing interventions typically have both health and other cobenefits, and incorporate social value judgements, it is important to take a broad view but be explicit about how such interventions are assessed.

  11. Job strain — Attributable depression in a sample of working Australians: Assessing the contribution to health inequalities

    OpenAIRE

    Ostry Aleck; Vallance Deborah; Keegel Tessa; LaMontagne Anthony D; Wolfe Rory

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background The broad aim of this study was to assess the contribution of job strain to mental health inequalities by (a) estimating the proportion of depression attributable to job strain (low control and high demand jobs), (b) assessing variation in attributable risk by occupational skill level, and (c) comparing numbers of job strain–attributable depression cases to numbers of compensated 'mental stress' claims. Methods Standard population attributable risk (PAR) methods were used ...

  12. 78 FR 90 - Defense Intelligence Agency National Intelligence University Board of Visitors Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-02

    ... of the Secretary Defense Intelligence Agency National Intelligence University Board of Visitors Closed Meeting AGENCY: National Intelligence University, Defense Intelligence Agency, Department of... a closed meeting of the National Intelligence University Board of Visitors has been scheduled as...

  13. 78 FR 32241 - Defense Intelligence Agency National Intelligence University Board of Visitors; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-29

    ... of the Secretary Defense Intelligence Agency National Intelligence University Board of Visitors; Notice of Closed Meeting AGENCY: National Intelligence University, Defense Intelligence Agency... given that a closed meeting of the National Intelligence University Board of Visitors has been scheduled...

  14. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service : Rocky Mountain Arsenal : Interim Plan for Weekend Visitor Access

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is an interim plan for weekend visitors designed to provide for the safety of visitors to the Rocky Mountain Arsenal during its remediation and transition to a...

  15. 75 FR 33573 - Information Collection; Aldo Leopold Wilderness Research Institute Wilderness Visitor Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-14

    ... Forest Service Information Collection; Aldo Leopold Wilderness Research Institute Wilderness Visitor... organizations on the new information collection: Aldo Leopold Wilderness Research Institute Wilderness Visitor...: Comments concerning this notice should be addressed to Alan Watson, Aldo Leopold Wilderness Research...

  16. Incentives and Disincentives for Day Visitors to Park and Ride Public Transportation at Acadia National Park

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    F Matthew Holly; Jeffrey C Hallo; Elizabeth D Baldwin; Fran P Mainella

    2010-01-01

    ... (National Park Service, 2009). To protect the parks natural resources and provide for superior visitor experiences, the National Park Service established the fare-free Island Explorer bus service in 1999 to transport visitors...

  17. Epidemiology of cognitive aging and Alzheimer's disease: contributions of the cache county utah study of memory, health and aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayden, Kathleen M; Welsh-Bohmer, Kathleen A

    2012-01-01

    Epidemiological studies of Alzheimer's disease (AD) provide insights into changing public health trends and their contribution to disease incidence. The current chapter considers how the population-based approach has contributed to our understanding of lifetime exposures that contribute to later disease risk and may act to modify onset of symptoms. We focus on the findings from a recent survey of an exceptionally long-lived population, the Cache County Utah Study of Memory, Health, and Aging. This study is confined to a single geographic population has allowed estimation of the genetic and environmental influences on AD expression across the expected human lifespan of 95+ years. Given the emphasis of this text on the behavioral neurosciences of aging, we highlight within the current chapter the particular contributions of this population-based study to the neuropsychology of aging and AD. We also discuss hypotheses generated from this survey with respect to factors that may either accelerate or delay symptom onset in AD and the conditions that appear to be associated with successful cognitive aging.

  18. Mental health status and leisure-time physical activity contribute to fatigue intensity in patients with spondylarthropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Costa, Deborah; Dritsa, Maria; Ring, Angela; Fitzcharles, Mary-Ann

    2004-12-15

    To examine the relationship between disease-related variables, leisure-time physical activity (LTPA), and mental health status with fatigue severity in patients with spondylarthropathy (SpA). Sixty-six SpA patients completed questionnaires assessing disease activity (Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index [BASDAI]), functional ability (Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index), and health-related quality of life (Short Form 36). LTPA patterns, demographics, and disease-related data were obtained by interview. A clinical examination determined tender point count. Fatigue was assessed with the BASDAI fatigue item. The mean BASDAI fatigue score was 5.5 (SD=2.7) with 59% of the sample obtaining a score > or =5. Disease activity, functional disability, and worse mental health contributed to greater fatigue (R2=0.56). The relationship between exercise duration and fatigue intensity was moderated by mental health status. For patients with poorer mental health scores, exercise did not influence fatigue severity. However, for patients reporting better mental health status, engaging in more LTPA decreased fatigue severity. In addition to increased disease activity and functional disability, greater fatigue severity in SpA is associated with poorer mental health status. Integrating regular leisure physical activity into the comprehensive treatment of SpA may be useful for modulating fatigue.

  19. Diet Assessment Methods in the Nurses' Health Studies and Contribution to Evidence-Based Nutritional Policies and Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Frank B; Satija, Ambika; Rimm, Eric B; Spiegelman, Donna; Sampson, Laura; Rosner, Bernard; Camargo, Carlos A; Stampfer, Meir; Willett, Walter C

    2016-09-01

    To review the contribution of the Nurses' Health Studies (NHSs) to diet assessment methods and evidence-based nutritional policies and guidelines. We performed a narrative review of the publications of the NHS and NHS II between 1976 and 2016. Through periodic assessment of diet by validated dietary questionnaires over 40 years, the NHSs have identified dietary determinants of diseases such as breast and other cancers; obesity; type 2 diabetes; cardiovascular, respiratory, and eye diseases; and neurodegenerative and mental health disorders. Nutritional biomarkers were assessed using blood, urine, and toenail samples. Robust findings, from the NHSs, together with evidence from other large cohorts and randomized dietary intervention trials, have contributed to the evidence base for developing dietary guidelines and nutritional policies to reduce intakes of trans fat, saturated fat, sugar-sweetened beverages, red and processed meats, and refined carbohydrates while promoting higher intake of healthy fats and carbohydrates and overall healthful dietary patterns. The long-term, periodically collected dietary data in the NHSs, with documented reliability and validity, have contributed extensively to our understanding of the dietary determinants of various diseases, informing dietary guidelines and shaping nutritional policy.

  20. The Osservasalute Health Report 2010: the contribution of a wide and independent Italian research network to decision making in healthcare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Giulio de Belvis

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Italian Observatory Healthcare Report (IOHR - 8th edition [1] aims to help policy makers in the process of decision making through a set of validated indicators resulting from the multidisciplinary activity of several public health experts. Its main task is to gather comparable data on the health status and the quality of health care services throughout the Italian regions. Methods: The report adopts a European approach in order to build a benchmarking activity and the selection criteria of indicators include: meaning, feasibility and quality, comparability and reliability. Each indicator is analyzed by experts in terms of meaning, pattern, validity and limits, graphic representation; recommendations are included for decision makers. A peer reviewing is performed for quality assessment. Results: The IOHR 2010 included 96 indicators, analysed by 203 authors. Through comparable regional data coming from different sources, an overview of the Italian Health System, and a gauging of the impact that different regional organizational and institutional arrangements have on the quality of health services, have been provided. Though data analysis showed a North-South gradient in the quality and the organization of health care services, nevertheless, the overall health status of Italian population is good. Risk factors, lifestyles and prevention together with geographical and social differences in health status and service access are the main priorities. Conclusions: The IOHR helps monitoring the health status in the Italian regions through specific indicators characterized by scientific strictness. It contributes to identifying the situations of excellence and disseminating public health care control tools in order to facilitate the decision making process.

  1. The contribution of sport participation to overall health enhancing physical activity levels in Australia: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eime, R M; Harvey, J T; Charity, M J; Casey, M M; van Uffelen, J G Z; Payne, W R

    2015-08-20

    The contribution of sport to overall health-enhancing leisure-time physical activity (HELPA) in adults is not well understood. The aim was to examine this in a national sample of Australians aged 15+ years, and to extend this examination to other ostensibly sport-associated activities. The 2010 Exercise, Recreation and Sport Survey (ERASS) was conducted by telephone interview in four quarterly waves. Data from this survey were analysed to categorise leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) as HELPA or non-HELPA, and to categorise HELPA activities and sessions of HELPA activity by setting and frequency. The contribution of sport to HELPA was estimated, both directly through activities and settings classified as sport per se, and indirectly through other fitness activities ostensibly related to preparation for sport and enhancement of sport performance. Of 21,602 respondents, 82 % reported some LTPA in the 12 months prior to the survey. In aggregate, respondents reported 37,020 activity types in the previous 12 months, of which 94 % were HELPA. Of HELPA activities, 71 % were non-organised, 11 % were organised but not sport club-based, and 18 % were sport club-based. Of all sport activities, 52 % were HELPA. Of sport HELPA, 33 % was sport club-based and 78 % was undertaken ≥12 times/year. Sport club members were significantly more likely to have participated in running, but significantly less likely to have participated in walking or aerobics/fitness training, than non-club members. Club sport participation contributes considerably to LTPA at health enhancing levels. Health promotion policies, and more specifically physical activity policies, should emphasize the role of sport in enhancing health. Sport policy should recognise the health-promoting role of community-based sport in addition to the current predominant focus on elite pathways.

  2. Can humanization theory contribute to the philosophical debate in public health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemingway, A

    2012-05-01

    This paper will explore the humanization value framework for research, policy and practice with regard to its relevance for public health, specifically the reduction of inequities in health. This proposed framework introduces humanizing values to influence research, policy and practice. The framework is articulated through eight specific constituents of what it is to be human. These dimensions are articulated as humanizing and dehumanizing dimensions that have the potential to guide both research and practice. The paper will then go on to consider these dimensions in relation to the emergent qualities of the potential 'fifth-wave' of public health intervention. The humanization dimensions outlined in this paper were presented as emerging from Husserl's notion of lifeworld, Heidegger's contemplations about human freedom and being with others, and Merleau-Ponty`s ideas about body subject and body object. Husserl's ideas about the dimensions that make up 'lifeworld', such as embodiment, temporality and spatiality, underpin the suggested dimensions of what it is to be human. They are proposed in the paper as together informing a value base for considering the potentially humanizing and dehumanizing elements in systems and interactions. It is then proposed that such a framework is useful when considering methods in public health, particularly in relation to developing new knowledge of what is both humanizing and dehumanizing within research and practice. Copyright © 2012 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The contribution of community leadership upon the performance of mutual health organisations in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adomah-Afari, Augustine

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of social dynamics on the performance of mutual health organisations (MHOs) exploring the influence of community wealth and community leadership on policy implementation. Four operating district mutual health insurance schemes were selected using geographical locations, among other criteria, as case studies. Data were gathered through interviews and documentary review. The findings were analysed using community field and social capital theories. Traditional leaders like the Chiefs serve as the pivot around which social and human capital of the communities revolve in the developmental process of the country. Lack of exhaustive examination of the financial and institutional viability issues of the MHOs. Future studies could assess the interplay between financial, institutional and social viability models when measuring the financial and overall sustainability of MHOs. Health policy makers need to involve traditional leaders in the formulation and implementation of national policies since their acceptance or rejection of central government policy could have negative consequences. Ghana is a dynamic country and there is the need to utilise existing social networks: inter-family and inter-tribal relationships to ensure the viability of MHOs. There is and can be a successful interplay between public sector funding and community sector revenue mobilisation for financing the health sector in Ghana. This justifies the complementarity between government funding and community's resource mobilisation efforts in the health sector.

  4. Australian mental health consumers contributions to the evaluation and improvement of recovery-oriented service provision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshal, Sarah L; Oades, Lindsay G; Growe, Trevor P

    2010-01-01

    One key component of recovery-oriented mental health services, typically overlooked, involves genuine collaboration between researchers and consumers to evaluate and improve services delivered within a recovery framework. Eighteen mental health consumers working with staff who had received training in the Collaborative Recovery Model (CRM) took part in in-depth focus group meetings, of approximately 2.5 hours each, to generate feedback to guide improvement of the CRM and its use in mental health services. Consumers identified clear avenues for improvement for the CRM both specific to the model and broadly applicable to recovery-oriented service provision. Findings suggest consumers want to be more engaged and empowered in the use of the CRM from the outset. Improved sampling procedures may have led to the identification of additional dissatisfied consumers. Collaboration with mental health consumers in the evaluation and improvement of recovery-oriented practice is crucial with an emphasis on rebuilding mental health services that are genuinely oriented to support recovery.

  5. Rotavirus vaccines contribute towards universal health coverage in a mixed public-private healthcare system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loganathan, Tharani; Jit, Mark; Hutubessy, Raymond; Ng, Chiu-Wan; Lee, Way-Seah; Verguet, Stéphane

    2016-11-01

    To evaluate rotavirus vaccination in Malaysia from the household's perspective. The extended cost-effectiveness analysis (ECEA) framework quantifies the broader value of universal vaccination starting with non-health benefits such as financial risk protection and equity. These dimensions better enable decision-makers to evaluate policy on the public finance of health programmes. The incidence, health service utilisation and household expenditure related to rotavirus gastroenteritis according to national income quintiles were obtained from local data sources. Multiple birth cohorts were distributed into income quintiles and followed from birth over the first five years of life in a multicohort, static model. We found that the rich pay more out of pocket (OOP) than the poor, as the rich use more expensive private care. OOP payments among the poorest although small are high as a proportion of household income. Rotavirus vaccination results in substantial reduction in rotavirus episodes and expenditure and provides financial risk protection to all income groups. Poverty reduction benefits are concentrated amongst the poorest two income quintiles. We propose that universal vaccination complements health financing reforms in strengthening Universal Health Coverage (UHC). ECEA provides an important tool to understand the implications of vaccination for UHC, beyond traditional considerations of economic efficiency. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Contributions from the South African Society of Psychiatrists (SASOP to the National Mental Health Action Plan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Bernard Janse van Rensburg

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The national Mental Health Action Plan (MHAP flowed from the Ekurhuleni Declaration, adopted at the National Mental Health Summit (NMHS in April 2012. The final draft of the MHAP included eight national objectives, with key activities which were believed to be ‘catalytic.’ These objectives include: district-based mental health service; institutional capacity; surveillance, research and innovation; infrastructure and capacity; mental health technology, equipment and medicines; inter-sectoral collaboration; human resources; and advocacy, mental health promotion and prevention of illness. A representative group of regional State Employed Special Interest Group (SESIG delegates met during April 2013, to: operationalise the 12 South African Society of Psychiatrists (SASOP/SESIG position statements of the previous year; review SASOP’s position statements in the context of the proposed national MHAP; and to identify SASOP’s role and responsibilities accordingly. This paper describes the contextual events in the drafting of the MHAP, as well as the appraisal of the MHAP during the 2013 SASOP/SESIG meeting, and SASOP’S envisaged role and responsibilities according to the national MHAP.

  7. Genetic and Epigenetic Contributions to Human Nutrition and Health: Managing Genome–Diet Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    STOVER, PATRICK J.; CAUDILL, MARIE A.

    2017-01-01

    The Institute of Medicine recently convened a workshop to review the state of the various domains of nutritional genomics research and policy and to provide guidance for further development and translation of this knowledge into nutrition practice and policy. Nutritional genomics holds the promise to revolutionize both clinical and public health nutrition practice and facilitate the establishment of (a) genome-informed nutrient and food-based dietary guidelines for disease prevention and healthful aging, (b) individualized medical nutrition therapy for disease management, and (c) better targeted public health nutrition interventions (including micronutrient fortification and supplementation) that maximize benefit and minimize adverse outcomes within genetically diverse human populations. As the field of nutritional genomics matures, which will include filling fundamental gaps in knowledge of nutrient–genome interactions in health and disease and demonstrating the potential benefits of customizing nutrition prescriptions based on genetics, registered dietitians will be faced with the opportunity of making genetically driven dietary recommendations aimed at improving human health. PMID:18755320

  8. The Contribution of Individual, Social and Work Characteristics to Employee Mental Health in a Coal Mining Industry Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Considine, Robyn; Tynan, Ross; James, Carole; Wiggers, John; Lewin, Terry; Inder, Kerry; Perkins, David; Handley, Tonelle; Kelly, Brian

    2017-01-01

    Evidence regarding the extent of mental health problems and the associated characteristics within an employee population is necessary to inform appropriate and tailored workplace mental health programs. Mental health within male dominated industries (such as mining) has received recent public attention, chiefly through observations regarding suicide in such populations in Australia and internationally. Currently there is limited empirical evidence regarding the mental health needs in the mining industry as an exemplar of a male dominated workforce, and the relative contribution to such problems of individual, socio-economic and workplace factors. This study aimed to investigate the mental health and associated characteristics among employees in the Australian coal mining industry with a specific focus on identifying modifiable work characteristics. A cross-sectional study was conducted among employees (n = 1457) across eight coal mines stratified by key mine characteristics (state, mine type and employee commute arrangements). Participants completed measures of psychological distress (K10+) and key variables across four categories (socio-demographic characteristics, health history, current health behaviours, work attitudes and characteristics). Psychological distress levels within this sample were significantly higher in comparison with a community sample of employed Australians. The following factors contributed significantly to levels of psychological distress using hierarchical linear regression analysis: lower social networks; a past history of depression, anxiety or drug/alcohol problems; high recent alcohol use; work role (managers) and a set of work characteristics (level of satisfaction with work, financial factors and job insecurity; perception of lower workplace support for people with mental health problems. This is the first study to examine the characteristics associated with mental health problems in the Australian coal mining industry. The findings

  9. Natural Experiments: An Overview of Methods, Approaches, and Contributions to Public Health Intervention Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Peter; Katikireddi, Srinivasa Vittal; Leyland, Alastair; Popham, Frank

    2017-03-20

    Population health interventions are essential to reduce health inequalities and tackle other public health priorities, but they are not always amenable to experimental manipulation. Natural experiment (NE) approaches are attracting growing interest as a way of providing evidence in such circumstances. One key challenge in evaluating NEs is selective exposure to the intervention. Studies should be based on a clear theoretical understanding of the processes that determine exposure. Even if the observed effects are large and rapidly follow implementation, confidence in attributing these effects to the intervention can be improved by carefully considering alternative explanations. Causal inference can be strengthened by including additional design features alongside the principal method of effect estimation. NE studies often rely on existing (including routinely collected) data. Investment in such data sources and the infrastructure for linking exposure and outcome data is essential if the potential for such studies to inform decision making is to be realized.

  10. [Health literacy: what can doctors contribute? The doctor's practice as an educational institution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeyer, Albert

    2015-02-01

    In medicine, there is growing awareness about the crucial role health literacy can play in the health system. Generally, the focus lies on functional health literacy, which is closely linked to the common understanding of literacy as being able to read and write. Useful rules of communication are available for fostering patients' literacy. However, critical literacy is a much more demanding concept. Here the hermeneutics of biomedical knowledge plays is important, and so far rather neglected. The physician--and in particular the general practitioner--has an important part in this process, as a guide and a teacher. For this, it is necessary to have educational professionalism that goes beyond applying communication rules. It is important to know that the process of teaching and learning is not transmissive but constructive. Educational reconstruction is a useful instrument for taking this into account. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. The Idealized Brazilian Health System versus the real one: contributions from the nursing field1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backes, Dirce Stein; de Souza, Martha Helena Teixeira; Marchiori, Mara Teixeira Caino; Colomé, Juliana Silveira; Backes, Marli Terezinha Stein; Lunardi, Wilson Danilo

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: to identify the perceptions of professionals working in a facility connected with the Brazilian Unified Health System - SUS in regard to what they know, think and talk about public health policy. METHOD: this exploratory-descriptive study with a qualitative nature was conducted with 28 professionals working in a facility connected with the SUS. Data were collected through interviews with guiding questions and analyzed through the thematic content analysis technique. RESULTS: coded and interpreted data resulted in three thematic axes: The SUS - perfect web that does not work in practice; The recurrent habit of complaining about the SUS; The need to rethink the way of thinking about, acting in and managing the SUS. CONCLUSION: the professionals working for the SUS are aware of the principles and guidelines that govern the Brazilian health system, however, they reproduce a dichotomous and linear model of conception and practice strongly linked to the thinking of society in general. PMID:25591099

  12. The contributions of behaviour change science towards dental public health practice: a new paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asimakopoulou, Koula; Newton, Jonathon Tim

    2015-02-01

    Conventional behavioural models, such as social cognition models, to improve oral health have been proposed for a long time but have failed to consistently explain reliable amounts of variability in human behaviours relevant to oral health. This paper introduces current work from the behavioural sciences aiming to better understand the process through which behaviour change may take place. Given the shortcomings seen so far in attempts to explain behaviour through traditional models it is proposed that a new approach is adopted. This commentary outlines this new approach, grounded in current work by mainstream behaviour change experts. We propose that attempts to use unreliable theoretical models to explain and predict oral health behaviour should now be replaced by work following this new paradigm. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. [Energy drinks and their contribution to current health concerns for children and adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cichocki, Michał

    2012-01-01

    Carbonated beverages including energy drinks make up an increasing percentage of energy intake amongst adults as well as children and adolescents. Due to high content of di- or monosaccharides and biologically active compounds (mainly caffeine), their regular intake may involve addictions and potential health risks, including diabetes. Although consumption of energy drinks is usually not recommended by the manufacturers to the children under the age of 16, due to its popularity and unrestricted availability on market energy drinks are easily accessible to younger children. Low awareness of the potential health risks involved with such beverages in society together with unrestricted distribution and advertising requires undertaking general information campaign concerning energy drinks. In this paper a critical review has been made to discuss potential somatic and psychological health risks issue. Moreover, conclusions were supported with the results of the survey conducted among college and high-school adolescents.

  14. Human nutrition and adaptation in Brazilian Amazon fishing areas: contributions to health policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Ferreira de Souza Aguiar

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available The search for equity in access to services is presently an important principle in public policies for health in Brazil. Social inequalities in the Amazonia occur at high levels comparatively to the other regions in the country; and, within Amazonia, they particularly affect rural communities. The present study aims to appreciate associations between food and nutritional profile, adaptive strategies, and epidemiology in these communities, specially in areas of artisanal fishery, and also to suggest general lines of appropriated health policies. The construction of a context of equitable assistance and of sustainable health, without significant damage to biodiversity, depends on the capacity of public power in exploring the relationships between use and management of natural resources and the quality of life of riverine man.

  15. [Reproductive health: a contribution to the evaluation of a virtual library].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Maria do Carmo Avamilano; Cuenca, Angela Maria Belloni; Noronha, Daisy Pires; Schor, Néia

    2007-10-01

    Virtual libraries have been implemented in an attempt to organize scientific information found in the Internet, including the Biblioteca Virtual de Saúde Reprodutiva (BVSR), or Virtual Library on Reproductive Health. The aim is to provide quality information to researchers in the reproductive health field. The current study evaluates the use of the BVSR, emphasizing the users' expectations, difficulties, and suggestions. The study adopted a qualitative methodology. The focus group technique was applied to Internet chat groups through which reproductive health researchers communicated. Users expressed their expectations regarding information, highlighting the lack of time and the need to quickly obtain precise data. Use of virtual libraries for research increases where there is more trust in the institutions responsible for maintaining them. Researchers suggested the following: greater dissemination of the BVSR, publication of an electronic newsletter, and creation of a communications channel between the BVSR and users in order to foster intelligent collective communication.

  16. Systems thinking in public health: a bibliographic contribution to a meta-narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chughtai, Saad; Blanchet, Karl

    2017-05-01

    Research across the formal, natural and social sciences has greatly expanded our knowledge about complex systems in recent decades, informing a broadly inclusive, cross-disciplinary conceptual framework referred to as Systems Thinking (ST). Its use in public health is rapidly increasing, although there remains a poor understanding of how these ideas have been imported, adapted and elaborated by public health research networks worldwide. This review employed a mixed methods approach to narrate the development of ST in public health. Tabulated results from a literature search of the Web of Science Core Collection database were used to perform a bibliometric analysis and literature review. Annual publication counts and citation scores were used to analyse trends and identify popular and potential 'landmark' publications. Citation network and co-authorship network diagrams were analysed to identify groups of articles and researchers in various network roles. Our search string related to 763 publications. Filtering excluded 208 publications while citation tracing identified 2 texts. The final 557 publications were analysed, revealing a near-exponential growth in literature over recent years. Half of all articles were published after 2010 with almost a fifth (17.8%) published in 2014. Bibliographic analysis identified five distinct citation and co-authorship groups homophilous by common geography, research focus, inspiration or institutional affiliation. As a loosely related set of sciences, many public health researchers have developed different aspects of ST based on their underlying perspective. Early studies were inspired by Management-related literature, while later groups adopted a broadly inclusive understanding which incorporated related Systems sciences and approaches. ST is an increasingly popular subject of discussion within public health although its understanding and approaches remain unclear. Briefly tracing the introduction and development of these ideas

  17. Perceived effects of setting attributes on visitor experiences in wilderness: Variation with situational context and visitor characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    David N. Cole; Troy E. Hall

    2009-01-01

    Understanding how setting attributes influence the nature of the visitor experience is crucial to effective recreation management. Highly influential attributes are useful indicators to monitor within a planning framework, such as Limits of Acceptable Change. This study sought to identify the setting attributes perceived to have the most profound effect on the ability...

  18. Monetary and social impact measures of visitor experience and the effects of a piping plover recovery program on visitor experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laura Gilbert

    1995-01-01

    This study examined visitor perceptions and attitudes towards their experience at a national wildlife refuge which limits access to its barrier beach during the nesting season of the threatened piping plover. It determined attitudes towards the closure, as well as what factors influenced these attitudes. It also examined how willingness to pay for refuge protection...

  19. Environmental and nursing-staff factors contributing to aggressive and violent behaviour of patients in mental health facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wijk, Evalina; Traut, Annalene; Julie, Hester

    2014-08-14

    Aggressive and violent behaviour of inpatients in mental health facilities disrupts the therapeutic alliance and hampers treatment. The aim of the study was to describe patients' perceptions of the possible environmental and staff factors that might contribute to their aggressive and violent behaviour after admission to a mental health facility; and to propose strategies to prevent and manage such behaviour. A qualitative, phenomenological study was utilised, in which purposefully sampled inpatients were interviewed over a six-month period. Inpatients were invited to participate if they had been admitted for at least seven days and were in touch with reality. Forty inpatients in two mental health facilities in Cape Town participated in face-to-face, semi-structured interviews over a period of six months. Tesch's descriptive method of open coding formed the framework for the data analysis and presentation of the results. Trustworthiness was ensured in accordance with the principles of credibility, confirmability, transferability and dependability. Analysis of the data indicates two central categories in the factors contributing to patients' aggressive and violent behaviour, namely, environmental factors and the attitude and behaviour of staff. From the perspective of the inpatients included in this study, aggressive and violent episodes are common and require intervention. Specific strategies for preventing such behaviour are proposed and it is recommended that these strategies be incorporated into the in-service training programmes of the staff of mental health facilities. These strategies could prevent, or reduce, aggressive and violent behaviour in in-patient facilities.

  20. Comparison of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus in Healthy Community Hospital Visitors [CA-MRSA] and Hospital Staff [HA-MRSA

    OpenAIRE

    Pathare, Nirmal A.; Anil Pathare

    2015-01-01

    Background The prevalence of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus [CA-MRSA] is unknown in Oman. Methods Nasal and cell phones swabs were collected from hospital visitors and health-care workers on sterile polyester swabs and directly inoculated onto a mannitol salt agar containing oxacillin, allowing growth of methicillin-resistant microorganisms. Antibiotic susceptibility tests were performed using Kirby Bauer?s disc diffusion method on the isolates. Minimum inhib...

  1. Experiencing polar bears in the zoo: feelings and cognitions in relation to a visitor's conservation attitude

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marseille, M.M.; Elands, B.H.M.; Brink, van den M.L.

    2012-01-01

    This article explores which feelings and cognitions are involved in visitor experiences of zoo polar bears and how this experience relates to a visitor's conservation attitude. Data were collected through qualitative interviews with 30 visitors in two Dutch zoos. Most respondents believed that a

  2. 7 CFR 502.10 - Photographs by visitors or for news, advertising, or commercial purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Photographs by visitors or for news, advertising, or... RESEARCH CENTER PROPERTY, BELTSVILLE, MARYLAND § 502.10 Photographs by visitors or for news, advertising, or commercial purposes. Photographs may be taken by visitors or for news purposes without prior...

  3. Communicating minimum impact behavior with trailside bulletin boards: Visitor characteristics associated with effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen F. McCool; David N. Cole

    2000-01-01

    Bulletin boards are a frequently used method of communicating minimum impact behaviors to wilderness visitors. But how effective are they? What types of visitors are most likely to pay attention to the messages posted there? This study used a field experiment to identify visitor characteristics associated with attention to minimum impact messages posted on a bulletin...

  4. Serving culturally diverse visitors to forests in California: a resource guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nina S. Roberts; Deborah J. Chavez; Benjamin M. Lara; Emilyn A. Sheffield

    2009-01-01

    The national forests of California are experiencing an increase in new visitors yet, in some areas, a continued lack of ethnic diversity persists. In addition, changing demographics has led to a need for keeping up with trends while also being aware of constraints to visitor use. Knowing how to serve culturally diverse visitors in ways that are innovative and inclusive...

  5. 77 FR 33202 - Meeting of the U.S. Naval Academy Board of Visitors; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-05

    ... Department of the Navy Meeting of the U.S. Naval Academy Board of Visitors; Correction AGENCY: Department of... to changing requirements beyond the control of the U.S. Naval Academy Board of Visitors or its... Board of Visitors, Office of the Superintendent, U.S. Naval Academy, Annapolis, MD 21402-5000, 410-293...

  6. Lakes and ponds recreation management: a state-wide application of the visitor impact management process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerry J. Vaske; Rodney R. Zwick; Maureen P. Donnelly

    1992-01-01

    The Visitor Impact Management (VIM) process is designed to identify unacceptable changes occurring as a result of visitor use and to develop management strategies to keep visitor impacts within acceptable levels. All previous attempts to apply the VIM planning framework have concentrated on specific resources. This paper expands this focus to an entire state. Based on...

  7. Visitor perceptions of and support for management actions at an urban national historic site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julie A. Strack; Craig A. Miller

    2009-01-01

    This study examined visitor use patterns, perceptions of crowding, and preferences for mixed-use management plans for the Kennesaw Mountain Road at Kennesaw Mountain National Battlefield Park (KMNBP) outside Atlanta, GA. Survey data showed significant differences between first-time visitors to KMNBP and repeat visitors. Most felt that the road should have open access...

  8. Visitor use patterns and satisfaction along the Rogue-Umpqua Scenic Byway, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh K. Shrestha; Robert C. Burns; Alan R. Graefe; Kevin R. Gaydos

    2009-01-01

    Face-to-face interviews were conducted with 232 visitors/groups along Oregon's Rogue-Umpqua Scenic Byway (RUSB) to identify recreation use patterns and assess visitor satisfaction with various attributes of the Byway. Study participants were most likely to be over 50 years old, to be visiting overnight, and to be repeat visitors from Oregon who were there with...

  9. Visitor and nurse satisfaction with a visitation policy change in critical care units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, P; Cathelyn, J; Gugliotta, B; Glenn, L L

    1999-01-01

    Studies have addressed the visitation needs of visitors and patients and the impact of visitation policies on nurses, but few studies compare the level of satisfaction between visitors and nurses when visitation policies change. The objectives of this study were to investigate whether a more liberal intensive care unit visitation policy satisfactorily met the needs and expectations of visitors and nurses.

  10. Making Space for Experimentation, Collaboration, and Play: Re-Imagining the Drop-in Visitor Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostov, Merilee

    2014-01-01

    In late 2006, the Columbus Museum of Art education department adopted a new framework that established creativity as the lens for learning and visitor experiences. But what does creativity look like in a gallery experience? What are visitor attitudes toward creativity? This article explores how the drop-in visitor experience was reimagined at the…

  11. Creating Safe(r) Spaces for Visitors and Staff in Museum Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katrikh, Mark

    2018-01-01

    Visitors come to museums for many reasons, including to learn something new about our world, not specifically to have an emotional response. Visitors unprepared for personal experiences can manifest their confusion in a multitude of ways. Anticipating such reactions, museums must engage in dialogue, to help visitors process emotions and ultimately…

  12. Visitor perceptions of crowding and discrimination at two National Forests in southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah J. Chavez

    1993-01-01

    Visitors to southern California National Forests are urban dwellers and as a group are culturally diverse. To manage the National Forests for this diverse group of visitors, information is needed on their expectations, preferences, and experiences at recreation sites. To evaluate visitor perceptions of crowding and discrimination, to determine favorite activities, and...

  13. 75 FR 10809 - Agency Information Collection Activities: United States Visitor and Immigrant Status Indicator...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-09

    ... States Visitor and Immigrant Status Indicator Technology (US-VISIT); Biometric Data Collection at the.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The United States Visitor and Immigrant Status Indicator Technology (US-VISIT..., entitled ``United States Visitor and Immigrant Status Indicator Technology Program (US-VISIT); Enrollment...

  14. Exploring Contributions of Project-Based Learning to Health and Wellbeing in Secondary Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Pete; Gray, Shirley; Sproule, John; Nash, Christine; Martindale, Russell; Wang, John

    2015-01-01

    Regardless of the aims and purposes of education, recent trends in pedagogy suggest an increasing popularity of project-based learning (PBL) and a focus on interdisciplinary approaches to learning, however ill-defined they may be. Connections between PBL, curriculum trends and health and wellbeing are reviewed, as well as potential value of…

  15. The contributions of leisure and active recreation to health and well ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Many people today are physically active as part of their recreation or leisure. Therefore, the purpose of this paper was to present an overview of literature that has explored the relationships that leisure and active recreation have to health and well-being. Research, both qualitative and quantitative, has been conducted in the ...

  16. Does sports club participation contribute to health-related quality of life?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eime, Rochelle M; Harvey, Jack T; Brown, Wendy J; Payne, Warren R

    2010-05-01

    Given the social nature of participation in sport, we hypothesized that club sports participants would have greater well-being and quality of life than participants in other forms of physical activity (PA). The purpose of this study was to examine health-related quality of life and life satisfaction in women who participate in three contrasting forms of PA: club sport, gym activities, and walking. This was a cross-sectional study of the relationship between type of PA setting and measures of health-related quality of life (Short-Form Health Survey [SF-36]) and life satisfaction in 818 women living in rural Victoria, Australia, in 2007. Data were also compared with those from a normative sample of 2345 women. After adjustment for potential confounders (age, education, marital status, children aged life satisfaction were significantly higher in the club sport group than that in the other groups. Although cross-sectional research cannot establish causal links, the results suggest that participation in club sport may enhance the health benefits of PA.

  17. A Suffering Generation: Six Factors Contributing to the Mental Health Crisis in North American Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruisselbrink Flatt, Alicia

    2013-01-01

    The number of students on university and college campuses that are struggling with depression, anxiety, suicidal thoughts, and psychosis across North America is rising (Gallagher, 2008). This intensification of students' psychological needs has become a mental health crisis. The age at which many mental disorders manifest themselves is between 18…

  18. Researchers' Perceptions of Statistical Significance Contribute to Bias in Health and Exercise Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Taylor L.; Lohse, Keith R.

    2016-01-01

    We surveyed researchers in the health and exercise sciences to explore different areas and magnitudes of bias in researchers' decision making. Participants were presented with scenarios (testing a central hypothesis with p = 0.06 or p = 0.04) in a random order and surveyed about what they would do in each scenario. Participants showed significant…

  19. Causal Attributions for Health and Illness: A Cross-Cultural Contribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boruchovitch, Evely

    Researchers investigated the causal attributions for health and illness among 96 Brazilian elementary school students. Subjects were interviewed individually and their causal attributions were assessed through 14 true-false items (e.g. people stay well because they are lucky). The findings suggest that there may be more cross-cultural similarities…

  20. Data Mashups: Potential Contribution to Decision Support on Climate Change and Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lora E. Fleming

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Linking environmental, socioeconomic and health datasets provides new insights into the potential associations between climate change and human health and wellbeing, and underpins the development of decision support tools that will promote resilience to climate change, and thus enable more effective adaptation. This paper outlines the challenges and opportunities presented by advances in data collection, storage, analysis, and access, particularly focusing on “data mashups”. These data mashups are integrations of different types and sources of data, frequently using open application programming interfaces and data sources, to produce enriched results that were not necessarily the original reason for assembling the raw source data. As an illustration of this potential, this paper describes a recently funded initiative to create such a facility in the UK for use in decision support around climate change and health, and provides examples of suitable sources of data and the purposes to which they can be directed, particularly for policy makers and public health decision makers.