WorldWideScience

Sample records for health venereal disease

  1. Campylobacter as a venereal disease in cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, T.; Wagenaar, J.A.; Visser, I.J.; Bergen, van M.A.P.; Pastoor, P.W.; Strampel, J.; Kock, P.A.

    2005-01-01

    Since the introduction of AI, venereal diseases caused by Tritrichomonas fetus and Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis haved been eradicated in The Netherlands. Campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus can cause sporadic abortion and early embryonic death. When natural breeding is practised, venereal

  2. A Curriculum-Based Health Service Program in Hypertension, Diabetes, Venereal Diseases and Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coker, Samuel T.; Janer, Ann L.

    1978-01-01

    Special screening and education courses in hypertension, diabetes, venereal disease, and cardiopulmonary resuscitation were added as electives at the Auburn University School of Pharmacy. Applied learning experiences for students and services to the community are achieved. Course goals and content and behavioral objectives in each area are…

  3. Venereal Disease Education: Facts Are Not Enough

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snegroff, Stanley

    1975-01-01

    This article discusses the need for educators to use teaching methods that center on the meaning of masculinity and feminity, the concept of love, and the need to prove oneself when discussing venereal diseases. (PD)

  4. The "Other" Venereal Diseases: Herpes Simplex, Trichomoniasis and Candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNab, Warren L.

    1979-01-01

    Although the term venereal disease has been synonymous with gonorrhea and syphilis, the Center for Disease Control now states that the number of new cases of herpes simplex, trichomoniasis, and candidiasis is rapidly approaching the number of cases of syphilis and gonorrhea. (MM)

  5. [Effect of alcohol consumption on recurrence of venereal diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjekić, M; Vlajinac, H

    2000-01-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) comprise a large group of infections caused by different microorganisms including spirochetes, bacteria, chlamydia, mycoplasma, protozoa, fungi, parasites, and viruses. A considerable number of patients with sexually transmitted diseases are STD recurrences. As reported by Marijanović and Lalosević, in Belgrade, among patients who visited the City Department of Skin and Venereal Diseases, during 1985 and 1986 because of syphilis or gonorrhea, 22.8% had these diseases two or more times during their lives (male/female ratio 10:1). The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that there is a relationship between alcohol use and recurrence of STD. A case-control study was performed in Belgrade population, from June, 1997 to April, 1998. Participants were recruited among patients attending the City Department of Skin and venereal Diseases of Belgrade because of sexually transmitted diseases (syphilis, gonorrhea, nongonoccocal urethritis and genital warts). The case group comprised 101 patients who already had STD two or more times in their personal histories. The control group consisted of 210 patients treated at the same institution for micotic diseases, patients who either never had STD or had it only once (13% of controls) in their personal histories. All participants were men aged 20 to 50 years and all were from Belgrade. Data on demographic characteristics, sexual history and sexual behavior, and data on antisocial behavior were collected from all participants using an anonymous questionnaire. In the present paper only data on alcohol use are presented. In the analysis of data chi 2-test was used. STD recurrence patients in comparison to their controls used alcohol more frequently (56.3%:16.1%), especially hard liquors, and 55.5% of them used alcohol at the time of STD infection. In the present study STD recurrence patients consumed alcohol more frequently than their controls, especially hard liquors. In the study of

  6. [Sociopathologic behavior and repeated infection with venereal disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjekić, M; Vlajinac, H; Marinković, J

    1999-01-01

    The sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) comprise a large group of infections produced by different microorganisms including spirochetes, bacteria, chlamydia, mycoplasme, protozoa, fungi, parasites, and viruses. A considerable number of sexually transmitted diseases patients are STD repeaters. As reported by Marjanovitsh and Laloshevitsh [2], in Belgrade, among patients who during the years 1985 and 1986 visited the City Department for Skin and Veneral Diseases, because of syphilis or gonorrhea, 22.8% had these diseases two or more times during their lives (male/female ratio 10:1). In Richert et al. [6] study over 30% of all patients who in one year visited sexually transmitted diseases clinic in Dade County, Florida, returned with a new infection within 3 years of their index visit. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that there is a relationship between antisocial behaviour and repeated STD. Case-control study was performed in the population of Belgrade, from June 1997 to April 1998. Participants were recruited among patients attending the City Department for Skin and Venereal Diseases of Belgrade because of sexually transmitted diseases (syphilis, gonorrhea, nongonoccocal urethritis and genital warts). The group comprised 101 patients who in their personal histories already had STD two or more times. The control group consisted of 210 patients treated at the same institution for micotic diseases, patients who in their personal histories have never had STD or had it only once (13% of controls). All participants were men aged 20 to 50 years and all were from Belgrade. Data on demographic characteristics, sexual history and sexual behaviour, as well as data on use of sedatives, smoking habit and sport activity, and data on antisocial behaviour (alcohol abuse, prostitution, drug abuse, prosecution for minor and criminal offences) were collected from all participants by an anonymous questionnaire. In the present paper only data on antisocial behaviour

  7. Caribbean slavery, British abolition and the cultural politics of venereal disease in the Atlantic world

    OpenAIRE

    Burnard, Trevor; Follett, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Venereal disease was commonplace among free and enslaved populations in colonial Caribbean societies. This article considers how contemporaries (both in the empire and metropole) viewed venereal infection and how they associated it with gendered notions of empire and masculinity. It further explores how creole medical practices evolved as planters, slaves, and tropical physicians treated sexually transmitted infections. Yet what began as a familiar and customary affliction was seen, by the la...

  8. An evaluation of microcult g.c. in venereal disease clinics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, A O; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    1977-01-01

    ). The investigation included 203 men and 80 women who appeared for examination at our veneral disease clinics. For examination of urethral specimens from men the predictive value of positive tests was found to be 93% and the predictive value of negative tests was 94%. For specimens from the urethra and cervix...... of women, the predictive value of positive tests was 95% and the predictive value of negative tests was 90%. The reliability of these results makes Microocult G.C. a valuable supplement to microscopy in venereal disease clinics with a relative high prevalence of gonorrhoea. The predictive value of positive...

  9. An evaluation of microcult g.c. in venereal disease clinics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, A O; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    1977-01-01

    ). The investigation included 203 men and 80 women who appeared for examination at our veneral disease clinics. For examination of urethral specimens from men the predictive value of positive tests was found to be 93% and the predictive value of negative tests was 94%. For specimens from the urethra and cervix...... of women, the predictive value of positive tests was 95% and the predictive value of negative tests was 90%. The reliability of these results makes Microocult G.C. a valuable supplement to microscopy in venereal disease clinics with a relative high prevalence of gonorrhoea. The predictive value of positive...... tests from the anal canal was 21% and from the tonsils 3%; in these locations the test is not suitable for diagnostic purposes....

  10. [Fertility and mortality in the urban agglomeration of Banyo (Cameroon): the influence of venereal diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurault, J

    1983-01-01

    The demographic situation in the city of Banyo, Cameroon, is described for the period 1952-1976 using survey and census data. This city was characterized by a large slave population, particularly in the nineteenth century, and slavery remained common up to the 1960s. The consequences of slavery, including disruption of family life, concubinage, and high rates of venereal disease, are noted. Fertility and mortality differences among the slave and free populations are analyzed by sex. (summary in ENG, SPA)

  11. Is routine antenatal venereal disease research laboratory test still justified? Nigerian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwosu, Betrand O; Eleje, George U; Obi-Nwosu, Amaka L; Ahiarakwem, Ita F; Akujobi, Comfort N; Egwuatu, Chukwudi C; Onyiuke, Chukwudumebi O C

    2015-01-01

    To determine the seroreactivity of pregnant women to syphilis in order to justify the need for routine antenatal syphilis screening. A multicenter retrospective analysis of routine antenatal venereal disease research laboratory (VDRL) test results between 1 September 2010 and 31 August 2012 at three specialist care hospitals in south-east Nigeria was done. A reactive VDRL result is subjected for confirmation using Treponema pallidum hemagglutination assay test. Analysis was by Epi Info 2008 version 3.5.1 and Stata/IC version 10. Adequate records were available regarding 2,156 patients and were thus reviewed. The mean age of the women was 27.4 years (±3.34), and mean gestational age was 26.4 weeks (±6.36). Only 15 cases (0.70%) were seropositive to VDRL. Confirmatory T. pallidum hemagglutination assay was positive in 4 of the 15 cases, giving an overall prevalence of 0.19% and a false-positive rate of 73.3%. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of syphilis in relation to maternal age and parity (P>0.05). While the prevalence of syphilis is extremely low in the antenatal care population at the three specialist care hospitals in south-east Nigeria, false-positive rate is high and prevalence did not significantly vary with maternal age or parity. Because syphilis is still a serious but preventable and curable disease, screening with VDRL alone, without confirmatory tests may not be justified. Because of the increase in the demand for evidence-based medicine and litigation encountered in medical practice, we may advocate that confirmatory test for syphilis is introduced in routine antenatal testing to reduce the problem of false positives. The government should increase the health budget that will include free routine antenatal testing including the T. pallidum hemagglutination assay.

  12. Is routine antenatal venereal disease research laboratory test still justified? Nigerian experience

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    Nwosu BO

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Betrand O Nwosu,1 George U Eleje,1 Amaka L Obi-Nwosu,2 Ita F Ahiarakwem,3 Comfort N Akujobi,4 Chukwudi C Egwuatu,4 Chukwudumebi O Onyiuke5 1Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nnewi Campus, Nnewi, Anambra State, Nigeria; 2Department of Family Medicine, Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi, Nigeria; 3Department of Medical Microbiology, Imo State University Teaching Hospital, Orlu, Imo State, Nigeria; 4Department of Medical Microbiology, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nnewi Campus, Nnewi, Anambra State, Nigeria; 5Department of Medical Microbiology, Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi, Anambra State, NigeriaObjective: To determine the seroreactivity of pregnant women to syphilis in order to justify the need for routine antenatal syphilis screening.Methods: A multicenter retrospective analysis of routine antenatal venereal disease research laboratory (VDRL test results between 1 September 2010 and 31 August 2012 at three specialist care hospitals in south-east Nigeria was done. A reactive VDRL result is subjected for confirmation using Treponema pallidum hemagglutination assay test. Analysis was by Epi Info 2008 version 3.5.1 and Stata/IC version 10.Results: Adequate records were available regarding 2,156 patients and were thus reviewed. The mean age of the women was 27.4 years (±3.34, and mean gestational age was 26.4 weeks (±6.36. Only 15 cases (0.70% were seropositive to VDRL. Confirmatory T. pallidum hemagglutination assay was positive in 4 of the 15 cases, giving an overall prevalence of 0.19% and a false-positive rate of 73.3%. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of syphilis in relation to maternal age and parity (P>0.05.Conclusion: While the prevalence of syphilis is extremely low in the antenatal care population at the three specialist care hospitals in south-east Nigeria, false-positive rate is high and prevalence did not significantly vary with maternal age or

  13. Contagion and Cultural Perceptions of Accepted Behaviour : Tuberculosis and Venereal Diseases in Scandinavia c.1900–c.1950

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    Blom, Ida

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This article compares legislation in the three Scandinavian countries on tuberculosis and venereal disease during the first half of the twentieth century. It attempts to highlight what was perceived as unacceptable behaviour that might cause disease and consequently legitimise public coercion. According to the letter of the laws all citizens should be treated in the same way. But in the case of tuberculosis unacceptable behaviour exposing an individual to public coercion was found with the poor population: Where venereal disease was concerned extra-marital sex was seen as the risk factor for all citizens. Still, the primary target groups were prostitutes and certain groups of young women. It is suggested that, pending further comparative research, national differences in legal provisions may be explained by the prevalence of the disease, by political and economic circumstances, and in the case of tuberculosis by different perceptions of the contagious nature of the disease.

  14. Los medios de comunicación al servicio de la lucha antivenérea y la protección de la salud materno-infantil (1900-50 The mass media at the service of the fight against venereal diseases and the protection of maternal-infant health (1900-50

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    Ramón Castejón

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo pretendemos analizar el uso del cartelismo sanitario en el contexto de las campañas de educación sanitaria que las instituciones sanitarias españolas diseñaron para difundir conocimientos científico-técnicos, influir en las actitudes e intentar modificar comportamientos en la población española. Nos centramos en los carteles relacionados con la protección de la salud materno-infantil y las enfermedades venéreas. La investigación analiza igualmente la utilización del cartelismo como instrumento para atraer pacientes a los servicios sanitarios. También se pretende analizar su contribución, junto a otros muchos factores, a la construcción de determinadas imágenes de la maternidad, de la infancia sana, de género y sexualidad en el marco del desarrollo de la salud pública española.Focusing on posters about the protection of maternal-infant health and about venereal diseases, the article analyzes their use within the context of the health education campaigns that Spanish health institutions devised to disseminate scientific and technical knowledge, influence attitudes, and modify the behavior of the Spanish people. The study also analyzes the use of posters as a tool for attracting patients to health services. It further analyzes this craft's contribution - in conjunction with many other factors - to the construction of certain images: maternity, a healthy childhood, gender, and sexuality, all within the framework of the development of Spanish public health.

  15. The Prevalence of Syphilis in England and Wales on the Eve of the Great War: Re-visiting the Estimates of the Royal Commission on Venereal Diseases 1913-1916.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szreter, Simon

    2014-08-01

    Public fears of widespread venereal disease led in 1913 to the appointment of The Royal Commission on Venereal Diseases (RCVD). In 1916 its Final Report offered only a single cautious and somewhat imprecise summary statement about the likely prevalence of venereal diseases in England and Wales. Although the significance of contemporary attitudes to venereal disease has attracted a good deal of historiographic attention, no historian or demographer has since investigated this aspect of the Royal Commission's work. This article critically re-examines the most important quantitative evidence presented to the Royal Commission relating to the years immediately prior to the First World War. It utilises this evidence to produce new estimates of the probable prevalence of syphilis among adult males, both nationally and among certain geographical divisions and social groups in the national population; and also to offer a comment on the likely prevalence of gonorrhoea.

  16. Médicos, prostitución y enfermedades venéreas en Colombia (1886-1951 Physicians, prostitution, and venereal disease in Colombia (1886-1951

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    Diana Obregón

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo examina la lucha del cuerpo médico colombiano contra las enfermedades 'venéreas' entre 1886 y 1951. En este período, Colombia sufrió procesos de urbanización, crecimiento de población, nacimiento de la industria y aparición de una clase media y de un proletariado urbano. Los médicos encontraron una conexión estrecha entre la difusión del contagio de la sífilis y la gonorrea, y el aumento del ejercicio de la prostitución en las ciudades. A finales del siglo XIX, los médicos y los organismos de higiene asumieron la prostitución como inevitable; en 1907 consiguieron reglamentarla y fundaron dispensarios para aplicar los tratamientos de mercurio y compuestos arsenicales. Hacia los años 1930 y 1940, la curación de las enfermedades venéreas se asumió como un deber estatal de defensa de la raza y a favor de la civilización y del progreso. Hacia 1950, el uso eficaz de la penicilina hizo que la cuestión de la prostitución se volviera a plantear en términos más morales y estéticos, y se impuso la abolición de las normas que regulaban su ejercicio, por lo menos en Bogotá.The article examines the Colombian medical field's fight against so-called venereal diseases between 1886 and 1951, a period when the country was undergoing processes of urbanization, population growth, and the emergence both of industry as well as of a middle class and an urban proletariat. Physicians found a close connection between the spread of syphilis and gonorrhea and the rise of prostitution in cities. At the close of the 19th century, doctors and public health bodies assumed prostitution was inevitable. In 1907 they managed to have it legalized and they opened clinics to dispense mercury therapy and treatment with arsenic compounds. Starting in the 1930s and 1940s, treatment of venereal diseases was viewed as the State's duty, necessary to protect "la raza" and safeguard progress and civilization. As of 1950, the efficient use of penicillin

  17. Secondary Syphilis in Patients Treated at the City Institute for Skin and Venereal Diseases in Belgrade from 2010 to 2014

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    Bjekić Milan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze the characteristics and clinical manifestations of secondary syphilis among patients registered at the City Institute for Skin and Venereal Diseases in Belgrade, during the period from 2010 to 2014. The study was designed as a case-note review. In the five-year period, a total of 62 patients with secondary syphilis were registered. The average patient age was 32 years. There were 45 (72.6% HIV-negative, and 17 (27.4% HIV-positive patients. The incidence of HIV–positive patients was significantly different from random distribution (p = 0.016. All HIV-positive patients were unmarried men. A significant percentage of HIV-positive patients were unemployed (p < 0.001, reported unknown source of infection (p = 0.002 and were all homosexuall (p = 0.026. More than 25% of all patients with syphilis had a history of chancres, and it was still present at the time of examination in 11.3% of all patients. The majority of cases (87.1% had a rash, and lymphadenopathy was found in 20% of patients. However, syphilitic alopecia was detected only in HIV-positive cases (p = 0.004. There were no statistically significant differences between HIV-positive and HIV-negative patients in regard to other clinical manifestations, such as mucous patches and condylomata lata. Being a great imitator, secondary syphilis may manifest in a myriad of diverse morphological entities and clinical manifestations. We review a range of cutaneous manifestations of secondary syphilis and skin diseases it may mimic. Clinicians must be vigilant and consider syphilis in differential diagnosis, and maintain a high index of suspicion, especially when assessing vulnerable populations, such as men who have sex with men and HIV-infected individuals.

  18. [Trade, wars and the venereal disease: VD epidemic and control of Korea in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sihn, Kyu-hwan

    2008-12-01

    This paper examines the spread of venereal disease from the Opening of Korea to the early Japanese colonial period. It focuses on the formation and expansion of Japanese settlement in Korea, the influence of wars, and the state control of VD. The Opening of Korea made the foreign settlement, and Japanese licensed prostitution flourished in Japanese settlement. According to the First Annual Report of the Korean Government Hospital (1886) and Gyelimuisa (1887), VD patients occupied 18.3% of outpatients in Jejungwon hospital of Seoul and 8.9% of outpatients in Busan hospital. Directly after the Opening of Korea, Korean people's VD became lesser critical than Japanese people's VD. But the expansion of Japanese settlement and outbreak of two wars such as Sino-Japanese War and Russo-Japanese War made worse Korean people's VD. According to the Residency-General resources (1904-1909), syphilis patients was registered in 0.8-6.6% (average 3.6%). If it add to gonorrhea and chancroid patients which often could not be found out by the naked eyes, the number of VD patients will be increase. Ji Seok-yeong (1855-1935), the earliest smallpox vaccinarian in Korea, asserted the need of VD control. Though he warned men bought sex as well as prostitutes became the main culprit of VD diffusion, he supported licensed prostitution because of realistic possibility. The Great Han Empire (1897-1910) tried to control the lower grade whore, and gathered prostitutes in some area by police power. After Japanese annexation of Korea, while Japanese has gradually decreased in VD patients, Korean has gradually increased in VD patients.

  19. TRANSMISSIBLE VENEREAL TUMOR - LITERATURE REVIEW

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    T. R. B Berndt

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Transmissible venereal tumor (TVT is a contagious disease among the family of canines. Has a high prevalence in temperate regions and mainly affects male and female dogs wandering. Transmissible venereal tumor's main characteristic is a sexually transmitted cancer, through intercourse, and also transmitted through cell transplantation, an animal that has the disease to another Sound, which has an abrasion or epithelial discontinuity through licking or contact direct to neoplasia. It has no known etiology, although some authors suggest that there may be some virus as an agent. Is macroscopically observed as a crumbly mass, ulcerated, hemorrhagic, with the appearance of cauliflower. Their cells, if observed microscopically, have very clear, round and giant nucleus stained cytoplasm, and the presence of vacuolated cells in mitosis. The diagnosis can be accomplished by fine needle aspiration cytology, "imprint", histopathology, imaging tests such as x-ray and ultrasound, which are used for observation of metastases in internal organs. The main treatment is chemotherapy with substances such as vincristine dose of 0.5 to 0.7 mg / m², intra venous (IV, or from 0.0125 to 0.025 mg / kg IV once a week, four to eight weeks, and for animals which have acquired resistance to vincristine sulfate, is associated with the chemotherapeutic doxorubicin at a dose of 30 mg / m² IV once a week for four to eight weeks. Some protocols include prednisolone associated with vincristine sulfate for the treatment of Extragenital TVT.

  20. Biological false-positive venereal disease research laboratory test in cerebrospinal fluid in the diagnosis of neurosyphilis - a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, S; Lin, R J; Chan, Y H; Ngan, C C L

    2017-11-08

    There is no clear consensus on the diagnosis of neurosyphilis. The Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL) test from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) has traditionally been considered the gold standard for diagnosing neurosyphilis but is widely known to be insensitive. In this study, we compared the clinical and laboratory characteristics of true-positive VDRL-CSF cases with biological false-positive VDRL-CSF cases. We retrospectively identified cases of true and false-positive VDRL-CSF across a 3-year period received by the Immunology and Serology Laboratory, Singapore General Hospital. A biological false-positive VDRL-CSF is defined as a reactive VDRL-CSF with a non-reactive Treponema pallidum particle agglutination (TPPA)-CSF and/or negative Line Immuno Assay (LIA)-CSF IgG. A true-positive VDRL-CSF is a reactive VDRL-CSF with a concordant reactive TPPA-CSF and/or positive LIA-CSF IgG. During the study period, a total of 1254 specimens underwent VDRL-CSF examination. Amongst these, 60 specimens from 53 patients tested positive for VDRL-CSF. Of the 53 patients, 42 (79.2%) were true-positive cases and 11 (20.8%) were false-positive cases. In our setting, a positive non-treponemal serology has 97.6% sensitivity, 100% specificity, 100% positive predictive value and 91.7% negative predictive value for a true-positive VDRL-CSF based on our laboratory definition. HIV seropositivity was an independent predictor of a true-positive VDRL-CSF. Biological false-positive VDRL-CSF is common in a setting where patients are tested without first establishing a serological diagnosis of syphilis. Serological testing should be performed prior to CSF evaluation for neurosyphilis. © 2017 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  1. Serological tests in venereal syphilis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Notowicz (Alfred)

    1981-01-01

    textabstractApart from identification of the causative microorganism, serological blood testing is still the principal aid in the diagnosis of venereal syphilis. In latent syphilis it is in fact the only diagnostic aid. In the diagnosis of late symptomatic syphilis, additional organ-specific

  2. CLINICAL ASPECTS OF TRANSMISSIBLE VENEREAL TUMOR

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    A. C. Sá

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The transmissible venereal tumor is among the main diseases that affect domestic animals of the Canidae family. Abandoned animals are the main transmitters of the disease, which is highly contagious; most of the injuries are commonly found on animals genital organs and faces. This is a tumor without any involvement with an infectious agent, tumor cells are transferred from a sick animal to a healthy animal through natural breeding or direct contact of the lesions with other body parts. The disease has no predisposition for breeding, sex and species, therefore possibly affecting all canids although there are more reports on stray animals.The TVT lesions have cauliflower appearance and may be pedunculated, papillary or multilobulated, with hemorrhagic and crumbly aspect. The tumor can have benign or malignant potential, being the second most frequently commonly reported, wherein according to its potential raise the difficulty of the treatment or not.

  3. [Penis friction edema: not a venereal disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erceg, A.; Verlind, J.; Berretty, P.J.

    2003-01-01

    A 35-year-old man presented with a local swelling of the penis, which increased until the entire penis was thick and swollen. After infectious and obstructive causes had been eliminated, a diagnosis of 'penis friction oedema' was made. The swelling disappeared during several weeks of abstinence from

  4. Biography of Dr. Đorđe-Đurica Đorđević, Founder of the Clinic for Skin and Venereal Diseases in Belgrade/Biografija dr Đorđa - Đurice Đorđevića, osnivača Klinike za dermatovenerologiju i venerologiju u Beogradu

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    Bosiljka Lalević-Vasić M.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Đorđe Đorđević, a Serb from Croatia, was born in Grubišno polje (Croatia on April 22, 1885. He studied medicine in Vienna and graduated in 1909. Till 1912, he advanced his knowledge working at dermatology clinics with Prof. Finger and Prof. Arning, as well as with Prof. Weichselbaum, professor of pathological anatomy and bacteriology. From 1912 he worked in Zagreb, at the Dermatology Department of the Brothers of Mercy Hospital, and during World War I as a military doctor at the Dermatology Department and the Zagreb Outpatient Department (Second kolodvor. After the war, in 1918, he moved to Belgrade, where he was the Head of the Polyclinic for Skin and Venereal Diseases, and in 1922 he became an Assistant Professor of Dermatology at the School of Medicine in Belgrade. In the same year, he founded the Department of Dermatovenereology at the School of Medicine in Belgrade and the Clinic for Skin and Venereal Diseases, of which he was also the Head. In 1923, he became an Associate Professor, and in 1934 a Full Professor. He is given credit for passing legislation on prostitution and banning brothels.

  5. Effective Treatment of Transmissible Venereal Tumors in Dogs with Vincristine and IL2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DEN Otter, Willem; Hack, Margot; Jacobs, John J L; Tan, Jurgen F V; Rozendaal, Lawrence; VAN Moorselaar, R Jeroen A

    2015-06-01

    To improve treatment of inoperable transmissible venereal tumors (TVTs) in dogs. Recently, we showed that TVT is sensitive to intratumoral treatment with interleukin-2 (IL2). In addition it is known that TVT is sensitive to intravenous treatment with vincristine. In the present study we tried to establish the therapeutic effect of intratumoral treatment with vincristine and IL2. We treated 12 dogs with TVT with 1-4 intratumoral treatments with vincristine and IL-2. Per treatment we used vincristine (0.5-0.7 mg/m(2)) and IL2 (2×10(6) units). The injections were given at weekly intervals. Early therapeutic effects were: three complete regressions, four partial regressions, three stable disease, and two progressive disease. Late therapeutic effects were established 45-60 months after the first presentation; there were five complete regressions, no partial regressions, nor stable or progressive diseases. Interestingly, all five dogs with late therapeutic effects were in good health. No tumor recurrence was noted. Intratumoral treatment of TVT with vincristine and IL2 appears to have impressive therapeutic effects. Copyright© 2015 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  6. Disseminated transmissible venereal tumor in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Mi-Sun; Kim, Yongbaek; Kang, Min-Soo; Oh, Sang-Yeon; Cho, Doo-Youn; Shin, Nam-Shik; Kim, Dae-Yong

    2006-01-01

    Transmissible venereal tumor (TVT) is a well-documented transplantable tumor in dogs, with no breed or sex predilection and a low metastatic rate. In this report, a 2-year-old intact female Mastiff that had numerous, rapidly growing masses throughout the subcutis mainly at the dorsal body plane, the caudal half of the ventral abdomen, and around the vulva was euthanized due to poor prognosis. Neoplastic nodules similar to those seen in the subcutis were also noted in the lung, anterior mediastinum, liver, spleen, kidney, and superficial and deep lymph nodes in both abdominal and thoracic cavities. The neoplastic nodules from the subcutis as well as metastatic foci revealed similar cytologic and histologic features, which were consistent with canine TVT. By immunohistochemical staining, the neoplastic cells were positive for lysozyme and vimentin but were negative for cytokeratin, desmin, CD3, and CD79a. The diagnosis of the TVT was further supported by the identification and analysis of long interspersed nuclear elements (LINE) from paraffin-embedded tumor tissue. This case is a rare example of TVT with multiorgan metastasis. In this case, the polymerase chain reaction technique was useful in differential diagnosis of canine round cell tumors because this technique can be applied in retrospective as well as future study.

  7. PDD applied in the dog transmissible venereal tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hage, Raduan; Duarte, Janaina; Martin, Airton A.; Zangaro, Renato A.; Pacheco, Marcos T. T.

    2003-07-01

    The Transmissible Venereal Tumor (TVT) is a very common neoplasic disease in a free-roaming dogs which affects the extern genital and presenting resistance to conventional drugs that promote high toxicity. Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) is based in tumor cells irradiation after absorption of photosensitizer substance. At present, the protoporphirin IX (PP IX) has been explored in PDT due to be endogen, then it does not present toxicity effect. This substance can be obtained by exogenous way through aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) administration in patient. The aim of this work was establish the optimal conditions for PDD (Phodynamic Diagnosis) to irradiate the tumor after ALA administration through fluorescence spectroscopy to improve the results with PDT. In this research was studied the 5-ALA 20% absorption in TVT of vaginal and penial mucous of a female and a male dog, respectivaly. This drug was administrated topically and after 30 minutes the fluorescence spectra were collected in intervals of 15 minutes during 120 minutes. The results showed that the maximum peak of PP IX in the tumor was between 60 and 105 minutes after the ALA application. In conclusion, the optimum effect will be achieved irradiating the tumor tissue into this period.

  8. Complete regression of transmissible venereal tumor (TVT)in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Intravenous administration of 0.025mg/kg body weight vincristine sulphate, in normal saline, in four weekly doses led to complete regression of lesions, within 35 days, in 4 mongrel dogs and 6 bitches with histologically diagnosed transmissible venereal tumour (TVT). Early side effects observed in the dogs, such as ...

  9. A case of ocular canine transmissible venereal tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milo, Jewel; Snead, Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    A 1-year-old, intact female mixed-breed dog was presented to St. George's University Small Animal Clinic in Grenada for a third eyelid mass. The dog was diagnosed with a rare ocular transmissible venereal tumor (TVT) and concurrent anaplasmosis, ehrlichiosis and dirofilariasis. Treatment with vincristine sulfate resulted in complete resolution of the TVT.

  10. Oral Health and Bone Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you Breadcrumb Home Oral Health and Bone Disease Oral Health and Bone Disease Osteoporosis and tooth loss are ... or loose dentures. Effects of Osteoporosis Treatments on Oral Health It is not known whether osteoporosis treatments have ...

  11. Morphoathological Description of an Extra Genital Canine Transmissible Venereal Tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghasem FARJANIKISH

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The transmissible venereal tumor (TVT is a contagious and sexually transmissible neoplasia of unknown origin. In natural conditions the tumor mainly affects the external genitalia of both male and female dogs. A 6- year old male German shepherd dog, weighing 16 kg was presented for evaluation of a mass on the nasal cavity which the owner had noticed 2 months ago. Clinical examination revealed multiple nodular ulcerated lesions of varying sizes from 1 to 3 cm in diameter over the nasal cavity. The tumor mass had a firm consistency, was hyperemic and ulcerated. Histopathological examination showed uniform-sized dense cells arranged in solid sheets and clusters interlaced by a little connective-tissue stroma. The cells were round and ovoid, with a moderate amount of cytoplasm that was either clear or finely granular and had a large nuclear/ cytoplasmic ratio. On the basis of the clinicopathological findings, this mass was diagnosed as a transmissible venereal tumor.

  12. Disseminated transmissible venereal tumour associated with Leishmaniasis in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevizan, J T; Carreira, J T; Souza, N C; Carvalho, I R; Gomes, P B C; Lima, V M F; Orlandi, C M B; Rozza, D B; Koivisto, M B

    2012-12-01

    This report addresses an atypical transmissible venereal tumour in an 8-year-old bitch that was pluriparous and seropositive for leishmaniasis. There were ascites and a serosanguineous discharge from the vulva, but no lesions on the external genital mucosa. An aspirate of the peritoneal fluid showed mononuclear round cells characteristic of transmissible venereal tumour (TVT). Exploratory laparotomy revealed light red, granulomatous structures in the peritoneum, omentum, spleen, liver and uterine horns. Cytological and histopathological tests confirmed the diagnosis of intra-abdominal TVT. Dissemination of the TVT to several organs inside the abdominal cavity probably resulted from immunosuppression caused by leishmaniasis, which favoured the presence and aggressiveness of TVT. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  13. DNA damage in canine transmissible venereal tumor cells

    OpenAIRE

    Amaral,Anne Santos do; Ferreira, Isabelle [UNESP; Colodel, Márcia Moleta; Salvadori, Daisy Maria Favero [UNESP; Rocha, Noeme Sousa [UNESP

    2011-01-01

    The Transmissible Venereal Tumor (TVT) has been classified according to the predominant cell type as follows: lymphocytoid, plasmocytoid, and mixed. Various degrees of aggressiveness with large array of biological behaviour have been described according to the TVT cell lineages, the present study was designed to investigate the level of DNA damage in the three TVT cell types aiming a better understanding of mechanisms related to the aggressiveness of this neoplasia. A total of 35 dogs were ev...

  14. ANATOMIC PATHOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF CANINE TRANSMISSIBLE VENEREAL TUMOR

    OpenAIRE

    Calderon, C.; R. R. Oliveira; M. F. R. Cruz; E. S. Marquez

    2016-01-01

    Canine transmissible venereal tumor, TVT, is a very common aggressive neoplasm, and the most affected animals are dogs, and other canids may also be affected. There are many forms of transmission, and this naturally occurs between the carriers, sexual intercourse is considered a major route of transmission, it is usually found in urban areas with an environment with a large population of free-roaming dogs and affect dogs and bitches. The TVT can clinically appear macroscopic form with lumps o...

  15. Treatment of transmissible venereal tumors in dogs with intratumoral interleukin-2 (IL-2). A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Den Otter, Willem; Hack, Margot; Jacobs, John J L; Tan, Jurgen F V; Rozendaal, Lawrence; Van Moorselaar, R Jeroen A

    2015-02-01

    To improve the treatment of transmissible venereal tumors (TVTs) in dogs with intratumoral injections of interleukin-2 (IL-2). We treated 13 dogs with 18 natural TVTs with IL-2. The tumors were treated with intratumoral application of 2×10(6) units IL-2. Three months after injection of IL-2, the tumors in 2/13 dogs had regressed completely, those in 1/13 had regressed partially, and 4/13 dogs had stable disease. Local IL-2 treatment of TVT is therapeutically effective, as indicated by complete regression (CR), partial regression (PR) and stable disease (SD) of the tumors of 7 out of 13 dogs. In addition, we observed that the intratumoral treatment with IL-2 did not cause any toxic side-effects. Copyright© 2015 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  16. [Clinical and epidemiologic aspects of paraneoplastic dermatoses in hospitalized patients treated at the Clinic for Dermatologic and Venereal Diseases in Novi Sad over a 10-year period (1980-1990)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojanović, S; Poljacki, M; Dimoski, A; Tasić, S

    1995-01-01

    Authors report results of a retrospective investigation on frequency of paraneoplastic dermatoses, their clinical characteristics, time of onset and course regarding 10 - year material on hospitalized patients at the Clinic for Infectious and Dermatovenerous Diseases in Novi Sad. Out of 9086 hospitalized patients in 14 patients (0.16%) paraneoplastic dermatisis was diagnosed. Out of 14 patients in 5 patients (35.71%) Herpes zoster was diagnosed; in 4 patients (28.57%) bullous dermatosis; in 2 patients (14.29%) paraneoplastic acrokeratosis; in 1 patient (7.14%) exudative multiform erythema in 1 patient (7.14%) erythema figuratum and in one more patient necrotic Herpes labialis was diagnosed. Concerning malignant neoplasms of internal organs together with paraneoplastic dermatosis in most cases (4 - 28.57%) chronic lymphocyte leucosis was found, and in remaining 10 (71.43%) carcinomas were diagnosed at different internal organs. In 7 cases (50%) malignancy proceeded paraneoplastic dermatosis, in 4 cases (28.57%) the malignancy was diagnosed at the same time as paraneoplastic dermatosis and in 3 cases (28.43%) malignancy was established after the onset of paraneoplastic dermatosis. Authors point to the fact that usual skin changes, characteristic for the dermatologic diseases mentioned, in cases when they are associated with visceral malignomas, are characterized by a more serious clinical picture, a longer course of the disease and resistance concerning usual therapy.

  17. Cytological diagnostic of canine transmissible venereal tumor - Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulčar Igor

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Canine Transmissible Venereal Tumor (CTVT is a benign reticuloendothelial (histiocytic tumor of the dog that mainly affects the external genitalia. This tumor was found in male 2 years old mongrel dog. According the anamnestic data, there was no visible change of its general clinical status, except spontaneous bleeding with blood drops on the praeputium and the presence of blood in the urine. With clinical examination a multilobular mass on radix penis mucosa was found, which actually caused pseudohemorrhagia. The material for cytological diagnostic was taken with the imprint method and 4 cytological films were prepared and strained. The conclusion of the cytological diagnosis was CTVT. The tumor cause only local disturbances, and the differential diagnosis of the other "round cells tumors", histiocytomas, plasmacytomas, lymphoma, some melanomas and especially lymphosarcomas, which could be located on the external genitalia, had a big significance. Although some authors are mentioning spontaneous regression, however, because this is invasive tumor, a complete chirurgical excision was made.

  18. Common origin of transmissible venereal tumors (TVT) in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzir, N; Arman, E; Cohen, D; Givol, D; Rechavi, G

    1987-01-01

    We determined the sequence of the 1.5-kb insert upstream to c-myc in the transmissible venereal tumor (TVT) of dogs. The sequence is highly homologous to the 3' region of the mammalian repetitive LINE element. The insert is bound by a 10-bp repeat indicating DNA transposition by a mechanism involving reverse transcriptase. We analyzed DNA of four TVT tumors from various geographical locations as well as normal canine DNA for the presence of the LINE insert. The results indicate that in all TVT tumors, but not in normal tissues, the same LINE insert was present upstream to c-myc. This result suggests that TVT tumors in various dogs may have a common cellular origin.

  19. Oligomerization in health and disease

    CERN Document Server

    Giraldo, Jesus

    2013-01-01

    This special volume of Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science focuses on oligomerization in health and disease. Contributions from leading authorities Informs and updates on all the latest developments in the field.

  20. The use of {sup 99m}Tc-thymine to identify metastatic disease in dogs presenting the cutaneous form of canine transmissible venereal tumor; Uso da {sup 99m}Tc-timina na identificacao de metastases de tumor venereo transmissivel canino com apresentacao cutanea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castelo-Branco, Paulo S.M. [Universidade Estacio de Sa, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: p.castelobranco@ig.com.br; Castro, Veronica; Sena, Priscila [Sociedade Uniao Internacional Protetora dos Animais (SUIPA), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Souza, Sergio A. Lopes de; Lopes, Flavia P.P. Lobo; Pereira, Joao Batista; Fonseca, Lea M. Barbosa da; Gutfilen, Bianca [Hospital Universitario Clementino Fraga Filho, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Radiologia

    2008-08-15

    The venereal canine transmissible tumor (VCTT) is described in literature as a rare metastatic tumor. However accurate methods for verification of this affirmative are not available in the veterinary medicine routine. In this study, we evaluated the dissemination from VCTT with cutaneous presentation using the {sup 99m}Tc-Thymine scintigraphy. The labelled thymine was up taken by the three cases of VCTT. {sup 99m}Tc-Thymine is a promising imaging technique for non-invasive veterinarian evaluation of tumoral dissemination degree decurrent from the VCTT cases. (author)

  1. Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Literacy Health Care Quality Healthy People healthfinder Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion Spotlight: This ... 16/2017 This site is coordinated by the Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office of ...

  2. Mitochondria in health and disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Durhuus, Jon Ambæk; Madsen, Claus Desler; Rasmussen, Lene Juel

    2015-01-01

    The primary role of mitochondria was long considered to be production of cellular energy. However, as the understanding of mitochondria in disease is ever expanding, so is their additional function for a healthy organism. Mitochondrial dysfunction is linked to a range of pathologies, including...... (SMRM) was titled "Mitochondria in Health and Disease". The conference was organized by Gayathri N, K Thangaraj, and KK Singh and was held at the National Institute of Mental Health & Neuro Sciences (NIMHANS) in Bangalore, India, from the 19th to 20th of December 2013. The meeting featured...

  3. ANATOMIC PATHOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF CANINE TRANSMISSIBLE VENEREAL TUMOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Calderon

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Canine transmissible venereal tumor, TVT, is a very common aggressive neoplasm, and the most affected animals are dogs, and other canids may also be affected. There are many forms of transmission, and this naturally occurs between the carriers, sexual intercourse is considered a major route of transmission, it is usually found in urban areas with an environment with a large population of free-roaming dogs and affect dogs and bitches. The TVT can clinically appear macroscopic form with lumps of various sizes, ulcerated, necrotic or not, and its development is usually in the genitals with associated secondary problems, such as urinary retention and others. The tumor diagnosis, in addition to anamnesis should be associated with the cytological or histological analysis. Several techniques are used to collect samples for analysis in microscopy, where the best technique to be used in the diagnosis of TVT is the aspiration cytology. The chemotherapy is considered the most effective method for TVT treatment, and vincristine sulfate is the drug of choice

  4. CLINICO-THERAPEUTIC STUDIES ON CANINE TRANSMISSIBLE VENEREAL TUMOUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Athar, A. Suhail, G. uhammad, A. Shakoor and F. Azim

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Ten-bitches and 8-male dogs afflicted with transmissible venereal tumour (TVT randomly divided into 3 groups viz. Group-I, Group-II and Group-III comprising 6 dogs each, were subjected to three different protocols. Group-I was treated surgically. A complete regression of the tumour mass was observed in 4 (66.67% dogs, while 2 (33.34% had incomplete regression at the end of first 5 weeks. A 16.67% recurrence rate was also observed at the end of 6 months study period. In Group-III, chemotherapy with intravenous injection of vincristine sulphate @ 0.025 mg/kg b.wt. affected 80.33% (n=5 complete regression whereas incomplete regression was recorded in only one (16.67% subject at the end of 5th week. Vomiting and inappetance as side-effects were also noticed. Group-III was subjected to a combination of surgery and chemotherapy where vincristine sulphate was used after surgical debulking of tumour mass. A 100% regression even after 2-3 injections with no recurrence was achieved till 6 months post-treatment. There was a significant increase (P≤0.01 in erythrocyte sedimentation rate and total leukocyte count (TLC in TVT -afflicted dogs which returned to normal after 2-5 weeks of treatment. Vincristine sulphate had a significant decreasing effect on TLC in both Group-II and Group-III, which was transient.

  5. Cell proliferation markers in the transplanted canine transmissible venereal tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.G.A. Santos

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Adult male mongrel dogs were subcutaneously transplanted with the canine transmissible venereal tumor (TVT on the hypogastric region. Twelve specimens of tumors were collected, half during the proliferative phase and the other half during the regressive phase. Fragments of the tumor were fixed in 10% buffered formalin and routinely processed for light microscopy. Sections of 4µm were stained by Schorr or AgNOR or either immunostained for MIB1 (Ki67. Schorr stain, AgNOR and MIB1 showed an increased proliferative activity through mitotic index, nuclear argyrophilic protein stain and cycling tumoral cells in the growing tumors, respectively. All of the three cell proliferation markers were able to distinguish the TVT in both evolution phases. MIB1 monoclonal antibody was the best in the morphologic evaluation of growth and regression of TVT. This resulted in higher values than AgNORs counting and mitotic index. MIB1 immunostaining was the most effective parameter of the proliferative activity of TVT. However, a significant correlation has been detected only between mitosis counting and AgNORs.

  6. First report of venereal and vertical transmission of canine leishmaniosis from naturally infected dogs in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naucke Torsten J

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Canine leishmaniosis (CanL is a zoonotic disease caused by Leishmania (L. infantum. It is endemic to several tropical and subtropical countries but also to the Mediterranean region. It is transmitted by phlebotomine sandflies but occasional non-vector transmissions have been reported, including vertical and horizontal transmission. Findings The authors report a case of CanL in a female boxer dog from Dusseldorf, Germany, that had never been in an endemic region. A serum sample from the bitch was tested positive for antibodies against Leishmania (IFAT 1:2,000, ELISA 72. The bitch had whelped three litters, and one puppy from the third litter was also found to be seropositive for Leishmania antibodies (IFAT 1:4,000, ELISA 78. Conclusions Up to now, despite intensive searching, the occurrence of sandflies could not be proved in the bitch's region of origin. Thus, vertical and horizontal transmission are to be discussed as possible ways of infection. This may be the first report of venereal and vertical transmission of L. infantum in naturally infected dogs in Germany.

  7. Celiac Disease Testing (for Health Care Professionals)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Series Urinary Tract Imaging Urodynamic Testing Virtual Colonoscopy Celiac Disease Testing (for Health Care Professionals) Serologic tests for celiac disease provide an effective first step in identifying candidates ...

  8. Disease: H00354 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available H00354 Syphilis Syphilis is one of the oldest recognized venereal infection caused... and development of serious systemic disease. Syphilis may also alter the course of HIV disease. Effective t...robes Infect 4:83-94 (2002) DOI:10.1016/S1286-4579(01)01513-1 ... PMID:18510892 (description) ... AUTHORS ... Daskalakis D ... TITLE ... Syphi...lis: continuing public health and diagnostic challenges. ... JOURNAL ... Curr HIV/AIDS Rep 5:72-7 (2008) DOI:10.1007/s11904-008-0012-6

  9. [Venereal undifferentiated hematosarcoma of Canidae (Sticker's sarcoma): trial of a single electron therapy treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarrouk, K

    1979-09-01

    After symptology's description of "Sticker sarcoma" the author gives a light on the origin of this néoplasm. He then indicates a new modality of treatment by electrontherapy in one time only, and proposes to give up histopathologic denomination "Reticulo Sarcoma" and replace it with "Sticker sarcoma" " Veneral non différentiated hematasarcoma" "Sticker sarcoma"

  10. Clinical pharmacokinetics and effects of vincristine sulfate in dogs with transmissible venereal tumor (TVT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hantrakul, Supannika; Klangkaew, Narumol; Kunakornsawat, Sunee; Tansatit, Tawewan; Poapolathep, Ammart; Kumagai, Susumu; Poapolathep, Saranya

    2014-12-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the pharmacokinetic characteristics of vincristine and their correlation with its clinical effects in dogs with transmissible venereal tumor (TVT). Dogs with TVT were intravenously administered vincristine sulfate at a dose of 0.7 mg/m(2) of body surface area. Blood samples were collected starting from 5 min to 48 hr after drug administration. The plasma concentration of vincristine was determined using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The pharmacokinetic parameters of vincristine were characterized using a two-compartmental pharmacokinetic model. The volume of distribution, distribution half-life, elimination half-life and plasma clearance were 0.660 ± 0.210 l/kg, 21.5 ± 6.90 min, 47.6 ± 14.2 min and 0.010 ± 0.001 l/min/kg, respectively. Tumor regression was determined at weekly interval by a physical examination and histopathological analysis. In our study, three to eight administrations of vincristine at a dose of 0.7 mg/m(2) were able to induce a complete tumor regression without any evidence of gross lesion of disease. Therefore, this investigation provides the pharmacokinetic characteristics of vincristine in dogs with TVT, which may be used as an integration tool to gain a better understanding of the disposition properties of the drug and the correlation of these properties with the drug's clinical effects. In addition, we validated the LC-MS/MS method and found that it is suitable for the pharmacokinetic study of vincristine in dog plasma.

  11. Lyme Disease: Implications for Health Educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harbit, Maryanne Drake; Willis, Dawn

    1990-01-01

    Lyme disease may be one of the most commonly misdiagnosed diseases of this decade. Health educators should be knowledgeable about this new disease and be able to share with the public information about prevention, early signs and symptoms, and treatment of the disease (Author/IAH)

  12. Sexual-Reproductive Health Belief Model of college students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoomeh Simbar

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Sexual- reproductive health of youth is one of the most unknown aspects of our community, while the world, including our country is faced with the risk of AIDS spreading. The aim of this study was to describe Health Belief Model (HBM of the students about sexual-reproductive health behaviors and evaluate the ability of the model in predicting related behaviors. By using quota sampling, 1117 male and female students of Qazvin Medical Science and International universities were included in the study in 1991. A self-completed questionnaire was prepared containing close questions based on HBM components including perceived threats (susceptibility and severity of related diseases, perceived reproductive benefits and barriers and self efficacy of youth about reproductive health. A total of 645 of participants were female and 457 were male (Mean age 21.4±2.4 and 22.7±3.5, respectively. The Health Belief Model of the students showed that they perceived a moderate threat for AIDS and venereal diseases and their health outcomes. Most of them perceived the benefits of reproductive health behaviors. They believed that the ability of youth in considering reproductive health is low or moderate. However, they noted to some barriers for spreading of reproductive health in youth including inadequacy of services. Boys felt a higher level of threat for acquiring the AIDS and venereal diseases in compare to girls, but girls had a higher knowledge about these diseases and their complications. The Health Belief Model of the students with premarital intercourse behavior was not significantly different with the students without this behavior (Mann-Withney, P<0.05. Female students and the students without the history of premarital intercourse had significantly more positive attitude towards abstinence, comparing to male students and students with the history of premarital intercourse, respectively (Mann-Withney, P<0.05. Seventy five percent of students believed in

  13. World Health Organization and disease surveillance: Jeopardizing global public health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blouin Genest, Gabriel

    2015-11-01

    Health issues now evolve in a global context. Real-time global surveillance, global disease mapping and global risk management characterize what have been termed 'global public health'. It has generated many programmes and policies, notably through the work of the World Health Organization. This globalized form of public health raises, however, some important issues left unchallenged, including its effectiveness, objectivity and legitimacy. The general objective of this article is to underline the impacts of WHO disease surveillance on the practice and theorization of global public health. By using the surveillance structure established by the World Health Organization and reinforced by the 2005 International Health Regulations as a case study, we argue that the policing of 'circulating risks' emerged as a dramatic paradox for global public health policy. This situation severely affects the rationale of health interventions as well as the lives of millions around the world, while travestying the meaning of health, disease and risks. To do so, we use health surveillance data collected by the WHO Disease Outbreak News System in order to map the impacts of global health surveillance on health policy rationale and theory. © The Author(s) 2014.

  14. Primary oral and nasal transmissible venereal tumor in a mix-breed dog

    OpenAIRE

    Rezaei, Mahdieh; Azizi, Shahrzad; Shahheidaripour, Shima; Rostami, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Transmissible venereal tumor (TVT) is a coitally transmitted tumor of dogs with widespread distribution. The present study describes the occurrence of the primary oral and nasal TVT in a 10-year-old, female, mix-breed dog. The case was presented with a history of anorexia, inability to swallow and dyspnea. Clinical examinations revealed the emaciation, muzzle deformity due to the presence of a friable, fleshy, cauliflower-like mass in the oral cavity and submandibular lymphadenopathy. TVT was...

  15. Clinical Pharmacokinetics and Effects of Vincristine Sulfate in Dogs with Transmissible Venereal Tumor (TVT)

    OpenAIRE

    HANTRAKUL, Supannika; Klangkaew, Narumol; KUNAKORNSAWAT, Sunee; TANSATIT, Tawewan; POAPOLATHEP, Ammart; KUMAGAI Susumu; POAPOLATHEP, Saranya

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the pharmacokinetic characteristics of vincristine and their correlation with its clinical effects in dogs with transmissible venereal tumor (TVT). Dogs with TVT were intravenously administered vincristine sulfate at a dose of 0.7 mg/m2 of body surface area. Blood samples were collected starting from 5 min to 48 hr after drug administration. The plasma concentration of vincristine was determined using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/M...

  16. HISTOPATHOLOGICAL AND CYTOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF TRANSMISSIBLE VENEREAL TUMOR IN DOGS AFTER TWO TREATMENT PROTOCOLS

    OpenAIRE

    Fabiana Aguena Sales Lapa; Silvia Franco Andrade; Eduardo Roberto Gervazoni; Vanessa Massumi Kaneko; Osimar Carvalho Sanches; Luis Roberto de Almeida Gabriel Filho

    2012-01-01

    The transmissible venereal tumor (TVT) is a contagious neoplasm of round cells that frequently affect dogs. The treatment consists of chemotherapy being more effective the vincristine alone, however the resistance emergence to this agent due multidrug resistance of the P-glycoprotein (P-gp), a transporter protein encoded by the MDR1 gene, has been taking the association with other drugs. Recent studies demonstrated the antitumoral effect of the avermectins when associated to the vincristine i...

  17. Fine needle aspiration cytology in the diagnosis of canine cutaneous transmissible venereal tumor: case report

    OpenAIRE

    Rocha, Noeme Sousa [UNESP; Tremori, Tália Missen [UNESP; Carneiro, João Alexandre Matos [UNESP

    2014-01-01

    Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) has been widely used in the diagnosis of lesions from various origins, especially neoplastic. The technique is simple, fast, safe, minimally invasive and inexpensive, which allows through the evaluation of cell morphology to establish prognosis, delineate surgical margins, monitor lesion growth, validate indication euthanasia during surgery and monitor chemotherapy protocols. Diagnosis of canine transmissible venereal tumor (TVT) can be accomplished with...

  18. Health Systems Sustainability and Rare Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrelli, Rita Maria; De Santis, Marta; Egle Gentile, Amalia; Taruscio, Domenica

    2017-01-01

    The paper is addressing aspects of health system sustainability for rare diseases in relation to the current economic crisis and equity concerns. It takes into account the results of the narrative review carried out in the framework of the Joint Action for Rare Diseases (Joint RD-Action) "Promoting Implementation of Recommendations on Policy, Information and Data for Rare Diseases", that identified networks as key factors for health systems sustainability for rare diseases. The legal framework of European Reference Networks and their added value is also presented. Networks play a relevant role for health systems sustainability, since they are based upon, pay special attention to and can intervene on health systems knowledge development, partnership, organizational structure, resources, leadership and governance. Moreover, sustainability of health systems can not be separated from the analysis of the context and the action on it, including fiscal equity. As a result of the financial crisis of 2008, cuts of public health-care budgets jeopardized health equity, since the least wealthy suffered from the greatest health effects. Moreover, austerity policies affected economic growth much more adversely than previously believed. Therefore, reducing public health expenditure not only is going to jeopardise citizens' health, but also to hamper fair and sustainable development.

  19. Alaska Phocid Health and Disease

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Polar Ecosystems Program research projects focus primarily on abundance, trends, distribution, health and condition, and foraging behavior of phocids (harbor,...

  20. Heart Health - Heart Disease: Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Cover Story Heart Health Heart Disease: Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment Past Issues / Winter 2009 ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Most heart attacks happen when a clot in the coronary ...

  1. Effects of vaginal Brucella ovis infection of red deer hinds on reproductive performance, and venereal transmission to stags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridler, A L; West, D M; Stafford, K J; Wilson, P R; Collett, M G

    2002-08-01

    and from 3/5 dead calves showed no evidence of B. ovis infection. B. ovis was cultured from the vagina of 1/19 hinds 48 weeks after inoculation, at which time B. ovis CFT and ELISA results for this hind were negative. Most calves had B. ovis serum antibodies at 1-3 days of age but levels were negligible when sampled at 10-15 weeks of age. Foetuses and dead calves were all seronegative. Three of the five red deer stags used for mating became infected with B. ovis. The two wapiti stags used to mate the remaining 17 hinds the following year remained seronegative. B. ovis is unlikely to have significant detrimental effects on the reproductive performance of red deer hinds. Venereal transmission via the vagina of hinds is a possible route of transmission between stags. It is possible that survival of the organism in the vagina of some hinds could create difficulties in disease control programmes. B. ovis infection of hinds at the time of mating is unlikely to cause significant reproductive losses. Venereal transmission of B. ovis between stags via the hinds may occur when groups of hinds are joined with more than one stag.

  2. Cannabinoids in health and disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogan, Natalya M.; Mechoulam, Raphael

    2007-01-01

    Cannabis sativa L. preparations have been used in medicine for millenia. However, concern over the dangers of abuse led to the banning of the medicinal use of marijuana in most countries in the 1930s. Only recently, marijuana and individual natural and synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonists and antagonists, as well as chemically related compounds, whose mechanism of action is still obscure, have come back to being considered of therapeutic value. However, their use is highly restricted. Despite the mild addiction to cannabis and the possible enhancement of addiction to other substances of abuse, when combined with cannabis, the therapeutic value of cannabinoids is too high to be put aside. Numerous diseases, such as anorexia, emesis, pain, inflammation, multiple sclerosis, neurodegenerative disorders (Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, Tourette's syndrome, Alzheimer's disease), epilepsy, glaucoma, osteoporosis, schizophrenia, cardiovascular disorders, cancer, obesity, and metabolic syndrome-related disorders, to name just a few, are being treated or have the potential to be treated by cannabinoid agonists/antagonists/cannabinoid-related compounds. In view of the very low toxicity and the generally benign side effects of this group of compounds, neglecting or denying their clinical potential is unacceptable - instead, we need to work on the development of more selective cannabinoid receptor agonists/antagonists and related compounds, as well as on novel drugs of this family with better selectivity, distribution patterns, and pharmacokinetics, and - in cases where it is impossible to separate the desired clinical action and the psychoactivity - just to monitor these side effects carefully. PMID:18286801

  3. Systems Health: A Transition from Disease Management Toward Health Promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Li; Ye, Benchen; Sun, Huimin; Lin, Yuxin; van Wietmarschen, Herman; Shen, Bairong

    2017-01-01

    To date, most of the chronic diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes, are the leading cause of death. Current strategies toward disease treatment, e.g., risk prediction and target therapy, still have limitations for precision medicine due to the dynamic and complex nature of health. Interactions among genetics, lifestyle, and surrounding environments have nonnegligible effects on disease evolution. Thus a transition in health-care area is urgently needed to address the hysteresis of diagnosis and stabilize the increasing health-care costs. In this chapter, we explored new insights in the field of health promotion and introduced the integration of systems theories with health science and clinical practice. On the basis of systems biology and systems medicine, a novel concept called "systems health" was comprehensively advocated. Two types of bioinformatics models, i.e., causal loop diagram and quantitative model, were selected as examples for further illumination. Translational applications of these models in systems health were sequentially discussed. Moreover, we highlighted the bridging of ancient and modern views toward health and put forward a proposition for citizen science and citizen empowerment in health promotion.

  4. Cellular Signaling in Health and Disease

    CERN Document Server

    Beckerman, Martin

    2009-01-01

    In today’s world, three great classes of non-infectious diseases – the metabolic syndromes (such as type 2 diabetes and atherosclerosis), the cancers, and the neurodegenerative disorders – have risen to the fore. These diseases, all associated with increasing age of an individual, have proven to be remarkably complex and difficult to treat. This is because, in large measure, when the cellular signaling pathways responsible for maintaining homeostasis and health of the body become dysregulated, they generate equally stable disease states. As a result the body may respond positively to a drug, but only for a while and then revert back to the disease state. Cellular Signaling in Health and Disease summarizes our current understanding of these regulatory networks in the healthy and diseased states, showing which molecular components might be prime targets for drug interventions. This is accomplished by presenting models that explain in mechanistic, molecular detail how a particular part of the cellular sign...

  5. Commensal Fungi in Health and Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limon, Jose J; Skalski, Joseph H; Underhill, David M

    2017-08-09

    Fungi are increasingly being recognized as common members of the microbiomes found on nearly all mucosal surfaces, and interest is growing in understanding how these organisms may contribute to health and disease. In this review, we investigate recent developments in our understanding of the fungal microbiota or "mycobiota" including challenges faced in characterizing it, where these organisms are found, their diversity, and how they interact with host immunity. Growing evidence indicates that, like the bacterial microbiota, the fungal microbiota is often altered in disease states, and increasingly studies are being designed to probe the functional consequences of such fungal dysbiosis on health and disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Careers in Infectious Diseases: Public Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Arjun

    2017-09-15

    Public health offers infectious disease physicians a variety of rewarding career options. Our training and skills make us well suited to a variety of roles in public health. This article summarizes some of the options for careers in public health and describes why ID physicians are so well suited to them. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2017. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  7. Nosocomial (Health Care-Associated) Legionnaire's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Shanu; Abell, Virginia; File, Thomas M

    2017-03-01

    Nosocomial Legionnaire's disease is most frequently associated with presence of the organism in hospital water systems. Patients are often susceptible as a result of age, underlying comorbidities, or immunosuppression. Prevention focuses on reducing the reservoir within water systems and includes super heating, ultraviolent light, chlorination, silver-copper ionization, and distal filtration. This article reviews the epidemiology of health care-associated Legionnaire's disease, reviews characteristics of several health care-associated outbreaks, and discusses strategies to prevent health care-associated infection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Bile acids in health and disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krag, E; Thaysen, E H

    1996-01-01

    to the understanding of the factors involved in the solubility of cholesterol in bile. The growing international understanding of the potential importance of the bile acids in health and disease gave raise to a substantial Danish contribution in the 1970s and 1980s in parallel with international achievements. Emphasis...... improved. Important physiological research on the mechanisms of hepatic bile flow was conducted. An intestinal perfusion model served as a tool providing information on absorption kinetics and on transmucosal water and electrolyte movements. The gallstone disease, liver diseases, inflammatory bowel disease...

  9. A report of a Hepatozoon canis infection in a dog with transmissible venereal tumour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namakkal Rajamanickam Senthil

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, a case of a Hepatozoan canis infection in a dog with a sexually transmissible venereal tumour is reported. Haematological examination revealed marked decrease in haemoglobin, PCV and RBC counts and the blood smear revealed rouleaux formation of RBC, hypochromasia, leptocytes and neutrophilia. Neutrophils were parasitized with both non-nucleated and stained nucleated forms of H. canis. Serum biochemistry results showed elevated levels of alkaline phosphatise, whereas blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, total protein, albumin and globulin were in the normal range.

  10. The distribution of C-bands in canine transmissible venereal tumor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, V B; Sapp, W J; Adams, E W

    1987-04-01

    Colchicine-arrested metaphase preparations, derived from canine transmissible venereal tumor (TVT) cells grown in culture, were characterized based on the occurrence and distribution of constitutive heterochromatin. Analysis of the data with regard to the distribution of C-bands in the pericentric, interstitial and telomeric segments revealed a nonrandom distribution along the arms of many chromosomes with the bulk of the bands occurring in the centromeric region. The frequency of C-banded regions differed from those reported for normal dog cells and both primary and transplanted tumors. These results suggest that similar nondifferentially-stained TVT karyotypes do not necessarily exhibit identical distribution of constitutive heterochromatin.

  11. Molecular structure of canine LINE-1 elements in canine transmissible venereal tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Y; Ishiguro, N; Shinagawa, M; Kim, C J; Okamoto, Y; Minami, S; Ogihara, K

    1999-02-01

    We determined the 4251-bp sequence of open reading frame 2 (ORF2) of canine LINE-1 retroposon that encodes 1275 amino acids. The truncated LINE-1 inserts associated with transmissible venereal tumor (TVT) of dogs contained the 1378-bp LINE-1 insert (TVT-LINE) flanked by 10-bp direct repeats upstream to c-myc gene. The TVT-LINE elements were composed of 416 bp inverse sequences homologous to the complementary strand of the LINE-1, a 5-bp deletion and 962-bp sequences homologous to the 3' region of the LINE-1.

  12. [Costa Rica: control program of sexually transmitted diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo, O; Blum, E; Freer, E

    1979-02-01

    Programming activities for the control of venereal diseases implies certain difficulties in Latin American countries owing to the lack of basic information and resources. It is perhaps for this reason that such programs have so far failed to achieve an adequate epidemiological impact. In late 1975, a new program was set up in Costa Rica with the following objectives: 1) reducing the incidence of venereal diseases; 2) detecting cases at an early stage in order to begin treatment; 3) developing a far-reaching hygiene education program; 4) establishing appropriate epidemiological surveillance machinery, including border-area programs; 5) integrating control activities with the general health services; 6) training personnel; and 7) carrying out research. Among the activities planned for the attainment of the aforementioned objectives was the detection of cases by means of voluntary presentation; surveillance of contacts; serological testing of pregnant women, blood donors, and applicants for health care identity cards, and other types of examination. Outpatient treatment was planned for all cases detected. Where epidemiological surveillance was concerned, it was proposed that improvements be made in morbidity report procedures, data analysis, and border-area programs. Plans were also made for integrating control activities into the basic health services and for reviewing the existing legislation with a view to expediting the implementation of the program. Steps taken to that end included the establishment of a more effective coordination of such activities with the Costa Rican Social Security Institute, an entity which attends the health needs of 80% of the population; a follow-up program for cases detected in the hospitals included in the program, and preparation of a flow diagram to be used for that purpose by such institutions. Other aspects considered were the distribution of treatment manuals, and information on epidemiological interview methods and laboratory

  13. Slum health: Diseases of neglected populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Unger Alon

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Urban slums, like refugee communities, comprise a social cluster that engenders a distinct set of health problems. With 1 billion people currently estimated to live in such communities, this neglected population has become a major reservoir for a wide spectrum of health conditions that the formal health sector must deal with. Discussion Unlike what occurs with refugee populations, the formal health sector becomes aware of the health problems of slum populations relatively late in the course of their illnesses. As such, the formal health sector inevitably deals with the severe and end-stage complications of these diseases at a substantially greater cost than what it costs to manage non-slum community populations. Because of the informal nature of slum settlements, and cultural, social, and behavioral factors unique to the slum populations, little is known about the spectrum, burden, and determinants of illnesses in these communities that give rise to these complications, especially of those diseases that are chronic but preventable. In this article, we discuss observations made in one slum community of 58,000 people in Salvador, the third largest city in Brazil, to highlight the existence of a spectrum and burden of chronic illnesses not likely to be detected by the formal sector health services until they result in complications or death. Lack of health-related data from slums could lead to inappropriate and unrealistic allocation of health care resources by the public and private providers. Similar misassumptions and misallocations are likely to exist in other nations with large urban slum populations. Summary Continued neglect of ever-expanding urban slum populations in the world could inevitably lead to greater expenditure and diversion of health care resources to the management of end-stage complications of diseases that are preventable. A new approach to health assessment and characterization of social

  14. Acrylamide in health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruser, Kaci N; Flynn, Nick E

    2011-01-01

    Acrylamide has been classified as a probable carcinogen and can be ingested, inhaled (e.g. tobacco smoke), or absorbed. Fried, starchy foods are the most prominent sources of exposure. The reaction between asparagine and fructose typically produces the most acrylamide in foods from plant sources. Preparation methods shown to affect acrylamide production include temperature and cooking oil. Hemoglobin adducts present a reliable short term measurement of acrylamide exposure; a variety of methods, predominately LC/MS-MS, have been used for acrylamide detection. Health effects of acrylamide include neurotoxicity and genotoxicity. It is believed that the electrophilic nature of acrylamide will allow it to adduct to thiol groups on nerve axons and proteins that regulate neurotransmitter exocytosis. Presynaptic nitric oxide (NO) may also play a role here. Reproductively, males demonstrate a decrease in sperm count, motility and morphology. Acrylamide produces clastogenic effects while glycidamide (GA), its metabolite, produces mutagenic effects. A number of protective measures against the effects of acrylamide are possible including probiotics, increased use of compounds known to decrease acrylamide production and bioengineering of precursor foods such as potatoes.

  15. The Smell of Relics: Authenticating Saintly Bones and the Role of Scent in the Sensory Experience of Medieval Christian Veneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Anthony Brazinski

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available ''The archaeology of smell is a burgeoning field in recent scholarship. This paper adds to existing literature by investigating the function of smell in relation to relic sales and veneration in medieval Europe, a hitherto understudied area of research. Collating historical texts concerning the translatio of saintly relics in Western Europe and the Byzantine Empire with archaeological sources associated with relic veneration and religious worship (including ampullae, unguentaria, sarcophagi, holy oils, pillow graves, and silk, this paper suggests that (1 smell was used in the medieval world as a means to challenge or confirm a relic’s authenticity, and (2 olfactory liquids that imbued or permeated material objects in the context of worship functioned as a means of focusing attention on relic veneration and were an essential part of the cult and/or pilgrimage experience.

  16. Veneration and Spiritual Pleading through Stone: observations and musings on current practice in rural Turkmenistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenys McLaren

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Although the population of Turkmenistan is essentially Moslem, older traditions co-exist. In the rural areas medical services are poor, infant mortality and maternal mortality and morbidity are higher than in the West, and superstition is rife. Barrenness is considered a female failing. Women of child-bearing age are under great pressure to be fertile, and make spiritual pleas at venerated sites when pregnancy fails to occur or an infant is lost. There is veneration not only of shrines and revered burial sites but also of ancient sites and old dead trees. Many offerings are in the form of stone or fossils, with continued reuse and deposition of ancient materials. Cloth strips and miniature cradles bearing 'babies' are left in association with stones in pleas for child-bearing. Some stones are handled in special ways. One large stone was used for masturbation in the hope of fecundity. The legend of Paraw Bibi incorporates many of the beliefs and features related to rock that occur across many cultures and are common to folklore of old. Resonances of the same thought processes and behaviour patterns could have originated in the ancient past.

  17. Comparison of apoptosis in canine transmissible veneral tumor (TVT pre and post chemotraoy with vincristine sulphate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y Doustar

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The canine transmissible veneral tumor (CTVT is a prevalent tumor in canidae. It is transmitted by coitus, forming multiple neoplastic masses on the external genitalia of both sexes within the family canidae. CTVT have an aberrant karyotype and the origin of the neoplastic cells is undetermined but immunophenotyping suggests that the tumor has a histocytic origin. In this study 10 dogs with canine transmissible veneral tumor were selected and received vincristine sulphate (0.025 mg/kg/b.w chemotrapy to induce apoptosis in neoplastic cells. Biopsy specimens were collected from tumors during the growth phase, before and again after chemotherapy from the same dogs. The specimens were fixed in 10% formalin and then prepared routinely for H&E and TUNEL assays. Histopathological study of tissue section of CTVT before chemotherapy revealed sheets of uniform neoplastic cells, round to oval in shape with defined cytoplasmic border. There were a few TUNEL positive cells and mitotic figures. In tumor specimens after chemotherapy increased TUNEL positive cells and depilation of neoplastic cells in stroma of tumor were observed. Mean deference of histopathological changes and TUNEL positive cells before and after chemotherapy were significant (p

  18. Limited health literacy in advanced kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Dominic M; Bradley, John A; Bradley, Clare; Draper, Heather; Johnson, Rachel; Metcalfe, Wendy; Oniscu, Gabriel; Robb, Matthew; Tomson, Charles; Watson, Chris; Ravanan, Rommel; Roderick, Paul

    2016-09-01

    Limited health literacy may reduce the ability of patients with advanced kidney disease to understand their disease and treatment and take part in shared decision making. In dialysis and transplant patients, limited health literacy has been associated with low socioeconomic status, comorbidity, and mortality. Here, we investigated the prevalence and associations of limited health literacy using data from the United Kingdom-wide Access to Transplantation and Transplant Outcome Measures (ATTOM) program. Incident dialysis, incident transplant, and transplant wait-listed patients ages 18 to 75 were recruited from 2011 to 2013 and data were collected from patient questionnaires and case notes. A score >2 in the Single-Item Literacy Screener was used to define limited health literacy. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify patient factors associated with limited health literacy. We studied 6842 patients, 2621 were incident dialysis, 1959 were wait-listed, and 2262 were incident transplant. Limited health literacy prevalence was 20%, 15%, and 12% in each group, respectively. Limited health literacy was independently associated with low socioeconomic status, poor English fluency, and comorbidity. However, transplant wait-listing, preemptive transplantation, and live-donor transplantation were associated with increasing health literacy. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. EDITORIAL MICRONUTRIENTS IN HEALTH AND DISEASE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    but evidence is available indicating that improving the nutrition of the most vulnerable groups in the community, will contribute positively to some of the greatest health challenges facing the world, including the burden of chronic and degenerative diseases, maternal mortality, malaria and HIV/AIDS. Originally, global ...

  20. Selenium in human health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairweather-Tait, Susan J; Bao, Yongping; Broadley, Martin R; Collings, Rachel; Ford, Dianne; Hesketh, John E; Hurst, Rachel

    2011-04-01

    This review covers current knowledge of selenium in the environment, dietary intakes, metabolism and status, functions in the body, thyroid hormone metabolism, antioxidant defense systems and oxidative metabolism, and the immune system. Selenium toxicity and links between deficiency and Keshan disease and Kashin-Beck disease are described. The relationships between selenium intake/status and various health outcomes, in particular gastrointestinal and prostate cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and male fertility, are reviewed, and recent developments in genetics of selenoproteins are outlined. The rationale behind current dietary reference intakes of selenium is explained, and examples of differences between countries and/or expert bodies are given. Throughout the review, gaps in knowledge and research requirements are identified. More research is needed to improve our understanding of selenium metabolism and requirements for optimal health. Functions of the majority of the selenoproteins await characterization, the mechanism of absorption has yet to be identified, measures of status need to be developed, and effects of genotype on metabolism require further investigation. The relationships between selenium intake/status and health, or risk of disease, are complex but require elucidation to inform clinical practice, to refine dietary recommendations, and to develop effective public health policies.

  1. Impact of rare diseases in oral health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-García, A; Castellanos-Cosano, L; Machuca-Portillo, G; Posada-de la Paz, M

    2016-09-01

    Rare diseases (RD) are those that present a lower prevalence than 5 cases per 10.000 population. The main objective of this review was to study the effect on oral health in rare diseases, while the secondary objective of the study is theme upgrade. Comparative observational case-control studies were analysed and a systematic review was conducted in PubMed. Each rare disease listed on the statistical data record of the Health Portal of the Ministry of Equality, Health and Social Policies Board of Andalusia was associated with "oral health". The variables studied included dental, oral mucosa and occlusion alterations, oral pathologies (caries, periodontal disease) and other alterations (mouth breathing, parafunctional habits, etc). A bias analysis of the variable caries was conducted. Six RD were selected through our inclusion and exclusion criteria (hypogammaglobulinemia, Rett syndrome, Marfan syndrome, Prader-Willi syndrome, cystic fibrosis and Cri du chat syndrome) in a total of 8 publications, of which four trials were classified as high risk of bias and one of them as medium risk. There were not trials with low risk of bias. The main statistically significant differences found by Syndrome compared to a control group were in Hypogammaglobulinemia with a greater tendency to enamel hypoplasia and dry mouth. The Rett syndrome had, as well, a greater tendency to an anterior open bite, ogival palate, bruxism, mouth breathing and tongue thrusting. Prader-Willi syndrome had a tendency of dental erosion, and Cri du chat syndrome showed a higher association to Tannerella forsythia.

  2. The Microbiome in Skin Health and Disease

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Souvik Mukherjee

    Symposium ˈOur Second Genomeˉ. The Microbiome in Skin Health and Disease. Souvik Mukherjee. Assistant Professor. National Institute of Biomedical Genomics. West Bengal, India. 82nd Annual Meeting of Indian Academy of Sciences. Venue: IISER, Bhopal ...

  3. Synthetic Biology in Health and Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Passel, van M.W.J.; Lam, C.M.C.; Martins dos Santos, V.A.P.; Suarez Diez, M.

    2014-01-01

    Synthetic biology draws on the understanding from genetics, biology, chemistry, physics, engineering, and computational sciences to (re-)design and (re-)engineer biological functions. Here we address how synthetic biology can be possibly deployed to promote health and tackle disease. We discuss how

  4. Disease Prevention : Saving Lives or Reducing Health Care Costs?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grootjans-van Kampen, I.; Engelfriet, P.M.; Van Baal, P.H.M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Disease prevention has been claimed to reduce health care costs. However, preventing lethal diseases increases life expectancy and, thereby, indirectly increases the demand for health care. Previous studies have argued that on balance preventing diseases that reduce longevity increases

  5. Wine Flavonoids in Health and Disease Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Iva; Pérez-Gregorio, Rosa; Soares, Susana; Mateus, Nuno; de Freitas, Victor

    2017-02-14

    Wine, and particularly red wine, is a beverage with a great chemical complexity that is in continuous evolution. Chemically, wine is a hydroalcoholic solution (~78% water) that comprises a wide variety of chemical components, including aldehydes, esters, ketones, lipids, minerals, organic acids, phenolics, soluble proteins, sugars and vitamins. Flavonoids constitute a major group of polyphenolic compounds which are directly associated with the organoleptic and health-promoting properties of red wine. However, due to the insufficient epidemiological and in vivo evidences on this subject, the presence of a high number of variables such as human age, metabolism, the presence of alcohol, the complex wine chemistry, and the wide array of in vivo biological effects of these compounds suggest that only cautious conclusions may be drawn from studies focusing on the direct effect of wine and any specific health issue. Nevertheless, there are several reports on the health protective properties of wine phenolics for several diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, some cancers, obesity, neurodegenerative diseases, diabetes, allergies and osteoporosis. The different interactions that wine flavonoids may have with key biological targets are crucial for some of these health-promoting effects. The interaction between some wine flavonoids and some specific enzymes are one example. The way wine flavonoids may be absorbed and metabolized could interfere with their bioavailability and therefore in their health-promoting effect. Hence, some reports have focused on flavonoids absorption, metabolism, microbiota effect and overall on flavonoids bioavailability. This review summarizes some of these major issues which are directly related to the potential health-promoting effects of wine flavonoids. Reports related to flavonoids and health highlight some relevant scientific information. However, there is still a gap between the knowledge of wine flavonoids bioavailability and their health

  6. Magnesium in disease prevention and overall health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpe, Stella Lucia

    2013-05-01

    Magnesium is the fourth most abundant mineral and the second most abundant intracellular divalent cation and has been recognized as a cofactor for >300 metabolic reactions in the body. Some of the processes in which magnesium is a cofactor include, but are not limited to, protein synthesis, cellular energy production and storage, reproduction, DNA and RNA synthesis, and stabilizing mitochondrial membranes. Magnesium also plays a critical role in nerve transmission, cardiac excitability, neuromuscular conduction, muscular contraction, vasomotor tone, blood pressure, and glucose and insulin metabolism. Because of magnesium's many functions within the body, it plays a major role in disease prevention and overall health. Low levels of magnesium have been associated with a number of chronic diseases including migraine headaches, Alzheimer's disease, cerebrovascular accident (stroke), hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Good food sources of magnesium include unrefined (whole) grains, spinach, nuts, legumes, and white potatoes (tubers). This review presents recent research in the areas of magnesium and chronic disease, with the goal of emphasizing magnesium's role in disease prevention and overall health.

  7. Impact of rare diseases in oral health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-García, Ana; Castellanos-Cosano, Lizett; Posada-de la Paz, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Background Rare diseases (RD) are those that present a lower prevalence than 5 cases per 10.000 population. The main objective of this review was to study the effect on oral health in rare diseases, while the secondary objective of the study is theme upgrade. Material and Methods Comparative observational case-control studies were analysed and a systematic review was conducted in PubMed. Each rare disease listed on the statistical data record of the Health Portal of the Ministry of Equality, Health and Social Policies Board of Andalusia was associated with “oral health”. The variables studied included dental, oral mucosa and occlusion alterations, oral pathologies (caries, periodontal disease) and other alterations (mouth breathing, parafunctional habits, etc). A bias analysis of the variable caries was conducted. Results Six RD were selected through our inclusion and exclusion criteria (hypogammaglobulinemia, Rett syndrome, Marfan syndrome, Prader-Willi syndrome, cystic fibrosis and Cri du chat syndrome) in a total of 8 publications, of which four trials were classified as high risk of bias and one of them as medium risk. There were not trials with low risk of bias. Conclusions The main statistically significant differences found by Syndrome compared to a control group were in Hypogammaglobulinemia with a greater tendency to enamel hypoplasia and dry mouth. The Rett syndrome had, as well, a greater tendency to an anterior open bite, ogival palate, bruxism, mouth breathing and tongue thrusting. Prader-Willi syndrome had a tendency of dental erosion, and Cri du chat syndrome showed a higher association to Tannerella forsythia. Key words:Rare diseases, oral health. PMID:27475682

  8. Non-Venereal Dermatoses In Male Genital Region-Prevalence And Patterns In A Referral Centre In South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karthikeyan K

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of 100 male patients with non-venereal dermatoses of external genitalia were screened amongst patients visiting Dermatology OPD of JIPMER, Pondicherry from Aug ’97 to March ’99. The overall prevalence was found to be 14.1 per 10,000. Non-venereal dermatoses were common in the 21-40 years age group. Most of the patients (74% belonged to labourer class. A total of 25 different non-venereal dermatoses were studied. Genital vitiligo was the most common disorder accounting for 16 cases. Sebaceous cyst of the scrotum was present 13 patients. Among infections and infestations, scabies was observed in 9 patients. Ariboflavinosis was seen in 9 cases. Other disorders encountered were calcinosis scrotum. Iymphangiectasia of the scrotum. Lichen simplex chronicus. Fixed drug eruption, angiokeratoma of Fordyce, lichen sclerosus et atrophicus etc. The study has been quite useful in understanding the clinical and aetiological characteristics of various types of non-veneral dermatoses in males in this subcontinen of Asia.

  9. Public health surveillance and infectious disease detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Stephen S

    2012-03-01

    Emerging infectious diseases, such as HIV/AIDS, SARS, and pandemic influenza, and the anthrax attacks of 2001, have demonstrated that we remain vulnerable to health threats caused by infectious diseases. The importance of strengthening global public health surveillance to provide early warning has been the primary recommendation of expert groups for at least the past 2 decades. However, despite improvements in the past decade, public health surveillance capabilities remain limited and fragmented, with uneven global coverage. Recent initiatives provide hope of addressing this issue, and new technological and conceptual advances could, for the first time, place capability for global surveillance within reach. Such advances include the revised International Health Regulations (IHR 2005) and the use of new data sources and methods to improve global coverage, sensitivity, and timeliness, which show promise for providing capabilities to extend and complement the existing infrastructure. One example is syndromic surveillance, using nontraditional and often automated data sources. Over the past 20 years, other initiatives, including ProMED-mail, GPHIN, and HealthMap, have demonstrated new mechanisms for acquiring surveillance data. In 2009 the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) began the Emerging Pandemic Threats (EPT) program, which includes the PREDICT project, to build global capacity for surveillance of novel infections that have pandemic potential (originating in wildlife and at the animal-human interface) and to develop a framework for risk assessment. Improved understanding of factors driving infectious disease emergence and new technological capabilities in modeling, diagnostics and pathogen identification, and communications, such as using the increasing global coverage of cellphones for public health surveillance, can further enhance global surveillance.

  10. Primary oral and nasal transmissible venereal tumor in a mix-breed dog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdieh Rezaei

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Transmissible venereal tumor (TVT is a coitally transmitted tumor of dogs with widespread distribution. The present study describes the occurrence of the primary oral and nasal TVT in a 10-year-old, female, mix-breed dog. The case was presented with a history of anorexia, inability to swallow and dyspnea. Clinical examinations revealed the emaciation, muzzle deformity due to the presence of a friable, fleshy, cauliflower-like mass in the oral cavity and submandibular lymphadenopathy. TVT was diagnosed based on histopathological findings. The dog was discharged with therapeutic intervention with vincristine. Unfortunately, the case died before readmission because of the progressive worsening of the general condition. Our findings highlight the need for considering TVT for the differential diagnosis of the extragenital masses in dogs.

  11. Primary intranasal transmissible venereal tumour in the dog: a retrospective study of six spontaneous cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papazoglou, L G; Koutinas, A F; Plevraki, A G; Tontis, D

    2001-09-01

    The medical records of six dogs with primary intranasal transmissible venereal tumour (TVT) were reviewed. Epistaxis (4/6), serosangineous nasal discharge (2/6), oronasal fistulae (2/6), facial swelling (1/6) and submandibular lymphadenopathy (3/6) due to reactive hyperplasia (2/3) and metastasis (1/3) were the most common complaints and clinical findings. Diagnosis was made by rhinoscopy and confirmed by cytology and histopathology in five dogs and by cytology only in one dog. The microscopic appearance of the tumours with both diagnostic techniques was typical of TVT. Four cases were treated effectively with four to five weekly cycles of vincristine monotherapy that resulted in complete resolution of TVT masses in approximately 1 month. One case was resistant to this kind of treatment and another one was lost to follow-up.

  12. Immunohistochemical characterization of intraocular metastasis of a canine transmissible venereal tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, J.S.; Silva, A.B.F.; Martins, A.L.B.; Ferreira, A.M.R.; Brooks, D.E.

    2000-01-01

    Little has been published on intraocular metastasis of transmissible venereal tumors (TVT) in dogs. This report presents a 4-year-old male Labrador Retriever with a previous history of subcutaneous TVT which underwent total remission after treatment with vincristine. The dog presented with clinical signs of uveitis and increased intraocular pressure (IOP) in both eyes. After enucleation of the left eye, a diagnosis of TVT was made based on morphology, histology and immunohistochemistry (IHC). IHC staining for vimentin, S-100 protein, cytokeratin and HMB45 was performed to differentiate this lesion from TVT, lymphoma, melanoma, carcinomas, neurogenic tumors and fibrosarcoma. The IHC findings supported the diagnosis of TVT for this round cell tumor.

  13. Veneration and Wonder—the politics of making art in an Oaxacan village

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Becker

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This article examines a 5-year collaboration between the Stockholm-based video artists Performing Pictures and Talleres Comunitarios, a studio based in the Oaxacan town of Santa Ana Zegache where local artisans employ traditional skills in the restoration of religious artifacts. In images and text, we trace the exchange of skills, knowledge, and aesthetic sensibility that took place as these two groups of artists collaborated in producing a series of video animations of venerative objects, against a backdrop of religious, social, and political tensions that characterize everyday life in Zegache. In the article and the accompanying series of three short films, “Wonder & Veneration 1–3” (http://vimeo.com/album/2682070, we examine how the artists negotiate questions of aesthetics and religious belief as their collaboration unfolds within the context of the Zegache community, where the Talleres contribute skills of carpentry and painting, while Performing Pictures provides skills of film, animation and micro-electronics. The processes and practices involved in creating three works provides the framework for this examination: the first, an animation of the Virgin of Guadalupe as she appears to a simple peasant, and the second, produced 2 years later, an animation of Santa Ana, local patron saint and mother of Maria, as she teaches her daughter to read the scriptures. Whereas both figures are central to the syncretic religious belief of southern Mexico with its challenge to the entrenched authority of the hispanicized clergy, the local figure of Santa Ana carries even more complex meanings for the community of Zegache. These meanings are embodied in the third work we examine, a small solar-powered chapel that the artists built to display the Santa Ana animation. With the mayor's support and located at the entrance to the town, the chapel embodies a shift of power away from the church, standing as an example of indigenous empowerment in civil

  14. Autologous bone marrow infusion following high dose chemotherapy of the canine transmissible venereal tumor (TVT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, R B; Sarpel, S C

    1980-07-01

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate infusion of cryopreserved autologous bone marrow following supralethal chemotherapy in canines bearing a solid tumor thought to be moderately sensitive to cytotoxic agents. Initial studies in 5 dogs established a combination of busulfan (Bu) 3 mg/kg X 2 days and cyclophosphamide (Cy) 50 mg/kg on day 3 to produce bone marrow lethality within 14 days (high dose regime). Bu 1 mg/kg, Cy 20 mg/kg produced tolerable toxicity (low dose regime). Eight pairs of dogs were challenged with 3 X 10(8) transmissible venereal tumor cells. Measurable progressive tumor growth occurred in all instances. Marrow aspirated from the femoral shafts of the animals was cryopreserved in 10% DMSO. One dog of each pair received the high dose Bu + Cy regime followed in 30 h by marrow infusion and his partner received the low dose regime without marrow. Tumors were measured serially for at least 2 months. Infusion of marrow resulted in evidence of hematologic recovery within 2 weeks following the high dose regime. Tumor responses occurred in both groups when compared to 8 untreated tumor challenged controls. High dose animals had greater initial responses than low dosed dogs but long term responses were not significantly different. Eight dogs rechallenged with tumor cells after initial successful therapy failed to develop tumors. It was concluded that: a) cryopreserved autologous bone marrow infusion was effective in protecting tumor bearing canines from otherwise lethal chemotherapy; b) the transmissible venereal tumor of canines responded to both high and low dose regimes; c) the rescue of dogs by stored autologous marrow did not offer additional benefits in tumor control over a standard regime; d) chemotherapy treated dogs resisted tumor rechallenge. This model may offer a large animal system to study the autologous marrow rescue concept during controlled periods of tumor evolution.

  15. Coronary vasoregulation in health and disease

    OpenAIRE

    John G. Kingma; Rouleau, Jacques R.

    2007-01-01

    The present article reviews pertinent contributions from the Coronary Physiology Research Group at the Quebec Heart Institute to the understanding of coronary physiology in health and disease. Mechanisms that contribute to regulation of coronary blood flow and its distribution across the ventricular wall are discussed. Data from animal studies of ischemia-reperfusion injury are also presented and discussed in the context of current concepts regarding postischemic myocardial protection strateg...

  16. Gut microbiota in health and disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.E. Icaza-Chávez

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Gut microbiota is the community of live microorganisms residing in the digestive tract. There are many groups of researchers worldwide that are working at deciphering the collective genome of the human microbiota. Modern techniques for studying the microbiota have made us aware of an important number of nonculturable bacteria and of the relation between the microorganisms that live inside us and our homeostasis. The microbiota is essential for correct body growth, the development of immunity, and nutrition. Certain epidemics affecting humanity such as asthma and obesity may possibly be explained, at least partially, by alterations in the microbiota. Dysbiosis has been associated with a series of gastrointestinal disorders that include non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, celiac disease, and irritable bowel syndrome. The present article deals with the nomenclature, modern study techniques, and functions of gut microbiota, and its relation to health and disease.

  17. Wine Flavonoids in Health and Disease Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iva Fernandes

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Wine, and particularly red wine, is a beverage with a great chemical complexity that is in continuous evolution. Chemically, wine is a hydroalcoholic solution (~78% water that comprises a wide variety of chemical components, including aldehydes, esters, ketones, lipids, minerals, organic acids, phenolics, soluble proteins, sugars and vitamins. Flavonoids constitute a major group of polyphenolic compounds which are directly associated with the organoleptic and health-promoting properties of red wine. However, due to the insufficient epidemiological and in vivo evidences on this subject, the presence of a high number of variables such as human age, metabolism, the presence of alcohol, the complex wine chemistry, and the wide array of in vivo biological effects of these compounds suggest that only cautious conclusions may be drawn from studies focusing on the direct effect of wine and any specific health issue. Nevertheless, there are several reports on the health protective properties of wine phenolics for several diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, some cancers, obesity, neurodegenerative diseases, diabetes, allergies and osteoporosis. The different interactions that wine flavonoids may have with key biological targets are crucial for some of these health-promoting effects. The interaction between some wine flavonoids and some specific enzymes are one example. The way wine flavonoids may be absorbed and metabolized could interfere with their bioavailability and therefore in their health-promoting effect. Hence, some reports have focused on flavonoids absorption, metabolism, microbiota effect and overall on flavonoids bioavailability. This review summarizes some of these major issues which are directly related to the potential health-promoting effects of wine flavonoids. Reports related to flavonoids and health highlight some relevant scientific information. However, there is still a gap between the knowledge of wine flavonoids

  18. Health literacy and health outcomes in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puente-Maestu, Luis; Calle, Myriam; Rodríguez-Hermosa, Juan Luis; Campuzano, Anna; de Miguel Díez, Javier; Álvarez-Sala, Jose Luis; Puente-Andues, Luis; Pérez-Gutiérrez, Maria Joselín; Lee, Shoou-Yih D

    2016-06-01

    There is little information worldwide about the impact of health literacy (HL) on clinical outcomes of COPD. Our aim was to quantify inadequate HL in Spain, as measured by the Short Assessment of Health Literacy for Spanish Adults questionnaire, and to examine the associations between HL and both COPD outcomes and health status. 296 COPD patients of 68(SD = 9) years and a FEV1%predicted of 53%(SD = 18%) were enrolled and followed-up for one year. 59% showed "inadequate" HL. Individuals with inadequate HL were older (70[SD = 9] vs 65[SD = 8] years; p disease, as measured by the low HL-COPD questionnaire, (6.9[SD = 2.3] vs 7.5[SD = 1.9]; p prevalent among COPD patients and it is related to health status and relevant clinical outcomes of the disease. HL needs to be considered when planning the care for COPD patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Heme Oxygenases in Cardiovascular Health and Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayer, Anita; Zarjou, Abolfazl; Agarwal, Anupam; Stocker, Roland

    2016-01-01

    Heme oxygenases are composed of two isozymes, Hmox1 and Hmox2, that catalyze the degradation of heme to carbon monoxide (CO), ferrous iron, and biliverdin, the latter of which is subsequently converted to bilirubin. While initially considered to be waste products, CO and biliverdin/bilirubin have been shown over the last 20 years to modulate key cellular processes, such as inflammation, cell proliferation, and apoptosis, as well as antioxidant defense. This shift in paradigm has led to the importance of heme oxygenases and their products in cell physiology now being well accepted. The identification of the two human cases thus far of heme oxygenase deficiency and the generation of mice deficient in Hmox1 or Hmox2 have reiterated a role for these enzymes in both normal cell function and disease pathogenesis, especially in the context of cardiovascular disease. This review covers the current knowledge on the function of both Hmox1 and Hmox2 at both a cellular and tissue level in the cardiovascular system. Initially, the roles of heme oxygenases in vascular health and the regulation of processes central to vascular diseases are outlined, followed by an evaluation of the role(s) of Hmox1 and Hmox2 in various diseases such as atherosclerosis, intimal hyperplasia, myocardial infarction, and angiogenesis. Finally, the therapeutic potential of heme oxygenases and their products are examined in a cardiovascular disease context, with a focus on how the knowledge we have gained on these enzymes may be capitalized in future clinical studies. PMID:27604527

  20. Health benefits of methylxanthines in neurodegenerative diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oñatibia-Astibia, Ainhoa; Franco, Rafael; Martínez-Pinilla, Eva

    2017-06-01

    Methylxanthines (MTXs) are consumed by almost everybody in almost every area of the world. Caffeine, theophylline and theobromine are the most well-known members of this family of compounds; they are present, inter alia, in coffee, tea, cacao, yerba mate and cola drinks. MTXs are readily absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract and are able to penetrate into the central nervous system, where they exert significant psychostimulant actions, which are more evident in acute intake. Coffee has been paradigmatic, as its use was forbidden in many diseases, however, this negative view has radically changed; evidence shows that MTXs display health benefits in diseases involving cell death in the nervous system. This paper reviews data that appraise the preventive and even therapeutic potential of MTXs in a variety of neurodegenerative diseases. Future perspectives include the use of MTXs to advance the understanding the pathophysiology of, inter alia, Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD), and the use of the methylxanthine chemical moiety as a basis for the development of new and more efficacious drugs. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Gut Microbiota in Cardiovascular Health and Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, W H Wilson; Kitai, Takeshi; Hazen, Stanley L

    2017-03-31

    Significant interest in recent years has focused on gut microbiota-host interaction because accumulating evidence has revealed that intestinal microbiota play an important role in human health and disease, including cardiovascular diseases. Changes in the composition of gut microbiota associated with disease, referred to as dysbiosis, have been linked to pathologies such as atherosclerosis, hypertension, heart failure, chronic kidney disease, obesity, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. In addition to alterations in gut microbiota composition, the metabolic potential of gut microbiota has been identified as a contributing factor in the development of diseases. Recent studies revealed that gut microbiota can elicit a variety of effects on the host. Indeed, the gut microbiome functions like an endocrine organ, generating bioactive metabolites, that can impact host physiology. Microbiota interact with the host through many pathways, including the trimethylamine/trimethylamine N -oxide pathway, short-chain fatty acids pathway, and primary and secondary bile acids pathways. In addition to these metabolism-dependent pathways, metabolism-independent processes are suggested to also potentially contribute to cardiovascular disease pathogenesis. For example, heart failure-associated splanchnic circulation congestion, bowel wall edema, and impaired intestinal barrier function are thought to result in bacterial translocation, the presence of bacterial products in the systemic circulation and heightened inflammatory state. These are thought to also contribute to further progression of heart failure and atherosclerosis. The purpose of the current review is to highlight the complex interplay between microbiota, their metabolites, and the development and progression of cardiovascular diseases. We will also discuss the roles of gut microbiota in normal physiology and the potential of modulating intestinal microbial inhabitants as novel therapeutic targets. © 2017 American Heart

  2. Neuronatin Protein in Health and Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitale, Priyamvada M; Howse, Wayne; Gorbatyuk, Marina

    2017-03-01

    Neuronatin (NNAT) was first identified as a brain-specific gene crucial for brain development. Over the years, NNAT has been studied in different developing and post-developed tissues and organs. While NNAT manifests functional and structural similarities to the phospholamban gene, its physiological and pathological roles in healthy and diseased tissues have not been precisely identified. Ca(2+) signaling, glucose transport, insulin secretion, and inflammation modulated at different pathological conditions have been proposed to be governed by NNAT. This review describes the current findings of cellular molecular pathways known to be modified concomitantly with an alteration in NNAT expression, and it highlights the need to conduct extensive investigation regarding the role of NNAT in health and disease. J. Cell. Physiol. 232: 477-481, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Avian cytokines in health and disease

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    Wigley P

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Cytokines are proteins secreted by cells that play an important role in the activation and regulation of other cells and tissues during inflammation and immune responses. Although well described in several mammalian species, the role of cytokines and other related proteins is poorly understood in avian species. Recent advances in avian genetics and immunology have begun to allow the exploration of cytokines in health and disease. Cytokines may be classified in a number of ways, but may be conveniently arranged into four broad groups on the basis of their function. Proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-6 and interleukin-1beta play a role in mediating inflammation during disease or injury. Th1 cytokines, including interleukin-12 and interferon-gamma, are involved in the induction of cell-mediated immunity, whereas Th2 cytokines such as interleukin-4 are involved in the induction of humoral immunity. The final group Th3 or Tr cytokines play a role in regulation of immunity. The role of various cytokines in infectious and non-infectious diseases of chickens and turkeys is now being investigated. Although there are only a few reliable ELISAs or bioassays developed for avian cytokines, the use of molecular techniques, and in particular quantitative RT-PCR (Taqman has allowed investigation of cytokine responses in a number of diseases including salmonellosis, coccidiosis and autoimmune thyroiditis. In addition the use of recombinant cytokines as therapeutic agents or as vaccine adjuvants is now being explored.

  4. The stomach in health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, R H; Camilleri, M; Crowe, S E; El-Omar, E M; Fox, J G; Kuipers, E J; Malfertheiner, P; McColl, K E L; Pritchard, D M; Rugge, M; Sonnenberg, A; Sugano, K; Tack, J

    2015-10-01

    The stomach is traditionally regarded as a hollow muscular sac that initiates the second phase of digestion. Yet this simple view ignores the fact that it is the most sophisticated endocrine organ with unique physiology, biochemistry, immunology and microbiology. All ingested materials, including our nutrition, have to negotiate this organ first, and as such, the stomach is arguably the most important segment within the GI tract. The unique biological function of gastric acid secretion not only initiates the digestive process but also acts as a first line of defence against food-borne microbes. Normal gastric physiology and morphology may be disrupted by Helicobacter pylori infection, the most common chronic bacterial infection in the world and the aetiological agent for most peptic ulcers and gastric cancer. In this state-of-the-art review, the most relevant new aspects of the stomach in health and disease are addressed. Topics include gastric physiology and the role of gastric dysmotility in dyspepsia and gastroparesis; the stomach in appetite control and obesity; there is an update on the immunology of the stomach and the emerging field of the gastric microbiome. H. pylori-induced gastritis and its associated diseases including peptic ulcers and gastric cancer are addressed together with advances in diagnosis. The conclusions provide a future approach to gastric diseases underpinned by the concept that a healthy stomach is the gateway to a healthy and balanced host. This philosophy should reinforce any public health efforts designed to eradicate major gastric diseases, including stomach cancer. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  5. Islamic fasting and oral health and diseases

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    A Javadzadeh Blouri

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Fasting is a religious obligation, which can be challenging for individuals with oral conditions due to its stringent code of conduct. Moreover, food abstinence during fasting can restrict oral feeding even further in patients whose nutrition has been already compromised. Previous research has mainly concentrated on oral hygiene and gum health, disregarding orodental conditions and diseases. This highlights the importance of further research in this regard. In this paper, we intended to clarify the correlation between fasting and oral injections, bleeding following tooth extraction, and brushing to overcome common misconceptions which indicate the breach of religious disciplines under such circumstances. We also aimed to determine the grave effects of fasting on health in case of severe immunological deficiencies, chronic oral ulcers and certain drug administration protocols for those with rigid religious beliefs.

  6. Health and disease in unacculturated Amerindian populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neel, J.V.

    1977-08-01

    The stereotype of uncontacted tribal populations is that they must reproduce at near capacity to maintain or slightly increase their numbers. This paper argues that the health of minimally contacted Amerindians, as judged by the results of physical examinations and life tables for the Yanomama of Southern Venezuela and Northern Brazil, is relatively good, with population control a feature of the Indian culture. It is further argued that the usual deterioration in health with contacts with western culture probably does not result so much from special innate susceptibilities to certain epidemic diseases and to the diets and ''stresses'' of civilization as from the epidemiological characteristics of newly contacted peoples.

  7. Talking with Your Health Care Professionals about Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of chronic disease, including kidney disease. Get enough sleep Aim for 7 to 8 hours of sleep ... and Digestive and Kidney Diseases Health Information Center Phone: + 1-800-860-8747 TTY: + 1-866-569- ...

  8. Contrapuntos hagiográficos sobre el Venerable Fr. Pedro de Urraca (Jadraque 1583 - Lima 1657

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    Rene Millar

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo analiza cuatro hagiografías, dos de ellas inéditas, que se escribieron en diferentes épocas sobre el Venerable Fr. Pedro de Urraca, que nació en Jadraque, España, en 1583 y murió en Lima, en fama de santidad, en 1657. Se estudia el contenido y objetivo de las obras con el fin de apreciar las diferencias que presentan y las variaciones en el tiempo que, desde la perspectiva de la mentalidad religiosa, reflejan. Pero también se examina la relación que tuvieron con el proceso de beatificación del protagonista, para tratar de entender la influencia que ejercieron en dicho proceso. Al mismo tiempo, se pretende ver la manera como este contribuyó a marcar las características y orientación de las obras. En ese contexto, postulamos que la primera de las hagiografías, la que se escribió un mes después de la muerte del Siervo de Dios y que aún permanece inédita, tuvo una gran influencia en la orientación de la causa de beatificación y hasta cierto punto marcó su trayectoria y también influyó, directa o indirectamente, en las hagiografías que se escribieron con posterioridad.This article analyzes four hagiographies-two of them unpublished-that were written in different periods about the Venerable Friar Pedro de Urraca, who was born in Jadraque, Spain, in 1583, and died in Lima, renowned for his sanctity, in 1657. The author studies the content and objective of these literary works with the purpose of appreciating the differences and the variations over time that they present and reflect, from the perspective of religious mentality. However, the author also examines the relation they had with the process of beatification of the protagonist, in order to try to understand the influence that they exercised on said process. At the same time, the author attempts to see the way in which this process left its traces on the characteristics and direction of the works. In this context, the author proposes that the first of the

  9. The conceptualisation of health and disease in veterinary medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunnarsson Stefan

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The concept of health, as well as the concept of disease, is central in veterinary medicine. However, the definitions "health" and "disease" are not generally acknowledged by veterinarians. The aim of this study was to examine how the concepts "health" and "disease" are defined in veterinary textbooks. Methods Veterinary textbooks in several disciplines were investigated, but only textbooks with explicit definitions of the concepts were selected for examination. Results Eighty out of the 500 relevant books within veterinary medicine were written for non-veterinarians. Eight percent of the books had an explicit definition of health and/or disease. More frequently, textbooks written for non veterinarians did have definitions of health or disease, compared to textbooks written for professionals. A division of health definitions in five different categories was suggested, namely: 1. Health as normality, 2. Health as biological function, 3. Health as homeostasis, 4. Health as physical and psychological well-being and 5. Health as productivity including reproduction. Conclusion Few veterinary textbooks had any health or disease definition at all. Furthermore, explicit definitions of health stated by the authors seemed to have little impact on how health and disease are handled within the profession. Veterinary medicine would probably gain from theoretical discussions about health and disease.

  10. [Gut microbiota in health and disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Icaza-Chávez, M E

    2013-01-01

    Gut microbiota is the community of live microorganisms residing in the digestive tract. There are many groups of researchers worldwide that are working at deciphering the collective genome of the human microbiota. Modern techniques for studying the microbiota have made us aware of an important number of nonculturable bacteria and of the relation between the microorganisms that live inside us and our homeostasis. The microbiota is essential for correct body growth, the development of immunity, and nutrition. Certain epidemics affecting humanity such as asthma and obesity may possibly be explained, at least partially, by alterations in the microbiota. Dysbiosis has been associated with a series of gastrointestinal disorders that include non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, celiac disease, and irritable bowel syndrome. The present article deals with the nomenclature, modern study techniques, and functions of gut microbiota, and its relation to health and disease. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Mexicana de Gastroenterología. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  11. Risk factors and characteristics of canine transmissible venereal tumours in Grenada, West Indies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabuusu, R M; Stroup, D F; Fernandez, C

    2010-03-01

    We studied risk factors and characteristics of canine transmissible venereal tumours (TVTs) in Grenada. We abstracted data for 38 TVT cases and 114 TVT-free dogs submitted to a veterinary diagnostic laboratory between 2003 and 2006. Occurrence profiles, odds ratios (ORs), and logistic regression models for TVT were determined using a significance level of alpha = 0.05. TVT was found in 20 (52.6%) female and 18 (47.4%) male dogs. Of the TVT cases, 32 (84.2%) were between 1 and 7 years old, 20 (52.6%) were mixed breeds of dogs, 14 (36.8%) were Grenadian pothounds, while 4 (10.6%) were pure-bred dogs. Characteristic TVT lesions were genital growths [OR = 96.7; 95% CI (27,461), P dogs. An increased risk for TVT was associated with age as adult (1-7 years) dogs [OR = 12; 95% CI (1.6, 94), P dog owners about increased risk of TVT for Grenadian pothounds and consider TVT as a possibility for some extragenital tumours.

  12. Immunocytochemical characterization of primary cell culture in canine transmissible venereal tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis M.M. Flórez

    Full Text Available Abstract: Immunochemistry with anti-vimentin, anti-lysozyme, anti-alpha 1 antitrypsin, anti-CD3 and anti-CD79α antibodies has been used for characterization of primary cell culture in the transmissible venereal tumor (TVT. Samples for primary cell culture and immunohistochemistry assays were taken from eight dogs with cytological and clinical diagnosis of TVT. To validate the immunochemical results in the primary cell culture of TVT, a chromosome count was performed. For the statistical analysis, the Mann-Whitney test with p<0.05 was used. TVT tissues and culture cells showed intense anti-vimentin immunoreactivity, lightly to moderate immunoreactivity for anti-lysozyme, and mild for anti-alpha-antitrypsin. No marking was achieved for CD3 and CD79α. All culture cells showed chromosomes variable number of 56 to 68. This is the first report on the use of immunocytochemical characterization in cell culture of TVT. Significant statistic difference between immunochemistry in tissue and culture cell was not established, what suggests that the use of this technique may provide greater certainty for the confirmation of tumors in the primary culture. This fact is particularly important because in vitro culture of tumor tissues has been increasingly used to provide quick access to drug efficacy and presents relevant information to identify potential response to anticancer medicine; so it is possible to understand the behavior of the tumor.

  13. HISTOPATHOLOGICAL AND CYTOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF TRANSMISSIBLE VENEREAL TUMOR IN DOGS AFTER TWO TREATMENT PROTOCOLS

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    Fabiana Aguena Sales Lapa

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The transmissible venereal tumor (TVT is a contagious neoplasm of round cells that frequently affect dogs. The treatment consists of chemotherapy being more effective the vincristine alone, however the resistance emergence to this agent due multidrug resistance of the P-glycoprotein (P-gp, a transporter protein encoded by the MDR1 gene, has been taking the association with other drugs. Recent studies demonstrated the antitumoral effect of the avermectins when associated to the vincristine in the treatment of some neoplasms. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to compare the effectiveness of standard treatment of TVT with vincristine only when compared to combined treatment with vincristine and ivermectin, evaluated through number of applications of the two protocols, histopathological and cytological analysis from 50 dogs diagnosed with TVT during the period of 2007 to 2010. The combined protocol significant reduced the number of applications and cytological and histopathological findings collaborate with the hypothesis that the combination of vincristine and ivermectin promotes faster healing than the use of vincristine alone. Combination treatment with vincristine and ivermectin could be in the future an excellent therapeutic alternative for the treatment of TVT for probably reducing the resistance to vincristine, simultaneously reducing the cost of TVT treatment and promoting a faster recovery of the dog.

  14. Immunocharacterization of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and matrix metalloproteinase-9 in canine transmissible venereal tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkoc, A; Nak, D; Demirer, A; Şimşek, G

    2017-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteases (MMPs) are endogenous proteases that are responsible for degradation of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins and cell surface antigens. The breakdown of ECM participates in the local invasion and distant metastases of malignant tumors. Canine transmissible venereal tumor (CTVT) is a naturally occurring contagious round cell neoplasm of dogs that affects mainly the external genitalia of both sexes. CTVT generally is a locally invasive tumor, but distant metastases also are common in puppies and immunocompromised dogs. We investigated the immune expressions and activities of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in CTVT. The presence of these enzymes in tumor cells and tissue homogenates was demonstrated by immunohistochemistry and western blotting. We used gelatin substrate zymography to evaluate the activities of MMP-2 and MMP-9 enzymes in tumor homogenates. We found that tumor cells expressed both MMP-2 and MMP-9. Electrophoretic bands corresponding to MMP-9 and MMP-2 were identified in immunoblots and clear bands that corresponded to the active forms of MMP-2 and MMP-9 also were detected in gelatin zymograms. Our study is the first detailed documentation of MMPs in CTVT.

  15. Wood Usage and Fire Veneration in the Pamir, Xinjiang, 2500 yr BP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Hui; Wu, Xinhua; Tang, Zihua; Zhou, Xinying; Sun, Nan; Li, Xiaoqiang

    2015-01-01

    Located on the Pamir Plateau in Xinjiang Province, China, the Ji'erzankale Necropolis dates back to 2500 yr BP. Many materials that have been unearthed in this cemetery, including shoo konghou (musical instrument), bronze mirrors and glass beads, suggest cultural transference between East and West. Furthermore, small-sized and rounded fire altars made from sweet-scented Sabina were found for the first time and regarded as implements for fire veneration. We identified 70 wooden objects from 25 tombs within the Necropolis, and found that each object had been made from one of seven tree species. Analysis revealed that the inhabitants of the region mainly used the most widely available types of wood, namely Betula and Populus. People also specifically chose inflammable Populus wood to make hearth boards and hand drills (both are used for making fire by drilling), rigid Betula wood to craft wooden plates. Salix was used for fashioning wooden sticks, while sweet-scented Sabina was the preferred choice for making fire altars. Lonicera was selected for arrow shaft manufacture and Fraxinus syriaca, which has a beautiful grain, was chosen for making musical instruments. Conscious selection of different types of wood indicates that people of the Pamir Plateau were aware of the properties of various types of timbers, and were able to exploit these properties to the full. In turn, this demonstrates their wisdom and their ability to survive in, and adapt to, their local environment.

  16. Wood Usage and Fire Veneration in the Pamir, Xinjiang, 2500 yr BP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Shen

    Full Text Available Located on the Pamir Plateau in Xinjiang Province, China, the Ji'erzankale Necropolis dates back to 2500 yr BP. Many materials that have been unearthed in this cemetery, including shoo konghou (musical instrument, bronze mirrors and glass beads, suggest cultural transference between East and West. Furthermore, small-sized and rounded fire altars made from sweet-scented Sabina were found for the first time and regarded as implements for fire veneration. We identified 70 wooden objects from 25 tombs within the Necropolis, and found that each object had been made from one of seven tree species. Analysis revealed that the inhabitants of the region mainly used the most widely available types of wood, namely Betula and Populus. People also specifically chose inflammable Populus wood to make hearth boards and hand drills (both are used for making fire by drilling, rigid Betula wood to craft wooden plates. Salix was used for fashioning wooden sticks, while sweet-scented Sabina was the preferred choice for making fire altars. Lonicera was selected for arrow shaft manufacture and Fraxinus syriaca, which has a beautiful grain, was chosen for making musical instruments. Conscious selection of different types of wood indicates that people of the Pamir Plateau were aware of the properties of various types of timbers, and were able to exploit these properties to the full. In turn, this demonstrates their wisdom and their ability to survive in, and adapt to, their local environment.

  17. Brain and ocular metastases from a transmissible venereal tumour in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, A J; Jaggy, A; Varejão, A P; Ferreira, M L; Correia, J M; Mulas, J M; Almeida, O; Oliveira, P; Prada, J

    2000-04-01

    A five-year-old crossbred dog was referred with rapidly growing masses over its penis and right popliteal lymph node. The dog had severe blepharospasm, congestion of episcleral vessels and rubeosis iridis of the left eye. A presumptive diagnosis of transmissible venereal tumour (TVT) and iridocyclitis was made based on the results of fine needle aspiration. Chemotherapy with vincristine and prednisolone was initiated and after four months the dog made a complete recovery. However, the dog subsequently relapsed, showing miosis, blepharospasm and a well defined mass within the anterior chamber of the left eye. In addition, the dog exhibited generalised 'grand mal' type seizures. Computed tomographic (CT) examination of the brain revealed two distinct masses in the left frontal lobe. Because of the poor prognosis, the owners elected to have the dog euthanased. On histopathology, metastases of TVT in the left eye and left cerebral hemisphere were found, showing no specific staining for CD3, immunoglobulin (Ig) G, IgM and lambda light chains. It was therefore concluded that the tumour growth was progressive, and that there was an absence of local humoral immune response against TVT in this case.

  18. Cell-based polymerase chain reaction for canine transmissible venereal tumor (CTVT) diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setthawongsin, Chanokchon; Techangamsuwan, Somporn; Tangkawattana, Sirikachorn; Rungsipipat, Anudep

    2016-08-01

    Canine transmissible venereal tumor (CTVT) is the only naturally contagious tumor that is transmitted during coitus or social behaviors. Based on the tumor's location, the diagnosis of genital TVT (GTVT) is comparably easier than those in the extragenital area (ETVT) that are more easily incorrectly diagnosed. Fortunately, CTVT cells contain a specific long interspersed nuclear elements (LINE), inserted upstream of the myc gene, allowing a diagnostic polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based detection assay. The objectives of this study were aimed to improve the diagnostic accuracy by applying the diagnostic LINE1-c-myc PCR assay and fine needle aspiration (FNA) collection in direct comparison with standard cytological and histopathological analyses. Seventy-four dogs, comprised of 41 and 31 dogs with tumor masses at their external genitalia and extragenital areas (e.g. skin and nasal cavity), respectively, were included in this study. The signalment of these 65 dogs and clinical history of 20 client-owned dogs were collected. Samples were taken by biopsy for both histopathological examination and FNA for cytological examination and diagnostic PCR. The PCR products from 10 apparently CTVT samples were purified and sequenced. Sixty-one CTVT cases were diagnosed by cytological and histological analyses, but 65 were positive by the PCR assay. Overall, the PCR assay improved the accuracy of diagnostic CTVT results, especially for the more difficult ETVT tumors. Moreover, this PCR-based approach can facilitate the decision as to discontinue chemotherapy by discrimination between residual tumor cell masses and fibrotic tissue.

  19. Semen quality during vincristine treatment in dogs with transmissible venereal tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saratsis, P; Ypsilantis, P; Tselkas, K

    2000-03-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the direct effects of vincristine on semen quality in dogs with transmissible venereal tumor (TVT). We examined the semen of 17 dogs suffering from TVT during vincristine treatment. Each animal received 0.6 mg, i.v. vincristine sulphate per square meter of body surface, per week for 4 wk until complete regression of the tumor. The following semen parameters were evaluated: semen volume (second fraction), sperm concentration, total spermatozoa per ejaculate, percentage of progressively motile spermatozoa, percentage of dead spermatozoa, percentage of swollen spermatozoa (hypo-osmotic swelling test) and percentage of morphologically abnormal spermatozoa (primary and secondary defects). Semen was collected and evaluated prior to the beginning of treatment, 3 d after each vincristine injection and 15 d after the last injection. Semen characteristics transiently deteriorated during treatment, but returned to normal 15 d later. These changes were attributed to a direct effect of vincristine on the extragonadal spermatozoal reserves contained in the epididymis and ductus deferens. A GnRH stimulation test was also performed after each semen collection in order to assess the function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-Leydig cell axis. No effect was noted on the above axis.

  20. A Clinico-pathological study on the effect of vincristine on transmissible venereal tumour in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nak, D; Nak, Y; Cangul, I T; Tuna, B

    2005-09-01

    Transmissible venereal tumour (TVT) is a coitally transmitted neoplasm of dogs and is common among sexually active dogs, where sexual behaviour is not under control. Several treatment options are available for the treatment of the tumour, with chemotherapy being the most commonly employed. In this study, we investigated the clinical and cytological changes after weekly vincristine sulphate administration in 38 cases of naturally occurring TVT. Tumours totally regressed in 31 dogs after two to seven doses (mean 3.54 +/- 1.01) of vincristine. One dog died after the fifth dose of vincristine, and in six dogs, an additional treatment with doxorubicin was needed. Masses were still present in four dogs and the histopathological examination revealed small nodules of granulation tissue in two dogs, while viable tumour cells were identified in the remaining two cases. No recurrences were observed in a follow-up period of 7-49 months (mean 13.64 +/- 9.66); in one dog, granulation tissue was detected in the surgery site after 2 months. Treatment success could easily be followed by the cytological changes. In conclusion, vincristine was found to be effective chemotherapeutic agent.

  1. Plasmapheresis as immunotherapeutic modality in the treatment of the canine venereal tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zander, A R; Sarpell, S; Cunningham, B; Hess, A D; Johnston, D A; Epstein, R B

    1980-10-01

    Plasmapheresis was evaluated as a treatment modality for the transmissible venereal tumor (TVT) of the dog. The TVT is a unique tumor because of its capability for transplantation as a homograft between untreated randomly bred dogs and is characterized by the presence of dog leukocyte antigen (DLA) determinants on its tumor cells and reactivity in the mixed leukocyte tumor cell culture (MLTC). In the progressing phase, high titers of blocking antibodies measurable in the MLTC were noted. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of plasmapheresis on the growth of established TVT and to correlate tumor response with the removal of blocking factors. Six pairs of DLA-identical dogs were used as experimental and control animals. Plasmapheresis was performed by discontinuous centrifugation using the Hemonetics model 30. An average of 1100 +/- 120 ml of plasma was exchanged on consecutive days during the third week after tumor injection. Consistently lower growth rates were observed in 2 experimental dogs, but there was no early rejection. Sera taken at day 14 of tumor growth contained significant blocking activity in all 12 dogs. Sera obtained post-plasmapheresis showed a decrease of blocking activity in all 6 experimental dogs, P less than 0.001. The TVT appears to be a suitable model for preclinical studies of plasmapheresis alone and in combination with other modalities.

  2. Lack of beta 2-microglobulin on the surface of canine transmissible venereal tumor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, D; Shalev, A; Krup, M

    1984-02-01

    beta 2-Microglobulin (beta 2m) expression on the cell surface of the naturally occurring, allotransplantable canine transmissible venereal tumor (TVT) was investigated by use of indirect membrane immunofluorescence and radioimmunoassay. Two cell populations were identified in animal-derived, collagenase-disaggregated TVT cell suspensions. About 80% of the cells lacked surface beta 2m expression, whereas about 20% of the cells strongly reacted with anti-dog beta 2m serum. With the use of a cell separation technique, beta 2m-negative cells were demonstrated to carry TVT markers on their surface, whereas the beta 2m-positive cells did not express the tumor markers. The beta 2m-positive cells seemed, therefore, to be tumor-infiltrating host cells. These findings were supported by fluorescence staining studies of frozen sections of the TVT. The lack of beta 2m expression on the surface of TVT cells might explain the allotransplantability of this neoplasm, since beta 2m expression on the cell surface appeared to be obligatory for the expression of class I major histocompatibility complex antigens.

  3. Ocular manifestations of canine transmissible venereal tumour: a retrospective study of 25 cases in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komnenou, A Th; Thomas, A L N; Kyriazis, A P; Poutahidis, T; Papazoglou, L G

    2015-05-16

    Transmissible venereal tumour (TVT) is a sexually transmitted neoplasm that frequently affects dogs of either sex, in tropical and subtropical regions. TVT primarily involves the external genitalia, although extragenital sites have also been reported. This study describes the ocular manifestations of TVT in 25 naturally infected dogs and their response to treatment. Seventeen male and eight female dogs were included in the study. TVT ocular lesions were either unilateral (21 dogs) or bilateral (four dogs). Ocular lesions as the single manifestation of TVT were seen in 22 animals. One dog presented external genitalia involvement while two others were found to have tumours in the oral and nasal mucosa. Variably sized multilobular tumour masses with irregular surface were noticed on the bulbar conjunctiva of the nictitating membrane in 17 dogs, on the conjunctiva of the upper eyelid in five dogs and on the conjunctiva of the lower eyelid and adjacent skin in three dogs. Deep ulcerative keratitis was observed in eight animals. TVT diagnosis was based on cytology and histopathology. The large eye masses were surgically excised. All dogs were treated with a single chemotherapeutic agent (vincristine). After four weeks of treatment, complete remission of the tumours was evident in all but one animal. Extragenital primary ophthalmic TVT can be completely eliminated by vincristine chemotherapy, while any further ocular damage is prevented with the combination of the above treatment and surgical excision. British Veterinary Association.

  4. Cutaneous transmissible venereal tumor without genital involvement in a prepubertal female dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcos, R; Santos, Marta; Marrinhas, C; Rocha, E

    2006-03-01

    An 11-month-old prepubertal crossbreed female dog was presented with multiple nodular lesions disseminated over the cervical, back, flank, and abdominal regions. The lesions were ulcerated and cauliflowerlike, or nodular and subcutaneous, measuring up to 13 cm in diameter. Cytologic preparations of one of the lesions revealed a uniform population of round to oval cells, with lightly basophilic cytoplasm that contained multiple distinct vacuoles. Frequent mitotic figures and occasional lymphocytes were also observed. The cytologic diagnosis was cutaneous transmissible venereal tumor (TVT) in a progressing growth phase. This was confirmed by histologic and immunohistochemical findings. Vaginal TVT was diagnosed later in the dog's mother. TVT is a contagious neoplasm of sexually mature dogs that usually is transmitted by coitus and affects the genital mucosa. To our knowledge, this is the first report of naturally occurring multicentric TVT in a prepubertal female dog and also is unique in its exclusively cutaneous (no mucosal) involvement. We speculate that transmission of neoplastic cells occurred during cohabitation and social/mothering behavior between the dogs. Despite the atypical clinical presentation, response to chemotherapy with vincristine was excellent, leading to complete regression of the neoplasm without relapse after 6 months.

  5. "Retroposon" insertion into the cellular oncogene c-myc in canine transmissible venereal tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzir, N; Rechavi, G; Cohen, J B; Unger, T; Simoni, F; Segal, S; Cohen, D; Givol, D

    1985-01-01

    We examined by Southern blotting the state of the cellular oncogene c-myc in the dog transmissible venereal tumor. The tumor DNA contains a 16.8-kilobase pair (kbp) rearranged c-myc fragment in addition to the normal 15-kbp and 7.5-kbp fragments. We compared the structure of the cloned rearranged c-myc (re-myc) with that of a cloned normal c-myc and found that the rearrangement was due to the insertion of a 1.8-kbp DNA upstream to the first exon of c-myc. The inserted DNA is flanked by 10-base-pair direct repeats and contains a dA-rich tail, suggesting its origin from mRNA. Partial sequence of the inserted element showed 62% homology with the primate interdispersed Kpn I repetitive element. These results provide an example for the behavior of repetitive DNA sequences like the Kpn I family, as movable elements that can transpose nearby to oncogenes or other structural genes and perhaps affect their activity. Images PMID:2983328

  6. The Veneration of Imperial Images between the Constantinian and Theodosian dinasties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Cadenas González

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available En el texto procuramos hacer un análisis del modelo de emperador que proponen los oradores paganos Libanio y Temistio a nales del siglo iv d. C. Este modelo acorde con las tradiciones romanas está basado en las virtudes del emperador, principalmente la lantropía, incluso aceptando un emperador cristiano. Sin embargo, observamos cómo ese modelo imperial choca con el modelo propuesto por el cristianismo principalmente en el ejercicio del culto imperial y la veneración de las imágenes. Así, la visión anicónica del cristianismo va desplazando paulatinamente el ritual tradicional romano que considera como idolatría muchos elementos relacionados con la importancia espiritual de las imágenes. In this text we try to carry out an analysis of the emperor model proposed by the pagane orators Libanius and Temistius at the end of the fourth Century AD. ey propose an ideal emperor in accordance with traditions, based on the virtues of the emperor, especially on philanthropy, even accepting the Christianity of the ruler. However, this emperor model is against the Christian thought, mainly in the veneration of the emperor, the imperial cult and the worship of images. e point of view of Christianity based on aniconism will gradually displace the traditional Roman ritual and it will consider many elements related to the importance of images as idolatry.

  7. Health technologies for rare diseases: does conventional HTA still apply?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoens, Steven

    2014-06-01

    As part of a health technology assessment, economic evaluation of health technologies for rare diseases poses specific challenges given that such technologies are rarely cost-effective. Therefore, conventional economic evaluation techniques appear to be less relevant to health technologies for rare diseases. However, the definition of health technology assessment points to multi-criteria decision analysis by stating that a health technology needs to be assessed against multiple criteria in order to pronounce a judgement about the value of the health technology. Thus, this editorial argues that a full health technology assessment which uses a multi-criteria decision analysis framework to evaluate the value of a technology can be applied to health technologies for rare diseases. Past experiences demonstrate that the specific characteristics of health technologies for rare diseases can fit in the conventional health technology assessment paradigm by means of multi-criteria decision analysis.

  8. The exocyst complex in health and disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdanela eMartin-Urdiroz

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Exocytosis involves the fusion of intracellular secretory vesicles with the PM, thereby delivering integral membrane proteins to the cell surface and releasing material into the extracellular space. Importantly, exocytosis also provides a source of lipid moieties for membrane extension. The tethering of the secretory vesicle before docking and fusion with the PM is mediated by the exocyst complex, an evolutionary conserved octameric complex of proteins. Recent findings indicate that the exocyst complex also takes part in other intra-cellular processes besides secretion. These various functions seem to converge towards defining a direction of membrane growth in a range of systems from fungi to plants and from neurons to cilia. In this review we summarise the current knowledge of exocyst function in cell polarity, signalling and cell-cell communication and discuss implications for plant and animal health and disease.

  9. Gender disparities in disease-specific health status in postoperative patients with peripheral arterial disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mastenbroek, M H; Hoeks, S E; Pedersen, Susanne S.

    2012-01-01

    To investigate gender disparities in disease-specific health status (HS), 3- and 5-year post-intervention in peripheral arterial disease (PAD) patients.......To investigate gender disparities in disease-specific health status (HS), 3- and 5-year post-intervention in peripheral arterial disease (PAD) patients....

  10. Dourine: a neglected disease of equids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gizaw, Yonas; Megersa, Mulisa; Fayera, Teka

    2017-06-01

    Dourine is a venereal transmitted trypanosomosis causing a major health problem threatening equines worldwide. The origin and identification of Trypanosoma equiperdum within the subgenus Trypanozoon is still a subject of debate. Unlike other trypanosomal infections, dourine is transmitted almost exclusively by coitus. Diagnosis of dourine has continued to be a challenge, due to limited knowledge about the parasite and host-parasite interaction following infection. The pathological lesions caused by the diseases are poorly described and are observed mainly in the reproductive organs, in the nervous system, and on the skin. Dourine has been neglected by research and current knowledge on the disease, and the parasite is very deficient despite its considerably high burden. This paper looks in to the challenges in identification of T. equiperdum and diagnosis techniques with the aim to update our current knowledge of the disease.

  11. Disease prevention: Saving lives or reducing health care costs?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.G.-V. Kampen (Inge Grootjans-Van); P.M. Engelfriet (Peter); P.H.M. Van Baal (Pieter)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Disease prevention has been claimed to reduce health care costs. However, preventing lethal diseases increases life expectancy and, thereby, indirectly increases the demand for health care. Previous studies have argued that on balance preventing diseases that reduce longevity

  12. Soil health paradigms and implications for disease management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larkin, Robert P

    2015-01-01

    Soil health has been defined as the capacity of soil to function as a vital living system to sustain biological productivity, maintain environmental quality, and promote plant, animal, and human health. Building and maintaining soil health are essential to agricultural sustainability and ecosystem function. Management practices that promote soil health, including the use of crop rotations, cover crops and green manures, organic amendments, and conservation tillage, also have generally positive effects on the management of soilborne diseases through a number of potential mechanisms, including increasing soil microbial biomass, activity, and diversity, resulting in greater biological suppression of pathogens and diseases. However, there also may be particular disease issues associated with some soil health management practices. In this review, research and progress made over the past twenty years regarding soil health, sustainability, and soil health management practices, with an emphasis on their implications for and effects on plant disease and disease management strategies, are summarized.

  13. Microbiome effects on immunity, health and disease in the lung

    OpenAIRE

    Shukla, Shakti D; Budden, Kurtis F; Neal, Rachael; Hansbro, Philip M

    2017-01-01

    Chronic respiratory diseases, including asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and cystic fibrosis (CF), are among the leading causes of mortality and morbidity worldwide. In the past decade, the interest in the role of microbiome in maintaining lung health and in respiratory diseases has grown exponentially. The advent of sophisticated multiomics techniques has enabled the identification and characterisation of microbiota and their roles in respiratory health and disease. Furth...

  14. Prioritizing zoonotic diseases in Ethiopia using a one health approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily G. Pieracci

    2016-12-01

    Discussion: Multi-sectoral collaborations strengthen disease surveillance system development in humans and animals, enhance laboratory capacity, and support implementation of prevention and control strategies. To facilitate this, the creation of a One Health-focused Zoonotic Disease Unit is recommended. Enhancement of public health and veterinary laboratories, joint outbreak and surveillance activities, and intersectoral linkages created to tackle the prioritized zoonotic diseases will undoubtedly prepare the country to effectively address newly emerging zoonotic diseases.

  15. Health Technologies for the Improvement of Chronic Disease Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikitovic, M; Brener, S

    2013-01-01

    Background As part of ongoing efforts to improve the Ontario health care system, a mega-analysis examining the optimization of chronic disease management in the community was conducted by Evidence Development and Standards, Health Quality Ontario (previously known as the Medical Advisory Secretariat [MAS]). Objective The purpose of this report was to identify health technologies previously evaluated by MAS that may be leveraged in efforts to optimize chronic disease management in the community. Data Sources The Ontario Health Technology Assessment Series and field evaluations conducted by MAS and its partners between January 1, 2006, and December 31, 2011. Review Methods Technologies related to at least 1 of 7 disease areas of interest (type 2 diabetes, coronary artery disease, atrial fibrillation, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, congestive heart failure, stroke, and chronic wounds) or that may greatly impact health services utilization were reviewed. Only technologies with a moderate to high quality of evidence and associated with a clinically or statistically significant improvement in disease management were included. Technologies related to other topics in the mega-analysis on chronic disease management were excluded. Evidence-based analyses were reviewed, and outcomes of interest were extracted. Outcomes of interest included hospital utilization, mortality, health-related quality of life, disease-specific measures, and economic analysis measures. Results Eleven analyses were included and summarized. Technologies fell into 3 categories: those with evidence for the cure of chronic disease, those with evidence for the prevention of chronic disease, and those with evidence for the management of chronic disease. Conclusions The impact on patient outcomes and hospitalization rates of new health technologies in chronic disease management is often overlooked. This analysis demonstrates that health technologies can reduce the burden of illness; improve patient

  16. Preventive Medicine in World War II. Volume 3. Personal Health Measures and Immunization

    Science.gov (United States)

    1955-01-01

    with any form of venereal disease were not acceptable for general service. Registrants with acute or chronic syphilis , including latent syphilis ...inductees were infected with syphilis . The induction of men with venereal disease reached its peak in the last quarter of that year, when about 12,000...characteristic of starvation or famine na. Such edema has ordinarily been considered in recent years to be a ii gestation of protein deficiency

  17. Disease prevention: saving lives or reducing health care costs?

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    Inge Grootjans-van Kampen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Disease prevention has been claimed to reduce health care costs. However, preventing lethal diseases increases life expectancy and, thereby, indirectly increases the demand for health care. Previous studies have argued that on balance preventing diseases that reduce longevity increases health care costs while preventing non-fatal diseases could lead to health care savings. The objective of this research is to investigate if disease prevention could result in both increased longevity and lower lifetime health care costs. METHODS: Mortality rates for Netherlands in 2009 were used to construct cause-deleted life tables. Data originating from the Dutch Costs of Illness study was incorporated in order to estimate lifetime health care costs in the absence of selected disease categories. We took into account that for most diseases health care expenditures are concentrated in the last year of life. RESULTS: Elimination of diseases that reduce life expectancy considerably increase lifetime health care costs. Exemplary are neoplasms that, when eliminated would increase both life expectancy and lifetime health care spending with roughly 5% for men and women. Costs savings are incurred when prevention has only a small effect on longevity such as in the case of mental and behavioural disorders. Diseases of the circulatory system stand out as their elimination would increase life expectancy while reducing health care spending. CONCLUSION: The stronger the negative impact of a disease on longevity, the higher health care costs would be after elimination. Successful treatment of fatal diseases leaves less room for longevity gains due to effective prevention but more room for health care savings.

  18. Environmental health: an opportunity for health promotion and disease prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalupka, Stephanie

    2005-01-01

    Variance in personal susceptibility to environmental hazards may be attributable to age, gender, previous or concomitant exposure, economic status, race, or genetic endowment. Water pollution sources can be either point sources (a well-defined source, e.g., factory waste water discharge) or non-point sources (more diffuse sources including agricultural, industrial, and urban runoff, domestic lawn care, and air pollution). Pollutants can migrate from disposal sites, underground injection wells, or underground storage systems and contaminate ground and surface drinking water sources. The annual cost of human exposure to outdoor air pollutants from all sources is estimated to be between $40 to $50 billion. The death toll from exposure to particulate air pollution generated by motor vehicles, burning coal, fuel oil, and wood is estimated to be responsible for as many as 100,000 fatalities annually in the United States. Through the identification of individuals and groups at greater risk, occupational and environmental health nurses can use primary and secondary prevention activities to protect susceptible individuals and communities from adverse exposures and environmentally related disease.

  19. УЧАСТЬ СПІВРОБІТНИКІВ ЧЕРНІВЕЦЬКОГО ДЕРЖАВНОГО МЕДИЧНОГО ІНСТИТУТУ В ЛІКВІДАЦІЇ ВОГНИЩ ШКІРНО-ВЕНЕРИЧНИХ ХВОРОБ НА ТЕРИТОРІЇ ЧЕРНІВЕЦЬКОЇ ОБЛАСТІ (1946–1949 РР. / PARTICIPATION OF CHERNIVTSI STATE MEDICAL INSTITUTE IN THE LIQUIDATION OF THE SKIN AND VENEREAL DISEASES IN CHERNIVTSY REGION DURING 1946-1949 PERIODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Тарас Бойчук

    2017-06-01

    дицинский институт, Буковинский государственный медицинский университет, кафедра кожно-венерических болезней, венерический отряд, областной кожно-венерологический диспансер, сифилис, короста. Boychuk Taras, Moysey Antoniy. Participation of Chernivtsi State Medical Institute in the liquidation of the skin and venereal diseases in Chernivtsi region during 1946-1949 periods Abstract. Monitoring carried out by authoritative international organizations in the health care sector shows a significant proliferation of the world's diseases such as syphilis, gonorrhea, trichomoniasis, chlamydia. Annually in the world are registered about 60 million cases of syphilis, 300 million cases of scabies, skin disease affects 30 to 70% of humanity. In recent years in Ukraine has increased the incidence of syphilis among children and teenagers. Worryingly, those 15% increases in the number of cases are children with early latent syphilis. Among teenage girls secondary recurrent syphilis appears three times more often than boys, what generally is a negative prognostic criterion for the health of future generations of the country. Enough high incidence of syphilis and other infections what are transmitted sexually, requiring immediate development and approval of the State intersectoral programs to combat spread of these infections. It will contribute to the preservation and strengthening of the nation's gene pool. This situation requires the accumulation and use of experience of combating infectious diseases. It was developed by Ukrainian scientists and practitioners. In this regard, an absolute value has the experience of Chernivtsi State Medical Institute (CHSMI stuff gained during the campaign to combat syphilis in 1946 in the Chernivtsi region. In that research period was developed the problem and were run special treatment methods of the

  20. Oral health information systems--towards measuring progress in oral health promotion and disease prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Poul Erik; Bourgeois, Denis; Bratthall, Douglas

    2005-01-01

    This article describes the essential components of oral health information systems for the analysis of trends in oral disease and the evaluation of oral health programmes at the country, regional and global levels. Standard methodology for the collection of epidemiological data on oral health has...... been designed by WHO and used by countries worldwide for the surveillance of oral disease and health. Global, regional and national oral health databanks have highlighted the changing patterns of oral disease which primarily reflect changing risk profiles and the implementation of oral health...... programmes oriented towards disease prevention and health promotion. The WHO Oral Health Country/Area Profile Programme (CAPP) provides data on oral health from countries, as well as programme experiences and ideas targeted to oral health professionals, policy-makers, health planners, researchers...

  1. Renal Autoregulation in Health and Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlström, Mattias; Wilcox, Christopher S.; Arendshorst, William J.

    2015-01-01

    . Reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide are modulators of myogenic and MD-TGF mechanisms. Attenuated renal autoregulation contributes to renal damage in many, but not all, models of renal, diabetic, and hypertensive diseases. This review provides a summary of our current knowledge regarding underlying mechanisms enabling renal autoregulation in health and disease and methods used for its study. PMID:25834230

  2. In vitro cell-mediated cytotoxicity and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity to the transmissible venereal tumor of the dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, D

    1980-02-01

    Cell-mediated immunity to the transmissible venereal tumor (TVT) of the dog was studied by use of a 51Cr release cytotoxicity assay. Peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) of dogs in which the TVT had regressed were shown to be cytotoxic to the tumor cells in contrast to PBL of normal dogs and animals during progressive tumor growth, which were not cytotoxic. In addition, sera of dogs in which the TVT had regressed could be demonstrated to mediate antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) with normal dog lymphocytes or cytotoxic PBL as effector cells. With cytotoxic lymphocytes, the ADCC effect could be observed in addition to the direct cytotoxic effect.

  3. Genetics of animal health and disease in cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berry Donagh P

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract There have been considerable recent advancements in animal breeding and genetics relevant to disease control in cattle, which can now be utilised as part of an overall programme for improved cattle health. This review summarises the contribution of genetic makeup to differences in resistance to many diseases affecting cattle. Significant genetic variation in susceptibility to disease does exist among cattle suggesting that genetic selection for improved resistance to disease will be fruitful. Deficiencies in accurately recorded data on individual animal susceptibility to disease are, however, currently hindering the inclusion of health and disease resistance traits in national breeding goals. Developments in 'omics' technologies, such as genomic selection, may help overcome some of the limitations of traditional breeding programmes and will be especially beneficial in breeding for lowly heritable disease traits that only manifest themselves following exposure to pathogens or environmental stressors in adulthood. However, access to large databases of phenotypes on health and disease will still be necessary. This review clearly shows that genetics make a significant contribution to the overall health and resistance to disease in cattle. Therefore, breeding programmes for improved animal health and disease resistance should be seen as an integral part of any overall national disease control strategy.

  4. Health information technology: transforming chronic disease management and care transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Shaline; Brammer, Craig; McKethan, Aaron; Buntin, Melinda B

    2012-06-01

    Adoption of health information technology (HIT) is a key effort in improving care delivery, reducing costs of health care, and improving the quality of health care. Evidence from electronic health record (EHR) use suggests that HIT will play a significant role in transforming primary care practices and chronic disease management. This article shows that EHRs and HIT can be used effectively to manage chronic diseases, that HIT can facilitate communication and reduce efforts related to transitions in care, and that HIT can improve patient safety by increasing the information available to providers and patients, improving disease management and safety. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. ORAL HEALTH IN PATIENTS WITH LIVER DISEASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir E. Panov

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In most of the patients with chronic hepatitis B and C, the disease progression to liver cirrhosis and a liver transplantation is necessary. Untreated oral diseases (including dental problems can lead to infections and sepsis and may cause many complications in transplanted patients and a prerequisite dental evaluation is usually recommended for potential organ transplant candidates.Our aim was to determine the dental status in patients with chronic liver disease, knowing that liver transplant will be a life choices.

  6. Non-communicable diseases among children in Ghana: health and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    communicable diseases (NCDs). This paper examined the health .... selected to reflect the health and social factors relating to care. African Health Sciences Vol 16 ..... cost of transportation and daily living cost, as well as the opportunity cost to caregivers ...

  7. Sexuality, mother-child health and infectious diseases.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-09-03

    Sep 3, 2017 ... We have three main themes in the issue: sexu- ality/reproductive health; infectious diseases and health system issues. Sexuality, mother and child health. The main article is on ... cigarette smoke condensate attenuates phobol ester-me- .... in newly diagnosed pulmonary tuberculosis in Beira, Mo- zambique ...

  8. Application of metagenomics in understanding oral health and disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ping; Gunsolley, John

    2014-01-01

    Oral diseases including periodontal disease and caries are some of the most prevalent infectious diseases in humans. Different microbial species cohabitate and form a polymicrobial biofilm called dental plaque in the oral cavity. Metagenomics using next generation sequencing technologies has produced bacterial profiles and genomic profiles to study the relationships between microbial diversity, genetic variation, and oral diseases. Several oral metagenomic studies have examined the oral microbiome of periodontal disease and caries. Gene annotations in these studies support the association of specific genes or metabolic pathways with oral health and with specific diseases. The roles of pathogenic species and functions of specific genes in oral disease development have been recognized by metagenomic analysis. A model is proposed in which three levels of interactions occur in the oral microbiome that determines oral health or disease. PMID:24642489

  9. Genetic variants in periodontal health and disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dumitrescu, Alexandrina L. [Tromsoe Univ. (Norway). Inst. of Clinical Dentistry; Kobayashi, Junya [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Genome Repair Dynamics

    2010-07-01

    Periodontitis is a complex, multifactorial disease and its susceptibility is genetically determined. The present book systematically reviews the evidence of the association between the genetic variants and periodontitis progression and/or treatment outcomes. Genetic syndromes known to be associated with periodontal disease, the candidate gene polymorphisms investigated in relation to periodontitis, the heritability of chronic and aggressive periodontitis, as well as common guidelines for association studies are described. This growing understanding of the role of genetic variation in inflammation and periodontal chronic disease presents opportunities to identify healthy persons who are at increased risk of disease and to potentially modify the trajectory of disease to prolong healthy aging. The book represents a new concept in periodontology with its pronounced focus on understanding through knowledge rather than presenting the presently valid answers. Connections between genetics and periodontology are systematically reviewed and covered in detail. (orig.)

  10. Vaginal canine transmissible venereal tumour associated with intra-tumoural Leishmania spp. amastigotes in an asymptomatic female dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kegler, K; Habierski, A; Hahn, K; Amarilla, S P; Seehusen, F; Baumgärtner, W

    2013-01-01

    A 2-year-old female boxer dog was presented with a vaginal serosanguineous discharge not associated with oestrus. There was a friable mass occupying the upper caudal part of the vagina. Cytological and histological examination revealed a monomorphic population of neoplastic round cells consistent with canine transmissible venereal tumour (TVT). In addition, Leishmania spp. amastigotes were found within the neoplastic tissue. In order to characterize whether the amastigotes were present inside macrophages and/or neoplastic cells, a co-localization study using cell- and pathogen-specific markers was performed. To detect Leishmania spp. a 5.8S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) parasite-specific sequence was used for in-situ hybridization and Mac387 was used as a macrophage marker for immunohistochemistry. Leishmania spp. rRNA was detected inside Mac387(+) macrophages and within the cytoplasm of some neoplastic cells. DNA isolation and polymerase chain reaction using specific primers and sequencing analysis identified the organism as Leishmania infantum (syn. Leishmania chagasi). This is the first report describing infection of tumour cells by L. infantum in a genital TVT from an asymptomatic bitch. Transplantation of Leishmania-laden neoplastic cells could represent an alternative route of venereal transmission of leishmaniasis among dogs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Infections, reproductive health, non - communicable diseases and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tosepu R. Humidity is an ambient parameter to de- velopment of Zika virus: an Indonesian case. Afri Health. Sci. 2017;17(2): 597-598. https://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ ahs.v17i2.39. 39. Hashmi HJ, Javed H, Jamil N. Emerging epidemic of drug resistant tuberculosis in vulnerable population of developing countries. Afri Health Sci.

  12. Lactic Acid Bacteria in Health and Disease

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The genera, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been used by humans in production of fermented foods since time immemorial and in some ancient communities; consumption of LAB fermented foods products was associated with improved health. Currently there is a keen scientific interest in developed countries on health ...

  13. Usability factors of mobile health application for chronic diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahra, Fatima; Hussain, Azham; Mohd, Haslina

    2016-08-01

    M-health has changed the conventional delivery system of health-care, permitting continuous, pervasive Health-care anywhere, anytime. Chronic disease apps are increasing, as many health workers, patients and clinicians already embracing smartphones in their comprehensive and diverse practices. There are lots of challenges and requirements that need to be addressed for mobile health applications to prevent or eliminate design problems and minimize potential threats for users, the proposed factors for chronic disease mobile applications can be used as a guide for app developers While, the usability testing, and evaluations of chronic disease apps have not yet touched the accuracy level of other web based applications. This study is being conducted to learn about challenges of m-health apps and to identify the factors that affect the usability of such applications.

  14. Towards a unified theory of health-disease: I. Health as a complex model-object.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida-Filho, Naomar

    2013-06-01

    Theory building is one of the most crucial challenges faced by basic, clinical and population research, which form the scientific foundations of health practices in contemporary societies. The objective of the study is to propose a Unified Theory of Health-Disease as a conceptual tool for modeling health-disease-care in the light of complexity approaches. With this aim, the epistemological basis of theoretical work in the health field and concepts related to complexity theory as concerned to health problems are discussed. Secondly, the concepts of model-object, multi-planes of occurrence, modes of health and disease-illness-sickness complex are introduced and integrated into a unified theoretical framework. Finally, in the light of recent epistemological developments, the concept of Health-Disease-Care Integrals is updated as a complex reference object fit for modeling health-related processes and phenomena.

  15. Towards a Unified Theory of Health-Disease: I. Health as a complex model-object

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomar Almeida-Filho

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Theory building is one of the most crucial challenges faced by basic, clinical and population research, which form the scientific foundations of health practices in contemporary societies. The objective of the study is to propose a Unified Theory of Health-Disease as a conceptual tool for modeling health-disease-care in the light of complexity approaches. With this aim, the epistemological basis of theoretical work in the health field and concepts related to complexity theory as concerned to health problems are discussed. Secondly, the concepts of model-object, multi-planes of occurrence, modes of health and disease-illness-sickness complex are introduced and integrated into a unified theoretical framework. Finally, in the light of recent epistemological developments, the concept of Health-Disease-Care Integrals is updated as a complex reference object fit for modeling health-related processes and phenomena.

  16. The origins of health and disease

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hyland, Michael

    2011-01-01

    ...'. Hyland shows how such diseases develop and how the communication and art of medicine, good nursing care, complementary medicine and psychotherapy can all act to reduce the dysregulation that leads...

  17. Platelet microvesicles in health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melki, Imene; Tessandier, Nicolas; Zufferey, Anne; Boilard, Eric

    2017-05-01

    Interest in cell-derived extracellular vesicles and their physiological and pathological implications is constantly growing. Microvesicles, also known as microparticles, are small extracellular vesicles released by cells in response to activation or apoptosis. Among the different microvesicles present in the blood of healthy individuals, platelet-derived microvesicles (PMVs) are the most abundant. Their characterization has revealed a heterogeneous cargo that includes a set of adhesion molecules. Similarly to platelets, PMVs are also involved in thrombosis through support of the coagulation cascade. The levels of circulatory PMVs are altered during several disease manifestations such as coagulation disorders, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, cancers, cardiovascular diseases, and infections, pointing to their potential contribution to disease and their development as a biomarker. This review highlights recent findings in the field of PMV research and addresses their contribution to both healthy and diseased states.

  18. Health in adults with congenital heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuypers, Judith A A E; Utens, Elisabeth M W J; Roos-Hesselink, Jolien W

    2016-09-01

    Since the introduction of cardiac surgery, the prospects for children born with a cardiac defect have improved spectacularly. Many reach adulthood and the population of adults with congenital heart disease is increasing and ageing. However, repair of congenital heart disease does not mean cure. Many adults with congenital heart disease encounter late complications. Late morbidity can be related to the congenital heart defect itself, but may also be the consequence of the surgical or medical treatment or longstanding alterations in hemodynamics, neurodevelopment and psychosocial development. This narrative review describes the cardiac and non-cardiac long-term morbidity in the adult population with congenital heart disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Heart Disease Prevention: Does Oral Health Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the American Dental Association. 2012;143:826. Brushing your teeth. American Dental Association. http://www.mouthhealthy.org/en/az-topics/b/brushing-your-teeth. Accessed Sept. 19, 2015. Heart disease and oral ...

  20. Socioeconomic differences in perinatal health and disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Laust Hvas; Helweg-Larsen, Karin; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The Danish Medical Birth Register has been used extensively in conjunction with other national registers to examine different aspects of socioeconomic differences in perinatal health outcomes. Here, we review some recent findings. RESEARCH TOPICS: Socioeconomic differences were...... observed in stillbirth, preterm birth, birthweight, congenital anomalies, and infant death. The patterns varied according to the health outcome and measure of socioeconomic position, but also according to the time period and the country under study. Our review also shows how many different strategies have...... been used to examine the influence of socioeconomic factors on perinatal health. CONCLUSION: Danish register data is an invaluable source of information on socioeconomic differences in perinatal health. Danish registers continue to provide excellent opportunities for research and surveillance...

  1. Allied health professionals and cardiometabolic disease risk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , circumferences, blood pressure, lipoproteins and blood glucose) were obtained from participants, as was information via a questionnaire on their health/physical activity history. Males exhibited significantly (p<0.05) higher levels in seven of ...

  2. Globalization and disease: in an unequal world, unequal health!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buss Paulo Marchiori

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, originally presented at an event held by the National Institutes of Health (NIH in the United States, the author analyzes the repercussions of globalization on various health aspects: the spread of infectious and parasitic diseases, bioterrorism, and new behavioral patterns in health, among others. He goes on to examine the positive and negative effects of international agreements on health, particularly in the trade area, including the TRIPS Agreement on medicines in the area of public health. The paper concludes that the resumption of cooperation among nations is the best way to achieve world progress in public health.

  3. Influence of religious leaders in the health-disease process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elton Lima Macêdo

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Religion has helped the lower classes to raise the perspective of "divine justice" in the struggle for survival by allowing their believers to seek, in their practices, under the influence of religious leaders, the main guidelines to alleviate the suffering from the health-disease process. Objective: Unveil the limits and potentialities of religious leaders' influence on the health-disease process. Materials and Methods: Exploratory-type research, with a qualitative approach, based methodologically on the Historical Dialectical Materialism. For the data analysis, one used the discourse analysis technique proposed by Fiorin. Results: From the empirical universe, two analytical categories emerged: (1. Limits and possibilities of religious influence in relation to the health-disease process; 2. Vulnerabilities of the Unified Health System and the complementarity of religion: Interfaces of the health-disease process in postmodernity, in which religious practices, institutions and leaders express positively health care in the face of the disease process. However, the religious leader's power relations over the community and religious fanaticism make the search for religion to have a negative influence on people's health-disease process. Conclusion: Religious leaders encourage the complementarity between religion and medicine only at times when their believers need medium and high-complexity assistance, showing little attention to the preventive aspects of self-care, which reinforces the need to invest in new studies in the area.

  4. Self-managed eHealth Disease Monitoring in Children and Adolescents with Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Katrine; Jakobsen, Christian; Houen, Gunnar

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To evaluate the impact of eHealth on disease activity, the need for hospital contacts, and medical adherence in children and adolescents with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Furthermore, to assess eHealth's influence on school attendance and quality of life (QoL). METHODS: Patients...... with IBD, 10 to 17 years attending a public university hospital, were prospectively randomized to a 2-year open label case-controlled eHealth intervention. The eHealth-group used the web-application young.constant-care.com (YCC) on a monthly basis and in case of flare-ups, and were seen at one annual...... of the patients or parents felt unsafe using the eHealth system. CONCLUSIONS: The use of eHealth in children and adolescents with IBD is feasible, does not lead to impaired disease control, and can be managed by the patients without risk of increased disease activity....

  5. Cortical Odor Processing in Health and Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Donald A.; Xu, Wenjin; Sadrian, Benjamin; Courtiol, Emmanuelle; Cohen, Yaniv; Barnes, Dylan C.

    2014-01-01

    The olfactory system has a rich cortical representation, including a large archicortical component present in most vertebrates, and in mammals neocortical components including the entorhinal and orbitofrontal cortices. Together, these cortical components contribute to normal odor perception and memory. They help transform the physicochemical features of volatile molecules inhaled or exhaled through the nose into the perception of odor objects with rich associative and hedonic aspects. This chapter focuses on how olfactory cortical areas contribute to odor perception and begins to explore why odor perception is so sensitive to disease and pathology. Odor perception is disrupted by a wide range of disorders including Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, schizophrenia, depression, autism, and early life exposure to toxins. This olfactory deficit often occurs despite maintained functioning in other sensory systems. Does the unusual network of olfactory cortical structures contribute to this sensitivity? PMID:24767487

  6. The pleura in health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murali, Rajmohan; Park, Kevin; Leslie, Kevin O

    2010-12-01

    A wide variety of local, regional, and systemic diseases may have pleural manifestations. The scope of this pathology encompasses a wide spectrum ranging from minimal inflammatory changes to highly malignant neoplasms. An overview of the normal structure of the pleura is provided, along with the diseases that may be encountered. Pleural specimens from patients with pneumothorax are rarely encountered by pathologists. In contrast, pathologists frequently receive pleural specimens showing evidence of inflammation, repair, or neoplasm. In these circumstances, an awareness of less common (and often clinically highly important) conditions such as epithelioid hemangioendothelioma and primary pleural malignant mesothelioma is essential. Knowledge of the clinical setting (e.g., disease tempo) and radiological picture (e.g., laterality) is often of great value to the pathologist in arriving at a correct diagnosis. Similarly, knowledge of the normal anatomical considerations and familiarity with the expected pleural histopathology for the most clinically relevant pleural diseases are critical assets for pulmonary physicians in providing optimal care for their patients. © Thieme Medical Publishers.

  7. Protein tyrosine phosphatases in health and disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, W.J.; Elson, A.; Harroch, S.; Pulido, R.; Stoker, A.; den Hertog, J.

    2013-01-01

    Protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) represent a super-family of enzymes that play essential roles in normal development and physiology. In this review, we will discuss the PTPs that have a causative role in hereditary diseases in humans. In addition, recent progress in the development and analysis

  8. Health security and disease control: lessons from Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenk, Julio; Gómez-Dantés, Octavio

    2011-12-30

    This paper discusses the controversy between top-down, disease-focused, vertical programs, on the one hand, and activities that have been horizontally integrated into health services, on the other, using as a reference the public health initiatives developed in Mexico in the context of a recent comprehensive health care reform. The main message is that it is possible to achieve a synthesis between vertical and horizontal strategies, and also between public health and personal health care programs. Public health and personal care are the two sides of the health system coin, and both are central to a comprehensive concept of health security. Investments in epidemiological surveillance and response clearly contribute to the control of threats facing nation-states, such as pandemics and biological warfare. At the same time, investments in the protection of individuals from threats that endanger their health would also make our world a safer place. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The oral microbiome in health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, William G

    2013-03-01

    The human mouth harbours one of the most diverse microbiomes in the human body, including viruses, fungi, protozoa, archaea and bacteria. The bacteria are responsible for the two commonest bacterial diseases of man: dental caries (tooth decay) and the periodontal (gum) diseases. Archaea are restricted to a small number of species of methanogens while around 1000 bacterial species have been found, with representatives from the phyla Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Spirochaetes, Synergistetes and Tenericutes and the uncultured divisions GN02, SR1 and TM7. Around half of oral bacteria are as yet uncultured and culture-independent methods have been successfully used to comprehensively describe the oral bacterial community. The human oral microbiome database (HOMD, www.homd.org) provides a comprehensive resource consisting of descriptions of oral bacterial taxa, a 16S rRNA identification tool and a repository of oral bacterial genome sequences. Individuals' oral microbiomes are highly specific at the species level, although overall the human oral microbiome shows few geographical differences. Although caries and periodontitis are clearly bacterial diseases, they are not infectious diseases in the classical sense because they result from a complex interaction between the commensal microbiota, host susceptibility and environmental factors such as diet and smoking. Periodontitis, in particular, appears to result from an inappropriate inflammatory reaction to the normal microbiota, exacerbated by the presence of some disease-associated bacterial species. In functional terms, there appears to considerable redundancy among the oral microbiota and a focus on functional rather than phylogenetic diversity may be required in order to fully understand host-microbiome interactions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Role of probiotics in health and disease: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Varun Pratap; Sharma, Jagannath; Babu, Shankar; Rizwanulla; Singla, Anshul

    2013-02-01

    For some decades now, bacteria known as probiotics have been added to various foods because of their beneficial effects for human health. The mechanism of action of probiotics is related to their ability to compete with pathogenic microorganisms for adhesion sites, to antagonize these pathogens or to modulate the host's immune response. The potential application of probiotics includes prevention and treatment of various health conditions and diseases such as gastrointestinal infections, inflammatory bowel disease, lactose intolerance, allergies, urogenital infections, cystic fibrosis, various cancers, reduction of antibiotic side effects, in oral health such as prevention of dental caries, periodontal diseases and oral malodour and many other effects which are under investigation. The results of many of these clinical investigations suggests that probiotics may be useful in preventing and treating various health conditions and diseases. However, many of these clinical studies require validation so as to apply these results to clinical realm. The role of clinical trials is instrumental in such investigations and in near future the results of such trials will decide the usefulness of probiotics in health and disease. This article strives to summarize the currently available data on the potential benefits of probiotics in health and disease.

  11. Infections, reproductive health, non - communicable diseases and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Articles from Nigeria12 and Malawi13 shed some light on the determinants of universal access to antenatal and ... the commonest reason - with road traffic accidents and subsequent mismanagement by traditional bone .... pital-based adult triage at emergency receiving areas in hospitals in northern Uganda. Afri Health Sci.

  12. Health economics of tick-borne diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, Renata

    2016-01-01

    Worldwide, tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) and Lyme borreliosis (LB) present an increasing burden and threat to public health. Only vaccines against TBE are available but vaccination is likely too low for optimally reducing the TBE burden at the European level. Vaccines for LB are still in the process

  13. Primary Health Care Providers' Knowledge Gaps on Parkinson's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Megan R.; Stone, Ramona F.; Ochs, V. Dan; Litvan, Irene

    2013-01-01

    In order to determine primary health care providers' (PCPs) knowledge gaps on Parkinson's disease, data were collected before and after a one-hour continuing medical education (CME) lecture on early Parkinson's disease recognition and treatment from a sample of 104 PCPs participating at an annual meeting. The main outcome measure was the…

  14. Mobile Health Approaches to Non-Communicable Diseases in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    5New York University, College of Nursing, and NYU Global Institute of Public Health, New York, NY, USA. Abstract. Rwanda is affected by a substantial dual burden of a rapid epidemiological ... 2011)principally heart disease, stroke, cancer, diabetes, and chronic respiratory diseases, are a global crisis and require a global ...

  15. Sex Differences and Sex Steroids in Lung Health and Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Townsend, Elizabeth A.; Miller, Virginia M.; Prakash, Y.S.

    2012-01-01

    Sex differences in the biology of different organ systems and the influence of sex hormones in modulating health and disease are increasingly relevant in clinical and research areas. Although work has focused on sex differences and sex hormones in cardiovascular, musculoskeletal, and neuronal systems, there is now increasing clinical evidence for sex differences in incidence, morbidity, and mortality of lung diseases including allergic diseases (such as asthma), chronic obstructive pulmonary ...

  16. Health status as a risk factor in cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mommersteeg, Paula M C; Denollet, Johan; Spertus, John A

    2009-01-01

    Patient-perceived health status is receiving increased recognition as a patient-centered outcome in chronic heart failure (CHF) and coronary artery disease (CAD), but poor health status is also associated with adverse prognosis. In this systematic review, we examined current evidence on the influ...

  17. Correlating the Gut Microbiome to Health and Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marques, T.M.; Holster, S.; Wall, R.; König, J.; Brummer, R.J.; Vos, de Willem

    2016-01-01

    The gut microbiota is a complex ecosystem consisting of a diverse population of prokaryotes that has a symbiotic relationship with its host; thus it plays a vital role for the host's health. Our understanding of the effect of the gut microbiome in health and disease has grown substantially over

  18. Epigenetics and the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease#

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epigenetic programming is likely to be an important mechanism underlying the lasting influence of the developmental environment on lifelong health, a concept known as the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD). DNA methylation, posttranslational histone protei n modi...

  19. Probiotics in periodontal health and disease

    OpenAIRE

    Chatterjee, Anirban; Bhattacharya, Hirak; Kandwal, Abhishek

    2011-01-01

    Macfarlane Burnett stated in 1962 that “By the late twentieth century, we can anticipate the virtual elimination of infectious diseases as a significant factor in social life”. Probiotics have become of interest to researchers in recent times. Time has come to shift the paradigm of treatment from specific bacteria elimination to altering bacterial ecology by probiotics. The development of resistance to a range of antibiotics by some important pathogens has raised the possibility of a return t...

  20. Kidney disease in pregnancy: (Women's Health Series).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyamlani, Geeta; Geraci, Stephen A

    2013-09-01

    Kidney disease and pregnancy may exist in two general settings: acute kidney injury that develops during pregnancy, and chronic kidney disease that predates conception. In the first trimester of pregnancy, acute kidney injury is most often the result of hyperemesis gravidarum, ectopic pregnancy, or miscarriage. In the second and third trimesters, the common causes of acute kidney injury are severe preeclampsia, hemolysis-elevated liver enzymes-low platelets syndrome, acute fatty liver of pregnancy, and thrombotic microangiopathies, which may pose diagnostic challenges to the clinician. Cortical necrosis and obstructive uropathy are other conditions that may lead to acute kidney injury in these trimesters. Early recognition of these disorders is essential to timely treatment that can improve both maternal and fetal outcomes. In women with preexisting kidney disease, pregnancy-related outcomes depend upon the degree of renal impairment, the amount of proteinuria, and the severity of hypertension. Neonatal and maternal outcomes in pregnancies among renal transplant patients are generally good if the mother has normal baseline allograft function. Common renally active drugs and immunosuppressant medications must be prescribed, with special considerations in pregnant patients.

  1. Mitochondrial dynamics in mammalian health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liesa, Marc; Palacín, Manuel; Zorzano, Antonio

    2009-07-01

    The meaning of the word mitochondrion (from the Greek mitos, meaning thread, and chondros, grain) illustrates that the heterogeneity of mitochondrial morphology has been known since the first descriptions of this organelle. Such a heterogeneous morphology is explained by the dynamic nature of mitochondria. Mitochondrial dynamics is a concept that includes the movement of mitochondria along the cytoskeleton, the regulation of mitochondrial architecture (morphology and distribution), and connectivity mediated by tethering and fusion/fission events. The relevance of these events in mitochondrial and cell physiology has been partially unraveled after the identification of the genes responsible for mitochondrial fusion and fission. Furthermore, during the last decade, it has been identified that mutations in two mitochondrial fusion genes (MFN2 and OPA1) cause prevalent neurodegenerative diseases (Charcot-Marie Tooth type 2A and Kjer disease/autosomal dominant optic atrophy). In addition, other diseases such as type 2 diabetes or vascular proliferative disorders show impaired MFN2 expression. Altogether, these findings have established mitochondrial dynamics as a consolidated area in cellular physiology. Here we review the most significant findings in the field of mitochondrial dynamics in mammalian cells and their implication in human pathologies.

  2. Alzheimer's disease: our biggest long-term health challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Fred

    2009-01-01

    As we grapple with reforming health care in America, the discussion often seems to gravitate to short-term issues while ignoring growing long-term threats. There is a health care tsunami approaching. It is Alzheimer's Disease. How we deal with this crisis will tell us a lot about how we are doing on health policies and actions for the long term--and about how we are doing as a society.

  3. [Cultural order, disease and health care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viniegra-Velázquez, Leonardo

    With the appearance of Homo sapiens, the biological order was gradually replaced by the anthropocentric cultural order (CO), in which traditions, appreciations, preferences and desires for possession and domination guided their interactions with nature (predation or care), within the group (ranks, classes) and with others groups (commerce, wars). Current CO, characterized by unlimited profit interests, extreme wealth concentration and inequality where moral degradation hits rock bottom and planetary ecosystem is devastated, shows a collapsed civilization with a background of a global media controlled anesthetized societies. Regarding the health field, control works by prevalent ideas and practices: sickness as a strange object to the body, health as an imperative vital ideal and technologically based suppressive medicine shaping life's medicalization, main control "device" and health industry support. Other alternative ideas and practices are discussed: sickness as an inner harmony disturbance or as a differentiated and particular way of human beings, and stimulating medicine, that targets sick people with the purpose of strengthening and harmonizing them so they may recover, alleviate or appease. Considerations about possibilities and significance of stimulating medicine are made at the end. Copyright © 2017 Hospital Infantil de México Federico Gómez. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  4. Vincristine modulates the expression of Ki67 and apoptosis in naturally occurring canine transmissible venereal tumor (TVT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özalp, G R; Zik, B; Bastan, A; Peker, S; Özdemir-Salci, E S; Bastan, I; Darbaz, I; Salar, S; Karakas, K

    2012-07-01

    We investigated eight adult dogs that were brought to veterinary clinics with a history of transmissible venereal tumors (TVT). Our goal was to demonstrate the occurrence of apoptosis and the cessation of cell proliferation at every phase of scheduled chemotherapy for naturally occurring TVT. Tissue samples were collected immediately after weekly treatments with vincristine sulfate and processed for histological purposes. Sections 5 μm thick were stained by the TUNEL reaction for apoptosis and immunostained for Ki67 as a proliferation marker. We observed that after vincristine applications, tumor cell proliferation ceased and apoptosis increased. Ki67 HSCORE values were significantly lowered after the first and second treatments with the chemotherapeutic agent compared to controls, whereas TUNEL HSCORE values were significantly higher after two applications of vincristine compared to controls. Our results suggest that scheduled vincristine sulfate applications stabilize the induction of tumor regression by inducing apoptosis and preventing cell proliferation.

  5. Measurement of the rate of death of canine transmissible venereal tumour cells transplanted into dogs and nude mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, J M

    1981-03-01

    An intranuclear isotope labelling technique in which the fate of cells labelled with I125-iododeoxyuridine (I125UdR) is monitored, has been adapted for use with dogs. The death rate of injected labelled cells is followed by measuring the appearance of label in the urine. Only a small proportion of injected labelled canine transmissible venereal tumour (TVT) cells survive to contribute to tumour formation when the TVT is transmitted by subcutaneous injection. TVT has also been grown in athymic nude mice and tumour was successfully retransferred to dogs from a nude mouse tumour. Using conventional I125UdR techniques, rapid death of the majority of TVT cells transplanted into nude mice was again encountered. The correlation of dog and nude mouse results emphasises the usefulness of the nude mouse as a model for investigating the kinetics of xenografted tumours.

  6. Defining and targeting health disparities in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleasants, Roy A; Riley, Isaretta L; Mannino, David M

    2016-01-01

    The global burden of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) continues to grow in part due to better outcomes in other major diseases and in part because a substantial portion of the worldwide population continues to be exposed to inhalant toxins. However, a disproportionate burden of COPD occurs in people of low socioeconomic status (SES) due to differences in health behaviors, sociopolitical factors, and social and structural environmental exposures. Tobacco use, occupations with exposure to inhalant toxins, and indoor biomass fuel (BF) exposure are more common in low SES populations. Not only does SES affect the risk of developing COPD and etiologies, it is also associated with worsened COPD health outcomes. Effective interventions in these people are needed to decrease these disparities. Efforts that may help lessen these health inequities in low SES include 1) better surveillance targeting diagnosed and undiagnosed COPD in disadvantaged people, 2) educating the public and those involved in health care provision about the disease, 3) improving access to cost-effective and affordable health care, and 4) markedly increasing the efforts to prevent disease through smoking cessation, minimizing use and exposure to BF, and decreasing occupational exposures. COPD is considered to be one the most preventable major causes of death from a chronic disease in the world; therefore, effective interventions could have a major impact on reducing the global burden of the disease, especially in socioeconomically disadvantaged populations. PMID:27785005

  7. Functional Mitochondria in Health and Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patries M. Herst

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The ability to rapidly adapt cellular bioenergetic capabilities to meet rapidly changing environmental conditions is mandatory for normal cellular function and for cancer progression. Any loss of this adaptive response has the potential to compromise cellular function and render the cell more susceptible to external stressors such as oxidative stress, radiation, chemotherapeutic drugs, and hypoxia. Mitochondria play a vital role in bioenergetic and biosynthetic pathways and can rapidly adjust to meet the metabolic needs of the cell. Increased demand is met by mitochondrial biogenesis and fusion of individual mitochondria into dynamic networks, whereas a decrease in demand results in the removal of superfluous mitochondria through fission and mitophagy. Effective communication between nucleus and mitochondria (mito-nuclear cross talk, involving the generation of different mitochondrial stress signals as well as the nuclear stress response pathways to deal with these stressors, maintains bioenergetic homeostasis under most conditions. However, when mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA mutations accumulate and mito-nuclear cross talk falters, mitochondria fail to deliver critical functional outputs. Mutations in mtDNA have been implicated in neuromuscular and neurodegenerative mitochondriopathies and complex diseases such as diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, gastrointestinal disorders, skin disorders, aging, and cancer. In some cases, drastic measures such as acquisition of new mitochondria from donor cells occurs to ensure cell survival. This review starts with a brief discussion of the evolutionary origin of mitochondria and summarizes how mutations in mtDNA lead to mitochondriopathies and other degenerative diseases. Mito-nuclear cross talk, including various stress signals generated by mitochondria and corresponding stress response pathways activated by the nucleus are summarized. We also introduce and discuss a small family of recently discovered hormone

  8. Retinal Macroglial Responses in Health and Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa de Hoz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to their permanent and close proximity to neurons, glial cells perform essential tasks for the normal physiology of the retina. Astrocytes and Müller cells (retinal macroglia provide physical support to neurons and supplement them with several metabolites and growth factors. Macroglia are involved in maintaining the homeostasis of extracellular ions and neurotransmitters, are essential for information processing in neural circuits, participate in retinal glucose metabolism and in removing metabolic waste products, regulate local blood flow, induce the blood-retinal barrier (BRB, play fundamental roles in local immune response, and protect neurons from oxidative damage. In response to polyetiological insults, glia cells react with a process called reactive gliosis, seeking to maintain retinal homeostasis. When malfunctioning, macroglial cells can become primary pathogenic elements. A reactive gliosis has been described in different retinal pathologies, including age-related macular degeneration (AMD, diabetes, glaucoma, retinal detachment, or retinitis pigmentosa. A better understanding of the dual, neuroprotective, or cytotoxic effect of macroglial involvement in retinal pathologies would help in treating the physiopathology of these diseases. The extensive participation of the macroglia in retinal diseases points to these cells as innovative targets for new drug therapies.

  9. Chronic disease self-management program: 2-year health status and health care utilization outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorig, K R; Ritter, P; Stewart, A L; Sobel, D S; Brown, B W; Bandura, A; Gonzalez, V M; Laurent, D D; Holman, H R

    2001-11-01

    To assess the 1- and 2-year health status, health care utilization and self-efficacy outcomes for the Chronic Disease Self-Management Program (CDSMP). The major hypothesis is that during the 2-year period CDSMP participants will experience improvements or less deterioration than expected in health status and reductions in health care utilization. Longitudinal design as follow-up to a randomized trial. Community. Eight hundred thirty-one participants 40 years and older with heart disease, lung disease, stroke, or arthritis participated in the CDSMP. At 1- and 2-year intervals respectively 82% and 76% of eligible participants completed data. Health status (self-rated health, disability, social/role activities limitations, energy/fatigue, and health distress), health care utilization (ER/outpatient visits, times hospitalized, and days in hospital), and perceived self-efficacy were measured. Compared with baseline for each of the 2 years, ER/outpatient visits and health distress were reduced (P <0.05). Self-efficacy improved (P <0.05). The rate of increase is that which is expected in 1 year. There were no other significant changes. A low-cost program for promoting health self-management can improve elements of health status while reducing health care costs in populations with diverse chronic diseases.

  10. Health extension in new Mexico: an academic health center and the social determinants of disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Arthur; Powell, Wayne; Alfero, Charles; Pacheco, Mario; Silverblatt, Helene; Anastasoff, Juliana; Ronquillo, Francisco; Lucero, Ken; Corriveau, Erin; Vanleit, Betsy; Alverson, Dale; Scott, Amy

    2010-01-01

    The Agricultural Cooperative Extension Service model offers academic health centers methodologies for community engagement that can address the social determinants of disease. The University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center developed Health Extension Rural Offices (HEROs) as a vehicle for its model of health extension. Health extension agents are located in rural communities across the state and are supported by regional coordinators and the Office of the Vice President for Community Health at the Health Sciences Center. The role of agents is to work with different sectors of the community in identifying high-priority health needs and linking those needs with university resources in education, clinical service and research. Community needs, interventions, and outcomes are monitored by county health report cards. The Health Sciences Center is a large and varied resource, the breadth and accessibility of which are mostly unknown to communities. Community health needs vary, and agents are able to tap into an array of existing health center resources to address those needs. Agents serve a broader purpose beyond immediate, strictly medical needs by addressing underlying social determinants of disease, such as school retention, food insecurity, and local economic development. Developing local capacity to address local needs has become an overriding concern. Community-based health extension agents can effectively bridge those needs with academic health center resources and extend those resources to address the underlying social determinants of disease.

  11. NON-COMMUNICABLE DISEASE PROGRAM IN AMPANGAN HEALTH CLINIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MASTURA I

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-communicable diseases (NCDs represent among the most common and debilitating conditions seen in primary care. Patients’ care will often involves multiple providers and follow-up requires persistence by patients and clinicians alike, therefore ideal outcomes are often difficult to achieve. The need for better disease management policies and practice is growing. This is due to the changing demographic profile of the population, the increasing cost of managing people in acute care hospitals and the availability of new technologies and services. All these changes enable a different care paradigm which is more cost effective and provides people with chronic conditions an improved quality of life. Management of the NCDs therefore offers an excellent opportunity to practice chronic disease management - a systems approach designed to ensure excellent care. The NCD team has developed a comprehensive approach to chronic disease care. We would like to describe the NCD Program in Ampangan Health Clinic which represents many typical government health clinics in Malaysia and the processes by which it was developed. Included are specific examples of the tools and how they can be used by individual clinicians incaring for patients. The integration of Chronic Disease Management Services into health care systems is the direction being undertaken to tackle the burden of chronic disease. Disease management supports the shift in healthcare from an emphasis on managing the acute episode to managing the entire disease course, highlighting both prevention and maintenance of wellbeing for patients with chronic diseases. Disease management promotes better integration and coordination of care across all aspects of the health sector.

  12. Bicarbonate transport in health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alka, Kumari; Casey, Joseph R

    2014-09-01

    Bicarbonate (HCO3(-)) has a central place in human physiology as the waste product of mitochondrial energy production and for its role in pH buffering throughout the body. Because bicarbonate is impermeable to membranes, bicarbonate transport proteins are necessary to enable control of bicarbonate levels across membranes. In humans, 14 bicarbonate transport proteins, members of the SLC4 and SLC26 families, function by differing transport mechanisms. In addition, some anion channels and ZIP metal transporters contribute to bicarbonate movement across membranes. Defective bicarbonate transport leads to diseases, including systemic acidosis, brain dysfunction, kidney stones, and hypertension. Altered expression levels of bicarbonate transporters in patients with breast, colon, and lung cancer suggest an important role of these transporters in cancer. © 2014 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  13. Tendon Vasculature in Health and Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tempfer, Herbert; Traweger, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Tendons represent a bradytrophic tissue which is poorly vascularized and, compared to bone or skin, heal poorly. Usually, a vascularized connective scar tissue with inferior functional properties forms at the injury site. Whether the increased vascularization is the root cause of tissue impairments such as loss of collagen fiber orientation, ectopic formation of bone, fat or cartilage, or is a consequence of these pathological changes remains unclear. This review provides an overview of the role of tendon vasculature in healthy and chronically diseased tendon tissue as well as its relevance for tendon repair. Further, the nature and the role of perivascular tendon stem/progenitor cells residing in the vascular niche will be discussed and compared to multipotent stromal cells in other tissues. PMID:26635616

  14. Rab11 proteins in health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Eoin E; Horgan, Conor P; McCaffrey, Mary W

    2012-12-01

    Comprising over 60 members, Rab proteins constitute the largest branch of the Ras superfamily of low-molecular-mass G-proteins. This protein family have been primarily implicated in various aspects of intracellular membrane trafficking processes. On the basis of distinct subfamily-specific sequence motifs, many Rabs have been grouped into subfamilies. The Rab11 GTPase subfamily comprises three members: Rab11a, Rab11b and Rab25/Rab11c, which, between them, have been demonstrated to bind more than 30 proteins. In the present paper, we review the function of the Rab11 subfamily. We describe their localization and primary functional roles within the cell and their implication, to date, in disease processes. We also summarize the protein machinery currently known to regulate or mediate their functions and the cargo molecules which they have been shown to transport.

  15. Neutrophil granules in health and disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Häger, M; Cowland, J B; Borregaard, N

    2010-01-01

    Neutrophil granules store proteins that are critically important for the neutrophil to move from the vascular bed to tissues and to kill microorganisms. This is illustrated in nature when individual proteins are deleted due to inherited mutations of their cognate genes, and such deficiencies result...... in the conditions leucocyte adhesion deficiency and chronic granulomatous disease. The granules of the neutrophil have traditionally been divided into two or three major types but are instead a continuum where several subtypes can be identified with differences in protein content and propensity for mobilization....... This is explained by the 'targeting by timing hypothesis' which states that granules are filled with granule proteins that are synthesized at the time the granule is formed. The heterogeneity of granules arises because the synthesis of granule proteins is individually controlled and major differences exist...

  16. Dental health and disease in ancient Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forshaw, R J

    2009-04-25

    In ancient Egypt the exceptionally dry climate together with the unique burial customs has resulted in the survival of large numbers of well-preserved skeletal and mummified remains. Examinations of these remains together with an analysis of the surviving documentary, archaeological and ethnographic evidence has enabled a detailed picture of the dental health of these ancient people to be revealed, perhaps more so than for any other civilisation in antiquity. In this, the first of two articles, the dental pathological conditions that afflicted the ancient Egyptians is considered. The commonest finding is that of tooth wear, which was often so excessive that it resulted in pulpal exposure. Multiple abscesses were frequently seen, but caries was not a significant problem. Overall the findings indicate that the various pathological conditions and non-pathological abnormalities of teeth evident in dentitions in the twenty-first century were also manifest in ancient Egypt, although the incidences of these conditions varies considerably between the civilisations.

  17. Vitamin B12 in Health and Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona O’Leary

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin B12 is essential for DNA synthesis and for cellular energy production. This review aims to outline the metabolism of vitamin B12, and to evaluate the causes and consequences of sub-clinical vitamin B12 deficiency. Vitamin B12 deficiency is common, mainly due to limited dietary intake of animal foods or malabsorption of the vitamin. Vegetarians are at risk of vitamin B12 deficiency as are other groups with low intakes of animal foods or those with restrictive dietary patterns. Malabsorption of vitamin B12 is most commonly seen in the elderly, secondary to gastric achlorhydria. The symptoms of sub-clinical deficiency are subtle and often not recognized. The long-term consequences of sub-clinical deficiency are not fully known but may include adverse effects on pregnancy outcomes, vascular, cognitive, bone and eye health.

  18. Diseases of meaning, manifestations of health, and metaphor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobst, K A; Shostak, D; Whitehouse, P J

    1999-12-01

    Disease and health are commonly thought of as distinct opposites. We propose a different view in which both may be seen to be facets of healthy functioning, each necessary for the other, each giving rise to the other. Thus, disease may be thought of as a manifestation of health. It is the healthy response of an organism striving to maintain physical, psychologic, and spiritual equilibrium. Disease is not necessarily to be avoided, blocked, or suppressed. Rather, it should be understood to be a process of transformation. The process should therefore be facilitated because it is an integral part of the dynamic equilibrium that we ordinarily think of as health. In many cases, perhaps all, people get ill because there is something going "wrong" in their lives. This could occur in a whole range of ways-relationships, environment, food, or job. Our view, however, is that disease is a meaningful state that can inform health workers how to help patients to heal themselves. In this way, instead of being meaningless, people's problems become diseases of meaning, enabling people to see that things are not necessarily "going wrong" but are, in fact, helping them become stronger, to live more fully and with more understanding. Seen from this perspective, depression; cancer; heart disease; neurodegenerative and autoimmune disease; dementia; and conditions such as community violence, genocide, and the problem of environmental devastation are "diseases of meaning." World Health Organization forecasts make it clear that diseases of meaning will continue well into the next millennium to be the major cause of suffering and death worldwide. To deal with them, the world needs to reformulate the biomolecular paradigm that has been exploited in the last two centuries. It does not address the reasons why these diseases arise, attending mainly to their molecular consequences. A paradigm that includes the importance of meaning must now be given top priority. The concept that diseases are a

  19. [Marijuana, health, disease, and freedom: analysis of an Internet forum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefèvre, F; Simioni, A M

    1999-11-01

    This paper takes a Health Education perspective to analyze a debate forum on the Brazilian Internet site entitled "Universo On-Line", in which the following questions were addressed: "Do you believe that marijuana is harmful to one's health?" "In your opinion, should marijuana use be decriminalized?" By applying qualitative discourse analysis techniques to responses from the forum, we were able to identify six main types of discourse, reflecting the opinions of six "collective subjects" concerning drugs, health, disease, and freedom and existing as social representations in the current Brazilian collective imagination. Research on these social representations allows one to establish criteria for intervention in the field of Health Education.

  20. Scientometrics of Forest Health and Tree Diseases: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Pautasso

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Maintaining forest health is a worldwide challenge due to emerging tree diseases, shifts in climate conditions and other global change stressors. Research on forest health is thus accumulating rapidly, but there has been little use of scientometric approaches in forest pathology and dendrology. Scientometrics is the quantitative study of trends in the scientific literature. As with all tools, scientometrics needs to be used carefully (e.g., by checking findings in multiple databases and its results must be interpreted with caution. In this overview, we provide some examples of studies of patterns in the scientific literature related to forest health and tree pathogens. Whilst research on ash dieback has increased rapidly over the last years, papers mentioning the Waldsterben have become rare in the literature. As with human health and diseases, but in contrast to plant health and diseases, there are consistently more publications mentioning “tree health” than “tree disease,” possibly a consequence of the often holistic nature of forest pathology. Scientometric tools can help balance research attention towards understudied emerging risks to forest trees, as well as identify temporal trends in public interest in forests and their health.

  1. Human Genome Sequencing in Health and Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzaga-Jauregui, Claudia; Lupski, James R.; Gibbs, Richard A.

    2013-01-01

    Following the “finished,” euchromatic, haploid human reference genome sequence, the rapid development of novel, faster, and cheaper sequencing technologies is making possible the era of personalized human genomics. Personal diploid human genome sequences have been generated, and each has contributed to our better understanding of variation in the human genome. We have consequently begun to appreciate the vastness of individual genetic variation from single nucleotide to structural variants. Translation of genome-scale variation into medically useful information is, however, in its infancy. This review summarizes the initial steps undertaken in clinical implementation of personal genome information, and describes the application of whole-genome and exome sequencing to identify the cause of genetic diseases and to suggest adjuvant therapies. Better analysis tools and a deeper understanding of the biology of our genome are necessary in order to decipher, interpret, and optimize clinical utility of what the variation in the human genome can teach us. Personal genome sequencing may eventually become an instrument of common medical practice, providing information that assists in the formulation of a differential diagnosis. We outline herein some of the remaining challenges. PMID:22248320

  2. De novo lipogenesis in health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameer, Fatima; Scandiuzzi, Lisa; Hasnain, Shahida; Kalbacher, Hubert; Zaidi, Nousheen

    2014-07-01

    De novo lipogenesis (DNL) is a complex and highly regulated metabolic pathway. In normal conditions DNL converts excess carbohydrate into fatty acids that are then esterified to storage triacylglycerols (TGs). These TGs could later provide energy via β-oxidation. In human body this pathway is primarily active in liver and adipose tissue. However, it is considered to be a minor contributor to the serum lipid homeostasis. Deregulations in the lipogenic pathway are associated with diverse pathological conditions. The present review focuses on our current understanding of the lipogenic pathway with special reference to the causes and consequences of aberrant DNL. The deregulation of DNL in the major lipogenic tissues of the human body is often observed in various metabolic anomalies - including obesity, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and metabolic syndrome. In addition to that de novo lipogenesis is reported to be exacerbated in cancer tissues, virus infected cells etc. These observations suggest that inhibitors of the DNL pathway might serve as therapeutically significant compounds. The effectiveness of these inhibitors in treatment of cancer and obesity has been suggested by previous works. De novo lipogenesis - which is an intricate and highly regulated pathway - can lead to adverse metabolic consequences when deregulated. Therapeutic targeting of this pathway may open a new window of opportunity for combating various lipogenesis-driven pathological conditions - including obesity, cancer and certain viral infections. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Protein glutathionylation in health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghezzi, Pietro

    2013-05-01

    It is now recognized that protein cysteines exist not only as free thiols or intramolecular disulfides, that help maintain the 3D structure of proteins, but can also undergo different types of oxidation, one of which is glutathionylation, or the formation of mixed disulfides with glutathione (GSH). We will discuss how proteins can undergo glutathionylation and how this can affect the protein characteristics/function. Glutathionylation is reversible and de-glutathionylation can be catalysed by protein thiol-disulfide oxidoreductases. Genetic modification of the expression of these enzymes, particularly glutaredoxin, using overexpression, knockout mice or siRNA, is becoming an important tool to study the role of protein glutathionylation. While in the past this post-translational modification was mainly known in the context of oxidative stress, measurement of glutathionylated proteins in patients is pointing out a potential importance if this modification in pathogenesis and could identify new biomarkers. We also wanted to point out the main findings in the role of glutathionylation in diseases and drug action. We identify two major open problems in the field, namely the complexity of the mechanisms responsible for glutathionylation and de-glutathionylation, as well as what makes a protein susceptible to glutathionylation. This review underlines the peculiarities of this post-translational modification and their biological role. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Cellular functions of glutathione. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. B Cell Tolerance in Health and Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murali Gururajan

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available B lymphocyte receptors are generated randomly during the bone marrow developmental phase of B cells. Hence, the B cell repertoire consists of both self and foreign antigen specificities necessitating specific tolerance mechanisms to eliminate self-reactive B cells. This review summarizes the major mechanisms of B cell tolerance, which include clonal deletion, anergy and receptor editing. In the bone marrow presentation of antigen in membrane bound form is more effective than soluble form and the role of dendritic cells in this process is discussed. Toll like receptor derived signals affect activation of B cells by certain ligands such as nucleic acids and have been shown to play crucial roles in the development of autoimmunity in several animal models. In the periphery availability of BAFF, a B cell survival factor plays a critical role in the survival of self-reactive B cells. Antibodies against BAFF have been found to be effective therapeutic agents in lupus like autoimmune diseases. Recent developments are targeting anergy to control the growth of chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells.

  5. Blastocystis in Health and Disease: Are We Moving from a Clinical to a Public Health Perspective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Lee O'Brien

    2015-01-01

    Blastocystis is a genus of common single-celled intestinal parasitic protists with an unsettled role in human health and disease. Being a stable component of intestinal microbiota, once established, the Blastocystis parasite appears more common in healthy individuals than in patients with infectious, functional, or inflammatory bowel disease. Recent data suggest that the parasite is associated with certain gut microbiota profiles and health indices. Convincing data and tools differentiating asymptomatic colonization from infection are yet to be demonstrated. Although the parasite may elicit disease under certain circumstances, the focus on Blastocystis may be shifting from a clinical to a public health perspective. PMID:26677249

  6. Indigenous health part 1: determinants and disease patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gracey, Michael; King, Malcolm

    2009-07-04

    The world's almost 400 million Indigenous people have low standards of health. This poor health is associated with poverty, malnutrition, overcrowding, poor hygiene, environmental contamination, and prevalent infections. Inadequate clinical care and health promotion, and poor disease prevention services aggravate this situation. Some Indigenous groups, as they move from traditional to transitional and modern lifestyles, are rapidly acquiring lifestyle diseases, such as obesity, cardiovascular disease, and type 2 diabetes, and physical, social, and mental disorders linked to misuse of alcohol and of other drugs. Correction of these inequities needs increased awareness, political commitment, and recognition rather than governmental denial and neglect of these serious and complex problems. Indigenous people should be encouraged, trained, and enabled to become increasingly involved in overcoming these challenges.

  7. Towards a unified theory of health-disease: II. Holopathogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida-Filho, Naomar

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a systematic framework for modeling several classes of illness-sickness-disease named as Holopathogenesis. Holopathogenesis is defined as processes of over-determination of diseases and related conditions taken as a whole, comprising selected facets of the complex object Health. First, a conceptual background of Holopathogenesis is presented as a series of significant interfaces (biomolecular-immunological, physiopathological-clinical, epidemiological-ecosocial). Second, propositions derived from Holopathogenesis are introduced in order to allow drawing the disease-illness-sickness complex as a hierarchical network of networks. Third, a formalization of intra- and inter-level correspondences, over-determination processes, effects and links of Holopathogenesis models is proposed. Finally, the Holopathogenesis frame is evaluated as a comprehensive theoretical pathology taken as a preliminary step towards a unified theory of health-disease. PMID:24897040

  8. Defining and targeting health disparities in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pleasants RA

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Roy A Pleasants,1–3 Isaretta L Riley,1–3 David M Mannino4 1Duke Asthma, Allergy, and Airways Center, 2Division of Pulmonary, Allergy, and Critical Care Medicine, Duke University School of Medicine, 3Durham VA Medical Center, Durham, NC, 4Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care, and Sleep Medicine, Pulmonary Epidemiology Research Laboratory, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, USA Abstract: The global burden of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD continues to grow in part due to better outcomes in other major diseases and in part because a substantial portion of the worldwide population continues to be exposed to inhalant toxins. However, a disproportionate burden of COPD occurs in people of low socioeconomic status (SES due to differences in health behaviors, sociopolitical factors, and social and structural environmental exposures. Tobacco use, occupations with exposure to inhalant toxins, and indoor biomass fuel (BF exposure are more common in low SES populations. Not only does SES affect the risk of developing COPD and etiologies, it is also associated with worsened COPD health outcomes. Effective interventions in these people are needed to decrease these disparities. Efforts that may help lessen these health inequities in low SES include 1 better surveillance targeting diagnosed and undiagnosed COPD in disadvantaged people, 2 educating the public and those involved in health care provision about the disease, 3 improving access to cost-effective and affordable health care, and 4 markedly increasing the efforts to prevent disease through smoking cessation, minimizing use and exposure to BF, and decreasing occupational exposures. COPD is considered to be one the most preventable major causes of death from a chronic disease in the world; therefore, effective interventions could have a major impact on reducing the global burden of the disease, especially in socioeconomically disadvantaged populations. Keywords: health disparities

  9. The role of phytochemicals as micronutrients in health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howes, Melanie-Jayne R; Simmonds, Monique S J

    2014-11-01

    Intake of dietary phytochemicals has frequently been associated with health benefits. Noninfectious diseases including cardiovascular disease (CVD), cancer and diabetes are major causes of death, whereas dementia cases are also increasing to 'epidemic' proportion. This review will focus on recent progress on mechanisms underlying the potential role of dietary phytochemicals in CVD, diabetes, cancer and dementia, with consideration of the latest clinical data. The association of tea (Camellia sinensis), particularly catechins, with reported mechanistic effects for CVD, diabetes, cancer and cognition contributes to our understanding of the suggested benefits of tea consumption on health from limited and inconclusive clinical trial and epidemiological data. Resveratrol, which occurs in grapes (Vitis vinifera) and wine, and curcumin, a component of turmeric (Curcuma longa), are also emerging as potentially relevant to health, particularly for CVD and dementia, with some promising data also concluded for curcumin in cancer. Other phytochemicals mechanistically relevant for health include anthocyanins, isoflavones and glucosinolates, which are also discussed. Evidence for the role of phytochemicals in health and disease is growing, but associations between phytochemicals and disease need to be more firmly understood and established from more robust clinical data using preparations that have been phytochemically characterized.

  10. Microbiome effects on immunity, health and disease in the lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Shakti D; Budden, Kurtis F; Neal, Rachael; Hansbro, Philip M

    2017-03-01

    Chronic respiratory diseases, including asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and cystic fibrosis (CF), are among the leading causes of mortality and morbidity worldwide. In the past decade, the interest in the role of microbiome in maintaining lung health and in respiratory diseases has grown exponentially. The advent of sophisticated multiomics techniques has enabled the identification and characterisation of microbiota and their roles in respiratory health and disease. Furthermore, associations between the microbiome of the lung and gut, as well as the immune cells and mediators that may link these two mucosal sites, appear to be important in the pathogenesis of lung conditions. Here we review the recent evidence of the role of normal gastrointestinal and respiratory microbiome in health and how dysbiosis affects chronic pulmonary diseases. The potential implications of host and environmental factors such as age, gender, diet and use of antibiotics on the composition and overall functionality of microbiome are also discussed. We summarise how microbiota may mediate the dynamic process of immune development and/or regulation focusing on recent data from both clinical human studies and translational animal studies. This furthers the understanding of the pathogenesis of chronic pulmonary diseases and may yield novel avenues for the utilisation of microbiota as potential therapeutic interventions.

  11. Microbiome effects on immunity, health and disease in the lung

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Shakti D; Budden, Kurtis F; Neal, Rachael; Hansbro, Philip M

    2017-01-01

    Chronic respiratory diseases, including asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and cystic fibrosis (CF), are among the leading causes of mortality and morbidity worldwide. In the past decade, the interest in the role of microbiome in maintaining lung health and in respiratory diseases has grown exponentially. The advent of sophisticated multiomics techniques has enabled the identification and characterisation of microbiota and their roles in respiratory health and disease. Furthermore, associations between the microbiome of the lung and gut, as well as the immune cells and mediators that may link these two mucosal sites, appear to be important in the pathogenesis of lung conditions. Here we review the recent evidence of the role of normal gastrointestinal and respiratory microbiome in health and how dysbiosis affects chronic pulmonary diseases. The potential implications of host and environmental factors such as age, gender, diet and use of antibiotics on the composition and overall functionality of microbiome are also discussed. We summarise how microbiota may mediate the dynamic process of immune development and/or regulation focusing on recent data from both clinical human studies and translational animal studies. This furthers the understanding of the pathogenesis of chronic pulmonary diseases and may yield novel avenues for the utilisation of microbiota as potential therapeutic interventions. PMID:28435675

  12. [The hospital perspective: disease management and integrated health care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrappe, Matthias

    2003-06-01

    Disease Management is a transsectoral, population-based form of health care, which addresses groups of patients with particular clinical entities and risk factors. It refers both to an evidence-based knowledge base and corresponding guidelines, evaluates outcome as a continuous quality improvement process and usually includes active participation of patients. In Germany, the implementation of disease management is associated with financial transactions for risk adjustment between health care assurances [para. 137 f, Book V of Social Code (SGB V)] and represents the second kind of transsectoral care, besides a program designed as integrated health care according to para. 140 a ff f of Book V of Social Code. While in the USA and other countries disease management programs are made available by several institutions involved in health care, in Germany these programs are offered by health care insurers. Assessment of disease management from the hospital perspective will have to consider three questions: How large is the risk to compensate inadequate quality in outpatient care? Are there synergies in internal organisational development? Can the risk of inadequate funding of the global "integrated" budget be tolerated? Transsectoral quality assurance by valid performance indicators and implementation of a quality improvement process are essential. Internal organisational changes can be supported, particularly in the case of DRG introduction. The economic risk and financial output depends on the kind of disease being focussed by the disease management program. In assessing the underlying scientific evidence of their cost effectiveness, societal costs will have to be precisely differentiated from hospital-associated costs.

  13. [COMMUNICATION AND HEALTH OUTCOMES IN PATIENTS SUFFERING FROM GASTROINTESTINAL DISEASES].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petriček, G; Cerovečki, V; Adžić, Z Ožvačić

    2015-11-01

    Although survey results indicate clear connection between the physician-patient communication and health outcomes, mechanisms of their action are still insufficiently clear. The aim was to investigate the specificity of communication with patients suffering from gastrointestinal diseases and the impact of good communication on measurable outcomes. We performed PubMed (Medline) search using the following key words: communication, health outcomes, and gastrointestinal diseases. Seven pathways through which communication can lead to better health include increased access to care, greater patient knowledge and shared understanding, higher quality medical decisions, enhanced therapeutic alliances, increased social support, patient agency and empowerment, and better management of emotions. Although these pathways were explored with respect to cancer care, they are certainly applicable to other health conditions as well, including the care of patients suffering from gastrointestinal diseases. Although proposing a number of pathways through which communication can lead to improved health, it should be emphasized that the relative importance of a particular pathway will depend on the outcome of interest, the health condition, where the patient is in the illness trajectory, and the patient’s life circumstances. Besides, research increasingly points to the importance of placebo effect, and it is recommended that health professionals encourage placebo effect by applying precisely targeted communication skills, as the unquestionable and successful part of many treatments. It is important that the clinician knows the possible positive and negative effects of communication on health outcomes, and in daily work consciously maximizes therapeutic effects of communication, reaching its proximal (understanding, satisfaction, clinician-patient agreement, trust, feeling known, rapport, motivation) and intermediate outcomes (access to care, quality medical decision, commitment to

  14. Health technology assessment of asthma disease management programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steuten, Lotte; Lemmens, Karin; Vrijhoef, Bert

    2007-06-01

    To provide a critical opinion on the extent to which asthma disease management programs currently improve the effectiveness and efficiency of care and directions for future policy and research. The methodological quality of health technology assessment of asthma disease management programs remains moderate. Asthma disease management programs are predominantly educational and organizational in nature and focus either on children or on adults. Paediatric disease management programs make more effort to outreach into patients' living environments and show higher participation rates than those targeting adults. Reductions in asthma-related hospitalization, emergency department, and unplanned clinic visits range from 0 to 85%, 87% and 71%, respectively. Aspects of self-management and organization of care improved after the implementation of disease management programs. Almost no impact on asthma symptoms, lung function or the use of long-term control medication was found. There is accumulating 'circumstantial' evidence that disease management programs reduce resource utilization. The analytical rigor and uniformity of health technology assessment of asthma disease management programs has improved, but the generalizability of results remains uncertain. Practical, multicentre, clinical trials including broad representative study samples should be performed in different settings to increase methodological quality and substantiate current findings.

  15. Epidemic arboviral diseases: priorities for research and public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilder-Smith, Annelies; Gubler, Duane J; Weaver, Scott C; Monath, Thomas P; Heymann, David L; Scott, Thomas W

    2017-03-01

    For decades, arboviral diseases were considered to be only minor contributors to global mortality and disability. As a result, low priority was given to arbovirus research investment and related public health infrastructure. The past five decades, however, have seen an unprecedented emergence of epidemic arboviral diseases (notably dengue, chikungunya, yellow fever, and Zika virus disease) resulting from the triad of the modern world: urbanisation, globalisation, and international mobility. The public health emergency of Zika virus, and the threat of global spread of yellow fever, combined with the resurgence of dengue and chikungunya, constitute a wake-up call for governments, academia, funders, and WHO to strengthen programmes and enhance research in aedes-transmitted diseases. The common features of these diseases should stimulate similar research themes for diagnostics, vaccines, biological targets and immune responses, environmental determinants, and vector control measures. Combining interventions known to be effective against multiple arboviral diseases will offer the most cost-effective and sustainable strategy for disease reduction. New global alliances are needed to enable the combination of efforts and resources for more effective and timely solutions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Impact of ethnicity, geography, and disease on the microbiota in health and inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prideaux, Lani; Kang, Seungha; Wagner, Josef; Buckley, Michael; Mahar, Jackie E; De Cruz, Peter; Wen, Zhonghui; Chen, Liping; Xia, Bing; van Langenberg, Daniel R; Lockett, Trevor; Ng, Siew C; Sung, Joseph J Y; Desmond, Paul; McSweeney, Chris; Morrison, Mark; Kirkwood, Carl D; Kamm, Michael A

    2013-12-01

    The gut microbiota is central to health and disorders such as inflammatory bowel disease. Differences in microbiota related to geography and ethnicity may hold the key to recent changes in the incidence of microbiota-related disorders. Gut mucosal microbiota was analyzed in 190 samples from 87 Caucasian and Chinese subjects, from Australia and Hong Kong, comprising 22 patients with Crohn's disease, 30 patients with ulcerative colitis, 29 healthy controls, and 6 healthy relatives of patients with Crohn's disease. Bacterial 16S rRNA microarray and 454 pyrosequencing were performed. The microbiota was diverse in health, regardless of ethnicity or geography (operational taxonomic unit number and Shannon diversity index). Ethnicity and geography, however, did affect microbial composition. Crohn's disease resulted in reduced bacterial diversity, regardless of ethnicity or geography, and was the strongest determinant of composition. In ulcerative colitis, diversity was reduced in Chinese subjects only, suggesting that ethnicity is a determinant of bacterial diversity, whereas composition was determined by disease and ethnicity. Specific phylotypes were different between health and disease. Chinese patients with inflammatory bowel disease more often than healthy Chinese tended to have had a Western diet in childhood, in the East and West. The healthy microbiota is diverse but compositionally affected by geographical and ethnic factors. The microbiota is substantially altered in inflammatory bowel disease, but ethnicity may also play an important role. This may be key to the changing epidemiology in developing countries, and emigrants to the West.

  17. Research prioritization of men’s health and urologic diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyler Okland

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objectives We sought to determine whether disease representation in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (CDSR reflects disease burden, measured by the Global Burden of Disease (GBD Study as disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs. Materials and Methods Two investigators performed independent assessment of ten men’s health and urologic diseases (MHUDs in CDSR for systematic review and protocol representation, which were compared with percentage of total 2010 DALYs for the ten conditions. Data were analyzed for correlation using Spearman rank analysis. Results Nine of ten MHUDs were represented by at least one CDSR review. There was a poor and statistically insignificant positive correlation between CDSR representation and disease burden (rho = 0.42, p = 0.23. CDSR representation was aligned with disease burden for three conditions, greater than disease burden for one condition, and less than disease burden for six conditions. Conclusions These results yield high-quality estimates to inform future research prioritization for MHUDs. While prioritization processes are complex and multi-faceted, disease burden should be strongly considered. Awareness of research priority setting has the potential to minimize research disparities on a global scale.

  18. Manipulating the gut microbiota to maintain health and treat disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen P. Scott

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The intestinal microbiota composition varies between healthy and diseased individuals for numerous diseases. Although any cause or effect relationship between the alterations in the gut microbiota and disease is not always clear, targeting the intestinal microbiota might offer new possibilities for prevention and/or treatment of disease. Objective: Here we review some examples of manipulating the intestinal microbiota by prebiotics, probiotics, and fecal microbial transplants. Results: Prebiotics are best known for their ability to increase the number of bifidobacteria. However, specific prebiotics could potentially also stimulate other species they can also stimulate other species associated with health, like Akkermansia muciniphila, Ruminococcus bromii, the Roseburia/Enterococcus rectale group, and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii. Probiotics have beneficial health effects for different diseases and digestive symptoms. These effects can be due to the direct effect of the probiotic bacterium or its products itself, as well as effects of the probiotic on the resident microbiota. Probiotics can influence the microbiota composition as well as the activity of the resident microbiota. Fecal microbial transplants are a drastic intervention in the gut microbiota, aiming for total replacement of one microbiota by another. With numerous successful studies related to antibiotic-associated diarrhea and Clostridium difficile infection, the potential of fecal microbial transplants to treat other diseases like inflammatory bowel disease, irritable bowel syndrome, and metabolic and cardiovascular disorders is under investigation. Conclusions: Improved knowledge on the specific role of gut microbiota in prevention and treatment of disease will help more targeted manipulation of the intestinal microbiota. Further studies are necessary to see the (long term effects for health of these interventions.

  19. Health literacy and infectious diseases: why does it matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Castro-Sánchez

    2016-02-01

    Conclusions: Limited or insufficient health literacy was associated with reduced adoption of protective behaviours such as immunization, and an inadequate understanding of antibiotics, although the relationship was not consistent. Large gaps remain in relation to infectious diseases with a high clinical and societal impact, such as tuberculosis and malaria.

  20. Health technology assessment of asthma disease management programs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steuten, Lotte Maria Gertruda; Lemmens, Karin; Vrijhoef, Bert

    2007-01-01

    Purpose of review: To provide a critical opinion on the extent to which asthma disease management programs currently improve the effectiveness and efficiency of care and directions for future policy and research. Recent findings: The methodological quality of health technology assessment of asthma

  1. The colonic microflora and probiotic therapy in health and disease.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Shanahan, Fergus

    2011-01-01

    Host-microbe dialogue is involved not only in maintenance of mucosal homeostasis but also in the pathogenesis of several infectious, inflammatory, and neoplastic disorders of the gut. This has led to a resurgence of interest in the colonic microbiota in health and disease. Recent landmark findings are addressed here.

  2. Rodent-borne diseases and their risks for public health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meerburg, B.G.; Singleton, G.R.; Kijlstra, A.

    2009-01-01

    Rodents are the most abundant and diversified order of living mammals in the world. Already since the Middle Ages we know that they can contribute to human disease, as black rats were associated with distribution of plague. However, also in modern times rodents form a threat for public health. In

  3. Prescribing Errors in Cardiovascular Diseases in a Tertiary Health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prescription errors are now known to be contributing to a large number of deaths during the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. However, there is paucity of information about these errors occurring in health facilities in Nigeria. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of prescribing errors in ...

  4. Chronic diseases risk factors and access to health exams among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Using data from the World Health Survey (WHS) carried out in South Africa in 2003, the aim of this study is to establish chronic diseases risk factors and access to preventive exams for cervical and breast cancer among South African women. The sample included in this analysis included 1236 women 18 years and above.

  5. Genomics in health and disease | Shawky | Egyptian Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genomics in health and disease. ... The completion of the Human Genome Project signaled that the genome revolution was here to stay and symbolized its promise that knowing the DNA sequence of our genome and those of hundreds of other ... Key Words: Genomics, genetics, gene regulation, mutation, genetic testing.

  6. Health actions and disease patterns related to coronary heart ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The health-related behaviour of the Cape Peninsula coloured population, which has been shown to have an adverse coronary heart disease (CHO) risk factor profile, is reported. Private medical services were used most often by participants: 54,1% and 51,6% of males and females respectively had made use of these ...

  7. Prioritization of zoonotic diseases of public health significance in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trang, Do Thuy; Siembieda, Jennifer; Huong, Nguyen Thi; Hung, Pham; Ky, Van Dang; Bandyopahyay, Santanu; Olowokure, Babatunde

    2015-12-30

    Prioritization of zoonotic diseases is critical as it facilitates optimization of resources, greater understanding of zoonotic diseases and implementation of policies promoting multisectoral collaboration. This study aimed to establish strategic priorities for zoonotic diseases in Vietnam taking a key stakeholder approach. Two weeks prior to a workshop on zoonotic diseases a questionnaire was developed and posted to key professionals involved in different areas of zoonotic disease management in Vietnam. Respondents were asked to assess the relative priority of 12 zoonotic diseases using a number of evidence-based criteria, and to provide suggestions to strengthen multisectoral collaboration. A response rate of 69% (51/74) was obtained, and 75% (38/51) respondents worked in non-international Vietnamese organizations. Respondents identified the top five diseases for prioritization in Vietnam as: avian influenza, rabies, Streptococcus suis infection, pandemic influenza and foodborne bacterial diseases. The three criteria most used to rank diseases were severity of disease, outbreak potential and public attention. Avian influenza was ranked as the number one priority zoonotic disease in Vietnam by 57% of the respondents, followed by rabies (18%). Respondents identified coordination mechanisms, information sharing and capacity building as the most important areas for strengthening to enhance multisectoral collaboration. This study is the first systematic and broad-based attempt to prioritize zoonotic diseases of public health significance in Vietnam using key stakeholders, and a comparative and transparent method. There is limited literature for policy makers and planners on this topic and the results of this study can be used to guide decision-making.

  8. Genetics of consanguinity and inbreeding in health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fareed, Mohd; Afzal, Mohammad

    2017-03-01

    Inbreeding increases the level of homozygotes for autosomal recessive disorders and is the major objective in clinical studies. The prevalence of consanguinity and the degree of inbreeding vary from one population to another depending on ethnicity, religion, culture and geography. Global epidemiological studies have revealed that consanguineous unions have been significantly associated with increased susceptibility to various forms of inherited diseases. The study aimed to determine the role of consanguinity in human health and to highlight the associated risks for various diseases or disorders. PubMed and Google Scholar search engines were used to explore the published literature on consanguinity and its associated risks using the key words "consanguinity", "prevalence", "inbreeding depression", "coefficient of inbreeding", "child health", "mortality", "human health", "homozygosity" and "complex diseases" in different combinations. The studies were screened for eligibility on the basis of their epidemiological relevance. This comprehensive assessment highlights the deleterious consequences in populations with a higher prevalence of consanguinity among different countries worldwide. To avoid the inbreeding load there is the need to improve socioeconomic and educational status and to increase public awareness of reproductive health and anticipated deleterious effects. Pre-marital and pre-conception counselling of consanguineous populations should be an integral part of health policy to train people and make people aware of its harmful consequences. Furthermore, runs of homozygosity (ROH) and whole-exome sequencing (WES) are useful tools in exploring new genomic signatures for the cause of inbreeding depression.

  9. Impacts of Gut Bacteria on Human Health and Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Jie Zhang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Gut bacteria are an important component of the microbiota ecosystem in the human gut, which is colonized by 1014 microbes, ten times more than the human cells. Gut bacteria play an important role in human health, such as supplying essential nutrients, synthesizing vitamin K, aiding in the digestion of cellulose, and promoting angiogenesis and enteric nerve function. However, they can also be potentially harmful due to the change of their composition when the gut ecosystem undergoes abnormal changes in the light of the use of antibiotics, illness, stress, aging, bad dietary habits, and lifestyle. Dysbiosis of the gut bacteria communities can cause many chronic diseases, such as inflammatory bowel disease, obesity, cancer, and autism. This review summarizes and discusses the roles and potential mechanisms of gut bacteria in human health and diseases.

  10. Disease, illness and health: theoretical models of the disablement process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minaire, P.

    1992-01-01

    Handicap is the result of a process of disablement whose origin is a pathological condition (disease). According to some definitions of health (e.g., a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being), the classical biomedical concept is too restrictive to cover all the consequences of disease. New models have been proposed: the impairment-disability-handicap model presented by WHO, the situational handicap model, and the quality-of-life model. A unifying schema of the disablement process includes these concepts and provides a useful way of analysing the consequences of disease. Factors that modify the disablement process can be identified by their respective impacts, and provide operational guidelines for public health interventions. PMID:1386290

  11. Fatigue, General Health, and Ischemic Heart Disease in Older Adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekmann, Anette; Petersen, Inge; Mänty, Minna Regina

    2013-01-01

    Backgrounds.Fatigue has been shown to predict ischemic heart disease (IHD) and mortality in nonsmoking middle-aged men free of cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the predictive value of fatigue for IHD and general health in nondisabled individuals free...... of cardiovascular disease and older than 70 years. METHODS: The study population was drawn from The Longitudinal Study of Aging Danish Twins. In total, 1,696 participants were followed up for 2-10 years by questionnaires and 10-16 years through registries. Kaplan Meier, Cox Proportional Hazard and logistic......-related diagnoses, no use of heart medication, sustained good mobility, and participation at follow-up. IHD was defined as first hospitalization due to IHD (ICD10: I20-I25) or death due to IHD as primary cause. RESULTS: Participants without fatigue had higher chances of a sustained good general health at 2 (odds...

  12. Impacts of Gut Bacteria on Human Health and Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu-Jie; Li, Sha; Gan, Ren-You; Zhou, Tong; Xu, Dong-Ping; Li, Hua-Bin

    2015-01-01

    Gut bacteria are an important component of the microbiota ecosystem in the human gut, which is colonized by 1014 microbes, ten times more than the human cells. Gut bacteria play an important role in human health, such as supplying essential nutrients, synthesizing vitamin K, aiding in the digestion of cellulose, and promoting angiogenesis and enteric nerve function. However, they can also be potentially harmful due to the change of their composition when the gut ecosystem undergoes abnormal changes in the light of the use of antibiotics, illness, stress, aging, bad dietary habits, and lifestyle. Dysbiosis of the gut bacteria communities can cause many chronic diseases, such as inflammatory bowel disease, obesity, cancer, and autism. This review summarizes and discusses the roles and potential mechanisms of gut bacteria in human health and diseases. PMID:25849657

  13. When symptom is symbol: some comments on Rosemary Gordon's, 'Masochism: the shadow side of the archetypal need to venerate and worship'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Murray

    2015-09-01

    This paper is a commentary on Rosemary Gordon's paper, 'Masochism: the shadow side of the archetypal need to venerate and worship', with a suggestion for an alternative interpretation of masochism as a part of a sado-masochistic couple. Gordon postulates an archetypal need to venerate and worship that can be hidden in the shadow and distorted in such practices as sexual masochism. Her paper also offers several avenues of exploration for further studies in connection with the phenomenon of masochism, including sexual perversion ('paraphilia'), chronic psychological victimhood, PTSD and traumatology, religious extremist behaviour such as self-flagellation, transformation in the individuation process and numinous experience. An extension of her hypothesis to include religious problems of modernity is suggested. © 2015, The Society of Analytical Psychology.

  14. Periodontal health condition in patients with Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martande, Santosh S; Pradeep, A R; Singh, Sonender Pal; Kumari, Minal; Suke, Deepak Kumar; Raju, Arjun P; Naik, Savitha B; Singh, Priyanka; Guruprasad, C N; Chatterji, Anirban

    2014-09-01

    To compare periodontal health status in individuals with and without Alzheimer's disease (AD). A total of 58 individuals with AD and 60 cognitively normal (ND) adult individuals, ranging in age from 50 to 80 years, were assessed for periodontal health status. Individuals with AD were further divided as mild, moderate, and severe, based on degree of cognitive impairment as evaluated using Mini-Mental State Examination. Gingival index (GI), plaque index (PI), probing depth (PD), clinical attachment level (CAL), and percentage of bleeding sites (%BOP) were evaluated. All the evaluated periodontal parameters were higher in individuals with AD than that in ND individuals, and the periodontal status deteriorated with the progression of AD. There were significant differences in mean GI, PI, PD, CAL, and %BOP between all the groups. The periodontal health status of individuals with AD deteriorates with disease progression and was closely related to their cognitive function. © The Author(s) 2014.

  15. Magnesium in Disease Prevention and Overall Health12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpe, Stella Lucia

    2013-01-01

    Magnesium is the fourth most abundant mineral and the second most abundant intracellular divalent cation and has been recognized as a cofactor for >300 metabolic reactions in the body. Some of the processes in which magnesium is a cofactor include, but are not limited to, protein synthesis, cellular energy production and storage, reproduction, DNA and RNA synthesis, and stabilizing mitochondrial membranes. Magnesium also plays a critical role in nerve transmission, cardiac excitability, neuromuscular conduction, muscular contraction, vasomotor tone, blood pressure, and glucose and insulin metabolism. Because of magnesium’s many functions within the body, it plays a major role in disease prevention and overall health. Low levels of magnesium have been associated with a number of chronic diseases including migraine headaches, Alzheimer’s disease, cerebrovascular accident (stroke), hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Good food sources of magnesium include unrefined (whole) grains, spinach, nuts, legumes, and white potatoes (tubers). This review presents recent research in the areas of magnesium and chronic disease, with the goal of emphasizing magnesium’s role in disease prevention and overall health. PMID:23674807

  16. Diet, cardiovascular disease and oral health: promoting health and reducing risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touger-Decker, Riva

    2010-02-01

    Primary prevention of cardiovascular disease includes screening as well as education and risk-reduction efforts. The author reviewed diet and nutritional risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD), as well as dietary approaches to reduce the risk of developing CVD. The author also presented applications for use in dental practice. The multifaceted relationship between diet/nutrition, CVD and oral health supports the role of CVD risk-reduction strategies in dental practice. Reinforcement of healthful lifestyle principles may help reduce patients' risk of developing CVD and improve their systemic and oral health.

  17. The intestinal microbiota: its role in health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biedermann, Luc; Rogler, Gerhard

    2015-02-01

    The intestinal microbiota (previously referred to as "intestinal flora") has entered the focus of research interest not only in microbiology but also in medicine. Huge progress has been made with respect to the analysis of composition and functions of the human microbiota. An "imbalance" of the microbiota, frequently also called a "dysbiosis," has been associated with different diseases in recent years. Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis as two major forms of inflammatory bowel disease, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and some infectious intestinal diseases such as Clostridium difficile colitis feature a dysbiosis of the intestinal flora. Whereas this is somehow expected or less surprising, an imbalance of the microbiota or an enrichment of specific bacterial strains in the flora has been associated with an increasing number of other diseases such as diabetes, metabolic syndrome, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease or steatohepatitis and even psychiatric disorders such as depression or multiple sclerosis. It is important to understand the different aspects of potential contributions of the microbiota to pathophysiology of the mentioned diseases. With the present manuscript, we aim to summarize the current knowledge and provide an overview of the different concepts on how bacteria contribute to health and disease in animal models and-more importantly-humans. In addition, it has to be borne in mind that we are only at the very beginning to understand the complex mechanisms of host-microbial interactions.

  18. Ebola Virus Disease: Essential Public Health Principles for Clinicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristi L. Koenig

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Ebola Virus Disease (EVD has become a public health emergency of international concern. The World Health Organization and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention have developed guidance to educate and inform healthcare workers and travelers worldwide. Symptoms of EVD include abrupt onset of fever, myalgias, and headache in the early phase, followed by vomiting, diarrhea and possible progression to hemorrhagic rash, life-threatening bleeding, and multi-organ failure in the later phase. The disease is not transmitted via airborne spread like influenza, but rather from person-to-person, or animal to person, via direct contact with bodily fluids or blood. It is crucial that emergency physicians be educated on disease presentation and how to generate a timely and accurate differential diagnosis that includes exotic diseases in the appropriate patient population. A patient should be evaluated for EVD when both suggestive symptoms, including unexplained hemorrhage, AND risk factors within 3 weeks prior, such as travel to an endemic area, direct handling of animals from outbreak areas, or ingestion of fruit or other uncooked foods contaminated with bat feces containing the virus are present. There are experimental therapies for treatment of EVD virus; however the mainstay of therapy is supportive care. Emergency department personnel on the frontlines must be prepared to rapidly identify and isolate febrile travelers if indicated. All healthcare workers involved in care of EVD patients should wear personal protective equipment. Despite the intense media focus on EVD rather than other threats, emergency physicians must master and follow essential public health principles for management of all infectious diseases. This includes not only identification and treatment of individuals, but also protection of healthcare workers and prevention of spread, keeping in mind the possibility of other more common disease processes. [West J Emerg Med. 2014;15(7:–0.

  19. Integrating Health Promotion Into Physical Therapy Practice to Improve Brain Health and Prevent Alzheimer Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGough, Ellen; Kirk-Sanchez, Neva; Liu-Ambrose, Teresa

    2017-07-01

    Alzheimer disease is the most common cause of dementia, and brain pathology appears years before symptoms are evident. Primary prevention through health promotion can incorporate lifestyle improvement across the lifespan. Risk factor assessment and identifying markers of disease might also trigger preventive measures needed for high-risk individuals and groups. Many potential risk factors are modifiable through exercise, and may be responsive to early intervention strategies to reduce the downward slope toward disability. Through the use of common clinical tests to identify cognitive and noncognitive functional markers of disease, detection and intervention can occur at earlier stages, including preclinical stages of disease. Physical activity and exercise interventions to address modifiable risk factors and impairments can play a pivotal role in the prevention and delay of functional decline, ultimately reducing the incidence of dementia. This article discusses prevention, prediction, plasticity, and participation in the context of preserving brain health and preventing Alzheimer disease and related dementias in aging adults. Rehabilitation professionals have opportunities to slow disease progression through research, practice, and education initiatives. From a clinical perspective, interventions that target brain health through lifestyle changes and exercise interventions show promise for preventing stroke and associated neurovascular diseases in addition to dementia. Physical therapists are well positioned to integrate primary health promotion into practice for the prevention of dementia and other neurological conditions in older adults.

  20. Medication therapy disease management: Geisinger's approach to population health management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Laney K; Greskovic, Gerard; Grassi, Dante M; Graham, Jove; Sun, Haiyan; Gionfriddo, Michael R; Murray, Michael F; Manickam, Kandamurugu; Nathanson, Douglas C; Wright, Eric A; Evans, Michael A

    2017-09-15

    Pharmacists' involvement in a population health initiative focused on chronic disease management is described. Geisinger Health System has cultivated a culture of innovation in population health management, as highlighted by its ambulatory care pharmacy program, the Medication Therapy Disease Management (MTDM) program. Initiated in 1996, the MTDM program leverages pharmacists' pharmacotherapy expertise to optimize care and improve outcomes. MTDM program pharmacists are trained and credentialed to manage over 16 conditions, including atrial fibrillation (AF) and multiple sclerosis (MS). Over a 15-year period, Geisinger Health Plan (GHP)-insured patients with AF whose warfarin therapy was managed by the MTDM program had, on average, 18% fewer emergency department (ED) visits and 18% fewer hospitalizations per year than GHP enrollees with AF who did not receive MTDM services, with 23% lower annual total care costs. Over a 2-year period, GHP-insured patients with MS whose pharmacotherapy was managed by pharmacists averaged 28% fewer annual ED visits than non-pharmacist-managed patients; however, the mean annual total care cost was 21% higher among MTDM clinic patients. The Geisinger MTDM program has evolved over 20 years from a single pharmacist-run anticoagulation clinic into a large program focused on managing the health of an ever-growing population. Initial challenges in integrating pharmacists into the Geisinger patient care framework as clinical experts were overcome by demonstrating the MTDM program's positive impact on patient outcomes. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Longitudinal study on oral health in subjects with Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ship, J A; Puckett, S A

    1994-01-01

    To examine longitudinal oral health changes in unmedicated, generally healthy subjects with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and compare them to age- and gender-matched healthy, unmedicated control subjects. Oral health parameters were evaluated over 2 to 3 years and the results compared between subjects with AD and controls. Clinical Center of the National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland. Twenty-one community-dwelling subjects with a clinical diagnosis of AD and 21 age- and gender-matched control subjects. Neither population was being treated for any other systemic condition nor taking any prescription medications. Unstimulated and stimulated major salivary gland flow rates were measured, and gingival, periodontal, dental, and oral mucosal tissues assessed. In general, subjects with AD demonstrated decreased salivary flow rates and diminished oral health, but most longitudinal changes in oral health status were not significantly different than controls. Patients with AD are susceptible to a variety of oral health problems, and progression of AD can lead to a deterioration in oral health and function. These patients require aggressive preventive care to maintain function for as long as possible, which necessitates close cooperation among numerous health care professionals.

  2. Clinico-pathological studies on the effect of different anti-neoplastic chemotherapy regimens on transmissible venereal tumours in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, J; Rana, J S; Sood, N; Pangawkar, G R; Gupta, P P

    1996-01-01

    Thirty-two dogs affected with transmissible venereal tumour (TVT) were divided into three treatment groups. In group I vincristine sulphate at 0.025 mg/kg body weight, in group II vinblastine sulphate at 0.150 mg/kg body weight, and in group III vinblastine sulphate at 0.100 mg/kg body weight plus methotrexate at 0.35 mg/kg body weight were given intravenously at weekly intervals. Biopsies were performed on days 0, 3, 7 and 14. The tissues were preserved in 10% neutral buffered formalin and processed routinely for haematoxylin and eosin staining. Histopathologically, the untreated TVT was characterized by sheets or bundles of mostly rounded cells having a large, highly basophilic nucleus with a prominent, highly basophilic necleolus. Both vincristine and vinblastine primarily affected the nuclei of neoplastic cells, causing condensation, karyorrhexis and karyolysis within 3 days of chemotherapy. The regressing tumour mass showed marked infiltration by lymphocytes, lymphoblasts and macrophages by day 7. There was nearly complete regression of the tumour by day 14, as shown by the almost complete loss of neoplastic cells, with fibrous tissue substitution. However, in group III, the changes occurred more slowly and more injections were needed for complete regression. In both groups I and II, 11/12 of the animals responded completely to the chemotherapy within 3 weeks, while in group III, 6/8 of the dogs responded to the treatment by 21-28 days.

  3. Transcriptome analysis of bacteriophage communities in periodontal health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago-Rodriguez, Tasha M; Naidu, Mayuri; Abeles, Shira R; Boehm, Tobias K; Ly, Melissa; Pride, David T

    2015-07-28

    The role of viruses as members of the human microbiome has gained broader attention with the discovery that human body surfaces are inhabited by sizeable viral communities. The majority of the viruses identified in these communities have been bacteriophages that predate upon cellular microbiota rather than the human host. Phages have the capacity to lyse their hosts or provide them with selective advantages through lysogenic conversion, which could help determine the structure of co-existing bacterial communities. Because conditions such as periodontitis are associated with altered bacterial biota, phage mediated perturbations of bacterial communities have been hypothesized to play a role in promoting periodontal disease. Oral phage communities also differ significantly between periodontal health and disease, but the gene expression of oral phage communities has not been previously examined. Here, we provide the first report of gene expression profiles from the oral bacteriophage community using RNA sequencing, and find that oral phages are more highly expressed in subjects with relative periodontal health. While lysins were highly expressed, the high proportion of integrases expressed suggests that prophages may account for a considerable proportion of oral phage gene expression. Many of the transcriptome reads matched phages found in the oral cavities of the subjects studied, indicating that phages may account for a substantial proportion of oral gene expression. Reads homologous to siphoviruses that infect Firmicutes were amongst the most prevalent transcriptome reads identified in both periodontal health and disease. Some genes from the phage lytic module were significantly more highly expressed in subjects with periodontal disease, suggesting that periodontitis may favor the expression of some lytic phages. As we explore the contributions of viruses to the human microbiome, the data presented here suggest varying expression of bacteriophage communities in oral

  4. Close relationship processes and health: implications of attachment theory for health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietromonaco, Paula R; Uchino, Bert; Dunkel Schetter, Christine

    2013-05-01

    Health psychology has contributed significantly to understanding the link between psychological factors and health and well-being, but it has not often incorporated advances in relationship science into hypothesis generation and study design. We present one example of a theoretical model, following from a major relationship theory (attachment theory) that integrates relationship constructs and processes with biopsychosocial processes and health outcomes. We briefly describe attachment theory and present a general framework linking it to dyadic relationship processes (relationship behaviors, mediators, and outcomes) and health processes (physiology, affective states, health behavior, and health outcomes). We discuss the utility of the model for research in several health domains (e.g., self-regulation of health behavior, pain, chronic disease) and its implications for interventions and future research. This framework revealed important gaps in knowledge about relationships and health. Future work in this area will benefit from taking into account individual differences in attachment, adopting a more explicit dyadic approach, examining more integrated models that test for mediating processes, and incorporating a broader range of relationship constructs that have implications for health. A theoretical framework for studying health that is based in relationship science can accelerate progress by generating new research directions designed to pinpoint the mechanisms through which close relationships promote or undermine health. Furthermore, this knowledge can be applied to develop more effective interventions to help individuals and their relationship partners with health-related challenges. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  5. Close Relationship Processes and Health: Implications of Attachment Theory for Health and Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietromonaco, Paula R.; Uchino, Bert; Dunkel Schetter, Christine

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Health psychology has contributed significantly to understanding the link between psychological factors and health and well-being, but it has not often incorporated advances in relationship science into hypothesis generation and study design. We present one example of a theoretical model following from a major relationship theory (attachment theory) that integrates relationship constructs and processes with biopsychosocial processes and health outcomes. Methods We briefly describe attachment theory and present a general framework linking it to dyadic relationship processes (relationship behaviors, mediators and outcomes) and health processes (physiology, affective states, health behavior and health outcomes). We discuss the utility of the model for research in several health domains (e.g., self-regulation of health behavior, pain, chronic disease) and its implications for interventions and future research. Results This framework revealed important gaps in knowledge about relationships and health. Future work in this area will benefit from taking into account individual differences in attachment, adopting a more explicit dyadic approach, examining more integrated models that test for mediating processes, and incorporating a broader range of relationship constructs that have implications for health. Conclusions A theoretical framework for studying health that is based in relationship science can accelerate progress by generating new research directions designed to pinpoint the mechanisms through which close relationships promote or undermine health. Furthermore, this knowledge can be applied to develop more effective interventions to help individuals and their relationship partners with health-related challenges. PMID:23646833

  6. Vitamin D in health and disease: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basit, S

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin D, a fat-soluble prohormone, is synthesised in response to sunlight. Vitamin D requires two metabolic conversions, 25-hydroxylation in the liver and 1alpha-hydroxylation in the kidney, to become active hormone. The active form, 1alpha,25-(OH)2D, binds to the vitamin D receptor (VDR) to modulate gene transcription and regulate mineral ion homeostasis. Vitamin D plays several roles in the body, influencing bone health as well as serum calcium and phosphate levels. Furthermore, vitamin D may modify immune function, cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. Vitamin D deficiency has been associated with numerous health outcomes, including risk of rickets in children or osteomalacia in adults, increased risk of fractures, falls, cancer, autoimmune disease, infectious disease, type 1 and type 2 diabetes, hypertension and heart disease, and other diseases such as multiple sclerosis. Here, vitamin D physiology and metabolism, its genomic action and association of polymorphisms in vitamin D pathway genes with different diseases are reviewed by focusing on new findings published in the literature.

  7. D:\\African Health Sciences\\Augu

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    diarrhea, during the first world war1,2. More recently,. RS has been defined as a peripheral arthritis lasting ... chronic arthritis (15-30%)3. Cardiac signs such as aortic regurgitation caused by inflammation of ... B271,2,4. Nongonococcal venereal disease (most often Chlamydia) and infectious diarrhea usually precede RS.

  8. Impact of intermittent fasting on health and disease processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattson, Mark P; Longo, Valter D; Harvie, Michelle

    2017-10-01

    Humans in modern societies typically consume food at least three times daily, while laboratory animals are fed ad libitum. Overconsumption of food with such eating patterns often leads to metabolic morbidities (insulin resistance, excessive accumulation of visceral fat, etc.), particularly when associated with a sedentary lifestyle. Because animals, including humans, evolved in environments where food was relatively scarce, they developed numerous adaptations that enabled them to function at a high level, both physically and cognitively, when in a food-deprived/fasted state. Intermittent fasting (IF) encompasses eating patterns in which individuals go extended time periods (e.g., 16-48h) with little or no energy intake, with intervening periods of normal food intake, on a recurring basis. We use the term periodic fasting (PF) to refer to IF with periods of fasting or fasting mimicking diets lasting from 2 to as many as 21 or more days. In laboratory rats and mice IF and PF have profound beneficial effects on many different indices of health and, importantly, can counteract disease processes and improve functional outcome in experimental models of a wide range of age-related disorders including diabetes, cardiovascular disease, cancers and neurological disorders such as Alzheimer's disease Parkinson's disease and stroke. Studies of IF (e.g., 60% energy restriction on 2days per week or every other day), PF (e.g., a 5day diet providing 750-1100kcal) and time-restricted feeding (TRF; limiting the daily period of food intake to 8h or less) in normal and overweight human subjects have demonstrated efficacy for weight loss and improvements in multiple health indicators including insulin resistance and reductions in risk factors for cardiovascular disease. The cellular and molecular mechanisms by which IF improves health and counteracts disease processes involve activation of adaptive cellular stress response signaling pathways that enhance mitochondrial health, DNA repair

  9. Self-monitoring of health data by patients with a chronic disease: does disease controllability matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huygens, Martine W J; Swinkels, Ilse C S; de Jong, Judith D; Heijmans, Monique J W M; Friele, Roland D; van Schayck, Onno C P; de Witte, Luc P

    2017-03-20

    There is a growing emphasis on self-monitoring applications that allow patients to measure their own physical health parameters. A prerequisite for achieving positive effects is patients' willingness to self-monitor. The controllability of disease types, patients' perceived self-efficacy and health problems could play an essential role in this. The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between patients' willingness to self-monitor and a range of disease and patient specific variables including controllability of disease type, patients' perceived self-efficacy and health problems. Data regarding 627 participants with 17 chronic somatic disease types from a Dutch panel of people with chronic diseases have been used for this cross-sectional study. Perceived self-efficacy was assessed using the general self-efficacy scale, perceived health problems using the Physical Health Composite Score (PCS). Participants indicated their willingness to self-monitor. An expert panel assessed for 17 chronic disease types the extent to which patients can independently keep their disease in control. Logistic regression analyses were conducted. Patients' willingness to self-monitor differs greatly among disease types: patients with diabetes (71.0%), asthma (59.6%) and hypertension (59.1%) were most willing to self-monitor. In contrast, patients with rheumatism (40.0%), migraine (41.2%) and other neurological disorders (42.9%) were less willing to self-monitor. It seems that there might be a relationship between disease controllability scores and patients' willingness to self-monitor. No evidence is found of a relationship between general self-efficacy and PCS scores, and patients' willingness to self-monitor. This study provides the first evidence that patients' willingness to self-monitor might be associated with disease controllability. Further research should investigate this association more deeply and should focus on how disease controllability influences

  10. Rare diseases in ICD11: making rare diseases visible in health information systems through appropriate coding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aymé, Ségolène; Bellet, Bertrand; Rath, Ana

    2015-03-26

    Because of their individual rarity, genetic diseases and other types of rare diseases are under-represented in healthcare coding systems; this contributes to a lack of ascertainment and recognition of their importance for healthcare planning and resource allocation, and prevents clinical research from being performed. Orphanet was given the task to develop an inventory of rare diseases and a classification system which could serve as a template to update International terminologies. When the World Health Organization (WHO) launched the revision process of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD), a Topic Advisory Group for rare diseases was established, managed by Orphanet and funded by the European Commission. So far 5,400 rare diseases listed in the Orphanet database have an endorsed representation in the foundation layer of ICD-11, and are thus provided with a unique identifier in the Beta version of ICD-11, which is 10 times more than in ICD10. A rare disease linearization is also planned. The current beta version is open for public consultation and comments, and to be used for field testing. The adoption by the World Health Assembly is planned for 2017. The overall revision process was carried out with very limited means considering its scope, ambition and strategic significance, and experienced significant hurdles and setbacks. The lack of funding impacted the level of professionalism that could be attained. The contrast between the initially declared goals and the currently foreseen final product is disappointing. In the context of uncertainty around the outcome of the field testing and the potential willingness of countries to adopt this new version, the European Commission Expert Group on Rare Diseases adopted in November 2014 a recommendation for health care coding systems to consider using ORPHA codes in addition to ICD10 codes for rare diseases having no specific ICD10 codes. The Orphanet terminology, classifications and mappings with other

  11. Orofacial function and oral health in patients with Parkinson's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakke, Merete; Larsen, Stine L; Lautrup, Caroline

    2011-01-01

    No comprehensive study has previously been published on orofacial function in patients with well-defined Parkinson's disease (PD). Therefore, the aim of this study was to perform an overall assessment of orofacial function and oral health in patients, and to compare the findings with matched...... control subjects. Fifteen outpatients (nine women and six men, 61-82 yr of age; Hoehn & Yahr Stages 2-4; and with motor impairment ranging from 17 to 61 according to the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale, Objective Motor Part III) were examined in their 'on' state together with 15 age- and gender...

  12. A Vision for Investigating the Microbiology of Health and Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipkin, W Ian

    2015-07-15

    The fields of microbial surveillance, discovery, and pathogenesis are evolving rapidly with introduction of cultivation-independent molecular diagnostic assays and highly multiplexed serologic analyses, as well as the development of animal models and prospective birth cohorts that can provide insights into host and microbial determinants of health and disease. Here, past, present, and future perspectives on these fields are provided. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Quality of life utilities for pelvic inflammatory disease health states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kenneth J; Tsevat, Joel; Ness, Roberta B; Wiesenfeld, Harold C; Roberts, Mark S

    2008-03-01

    Quality of life utilities for health states associated with pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) have been estimated but not directly measured. Utilities for PID could have important implications on the cost-effectiveness of interventions to prevent and manage this disease. We obtained, in women with versus without a history of PID, visual analogue scale (VAS) and time-tradeoff (TTO) valuations for 5 PID-associated health states: ambulatory PID treatment, hospital PID treatment, ectopic pregnancy, chronic pelvic pain, and infertility. Subjects read brief scenarios describing the medical, functional, and social activity effects typically associated with each state, then gave valuations in the order above. Health state valuations were obtained from 56 women with and 150 women without a PID history. Subjects with a PID history had significantly lower mean valuations (P <0.05) on the VAS for ectopic pregnancy (0.55 vs. 0.63), pelvic pain (0.45 vs. 0.53), and infertility (0.53 vs. 0.66) but not on the TTO; VAS differences remained significant when controlling for demographic and childbearing characteristics. VAS and TTO valuations were similar in women with versus without a history of PID for the ambulatory and hospital PID treatment health states. PID has substantial impact on utility. In addition, some PID-related health states are valued less by women who have experienced PID, which could affect cost-effectiveness analyses of PID treatments when examined from the societal versus patient perspective.

  14. Prescription of resistance training for health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feigenbaum, M S; Pollock, M L

    1999-01-01

    When prescribed appropriately, resistance training is effective for developing fitness, health, and for the prevention and rehabilitation of orthopedic injuries. Because resistance training is an integral component in the comprehensive health program promoted by the major health organizations (e.g., American College of Sports Medicine, American Heart Association, American Association of Cardiovascular and Cardiopulmonary Rehabilitation, Surgeon General's Office), population-specific guidelines have recently been published. The current research indicates that, for healthy persons of all ages and many patients with chronic diseases, single set programs of up to 15 repetitions performed a minimum of 2 d x wk(-1) are recommended. Each workout session should consist of 8-10 different exercises that train the major muscle groups. Single set programs are less time consuming and more cost efficient, which generally translates into improved program compliance. Further, single set programs are recommended for the above-mentioned populations because they produce most of the health and fitness benefits of multiple set programs. The goal of this type of program is to develop and maintain a significant amount of muscle mass, endurance, and strength to contribute to overall fitness and health. Patients with chronic diseases (e.g., arthritis) may have to limit range of motion for some exercises and use lighter weights with more repetitions.

  15. Health behavior of patients with ischemic heart disease

    OpenAIRE

    Węgorowski, Paweł; Michalik, Joanna; Zarzeczny, Rafał; Domżał–Drzewicka, Renata; Nowicki, Grzegorz

    2017-01-01

    Węgorowski Paweł, Michalik Joanna, Zarzeczny Rafał , Domżał–Drzewicka Renata, Nowicki Grzegorz. Health behavior of patients with ischemic heart disease. Journal of Education, Health and Sport. 2017;7(6):660-670. eISSN 2391-8306. DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.885952 http://ojs.ukw.edu.pl/index.php/johs/article/view/4788 The journal has had 7 points in Ministry of Science and Higher Education parametric evaluation. Part B item 1223 (26.01.2017). 1223 J...

  16. Helicobacter pylori's unconventional role in health and disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion S Dorer

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The discovery of a bacterium, Helicobacter pylori, that is resident in the human stomach and causes chronic disease (peptic ulcer and gastric cancer was radical on many levels. Whereas the mouth and the colon were both known to host a large number of microorganisms, collectively referred to as the microbiome, the stomach was thought to be a virtual Sahara desert for microbes because of its high acidity. We now know that H. pylori is one of many species of bacteria that live in the stomach, although H. pylori seems to dominate this community. H. pylori does not behave as a classical bacterial pathogen: disease is not solely mediated by production of toxins, although certain H. pylori genes, including those that encode exotoxins, increase the risk of disease development. Instead, disease seems to result from a complex interaction between the bacterium, the host, and the environment. Furthermore, H. pylori was the first bacterium observed to behave as a carcinogen. The innate and adaptive immune defenses of the host, combined with factors in the environment of the stomach, apparently drive a continuously high rate of genomic variation in H. pylori. Studies of this genetic diversity in strains isolated from various locations across the globe show that H. pylori has coevolved with humans throughout our history. This long association has given rise not only to disease, but also to possible protective effects, particularly with respect to diseases of the esophagus. Given this complex relationship with human health, eradication of H. pylori in nonsymptomatic individuals may not be the best course of action. The story of H. pylori teaches us to look more deeply at our resident microbiome and the complexity of its interactions, both in this complex population and within our own tissues, to gain a better understanding of health and disease.

  17. Mobile Health, a Key Factor Enhancing Disease Prevention Campaigns: Looking for Evidences in Kidney Disease Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Roque Matias

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Progressive chronic kidney disease (CKD failure and kidney diseases are increasing at an alarming rate all over the world. However, despite the remarkable advance in health technology, where it has become possible to successfully screen patients and predict kidney progression, a large portion of the world population is still unaware of their disease and risk exposure. Mobile Health (mHealth solutions associated with health campaigns and programs proved to be an effective mean to enhance awareness and behaviour change at individual and social level. Objective: The aim of this survey was to present the results of an environmental scan of what has been happening in the field of kidney disease prevention campaigns in recent years, with a focus on the use of mobile health as a tool to enhance the campaign's effects on targeting people and change their behaviour. Methodology: It was conducted a systematic and comprehensive review, combining experimental studies with theoretical perspectives, to look for evidence regarding the evaluation of kidney disease prevention campaigns. The databases consulted for the present survey were: MEDLINE, PubMed, Google Scholar, PsycINFO, SAGE Journals Online, and Web of Science among other sources, for an analysis period from January 2000 to June 2016. Results: Concerning the 14 analyzed examples with impact on kidney disease prevention campaign evaluation, two main campaigns were referred: The World Kidney Day (WKD campaign, and the Kidney Early Evaluation Program (KEEP. The indicators used in this analisys were in most cases comparable regarding the campaign messages, objectives and interventions tools, although em both cases the use of mHealth or other technologies is residually comparing to other diseases prevention campaigns or programs. Conclusions: This review pointed to the inexistence of behavioural change evidence as a target of the kidney disease prevention campaigns and their evaluation. General

  18. Towards One Health disease surveillance: The Southern African Centre for Infectious Disease Surveillance approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esron D. Karimuribo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Africa has the highest burden of infectious diseases in the world and yet the least capacity for its risk management. It has therefore become increasingly important to search for ‘fit-for- purpose’ approaches to infectious disease surveillance and thereby targeted disease control. The fact that the majority of human infectious diseases are originally of animal origin means we have to consider One Health (OH approaches which require inter-sectoral collaboration for custom-made infectious disease surveillance in the endemic settings of Africa. A baseline survey was conducted to assess the current status and performance of human and animal health surveillance systems and subsequently a strategy towards OH surveillance system was developed. The strategy focused on assessing the combination of participatory epidemiological approaches and the deployment of mobile technologies to enhance the effectiveness of disease alerts and surveillance at the point of occurrence, which often lies in remote areas. We selected three study sites, namely the Ngorongoro, Kagera River basin and Zambezi River basin ecosystems. We have piloted and introduced the next-generation Android mobile phones running the EpiCollect application developed by Imperial College to aid geo-spatial and clinical data capture and transmission of this data from the field to the remote Information Technology (IT servers at the research hubs for storage, analysis, feedback and reporting. We expect that the combination of participatory epidemiology and technology will significantly improve OH disease surveillance in southern Africa.

  19. Towards one health disease surveillance: the Southern African Centre for Infectious Disease Surveillance approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimuribo, Esron D; Sayalel, Kuya; Beda, Eric; Short, Nick; Wambura, Philemon; Mboera, Leonard G; Kusiluka, Lughano J M; Rweyemamu, Mark M

    2012-06-20

    Africa has the highest burden of infectious diseases in the world and yet the least capacity for its risk management. It has therefore become increasingly important to search for 'fit-for- purpose' approaches to infectious disease surveillance and thereby targeted disease control. The fact that the majority of human infectious diseases are originally of animal origin means we have to consider One Health (OH) approaches which require inter-sectoral collaboration for custom-made infectious disease surveillance in the endemic settings of Africa. A baseline survey was conducted to assess the current status and performance of human and animal health surveillance systems and subsequently a strategy towards OH surveillance system was developed. The strategy focused on assessing the combination of participatory epidemiological approaches and the deployment of mobile technologies to enhance the effectiveness of disease alerts and surveillance at the point of occurrence, which often lies in remote areas. We selected three study sites, namely the Ngorongoro, Kagera River basin and Zambezi River basin ecosystems. We have piloted and introduced the next-generation Android mobile phones running the EpiCollect application developed by Imperial College to aid geo-spatial and clinical data capture and transmission of this data from the field to the remote Information Technology (IT) servers at the research hubs for storage, analysis, feedback and reporting. We expect that the combination of participatory epidemiology and technology will significantly improve OH disease surveillance in southern Africa.

  20. Targeted Salivary Biomarkers for Discrimination of Periodontal Health and Disease(s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey Lee Ebersole

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Generally, clinical parameters are used in dental practice for periodontal disease, yet several drawbacks exist with the clinical standards for addressing the needs of the public at large in determining the current status/progression of the disease, and requiring a significant amount of damage before these parameters can document disease. Therefore, a quick, easy and reliable method of assessing and monitoring periodontal disease should provide important diagnostic information that improves and speeds treatment decisions and moves the field closer to individualized point-of-care diagnostics. Objective: This report provides results for a saliva-based diagnostic approach for periodontal health and disease based upon the abundance of salivary analytes coincident with disease, and the significant progress already made in the identification of discriminatory salivary biomarkers of periodontitis. Methods: We evaluated biomarkers representing various phases of periodontitis initiation and progression (IL-1ß, IL-6, MMP-8, MIP-1a in whole saliva from 209 subjects categorized with periodontal health, gingivitis, and periodontitis. Results: Evaluation of the salivary analytes demonstrated utility for individual biomarkers to differentiate periodontitis from health. Inclusion of gingivitis patients into the analyses provided a more robust basis to estimate the value of each of these analytes. Various clinical and statistical approaches showed that pairs or panels of the analytes were able to increase the sensitivity and specificity for the identification of disease. Conclusions: Salivary concentrations of IL-1ß, IL-6, MMP-8, MIP-1a alone and in combination are able to distinguish health from gingivitis and periodontitis. The data clearly demonstrated a heterogeneity in response profiles of these analytes that supports the need for refinement of the standard clinical classifications if we are to move towards precision/personalized dentistry for the 21st

  1. Sex Differences and Sex Steroids in Lung Health and Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Elizabeth A.; Miller, Virginia M.

    2012-01-01

    Sex differences in the biology of different organ systems and the influence of sex hormones in modulating health and disease are increasingly relevant in clinical and research areas. Although work has focused on sex differences and sex hormones in cardiovascular, musculoskeletal, and neuronal systems, there is now increasing clinical evidence for sex differences in incidence, morbidity, and mortality of lung diseases including allergic diseases (such as asthma), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, pulmonary fibrosis, lung cancer, as well as pulmonary hypertension. Whether such differences are inherent and/or whether sex steroids play a role in modulating these differences is currently under investigation. The purpose of this review is to define sex differences in lung structure/function under normal and specific disease states, with exploration of whether and how sex hormone signaling mechanisms may explain these clinical observations. Focusing on adult age groups, the review addresses the following: 1) inherent sex differences in lung anatomy and physiology; 2) the importance of certain time points in life such as puberty, pregnancy, menopause, and aging; 3) expression and signaling of sex steroid receptors under normal vs. disease states; 4) potential interplay between different sex steroids; 5) the question of whether sex steroids are beneficial or detrimental to the lung; and 6) the potential use of sex steroid signaling as biomarkers and therapeutic avenues in lung diseases. The importance of focusing on sex differences and sex steroids in the lung lies in the increasing incidence of lung diseases in women and the need to address lung diseases across the life span. PMID:22240244

  2. Zika virus disease: a public health emergency of international concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupton, Kelly

    The emergence of Zika virus disease (ZIKV) in the Americas, mainly Brazil, has required the World Health Organization to take action to halt the spread of the virus by implementing preventive measures. This has resulted in increased surveillance of the virus and its potential complications. In the UK, cases of ZIKV have been reported in returning travellers. With the importance of this disease increasing, it is vital that nurses and other health professionals take the time to learn about ZIKV in order to pass on this knowledge to patients, enabling them to make informed choices about travel to affected areas. This article will discuss the ZIKV, its complications and what to advise travellers, including pregnant women, to prevent transmission and spread.

  3. Metabolic resting-state brain networks in health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spetsieris, Phoebe G; Ko, Ji Hyun; Tang, Chris C; Nazem, Amir; Sako, Wataru; Peng, Shichun; Ma, Yilong; Dhawan, Vijay; Eidelberg, David

    2015-02-24

    The delineation of resting state networks (RSNs) in the human brain relies on the analysis of temporal fluctuations in functional MRI signal, representing a small fraction of total neuronal activity. Here, we used metabolic PET, which maps nonfluctuating signals related to total activity, to identify and validate reproducible RSN topographies in healthy and disease populations. In healthy subjects, the dominant (first component) metabolic RSN was topographically similar to the default mode network (DMN). In contrast, in Parkinson's disease (PD), this RSN was subordinated to an independent disease-related pattern. Network functionality was assessed by quantifying metabolic RSN expression in cerebral blood flow PET scans acquired at rest and during task performance. Consistent task-related deactivation of the "DMN-like" dominant metabolic RSN was observed in healthy subjects and early PD patients; in contrast, the subordinate RSNs were activated during task performance. Network deactivation was reduced in advanced PD; this abnormality was partially corrected by dopaminergic therapy. Time-course comparisons of DMN loss in longitudinal resting metabolic scans from PD and Alzheimer's disease subjects illustrated that significant reductions appeared later for PD, in parallel with the development of cognitive dysfunction. In contrast, in Alzheimer's disease significant reductions in network expression were already present at diagnosis, progressing over time. Metabolic imaging can directly provide useful information regarding the resting organization of the brain in health and disease.

  4. Self-monitoring of health data by patients with a chronic disease: does disease controllability matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huygens, M.W.J.; Swinkels, I.C.S.; Jong, J.D. de; Heijmans, M.J.W.M.; Friele, R.D.; Schayck, O.C.P. van; Witte, L.P. de

    2017-01-01

    Background: There is a growing emphasis on self-monitoring applications that allow patients to measure their own physical health parameters. A prerequisite for achieving positive effects is patients’ willingness to self-monitor. The controllability of disease types, patients’

  5. Global Immunizations: Health Promotion and Disease Prevention Worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macintosh, Janelle L B; Eden, Lacey M; Luthy, Karlen E; Schouten, Aimee E

    Immunizations are one of the most important health interventions of the 20th century, yet people in many areas of the world do not receive adequate immunizations. Approximately 3 million people worldwide die every year from vaccine-preventable diseases; about half of these deaths are young children and infants. Global travel is more common; diseases that were once localized now can be found in communities around the world. Multiple barriers to immunizations have been identified. Healthcare access, cost, and perceptions of safety and trust in healthcare are factors that have depressed global immunization rates. Several global organizations have focused on addressing these barriers as part of their efforts to increase immunization rates. The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, The World Health Organization, and the United Nations Children's Emergency Fund each have a part of their organization that is concentrated on immunizations. Maternal child nurses worldwide can assist in increasing immunization rates. Nurses can participate in outreach programs to ease the burden of patients and families in accessing immunizations. Nurses can work with local and global organizations to make immunizations more affordable. Nurses can improve trust and knowledge about immunizations in their local communities. Nurses are a powerful influence in the struggle to increase immunization rates, which is a vital aspect of global health promotion and disease prevention.

  6. Oral Health Literacy and Measures of Periodontal Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtzman, Jennifer S; Atchison, Kathryn A; Macek, Mark D; Markovic, Daniela

    2017-01-01

    Existing evidence demonstrating a relationship between health literacy (HL) and periodontal health is insufficient to identify how providers can help patients manage periodontal disease. This study assesses associations between HL measures (word recognition, numeracy, and conceptual knowledge) and signs of periodontal disease. This study included 325 new patients at a dental school clinic and employed an oral HL (OHL) survey, full-mouth radiographs, and clinical examination. Evaluations included the relationship between each HL measure versus number of teeth, bleeding score, plaque score, and periodontal severity with linear and ordinal logistic regression models before and after adjusting for covariates. Among HL measures, the Newest Vital Sign demonstrated a significant relationship with number of teeth and the Short Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults showed a significant association with plaque score. The short Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine and Dentistry (REALMD-20) showed participants who performed in the highest quartile had nearly two additional teeth, over 5.5% fewer bleeding sites, and nearly 9% fewer teeth with plaque after adjustment for demographic variables, smoking, and diabetes mellitus (DM). Participants who scored in the highest quartile of the Comprehensive Measure of Oral Health Knowledge (CMOHK) had nearly 9% less plaque. Two OHL instruments (REAMLD-20 and CMOHK) provided statistical associations with clinical measures of periodontal health at a level that could be considered of moderate clinical relevancy. Findings suggest dentists may wish to assess familiarity of their patients with dental terminology and knowledge of periodontal disease to provide education on oral hygiene, smoking, and DM.

  7. Dental health and management for children with congenital heart disease.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    FitzGerald, Kirsten

    2010-01-01

    Congenital heart disease (CHD) is one of the most common developmental anomalies. Children with CHD are at increased risk of developing oral disease, and are at increased risk from the systemic effects of oral disease. Recent changes in guidelines related to prophylaxis against infective endocarditis have highlighted the importance of establishing and maintaining oral health for this group of patients. The management of children with CHD can be complex and, unfortunately, many of these children do not receive the care they require. The challenges that these children pose are discussed, and suggestions are made for the appropriate management of these patients and the key role that all those working in primary dental care have to play.

  8. Dental health and management for children with congenital heart disease.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    FitzGerald, Kirsten

    2012-02-01

    Congenital heart disease (CHD) is one of the most common developmental anomalies. Children with CHD are at increased risk of developing oral disease, and are at increased risk from the systemic effects of oral disease. Recent changes in guidelines related to prophylaxis against infective endocarditis have highlighted the importance of establishing and maintaining oral health for this group of patients. The management of children with CHD can be complex and, unfortunately, many of these children do not receive the care they require. The challenges that these children pose are discussed, and suggestions are made for the appropriate management of these patients and the key role that all those working in primary dental care have to play.

  9. Receptor tyrosine kinase structure and function in health and disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg A. Karpov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs are membrane proteins that control the flow of information through signal transduction pathways, impacting on different aspects of cell function. RTKs are characterized by a ligand-binding ectodomain, a single transmembrane α-helix, a cytosolic region comprising juxtamembrane and kinase domains followed by a flexible C-terminal tail. Somatic and germline RTK mutations can induce aberrant signal transduction to give rise to cardiovascular, developmental and oncogenic abnormalities. RTK overexpression occurs in certain cancers, correlating signal strength and disease incidence. Diverse RTK activation and signal transduction mechanisms are employed by cells during commitment to health or disease. Small molecule inhibitors are one means to target RTK function in disease initiation and progression. This review considers RTK structure, activation, and signal transduction and evaluates biological relevance to therapeutics and clinical outcomes.

  10. Energy Expenditure in Infants in Health and Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross Shepherd

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Measurement of energy balance represents a basic theoretical concept in the determination of nutritional and fluid requirements in humans in health and disease. Infants have special nutrient requirements, more limited reserves and relative immaturity of organ function. Energy requirements of infants have been based either retrospectively on intakes required to achieve normal growth or on equations derived from energy expenditure studies performed early this century. Recently, improved techniques for studying resting energy expenditure (REE, total energy expenditure (TEE and metabolically active body compartments in infants have facilitated more accurate estimates of energy requirements. Such studies indicated that current reference values for energy requirements are overestimates, and that compared with measured values, predicted values vary markedly between the various predictive equations with wide co-efficients of variation. In disease states with altered body composition, such as cystic fibrosis and end-stage liver disease, predictive equations markedly underestimate both energy and fluid requirements. In cystic fibrosis, both TEE and REE are 25% higher than values in healthy infants. In extrahepatic biliary atresia, energy expenditure per unit body cell mass is markedly elevated, suggesting that this is a catabolic condition in infants. Current estimates of energy and fluid requirements in both health and disease in infants need reappraisal. Bedside and free living energy expenditure methodology should be used to define accurately components of energy requirement in individual infants.

  11. JPRS Report, Epidemiology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1989-01-01

    Partial Contents: International , Health, Meningitis, AIDS, Rural Areas, Tuberculosis, Strain, Diagnosis, Death, Children, Blood Purification, Medical Personnel, Veneral Diseases, Blood diseases, Malaria, Dengue Fever...

  12. Periurethral and vulval condylomata acuminata: an unusual juvenile venereal disease in a 3-year-old girl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Ramnik V; Desai, Divyesh; Cherian, Abraham; Martyn-Simmons, Claire

    2014-09-08

    We present a case of giant condyloma acuminatum (CA) in a 3-year-old girl with rapidly growing vulval and periurethral lesions, which was investigated thoroughly and successfully treated with excision biopsy. Genital warts in the form of giant alarming vestibular, vulval and periurethral lesions of CA are very rare in children. There is need for a multidisciplinary approach with potential sociomedicolegal implications. Surgical excision is safe, effective and provides an opportunity to assess the extent of the lesion and tissue for accurate diagnosis. Genital warts in the form of giant alarming vestibular, vulval and periurethral lesions of CA are very rare in children. Indications for surgical treatment include large, recurrent or refractory lesions, as well as the need for histological identification and acquiring tissue for immunotherapy when necessary. The strategy of an extended follow-up is recommended so as to ensure identification of any risk situations. 2014 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  13. New perspectives on probiotics in health and disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Banan-Mwine Daliri

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The gut microbiota continues to fascinate scientists in many realms when it is considered that humans contain 90% bacteria. Correlations between changes in composition and activity of the gut microbiota and common disorders such as cancer, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, inflammatory bowel diseases, obesity, oral health, etc. have been proposed. What is the real role of probiotics, prebiotics and synbiotics in influencing a healthy microbiota? Both in vitro evidences and in vivo clinical data have supported some of these new health claims, while recent molecular advancement has provided strong indications to support and justify the hypotheses. However, probiotics validity and health claims have continuously been rejected on the basis of “biomarker deficiency”. To battle the increase in health care costs, a preventive approach to medicine with the development of probiotics and prebiotics or symbiotic products is being advanced. This review discusses the potential beneficial effects of probiotics in preventing and treating certain diseases as well as current and future perspectives of probiotic research.

  14. Health Status Measurement Instruments in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yves Lacasse

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is associated with primary respiratory impairment, disability and handicap, as well as with secondary impairments not necessarily confined to the respiratory system. Because the primary goals of managing patients with COPD include relief of dyspnea and the improvement of health-related quality of life (HRQL, a direct measurement of HRQL is important. Fourteen disease-specific and nine generic questionnaires (four health profiles and five utility measures most commonly used to measure health status in patients with COPD were reviewed. The measures were classified according to their domain of interest, and their measurement properties - specifications, validity, reliability, responsiveness and interpretability - were described. This review suggests several findings. Currently used health status instruments usually refer to the patients’ perception of performance in three major domains of HRQL - somatic sensation, physical and occupational function, and psychological state. The choice of a questionnaire must be related to its purpose, with a clear distinction being made between its evaluative and discriminative function. In their evaluative function, only a few instruments fulfilled the criteria of responsiveness, and the interpretability of most questionnaires is limited. Generic questionnaires should not be used alone in clinical trials as evaluative instruments because of their inability to detect change over time. Further validation and improved interpretability of existing instruments would be of greater benefit to clinicians and scientists than the development of new questionnaires.

  15. Health care equality and parity for treatment of addictive disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David E; Lee, Dorothy R; Davidson, Leigh Dickerson

    2010-06-01

    Substance abuse represents a significant underlying cause of the health issues faced in the United States, which severely impacts the nation's health care system and economy. Recently enacted parity legislation mandates that benefits for addiction and mental health treatment be provided on an equal footing with those for treatment for physical health. Diversion and abuse of prescription medications is growing in young people, with much of the diversion occurring between family and friends. Addiction has been accepted by mainstream medicine as a brain disease, and is associated with many other medical disorders. Early intervention and treatment for addiction provides extraordinary cost-benefit outcomes. Additional training for addiction professionals will be necessary. Stigmatization of substance abusers continues to exist at the state and federal levels, although research during the past 10 years indicates that patient compliance and relapse rates for substance abusers are not significantly different than those for individuals with other chronic diseases, e.g. diabetes, hypertension, and cardiac issues. While parity for addiction treatment has become policy at the federal level, great challenges lie ahead in funding access, facilities, and training, as well as redirecting societal perceptions and legislated penalties.

  16. Individual health management - a comprehensive lifestyle counselling programme for health promotion, disease prevention and patient education

    OpenAIRE

    Melchart, Dieter; Eustachi, Axel; Wellenhofer-Li, Yanqing; Doerfler, Wolfgang; Bohnes, Evelin

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Epidemiological data shows globally increasing numbers of obesity and stress-related diseases. In this article, a comprehensive medical lifestyle modification programme - called Individual Health Management (IHM) - is described in detail and discussed as a promising tool to individually manage and reverse such negative health trends in patients. METHODS The IHM programme is based on a blended learning concept. It comprises a 12-week basic training phase, followed by a 9-month maint...

  17. Meal frequency and timing in health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattson, Mark P; Allison, David B; Fontana, Luigi; Harvie, Michelle; Longo, Valter D; Malaisse, Willy J; Mosley, Michael; Notterpek, Lucia; Ravussin, Eric; Scheer, Frank A J L; Seyfried, Thomas N; Varady, Krista A; Panda, Satchidananda

    2014-11-25

    Although major research efforts have focused on how specific components of foodstuffs affect health, relatively little is known about a more fundamental aspect of diet, the frequency and circadian timing of meals, and potential benefits of intermittent periods with no or very low energy intakes. The most common eating pattern in modern societies, three meals plus snacks every day, is abnormal from an evolutionary perspective. Emerging findings from studies of animal models and human subjects suggest that intermittent energy restriction periods of as little as 16 h can improve health indicators and counteract disease processes. The mechanisms involve a metabolic shift to fat metabolism and ketone production, and stimulation of adaptive cellular stress responses that prevent and repair molecular damage. As data on the optimal frequency and timing of meals crystalizes, it will be critical to develop strategies to incorporate those eating patterns into health care policy and practice, and the lifestyles of the population.

  18. The integration of quality management into chronic disease health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shayesteh, Sheila Golnaz; Kliewer, Gordon; Morrin, Louise

    2010-01-01

    Quality management strategies can be integrated into health services and processes to evaluate, measure, and improve the health services delivered to patients. Over a 6-month period, Living Well with a Chronic Condition program, a chronic disease management health service, had its support services evaluated and significantly improved, reducing the delays that participants experienced trying to access education and exercise classes. Through the use of quality management tools, including process mapping, performance data collection and evaluation, and participant feedback, the program intake process was improved significantly. Wait times of up to 90 days, with an average of 45 days, were reduced to less than 1 week. Postimprovement measures continued to demonstrate improved service, indicating that involving the staff and participants in quality management strategies can lead to significant optimization of services to participants.

  19. Jazzin' Healthy: Interdisciplinary Health Outreach Events Focused on Disease Prevention and Health Promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaacs, Diana; Riley, Angela C; Prasad-Reddy, Lalita; Castner, Rebecca; Fields, Heather; Harper-Brown, Deborah; Hussein, Sabah; Johnson, Charisse L; Mangum, Traiana; Srivastava, Sneha

    2017-04-01

    Health-related disparities are a significant public health concern. In conjunction with a university concert series, healthcare professionals and students provided education, clinical services, and preventive care using an interdisciplinary approach to a primarily African American cohort. The objective was to assess cardiovascular risk factors and readiness to change health-related behaviors. Six outreach events were conducted over 3 years by an interdisciplinary team including pharmacy, medicine, nursing, nutrition, occupational therapy, public health, optometry, and health information technology. Clinical services, such as health screenings for glucose, blood pressure, cholesterol, and body fat along with counseling on the results and smoking cessation behavioral counseling, were provided. Education initiatives addressed bone health, heart disease, HIV risk, nutrition, and access to physician care. Preventative care included vaccinations and eye exams. There were 285 participants that were predominantly African American (95.8 %), female (71.5 %), and age within 55-64 years (45.1 %). Hypertension (50.8 %) and obesity (65.1 %) were the most common cardiovascular risk factors. Of those advised to make health behavior changes, 76.4 % reported they planned to make changes within 1 month. These interdisciplinary outreach events provided health information and access to care in a novel setting and led to a high rate of planned health behavior changes.

  20. The Dental Plaque Microbiome in Health and Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Scott N.; Snesrud, Erik; Liu, Jia; Ong, Ana C.; Kilian, Mogens; Schork, Nicholas J.; Bretz, Walter

    2013-01-01

    Dental decay is one of the most prevalent chronic diseases worldwide. A variety of factors, including microbial, genetic, immunological, behavioral and environmental, interact to contribute to dental caries onset and development. Previous studies focused on the microbial basis for dental caries have identified species associated with both dental health and disease. The purpose of the current study was to improve our knowledge of the microbial species involved in dental caries and health by performing a comprehensive 16S rDNA profiling of the dental plaque microbiome of both caries-free and caries-active subjects. Analysis of over 50,000 nearly full-length 16S rDNA clones allowed the identification of 1,372 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) in the dental plaque microbiome. Approximately half of the OTUs were common to both caries-free and caries-active microbiomes and present at similar abundance. The majority of differences in OTU’s reflected very low abundance phylotypes. This survey allowed us to define the population structure of the dental plaque microbiome and to identify the microbial signatures associated with dental health and disease. The deep profiling of dental plaque allowed the identification of 87 phylotypes that are over-represented in either caries-free or caries-active subjects. Among these signatures, those associated with dental health outnumbered those associated with dental caries by nearly two-fold. A comparison of this data to other published studies indicate significant heterogeneity in study outcomes and suggest that novel approaches may be required to further define the signatures of dental caries onset and progression. PMID:23520516

  1. The dental plaque microbiome in health and disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott N Peterson

    Full Text Available Dental decay is one of the most prevalent chronic diseases worldwide. A variety of factors, including microbial, genetic, immunological, behavioral and environmental, interact to contribute to dental caries onset and development. Previous studies focused on the microbial basis for dental caries have identified species associated with both dental health and disease. The purpose of the current study was to improve our knowledge of the microbial species involved in dental caries and health by performing a comprehensive 16S rDNA profiling of the dental plaque microbiome of both caries-free and caries-active subjects. Analysis of over 50,000 nearly full-length 16S rDNA clones allowed the identification of 1,372 operational taxonomic units (OTUs in the dental plaque microbiome. Approximately half of the OTUs were common to both caries-free and caries-active microbiomes and present at similar abundance. The majority of differences in OTU's reflected very low abundance phylotypes. This survey allowed us to define the population structure of the dental plaque microbiome and to identify the microbial signatures associated with dental health and disease. The deep profiling of dental plaque allowed the identification of 87 phylotypes that are over-represented in either caries-free or caries-active subjects. Among these signatures, those associated with dental health outnumbered those associated with dental caries by nearly two-fold. A comparison of this data to other published studies indicate significant heterogeneity in study outcomes and suggest that novel approaches may be required to further define the signatures of dental caries onset and progression.

  2. Communicable Diseases: Achievements and Challenges for Public Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flahault Antoine

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The past two centuries have seen enormous achievements in control of infectious diseases, previously the leading cause of death, in large measure due to sanitation and food safety, vaccines, antibiotics and improved nutrition. This has led people to put their faith in the notion that medical science would succeed in overcoming the remaining obstacles. Vaccination has eradicated smallpox, nearly eradicated poliomyelitis and greatly reduced many other highly dangerous infections such as diphtheria, tetanus and measles. New diseases such as HIV and new forms of influenza have taken both professional and popular opinion by surprise and have renewed the challenges before the world public health community. Emergence of antibiotic-resistant strains of common organisms due to overuse of antibiotics and lack of vaccines for many dangerous microorganisms poses problems to humanity. This stresses the need for new vaccines, effective antibiotics and strengthened environmental control measures. New knowledge of the microbiological origins of cancers such as that of the cervix, stomach and liver have strengthened primary prevention and brought hope that new cures will be found for other chronic diseases of infectious origin. Tragically long delays in adopting “new” and cost effective vaccines cause hundreds of thousands of preventable deaths each year in developing and mid-level developed countries. Gains are being made in control of many tropical diseases, but malaria, tuberculosis and other infectious diseases remain enormous global problems. Research and acquisition of new knowledge, risk communication, application of currently available means and fair distribution will be great challenges to public health in the coming decades.

  3. The Implications of the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease on Public Health Policy and Health Promotion in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Sasiragha Priscilla; Mbewu, Anthony David

    2016-11-09

    The developmental origins of health and disease (DOHaD) hypothesis states that environmental influences in utero and in early life can determine health and disease in later life through the programming of genes and/or altered gene expression. The DOHaD is likely to have had an effect in South Africa during the fifty years of apartheid; and during the twenty years since the dawn of democracy in 1994. This has profound implications for public health and health promotion policies in South Africa, a country experiencing increased prevalence of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) and risk factors and behaviours for NCDs due to rapid social and economic transition, and because of the DOHaD. Public health policy and health promotion interventions, such as those introduced by the South African Government over the past 20 years, were designed to improve the health of pregnant women (and their unborn children). They could in addition, through the DOHaD mechanism, reduce NCDs and their risk factors in their offspring in later life. The quality of public health data over the past 40 years in South Africa precludes the possibility of proving the DOHaD hypothesis in that context. Nevertheless, public health and health promotion policies need to be strengthened, if South Africa and other low and middle income countries (LMICs) are to avoid the very high prevalence of NCDs seen in Europe and North America in the 50 years following the Second World War, as a result of socio economic transition and the DOHaD.

  4. USES OF PARENTHESES IN RELATION HEALTH AND DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Aniceto Ferreira Figueirêdo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study problematizes the forms of understanding the relationship health anddisease, through the placement of parentheses between the person and your morbidity. Toaccomplish that reflection, authors are used, like Laplantine, Canguilhem, Amarante. In themedicines centered in the disease, based on the model fisicalista, the parentheses are put in theperson, the care focus it is the disease and your manifestation (the symptoms. In that way, itwill fall to the doctor to give sense the those symptoms and to treat them. In the medicinescentered in the person, based on a model that considers the person as a whole, the parenthesesare put in the disease, soon theperson is taken as reference in your relationship with the socialbody. Like this, he/she starts to work with the focus in the health and with the possibility ofthat person's experience. It is ended that the perspective of " putting between parentheses "turns visible some know, provoking actions and reactions in what concerns taking care of thepeople, that can contribute to your constitutions in society, so that those can work with thevicissitudes of the life.

  5. Dental biofilm: ecological interactions in health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, P D; Zaura, Egija

    2017-03-01

    The oral microbiome is diverse and exists as multispecies microbial communities on oral surfaces in structurally and functionally organized biofilms. To describe the network of microbial interactions (both synergistic and antagonistic) occurring within these biofilms and assess their role in oral health and dental disease. PubMed database was searched for studies on microbial ecological interactions in dental biofilms. The search results did not lend themselves to systematic review and have been summarized in a narrative review instead. Five hundred and forty-seven original research articles and 212 reviews were identified. The majority (86%) of research articles addressed bacterial-bacterial interactions, while inter-kingdom microbial interactions were the least studied. The interactions included physical and nutritional synergistic associations, antagonism, cell-to-cell communication and gene transfer. Oral microbial communities display emergent properties that cannot be inferred from studies of single species. Individual organisms grow in environments they would not tolerate in pure culture. The networks of multiple synergistic and antagonistic interactions generate microbial inter-dependencies and give biofilms a resilience to minor environmental perturbations, and this contributes to oral health. If key environmental pressures exceed thresholds associated with health, then the competitiveness among oral microorganisms is altered and dysbiosis can occur, increasing the risk of dental disease. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Open source electronic health records and chronic disease management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldwater, Jason C; Kwon, Nancy J; Nathanson, Ashley; Muckle, Alison E; Brown, Alexa; Cornejo, Kerri

    2014-02-01

    To study and report on the use of open source electronic health records (EHR) to assist with chronic care management within safety net medical settings, such as community health centers (CHC). The study was conducted by NORC at the University of Chicago from April to September 2010. The NORC team undertook a comprehensive environmental scan, including a literature review, a dozen key informant interviews using a semistructured protocol, and a series of site visits to CHC that currently use an open source EHR. Two of the sites chosen by NORC were actively using an open source EHR to assist in the redesign of their care delivery system to support more effective chronic disease management. This included incorporating the chronic care model into an CHC and using the EHR to help facilitate its elements, such as care teams for patients, in addition to maintaining health records on indigent populations, such as tuberculosis status on homeless patients. The ability to modify the open-source EHR to adapt to the CHC environment and leverage the ecosystem of providers and users to assist in this process provided significant advantages in chronic care management. Improvements in diabetes management, controlled hypertension and increases in tuberculosis vaccinations were assisted through the use of these open source systems. The flexibility and adaptability of open source EHR demonstrated its utility and viability in the provision of necessary and needed chronic disease care among populations served by CHC.

  7. [Health locus of control of patients in disease management programmes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnee, M; Grikscheit, F

    2013-06-01

    Health locus of control beliefs plays a major role in improving self-management skills of the chronically ill - a main goal in disease management programmes (DMP). This study aims at characterising participants in disease management regarding their health locus of control. Data are based on 4 cross-sectional postal surveys between spring and autumn of 2006 and 2007 within the Health Care Monitor of the Bertelsmann Foundation. Among the 6 285 respondents, 1 266 are chronically ill and not enrolled in a DMP and 327 are participating in a DMP. A high internal locus of control (HLC) occurs significantly less often in DMP patients than in normal chronically ill patients (and healthy people) controlling for age, gender and social class. With increasing age, a high internal locus of control is also significantly less likely. When comparing healthy people, the chronically ill and the DMP participants a social gradient of a high internal locus of control belief can be observed. The weaker internal and higher doctor-related external locus of control of DMP participants should be carefully observed by the physician when trying to strengthen the patients' self-management skills. Evaluators of DMP should take into account the different baselines of DMP patients and relevant control groups and incorporate these differences into the evaluation. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  8. Community Health Worker Intervention for Patients With Complex Chronic Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-24

    Diabetes Mellitus (DM); Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD); Stroke; Peripheral Vascular Disease (PVD); Coronary Artery Disease (CAD); Heart Failure (HF); Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD); Asthma

  9. Celiac disease: an underappreciated issue in women’s health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Sveta; Leffler, Daniel

    2010-09-01

    Celiac disease (CD) is an immune-mediated enteropathy that is secondary to gluten ingestion and classically associated with gastrointestinal symptoms. Diagnosis is based on serology and confirmatory duodenal biopsy, and the only treatment is lifelong avoidance of gluten. CD has been increasingly recognized to encompass a wide variety of manifestations that are relevant to women’s health, including infertility, adverse pregnancy outcomes and reduced BMD. Currently, CD is underdiagnosed, largely owing to lack of recognition of the diverse manifestations by general practitioners. Increased awareness of the clinical spectrum of this disease, as well as targeted testing in at-risk individuals (including women with unexplained infertility and previous adverse pregnancy outcomes, and in specific populations with reduced BMD) is greatly needed in order to improve rates of diagnosis.

  10. Celiac disease: an underappreciated issue in women’s health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Sveta; Leffler, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Celiac disease (CD) is an immune-mediated enteropathy that is secondary to gluten ingestion and classically associated with gastrointestinal symptoms. Diagnosis is based on serology and confirmatory duodenal biopsy, and the only treatment is lifelong avoidance of gluten. CD has been increasingly recognized to encompass a wide variety of manifestations that are relevant to women’s health, including infertility, adverse pregnancy outcomes and reduced BMD. Currently, CD is underdiagnosed, largely owing to lack of recognition of the diverse manifestations by general practitioners. Increased awareness of the clinical spectrum of this disease, as well as targeted testing in at-risk individuals (including women with unexplained infertility and previous adverse pregnancy outcomes, and in specific populations with reduced BMD) is greatly needed in order to improve rates of diagnosis. PMID:20887172

  11. DMPD: Macrophage differentiation and function in health and disease. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 18251777 Macrophage differentiation and function in health and disease. Naito M. Pa...thol Int. 2008 Mar;58(3):143-55. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Macrophage differentiation and function in health... and disease. PubmedID 18251777 Title Macrophage differentiation and function in health and disease

  12. DIETA Y ENFERMEDAD CORONARIA Diet and coronary health disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Mora Pabón

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Las enfermedades cardiocerebrovasculares, entre ellas la enfermedad coronaria, constituyen un problema de salud pública en Colombia, siendo la primera causa de muerte en población mayor de 45 años. Existen diversos factores relacionados con la alimentación que se han asociado consistentemente con la aparición de estas enfermedades como el alto consumo de grasa saturada, ácidos grasos trans (AGT, colesterol, carbohidratos y sodio, entre otros. El proceso de cuidado nutricional del individuo con enfermedad coronaria comprende la evaluación nutricional, la determinación de requerimientos nutricionales y de las características de la dieta y una evaluación constante para efectuar los ajustes necesarios. Este paciente requiere la atención integral por parte del equipo de salud, con un criterio interdisciplinario, en donde el papel del profesional nutricionista dietista es esencial para llevar a cabo el proceso de cuidado nutricional anteriormente descrito.Cardiovascular diseases, such as the coronary disease are a problem of public health in Colombia, being the first cause of death in people older than 45 years old. There are many factors related to food that have been strongly associated with the existence of these diseases, for instance: a high intake of saturated fat, trans fatty acids (TFA, cholesterol, carbohydrates and sodium, among others. The process of nutritional care of the person with coronary disease involves nutritional assessment, the determination of the nutritional requirements and the constant surveillance in order to do the necessary changes. This patient needs integral attention from the health team, with an interdisciplinary criterion; the role of the dietician is very important in order to carry out the process of nutritional care previously described.

  13. Intestinal microbiota during early life - impact on health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nylund, Lotta; Satokari, Reetta; Salminen, Seppo; de Vos, Willem M

    2014-11-01

    In the first years after birth, the intestinal microbiota develops rapidly both in diversity and complexity while being relatively stable in healthy adults. Different life-style-related factors as well as medical practices have an influence on the early-life intestinal colonisation. We address the impact of some of these factors on the consecutive microbiota development and later health. An overview is presented of the microbial colonisation steps and the role of the host in that process. Moreover, new early biomarkers are discussed with examples that include the association of microbiota and atopic diseases, the correlation of colic and early development and the impact of the use of antibiotics in early life. Our understanding of the development and function of the intestinal microbiota is constantly improving but the long-term influence of early-life microbiota on later life health deserves careful clinical studies.

  14. Vitamin D in health and disease: Current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naughton Declan P

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Despite the numerous reports of the association of vitamin D with a spectrum of development, disease treatment and health maintenance, vitamin D deficiency is common. Originating in part from the diet but with a key source resulting from transformation by exposure to sunshine, a great deal of the population suffers from vitamin D deficiency especially during winter months. It is linked to the treatment and pathogenesis and/or progression of several disorders including cancer, hypertension, multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, osteoporosis, muscle weakness and diabetes. This widespread deficiency of Vitamin D merits consideration of widespread policies including increasing awareness among the public and healthcare professionals.

  15. Improving cardiovascular disease screening in community mental health centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maki, Melissa; Bjorklund, Pamela

    2013-07-01

    Increased mortality among the seriously mentally ill is largely due to cardiovascular disease (CVD). This applied research project examined a process of CVD screening at a community mental health center, then implemented and evaluated an improved process of identifying and managing CVD risk factors. Patient records (n = 130) were reviewed at baseline and 6 months posteducational intervention and implementation of new monitoring tools. Statistical analysis showed significant process improvement (p screening to mitigate morbidity and mortality in the seriously mentally ill. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Synaptic plasticity in health and disease: introduction and overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bliss, T. V. P.; Collingridge, G. L.; Morris, R. G. M.

    2014-01-01

    We summarize the reviews and research papers submitted by speakers at a discussion meeting on Synaptic Plasticity in Health and Disease held at the Royal Society, London on 2–3 December 2013, and a subsequent satellite meeting convened at the Royal Society/Kavli Centre at Chicheley Hall on 4–5 December 2013. Together, these contributions give an overview of current research and controversies in a vibrant branch of neuroscience with important implications for the understanding of many forms of learning and memory, and a wide spectrum of neurological and cognitive disorders. PMID:24298133

  17. Global Disease Detection-Achievements in Applied Public Health Research, Capacity Building, and Public Health Diplomacy, 2001-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Carol Y; Goryoka, Grace W; Henao, Olga L; Clarke, Kevin R; Salyer, Stephanie J; Montgomery, Joel M

    2017-11-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has established 10 Global Disease Detection (GDD) Program regional centers around the world that serve as centers of excellence for public health research on emerging and reemerging infectious diseases. The core activities of the GDD Program focus on applied public health research, surveillance, laboratory, public health informatics, and technical capacity building. During 2015-2016, program staff conducted 205 discrete projects on a range of topics, including acute respiratory illnesses, health systems strengthening, infectious diseases at the human-animal interface, and emerging infectious diseases. Projects incorporated multiple core activities, with technical capacity building being most prevalent. Collaborating with host countries to implement such projects promotes public health diplomacy. The GDD Program continues to work with countries to strengthen core capacities so that emerging diseases can be detected and stopped faster and closer to the source, thereby enhancing global health security.

  18. 21 CFR 101.82 - Health claims: Soy protein and risk of coronary heart disease (CHD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... heart disease (CHD). 101.82 Section 101.82 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Health Claims § 101.82 Health claims: Soy protein and risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). (a... risk of CHD. (1) Cardiovascular disease means diseases of the heart and circulatory system. CHD is one...

  19. Skin diseases highlighting essential global public health priorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrone, Aldo; Toma, Luigi; Franco, Gennaro

    2005-05-01

    Which are the essential global public health activities that should be carried out in order to attain the largest impact on poverty reduction and health improvement in the world? Since its foundation in 2001 the Human Mobile Population Committee (HMPC) has continued to devote its efforts to finding answers to this question, with a particular focus on the skin diseases of the Human Mobile Population (HMP) and other groups of disadvantaged people. In this article we present the model of socio-sanitary activity in the field of Migration, Poverty and Health of the Department of Preventive Medicine of Migration, Tourism and Tropical Dermatology (Dept.) at San Gallicano Institute--Research Institute for Hospitalization and Treatment (IRCCS)--in Rome (Italy). The activities of this dermatological centre are in the spirit of the HMPC's aims and we are of the opinion that this model is not only ethically valid, but also practically and economically convenient, and that there is evidence that our experience is worth repeating, in as many situations as possible, in the interest of public health.

  20. Health benefits of blue-green algae: prevention of cardiovascular disease and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Chai Siah; Yang, Yue; Park, Youngki; Lee, Jiyoung

    2013-02-01

    Blue-green algae (BGA) are among the most primitive life forms on earth and have been consumed as food or medicine by humans for centuries. BGA contain various bioactive components, such as phycocyanin, carotenoids, γ-linolenic acid, fibers, and plant sterols, which can promote optimal health in humans. Studies have demonstrated that several BGA species or their active components have plasma total cholesterol and triglyceride-lowering properties due to their modulation of intestinal cholesterol absorption and hepatic lipogenic gene expression. BGA can also reduce inflammation by inhibiting the nuclear factor κ B activity, consequently reducing the production of proinflammatory cytokines. Furthermore, BGA inhibit lipid peroxidation and have free radical scavenging activity, which can be beneficial for the protection against oxidative stress. The aforementioned effects of BGA can contribute to the prevention of metabolic and inflammatory diseases. This review provides an overview of the current knowledge of the health-promoting functions of BGA against cardiovascular disease and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, which are major health threats in the developed countries.

  1. Congenital Heart Disease: Guidelines of Care for Children with Special Health Care Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnesota State Dept. of Health, Minneapolis. Services for Children with Handicaps.

    These guidelines were written to help families coordinate the health care that may be needed by a child with congenital heart disease. The booklet begins with general information about congenital heart disease. It then discusses the goals of health care, the health care team, the importance of periodic health care, and record keeping procedures.…

  2. Community Health Worker Impact on Chronic Disease Outcomes Within Primary Care Examined Using Electronic Health Records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, Maia; Doubleday, Kevin; Bell, Melanie L; Lohr, Abby; Murrieta, Lucy; Velasco, Maria; Blackburn, John; Sabo, Samantha; Guernsey de Zapien, Jill; Carvajal, Scott C

    2017-10-01

    To investigate community health worker (CHW) effects on chronic disease outcomes using electronic health records (EHRs). We examined EHRs of 32 147 patients at risk for chronic disease during 2012 to 2015. Variables included contact with clinic-based CHWs, vitals, and laboratory tests. We estimated a mixed model for all outcomes. Within-group findings showed statistically significant improvements in chronic disease indicators after exposure to CHWs. In health center 1, HbA1c (glycated hemoglobin) decreased 0.15 millimoles per mole (95% confidence interval [CI] = -0.24, -0.06), body mass index decreased 0.29 kilograms per meter squared (CI = -0.39, -0.20), and total cholesterol decreased 11.9 milligrams per deciliter (CI = -13.5, -10.2). In health center 2, HbA1c decreased 0.43 millimoles per mole (CI = -0.7, -0.17), body mass index decreased by 0.08 kilograms per meter squared (CI = -0.14, -0.02), and triglycerides decreased by 22.50 milligrams per deciliter (CI = -39.0, -6.0). Total cholesterol of 3.62 milligrams per deciliter (CI = -6.6, -0.6) in health center 1 was the only improvement tied to CHW contact. Although patients' chronic disease indicators consistently improved, between-group models provided no additional evidence of impact. EHRs' evolution may elucidate CHW contributions moving forward.

  3. Lack of Reality: Positive Self-Perceptions of Health in the Presence of Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent J. Dalbo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine if adults in Central Queensland have accurate self-perceptions of health. Data were collected as part of the 2010 Central Queensland Social Survey (N = 1289. Overweight/obesity is considered a health disorder and was determined using body mass index. Disease states were determined by asking respondents if they have: heart disease, high/low blood pressure, high cholesterol, high triglycerides, thyroid disorder, diabetes, and osteopenia/osteoporosis. Self-perceptions of health were assessed by asking, “Would you say that in general your health is” poor, fair, good, very good, excellent, don’t know, and no response. An accurate health perception occurred if: (1 A respondent with a disease/health disorder reported that their health was poor/fair or (2 A respondent without a disease/health disorder reported that their health was good/very good/excellent. The proportions of people with an accurate health perception by disease/health disorder were compared using a χ2 test. A proportion ratio (PR with a 95% confidence interval (CI was calculated for each disease/health disorder. A logistic regression analysis was performed to examine the association between each disease/health disorder and health perception using gender, age, education, physical activity level, and smoking status as covariates. More than 50% of residents with each disease/health disorder reported their health to be good/very good/excellent. Residents with each disease/health disorder were less likely to have an accurate health perception than those without the corresponding disease/health disorder prior to (p < 0.001 and following adjustment of the covariates (p < 0.001. Our results suggest that overweight/obesity and prevalence of disease are not being recognized as unhealthy, which contradicts established definitions of health.

  4. Community Health Status Indicators (CHSI) to Combat Obesity, Heart Disease and Cancer

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Community Health Status Indicators (CHSI) to combat obesity, heart disease, and cancer are major components of the Community Health Data Initiative. This dataset...

  5. Detection and prevalence of Capnocytophaga in periodontal Health and disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pushpa S Pudakalkatti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context/Background: Periodontal disease is a multifactorial disease, in which bacteria play a major role. Capnocytophaga species form a part of human oral flora both in health and disease. They have been implicated as putative periodontal pathogens, and yet, they are less understood members of plaque flora. No studies have been conducted on the association of Capnocytophaga species with periodontal diseases in India. Aim: The aim of this study was to detect the prevalence of Capnocytophaga species in patients with healthy periodontium, gingivitis, and periodontitis using culture method. Methods: Forty patients each with healthy periodontium, gingivitis, and periodontitis were selected. Subgingival plaque samples were collected from all the patients using sterile curettes and transferred to transport medium and sent to the laboratory. The plaque samples were inoculated on blood agar and trypticase-blood-bacitracin-polymyxin agar to grow Capnocytophaga species. Later, Gram-staining and microscopy were done to confirm the presence of Capnocytophaga in each sample. The prevalence of Capnocytophaga species was statistically analyzed using Chi-square test, Kruskal–Wallis analysis of variance, and Mann–Whitney U-test. Results: Capnocytophaga was detected in 21 (52.50% samples out of 40 samples of gingivitis group, 11 (27.50% samples of healthy group, and 12 (30% samples of periodontitis group. Conclusions: Capnocytophaga is more prevalent in gingivitis compared to healthy periodontium and periodontitis. Capnocytophaga has the potential to cause periodontal disease, but as it is less competitive in the periodontal pocket, it is usually overgrown by other rapidly growing bacteria.

  6. Inhibiting cytosolic translation and autophagy improves health in mitochondrial disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Min; Ostrovsky, Julian; Kwon, Young Joon; Polyak, Erzsebet; Licata, Joseph; Tsukikawa, Mai; Marty, Eric; Thomas, Jeffrey; Felix, Carolyn A; Xiao, Rui; Zhang, Zhe; Gasser, David L; Argon, Yair; Falk, Marni J

    2015-09-01

    Mitochondrial respiratory chain (RC) disease therapies directed at intra-mitochondrial pathology are largely ineffective. Recognizing that RC dysfunction invokes pronounced extra-mitochondrial transcriptional adaptations, particularly involving dysregulated translation, we hypothesized that translational dysregulation is itself contributing to the pathophysiology of RC disease. Here, we investigated the activities, and effects from direct inhibition, of a central translational regulator (mTORC1) and its downstream biological processes in diverse genetic and pharmacological models of RC disease. Our data identify novel mechanisms underlying the cellular pathogenesis of RC dysfunction, including the combined induction of proteotoxic stress, the ER stress response and autophagy. mTORC1 inhibition with rapamycin partially ameliorated renal disease in B6.Pdss2(kd/kd) mice with complexes I-III/II-III deficiencies, improved viability and mitochondrial physiology in gas-1(fc21) nematodes with complex I deficiency, and rescued viability across a variety of RC-inhibited human cells. Even more effective was probucol, a PPAR-activating anti-lipid drug that we show also inhibits mTORC1. However, directly inhibiting mTORC1-regulated downstream activities yielded the most pronounced and sustained benefit. Partial inhibition of translation by cycloheximide, or of autophagy by lithium chloride, rescued viability, preserved cellular respiratory capacity and induced mitochondrial translation and biogenesis. Cycloheximide also ameliorated proteotoxic stress via a uniquely selective reduction of cytosolic protein translation. RNAseq-based transcriptome profiling of treatment effects in gas-1(fc21) mutants provide further evidence that these therapies effectively restored altered translation and autophagy pathways toward that of wild-type animals. Overall, partially inhibiting cytosolic translation and autophagy offer novel treatment strategies to improve health across the diverse array

  7. Review article: the human intestinal virome in health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carding, S R; Davis, N; Hoyles, L

    2017-11-01

    The human virome consists of animal-cell viruses causing transient infections, bacteriophage (phage) predators of bacteria and archaea, endogenous retroviruses and viruses causing persistent and latent infections. High-throughput, inexpensive, sensitive sequencing methods and metagenomics now make it possible to study the contribution dsDNA, ssDNA and RNA virus-like particles make to the human virome, and in particular the intestinal virome. To review and evaluate the pioneering studies that have attempted to characterise the human virome and generated an increased interest in understanding how the intestinal virome might contribute to maintaining health, and the pathogenesis of chronic diseases. Relevant virome-related articles were selected for review following extensive language- and date-unrestricted, electronic searches of the literature. The human intestinal virome is personalised and stable, and dominated by phages. It develops soon after birth in parallel with prokaryotic communities of the microbiota, becoming established during the first few years of life. By infecting specific populations of bacteria, phages can alter microbiota structure by killing host cells or altering their phenotype, enabling phages to contribute to maintaining intestinal homeostasis or microbial imbalance (dysbiosis), and the development of chronic infectious and autoimmune diseases including HIV infection and Crohn's disease, respectively. Our understanding of the intestinal virome is fragmented and requires standardised methods for virus isolation and sequencing to provide a more complete picture of the virome, which is key to explaining the basis of virome-disease associations, and how enteric viruses can contribute to disease aetiologies and be rationalised as targets for interventions. © 2017 The Authors. Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. The Health Technology Assessment-disease management instrument reliably measured methodologic quality of health technology assessments of disease management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steuten, L M G; Vrijhoef, H J M; van Merode, G G; Severens, J L; Spreeuwenberg, C

    2004-09-01

    Systematic reviews aim to summarize the evidence in a particular topic area, giving attention to the identified methodologic quality of published research. Because research in a specific area may be susceptible to specific biases, it is assumed that the methodologic quality of Health Technology Assessment (HTA) of disease management cannot properly be measured with the existing methodologic quality assessment instruments. The purpose of this study was to describe to what extent existing instruments are useful in assessing the methodologic quality of HTA of disease management. An inventory was made of the problems that arise when assessing the methodologic quality of six HTAs of disease management with three different instruments. Based on these findings, a new instrument is proposed and validated. Problems mainly concern the items related to the study design, criteria for selection and restriction of patients, baseline and outcome measures, blinding of patients and providers, and the description of (co)-interventions. With its more specific characteristics, the HTA-DM addresses the problems mentioned. The HTA-DM is a reliable instrument for methodologic quality assessment of HTA of disease management in comparison with the other three instruments.

  9. Using Family Health History for Chronic Disease Prevention in the Age of Genomics: Translation to Health Education Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Carl; Novilla, Lelinneth; Barnes, Michael; De La Cruz, Natalie; Meacham, Aaron

    2007-01-01

    Advances in the field of human genomics have important implications for the prevention of chronic disease. In response to these advancements, public health professionals--including health educators--must become competent in the principles underlying the interface between genomics and the use of family health history. Family health history captures…

  10. Redox theory of aging: implications for health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Go, Young-Mi; Jones, Dean P

    2017-07-15

    Genetics ultimately defines an individual, yet the phenotype of an adult is extensively determined by the sequence of lifelong exposures, termed the exposome. The redox theory of aging recognizes that animals evolved within an oxygen-rich environment, which created a critical redox interface between an organism and its environment. Advances in redox biology show that redox elements are present throughout metabolic and structural systems and operate as functional networks to support the genome in adaptation to environmental resources and challenges during lifespan. These principles emphasize that physical and functional phenotypes of an adult are determined by gene-environment interactions from early life onward. The principles highlight the critical nature of cumulative exposure memories in defining changes in resilience progressively during life. Both plasma glutathione and cysteine systems become oxidized with aging, and the recent finding that cystine to glutathione ratio in human plasma predicts death in coronary artery disease (CAD) patients suggests this could provide a way to measure resilience of redox networks in aging and disease. The emerging concepts of cumulative gene-environment interactions warrant focused efforts to elucidate central mechanisms by which exposure memory governs health and etiology, onset and progression of disease. © 2017 The Author(s).

  11. Traveling towards disease: transportation barriers to health care access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Samina T; Gerber, Ben S; Sharp, Lisa K

    2013-10-01

    Transportation barriers are often cited as barriers to healthcare access. Transportation barriers lead to rescheduled or missed appointments, delayed care, and missed or delayed medication use. These consequences may lead to poorer management of chronic illness and thus poorer health outcomes. However, the significance of these barriers is uncertain based on existing literature due to wide variability in both study populations and transportation barrier measures. The authors sought to synthesize the literature on the prevalence of transportation barriers to health care access. A systematic literature search of peer-reviewed studies on transportation barriers to healthcare access was performed. Inclusion criteria were as follows: (1) study addressed access barriers for ongoing primary care or chronic disease care; (2) study included assessment of transportation barriers; and (3) study was completed in the United States. In total, 61 studies were reviewed. Overall, the evidence supports that transportation barriers are an important barrier to healthcare access, particularly for those with lower incomes or the under/uninsured. Additional research needs to (1) clarify which aspects of transportation limit health care access (2) measure the impact of transportation barriers on clinically meaningful outcomes and (3) measure the impact of transportation barrier interventions and transportation policy changes.

  12. Non-communicable diseases and global health governance: enhancing global processes to improve health development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnusson Roger S

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper assesses progress in the development of a global framework for responding to non-communicable diseases, as reflected in the policies and initiatives of the World Health Organization (WHO, World Bank and the UN: the institutions most capable of shaping a coherent global policy. Responding to the global burden of chronic disease requires a strategic assessment of the global processes that are likely to be most effective in generating commitment to policy change at country level, and in influencing industry behaviour. WHO has adopted a legal process with tobacco (the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, but a non-legal, advocacy-based approach with diet and physical activity (the Global Strategy on Diet, Physical Activity and Health. The paper assesses the merits of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs and the FCTC as distinct global processes for advancing health development, before considering what lessons might be learned for enhancing the implementation of the Global Strategy on Diet. While global partnerships, economic incentives, and international legal instruments could each contribute to a more effective global response to chronic diseases, the paper makes a special case for the development of international legal standards in select areas of diet and nutrition, as a strategy for ensuring that the health of future generations does not become dependent on corporate charity and voluntary commitments. A broader frame of reference for lifestyle-related chronic diseases is needed: one that draws together WHO's work in tobacco, nutrition and physical activity, and that envisages selective use of international legal obligations, non-binding recommendations, advocacy and policy advice as tools of choice for promoting different elements of the strategy.

  13. The Infectious Diseases Society of America Emerging Infections Network: Bridging the Gap Between Clinical Infectious Diseases and Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillai, Satish K.; Beekmann, Susan E.; Santibanez, Scott; Polgreen, Philip M.

    2015-01-01

    In 1995, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention granted a Cooperative Agreement Program award to the Infectious Diseases Society of America to develop a provider-based emerging infections sentinel network, the Emerging Infections Network (EIN). Over the past 17 years, the EIN has evolved into a flexible, nationwide network with membership representing a broad cross-section of infectious disease physicians. The EIN has an active electronic mail conference (listserv) that facilitates communication among infectious disease providers and the public health community, and also sends members periodic queries (short surveys on infectious disease topics) that have addressed numerous topics relevant to both clinical infectious diseases and public health practice. The article reviews how the various functions of EIN contribute to clinical care and public health, identifies opportunities to further link clinical medicine and public health, and describes future directions for the EIN. PMID:24403542

  14. Developmental origins of noncommunicable disease: population and public health implications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hanson, Mark; Gluckman, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Noncommunicable diseases (NCDs), including cardiovascular disease, diabetes, chronic lung disease, allergy, some forms of cancer, cognitive decline, osteoporosis, sarcopenia, and affective disorders, are the world's biggest killers...

  15. Self-reported chronic diseases and health status and health service utilization - Results from a community health survey in Singapore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Pradeep

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To report the extent of self-reported chronic diseases, self-rated health status (SRH and healthcare utilization among residents in 1-2 room Housing Development Board (HDB apartments in Toa Payoh. Materials & methods The study population included a convenience sample of residents from 931 housing development board (HDB units residing in 1-2 room apartments in Toa Payoh. Convenience sampling was used since logistics precluded random selection. Trained research assistants carried out the survey. Results were presented as descriptive summary. Results Respondents were significantly older, 48.3% reported having one or more chronic diseases, 32% have hypertension, 16.8% have diabetes, and 7.6% have asthma. Median SRH score was seven. Hospital inpatient utilization rate were highest among Indian ethnic group, unemployed, no income, high self-rated health (SRH score, and respondents with COPD, renal failure and heart disease. Outpatient utilization rate was significantly higher among older respondents, females, and those with high SRH scores (7-10. Conclusions The findings confirming that residents living in 1-2 room HDB apartments are significantly older, with higher rates of chronic diseases, health care utilization than national average, will aid in healthcare planning to address their needs.

  16. The association of income with health behavior change and disease monitoring among patients with chronic disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J T Campbell

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Management of chronic diseases requires patients to adhere to recommended health behavior change and complete tests for monitoring. While studies have shown an association between low income and lack of adherence, the reasons why people with low income may be less likely to adhere are unclear. We sought to determine the association between household income and receipt of health behavior change advice, adherence to advice, receipt of recommended monitoring tests, and self-reported reasons for non-adherence/non-receipt. METHODS: We conducted a population-weighted survey, with 1849 respondents with cardiovascular-related chronic diseases (heart disease, hypertension, diabetes, stroke from Western Canada (n = 1849. We used log-binomial regression to examine the association between household income and the outcome variables of interest: receipt of advice for and adherence to health behavior change (sodium reduction, dietary improvement, increased physical activity, smoking cessation, weight loss, reasons for non-adherence, receipt of recommended monitoring tests (cholesterol, blood glucose, blood pressure, and reasons for non-receipt of tests. RESULTS: Behavior change advice was received equally by both low and high income respondents. Low income respondents were more likely than those with high income to not adhere to recommendations regarding smoking cessation (adjusted prevalence rate ratio (PRR: 1.55, 95%CI: 1.09-2.20, and more likely to not receive measurements of blood cholesterol (PRR: 1.72, 95%CI 1.24-2.40 or glucose (PRR: 1.80, 95%CI: 1.26-2.58. Those with low income were less likely to state that non-adherence/non-receipt was due to personal choice, and more likely to state that it was due to an extrinsic factor, such as cost or lack of accessibility. CONCLUSIONS: There are important income-related differences in the patterns of health behavior change and disease monitoring, as well as reasons for non-adherence or non

  17. State Public Health Actions to Prevent and Control Diabetes, Heart Disease, Obesity and Associated Risk Factors, and Promote School Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Barbara Z; Cantrell, Letitia; Hunt, Holly; Farris, Rosanne P; Schumacher, Patricia; Bauer, Ursula E

    2017-12-07

    The National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention funds a program to boost progress in reducing the prevalence and incidence of multiple chronic diseases and their associated risk factors. This article describes the program, State Public Health Actions to Prevent and Control Diabetes, Heart Disease, Obesity and Associated Risk Factors, and Promote School Health, and the program's action model, design, and administration and management structure. This program is based on 4 domains of public health action: 1) epidemiology and surveillance, 2) environmental approaches, 3) health care system interventions, and 4) community programs linked to clinical services. The 4 domains of public health action leverage data to inform action, support healthy choices and behaviors, strengthen delivery of clinical preventive services, and help Americans better manage their health.

  18. Perception of Reproductive Health in Women with Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellul, Pierre; Zammita, Stephania Chectuti; Katsanos, Konstantinos H; Cesarini, Monica; Allocca, Mariangela; Danese, Silvio; Karatzas, Pantelis; Moreno, Sara Canora; Kopylov, Uri; Fiorino, Gionata; Torres, Joana; Lopez-Sanroman, Antonio; Caruana, Mandy; Zammit, Louise; Mantzaris, Gerassimos

    2016-08-01

    As inflammatory bowel diseases [IBD] affect female patients almost exclusively during their reproductive age, issues related to fertility, fecundity, pregnancy, delivery, and lactation are of utmost importance. Lack of education and misconceptions regarding the effect of disease and/or treatment on reproductive outcome may lead to voluntary childlessness and/or development of unwanted cervical pathologies which may impact tremendously on patients' welfare and quality of life. The aims of this study were to assess the perspectives of IBD patients on fertility, pregnancy and its outcomes, and lactation, as well as their awareness of human papillomavirus [HPV]-related pathologies and screening for cervical cancer. This prospective study was performed across nine different Mediterranean IBD centres between 2014 and 2015 and included consecutive female IBD patients between the ages of 16 and 50 years. All patients responded to a questionnaire based on ECCO guidelines. A total of 348 IBD female patients with a mean age of 37.4 (standard deviation [SD] ± 2.1) years were recruited; 50% had a diagnosis of ulcerative colitis, 49.4% had Crohn`s disease, and 0.6% patients had a diagnosis of indeterminate colitis [IC]. A significant proportion of patients [ > 60%] were afraid that IBD may lead to a complicated pregnancy and that the disease itself and/or its medications can cause fetal harm. Patients had similar concerns that IBD can be transmitted to their offspring as well as with regard to breastfeeding. Counselling from health care professionals with regard to fertility, pregnancy, and lactation was associated positively with the highest number of pregnancies and inversely with the lowest number of patients who considered voluntary childlessness [p pregnancy, and health maintenance. We also show that education by physicians has a positive influence. We thus conclude that improved multidisciplinary approaches should be used to educate and implement European guidelines for

  19. Gut barrier in health and disease: focus on childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viggiano, D; Ianiro, G; Vanella, G; Bibbò, S; Bruno, G; Simeone, G; Mele, G

    2015-01-01

    The gut barrier is a functional unit, organized as a multi-layer system, made up of two main components: a physical barrier surface, which prevents bacterial adhesion and regulates paracellular diffusion to the host tissues, and a deep functional barrier, that is able to discriminate between pathogens and commensal microorganisms, organizing the immune tolerance and the immune response to pathogens. Other mechanisms, such as gastric juice and pancreatic enzymes (which both have antibacterial properties) participate in the luminal integrity of the gut barrier. From the outer layer to the inner layer, the physical barrier is composed of gut microbiota (that competes with pathogens to gain space and energy resources, processes the molecules necessary to mucosal integrity and modulates the immunological activity of deep barrier), mucus (which separates the intraluminal content from more internal layers and contains antimicrobial products and secretory IgA), epithelial cells (which form a physical and immunological barrier) and the innate and adaptive immune cells forming the gut-associated lymphoid tissue (which is responsible for antigen sampling and immune responses). Disruption of the gut barrier has been associated with many gastrointestinal diseases, but also with extra-intestinal pathological condition, such as type 1 diabetes mellitus, allergic diseases or autism spectrum disorders. The maintenance of a healthy intestinal barrier is therefore of paramount importance in children, for both health and economic reasons. Many drugs or compounds used in the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders act through the restoration of a normal intestinal permeability. Several studies have highlighted the role of probiotics in the modulation and reduction of intestinal permeability, considering the strong influence of gut microbiota in the modulation of the function and structure of gut barrier, but also on the immune response of the host. To date, available weapons for the

  20. Intracellular regulation of TNF activity in health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varfolomeev, Eugene; Vucic, Domagoj

    2018-01-01

    Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha (TNFα, TNF) is a key mediator and regulator of mammalian immune responses in healthy organisms and in diseased conditions. TNF governs development of the immune system, cell survival signaling pathways, proliferation and regulates metabolic processes. Whereas TNF-induced NF-κB and MAP pro-survival kinase activities constitute its major biochemical functions, TNF can also stimulate cell death in certain pathological situations. TNF-induced signal transduction pathways are tightly regulated through ubiquitination and phosphorylation of molecules partaking in all TNF-dependent membrane-associated and intracellular protein signaling complexes. Deregulated TNF signaling in individuals carrying naturally occurring genetic mutations in proteins that mediate TNF signaling, or in corresponding genetically modified animal models, results in severe pathologies. In this review we will describe the current knowledge of TNF signaling and its relevance for human health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Book review: Birds of Prey: Health & Disease, Third Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Glenn H.

    2009-01-01

    Even though this book is billed as the third edition it is, in the words of Patrick T. Redig, author of its Foreword, ‘‘a seriously reinvented book.’’ Originally published in 1978 under the title of Veterinary Aspects of Captive Birds of Prey, this new edition, with its new title, could stand alone and not have been tagged with the ‘‘third edition.’’ Much has changed in the world of avian medicine in the 30 yr since the publishing of the original tome, and this new volume brings the latest information on raptor medicine to the reader.Review info: Birds of Prey: Health & Disease, Third Edition. Edited by John E. Cooper. Blackwell Sciences, Ltd., Oxford, UK. 2002. 345 pp. ISBN 978-0-63205-115-1.

  2. Solid waste for health: environmental impact health and feedback in case-disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Ferraz dos Anjos

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Considering the reality of the city of Vitoria da Conquista, with regard to the handling and final provisions of solid waste, health, it becomes imperative to raise so reflective, environmental impact and harm to health caused by them. This aims to describe research on the environmental impacts generated by Solid Wastes of Health (RSS and its implicativos in the health-disease; reflect on the ethical point of view focusing on professional negligence on the part of these, identifying the responsibilities of each involved in context; propose suggestions for improvements to creation of specific areas and handling appropriate to their final destination, to promote a balance of the environment and a healthy life. Through bibliographic methods, descriptive and exploratory with empirical basis, it was emphasized the conduct of that employed the landfill council, whose information based on photographic images of the site, showing thus the breach of the rules of the National Environmental Council ( CONAMA, the resolution 5 / 93 establishing standards of environmental quality in ralação to RSS1. Among other bodies engaged in monitoring the performance of health standards, is also SURVEILLANCE OF DIRECTORS AND CONTROL HEALTH, ENVIRONMENT (DIVISAM 2. The situation, if not circumvented quickly, tends to increase the rates of infections caused by such waste and degradation of the environment due to the exorbitant amount of them, that the landfill receives daily from various establishments of health. To this apparatus pejorativo, perceives itself as a city seen as a model in health, and this concept is linked directly with the environment, once you see an unconnected with reality and nature, and this source and stage of human life and well divides his words as a form of protest or a coincidence "Natu Reza"

  3. [The Utilization of Health-Related Applications in Chronic Disease Self-Management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Chi-Wen; Chuang, Hui-Wan; Chen, Ting-Yu

    2017-08-01

    The dramatic increase in smartphone usage has spurred the development of many health-related mobile applications (apps). On the other hand, population aging and the associated rise in the incidence of chronic disease is increasing the demand for long-term care. Effective chronic disease self-management has been shown to help patients improve their health condition. Numerous smartphone applications currently support patient self-management of chronic disease, facilitating health management and health promotion. The purpose of the present article was to introduce the definition, contents, and types of health-related apps; to discuss the effectiveness of self-management health-related apps in promoting chronic disease management; and to assess and evaluate these apps. We hope that the present article helps give to healthcare professionals and patients who are willing to manage their diseases a general understanding of health-related apps and their potential to facilitate the self-management of chronic diseases.

  4. IgE in horses: occurrence in health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Bettina

    2009-11-15

    indication for an involvement of delayed-type hypersensitivity mechanisms. In summary, our knowledge about the role of IgE during the immune response of the horse improved tremendously during the past decade. New IgE-specific tools and technologies are likely to uncover additional aspects of IgE-mediated mechanisms in equine health and disease.

  5. Cannabinoids and the kidney: effects in health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Frank; Potukuchi, Praveen K; Moradi, Hamid; Kovesdy, Csaba P

    2017-11-01

    Consumption of cannabis and various related products (cannabinoids) for both medicinal and recreational use is gaining popularity. Furthermore, regulatory changes are fostering a cultural shift toward increasing liberalization of cannabis use, thereby increasing the likelihood of even larger numbers of individuals being exposed in the future. The two different types of receptors (CB1 and CB2) that are activated by the pharmacologically active ingredients of cannabis are found in numerous tissues, including the kidneys. Experimental studies suggest that stimulation of these receptors using pharmacologic agents or their naturally occurring ligands could have both deleterious and beneficial effects on the kidneys, depending on receptor distribution, type of renal insult, or the timing of the activation during acute or chronic states of kidney injury. To date, the mechanisms by which the CB1 or CB2 receptors are involved in the pathology of these renal conditions remain to be fully described. Furthermore, a better understanding of the impact of exocannabinoids and endocannabinoids on the renal system may lead to the development of new drugs to treat kidney disease and its complications. Given the increasing public health relevance of cannabis exposure, it is clear that more research is necessary to clarify the various physiological and pathophysiological effects of cannabis and related analogs on the kidney. This will help limit the deleterious effects of these substances while promoting their potential beneficial impact on renal function in various types of kidney diseases.

  6. Estrogen and its role in gastrointestinal health and disease.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hogan, Aisling M

    2012-02-01

    INTRODUCTION: While the concept of a role of estrogen in gastrointestinal (in particular, colonic) malignancy has generated excitement in recent years, no review has examined the role of this potent and omnipresent steroid hormone in physiological states or its contribution to the development of benign pathological processes. Understanding these effects (and mechanisms therein) may provide a platform for a deeper understanding of more complex disease processes. METHODS: A literature search was conducted using the PubMed database and the search terms were "estrogen," "estrogen AND gastrointestinal tract," "estrogen AND colon," "estrogen AND esophagus," "estrogen AND small intestine," "estrogen AND stomach," "estrogen AND gallbladder," and "estrogen AND motility." Bibliographies of extracted studies were further cross-referenced. In all, 136 full-text articles were selected for review. A logical organ-based approach was taken to enable extraction of data of clinical relevance and meaningful interpretation thereof. Insight is provided into the hypotheses, theories, controversies, and contradictions generated over the last five decades by extensive investigation of estrogen in human, animal, and cell models using techniques as diverse as autoradiographic studies of baboons to human population analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Effects from esophagus through to the colon and rectum are summarized in this first concise collection of data pertaining to estrogenic actions in gastrointestinal health and disease. Mechanisms of these actions are discussed where possible. Undoubtedly, this hormone exerts many actions yet to be elucidated, and its potential therapeutic applications remain, as yet, largely unexplored.

  7. Polyphenols as Modulators of Aquaporin Family in Health and Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Fiorentini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyphenols are bioactive molecules widely distributed in fruits, vegetables, cereals, and beverages. Polyphenols in food sources are extensively studied for their role in the maintenance of human health and in the protection against development of chronic/degenerative diseases. Polyphenols act mainly as antioxidant molecules, protecting cell constituents against oxidative damage. The enormous number of polyphenolic compounds leads to huge different mechanisms of action not fully understood. Recently, some evidence is emerging about the role of polyphenols, such as curcumin, pinocembrin, resveratrol, and quercetin, in modulating the activity of some aquaporin (AQP isoforms. AQPs are integral, small hydrophobic water channel proteins, extensively expressed in many organs and tissues, whose major function is to facilitate the transport of water or glycerol over cell plasma membranes. Here we summarize AQP physiological functions and report emerging evidence on the implication of these proteins in a number of pathophysiological processes. In particular, this review offers an overview about the role of AQPs in brain, eye, skin diseases, and metabolic syndrome, focusing on the ability of polyphenols to modulate AQP expression. This original analysis can contribute to elucidating some peculiar effects exerted by polyphenols and can lead to the development of an innovative potential preventive/therapeutic strategy.

  8. Milk's Role as an Epigenetic Regulator in Health and Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnik, Bodo C; Schmitz, Gerd

    2017-03-15

    It is the intention of this review to characterize milk's role as an epigenetic regulator in health and disease. Based on translational research, we identify milk as a major epigenetic modulator of gene expression of the milk recipient. Milk is presented as an epigenetic "doping system" of mammalian development. Milk exosome-derived micro-ribonucleic acids (miRNAs) that target DNA methyltransferases are implicated to play the key role in the upregulation of developmental genes such as FTO, INS, and IGF1. In contrast to miRNA-deficient infant formula, breastfeeding via physiological miRNA transfer provides the appropriate signals for adequate epigenetic programming of the newborn infant. Whereas breastfeeding is restricted to the lactation period, continued consumption of cow's milk results in persistent epigenetic upregulation of genes critically involved in the development of diseases of civilization such as diabesity, neurodegeneration, and cancer. We hypothesize that the same miRNAs that epigenetically increase lactation, upregulate gene expression of the milk recipient via milk-derived miRNAs. It is of critical concern that persistent consumption of pasteurized cow's milk contaminates the human food chain with bovine miRNAs, that are identical to their human analogs. Commercial interest to enhance dairy lactation performance may further increase the epigenetic miRNA burden for the milk consumer.

  9. Probiotics and gut health: A special focus on liver diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gratz, Silvia Wilson; Mykkanen, Hannu; El-Nezami, Hani S

    2010-01-01

    Probiotic bacteria have well-established beneficial effects in the management of diarrhoeal diseases. Newer evidence suggests that probiotics have the potential to reduce the risk of developing inflammatory bowel diseases and intestinal bacterial overgrowth after gut surgery. In liver health, the main benefits of probiotics might occur through preventing the production and/or uptake of lipopolysaccharides in the gut, and therefore reducing levels of low-grade inflammation. Specific immune stimulation by probiotics through processes involving dendritic cells might also be beneficial to the host immunological status and help prevent pathogen translocation. Hepatic fat metabolism also seems to be influenced by the presence of commensal bacteria, and potentially by probiotics; although the mechanisms by which probiotic might act on the liver are still unclear. However, this might be of major importance in the future because low-grade inflammation, hepatic fat infiltration, and hepatitis might become more prevalent as a result of high fat intake and the increased prevalence of obesity. PMID:20101763

  10. Obesity, Diabetes and Cardiovascular Diseases in India: Public Health Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrivastava, U; Misra, A; Mohan, V; Unnikrishnan, R; Bachani, D

    2017-01-01

    Non-communicable diseases (NCDs; including coronary heart disease and type 2 diabetes) are rapidly increasing in India causing nearly 5.8 million deaths per year. Primary reasons for rise in NCDs in India are nutrition and lifestyle transitions. Further, presence of higher body fat, abdominal fat, liver and pancreatic fat and lower lean mass than whites, contribute to heightened metabolic and cardiovascular risk in Asian Indians. Importantly, conversion from pre-diabetes to diabetes occurs more rapidly, and reversion to normal glucose regulation with appropriate lifestyle measures is more difficult in Asian Indians than white population. Huge number of patients with diabetes and with complications increase morbidity, mortality and pose substantial economic burden. It is difficult, though not impossible, to decrease pace of rapidly expanding juggernaut of NCDs in India. Only concerted efforts from multiple stakeholders, consistently sincere efforts and intensely focused attention from health officialdom and clear political will may help counter this increasingly difficult challenge. Finally, all prevention and management approaches should be cost-effective, pragmatic, and focused on children and underprivileged populations. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  11. National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) - National Cardiovascular Disease Surveillance Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2001 forward. The National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) has monitored the health of the nation since 1957. NHIS data on a broad range of health topics are...

  12. Profile of Generic and Disease-Specific Health-Related Quality of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    TNHJOURNALPH

    Parkinson's disease causes significant disability and impairs health-related quality of life. However, this dimension has not been fully characterised, particularly among Africans. We examined the generic and disease- specific health related quality of life profiles of Nigerian Africans with. Parkinson's disease in comparison to.

  13. [Venous disease in France: an unrecognized public health problem].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafuma, A; Fagnani, F; Peltier-Pujol, F; Rauss, A

    1994-01-01

    Different reasons explain that chronic venous insufficiency remains ill recognized as a public health problem in France: very few epidemiologic studies have been undertaken in this pathology; this disease is very heterogeneous in terms of gravity and clinical evidence: from isolated symptoms to localized clinical signs, with or without severe complications. Clinical semiology is actually not standardised. The analysis of available informations suggests that this pathology represents approximatively 2.6% of the whole health expenditures in France, that is to say an amount of 14.7 billion of Francs for the year 1991. The number of patients suffering from chronic venous insufficiency can be estimated to about 11 millions, whose 7 millions present symptomatic signs (leg heaviness, pain, moderate edema). The number of hospitalizations is around 200,000 per year, of which 63% are in surgery in private clinics. One half of these hospital stays concerned varicose veins (the 8th cause of hospitalization in France). Forty of the patients consulting for chronic venous insufficiency are at work and about 7 to 8% of them get sick leaves for this pathology: around 362,000 sick leaves per year representing 6.4 millions of day lost. On the basis of the medical consumption survey performed by INSEE/CREDES, an extrapolation was made to estimate the different components of costs of chronic venous insufficiency: 41% (drugs), 34% (hospital care) and 13% (medical fees).

  14. Intersystem Implications of the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease: Advancing Health Promotion in the 21st Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D. Barnes

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The developmental origins of health and disease (DOHaD theory and life course theory (LCT are emerging fields of research that have significant implications for the public health and health promotion professions. Using a DOHaD/LCT perspective, social determinants of health (SDH take on new critical meaning by which health promotion professionals can implement DOHaD/LCT guided interventions, including recommended policies. Through these interventions, public health could further address the sources of worldwide chronic disease epidemics and reduce such disease rates substantially if related policy, programs, and interdisciplinary and multi-sector collaboration are emphasized. Additional characteristics of the most effective interventions involve context-specific adaptation and societal structures that impact upstream, early life environments on a broad scale, influencing multiple locations and/or diseases.

  15. Do health professionals have a prototype concept of disease? The answer is no.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Bjørn

    2017-09-11

    Health and disease are core concepts in health care and have attracted substantial interest and controversy. In recent and interesting contributions to the debate it has been argued that the challenges with the concept of disease can be resolved by a prototype concept of disease. As a robin is a more prototypical of a bird than a penguin, some diseases are more prototypical than others. If disease is a prototype concept, it would change nosology, but also health care and the study of health and disease. However, the statement that "disease is a prototype concept" forms an empirically testable hypothesis. Therefore, this study aims to test the hypothesis that health professionals have a prototype concept of disease. Two hundred twenty-three health care professionals in Norway were invited to participate in a survey where they were asked to rank a wide range of diseases according to how typical they considered them to be as diseases. Results were analysed with descriptive statistics. The response rate was 90%. Lung cancer, leukemia, colon cancer, myocardial infarction, and AIDS are the diseases ranged to be most typical, while homosexuality, pregnancy, drapetomania, dissidence, and nostalgia are considered to be the least typical diseases. The results also show that the answers to how typical various diseases are vary greatly, even amongst a relatively homogenous group of health professionals. This study falsifies the hypothesis that disease is a prototype concept for health professionals. This has implications for the debate on core concepts for health care. If health professionals do not have a prototype concept of disease, it is unlikely that there is a prototype concept of disease in general. Consequently, nosologies should not be based on prototypes.

  16. Individual Health Management - A Comprehensive Lifestyle Counselling Programme for Health Promotion, Disease Prevention and Patient Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melchart, Dieter; Eustachi, Axel; Wellenhofer-Li, Yanqing; Doerfler, Wolfgang; Bohnes, Evelin

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological data shows globally increasing numbers of obesity and stress-related diseases. In this article, a comprehensive medical lifestyle modification programme - called Individual Health Management (IHM) - is described in detail and discussed as a promising tool to individually manage and reverse such negative health trends in patients. The IHM programme is based on a blended learning concept. It comprises a 12-week basic training phase, followed by a 9-month maintenance phase, and includes the following key features: 1) web-based and physician-led health screenings; 2) a structured 12-week basic training with a core curriculum providing tuition in behavioural self-management strategies for weight loss and stress reduction; 3) weekly supervised group sessions during the core curriculum; 4) tailoring of materials, strategies and lifestyle goals; 5) continuous self-monitoring and feedback of the achieved progress; 6) regular contact with physicians or health professionals based on either face-to-face or distant lifestyle counselling; 7) recurrent one-day health seminars to ensure the sustainability of obtained results. IHM is a multi-component lifestyle intervention programme to increase physical activity, to reduce calorie intake and to practice both self and stress management. Individual care, group support and a tailored web-based programme blend to achieve the desired goals. A randomised control study to evaluate IHM's effects on weight control is currently being conducted. © 2016 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  17. General health checks in adults for reducing morbidity and mortality from disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogsbøll, Lasse T; Jørgensen, Karsten Juhl; Grønhøj Larsen, Christian

    2012-01-01

    General health checks are common elements of health care in some countries. These aim to detect disease and risk factors for disease with the purpose of reducing morbidity and mortality. Most of the commonly used screening tests offered in general health checks have been incompletely studied. Also...

  18. Human Lung Mononuclear Phagocytes in Health and Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Smed-Sörensen

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The lungs are vulnerable to attack by respiratory insults such as toxins, allergens, and pathogens, given their continuous exposure to the air we breathe. Our immune system has evolved to provide protection against an array of potential threats without causing collateral damage to the lung tissue. In order to swiftly detect invading pathogens, monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells (DCs—together termed mononuclear phagocytes (MNPs—line the respiratory tract with the key task of surveying the lung microenvironment in order to discriminate between harmless and harmful antigens and initiate immune responses when necessary. Each cell type excels at specific tasks: monocytes produce large amounts of cytokines, macrophages are highly phagocytic, whereas DCs excel at activating naïve T cells. Extensive studies in murine models have established a division of labor between the different populations of MNPs at steady state and during infection or inflammation. However, a translation of important findings in mice is only beginning to be explored in humans, given the challenge of working with rare cells in inaccessible human tissues. Important progress has been made in recent years on the phenotype and function of human lung MNPs. In addition to a substantial population of alveolar macrophages, three subsets of DCs have been identified in the human airways at steady state. More recently, monocyte-derived cells have also been described in healthy human lungs. Depending on the source of samples, such as lung tissue resections or bronchoalveolar lavage, the specific subsets of MNPs recovered may differ. This review provides an update on existing studies investigating human respiratory MNP populations during health and disease. Often, inflammatory MNPs are found to accumulate in the lungs of patients with pulmonary conditions. In respiratory infections or inflammatory diseases, this may contribute to disease severity, but in cancer patients this may

  19. Modeling disease severity in multiple sclerosis using electronic health records.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zongqi Xia

    Full Text Available To optimally leverage the scalability and unique features of the electronic health records (EHR for research that would ultimately improve patient care, we need to accurately identify patients and extract clinically meaningful measures. Using multiple sclerosis (MS as a proof of principle, we showcased how to leverage routinely collected EHR data to identify patients with a complex neurological disorder and derive an important surrogate measure of disease severity heretofore only available in research settings.In a cross-sectional observational study, 5,495 MS patients were identified from the EHR systems of two major referral hospitals using an algorithm that includes codified and narrative information extracted using natural language processing. In the subset of patients who receive neurological care at a MS Center where disease measures have been collected, we used routinely collected EHR data to extract two aggregate indicators of MS severity of clinical relevance multiple sclerosis severity score (MSSS and brain parenchymal fraction (BPF, a measure of whole brain volume.The EHR algorithm that identifies MS patients has an area under the curve of 0.958, 83% sensitivity, 92% positive predictive value, and 89% negative predictive value when a 95% specificity threshold is used. The correlation between EHR-derived and true MSSS has a mean R(2 = 0.38±0.05, and that between EHR-derived and true BPF has a mean R(2 = 0.22±0.08. To illustrate its clinical relevance, derived MSSS captures the expected difference in disease severity between relapsing-remitting and progressive MS patients after adjusting for sex, age of symptom onset and disease duration (p = 1.56×10(-12.Incorporation of sophisticated codified and narrative EHR data accurately identifies MS patients and provides estimation of a well-accepted indicator of MS severity that is widely used in research settings but not part of the routine medical records. Similar approaches

  20. Online surveillance of media health event reporting in Nepal: digital disease detection from a One Health perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwind, Jessica S; Norman, Stephanie A; Karmacharya, Dibesh; Wolking, David J; Dixit, Sameer M; Rajbhandari, Rajesh M; Mekaru, Sumiko R; Brownstein, John S

    2017-09-21

    Traditional media and the internet are crucial sources of health information. Media can significantly shape public opinion, knowledge and understanding of emerging and endemic health threats. As digital communication rapidly progresses, local access and dissemination of health information contribute significantly to global disease detection and reporting. Health event reports in Nepal (October 2013-December 2014) were used to characterize Nepal's media environment from a One Health perspective using HealthMap - a global online disease surveillance and mapping tool. Event variables (location, media source type, disease or risk factor of interest, and affected species) were extracted from HealthMap. A total of 179 health reports were captured from various sources including newspapers, inter-government agency bulletins, individual reports, and trade websites, yielding 108 (60%) unique articles. Human health events were reported most often (n = 85; 79%), followed by animal health events (n = 23; 21%), with no reports focused solely on environmental health. By expanding event coverage across all of the health sectors, media in developing countries could play a crucial role in national risk communication efforts and could enhance early warning systems for disasters and disease outbreaks.

  1. Use of Health Information and Communication Technologies to Promote Health and Manage Behavioral Risk Factors Associated with Chronic Disease: Applications in the Field of Health Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stellefson, Michael; Alber, Julia M.; Wang, Min Qi; Eddy, James M.; Chaney, Beth H.; Chaney, J. Don

    2015-01-01

    This special issue provides real-world examples of the diverse methods health education researchers are using to expand existing applications of information and communication technologies (ICTs) for health promotion and chronic disease management. The original and review articles presented in this special issue investigate eHealth, mHealth, and…

  2. Health locus of control in patients with graves-basedow disease and hashimoto disease and their acceptance of illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basinska, Malgorzata Anna; Andruszkiewicz, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Adaptation to a chronic somatic disease depends on a variety of factors, including belief in health locus of control. Correlation between health locus of control and illness acceptance in patients with Graves-Basedow and Hashimoto diseases as well as correlation between health locus of control, illness acceptance, sex, and age. THREE METHODS WERE APPLIED: Multidimensional Health Locus of Control Scale by K.A. Wallston, B.S. Wallston and R. DeVellis; the Acceptance of Illness Scale by B.J. Felton, T.A. Revenson, and G.A. Hinrichsena; and a personal questionnaire. Two groups were subject to the research: 68 patients with Graves-Basedow disease and 54 patients with Hashimoto disease. Patients with Graves-Basedow disease, women above all, have their health locus of control in other persons (P = 0,001) and are less inclined to accept their illness (P = 0,005) when compared to patients with Hashimoto disease. A statistically significant correlation occurred between the age of patients and external (i.e., in other persons) health locus of control. Beliefs in health locus of control and type of illness in female patient group are predictors of illness acceptance (P = 0,0009).

  3. Self-managed eHealth Disease Monitoring in Children and Adolescents with Inflammatory Bowel Disease: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsen, Katrine; Jakobsen, Christian; Houen, Gunnar; Kallemose, Thomas; Paerregaard, Anders; Riis, Lene B; Munkholm, Pia; Wewer, Vibeke

    2017-03-01

    To evaluate the impact of eHealth on disease activity, the need for hospital contacts, and medical adherence in children and adolescents with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Furthermore, to assess eHealth's influence on school attendance and quality of life (QoL). Patients with IBD, 10 to 17 years attending a public university hospital, were prospectively randomized to a 2-year open label case-controlled eHealth intervention. The eHealth-group used the web-application young.constant-care.com (YCC) on a monthly basis and in case of flare-ups, and were seen at one annual preplanned outpatient visit. The control-group continued standard visits every third month. Every 3 months, both groups had blood and fecal calprotectin tested and the following were assessed: escalation in medication, disease activity, hospital contacts, medical adherence, school absence, and QoL. Fifty-three patients in nonbiological treatment were included (27 eHealth/26 control). We found no differences between the groups regarding escalation in treatment and disease activity (symptoms, fecal calprotectin, and blood). The number of total outpatient visits (mean: eHealth 3.26, SEM 0.51; control 7.31, SEM 0.69; P system. The use of eHealth in children and adolescents with IBD is feasible, does not lead to impaired disease control, and can be managed by the patients without risk of increased disease activity.

  4. Methodological Framework for World Health Organization Estimates of the Global Burden of Foodborne Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Devleesschauwer, Brecht; Haagsma, Juanita A; Angulo, Frederick J

    2015-01-01

    The Foodborne Disease Burden Epidemiology Reference Group (FERG) was established in 2007 by the World Health Organization to estimate the global burden of foodborne diseases (FBDs). This paper describes the methodological framework developed by FERG's Computational Task Force to transform...

  5. [Dutch Institute for Health Care Improvement revised guideline, 'Sexually transmitted diseases and neonatal herpes'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bleker, O.P.; Meijden, W.I. van der; Wittenberg, J.; Bergen, J.E. van; Boeke, A.J.; Doornum, G.J.J. van; Henquet, C.J.; Galama, J.M.D.; Postma, M.J.; Prins, J.M.; Voorst Vader, P.C. van

    2003-01-01

    The Dutch Institute for Health Care Improvement revised guideline, 'Sexually transmitted diseases and neonatal herpes' summarises the current scientific position on the diagnosis and treatment of a great number of sexually transmitted diseases (STD) and neonatal herpes. Symptomatic treatment of

  6. The impact of gastrointestinal symptoms on health status in patients with cardiovascular disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laheij, R J F; Van Rossum, L G M; Krabbe, P F M; Jansen, J B M J; Verheugt, F W A

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Drugs for the management of cardiovascular disease may provoke gastrointestinal discomfort and complications. AIM: To evaluate whether upper gastrointestinal symptoms affect the health status of patients with cardiovascular disease. METHODS: Two weeks after discharge, 958 consecutive

  7. Impact of food and water-borne diseases on European population health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cassini, A.; Colzani, E.; Kramarz, P.; Kretzschmar, M. E.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/075187981; Takkinen, J.

    2016-01-01

    Composite health measures are increasingly applied in studies aiming at describing the burden of diseases, and food and water-borne diseases (FWDs) are no exception. The Burden of Communicable Diseases in Europe (BCoDE) is a project led and funded by the European Centre for Disease Prevention and

  8. Physiological health parameters among college students to promote chronic disease prevention and health promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, David R; Coster, Daniel C; Paige, Samantha R

    2017-09-01

    This study aimed to provide physiologic health risk parameters by gender and age among college students enrolled in a U.S. Midwestern University to promote chronic disease prevention and ameliorate health. A total of 2615 college students between 18 and 25 years old were recruited annually using a series of cross-sectional designs during the spring semester over an 8-year period. Physiologic parameters measured included body mass index (BMI), percentage body fat (%BF), blood serum cholesterol (BSC), and systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressure. These measures were compared to data from NHANES to identify differences in physiologic parameters among 18-25 year olds in the general versus college-enrolled population. A quantitative instrument assessed health behaviors related to physical activity, diet, and licit drug use. Results suggest that average physiologic parameters from 18 to 25 year olds enrolled in college were significantly different from parameters of 18-25 year olds in the general population. Generally, men reported higher percentiles for BMI, SBP, and DBP than women, but lower %BF and BSC percentiles than women at each age. SBP and DBP significantly increased with age and alcohol use. Students in the lowest (5th) and highest percentiles (95th and 75th), for most age groups, demonstrated DBP, BMI, and %BF levels potentially problematic for health and future development of chronic disease based on percentiles generated for their peer group. Newly identified physiologic parameters may be useful to practitioners serving college students 18-25 years old from similar institutions in determining whether behavior change or treatment interventions are appropriate.

  9. Eosinophils in health and disease: the LIAR hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J J; Jacobsen, E A; McGarry, M P; Schleimer, R P; Lee, N A

    2010-04-01

    Discussions of eosinophils are often descriptions of end-stage effector cells with destructive capabilities mediated predominantly by released cytotoxic cationic granule proteins. Moreover, eosinophils in the medical literature are invariably associated with the pathologies linked with helminth infections or allergic diseases such as asthma. This has led to an almost fatalist view of eosinophil effector functions and associated therapeutic strategies targeting these cells that would make even William of Ockham proud - eosinophil effector functions have physiological consequences that increase patient morbidity/mortality and 'the only good eosinophils are dead eosinophils'. Unfortunately, the strengths of dogmas are also their greatest weaknesses. Namely, while the repetitive proclamation of dogmatic concepts by authoritative sources (i.e. reviews, meeting proceedings, textbooks, etc.) builds consensus within the medical community and lower the entropies surrounding difficult issues, they often ignore not easily explained details and place diminished importance on alternative hypotheses. The goal of this perspective is twofold: (i) we will review recent observations regarding eosinophils and their activities as well as reinterpret earlier data as part of the synthesis of a new paradigm. In this paradigm, we hypothesize that eosinophils accumulate at unique sites in response to cell turnover or in response to local stem cell activity(ies). We further suggest that this accumulation is part of one or more mechanisms regulating tissue homeostasis. Specifically, instead of immune cells exclusively mediating innate host defence, we suggest that accumulating tissue eosinophils are actually regulators of Local Immunity And/or Remodeling/Repair in both health and disease - the LIAR hypothesis; (ii) we want to be inflammatory (pun intended!) and challenge the currently common perspective of eosinophils as destructive end-stage effector cells. Our hope is to create more

  10. The global burden of oral diseases and risks to oral health.

    OpenAIRE

    Petersen, Poul Erik; Bourgeois, Denis; Ogawa, Hiroshi; Estupinan-Day, Saskia; Ndiaye, Charlotte

    2005-01-01

    This paper outlines the burden of oral diseases worldwide and describes the influence of major sociobehavioural risk factors in oral health. Despite great improvements in the oral health of populations in several countries, global problems still persist. The burden of oral disease is particularly high for the disadvantaged and poor population groups in both developing and developed countries. Oral diseases such as dental caries, periodontal disease, tooth loss, oral mucosal lesions and oropha...

  11. Placental contribution to the origins of sexual dimorphism in health and diseases: sex chromosomes and epigenetics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gabory, Anne; Roseboom, Tessa J; Moore, Tom; Moore, Lorna G; Junien, Claudine

    2013-01-01

    .... The placenta plays a key role in fetal growth and development and, as such, affects the fetal programming underlying subsequent adult health and accounts, in part for the developmental origin of health and disease (DOHaD...

  12. Yersiniosis – zoonotic foodborne disease of relevance to public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Bancerz-Kisiel

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. [i]Y. enterocolitica[/i] is the causative agent of yersiniosis – a foodborne zoonosis with substantial importance to public health. [i]Y. enterocolitica[/i] is widespread in the environment and animal populations, posing a potential source of infection to humans. Objective. Presentation of yersiniosis as a zoonotic foodborne disease of relevance to public health. State of knowledge. Swine play an important role as a reservoir of [i]Y. enterocolitica[/i] and insufficiently thermally processed pork is the main source of infection to humans. The correlation between strains isolated from pigs and from clinical cases of human yersiniosis has been sufficiently proven. Yersiniosis usually appears with gastrointestinal disturbances in children, whereas in adults it manifests in a pseudo-appendix form. The extra-enteric form of yersiniosis is rare. Classical bacteriological methods used for classifying [i]Y. enterocolitica[/i] as pathogenic does not take into account the new aspects of the pathogenesis of yersiniosis. The examples are biotype 1A strains, commonly regarded as non-pathogenic, although they are increasingly often isolated from clinical cases of yersiniosis. Molecular methods seem much more effective and accurate in the diagnostic. New diagnostic tools such as real-time PCR, allows not only qualitative examination, but also quantitative evaluation of genes expression level, or single nucleotide polymorphism detection. Conclusions. Yersiniosis is an important food-borne zoonosis with wide range of clinical symptoms. Considering the fact that pork is the main source of infection for humans, public information campaigns seems to be an important element of the preventive measures against [i]Y. enterocolitica[/i] infections.

  13. Climate change & infectious diseases in India: implications for health care providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhara, V Ramana; Schramm, Paul J; Luber, George

    2013-12-01

    Climate change has the potential to influence the earth's biological systems, however, its effects on human health are not well defined. Developing nations with limited resources are expected to face a host of health effects due to climate change, including vector-borne and water-borne diseases such as malaria, cholera, and dengue. This article reviews common and prevalent infectious diseases in India, their links to climate change, and how health care providers might discuss preventive health care strategies with their patients.

  14. Urbanisation of developing populations: what are the health / ill-health prospects regarding diseases of prosperity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, A R

    1996-09-01

    Causes of death and levels of mortality are influenced by social conditions, and, in South Africa, the dichotomy between the level of health enjoyed by the wealthy and that achieved by low-income groups is increasing. Like the Western diet, the South African diet does not meet nutritional standards and contains too much total and saturated fat and insufficient amounts of vegetables and fruit. Tobacco smoking is increasing in developing countries, including South Africa, and is linked to an increase in socioeconomic status despite the fact that it causes cancer and other diseases. Alcohol consumption, which is responsible for one in every six deaths in the US, is also increasing in Africa and will lead to an increase in the incidence of alcohol-related cancers. Whereas inhabitants of the Western world live a sedentary life, rural dwellers in South Africa remain physically active. From this review, it can be predicted that degenerative diseases will continue to affect the White population of South Africa and that the major public health problems associated with poverty will decrease among the African, Indian, and Colored populations, while those associated with prosperity will increase.

  15. Microbial programming of health and disease starts during fetal life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koleva, Petya T; Kim, Ji-Sun; Scott, James A; Kozyrskyj, Anita L

    2015-12-01

    The pioneer microbiota of the neonatal gut are essential for gut maturation, and metabolic and immunologic programming. Recent research has shown that early bacterial colonization may impact the occurrence of disease later in life (microbial programming). Despite early conflicting evidence, it has long been considered that the womb is a sterile environment and human microbial colonization begins at birth. In the last few years, several findings have reiterated the presence of microbes in infant first stool (meconium) and pointed to the existence of in utero microbial colonization of the infant gut. The dominant bacterial taxa detected in meconium specimens belong to the Enterobacteriaceae family (Escherichia genus) and lactic acid bacteria (notably members of the genera Leuconostoc, Enterococcus, and Lactococcus). Maternal atopy promotes dominance of Enterobacteriaceae in newborn meconium, which in turn may lead to respiratory problems in the infant. This microbial interaction with the host immune system may in fact, originate during fetal life. Our review evaluates the evidence for an intrauterine origin of meconium microbiota, their composition and influences, and potential clinical implications on infant health. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Circulating Heat Shock Protein 70 in Health, Aging and Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demanet Christian

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Heat shock proteins (Hsp are ubiquitously synthesised in virtually all species and it is hypothesised that they might have beneficial health effects. Recent studies have identified circulating Hsp as an important mediator in inflammation - the effects of low-grade inflammation in the aging process are overwhelming. While much is known about intracellular Hsp70, scant data exist on circulating Hsp70 in the aging context. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to investigate the effect of age and disease on circulating Hsp70 and, in particular, to evaluate the association between circulating Hsp70 and inflammatory parameters. Results Serum Hsp70, Interleukin (IL -10, IL-6 and Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF alpha concentrations were determined in 90 hospitalised geriatric patients (aged 83 ± 6 years and in 200 community-dwelling control subjects (100 elderly, aged 74 ± 5 years, and 100 young, aged 23 ± 3 years. In the community-dwelling elderly, serum Hsp70 and IL-10 concentrations were significantly lower and IL-6 was significantly higher when compared to healthy young control subjects. Elderly patients presenting inflammation (CRP serum levels ≥5 mg/L showed significantly (p = 0.007 higher Hsp70 values; and Hsp70 correlated positively (p Conclusions The present data provide new evidence that serum concentration of Hsp70 decreases with age in a normal population. Our study also shows that higher levels of Hsp70 are associated with inflammation and frailty in elderly patients.

  17. [Early determinants of health and disease: epigenetics and environment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junien, Claudine

    2011-03-01

    Several studies of the developmental origins of health and disease and metabolic programming have identified links between early nutrition, epigenetic processes and long-term illness. The ways in which epigenetic modifications fix the effects of early environmental events, leading to sustained responses to transient stimuli, modified gene expression patterns and altered phenotypes in later life, is a topic of considerable interest. This review focuses on recently discovered mechanisms, and challenges prevailing views on the dynamics, position and functions of epigenetic marks. Most epigenetic studies have addressed long-term effects of environmental stressors on a small number of epigenetic marks, at the pan-genomic or individual gene level, in humans and animal models. In parallel, studies of humans and mice, using high-throughput technologies, have revealed additional complexity in epigenetic processes, notably highlighting the importance of crosstalk between different epigenetic marks. A self-propagating epigenetic cycle has also been identified. Recent studies have shown clear sexual dimorphism both in programming trajectories and in response to a given environmental insult. Despite recent progress we are still far from understanding how, when and where environmental stressors disturb key epigenetic mechanisms. Further work is needed to identify original key marks and their changes during development, throughout an individual's lifetime or over several generations, and to determine how to revert malprogramming with a view to prevention and treatment.

  18. Changing disease profile and preventive health care in India: Issues of economy, equity and effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salma Kaneez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The importance of preventive health care practices has increasingly been recognized in the wake of changing disease profile in India. The disease burden has been shifting from communicable to non-communicable diseases as a result of greater focus on achieving competitiveness in a fast globalizing economy. The rapid pace of social and technological changes has led to adverse life style choices resulting in higher incidence of heart diseases, diabetes, obesity, cancer, and deteriorating inter-personal relations and psychological well-being among individuals. Most of these health risks can considerably be reduced through disseminating science-based information on health promotion and disease prevention including exercise, nutrition, smoking and tobacco cessation, immunization, counseling, fostering good habits of health and hygiene, disease screening and preventive medicine. Prior evidences indicate that preventive health interventions can improve health outcomes in a great deal. In a regressive health delivery system of India where major health expenses on curative health is met by out-of-pocket money, preventive health services hold promise to be cost efficient, clinically effective and equity promoting. This article, therefore, examines in depth the issues and prospects of preventive and promotive health care services in realizing optimum health care needs of the people.

  19. The global burden of oral diseases and risks to oral health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Poul Erik; Bourgeois, Denis; Ogawa, Hiroshi

    2005-01-01

    high for the disadvantaged and poor population groups in both developing and developed countries. Oral diseases such as dental caries, periodontal disease, tooth loss, oral mucosal lesions and oropharyngeal cancers, human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS)-related oral......This paper outlines the burden of oral diseases worldwide and describes the influence of major sociobehavioural risk factors in oral health. Despite great improvements in the oral health of populations in several countries, global problems still persist. The burden of oral disease is particularly...... disease and orodental trauma are major public health problems worldwide and poor oral health has a profound effect on general health and quality of life. The diversity in oral disease patterns and development trends across countries and regions reflects distinct risk profiles and the establishment...

  20. Oral health-related quality-of-life and mental health in individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltnes, Solfrid Sørgjerd; Storhaug, Kari; Borge, Christine Råheim; Enmarker, Ingela; Willumsen, Tiril

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the association between oral health, oral health-related quality-of-life (OHRQoL) and mental health-related quality-of-life (QoL) in persons with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) with respect to demographic, social and clinical oral health variables. One hundred participants were included in a cross-sectional study at a hospital in Norway. Data were collected via the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14), the SF-36v2 Health Survey Mental Component (MCS), other self-reported factors, an interview and a clinical examination. Multiple regression analyses were performed. The Regional Committee for Medical and Health Research Ethics approved the study. RESULTS. Higher education (p mental health problems. This study demonstrated that oral health and personal factors are related to mental health-related QoL and OHRQoL in individuals with COPD. This finding shows the need to focus on oral care.

  1. The Global Epidemiologic Transition: Noncommunicable Diseases and Emerging Health Risk of Allergic Disease in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atiim, George A.; Elliott, Susan J.

    2016-01-01

    Globally, there has been a shift in the causes of illness and death from infectious diseases to noncommunicable diseases. This changing pattern has been attributed to the effects of an (ongoing) epidemiologic transition. Although researchers have applied epidemiologic transition theory to questions of global health, there have been relatively few…

  2. Association between self-reported health and sociodemographic characteristics with cardiovascular diseases in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Oliveira de Arruda

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To assess the association of sociodemographic and self-rated health in the presence of cardiovascular diseases and the association of this perception with the type of disease. METHODS A cross-sectional population survey study carried out with 1,232 individuals aged between 20 and 59 years of both genders living in the metropolitan region of Maringá-PR. Data were analyzed using multiple and simple logistic regression. RESULTS In multivariate analysis, the age range and self-rated health were associated with cardiovascular disease, and in the univariate analysis self-rated regular health was associated with arterial hypertension, while self-rated poor health was associated to heart failure, stroke, and to acute myocardial infarction (heart attack. CONCLUSION The differences in association of self-rated health with these diseases can indicate how individuals with certain characteristics cope with the disease, allowing for more individualized and specific health care.

  3. Comparative analysis of health, illness management and disease: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... other health professionals in the health care institutions. This paper highlights some demographic factors that have been implicated in the use of health care services in the tertiary health care facility and the subjective meaning underlying individual patterns of illness behavior such as seeking medical advice or treatment.

  4. Noncommunicable diseases and the use of health services: analysis of the National Health Survey in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Bernal, Regina Tomie Ivata; Lima, Margareth Guimarães; Araújo, Silvânia Suely Caribé de; Silva, Marta Maria Alves da; Freitas, Maria Imaculada de Fátima; Barros, Marilisa Berti de Azevedo

    2017-06-01

    To assess whether sex, education level, and health insurance affect the use of health services among the adult Brazilian population with chronic noncommunicable diseases (NCD). Data from a cross-sectional survey were analyzed, the National Health Survey (PNS). Frequency of use of services in the population that referred at least one NCD were compared with the frequency from a population that did not report NCD, according to sex, education level, health insurance, and NCD number (1, 2, 3, 4, or more). The prevalence and prevalence ratios were calculated crude and adjusted for sex, age, region, and 95% confidence intervals. The presence of a noncommunicable disease was associated with increase in hospitalizations in the last 12 months, in 1.7 times (95%CI 1.53-1.9). Failing to perform usual activities in the last two weeks for health reasons was 3.1 times higher in NCD carriers (95%CI 2.78-3.46); while the prevalence of medical consultation in the last 12 months was 1.26 times higher (95%CI 1.24-1.28). NCD carriers make more use of health services, as well as women, people with higher number of comorbidities, with health insurance, and higher education level. NCD carriers make more use of health services, as well as women, people with higher number of comorbidities, with health insurance, and higher education level. Analisar se sexo, escolaridade e posse de plano de saúde influenciam a utilização de serviços de saúde entre a população adulta brasileira portadora de doenças crônicas não transmissíveis (DCNT). Foram analisados dados de inquérito transversal, a Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde (PNS). Foram comparadas as frequências de uso de serviços na população que referiu pelo menos uma DCNT, com aquelas que não relatam DCNT, segundo sexo, escolaridade, posse de plano de saúde e número de DCNT (1, 2, 3, 4 ou mais). Foram calculadas as prevalências e razões de prevalência (RP) brutas e ajustadas por sexo, idade e região e respectivos intervalos de

  5. The relationship of periodontal disease to diseases and disorders at distant sites: communication to health care professionals and patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamster, Ira B; DePaola, Dominick P; Oppermann, Rui V; Papapanou, Panos N; Wilder, Rebecca S

    2008-10-01

    The body of research defining relationships among periodontal disease and certain systemic diseases and disorders has been expanding, and questions have been raised regarding what information should be conveyed to health care professionals and patients. Representatives from dentistry, medicine, the academic community and the insurance industry convened a two-day workshop July 23 and 24, 2007. The workshop participants achieved general consensus on a number of issues, including the need for greater cooperation between the health care professions. This cooperation should translate into improved clinical care as physicians refer patients for dental care, and dentists are proactive in regard to the general health of their patients. Communication to health care professionals requires a multifaceted approach that includes publication of research findings in medical and dental journals, cooperation among professional organizations and initiatives at the local level such as presentations at medical grand rounds. Dental schools should play a role in their health science centers. Communication with patients may improve through the use of targeted informational brochures in the offices of medical specialists, appropriate media campaigns and efforts led by local dental organizations. It is too early to provide specific recommendations regarding the treatment of periodontal disease to improve specific health outcomes, but dentists can become advocates for a general health promotion and disease prevention message. The lifestyles approach includes an improved diet, smoking cessation, appropriate hygiene practices and stress reduction. These strategies can improve oral and general health outcomes.

  6. Tay-Sachs Disease: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Tutorials What Is Tay-Sachs Disease? (Dolan DNA Learning ... Articles References and abstracts from MEDLINE/PubMed (National Library of Medicine) Article: Mutation Frequency of Three Neurodegenerative Lysosomal Storage Diseases: From ...

  7. Creatine biosynthesis and transport in health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joncquel-Chevalier Curt, Marie; Voicu, Pia-Manuela; Fontaine, Monique; Dessein, Anne-Frédérique; Porchet, Nicole; Mention-Mulliez, Karine; Dobbelaere, Dries; Soto-Ares, Gustavo; Cheillan, David; Vamecq, Joseph

    2015-12-01

    water by muscle). This review encompasses all these aspects by providing an illustrated metabolic account for brain and body creatine in health and disease, an algorithm to diagnose metabolic and gene bases of primary and secondary creatine deficiencies, and a metabolic exploration by (1)H-MRS assessment of cerebral creatine levels and response to therapeutic measures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. and Société Française de Biochimie et Biologie Moléculaire (SFBBM). All rights reserved.

  8. A cross-sectional study of self-reported general health, lifestyle factors, and disease: the Hordaland Health Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randi Jepsen

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background. Information on self-reported health is important for health professionals, and the aim of this study was to examine associations between lifestyle factors and self-reported health and the mediating effect of disease in a Norwegian population.Methods and Materials. The data collection was conducted as part of the Hordaland Health Study (HUSK 1997–99, which was a cross-sectional epidemiological study. All individuals in Hordaland county born in 1953–1957 were invited to participate (aged 40–44 years. Complete information for the present study was obtained from 12,883 individuals (44% response rate. Height and weight were measured at a physical examination. Information on lifestyle factors, self-reported health, disease (heart attack, apoplexy, angina pectoris, and diabetes, and socio-demographic variables was obtained from a self-administered questionnaire. Self-reported health was measured with a one-item question. Odds ratios for fair or poor self-reported health were calculated using multiple logistic regression analyses adjusted for disease and socio-demographic variables.Results. Respondents reporting adverse lifestyle behaviours (obesity (odds ratio (OR 1.7, p < 0.001, smoking (OR 1.2, p < 0.001, or excessive intake of alcohol (OR 3.3, p < 0.001 showed an increased risk of poor self-reported health. Furthermore, a moderate intake of wine (OR 0.6, p < 0.001 or strenuous physical activity (OR 0.5, p < 0.001 decreased the risk of poor health. Disease did not mediate the effect.Conclusion. A one-item question measuring self-reported health may be a suitable measure for health professionals to identify levels of subjective health and reveal a need to target lifestyle factors in relatively young individuals with or without disease.

  9. Health behavior and health-related quality of life in patients with a high risk of cardiovascular disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petek Davorina

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Health-related quality of life (HRQoL is measuring a patient’s experience of his health status and represents an outcome of medical interventions. Existing data proves that a healthy lifestyle is positively associated with HRQoL in all age groups. Patients with a high risk for cardiovascular disease typically led an unhealthy lifestyle combined with risk diseases. We aimed to analyse these characteristics and their reflection in HRQoL.

  10. Health anxiety in a disease-avoidance framework: Investigation of anxiety, disgust and disease perception in response to sickness cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedman, Erik; Lekander, Mats; Karshikoff, Bianka; Ljótsson, Brjánn; Axelsson, Erland; Axelsson, John

    2016-10-01

    Severe health anxiety is characterized by a debilitating fear of somatic illness, and avoidance of disease-related stimuli plays a key role in the maintenance of the disorder. The aim of this study was to investigate severe health anxiety within an evolutionary disease-avoidance framework. We hypothesized that, compared to healthy controls, participants with severe health anxiety would perceive others as sicker, more contagious, and less attractive. We also expected individuals with severe health anxiety to be more prone to avoid interaction with persons who appeared sick, as well as to respond with more health-related worry, more disgust, and more anxiety when confronting such individuals. In addition, this sensitivity was expected to be larger if people showed manifest sickness symptoms. Participants with and without severe health anxiety (N = 224) were exposed to facial photos with a varying degree of apparent sickness. Patients with severe health anxiety, compared to controls, rated apparently healthy people as being less healthy and less attractive. There were significant interaction effects showing that that the increase in disgust, anxiety, perceived contagiousness, and worry over one's own health as a function of how sick the person in the photo appeared, was significantly larger in the clinical sample compared to the healthy control sample (ps anxiety as a dimensional predictor also supported our hypotheses. We suggest that disgust and cognitive biases relating to the disease-avoidance model are significant features of severe health anxiety. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Protecting patients with cardiovascular diseases from catastrophic health expenditure and impoverishment by health finance reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jing; Liabsuetrakul, Tippawan; Fan, Yancun; McNeil, Edward

    2015-12-01

    To compare the incidences of catastrophic health expenditure (CHE) and impoverishment, the risk protection offered by two health financial reforms and to explore factors associated with CHE and impoverishment among patients with cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) in rural Inner Mongolia, China. Cross-sectional study conducted in 2014 in rural Inner Mongolia, China. Patients with CVDs aged over 18 years residing in the sample areas for at least one year were eligible. The definitions of CHE and impoverishment recommended by WHO were adopted. The protection of CHE and impoverishment was compared between the New Cooperative Medical Scheme (NCMS) alone and NCMS plus National Essential Medicines Scheme (NEMS) using the percentage change of incidences for CHE and impoverishment. Logistic regression was used to explore factors associated with CHE and impoverishment. The incidences of CHE and impoverishment under NCMS plus NEMS were 11.26% and 3.30%, respectively, which were lower than those under NCMS alone. The rates of protection were higher among households with patients with CVDs covered by NCMS plus NEMS (25.68% and 34.65%, respectively). NCMS plus NEMS could protect the poor households more from CHE but not impoverishment. NCMS plus NEMS protected more than one-fourth of households from CHE and more than one-third from impoverishment. NCMS plus NEMS was more effective at protecting households with patients with CVDs from CHE and impoverishment than NCMS alone. An integration of NCMS with NEMS should be expanded. However, further strategies to minimise catastrophic health expenditure after this health finance reform are still needed. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Risk of inflammatory bowel disease according to self-rated health, pregnancy course, and pregnancy complications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harpsøe, Maria C; Jørgensen, Kristian Tore; Frisch, Morten

    2013-01-01

    Poor self-rated health (SRH) has been connected to immunological changes, and pregnancy complications have been suggested in the etiology of autoimmune diseases including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). We evaluated the impact of self-rated pre-pregnancy health and pregnancy course, hyperemesis...

  13. Oral and Dental Health in Children with Chronic Liver Disease in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-10-26

    Oct 26, 2017 ... may predispose to dental caries. KEYWORDS: Chronic liver disease, dental health, enamel hypoplasia. Oral and Dental Health in Children with Chronic Liver Disease in the. Turkey Northeast. O Baygin, M Cakır1, N Ucuncu1. Address for correspondence: Dr. O Baygin,. Department of Pediatric Dentistry, ...

  14. World Health Organization Global Estimates and Regional Comparisons of the Burden of Foodborne Disease in 2010

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havelaar, Arie H|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/072306122; Kirk, Martyn D; Torgerson, Paul R; Gibb, Herman J; Hald, Tine; Lake, Robin J; Praet, Nicolas; Bellinger, David C; de Silva, Nilanthi R; Gargouri, Neyla; Speybroeck, Niko; Cawthorne, Amy; Mathers, Colin; Stein, Claudia; Angulo, Frederick J; Devleesschauwer, Brecht

    2015-01-01

    Illness and death from diseases caused by contaminated food are a constant threat to public health and a significant impediment to socio-economic development worldwide. To measure the global and regional burden of foodborne disease (FBD), the World Health Organization (WHO) established the Foodborne

  15. [Health care of refugees - A short review with focus on infectious diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Berit; Stete, Katarina; Bozorgmehr, Kayvan; Camp, Johannes; Kranzer, Katharina; Kern, Winfried; Rieg, Siegbert

    2016-06-01

    Few guidelines for health care of refugees exist in Germany. Screening as a part of initial health checks as well as general organisation of early health care for refugees is very heterogenous across different regions. Current experience will be relevant to develop integrated health care models. Prevention and care of infectious diseases are an important part of early health care for refugees, even if non-communicable diseases and mental health conditions should also be considered in every effort to design early health care models. We are presenting a pragmatic review of current evidence for prevention and care of tuberculosis, HIV, chronic viral hepatitis and other infectious diseases. More evidence is needed to assess morbidity and efficacy of early health care interventions and integrated care models in refugees. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  16. Components of cross-frequency modulation in health and disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena A Allen

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The cognitive deficits associated with schizophrenia are commonly believed to arise from the abnormal temporal integration of information, however a quantitative approach to assess network coordination is lacking. Here, we propose to use cross-frequency modulation, the dependence of local high-frequency activity on the phase of widespread low-frequency oscillations, as an indicator of network coordination and functional integration. In an exploratory analysis based on pre-existing data, we measured cross-frequency modulation from multi-channel EEG recordings acquired while schizophrenia patients (n = 47 and healthy controls (n = 130 performed an auditory oddball task. Novel application of independent component analysis (ICA to modulation data delineated components with specific spatial and spectral profiles, the weights of which showed co-variation with diagnosis. Global cross-frequency modulation was significantly greater in healthy controls (F1,175=9.25, P<0.005, while modulation at fronto-temporal electrodes was greater in patients (F1,175 =17.5, P<0.0001. We further found that the weights of schizophrenia-relevant components were associated with genetic polymorphisms at previously identified risk loci. Global cross-frequency modulation decreased with copies of 957C allele in the gene for the dopamine D2 receptor (r = −0.20, P < 0.01 across all subjects. Additionally, greater ‘aberrant’ fronto-temporal modulation in schizophrenia patients was correlated with several polymorphisms in the gene for the α2-subunit of the GABAA receptor (GABRA2 as well as the total number of risk alleles in GABRA2 (r = 0.45, P < 0.01. Overall, our results indicate great promise for this approach in establishing patterns of cross-frequency modulation in health and disease and elucidating the roles of oscillatory interactions in functional connectivity.

  17. COPD: Health Care Utilisation Patterns with Different Disease Management Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luk, Edwin K; Hutchinson, Anastasia F; Tacey, Mark; Irving, Louis; Khan, Fary

    2017-08-01

    The management of COPD is a significant and costly issue worldwide, with acute healthcare utilisation consisting of admissions and outpatient attendances being a major contributor to the cost. Pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) and integrated disease management (IDM) are often offered. Whilst there is strong evidence of physical and quality of life outcomes following IDM and PR, few studies have looked into healthcare utilisation. The aims of this study were to confirm whether IDM and PR reduce acute healthcare utilisation and to identify factors which contribute to acute health care utilisation or increased mortality. This was a retrospective cohort study of patients with COPD who were referred to IDM over a 10-year period. Patients were also offered an 8-week PR program. Data collected were matched with the hospital dataset to obtain information on inpatient, ED and outpatient attendances. 517 patients were enrolled to IDM. 315 (61%) also commenced PR and 220 (43%) completed PR. Patients who were referred to PR were younger and had less comorbidities (p IDM only and IDM + PR referred) had reductions in healthcare utilisation but the IDM-only group had greater reductions. A survival benefit (HR 0.68, 95% CI 0.50-0.92) was seen in those who were PR completers compared to patients who received IDM only. Patients with COPD who successfully complete PR in addition to participating in IDM have improved survival. IDM alone was effective in the reduction of healthcare utilisation; however, the addition of PR did not reduce healthcare usage further.

  18. Emergent properties define the subjective nature of health and dis-ease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturmberg, Joachim P

    2014-08-01

    Health and dis-ease by their etymological origins refer to an evaluative, not objective, state. Health is an adaptive state, constantly reestablishing itself through interactions between the many biological, social, emotional, and cognitive factors in a person's life. Such adaptive processes define health as an emergent state. Outcomes of emergent phenomena are not precisely predictable and reside in a phase space that contains all possible states ranging from perfect to poor health states, the latter reflecting dis-ease. However, we have seen a migration of meaning from the subjective, dis-ease, to the objective, disease, referring to uniquely identifiable biomedical change. Clinical reality though teaches us that many experiences of dis-ease are not associated with any objective abnormality, an insight with important implications for clinical care and health policy.

  19. Innovative Approaches in Chronic Disease Management: Health Literacy Solutions and Opportunities for Research Validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villaire, Michael; Gonzalez, Diana Peña; Johnson, Kirby L

    2017-01-01

    This chapter discusses the need for innovative health literacy solutions to combat extensive chronic disease prevalence and costs. The authors explore the intersection of chronic disease management and health literacy. They provide specific examples of successful health literacy interventions for managing several highly prevalent chronic diseases. This is followed by suggestions on pairing research and practice to support effective disease management programs. In addition, the authors discuss strategies for collection and dissemination of knowledge gained from collaborations between researchers and practitioners. They identify current challenges specific to disseminating information from the health literacy field and offer potential solutions. The chapter concludes with a brief look at future directions and organizational opportunities to integrate health literacy practices to address the need for effective chronic disease management.

  20. The oral microbiome in health and disease and the potential impact on personalized dental medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarco, M F; Vess, T J; Ginsburg, G S

    2012-03-01

    Every human body contains a personalized microbiome that is essential to maintaining health but capable of eliciting disease. The oral microbiome is particularly imperative to health because it can cause both oral and systemic disease. The oral microbiome rests within biofilms throughout the oral cavity, forming an ecosystem that maintains health when in equilibrium. However, certain ecological shifts in the microbiome allow pathogens to manifest and cause disease. Severe forms of oral disease may result in systemic disease at different body sites. Microbiomics and metagenomics are two fields of research that have emerged to identify the presence of specific microbes in the body and understand the nature of the microbiome activity during both health and disease. The analysis of the microbiome and its genomes will pave the way for more effective therapeutic and diagnostic techniques and, ultimately, contribute to the development of personalized medicine and personalized dental medicine. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  1. Correlates of Health Behaviors in Patients With Coronary Artery Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Younhee Kang, RN, MSN-ANP, PhD

    2010-03-01

    Conclusion: The findings suggested that cardiac self-efficacy was shown to be the most influencing factor on health behaviors but cardiac knowledge had no influence on health behaviors. The nursing interventions tailored on the patient characteristics should be developed in order to improve the health behaviors of patients with CADs.

  2. A Study on Oral Health of Children with Cardiac Diseases in Mashhad, Iran in 2004

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Mahmoudi; Maryam Khordi Mood; Maryam Talebi; Shaili Alidad

    2007-01-01

    Background and aims. Preventing oral disease is the most desirable way of ensuring good dental health for children with heart disease. Dental and gingival infections in patients with cardiac problems may lead to infective endocarditis. The aim of this study was to evaluate oral and dental health status in children with heart disease referred to a cardiac center compared with the control group.

    Materials and Methods.

  3. 77 FR 9842 - Health Claim; Phytosterols and Risk of Coronary Heart Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-21

    ...; Phytosterols and Risk of Coronary Heart Disease AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notification... phytosterols and risk of coronary heart disease (CHD), in a manner that is consistent with FDA's February 14... use of a health claim regarding reduced risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) for phytosterol...

  4. Boda-boda Injuries a Health Problem and a Burden of Disease in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    jen

    Boda-boda Injuries a Health Problem and a Burden of Disease in Uganda: a Tertiary. Hospital Survey. Galukande M ... countries, before this Ugandan innovation spread out to the rest of the country. Boda boda as a term is an ... problem is a disease, injury or illness, or a risk factor for one of these. Burden of disease is a ...

  5. 77 FR 72868 - The Centers for Disease Control (CDC)/Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention The Centers for Disease Control (CDC)/Health... period through November 25, 2014. Contact Person for More Information: Kevin Fenton, M.D., Ph.D... announcements of meetings and other committee management activities, for both the Centers for Disease Control...

  6. Health care costs, utilization and patterns of care following Lyme disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrion, Emily R; Aucott, John; Lemke, Klaus W; Weiner, Jonathan P

    2015-01-01

    Lyme disease is the most frequently reported vector borne infection in the United States. The Centers for Disease Control have estimated that approximately 10% to 20% of individuals may experience Post-Treatment Lyme Disease Syndrome - a set of symptoms including fatigue, musculoskeletal pain, and neurocognitive complaints that persist after initial antibiotic treatment of Lyme disease. Little is known about the impact of Lyme disease or post-treatment Lyme disease symptoms (PTLDS) on health care costs and utilization in the United States. 1) to examine the impact of Lyme disease on health care costs and utilization, 2) to understand the relationship between Lyme disease and the probability of developing PTLDS, 3) to understand how PTLDS may impact health care costs and utilization. This study utilizes retrospective data on medical claims and member enrollment for persons aged 0-64 years who were enrolled in commercial health insurance plans in the United States between 2006-2010. 52,795 individuals treated for Lyme disease were compared to 263,975 matched controls with no evidence of Lyme disease exposure. Lyme disease is associated with $2,968 higher total health care costs (95% CI: 2,807-3,128, pLyme disease, having one or more PTLDS-related diagnosis is associated with $3,798 higher total health care costs (95% CI: 3,542-4,055, pLyme disease is associated with increased costs above what would be expected for an easy to treat infection. The presence of PTLDS-related diagnoses after treatment is associated with significant health care costs and utilization.

  7. Health Care Costs, Utilization and Patterns of Care following Lyme Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrion, Emily R.; Aucott, John; Lemke, Klaus W.; Weiner, Jonathan P.

    2015-01-01

    Background Lyme disease is the most frequently reported vector borne infection in the United States. The Centers for Disease Control have estimated that approximately 10% to 20% of individuals may experience Post-Treatment Lyme Disease Syndrome – a set of symptoms including fatigue, musculoskeletal pain, and neurocognitive complaints that persist after initial antibiotic treatment of Lyme disease. Little is known about the impact of Lyme disease or post-treatment Lyme disease symptoms (PTLDS) on health care costs and utilization in the United States. Objectives 1) to examine the impact of Lyme disease on health care costs and utilization, 2) to understand the relationship between Lyme disease and the probability of developing PTLDS, 3) to understand how PTLDS may impact health care costs and utilization. Methods This study utilizes retrospective data on medical claims and member enrollment for persons aged 0-64 years who were enrolled in commercial health insurance plans in the United States between 2006-2010. 52,795 individuals treated for Lyme disease were compared to 263,975 matched controls with no evidence of Lyme disease exposure. Results Lyme disease is associated with $2,968 higher total health care costs (95% CI: 2,807-3,128, pLyme disease, having one or more PTLDS-related diagnosis is associated with $3,798 higher total health care costs (95% CI: 3,542-4,055, pLyme disease is associated with increased costs above what would be expected for an easy to treat infection. The presence of PTLDS-related diagnoses after treatment is associated with significant health care costs and utilization. PMID:25650808

  8. Rethinking global health challenges: towards a 'global compact' for reducing the burden of chronic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnusson, R S

    2009-03-01

    Chronic diseases, including cardiovascular disease, diabetes and cancer, are the leading cause of death and disability in both the developed and developing world (excluding sub-Saharan Africa). At present, the global framework for action on chronic disease is strongly 'World Health Organization (WHO)-centric', defined by two WHO initiatives: the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, and the Global Strategy on Diet, Physical Activity and Health. This paper explores the difficulties of developing a collective response to global health challenges, and draws out some implications for chronic disease. It highlights how political partnerships and improved governance structures, economic processes, and international laws and standards function as three, concurrent pathways for encouraging policy implementation at country level and for building collective commitment to address the transnational determinants of chronic disease. The paper evaluates WHO's initiatives on chronic disease in terms of these pathways, and makes the case for a global compact on chronic disease as a possible structure for advancing WHO's free-standing goal of reducing mortality from chronic diseases by an additional 2% between 2005 and 2015. Beneath this overarching structure, the paper argues that global agencies, donor governments and other global health stakeholders could achieve greater impact by coordinating their efforts within a series of semi-autonomous 'policy channels' or 'workstreams'. These workstreams - including trade and agriculture, consumer health issues and workplace health promotion - could act as focal points for international cooperation, drawing in a wider range of health stakeholders within their areas of comparative advantage.

  9. Health promotion or pharmacological treatment for chronic diseases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allam, M F; Arjona, Ortiz

    2013-03-01

    Over the last years medicine has progressed very rapidly. Communicable diseases, which were the leading causes of mortalities, are not anymore, especially in developed countries. Currently, non-communicable diseases are more prevalent, and most of them are related to changes in our daily habits and degenerative processes. Most of these diseases are chronic, need continuous care and treatment with limited improvement and high costs. The General Assembly of the United Nations in its resolution 65/238 recognized the primary role and responsibility of Governments in responding to the challenge of non-communicable diseases and the essential need for the efforts and engagement of all sectors of society to generate an effective response. Special emphasis has been concentrated on pharmacological treatments for most of chronic non-communicable diseases with the challenge to discover new drugs for treating, in most cases, chronic irreversible degenerative diseases associated with aging. Little care was given to non-pharmacological lines of treatment.

  10. Improved Diagnosis and Care for Rare Diseases through Implementation of Precision Public Health Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baynam, Gareth; Bowman, Faye; Lister, Karla; Walker, Caroline E; Pachter, Nicholas; Goldblatt, Jack; Boycott, Kym M; Gahl, William A; Kosaki, Kenjiro; Adachi, Takeya; Ishii, Ken; Mahede, Trinity; McKenzie, Fiona; Townshend, Sharron; Slee, Jennie; Kiraly-Borri, Cathy; Vasudevan, Anand; Hawkins, Anne; Broley, Stephanie; Schofield, Lyn; Verhoef, Hedwig; Groza, Tudor; Zankl, Andreas; Robinson, Peter N; Haendel, Melissa; Brudno, Michael; Mattick, John S; Dinger, Marcel E; Roscioli, Tony; Cowley, Mark J; Olry, Annie; Hanauer, Marc; Alkuraya, Fowzan S; Taruscio, Domenica; Posada de la Paz, Manuel; Lochmüller, Hanns; Bushby, Kate; Thompson, Rachel; Hedley, Victoria; Lasko, Paul; Mina, Kym; Beilby, John; Tifft, Cynthia; Davis, Mark; Laing, Nigel G; Julkowska, Daria; Le Cam, Yann; Terry, Sharon F; Kaufmann, Petra; Eerola, Iiro; Norstedt, Irene; Rath, Ana; Suematsu, Makoto; Groft, Stephen C; Austin, Christopher P; Draghia-Akli, Ruxandra; Weeramanthri, Tarun S; Molster, Caron; Dawkins, Hugh J S

    2017-01-01

    Public health relies on technologies to produce and analyse data, as well as effectively develop and implement policies and practices. An example is the public health practice of epidemiology, which relies on computational technology to monitor the health status of populations, identify disadvantaged or at risk population groups and thereby inform health policy and priority setting. Critical to achieving health improvements for the underserved population of people living with rare diseases is early diagnosis and best care. In the rare diseases field, the vast majority of diseases are caused by destructive but previously difficult to identify protein-coding gene mutations. The reduction in cost of genetic testing and advances in the clinical use of genome sequencing, data science and imaging are converging to provide more precise understandings of the 'person-time-place' triad. That is: who is affected (people); when the disease is occurring (time); and where the disease is occurring (place). Consequently we are witnessing a paradigm shift in public health policy and practice towards 'precision public health'.Patient and stakeholder engagement has informed the need for a national public health policy framework for rare diseases. The engagement approach in different countries has produced highly comparable outcomes and objectives. Knowledge and experience sharing across the international rare diseases networks and partnerships has informed the development of the Western Australian Rare Diseases Strategic Framework 2015-2018 (RD Framework) and Australian government health briefings on the need for a National plan.The RD Framework is guiding the translation of genomic and other technologies into the Western Australian health system, leading to greater precision in diagnostic pathways and care, and is an example of how a precision public health framework can improve health outcomes for the rare diseases population.Five vignettes are used to illustrate how policy

  11. Global health and primary care: increasing burden of chronic diseases and need for integrated training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truglio, Joseph; Graziano, Michelle; Vedanthan, Rajesh; Hahn, Sigrid; Rios, Carlos; Hendel-Paterson, Brett; Ripp, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    Noncommunicable diseases, including cardiovascular disease, chronic respiratory disease, diabetes, cancer, and mental illness, are the leading causes of death and disability worldwide. These diseases are chronic and often mediated predominantly by social determinants of health. Currently there exists a global-health workforce crisis and a subsequent disparity in the distribution of providers able to manage chronic noncommunicable diseases. Clinical competency in global health and primary care could provide practitioners with the knowledge and skills needed to address the global rise of noncommunicable diseases through an emphasis on these social determinants. The past decade has seen substantial growth in the number and quality of US global-health and primary-care training programs, in both undergraduate and graduate medical education. Despite their overlapping competencies, these 2 complementary fields are most often presented as distinct disciplines. Furthermore, many global-health training programs suffer from a lack of a formalized curriculum. At present, there are only a few examples of well-integrated US global-health and primary-care training programs. We call for universal acceptance of global health as a core component of medical education and greater integration of global-health and primary-care training programs in order to improve the quality of each and increase a global workforce prepared to manage noncommunicable diseases and their social mediators. © 2012 Mount Sinai School of Medicine.

  12. Childhood Health Status and Adulthood Cardiovascular Disease Morbidity in Rural China: Are They Related?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Wang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs are among the top health problems of the Chinese population. Although mounting evidence suggests that early childhood health status has an enduring effect on late life chronic morbidity, no study so far has analyzed the issue in China. Using nationally representative data from the 2013 China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS, a Probit model and Two-Stage Residual Inclusion estimation estimator were applied to analyze the relationship between childhood health status and adulthood cardiovascular disease in rural China. Good childhood health was associated with reduced risk of adult CVDs. Given the long-term effects of childhood health on adulthood health later on, health policy and programs to improve the health status and well-being of Chinese populations over the entire life cycle, especially in persons’ early life, are expected to be effective and successful.

  13. Responsibility in the age of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) and epigenetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismaili M'hamdi, H; de Beaufort, I; Jack, B; Steegers, E A P

    2017-08-22

    Insights from the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease paradigm and epigenetics are elucidating the biological pathways through which social and environmental signals affect human health. These insights prompt a serious debate about how the structure of society affects health and what the responsibility of society is to counteract health inequalities. Unfortunately, oversimplified interpretations of insights from Developmental Origins of Health and Disease and epigenetics may be (mis)used to focus on the importance of individual responsibility for health rather than the social responsibility for health. In order to advance the debate on responsibility for health, we present an ethical framework to determine the social responsibility to counteract health inequalities. This is particularly important in a time where individual responsibility often justifies a passive response from policymakers.

  14. Health and social problems of Parkinson´s disease

    OpenAIRE

    PAŤHOVÁ, Eva

    2007-01-01

    The Parkinson´s disease is a chronic disease whose syptomps affect human life to a consederable extent. If follows the results of the research that seniors have a knowledge in the basic fields, i.e. they know what physical system is affected by the Parkinson´s disease has a slow, sneak course. they are also aware of the most frequent method of therapy (pharmacological) and know that the Parkinson´s disease often stimulates tendčency to depresssions. However, few of the questioned seniors were...

  15. One world health: socioeconomic burden and parasitic disease control priorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torgerson, Paul R

    2013-08-01

    Parasitic diseases present a considerable socio-economic impact to society. Zoonotic parasites can result in a considerable burden of disease in people and substantive economic losses to livestock populations. Ameliorating the effects of these diseases may consist of attempts at eradicating specific diseases at a global level, eliminating them at a national or local level or controlling them to minimise incidence. Alternatively with some parasitic zoonoses it may only be possible to treat human and animal cases as they arise. The choice of approach will be determined by the potential effectiveness of a disease control programme, its cost and the cost effectiveness or cost benefit of undertaking the intervention. Furthermore human disease burden is being increasingly measured by egalitarian non-financial measures which are difficult to apply to livestock. This adds additional challenges to the assessment of socio-economic burdens of zoonotic diseases. Using examples from the group of neglected zoonotic diseases, information regarding the socio-economic effects is reviewed together with how this information is used in decision making with regard to disease control and treatment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Climate change and adaptation of the health sector: The case of infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Confalonieri, Ulisses E C; Menezes, Júlia Alves; Margonari de Souza, Carina

    2015-01-01

    Infectious diseases form a group of health problems highly susceptible to the influences of climate. Adaptation to protect human population health from the changes in infectious disease epidemiology expected to occur as a consequence of climate change involve actions in the health systems as well as in other non-health sectors. In the health sector strategies such as enhanced and targeted epidemiological and entomological surveillance and the development of epidemic early warning systems informed by climate scenarios are needed. Measures in other sectors such as meteorology, civil defense and environmental sanitation will also contribute to a reduction in the risk of infection under climate change.

  17. Health care resource use and costs among patients with cushing disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swearingen, Brooke; Wu, Ning; Chen, Shih-Yin; Pulgar, Sonia; Biller, Beverly M K

    2011-01-01

    To assess health care costs associated with Cushing disease and to determine changes in overall and comorbidity-related costs after surgical treatment. In this retrospective cohort study, patients with Cushing disease were identified from insurance claims databases by International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) codes for Cushing syndrome (255.0) and either benign pituitary adenomas (227.3) or hypophysectomy (07.6×) between 2004 and 2008. Each patient with Cushing disease was age- and sex-matched with 4 patients with nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas and 10 population control subjects. Comorbid conditions and annual direct health care costs were assessed within each calendar year. Postoperative changes in health care costs and comorbidity-related costs were compared between patients presumed to be in remission and those with presumed persistent disease. Of 877 identified patients with Cushing disease, 79% were female and the average age was 43.4 years. Hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and hyperlipidemia were more common among patients with Cushing disease than in patients with nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas or in control patients (PCushing disease had significantly higher total health care costs (2008: $26 440 [Cushing disease] vs $13 708 [nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas] vs $5954 [population control], PCushing disease had more comorbidities than patients with nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas or control patients and incurred significantly higher annual health care costs; these costs decreased after successful surgery and increased after unsuccessful surgery.

  18. Human resources for health and burden of disease: an econometric approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo-Laborde, Carla

    2011-01-26

    The effect of health workers on health has been proven to be important for various health outcomes (e.g. mortality, coverage of immunisation or skilled birth attendants). The study aim of this paper is to assess the relationship between health workers and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), which represents a much broader concept of health outcome, including not only mortality but also morbidity. Cross-country multiple regression analyses were undertaken, with DALYs and DALYs disaggregated according to the three different groups of diseases as the dependent variable. Aggregate health workers and disaggregate physicians, nurses, and midwives were included as independent variables, as well as a variable accounting for the skill mix of professionals. The analysis also considers controlling for the effects of income, income distribution, percentage of rural population with access to improved water source, and health expenditure. This study presents evidence of a statistically negative relationship between the density of health workers (especially physicians) and the DALYs. An increase of one unit in the density of health workers per 1000 will decrease, on average, the total burden of disease between 1% and 3%. However, in line with previous findings in the literature, the density of nurses and midwives could not be said to be statistically associated to DALYs. If countries increase their health worker density, they will be able to reduce significantly their burden of disease, especially the burden associated to communicable diseases. This study represents supporting evidence of the importance of health workers for health.

  19. Addressing Health Inequities: Coronary Heart Disease Training within Learning Disabilities Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holly, Deirdre; Sharp, John

    2014-01-01

    People with learning disabilities are at increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). Research suggests this may be due to inequalities in health status and inequities in the way health services respond to need. Little is known about the most effective way to improve health outcomes for people with learning disabilities. A previously developed…

  20. The Huntington's Disease health-related Quality of Life questionnaire (HDQoL): a disease-specific measure of health-related quality of life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hocaoglu, MB; Gaffan, EA; Ho, AK

    2012-01-01

    Hocaoglu MB, Gaffan EA, Ho AK. The Huntington's disease health-related quality of life questionnaire: a disease-specific measure of health-related quality of life. Huntington's disease (HD) is a genetic neurodegenerative disorder characterized by motor, cognitive and psychiatric disturbances, and yet there is no disease-specific patient-reported health-related quality of life outcome measure for patients. Our aim was to develop and validate such an instrument, i.e. the Huntington's Disease health-related Quality of Life questionnaire (HDQoL), to capture the true impact of living with this disease. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with the full spectrum of people living with HD, to form a pool of items, which were then examined in a larger sample prior to data-driven item reduction. We provide the statistical basis for the extraction of three different sets of scales from the HDQoL, and present validation and psychometric data on these scales using a sample of 152 participants living with HD. These new patient-derived scales provide promising patient-reported outcome measures for HD. Section Editor: Aad Tibben, email: a.tibben@lumc.nl PMID:22151007

  1. Health-related quality of life and health care use in cancer survivors compared with patients with chronic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heins, Marianne J; Korevaar, Joke C; Hopman, Petra E P C; Donker, Gé A; Schellevis, François G; Rijken, Mieke P M

    2016-03-15

    The number of cancer survivors is steadily increasing and these patients often experience long-lasting health problems. To make care for cancer survivors sustainable for the future, it would be relevant to put the effects of cancer in this phase into perspective. Therefore, the authors compared health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and health care use among cancer survivors with that of patients with chronic diseases. Patients diagnosed at age >18 years with a cancer with a 5-year survival rate > 20% and no distant metastases at the time of diagnosis and patients aged >18 years with physician-diagnosed somatic chronic diseases without cancer were sent a questionnaire. HRQOL was measured with the RAND-36, a measure of HRQOL. Self-reported health care use was measured for general practitioner care, specialist care, rehabilitative care, physical therapy, ambulatory mental health care, and occupational health care. A total of 601 cancer survivors and 1052 patients with chronic diseases without cancer were included in the current study. Multimorbidity was observed in 63% of the cancer survivors and 61% of the patients with chronic diseases. The HRQOL of the cancer survivors was significantly better than that of patients with chronic diseases after adjustment for age and sex. For the mental functioning subscale, no significant differences were found between the 2 groups. Cancer survivors were found to be less likely to have visited a general practitioner or cardiologist compared with patients with chronic diseases. When considering physical HRQOL and health care use, cancer survivors appear to fare better than the average patient with chronic diseases. No difference in mental functioning was observed in the current study. © 2016 American Cancer Society.

  2. Health Seeking Behaviour of Non Communicable Disease in Sulaho Village, Lasusua Sub District, North Kolaka Regency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cati Martiyana

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Non communicable diseases is a chronic disease that is not spread from person to person. Public knowledge about type of non communicable disease is quite good, but generally they don’t understand about effect of non communicable disease risk factors, impacts and consider non communicable disease due to genetic factors, disease ofolder or rich people. This research to describe the fi ndings of non communicable diseases and health seeking behavior for these types of disease. Method: This study is a qualitative study used ethnographic methods. The research location at Sulaho village, Lasusua sub district, North Kolaka regency. Informants selected with snowball sampling methods. Participant observation and indepth interviews supported with documentation as data collection methods. Analysis of qualitative data with domain analysis, taxonomic analysis, komponensial analysis and analysis of the cultural theme supported with triangulation of sources and data collection methods. Results: Non communicable disease founded at Sulaho were cases of hypertension, stroke, diseases caused by workplace accidents and iodine defi ciency disorders (IDD. Informan knows name of diseases, but they did not know good knowledge of caused, impact and prevention of it. Traditional healer (sanro is still the main reference before went to the health worker when someone sick, this indicates that people still have the will to take advantage of health care of health seeking behaviour. Conclusion: Traditional healer (sanro generally become the main reference for health seeking behaviour of non communicable diseases before someone went to the health workers.Recommendation: Health workers has to be practice to approach the community through community leaders or kinship based.

  3. Impact of health literacy on medication adherence in older people with chronic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yun-Mi; Yu, Hye Yon; You, Mi-Ae; Son, Youn-Jung

    Medication adherence is a key factor of the therapy of chronic diseases in older people with chronic diseases. Inadequate health literacy results in poor health outcomes. Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate the effect of health literacy on medication adherence to provide information for improving health outcomes in older people with chronic disease. This was a cross-sectional study of older people (people aged over 65 years) with chronic diseases in Korea taking one or more medications for 6 months and over from an academic referral medical center. Each patient completed a structured questionnaire by interview or self-report. Of the 291 older participants, 30.6% had high medication adherence. In hierarchical multiple regression analysis, health literacy was the strongest predictor of medication adherence (β = 0.190, P = 0.001). In addition, perceived health status, use of magnifying glass, and assistance with medication administration were also significant factors related to medication adherence. In conclusion, enhancing health literacy may improve medication adherence of older people with chronic disease. The development, implementation and evaluation of health literacy interventions for older people with chronic conditions are important to increase medication adherence and potentially improve patient outcomes. Such programs would also raise awareness of the impact of health literacy on patient outcomes. Furthermore, this could contribute to reducing health inequalities worldwide.

  4. Disease Notification Among Physicians in a Nigerian Tertiary Health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to assess the physicians' knowledge, attitudes, and practice as related to disease notification. A random sample of 125 physicians was initially recruited for the study but only 120 returned the questionnaires completed, giving a response rate of 96%. Knowledge about disease notification was ...

  5. Population Health Vulnerabilities to Vector-borne Diseases ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    People in the drylands of sub-Saharan Africa suffer from poverty, food insecurity, a fragile economy, and social vulnerability. With climate change, they may also face increasing threats from vector-borne diseases. Vector-borne diseases, such as West Nile Virus and malaria, are spread through the bites of small organisms ...

  6. The sodium leak channel, NALCN, in health and disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochet-Bissuel, Maud; Lory, Philippe; Monteil, Arnaud

    2014-01-01

    Ion channels are crucial components of cellular excitability and are involved in many neurological diseases. This review focuses on the sodium leak, G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs)-activated NALCN channel that is predominantly expressed in neurons where it regulates the resting membrane potential and neuronal excitability. NALCN is part of a complex that includes not only GPCRs, but also UNC-79, UNC-80, NLF-1 and src family of Tyrosine kinases (SFKs). There is growing evidence that the NALCN channelosome critically regulates its ion conduction. Both in mammals and invertebrates, animal models revealed an involvement in many processes such as locomotor behaviors, sensitivity to volatile anesthetics, and respiratory rhythms. There is also evidence that alteration in this NALCN channelosome can cause a wide variety of diseases. Indeed, mutations in the NALCN gene were identified in Infantile Neuroaxonal Dystrophy (INAD) patients, as well as in patients with an Autosomal Recessive Syndrome with severe hypotonia, speech impairment, and cognitive delay. Deletions in NALCN gene were also reported in diseases such as 13q syndrome. In addition, genes encoding NALCN, NLF- 1, UNC-79, and UNC-80 proteins may be susceptibility loci for several diseases including bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, Alzheimer's disease, autism, epilepsy, alcoholism, cardiac diseases and cancer. Although the physiological role of the NALCN channelosome is poorly understood, its involvement in human diseases should foster interest for drug development in the near future. Toward this goal, we review here the current knowledge on the NALCN channelosome in physiology and diseases. PMID:24904279

  7. Impact of Health Counselling on Cardiovascular Disease Risk in Middle Aged Men: Influence of Socioeconomic Status

    OpenAIRE

    Reijo Siren; Johan G Eriksson; Markku Peltonen; Hannu Vanhanen

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The inverse association between socioeconomic status and cardiovascular disease is well documented. We examined whether the impact of health counselling on cardiovascular risk factors in middle-aged men differed according to socioeconomic status. METHODS: We used data from a community based study assessing the risk for cardiovascular disease among middle-aged men in Helsinki, Finland. Traditional cardiovascular disease risk factors were measured and cardiovascular disease risk was...

  8. Interactions between Global Health Initiatives and country health systems: the case of a neglected tropical diseases control program in Mali.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Cavalli

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recently, a number of Global Health Initiatives (GHI have been created to address single disease issues in low-income countries, such as poliomyelitis, trachoma, neonatal tetanus, etc.. Empirical evidence on the effects of such GHIs on local health systems remains scarce. This paper explores positive and negative effects of the Integrated Neglected Tropical Disease (NTD Control Initiative, consisting in mass preventive chemotherapy for five targeted NTDs, on Mali's health system where it was first implemented in 2007. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Campaign processes and interactions with the health system were assessed through participant observation in two rural districts (8 health centres each. Information was complemented by interviews with key informants, website search and literature review. Preliminary results were validated during feedback sessions with Malian authorities from national, regional and district levels. We present positive and negative effects of the NTD campaign on the health system using the WHO framework of analysis based on six interrelated elements: health service delivery, health workforce, health information system, drug procurement system, financing and governance. At point of delivery, campaign-related workload severely interfered with routine care delivery which was cut down or totally interrupted during the campaign, as nurses were absent from their health centre for campaign-related activities. Only 2 of the 16 health centres, characterized by a qualified, stable and motivated workforce, were able to keep routine services running and to use the campaign as an opportunity for quality improvement. Increased workload was compensated by allowances, which significantly improved staff income, but also contributed to divert attention away from core routine activities. While the campaign increased the availability of NTD drugs at country level, parallel systems for drug supply and evaluation requested extra efforts

  9. Patient-reported Anxiety: A Possible Predictor of Pediatric Inflammatory Bowel Disease Health Care Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reigada, Laura C; Satpute, Ankita; Hoogendoorn, Claire J; Cohen, Barry H; Lai, Joanne; Bao, Ruijun; Dubinsky, Marla C; Benkov, Keith J

    2016-09-01

    Anxiety is linked with adverse health-related outcomes and increased health-seeking behaviors among patients with chronic illness. Yet, this relationship has received little attention in pediatric inflammatory bowel disease. The aim of this study was to examine whether anxiety symptoms predicted youth at increased risk for repeated disease relapse and greater gastrointestinal health care use over the subsequent 12 months. Eighty-six pediatric patients aged 11 to 18 years (M = 14.7, SD = 2.0), and their caregivers completed a validated anxiety questionnaire during a gastrointestinal specialty appointment (baseline). Medical records were reviewed for the subsequent year to record the number of disease relapses and gastrointestinal health care services and generate disease activity scores at baseline and 12 months. Analysis of variance was used to examine anxiety levels between those who experienced ≤1 versus ≥2 disease relapses. Poisson regressions were used to model the relationship between child- and caregiver-reported anxiety and health care use, controlling for disease activity. The sample was predominantly white (81%) and male (56%). Patients with higher anxiety at baseline (M = 19.6; SD = 13.7) had more frequent (≥2) disease relapses compared with those with lower anxiety at baseline (M = 12.6; SD = 10.3). Higher anxiety, irrespective of reporter, also predicted greater total gastrointestinal health care use (P anxiety may be one mechanism by which to identify those youth who are most vulnerable for disease exacerbation and costly interventions in the near future.

  10. Effects of eHealth physical activity encouragement in adolescents with complex congenital heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klausen, Susanne Hwiid; Andersen, Lars L; Søndergaard, Lars

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess benefit and harms of adding an eHealth intervention to health education and individual counseling in adolescents with congenital heart disease. DESIGN: Randomized clinical trial. SETTING: Denmark. PATIENTS: A total of 158 adolescents aged 13-16years with no physical activity...... restrictions after repaired complex congenital heart disease. INTERVENTIONS: PReVaiL consisted of individually tailored eHealth encouragement physical activity for 52weeks. All patients received 45min of group-based health education and 15min of individual counseling involving patients' parents. OUTCOMES...... counseling did not affect outcomes among adolescents with congenital heart disease. Our results do not support the use of this eHealth intervention in adolescents with complex congenital heart disease. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinical trials.gov identifier: NCT01189981....

  11. Poor mental health status and its associations with demographic characteristics and chronic diseases in Chinese elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shibin; Li, Bo; Ungvari, Gabor S; Ng, Chee H; Chiu, Helen F K; Kou, Changgui; Liu, Yawen; Tao, Yuchun; Wu, Yanhua; Fu, Yingli; Qi, Yue; Yu, Yaqin; Xiang, Yu-Tao

    2016-10-01

    Although poor mental health is associated with significant personal and societal burden, it is rarely reported in older Chinese populations. This study examined the mental health status of a large representative sample of Chinese elderly in relation to socio-demographic characteristics, lifestyle, and chronic diseases. Multistage stratified cluster sampling was used in this cross-sectional study. A total of 4115 people aged between 60 and 79 years were selected and interviewed with standardized assessment tools. The 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) was used to measure general mental health with the total score of ≥4 as the threshold for poor mental health status. The adjusted percentage of poor mental health status in the whole sample was 23.8 %; 18.5 % in men and 28.9 % in women. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that female gender, widowed/separated marital status, rural abode, low income, poor diet, lack of physical exercise, and multi-morbidity were independently associated with poor mental health. The percentage of poor mental health status was significantly higher in patients with anemia, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, cataract/glaucoma, ischemic heart disease, cerebrovascular diseases, nasopharyngitis, chronic gastroenteritis/peptic ulcer, liver diseases, cholecystitis/gallstone, arthritis, or chronic low back pain. Given the high rate of poor mental health status among older Chinese population, policy makers and health professionals in China should address the mental health burden of its aging population.

  12. Money for health: The compensating variation of cardiovascular diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, W.; Maassen van den Brink, H.; Plug, E.

    2002-01-01

    This paper introduces a new method to calculate the extent to which individuals are willing to trade money for improvements in their health status. An individual welfare function of income (WFI) is applied to calculate the compensating income variation of health impairments. We believe that this

  13. Common Occupational Health Problems In Disease Control In Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article reviews some common occupational health problems among health workers due to exposure to hazardous or pathogenic biological, chemical and physical agents in the line of duty. Highlighted biological agents are pathogenic viruses, bacteria etc; chemical agents are laboratory reagents, mercury and ...

  14. Keeping health facilities safe: one way of strengthening the interaction between disease-specific programmes and health systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harries, Anthony D; Zachariah, Rony; Tayler-Smith, Katie; Schouten, Erik J; Chimbwandira, Frank; Van Damme, Wim; El-Sadr, Wafaa M

    2010-12-01

    The debate on the interaction between disease-specific programmes and health system strengthening in the last few years has intensified as experts seek to tease out common ground and find solutions and synergies to bridge the divide. Unfortunately, the debate continues to be largely academic and devoid of specificity, resulting in the issues being irrelevant to health care workers on the ground. Taking the theme 'What would entice HIV- and tuberculosis (TB)-programme managers to sit around the table on a Monday morning with health system experts', this viewpoint focuses on infection control and health facility safety as an important and highly relevant practical topic for both disease-specific programmes and health system strengthening. Our attentions, and the examples and lessons we draw on, are largely aimed at sub-Saharan Africa where the great burden of TB and HIV ⁄ AIDS resides, although the principles we outline would apply to other parts of the world as well. Health care infections, caused for example by poor hand hygiene, inadequate testing of donated blood, unsafe disposal of needles and syringes, poorly sterilized medical and surgical equipment and lack of adequate airborne infection control procedures, are responsible for a considerable burden of illness amongst patients and health care personnel, especially in resource-poor countries. Effective infection control in a district hospital requires that all the components of a health system function well: governance and stewardship, financing,infrastructure, procurement and supply chain management, human resources, health information systems, service delivery and finally supervision. We argue in this article that proper attention to infection control and an emphasis on safe health facilities is a concrete first step towards strengthening the interaction between disease-specific programmes and health systems where it really matters – for patients who are sick and for the health care workforce who provide

  15. [Cardiovascular disease: a view from global health perspective].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas Botrán, Alejandro; Ramos Rincón, José Manuel; de Górgolas Hernández-Mora, Miguel

    2013-09-07

    Globalization has facilitated the movement of large number of people around the world, leading modern clinicians to attend patients with rare or forgotten diseases. In the last few years many doctors are working in developing countries as volunteers or expatriates. The aim of this article is to summarize the basic epidemiological, clinical and therapeutic knowledge of the main cardiovascular diseases that a medical doctor from a developed country may attend in a tropical rural hospital, or with challenging diseases in patients coming from developing countries. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  16. ADVANZ - Neglected zoonotc disease control through a One Health approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saarnak, Christopher; Johansen, Maria Vang; Mukaratirwa, Samson

    2013-01-01

    As quoted in the Lancet in December 2012, endemic and enzootic zoonoses cause about a billion cases of illness and millions of death in people every year. Of these zoonoses, the diseases such as anthrax, bovine tuberculosis, brucellosis, cysticercosis, echinococcosis (hydatid disease) and rabies...... conditions such as hygiene and biosecurity can have an important effect on reducing the risks of transmission. In addition some of the endemic zoonotic diseases can be controlled by interventions such as mass vaccination (e.g rabies), treatment (echinococcosis) and/or creating a simple but effective change...

  17. Evidence-Based mHealth Chronic Disease Mobile App Intervention Design: Development of a Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhide Iii, Calvin C; Peeples, Malinda M; Anthony Kouyaté, Robin C

    2016-02-16

    Mobile technology offers new capabilities that can help to drive important aspects of chronic disease management at both an individual and population level, including the ability to deliver real-time interventions that can be connected to a health care team. A framework that supports both development and evaluation is needed to understand the aspects of mHealth that work for specific diseases, populations, and in the achievement of specific outcomes in real-world settings. This framework should incorporate design structure and process, which are important to translate clinical and behavioral evidence, user interface, experience design and technical capabilities into scalable, replicable, and evidence-based mobile health (mHealth) solutions to drive outcomes. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the identification and development of an app intervention design framework, and its subsequent refinement through development of various types of mHealth apps for chronic disease. The process of developing the framework was conducted between June 2012 and June 2014. Informed by clinical guidelines, standards of care, clinical practice recommendations, evidence-based research, best practices, and translated by subject matter experts, a framework for mobile app design was developed and the refinement of the framework across seven chronic disease states and three different product types is described. The result was the development of the Chronic Disease mHealth App Intervention Design Framework. This framework allowed for the integration of clinical and behavioral evidence for intervention and feature design. The application to different diseases and implementation models guided the design of mHealth solutions for varying levels of chronic disease management. The framework and its design elements enable replicable product development for mHealth apps and may provide a foundation for the digital health industry to systematically expand mobile health interventions and validate

  18. Health anxiety and risk of ischaemic heart disease: a prospective cohort study linking the Hordaland Health Study (HUSK) with the Cardiovascular Diseases in Norway (CVDNOR) project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berge, Line Iden; Skogen, Jens Christoffer; Sulo, Gerhard; Igland, Jannicke; Wilhelmsen, Ingvard; Vollset, Stein Emil; Tell, Grethe S; Knudsen, Ann Kristin

    2016-01-01

    Background The risk of ischaemic heart disease (IHD) is largely influenced by lifestyle. Interestingly, cohort studies show that anxiety in general is associated with increased risk of IHD, independent of established risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Health anxiety is a specific type of anxiety characterised by preoccupation of having, acquiring or possibly avoiding illness, yet little is known about lifestyle and risk of disease development in this group. Aim Investigate whether health anxiety is prospectively associated with IHD, and whether a potential association can be explained by the presence or absence of established risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. Methods Incident IHD was studied among 7052 participants in the community-based Hordaland Health Study (HUSK) during 12 years follow-up by linkage to the Cardiovascular Diseases in Norway (CVDNOR) project. Scores above 90th centile of the Whiteley Index defined health anxiety cases. Associations were examined with the Cox proportional regression models. Results During follow-up, 6.1% of health anxiety cases developed IHD compared with 3.0% of non-cases, yielding a gender-adjusted HR of 2.12 (95% CI 1.52 to 2.95). After adjustments for established cardiovascular risk factors, about 70% increased risk of IHD was found among cases with health anxiety (HR: 1.73 (95% CI 1.21 to 2.48)). The association followed a dose–response pattern. Conclusions This finding corroborates and extends the understanding of anxiety in various forms as a risk factor for IHD. New evidence of negative consequences over time underlines the importance of proper diagnosis and treatment for health anxiety. PMID:27810977

  19. Health anxiety and risk of ischaemic heart disease: a prospective cohort study linking the Hordaland Health Study (HUSK) with the Cardiovascular Diseases in Norway (CVDNOR) project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berge, Line Iden; Skogen, Jens Christoffer; Sulo, Gerhard; Igland, Jannicke; Wilhelmsen, Ingvard; Vollset, Stein Emil; Tell, Grethe S; Knudsen, Ann Kristin

    2016-11-03

    The risk of ischaemic heart disease (IHD) is largely influenced by lifestyle. Interestingly, cohort studies show that anxiety in general is associated with increased risk of IHD, independent of established risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Health anxiety is a specific type of anxiety characterised by preoccupation of having, acquiring or possibly avoiding illness, yet little is known about lifestyle and risk of disease development in this group. Investigate whether health anxiety is prospectively associated with IHD, and whether a potential association can be explained by the presence or absence of established risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. Incident IHD was studied among 7052 participants in the community-based Hordaland Health Study (HUSK) during 12 years follow-up by linkage to the Cardiovascular Diseases in Norway (CVDNOR) project. Scores above 90th centile of the Whiteley Index defined health anxiety cases. Associations were examined with the Cox proportional regression models. During follow-up, 6.1% of health anxiety cases developed IHD compared with 3.0% of non-cases, yielding a gender-adjusted HR of 2.12 (95% CI 1.52 to 2.95). After adjustments for established cardiovascular risk factors, about 70% increased risk of IHD was found among cases with health anxiety (HR: 1.73 (95% CI 1.21 to 2.48)). The association followed a dose-response pattern. This finding corroborates and extends the understanding of anxiety in various forms as a risk factor for IHD. New evidence of negative consequences over time underlines the importance of proper diagnosis and treatment for health anxiety. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  20. [Evolutionary medicine: A new look on health and disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauduer, F

    2017-03-01

    Evolutionary medicine represents an innovative approach deriving from evolutionary biology. It includes the initial Darwin's view, its actualization in the light of progresses in genetics and also dissident theories (i.e. non gene-based) particularly epigenetics. This approach enables us to reconsider the pathophysiology of numerous diseases, as for instance, infection, and our so-called diseases of civilization especially obesity, type 2 diabetes, allergy or cancer. Evolutionary medicine may also improve our knowledge regarding inter-individual variation in susceptibility to disease or drugs. Furthermore, it points out the impact of our behaviors and environment on the genesis of a series of diseases. Copyright © 2016 Société Nationale Française de Médecine Interne (SNFMI). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Exercise compliance and health outcome in a chronic disease ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    compliance with a chronic disease management programme (CDM programme) influenced shifts measured in clinical parameters over a period of 12 months. A retrospective analysis was done on data collected (30 months) from 206 men and 194 ...

  2. Oral health and cardiovascular care: Perceptions of people with cardiovascular disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Sanchez

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to explore the perception of patients with cardiovascular disease towards oral health and the potential for cardiac care clinicians to promote oral health.A needs assessment was undertaken with twelve patients with cardiovascular disease attending cardiac rehabilitation between 2015 and 2016, in three metropolitan hospitals in Sydney, Australia. These patients participated in face-to-face semi-structured interviews. Data was analysed using thematic analysis.Results suggested that while oral health was considered relevant there was high prevalence of poor oral health among participants, especially those from socioeconomic disadvantaged background. Awareness regarding the importance of oral health care its impact on cardiovascular outcomes was poor among participants. Oral health issues were rarely discussed in the cardiac setting. Main barriers deterring participants from seeking oral health care included lack of awareness, high cost of dental care and difficulties in accessing the public dental service. Findings also revealed that participants were interested in receiving further information about oral health and suggested various mediums for information delivery. The concept of cardiac care clinicians, especially nurses providing education, assessment and referrals to ongoing dental care was well received by participants who felt the post-acute period was the most appropriate time to receive oral health care advice. The issues of oral health training for non-dental clinicians and how to address existing barriers were highlighted by participants.The lack of oral health education being provided to patients with cardiovascular disease offers an opportunity to improve care and potentially, outcomes. In view of the evidence linking poor oral health with cardiovascular disease, cardiac care clinicians, especially nurses, should be appropriately trained to promote oral health in their practice. Affordable and accessible

  3. Oral health and cardiovascular care: Perceptions of people with cardiovascular disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamonson, Yenna; Ajwani, Shilpi; Bhole, Sameer; Bishop, Joshua; Lintern, Karen; Nolan, Samantha; Rajaratnam, Rohan; Redfern, Julie; Sheehan, Maria; Skarligos, Fiona; Spencer, Lissa; Srinivas, Ravi

    2017-01-01

    Main objective The aim of this study was to explore the perception of patients with cardiovascular disease towards oral health and the potential for cardiac care clinicians to promote oral health. Method A needs assessment was undertaken with twelve patients with cardiovascular disease attending cardiac rehabilitation between 2015 and 2016, in three metropolitan hospitals in Sydney, Australia. These patients participated in face-to-face semi-structured interviews. Data was analysed using thematic analysis. Results Results suggested that while oral health was considered relevant there was high prevalence of poor oral health among participants, especially those from socioeconomic disadvantaged background. Awareness regarding the importance of oral health care its impact on cardiovascular outcomes was poor among participants. Oral health issues were rarely discussed in the cardiac setting. Main barriers deterring participants from seeking oral health care included lack of awareness, high cost of dental care and difficulties in accessing the public dental service. Findings also revealed that participants were interested in receiving further information about oral health and suggested various mediums for information delivery. The concept of cardiac care clinicians, especially nurses providing education, assessment and referrals to ongoing dental care was well received by participants who felt the post-acute period was the most appropriate time to receive oral health care advice. The issues of oral health training for non-dental clinicians and how to address existing barriers were highlighted by participants. Relevance to clinical practice The lack of oral health education being provided to patients with cardiovascular disease offers an opportunity to improve care and potentially, outcomes. In view of the evidence linking poor oral health with cardiovascular disease, cardiac care clinicians, especially nurses, should be appropriately trained to promote oral health in

  4. Oral health and cardiovascular care: Perceptions of people with cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Paula; Everett, Bronwyn; Salamonson, Yenna; Ajwani, Shilpi; Bhole, Sameer; Bishop, Joshua; Lintern, Karen; Nolan, Samantha; Rajaratnam, Rohan; Redfern, Julie; Sheehan, Maria; Skarligos, Fiona; Spencer, Lissa; Srinivas, Ravi; George, Ajesh

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the perception of patients with cardiovascular disease towards oral health and the potential for cardiac care clinicians to promote oral health. A needs assessment was undertaken with twelve patients with cardiovascular disease attending cardiac rehabilitation between 2015 and 2016, in three metropolitan hospitals in Sydney, Australia. These patients participated in face-to-face semi-structured interviews. Data was analysed using thematic analysis. Results suggested that while oral health was considered relevant there was high prevalence of poor oral health among participants, especially those from socioeconomic disadvantaged background. Awareness regarding the importance of oral health care its impact on cardiovascular outcomes was poor among participants. Oral health issues were rarely discussed in the cardiac setting. Main barriers deterring participants from seeking oral health care included lack of awareness, high cost of dental care and difficulties in accessing the public dental service. Findings also revealed that participants were interested in receiving further information about oral health and suggested various mediums for information delivery. The concept of cardiac care clinicians, especially nurses providing education, assessment and referrals to ongoing dental care was well received by participants who felt the post-acute period was the most appropriate time to receive oral health care advice. The issues of oral health training for non-dental clinicians and how to address existing barriers were highlighted by participants. The lack of oral health education being provided to patients with cardiovascular disease offers an opportunity to improve care and potentially, outcomes. In view of the evidence linking poor oral health with cardiovascular disease, cardiac care clinicians, especially nurses, should be appropriately trained to promote oral health in their practice. Affordable and accessible dental care services

  5. Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD): Implications for health and nutritional issues among rural children in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Aihua; Wang, Lijie; Chen, Xiang; Liu, Xiaoyan; Li, Ling; Wang, Baozhen; Luo, Huiwen; Mo, Xiuting; Tobe, Ruoyan Gai

    2015-04-01

    In China, with fast economic growth, health and nutrition status among the rural population has shown significant improvement in the past decades. On the other hand, burden of non-communicable diseases and prevalence of related risk factors such as overweight and obesity has also increased. Among rural children, the double burden of malnutrition and emerging overweight and obesity has been neglected so far. According to the theory of Developmental Origin of Health and Diseases (DOHaD), malnutrition, including both undernutrition (stunting and wasting) and over-nutrition (overweight and obesity) during childhood is closely related to worsened health outcomes during adulthood. Such a neglected problem is attributable to a complicated synergy of social and environmental factors such as parental migration, financial situation of the household, child-rearing knowledge and practices of the primary caregivers, and has implications for public health. Based on literature review of lessons from the field, intervention to address malnutrition among rural children should be a comprehensive package, with consideration of their developmental environment and geographical and socioeconomic diversity. The scientific evidence on DOHaD indicates the probability and necessity of prevention of adult disease by promotion of maternal and child health and reducing malnutrition by provision of high-quality complementary foods, promotion of a well-balanced dietary pattern, and promotion of health literacy in the public would bring a potential benefit to reduce potential risk of diseases.

  6. Practices of Family Health Professionals Regarding Chronic Disease Control and Prevention Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esma Kabasakal

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Chronic diseases are of the utmost importance, due to their impact on high death rates, excessive increases in health expenses, and sustainability of health services. Further, it is recommended for individuals, and society at large, to decrease exposure to modifiable risk factors, like tobacco use, malnutrition, and lack of physical activity, and to encourage a lifestyle that supports the fight against chronic diseases. The aim of this study was to determine the practices of health professionals in terms of preventing chronic diseases and improving health. Methods: Health professionals from family health centers participated in this survey study. The data collection tool was developed by the researcher, by considering the nationwide health programs applied in Turkey, namely the Tobacco Control Program, Healthy Nutrition and Active Life Program, Turkey Diabetes Prevention and Control Program, and Cancer Control Programs. Results: Those who received training on health promotion had higher rates of involvement in tobacco cessation guidance, directing individuals to smoking cessation centers, giving trainings to cancer patients and others at risk, following up on individuals with a risk of obesity, raising awareness of healthy individuals concerning obesity, and training patients/patient relatives on diabetes. Discussion: The level of training that health professionals offer to patients and their relatives is higher than the level of training given to healthy individuals in all control programs. This inclination is an indicator of a treatment-oriented service approach to health. The capacity of health professionals should be directed more towards preventive medicine and health improving practices.

  7. Promote health or prevent disease? The effects of health-related advertising on eating behavior intention

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lin, Chia-Yen

    2015-01-01

    ...) and The Health Promotion Administration of the Ministry of Health and Welfare (MOHW) in Taiwan encourage individuals to adopt an earnest approach to healthy behavior through advocacy advertising...

  8. Burden of disease in Japan: using national and subnational data to inform local health policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmour, Stuart; Liao, Yi; Bilano, Ver; Shibuya, Kenji

    2014-05-01

    The Global Burden of Disease (GBD) study has been instrumental in guiding global health policy development since the early 1990s. The GBD 2010 project provided rich information about the key causes of mortality, disability-adjusted life years, and their associated risk factors in Japan and provided a unique opportunity to incorporate these data into health planning. As part of the latest update of this project, GBD 2013, the Japanese GBD collaborators plan to update and refine the available burden of disease data by incorporating sub-national estimates of the burden of disease at the prefectural level. These estimates will provide health planners and policy makers at both the national and prefectural level with new, more refined tools to adapt local public health initiatives to meet the health needs of local populations. Moreover, they will enable the Japanese health system to better respond to the unique challenges in their rapidly aging population and as a complex combination of non-communicable disease risk factors begin to dominate the policy agenda. Regional collaborations will enable nations to learn from the experiences of other nations that may be at different stages of the epidemiological transition and have different exposure profiles and associated health effects. Such analyses and improvements in the data collection systems will further improve the health of the Japanese, maintain Japan's excellent record of health equity, and provide a better understanding of the direction of health policy in the region.

  9. Burden of Disease in Japan: Using National and Subnational Data to Inform Local Health Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart Gilmour

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The Global Burden of Disease (GBD study has been instrumental in guiding global health policy development since the early 1990s. The GBD 2010 project provided rich information about the key causes of mortality, disability-adjusted life years, and their associated risk factors in Japan and provided a unique opportunity to incorporate these data into health planning. As part of the latest update of this project, GBD 2013, the Japanese GBD collaborators plan to update and refine the available burden of disease data by incorporating sub-national estimates of the burden of disease at the prefectural level. These estimates will provide health planners and policy makers at both the national and prefectural level with new, more refined tools to adapt local public health initiatives to meet the health needs of local populations. Moreover, they will enable the Japanese health system to better respond to the unique challenges in their rapidly aging population and as a complex combination of non-communicable disease risk factors begin to dominate the policy agenda. Regional collaborations will enable nations to learn from the experiences of other nations that may be at different stages of the epidemiological transition and have different exposure profiles and associated health effects. Such analyses and improvements in the data collection systems will further improve the health of the Japanese, maintain Japan's excellent record of health equity, and provide a better understanding of the direction of health policy in the region.

  10. Sleep disturbance in mental health problems and neurodegenerative disease

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Anderson, Kirstie N; Bradley, Andrew J

    2013-01-01

    ... and neurodegenerative disorders. The role of primary sleep disorders such as insomnia, obstructive sleep apnea, and REM sleep behavior disorder as potential causes or risk factors for particular mental health or neurodegenerative...

  11. Occurrence and location of Transmissible Venereal Tumors in Dogs seen at the Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro Veterinary Hospital: Oncology Sector between 2010 and 2014.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayane Caicó Collares Araujo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Araujo D.C.C., Antonioli T., Costa T.S., de Carvalho J.R.G., Laguna A.G.V., Ramadinha R.H.R. & Fernandes J.I. Occurrence and location of Transmissible Venereal Tumors in Dogs seen at the Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro Veterinary Hospital: Oncology Sector between 2010 and 2014. [Ocorrência e localização do Tumor Venéreo Transmissível em cães atendidos entre 2010 e 2014 no Setor de Oncologia do Hospital Veterinário da Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil.] Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 38(3:277-280, 2016. Programa de Residência em Medicina Veterinária, Instituto de Veterinária, Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, BR-465, Km 7, Seropédica, RJ 23851-970, Brasil. E-mail: dayanecaico@hotmail.com The Transmissible Venereal Tumor (TVT is a round cell neoplasm mostly affecting the genital of dogs. They can affect both sexes, and most animals are sexually active. Metastases, which occur in less than 5% of cases, occur through lymphatic or hematogenous. Diagnosis can be made by cytology and the most effective treatment is chemotherapy with vincristine sulfate. This study reports the occurrence of TVT from January 2010 to December 2014 in the UFRRJ Veterinary Hospital at the Oncology sector; clinical records were reviewed: 1,522 animals were seen and 123 (8.08% presented TVT. Of 123 animals afflicted, 71.54% were adults, 23.57% were senior and 4.87% had less than a year. A higher frequency of females (74 was observed, when compared to males (49. A higher incidence in mutts (78.05% was found, followed by poodles (7.32%, pinscher and Labrador (3.25%. Genital location was most common (79.04%, followed by a genito-cutaneous presentation (8.94%, nasal (5.69%, cutaneous (5.69% and ocular (0.81%. It can be linked with large quantities of stray dogs and poor animal control policies in the region.

  12. [Psychosocial analysis of the health-disease process].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawaia, B B

    1994-04-01

    This article is a reflection about the transdisciplinary paradigmas of the health-illness process noting the symbolic mediation between the reactions of the biological organism and the socio-environment factors including the pathogenic ones. The symbolic-affective mediation is analyzed from the perspective of Social Representation theory allowing one to comprehend the references of individual and collective actions in the health-illness process.

  13. Explanatory models of health and disease among South Asian immigrants in Chicago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirodkar, Manasi A; Baker, David W; Makoul, Gregory T; Khurana, Neerja; Paracha, Muhammad W; Kandula, Namratha R

    2011-04-01

    To identify concepts of health and disease as part of a study on designing culturally-targeted heart disease prevention messages for South Asians. We conducted qualitative, semi-structured interviews in English, Hindi and Urdu with 75 respondents from a federally qualified health center and at a community center for South Asian immigrants in Chicago, Illinois. Age ranged from 20 to 70 years; 60% were women; 60% held advanced degrees; 70% migrated to the US in the last 10 years; and 60% of the interviews were in Hindi or Urdu. Concepts of health and disease fell into four domains: behavioral, physical, psycho-social and spiritual. Muslim participants consistently evoked spiritual factors such as faith and prayer. Women more frequently included performing home duties and positive affect in their concept of health. Men more frequently cited behavioral factors such as smoking and drinking as the cause of disease. Many South Asians have a holistic conceptualization of health and disease, incorporating spiritual, physical and psycho-social factors. Health promotion strategies aimed at South Asians in the US should take into account this holistic model of health and disease, while also recognizing that variations exist within South Asians, by gender and religion.

  14. Tumor venéreo transmissível com metástases cutâneas em um cão transmissible venereal Tumor with cutaneous metastasis in a dog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Quaresma Moutinho

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available O tumor venéreo transmissível é diagnosticado, na maioria das vezes, em animais jovens, sadios e sexualmente ativos. Acomete, comumente, a genitália externa. Metástases, apesar de incomuns, ocorrem. O presente trabalho relata um caso de tumor venéreo transmissível na glande peniana com disseminação para a pele das regiões abdominal e inguinal.Transmissible venereal tumor is most of the times diagnosed in young, healthy and sexually active animais. In general it affects any part of external genitalis; metastasis, although uncommon, may occur. This paper reports a case of a transmissible venereal tumor, in the glans penis of a dog with spread to the skin of abdominal and inguinal regions.

  15. Public health and vector-borne diseases - a new concept for risk governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, K; Dressel, K M; Niedrig, M; Mertens, M; Schüle, S A; Groschup, M H

    2013-12-01

    Public Health is defined as an interdisciplinary multilevel approach that deals with questions of preventing diseases at the population level. In this context, this paper focuses on vector-borne diseases as an important threat with an increasing impact on human and animal health. Emphasis is laid on an integrated health approach ('One-Health' initiative) as it recognizes the interrelated nature of both human and animal health. The importance of vector-borne diseases to new and emerging diseases in Europe was demonstrated, for example, by the recent outbreak of West Nile virus infections in Greece, Northern Italy and Hungary; the spread of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus across Turkey, south-western countries of the former USSR and the Balkans; the dramatic increase in hantavirus infections in Germany in 2012; and the dengue virus outbreak in Portugal in the same year. This paper provides a systematic approach for the analysis, assessment and governance of emerging health risks attributed to vector-borne diseases by using a holistic approach developed by the International Risk Governance Council (IRGC), called the 'IRGC Risk Governance Framework'. It can be used by decision-makers and general Public Health authorities in order to evaluate the situation regarding any specific pathogen or Public Health risk and to decide if additional measures should be implemented. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  16. Working with Climate Projections to Estimate Disease Burden: Perspectives from Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conlon, Kathryn C.; Kintziger, Kristina W.; Jagger, Meredith; Stefanova, Lydia; Uejio, Christopher K.; Konrad, Charles

    2016-01-01

    There is interest among agencies and public health practitioners in the United States (USA) to estimate the future burden of climate-related health outcomes. Calculating disease burden projections can be especially daunting, given the complexities of climate modeling and the multiple pathways by which climate influences public health. Interdisciplinary coordination between public health practitioners and climate scientists is necessary for scientifically derived estimates. We describe a unique partnership of state and regional climate scientists and public health practitioners assembled by the Florida Building Resilience Against Climate Effects (BRACE) program. We provide a background on climate modeling and projections that has been developed specifically for public health practitioners, describe methodologies for combining climate and health data to project disease burden, and demonstrate three examples of this process used in Florida. PMID:27517942

  17. Working with Climate Projections to Estimate Disease Burden: Perspectives from Public Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn C. Conlon

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available There is interest among agencies and public health practitioners in the United States (USA to estimate the future burden of climate-related health outcomes. Calculating disease burden projections can be especially daunting, given the complexities of climate modeling and the multiple pathways by which climate influences public health. Interdisciplinary coordination between public health practitioners and climate scientists is necessary for scientifically derived estimates. We describe a unique partnership of state and regional climate scientists and public health practitioners assembled by the Florida Building Resilience Against Climate Effects (BRACE program. We provide a background on climate modeling and projections that has been developed specifically for public health practitioners, describe methodologies for combining climate and health data to project disease burden, and demonstrate three examples of this process used in Florida.

  18. Health promotion, preventive and curative aspects of diseases in astrology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Bhuvnesh Kumar; Subhakta, P K J P; Narayana, A

    2007-01-01

    The whole universe is intermingling into a unit in the period of globalization. Different cultures, life-styles and sciences are co-operating with each other in this situation. World Health Organization is working towards collaborating all prevalent medical sciences for attainment of good health and family welfare for each and every individual by 2020. Astrology is a part of Indian heritage. Astrology means the art of predicting or determining the influence of the planets and stars on human affairs. The origin of this word is from Greek word astron, star + logos (discourse). The account of deeds of good and bad during the present life and previous lives, their consequences of health or ill health during this life i.e. what, when and how the things takes place will be clearly known through Astrology. Highly advanced knowledge related to Astrology on medicine is preserved in Indian scriptures and the knowledge was transmitted from generation to generation. It is also a good source for health promotion, preventive, curative and other medical aspects. Brief direction related to astrological medical aspects is also available in Ayurvedic literature (Carakasamhită, Suśrutasamhhită, Aşţăngasangraha, Aşţăngahŗdaya, Sărngadharasamhită , Băvaprakăśa etc.) Some Ayurvedic practitioners, scholars and scientists realize the need of astrological knowledge related to medicine in the present time. In ancient times physician, astrologer and purŏhita (Hindu priest) simultaneously looked after the health and family welfare of individual, families and country. Astrologer guides medication and suitable time for the better cure of ailments. Even the medicinal herbs were collected and treated at appropriate time for their efficacy. Astrology and Ayurvĕda are inseparable sciences of life. Hence, in this article, a concise astrological evaluation related to health promotion, preventive and curative aspects of Astrology is being presented.

  19. Saliva: Physiology and Diagnostic Potential in Health and Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastien J. C. Farnaud

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Saliva has been described as the mirror of the body. In a world of soaring healthcare costs and an environment where rapid diagnosis may be critical to a positive patient outcome, saliva is emerging as a viable alternative to blood sampling. In this review, we discuss the composition and various physiological roles of saliva in the oral cavity, including soft tissue protection, antimicrobial activities, and oral tissue repair. We then explore saliva as a diagnostic marker of local oral disease and focus particularly on oral cancers. The cancer theme continues when we focus on systemic disease diagnosis from salivary biomarkers. Communicable disease is the focus of the next section where we review the literature relating to the direct and indirect detection of pathogenic infections from human saliva. Finally, we discuss hormones involved in appetite regulation and whether saliva is a viable alternative to blood in order to monitor hormones that are involved in satiety.

  20. Oxidative stress signaling to chromatin in health and disease

    KAUST Repository

    Kreuz, Sarah

    2016-06-20

    Oxidative stress has a significant impact on the development and progression of common human pathologies, including cancer, diabetes, hypertension and neurodegenerative diseases. Increasing evidence suggests that oxidative stress globally influences chromatin structure, DNA methylation, enzymatic and non-enzymatic post-translational modifications of histones and DNA-binding proteins. The effects of oxidative stress on these chromatin alterations mediate a number of cellular changes, including modulation of gene expression, cell death, cell survival and mutagenesis, which are disease-driving mechanisms in human pathologies. Targeting oxidative stress-dependent pathways is thus a promising strategy for the prevention and treatment of these diseases. We summarize recent research developments connecting oxidative stress and chromatin regulation.

  1. Oxidative stress signaling to chromatin in health and disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreuz, Sarah; Fischle, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress has a significant impact on the development and progression of common human pathologies, including cancer, diabetes, hypertension and neurodegenerative diseases. Increasing evidence suggests that oxidative stress globally influences chromatin structure, DNA methylation, enzymatic and non-enzymatic post-translational modifications of histones and DNA-binding proteins. The effects of oxidative stress on these chromatin alterations mediate a number of cellular changes, including modulation of gene expression, cell death, cell survival and mutagenesis, which are disease-driving mechanisms in human pathologies. Targeting oxidative stress-dependent pathways is thus a promising strategy for the prevention and treatment of these diseases. We summarize recent research developments connecting oxidative stress and chromatin regulation. PMID:27319358

  2. Measuring actual eHealth literacy among patients with rheumatic diseases: a qualitative analysis of problems encountered using Health 1.0 and Health 2.0 applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Vaart, Rosalie; Drossaert, Constance H C; de Heus, Miriam; Taal, Erik; van de Laar, Mart A F J

    2013-02-11

    The Internet offers diverse opportunities for disease management, through information websites (Health 1.0) and interactive applications such as peer support forums, online consults, and insight into electronic medical records (Health 2.0). However, various skills are required to benefit from Health 1.0 and Health 2.0 applications for one's own health, known as eHealth literacy. To study the eHealth literacy of patients with rheumatic diseases and the types of problems they encounter when using the Internet in relation to their disease. In two studies, patients were asked about their current disease-related Internet use and their eHealth literacy was observed during performance tests. In study 1, 15 patients (aged 39-74) performed 6 information-retrieval tasks on the Internet (Health 1.0). In study 2, 16 patients (aged 24-72) performed 3 Health 2.0 tasks on a hospital-based online Web portal and 2 Health 2.0 tasks on interactive websites. Participants were asked to think aloud while performing the assignments, and screen activities were recorded. Types and frequency of problems were identified by 2 independent researchers and coded into categories using inductive analysis. Almost all patients in our studies had searched the Internet for information about rheumatic diseases in the past. Fewer patients had used Health 2.0 applications, but many were nevertheless enthusiastic about the possibilities from Health 2.0 applications after finishing the assignments. However, nearly all participants experienced difficulties, and a substantial number of participants were not able to complete all of the assignments. Encountered problems could be divided into 6 sequential categories: (1) operating the computer and Internet browser, (2) navigating and orientating on the Web, (3) utilizing search strategies, (4) evaluating relevance and reliability, (5) adding content to the Web, and (6) protecting and respecting privacy. Most severe difficulties occurred in levels 3 and 4-in

  3. Measuring Actual eHealth Literacy Among Patients With Rheumatic Diseases: a Qualitative Analysis of Problems Encountered Using Health 1.0 and Health 2.0 Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drossaert, Constance HC; de Heus, Miriam; Taal, Erik; van de Laar, Mart AFJ

    2013-01-01

    Background The Internet offers diverse opportunities for disease management, through information websites (Health 1.0) and interactive applications such as peer support forums, online consults, and insight into electronic medical records (Health 2.0). However, various skills are required to benefit from Health 1.0 and Health 2.0 applications for one’s own health, known as eHealth literacy. Objective To study the eHealth literacy of patients with rheumatic diseases and the types of problems they encounter when using the Internet in relation to their disease. Methods In two studies, patients were asked about their current disease-related Internet use and their eHealth literacy was observed during performance tests. In study 1, 15 patients (aged 39-74) performed 6 information-retrieval tasks on the Internet (Health 1.0). In study 2, 16 patients (aged 24-72) performed 3 Health 2.0 tasks on a hospital-based online Web portal and 2 Health 2.0 tasks on interactive websites. Participants were asked to think aloud while performing the assignments, and screen activities were recorded. Types and frequency of problems were identified by 2 independent researchers and coded into categories using inductive analysis. Results Almost all patients in our studies had searched the Internet for information about rheumatic diseases in the past. Fewer patients had used Health 2.0 applications, but many were nevertheless enthusiastic about the possibilities from Health 2.0 applications after finishing the assignments. However, nearly all participants experienced difficulties, and a substantial number of participants were not able to complete all of the assignments. Encountered problems could be divided into 6 sequential categories: (1) operating the computer and Internet browser, (2) navigating and orientating on the Web, (3) utilizing search strategies, (4) evaluating relevance and reliability, (5) adding content to the Web, and (6) protecting and respecting privacy. Most severe

  4. Social Support and Health: A Review of Physiological Processes Potentially Underlying Links to Disease Outcomes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Uchino, Bert N

    2006-01-01

    ...” across these disease-relevant systems. Recent research on immune-mediated inflammatory processes is also starting to provide data on more integrative physiological mechanisms potentially linking social support to health...

  5. CRED REA Coral Health and Disease Assessment at Maro Reef, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands in 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Coral health and disease assessments were conducted along 2 consecutively placed 25-m transects, as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 9 sites at Maro...

  6. CRED REA Coral Health and Disease Assessment at Laysan Island, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands in 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Coral health and disease assessments were conducted along 2 consecutively placed 25-m transects, as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 3 sites at...

  7. CRED REA Coral Health and Disease Assessment at Ofu-Olosega Island, American Samoa in 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Coral health and disease assessments were conducted along 2 consecutively placed 25-m transects, as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 10 sites at...

  8. CRED REA Coral Health and Disease Assessment at Oahu, Main Hawaiian Islands in 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Coral health and disease assessments were conducted along 2 consecutively placed 25-m transects, as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 2 sites at Oahu...

  9. CRED REA Coral Health and Disease Assessment at Guguan Island, Marianas Archipelago in 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Coral health and disease assessments were conducted along 2 consecutively placed 25-m transects, as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 3 sites at...

  10. CRED REA Coral Health and Disease Assessment at Tutuila Island, American Samoa in 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Coral health and disease assessments were conducted along 2 consecutively placed 25-m transects, as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 23 sites at...

  11. CRED REA Coral Health and Disease Assessment at Maug Island, Marianas Archipelago in 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Coral health and disease assessments were conducted along 2 consecutively placed 25-m transects, as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 9 sites at Maug...

  12. CRED REA Coral Health and Disease Assessment at Johnston Atoll, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Coral health and disease assessments were conducted along 2 consecutively placed 25-m transects, as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 6 sites at...

  13. CRED REA Coral Health and Disease Assessment at Ta'u Island, American Samoa in 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Coral health and disease assessments were conducted along 2 consecutively placed 25-m transects, as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 9 sites at Ta'u...

  14. CRED REA Coral Health and Disease Assessment at Wake Atoll, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Coral health and disease assessments were conducted along 2 consecutively placed 25-m transects, as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 12 sites at...

  15. CRED REA Coral Health and Disease Assessment at Necker Island, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands in 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Coral health and disease assessments were conducted along 2 consecutively placed 25-m transects, as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 2 sites at...

  16. CRED REA Coral Health and Disease Assessment at Kingman Reef, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Coral health and disease assessments were conducted along 2 consecutively placed 25-m transects, as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 11 sites at...

  17. CRED REA Coral Health and Disease Assessment at Pagan Island, Marianas Archipelago in 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Coral health and disease assessments were conducted along 2 consecutively placed 25-m transects, as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 9 sites at...

  18. CRED REA Coral Health and Disease Assessment at Aguijan Island, Marianas Archipelago in 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Coral health and disease assessments were conducted along 2 consecutively placed 25-m transects, as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 1 sites at...

  19. CRED REA Coral Health and Disease Assessment at Guam, Marianas Archipelago in 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Coral health and disease assessments were conducted along 2 consecutively placed 25-m transects, as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 10 sites at...

  20. CRED REA Coral Health and Disease Assessment at Hawaii Island, Main Hawaiian Islands in 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Coral health and disease assessments were conducted along 2 consecutively placed 25-m transects, as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 17 sites at...

  1. CRED REA Coral Health and Disease Assessment at Kure Atoll, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands in 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Coral health and disease assessments were conducted along 2 consecutively placed 25-m transects, as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 9 sites at Kure...

  2. CRED REA Coral Health and Disease Assessment at Sarigan Island, Marianas Archipelago in 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Coral health and disease assessments were conducted along 2 consecutively placed 25-m transects, as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 3 sites at...

  3. CRED REA Coral Health and Disease Assessment at Alamagan Island, Marianas Archipelago in 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Coral health and disease assessments were conducted along 2 consecutively placed 25-m transects, as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 3 sites at...

  4. CRED REA Coral Health and Disease Assessment at Molokai Island, Main Hawaiian Islands in 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Coral health and disease assessments were conducted along 2 consecutively placed 25-m transects, as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 3 sites at...

  5. CRED REA Coral Health and Disease Assessment at French Frigate Shoals, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands in 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Coral health and disease assessments were conducted along 2 consecutively placed 25-m transects, as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 10 sites at...

  6. CRED REA Coral Health and Disease Assessment at Jarvis Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Coral health and disease assessments were conducted along 2 consecutively placed 25-m transects, as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 9 sites at...

  7. CRED REA Coral Health and Disease Assessment at Lisianski Island, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands in 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Coral health and disease assessments were conducted along 2 consecutively placed 25-m transects, as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 9 sites at...

  8. CRED REA Coral Health and Disease Assessment at Lanai Island, Main Hawaiian Islands in 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Coral health and disease assessments were conducted along 2 consecutively placed 25-m transects, as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 6 sites at...

  9. CRED REA Coral Health and Disease Assessment at Saipan Island, Marianas Archipelago in 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Coral health and disease assessments were conducted along 2 consecutively placed 25-m transects, as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 8 sites at...

  10. CRED REA Coral Health and Disease Assessment at Maui Island, Main Hawaiian Islands in 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Coral health and disease assessments were conducted along 2 consecutively placed 25-m transects, as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 11 sites at...

  11. CRED REA Coral Health and Disease Assessment at Asuncion Island, Marianas Archipelago in 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Coral health and disease assessments were conducted along 2 consecutively placed 25-m transects, as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 3 sites at...

  12. CRED REA Coral Health and Disease Assessment at Tinian Island, Marianas Archipelago in 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Coral health and disease assessments were conducted along 2 consecutively placed 25-m transects, as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 5 sites at...

  13. CRED REA Coral Health and Disease Assessment at Lehua Rock, Main Hawaiian Islands in 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Coral health and disease assessments were conducted along 2 consecutively placed 25-m transects, as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 3 sites at...

  14. CRED REA Coral Health and Disease Assessment at Swains Atoll, American Samoa in 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Coral health and disease assessments were conducted along 2 consecutively placed 25-m transects, as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 8 sites at...

  15. CRED REA Coral Health and Disease Assessment at Kaula Rock, Main Hawaiian Islands in 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Coral health and disease assessments were conducted along 2 consecutively placed 25-m transects, as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 2 sites at...

  16. CRED REA Coral Health and Disease Assessment at Rose Island, American Samoa in 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Coral health and disease assessments were conducted along 2 consecutively placed 25-m transects, as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 12 sites at...

  17. CRED REA Coral Health and Disease Assessment at Rota Island, Marianas Archipelago in 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Coral health and disease assessments were conducted along 2 consecutively placed 25-m transects, as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 6 sites at Rota...

  18. CRED REA Coral Health and Disease Assessment at Uracas Island, Marianas Archipelago in 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Coral health and disease assessments were conducted along 2 consecutively placed 25-m transects, as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 3 sites at...

  19. CRED REA Coral Health and Disease Assessment at Niihau Island, Main Hawaiian Islands in 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Coral health and disease assessments were conducted along 2 consecutively placed 25-m transects, as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 6 sites at...

  20. CRED REA Coral Health and Disease Assessment at Midway Atoll, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands in 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Coral health and disease assessments were conducted along 2 consecutively placed 25-m transects, as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 9 sites at...

  1. CRED REA Coral Health and Disease Assessment at Kauai Island, Main Hawaiian Islands in 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Coral health and disease assessments were conducted along 2 consecutively placed 25-m transects, as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 4 sites at...

  2. CRED REA Coral Health and Disease Assessment at Agrihan Island, Marianas Archipelago in 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Coral health and disease assessments were conducted along 2 consecutively placed 25-m transects, as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 3 sites at...

  3. A structural model of health behavior modification among patients with cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goong, Hwasoo; Ryu, Seungmi; Xu, Lijuan

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of the study was to test a structural equation model in which social support, health beliefs, and stage of change predict the health behaviors of patients with cardiovascular disease. A cross-sectional correlational design was used. Using convenience sampling, a survey about social support, health belief, stage of change, and health behavior was completed by 314 adults with cardiovascular disease from outpatient clinics in 2 university hospitals in Korea. Data were analyzed using a structural equation model with the Analysis of Moment program. The participants were aged 53.44±13.19 years (mean±SD), and about 64% of them were male. The proposed model fit the data from the study well, explaining 19% and 60% of the variances in the stage of change and health behavior, respectively. The findings indicate that the performance of health behavior modification among the patients with cardiovascular disease can be explained by social support, health belief, and stage of change based on a health-belief and stage-of-change model. Further studies are warranted to confirm the efficacy of health-promoting strategies in initiating and maintaining the performance of health behaviors by providing social support from family and medical staff and enhancing health belief. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Exploring sexual health among female sexually transmitted disease clinic patients, San Francisco 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Sally C; Bernstein, Kyle T; Philip, Susan S

    2013-03-01

    Current data on sexual health in the United States is limited, in part, because of a lack of measurement tools. It is difficult for programs to develop a holistic approach to improving sexual health that is data-driven and evaluable without a tool that encompasses sexual health beyond the absence of disease. The objective of this study was to understand possible factors associated with sexual health and reported differences in sexual health among women. We conducted a survey measuring sexual health among women seeking care at the municipal sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinic in San Francisco between January 25, 2010, and June 15, 2010. Records were matched on variables including basic demographics, reason for visit, symptoms at visit, history of an STD, and STD diagnosis at the visit. A total of 822 women completed the questionnaire during the study period. Women reporting no recent sexual activity reported feeling more insecure, angry, isolated, and limited because of health compared with women with recent sexual activity. However, few differences were seen among women based on symptoms and diagnosis at visit. Given the minimal differences based on symptoms and disease, this suggests that there are other factors that impact the quality of life and sexual health. Creating tools that can be used to measure sexual health is a necessary first step for programs to understand the sexual health of a community. More broad-based assessments of sexual health in a variety of populations will be critical to identifying points of intervention and progress toward success.

  5. Estimated Global Disease Burden From US Health Care Sector Greenhouse Gas Emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckelman, Matthew J; Sherman, Jodi D

    2017-10-26

    To quantify the increased disease burden caused by US health care sector life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of 614 million metric tons of carbon dioxide equivalents in 2013. We screened for health damage factors that linked GHG emissions to disease burdens. We selected 5 factors, based on appropriate temporal modeling scales, which reflect a range of possible GHG emissions scenarios. We applied these factors to health care sector emissions. We projected that annual GHG emissions associated with health care in the United States would cause 123 000 to 381 000 disability-adjusted life-years in future health damages, with malnutrition being the largest damage category. Through their contribution to global climate change, GHG emissions will negatively affect public health because of an increased prevalence of extreme weather, flooding, vector-borne disease, and other effects. As the stewards of global health, it is important for health care professionals to recognize the magnitude of GHG emissions associated with health care itself, and the severity of associated health damages. (Am J Public Health. Published online ahead of print October 26, 2017: e1-e3. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2017.303846).

  6. Impact of postprandial glycaemia on health and prevention of disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaak, E E; Antoine, J-M; Benton, D

    2012-01-01

    in relation to body weight control, the development of oxidative stress, T2DM, and CVD and in maintaining optimal exercise and cognitive performance. There is mechanistic evidence linking postprandial glycaemia or glycaemic variability to the development of these conditions or in the impairment in cognitive......Postprandial glucose, together with related hyperinsulinemia and lipidaemia, has been implicated in the development of chronic metabolic diseases like obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). In this review, available evidence is discussed on postprandial glucose...

  7. National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Health Technology Assessment (HTA) Programme research funding and UK burden of disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinnery, Fay; Bashevoy, Gemma; Blatch-Jones, Amanda; Douet, Lisa; Puddicombe, Sarah; Raftery, James

    2018-02-02

    HTA Programme funding is governed by the need for evidence and scientific quality, reflecting funding of the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) by the NHS. The need criterion incorporates covering the spectrum of diseases, but also taking account of research supported by other funders. This study compared the NIHR HTA Programme portfolio of research with the UK burden of disease as measured by Disability-adjusted Life Years (DALYs). A retrospective cross-sectional study using a cohort of all funded primary research and evidence syntheses projects received by the HTA Programme from April 2011 to March 2016 (n = 363); to determine the proportion of spend by disease compared with burden of disease in the UK calculated using 2015 UK DALY data. The programme costing just under £44 million broadly reflected UK DALY burden by disease. Spend was lower than disease burden for cancer, cardiovascular and musculoskeletal diseases, which may reflect the importance of other funders, notably medical charities, which concentrate on these diseases. The HTA Programme spend, adjusted for other relevant funders, broadly matches disease burden in the UK; no diseases are being neglected.

  8. Utilizing Dental Electronic Health Records Data to Predict Risk for Periodontal Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyvalikakath, Thankam P; Padman, Rema; Vyawahare, Karnali; Darade, Pratiksha; Paranjape, Rhucha

    2015-01-01

    Periodontal disease is a major cause for tooth loss and adversely affects individuals' oral health and quality of life. Research shows its potential association with systemic diseases like diabetes and cardiovascular disease, and social habits such as smoking. This study explores mining potential risk factors from dental electronic health records to predict and display patients' contextualized risk for periodontal disease. We retrieved relevant risk factors from structured and unstructured data on 2,370 patients who underwent comprehensive oral examinations at the Indiana University School of Dentistry, Indianapolis, IN, USA. Predicting overall risk and displaying relationships between risk factors and their influence on the patient's oral and general health can be a powerful educational and disease management tool for patients and clinicians at the point of care.

  9. Health-related quality of life in youth with Crohn disease: role of disease activity and parenting stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Wendy N; Boyle, Shana L; Graef, Danielle M; Janicke, David M; Jolley, Christopher D; Denson, Lee A; Baldassano, Robert N; Hommel, Kevin A

    2015-06-01

    Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) is an important, but understudied construct in pediatric inflammatory bowel disease. Family level predictors of HRQOL have been understudied as are the mechanisms through which disease activity affects HRQOL. The present study examines the relation between a family level factor (parenting stress) and HRQOL in youth with Crohn disease. Parenting stress is examined as a mechanism through which disease activity affects HRQOL. A total of 99 adolescents with Crohn disease and their parents were recruited across 3 sites. Adolescents completed the IMPACT-III (inflammatory bowel disease-specific HRQOL). Parents completed the Pediatric Inventory for Parents, a measure of medically related parenting stress that assesses stress because of the occurrence of medical stressors and stress because of the perceived difficulty of stressors. Disease activity was obtained from medical records. Parenting stress because of the occurrence of medical stressors partially mediated the disease severity-HRQOL relation, reducing the relation between these variables from 49.67% to 31.58% (B= -0.56, P disease severity on HRQOL via parenting stress significantly differed from zero. Parenting stress because of the perceived difficulty of medical stressors partially mediated the disease severity-HRQOL relation, reducing the relation from 49.67% to 30.29% (B= -0.55, P disease severity increased, parenting stress also increased, and adolescent HRQOL decreased. Parenting stress should be considered and assessed for along with medical factors as part of a comprehensive approach to improve HRQOL in adolescents with Crohn disease.

  10. Modeling the Cumulative Effects of Social Exposures on Health: Moving beyond Disease-Specific Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather L. White

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The traditional explanatory models used in epidemiology are “disease specific”, identifying risk factors for specific health conditions. Yet social exposures lead to a generalized, cumulative health impact which may not be specific to one illness. Disease-specific models may therefore misestimate social factors’ effects on health. Using data from the Canadian Community Health Survey and Canada 2001 Census we construct and compare “disease-specific” and “generalized health impact” (GHI models to gauge the negative health effects of one social exposure: socioeconomic position (SEP. We use logistic and multinomial multilevel modeling with neighbourhood-level material deprivation, individual-level education and household income to compare and contrast the two approaches. In disease-specific models, the social determinants under study were each associated with the health conditions of interest. However, larger effect sizes were apparent when outcomes were modeled as compound health problems (0, 1, 2, or 3+ conditions using the GHI approach. To more accurately estimate social exposures’ impacts on population health, researchers should consider a GHI framework.

  11. Vaccination and Health Maintenance Issues to Consider in Patients With Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, Jason; Wasan, Sharmeel K; Farraye, Francis A

    2017-12-01

    Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) do not receive routine preventive care at the same rate as the general population. IBD places patients at increased risk for developing vaccine-preventable illnesses. This risk is further exacerbated by immunosuppressive therapy. This article highlights the necessary vaccinations for IBD patients and the timing of vaccination for immunosuppressed patients, and discusses the health maintenance needs and preventive care issues related to heart disease, smoking, osteoporosis, mental health, cervical cancer, and skin cancer.

  12. The global burden of respiratory disease-impact on child health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zar, Heather J; Ferkol, Thomas W

    2014-05-01

    Respiratory disease is the major cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide, with infants and young children especially susceptible. The spectrum of disease ranges from acute infections to chronic non-communicable diseases. Five respiratory conditions dominate-acute respiratory infections, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma, tuberculosis (TB), and lung cancer. Pneumonia remains the predominant cause of childhood mortality, causing nearly 1.3 million deaths each year, most of which are preventable. Asthma is the commonest non-communicable disease in children. Pediatric TB constitutes up to 20% of the TB caseload in high incidence countries. Environmental exposures such as tobacco smoke, indoor air pollution, and poor nutrition are common risk factors for acute and chronic respiratory diseases. Pediatric and adult respiratory disease is closely linked. Early childhood respiratory infection or environmental exposures may lead to chronic disease in adulthood. Childhood immunization can effectively reduce the incidence and severity of childhood pneumonia; childhood immunization is also effective for reducing pneumonia in the elderly. The Forum of International Respiratory Societies (FIRS), representing the major respiratory societies worldwide, has produced a global roadmap of respiratory diseases, Respiratory Disease in the World: Realities of Today-Opportunities for Tomorrow. This highlights the burden of respiratory diseases globally and contains specific recommendations for effective strategies. Greater availability and upscaled implementation of effective strategies for prevention and management of respiratory diseases is needed worldwide to improve global health and diminish the current inequities in health care worldwide. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Sleep disturbance in mental health problems and neurodegenerative disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson KN

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Kirstie N Anderson1 Andrew J Bradley2,3 1Department of Neurology, Newcastle Upon Tyne Hospitals NHS Trust, Newcastle Upon Tyne, UK; 2Eli Lilly and Company Limited, Lilly House, Basingstoke, UK; 3Institute of Neuroscience, Newcastle University, Newcastle Upon Tyne, UK Abstract: Sleep has been described as being of the brain, by the brain, and for the brain. This fundamental neurobiological behavior is controlled by homeostatic and circadian (24-hour processes and is vital for normal brain function. This review will outline the normal sleep–wake cycle, the changes that occur during aging, and the specific patterns of sleep disturbance that occur in association with both mental health disorders and neurodegenerative disorders. The role of primary sleep disorders such as insomnia, obstructive sleep apnea, and REM sleep behavior disorder as potential causes or risk factors for particular mental health or neurodegenerative problems will also be discussed. Keywords: sleep, mental health, neurodegenerative disorders, cognition

  14. Type D personality and health status in cardiovascular disease populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Versteeg, Henneke; Spek, Viola; Pedersen, Susanne S.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Knowledge of the factors associated with individual differences in patient-reported outcomes is essential to identify high-risk patients and improve secondary prevention. Design: In this meta-analysis, we examined the association between Type D personality and the individual differences...... in patient-reported physical and mental health status among cardiovascular patients. Methods: A computerized search of the literature through PUBMED and PsychINFO (from 1995 to May 2011) was performed and prospective studies were selected that analysed the association between Type D personality and health...... status in cardiovascular patients. Two separate meta-analyses were performed for the association of Type D personality with physical and mental health status, respectively. Results: Of all identified studies, ten studies met the selection criteria. The meta-analyses showed that Type D was associated...

  15. Preferences for Genetic and Behavioral Health Information: The Impact of Risk Factors and Disease Attributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Suzanne C.; McBride, Colleen M.; Alford, Sharon Hensley; Kaphingst, Kimberly A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Increased availability of genetic risk information may lead the public to give precedence to genetic causation over behavioral/environmental factors, decreasing behavior change motivation. Few population-based data inform these concerns. Purpose We assess the association of family history, behavioral risks, and causal attributions for diseases and the perceived value of pursuing information emphasizing health habits or genes. Method 1959 healthy adults completed a survey that assessed behavioral risk factors, family history, causal attributions of eight diseases, and health information preferences. Results Participants’ causal beliefs favored health behaviors over genetics. Interest in behavioral information was higher than in genetic information. As behavioral risk factors increased, inclination toward genetic explanations increased; interest in how health habits affect disease risk decreased. Conclusions Those at greatest need for behavior change may hold attributions that diminish interest in behavior change information. Enhancing understanding of gene-environment influences could be explored to increase engagement with health information. PMID:20532842

  16. Free Radicals and Antioxidants in Cardiovascular Health and Disease

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Internet Journal of Medical Update - EJOURNAL ... This paper reviews the biology of ROS/RNS, their pathways through which they relate to the pathology of cardiovascular disease and discusses the putative roles that antioxidants, including phenolics, may play in controlling oxidative stress and reduce the incidence of ...

  17. Gasotransmitter Hydrogen Sulfide Signaling in Neuronal Health and Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Bindu D; Snyder, Solomon H

    2017-12-01

    Hydrogen sulfide is a gaseous signaling molecule or gasotransmitter which plays important roles in a wide spectrum of physiologic processes in the brain and peripheral tissues. Unlike nitric oxide and carbon monoxide, the other major gasotransmitters, research on hydrogen sulfide is still in its infancy. One of the modes by which hydrogen sulfide signals is via a posttranslational modification termed sulfhydration/persulfidation, which occurs on reactive cysteine residues on target proteins, where the reactive -SH group is converted to an -SSH group. Sulfhydration is a substantially prevalent modification, which modulates the structure or function of proteins being modified. Thus, precise control of endogenous hydrogen sulfide production and metabolism is critical for maintenance of optimal cellular function, with excess generation and paucity, both contributing to pathology. Dysregulation of the reverse transsulfuration pathway which generates hydrogen sulfide occurs in several neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease and Alzheimer's disease. Accordingly, treatment with donors of hydrogen sulfide or stimulation of the reverse transsulfuration have proved beneficial in several neurodegenerative states. In this review we focus on hydrogen sulfide mediated neuronal signaling processes that contribute to neuroprotection. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Metabolic functions of peroxisomes in health and disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wanders, Ronald J. A.

    2014-01-01

    Peroxisomes are subcellular organelles which are present in virtually every eukaryotic cell and catalyze a large number of metabolic functions. The importance of peroxisomes for humans is stressed by the existence of a large group of genetic diseases in which either the biogenesis of peroxisomes is

  19. Zoonotic diseases and human health: the human influenza example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoub, Barry D

    2012-06-20

    Over the past few decades a large number of new and emerging infectious diseases have been recognised in humans, partly because of improved diagnostic technologies and increased awareness and also, partly because of dynamic ecological changes between human hosts and their exposure to animals and the environment (Coker et al. 2011). Some 177 new pathogenic organisms have been recognised to be 'emerging', that is, have newly arisen or been newly introduced into human populations; almost three quarters of these, 130 (73%), have come from zoonotic origins (Cascio et al. 2011; Cutler, Fooks & Van Der Poel 2010; Taylor, Latham & Woolhouse 2001; Woolhouse & Gowtage-Sequeria 2005). One of the most prevalent and important human infectious disease is influenza, a disease responsible globally for a quarter million deaths annually. In the USA alone the toll from influenza is estimated at 36 000 deaths and 226 000 hospitalisations, and it ranks as the most important cause of vaccine preventable mortality in that country (CDC 2010). The epidemiological behaviour of human influenza clearly defines it as an emerging infectious disease and the recent understanding of its zoonotic origins has contributed much to the understanding of its behaviour in humans (Fauci 2006).

  20. Health actions and disease patterns related to coronary heart ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1990-07-21

    Jul 21, 1990 ... included the London School of Hygiene questionnaire for chest pain.7 A medical history related to CHD was obtained. This included questions on hypertension, ..... The coexistence of the major coronary heart disease risk factors in the coloured population of the Cape Peninsula. (The CRISIC studr).