Kelly, Matthew; Strazdins, Lyndall; Dellora, Tarie; Khamman, Suwanee; Seubsman, Sam-Ang; Sleigh, Adrian C
Thailand has experienced a rapid economic transition from agriculture to industry and services, and from informal to formal employment. It has much less state regulation and worker representation relative to developed nations, who underwent these transitions more slowly and sequentially, decades earlier. We examine the strengthening of Thai government policy and legislation affecting worker's health, responding to international norms, a new democratic constitution, fear of foreign importer embargos and several fatal workplace disasters. We identify key challenges remaining for Thai policy makers, including legislation enforcement and the measurement of impacts on worker's mental and physical health.
Bygbjerg, Ib Christian; Meyrowitsch, Dan W
and pregnancy. With the exception of HIV/AIDS, which also hit richer societies, these diseases of poverty have been under-prioritized regarding research as well. However, at the turn of the Millennium, the burden of "Western" non-communicable diseases was increasing fast in developing countries. And by 2025...... diseases like child diseases, malaria, HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis. It is remarkable that the specific chronic diseases of major public health relevance are in fact not mentioned in the MDG, even if these diseases increasingly are hitting populations in low- and middle-income societies, i.e. developing...
National Technical Assistance Center on Transition, 2016
Recently researchers have begun focusing on young adults with mental health disorders transitioning into adulthood. Research exploring the importance of mental health support in secondary transition have yielded positive outcomes. For example, strong collaboration between educational and mental health agencies ensuring academic, employment, and…
23 juin 2009 ... Understanding the Demographic and Health Transition in Developing Countries ... countries comes from analysis of demographic and health survey data. ... Navrongo (Ghana), Matlab (Bangladesh) and Filabavi (Viet Nam) ...
Liu, Y; Rao, K; Fei, J
Drawing on experiences from China and Russia (the world's two largest transitional economies), this paper empirically examines the impact of economic reforms on health status. While China's overall health status continued to improve after the economic reform, Russia experienced a serious deterioration in its population health. The observed differences in health performance between China and Russia can be explained by the different impacts of economic reforms on three major socioeconomic determinants of health. Depending on whether or not the reform improves physical environment (as reflected in income level and nutritional status), social environment (including social stability and security system), and health care, we would observe either a positive or a negative net effect on health. Despite remarkable differences in overall health development, China and Russia share some common problems. Mental and social health problems such as suicides and alcohol poisoning have been on the rise in both countries. These problems were much more serious in Russia, where political and social instability was more pronounced, associated with Russia's relatively radical reform process. With their economies moving toward a free market system, health sectors in China and Russia are undergoing marketization, which has had serious detrimental effect on the public health services.
Kelly, Matthew; Strazdins, Lyndall; Dellora, Tarie; Khamman, Suwanee; Seubsman, Sam-ang; Sleigh, Adrian C
Thailand has experienced a rapid economic transition from agriculture to industry and services, and from informal to formal employment. It has much less state regulation and worker representation relative to developed nations, who underwent these transitions more slowly and sequentially, decades earlier. We examine the strengthening of Thai government policy and legislation affecting worker’s health, responding to international norms, a new democratic constitution, fear of foreign importer embargos and several fatal workplace disasters. We identify key challenges remaining for Thai policy makers, including legislation enforcement and the measurement of impacts on worker’s mental and physical health. PMID:22318916
Barrett, Bruce; Charles, Joel W; Temte, Jonathan L
The health of populations depends on the availability of clean air, water, food, and sanitation, exposure to pathogens, toxins and environmental hazards, and numerous genetic, behavioral and social factors. For many thousands of years, human life expectancy was low, and population growth was slow. The development of technology-based civilizations facilitated what Abdel Omran called "epidemiological transition," with increasing life expectancy and rapid population growth. To a large extent, the spectacular growth of human populations during the past two centuries was made possible by the energy extracted from fossil fuels. We have now learned, however, that greenhouse gases from fossil fuel combustion are warming the planet's surface, causing changes in oceanic and atmospheric systems, and disrupting weather and hydrological patterns. Climate change poses unprecedented threats to human health by impacts on food and water security, heat waves and droughts, violent storms, infectious disease, and rising sea levels. Whether or not humanity can reduce greenhouse gas emissions quickly enough to slow climate change to a rate that will allow societies to successfully adapt is not yet known. This essay reviews the current state of relevant knowledge, and points in a few directions that those interested in human health may wish to consider. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
The shift from high to low levels of mortality and fertility called the demographic transition occurred over a century ago in the developed world. While the reasons for the transition in Western Europe and North America are well documented, little is known about the transition in developing countries except that it is reported to ...
Repetto, Jeanne B.; Jaress, Jennifer; Lindsey, Jenna; Bae, Jungah
The purpose of this study was to assess the inclusion of health care components in transition Individualized Education Programs (IEPs) for students diagnosed with Other Health Impaired (OHI). In this study, we analyzed 50 IEPs of students with an OHI diagnosis to establish whether there are health-related components or other common health care…
Potvin-Boucher, Jacqueline; Szumilas, Magdalena; Sheikh, Tabinda; Kutcher, Stan
Enhancement of mental health literacy is a mental health promotion strategy that may be effective at destigmatizing mental illness and increasing self-seeking behavior. Transitions is a mental health literacy program intended to heighten students' awareness and discussion of mental health problems and promote help-seeking behaviors. Transitions…
Davis, Alaina M; Brown, Rebekah F; Taylor, Julie Lounds; Epstein, Richard A; McPheeters, Melissa L
Approximately 750,000 children in the United States with special health care needs will transition from pediatric to adult care annually. Fewer than half receive adequate transition care. We had conversations with key informants representing clinicians who provide transition care, pediatric and adult providers of services for individuals with special health care needs, policy experts, and researchers; searched online sources for information about currently available programs and resources; and conducted a literature search to identify research on the effectiveness of transition programs. We identified 25 studies evaluating transition care programs. Most (n = 8) were conducted in populations with diabetes, with a smaller literature (n = 5) on transplant patients. We identified an additional 12 studies on a range of conditions, with no more than 2 studies on the same condition. Common components of care included use of a transition coordinator, a special clinic for young adults in transition, and provision of educational materials. The issue of how to provide transition care for children with special health care needs warrants further attention. Research needs are wide ranging, including both substantive and methodologic concerns. Although there is widespread agreement on the need for adequate transition programs, there is no accepted way to measure transition success. It will be essential to establish consistent goals to build an adequate body of literature to affect practice. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
A presentation delivered at the Health Libraries Inc 2016 Conference in Melbourne, providing an early career librarian's perspective on the bridge between health librarianship and academic (research) librarianship
Dowshen, Nadia; D'Angelo, Lawrence
There are ~1 million people in the United States living with HIV/AIDS, and >50,000 new infections occur each year. With an estimated 13% of all new infections occurring among young people aged 13 to 24 years and an increasing number of perinatally infected youth surviving to adulthood, there is now an increasing need to transition both perinatally and behaviorally infected youth to the adult health care setting. Recently, pediatric providers and professional societies have prioritized the development of transition programs for adolescents with chronic disease to address the many challenges these youth face in the process. Although multiple position papers have called for continuous, coordinated, culturally appropriate, compassionate, family-centered transition programs for youth with special health care needs and have recognized the need for evidence-based models, few data exist on what strategies are most effective. To date, published data on health care transition for HIV-positive youth are limited and include only 2 studies, which considered behaviorally infected youth. In this state-of-the-art review, we discuss the unique transition challenges to consider for this population, including socioeconomic and health insurance status, the special role of the pediatric or adolescent provider as family, stigma and disclosure issues, cognitive development and mental health issues, medication adherence, and sexual, reproductive, and gender health concerns. Future research will need to include the experiences of transition in low-resource settings and examine clinical outcomes and factors that may predict success or failure of the transition process.
Di Nicola, A; Geraci, S
Immigration has been one of the most relevant phenomena characterizing Italy's social history of the past 30 years. Currently, there are almost 5 million non-Italian citizens in Italy, representing about 8.2% of the country's population. At the beginning of the 80s, a small health clinic, set-up by a no-profit Catholic organization called Caritas, was thus opened in Rome - managed by medical doctors and volunteer workers - aimed at providing the new migrants (often without any social rights) the sanitary support that was unavailable or difficult to find. In time, this health clinic progressively became an observatory of migrants' general health conditions, with a particular focus on the part of this population found in marginal social and legal conditions (without a residence permit). Data recorded in Roman Caritas Health Clinic database, belonging to patient admitted to the medical centre for the first time in 1986-1987, 2003-2004 and 2013-2014, were selected and compared. Only patients from Africa, Asia, Central and Eastern Europe and Central and Southern America were included. In addition to vital statistics, both diagnosis and prescriptions are filed according to the ICD-9.CM, 1997 in the database. Only codes 001 to 999 have been taken into consideration. The resulting sample is composed of 10741 patients. Of these, 3602 relate to 1986-1987, 4341 to 2003-2004 and 2798 to 2013-2014. The total diagnostical data processed was of 12662 (2777 in 1986-1987, 5704 in 2003-2004, 4181 in 2013-2014). Over the last 30 years the most significant variable for the public health scenario is the progressively ageing population, a variable that does not occur homogeneously. Starting from 2003-2004 an upward trend for non-communicable diseases was observed, that, as suggested by this study, have patterns and determinants varying according to ethnicity. The progressive modification of the socio-demographic profile of the migrant population determined the health transition already
Hepburn, Charlotte Moore; Cohen, Eyal; Bhawra, Jasmin; Weiser, Natalie; Hayeems, Robin Z; Guttmann, Astrid
The transition from paediatric to adult care is associated with poor clinical outcomes, increased costs and low patient and family satisfaction. However, little is known about health system strategies to streamline and safeguard care for youth transitioning to adult services. Moreover, the needs of children and youth are often excluded from broader health system reform discussions, leaving this population especially vulnerable to system 'disintegration'. (1) To explore the international policy profile of paediatric-to-adult care transitions, and (2) to document policy objectives, initiatives and outcomes for jurisdictions publicly committed to addressing transition issues. An international policy scoping review of all publicly available government documents detailing transition-related strategies was completed using a web-based search. Our analysis included a comparable cohort of nine wealthy Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) jurisdictions with Beveridge-style healthcare systems (deemed those most likely to benefit from system-level transition strategies). Few jurisdictions address transition of care issues in either health or broader social policy documents. While many jurisdictions refer to standardised practice guidelines, a few report the intention to use powerful policy levers (including physician remuneration and non-physician investments) to facilitate the uptake of best practice. Most jurisdictions do not address the policy infrastructure required to support successful transitions, and rigorous evaluations of transition strategies are rare. Despite the well-documented risks and costs associated with a poor transition from paediatric to adult care, little policy attention has been paid to this issue. We recommend that healthcare providers engage health system planners in the design and evaluation of system-level, policy-sensitive transition strategies. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not
Walker, Arlene; Costa, Beth M
Health graduates face personal and work-related stressors during the graduate year. The extent to which employers and health graduates have a shared understanding of graduate stressors is unclear but may impact graduate support and transition into the health profession. Aim and design: The aim of this exploratory qualitative study was to identify factors that impact health graduates' transition and integration into the workplace, comparing the perspectives of health graduates and organisational representatives. Individual and small group semi-structured interviews were conducted with 15 medical and 26 nursing graduates and five organisational representatives from a regional health organisation in Victoria, Australia. A thematic analysis was undertaken on the data. Five main categories were identified: dealing with change, dealing with conflict, workload, taking responsibility and factors that influence performance. Similarities and differences in the perspectives of health graduates and organisational representatives were identified. These findings have implications for current graduate support programs.
Oswald, Donald P; Gilles, Donna L; Cannady, Mariel S; Wenzel, Donna B; Willis, Janet H; Bodurtha, Joann N
Transition to adult services for children and youth with special health care needs (CYSHCN) has emerged as an important event in the life course of individuals with disabilities. Issues that interfere with efficient transition to adult health care include the perspectives of stakeholders, age limits on pediatric service, complexity of health conditions, a lack of experienced healthcare professionals in the adult arena, and health care financing for chronic and complex conditions. The purposes of this study were to develop a definition of successful transition and to identify determinants that were associated with a successful transition. The 2007 Survey of Adult Transition and Health dataset was used to select variables to be considered for defining success and for identifying predictors of success. The results showed that a small percentage of young adults who participated in the 2007 survey had experienced a successful transition from their pediatric care.
biological samples. The studies in Nunavik and Greenland are not identical but share protocols on diabetes, heart disease, diet, smoking, social capital, self rated health, gambling and many other topics. The study is being geographically expanded to cover also Nunavut, Labrador and East Greenland......, and comparable studies have yielded data from Alaska Natives and Norwegian Sami. A number of researchers will present results from the study at this meeting and we shall hear a lot about the link between diet and health. I will take one step back and look at the social determinants of dietary patterns...... in Greenland in a life course perspective. First different ways to determine dietary patterns will be examined; then the association of parents' background, childhood conditions, education, place of residence, job and wealth with diet will be analysed. Finally, the association of diet with other determinants...
Fan, Victoria Y; Savedoff, William D
Almost every country exhibits two important health financing trends: health spending per person rises and the share of out-of-pocket spending on health services declines. We describe these trends as a "health financing transition" to provide a conceptual framework for understanding health markets and public policy. Using data over 1995-2009 from 126 countries, we examine the various explanations for changes in health spending and its composition with regressions in levels and first differences. We estimate that the income elasticity of health spending is about 0.7, consistent with recent comparable studies. Our analysis also shows a significant trend in health spending - rising about 1 per cent annually - which is associated with a combination of changing technology and medical practices, cost pressures and institutions that finance and manage healthcare. The out-of-pocket share of total health spending is not related to income, but is influenced by a country's capacity to raise general revenues. These results support the existence of a health financing transition and characterize how public policy influences these trends. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Rao, Shaline; Brammer, Craig; McKethan, Aaron; Buntin, Melinda B
Adoption of health information technology (HIT) is a key effort in improving care delivery, reducing costs of health care, and improving the quality of health care. Evidence from electronic health record (EHR) use suggests that HIT will play a significant role in transforming primary care practices and chronic disease management. This article shows that EHRs and HIT can be used effectively to manage chronic diseases, that HIT can facilitate communication and reduce efforts related to transitions in care, and that HIT can improve patient safety by increasing the information available to providers and patients, improving disease management and safety. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
ICIMOD (International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development) will manage the project and provide support and capacity building to the three teams. The aim is to better understand the links between land use transition and human health in mountain habitats and jointly design a program for better managing the ...
Grundy, John; Khut, Qiu Yi; Oum, Sophal; Annear, Peter; Ky, Veng
Cambodia, following decades of civil conflict and social and economic transition, has in the last 10 years developed health policy innovations in the areas of health contracting, health financing and health planning. This paper aims to outline recent social, epidemiological and demographic health trends in Cambodia, and on the basis of this outline, to analyse and discuss these policy responses to social transition. Sources of information included a literature review, participant observation in health planning development in Cambodia between 1993 and 2008, and comparative analysis of demographic health surveys between 2000 and 2005. In Cambodia there have been sharp but unequal improvements in child mortality, and persisting high maternal mortality rates. Data analysis demonstrates associations between location, education level and access to facility based care, suggesting the dominant role of socio-economic factors in determining access to facility based health care. These events are taking place against a background of rapid social transition in Cambodian history, including processes of decentralization, privatization and the development of open market economic systems. Primary policy responses of the Ministry of Health to social transition and associated health inequities include the establishment of health contracting, hospital health equity funds and public-private collaborations. Despite the internationally recognized health policy flexibility and innovation demonstrated in Cambodia, policy response still lags well behind the reality of social transition. In order to minimize the delay between transition and response, new policy making tactics are required in order to provide more flexible and timely responses to the ongoing social transition and its impacts on population health needs in the lowest socio-economic quintiles.
Kelly, Matthew; Banwell, Cathy; Dixon, Jane; Seubsman, Sam-Ang; Yiengprugsawan, Vasoontara; Sleigh, Adrian
AIM: Here we examine the influence of changes in food retailing, the food supply and the associated nutrition transition on health equity in Thailand, a middle income country experiencing rapid economic development. METHODS: The dietary transition underway in Thailand is reviewed along with theories regarding convergence to a globalised energy dense obesogenic diet and subsequent socio-economically related dietary divergence along with the implications for health inequity. RESULTS: Thailand is part way through a dietary, nutrition and health transition. The food distribution and retailing system is now 50% controlled by modern supermarkets and convenience stores. The problem of increasing availability of calorie dense foods is especially threatening because a substantial proportion of the adult population is short statured due to child malnutrition. Obesity is an emerging problem and for educated Thai women has already developed an inverse relationship to socio-economic status as found in high income countries. CONCLUSIONS: Thailand has reached an important point in its nutrition transition. The challenge for the Thai government and population is to boost affordable healthy diets and to avoid the socio-economic inequity of nutritional outcomes observed in many rich countries.
Woodward, Jason F; Swigonski, Nancy L; Ciccarelli, Mary R
To assess the health, functional characteristics, and health care service needs of youth and young adults with special health care needs attending a comprehensive, noncategorical transition program. A self-administered survey was developed from national health surveys and clinical experience to assess concepts identified as important for successful transition to adulthood. Surveys were mailed to 198 parents of youth and young adults with special health care needs attending the transition clinic. Parents were asked about the youth's health, functional status, and health care services needed. The clinical database provided demographic and patient health characteristics. Results were compared against the 2005-2006 National Survey of Children with Special Health Care Needs. Forty-four percent of surveys were returned. Average age of youth was 17.5 (11-22) years old and diagnoses included cerebral palsy (36%), spina bifida (10%), developmental delay or Down syndrome (17%), and autism (6%). Most youth needed assistance with personal care (69%) and routine needs (91%) and used assistive devices (59%). Compared with the 2005-2006 National Survey of Children with Special Health Care Needs, parents reported higher needs for all services except mental health care and tobacco or substance use counseling. Forty three percent reported at least one unmet health need. Few parents reported the need for counseling on substance use (1%), sexual health screening (16%), nutrition (34%), and exercise (41%). Youth attending our transition program had more functional limitations, poorer reported health status, different diagnosis distribution, and higher levels of needed health services. Few parents identified needs for other recommended adolescent preventive services. Transition programs should assess patient health characteristics and service needs to design effective patient-centered services. Copyright © 2012 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All
Fair, Cynthia; Cuttance, Jessica; Sharma, Niraj; Maslow, Gary; Wiener, Lori; Betz, Cecily; Porter, Jerlym; McLaughlin, Suzanne; Gilleland-Marchak, Jordan; Renwick, Amy; Naranjo, Diana; Jan, Sophia; Javalkar, Karina; Ferris, Maria
There is a lack of agreement on what constitutes successful outcomes for the process of health care transition (HCT) among adolescent and young adults with special health care needs. To present HCT outcomes identified by a Delphi process with an interdisciplinary group of participants. A Delphi method involving 3 stages was deployed to refine a list of HCT outcomes. This 18-month study (from January 5, 2013, of stage 1 to July 3, 2014, of stage 3) included an initial literature search, expert interviews, and then 2 waves of a web-based survey. On this survey, 93 participants from outpatient, community-based, and primary care clinics rated the importance of the top HCT outcomes identified by the Delphi process. Analyses were performed from July 5, 2014, to December 5, 2014. Health care transition outcomes of adolescents and young adults with special health care needs. Importance ratings of identified HCT outcomes rated on a Likert scale from 1 (not important) to 9 (very important). The 2 waves of surveys included 117 and 93 participants as the list of outcomes was refined. Transition outcomes were refined by the 3 waves of the Delphi process, with quality of life being the highest-rated outcome with broad agreement. The 10 final outcomes identified included individual outcomes (quality of life, understanding the characteristics of conditions and complications, knowledge of medication, self-management, adherence to medication, and understanding health insurance), health services outcomes (attending medical appointments, having a medical home, and avoidance of unnecessary hospitalization), and a social outcome (having a social network). Participants indicated that different outcomes were likely needed for individuals with cognitive disabilities. Quality of life is an important construct relevant to HCT. Future research should identify valid measures associated with each outcome and further explore the role that quality of life plays in the HCT process. Achieving
Forrest, Christopher B; Bevans, Katherine B; Riley, Anne W; Crespo, Richard; Louis, Thomas A
Normative biopsychosocial stressors that occur during entry into adolescence can affect school performance.As a set of resources for adapting to life's challenges, good health may buffer a child from these potentially harmful stressors. This study examined the associations between health (measured as well-being, functioning, symptoms, and chronic conditions) and school outcomes among children aged 9-13 years in 4th-8th grades. We conducted a prospective cohort study of 1,479 children from 34 schools followed from 2006 to 2008. Survey data were obtained from children and their parents, and school records were abstracted. Measures of child self-reported health were dichotomized to indicate presence of a health asset. Outcomes included attendance, grade point average, state achievement test scores, and child-reported school engagement and teacher connectedness. Both the transition into middle school and puberty had independent negative influences on school outcomes. Chronic health conditions that affected children's functional status were associated with poorer academic achievement. The number of health assets that a child possessed was positively associated with school outcomes. Low levels of negative stress experiences and high physical comfort had positive effects on teacher connectedness, school engagement, and academic achievement, whereas bullying and bully victimization negatively affected these outcomes. Children with high life satisfaction were more connected with teachers, more engaged in schoolwork, and earned higher grades than those who were less satisfied. As children enter adolescence, good health may buffer them from the potentially negative effects of school and pubertal transitions on academic success. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Barthélémy Kuate Defo
Full Text Available Background: Studies of trends in population changes and epidemiological profiles in the developing world have overwhelmingly relied upon the concepts of demographic, epidemiological, and health transitions, even though their usefulness in describing and understanding population and health trends in developing countries has been repeatedly called into question. The issue is particularly relevant for the study of population health patterns in Africa and sub-Saharan Africa, as the history and experience there differs substantially from that of Western Europe and North America, for which these concepts were originally developed. Objective: The aim of this study is two-fold: to review and clarify any distinction between the concepts of demographic transition, epidemiological transition and health transition and to identify summary indicators of population health to test how well these concepts apply in Africa. Results: Notwithstanding the characteristically diverse African context, Africa is a continent of uncertainties and emergencies where discontinuities and interruptions of health, disease, and mortality trends reflect the enduring fragility and instability of countries and the vulnerabilities of individuals and populations in the continent. Africa as a whole remains the furthest behind the world's regions in terms of health improvements and longevity, as do its sub-Saharan African regions and societies specifically. This study documents: 1 theoretically and empirically the similarities and differences between the demographic transition, epidemiological transition, and health transition; 2 simple summary indicators that can be used to evaluate their descriptive and predictive features; 3 marked disparities in the onset and pace of variations and divergent trends in health, disease, and mortality patterns as well as fertility and life expectancy trajectories among African countries and regions over the past 60 years; 4 the rapid decline in infant
Kuate Defo, Barthélémy
Background Studies of trends in population changes and epidemiological profiles in the developing world have overwhelmingly relied upon the concepts of demographic, epidemiological, and health transitions, even though their usefulness in describing and understanding population and health trends in developing countries has been repeatedly called into question. The issue is particularly relevant for the study of population health patterns in Africa and sub-Saharan Africa, as the history and experience there differs substantially from that of Western Europe and North America, for which these concepts were originally developed. Objective The aim of this study is two-fold: to review and clarify any distinction between the concepts of demographic transition, epidemiological transition and health transition and to identify summary indicators of population health to test how well these concepts apply in Africa. Results Notwithstanding the characteristically diverse African context, Africa is a continent of uncertainties and emergencies where discontinuities and interruptions of health, disease, and mortality trends reflect the enduring fragility and instability of countries and the vulnerabilities of individuals and populations in the continent. Africa as a whole remains the furthest behind the world's regions in terms of health improvements and longevity, as do its sub-Saharan African regions and societies specifically. This study documents: 1) theoretically and empirically the similarities and differences between the demographic transition, epidemiological transition, and health transition; 2) simple summary indicators that can be used to evaluate their descriptive and predictive features; 3) marked disparities in the onset and pace of variations and divergent trends in health, disease, and mortality patterns as well as fertility and life expectancy trajectories among African countries and regions over the past 60 years; 4) the rapid decline in infant mortality and gains
Kuate Defo, Barthélémy
Studies of trends in population changes and epidemiological profiles in the developing world have overwhelmingly relied upon the concepts of demographic, epidemiological, and health transitions, even though their usefulness in describing and understanding population and health trends in developing countries has been repeatedly called into question. The issue is particularly relevant for the study of population health patterns in Africa and sub-Saharan Africa, as the history and experience there differs substantially from that of Western Europe and North America, for which these concepts were originally developed. The aim of this study is two-fold: to review and clarify any distinction between the concepts of demographic transition, epidemiological transition and health transition and to identify summary indicators of population health to test how well these concepts apply in Africa. Notwithstanding the characteristically diverse African context, Africa is a continent of uncertainties and emergencies where discontinuities and interruptions of health, disease, and mortality trends reflect the enduring fragility and instability of countries and the vulnerabilities of individuals and populations in the continent. Africa as a whole remains the furthest behind the world's regions in terms of health improvements and longevity, as do its sub-Saharan African regions and societies specifically. This study documents: 1) theoretically and empirically the similarities and differences between the demographic transition, epidemiological transition, and health transition; 2) simple summary indicators that can be used to evaluate their descriptive and predictive features; 3) marked disparities in the onset and pace of variations and divergent trends in health, disease, and mortality patterns as well as fertility and life expectancy trajectories among African countries and regions over the past 60 years; 4) the rapid decline in infant mortality and gains in life expectancy from the
Rayner, Geof; Hawkes, Corinna; Lang, Tim; Bello, Walden
Trade liberalization remains at the forefront of debates around globalization, particularly around the impact on agriculture and food. These debates, which often focus on how poorer countries can 'trade their way' out of poverty, pay limited attention to dietary health, especially in the light of the WHO's Global Strategy for Diet, Physical Activity and Health (2004), which warned that future health burdens will be increasingly determined by diet-related chronic diseases. This article examines the diet transition as the absent factor within debates on liberalizing trade and commerce. We describe the evolution of trade agreements, noting those relevant to food. We review the association between trade liberalization and changes in the global dietary and disease profile. We illustrate some of the complex linkages between trade liberalization and the 'diet transition', illustrated by factors such as foreign direct investment, supermarketization and cultural change. Finally, we offer three scenarios for change, suggesting the need for more effective 'food governance' and engagement by public health advocates in policy making in the food and agriculture arena.
in Lithuania should be based on a balance between decentralization and centralization, and between public and private health care sectors. Successful transition requires a balanced role of the government. Today it is obvious in Lithuania that continuous encouragement to make sacrifices was not enough to induce the system to function well, and in an ethical manner.
Jakusovaite, Irayda; Darulis, Zilvinas; Zekas, Romualdas
decentralization and centralization, and between public and private health care sectors. Successful transition requires a balanced role of the government. Today it is obvious in Lithuania that continuous encouragement to make sacrifices was not enough to induce the system to function well, and in an ethical manner.
Adena, Maja; Myck, Michal
Using a sample of Europeans aged 50+ from 12 countries in the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE), we analyse the role of poor material conditions as a determinant of changes in health over a four- to five-year period. We find that poverty defined with respect to relative income has no effect on changes in health. However, broader measures of poor material conditions, such as subjective poverty or low wealth, significantly increase the probability of transition to poor health among the healthy and reduce the chance of recovery from poor health over the time interval analysed. In addition to this, the subjective measure of poverty has a significant effect on mortality, increasing it by 65% among men and by 68% among those aged 50-64. Material conditions affect health among older people. We suggest that if attempts to reduce poverty in later life and corresponding policy targets are to focus on the relevant measures, they should take into account broader definitions of poverty than those based only on relative incomes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ben Taleb, Ziyad; Bahelah, Raed; Fouad, Fouad M; Coutts, Adam; Wilcox, Meredith; Maziak, Wasim
To document the ongoing destruction as a result of the tragic events in Syria, to understand the changing health care needs and priorities of Syrians. A directed examination of the scientific literature and reports about Syria before and during the Syrian conflict, in addition to analyzing literature devoted to the relief and rebuilding efforts in crisis situations. The ongoing war has had high direct war casualty, but even higher suffering due to the destruction of health system, displacement, and the breakdown of livelihood and social fabric. Millions of Syrians either became refugees or internally displaced, and about half of the population is in urgent need for help. Access to local and international aid organizations for war-affected populations is an urgent and top priority. Syrians continue to endure one of the biggest human tragedies in modern times. The extent of the crisis has affected all aspects of Syrians' life. Understanding the multi-faceted transition of the Syrian population and how it reflects on their health profile can guide relief and rebuilding efforts' scope and priorities.
Brown, Theodore M; Cueto, Marcos; Fee, Elizabeth
Within the context of international public health, 'global health' seems to be emerging as a recognized term of preference. This article presents a critical analysis of the meaning and importance of 'global health' and situates its growing popularity within a historical context. A specific focus of this work is the role of the World Health Organization - WHO in both 'international' and 'global' health, and as na agent of transition from one to the other. Between 1948 and 1998, the WHO went through a period of hardship as it came up against an organizational crisis, budget cuts and a diminished status, especially when confronted with the growing influence of new, power players like the World Bank. We suggest that the WHO has responded to this changing international context by inititating its own process of restructuring and repositioning as an agent for coordinating, strategically planning and leading 'global health' initiatives.
There is considerable evidence that unofficial payments are deeply embedded in the markets for health care in transition countries. Numerous surveys indicate that these payments provide a significant but possibly distorting contribution to health care financing. Unofficial payments can be characterised into three groups: cost contributions, including supplies and salaries, misuse of market position and payments for additional services. There is evidence from across the region on the presence of payment in each category although it is often difficult to distinguish between payment types. Regulatory policy must address a number of issues. Imposing penalties may help to reduce some payments but if the system is simply unable to provide services, such sanctions will drive workers into the private sector. There appears to be some support for formalising payments in order to reduce unofficial charges although the impact must be monitored and the danger is that formal fees add to the burden of payment. Regulation might also attempt to increase the amount of competition, provide information on good performing facilities and develop the legal basis of patient rights. Ultimately, unless governments address the endemic nature of payments across all sectors, policy interventions are unlikely to be fully effective.
Chongsuvivatwong, Virasakdi; Phua, Kai Hong; Yap, Mui Teng; Pocock, Nicola S; Hashim, Jamal H; Chhem, Rethy; Wilopo, Siswanto Agus; Lopez, Alan D
Southeast Asia is a region of enormous social, economic, and political diversity, both across and within countries, shaped by its history, geography, and position as a major crossroad of trade and the movement of goods and services. These factors have not only contributed to the disparate health status of the region's diverse populations, but also to the diverse nature of its health systems, which are at varying stages of evolution. Rapid but inequitable socioeconomic development, coupled with differing rates of demographic and epidemiological transitions, have accentuated health disparities and posed great public health challenges for national health systems, particularly the control of emerging infectious diseases and the rise of non-communicable diseases within ageing populations. While novel forms of health care are evolving in the region, such as corporatised public health-care systems (government owned, but operating according to corporate principles and with private-sector participation) and financing mechanisms to achieve universal coverage, there are key lessons for health reforms and decentralisation. New challenges have emerged with rising trade in health services, migration of the health workforce, and medical tourism. Juxtaposed between the emerging giant economies of China and India, countries of the region are attempting to forge a common regional identity, despite their diversity, to seek mutually acceptable and effective solutions to key regional health challenges. In this first paper in the Lancet Series on health in southeast Asia, we present an overview of key demographic and epidemiological changes in the region, explore challenges facing health systems, and draw attention to the potential for regional collaboration in health. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Haldane, Eva C.; Mincy, Ronald B.; Miller, Daniel P.
This article uses data from the Fragile Families and Child Well-being Survey to examine the association between transitioning to marriage and general health status or serious health problems among low-income men. Beginning with a sample of 3,631 unmarried fathers, the study observes the relationship between their transitions to marriage within 3…
Müller, Mattea; Canfora, Emanuel E; Blaak, Ellen E
Gastrointestinal transit time may be an important determinant of glucose homeostasis and metabolic health through effects on nutrient absorption and microbial composition, among other mechanisms. Modulation of gastrointestinal transit may be one of the mechanisms underlying the beneficial health effects of dietary fibers. These effects include improved glucose homeostasis and a reduced risk of developing metabolic diseases such as obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. In this review, we first discuss the regulation of gastric emptying rate, small intestinal transit and colonic transit as well as their relation to glucose homeostasis and metabolic health. Subsequently, we briefly address the reported health effects of different dietary fibers and discuss to what extent the fiber-induced health benefits may be mediated through modulation of gastrointestinal transit.
Harris, Kathleen Mullan; Lee, Hedwig; DeLeone, Felicia Yang
This article explores the relationships among early marriage (before age 26 years), cohabitation, and health for African Americans and Whites during the transition to adulthood using the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). The study examines three categories of health outcomes relevant to young adulthood: physical…
Davidson, Lynn F; Chhabra, Rosy; Cohen, Hillel W; Lechuga, Claudia; Diaz, Patricia; Racine, Andrew
To assess current practices of New York State pediatricians as they transition youth with special health care needs to adult-oriented medical care. A survey of New York State pediatricians included 6 critical steps from 2002 consensus statement, 11 essential steps adapted from recent literature, and questions targeting age of starting transition and availability of transition policy. Of 181 respondents, only 11% have a transition policy. Most assist patients in transition process; identify an adult provider (92%); and create portable medical summary (57%). Only 3% start planning process at recommended age. No respondents are compliant with all 6 critical steps; subspecialists were more likely to report compliance to more than 4 steps. Participating pediatricians are making gains, yet effort is needed, to incorporate the essential steps into practice for transitioning youth with special health care needs. Recognition of barriers, use of electronic tools, and clarifying subspecialist's approach, may improve compliance with transition recommendations. © The Author(s) 2015.
Full Text Available Maureen Monaghan,1,2 Katherine Baumann2 1Center for Translational Science, Children's National Health System, 2George Washington University School of Medicine, Washington, DC, USA Abstract: Adolescents and young adults with type 1 diabetes are at risk for poor health outcomes, including poor glycemic control, acute and chronic complications, and emergency department admissions. During this developmental period, adolescent and young adult patients also experience significant changes in living situation, education, and/or health care delivery, including transferring from pediatric to adult health care. In recent years, professional and advocacy organizations have proposed expert guidelines to improve the process of preparation for and transition to adult-oriented health care. However, challenges remain and evidence-based practices for preparing youth for adult health care are still emerging. Qualitative research suggests that adolescent and young adult patients rely on health care providers to guide them through the transition process and appreciate a gradual approach to preparing for adult-oriented health care, keeping parents in supportive roles into young adulthood. Patients also benefit from specific referrals and contact information for adult care providers. Promising models of transition care include provision of transition navigators, attendance at a young adult bridge clinic, or joint visits with pediatric and adult care providers. However, much of this research is in its early stages, and more rigorous trials need to be conducted to evaluate health outcomes during transition into adult health care. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the transition process, patient and health care provider perceptions of transition care, and emerging evidence of successful models of care for engagement in adult-oriented health care. Recommendations and resources for health care providers are also presented. Keywords: type 1 diabetes
Young-Southward, Genevieve; Cooper, Sally-Ann; Philo, Christopher
Transition to adulthood may have negative consequences for health and wellbeing in individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID), but this aspect of transition has received little investigation. This qualitative study aimed to explore the transition experiences of individuals with ID from their own perspectives, and from that of their parents, in order to identify health or wellbeing implications of transition. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 17 young people with mild, moderate and severe ID aged 16-27 years and with 23 parents of young people with mild, moderate, severe and profound ID aged 16-26 years. Interviews were analysed using thematic analysis, deploying both emic and etic coding categories. This study provides direct insights into the issues on health and wellbeing that young people with ID and their parents find important during transition. The primary health implication of transition centred on mental health and wellbeing; young people experienced heightened anxiety during transition, and themes identified as contributing to anxiety included: a lack of meaningful activity following school exit; inadequate support during transition; and difficulties associated with 'growing up'. Problem behaviours and obesity were also implicated. The transition from school needs to be better supported in order to ease anxiety for young people during this difficult period. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. TRANSIT. SYSTEM: DETERMINE 2D-POSITION GLOBALLY BUT INTERMITTENT (POST-FACTO). IMPROVED ACCURACY. PRINCIPLE: POLAR SATELLITES WITH INNOVATIONS OF: GRAVITY-GRADIENT ATTITUDE CONTROL; DRAG COMPENSATION. WORKS ...
This paper reviews the importance of energy metabolism in transition dairy cows, its associations with disease and reproduction, and strategies for monitoring cows under field conditions during this critical time. Essentially all dairy cattle experience a period of insulin resistance, reduced feed intake, negative energy balance, hypocalcemia, reduced immune function, and bacterial contamination of the uterus soon before, or in the weeks after calving. One-third of dairy cows may be affected by some form of metabolic or infectious disease in early lactation. Routine, proactive actions, observations, or analysis are intended to accurately and efficiently provide early detection of problems, to provide an opportunity for investigation and intervention in order to limit the consequences and costs of health problems and reduced animal performance or welfare. Methods of early detection include monitoring of disease and culling records, feed intake, milk production, body condition, and simple metabolic tests. Methods, strategies, and interpretation of measurement of peripartum concentrations of non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) as indicators of aspects of energy status and disease risk are reviewed. High NEFA (> 0.4 mmol/l) in the last 7 to 10 days before expected calving is associated with increased risk of displaced abomasum (DA), retained placenta, culling before 60 days in milk, and less milk production in the first 4 months of lactation. Subclinical ketosis (serum BHB >1200 to 1400 micromol/l) in the first or second week after calving is associated with increased risk of DA, metritis, clinical ketosis, endometritis, prolonged postpartum anovulation, increased severity of mastitis, and lower milk production in early lactation. There are several validated and practical tools for cow-side measurement of ketosis.
Broad, Kathleen L; Sandhu, Vijay K; Sunderji, Nadiya; Charach, Alice
Adolescence and young adulthood is a vulnerable time during which young people experience many development milestones, as well as an increased incidence of mental illness. During this time, youth also transition between Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services (CAMHS) to Adult Mental Health Services (AMHS). This transition puts many youth at risk of disengagement from service use; however, our understanding of this transition from the perspective of youth is limited. This systematic review aims to provide a more comprehensive understanding of youth experiences of transition from CAMHS to AMHS, through a qualitative thematic synthesis of the extant literature in this area. Published and unpublished literature was searched using keywords targeting three subject areas: Transition, Age and Mental Health. Studies were included if they qualitatively explored the perceptions and experiences of youth who received mental health services in both CAMHS and AMHS. There were no limitations on diagnosis or age of youth. Studies examining youth with chronic physical health conditions were excluded. Eighteen studies, representing 14 datasets and the experiences of 253 unique service-users were included. Youth experiences of moving from CAMHS and AMHS are influenced by concurrent life transitions and their individual preferences regarding autonomy and independence. Youth identified preparation, flexible transition timing, individualized transition plans, and informational continuity as positive factors during transition. Youth also valued joint working and relational continuity between CAMHS and AMHS. Youth experience a dramatic culture shift between CAMHS and AMHS, which can be mitigated by individualized and flexible approaches to transition. Youth have valuable perspectives to guide the intelligent design of mental health services and their perspectives should be used to inform tools to evaluate and incorporate youth perspectives into transitional service improvement
Samsuddin, Shamshimah; Ismail, Noriszura
The aim of our study is to estimate the transition probabilities of health states for workers in Malaysia who contribute to the Employment Injury Scheme under the Social Security Organization Malaysia using the Markov chain model. Our study uses four states of health (active, temporary disability, permanent disability and death) based on the data collected from the longitudinal studies of workers in Malaysia for 5 years. The transition probabilities vary by health state, age and gender. The results show that men employees are more likely to have higher transition probabilities to any health state compared to women employees. The transition probabilities can be used to predict the future health of workers in terms of a function of current age, gender and health state.
Williams, Kristi; Umberson, Debra
We work from a life course perspective to assess the impact of marital status and marital transitions on subsequent changes in the self-assessed physical health of men and women. Our results suggest three central conclusions regarding the association of marital status and marital transitions with self-assessed health. First, marital status differences in health appear to reflect the strains of marital dissolution more than they reflect any benefits of marriage. Second, the strains of marital ...
Kutzin, Joseph; Cashin, Cheryl; Jakab, Melitta
Since 1990, the social and economic policies of the transition countries of central and eastern Europe, the Caucasus and central Asia have diverged, including the way they have reformed the financing...
Lotstein, Debra S; Ghandour, Reem; Cash, Amanda; McGuire, Elizabeth; Strickland, Bonnie; Newacheck, Paul
Many youth with special health care needs have difficulties transferring to adult medical care. To address this, the Maternal and Child Health Bureau has made receipt of transition services a core performance outcome for community-based systems of care for youth with special health care needs. In this article we describe the results for the transition core outcome from the 2005-2006 National Survey of Children With Special Health Care Needs. We also describe changes in the measurement strategy for this outcome since the first National Survey of Children With Special Health Care Needs in 2001. In the nationally representative, cross-sectional 2005-2006 National Survey of Children With Special Health Care Needs, parent or guardian respondents of 18198 youth with special health care needs (aged 12-17) were asked if they have had discussions with their child's health care providers about (1) future adult providers, (2) future adult health care needs, (3) changes in health insurance, and (4) encouraging their child to take responsibility for his or her care. All 4 components had to be met for the youth to meet the overall transition core outcome. Those who had not had transition discussions reported if such discussions would have been helpful. Overall, 41% of youth with special health care needs met the core performance outcome for transition. Forty-two percent had discussed shifting care to an adult provider, 62% discussed their child's adult health care needs, and 34% discussed upcoming changes in health insurance. Most (78%) respondents said that providers usually or always encourage their child to take responsibility for his or her health. Non-Hispanic black or Hispanic race/ethnicity, lower income level, not speaking English, and not having a medical home reduced the odds of meeting the transition core outcome. Current performance on the transition core outcome leaves much room for improvement. Many parents feel that having transition-related discussions with their
Richardson, J; Nichols, A; Henry, T
Climate change and energy vulnerability present significant challenges for the development and sustainability of our communities. The adverse effects will most likely impact on those already experiencing poverty, as energy and food costs will rise, thus increasing inequalities in health. Transition town initiatives seek to build cohesive sustainable communities to prepare for a future with limited oil and a changing climate. Increasingly, public health practitioners are interested in the role of transition towns as a community development initiative, and their potential to support the wider public health agenda. Health impact assessment (HIA) is an evidence-based process that aims to predict the positive and negative impacts of a strategy, proposal or development. The HIA process provides an opportunity to promote sustainable communities by ensuring that new strategies and developments are considered in the context of their contribution to the health and well-being of local populations. The aim of this study was to use an HIA to examine the potential health and well-being benefits of two related transition town initiatives. A rapid HIA to consider the potential lifestyle changes and health and well-being impacts of Transition Together/Transition Streets (TT/TS) projects. An HIA template was used to assess key documents related to the TT/TS initiatives and those related to the characteristics of the community. Additionally, meetings with 12 key informants (four involved in TT/TS and eight purposively selected for their local knowledge) were held using the HIA template to focus the discussion. The findings highlight the associated lifestyle changes such as increased physical activity and healthy eating, and possible social and well-being benefits of engagement in such an initiative. Engagement may be limited to those already concerned about environmental issues. This paper illustrates the important links between transition towns and the wider public health agenda
Grace T. Cruz
Full Text Available The study provides a baseline information on the functional health transition patterns of older people and computes for the Active Life Expectancy (ALE using a multistate life table method. Findings on ALE demonstrate that females and urban residents live longer and have a greater proportion of their remaining life in active state compared to their counterparts. Health transition analysis indicates a significant proportion experiencing recovery. Age, sex, place of residence and health status/behavior indicators (self-assessed health, drinking and exercise display a significant influence on future health and mortality trajectories although surprisingly, education did not show any significant effect.
Young, Nancy L.; Barden, Wendy S.; Mills, Wendy A.; Burke, Tricia A.; Law, Mary; Boydell, Katherine
Introduction: The transition to adulthood is extremely difficult for individuals with disabilities. We sought to explore the specific issue of transition to adult-oriented health care in a Canadian context. Methods: We conducted semi-structured individual interviews with 15 youth and 15 adults with cerebral palsy, spina bifida, and acquired brain…
There is an increasing number of children with complex care needs, however, there is limited evidence of the experience of families during the process of transitioning to becoming their child\\'s primary care giver. The aim of this study was to explore parents\\' perspectives of the transition to home of a child with complex respiratory health care needs.
Lee, Christiana; Gramotnev, Helen
Young adulthood, a time of major life transitions and risk of poor mental health, may affect emotional well-being throughout adult life. This article uses longitudinal survey data to examine young Australian women's transitions across 4 domains: residential independence, relationships, work and study, and motherhood. Changes over 3 years in…
Land Use Transition and Human Health in the context of Climate Change in the Eastern Himalayas. Land use change is ... it at the communal level. The overall goal is to reduce the vulnerability of mountain people to health issues caused by land use change using ecosystem approaches to human health (Ecohealth).
Albreht, T.; Delnoij, D.M.J.; Klazinga, N.
BACKGROUND: Primary health care centres (PHCCs) were a characteristic of the former Yugoslav health care system introduced widely in Slovenia. Transition brought structural changes to health care and the position of the PHCC's was challenged. This paper investigates (i) PHCCs' perception of
Albreht, Tit; Delnoij, Diana M. J.; Klazinga, Niek
BACKGROUND: Primary health care centres (PHCCs) were a characteristic of the former Yugoslav health care system introduced widely in Slovenia. Transition brought structural changes to health care and the position of the PHCC's was challenged. This paper investigates (i) PHCCs' perception of
Heeke, Sheila; Wood, Felecia; Schuck, Jennifer
A task force at a multihospital health care system partnered with home health agencies to improve gaps during the discharge transition process. A standardized order template for home health nursing and remote telemonitoring was developed to decrease discrepancies in communication between hospital health care providers and home health nurses caring for patients with heart failure. Pilot results showed significantly improved communication with no readmissions, using the order template.
Liu, Yin; Kim, Kyungmin; Zarit, Steven H.
Objective The study examines family caregivers’ health changes over 1 year on four health dimensions and explores the association of differential health trajectories with adult day service (ADS) use and caregiving transitions. Method The participants were 153 primary caregivers of individuals with dementia (IWDs) who provided information on care situations and their own health at baseline, 6-month, and 12-month interviews. Results Caregivers showed increasing functional limitations and decreasing bodily pain over time, whereas role limitation and general health perception remained stable. Furthermore, caregivers’ trajectories of functional limitation were associated with their extent of ADS use at baseline and their relatives’ placement. Discussion Health is multidimensional; all dimensions of caregiver health do not change in a uniform manner. The findings underscore the importance of the association of caregiving transitions and caregiver health and the potential health benefits of ADS use for family caregivers. PMID:25348275
A health centre and its staff have undertaken a sustainable health approach which aims to reduce the impact of the environment on health. One of the initiatives focused on the improvement of indoor air quality. A change to practices was possible thanks to a participative approach, the support of the staff and constant communication. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Kreindler, James L; Miller, Victoria A
Survival for patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) increased to nearly 40 years in 2012 from the early childhood years in the 1940s. Therefore, patients are living long enough to require transition from pediatric CF centers to adult CF centers. The goal of transition is for the young adult to be engaged in the adult health care system in ways that optimize health, maximize potential, and increase quality of life. A successful transition promotes autonomy and responsibility with respect to one's own health. Currently, there is an information gap in the literature with respect to psychological models that can help guide informed transition processes. In this review, we establish the framework in which transition exists in CF; we review some of the published literature from the last 20 years of experience with transition in CF centers around the world; and we discuss psychological models of pediatric illness that can help to explain the current state of transition to adult-oriented care from pediatric-oriented care and help to formulate new models of ascertaining readiness for transition. Finally, we look at our current knowledge gaps and opportunities for future research endeavors.
Jensen, Paul T; Paul, Gabrielle V; LaCount, Stephanie; Peng, Juan; Spencer, Charles H; Higgins, Gloria C; Boyle, Brendan; Kamboj, Manmohan; Smallwood, Christopher; Ardoin, Stacy P
Transition from pediatric to adult health care is a vulnerable period for adolescents and young adults. Challenges include paucity of validated measures to assess patients' transition readiness. We evaluated the Transition Readiness Assessment Questionnaire (TRAQ) in adolescents and young adults with rheumatic, gastrointestinal, and endocrine disorders. We examined whether baseline TRAQ scores and other demographic variables predicted transition to adult care over a three year follow up period. In this descriptive study at a single institution, eighty-nine adolescents at a single pediatric academic medical center completed demographic and medical history surveys and the TRAQ and were followed over 3 years by telephone interview to determine whether they had transitioned to adult subspecialty care. Transition was defined as attending at least one adult subspecialty appointment. Multivariable logistic regression and Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to determine whether TRAQ scores predicted time to transition. Of the participants, 56% had rheumatic, 21% endocrine, and 23% gastrointestinal conditions. The TRAQ self-management domain score was not significantly associated with age, gender, socioeconomic status, or specialty. The TRAQ self-advocacy score increased with age. Baseline TRAQ scores did not predict transition or time to transition over three years. In this cohort of adolescents and young adults who were 16 to 23 years of age at enrollment, 48% transitioned to adult care over three years of follow up. Nearly half reported not discussing transition with provider or seeing provider independently for part of visit. Older age but not other demographic variables nor baseline TRAQ score predicted transition or time to transition to an adult subspecialty provider; however, a there was a trend towards shorter time to transition with the highest quartile TRAQ scores.
Tountas, Yannis; Karnaki, Panagiota; Pavi, Elpida
The National Health System (ESY) in Greece, which was established in 1983, is in a state of continuous crisis. This situation is caused mainly by the system's problematic administration, low productivity and inadequate Primary Health Care. These have led the re-elected PASOK government to introduce by the end of 2000 a radical reform of the health system. The 200 reform measures announced by the new Minister of Health and Welfare include changes aiming at: the decentralization of the ESY, the creation of a unified financing system for the social insurance funds, a new management structure in public hospitals, the organization of a Primary Health System in urban areas, and the strengthening of Public Health and Health Promotion. These changes are presented and discussed in this paper.
Psaila, Kim; Schmied, Virginia; Fowler, Cathrine; Kruske, Sue
To examine collaboration in the provision of universal health services for children and families in Australia from the perspective of midwives and child health and family health nurses. Collaboration is identified as a key concept contributing to families' smooth transition between maternity and child health services. However, evidence suggests that collaboration between services is often lacking. Few studies have explored how maternity and child health and family health services or professionals collaborate to facilitate a smooth transition. This study reports on data collected in phases 1 and 2 of a three-phase mixed-methods study investigating the feasibility of implementing a national approach to child health and family health services in Australia (Child Health: Researching Universal Services study). In phase 1, consultations (via discussion groups, focus groups and teleconferences) were held with 45 midwives and 60 child health and family health nurses. Themes identified were used to develop phase 2 surveys. In phase 2, 1098 child health and family health nurses and 655 midwives returned surveys. Midwives and child health and family health nurses reported 'some collaboration'. Midwives and child health and family health nurses indicated that collaboration was supported by having agreement on common goals and recognising and valuing the contributions of others. Organisational barriers such as poor communication and information transfer processes obstructed relationships. Good collaboration was reported more frequently when working with other professionals (such as allied health professionals) to support families with complex needs. This study provides information on the nature and extent of collaboration from the perspective of midwives and child health and family health nurses providing universal health services for children and families. Both professional groups emphasised the impact of service disconnection on families. However, their ability to negotiate
Dobson, Marnie; Choi, BongKyoo; Schnall, Peter L
Urban transit operators have high rates of obesity, hypertension, and other cardiovascular risk-factors compared to other occupations. There have been few qualitative studies exploring the interrelationships between the organization of transit work, stress, and health including obesity, from the perspective of operators. Five focus groups were conducted at five Divisions in a transit authority in Southern California and included 65 bus and rail operators. Operators reported a great deal of stress related to their work, including 1) time pressures and lack of recovery time; 2) long work shifts and overtime; 3) feeling unsafe when dealing with the public; 4) lack of respect from supervisors and management. Operators believed stressful working conditions negatively impacted their health and weight. This qualitative study yielded new as well as confirmatory data about stress and transit work organization, health, and weight in operators. This study will add to future survey research and interventions in this population. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Temores-Alcántara, Guadalupe; Infante, César; Caballero, Marta; Flores-Palacios, Fátima; Santillanes-Allande, Nadia
To identify the perception and needs in mental health of Central American migrants in transit through Tapachula, Chiapas. Qualitative study in a migrant shelter in Tapachula, Chiapas. In 20 semi-structured interviews with migrant men and women, we explored their perceptions on mental health and expectations on care. We used basic notions of phenomenology to guide the analysis. Migrants had several mental health problems related to the conditions at their country of origin and due to their initial transit through Mexico.Their perception on mental health problems was heavily influenced by the biomedical health paradigm. The expectations they had on the provision of services were related to the satisfaction of basic needs. It is necessary to strengthen the governmental response to mental health needs through collaborative strategies. Also, actions are needed to further the understanding of mental health in order to transcend the biomedical notions that stigmatize, segregate and create a barrier to accessing services.
McLaughlin, Suzanne; Bowering, Nancy; Crosby, Barbara; Neukirch, Jodie; Gollub, Eliza; Garneau, Deborah
A growing population of adolescents with special healthcare needs is aging into adulthood. These emerging adults face the transition challenges of their healthy peers but also potentially heightened risks and challenges related to their conditions. We describe the process of developing a pilot program to support healthcare services for emerging adults with chronic conditions and present preliminary data on utilization. An outpatient multidisciplinary consult model was developed based on patient, family and physician feedback. Patients with diverse conditions were equally referred from primary care, subspecialists and families and community agencies. Services provided included needs assessments (100%), referral to adult physicians (77%), care coordination (52%) and referrals to adult community services (10%). Clinical billing did not fully support the cost of providing services. The pilot program offered multidisciplinary transition services that were utilized by a diverse patient population. Local and national resources for health care transition are provided.
Spencer, James Herbert
The literature on development has focused on the concept of transition in understanding the emergent challenges facing poor but rapidly developing countries. Scholars have focused extensively on the health and urban transitions associated with this change and, in particular, its use for understanding emerging infectious diseases. However, few have developed explicit empirical measures to quantify the extent to which a transitions focus is useful for theory, policy, and practice. Using open source data on avian influenza in 2004 and 2005 and the Vietnam Census of Population and Housing, this paper introduces the Kuznets curve as a tool for empirically estimating transition and disease. Findings suggest that the Kuznets curve is a viable tool for empirically assessing the role of transitional dynamics in the emergence of new infectious diseases.
Mullins, C Daniel; Wingate, La'Marcus T; Edwards, Hillary A; Tofade, Toyin; Wutoh, Anthony
The learning healthcare system (LHS) model framework has three core, foundational components. These include an infrastructure for health-related data capture, care improvement targets and a supportive policy environment. Despite progress in advancing and implementing LHS approaches, low levels of participation from patients and the public have hampered the transformational potential of the LHS model. An enhanced vision of a community-engaged LHS redesign would focus on the provision of health care from the patient and community perspective to complement the healthcare system as the entity that provides the environment for care. Addressing the LHS framework implementation challenges and utilizing community levers are requisite components of a learning health care community model, version two of the LHS archetype.
Martins, Cristina Araújo; Abreu, Wilson Jorge Correia Pinto de; Figueiredo, Maria do Céu Aguiar Barbieri de
Background: Even though it is common, normative, predictable and usually desired, parenthood is one of the most dramatic developmental transitions in the family life cycle, likely to cause imbalance and vulnerability. Objective: This study aimed to explore the influences on the health and well-being of parents during the first 6 months of transition to the exercise of the parental role. Methods: Grounded Theory. Data collection from semi-structured interviews (total of 60 interviews). Use of ...
Murray-Parahi, Pauline; DiGiacomo, Michelle; Jackson, Debra; Davidson, Patricia M
To summarise the literature describing new graduate nurse transition to professional practice within the primary health care (PHC) setting. There is a plethora of research literature spanning several decades about new graduate nurse transition in the acute care setting. Yet, the experiences of new graduate nurse in the PHC setting is unremarkable particularly considering the increasing demand for skilled health care workers and focus of health reform to provide care where people work and live. Electronic data bases, Academic Search Complete, EBSCO, Medline, PsycINFO, CINHAL, and ERIC were searched using a combination of terms and synonyms arising from three key concepts which identify the phenomenon; 'transition', 'new graduate registered nurse' and 'primary health care. An inclusive search strategy placed no limits on language or publication date. Of the 50 articles located and examined for relevance; 40 were sourced through databases and 10 from Google Scholar/Alerts and hand-searching references. None of the 19 articles retained for analysis addressed all key concepts. Some challenges of researching the professional transition of graduate nurses in PHC settings included, an absence of definitive transition models, a dearth of literature and deference to acute care research. Nursing in PHC settings, particularly the client's home is notably different to hospital settings because of higher levels of isolation and autonomy. Societal changes, health reform and subsequent demand for skilled workers in PHC settings has caused health care providers to question the logic that such roles are only for experienced nurses. Implications arise for education and health service providers who desire to close the theory practice gap and mitigate risk for all stakeholders when next generation nurses have limited opportunities to experience PHC roles as undergraduates and newly graduated registered nurses are already transitioning in this setting. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Qian, Xufeng; Russell, Louise B.; Valiyeva, Elmira; Miller, Jane E.
Previous studies of Medicare’s prospective payment system for hospitals (PPS), introduced in 1983, evaluated only its first few years, using data collected during the hospital stay to control for patients’ health. We examine transitions among health care settings over a full decade following implementation of PPS, using survival models and a national longitudinal survey with independent information on health. We find that the rate of discharge from hospitals to nursing homes continued to rise...
Solange da Cruz Chaves
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To test whether the proposed features of the Obstetric Transition Model-a theoretical framework that may explain gradual changes that countries experience as they eliminate avoidable maternal mortality-are observed in a large, multicountry, maternal and perinatal health database; and to discuss the dynamic process of maternal mortality reduction using this model as a theoretical framework. METHODS: This was a secondary analysis of a cross-sectional study by the World Health Organization that collected information on more than 300 000 women who delivered in 359 health facilities in 29 countries in Africa, Asia, Latin America, and the Middle East, during a 2-4-month period in 2010-2011. The ratios of Potentially Life-Threatening Conditions, Severe Maternal Outcomes, Maternal Near Miss, and Maternal Death were estimated and stratified by stages of obstetric transition. The characteristics of each stage are defined. RESULTS: Data from 314 623 women showed that female fertility, indirectly estimated by parity, was higher in countries at a lower obstetric transition stage, ranging from a mean of 3 children in Stage II to 1.8 children in Stage IV. Medicalization increased with obstetric transition stage. In Stage IV, women had 2.4 times the cesarean deliveries (15.3% in Stage II and 36.7% in Stage IV and 2.6 times the labor inductions (7.1% in Stage II and 18.8% in Stage IV as women in Stage II. The mean age of primiparous women also increased with stage. The occurrence of uterine rupture had a decreasing trend, dropping by 5.2 times, from 178 to 34 cases per 100 000 live births, as a country transitioned from Stage II to IV. CONCLUSIONS: This analysis supports the concept of obstetric transition using multicountry data. The Obstetric Transition Model could provide justification for customizing strategies for reducing maternal mortality according to a country's stage in the obstetric transition.
This article examines three problems burdening the Russian system of health care finance in transition period: (a) unrealistic government promise to cover health care coverage too wide to be achieved with available resources; (b) inefficient management of health care delivery systems; and (c) lack in evidence of actual positive changes effected by the new players: mandatory health insurance carriers and funds. Radical reshaping of the health benefits promised by the government and introduction of patient co-payments are considered as a way to normalize public health sector finance and operations. Two alternative approaches to the reform of the existing eclectic system of health care management are available. Institutional preconditions for operational effectiveness of third-party purchasers of health services in public-financed health sector are defined.
Smith, Shannon Bright; Alexander, Judith W
The study's purpose was to determine nurses' opinions of sending patients from the hospital to home with home health services. The study occurred in the Charleston, South Carolina, Tricounty area (Berkeley, Charleston, and Dorchester counties). Home health agencies and hospitals were invited to participate. The study used a survey design to gather information on nursing perceptions of current practices and needed changes to improve transition of patients. The population was nurses (licensed practical nurses (LPNs) and registered nurses (RNs)) employed at inpatient hospitals or home health agencies in the area. Thirty-four RNs responded with no LPNs respondents. Agency administrators/chief nursing officers agreed for their agencies to participate and distributed the survey using a Research Electronic Data Capture (REDCap) Internet-based survey tool. Using the survey results and information from a literature review, the study developed a list of propositions, which participating administrators reviewed, for improving transitions to home. Both home health and hospital nurses reported a need to improve the process of sending patients from hospital to home with home health services. This study provides hospitals and home health agencies with propositions to facilitate the establishment of a process to communicate effectively patients care needs and streamline the discharging patients from the hospital to home health care; thus, improving patient transition. Case managers and discharge planners will need interagency collaboration along with evidence-based interventions to transition patients from the hospital to home with home health services with various populations. Direct patient care nurses in both hospital and home health settings should share the same accountability as case managers to ensure successful transitions.
Fex, Angelika; Flensner, Gullvi; Ek, Anna-Christina; Söderhamn, Olle
This study aimed to elucidate meanings of health-illness transition experiences among adult persons using advanced medical technology at home. As an increasing number of persons perform self-care while using different sorts of advanced medical technology at home, knowledge about health-illness transition experiences in this situation may be useful to caregivers in supporting these patients. A qualitative design was used. Five women and five men, all of whom performed self-care at home, either using long-term oxygen therapy from a ventilator or oxygen cylinder, or performing peritoneal or haemodialysis, were interviewed. Ethics committee approval was obtained. Informed consent was received from all participants, and ethical issues concerning their rights in research were raised. The interviews were analysed using a phenomenological hermeneutical methodology, including both an inductive and a deductive structural analysis. This method offers possibilities to obtain an increased understanding by uncovering a deeper meaning of lived experiences through interviews transcribed as texts. The health-illness transition for adult persons in this context was found to mean a learning process of accepting, managing, adjusting and improving daily life with technology, facilitated by realizing the gain from technology at home. Further, the meaning of the health-illness transition experience was interpreted as contentment with being part of the active and conscious process towards transcending into a new state of living, in which the individual and the technology were in tune. The healthy transition experience was characterized by human growth and becoming. This study elucidates one meaning of health-illness transition experiences in relation to the use of advanced medical technology on a more generic level, independent of the specific type of technology used. A positive attitude towards technology at home facilitates the transition. © 2010 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of
Ashley, Christine; Peters, Kath; Brown, Angela; Halcomb, Elizabeth
To explore registered nurses' reflections on transitioning from acute to primary health care employment, and future career intentions. Reforms in primary health care have resulted in increasing demands for a skilled primary health care nursing workforce. To meet shortfalls, acute care nurses are being recruited to primary health care employment, yet little is known about levels of satisfaction and future career intentions. A sequential mixed methods study consisting of a survey and semi-structured interviews with nurses who transition to primary health care. Most reported positive experiences, valuing work/life balance, role diversity and patient/family interactions. Limited orientation and support, loss of acute skills and inequitable remuneration were reported negatively. Many respondents indicated an intention to stay in primary health care (87.3%) and nursing (92.6%) for the foreseeable future, whilst others indicated they may leave primary health care as soon as convenient (29.6%). Our findings provide guidance to managers in seeking strategies to recruit and retain nurses in primary health care employment. To maximize recruitment and retention, managers must consider factors influencing job satisfaction amongst transitioning nurses, and the impact that nurses' past experiences may have on future career intentions in primary health care. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Myles, Nicholas; Large, Matthew; Myles, Hannah; Adams, Robert; Liu, Dennis; Galletly, Cherrie
There have been substantial changes in workforce and employment patterns in Australia over the past 50 years as a result of economic globalisation. This has resulted in substantial reduction in employment in the manufacturing industry often with large-scale job losses in concentrated sectors and communities. Large-scale job loss events receive significant community attention. To what extent these mass unemployment events contribute to increased psychological distress, mental illness and suicide in affected individuals warrants further consideration. Here we undertake a narrative review of published job loss literature. We discuss the impact that large-scale job loss events in the manufacturing sector may have on population mental health, with particular reference to contemporary trends in the Australian economy. We also provide a commentary on the expected outcomes of future job loss events in this context and the implications for Australian public mental health care services. Job loss due to plant closure results in a doubling of psychological distress that peaks 9 months following the unemployment event. The link between job loss and increased rates of mental illness and suicide is less clear. The threat of impending job loss and the social context in which job loss occurs has a significant bearing on psychological outcomes. The implications for Australian public mental health services are discussed.
Full Text Available Background: There has been growing interest in the stalled transition to adulthood in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA and its consequences for young people's socioeconomic outcomes. However, little is known about how important life transitions relate to youth psychosocial well-being in the region. Objective: Drawing on a life course framework, we estimate the associations between making transitions in education, employment, and marriage with changes in mental health among young people in Egypt. Methods: We descriptively analyze mental health scores, measured via the Self-Reporting Questionnaire-20 and disaggregated by gender, for a panel of young people first surveyed in 2009 at ages 13-29 and followed up in late 2013 and early 2014. We regress change in mental health scores against indicators of making different transitions. Results: Young women experience worse mental health than young men overall. Lower school achievement was associated with poorer mental health; being out of the labor force was an additional risk factor for young men. While average mental health scores improved over time, over a quarter of the sample experienced worsening mental health, related to failure to marry and find a job among older men, and failure to finish schooling among younger women. Conclusions: Mental health is an important but often overlooked component of youth well-being during the transition to adulthood in MENA, and potentially other low- and middle-income countries. Contribution: This is the first paper to empirically examine the relationship between psychosocial well-being and achieving important socioeconomic milestones among a nationally representative cohort of young people in MENA.
Wang, Haoyu; Chang, Ling; Markine, Valeri
Transition zones in railway tracks are locations with considerable changes in the rail-supporting structure. Typically, they are located near engineering structures, such as bridges, culverts and tunnels. In such locations, severe differential settlements often occur due to the different material properties and structure behavior. Without timely maintenance, the differential settlement may lead to the damage of track components and loss of passenger's comfort. To ensure the safety of railway operations and reduce the maintenance costs, it is necessary to consecutively monitor the structural health condition of the transition zones in an economical manner and detect the changes at an early stage. However, using the current in situ monitoring of transition zones is hard to achieve this goal, because most in situ techniques (e.g., track-measuring coaches) are labor-consuming and usually not frequently performed (approximately twice a year in the Netherlands). To tackle the limitations of the in situ techniques, a Satellite Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) system is presented in this paper, which provides a potential solution for a consecutive structural health monitoring of transition zones with bi-/tri-weekly data update and mm-level precision. To demonstrate the feasibility of the InSAR system for monitoring transition zones, a transition zone is tested. The results show that the differential settlement in the transition zone and the settlement rate can be observed and detected by the InSAR measurements. Moreover, the InSAR results are cross-validated against measurements obtained using a measuring coach and a Digital Image Correlation (DIC) device. The results of the three measuring techniques show a good correlation, which proves the applicability of InSAR for the structural health monitoring of transition zones in railway track.
Full Text Available Transition zones in railway tracks are locations with considerable changes in the rail-supporting structure. Typically, they are located near engineering structures, such as bridges, culverts and tunnels. In such locations, severe differential settlements often occur due to the different material properties and structure behavior. Without timely maintenance, the differential settlement may lead to the damage of track components and loss of passenger’s comfort. To ensure the safety of railway operations and reduce the maintenance costs, it is necessary to consecutively monitor the structural health condition of the transition zones in an economical manner and detect the changes at an early stage. However, using the current in situ monitoring of transition zones is hard to achieve this goal, because most in situ techniques (e.g., track-measuring coaches are labor-consuming and usually not frequently performed (approximately twice a year in the Netherlands. To tackle the limitations of the in situ techniques, a Satellite Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR system is presented in this paper, which provides a potential solution for a consecutive structural health monitoring of transition zones with bi-/tri-weekly data update and mm-level precision. To demonstrate the feasibility of the InSAR system for monitoring transition zones, a transition zone is tested. The results show that the differential settlement in the transition zone and the settlement rate can be observed and detected by the InSAR measurements. Moreover, the InSAR results are cross-validated against measurements obtained using a measuring coach and a Digital Image Correlation (DIC device. The results of the three measuring techniques show a good correlation, which proves the applicability of InSAR for the structural health monitoring of transition zones in railway track.
Vajro, Pietro; Fischler, Björn; Burra, Patrizia; Debray, Dominique; Dezsofi, Antal; Guercio Nuzio, Salvatore; Hadzic, Nedim; Hierro, Loreto; Jahnel, Joerg; Lamireau, Thierry; McKiernan, Patrick; McLin, Valerie; Nobili, Valerio; Socha, Piotr; Smets, Francoise; Baumann, Ulli; Verkade, Henkjan J
Medical advances have dramatically improved the long-term prognosis of children and adolescents with once-fatal hepatobiliary diseases. However, there is no generally accepted optimal pathway of care for the transition from paediatric care to the adult health system. The purpose of this position paper is to propose a transition process for young people with paediatric onset hepatobiliary diseases from child-centred to adult-centred healthcare services. Seventeen ESPGHAN/EASL physicians from 13 countries (Austria, Belgium, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, and United Kingdom) formulated and answered questions after examining the currently published literature on transition from childhood to adulthood. PubMed and Google Scholar were systematically searched between 1980 and January 2018. Quality of evidence was assessed by the Grading of Recommendation Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) system. Expert opinions were used to support recommendations whenever the evidence was graded weak. All authors voted on each recommendation, using the nominal voting technique. We reviewed the literature regarding the optimal timing for the initiation of the transition process and the transfer of the patient to adult services, principal documents, transition multi-professional team components, main barriers, and goals of the general transition process. A transition plan based on available evidence was agreed focusing on the individual young people's readiness and on coordinated teamwork, with transition monitoring continuing until the first year of adult services.We further agreed on selected features of transitioning processes inherent to the most frequent paediatric-onset hepatobiliary diseases. The discussion highlights specific clinical issues that will probably present to adult gastrointestinal specialists and that should be considered, according to published evidence, in the long-term tracking of patients
Gershon, Robyn R M; Sherman, Martin F; Magda, Lori A; Riley, Halley E; McAlexander, Tara P; Neitzel, Richard
Information on prevalence and risk factors associated with self-reported hearing health among mass transit riders is extremely limited, even though evidence suggests mass transit may be a source of excessive exposure to noise. Data on mass transit ridership were collected from 756 study participants using a self-administered questionnaire. Hearing health was measured using two symptom items (tinnitus and temporary audiometric threshold shift), two subjective measures (self-rated hearing and hearing ability), and two medical-related questions (hearing testing and physician-diagnosed hearing loss). In logistic regression analyses that controlled for possible confounders, including demographic variables, occupational noise exposure, nonoccupational noise exposure (including MP3 player use) and use of hearing protection, frequent and lengthy mass transit (all forms) ridership (1,100 min or more per week vs. 350 min or less per week) was the strongest predictor of temporary threshold shift symptoms. Noise abatement strategies, such as engineering controls, and the promotion of hearing protection use should be encouraged to reduce the risk of adverse impacts on the hearing health of mass transit users.
Topalovic, P.; Carter, J.; Topalovic, M.; Krantzberg, G.
Hamilton's historical roots as an electric, industrial and transportation-oriented city provide it with a high potential for rapid transit, especially when combined with its growing population, developing economy, redeveloping downtown core and its plans for sustainable growth. This paper explores the health, environmental, social and economic…
Gabriel, Phabinly; McManus, Margaret; Rogers, Katherine; White, Patience
To identify statistically significant positive outcomes in pediatric-to-adult transition studies using the triple aim framework of population health, consumer experience, and utilization and costs of care. Studies published between January 1995 and April 2016 were identified using the CINAHL, Ovid MEDLINE, PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science databases. Included studies evaluated pre-evaluation and postevaluation data, intervention and comparison groups, and randomized clinic trials. The methodological strength of each study was assessed using the Effective Public Health Practice Project Quality Assessment Tool. Out of a total of 3844 articles, 43 met our inclusion criteria. Statistically significant positive outcomes were found in 28 studies, most often related to population health (20 studies), followed by consumer experience (8 studies), and service utilization (9 studies). Among studies with moderate to strong quality assessment ratings, the most common positive outcomes were adherence to care and utilization of ambulatory care in adult settings. Structured transition interventions often resulted in positive outcomes. Future evaluations should consider aligning with professional transition guidance; incorporating detailed intervention descriptions about transition planning, transfer, and integration into adult care; and measuring the triple aims of population health, experience, and costs of care. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Land Use Transition and Human Health in the context of Climate Change in the ... Water management challenges in the context of agricultural intensification and ... to announce that the first call for applications for the new Early Career Women. ... International Water Resources Association, in close collaboration with IDRC, ...
Okumura, Megumi J; Hersh, Aimee O; Hilton, Joan F; Lotstein, Debra S
Despite over 500,000 adolescents with special health care needs transitioning to adulthood each year, limited information is available on their health status or their access to care after transition. To describe the change in health status and access to care of a nationally sampled, longitudinal cohort of young adults with special health care needs (ASHCN). We analyzed follow-up data collected in the 2007 Survey of Adult Transition and Health on young adults who were 14-17 years of age when their parents participated in the 2001 National Survey of Children with Special Health Care Needs. We describe changes in access to care and health status over time, and used logistic regression to identify characteristics that were associated with declining health status in this cohort. 1,865 participants, aged 19-23 years, completed the Survey of Adult Transition and Health. Between 2001 and 2007, there was a 3.6 fold increase in the proportion experiencing delayed or forgone care; 10% reported a decline in health status. There was a 7.7-fold increase in the proportion reporting no insurance. In regression analysis, factors associated with declining health status between 2001 and 2007 included underlying disease severity and delayed or forgone care in young adulthood. We found significant deterioration in insurance coverage, usual source of care and receiving timely health care as ASHCN aged into adulthood, and that this was associated with decline in health status. Our findings suggest that further population-based analyses of health outcomes are needed to plan for interventions to assist this vulnerable population. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ilene S. Speizer
Full Text Available Abstract Background The adolescent (ages 15–19 and young adult (ages 20–24 years are a crucial time as many sexual and reproductive health (SRH transitions take place in these years. The study of youth SRH transitions in sub-Saharan Africa is limited due to a paucity of longitudinal data needed to examine the timing and circumstances of these transitions. Methods This paper uses recently collected longitudinal data from select urban areas in Kenya and Nigeria that include a large youth sample at baseline (2010/2011 and endline (2014. We control for unobserved heterogeneity in our modelling approach to correct for selectivity issues that are often ignored in similar types of analyses. Results We demonstrate that the transition patterns (i.e., sexual initiation, first marriage, and first pregnancy/birth differ within and across the urban areas and countries studied. Urban Kenyan youth have more premarital sex and pregnancy than youth from the Nigerian cities. Further analyses demonstrate that more educated and wealthier youth transition later than their less educated and poorer counterparts. Conclusions The findings from this study can be used to inform programs seeking to serve young people based on their varying reproductive health needs in different contexts over the adolescent and young adult years.
Almeida, Osvaldo P; Marsh, Kylie; Murray, Karen; Hickey, Martha; Sim, Moira; Ford, Andrew; Flicker, Leon
To determine if health coaching (HC) decreases the incidence of depression, reduces the severity of symptoms, and increases quality of life during the menopausal transition (MT). Parallel, single-blinded, randomised controlled trial of 6 sessions of phone-delivered HC compared with usual care. Participants were 351 community-dwelling women free of major depression going through the MT, of whom 180 were assigned the intervention and 171 usual care. The primary outcome of interest was the incidence of clinically significant depressive symptoms over 52 weeks. Other study measures included the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, quality of life (SF-12), the Menopause Rating Scale (MRS), diet, body mass index, alcohol use, smoking and physical activity. We considered that women with Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) scores between 5 and 14 (inclusive) had sub-threshold depressive symptoms. Nine women developed clinically significant symptoms of depression during the study-2 had been assigned HC (odds ratio, OR=0.26, 95%CI=0.05, 1.29; p=0.099). Intention-to-treat showed that, compared with usual care, the intervention led to a greater decline in depressive scores, most markedly for participants with sub-threshold depressive symptoms. Similar, but less pronounced, benefits were noticed for anxiety scores and the mental component summary of the SF-12. The intervention led to a decline in MRS scores by week 26 and subtle improvements in body mass, consumption of vegetables and smoking. HC addressing relevant risk factors for depression during the MT improves mental health measures. Our findings indicate that women with sub-threshold depressive symptoms may benefit the most from such interventions, and suggest that HC could play a useful role in minimizing mental health disturbance for women going through the MT. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Narayana, Muttur Ranganathan
India's High Level Expert Group on Universal Health Coverage in 2011 recommended a universal, public-funded and national health coverage policy. As a plausible forward-looking macroeconomic reform in the health sector, this policy proposal on universal health coverage (UHC) needs to be evaluated for age structure transition effect and fiscal sustainability to strengthen its current design and future implementation. Macroeconomic analyses of the long-term implications of age structure transition and fiscal sustainability on India's proposed UHC policy. A new measure of age-specific UHC is developed by combining the age profile of public and private health consumption expenditure by using the National Transfer Accounts methodology. Different projections of age-specific public health expenditure are calculated over the period 2005-2100 to account for the age structure transition effect. The projections include changes in: (1) levels of the expenditure as gross domestic product grows, (2) levels and shape of the expenditure as gross domestic product grows and expenditure converges to that of developed countries (or convergence scenario) based on the Lee-Carter model of forecasting mortality rates, and (3) levels of the expenditure as India moves toward a UHC policy. Fiscal sustainability under each health expenditure projection is determined by using the measures of generational imbalance and sustainability gap in the Generational Accounting methodology. Public health expenditure is marked by age specificities and the elderly population is costlier to support for their healthcare needs in the future. Given the discount and productivity growth rates, the proposed UHC is not fiscally sustainable under India's current fiscal policies except for the convergence scenario. However, if the income elasticity of public expenditure on social welfare and health expenditure is less than one, fiscal sustainability of the UHC policy is attainable in all scenarios of projected public
The purpose of this paper is to contribute to a better understanding of Chinese health care regulation in an era of transition. It describes the major health care regulatory institutions operating currently in China and analyzes the underlying factors. The paper argues that in the transition from a planned to a market economy, the Chinese government has been employing a hybrid approach where both old and new institutions have a role in the management of emerging markets, including the health care market. This approach is consistent with the incremental reform strategy adopted by the Party-state. Although a health care regulatory framework has gradually taken shape, the framework is incomplete, with a particular lack of emphasis on professional self-regulation. In addition, its effectiveness is limited despite the existence of many regulatory institutions. In poor rural areas, the effectiveness of the regulatory framework is further undermined or distorted by the extremely difficult financial position that local governments find themselves in. The interpretations of the principle of 'rule of law' by policy makers and officials at different levels and the widespread informal network of relations between known individuals (Guanxi) play an important role in the operation of the regulatory framework. The findings of this paper reveal the complex nature of regulating health care in transitional China.
Cipriano, Pamela F; Bowles, Kathryn; Dailey, Maureen; Dykes, Patricia; Lamb, Gerri; Naylor, Mary
Care coordination and transitional care services are strategically important for achieving the priorities of better care, better health, and reduced costs embodied in the National Strategy for Quality Improvement in Health Care (National Quality Strategy [NQS]). Some of the most vulnerable times in a person’s care occur with changes in condition as well as movement within and between settings of care. The American Academy of Nursing (AAN) believes it is essential to facilitate the coordination of care and transitions by using health information technology (HIT) to collect, share, and analyze data that communicate patient-centered information among patients, families, and care providers across communities. HIT makes information accessible, actionable, timely, customizable, and portable. Rapid access to information also creates efficiencies in care by eliminating redundancies and illuminating health history and prior care. The adoption of electronic health records (EHRs) and information systems can enable care coordination to be more effective but only when a number of essential elements are addressed to reflect the team-based nature of care coordination as well as a focus on the individual’s needs and preferences. To that end, the AAN offers a set of recommendations to guide the development of the infrastructure, standards, content, and measures for electronically enabled care coordination and transitions in care as well as research needed to build the evidence base to assess outcomes of the associated interventions.
Pollock, Nancy J
The concept of health transitions assumes that health status improves with the introduction of western medicine. In this paper I demonstrate that the health of the people of Rongelap, Marshall Islands, has undergone serious damage as a result of nuclear testing, and that women in particular have suffered unduly. Exposure to nuclear radiation over a period of almost fifty years has been recognised by US authorities as a major contributory cause to the high rates of cancers and birth defects suffered by the Rongelap people. Women's reproduction has been severely affected, as evidenced by the many stillbirths and small stature of children born alive. Two generations have been exposed to both background radiation and to radiation ingested with the local foods on which they rely in the absence of other food sources. Clean up has commenced only after this and other communities sought compensation from the United States. The Rongelap people will live with the effects of radiation for generations to come. This transition to ongoing health problems is thus a negative outcome of modern health transition.
Murcott, W J
A young person's transition of care from child and adolescent mental health services to adult mental health services can be an uncertain and distressing event that can have serious ramifications for their recovery. Recognition of this across many countries and recent UK media interest in the dangers of mental health services failing young people has led practitioners to question the existing processes. This paper reviews the current theories and research into potential failings of services and encourages exploration for a deeper understanding of when and how care should be managed in the transition process for young people. Mental health nurses can play a vital role in this process and, by adopting the assumptions of this paradigm, look at transition from this unique perspective. By reviewing the current ideas related to age boundaries, service thresholds, service philosophy and service design, it is argued that the importance of the therapeutic relationship, the understanding of the cultural context of the young person and the placing of the young person in a position of autonomy and control should be central to any decision and process of transfer between two mental health services. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Pierce, Jessica S; Aroian, Karen; Schifano, Elizabeth; Milkes, Amy; Schwindt, Tiani; Gannon, Anthony; Wysocki, Tim
Research on the transition to adult care for young adults with type 1 diabetes (T1D) emphasizes transition readiness, with less emphasis on transition outcomes. The relatively few studies that focus on outcomes use a wide variety of measures with little reliance on stakeholder engagement for measure selection. This study engaged multiple stakeholders (i.e., young adults with T1D, parents, pediatric and adult health care providers, and experts) in qualitative interviews to identify the content domain for developing a multidimensional measure of health care transition (HCT) outcomes. The following constructs were identified for a planned measure of HCT outcomes: biomedical markers of T1D control; T1D knowledge/skills; navigation of a new health care system; integration of T1D into emerging adult roles; balance of parental involvement with autonomy; and "ownership" of T1D self-management. The results can guide creation of an initial item pool for a multidimensional profile of HCT outcomes. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com
Tétreault, Louis-François; Eluru, Naveen; Hatzopoulou, Marianne; Morency, Patrick; Plante, Celine; Morency, Catherine; Reynaud, Frederic; Shekarrizfard, Maryam; Shamsunnahar, Yasmin; Faghih Imani, Ahmadreza; Drouin, Louis; Pelletier, Anne; Goudreau, Sophie; Tessier, Francois; Gauvin, Lise; Smargiassi, Audrey
Since public transit infrastructure affects road traffic volumes and influences transportation mode choice, which in turn impacts health, it is important to estimate the alteration of the health burden linked with transit policies. We quantified the variation in health benefits and burden between a business as usual (BAU) and a public transit (PT) scenarios in 2031 (with 8 and 19 new subway and train stations) for the greater Montreal region. Using mode choice and traffic assignment models, we predicted the transportation mode choice and traffic assignment on the road network. Subsequently, we estimated the distance travelled in each municipality by mode, the minutes spent in active transportation, as well as traffic emissions. Thereafter we estimated the health burden attributed to air pollution and road traumas and the gains associated with active transportation for both the BAU and PT scenarios. We predicted a slight decrease of overall trips and kilometers travelled by car as well as an increase of active transportation for the PT in 2031 vs the BAU. Our analysis shows that new infrastructure will reduce the overall burden of transportation by 2.5 DALYs per 100,000 persons. This decrease is caused by the reduction of road traumas occurring in the inner suburbs and central Montreal region as well as gains in active transportation in the inner suburbs. Based on the results of our study, transportation planned public transit projects for Montreal are unlikely to reduce drastically the burden of disease attributable to road vehicles and infrastructures in the Montreal region. The impact of the planned transportation infrastructures seems to be very low and localized mainly in the areas where new public transit stations are planned. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
This paper situates the ethnography of avian flu within the geo-political context of a new epidemiologic transition. Drawing on anthropological experience and insight, this paper examines areas of enquiry in which an ethnographic approach could contribute to a better implementation of prevention and control measures. Within the context of newly emerging diseases and accelerated globalization, the task of ethnography needs to extend far beyond the local. This paper reveals two major global issues that the ethnography of epidemiologic transition must take into consideration: (1) Global agro-industrial capitalism, and (2) global politics in the context of international health organizations and multi-national drug companies. The case of Thailand poses a question of how the strength of ethnographic practice could be deployed to account for the reality of the global-local interface of the new epidemiologic transition.
Iheduru-Anderson, Kechinyere C; Wahi, Monika M
Successful transition to practice of internationally educated nurses (IENs) can critically affect quality of care. The aim of this study was to characterize the facilitators and barriers to transition of Nigerian IENs (NIENs) to the United States health care setting. Using a descriptive phenomenology approach, 6 NIENs were interviewed about their transitional experiences in the United States. Thematic methods were used for data analysis. The three major themes identified from the participants' stories were "fear/anger and disappointment" (FAD), "road/journey to success/overcoming challenges" (RJO), and "moving forward" (MF). The FAD theme predominated, including experiences of racism, bullying, and inequality. The RJO theme included resilience, and the MF theme encompassed personal growth. NIENs face personal and organizational barriers to adaptation, especially fear, anger and disappointment. Future research should seek to develop a model for optimal adaptation that focuses on improving both personal and organizational facilitators and decreasing barriers.
Hearld, Larry R; Alexander, Jeffrey A; Shi, Yunfeng
Collaborative forms of organizations such as multisectoral health care alliances play an increasingly prominent role in the U.S. health care system. A key feature of these organizations highlighted in previous research is leadership, yet little research has examined what happens when there is a change in leadership. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between leadership transitions in an alliance and member assessments of the benefits and costs of participation, indicators of the value that members derive from their involvement in the alliance. The study used quantitative data collected from three rounds of surveys of alliance members participating in the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation's Aligning Forces for Quality Program. Qualitative interview data supplemented this analysis by providing examples of why leadership transitions may affect participation benefits and costs. Quantitative analysis indicated that alliance members who experienced a change in leadership reported both higher and lower levels of participation benefits and costs, depending on the type of leadership change (i.e., alliance leader vs. programmatic leader). Qualitative analysis suggested that the scope of responsibilities of different types of leaders plays an important role in how members perceive changes. Likewise, interviews indicated that timing influences how disruptive a leadership transition is and whether it is perceived positively or negatively. Leadership transitions present both challenges and opportunities; whether the effects are felt positively or negatively depends on when a transition occurs and how it is handled by incoming leaders and remaining members. Furthermore, different types of members report higher levels of participation benefits and lower levels of participation costs, suggesting that efforts to maintain a sense of alliance value during times of transitions may be able to target certain types of individuals.
Durwood, Lily; McLaughlin, Katie A; Olson, Kristina R
Social transitions are increasingly common for transgender children. A social transition involves a child presenting to other people as a member of the "opposite" gender in all contexts (e.g., wearing clothes and using pronouns of that gender). Little is known about the well-being of socially transitioned transgender children. This study examined self-reported depression, anxiety, and self-worth in socially transitioned transgender children compared with 2 control groups: age- and gender-matched controls and siblings of transgender children. As part of a longitudinal study (TransYouth Project), children (9-14 years old) and their parents completed measurements of depression and anxiety (n = 63 transgender children, n = 63 controls, n = 38 siblings). Children (6-14 years old; n = 116 transgender children, n = 122 controls, n = 72 siblings) also reported on their self-worth. Mental health and self-worth were compared across groups. Transgender children reported depression and self-worth that did not differ from their matched-control or sibling peers (p = .311), and they reported marginally higher anxiety (p = .076). Compared with national averages, transgender children showed typical rates of depression (p = .290) and marginally higher rates of anxiety (p = .096). Parents similarly reported that their transgender children experienced more anxiety than children in the control groups (p = .002) and rated their transgender children as having equivalent levels of depression (p = .728). These findings are in striking contrast to previous work with gender-nonconforming children who had not socially transitioned, which found very high rates of depression and anxiety. These findings lessen concerns from previous work that parents of socially transitioned children could be systematically underreporting mental health problems. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hower, Heather; Case, Brady G.; Hoeppner, Bettina; Yen, Shirley; Goldstein, Tina; Goldstein, Benjamin; Birmaher, Boris; Weinstock, Lauren; Topor, David; Hunt, Jeffrey; Strober, Michael; Ryan, Neal; Axelson, David; Gill, Mary Kay; Keller, Martin B.
Objectives There is concern that treatment of serious mental illness in the United States declines precipitously following legal emancipation at age 18 years and transition from specialty youth clinical settings. We examined age transition effects on treatment utilization in a sample of youth with bipolar disorder. Methods Youth with bipolar disorder (N = 413) 7–18 years of age were assessed approximately twice per year (mean interval 8.2 months) for at least 4 years. Annual use of any individual, group, and family therapy, psychopharmacology visits, and hospitalization at each year of age, and monthly use from ages 17 through 19 years, were examined. The effect of age transition to 18 years on monthly visit probability was tested in the subsample with observed transitions (n = 204). Putative sociodemographic moderators and the influence of clinical course were assessed. Results Visit probabilities for the most common modalities—psychopharmacology, individual psychotherapy, and home-based care— generally fell from childhood to young adulthood. For example, the annual probability of at least one psychopharmacology visit was 97% at age 8, 75% at age 17, 60% at age 19, and 46% by age 22. Treatment probabilities fell in transition-age youth from age 17 through 19, but a specific transition effect at age 18 was not found. Declines did not vary based on sociodemographic characteristics and were not explained by changing severity of the bipolar illness or functioning. Conclusions Mental health treatment declined with age in this sample of youth with bipolar disorder, but reductions were not concentrated during or after the transition to age 18 years. Declines were unrelated to symptom severity or impairment. PMID:24241500
Full Text Available Background: Rapid urbanization in low- and middle-income countries reinforces risk and epidemiological transition in urban societies, which are characterized by high socioeconomic gradients. Limited availability of disaggregated morbidity data in these settings impedes research on epidemiological profiles of different population subgroups. Objective: The study aimed to analyze the epidemiological transition in the emerging megacity of Pune with respect to changing morbidity and mortality patterns, also taking into consideration health disparities among different socioeconomic groups. Design: A mixed-methods approach was used, comprising secondary analysis of mortality data, a survey among 900 households in six neighborhoods with different socioeconomic profiles, 46 in-depth interviews with laypeople, and expert interviews with 37 health care providers and 22 other health care workers. Results: The mortality data account for an epidemiological transition with an increasing number of deaths due to non-communicable diseases (NCDs in Pune. The share of deaths due to infectious and parasitic diseases remained nearly constant, though the cause of deaths changed considerably within this group. The survey data and expert interviews indicated a slightly higher prevalence of diabetes and hypertension among higher socioeconomic groups, but a higher incidence and more frequent complications and comorbidities in lower socioeconomic groups. Although the self-reported morbidity for malaria, gastroenteritis, and tuberculosis did not show a socioeconomic pattern, experts estimated the prevalence in lower socioeconomic groups to be higher, though all groups in Pune would be affected. Conclusions: The rising burden of NCDs among all socioeconomic groups and the concurrent persistence of communicable diseases pose a major challenge for public health. Improvement of urban health requires a stronger focus on health promotion and disease prevention for all
Lafortune, Louise; Béland, François; Bergman, Howard; Ankri, Joël
For older persons with complex care needs, accounting for the variability and interdependency in how health dimensions manifest themselves is necessary to understand the dynamic of health status. Our objective is to test the hypothesis that a latent classification can capture this heterogeneity in a population of frail elderly persons living in the community. Based on a person-centered approach, the classification corresponds to substantively meaningful groups of individuals who present with a comparable constellation of health problems. Using data collected for the SIPA project, a system of integrated care for frail older people (n = 1164), we performed latent class analyses to identify homogenous categories of health status (i.e. health profiles) based on 17 indicators of prevalent health problems (chronic conditions; depression; cognition; functional and sensory limitations; instrumental, mobility and personal care disability) Then, we conducted latent transition analyses to study change in profile membership over 2 consecutive periods of 12 and 10 months, respectively. We modeled competing risks for mortality and lost to follow-up as absorbing states to avoid attrition biases. We identified four health profiles that distinguish the physical and cognitive dimensions of health and capture severity along the disability dimension. The profiles are stable over time and robust to mortality and lost to follow-up attrition. The differentiated and gender-specific patterns of transition probabilities demonstrate the profiles' sensitivity to change in health status and unmasked the differential relationship of physical and cognitive domains with progression in disability. Our approach may prove useful at organization and policy levels where many issues call for classification of individuals into pragmatically meaningful groups. In dealing with attrition biases, our analytical strategy could provide critical information for the planning of longitudinal studies of aging
Full Text Available Abstract Background For older persons with complex care needs, accounting for the variability and interdependency in how health dimensions manifest themselves is necessary to understand the dynamic of health status. Our objective is to test the hypothesis that a latent classification can capture this heterogeneity in a population of frail elderly persons living in the community. Based on a person-centered approach, the classification corresponds to substantively meaningful groups of individuals who present with a comparable constellation of health problems. Methods Using data collected for the SIPA project, a system of integrated care for frail older people (n = 1164, we performed latent class analyses to identify homogenous categories of health status (i.e. health profiles based on 17 indicators of prevalent health problems (chronic conditions; depression; cognition; functional and sensory limitations; instrumental, mobility and personal care disability Then, we conducted latent transition analyses to study change in profile membership over 2 consecutive periods of 12 and 10 months, respectively. We modeled competing risks for mortality and lost to follow-up as absorbing states to avoid attrition biases. Results We identified four health profiles that distinguish the physical and cognitive dimensions of health and capture severity along the disability dimension. The profiles are stable over time and robust to mortality and lost to follow-up attrition. The differentiated and gender-specific patterns of transition probabilities demonstrate the profiles' sensitivity to change in health status and unmasked the differential relationship of physical and cognitive domains with progression in disability. Conclusion Our approach may prove useful at organization and policy levels where many issues call for classification of individuals into pragmatically meaningful groups. In dealing with attrition biases, our analytical strategy could provide critical
Full Text Available Introduction. Successful aging has many dimensions, which may manifest differently in men and women at different ages. Methods. We characterized one-year transitions among health states in 12 measures of successful aging among adults in the Cardiovascular Health Study. The measures included self-rated health, ADLs, IADLs, depression, cognition, timed walk, number of days spent in bed, number of blocks walked, extremity strength, recent hospitalizations, feelings about life as a whole, and life satisfaction. We dichotomized variables into “healthy” or “sick,” states, and estimated the prevalence of the healthy state and the probability of transitioning from one state to another, or dying, during yearly intervals. We compared men and women and three age groups (65–74, 75–84, and 85–94. Findings. Measures of successful aging showed similar results by gender. Most participants remained healthy even into advanced ages, although health declined for all measures. Recuperation, although less common with age, still occurred frequently. Men had a higher death rate than women regardless of health status, and were also more likely to remain in the healthy state. Discussion. The results suggest a qualitatively different experience of successful aging between men and women. Men did not simply “age faster” than women.
Goldberg, Abbie E.; Smith, JuliAnna Z.
This is the first study to examine change in depression and anxiety across the first year of adoptive parenthood in same-sex couples (90 couples: 52 lesbian, 38 gay male). Given that sexual minorities uniquely contend with sexual orientation-related stigma, this study examined how both internalized and enacted forms of stigma affect the mental health of lesbians and gay men during the transition to parenthood. In addition, the role of contextual support was examined. Higher perceived workplac...
Holmström, Malin Rising; Olofsson, Niclas; Asplund, Kenneth; Kristiansen, Lisbeth
To explore three school based transitions and their impact on positive self-reported-health (SRH), pre-school to elementary school (6-10 y), elementary school to junior high school (10-13 y), and junior high school to upper secondary school/high school (13-16 y), in a long-term longitudinal population based study. The study followed three cohorts through one school transition each. A longitudinal study with data from 6693 Health Dialogue questionnaires were used. Data were collected in the middle of Sweden during 2007-2012 with school children age 6-16 years old. Several significant factors were identified with an impact for a positive self-reported-health among children age 6-16 y; not feeling sad or depressed, afraid or worried, positive school environment (schoolyard and restrooms), not bullied, good sleep, daily physical activity and ability to concentrate. There was no single factor identified, the factors differed according to gender and age. The study have identified several gender and age specific factors for successful school transitions relevant for a positive SRH. This is valuable information for school staff, parents and school children and provides a possibility to provide support and assistance when needed.
C Watson, BS; G Kang, MPH; K Redican, PhD; K Abbas, PhD
Background: Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 4 set the target of reducing the under-5 mortality rate by two-thirds between 1990 and 2015. MDG 5 set the target of reducing the maternal mortality ratio (MMR) by three-quarters over the same time period, and also achieve universal access to reproductive health. The objective of this study is to analyse the epidemiological transitions in maternal and child health in Peru from 1990 to 2013. Methods: We analysed the risk of child mortality by ag...
Byass, Peter; de Savigny, Don; Lopez, Alan D
Despite indications that infection-related mortality in sub-Saharan Africa may be decreasing and the burden of non-communicable diseases increasing, the overwhelming reality is that health information systems across most of sub-Saharan Africa remain too weak to track epidemiological transition in a meaningful and effective way. We propose a minimum dataset as the basis of a functional health information system in countries where health information is lacking. This would involve continuous monitoring of cause-specific mortality through routine civil registration, regular documentation of exposure to leading risk factors, and monitoring effective coverage of key preventive and curative interventions in the health sector. Consideration must be given as to how these minimum data requirements can be effectively integrated within national health information systems, what methods and tools are needed, and ensuring that ethical and political issues are addressed. A more strategic approach to health information systems in sub-Saharan African countries, along these lines, is essential if epidemiological changes are to be tracked effectively for the benefit of local health planners and policy makers. African countries have a unique opportunity to capitalize on modern information and communications technology in order to achieve this. Methodological standards need to be established and political momentum fostered so that the African continent's health status can be reliably tracked. This will greatly strengthen the evidence base for health policies and facilitate the effective delivery of services.
Full Text Available Background: Despite indications that infection-related mortality in sub-Saharan Africa may be decreasing and the burden of non-communicable diseases increasing, the overwhelming reality is that health information systems across most of sub-Saharan Africa remain too weak to track epidemiological transition in a meaningful and effective way. Proposals: We propose a minimum dataset as the basis of a functional health information system in countries where health information is lacking. This would involve continuous monitoring of cause-specific mortality through routine civil registration, regular documentation of exposure to leading risk factors, and monitoring effective coverage of key preventive and curative interventions in the health sector. Consideration must be given as to how these minimum data requirements can be effectively integrated within national health information systems, what methods and tools are needed, and ensuring that ethical and political issues are addressed. A more strategic approach to health information systems in sub-Saharan African countries, along these lines, is essential if epidemiological changes are to be tracked effectively for the benefit of local health planners and policy makers. Conclusion: African countries have a unique opportunity to capitalize on modern information and communications technology in order to achieve this. Methodological standards need to be established and political momentum fostered so that the African continent's health status can be reliably tracked. This will greatly strengthen the evidence base for health policies and facilitate the effective delivery of services.
Arbaje, Alicia I; Newcomer, Alison R; Maynor, Kenric A; Duhaney, Robert L; Eubank, Kathryn J; Carrese, Joseph A
Article-at-a-Glance Background: Care transitions across health care settings are common and can result in adverse outcomes for older adults. Few studies have examined health care professionals' perspectives on important process measures or pay-for-performance (P4P) strategies related to transitional care. A study was conducted to characterize health care professionals' perspectives on (1) successful transitional care of older adults (age 65 years and older), (2) suggestions for improvement, and (3) P4P strategies related to transitional care. In a qualitative study, one-hour semistructured in-depth interviews were conducted in an acute care hospital, a skilled nursing facility, two community-based primary care practices, and one home health care agency with 20 health care professionals (18 physicians and 2 home health care administrators) with direct experience in care transitions of older adults and who were likely to be affected by P4P strategies. Findings were organized into three thematic domains: (1) components and markers of effective transitional care, (2) difficulties in design and implementation of P4P strategies, and (3) health care professionals' concerns and unmet needs related to delivering optimal care during transitions. A conceptual framework was developed on the basis of the findings to guide design and implementation of P4P strategies for improving transitional care. In characterizing health care professionals' perspectives, specific care processes to target, challenges to address in the design of P4P strategies, and unmet needs to consider regarding education and feedback for health care professionals were described. Future investigations could evaluate whether performance targets, educational interventions, and implementation strategies based on this conceptual framework improve quality of transitional care.
Burns, R A; Browning, C J; Kendig, H L
Becoming widowed is a significant event. There is considerable evidence that surviving partners report substantial changes in their wellbeing and mental health. Changes can occur prior to partner's death as an anticipatory effect and consequently during the period after partner's death. For most, declines in wellbeing and mental health dissipate over time. However, there is a limited long-term evidence to compare age-normative trajectories in mental health and wellbeing with the trajectories of those who transition into widowhood. Participants (n = 652) were older adults (aged 65-94 years at baseline) from the 16-year Melbourne Longitudinal Studies on Healthy Ageing project who were either married or de facto (n = 577), or recently widowed (n = 75). Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE) examined the immediate and long-term impact of widowhood. GEE piecewise regression analyses examined the trajectories of wellbeing and mental health in those who transitioned into widowed with time centered at time of partner's death. Analyses were stratified by gender. For both men and women, becoming widowed was strongly related to a strong decline in positive affect post partner's death. Otherwise, no long-term impact of widowhood on negative affect or depressive symptomology was reported. The impact of widowhood reports differential impacts on different indicators of wellbeing and mental health, which were inconsistent between men and women.
Nasarwanji, Mahiyar; Werner, Nicole E; Carl, Kimberly; Hohl, Dawn; Leff, Bruce; Gurses, Ayse P; Arbaje, Alicia I
Older adults discharged from the hospital to skilled home health care (SHHC) are at high risk for experiencing suboptimal transitions. Using the human factors approach of shadowing and contextual inquiry, we studied the workflow for transitioning older adults from the hospital to SHHC. We created a representative diagram of the hospital to SHHC transition workflow, we examined potential workflow variations, we categorized workflow challenges, and we identified artifacts developed to manage variations and challenges. We identified three overarching challenges to optimal care transitions-information access, coordination, and communication/teamwork. Future investigations could test whether redesigning the transition from hospital to SHHC, based on our findings, improves workflow and care quality.
Gómez-Ortiz, Viviola; Cendales, Boris; Useche, Sergio; Bocarejo, Juan P
The aim of this study was to estimate accident risk rates and mental health of bus rapid transit (BRT) drivers based on psychosocial risk factors at work leading to increased stress and health problems. A cross-sectional research design utilized a self-report questionnaire completed by 524 BRT drivers. Some working conditions of BRT drivers (lack of social support from supervisors and perceived potential for risk) may partially explain Bogota's BRT drivers' involvement in road accidents. Drivers' mental health problems were associated with higher job strain, less support from co-workers, fewer rewards and greater signal conflict while driving. To prevent bus accidents, supervisory support may need to be increased. To prevent mental health problems, other interventions may be needed such as reducing demands, increasing job control, reducing amount of incoming information, simplifying current signals, making signals less contradictory, and revising rewards. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Bennett, Rachel; Waterhouse, Philippa
Understanding the transition to adulthood has important implications for supporting young adults and understanding the roots of diversity in wellbeing later in life. In South Africa, the end of Apartheid means today's youth are experiencing their transition to adulthood in a changed social and political context which offers opportunities compared to the past but also threats. This paper presents the first national level analysis of the patterning of key transitions (completion of education, entry into the labour force, motherhood and marriage or cohabitation), and the association between the different pathways and health amongst young women. With the use of longitudinal data from the South African National Income Dynamics Study (2008-2015), this paper employs sequence analysis to identify common pathways to adulthood amongst women aged 15-17 years at baseline (n = 429) and logistic regression modelling to examine the association between these pathways and self-rated health. The sequence analysis identified five pathways: 1. 'Non-activity commonly followed by motherhood', 2. 'Pathway from school, motherhood then work', 3. 'Motherhood combined with schooling', 4. 'Motherhood after schooling', and 5. 'Schooling to non-activity'. After controlling for baseline socio-economic and demographic characteristics and health, the regression results show young women who followed pathways characterised by early motherhood and economic inactivity (1, 3 and 4) had poorer self-rated health compared to women whose pathways were characterised by combining motherhood and economic activity (2) and young women who were yet to become economically active or mothers (5). Therefore, policies should seek to prevent adolescent childbearing, support young mothers to continue their educational careers and enable mothers in work and seeking work to balance their work and care responsibilities. Further, the findings highlight the value of taking a holistic approach to health and provide
Boyle, Joseph; Speroff, Theodore; Worley, Katherine; Cao, Aize; Goggins, Kathryn; Dittus, Robert S; Kripalani, Sunil
To examine the association of health literacy with the number and type of transitional care needs (TCN) among patients being discharged to home. A cross-sectional analysis of patients admitted to an academic medical center. Nurses administered the Brief Health Literacy Screen and documented TCNs along 10 domains: caregiver support, transportation, healthcare utilization, high-risk medical comorbidities, medication management, medical devices, functional status, mental health comorbidities, communication, and financial resources. Among the 384 patients analyzed, 113 (29%) had inadequate health literacy. Patients with inadequate health literacy had needs in more TCN domains (mean = 5.29 vs 4.36; P literacy were significantly more likely to have TCNs in 7 out of the 10 domains. In multivariate analyses, inadequate health literacy remained significantly associated with inadequate caregiver support (odds ratio [OR], 2.61; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.37-4.99) and transportation barriers (OR, 1.69; 95% CI, 1.04-2.76). Among hospitalized patients, inadequate health literacy is prevalent and independently associated with other needs that place patients at a higher risk of adverse outcomes, such as hospital readmission. Screening for inadequate health literacy and associated needs may enable hospitals to address these barriers and improve postdischarge outcomes. © 2017 Society of Hospital Medicine
Lee, Sang-Yi; Kim, Chul-Woung; Seo, Nam-Kyu; Lee, Seung Eun
Many economically advanced countries have attempted to minimize public expenditures and pursue privatization based on the principles of neo-liberalism. However, Korea has moved contrary to this global trend. This study examines why and how the Korean health care system was formed, developed, and transformed into an integrated, single-insurer, National Health Insurance (NHI) system. We describe the transition in the Korean health care system using an analytical framework that incorporates such critical variables as government economic development strategies and the relationships among social forces, state autonomy, and state power. This study focuses on how the relationships among social forces can change as a nation's economic development or governing strategy changes in response to changes in international circumstances such as globalization. The corporatist Social Health Insurance (SHI) system (multiple insurers) introduced in 1977 was transformed into the single-insurer NHI in July 2000. These changes were influenced externally by globalization and internally by political democratization, keeping Korea's private-dominant health care provision system unchanged over several decades. Major changes such as integration reform occurred, when high levels of state autonomy were ensured. The state's power (its policy capability), based on health care infrastructures, acts to limit the direction of any change in the health care system because it is very difficult to build the infrastructure for a health care system in a short timeframe.
Borges, Gabriel Mendes
This study analyzes the main characteristics of the health transition in Brazil and its five major regions, using a framework that accounts for regional inequalities in mortality trends. The regional mortality divergence/convergence process is described and discussed by considering the specific contributions of age groups and causes of death in life expectancy variations. Results show that mortality change in Brazil has follow the epidemiologic transition theory to some extent during the period under analysis - for instance, the sharp decline in infant mortality in all regions (first from infectious and parasitic diseases and then from causes associated with the perinatal period) and the increase in the participation of chronic and degenerative diseases as the main cause of death. However, some features of Brazilian transition have not followed the linear and unidirectional pattern proposed by the epidemiologic transition theory, which helps to understand the periods of regional divergence in life expectancy, despite the long-term trends showing reducing regional inequalities. The emergence of HIV/AIDS, the persistence of relatively high levels of other infections and parasitic diseases, the regional differences in the unexpected mortality improvements from cardiovascular diseases, and the rapid and strong variations in mortality from external causes are some of the examples.
Kuhlthau, Karen A.; Warfield, Marji E.; Hurson, Jill; Delahaye, Jennifer; Crossman, Morgan K.
Few youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) nationally report receiving services to help them transition from the pediatric health care system to the adult health care system. For example, only one-fifth (21.1%) of youth with ASD receive any transition planning services. To better understand why the transition from pediatric to adult health care…
Garfield, Craig F; Abbott, Collin; Rutsohn, Joshua; Penedo, Frank
The objective of the current study was to examine the associations between the transition to fatherhood and depressive symptoms scores among Hispanic men. Using the sample of Hispanic men included in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health, depressive symptom scores were examined from 1994 to 2008. A "fatherhood-year" data set was created that included the men's Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) scores as well as residency status with the child. By regressing age-adjusted standardized depressive symptom scores, associations between mental health scores of Hispanic men and their transition to fatherhood were identified. Among the 1,715 Hispanic men, resident ( n = 502) and nonresident ( n = 99) Hispanic fathers reported an increase in depressive symptom scores (CES-D) during the first 5 years after entrance into fatherhood (β = 0.150, 95% CI [0.062, 0.239] and β = 0.153, 95% CI [0.034, 0.271], respectively) compared to non-fathers ( n = 1,114), representing an increase of 10% for resident fathers and a 15% for nonresident fathers. Hispanic non-fathers reported a decrease in depressive symptom scores (CES-D) during parallel ages. Hispanic fathers, regardless of residency status, reported increased depressive symptoms in the first 5 years after the transition into fatherhood, a period critical in child development.
Soriani, N; Trevisi, E; Calamari, L
The main objective of this experiment was to monitor the rumination pattern during the transition period in primiparous (PR) and pluriparous (PL) dairy cows and to investigate its relationships with metabolic conditions, milk yield, and health status. The study was carried out in an experimental free-stall barn and involved 32 Italian Friesian cows (9 PR and 23 PL) during the transition phase. The rumination time (RT) was recorded with an automatic system (HR-Tag), and data were calculated and summarized in 2-h intervals. Blood samples were collected during the transition phase to assess biochemical variables related to energy, protein, and mineral metabolism, as well as markers of inflammatory conditions and some enzyme activity. Daily milk yield, BW, nutritional condition, and health status were also recorded. The average RT before calving (-20 to -6 d) was 463 min/d in PR (range 270 to 620) and 522 min/d in PL (range 411 to 640). In the early lactation [15 to 40 d in milk (DIM)], the average RT was 504 min/d in PR (range 400 to 585) and 562 min/d in PL (range 414 to 685) and was positively correlated with milk yield (r = 0.36; P Cows with reduced RT before calving maintained reduced RT after calving and suffered a greater frequency of disease than cows with greater RT in late pregnancy. Moreover, cows characterized by mild inflammatory conditions and without health disorders or only mild health disorders during the puerperium showed a greater average rumination time (over 520 min/d) during the first 10 d of lactation. Conversely, the decreased RT (450 min/d) during the first few days of lactation was observed in cows with subclinical diseases or health disorders. Cows affected by clinical mastitis during the trial showed a reduction of RT and a change in its variability already some days before the drug treatment. Our results suggest that the automatic measurement of RT is useful to predict calving time and to quickly obtain information on health status of the
Atiim, George A.; Elliott, Susan J.
Globally, there has been a shift in the causes of illness and death from infectious diseases to noncommunicable diseases. This changing pattern has been attributed to the effects of an (ongoing) epidemiologic transition. Although researchers have applied epidemiologic transition theory to questions of global health, there have been relatively few…
Wells, Rebecca; Cilenti, Dorothy; Issel, L Michele
Throughout the United States, public health leaders are experimenting with how best to integrate services for individuals with complex needs. To that end, North Carolina implemented a policy incorporating both local public health departments and other providers into medical homes for low income pregnant women and young children at risk of developmental delays. To understand how this transition occurred within local communities, a pre-post comparative case study was conducted. A total of 42 people in four local health departments across the state were interviewed immediately before the 2011 policy change and six months later: 32 professionals (24 twice) and 10 pregnant women receiving case management at the time of the policy implementation. We used constant comparative analysis of interview and supplemental data to identify three key consequences of the policy implementation. One, having medical homes increased the centrality of other providers relative to local health departments. Two, a shift from focusing on personal relationships toward medical efficiency diverged in some respects from both case managers' and mothers' goals. Three, health department staff re-interpreted state policies to fit their public health values. Using a political economy perspective, these changes are interpreted as reflecting shifts in public health's broader ideological environment. To a large extent, the state successfully induced more connection between health department-based case managers and external providers. However, limited provider engagement may constrain the implementation of the envisioned medical homes. The increased focus on medical risk may also undermine health departments' role in supporting health over time by attenuating staff relationships with mothers. This study helps clarify how state public health policy innovations unfold at local levels, and why front line practice may in some respects diverge from policy intent. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Hoyt, Lindsay T.; Falconi, April
This scoping review synthesizes existing research on two major transitions in females’ lives: puberty and perimenopause. These two periods of vast physiological change demarcate the beginning and the end of the reproductive life cycle and are associated with major neuroendocrine reorganization across two key systems, the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Despite growing evidence suggesting that the timing and experience of puberty and perimenopause are related to various physical and mental health outcomes (e.g., mood disorders, metabolism, cardiovascular health, autoimmune conditions and cancer), these two processes are rarely examined together. In this paper, we bridge these disparate literatures to highlight similarities, isolate inconsistencies, and identify important areas for future research in women’s health. PMID:25797100
This article reviews the maternal and child nutrition situation in Asia in transition and its public health implications. Countries in Asia are facing a double burden of malnutrition. Accessibility to high energy, less nutrient-dense foods or processed foods affects current dietary patterns, whereas industrialization is leading to more sedentary lifestyles both in rural and urban areas. Stunting and wasting among young children persist but have declined in severity, whereas overweight and obesity have risen rapidly. Growth faltering in height during the first 2 years of life has affected muscle mass accretion, but rapid weight gain after 2 years of age has led to more fat accretion, imposing risks of childhood obesity and consequent metabolic disorders. The number of women entering pregnancy with low BMI has decreased, but increasing BMI is noticeable. Prepregnancy BMI and gestational weight gain are important determinants of maternal nutrition during pregnancy, the risk of gestational diabetes and postpartum weight retention, as well as obesity and diet-related noncommunicable diseases in later adulthood. Asia in transition is faced with persistent undernutrition and increasing trends of obesity and metabolic disorders among children and women. The first 1000 days from conception is a critical period, but it is also a window of opportunity for preventing double burden of malnutrition in Asian countries characterized by a nutrition transition.
Richmond, Nicole E; Tran, Tri; Berry, Susan
The Medical Home (MH) is shown to improve health outcomes for Youth with Special Health Care Needs (YSHCN). Some MH services involve Transition from pediatric to adult providers to ensure YSHCN have continuous care. Studies indicate racial/ethnic disparities for Transition, whereas the MH is shown to reduce health disparities. This study aims to (1) Determine the Transition rate for YSHCN with a MH (MH Transition) nationally, and by race/ethnicity (2) Identify which characteristics are associated with MH Transition (3) Determine if racial/ethnic disparities exist after controlling for associated characteristics, and (4) Identify which characteristics are uniquely associated with each race/ethnic group. National survey data were used. YSCHN with a MH were grouped as receiving Transition or not. Characteristics included race, ethnicity (Non-Hispanic (NH), Hispanic), sex, health condition effect, five special health care need categories, education, poverty, adequate insurance, and urban/rural residence. Frequencies, chi-square, and logistic regression were used to calculate rates and define associations. Alpha was set to 0.05. About 57.0% of YSHCN received MH Transition. Rates by race/ethnicity were 59.0, 45.5, 60.2, 41.9, and 44.6% for NH-White, NH-Black, NH-Multiple race, NH-Other, and Hispanic YSHCN, respectively. Disparities remained between NH-White and NH-Black YSHCN. All characteristics except urban/rural status were associated. Adequate insurance was associated for all race/ethnic groups, except NH-Black YSHCN. Almost 57.0% of YSHCN received MH Transition. Disparities remained. Rates and associated characteristics differed by race/ethnic group. Culturally tailored interventions incorporating universal factors to improve MH Transition outcomes are warranted.
Knapp, Caprice; Huang, I-Chan; Hinojosa, Melanie; Baker, Kimberly; Sloyer, Phyllis
Several studies have investigated how prepared adolescents are to transition to adult health care and barriers to transition for adolescents with special health care needs. The majority of these studies, however, have only assessed these experiences from the parents' point of view. Our study aims to assess the congruence of adolescents and parents reported transition planning and the factors associated with planning. A secondary data analysis was conducted using telephone survey data. Data were collected from parents and adolescents with special health care needs who received health care through Florida's Title V public insurance program. The final sample included 376 matched pairs of adolescent-parent surveys. To assess health care transition planning, respondents were asked if discussions had occurred with the adolescents' doctor, nurse, or with each other. Parents reported higher levels of planning than adolescents. Results show the lowest level of agreement between the parent and adolescent reports (κ < 0.2) and the highest level of agreement when parents and adolescents were asked if they discussed transition with each other (κ = 0.19). Regression results suggest that older adolescents are more prepared (vs. younger) and that adolescents whose parents have lower educational attainment are less prepared for transition. Results from this study suggest that there may be miscommunication around discussions related to transition, although further research is warranted. It is important to ensure that adolescents, not just parents, have a thorough understanding of transition since they will ultimately be responsible for their own health care once they reach adulthood.
Thomford, Nicholas E.; Dzobo, Kevin; Chopera, Denis; Wonkam, Ambroise; Skelton, Michelle; Blackhurst, Dee; Chirikure, Shadreck; Dandara, Collet
The most accessible points of call for most African populations with respect to primary health care are traditional health systems that include spiritual, religious, and herbal medicine. This review focusses only on the use of herbal medicines. Most African people accept herbal medicines as generally safe with no serious adverse effects. However, the overlap between conventional medicine and herbal medicine is a reality among countries in health systems transition. Patients often simultaneously seek treatment from both conventional and traditional health systems for the same condition. Commonly encountered conditions/diseases include malaria, HIV/AIDS, hypertension, tuberculosis, and bleeding disorders. It is therefore imperative to understand the modes of interaction between different drugs from conventional and traditional health care systems when used in treatment combinations. Both conventional and traditional drug entities are metabolized by the same enzyme systems in the human body, resulting in both pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics interactions, whose properties remain unknown/unquantified. Thus, it is important that profiles of interaction between different herbal and conventional medicines be evaluated. This review evaluates herbal and conventional drugs in a few African countries and their potential interaction at the pharmacogenomics level. PMID:26402689
Kim, HyunSoo; Tracy, Elizabeth M; Biegel, David E; Min, Meeyoung O; Munson, Michelle R
Nationwide, there is a growing concern in understanding mental health service engagement among transition age youth. The ecological perspective suggests that there are multiple barriers to service engagement which exist on varying levels of the ecosystem. Based on the socio-technical theory and organizational culture theory, this study examined the impact of organization-level characteristics on perceived service engagement and the moderating role of organizational culture on practitioner-level characteristics affecting youth service engagement. A cross-sectional survey research design was used to address the research questions. The data were collected from 279 practitioners from 27 mental health service organizations representing three major metropolitan areas in Ohio. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to address a nested structure. Findings revealed that location of organization, service setting, and organizational culture had significant effects on the continuation of services. In addition, the relationship between service coordination and resource knowledge and service engagement was moderated by organizational culture.
Pymont, C; Schofield, T P; Butterworth, P
While international research shows that receipt of welfare benefits is associated with poor mental health, less is known about the relationship between welfare receipt and mental health service use. We investigate whether within-person change in welfare recipient status is associated with change in mental health service use. Analysis of two waves of data from an Australian national household survey. Random- and fixed-effect models considered the effect of change in welfare receipt status, and assessed whether change in mental health service use differed by type of welfare benefit or the direction of welfare transition. Individuals were more likely to report greater mental health service use at times of welfare receipt. These associations were attenuated, but remained significant, after adjusting for mental health. Increased health service use was not tied to specific types of welfare benefits. The increase in mental health service use associated with a transition onto welfare benefits was much greater than the decline in service use associated with the transition off benefits. Within individuals, welfare receipt is associated with greater mental health service use. While this does reflect poorer mental health at the time of welfare receipt, other factors seem to facilitate health service use. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Salib, Mina; Hoffmann, Raymond G; Dasgupta, Mahua; Zimmerman, Haydee; Hanson, Sheila
Studies showing the changes in workflow during transition from semi to full electronic medical records are lacking. This objective study is to identify the changes in workflow in the PICU during transition from semi to full electronic health record. Prospective observational study. Children's Hospital of Wisconsin Institutional Review Board waived the need for approval so this study was institutional review board exempt. This study measured clinical workflow variables at a 72-bed PICU during different phases of transition to a full electronic health record, which occurred on November 4, 2012. Phases of electronic health record transition were defined as follows: pre-electronic health record (baseline data prior to transition to full electronic health record), transition phase (3 wk after electronic health record), and stabilization (6 mo after electronic health record). Data were analyzed for the three phases using Mann-Whitney U test with a two-sided p value of less than 0.05 considered significant. Seventy-two bed PICU. All patients in the PICU were included during the study periods. Five hundred and sixty-four patients with 2,355 patient days were evaluated in the three phases. Duration of rounds decreased from a median of 9 minutes per patient pre--electronic health record to 7 minutes per patient post electronic health record. Time to final note decreased from 2.06 days pre--electronic health record to 0.5 days post electronic health record. Time to first medication administration after admission also decreased from 33 minutes pre--electronic health record and 7 minutes post electronic health record. Time to Time to medication reconciliation was significantly higher pre-electronic health record than post electronic health record and percent of medication reconciliation completion was significantly lower pre--electronic health record than post electronic health record and percent of medication reconciliation completion was significantly higher pre
Needham, Belinda L.
Previous research suggests that sexual minority youth have poorer health-related outcomes than their heterosexual peers. The purpose of this study is to determine whether sexual orientation disparities in mental health and substance use increase, decrease, or remain the same during the transition from adolescence to adulthood. Data are from Waves…
Nishita, Christy; Browne, Colette
Recent federal policy supports an individual's preference for home and community-based long-term care, even among nursing home residents. Optimizing transitions from the nursing home to home is a complex undertaking that requires addressing the interrelationships between health literacy and cultural-linguistic factors in the nation's increasingly diverse older adult population. We look at four Asian American and Pacific Islander elder populations to illustrate that differing health profiles and cultural-linguistic values can affect the type of care and support needed and preferred. A research gap exists that links these factors together for optimal transitional care. The paper presents a conceptual framework and proposes a six-point research agenda that includes family assessments of health literacy abilities, exploring the relationship between culture, health, and decision-making, and the development/adaptation of transition planning tools.
In this paper, we describe the historical transition of sexuality education in Japan and the direction of sexuality education taken by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT). Reproductive health/rights, a key concept in sex education, is also discussed. In Japanese society, discussion on sexuality has long been considered taboo. After the Second World War, sexuality education in Japan began as "purity education." From 1960 until the early 1970s, physical aspects such as genital organs, function, secondary sexual characteristics, and gender differences were emphasized. Comprehensive education as a human being, including physiological, psychological, and social aspects, began to be adopted in the late 1970s. In 2002, it was criticized that teaching genital terms at primary schools and teaching about sexual intercourse and contraceptive methods at junior high schools were "overdue guidance" and "extreme contents." Sexuality education in schools has become a problem and has stagnated for about 10 years. Currently, schools teach sexuality education that does not deviate from the MEXT course guidelines. The direction of MEXT regarding sexuality education should be examined from the basic position that sexual activity by children is inappropriate. Reproductive health/rights apply the concept of human rights to sexuality and reproduction. Reproductive health/rights are key concepts that support sex education and women's health.
Dancause, Kelsey Needham; Vilar, Miguel; Wilson, Michelle; Soloway, Laura E; DeHuff, Christa; Chan, Chim; Tarivonda, Len; Regenvanu, Ralph; Kaneko, Akira; Lum, J Koji; Garruto, Ralph M
The South Pacific archipelago of Vanuatu, like many developing countries, is currently experiencing a shift in disease burdens from infectious to chronic diseases with economic development. A rapid increase in obesity prevalence represents one component of this "health transition." To identify behaviors associated with measures of obesity in Vanuatu. Five hundred and thirty four adults from three islands varying in level of economic development were surveyed. Height, weight, waist, and hip circumferences; triceps, subscapular and suprailiac skinfolds; and percent body fat (%BF) by bioelectrical impedance were measured. Diet through 24-h dietary recall and physical activity patterns using a survey were assessed. We analyzed prevalence of obesity and central obesity based on multiple indicators (body mass index, %BF, waist circumference, and waist-to-height ratio), and analyzed differences among islands and associations with behavioral patterns. Obesity prevalence was lowest among rural and highest among suburban participants. Prevalence of central obesity was particularly high among women (up to 73.9%), even in rural areas (ranging from 14.7 to 41.2% depending on the measure used). Heavier reliance on animal protein and incorporation of Western foods in the diet-specifically, tinned fish and instant noodles-was significantly associated with increased obesity risk. Even in rural areas where diets and lifestyles remain largely traditional, modest incorporation of Western foods in the diet can contribute to increased risk of obesity. Early prevention efforts are thus particularly important during health transition. Where public health resources are limited, education about dietary change could be the best target for prevention. Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society.
Hayter, Arabella K M; Jeffery, Roger; Sharma, Chitra; Prost, Audrey; Kinra, Sanjay
Chronic diseases are now the leading cause of death and disability worldwide; this epidemic has been linked to rapid economic growth and urbanisation in developing countries. Understanding how characteristics of the physical, social, and economic environment affect behaviour in the light of these changes is key to identifying successful interventions to mitigate chronic disease risk. We undertook a qualitative study consisting of nine focus group discussions (FGDs) (n=57) in five villages in rural Andhra Pradesh, South India, to understand people's perceptions of community development and urbanisation in relation to chronic disease in rural transitional communities. Specifically, we sought to understand perceptions of change linked to diet, physical activity, and pollution (because these exposures are most relevant to chronic diseases), with the aim of defining future interventions. The transcripts were analysed thematically. Participants believed their communities were currently less healthy, more polluted, less physically active, and had poorer access to nutritious food and shorter life expectancies than previously. There were contradictory perceptions of the effects of urbanisation on health within and between individuals; several of the participants felt their quality of life had been reduced. In the present study, residents viewed change and development within their villages as an inevitable and largely positive process but with some negative health consequences. Understanding how these changes are affecting populations in transitional rural areas and how people relate to their environment may be useful to guide community planning for health. Measures to educate and empower people to make healthy choices within their community may help reduce the spread of chronic disease risk factors in future years.
O'Loughlin, Emer; Hourihan, Susan; Chataway, Jeremy; Playford, E Diane; Riazi, Afsane
The majority of people with multiple sclerosis (pwMS) initially present with discreet periods of relapses followed by partial remission of symptoms (RRMS). Over time, most pwMS transition to secondary progressive MS (SPMS), characterized by a gradual accumulation of disability. This study aimed to explore the experiences, coping and needs associated with transitioning from RRMS to SPMS. Data were collected via semi-structured interviews with nine pwMS and seven specialist MS health professionals (HPs). Thematic analysis was used to analyze the data. Four major themes were identified: "Is this really happening?"; "Becoming a reality"; "A life of struggle"; and "Brushing oneself off and moving on." Findings suggested a process of moving from uncertainty towards confirmation of one's diagnostic label. Being reclassified with SPMS served as a turning point for many, and was accompanied by a range of cognitive, emotional and behavioral responses. The value of adequate information and support surrounding the transition, and the potential benefit of education and support for health professionals in relation to the transition were indicated. Understanding pwMS' experiences of the transition is essential if clinicians are to provide pwMS with appropriate support during the transition. Implications for Rehabilitation The timing and delivery of preparatory education for patients about the transition to SPMS should be carefully considered. Sufficient information and follow-up support following the reclassification of SPMS is crucial but sometimes lacking. The importance of sensitive communication of the reclassification of SPMS was highlighted. MS Specialist health professionals may potentially benefit from training and support around communication of the reclassification of SPMS. Given the potential negative psychological impact of the transition, the psychological wellbeing of the patients during the transition to SPMS should be monitored and responded to appropriately.
Gordon, Christopher J; Aggar, Christina; Williams, Anna M; Walker, Lynne; Willcock, Simon M; Bloomfield, Jacqueline
This debate discusses the potential merits of a New Graduate Nurse Transition to Primary Health Care Program as an untested but potential nursing workforce development and sustainability strategy. Increasingly in Australia, health policy is focusing on the role of general practice and multidisciplinary teams in meeting the service needs of ageing populations in the community. Primary health care nurses who work in general practice are integral members of the multidisciplinary team - but this workforce is ageing and predicted to face increasing shortages in the future. At the same time, Australia is currently experiencing a surplus of and a corresponding lack of employment opportunities for new graduate nurses. This situation is likely to compound workforce shortages in the future. A national nursing workforce plan that addresses supply and demand issues of primary health care nurses is required. Innovative solutions are required to support and retain the current primary health care nursing workforce, whilst building a skilled and sustainable workforce for the future. This debate article discusses the primary health care nursing workforce dilemma currently facing policy makers in Australia and presents an argument for the potential value of a New Graduate Transition to Primary Health Care Program as a workforce development and sustainability strategy. An exploration of factors that may contribute or hinder transition program for new graduates in primary health care implementation is considered. A graduate transition program to primary health care may play an important role in addressing primary health care workforce shortages in the future. There are, however, a number of factors that need to be simultaneously addressed if a skilled and sustainable workforce for the future is to be realised. The development of a transition program to primary health care should be based on a number of core principles and be subjected to both a summative and cost
Goldberg, Abbie E.; Smith, JuliAnna Z.
This is the first study to examine change in depression and anxiety across the first year of adoptive parenthood in same-sex couples (90 couples: 52 lesbian, 38 gay male). Given that sexual minorities uniquely contend with sexual orientation-related stigma, this study examined how both internalized and enacted forms of stigma affect the mental health of lesbians and gay men during the transition to parenthood. In addition, the role of contextual support was examined. Higher perceived workplace support, family support, and relationship quality were related to lower depressive and anxious symptoms at the time of the adoption, and higher perceived friend support was related to lower anxiety symptoms. Lower internalized homophobia and higher perceived neighborhood gay-friendliness were related to lower depressive symptoms. Finally, individuals with high internalized homophobia who lived in states with unfavorable legal climates regarding gay adoption experienced the steepest increases in depressive and anxious symptoms. Findings have important implications for counselors working with sexual minorities, especially those experiencing the transition to parenthood. PMID:21171740
Goldberg, Abbie E; Smith, JuliAnna Z
This is the first study to examine change in depression and anxiety across the first year of adoptive parenthood in same-sex couples (90 couples: 52 lesbian, 38 gay male). Given that sexual minorities uniquely contend with sexual orientation-related stigma, this study examined how both internalized and enacted forms of stigma affect the mental health of lesbians and gay men during the transition to parenthood. In addition, the role of contextual support was examined. Higher perceived workplace support, family support, and relationship quality were related to lower depressive and anxious symptoms at the time of the adoption, and higher perceived friend support was related to lower anxiety symptoms. Lower internalized homophobia and higher perceived neighborhood gay-friendliness were related to lower depressive symptoms. Finally, individuals with high internalized homophobia who lived in states with unfavorable legal climates regarding gay adoption experienced the steepest increases in depressive and anxious symptoms. Findings have important implications for counselors working with sexual minorities, especially those experiencing the transition to parenthood.
Bovolenta, Tânia M; Felicio, Andre C
Brazil is currently experiencing a significant demographic transition characterized by a decrease in fertility rates and an exponential increase in the number of elderly citizens, which presents a special challenge for the health care professionals. More than other portions of the population, the elderly are most commonly affected by chronic diseases such as Parkinson's disease. Policymakers contend that Brazil is reasonably well-prepared regarding elderly health care, with policies that aim to ensure the quality of life and the well-being of this portion of the population. However, what happens in practice falls short of what the Brazilian Constitution sets forth. Specifically, there is a clear contradiction between what the law recognizes as being a citizen's rights and the implementation of guidelines. Because health financing in Brazil remains relatively low, the civil society tries to fill in the gaps as much as possible in the treatment of elderly patients suffering from chronic diseases such as Parkinson's disease. In this review, we outline the current legislation in Brazil regarding the elderly and in particular, patients with Parkinson's disease, in the context of a rapidly aging population.
Gómez, Eduardo J
In recent years, several emerging economies have introduced national health insurance programs ensuring access to health care while offering financial protection from out-of-pocket and catastrophic expenses. Nevertheless, in several nations these expenses continue to increase. While recent research has emphasized the lack of funding, poor policy design and corruption as the main culprits, little is known about the politics of establishing federal regulatory agencies ensuring that state governments adhere to national insurance reimbursement and coverage procedures. This article fills in this lacuna by providing an alternative perspective, one that accounts for differences between nations in the creation of regulatory institutions, with an emphasis instead on governing elite strategies to campaign on access to health care during transitions to democracy, civil societal mobilization, constitutional constraints and the national electoral incentives to overcome ineffective decentralization processes. The cases of Indonesia and China are introduced as examples of how and why their differences in this political process accounted for Indonesia's success and China's failure to ensure financial protection.
Jerliu, Naim; Burazeri, Genc; Toçi, Ervin; Kempen, Gertrudis I J M; Jongen, Wesley; Ramadani, Naser; Brand, Helmut
A number of studies proved that social networks and social participation have beneficial health effects in western countries. However, the evidence from southeast European region is scant. We aimed to assess the extent of social networks and social participation and their relationship with self-perceived health status among older people in post-war Kosovo. A nationwide cross-sectional study was conducted in Kosovo in 2011 including a representative sample of 1890 individuals aged ≥65 years (949 men, mean age 73 ± 6 years; 941 women, mean age 74 ± 7 years; response rate: 83%). Social networks were assessed by means of number of friends and family members that participants had contacts with, whereas social participation by involvement in social groupings/organizations. Information on self-perceived health status and demographic and socioeconomic characteristics was also collected. Overall, 93% of study participants reported that they had at least weekly contacts with more than one family member, and 97% reported daily contacts with their respective friends. Conversely, only 14% of participants reported engagement with social groupings. Generally, individuals who had contacts with friends and/or engaged with social organizations reported a better health status. Our findings point to strong family ties in this patriarchal society. Conversely, levels of social participation were considerably lower in Kosovo compared with the western European countries. The low participation levels in social groupings and their putative deleterious health effects should raise the awareness of policymakers to improve the conditions and increase the degree of social participation among older people in transitional Kosovo.
Pietilä, Ilkka; Rytkönen, Marja
Several studies have claimed stress to be a major reason for poor public health in Russia and referred to significant social changes as a reason for the high level of perceived stress among Russians. This article aims to examine how stress and its relation to health are interpreted in the context of everyday life in Russian men's and women's interview talk with a focus on descriptions of recent social changes. The research material consists of 29 thematic interviews of men and women from St. Petersburg aged 15-81. In the analysis of contextual constructions of stress, we found that stress was used not only within a context of an individual's own life as an expression of a strained psycho-physiological state but also denoted larger societal processes and changes. In addition to individual experiences, the whole of Russian society was described as suffering from stress. Throughout the material, most interviewees, whilst outspokenly blaming stress for deteriorating physical health, met difficulties in making concrete these negative influences. Based on analysis, we interpret our interviewees' accounts of stress as a part of the cultural discourse wherein 'stress' serves as a conceptual tool in making interpretations about both the people and their social environment. Stress, as a concept, has emerged in a wide range of different institutional sites, such as the media and public health policy and has become a discursive entity of contemporary social life in Russia. We claim that it has simultaneously become an intermediary concept articulating a shared, cultural experience of the changes in Russian society and their effects on individuals' everyday life and health. Thus, the concept of stress helps people to articulate, make sensible, and cope with the impacts of transition on their individual lives.
Yu, Wusheng; Jensen, Hans Grinsted; Cao, Lijuan
efficiency and welfare consequences. Realizing that changing dietary trends are likely to be costly, in a more refined scenario, we consider public policy options to influence consumer choices for purposes of reaching a given alternative diet target. Since the costs of the policy intervention...... and health outcomes of diet transition and alternative diets on the one hand and the associated agricultural and food production and trade effects on the other hand, using the Chinese case as an example. We base this analysis in a modified GTAP model featuring the demand, production and supply and trade...... of major agricultural and food products. Taking advantages of recent methodological advances in building calorie and other nutrition data sourced from the FAO into the GTAP model and database, we further represent current and predicted dietary patterns for China in a baseline projection. The projected...
Ekpenyong, Chris E; Ettebong, E O; Akpan, E E; Samson, T K; Daniel, Nyebuk E
To assess the respiratory health effect of city ambient air pollutants on transit and non-transit workers and compare such effects by transportation mode, occupational exposure and sociodemographic characteristics of participants. Cross-sectional, randomised survey. A two primary healthcare centre survey in 2009/2010 in Uyo metropolis, South-South Nigeria. Of the 245 male participants recruited, 168 (50 taxi drivers, 60 motorcyclists and 58 civil servants) met the inclusion criteria. These include age 18-35 years, a male transit worker or civil servant who had worked within Uyo metropolis for at least a year prior to the study, and had no history of respiratory disorders/impairment or any other debilitating illness. The adjusted ORs for respiratory function impairment (force vital capacity (FVC) and/or FEV(1)air pollution by occupation and transportation mode was independently associated with respiratory functions impairment and incident respiratory symptoms among participants. Motorcyclists had the highest effect, with adjusted OR 3.10, 95% CI 0.402 to 16.207 for FVCair pollution on city transit workers globally. The role of other confounders acting synergistically to cause a more deleterious effect is obvious. In all, the effect depends on the mode and duration of exposure.
McDonald, Paige L; Harwood, Kenneth J; Butler, Joan T; Schlumpf, Karen S; Eschmann, Carson W; Drago, Daniela
Intensive courses (ICs), or accelerated courses, are gaining popularity in medical and health professions education, particularly as programs adopt e-learning models to negotiate challenges of flexibility, space, cost, and time. In 2014, the Department of Clinical Research and Leadership (CRL) at the George Washington University School of Medicine and Health Sciences began the process of transitioning two online 15-week graduate programs to an IC model. Within a year, a third program also transitioned to this model. A literature review yielded little guidance on the process of transitioning from 15-week, traditional models of delivery to IC models, particularly in online learning environments. Correspondingly, this paper describes the process by which CRL transitioned three online graduate programs to an IC model and details best practices for course design and facilitation resulting from our iterative redesign process. Finally, we present lessons-learned for the benefit of other medical and health professions' programs contemplating similar transitions. CRL: Department of Clinical Research and Leadership; HSCI: Health Sciences; IC: Intensive course; PD: Program director; QM: Quality Matters.
Holmström, Malin Rising; Olofsson, Niclas; Asplund, Kenneth; Kristiansen, Lisbeth
Background To explore three school based transitions and their impact on positive self- reported- health (SRH), pre-school to elementary school (6–10 y), elementary school to junior high school (10-13y), and junior high school to upper secondary school/high school (13-16y), in a long-term longitudinal population based study. Methods The study followed three cohorts through one school transition each. A longitudinal study with data from 6693 Health Dialogue questionnaires were used. Data were ...
Nazareth, Meaghan; Richards, Jordan; Javalkar, Karina; Haberman, Cara; Zhong, Yi; Rak, Eniko; Jain, Nina; Ferris, Maria; van Tilburg, Miranda A L
Health locus of control refers to the belief that health is in one's control (internal control) or is not in one's control (external control). Among adults, external locus of control is associated with negative health outcomes, whereas internal locus of control is associated with favorable outcomes. Few studies examined these associations among youths. The objective of our study was to determine how locus of control relates to health care use, medication adherence, missed school, and readiness for transition to adult medical care for youths with chronic conditions. Participants at a camp for youths aged 6 to 17 years with chronic health conditions completed a survey measuring locus of control, readiness for transition to adult care, and medication adherence. Their parents completed a separate part of the survey about health care use and missed school days in the past year. A total of 163 youths completed the survey (78.5% white; 52.1% female; mean age, 12.3 y). Internal locus of control (β = 0.196; P = .013) and external Doctor locus of control with doctors controlling disease (β = 0.181; P = .025) were positively associated with transition readiness. External control by chance or with others controlling disease was negatively associated with transition readiness (β = -0.248; P = .002) and positively associated with emergency department visits (β = 0.225; P = .004) and with number of hospital inpatient nights at hospital (β = 0.166; P = .04). Adolescents with external control of their health by chance or by other people are at increased risk for negative health outcomes and may fail to develop the self-management skills needed for successful transitioning to adult care. Future studies should examine effects of changes in locus of control on health outcomes among youths.
Young-Southward, Genevieve; Philo, Christopher; Cooper, Sally-Ann
Transition to adulthood might be a risk period for poor health in people with intellectual disabilities. However, the present authors could find no synthesis of evidence on health and well-being outcomes during transition in this population. This review aimed to answer this question. PRISMA/MOOSE guidelines were followed. Search terms were defined, electronic searches of six databases were conducted, reference lists and key journals were reviewed, and grey literature was searched. Papers were selected based on clear inclusion criteria. Data were extracted from the selected papers, and their quality was systematically reviewed. The review was prospectively registered on PROSPERO: CRD42015016905. A total of 15 985 articles were extracted; of these, 17 met the inclusion criteria. The results of these articles were mixed but suggested the presence of some health and well-being issues in this population during transition to adulthood, including obesity and sexual health issues. This review reveals a gap in the literature on transition and health and points to the need for future work in this area. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Furken, C; Nakao, T; Hoedemaker, M
It was the purpose of this study to determine the effects of non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) concentrations at different time periods of the transition period as well as lactation number on metabolism, health, reproduction and milk production in dairy cows. This trial was conducted in a single dairy herd located in Northern Germany. Of the herd, which comprised 330 lactating Holstein cows housed in a free stall barn and fed a total mixed ration (TMR), 83 primiparous and multiparous cows were randomly selected. Animals were checked for body condition score (BCS), locomotion score, calving data, quality of colostrum, reproductive measures, daily rectal temperature of the first 10 days post-partum (p. p.), health data and culling rates up to 200 days in milk (DIM) as well as milk production until 305 DIM. Three different time periods were considered: 3 and 1 week ante partum (a. p.); partus and 1 week p. p.; 3 weeks p. p. Animals with NEFA concentrations ≥ 0.4 mmol/l ante partum had a higher risk of no ovarian activity in week 5 p. p. and of subclinical ketosis post partum than cows with lower NEFA concentrations (p reproduction of dairy cows.
Moskalewicz, Jacek; Zulewska-Sak, Justyna
The National Health Programme was adopted in Poland in the mid-1990s. It consists of 18 targets including target 4 that calls for diminishing alcohol consumption and changing its structure as well as limiting health harms associated with alcohol. The programme is being monitored on bi-annual basis. The monitoring covers a level of alcohol consumption and associated harm including trends in mortality and morbidity as well as in road accidents in 1990-2001 period. During the period in point, particularly in the beginning of the transition alcohol consumption increased at least by one third reaching 10-11 litres of pure ethanol per capita, mostly due to sudden disruption of the alcohol control system and high tide of unrecorded supply. Currently, the consumption is estimated to be 9.5-10.0 litres with 30% share of the unrecorded. During last decade recorded morbidity due to mental disorders associated with alcohol increased by 80% and 60% respectively in out- and in-patient system while mortality rates almost doubled. Male mortality due to liver diseases increased by 50% while that of women remained relatively flat. In last few years, alcohol related mortality tended to decline slightly parallel to consumption trends. Significant improvement has been achieved in prevention of drunken diving. The number of deaths in alcohol related road accidents decreased two fold while a rate of drunken crashes per 1000 vehicles dropped three times.
Buckel, Whitney R; Stenehjem, Edward; Sorensen, Jeff; Dean, Nathan; Webb, Brandon
Guidelines recommend a switch from intravenous to oral antibiotics once patients who are hospitalized with pneumonia achieve clinical stability. However, little evidence guides the selection of an oral antibiotic for patients with health care-associated pneumonia, especially where no microbiological diagnosis is made. To compare outcomes between patients who were transitioned to broad- versus narrow-spectrum oral antibiotics after initially receiving broad-spectrum intravenous antibiotic coverage. We performed a secondary analysis of an existing database of adults with community-onset pneumonia admitted to seven Utah hospitals. We identified 220 inpatients with microbiology-negative health care-associated pneumonia from 2010 to 2012. After excluding inpatient deaths and treatment failures, 173 patients remained in which broad-spectrum intravenous antibiotics were transitioned to an oral regimen. We classified oral regimens as broad-spectrum (fluoroquinolone) versus narrow-spectrum (usually a β-lactam). We compared demographic and clinical characteristics between groups. Using a multivariable regression model, we adjusted outcomes by severity (electronically calculated CURB-65), comorbidity (Charlson Index), time to clinical stability, and length of intravenous therapy. Age, severity, comorbidity, length of intravenous therapy, and clinical response were similar between the two groups. Observed 30-day readmission (11.9 vs. 21.4%; P = 0.26) and 30-day all-cause mortality (2.3 vs. 5.3%; P = 0.68) were also similar between the narrow and broad oral antibiotic groups. In multivariable analysis, we found no statistically significant differences for adjusted odds of 30-day readmission (adjusted odds ratio, 0.56; 95% confidence interval, 0.06-5.2; P = 0.61) or 30-day all-cause mortality (adjusted odds ratio, 0.55; 95% confidence interval, 0.19-1.6; P = 0.26) between narrow and broad oral antibiotic groups. On the basis of analysis of a limited number of patients
Purcell, R; Jorm, A F; Hickie, I B; Yung, A R; Pantelis, C; Amminger, G P; Glozier, N; Killackey, E; Phillips, L; Wood, S J; Mackinnon, A; Scott, E; Kenyon, A; Mundy, L; Nichles, A; Scaffidi, A; Spiliotacopoulos, D; Taylor, L; Tong, J P Y; Wiltink, S; Zmicerevska, N; Hermens, Daniel; Guastella, Adam; McGorry, P D
An estimated 75% of mental disorders begin before the age of 24 and approximately 25% of 13-24-year-olds are affected by mental disorders at any one time. To better understand and ideally prevent the onset of post-pubertal mental disorders, a clinical staging model has been proposed that provides a longitudinal perspective of illness development. This heuristic model takes account of the differential effects of both genetic and environmental risk factors, as well as markers relevant to the stage of illness, course or prognosis. The aim of the Transitions Study is to test empirically the assumptions that underpin the clinical staging model. Additionally, it will permit investigation of a range of psychological, social and genetic markers in terms of their capacity to define current clinical stage or predict transition from less severe or enduring to more severe and persistent stages of mental disorder. This paper describes the study methodology, which involves a longitudinal cohort design implemented within four headspace youth mental health services in Australia. Participants are young people aged 12-25 years who have sought help at headspace and consented to complete a comprehensive assessment of clinical state and psychosocial risk factors. A total of 802 young people (66% female) completed baseline assessments. Annual follow-up assessments have commenced. The results of this study may have implications for the way mental disorders are diagnosed and treated, and progress our understanding of the pathophysiologies of complex mental disorders by identifying genetic or psychosocial markers of illness stage or progression. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Kitase, Yuma; Hayakawa, Masahiro; Kondo, Taiki; Saito, Akiko; Tachibana, Takashi; Oshiro, Makoto; Ieda, Kuniko; Kato, Eiko; Kato, Yuichi; Hattori, Tetsuo; Hayashi, Seiji; Ito, Masatoki; Hyodo, Reina; Muramatsu, Yukako; Sato, Yoshiaki
Trisomy 13 (T13) is accompanied by severe complications, and it can be challenging to achieve long-term survival without aggressive treatment. However, recently, some patients with T13 have been receiving home care. We conducted this study to investigate factors related to home health-care transition for patients with T13.We studied 28 patients with T13 born between January 2000 and December 2014. We retrospectively compared nine home care transition patients (the home care group) and 19 patients that died during hospitalization (the discharge at death group). The median gestational age of the patients was 36.6 weeks, with a median birth weight of 2,047 g. Currently, three patients (11%) have survived, and 25 (89%) have died. The home care group exhibited a significantly longer gestational age (38.9 vs. 36.3 weeks, p = 0.039) and significantly larger occipitofrontal circumference Z score (-0.04 vs. -0.09, p = 0.019). Congenital heart defects (CHD) was more frequent in the discharge at death group, with six patients in the home care group and 18 patients in the discharge at death group (67% vs. 95%, p = 0.047), respectively. Survival time was significantly longer in the home care group than in the discharge at death group (171 vs. 19 days, p = 0.012). This study has shown that gestational age, occipitofrontal circumference Z score at birth, and the presence of CHD are helpful prognostic factors for determining treatment strategy in patients with T13. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
McManus, Margaret; White, Patience; Pirtle, Robin; Hancock, Catina; Ablan, Michael; Corona-Parra, Raquel
This pediatric-to-adult health care transition pilot project describes the process and results of incorporating the "Six Core Elements of Health Care Transition (2.0)" into a Medicaid managed care plan with a group of 35 18-23 year olds who have chronic mental health, developmental, and complex medical conditions. The pilot project demonstrated an effective approach for customizing and delivering recommended transition services. At the start of the 18-month project, the Medicaid plan was at the basic level (1) of transition implementation of the Six Core Elements with no transition policy, member transition readiness assessment results, health care transition plans of care, updated medical summaries, transfer package for the adult-focused provider, and assurance of transfer completion and consumer feedback. At the conclusion of the pilot project, the plan scored at level 3 on each core element. The primary reason for not scoring at the highest level (4) was because the transition elements have not been incorporated into services for all enrollees within the plan. Future efforts in managed care will benefit from starting the transition process much earlier (ages 12-14), expanding the role of nurse care managers and participating pediatric and adult-focused clinicians in transition, and offering payment incentives to clinicians to implement the Six Core Elements of Health Care Transition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Bahri, Narjes; Yoshany, Nooshin; Morowatisharifabad, Mohammad Ali; Noghabi, Ali Delshad; Sajjadi, Moosa
Spouses' support during menopausal transition has an important role for improving the quality of life in postmenopausal women. Since the first step in providing support is having adequate knowledge, this study aimed to investigate the effects of an educational program on menopause health for spouses on women's quality of life during the menopausal transition. This clinical trial was conducted in Yazd, Iran. A hundred healthy women aged 45 to 60 years were recruited by random sampling. The spouses in the intervention group (n = 50) attended three training sessions about the management and health of menopausal transition. The spouses in the control group (n = 50) did not receive any intervention. Knowledge and performance about menopausal health were assessed in all spouses before and 3 months after intervention. All women were assessed by the Menopause Rating Scale, and the Menopause Quality of Life questionnaire before and 3 months after educational intervention. Analyses were carried out using SPSS 16 software. The level of significance was set at P less than 0.05. The knowledge and performance of spouses in the intervention group were significantly higher 3 months after intervention (P women in the intervention group was higher 3 months after intervention (P training of menopausal health for spouses improves the quality of life in women during menopausal transition. We suggest integrating such educational programs in menopausal management programs.
Quinn, Virginia P; Nash, Rebecca; Hunkeler, Enid; Contreras, Richard; Cromwell, Lee; Becerra-Culqui, Tracy A; Getahun, Darios; Giammattei, Shawn; Lash, Timothy L; Millman, Andrea; Robinson, Brandi; Roblin, Douglas; Silverberg, Michael J; Slovis, Jennifer; Tangpricha, Vin; Tolsma, Dennis; Valentine, Cadence; Ward, Kevin; Winter, Savannah; Goodman, Michael
The Study of Transition, Outcomes and Gender (STRONG) was initiated to assess the health status of transgender people in general and following gender-affirming treatments at Kaiser Permanente health plans in Georgia, Northern California and Southern California. The objectives of this communication are to describe methods of cohort ascertainment and data collection and to characterise the study population. A stepwise methodology involving computerised searches of electronic medical records and free-text validation of eligibility and gender identity was used to identify a cohort of 6456 members with first evidence of transgender status (index date) between 2006 and 2014. The cohort included 3475 (54%) transfeminine (TF), 2892 (45%) transmasculine (TM) and 89 (1%) members whose natal sex and gender identity remained undetermined from the records. The cohort was matched to 127 608 enrollees with no transgender evidence (63 825 women and 63 783 men) on year of birth, race/ethnicity, study site and membership year of the index date. Cohort follow-up extends through the end of 2016. About 58% of TF and 52% of TM cohort members received hormonal therapy at Kaiser Permanente. Chest surgery was more common among TM participants (12% vs 0.3%). The proportions of transgender participants who underwent genital reconstruction surgeries were similar (4%-5%) in the two transgender groups. Results indicate that there are sufficient numbers of events in the TF and TM cohorts to further examine mental health status, cardiovascular events, diabetes, HIV and most common cancers. STRONG is well positioned to fill existing knowledge gaps through comparisons of transgender and reference populations and through analyses of health status before and after gender affirmation treatment. Analyses will include incidence of cardiovascular disease, mental health, HIV and diabetes, as well as changes in laboratory-based endpoints (eg, polycythemia and bone density), overall and in relation to
Full Text Available Abstract Background Although young people's transition from Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services (CAMHS to Adult Mental Health Services (AMHS in England is a significant health issue for service users, commissioners and providers, there is little evidence available to guide service development. The TRACK study aims to identify factors which facilitate or impede effective transition from CAHMS to AMHS. This paper presents findings from a survey of transition protocols in Greater London. Methods A questionnaire survey (Jan-April 2005 of Greater London CAMHS to identify transition protocols and collect data on team size, structure, transition protocols, population served and referral rates to AMHS. Identified transition protocols were subjected to content analysis. Results Forty two of the 65 teams contacted (65% responded to the survey. Teams varied in type (generic/targeted/in-patient, catchment area (locality-based, wider or national and transition boundaries with AMHS. Estimated annual average number of cases considered suitable for transfer to AMHS, per CAMHS team (mean 12.3, range 0–70, SD 14.5, n = 37 was greater than the annual average number of cases actually accepted by AMHS (mean 8.3, range 0–50, SD 9.5, n = 33. In April 2005, there were 13 active and 2 draft protocols in Greater London. Protocols were largely similar in stated aims and policies, but differed in key procedural details, such as joint working between CAHMS and AMHS and whether protocols were shared at Trust or locality level. While the centrality of service users' involvement in the transition process was identified, no protocol specified how users should be prepared for transition. A major omission from protocols was procedures to ensure continuity of care for patients not accepted by AMHS. Conclusion At least 13 transition protocols were in operation in Greater London in April 2005. Not all protocols meet all requirements set by government policy. Variation in
Garfield, Craig F; Duncan, Greg; Rutsohn, Joshua; McDade, Thomas W; Adam, Emma K; Coley, Rebekah Levine; Chase-Lansdale, P Lindsay
Rates of paternal depression range from 5% to 10% with a growing body of literature describing the harm to fathers, children, and families. Changes in depression symptoms over the life course, and the role of social factors, are not well known. This study examines associations with changes in depression symptoms during the transition to fatherhood for young fathers and whether this association differed by key social factors. We combined all 4 waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health to support a 23-year longitudinal analysis of 10 623 men and then created a "fatherhood-year" data set, regressing age-adjusted standardized depressive symptoms scores on fatherhood status (nonresidence/residence), fatherhood-years, and covariates to determine associations between Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale scores and fatherhood life course intervals. Depressive symptom scores reported at the entry into fatherhood are higher for nonresident fathers than nonfathers, which in turn are higher than those of resident fathers. Resident fathers have a significant decrease in scores during late adolescence (β = -0.035, P = .023), but a significant increase in scores during early fatherhood (β = 0.023, P = .041). From entrance into fatherhood to the end of early fatherhood (+5 years), the depressive symptoms score for resident fathers increases on average by 68%. In our longitudinal, population-based study, resident fathers show increasing depressive symptom scores during children's key attachment years of 0-5. Identifying at-risk fathers based on social factors and designing effective interventions may ultimately improve health outcomes for the entire family. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Avis, Nancy E; Brockwell, Sarah; Randolph, John F; Shen, Shunhua; Cain, Virginia S; Ory, Marcia; Greendale, Gail A
Sexual functioning is an important component of women's lives. The extent to which the menopausal transition is associated with decreased sexual functioning remains inconclusive. This study seeks to determine if advancing through the menopausal transition is associated with changes in sexual functioning. This was a prospective, longitudinal cohort study of women aged 42 to 52 years at baseline recruited at seven US sites (N = 3,302) in the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN). Cohort-eligible women had an intact uterus, had at least one ovary, were not currently using exogenous hormones, were either premenopausal or early perimenopausal, and self-identified as one of the study's designated racial/ethnic groups. Data from the baseline interview and six annual follow-up visits are reported. Outcomes are self-reported ratings of importance of sex; frequency of sexual desire, arousal, masturbation, sexual intercourse, and pain during intercourse; and degree of emotional satisfaction and physical pleasure. With adjustment for baseline age, chronological aging, and relevant social, health, and psychological parameters, the odds of reporting vaginal or pelvic pain increased and desire decreased by late perimenopause. Masturbation increased at early perimenopause but declined during postmenopause. The menopausal transition was unrelated to other outcomes. Health, psychological functioning, and importance of sex were related to all sexual function outcomes. Age, race/ethnicity, marital status, change in relationship, and vaginal dryness were also associated with sexual functioning. Pain during sexual intercourse increases and sexual desire decreases over the menopausal transition. Masturbation increases during the early transition, but then declines in postmenopause. With adjustment for other factors, the menopausal transition was not independently associated with reports of the importance of sex, sexual arousal, frequency of sexual intercourse, emotional
Wong Frances Kam Yuet
Full Text Available Abstract Background Readmissions are costly and have implications for quality of care. Studies have been reported to support effects of transitional care programs in reducing hospital readmissions and enhancing clinical outcomes. However, there is a paucity of studies executing full economic evaluation to assess the cost-effectiveness of these transitional care programs. This study is therefore launched to fill this knowledge gap. Methods Cost-effectiveness analysis was conducted alongside a randomized controlled trial that examined the effects of a Health-Social Transitional Care Management Program (HSTCMP for medical patients discharged from an acute regional hospital in Hong Kong. The cost and health outcomes were compared between the patients receiving the HSTCMP and usual care. The total costs comprised the pre-program, program, and healthcare utilization costs. Quality of life was measured with SF-36 and transformed to utility values between 0 and 1. Results The readmission rates within 28 (control 10.2%, study 4.0% and 84 days (control 19.4%, study 8.1% were significantly higher in the control group. Utility values showed no difference between the control and study groups at baseline (p = 0.308. Utility values for the study group were significantly higher than in the control group at 28 (p Conclusions Previous studies on transitional care focused mainly on clinical outcomes and not too many included cost as an outcome measure. Studies examining the cost-effectiveness of the post-discharge support services are scanty. This study is the first to examine the cost-effectiveness of a transitional care program that used nurse-led services participated by volunteers. Results have shown that a health-social partnership transitional care program is cost-effective in reducing healthcare costs and attaining QALY gains. Economic evaluation helps to inform funders and guide decisions for the effective use of competing healthcare resources.
Nieder, Timo O; Elaut, Els; Richards, Christina; Dekker, Arne
Since the beginning of contemporary transition-related care at the outset of the 20th century, sexual orientation has ben considered to be closely connected with gender identity and the developmental trajectories of trans people. Specifically, health professionals have regarded the anticipated post-transitional heterosexual behaviour of trans adults as predictive of a good outcome of cross-sex hormones and gender-confirming surgeries. This article reviews the current literature according to the question of whether the sexual orientation of trans people is linked to outcome measures following transition-related interventions. A comprehensive review was undertaken using the Medline database, searching for empirical studies published between 2010 and 2015. Out of a total of 474 studies, only 10 studies reported a follow-up of trans adults and assessed sexual orientation in the study protocol at all. Sexual orientation was predominantly assessed as homosexual versus non-homosexual related to sex assigned at birth. Only one 1 of 10 follow-up studies found a significant association according to the outcome between groups differentiated by sexual orientation. Empirically there is no link between sexual orientation and outcome of transition-related health care for trans adults. In order to provide comprehensive health care, we recommend asking for sexual behaviours, attractions and identities, as well as for gender experiences and expressions; however, this knowledge should not drive, but simply inform, such comprehensive care.
Goodyer Ian M
Full Text Available Abstract There were 59,500 Children in out-of-home care in England in 2008. Research into this population points to poor health and quality of life outcomes over the transition to adult independence. This undesirable outcome applies to mental health, education and employment. This lack of wellbeing for the individual is a burden for health and social care services, suggesting limitations in the current policy approaches regarding the transitional pathway from care to adult independence. Although the precise reasons for these poor outcomes are unclear long term outcomes from national birth cohorts suggest that mental health could be a key predictor for subsequent psychosocial adjustment. Researching the wellbeing of children in out-of-home care has proven difficult due to the range and complexity of the factors leading to being placed in care and the different methods used internationally for recording information. This paper delineates the estimated prevalence of mental health problems for adolescents in the care system, organisational factors, influencing service provision, and pathways through the transition from adolescence to independent young adult life. The extent to which being taken into care as a child moderates adult wellbeing outcomes remains unknown. Whether the care system enhances, reduces or has a null effect on wellbeing and specifically mental health cannot be determined from the current literature. Nonetheless a substantial proportion of young people display resilience and experience successful quality of life outcomes including mental capital. A current and retrospective study of young people transitioning to adult life is proposed to identify factors that have promoted successful outcomes and which would be used to inform policy developments and future longitudinal studies.
Fanizza, Frank A; Ruisinger, Janelle F; Prohaska, Emily S; Melton, Brittany L
To describe the incorporation of a state health information exchange (HIE) into a community pharmacy transitions of care (TOC) service and to assess its impact on 30-day readmission rates. Three suburban community pharmacies in Olathe, Kansas. Balls Food Stores is a grocery store chain which operates 21 supermarket community pharmacies in the Kansas City metropolitan area. Balls Food Stores launched a pharmacist-led self-referral TOC study in which a state HIE was utilized to collect discharge information from patients' electronic medical records (EMRs) to facilitate TOC comprehensive medication reviews (CMRs). Descriptive statistics were used to assess types and outcomes of identified drug therapy problems and the ability to access Kansas Health Information Network EMRs. A chi-square test was used to assess 30-day readmissions between patients who accepted and declined the service. Forty patients were identified for inclusion and 18 elected to participate in the service. The majority of participants were white females with a median age of 64.5 years. Out of 40 study patients, 85% had an EMR available; 12.5% of patients had a medication list included in their EMR hospitalization documentation. Participants who underwent the service had a statistically significantly lower rate of overall 30-day hospital readmission than those who declined (11.1% vs 36.4%, P = 0.032). Among the 18 TOC CMRs performed, 90 drug therapy problems were identified and 77 were resolved in collaboration with a patient, caregiver, or physician. Incorporation of a state HIE into a community pharmacist-led TOC service is a novel strategy for collecting patient data. During the study, no TOC participants were readmitted within 30 days. However, pharmacists found HIE data alone was insufficient to perform TOC CMRs for the majority of participants. In order to expand state HIE utilization, more health systems will need to upload a minimum standard data set to help facilitate care. Copyright © 2018
Duke, Naomi N; Scal, Peter B
To examine the relationship between having a usual source of care, family centered care, and transition counseling for adolescents with special health care needs. Data are from 18,198 parents/guardians, of youth aged 12-17 years, who participated in the 2005-2006 National Survey of Children With Special Health Care Needs. Linear and logistic regression models were used to define relationships between parent report of identification of a usual place and provider of medical care for their child and counseling on four transition issues: transfer to adult providers, review of future health needs, maintaining health insurance in adulthood, and youth taking responsibility for care. The direct mediating effect of family centered care was evaluated. Youth having a usual source of care (vs. not) were more likely to receive counseling on future health needs (47.4 vs. 33.6%, P needs (56.3 vs. 39.6%, P needs and 94.9% of the effect of a usual source of care on encouragement to take responsibility for care. Study findings support the development of health care delivery models focusing on family centered care to the same degree as other health care access issues.
Cusack, Lynette; Gilbert, Sandra; Fereday, Jennifer
Successful transition to practice programs that use competency-based assessment require the involvement of all staff, especially those undertaking the preceptor role. Qualitative data were collected using interview methods. Participants were 14 newly employed nurses and 7 preceptors in the child and family community health service in South Australia. Participant narratives were recorded electronically, transcribed, and thematically analyzed using the paradigm of critical social science. Five themes were identified that describe enablers as well as barriers to applying a flexible transition to practice program using competency-based assessment. These included flexibility in the program design, flexibility on the part of preceptors, flexibility to enable recognition of previous learning, flexibility in the assessment of competencies, and flexibility in workload. To ensure successful application of a transition to practice program using competency-based assessment, preceptors must understand the flexible arrangements built into the program design and have the confidence and competence to apply them. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.
Protocol for a cohort study of adolescent mental health service users with a nested cluster randomised controlled trial to assess the clinical and cost-effectiveness of managed transition in improving transitions from child to adult mental health services (the MILESTONE study)
Singh, S.P. (Swaran P.); Tuomainen, H. (Helena); Girolamo, G.D. (Giovanni De); A. Maras (Athanasios); P. Santosh (Paramala); McNicholas, F. (Fiona); Schulze, U. (Ulrike); Purper-Ouakil, D. (Diane); Tremmery, S. (Sabine); Franić, T. (Tomislav); Madan, J. (Jason); Paul, M. (Moli); F.C. Verhulst (Frank); G.C. Dieleman (Gwen); Warwick, J. (Jane); Wolke, D. (Dieter); Street, C. (Cathy); Daffern, C. (Claire); Tah, P. (Priya); Griffin, J. (James); Canaway, A. (Alastair); Signorini, G. (Giulia); Gerritsen, S. (Suzanne); Adams, L. (Laura); O'Hara, L. (Lesley); Aslan, S. (Sonja); Russet, F. (Frédérick); Davidović, N. (Nikolina); Tuffrey, A. (Amanda); Wilson, A. (Anna); Gatherer, C. (Charlotte); Walker, L. (Leanne)
textabstractIntroduction Disruption of care during transition from child and adolescent mental health services (CAMHS) to adult mental health services may adversely affect the health and well-being of service users. The MILESTONE (Managing the Link and Strengthening Transition from Child to Adult
Weeks, Lori E; Macdonald, Marilyn; Martin-Misener, Ruth; Helwig, Melissa; Bishop, Andrea; Iduye, Damilola F; Moody, Elaine
The objective was to identify and synthesize the best available evidence on the impact of transitional care programs on various forms of health services utilization in community-dwelling older adults. There is growing evidence that transitional care programs can help address important challenges facing health care systems and our increasing older adult population in many countries by reducing unnecessary health service utilization. There is a need for a systematic review of the research evaluating the impact of transitional care programs on hospital and other health service usage. The review included studies on community-dwelling adults age 60 and over with at least one medical diagnosis, and which evaluated the outcomes of transitional care programs on health system utilization of older adults. The outcomes for this review were hospital usage including admissions and readmissions, emergency department usage, primary care/physician usage, nursing home usage, and home health care usage. The review considered experimental and epidemiological study designs including randomized controlled trials, non-randomized controlled trials, quasi-experimental studies, before and after studies, prospective and retrospective cohort studies, and case-control studies. A three-step search was utilized to find published and unpublished studies conducted in any country but reported in English. Six electronic databases were searched from inception of the database to May, 2016. A search for unpublished studies was also conducted. Methodological quality was assessed independently by two reviewers using the Joanna Briggs Institute critical appraisal checklist for systematic reviews and research synthesis. Quantitative data were extracted from included studies independently by the two reviewers using the standardized Joanna Briggs Institute data extraction tools. Due to the methodological heterogeneity of the included studies, a comprehensive meta-analysis for all outcomes was not possible
Sun, Cheng; Pomer, Alysa; Dancause, Kelsey N; Chan, Chim W; Olszowy, Kathryn M; Silverman, Harold; Lee, Gwang; Tarivonda, Len; Taleo, George; Regenvanu, Ralph; Kaneko, Akira; Weitz, Charles A; Garruto, Ralph M; Lum, J Koji
The Republic of Vanuatu, like many developing nations, is undergoing a rapid health transition. Our previous study identified several behavioral risk factors for the rising prevalence of obesity. Unexpectedly, daily time spent using television and radio was revealed as a protective factor for obesity in 2007. In this study, we sought to explore associations between ownership of consumer electronics (CE) and measures of adiposity in Vanuatu in 2011. We surveyed 873 adults from five islands varying in level of economic development. Height, weight, and waist circumferences; triceps, subscapular, and suprailiac skinfolds; and percent body fat by bioelectrical impedance were measured. Ownership of eight types of CE, diet through 24-h dietary recall and leisure-time activity patterns were assessed using a questionnaire. Participants from more developed islands owned more types of CE, and revealed higher measures of adiposity on average as well as higher prevalence of obesity/central obesity. When controlling for demographic factors, and dietary and activity patterns, increased measures of adiposity and risk for obesity/central obesity were associated with ownership of cellphones, music players, televisions, video players, microwaves, and/or refrigerators. Positive correlations between CE ownership and measures of adiposity were mainly observed among men on the two most developed islands. The results of this study indicate a possible role of CE use in the rising prevalence of obesity and the shift to a sedentary lifestyle in Vanuatu and many other modernizing regions, where prevention efforts including education on healthy use of CE are imperative. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Colligan, Lacey; Potts, Henry W W; Finn, Chelsea T; Sinkin, Robert A
Healthcare institutions worldwide are moving to electronic health records (EHRs). These transitions are particularly numerous in the US where healthcare systems are purchasing and implementing commercial EHRs to fulfill federal requirements. Despite the central role of EHRs to workflow, the cognitive impact of these transitions on the workforce has not been widely studied. This study assesses the changes in cognitive workload among pediatric nurses during data entry and retrieval tasks during transition from a hybrid electronic and paper information system to a commercial EHR. Baseline demographics and computer attitude and skills scores were obtained from 74 pediatric nurses in two wards. They also completed an established and validated instrument, the NASA-TLX, that is designed to measure cognitive workload; this instrument was used to evaluate cognitive workload of data entry and retrieval. The NASA-TLX was administered at baseline (pre-implementation), 1, 5 and 10 shifts and 4 months post-implementation of the new EHR. Most nurse participants experienced significant increases of cognitive workload at 1 and 5 shifts after "go-live". These increases abated at differing rates predicted by participants' computer attitudes scores (p = 0.01). There is substantially increased cognitive workload for nurses during the early phases (1-5 shifts) of EHR transitions. Health systems should anticipate variability across workers adapting to "meaningful use" EHRs. "One-size-fits-all" training strategies may not be suitable and longer periods of technical support may be necessary for some workers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lorenzo Del Panta
Full Text Available This paper aims at exploring Italian mortality structure (by age and cause of death at the regional level in the last decades of the 19th Century. These years, corresponding to the beginning of the health transition process, were crucial in the Italian experience. The analysis is based on a careful exploitation of the volume “Statistica delle cause delle morti 1888”, published in 1890, by the General Directorate of Statistics. This volume is the only one which offers for the Italian regions, before the second World war, death statistics classified according to both age and cause together. The principal objectives of this descriptive contribution are essentially to illustrate the territorial variation of mortality conditions in the first phase of the health transition process as well as to underline the relevance and the complexities of the causes specific mortality analysis to explain the geographical mortality differentials in terms of age and sex.
Deasy, Christine; Doody, Owen; Tuohy, Dympna
peer-reviewed 3rd International Nurse Education Conference Nursing Education in a Global Community Ireland has seen much change in nurse education resulting in four year degree programmes since 2002. A unique aspect of these programmes was the incorporation of rostered internship. This study explored role transition for a cohort of students at pre and post-registration. The sample consisted of fourth year students registered on BSc nursing programmes (general, mental health and intellec...
Hall, Charlotte L; Newell, Karen; Taylor, John; Sayal, Kapil; Swift, Katie D; Hollis, Chris
Once considered to be a disorder restricted to childhood, Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is now recognised to persist into adult life. However, service provision for adults with ADHD is limited. Additionally, there is little guidance or research on how best to transition young people with ADHD from child to adult services. We report the findings of a survey of 96 healthcare professionals working in children's (Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services and Community Paediatrics) and adult services across five NHS Trusts within the East Midlands region of England to gain a better understanding of the current provision of services for young people with ADHD transitioning into adult mental health services. Our findings indicate a lack of structured guidelines on transitioning and little communication between child and adult services. Child and adult services had differing opinions on what they felt adult services should provide for ADHD cases. Adult services reported feeling ill-prepared to deal with ADHD patients, with clinicians in these services citing a lack of specific knowledge of ADHD and a paucity of resources to deal with such cases. We discuss suggestions for further research, including the need to map the national provision of services for adults with ADHD, and provide recommendations for commissioned adult ADHD services. We specifically advocate an increase in ADHD-specific training for clinicians in adult services, the development of specialist adult ADHD clinics and greater involvement of Primary Care to support the work of generic adult mental health services in adult ADHD management.
Full Text Available Tânia M Bovolenta, Andre C Felicio R. Neurology Program, Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, São Paulo, Brazil Abstract: Brazil is currently experiencing a significant demographic transition characterized by a decrease in fertility rates and an exponential increase in the number of elderly citizens, which presents a special challenge for the health care professionals. More than other portions of the population, the elderly are most commonly affected by chronic diseases such as Parkinson’s disease. Policymakers contend that Brazil is reasonably well-prepared regarding elderly health care, with policies that aim to ensure the quality of life and the well-being of this portion of the population. However, what happens in practice falls short of what the Brazilian Constitution sets forth. Specifically, there is a clear contradiction between what the law recognizes as being a citizen’s rights and the implementation of guidelines. Because health financing in Brazil remains relatively low, the civil society tries to fill in the gaps as much as possible in the treatment of elderly patients suffering from chronic diseases such as Parkinson’s disease. In this review, we outline the current legislation in Brazil regarding the elderly and in particular, patients with Parkinson’s disease, in the context of a rapidly aging population. Keywords: Parkinson’s disease, demographic transition, public health, health assistance financing
Busen, Nancy H
With the implementation of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, the need for health care providers to work collaboratively in teams to provide cost-effective, quality health care has become even more apparent because an estimated additional 22 million Americans gain health care coverage by 2014. The need for evidenced-based care that combines the expertise of various disciplines has been acknowledged by policy makers and health educators. With support from national Association for Prevention, Teaching and Research, an interprofessional education course was designed and implemented by health professionals in nursing, nutrition, and dentistry, in collaboration with a local community agency, to address the health care needs of women transitioning from prison to the community. Health care needs of women in prison are often overlooked, and access to care is limited. When released from prison, utilization of even basic health services is rare. Four interactive teaching-learning sessions were offered at a residential facility for women in transition over a 12-week period. Topics were selected based on feedback from the participants and included stress reduction, self-beast examination, hypertension, and common dental conditions. Teaching methods and materials were interactive and designed for sustainability. The model for this interprofessional education project, which employed a service-learning approach, can be adapted for other communities. Working with our communities requires innovative thinking to be effective but provides an enriching life experience to those involved. A community-based reciprocal learning environment benefits all partners in the real-world environment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Abstract Background It is important to determine whether unhealthy behaviours might influence transitions out of employment from midlife to old age, given the anticipated need for adults to work for longer. Our aim was to determine the association between repeated assessments of cigarette smoking, heavy/problem alcohol drinking, low physical activity and poor diet at midlife, in relation to work exit from midlife to old age. Methods Data from 7704 participants (5392 men from the Whitehall II cohort study in employment at midlife were used to evaluate the association between unhealthy behaviours and a subsequent transition out of work during 22 years follow-up, using logistic regression models. Results Men who smoked cigarettes, consistently drank alcohol heavily, or reported problem drinking, were more likely to leave employment over follow-up. Women with a consistently poor diet were more likely to leave employment. Associations were stronger when the reason for leaving was health grounds, and stronger among those with persistently unhealthy behaviours over follow-up. The size of the effects were broadly equivalent to one advancing year of age on employment. Physical health functioning over follow-up only partly accounted for the associations with work exit, whereas physical and mental functioning accounted for most of the associations with work exit on health grounds. Conclusions Unhealthy behaviours in midlife are associated with transitions out of employment into old age. Promoting healthy behaviours at midlife might support current policy initiatives aimed at extending working life. Future research should consider possible mechanisms that link behaviours to transitions out of employment, and consider sex differences in larger cohorts.
Genevieve L Fair; Mark F Harris; Mitchell M Smith
Background and aim: Transition of asylum seekers from special-purpose health services to mainstream primary care is both necessary and difficult. This study explores the issues encountered by asylum seekers undergoing this transition in Sydney, Australia. Methods: Qualitative semistructured interviews were conducted with nine asylum seeker patients and nine staff working in the sector. Results: Asylum seekers faced significant challenges in the transition to mainstream primary care. C...
Unger, Stefanie; Tisch, Anita; Tophoven, Silke
Applying a gender- and age group-sensitive approach, we investigated the effect of labour-market transitions (job loss and re-employment) on subjective physical and mental health. A combination of the difference-in-differences approach and propensity score matching controls for selectivity and initial health differences. This allowed us to analyse the causal effect of job loss and re-employment on subjective health. We made use of data from the German Panel Study Labour Market and Social Security and combined survey information with administrative records of the Federal Employment Agency for employed and unemployed men and women 31-60 years of age ( n = 2213). We controlled for labour-market experiences before the time period under study and for labour-market transitions between the interviews. Subjective health was assessed using the SF-12 health questionnaire, enabling us to differentiate between subjective mental and physical health functioning. We found that physical health was affected mainly in older persons between 45 and 60 years old. Controlling for covariates using propensity score matching, mental health was affected only when living-wage jobs (i.e. jobs that provide sufficient income to achieve a defined minimum standard of living above the social benefit level) are gained or lost. Younger women showed a significant improvement in mental health after re-employment. In contrast, job loss affected only older individuals' mental health, with a particularly negative effect observed for men. Our results not only showed that women and men are affected differently by job loss and re-employment, but also that age is an important factor. Older men were affected most severely by job loss, whereas re-employment was found to improve mental health only in women aged 31-44 years. It is therefore important to address the health problems of different socio-demographic groups separately, and to apply active labour-market policies with regard to unemployed men and
Urbina-Fuentes, Manue; Jasso-Gutiérrez, Luis; Schiavon-Ermani, Raffaela; Lozano, Rafael; Finkelman, Jacobo
The United Nations Declaration of 2000 agreed on eight millennium development goals (MDGs) to be met in 2015. The results show that poverty continues through population growth and advances in both rich and poor countries are threatened by economic crises and inequities in geographic areas and population groups within countries. In a globalized world with great social and economic inequalities, from the perspective of the social determinants of health (SDH), the relevance of the new 17 sustainable development goals (SDGs) is greater. Faced with the health challenges in our country to achieve SDGs, the symposium "The transition from MDGs to SDGs from the perspective of SDH and health equity" was presented at the XLIV Congress of the National Academy of Medicine. The presentations dealt with five important aspects of the transition in Mexico: background and context; the current state of the MDGs in childhood; the impact on gender equity and adolescent fertility; the health system and the theme of environmental health and were presented by Dr. Raffaela Schiavon, Jacobo Finkelman, Luis Jasso and Rafael Lozano.
Kaasik, T; Andersson, R; Hörte, L G
A general and dramatic deterioration of health in Estonia during the transition period 1990-1994 was analysed using Sweden as a comparative example. Though there were diverging trends between Estonia and Sweden in the leading cause of death, cardiovascular diseases, the gap in mortality from injury had increased most rapidly. While the injury mortality rate slightly decreased in Sweden from 1990 to 1994, it almost doubled in Estonia. In 1994, the total injury death rate for men was about 6 times higher in Estonia than in Sweden. The death rates for some types of injuries, such as alcohol intoxication and homicide, were many tenfolds higher in Estonia than in Sweden. Injury contributed the most to the widening health gap between the countries, especially in males. The mechanisms of this sudden health deterioration remain to be fully explained. It could be hypothesised that behind the traditional behavioural risk factors, the influence of socio-political factors related to economic and political reconstruction is present. A widespread risk-taking and unhealthy behaviour among Estonians can likely be partly explained as a way of coping with the distress created by the new demands of transition society. An important challenge on the way to improvement is creating the political will among policy-makers to confront the tremendous problems of controlling the factors in society that affect the population's health in Estonia.
Ryvicker, Miriam; McDonald, Margaret V; Trachtenberg, Melissa; Peng, Timothy R; Sridharan, Sridevi; Feldman, Penny H
The Care Transitions Measure (CTM) was designed to assess the quality of patient transitions from the hospital. Many hospitals are using the measure to inform their efforts to improve transitional care. We sought to determine if the measure would have utility for home healthcare providers by predicting newly admitted patients at heightened risk for emergency department use, rehospitalization, or increased home health nursing visits. The CTM was administered to 495 home healthcare patients shortly after hospital discharge and home healthcare admission. Follow-up interviews were completed 30 and 60 days post hospital discharge. Interview data were supplemented with agency assessment and service use data. We did not find evidence that the CTM could predict home healthcare patients having an elevated risk for emergent care, rehospitalization, or higher home health nursing use. Because Medicare/Medicaid-certified home healthcare providers already use a comprehensive, mandated start of care assessment, the CTM may not provide them additional crucial information. Process and outcome measurement is increasingly becoming part of usual care. Selection of measures appropriate for each service setting requires thorough site-specific evaluation. In light of our findings, we cannot recommend the CTM as an additional measure in the home healthcare setting. © 2013 National Association for Healthcare Quality.
Huber, Thomas P; Shortell, Stephen M; Rodriguez, Hector P
Examine the extent to which physician organization participation in an accountable care organization (ACO) and electronic health record (EHR) functionality are associated with greater adoption of care transition management (CTM) processes. A total of 1,398 physician organizations from the third National Study of Physician Organization survey (NSPO3), a nationally representative sample of medical practices in the United States (January 2012-May 2013). We used data from the third National Study of Physician Organization survey (NSPO3) to assess medical practice characteristics, including CTM processes, ACO participation, EHR functionality, practice type, organization size, ownership, public reporting, and pay-for-performance participation. Multivariate linear regression models estimated the extent to which ACO participation and EHR functionality were associated with greater CTM capabilities, controlling for practice size, ownership, public reporting, and pay-for-performance participation. Approximately half (52.4 percent) of medical practices had a formal program for managing care transitions in place. In adjusted analyses, ACO participation (p risk-bearing arrangements across the country may improve the management of care transitions by physician organizations. © Health Research and Educational Trust.
Rojas, H; Romero, J R
The Latin American and Caribbean region (LAC) is a leading global producer and exporter of animal products. Its livestock production systems are diverse, ranging from large-scale commercial enterprises to family farms. Countries in this region have sought to improve their animal health status through both public and private efforts. Despite significant advances in eradicating such diseases as foot and mouth disease and classical swine fever, other animal health challenges remain; constraining exports, causing negative economic impacts and threatening food security. Obtaining certification of disease-free status is only the first step towards gaining benefits from improvements in animal health. Increasing international trade means that countries must manage the sustainability of their disease-free status in conjunction with trade partners and must comply with additional food safety and animal welfare standards. This paper comments on the challenges created by this new scenario in relation to the epidemiology and economics of animal health, when seeking to improve decisionmaking for animal health management. The authors characterise the current LAC livestock landscape and animal health situation, describing transitions in disease control and the use of economics in improving animal health. They conclude with remarks on the challenges presented by decision-making, economic rationality, sources of benefits, distribution and incentives.
Goudie, Anthony; Carle, Adam C
Nearly 30 percent of young adults with special health care needs in Ohio lack health insurance, compared to 5 percent of the state's children with special health care needs. As children with such needs become too old for Medicaid or insurance through their parents' employer, they face great challenges in obtaining insurance. Lack of insurance is highly predictive of unmet needs, which in turn are predictive of costly hospital-based encounters. Young adults with special health care needs who are uninsured are more than twice as likely as their peers with insurance to forgo filling prescriptions and getting care and to have problems getting care. Even after insurance status is accounted for, young adults with special health care needs are more likely than children with such needs to not fill prescriptions because of cost and to delay or forgo needed care. This study demonstrates that continuous and adequate health insurance is vital to the continued well-being of children with special health care needs as they transition to young adulthood.
Howard, Andrea L.; Galambos, Nancy L.; Krahn, Harvey J.
This study followed a school-based sample (N = 920) to explore how trajectories of depressive symptoms and expressed anger from age 18 to 25, along with important life transitions, predicted life and career satisfaction at age 32. A two-group (women and men) bivariate growth model revealed that higher depressive symptoms at age 18 predicted lower…
Wang, Haoyu; Chang, L.; Markine, V.L.
Transition zones in railway tracks are locationswith considerable changes in the rail-supporting structure. Typically, they are located near engineering structures, such as bridges, culverts and tunnels. In such locations, severe differential settlements often occur due to the different material
Hassink, J.; Grin, J.; Hulsink, W.
The authors analyzed two types of regional cooperation. Regional foundations of care farms and care institutions collaborating with a group of farmers. The initiatives were analyzed with a conceptual framework based on transition sciences and institutional entrepreneurship. The presence of a
Tatlow-Golden, Mimi; Gavin, Blanaid; McNamara, Niamh; Singh, Swaran; Ford, Tamsin; Paul, Moli; Cullen, Walter; McNicholas, Fiona
In a context of international concern about early adult mental health service provision, this study identifies characteristics and service outcomes of young people with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) reaching the child and adolescent mental health service (CAMHS) transition boundary (TB) in Ireland. The iTRACK study invited all 60 CAMHS teams in Ireland to participate; 8 teams retrospectively identified clinical case files for 62 eligible young people reaching the CAMHS TB in all 4 Health Service Executive Regions. A secondary case note analysis identified characteristics, co-morbidities, referral and service outcomes for iTRACK cases with ADHD (n = 20). Two-thirds of young people with ADHD were on psychotropic medication and half had mental health co-morbidities, yet none was directly transferred to public adult mental health services (AMHS) at the TB. Nearly half were retained in CAMHS, for an average of over a year; most either disengaged from services (40%) and/or actively refused transfer to AMHS (35%) at or after the TB. There was a perception by CAMHS clinicians that adult services did not accept ADHD cases or lacked relevant service/expertise. Despite high rates of medication use and co-morbid mental health difficulties, there appears to be a complete absence of referral to publicly available AMHS for ADHD youth transitioning from CAMHS in Ireland. More understanding of obstacles and optimum service configuration is essential to ensure that care is both available and accessible to young people with ADHD. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.
Krousel-Wood, Marie; McCoy, Allison B; Ahia, Chad; Holt, Elizabeth W; Trapani, Donnalee N; Luo, Qingyang; Price-Haywood, Eboni G; Thomas, Eric J; Sittig, Dean F; Milani, Richard V
We assessed changes in the percentage of providers with positive perceptions of electronic health record (EHR) benefit before and after transition from a local basic to a commercial comprehensive EHR. Changes in the percentage of providers with positive perceptions of EHR benefit were captured via a survey of academic health care providers before (baseline) and at 6-12 months (short term) and 12-24 months (long term) after the transition. We analyzed 32 items for the overall group and by practice setting, provider age, and specialty using separate multivariable-adjusted random effects logistic regression models. A total of 223 providers completed all 3 surveys (30% response rate): 85.6% had outpatient practices, 56.5% were >45 years old, and 23.8% were primary care providers. The percentage of providers with positive perceptions significantly increased from baseline to long-term follow-up for patient communication, hospital transitions - access to clinical information, preventive care delivery, preventive care prompt, preventive lab prompt, satisfaction with system reliability, and sharing medical information (P commercial comprehensive EHR, items with significant increases and significant decreases in the percentage of providers with positive perceptions of EHR benefit were identified, overall and by subgroup.
...) under a World Bank credit. The RAND Corporation was under contract to provide technical assistance to the Government of Macedonia on aspects of the health sector financial reforms for primary health care (PHC...
Zubarew, Tamara; Correa, Loreto; Bedregal, Paula; Besoain, Carolina; Reinoso, Alejandro; Velarde, Macarena; Valenzuela, María Teresa; Inostroza, Carolina
The Adolescent Branch from Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría supports the implementation of planned programs for transition from child to adult health centers, oriented to adolescents with chronic diseases, in order to ensure an appropriate follow-up and a high-quality health care. Recommendations for care are set out in the FONIS and VRI PUC project carried out by the Division of Pediatrics of the Universidad Católica de Chile: Transition process from pediatric to adult services: perspectives of adolescents with chronic diseases, caregivers and health professionals, whose goal was to describe the experience, barriers, critical points, and facilitators in the transition process. Critical points detected in this study were: existence of a strong bond between adolescents, caregivers and the pediatric team, resistance to transition, difficulty developing autonomy and self-management among adolescents; invisibility of the process of adolescence; and lack of communication between pediatric and adult team during the transfer. According to these needs, barriers and critical points, and based on published international experiences, recommendations are made for implementation of gradual and planned transition processes, with emphasis on the design and implementation of transition policies, establishment of multidisciplinary teams and transition planning. We discuss aspects related to coordination of teams, transfer timing, self-care and autonomy, transition records, adolescent and family participation, need for emotional support, ethical aspects involved, importance of confidentiality, need for professional training, and the need for evaluation and further research on the subject.
Garvey, Katharine C; Telo, Gabriela H; Needleman, Joseph S; Forbes, Peter; Finkelstein, Jonathan A; Laffel, Lori M
Young adults with type 1 diabetes transitioning from pediatric to adult care are at risk for adverse outcomes. Our objective was to describe experiences, resources, and barriers reported by a national sample of adult endocrinologists receiving and caring for young adults with type 1 diabetes. We fielded an electronic survey to adult endocrinologists with a valid e-mail address identified through the American Medical Association Physician Masterfile. We received responses from 536 of 4,214 endocrinologists (response rate 13%); 418 surveys met the eligibility criteria. Respondents (57% male, 79% Caucasian) represented 47 states; 64% had been practicing >10 years and 42% worked at an academic center. Only 36% of respondents reported often/always reviewing pediatric records and 11% reported receiving summaries for transitioning young adults with type 1 diabetes, although >70% felt that these activities were important for patient care. While most respondents reported easy access to diabetes educators (94%) and dietitians (95%), fewer (42%) reported access to mental health professionals, especially in nonacademic settings. Controlling for practice setting and experience, endocrinologists without easy access to mental health professionals were more likely to report barriers to diabetes management for young adults with depression (odds ratio [OR] 5.3; 95% CI 3.4, 8.2), substance abuse (OR 3.5; 95% CI 2.2, 5.6), and eating disorders (OR 2.5; 95% CI 1.6, 3.8). Our findings underscore the need for enhanced information transfer between pediatric and adult providers and increased mental health referral access for young adults with diabetes post-transition. © 2016 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.
Esposito, Giulia; Irons, Pete C; Webb, Edward C; Chapwanya, Aspinas
The biological cycles of milk production and reproduction determine dairying profitability thus making management decisions dynamic and time-dependent. Diseases also negatively impact on net earnings of a dairy enterprise. Transition cows in particular face the challenge of negative energy balance (NEB) and/or disproportional energy metabolism (fatty liver, ketosis, subacute, acute ruminal acidosis); disturbed mineral utilization (milk fever, sub-clinical hypocalcemia); and perturbed immune function (retained placenta, metritis, mastitis). Consequently NEB and reduced dry matter intake are aggravated. The combined effects of all these challenges are reduced fertility and milk production resulting in diminishing profits. Risk factors such as NEB, inflammation and impairment of the immune response are highly cause-and-effect related. Thus, managing cows during the transition period should be geared toward reducing NEB or feeding specially formulated diets to improve immunity. Given that all cows experience a reduced feed intake and body condition, infection and inflammation of the uterus after calving, there is a need for further research on the immunology of transition dairy cows. Integrative approaches at the molecular, cellular and animal level may unravel the complex interactions between disturbed metabolism and immune function that predispose cows to periparturient diseases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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Background: The public health services project of the South-eastern Europe health network has undertaken an evaluation of public health services in its nine member countries. The purpose of the evaluation of public health services provision in the South-eastern European (SEE countries is to understand where these countries now stand in public health, the institutional, organisational, legislative and service delivery developments that are taking place and to identify strengths and weaknesses in their public health systems and services in order to inform decision making about investment and future reform.
Methods: The evaluation was orientated around “essential public health operations” that are deemed to form the core of public health activities and services and to be indispensable to the delivery of modern public health services in any country. The evaluation analysed these activities and services within the structure of the health system functions of stewardship, resource generation, financing and service delivery, as developed by WHO.
Results: The results demonstrate a mixed picture of strengths and weaknesses within the context of significant social, economic and political challenges in the region. Among the many visible and significant strengths in public health services in the region are well developed networks of public health institutes with well defined surveillance systems, highly experienced and well educated public health professionals as well as many positive examples of service delivery. But there are also many concerns and challenges, not the least of which is political focus, direction and support for modern public health services, as well as funding. Collaboration and partnership among sectors is weak and information and communication systems are inadequate and not sufficiently integrated.
Conclusions: Having emphasized the main weak and
Links, Paul S; Bender, Ash; Eynan, Rahel; O'Grady, John; Shah, Ravi
The Acute Psychological Trauma (APT) Study was a collaboration between an acute care hospital, a specialized multidisciplinary program designed to meet the mental health needs of injured workers, and a large urban public transit system. The overall purpose was to evaluate a Best Practices Intervention (BPI) for employees affected by acute psychological trauma compared to a Treatment as Usual (TAU) group. The specific purpose is to discuss facilitators and barriers that were recognized in implementing and carrying out mental health research in a workplace setting. Over the course of the APT study, a joint implementation committee was responsible for day-to-day study operations and made regular observations on the facilitators and barriers that arose throughout the study. The facilitators to this study included the longstanding relationships among the partners, increased recognition for the need of mental health research in the workplace, and the existence of a community advisory committee. The significant barriers to doing this study of mental health research in the workplace included differences in organizational culture, inconsistent union support, co-interventions, and stigma. Researchers and funding agencies need to be flexible and provide additional resources in order to overcome the barriers that can exist doing workplace mental health research.
Collin F Payne
Full Text Available Falling fertility and increasing life expectancy contribute to a growing elderly population in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA; by 2060, persons aged 45 y and older are projected to be 25% of SSA's population, up from 10% in 2010. Aging in SSA is associated with unique challenges because of poverty and inadequate social supports. However, despite its importance for understanding the consequences of population aging, the evidence about the prevalence of disabilities and functional limitations due to poor physical health among older adults in SSA continues to be very limited.Participants came from 2006, 2008, and 2010 waves of the Malawi Longitudinal Survey of Families and Health, a study of the rural population in Malawi. We investigate how poor physical health results in functional limitations that limit the day-to-day activities of individuals in domains relevant to this subsistence-agriculture context. These disabilities were parameterized based on questions from the SF-12 questionnaire about limitations in daily living activities. We estimated age-specific patterns of functional limitations and the transitions over time between different disability states using a discrete-time hazard model. The estimated transition rates were then used to calculate the first (to our knowledge microdata-based health expectancies calculated for SSA. The risks of experiencing functional limitations due to poor physical health are high in this population, and the onset of disabilities happens early in life. Our analyses show that 45-y-old women can expect to spend 58% (95% CI, 55%-64% of their remaining 28 y of life (95% CI, 25.7-33.5 with functional limitations; 45-y-old men can expect to live 41% (95% CI, 35%-46% of their remaining 25.4 y (95% CI, 23.3-28.8 with such limitations. Disabilities related to functional limitations are shown to have a substantial negative effect on individuals' labor activities, and are negatively related to subjective well
Payne, Collin F; Mkandawire, James; Kohler, Hans-Peter
Falling fertility and increasing life expectancy contribute to a growing elderly population in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA); by 2060, persons aged 45 y and older are projected to be 25% of SSA's population, up from 10% in 2010. Aging in SSA is associated with unique challenges because of poverty and inadequate social supports. However, despite its importance for understanding the consequences of population aging, the evidence about the prevalence of disabilities and functional limitations due to poor physical health among older adults in SSA continues to be very limited. Participants came from 2006, 2008, and 2010 waves of the Malawi Longitudinal Survey of Families and Health, a study of the rural population in Malawi. We investigate how poor physical health results in functional limitations that limit the day-to-day activities of individuals in domains relevant to this subsistence-agriculture context. These disabilities were parameterized based on questions from the SF-12 questionnaire about limitations in daily living activities. We estimated age-specific patterns of functional limitations and the transitions over time between different disability states using a discrete-time hazard model. The estimated transition rates were then used to calculate the first (to our knowledge) microdata-based health expectancies calculated for SSA. The risks of experiencing functional limitations due to poor physical health are high in this population, and the onset of disabilities happens early in life. Our analyses show that 45-y-old women can expect to spend 58% (95% CI, 55%-64%) of their remaining 28 y of life (95% CI, 25.7-33.5) with functional limitations; 45-y-old men can expect to live 41% (95% CI, 35%-46%) of their remaining 25.4 y (95% CI, 23.3-28.8) with such limitations. Disabilities related to functional limitations are shown to have a substantial negative effect on individuals' labor activities, and are negatively related to subjective well-being. Individuals in this
Bailey, James E; Surbhi, Satya; Bell, Paula C; Jones, Angel M; Rashed, Sahar; Ugwueke, Michael O
To describe the design, implementation, and early experience of the SafeMed program, which uses certified pharmacy technicians in a novel expanded role as community health workers (CPhT-CHWs) to improve transitions of care. A large nonprofit health care system serving the major medically underserved areas and geographic hotspots for readmissions in Memphis, TN. The SafeMed program is a care transitions program with an emphasis on medication management designed to use low-cost health workers to improve transitions of care from hospital to home for superutilizing patients with multiple chronic conditions and polypharmacy. CPhT-CHWs were given primary responsibility for patient outreach after hospital discharge with the use of home visits and telephone follow-up. SafeMed program CPhT-CHWs served as pharmacist extenders, obtaining medication histories, assisting in medication reconciliation and identification of potential drug therapy problems (DTPs), and reinforcing medication education previously provided by the pharmacist per protocol. CPhT-CHW training included patient communication skills, motivational interviewing, medication history taking, teach-back techniques, drug disposal practices, and basic disease management. Some CPhT-CHWs experienced difficulties adjusting to an expanded scope of practice. Nonetheless, once the Tennessee Board of Pharmacy affirmed that envisioned SafeMed CPhT-CHW roles were consistent with Board rules, additional responsibilities were added for CPhT-CHWs to enhance their effectiveness. Patient outreach teams including CPhT-CHWs achieved increases in home visit and telephone follow-up rates and were successful in helping identify potential DTPs. The early experience of the SafeMed program demonstrates that CPhT-CHWs are well suited for novel expanded roles to improve care transitions for superutilizing populations. CPhT-CHWs can identify and report potential DTPs to the pharmacist to help target medication therapy management. Critical
Kellici, Neritan; Dibra, Arvin; Mihani, Joana; Kellici, Suela; Burazeri, Genc
AIM: To date, the available information regarding the quality of primary health care services in Albania is scarce. The aim of our study was to assess the quality of primary health care services in Albania based on physicians' perceptions towards the quality of the services provided to the general
Needham, Belinda L.; Austin, Erika L.
Some recent studies suggest that sexual minorities may have worse health-related outcomes during adolescence because they report lower levels of family connectedness, a key protective resource. Using data from wave 3 of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (n = 11,153; 50.6% female; mean age = 21.8 years), this study extends prior…
China has been very successful in achieving good health at a low cost, mostly through national programs for health promotion and illness prevention. However, increased prosperity in recent years has led to higher expectations for therapeutic care, and the change to a socialist market economy has created new risks and opportunities for both financing and care provision. After several years of experimentation, China committed itself in 1996 to a major reform program which includes implementation of a new method of financing of care for the urban employed population. It comprises a mix of government-operated compulsory basic insurance, individual health savings accounts, and optional private health insurance. This paper outlines the new Scheme, and notes some tactical and strategic issues. I conclude that the Chinese government is correctly choosing to balance new and old ideas, but that there are many challenges to be faced including integration of the new Scheme with the rest of the health care system.
Postma, Julie; Tuell, Erica; James, Lois; Graves, Janessa M; Butterfield, Patricia
Nursing students make an abrupt transition from traditional classes to clinical rotations and shift work. Little is known about students' sleep, sleep disturbances, and safe practice behaviors during this critical phase of professional development. The purpose of this study was to identify nursing students' perceptions of problems and potential solutions related to shift work and long work hours. This qualitative, descriptive study used two nursing student focus groups which engaged in a two-round participatory process aimed at framing future interventions. Participants identified problems and solutions related to personal and workplace well-being. Findings will inform undergraduate curricular revisions, and hospital hiring and managerial practices.
Bria, W F
We have discussed several important transitions now occurring in PCIS that promise to improve the utility and availability of these systems for the average physician. Charles Babbage developed the first computers as "thinking machines" so that we may extend our ability to grapple with more and more complex problems. If current trends continue, we will finally witness the evolution of patient care computing from information icons of the few to clinical instruments improving the quality of medical decision making and care for all patients.
Jabbour, Mona; Reid, S; Polihronis, C; Cloutier, P; Gardner, W; Kennedy, A; Gray, C; Zemek, R; Pajer, K; Barrowman, N; Cappelli, M
While the emergency department (ED) is often a first point of entry for children and youth with mental health (MH) concerns, there is a limited capacity to respond to MH needs in this setting. Child MH systems are typically fragmented among multiple ministries, organizations, and providers. Communication among these groups is often poor, resulting in gaps, particularly in transitions of care, for this vulnerable population. The evidence-based Emergency Department Mental Health Clinical Pathway (EDMHCP) was created with two main goals: (1) to guide risk assessment and disposition decision-making for children and youth presenting to the ED with MH concerns and (2) to provide a streamlined transition to follow-up services with community MH agencies (CMHAs) and other providers. The purpose of this paper is to describe our study protocol to implement and evaluate the EDMHCP. This mixed methods health services research project will involve implementation and evaluation of the EDMHCP in four exemplar ED-CMHA dyads. The Theoretical Domains Framework will be used to develop a tailored intervention strategy to implement the EDMHCP. A multiple baseline study design and interrupted time-series analysis will be used to determine if the EDMHCP has improved health care utilization, medical management of the MH problems, and health sector coordination. The primary process outcome will be the proportion of patients with MH-specific recommendations documented in the health record. The primary service outcome will be the proportion of patients receiving the EDMHCP-recommended follow-up at 24-h or at 7 days. Data sources will include qualitative interviews, health record audits, administrative databases, and patient surveys. A concurrent process evaluation will be conducted to assess the degree of variability and fidelity in implementation across the sites. This paper presents a novel model for measuring the effects of the EDMHCP. Our development process will identify how the EDMHCP
McLean, R.G.; Smart, R.C.; Gaston-Parry, D.; Barbagallo, S.; Baker, J.; Lyons, N.R.; Bruck, C.E.; King, D.W.; Lubowski, D.Z.; Talley, N.A.
The purpose of the study was to assess if a new scintigraphic method for noninvasive assessment of colonic transit could differentiate between subjects with normal bowel transit and those with constipation. Eleven normal subjects and 29 constipated patients were given 4 MBq iodine-131-cellulose ( 131 I-cellulose) orally and sequential abdominal scans were performed at 6, 24, 48, 72, and 96 hr from which total and segmental percent retentions were calculated. There were clear differences between the normal subjects and the constipated patients for the total percent retention at all time intervals, on a segmental basis in the right colon at 24 hr, and in all segments at 48 and 72 hr. Three-day urinary excretion of radioiodine was minimal; 2.4% +/- 1.2% (mean +/- s.d.) in constipated patients and 3.1% +/- 0.8% in normals, with approximately 75% occurring in the first day. The use of oral radiotracers in the investigation of constipation appears promising
Higginbottom Gina MA
Full Text Available Abstract Background Beyond well-documented credentialing issues, internationally-educated nurses (IENs may need considerable support in transitioning into new social and health care environments. This study was undertaken to gain an understanding of transitioning experiences of IENs upon relocation to Canada, while creating policy and practice recommendations applicable globally for improving the quality of transitioning and the retention of IENs. Methods A focused ethnography of newly-recruited IENs was conducted, using individual semi-structured interviews at both one-to-three months (Phase 1 and nine-to-twelve months post-relocation (Phase 2. A purposive sample of IENs was recruited during their orientation at a local college, to a health authority within western Canada which had recruited them for employment throughout the region. The interviews were recorded and transcribed, and data was managed using qualitative analytical software. Data analysis was informed by Roper and Shapira's framework for focused ethnography. Results Twenty three IENs consented to participate in 31 interviews. All IENs which indicated interest during their orientation sessions consented to the interviews, yet 14 did not complete the Phase 2 interview due to reorganization of health services and relocation. The ethno-culturally diverse group had an average age of 36.4 years, were primarily educated to first degree level or higher, and were largely (under employed as "Graduate Nurses". Many IENs reported negative experiences related to their work contract and overall support upon arrival. There were striking differences in nursing practice and some experiences of perceived discrimination. The primary area of discontentment was the apparent communication breakdown at the recruitment stage with subsequent discrepancy in expected professional role and financial reimbursement. Conclusions Explicit and clear communication is needed between employers and recruitment
Kim, Ki-Hyun; Kumar, Pawan; Szulejko, Jan E; Adelodun, Adedeji A; Junaid, Muhammad Faisal; Uchimiya, Minori; Chambers, Scott
Globally, modern mass transport systems whether by road, rail, water, or air generate airborne pollutants in both developing and developed nations. Air pollution is the primary human health concern originating from modern transportation, particularly in densely-populated urban areas. This review will specifically focus on the origin and the health impacts of carbonaceous traffic-related air pollutants (TRAP), including particulate matter (PM), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and elemental carbon (EC). We conclude that the greatest current challenge regarding urban TRAP is understanding and evaluating the human health impacts well enough to set appropriate pollution control measures. Furthermore, we provide a detailed discussion regarding the effects of TRAP on local environments and pedestrian health in low and high traffic-density environments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Koretskiy, V L
Based on the newly developed concept of multilevel functional system of primary health care which is to replace the current multicomponent system, the author discusses the computer-aided realization of the system for estimation and analysis of the integral model of outpatient and inpatient medical care of the population of the Ukraine. This system is intended to solve the problems associated with intensification of the resources of the public health system of the Republic (district).
to European health regions. Method The general framework of the project is the international concept of health technology assessment (HTA) as implemented in the EUnetHTA Core Model focusing 9 analytical domains. Based on a systematic literature review of trials on integrated care integrated homecare (IHC......-analysis a meso-strategy implementing IHC at a regional level is planned to combine the advantages of a goal-directed centralized approach with the adaption to local conditions in a decentralized approach. Discussion Clinical and social IHC-network-members are going to be represented as external reviewers...... Purpose The fragmented delivery of health and social services for large groups of patients with chronic conditions was put on the research agenda in 2002 by WHO. The FP7-IHC-project ( http://www.integratedhomecare.eu/ ) aims to develop a turn-key-solution for better clinical continuity...
Josefsson, Kim; Elovainio, Marko; Stenholm, Sari; Kawachi, Ichiro; Kauppi, Maarit; Aalto, Ville; Kivimäki, Mika; Vahtera, Jussi
Extensive scientific evidence shows an association between involvement in social relationships and healthy lifestyle. Prospective studies with many participants and long follow-ups are needed to study the dynamics and change in social factors within individuals over time. Our aim was to determine whether a change in relationship status (single, married, divorced, widow, cohabiting) is followed by a change in health behavior (smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, and body mass index). We used data from 81,925 healthy adults participating in the prospective longitudinal Finnish Public Sector Study in the period 2000-2013. We analyzed 327,700 person-observations from four data collection phases. Missing data were multiply imputed. A within-individual methodology was used to minimize the possibility of selection effects affecting the interpretation. All four health behaviors showed associations with relationship status. The effects were very similar and in the same direction in women and men, although there were gender differences in the magnitudes of the effects. The end of a relationship was followed by a decrease in body mass index, increased odds of being a smoker, increase in physical activity, and increase in alcohol consumption (widowed men). The effects were reverse when forming a new relationship. A change in relationship status is associated with a change in health behavior. The association is not explained by socioeconomic status, subjective health status, or anxiety level. People leaving or losing a relationship are at increased risk of unhealthy behavior (smoking and alcohol consumption), but at the same time they have a lower BMI and show higher physical activity compared to the time they were in a relationship. It is not clear if the cumulative health effect of these health behavior changes is positive or negative. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Menger, Vincent; Spruit, Marco; Hagoort, Karin; Scheepers, Floor
The surge in the amount of available data in health care enables a novel, exploratory research approach that revolves around finding new knowledge and unexpected hypotheses from data instead of carrying out well-defined data analysis tasks. We propose a specification of the Cross Industry Standard
Schmit, Cason; Sunshine, Gregory; Pepin, Dawn; Ramanathan, Tara; Menon, Akshara; Penn, Matthew
In all health system sectors, electronic health information (EHI) is created, used, released, and reused. We examined states' efforts to address EHI uses in law to provide an understanding of the EHI legal environment. Attorney researchers used WestlawNext to search for EHI-related statutes and regulations of the US states, US territories, and the District of Columbia in effect as of January 2014. The researchers independently catalogued provisions by the EHI use described in the law. Researchers resolved discrepancies through peer review meetings and recorded the consensus codes for each law. This study identified 2364 EHI-related laws representing 49 EHI uses in 54 jurisdictions. A total of 18 EHI uses were regulated by ≥10 jurisdictions. More than 750 laws addressed 2 or more EHI uses. Jurisdictions varied by the number of EHI laws in effect, with a mean of 44 laws. Texas had the most EHI laws (n = 145). Hawaii and South Carolina had the fewest (n = 14 each). The EHI legal landscape is complex. The large quantity and diversity of laws complicate legal analysis, likely delay implementation of public health solutions, and might be detrimental to the development of emerging health information technology. Research is needed to understand the effect of EHI-related laws.
Adolescents suffering from mental health problems are at risk of dropping out from high school without a basic educational level (BEL) or to be in NEET (Neither in Education, Employment nor Training), and when having entered the labor market in adulthood, to be unemployed and earn lower wages. This
Pearson, Jennifer; Thrane, Lisa; Wilkinson, Lindsey
Sexual minority youth are more likely to run away from home or experience homelessness, leaving them at increased risk of victimization and negative health outcomes. In this study, the authors use a developmental perspective that considers both vulnerable beginnings in families and the risky trajectories that follow to explore the connections…
Poppen, Marcus; Sinclair, James; Hirano, Kara; Lindstrom, Lauren; Unruh, Deanne
This study reports results from a national survey of education and community professionals regarding secondary level students with disabilities who were experiencing mental health concerns. A total of 648 professionals from 49 states completed the on-line survey. Respondents reported that almost half (48%) of their students with disabilities were…
McLaren, Susan; Belling, Ruth; Paul, Moli; Ford, Tamsin; Kramer, Tami; Weaver, Tim; Hovish, Kimberly; Islam, Zoebia; White, Sarah; Singh, Swaran P
Organizational culture is manifest in patterns of behaviour underpinned by beliefs, values, attitudes and assumptions, which can influence working practices. Cultural factors and working practices have been suggested to influence the transition of young people moving from child to adult mental health services. Failure to manage and integrate transitional care effectively can lead to young people losing contact with health and social care systems, resulting in adverse effects on health, well-being and potential. The study aim was to identify the organisational factors which facilitate or impede transition of young people from child and adolescent mental health services (CAMHS) to adult mental health services (AMHS) from the perspective of health professionals and representatives of voluntary organisations. Specific objectives were (i) to explore organizational cultures, structures, processes and resources which influence transition from child to adult mental health services; (ii) identify factors which constitute barriers and facilitators to transition and continuity of care and (iii) make recommendations for service improvements. Within an exploratory, qualitative design thirty four semi-structured interviews were conducted with health and social care professionals working in CAMHS and AMHS in four NHS Mental Health Trusts and four voluntary organizations, in England. A cultural divide appears to exist between CAMHS and AMHS, characterized by different beliefs, attitudes, mutual misperceptions and a lack of understanding of different service structures. This is exacerbated by working practices relating to communication and information transfer which could impact negatively on transition, relational, informational and cross boundary continuity of care. There is also evidence of a cultural shift, with some positive approaches to collaborative working across services and agencies, involving joint posts, parallel working, shared clinics and joint meetings. Cultural
to develop a turn-key-solution for better clinical continuity to European health regions. Method: The general framework of the project is the international concept of health technology assessment (HTA) as implemented in the EUnetHTA Core Model focusing nine analytical domains. Based on a systematic...... dominant intervention. 3) Based on a SWOT-analysis a meso-strategy implementing IHC at a regional level is planned to combine the advantages of a goal-directed centralized approach with the adaption to local conditions in a decentralized approach. Discussion: Clinical and social IHC-network...... literature review of trials on integrated care integrated homecare (IHC) is defined and selected as prototype for continued rehabilitation of disabled chronic patients. Preliminary results: 1) The efficacy of IHC are hypothesized to have a common neuroeconomic explanation in the finding that the blood...
Alejandra López Gomez
Full Text Available Unsafe and illegal abortion is a critical issue in most countries at Latin America and the Caribbean region. The recognition of sexual and reproductive rights as human rights that is observed in the international, regional and national levels has not been exempt from conflicts. The Uruguayan case provides important evidence in this regard. The thesis examines health professionals’ perceptions and perspectives related to their care practices with women and abortion in a legal context that considered abortion as a crime, between 2002 and 2012 in Uruguay. The results allow us to understand the complex relationship between the different levels involved in the policy process. Health professionals’ practices are an analyzer of the covenants and conflicts that are recorded in the social field.
Mulligan, F J; O'Grady, L; Rice, D A; Doherty, M L
This paper presents a practical, on-farm approach for the monitoring and prevention of production disease in dairy cattle. This integrated approach, should be used in an interdisciplinary way by farmers, veterinarians, nutrition advisors and other relevant professionals for the improvement of animal health and welfare and producer profitability. The key areas that form the basis for this approach are body condition score management, negative energy balance, hypocalcaemia, rumen health and trace element status. Monitoring criteria are described for each of these key areas, which when considered collectively, will facilitate the assessment of dairy cow health with regard to clinical and subclinical disease. The criteria, which are informed by published scientific literature, are based on farm management and environmental factors, clinical data, milk production records, dietary analysis, and assessment of blood and liver concentrations of various metabolites or trace elements. The aim is to review the efficacy of production disease control measures currently in place, and if necessary to modify them or formulate new ones.
Cole, Rebecca; Ashok, Dhandapani; Razack, Abdul; Azaz, Amer; Sebastian, Shaji
We aimed to evaluate the impact of a transition service on clinical and developmental outcomes in adolescent Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) patients on transfer to adult health care services. We reviewed the records of IBD patients diagnosed in pediatric care following their transfer/attendance to the adult IBD service. The data on patients who attended the transition service were compared with those who did not pass through the transition service. Seventy-two patients were included in the study 41M and 31F. Forty-four patients went through the transition system (Group A), and 28 had no formalized transition arrangement before transfer (Group B). A significantly higher number of Group B patients needed surgery within 2 years of transfer when compared with patients in Group A (46% vs. 25%, p = .01). Sixty-one percent of patients in Group B needed at least one admission within 2 years of transfer when compared with 29% of Group A patients (p = .002). Nonattendance at clinics was higher in Group B patients with 78% having at least one nonattendance, whereas 29% of Group A failed to attend at least one appointment (p = .001). In addition, drug compliance rates were higher in the transition group when compared with Group B (89% and 46%, respectively; p = .002). A higher proportion of transitioned patients achieved their estimated maximum growth potential when completing adolescence. There was a trend toward higher dependence on opiates and smoking in Group B patients. In adolescent IBD patients, transition care is associated with better disease specific and developmental outcomes. Prospective studies of different models of transition care in IBD are needed. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Vaz, Sharmila; Falkmer, Marita; Parsons, Richard; Passmore, Anne Elizabeth; Parkin, Timothy; Falkmer, Torbjörn
The relationship between school belongingness and mental health functioning before and after the primary-secondary school transition has not been previously investigated in students with and without disabilities. This study used a prospective longitudinal design to test the bi-directional relationships between these constructs, by surveying 266 students with and without disabilities and their parents, 6-months before and after the transition to secondary school. Cross-lagged multi-group analyses found student perception of belongingness in the final year of primary school to contribute to change in their mental health functioning a year later. The beneficial longitudinal effects of school belongingness on subsequent mental health functioning were evident in all student subgroups; even after accounting for prior mental health scores and the cross-time stability in mental health functioning and school belongingness scores. Findings of the current study substantiate the role of school contextual influences on early adolescent mental health functioning. They highlight the importance for primary and secondary schools to assess students' school belongingness and mental health functioning and transfer these records as part of the transition process, so that appropriate scaffolds are in place to support those in need. Longer term longitudinal studies are needed to increase the understanding of the temporal sequencing between school belongingness and mental health functioning of all mainstream students.
Vaz, Sharmila; Falkmer, Marita; Parsons, Richard; Passmore, Anne Elizabeth; Parkin, Timothy; Falkmer, Torbjörn
The relationship between school belongingness and mental health functioning before and after the primary-secondary school transition has not been previously investigated in students with and without disabilities. This study used a prospective longitudinal design to test the bi-directional relationships between these constructs, by surveying 266 students with and without disabilities and their parents, 6-months before and after the transition to secondary school. Cross-lagged multi-group analyses found student perception of belongingness in the final year of primary school to contribute to change in their mental health functioning a year later. The beneficial longitudinal effects of school belongingness on subsequent mental health functioning were evident in all student subgroups; even after accounting for prior mental health scores and the cross-time stability in mental health functioning and school belongingness scores. Findings of the current study substantiate the role of school contextual influences on early adolescent mental health functioning. They highlight the importance for primary and secondary schools to assess students’ school belongingness and mental health functioning and transfer these records as part of the transition process, so that appropriate scaffolds are in place to support those in need. Longer term longitudinal studies are needed to increase the understanding of the temporal sequencing between school belongingness and mental health functioning of all mainstream students. PMID:24967580
Full Text Available The relationship between school belongingness and mental health functioning before and after the primary-secondary school transition has not been previously investigated in students with and without disabilities. This study used a prospective longitudinal design to test the bi-directional relationships between these constructs, by surveying 266 students with and without disabilities and their parents, 6-months before and after the transition to secondary school. Cross-lagged multi-group analyses found student perception of belongingness in the final year of primary school to contribute to change in their mental health functioning a year later. The beneficial longitudinal effects of school belongingness on subsequent mental health functioning were evident in all student subgroups; even after accounting for prior mental health scores and the cross-time stability in mental health functioning and school belongingness scores. Findings of the current study substantiate the role of school contextual influences on early adolescent mental health functioning. They highlight the importance for primary and secondary schools to assess students' school belongingness and mental health functioning and transfer these records as part of the transition process, so that appropriate scaffolds are in place to support those in need. Longer term longitudinal studies are needed to increase the understanding of the temporal sequencing between school belongingness and mental health functioning of all mainstream students.
Tokars, Eunice; Moro, Antonio Renato Pereira; Cruz, Roberto Moraes
The working activity in traffic of the big cities complex interacts with the environment is often in unsafe and unhealthy imbalance favoring the binomial work - health. The aim of this paper was to analyze the relationship between work and health of taxi drivers in Curitiba, Brazil. This cross-sectional observational study with 206 individuals used a questionnaire on the organization's profile and perception of the environment and direct observation of work. It was found that the majority are male, aged between 26 and 49 years and has a high school degree. They are sedentary, like making a journey from 8 to 12 hours. They consider a stressful profession, related low back pain and are concerned about safety and accidents. 40% are smokers and consume alcoholic drink and 65% do not have or do not use devices of comfort. Risk factors present in the daily taxi constraints cause physical, cognitive and organizational and can affect your performance. It is concluded that the taxi drivers must change the unhealthy lifestyle, requiring a more efficient management of government authorities for this work is healthy and safe for all involved.
Full Text Available The surge in the amount of available data in health care enables a novel, exploratory research approach that revolves around finding new knowledge and unexpected hypotheses from data instead of carrying out well-defined data analysis tasks. We propose a specification of the Cross Industry Standard Process for Data Mining (CRISP-DM, suitable for conducting expert sessions that focus on finding new knowledge and hypotheses in collaboration with local workforce. Our proposed specification that we name CRISP-IDM is evaluated in a case study at the psychiatry department of the University Medical Center Utrecht. Expert interviews were conducted to identify seven research themes in the psychiatry department, which were researched in cooperation with local health care professionals using data visualization as a modeling tool. During 19 expert sessions, two results that were directly implemented and 29 hypotheses for further research were found, of which 24 were not imagined during the initial expert interviews. Our work demonstrates the viability and benefits of involving work floor people in the analyses and the possibility to effectively find new knowledge and hypotheses using our CRISP-IDM method.
Menger, Vincent; Spruit, Marco; Hagoort, Karin; Scheepers, Floor
The surge in the amount of available data in health care enables a novel, exploratory research approach that revolves around finding new knowledge and unexpected hypotheses from data instead of carrying out well-defined data analysis tasks. We propose a specification of the Cross Industry Standard Process for Data Mining (CRISP-DM), suitable for conducting expert sessions that focus on finding new knowledge and hypotheses in collaboration with local workforce. Our proposed specification that we name CRISP-IDM is evaluated in a case study at the psychiatry department of the University Medical Center Utrecht. Expert interviews were conducted to identify seven research themes in the psychiatry department, which were researched in cooperation with local health care professionals using data visualization as a modeling tool. During 19 expert sessions, two results that were directly implemented and 29 hypotheses for further research were found, of which 24 were not imagined during the initial expert interviews. Our work demonstrates the viability and benefits of involving work floor people in the analyses and the possibility to effectively find new knowledge and hypotheses using our CRISP-IDM method.
Frohman, Larry P
In contradiction to fundamental laws of supply and demand, 2 decades of payment policies have led to some medical specialties experiencing declines in both manpower and reimbursement. This paradox has resulted in increasingly long wait times to see some specialists, some specialties becoming less attractive to potential trainees, and a dearth of new trainees entering these fields. Evolving models of health care delivery hold the promise of increasing patient access to most providers and may diminish costs and improve outcomes for most patients/conditions. However, patients who need care in understaffed fields may, in the future, be unable to quickly access a specialist with the requisite expertise. Impeding the sickest and most complex patients from seeing physicians with appropriate expertise may lead to increased costs and deleterious outcomes-consequences contrary to the goals of health care reform. To ensure appropriate access for these patients requires 2 conditions: 1. Compensation models that do not discourage trainees from pursuing nonprocedural specialties, and 2. A care delivery model that expediently identifies and routes these patients to the appropriate specialist.
Meier, Benjamin Mason; Hodge, James G; Gebbie, Kristine M
Given the public health importance of law modernization, we undertook a comparative analysis of policy efforts in 4 states (Alaska, South Carolina, Wisconsin, and Nebraska) that have considered public health law reform based on the Turning Point Model State Public Health Act. Through national legislative tracking and state case studies, we investigated how the Turning Point Act's model legal language has been considered for incorporation into state law and analyzed key facilitating and inhibiting factors for public health law reform. Our findings provide the practice community with a research base to facilitate further law reform and inform future scholarship on the role of law as a determinant of the public's health.
Fair, Genevieve L; Harris, Mark F; Smith, Mitchell M
Transition of asylum seekers from special-purpose health services to mainstream primary care is both necessary and difficult. This study explores the issues encountered by asylum seekers undergoing this transition in Sydney, Australia. Qualitative semistructured interviews were conducted with nine asylum seeker patients and nine staff working in the sector. Asylum seekers faced significant challenges in the transition to mainstream primary care. Contributing factors included the complexity of health and immigration systems, the way in which asylum seeker-specific services provide care, lack of understanding and accommodation by mainstream general practioner (GP) services, asylum seekers' own lack of understanding of the health system, mental illness, and social and financial pressures. There is a need for better preparation of asylum seekers for the transition to mainstream primary care. Mainstream GPs and other providers need more education and support so that they can better accommodate the needs of asylum seeker patients. This is an important role for Australia's refugee health services and Primary Health Networks.
Genevieve L Fair
Full Text Available Background and aim: Transition of asylum seekers from special-purpose health services to mainstream primary care is both necessary and difficult. This study explores the issues encountered by asylum seekers undergoing this transition in Sydney, Australia. Methods: Qualitative semistructured interviews were conducted with nine asylum seeker patients and nine staff working in the sector. Results: Asylum seekers faced significant challenges in the transition to mainstream primary care. Contributing factors included the complexity of health and immigration systems, the way in which asylum seeker–specific services provide care, lack of understanding and accommodation by mainstream general practioner (GP services, asylum seekers’ own lack of understanding of the health system, mental illness, and social and financial pressures. Conclusions: There is a need for better preparation of asylum seekers for the transition to mainstream primary care. Mainstream GPs and other providers need more education and support so that they can better accommodate the needs of asylum seeker patients. This is an important role for Australia’s refugee health services and Primary Health Networks.
Vaz, Sharmila; Parsons, Richard; Falkmer, Torbjörn; Passmore, Anne Elizabeth; Falkmer, Marita
Students negotiate the transition to secondary school in different ways. While some thrive on the opportunity, others are challenged. A prospective longitudinal design was used to determine the contribution of personal background and school contextual factors on academic competence (AC) and mental health functioning (MHF) of 266 students, 6-months before and after the transition to secondary school. Data from 197 typically developing students and 69 students with a disability were analysed using hierarchical linear regression modelling. Both in primary and secondary school, students with a disability and from socially disadvantaged backgrounds gained poorer scores for AC and MHF than their typically developing and more affluent counterparts. Students who attended independent and mid-range sized primary schools had the highest concurrent AC. Those from independent primary schools had the lowest MHF. The primary school organisational model significantly influenced post-transition AC scores; with students from Kindergarten--Year 7 schools reporting the lowest scores, while those from the Kindergarten--Year 12 structure without middle school having the highest scores. Attending a school which used the Kindergarten--Year 12 with middle school structure was associated with a reduction in AC scores across the transition. Personal background factors accounted for the majority of the variability in post-transition AC and MHF. The contribution of school contextual factors was relatively minor. There is a potential opportunity for schools to provide support to disadvantaged students before the transition to secondary school, as they continue to be at a disadvantage after the transition.
Full Text Available Students negotiate the transition to secondary school in different ways. While some thrive on the opportunity, others are challenged. A prospective longitudinal design was used to determine the contribution of personal background and school contextual factors on academic competence (AC and mental health functioning (MHF of 266 students, 6-months before and after the transition to secondary school. Data from 197 typically developing students and 69 students with a disability were analysed using hierarchical linear regression modelling. Both in primary and secondary school, students with a disability and from socially disadvantaged backgrounds gained poorer scores for AC and MHF than their typically developing and more affluent counterparts. Students who attended independent and mid-range sized primary schools had the highest concurrent AC. Those from independent primary schools had the lowest MHF. The primary school organisational model significantly influenced post-transition AC scores; with students from Kindergarten--Year 7 schools reporting the lowest scores, while those from the Kindergarten--Year 12 structure without middle school having the highest scores. Attending a school which used the Kindergarten--Year 12 with middle school structure was associated with a reduction in AC scores across the transition. Personal background factors accounted for the majority of the variability in post-transition AC and MHF. The contribution of school contextual factors was relatively minor. There is a potential opportunity for schools to provide support to disadvantaged students before the transition to secondary school, as they continue to be at a disadvantage after the transition.
Klaus, Haagen D; Tam, Manuel E
This work explores the effects of European contact on Andean foodways in the Lambayeque Valley Complex, north coast Peru. We test the hypothesis that Spanish colonization negatively impacted indigenous diet. Diachronic relationships of oral health were examined from the dentitions of 203 late-pre-Hispanic and 175 colonial-period Mochica individuals from Mórrope, Lambayeque, to include observations of dental caries, antemortem tooth loss, alveolar inflammation, dental calculus, periodontitis, and dental wear. G-tests and odds ratio analyses across six age classes indicate a range of statistically significant postcontact increases in dental caries, antemortem tooth loss, and dental calculus prevalence. These findings are associated with ethnohistoric contexts that point to colonial-era economic reorganization which restricted access to multiple traditional food sources. We infer that oral health changes reflect creative Mochica cultural adjustments to dietary shortfalls through the consumption of a greater proportion of dietary carbohydrates. Simultaneously, independent skeletal indicators of biological stress suggest that these adjustments bore a cost in increased nutritional stress. Oral health appears to have been systematically worse among colonial women. We rule out an underlying biological cause (female fertility variation) and suggest that the establishment of European gender ideologies and divisions of labor possibly exposed colonial Mochica women to a more cariogenic diet. Overall, dietary change in Mórrope appears shaped by local responses to a convergence of colonial Spanish economic agendas, landscape transformation, and social changes during the postcontact transition in northern Peru. These findings also further the understandings of dietary and biocultural histories of the Western Hemisphere. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Lloyd, Jane E.; Delaney-Thiele, Dea; Abbott, Penny; Baldry, Eileen; McEntyre, Elizabeth; Reath, Jennifer; Indig, Devon; Sherwood, Juanita; Harris, Mark F.
Background Aboriginal Australians are more likely than other Australians to cycle in and out of prison on remand or by serving multiple short sentences?a form of serial incarceration and institutionalisation. This cycle contributes to the over-representation of Aboriginal Australians in prison and higher rates of recidivism. Our research examined how primary health care can better meet the health care and social support needs of Aboriginal Australians transitioning from prison to the communit...
Lee, Juyeon; Kim, Myoung-Hee
This study aims to answer three research questions: First, is the positive effect of retirement on physical health replicated in Korea? Second, is there any difference in health effects of employment transition according to employment status? Third, to what extent do monetary, non-monetary and work-related factors explain the effects of employment transitions on changes in physical health? The longitudinal panel data from five waves of the Korea Retirement and Income Study was used. We conducted (a) the pooled cross-sectional analysis, which used five-wave pooled data; and (b) the fixed-effects analyses to investigate how within-individual changes in employment status correspond to changes in subjective physical health among older adults aged 55 to 84. Results show that transition into retirement leads to poor physical health in Korea, and such effect was moderately mediated by both monetary and non-monetary factors. Compared to respondents who moved to non-precarious employment, those who became employers, self-employers, precarious workers, and unpaid family workers experienced significantly greater odds of reporting subjective poor physical health. Job dissatisfaction seems to be the most important mechanism through which employment transitions were translated into increasing likelihood of poor physical health. In conclusion, the social cost of retirement should consider the negative effects of retirement on the well-being and psychological health of retired individuals and their relationships with family, friends and neighbors, as well as income loss and economic uncertainty. Improving employment quality and working conditions for older working adults may be crucial in accomplishing longer and healthier working lives. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Cheak-Zamora, Nancy C.; Teti, Michelle
Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder diagnosis often have complex comorbid physical and mental health conditions. These youth rely heavily on their medical providers and struggle through the often rocky transition out of pediatric care into adulthood and adult-centered care. This study is among the first to qualitatively examine the health…
Baldwin, Sharin; Bick, Debra
This qualitative review seeks to identify first-time fathers' needs and experiences in relation to their mental health and wellbeing during their transition to fatherhood. This will include resident first-time fathers who are either the biological or non-biological father.The objectives are to explore first-time fathers' experiences in relation to.
Kwan, Soo Chen; Tainio, Marko; Woodcock, James; Hashim, Jamal Hisham
The mass rapid transit (MRT) is the largest transport infrastructure project under the national key economic area (NKEA) in Malaysia. As urban rail is anticipated to be the future spine of public transport network in the Greater Kuala Lumpur city, it is important to mainstream climate change mitigation and public health benefits in the local transport development. This study quantifies the health co-benefits in terms of mortality among the urbanites when the first line of the 150 km MRT system in Kuala Lumpur commences by 2017. Using comparative health risk assessment, we estimated the potential health co-benefits from the establishment of the MRT system. We estimated the reduced CO2 emissions and air pollution (PM2.5) exposure reduction among the general population from the reduced use of motorized vehicles. Mortality avoided from traffic incidents involving motorcycles and passenger cars, and from increased physical activity from walking while using the MRT system was also estimated. A total of 363,130 tonnes of CO2 emissions could be reduced annually from the modal shift from cars and motorcycles to the MRT system. Atmospheric PM2.5 concentration could be reduced 0.61 μg/m3 annually (2%). This could avoid a total of 12 deaths, mostly from cardio-respiratory diseases among the city residents. For traffic injuries, 37 deaths could be avoided annually from motorcycle and passenger cars accidents especially among the younger age categories (aged 15-30). One additional death was attributed to pedestrian walking. The additional daily physical activity to access the MRT system could avoid 21 deaths among its riders. Most of the mortality avoided comes from cardiovascular diseases. Overall, a total of 70 deaths could be avoided annually among both the general population and the MRT users in the city. The implementation of the MRT system in Greater Kuala Lumpur could bring substantial health co-benefits to both the general population and the MRT users mainly from the
Lisa J Hill
Full Text Available Meat and vitamin B 3 – nicotinamide – intake was high during hunter-gatherer times. Intake then fell and variances increased during and after the Neolithic agricultural revolution. Health, height, and IQ deteriorated. Low dietary doses are buffered by ‘welcoming’ gut symbionts and tuberculosis that can supply nicotinamide, but this co-evolved homeostatic metagenomic strategy risks dysbioses and impaired resistance to pathogens. Vitamin B 3 deficiency may now be common among the poor billions on a low-meat diet. Disease transitions to non-communicable inflammatory disorders (but longer lives may be driven by positive ‘meat transitions’. High doses of nicotinamide lead to reduced regulatory T cells and immune intolerance. Loss of no longer needed symbiotic ‘old friends’ compounds immunological over-reactivity to cause allergic and auto-immune diseases. Inhibition of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide consumers and loss of methyl groups or production of toxins may cause cancers, metabolic toxicity, or neurodegeneration. An optimal dosage of vitamin B 3 could lead to better health, but such a preventive approach needs more equitable meat distribution. Some people may require personalised doses depending on genetic make-up or, temporarily, when under stress.
Effects of a nurse-led transitional care program on clinical outcomes, health-related knowledge, physical and mental health status among Chinese patients with coronary artery disease: A randomized controlled trial.
Zhang, Pan; Hu, Yu-Ding; Xing, Feng-Mei; Li, Chang-Zai; Lan, Wang-Feng; Zhang, Xiao-Li
Coronary artery disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality among adults worldwide, including China. After a hospital stay, transitional care could help to ensure improved patient care and outcomes, and reduce Medicare costs. Nevertheless, the results of the existing transitional care are not always satisfactory and our knowledge of how to perform effective transitional care for patients with coronary artery disease is limited in mainland China. To examine the effectiveness of a nurse-led transitional care program on clinical outcomes, health-related knowledge, and physical and mental health status among Chinese patients with coronary artery disease. Randomized controlled trial. The Omaha system and Pender's health promoting model were employed in planning and implementing this nurse-led transitional care program. The sample was comprised of 199 Chinese patients with coronary artery disease. The experimental group (n=100) received nurse-led transitional care intervention in addition to routine care. The nurse-led transitional care intervention included a structured assessment and health education, followed by 7 months of individual teaching and coaching (home visits, telephone follow-up and group activity). The control group (n=99) received a comparable length routine care and follow-up contacts. Evaluations were conducted at baseline and completion of the interventions using the perceived knowledge scale for coronary heart disease, the medical outcomes study 36-item short-form health survey and clinical measures (blood pressure, blood glucose, lipids, body mass index). Data were collected between March and October 2014. Compared with the control group, participants in the experimental group showed significant better clinical outcomes (systolic blood pressure, t=5.762, P=0.000; diastolic blood pressure, t=4.250, P=0.000; fasting blood glucose, t=2.249, P=0.027; total cholesterol, t=4.362, P=0.000; triglyceride, t=3.147, P=0.002; low density lipoprotein
Sørensen, Tanja; Tingleff, Ellen B; Gildberg, Frederik A
Forensic mental health care is faced with serious problems in the recruitment and retention of newly graduated nurses (NGNs). Research into NGNs' experiences of their transition to and evaluations of transition programs in forensic care is sparse, and more studies are called for. This study aimed to investigate the characteristics of NGNs' experiences and perceptions of their transition into a forensic setting and their evaluations of the introduction period. Three focus group interviews were carried out, involving 13 NGNs, lasting 79.68 minutes on average. They were analyzed using thematic analysis. Results show two main themes: "feeling safe" and "taking on responsibilities." If NGNs felt overburdened with clinical responsibilities during their transition, their feeling of safety reduced. The converse also applied; theThe safer they felt, the greater clinical responsibility they felt capable of handling. The more difficult the NGNs perceived the informal transition, the more unsafe they felt, and the more negatively they perceived the responsibilities placed upon them. Tailored programs designed to support both the informal and formal transitions are recommended, along with preceptorship, theoretical training, and role-based support, such as a shift manager, along with early introduction to conflict management and security measures.
Avis, Nancy E.; Brockwell, Sarah; Randolph, John F.; Shen, Shunhua; Cain, Virginia S.; Ory, Marcia; Greendale, Gail A.
Objective Sexual functioning is an important component of women’s lives. The extent to which the menopause transition is associated with decreased sexual functioning remains inconclusive. This study seeks to determine if advancing through the menopause transition is associated with changes in sexual functioning. Design A prospective, longitudinal cohort study of women aged 42–52 at baseline recruited at 7 US sites (N=3302) in the Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation (SWAN). Cohort eligible women had an intact uterus, at least one ovary, were not currently using exogenous hormones, were either pre- or early perimenopausal, and self-identified as one of the study’s designated racial/ethnic groups. Data from the baseline interview and six annual follow-up visits are reported. Outcomes are self-reported ratings of importance of sex; frequency of sexual desire, arousal, masturbation, sexual intercourse, and pain during intercourse; degree of emotional satisfaction and physical pleasure. Results Adjusting for baseline age, chronological aging, and relevant social, health, and psychological parameters, the odds of reporting vaginal or pelvic pain increased and desire decreased by late perimenopause. Masturbation increased at early perimenopause, but declined during postmenopause. Menopausal transition was unrelated to other outcomes. Health, psychological functioning, and importance of sex were related to all sexual function outcomes. Age, race/ethnicity, marital status, change in relationship, and vaginal dryness were also associated with sexual functioning. Conclusions Pain during sexual intercourse increases and sexual desire decreases over the menopausal transition. Masturbation increases during the early transition, but then declines in postmenopause. Adjusting for other factors, the menopausal transition was not independently associated with reports of the importance of sex, sexual arousal, frequency of sexual intercourse, emotional satisfaction with
Agarwal, Shivani; Garvey, Katharine C; Raymond, Jennifer K; Schutta, Mark H
Healthcare transition from pediatric to adult care for young adults (YA) with type 1 diabetes (T1D) is associated with risk of adverse outcomes. Consensus recommendations exist from US professional societies on transition care for YA with T1D, but it is not known whether they have been widely adopted. We describe experiences, barriers, and provider characteristics associated with transition care in a national sample of pediatric endocrinologists. US pediatric endocrinologists identified through the American Medical Association Physician Masterfile were sent an electronic survey. Response rate was 16% (164/1020) representing 32 states. The majority of pediatric endocrinologists (age 44 ± 10; years in practice 12 ± 11) were female (67%) and worked in academic centers (75%). Main reasons for transfer were age (49%) and glycemic control (18%). Barriers to transition included ending long-therapeutic relationships with patients (74%), lack of transition protocols (46%), and perceived deficiencies in adult care (42%). The majority of pediatric endocrinologists reported lack of transition training (68%); those who received training were less likely to have difficulty ending patient relationships [odds ratio (OR) = 0.39, P = .03], more likely to perform patient record transfer to adult systems (OR=1.27, P = .006), and less likely to report patient returns to pediatric care after transfer (OR=0.49, P = .01), independent of endocrinologist gender, years in practice, or practice type. There is wide variation in transition care for YA with T1D among US pediatric endocrinologists despite consensus recommendations. Dissemination of educational programming on transition care and provision of actionable solutions to overcome local health system and perceived barriers is needed. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Hawkley, Louise C; Kocherginsky, Masha
A substantial portion of the older adult population suffers from frequent feelings of loneliness, but a large proportion remains relatively unscathed by loneliness. To date, research examining both protective and risk factors for loneliness has not included data from the United States. The present study used the first two waves of data from the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project to examine sociodemographic, structural, and functional factors thought to be associated with loneliness in older adults. Functional limitations and low family support were associated with an increase in loneliness frequency (as were more strained friendships) and with transitioning from nonlonely to lonely status. Better self-rated health, higher levels of socializing frequency, and lower family strain were associated with transitioning from lonely to nonlonely status. Interventions that target these factors may be effective in preventing and reducing loneliness and its effects on health and well-being in older adults.
Curnock, Esther; Leyland, Alastair H; Popham, Frank
Employment status has a dynamic relationship with health and disability. There has been a striking increase in the working age population receiving out-of-work disability benefits in many countries, including the UK. In response, recent UK welfare reforms have tightened eligibility criteria and introduced new conditions for benefit receipt linked to participation in return-to-work activities. Positive and negative impacts have been suggested but there is a lack of high quality evidence of the health impact when those receiving disability benefits move towards labour market participation. Using four waves of the UK's Understanding Society panel survey (2009-2013) three different types of employment and welfare transition were analysed in order to identify their impact on health. A difference-in-difference approach was used to compare change between treatment and control groups in mental and physical health using the SF-12. To strengthen causal inference, sensitivity checks for common trends used pre-baseline data and propensity score matching. Transitions from disability benefits to employment (n = 124) were associated on average with an improvement in the SF12 mental health score of 5.94 points (95% CI = 3.52-8.36), and an improvement in the physical health score of 2.83 points (95% CI = 0.85-4.81) compared with those remaining on disability benefits (n = 1545). Transitions to unemployed status (n = 153) were associated with a significant improvement in mental health (3.14, 95% CI = 1.17-5.11) but not physical health. No health differences were detected for those who moved on to the new out-of-work disability benefit. It remains rare for disability benefit recipients to return to the labour market, but our results indicate that for those that do, such transitions may improve health, particularly mental health. Understanding the mechanisms behind this relationship will be important for informing policies to ensure both work and welfare are 'good for
Heng, M B; Key, P J
As conflict and suffering in Bosnia, Chechnya, Rwanda, and Zaire continue to be at the forefront of world attention, some countries seem to be largely forgotten. It is timely to take stock of conditions in the small country of Cambodia as it struggles to take its place after a long period of isolation. Countless Cambodians and ethic Vietnamese have died there this year and during the past 25 years, victims of senseless killing or preventable disease.
Lloyd, Jane E; Delaney-Thiele, Dea; Abbott, Penny; Baldry, Eileen; McEntyre, Elizabeth; Reath, Jennifer; Indig, Devon; Sherwood, Juanita; Harris, Mark F
Aboriginal Australians are more likely than other Australians to cycle in and out of prison on remand or by serving multiple short sentences-a form of serial incarceration and institutionalisation. This cycle contributes to the over-representation of Aboriginal Australians in prison and higher rates of recidivism. Our research examined how primary health care can better meet the health care and social support needs of Aboriginal Australians transitioning from prison to the community. Purposive sampling was used to identify 30 interviewees. Twelve interviews were with Aboriginal people who had been in prison; ten were with family members and eight with community service providers who worked with former inmates. Thematic analysis was conducted on the interviewees' description of their experience of services provided to prisoners both during incarceration and on transition to the community. Interviewees believed that effective access to primary health care on release and during transition was positively influenced by providing appropriate healthcare to inmates in custody and by properly planning for their release. Further, interviewees felt that poor communication between health care providers in custody and in the community prior to an inmate's release, contributed to a lack of comprehensive management of chronic conditions. System level barriers to timely communication between in-custody and community providers included inmates being placed on remand which contributed to uncertainty regarding release dates and therefore difficulties planning for release, cycling in and out of prison on short sentences and being released to freedom without access to support services. For Aboriginal former inmates and family members, release from prison was a period of significant emotional stress and commonly involved managing complex needs. To support their transition into the community, Aboriginal former inmates would benefit from immediate access to culturally- responsive
Wickham, Sophie; Whitehead, Margaret; Taylor-Robinson, David; Barr, Ben
Whether or not relative measures of income poverty effectively reflect children's life chances has been the focus of policy debates in the UK. Although poverty is associated with poor child and maternal mental health, few studies have assessed the effect of moving into poverty on mental health. To inform policy, we explore the association between transitions into poverty and subsequent mental health among children and their mothers. In this longtitudinal analysis, we used data from the UK Millennium Cohort Study, a large nationally representative cohort of children born in the UK between Sept 1, 2000, and Jan 11, 2002, who participated in five survey waves as they progressed from 9 months of age to 11 years of age. Our analysis included all children and mothers who were free from mental health problems and not in poverty when the children were aged 3 years. We only included singletons (ie, not twins or other multiple pregnancies) and children for whom the mother was the main respondent to the study. The main outcomes were child socioemotional behavioural problems (Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire) at ages 5 years, 7 years, and 11 years and maternal psychological distress (Kessler 6 scale). Using discrete time-hazard models, we followed up families without mental health problems at baseline and estimated odds ratios for subsequent onset of maternal and child mental health problems associated with first transition into poverty, while adjusting for confounders, including employment transitions. We further assessed whether or not change in maternal mental health explained any effect on child mental health. Of the 6063 families in the UK Millennium Cohort study at 3 years who met our inclusion criteria, 844 (14%) had a new transition into poverty compared with 5219 (86%) who remained out of poverty. After adjustment for confounders, transition into poverty increased the odds of socioemotional behavioural problems in children (odds ratio 1·41 [95% CI 1·02-1·93
Grundy, John; Annear, Peter; Ahmed, Shakil; Biggs, Beverley-Ann
The Republic of the Union of Myanmar (Burma) has a long and complex history characterized by internal conflict and tense international relations. Post-independence, the health sector has gradually evolved, but with health service development and indicators lagging well behind regional expectations. In recent years, the country has initiated political reforms and a reorientation of development policy towards social sector investment. In this study, from a systems and historical perspective, we used publicly available data sources and grey literature to describe and analyze links between health policy and history from the post-independence period up until 2012. Three major periods are discernable in post war health system development and political history in Myanmar. The first post-independence period was associated with the development of the primary health care system extending up to the 1988 political events. The second period is from 1988 to 2005, when the country launched a free market economic model and was arguably experiencing its highest levels of international isolation as well as very low levels of national health investment. The third period (2005-2012) represents the first attempts at health reform and recovery, linked to emerging trends in national political reform and international politics. Based on the most recent period of macro-political reform, the central state is set to transition from a direct implementer of a command and control management system, towards stewardship of a significantly more complex and decentralized administrative order. Historical analysis demonstrates the extent to which these periodic shifts in the macro-political and economic order acts to reset the parameters for health policy making. This case demonstrates important lessons for other countries in transition by highlighting the extent to which analysis of political history can be instructive for determination of more feasible boundaries for future health policy action
Ndahindwa, Vedaste; Kamanzi, Collins; Semakula, Muhammed; Abalikumwe, François; Hedt-Gauthier, Bethany; Thomson, Dana R
Major improvements to Rwanda's health system, infrastructure, and social programs over the last decade have led to a rapid fertility transition unique from other African countries. The total fertility rate fell from 6.1 in 2005 to 4.6 in 2010, with a 3-fold increase in contraceptive usage. Despite this rapid national decline, many women still have large numbers of children. This study investigates predictors of fertility during this fertility transition to inform policies that improve individuals' reproductive health and guide national development. We used Poisson regression to separately model number of children born to ever married/cohabitated women (n = 8,309) and never married women (n = 1,220) age 15 to 49 based on 2010 Rwanda Demographic and Health Survey data. We used backward stepwise regression with a time offset to identify individual and household factors associated with woman's fertility level, accounting for sampling weights, clustering, and stratification. In ever married/cohabitating women, high fertility was significantly associated (p Rwanda's national fertility rate and support families to achieve their desired fertility. Strategies include policies and programs that promote delayed sexual debut via educational and economic opportunities for women, improved access to reproductive health information and services at schools and via health campaigns, and involvement of men in family planning decision making.
Full Text Available Elena Olariu,1 Kevin K Cadwell,1 Elizabeth Hancock,1 David Trueman,1 Helene Chevrou-Severac2 1PHMR Ltd, London, UK; 2Takeda Pharmaceuticals International AG, Zurich, Switzerland Objective: Although Markov cohort models represent one of the most common forms of decision-analytic models used in health care decision-making, correct implementation of such models requires reliable estimation of transition probabilities. This study sought to identify consensus statements or guidelines that detail how such transition probability matrices should be estimated. Methods: A literature review was performed to identify relevant publications in the following databases: Medline, Embase, the Cochrane Library, and PubMed. Electronic searches were supplemented by manual-searches of health technology assessment (HTA websites in Australia, Belgium, Canada, France, Germany, Ireland, Norway, Portugal, Sweden, and the UK. One reviewer assessed studies for eligibility. Results: Of the 1,931 citations identified in the electronic searches, no studies met the inclusion criteria for full-text review, and no guidelines on transition probabilities in Markov models were identified. Manual-searching of the websites of HTA agencies identified ten guidelines on economic evaluations (Australia, Belgium, Canada, France, Germany, Ireland, Norway, Portugal, Sweden, and UK. All identified guidelines provided general guidance on how to develop economic models, but none provided guidance on the calculation of transition probabilities. One relevant publication was identified following review of the reference lists of HTA agency guidelines: the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research taskforce guidance. This provided limited guidance on the use of rates and probabilities. Conclusions: There is limited formal guidance available on the estimation of transition probabilities for use in decision-analytic models. Given the increasing importance of cost
Grant Information Human Services Funding 5310 5316 (Repealed) 5317 (Repealed) Alaska Mental Health Trust Department of Transportation & Public Facilities/ Alaska Community Transit Search DOT&PF State of Alaska Photo banner DOT&PF> Program Development > Alaska Community Transit Home About Us
Delnoij, D.M.J.; Klazinga, N.S.; Velden, K. van der
Background: Two questions are addressed.1): What are the views on health and health systems as expressed in the World Development Report 2000/2001 of the WB and the World Health Report 2000 and Health 21 of the World Health Organization, and how compatible are those views? 2): To what extent will
Delnoij, Diana M. J.; Klazinga, Niek S.; van der Velden, Koos
Background: Two questions are addressed. i) What are the views on health and health systems as expressed in the World Development Report 2000/2001 of the WB and the World Health Report 2000 and Health 21 of the World Health Organization, and how compatible are those views? ii) To what extent will
Scheppingen, A. van; Baken, N.; Zwetsloot, G.; Bos, E.; Berkers, F.
Purpose – Health is a main resource for human functioning. Embedding generative health management within organisations, therefore, is useful for health and productivity reasons. Generative health management requires a change in the thinking and actions of all stakeholders, and should be regarded as
Following the United States' lead, the emergence of neoliberal welfare policy across the western world has resulted in employment programmes for single parents, who are predominantly single mothers. While some governments claim that employment will improve single parents' incomes and well-being, researchers dispute that single parents can unproblematically move into the workforce, with net positive effects. While researchers have quantified the socio-economic effect of these programmes, in particular on participant health, no study has yet synthesized participants' experiences of welfare-to-work. Here, I present a meta-synthesis of eight qualitative health-related studies of single parents' (and exclusively single mothers') welfare-to-work transition. I report that single mothers faced a combination of health and economic issues which made their transition from welfare to work difficult, including degrees of poor physical and mental health. For participants in the United States, these health issues were often compounded by a loss of health benefits on moving into low-wage employment. In countries where a return to employment was required before children reached school age, a lack of affordable and appropriate child care, especially for children with health problems, exacerbated these difficulties. As a result of scarce resources, single mothers in receipt of welfare benefits often relied on food banks or went without food. A return to the workforce did not alleviate this problem as additional child care and reduced government subsidies depleted the funds available for food. I conclude that welfare-to-work policies are underpinned by the neoliberal assumption that the market more efficiently distributes resources than the State. However, for the women in the studies examined here, labour market participation often depleted access to essential resources. Interventions to address the 'problem' of welfare dependency must recognize the complex interplay between work
Gissel, Line Engbo
This presentation builds on an earlier published article, 'Contemporary Transitional Justice: Normalising a Politics of Exception'. It argues that the field of transitional justice has undergone a shift in conceptualisation and hence practice. Transitional justice is presently understood to be th...... to be the provision of ordinary criminal justice in contexts of exceptional political transition.......This presentation builds on an earlier published article, 'Contemporary Transitional Justice: Normalising a Politics of Exception'. It argues that the field of transitional justice has undergone a shift in conceptualisation and hence practice. Transitional justice is presently understood...
Tøge, Anne Grete; Blekesaune, Morten
The Great Recession of 2008 has led to elevated unemployment in Europe and thereby revitalised the question of causal health effects of unemployment. This article applies fixed effects regression models to longitudinal panel data drawn from the European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions for 28 European countries from 2008 to 2011, in order to investigate changes in self-rated health around the event of becoming unemployed. The results show that the correlation between unemployment and health is partly due to a decrease in self-rated health as people enter unemployment. Such health changes vary by country of domicile, and by individual age; older workers have a steeper decline than younger workers. Health changes after the unemployment spell reveal no indication of adverse health effects of unemployment duration. Overall, this study indicates some adverse health effects of unemployment in Europe--predominantly among older workers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Jonzon, Robert; Lindkvist, Pille; Johansson, Eva
National statistics have shown that only about 40% of asylum seekers actually attend the optional health assessment offered upon their arrival in Sweden, but the reasons for this have not been fully explored. Health assessments for newly arrived asylum seekers have become a regular practice in most EU countries, but what is performed, how it is organized and whether it is mandatory or not varies between countries. The aim of the study was to explore and improve our understanding of how former asylum seekers from Eritrea perceived and experienced the health assessment during their asylum-seeking process. We used a qualitative research approach guided by grounded theory. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 11 former asylum seekers from Eritrea. Data were analysed based on constant comparative analysis. The asylum seekers expressed feelings of ambiguity and mistrust and felt that they were seen only as objects by the Swedish healthcare system during their asylum-seeking process. Poor communication and inability to overcome language and cultural barriers seemed to be the most important findings in the narratives. The core category was defined as 'A state of limbo - in transition between two contexts'. There are reasons to believe that these issues with communication negatively affected both the quality of the health assessment and the number of asylum seekers attending the health assessment. Improved communication by the authorities towards the asylum seekers is, therefore, of vital importance. © 2015 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Having secure employment, in contrast to being unemployed, is regarded as an important determinant of health. Research and theories about the negative health consequences of unemployment indicated that transition from unemployment to a paid job could lead to improved health. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that obtaining permanent employment after being in an unstable labour market position protects mental health. Methods A 14-year follow-up of all graduates from compulsory school in an industrial town in northern Sweden was performed at ages 16, 18, 21 and 30 years. Complete data on the cohort were collected for 1044 individuals with the aid of a comprehensive questionnaire. The response rate was 96.4%. The health measurement used in this study was the psychological symptoms analysed by multivariate logistic regression. Those who obtained permanent employment were the focus of the analysis. This group consisted of people who were in an unstable labour market position for a year or more between the ages of 25 and 29, and who had acquired a permanent job one year before and at the time of the investigation. Results After controlling for gender as well as for an indicator of health-related selection, possible confounders and mediators, an association was found between the lower probability of psychological symptoms and obtaining permanent employment (OR = 0.35, 95% CI 0.19–0.63 as well as having permanent employment (OR = 0.22, 95% CI 0.10–0.51. Conclusion Our findings suggest that transition from an unstable labour market position to permanent employment could be health-promoting, even after controlling for possible confounders and mediators, as well as for an indicator of health-related selection. However, as there are few studies in the field, there is a need for more longitudinal studies in order to further analyse the relationship and to examine possible explanations. The policy implication of
Reine, Ieva; Novo, Mehmed; Hammarström, Anne
Having secure employment, in contrast to being unemployed, is regarded as an important determinant of health. Research and theories about the negative health consequences of unemployment indicated that transition from unemployment to a paid job could lead to improved health. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that obtaining permanent employment after being in an unstable labour market position protects mental health. A 14-year follow-up of all graduates from compulsory school in an industrial town in northern Sweden was performed at ages 16, 18, 21 and 30 years. Complete data on the cohort were collected for 1044 individuals with the aid of a comprehensive questionnaire. The response rate was 96.4%. The health measurement used in this study was the psychological symptoms analysed by multivariate logistic regression. Those who obtained permanent employment were the focus of the analysis. This group consisted of people who were in an unstable labour market position for a year or more between the ages of 25 and 29, and who had acquired a permanent job one year before and at the time of the investigation. After controlling for gender as well as for an indicator of health-related selection, possible confounders and mediators, an association was found between the lower probability of psychological symptoms and obtaining permanent employment (OR = 0.35, 95% CI 0.19-0.63) as well as having permanent employment (OR = 0.22, 95% CI 0.10-0.51). Our findings suggest that transition from an unstable labour market position to permanent employment could be health-promoting, even after controlling for possible confounders and mediators, as well as for an indicator of health-related selection. However, as there are few studies in the field, there is a need for more longitudinal studies in order to further analyse the relationship and to examine possible explanations. The policy implication of our study is that the transformation of unstable labour market
Demirchyan, Anahit; Petrosyan, Varduhi; Thompson, Michael E
Self-rated health is a widely used health outcome measure that strongly correlates with physical and mental health status and predicts mortality. This study identified the set of predictors of fair/poor self-rated health in adult female and male populations of Armenia during a period of long-lasting socio-economic transition to a market economy. Differences in self-rated health were analyzed along three dimensions: socioeconomic, behavioral/attitudinal, and psychosocial. The study utilized data from a 2006 nationwide household health survey that used a multi-stage probability proportional to size cluster sampling with a combination of interviewer-administered and self-administered surveys. Both female and male representatives of a household aged 18 and over completed the self-administered survey. Multivariate odds ratios (OR) for fair/poor self-rated health were calculated for different sets of variables and logistic regression models fitted separately for women and men to identify the determinants of fair/poor self-rated health. Overall, 2310 women and 462 men participated in the survey. The rate of fair/poor self-rated health was 61.8% among women and 59.7% among men. For women, the set of independent predictors of fair/poor self-rated health included age, unemployment, poverty, low affordability of healthcare, depression, and weak social support. For men, the set included age, lower education, depression, weak social support, and drinking alcohol less than once a week. For both genders, depression and weak social support demonstrated the strongest independent association with fair/poor self-rated health. The prevalence of fair/poor self-rated health was similar among men and women in this study, but the sets of independent predictors of perceived health differed somewhat, possibly, reflecting lifestyle differences between men and women in Armenia. Nevertheless, psychosocial variables were the strongest predictors of fair/poor self-rated health for both genders
Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Self-rated health is a widely used health outcome measure that strongly correlates with physical and mental health status and predicts mortality. This study identified the set of predictors of fair/poor self-rated health in adult female and male populations of Armenia during a period of long-lasting socio-economic transition to a market economy. Methods Differences in self-rated health were analyzed along three dimensions: socioeconomic, behavioral/attitudinal, and psychosocial. The study utilized data from a 2006 nationwide household health survey that used a multi-stage probability proportional to size cluster sampling with a combination of interviewer-administered and self-administered surveys. Both female and male representatives of a household aged 18 and over completed the self-administered survey. Multivariate odds ratios (OR for fair/poor self-rated health were calculated for different sets of variables and logistic regression models fitted separately for women and men to identify the determinants of fair/poor self-rated health. Results Overall, 2310 women and 462 men participated in the survey. The rate of fair/poor self-rated health was 61.8% among women and 59.7% among men. For women, the set of independent predictors of fair/poor self-rated health included age, unemployment, poverty, low affordability of healthcare, depression, and weak social support. For men, the set included age, lower education, depression, weak social support, and drinking alcohol less than once a week. For both genders, depression and weak social support demonstrated the strongest independent association with fair/poor self-rated health. Conclusions The prevalence of fair/poor self-rated health was similar among men and women in this study, but the sets of independent predictors of perceived health differed somewhat, possibly, reflecting lifestyle differences between men and women in Armenia. Nevertheless, psychosocial variables were the
Shaw, K L; Southwood, T R; McDonagh, J E
To develop a scale to assess satisfaction with transitional health care among adolescents with a chronic illness and their parents. The 'Mind the Gap' scale was developed using evidence from a previous needs assessment, in three stages: (1) definition of the construct; (2) design of the scale items, response options and instructions; (3) full administration of the scale, item analysis and dimensionality analysis. The scale was administered to 308 adolescents with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) and 303 parents/guardians, prior to and 12 months after the implementation of an evaluation of a structured and co-ordinated programme of transitional care. The patient population involved adolescents with JIA and their parents recruited from 10 major UK rheumatology centres. A total of 301 (97.7%) adolescents and 286 (95.0%) parents chose to complete the questionnaire, with median item completion rates of 100.0% (0-100%) for both adolescents and parents thus confirming feasibility. Face and content validity were confirmed. Factor analyses revealed a three-factor structure which explained 49.5% and 56.1% of the variation in adolescent and parent scores respectively. The internal consistency of each subscale ('management of environment', 'provider characteristics' and 'process issues') was indicated by Cronbach's alphas of 0.71, 0.89 and 0.89 for adolescents, respectively, and 0.83, 0.91 and 0.92 for parents respectively. Cronbach's alphas for the entire scales were 0.91 and 0.94 for the adolescent and parent forms respectively. These preliminary results report the potential of the 'Mind the Gap' scale in evaluating transitional care for adolescents with JIA. In view of the generic nature of transitional care reflected in the scale, this scale has wider potential for use with adolescents with other chronic illness in view of the generic nature of transition. This development is particularly timely in the context of transitional care developments in the UK and further
Full Text Available Since the devastating nineties of the last century a slow but steady improvement of the living conditions in the region of South Eastern Europe (SEE has be observed. However, so far only three countries, i.e. Bulgaria, Romania and Slovenia, have managed to ascent to the European Union and only Slovenia has joined the European currency. All others are still struggling with a difficult heritage of inappropriate vertical management structures, overstaffing and outmigration of the well educated young. This résumé applies also to the field of public health where, for example, the old hygienic tradition remained dominant, often maintaining huge laboratory facilities in the institutes of public health and very small numbers of staff being allocated to health promotion and modern participative management. This situation cannot be overcome easily nor in short term. Supported by funds from the German contribution to the European Stability Pact, the Forum for Public Health in South Eastern Europe (FPH-SEE: www.snz.hr/fphsee has established a permanent collaboration between the public health institutions in the region, including foremost the Schools of Public Health (SPH, the National Public Health Associations (PHA and some national Institutes of Public Health (IPH.
A multicenter prospective quasi-experimental study on the impact of a transition-oriented generic patient education program on health service participation and quality of life in adolescents and young adults.
Schmidt, Silke; Herrmann-Garitz, Carsten; Bomba, Franziska; Thyen, Ute
The aim of the study was to test the effects of a generic transition-oriented patient education program on adolescents' health service participation and quality of life (QoL). We conducted a controlled trial comparing participants of 29 transition workshops with treatment as usual in 274 adolescents (16.8 mean age, SD=1.76) diagnosed with type I diabetes (DM), cystic fibrosis (CF) or inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). A two-day transition workshop was carried out at 12 sites in Germany, focusing in standardized modules on adjustment to adult care settings, organization of future disease management, career choices and partnership. Study outcomes were health-related transition competence, self-efficacy, satisfaction with care, patient activation and QoL. Measures were assessed at baseline and six-month follow-up. Repeated-measurement covariance analysis using age as a covariate showed that the transition workshop significantly affected transition competence, self-efficacy and satisfaction with school care six months post intervention. The intervention did not significantly affect patient activation and QoL. However, post-hoc analysis suggested different effects across conditions. The program has a positive effect on the competence of adolescents in the transition phase. The study demonstrates that an intervention can be effective in preparing adolescents with chronic conditions for transitions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Qureshi, Asima; Petrucco, James
Meadowbrook Primary School has explored the use of The Teacher Assessment in Primary Science (TAPS) to support transition, initially for transfer to secondary school and now for transition from Early Years Foundation Stage (EYFS) into Key Stage 1 (ages 5-7). This article will consider an example of a secondary transition project and discuss the…
Parveen Kaur Parmar
Full Text Available Myanmar transitioned to a nominally civilian parliamentary government in March 2011. Qualitative reports suggest that exposure to violence and displacement has declined while international assistance for health services has increased. An assessment of the impact of these changes on the health and human rights situation has not been published.Five community-based organizations conducted household surveys using two-stage cluster sampling in five states in eastern Myanmar from July 2013-September 2013. Data was collected from 6, 178 households on demographics, mortality, health outcomes, water and sanitation, food security and nutrition, malaria, and human rights violations (HRV. Among children aged 6-59 months screened, the prevalence of global acute malnutrition (representing moderate or severe malnutrition was 11.3% (8.0-14.7. A total of 250 deaths occurred during the year prior to the survey. Infant deaths accounted for 64 of these (IMR 94.2; 95% CI 66.5-133.5 and there were 94 child deaths (U5MR 141.9; 95% CI 94.8-189.0. 10.7% of households (95% CI 7.0-14.5 experienced at least one HRV in the past year, while four percent reported 2 or more HRVs. Household exposure to one or more HRVs was associated with moderate-severe malnutrition among children (14.9 vs. 6.8%; prevalence ratio 2.2, 95% CI 1.2-4.2. Household exposure to HRVs was associated with self-reported fair or poor health status among respondents (PR 1.3; 95% CI 1.1-1.5.This large survey of health and human rights demonstrates that two years after political transition, vulnerable populations of eastern Myanmar are less likely to experience human rights violations compared to previous surveys. However, access to health services remains constrained, and risk of disease and death remains higher than the country as a whole. Efforts to address these poor health indicators should prioritize support for populations that remain outside the scope of most formal government and donor programs.
Parmar, Parveen Kaur; Barina, Charlene C; Low, Sharon; Tun, Kyaw Thura; Otterness, Conrad; Mhote, Pue P; Htoo, Saw Nay; Kyaw, Saw Win; Lwin, Nai Aye; Maung, Cynthia; Moo, Naw Merry; Oo, Eh Kalu Shwe; Reh, Daniel; Mon, Nai Chay; Singh, Nakul; Goyal, Ravi; Richards, Adam K
Myanmar transitioned to a nominally civilian parliamentary government in March 2011. Qualitative reports suggest that exposure to violence and displacement has declined while international assistance for health services has increased. An assessment of the impact of these changes on the health and human rights situation has not been published. Five community-based organizations conducted household surveys using two-stage cluster sampling in five states in eastern Myanmar from July 2013-September 2013. Data was collected from 6, 178 households on demographics, mortality, health outcomes, water and sanitation, food security and nutrition, malaria, and human rights violations (HRV). Among children aged 6-59 months screened, the prevalence of global acute malnutrition (representing moderate or severe malnutrition) was 11.3% (8.0-14.7). A total of 250 deaths occurred during the year prior to the survey. Infant deaths accounted for 64 of these (IMR 94.2; 95% CI 66.5-133.5) and there were 94 child deaths (U5MR 141.9; 95% CI 94.8-189.0). 10.7% of households (95% CI 7.0-14.5) experienced at least one HRV in the past year, while four percent reported 2 or more HRVs. Household exposure to one or more HRVs was associated with moderate-severe malnutrition among children (14.9 vs. 6.8%; prevalence ratio 2.2, 95% CI 1.2-4.2). Household exposure to HRVs was associated with self-reported fair or poor health status among respondents (PR 1.3; 95% CI 1.1-1.5). This large survey of health and human rights demonstrates that two years after political transition, vulnerable populations of eastern Myanmar are less likely to experience human rights violations compared to previous surveys. However, access to health services remains constrained, and risk of disease and death remains higher than the country as a whole. Efforts to address these poor health indicators should prioritize support for populations that remain outside the scope of most formal government and donor programs.
Luck, J; Peabody, J W; DeMaria, L M; Alvarado, C S; Menon, R
Facing a severe population health crisis due to noncommunicable diseases, Ukraine and other former Soviet republics and Eastern European countries have a pressing need for more effective health systems. Policies to enhance health system effectiveness should consider the perspectives of different stakeholder groups, including providers as well as patients. In addition, policies that directly target the quality of clinical care should be based on objective performance measures. In 2009 and 2010 we conducted a coordinated series of household and facility-level surveys to capture the perspectives of Ukrainian household members, outpatient clinic patients, and physicians regarding the country's health system overall, as well as the quality, access, and affordability of health care. We objectively measured the quality of care for heart failure and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease using CPV(®) vignettes. There was broad agreement among household respondents (79%) and physicians (95%) that Ukraine's health system should be reformed. CPV(®) results indicate that the quality of care for common noncommunicable diseases is poor in all regions of the country and in hospitals as well as polyclinics. However, perspectives about the quality of care differ, with household respondents seeing quality as a serious concern, clinic patients having more positive perceptions, and physicians not viewing quality as a reform priority. All stakeholder groups viewed affordability as a problem. These findings have several implications for policies to enhance health system effectiveness. The shared desire for health system reform among all stakeholder groups provides a basis for action in Ukraine. Improving quality, strengthening primary care, and enhancing affordability should be major goals of new health policies. Policies to improve quality directly, such as pay-for-performance, would be mutually reinforcing with purchasing reforms such as transparent payment mechanisms. Such policies
Donnelley, Martin; Morgan, Kaye S.; Siu, Karen K. W.; Farrow, Nigel R.; Stahr, Charlene S.; Boucher, Richard C.; Fouras, Andreas; Parsons, David W.
To determine the efficacy of potential cystic fibrosis (CF) therapies we have developed a novel mucociliary transit (MCT) measurement that uses synchrotron phase contrast X-ray imaging (PCXI) to non-invasively measure the transit rate of individual micron-sized particles deposited into the airways of live mice. The aim of this study was to image changes in MCT produced by a rehydrating treatment based on hypertonic saline (HS), a current CF clinical treatment. Live mice received HS containing a long acting epithelial sodium channel blocker (P308); isotonic saline; or no treatment, using a nebuliser integrated within a small-animal ventilator circuit. Marker particle motion was tracked for 20 minutes using PCXI. There were statistically significant increases in MCT in the isotonic and HS-P308 groups. The ability to quantify in vivo changes in MCT may have utility in pre-clinical research studies designed to bring new genetic and pharmaceutical treatments for respiratory diseases into clinical trials.
Spiers, M C; Harris, M
objective. Patterns of barriers and enablers for rural and remote student transition in the allied health professions were identified in the literature. Recruitment pathways to allied health tertiary studies in rural and remote communities are vague and often interrupted, and the return of graduates is haphazard. Students from rural and remote communities face an assembly of barriers. They often experience secondary education disadvantage with inadequate subject choices, pathways and opportunities. Programs designed to facilitate transition to tertiary study are often limited in their capacity to address cumulative concerns. Students also face financial imposts and are confronted by daunting social isolation, and separation from families and support systems. In regard to clinical placement, the disincentives weigh heavily. The financial burdens of a rural placement offer little inducement. Social isolation associated with a placement far from home is more acutely felt by students when there is inadequate administrative support and consequent disillusionment. Students also lack a frame of reference to pursue a rural placement option, and are often discouraged by the cumulative commitments involved. Clear and accessible pathways to allied health training for students from rural and remote communities are pivotal to a stronger representation of this cohort among graduates. Similarly, greater representation of rural and remote clinical placements for allied health undergraduate students is an important facilitator. Despite regional coordination and strategies designed to promote a broader range of placement opportunities, the problems remain. This review has consequences for policy and program development for growth of the rural allied health workforce in Australia, as well as identifying knowledge deficits to guide future research endeavours.
Thandi R. Puoane
Full Text Available Chronic noncommunicable diseases (NCDs are increasing substantially as a cause of death and disability in all strata of the South African society, particularly among the urbanised poor. Hypertension is a risk factor for many of these diseases and becoming a burden in a growing population in a Cape Town township, Khayelitsha. To alleviate healthcare demands at clinics in this area, a health club was initiated and community health workers (CHWs were trained to empower community members about NCDs and create public awareness. After training, a health club was initiated. Three months after initiation of the health club, 76 participants had been recruited of whom 22 were regular attenders. New members joined the health club weekly. Anthropometric and blood pressure measurements were taken, and various hypertension topics were covered at the club meetings which included healthy behaviours, such as the benefits of being physically active and eating healthy. Nutrition education sessions based on the South African food-based dietary guidelines were also held. Consequent to the initial group that was established, two more clubs were formed in the area. Health clubs are sustainable and culturally appropriate when facilitated by local people who have an insight and deeper understanding of the culture and environment of the people they serve.
Cheng, Yao; Zhang, Liuyi; Wang, Fang; Zhang, Ping; Ye, Beizhu; Liang, Yuan
Social change, intensified by industrialization and globalization, has not only changed people's work lives but also their personal lives, especially in developing countries. The aim of this study was to provide evidence and recommendations regarding family structure, function, and mental health to actively respond to rapid social change. A cross-sectional survey was conducted face-to-face and door-to-door from July 2011 to September 2012 in Hubei Province, central China. Family structure comprised alone, couple, nuclear family, and extended family; family function was measured using the family APGAR (Adaptation, Partnership, Growth, Affection, and Resolve) scale, and mental health was measured using the Chinese version of the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12). The urban-vs-rural difference of family structure among alone, couple, nuclear family, and extended family was statistically significant (5.21% vs 4.62%; 27.36% vs 13.14%; 33.22% vs 27.74%; 34.20% vs 54.50%, respectively; p family function was not statistically significant (8.11 ± 2.13 vs 8.09 ± 2.27, p = 0.9372). The general linear regression showed that the effect of family structure on mental health, whether urban or rural, was not significant, however, the effect of family function was significant, especially regarding better family functioning with better mental health. Combined the effects of family structure and function on mental health, the external form of family (family structure) may not be important; while the internal quality of role (family function) might be key. Improving the residents' family function would be a priority strategy for family practice with their mental health.
Transition radiation is a process of a rather general character. It occurs when some source, which does not have a proper frequency (for example, a charge) moves at a constant velocity in an inhomogeneous and (or) nonstationary medium or near such a medium. The simplest type of transition radiation takes place when a charge crosses a boundary between two media (the role of one of the media may be played by vacuum). In the case of periodic variation of the medium, transition radiation possesses some specific features (resonance transition radiation or transition scattering). Transition scattering occurs, in particular, when a permittivity wave falls onto an nonmoving (fixed) charge. Transition scattering is closely connected with transition bremsstrahlung radiation. All these transition processes are essential for plasma physics. Transition radiation and transition scattering have analogues outside the framework of electrodynamics (like in the case of Vavilov-Cherenkov radiation). In the present report the corresponding range of phenomena is elucidated, as far as possible, in a generally physical aspect. (Auth.)
Юрий Аркадьевич Григорьев
Full Text Available From the general positions of population dynamics, the demographic policy is considered, its regional features in the East of Russia are designated. It is necessary to consolidate the positive traditions of the moral and legal norms of the society and the harmonious personality development. It takes their long-term translation for the improvement of the person himself, his family-marriage relations to support the forms of demographic behavior aimed at the expanded population reproduction. The solution of the numerous tasks of the demographic policy presupposes further scientific (theoretical and applied studies of the features of the socio-demographic and medico-demographic development of the Russian regions. Particular attention should be paid to the analysis of the main characteristics of the epidemiological transition, where mortality, as well as birth rate, is one of the main characteristics of the population reproduction. This will make it possible to define more precisely the prediction of the value of irretrievable losses with endogenous and exogenous determination, to estimate on this basis the reserves of increasing life expectancy through the measures of demographic policy.
Downing, Karrie F; Oster, Matthew E; Farr, Sherry L
A substantial percentage of children with congenital heart disease (CHD) fail to transfer to adult care, resulting in increased risk of morbidity and mortality. Transition planning discussions with a provider may increase rates of transfer, yet little is known about frequency and content of these discussions. We assessed prevalence and predictors of transition-related discussions between providers and parents of children with special healthcare needs (CSHCN) and heart problems, including CHD. Using parent-reported data on 12- to 17-year-olds from the 2009-2010 National Survey of CSHCN, we calculated adjusted prevalence ratios (aPR) for associations between demographic factors and provider discussions on shift to adult care, future insurance, and adult healthcare needs, weighted to generate population-based estimates. Of the 5.3% of adolescents with heart problems in our sample (n = 724), 52.8% were female, 65.3% white, 62.2% privately insured, and 37.1% had medical homes. Less than 50% had parents who discussed with providers their child's future health insurance (26.4%), shift to adult care (22.9%), and adult healthcare needs (49.0%). Transition planning did not differ between children with and without heart problems (aPR range: 1.0-1.1). Among parents of CSHCN with heart problems who did not have discussions, up to 66% desired one. Compared to 1-/13-year-olds, a larger percentage of 16-/17-year-olds had parents who discussed their shift to adult care (aPR 2.1, 95% confidence interval (CI) [1.1, 3.9]), and future insurance (aPR 1.8, 95% CI [1.1, 2.9]). Having a medical home was associated with discussing adult healthcare needs (aPR 1.5, 95% CI [1.2, 1.8]) and future insurance (aPR 1.8, 95% CI [1.3, 2.6]). Nationally, less than half of adolescents with heart problems had parents who discussed their child's transition with providers, which could be contributing to the large percentage of CHD patients who do not successfully transfer to adult care. © 2017 Wiley
Kågesten, Anna E; Zimmerman, Linnea; Robinson, Courtland; Lee, Catherine; Bawoke, Tenaw; Osman, Shahd; Schlecht, Jennifer
Very young adolescents (VYA) in humanitarian settings are largely neglected in terms of sexual and reproductive health (SRH). This study describes the characteristics of VYA aged 10-14 years in two humanitarian settings, focusing on transitions into puberty and access to SRH information. Data were collected through a cross-sectional survey with Somali VYA residing in the Kobe refugee camp in Ethiopia ( N = 406) and VYA from Myanmar residing in the Mae Sot and Phop Phra migrant communities in Thailand ( N = 399). The average age was 12 years (about half were girls) in both communities. Participants were recruited using multi-stage cluster-based sampling with probability proportional to size in each site. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the sociodemographic, family, peer, and schooling characteristics and to explore transitions into puberty and access to SRH information. Most VYA in both sites reported living with both parents; nine in ten reported feeling that their parents/guardians care about them, and over half said that their parents/guardians monitor how and with whom they spend their free time. High proportions in both sites were currently enrolled in school (91.4% Somali, 87.0% from Myanmar). Few VYA, particularly those aged 10-12, reported starting puberty, although one in four Somali indicated not knowing whether they did so. Most girls from Myanmar who had started menstruating reported access to menstrual hygiene supplies (water, sanitation, cloths/pads). No Somali girls reported access to all these supplies. While over half of respondents in both sites reported learning about body changes, less than 20% had learnt about pregnancy and the majority (87.4% Somali, 78.6% from Myanmar) indicated a need for more information about body changes. Parents/guardians were the most common source of SRH information in both sites, however VYA indicated that they would like more information from friends, siblings, teachers and health workers. This
Sole, Ricard V; Solé, Ricard V; SolÃ©, Ricard V; Sol, Ricard V; Solé, Ricard V
Phase transitions--changes between different states of organization in a complex system--have long helped to explain physics concepts, such as why water freezes into a solid or boils to become a gas. How might phase transitions shed light on important problems in biological and ecological complex systems? Exploring the origins and implications of sudden changes in nature and society, Phase Transitions examines different dynamical behaviors in a broad range of complex systems. Using a compelling set of examples, from gene networks and ant colonies to human language and the degradation of diverse ecosystems, the book illustrates the power of simple models to reveal how phase transitions occur. Introductory chapters provide the critical concepts and the simplest mathematical techniques required to study phase transitions. In a series of example-driven chapters, Ricard Solé shows how such concepts and techniques can be applied to the analysis and prediction of complex system behavior, including the origins of ...
Moore, S G; Fair, T; Lonergan, P; Butler, S T
The objective of this study was to monitor the dry matter intake (DMI), metabolic status, uterine health, and resumption of cyclicity in cows with similar genetic merit for milk production traits but with either good (Fert+) or poor genetic merit (Fert-) for fertility traits. Twenty-six cows were enrolled in the study and data are reported for 15 Fert+ and 10 Fert- cows that completed the study. All cows received a total mixed ration diet during early lactation and were turned out to pasture in late spring. Dry matter intake was recorded daily from wk -2 to 5 relative to parturition. Blood metabolites and metabolic hormones were measured from wk -2 to 8 relative to parturition. Milk production, body condition score, and body weight until wk 35 of lactation are reported. To monitor uterine health, vaginal mucus was scored weekly on a scale of 0 (no pus) to 3 (≥ 50% pus) from parturition to wk 8 and uterine polymorphonuclear neutrophil count was measured at wk 3 and 6 postpartum. Prepartum DMI was similar between genotypes, but Fert+ cows had significantly greater DMI than Fert- cows (19.7 vs. 16.8 kg of dry matter/d) during the postpartum period. Energy balance at wk 1 was significantly greater in Fert+ cows than in Fert- cows [2.3 vs. -1.12 unité fourragère lait (UFL)/d]. The Fert+ cows had significantly greater daily milk solids production (1.89 vs. 1.74 kg/d) and tended to have greater daily milk yield (24.2 vs. 22.3 kg/d). The Fert+ cows had significantly greater mean circulating insulin-like growth factor-I (102.62 vs. 56.85 ng/mL) and tended to have greater mean circulating insulin (3.25 vs. 2.62 μIU/mL) compared with Fert- cows from wk -2 to 8 relative to parturition. Mean circulating glucose (3.40 vs. 3.01 mmol/L) concentrations were significantly greater in Fert+ cows compared with Fert- cows from wk -2 to 3 relative to parturition. The Fert+ cows maintained significantly greater mean body condition score throughout lactation compared with Fert- cows
Barletta, R V; Maturana Filho, M; Carvalho, P D; Del Valle, T A; Netto, A S; Rennó, F P; Mingoti, R D; Gandra, J R; Mourão, G B; Fricke, P M; Sartori, R; Madureira, E H; Wiltbank, M C
Our objective was to evaluate the association between body condition score (BCS) change during the transition period with fertility, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) concentrations, milk yield, and health problems of Holstein cows in a retrospective cohort study. Holstein cows (n = 232) were assessed for BCS (5 point scale; 0.25 point increments) and had blood collected at 21 and 7 d before, on the day of, and 7 and 21 d after calving. Blood samples were assayed for NEFA and BHBA concentrations. All cows received a timed artificial insemination (TAI) at 65 ± 3 days in milk (DIM) following a Presynch-Ovsynch protocol with a progesterone implant during the Ovsynch protocol. Cows were grouped based on BCS change after calving as to whether they: 1) lost (L), 2) maintained (M), or 3) gained (G) BCS. Data were analyzed by logistic regression with GLIMMIX and ANOVA with repeated measures using the MIXED procedures of SAS. Both NEFA and BHBA concentrations after calving differed (P fertility, and occurrence of health problems during the lactation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The millennium development goals are now replaced by seventeen sustainable development goals. The emphasis of old goals was on improving water, sanitation, and child mortality conditions in developing countries. The study explored the major question about the association between different household environment conditions with child survival and health in Sub-Saharan African and South Asian countries in the current scenario. This paper estimated the risk of death, morbidity and under-nutrition among children living in households with the improved sources of water, sanitation and non-solid cooking fuel. Two sources of information explored in this study. First, data from World Health Statistics (WHS -2014 for all of the Sub-Saharan African and South Asian countries were used. Second, available standard Demographic and Health Survey performed in the countries of Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia after 2010, included in the study. It resulted in inclusion of 15 countries which were Bangladesh (2011, Congo Republic (2013-14, Cote d'Ivoire (2011-12, Ethiopia (2011, Gambia (2013, Mali (2012-13, Mozambique (2011, Namibia (2013, Nepal (2011, Niger (2012, Nigeria (2013, Pakistan (2012-13, Sierra Leone (2013, Uganda (2011 and Zambia (2013. The Scatter plot diagram was plotted, and the curve was fitted using the WHS-2014. Cox regression and logistic regression were used to estimate adjusted risks (odds ratio of child mortality and health outcomes using DHS surveys. The use of non-solid cooking fuel was very high in most of the Sub-Saharan African and South Asian Countries. There was a positive correlation between improving access to safe drinking water and sanitation. The exponential curve fitted well with child mortality and Household environmental indicators. The use of improved source of water and sanitation significantly related with the lower odds ratio of death, morbidity and under-nutrition among children aged 12-59 months. The risks were not
Bostanci, Nagihan; Selevsek, Nathalie; Wolski, Witold; Grossmann, Jonas; Bao, Kai; Wahlander, Asa; Trachsel, Christian; Schlapbach, Ralph; Özturk, Veli Özgen; Afacan, Beral; Emingil, Gulnur; Belibasakis, Georgios N
Periodontal diseases are among the most prevalent worldwide, but largely silent, chronic diseases. They affect the tooth-supporting tissues with multiple ramifications on life quality. Their early diagnosis is still challenging, due to lack of appropriate molecular diagnostic methods. Saliva offers a non-invasively collectable reservoir of clinically relevant biomarkers, which, if utilized efficiently, could facilitate early diagnosis and monitoring of ongoing disease. Despite several novel protein markers being recently enlisted by discovery proteomics, their routine diagnostic application is hampered by the lack of validation platforms that allow for rapid, accurate and simultaneous quantification of multiple proteins in large cohorts. We carried out a pipeline of two proteomic platforms; firstly, we applied open ended label-free quantitative (LFQ) proteomics for discovery in saliva (n=67, health, gingivitis, and periodontitis), followed by selected-reaction monitoring (SRM)-targeted proteomics for validation in an independent cohort (n=82). The LFQ platform led to the discovery of 119 proteins with at least two-fold significant difference between health and disease. The 65 proteins chosen for the subsequent SRM platform included 50 related proteins derived from the significantly enriched processes of the LFQ data, 11 from literature-mining, and four house-keeping ones. Among those, 60 were reproducibly quantifiable proteins (92% success rate), represented by a total of 143 peptides. Machine-learning modeling led to a narrowed-down panel of five proteins of high predictive value for periodontal diseases (higher in disease: Matrix metalloproteinase-9, Ras-related protein-1, Actin-related protein 2/3 complex subunit 5; lower in disease: Clusterin, Deleted in Malignant Brain Tumors 1), with maximum area under the receiver operating curve >0.97. This panel enriches the pool of credible clinical biomarker candidates for diagnostic assay development. Yet, the quantum
Public transit agencies have employed intelligent systems for determining : schedules and routes and for monitoring the real-time location and status of their : vehicle fleets for nearly two decades. But until recently, the data generated by : daily ...
Romaniuk, Piotr; Szromek, Adam R
After the fall of communism, the countries of Central and Eastern Europe started the process of political, economic, and social transformation. In health system the reform directions were often similar, despite differences in transition dynamics and the degree of government determination to implement reforms. Nonetheless, for most post-communist countries, there is a gap in evidence regarding the effectiveness of implemented reforms and their impact on health system performance. The presented study attempts to analyse and evaluate the results of health reforms in CEE countries with regard to their influence on health system outcomes. We also analysed the external and internal health system environments during the transition period to determine the factors affecting the effectiveness of health reforms. We compared the indicators of population health status, lifestyle, occupational safety issues and health system resources in 21 post-communist countries between sub-periods across the entire transition period at the aggregate level. The dynamics of change in health system outcomes in individual countries, as well as between countries, was also compared. Finally, we analysed the correlations between health system outcomes gathered into one synthetic measure and factors considered as potential determinants affecting the effectiveness of health reforms. The analyses were performed based on one-dimensional, two-dimensional and multidimensional statistical methods. The data were retrieved from the international databases, such as WHO, World Bank, International Labour Organization, World Value Survey and the European Social Survey. Among the factors positively stimulating improvements in health system outcomes were the total expenditure on health and a lower financial burden on patients, but primarily they were determined by the broader economic context of the country. Another finding was that better initial position positively determined health system outcomes at later
Full Text Available This paper contributes evidence documenting the continued decline in all-cause mortality and changes in the cause of death distribution over time in four developing country populations in Africa and Asia. We present levels and trends in age-specific mortality (all-cause and cause-specific from four demographic surveillance sites: Agincourt (South Africa, Navrongo (Ghana in Africa; Filabavi (Vietnam, Matlab (Bangladesh in Asia. We model mortality using discrete time event history analysis. This study illustrates how data from INDEPTH Network centers can provide a comparative, longitudinal examination of mortality patterns and the epidemiological transition. Health care systems need to be reconfigured to deal simultaneously with continuing challenges of communicable disease and increasing incidence of non-communicable diseases that require long-term care. In populations with endemic HIV, long-term care of HIV patients on ART will add to the chronic care needs of the community.
Szeto, Winnie; van der Bent, Annelotte; Petty, Carter R; Reich, Jason; Farraye, Francis; Fishman, Laurie N
Social media is commonly used among the adolescent and young adult population, including those with chronic diseases. For adults, these platforms have been shown to be a major source of health information. Our aims were to explore how youth with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) use social media for (1) disease information gathering, (2) provider communication, (3) sense of belonging to the IBD community, (4) self-expression around IBD, and (5) disease management/monitoring. An anonymous and voluntary survey was administered to IBD patients age 12 to 25 years at a single center over 4 months. Of 218 patients approached, there were 109 respondents. The mean age of the cohort (SD) was 18 (2.9) years, 65% were male, and 82% had Crohn's disease. Almost all patients accessed the Internet daily, but only 17% reported looking up information about IBD "always" or "often." Less than half (47%) turned to medical websites (WebMD or Crohn's and Colitis Foundation) for information. A small number (16%) connected with other IBD patients. Patients' preferred communication with provider was by e-mail (88%) compared with a phone call to the office (67%) or hospital website/patient portal (52%). Few patients used mobile applications to monitor symptoms (2%) or for medication reminders (9%), although there was professed interest. Adolescents and young adults with IBD are less likely than adults to use social media for health-related activities. They prefer e-mail rather than oral communication between visits, and privacy seems to be less of a concern. Targeted education and skill building may be helpful for this transitioning population.
Haley, Robert W; Tuite, James J
Military intelligence data published in a companion paper explain how chemical fallout from US and Coalition bombing of Iraqi chemical weapons facilities early in the air campaign transited long distance, triggering nerve agent alarms and exposing US troops. We report the findings of a population-based survey designed to test competing hypotheses on the impact on chronic Gulf War illness of nerve agent from early-war bombing versus post-war demolition. The US Military Health Survey performed computer-assisted telephone interviews of a stratified random sample of Gulf War-era veterans (n = 8,020). Early-war exposure was measured by having heard nerve agent alarms and post-war exposure, by the computer-generated plume from the Khamisiyah demolition. Gulf War illness was measured by two widely published case definitions. The OR (95% CI) for the association of alarms with the Factor case definition was 4.13 (95% CI 2.51-6.80) compared with 1.21 (95% CI 0.86-1.69) for the Khamisiyah plume. There was a dose-related trend for the number of alarms (p(trend) war demolition. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a public health challenge in developed countries and an emerging public health problem in developing ... and public health challenges in their immigrant countries. More so ..... The nutrition transition in Brazil. 46.
Strand, Monica; Gammon, Deede; Ruland, Cornelia M
The Internet is transforming mental health care services by increasing access to, and potentially improving the quality of, care. Internet-based interventions in mental health can potentially play a role in transitions from biomedical to recovery-oriented research and practices, but an overview of what this may entail, current work, and issues that need addressing, is lacking. The objective of this study is to describe Internet-based recovery-oriented interventions (referred to as e-recovery) and current research, and to identify gaps and issues relevant to advancing recovery research and practices through opportunities provided by the Internet. Five iterative stages of a scoping review framework were followed in searching and analyzing the literature. A recovery framework with four domains and 16 themes was used to deductively code intervention characteristics according to their support for recovery-oriented practices. Only Internet-based interventions used in conjunction with ongoing care were included. Twenty studies describing six e-recovery interventions were identified and originated in Australia, Finland, the Netherlands, Norway and USA. The domain supporting personal recovery was most clearly reflected in interventions, whereas the last three domains, i.e., promoting citizenship, organizational commitment and working relationship were less evident. Support for the formulation and follow-up of personal goals and preferences, and in accessing peer-support, were the characteristics shared by most interventions. Three of the six studies that employed a comparison group used randomization, and none presented definitive findings. None used recovery-oriented frameworks or specific recovery outcome measures. Four of the interventions were specific to a diagnosis. Research about how technologies might aid in illuminating and shaping recovery processes is in its formative stages. We recommend that future e-recovery research and innovation attend to four dimensions
Schwartz, L A; Tuchman, L K; Hobbie, W L; Ginsberg, J P
Policy and research related to transition to adult care for adolescents and young adults (AYAs) has focused primarily on patient age, disease skills and knowledge. In an effort to broaden conceptualization of transition and move beyond isolated patient variables, a new social-ecological model of AYA readiness for transition (SMART) was developed. SMART development was informed by related theories, literature, expert opinion and pilot data collection using a questionnaire developed to assess provider report of SMART components with 100 consecutive patients in a childhood cancer survivorship clinic. The literature, expert opinion and pilot data collection support the relevance of SMART components and a social-ecological conceptualization of transition. Provider report revealed that many components, representing more than age, disease knowledge and skills, related to provider plans for transferring patients. SMART consists of inter-related constructs of patients, parents and providers with emphasis on variables amenable to intervention. Results support SMART's broadened conceptualization of transition readiness and need for assessment of multiple stakeholders' perspectives of patient transition readiness. A companion measure of SMART, which will be able to be completed by patients, parents and providers, will be developed to target areas of intervention to facilitate optimal transition readiness. Similar research programmes to establish evidence-based transition measures and interventions are needed. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Roche, J R; Meier, S; Heiser, A; Mitchell, M D; Walker, C G; Crookenden, M A; Riboni, M Vailati; Loor, J J; Kay, J K
Precalving feeding level alters postcalving energy balance, dry matter intake, the liver and adipose tissue transcriptome, hepatic lipidosis, and the risk of metabolic diseases in both high-production cows consuming total mixed rations and moderate-production cows grazing pasture. We hypothesized that the reported benefits of a controlled restriction before calving are dependent on precalving body condition score (BCS): low BCS animals would not benefit from reduced feeding levels precalving, but high BCS cows would have metabolic and immunomodulatory profiles indicative of an improved health status. One hundred sixty-one days before calving, 150 cows were allocated randomly to 1 of 6 treatment groups (n = 25) in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement: 2 precalving BCS categories (4.0 and 5.0; based on a 10-point scale: BCS4 and BCS5, respectively) and 3 levels of energy intake during the 3 wk preceding calving (75, 100, and 125% of estimated requirements). Cows in the BCS4 and BCS5 groups were managed through late lactation to ensure that target calving BCS was achieved at dry off. Cows were then fed to maintain this BCS target until 3 wk before expected calving date, at which point they were managed within their allotted precalving energy intake treatments by offering different allowances of fresh pasture/cow per day. Milk production, body weight, and BCS were measured weekly; blood was sampled weekly before and after calving and on d 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4 relative to calving. Aspirated plasma was assayed for nonesterified fatty acids, β-hydroxybutyrate, total protein, albumin, cholesterol, haptoglobin, IL-1β, IL-6, total antioxidant capacity, and reactive oxygen species. Liver was sampled wk 1, 2, and 4 postcalving for triacylglycerol analysis. Results confirm that precalving BCS and precalving feeding level have both independent and interdependent effects on production and health characteristics of transition dairy cows. Irrespective of precalving BCS, a controlled
Background Hospital-at-home is an accepted alternative for usual hospital treatment for patients with a Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) exacerbation. The introduction of hospital-at-home may lead to changes in health care providers’ roles and responsibilities. To date, the impact on providers’ roles is unknown and in addition, little is known about the satisfaction and acceptance of care providers involved in hospital-at-home. Methods Objective of this survey study was to investigate the role differentiation, role transitions and satisfaction of professional care providers (i.e. pulmonologists, residents, hospital respiratory nurses, generic and specialised community nurses and general practitioners) from 3 hospitals and 2 home care organisations, involved in a community-based hospital-at-home scheme. A combined multiple-choice and open-end questionnaire was administered in study participants. Results Response rate was 10/17 in pulmonologists, 10/23 in residents, 9/12 in hospital respiratory nurses, 15/60 in generic community nurses, 6/10 in specialised community nurses and 25/47 in general practitioners. For between 66% and 100% of respondents the role in early discharge was clear and between 57% and 78% of respondents was satisfied with their role in early discharge. For nurses the role in early discharge was different compared to their role in usual care. 67% of generic community nurses felt they had sufficient knowledge and skills to monitor patients at home, compared to 100% of specialised community nurses. Specialised community nurses felt they should monitor patients. 60% of generic community nurses responded they should monitor patients at home. 78% of pulmonologists, 12% of general practitioners, 55% of hospital respiratory nurses and 48 of community nurses was satisfied with early discharge in general. For coordination of care 29% of community nurses had an unsatisfied response. For continuity of care this was 12% and 10% for hospital
Donovan, Jennifer L; Kanaan, Abir O; Gurwitz, Jerry H; Tjia, Jennifer; Cutrona, Sarah L; Garber, Lawrence; Preusse, Peggy; Field, Terry S
Older adults are often transferred from hospitals to skilled nursing facilities (SNFs) for post-acute care. Patients may be at risk for adverse outcomes after SNF discharges, but little research has focused on this period. Assessment of the feasibility of a transitional care intervention based on a combination of manual information transmission and health information technology to provide automated alert messages to primary care physicians and staff; pre-post analysis to assess potential impact. A multispecialty group practice. Adults aged 65 and older, discharged from SNFs to home; comparison group drawn from SNF discharges during the previous 1.5 years, matched on facility, patient age, and sex. For the pre-post analysis, we tracked rehospitalization within 30 days after discharge and adverse drug events within 45 days. The intervention was developed and implemented with manual transmission of information between 8 SNFs and the group practice followed by entry into the electronic health record. The process required a 5-day delay during which a large portion of the adverse events occurred. Over a 1-year period, automated alert messages were delivered to physicians and staff for the 313 eligible patients discharged from the 8 SNFs to home. We compared outcomes to those of individually matched discharges from the previous 1.5 years and found similar percentages with 30-day rehospitalizations (31% vs 30%, adjusted HR 1.06, 95% CI 0.80-1.4). Within the adverse drug event (ADE) study, 30% of the discharges during the intervention period and 30% of matched discharges had ADEs within 45 days. Older adults discharged from SNFs are at high risk of adverse outcomes immediately following discharge. Simply providing alerts to outpatient physicians, especially if delivered multiple days after discharge, is unlikely to have any impact on reducing these rates. Copyright © 2016 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All
A Longitudinal Study into Indicators of Mental Health, Strengths and Difficulties Reported by Boarding Students as They Transition from Primary School to Secondary Boarding Schools in Perth, Western Australia
Mander, David J.; Lester, Leanne
This study examined indicators of mental health, as well as strengths and difficulties, as reported by same-age boarding and non-boarding students spanning four time points over a 2-year period as they transitioned from primary to boarding school in Western Australia (i.e., at the end of Grade 7, beginning of Grade 8, end of Grade 8, and end of…
Raahauge, Kirsten Marie
This article deals with representations of one specific city, Århus, Denmark, especially its central district. The analysis is based on anthropological fieldwork conducted in Skåde Bakker and Fedet, two well-off neighborhoods. The overall purpose of the project is to study perceptions of space...... and the interaction of cultural, social, and spatial organizations, as seen from the point of view of people living in Skåde Bakker and Fedet. The focus is on the city dwellers’ representations of the central district of Århus with specific reference to the concept of transit space. When applied to various Århusian...
The Glossary is designed to be a technical dictionary that will provide solar workers of various specialties, students, other astronomers and theoreticians with concise information on the nature and the properties of phenomena of solar and solar-terrestrial physics. Each term, or group of related terms, is given a concise phenomenological and quantitative description, including the relationship to other phenomena and an interpretation in terms of physical processes. The references are intended to lead the non-specialist reader into the literature. This section deals with: transition region; di-electronic recombination; intersystem or intercombination lines; satellite lines; grazing-incidence optics; and crystal spectrometers. (B.R.H.)
Tingleff, Ellen Boldrup; Gildberg, Frederik Alkier
was to review existing research literature, and in doing so, investigate transition programmes for new graduate nurses (NGN) into mental health care, and their experiences of role transition and evaluations of participation in transition programmes. The literature review spans literature published after...... the year 2000. The literature search was conducted using the following databases: CINAHL, Psychology and Behavioral Sciences Collection, PsycINFO, and Pubmed. Search results consisting of 14 articles were analysed using thematic analysis. Results from the analysis showed four overall themes: nursing...
migration. The observed convergence of the smoking habits with increasing duration of stay is in line with the hypothesis of migration as 'health transition'. However, due to the cross-sectional design of the study, further research is needed to confirm these findings.
McNeil, David; Strasser, Roger; Lightfoot, Nancy; Pong, Raymond
The transition from hospital to home is a vulnerable period for patients with complex conditions, who are often frail, at risk for adverse events and unable to navigate a system of poorly coordinated care in the post-discharge period. Care transition interventions are seen as effective care coordinating mechanisms for reducing avoidable adverse events associated with the transition of the patient from the hospital to the home. A study was undertaken to evaluate the effectiveness of a care transition intervention involving a hand-off between a hospital-based care transitions nurse and a community-based rapid response nurse. Two focus groups were held, one involving rapid response nurses and the other involving care transition nurses. Individual interviews were conducted with the managers ( n = 2) and executives ( n = 2) to identify the factors that facilitated or were barriers to its implementation. Using thematic content analysis, it was found that the effectiveness of transitional coordination efforts was thwarted by ineffective communication, which affected the quality of the underlying relationships between the two teams. Other barriers to achieving the desired outcomes included the following: issues of role clarity, role awareness and acceptance, the adequacy and reinforcement of coordinating mechanisms, the effectiveness of the information exchange protocols and the absence of shared measures of accountability. Clinical integration initiatives have fewer human resource and financial implementation barriers compared with organizational integration efforts but are complex undertakings requiring clear alignment between organizations, shared accountability measures, effective communication processes and relationships of trust and respect between interprofessional teams.
This discussion paper, the fifth in the series developed at the IPPSO Market Design Conference, addressed the issue of the need to prevent Ontario Hydro from taking unfair advantage of independent producers and other stakeholders through activities and investments in new power generating capacity in the transitional period leading up to deregulation. The need for controls is predicated on the assumption that the short-term actions and investments of Ontario Hydro could seriously compromise the position of independent generators, and that without such controls the level playing field essential to the operation of a competitive market, does not exist. Various actual and potential actions of Ontario Hydro were discussed, all of which point to the need for strict controls over Ontario Hydro exercising its dominant market power in an unfair way. It was recommended that as a minimum, the provincial government should no longer provide guarantees for Ontario Hydro capital projects, and that Ontario Hydro be instructed to defer any investment on new or returning generating capacity until the new market is in place. Limits could also be placed on Ontario Hydro's marketing efforts to enter into contracts during the transition period, and Ontario Hydro and municipal utilities should be required to keep separate accounts of their commercial preparation, and to settle such accounts separate from ratepayer revenue
Three lifestyle-related issues of major significance for public health among the Inuit in contemporary Greenland: a review of adverse childhood conditions, obesity, and smoking in a period of social transition.
Bjerregaard, Peter; Larsen, Christina V L
Greenland is a country in transition from a colonial past with subsistence hunting and fishing to an urban Nordic welfare state. Epidemiological transition from infectious to chronic diseases has been evident since the 1950s. Ninety percent of the population is Inuit. We studied three public health issues based on published literature, namely adverse childhood experiences, addictive behavior, and suicide; diet and obesity; and smoking. Alcohol consumption was high in the 1970s and 1980s with accompanying family and social disruption. This is still a cause of poor mental health and suicides in the generations most affected. The diet is changing from a traditional diet of fish and marine mammals to imported food including food items rich in sugar and fat from domestic animals, and the level of physical activity is decreasing with an ensuing epidemic rise in obesity. The prevalence of smoking is high at around 60% among both men and women and is only slowly decreasing. Smoking shows large social variation, and tobacco-related diseases are widespread. The diseases and conditions outlined above all contribute towards a low life expectancy at birth-69 years for men and 74 years for women in 2011-2015-compared with 78 and 84 years for men and women, respectively, on average in the European countries. The translation of government public health programs into local activities needs strengthening, and it must be realized that the improvement of public health is a long-term process.
The yearly environmental conference will hold on September 2013 to evaluate the negotiations led at the national and local levels for december 2012. The government will have then to decide of an energy programming bill which will be submitted to the Parliament at the beginning of the year 2014. 30 main propositions have emerged of the decentralised debates. One of them is the ecological taxation which raise the question of the gas oil and petrol taxation. The current environmental taxes are for almost three quarters of them taxes on energy consumptions and mainly on fossil energies. The Economic, Social and Environmental Council, gives his opinion on the way to find resources to ensure the ecological and energy transition while reducing the public deficit of the State. (O.M.)
Bygbjerg, Ib Christian; Meyrowitsch, Dan W
, and by degenerative, and man-made diseases in ageing populations. Omran could not foresee the HIV/AIDS pandemic or the dramatic fall in longevity and fertility in, for example, Russia. But his model remains of value for health planners and politicians. We advocate for research in the interplay between diseases......Global epidemiological transition reflected in changed patterns of death and diseases was first described by Omran; decreasing death and disease rates from infectious diseases, particularly in children and the young, are followed by decreased fertility rate and increased longevity...
Access to cars and transit can influence individuals ability to reach opportunities such as jobs, health care, and other important : activities. While access to cars and public transit varies considerably across time, space, and across populations...
MacKenzie, Richard G
Although Mongolia has a long and distinguished history, as a new and emerging democracy it is experiencing the pains of transition-one that is moving the country from its pastoral and nomadic past into the 21st century. Confounded by its previous dependence on socialist Soviet Russia, the concept of a market economy seems opportunistic for some, while for those living within the traditional lifestyle of the herdsman in the countryside it is confusing and threatening to family structure and values. Adolescents and young adults are caught at the interface-not only of their own development, but by the disparities between tradition and Western values, new technology, and freedoms granted by the emerging democracy, and by the civic practice of democracy itself. Conceptually the new belongs to the young, and yet limited health and educational resources are available to modulate and focus both threats and opportunities. Using the analogy of the spirit banner of the warrior, it is the young as the warriors of the 21st century who have the energy and investment in the future that will be needed to shepherd this change. Both personal and public health, within the context of development, the psychobiological model, and the political and social ecology will be strong determinants of success. It is a parallel investment in both youth and the ideals they represent that will ensure success for the new Mongolia.
Westerman, Michiel; Teunissen, Pim W.; Jorgensen, Rasmus Lundhus
Danish and Dutch new consultants' perceptions regarding the transition to consultant were compared to gain insight into this period, particularly the influence of contextual factors concerning the organisation of specialty training and health care therein. Preparation for medical and generic comp...... competencies, perceived intensity and burnout were compared. Additionally, effects of differences in working conditions and cultural dimensions were explored....
An evaluation of social support to transgender people relating to gender identity, gender transition, discrimination and mental health, leading to consideration of the niche for transgender people in a bi-gendered society, and of the developing socialization of transgender which counter-balances the consequences of its initial medicalization.
Full Text Available The consequences of physical inactivity and insufficient education about its importance are affecting not only the length and the quality of life, but also the economic aspects, such as health care costs caused by the reduction in labour productivity of the Serbian population. Based on previous experiences of countries in transition and those that have well-arranged systems of education, in terms of teaching of physical education programmes, there are possibilities for the necessary reform of the curriculum, adapted to our abilities and needs. These are primarily related to the objectives of education - proper development and creation of positive habits regarding physical activity and health. So far, the reforms of physical education in Serbia have not produced results. The reform should be the transition from education focused on the program to education focused on the ultimate goals (knowledge, skills, and attitudes towards physical activity, i.e. the lifelong values. The objectives and outcomes of teaching physical education should be individualized according to the psychosomatic status and specific dimensions of that status. Therefore, the role and responsibility of teachers change and it is necessary to reform their education. Of course, government is very involved in all of this, at all levels - throughout strategies and campaigns to raise awareness of the nation and its knowledge about the importance of physical activity through all forms of education.
Rosina, Mônica Steffen Guise; Shaver, Lea
Access to medicines faces a new legal threat: "border enforcement" of drug patents. Using Brazil as an example, this article shows how the right to health depends on international trade. Border seizures of generic drugs present human rights and trade institutions with a unique challenge. Can public health advocates rise to meet it? © 2012 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.
Vernez Moudon, Anne; Kang, Bumjoon; Hurvitz, Philip M.; Zhou, Chuan
Objectives. We isolated physical activity attributable to transit use to examine issues of substitution between types of physical activity and potential confounding of transit-related walking with other walking. Methods. Physical activity and transit use data were collected in 2008 to 2009 from 693 Travel Assessment and Community study participants from King County, Washington, equipped with an accelerometer, a portable Global Positioning System, and a 7-day travel log. Physical activity was classified into transit- and non–transit-related walking and nonwalking time. Analyses compared physical activity by type between transit users and nonusers, between less and more frequent transit users, and between transit and nontransit days for transit users. Results. Transit users had more daily overall physical activity and more total walking than did nontransit users but did not differ on either non–transit-related walking or nonwalking physical activity. Most frequent transit users had more walking time than least frequent transit users. Higher physical activity levels for transit users were observed only on transit days, with 14.6 minutes (12.4 minutes when adjusted for demographics) of daily physical activity directly linked with transit use. Conclusions. Because transit use was directly related to higher physical activity, future research should examine whether substantive increases in transit access and use lead to more physical activity and related health improvements. PMID:24625142
Many Eastern and Central European counties are reforming their health care systems. The aim of this study was to determine customer satisfaction with a reformed health care system, with the possibility of free choice of a family physician and patient satisfaction with the family physician in Slovenia and their major determinants. We used a postal survey of the patients who attended their family physician's offices during the study period. We obtained an 84% response rate. Some 72.9% of the respondents were satisfied with the current organisation of health care services, 95.5% of the respondents were satisfied with the possibility of choosing their own family physician and 58% of participants were very satisfied with the level of care received from their personal family practitioners. It was shown that higher patient satisfaction with the family physician was the most powerful predictor of patients' satisfaction with the health care system. The results show that health care reform in Slovenia has a positive impact on the consumers' perceptions of health care quality, measured in terms of consumer satisfaction with the health care system, the possibility to choose a family physician and the overall satisfaction with the family physician.
Condon, John T; Boyce, Philip; Corkindale, Carolyn J
In comparison to its female counterpart, the transition of men to parenthood has been relatively neglected in previous research. The present paper argues that men may have gender-specific risk factors for perinatal psychological distress and may manifest distress in ways different from women. The prime objective of this research was to document changes in psychological, relationship and lifestyle parameters in a cohort of first time fathers from pregnancy to the end of the first postnatal year. The present paper reports on these changes. Three hundred and twelve men were assessed at 23 weeks of pregnancy and followed up at 3, 6 and 12 months postnatally, using a battery of self-report questionnaires covering psychological symptom levels, lifestyle variables and relationship/sexual functioning. Two hundred and four men completed all four assessments. The men exhibited highest symptom levels in pregnancy with general, through small, improvement at 3 months and little change thereafter. Lifestyle variables showed small changes over the first postnatal year. Sexual functioning appeared to deteriorate markedly from pre-pregnancy levels with only minimal recovery by the end of the first year. The results highlight that the majority of men anticipated return of sexual activity to pre-pregnancy levels; however, this failed to eventuate. Pregnancy, rather than the postnatal period, would appear to be the most stressful period for men undergoing the transition to parenthood. The results suggest that the most important changes occur relatively early in pregnancy. Thereafter, lack of change (rather than change) is the most noteworthy feature. These men appeared to be ill-prepared for the impact of parenthood on their lives, especially in terms of the sexual relationship. Further research to determine the timing and trigger of stress in pregnancy is recommended.
White, Henry; LaFleur, Jennifer; Houle, Katherine; Hyry-Dermith, Paul; Blake, Susan M.
In recent decades, increasing attention has been paid to the number of adolescents experiencing extended absences from school due to mental health crises. Upon returning to school, these students often face difficulties in functioning, risk of relapse, and vulnerability to academic failure and social isolation. This paper presents results of a…
Full Text Available Both health and sustainability are stated public policy objectives in Canada, but food information rules and practices may not be optimal to support their achievement. In the absence of a stated consensus on the purposes of public information about food, the information provided is frequently determined by the marketers of product. No institution or agency has responsibility for determining the overall coherence of consumer food messages relative to these broader social goals of health and sustainability. Individual firms provide information that shows their products to best advantage, which may contradict what is provided about the product by another firm or government agency. Individual consumers do not have the resources to determine easily the completeness of any firm's messages, particularly in light of the size of food industry advertising budgets. Government rules confound this problem because there is also little coherence between the parts of government that have responsibility for point of purchase, advertising rules, and labelling. The healthy eating messages of health departments are often competing with contradictory messages permitted by the regulatory framework of other arms of government. Investments in programs that successfully promote environmental stewardship in agriculture are undercut in the market because consumers cannot support those efforts with their dollars. This problem exists despite the emergence of “citizen-consumers” who have a broader approach to food purchasing than individual maximization. Only recently have some health professionals and sustainable agriculture proponents turned their attention to these factors and designed interventions that take them into account. In this paper, which builds upon earlier work by MacRae , we outline key short, medium and long term initiatives to facilitate the citizen-consumer phenomenon and better support consumers in their efforts to promote health and sustainability
Full Text Available IN HEALTH STATUS FROM CHILDHOOD TO ADULTHOOD AND ASSOCIATED RISK FACTORS: A 13 YEAR INTERVAL FOLLOW-UP STUDY IN SOUTH AFRICA [Program and Abstracts: The Seventeenth Conference of the International Society for Environmental Epidemiology (ISEE): Abstracts...- communicable diseases of which the risk factors are largely associated with lifestyle. Emerging infections such as HIV/AIDS and re-emerging infections (polio) together with existing diseases (TB and malaria) and the exposure to occupational and environmental...
The Transition Readiness Assessment Questionnaire (TRAQ) is a tool commonly used to assess transition readiness in adolescents with chronic diseases. It was previously validated in youth with special health care needs (YSHCN), but no patients with congenital heart disease (CHD) were included in the ...
Avis, Nancy E.; Colvin, Alicia; Karlamangla, Arun S.; Crawford, Sybil; Hess, Rachel; Waetjen, L. Elaine; Brooks, Maria; Tepper, Ping G.; Greendale, Gail A.
Objective To identify whether there is a decline in sexual functioning related to the menopause transition or to hysterectomy. Methods In a cohort of 1,390 women aged 42–52, with intact uterus and at least one ovary, not using hormone therapy, and pre- or early perimenopausal at baseline, we fit piecewise linear growth curves to 5,798 repeated measurements (7 visits spanning 14.5 years) of a sexual functioning score (range, 5–25) as a function of time relative to date of final menstrual period (FMP) or hysterectomy. Results Mean sexual functioning at baseline in women with a dateable FMP was 18.0 (standard deviation, 3.4). There was no change in sexual function until 20 months before the FMP. From 20 months before until one year after the FMP, sexual function decreased by 0.35 annually (95% CI:−0.44, −0.26) and continued to decline more than one year after the FMP, but at a slower rate (−0.13 annually, 95% CI:−0.17, −0.10). The decline was smaller in African-Americans and larger in Japanese compared to whites. Vaginal dryness, lubricant use, depressive symptoms, or anxiety did not explain decline in sexual function. Women who had a hysterectomy prior to the FMP did not show decline in sexual function prior to hysterectomy, but scores declined afterwards (0.21 annually, 95% CI:−0.28, −0.14). Conclusions Decline in sexual function became apparent 20 months prior to FMP and slowed one year after FMP through 5 years afterwards. A decline in sexual function was observed immediately after hysterectomy and persisted for the 5 years of observation. PMID:27801705
Klag, Malvina; Richer, Marie-Claire
This paper describes the emergence of an "information brokerage" in the project management office of the McGill University Health Centre (MUHC) in Montreal. This process evolved during unprecedented transformation linked to a redevelopment project. Information brokering became a core function in the MUHC's context of major change. To develop an information brokering model, the paper draws upon the literature on knowledge brokering, applies Daft and Lengel's (1986) seminal framework on information processing in organizations, and builds on the MUHC experience. The paper proposes that knowledge brokering and information brokering are related, yet distinct in content, purpose and structure.
The Biodiesel Mass Transit Demonstration report is intended for mass transit decision makers and fleet managers considering biodiesel use. This is the final report for the demonstration project implemented by the National Biodiesel Board under a gran...
Department of Homeland Security — fixed rail transit stations within the Continental United States, Alaska, Hawaii, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico. The modes of transit that are serviced...
Protocol for a cohort study of adolescent mental health service users with a nested cluster randomised controlled trial to assess the clinical and cost-effectiveness of managed transition in improving transitions from child to adult mental health services (the MILESTONE study)
Singh, Swaran P.; Tuomainen, Helena; Girolamo, Giovanni De
of 840 participants randomised in a 1:2 intervention to control are required, providing 89% power to detect a difference in HoNOSCA score of 0.30 SD. The addition of 210 recruits for the cohort study ensures sufficient power for studying predictors, resulting in 1050 participants and an approximate 1...... Healthcare) study evaluates the longitudinal course and outcomes of adolescents approaching the transition boundary (TB) of their CAMHS and determines the effectiveness of the model of managed transition in improving outcomes, compared with usual care. Methods and analysis This is a cohort study......:3 randomisation. Ethics and dissemination The study protocol was approved by the UK National Research Ethics Service (15/WM/0052) and equivalent ethics boards in participating countries. Results will be reported at conferences, in peer-reviewed publications and to all relevant stakeholder groups. Trial...
Phase transitions are normally associated with changes of temperature but a new type of transition - caused by quantum fluctuations near absolute zero - is possible, and can tell us more about the properties of a wide range of systems in condensed-matter physics. Nature abounds with phase transitions. The boiling and freezing of water are everyday examples of phase transitions, as are more exotic processes such as superconductivity and superfluidity. The universe itself is thought to have passed through several phase transitions as the high-temperature plasma formed by the big bang cooled to form the world as we know it today. Phase transitions are traditionally classified as first or second order. In first-order transitions the two phases co-exist at the transition temperature - e.g. ice and water at 0 deg., or water and steam at 100 deg. In second-order transitions the two phases do not co-exist. In the last decade, attention has focused on phase transitions that are qualitatively different from the examples noted above: these are quantum phase transitions and they occur only at the absolute zero of temperature. The transition takes place at the ''quantum critical'' value of some other parameter such as pressure, composition or magnetic field strength. A quantum phase transition takes place when co-operative ordering of the system disappears, but this loss of order is driven solely by the quantum fluctuations demanded by Heisenberg's uncertainty principle. The physical properties of these quantum fluctuations are quite distinct from those of the thermal fluctuations responsible for traditional, finite-temperature phase transitions. In particular, the quantum system is described by a complex-valued wavefunction, and the dynamics of its phase near the quantum critical point requires novel theories that have no analogue in the traditional framework of phase transitions. In this article the author describes the history of quantum phase transitions. (UK)
If modern ideas about the role of spontaneous symmetry breaking in fundamental physics are correct, then the Universe should have undergone a series of phase transitions early in its history. The study of cosmological phase transitions has become an important aspect of early-Universe cosmology. In this lecture I review some very recent work on three aspects of phase transitions: the electroweak transition, texture, and axions
Full Text Available With declines in development assistance for health and growing interest in country ownership, donors are increasingly faced with the task of transitioning health programs to local actors towards a path to sustainability. Yet there is little available guidance on how to measure and evaluate the success of a transition and its subsequent effects. This study assesses the transition of the Avahan HIV/AIDS prevention program in India to investigate how preparations for transition affected continuation of program activities post-transition.Two rounds of two surveys were conducted and supplemented by data from government and Avahan Computerized Management Information Systems (CMIS. Exploratory factor analysis was used to develop two measures: 1 transition readiness pre-transition, and 2 institutionalization (i.e. integration of initial program systems into organizational procedures and behaviors post-transition. A fixed effects model was built to examine changes in key program delivery outcomes over time. An ordinary least square regression was used to assess the relationship between transition readiness and sustainability of service outcomes both directly, and indirectly through institutionalization.Transition readiness data revealed 3 factors (capacity, alignment and communication, on a 15-item scale with adequate internal consistency (alpha 0.73. Institutionalization was modeled as a unidimensional construct, and a 12-item scale demonstrated moderate internal consistency (alpha 0.60. Coverage of key populations and condom distribution were sustained compared to pre-transition levels (p<0.01. Transition readiness, but not institutionalization, predicted sustained outcomes post-transition. Transition readiness did not necessarily lead to institutionalization of key program elements one year after transition.Greater preparedness prior to transition is important to achieve better service delivery outcomes post-transition. This paper illustrates a
Chappin, E.J.L.; Dijkema, G.P.J.
A framework for the modeling and simulation of transitions is presented. A transition, “substantial change in the state of a socio-technical system”, typically unfolds over a long timespan. We therefore suggest to use simulation to inform transition managers on the effect of their decisions.
Chappin, Emile J L; Dijkema, Gerard P.J.
A framework for the modeling and simulation of transitions is presented. A transition, “substantial change in the state of a socio-technical system”, typically unfolds over a long timespan. We therefore suggest to use simulation to inform transition managers on the effect of their decisions.
Holt, J.A.; Colestock, P.L.
The question of microwave stability at transition is revisited using a Vlasov approach retaining higher order terms in the particle dynamics near the transition energy. A dispersion relation is derived which can be solved numerically for the complex frequency in terms of the longitudinal impedance and other beam parameters. Stability near transition is examined and compared with simulation results
This handbook provides an overview of public transit in Iowa and how to do business with the Iowa Department of Transportation (Iowa DOT) Office of Public Transit (OPT). It is intended to be a tool to assist transit managers navigate through the many...
This report is designed as a guide for those involved in labor relations in the transit industry. It begins with a history of transit labor relations. The economic, political, and legal environment of transit relations is then discussed. A section fo...
Arizona Department of Education, 2007
Transition is movement or change without interruption. It should be a smooth flow from one place or condition to another. While the transition plan for a student receiving special education services is designed to prepare him or her for life after high school, transition can start when a child enters preschool. The second of six distinct stages of…
Parmar, Parveen K; Benjamin-Chung, Jade; Smith, Linda S; Htoo, Saw Nay; Laeng, Sai; Lwin, Aye; Mahn, Mahn; Maung, Cynthia; Reh, Daniel; Shwe Oo, Eh Kalu; Lee, Thomas; Richards, Adam K
Myanmar/Burma has received increased development and humanitarian assistance since the election in November 2010. Monitoring the impact of foreign assistance and economic development on health and human rights requires knowledge of pre-election conditions. From October 2008-January 2009, community-based organizations conducted household surveys using three-stage cluster sampling in Shan, Kayin, Bago, Kayah, Mon and Tanintharyi areas of Myanmar. Data was collected from 5,592 heads of household on household demographics, reproductive health, diarrhea, births, deaths, malaria, and acute malnutrition of children 6-59 months and women aged 15-49 years. A human rights focused survey module evaluated human rights violations (HRVs) experienced by household members during the previous year. Estimated infant and under-five rates were 77 (95% CI 56 to 98) and 139 (95% CI 107 to 171) deaths per 1,000 live births; and the crude mortality rate was 13 (95% CI 11 to 15) deaths per thousand persons. The leading respondent-reported cause of death was malaria, followed by acute respiratory infection and diarrhea, causing 21.2% (95% CI 16.5 to 25.8), 16.6% (95% CI 11.8 to 21.4), and 12.3% (95% CI 8.7 to 15.8), respectively. Over a third of households suffered at least one human rights violation in the preceding year (36.2%; 30.7 to 41.7). Household exposure to forced labor increased risk of death among infants (rate ratio (RR) = 2.2; 95% CI 1.1 to 4.4) and children under five (RR = 2.1; 95% CI 1.3 to 3.6). The proportion of children suffering from moderate to severe acute malnutrition was higher among households that were displaced (prevalence ratio (PR) = 3.3; 95% CI 1.9 to 5.6). Prior to the 2010 election, populations of eastern Myanmar experienced high rates of disease and death and high rates of HRVs. These population-based data provide a baseline that can be used to monitor national and international efforts to improve the health and human rights situation in the
Søndergård, Bent; Holm, Jesper; Stauning, Inger
Theories of transition management, transition studies and social practise theory Applied to studies of hosuing and construction......Theories of transition management, transition studies and social practise theory Applied to studies of hosuing and construction...
The discovery of transiting extrasolar planets has enabled us to do a number of interesting studies. Transit photometry reveals the radius and the orbital inclination of transiting planets, which allows us to learn the true mass and density of the respective planets by the combined information from radial velocity (RV) measurements. In addition, follow-up observations of transiting planets, looking at such things as secondary eclipses, transit timing variations, transmission spectroscopy, and the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect, provide us information about their dayside temperatures, unseen bodies in systems, planetary atmospheres, and the obliquity of planetary orbits. Such observational information, which will provide us a greater understanding of extrasolar planets, is available only for transiting planets. Here, I briefly summarize what we can learn from transiting planets and introduce previous studies.
Donckt, van der.
The article is a critical review of the work group VI ''health'' in the ''sages report'', the criteria of total body dosis for radionuclides as strontium 90 and iodine 131 are discussed. It emphasizes the lack of adequate solution for the effluents as carbon-14, tritium and iodine 129 as well as for the high radioactivity waste management: the toxicity of plutonium and its cancerous properties are recalled. The risks of accidents in the nuclear facilities and their effect on the population in the proximity of the power plant and the contamination from cooling media are considered as well as sabotage risks. (A.F.)
Full Text Available During 2009, the Haifa district of Clalit Health Services (CHS has switched from in-lab polysomnography (PSG to home studies for the diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA. We assessed the effects of this change on accessibility, waiting time, satisfaction, costs, and CPAP purchase by the patients. Data regarding sleep studies, CPAP purchase, and waiting times were collected retrospectively from the computerized database of CHS. Patients’ satisfaction was assessed utilizing a telephone questionnaire introduced to a randomized small sample of 70 patients. Comparisons were made between 2007 and 2008 (in-lab PSGs and 2010 and 2011 (when most studies were ambulatory. Of about 650000 insured individuals in the Haifa district of CHS, 1471 sleep studies were performed during 2007-2008 compared to 2794 tests during 2010-2011. The average waiting time was 9.9 weeks in 2007-2008 compared to 1.1 weeks in 2010-2011 (P<0.05. 597 CPAPs were purchased in 2007-2008 compared to 831 in 2010-2011. The overall patients’ satisfaction was similar, but discomfort tended to be higher in the in-laboratory group (4.1 vs 2.7 in a scale of 0–10; P=0.11. Switching to ambulatory diagnosis improved the test accessibility and reduced the waiting times. Patients’ satisfaction remained similarly high. The total direct cost of OSA management was reduced.
Thomson, Dana R; Bah, Assiatou B; Rubanzana, Wilson G; Mutesa, Leon
In Rwanda, women who self-reported in household surveys ever experiencing intimate partner violence (IPV) increased from 34 % in 2005 to 56 % in 2010. This coincided with a new constitution and majority-female elected parliament in 2003, and 2008 legislation protecting against gender-based violence. The increase in self-reported IPV may reflect improved social power for women, and/or disruptions to traditional gender roles that increased actual IPV. This is a cross-sectional study of IPV in 4338 couples interviewed in the 2005 and 2010 Rwanda Demographic and Health Surveys (RDHSs). Factors associated with physical or sexual IPV in the last 12 months were modeled using manual backward stepwise logistic regression. Analyses were conducted in Stata v13 adjusting for complex survey design. Risk factors for IPV in 2005 (p Rwanda's Isange One Stop Center project, with medical, legal, and psychosocial services for domestic violence victims, is currently scaling to all 44 district hospitals, and police station gender desks reduce barriers to legal reporting of IPV. Additional support to Abunzi mediators to hear IPV cases in communities, and involvement of men in grassroots efforts to redefine masculinity in Rwanda are suggested. Additional research is needed to understand why self-reported IPV has increased in Rwanda, and to evaluate effectiveness of IPV interventions.
EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to chitosan and reduction in body weight (ID 679, 1499), maintenance of normal blood LDL-cholesterol concentrations (ID 4663), reduction of intestinal transit time (ID
claims in relation to chitosan and reduction in body weight, maintenance of normal blood LDL-cholesterol concentrations, reduction of intestinal transit time and reduction of inflammation. The scientific substantiation is based on the information provided by the Member States in the consolidated list...... of Article 13 health claims and references that EFSA has received from Member States or directly from stakeholders. The food constituent that is the subject of the health claim is chitosan. The Panel considers that chitosan is sufficiently characterised....
This paper (a) provides a methodological taxonomy of pricing, financing, reimbursement, and cost containment methodologies for pharmaceuticals; (b) analyzes complex agency relationships and the health versus industrial policy tradeoff; (c) pinpoints financing measures to balance safety and effectiveness of medicines and their affordability by publicly funded systems in transition; and (d) highlights viable options for policy-makers for the financing of pharmaceuticals in transition. Three categories of measures and their implications for pharmaceutical policy cost containing are analyzed: supply-side measures, targeting manufacturers, proxy demand-side measures, targeting physicians and pharmacists, and demand-side measures, targeting patients. In pursuing supply side measures, we explore free pricing for pharmaceuticals, direct price controls, cost-plus and cost pricing, average pricing and international price comparisons, profit control, reference pricing, the introduction of a fourth hurdle, positive and negative lists, and other price control measures. The analysis of proxy-demand measures includes budgets for physicians, generic policies, practice guidelines, monitoring the authorizing behavior of physicians, and disease management schemes. Demand-side measures explore the effectiveness of patient co-payments, the impact of allowing products over-the-counter and health promotion programs. Global policies should operate simultaneously on the supply, the proxy demand, and the demand-side. Policy-making needs to have a continuous long-term planning. The importation of policies into transition economy may require extensive and expensive adaptation, and/or lead to sub-optimal policy outcomes.
Raina, Rupesh; Wang, Joseph; Krishnappa, Vinod; Ferris, Maria
The transition from pediatric to adult medical services is an important time in the life of an adolescent or young adult with a renal transplant. Failure of proper transition can lead to medical non-adherence and subsequent loss of graft and/or return to dialysis. The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review and survey to assess the challenges and existing practices in transition of renal transplant recipient children to adult services, and to develop a transition protocol. We conducted a literature review and performed a survey of pediatric nephrologists across the United States to examine the current state of transition care. A structured transition protocol was developed based on these results. Our literature review revealed that a transition program has a positive impact on decline in renal function and acute rejection episodes, and may improve long-term graft outcomes in pediatric kidney transplant patients. With a response rate of 40% (60/150) from nephrologists in 56% (49/87) of centers, our survey shows inconsistent use of validated tools despite their availability, inefficient communication between teams, and lack of use of dedicated clinics. To address these issues, we developed the "RISE to Transition" protocol, which relies on 4 competency areas: Recognition, Insight, Self-reliance, and Establishment of healthy habits. The transition program decreases acute graft rejection episodes, and the main challenges in transition care are the communication gap between health care providers and inconsistent use of transition tools. Our RISE to transition protocol incorporates transition tools, defines personnel, and aims to improve communication between teams.
After Central and Eastern European and Central Asian economies abandoned central planning, nearly 195 million workers had to adjust to new rules of work and life. Most transition economies have not yet fully committed themselves to the rules of the market place. A few that have are already enjoying growth in wages and employment; in other countries, labor income growth is still to come. Reform has not been so well accepted in countries that were forced to enter the transition. Transition brou...
Raghavan, Raghu; Pawson, N.
School leavers with learning disabilities often face difficulties in making a smooth transition from school to college, employment or more broadly, to adult life. The transition phase is traumatic for the young person with learning disabilities and their families as it often results in the loss of friendships, relationships and social networks. The aim of this chapter is to explore the issues of transition from adolescence to adulthood for young people with learning disabilities and its effe...
The phenomenology of the phase transitions has been considered. The definitions of thermodynamic functions and parameters, as well as those of the phase transitions, are given and some of the relations between those quantities are discussed. The phase transitions classification proposed by Ehrenfest has been described. The most important features of phase transitions are discussed using the selected physical examples including the critical behaviour of ferromagnetic materials at the Curie temperature and antiferromagnetic materials at the Neel temperature. Some aspects of the Ehrenfest's equations, that have been derived, for the interfacial lines and surfaces are considered as well as the role the notion of interfaces. (S.B.)
Cappelletti, Floriane; Vallar, Jean-Pierre; Wyssling, Julia
Energy Cities provides local authorities with support for implementing their own energy transition process. The Proposals for the energy transition of cities and towns (www.energy-cities.eu/30proposals) are illustrated with around a hundred of inspirational examples from all over Europe. In this document composed of five case reports, Energy Cities goes further and tells the tale of energy transition success stories. Because it is important to show that energy transition is 'possible'. Why, how, with whom, for what results? We interviewed local players and decision-makers to find out more. Here are their stories
Department of Transportation — This data set contains information about any US government agency participating in the transit benefits program, funding agreements, individual participating Federal...
The aim of the present paper is to review nutrition transition (NT) ongoing in low and middle income countries and the associated dietary changes. NT is accompanied by demographic and epidemiological transition associated with economic development and urbanisation. In these countries, while the problems of hunger and undernourishment persist, there is an escalation of diet-related non-communicable diseases; making them face both problems of malnutrition, under and overnutrition. Indeed, in addition to protein energy malnutrition underweight and micronutrient deficiencies affect a high proportion of children and women. Conversely, changes in dietary habits and physical activity patterns have led to emergence of chronic diseases such as obesity, diabetes, hypertension, stroke, hyperlipidaemia, CHD and cancer. One possible explanation of weight gain and its associated health consequences is the trend of the consumption of already prepared meals and the restaurants that are in continuous development leading to high consumption of foods rich in sugar and fat. The health problems associated with NT have not spared populations in the Mediterranean area where the type of diet is reported to be healthy and to protect against cardiovascular risks. This is seen in North Africa that belongs also to the Mediterranean basin, where the nutritional situation raises the problem of traditional foods sustainability. Accurate nutritional policy and education are needed to redress the effects of malnutrition related to NT on health.
Phase transitions are one of the most exciting physical phenomena ever discovered. The understanding of phase transitions has long been of interest. Recently eigenstate phase transitions have been discovered and studied; they are drastically different from traditional thermal phase transitions. In eigenstate phase transitions, a sharp change is exhibited in properties of the many-body eigenstates of the Hamiltonian of a quantum system, but not the thermal equilibrium properties of the same system. In this thesis, we study two different types of eigenstate phase transitions. The first is the eigenstate phase transition within the ferromagnetic phase of an infinite-range spin model. By studying the interplay of the eigenstate thermalization hypothesis and Ising symmetry breaking, we find two eigenstate phase transitions within the ferromagnetic phase: In the lowest-temperature phase the magnetization can macroscopically oscillate by quantum tunneling between up and down. The relaxation of the magnetization is always overdamped in the remainder of the ferromagnetic phase, which is further divided into phases where the system thermally activates itself over the barrier between the up and down states, and where it quantum tunnels. The second is the many-body localization phase transition. The eigenstates on one side of the transition obey the eigenstate thermalization hypothesis; the eigenstates on the other side are many-body localized, and thus thermal equilibrium need not be achieved for an initial state even after evolving for an arbitrary long time. We study this many-body localization phase transition in the strong disorder renormalization group framework. After setting up a set of coarse-graining rules for a general one dimensional chain, we get a simple "toy model'' and obtain an almost purely analytical solution to the infinite-randomness critical fixed point renormalization group equation. We also get an estimate of the correlation length critical exponent nu
... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reimbursement of transitional assistance and associated sponsor requirements. 403.822 Section 403.822 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID... Prescription Drug Discount Card and Transitional Assistance Program § 403.822 Reimbursement of transitional...
Lewis, Brennan; Allen, Stephanie
The purpose of this article was to provide a framework for evidence-based transition of patient populations within an acute care pediatric institution. Transition within a hospital is foreseeable, given the ever-changing needs of the patients within an evolving healthcare system. These changes include moving patient populations because of expansion, renovation, or cohorting similar patient diagnoses to provide care across a continuum. Over the past 1 to 2 years, Children's Health Children's Medical Center Dallas has experienced a wide variety of transition. To provide a smooth transition for patients and families into new care areas resulting in a healthy work environment for all team members. The planning phase for patient population moves, and transition should address key aspects to include physical location and care flow, supplies and equipment, staffing model and human resources (HR), education and orientation, change process and integrating teams, and family preparation. It is imperative to consider these aspects in order for transitions within a healthcare system to be successful. During a time of such transitions, the clinical nurse specialist (CNS) is a highly valuable team member offering a unique perspective and methodological approach, which is central to the new initiative's overall success. The themes addressed in this article on evidence-based transition are organized according to the CNS spheres of influence: system/organization, patient/family, and nursing. An evidence-based transition plan was developed and implemented successfully with the support from the CNS for 3 patient populations. Organizational leadership gained an increased awareness of the CNS role at the conclusion of each successful transition. The CNS plays a pivotal role as clinical experts and proponents of evidence-based practice and effects change in the system/organization, nursing, and patient/family spheres of influence. While transitions can be a source of stress for leaders
Regenwetter, Michel; Dana, Jason; Davis-Stober, Clintin P.
Transitivity of preferences is a fundamental principle shared by most major contemporary rational, prescriptive, and descriptive models of decision making. To have transitive preferences, a person, group, or society that prefers choice option "x" to "y" and "y" to "z" must prefer "x" to…
Cohen, A.M.; Beineke, L.W.; Wilson, R.J.; Cameron, P.J.
In this chapter we investigate the classification of distance-transitive graphs: these are graphs whose automorphism groups are transitive on each of the sets of pairs of vertices at distance i, for i = 0, 1,.... We provide an introduction into the field. By use of the classification of finite
J. de Haan (Hans)
textabstractThis thesis is a treatise on a theory for societal transitions: pillar theory. Societal transitions are complex processes taking place in complex systems, large-scale, long-term processes in which societal systems radically change the way they are composed and function. Since we all are
Anderson, Lara B.; Gray, James; Raghuram, Nikhil; Taylor, Washington
We explore a novel type of transition in certain 6D and 4D quantum field theories, in which the matter content of the theory changes while the gauge group and other parts of the spectrum remain invariant. Such transitions can occur, for example, for SU(6) and SU(7) gauge groups, where matter fields in a three-index antisymmetric representation and the fundamental representation are exchanged in the transition for matter in the two-index antisymmetric representation. These matter transitions are realized by passing through superconformal theories at the transition point. We explore these transitions in dual F-theory and heterotic descriptions, where a number of novel features arise. For example, in the heterotic description the relevant 6D SU(7) theories are described by bundles on K3 surfaces where the geometry of the K3 is constrained in addition to the bundle structure. On the F-theory side, non-standard representations such as the three-index antisymmetric representation of SU(N) require Weierstrass models that cannot be realized from the standard SU(N) Tate form. We also briefly describe some other situations, with groups such as Sp(3), SO(12), and SU(3), where analogous matter transitions can occur between different representations. For SU(3), in particular, we find a matter transition between adjoint matter and matter in the symmetric representation, giving an explicit Weierstrass model for the F-theory description of the symmetric representation that complements another recent analogous construction.
Dulle, Paul J.; And Others
The paper examines the need and implementation of transitional employment programs for handicapped youth. Effects on the handicapped of future automation are considered along with the need for school-business cooperation to prepare for the future. The importance of initial success in any innovation is noted. A Chicago transitional employment…
Kraaij, W.; de Jong, Franciska M.G.
Transitive translation could be a useful technique to enlarge the number of supported language pairs for a cross-language information retrieval (CLIR) system in a cost-effective manner. The paper describes several setups for transitive translation based on probabilistic translation models. The
period and provide recommendations to guide future research and policy development. 4 DEFINING THE TRANSITIONAL SECURITY GAP There have been...BRIDGING THE TRANSITION GAP A Monograph by MAJ J.D. Hansen United States Army School of Advanced Military Studies United States Army...suggestions for reducing this burden to Department of Defense, Washington Headquarters Services, Directorate for Information Operations and Reports (0704
Current status of advanced theoretical methods for transition probabilities for atoms and ions is discussed. An experiment on the f values of the resonance transitions of the Kr and Xe isoelectronic sequences is suggested as a test for the theoretical methods
Gissel, Line Engbo
This article studies the contemporary expression of transitional justice, a field of practice through which global governance is exercised. It argues that transitional justice is being normalised, given the normative and empirical de-legitimisation of its premise of exceptionalism. The article...... theorises exceptionalism and normalcy in transitional justice and identifies three macro-level causes of normalisation: the legalisation, internationalisation, and professionalization of the field. This argument is illustrated by a study of Uganda’s trajectory of transitional justice since 1986. Across five...... phases of transitional justice, processes of legalisation, internationalisation, and professionalization have contributed to the gradual dismantling of the country’s exceptional justice. The case demonstrates, further, that normalization is a contested and incomplete process....
Full Text Available Else Cathrine Rustad,1–4 Bodil Furnes,1 Berit Seiger Cronfalk,2,5,6 Elin Dysvik1 1Department of Health Studies, Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Stavanger, Stavanger, Norway; 2Faculty of Health and Caring Sciences, Stord Haugesund University College, Stord, Norway; 3Research Network on Integrated Health Care in Western Norway, Helse Fonna Local Health Authority, Haugesund, Norway; 4Department of Clinical Medicine, Helse Fonna Local Health Authority, Haugesund, Norway; 5Palliative Research Center, Ersta Sköndal University College, Stockholm, Sweden; 6Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden Background: A fragmented health care system leads to an increased demand for continuity of care across health care levels. Research indicates age-related differences during care transition, with the oldest patients having experiences and needs that differ from those of other patients. To meet the older patients’ needs and preferences during care transition, professionals must understand their experiences.Objective: The purpose of the study was to explore how patients ≥80 years of age experienced the care transition from hospital to municipal health care services.Methods: The study has a descriptive, explorative design, using semistructured interviews. Fourteen patients aged ≥80 participated in the study. Qualitative content analysis was used to describe the individuals’ experiences during care transition.Results: Two complementary themes emerged during the analysis: “Participation depends on being invited to plan the care transition” and “Managing continuity of care represents a complex and challenging process”.Discussion: Lack of participation, insufficient information, and vague responsibilities among staff during care transition seemed to limit the continuity of care. The patients are the vulnerable part of the care transition process, although they possess important
In response to persistent overcrowding of Emergency Departments in Ireland, the Department of Health and Health Service Executive provided funding for "Transit Lounge" areas to be built. These lounges were to provide a location for patients to wait in beds pending the availability of a ward bed. This research was performed to assess the impact of such a lounge on the overcrowding of the Emergency Department and on patient outcomes. The time period from the opening of the Transit Lounge was compared with the same period a year earlier. The Transit Lounge delivers a comfortable place for patients to wait. It does not reduce Emergency Department overcrowding and has been associated with an increased time waiting for a ward bed. The solution to overcrowding is the creation of real capacity in the system so that ward beds are available in acute hospitals for the "unscheduled unwell".
During an emergency evacuation, execution time is always critical to the evacuees who are : transit dependent. Transit Signal Priority (TSP) can speed up the transit services by prioritizing : the approaching bus at a signalized intersection. With th...
If the universe stated from conditions of high temperature and density, there should have been a series of phase transitions associated with spontaneous symmetry breaking. The cosmological phase transitions could have observable consequences in the present Universe. Some of the consequences including the formation of topological defects and cosmological inflation are reviewed here. One of the most important tools in building particle physics models is the use of spontaneous symmetry breaking (SSB). The proposal that there are underlying symmetries of nature that are not manifest in the vacuum is a crucial link in the unification of forces. Of particular interest for cosmology is the expectation that are the high temperatures of the big bang symmetries broken today will be restored, and that there are phase transitions to the broken state. The possibility that topological defects will be produced in the transition is the subject of this section. The possibility that the Universe will undergo inflation in a phase transition will be the subject of the next section. Before discussing the creation of topological defects in the phase transition, some general aspects of high-temperature restoration of symmetry and the development of the phase transition will be reviewed. 29 references, 1 figure, 1 table
Hawk, Alexander T.; Makarov, Dmitrii E.
Milestoning is a method used to calculate the kinetics and thermodynamics of molecular processes occurring on time scales that are not accessible to brute force molecular dynamics (MD). In milestoning, the conformation space of the system is sectioned by hypersurfaces (milestones), an ensemble of trajectories is initialized on each milestone, and MD simulations are performed to calculate transitions between milestones. The transition probabilities and transition time distributions are then used to model the dynamics of the system with a Markov renewal process, wherein a long trajectory of the system is approximated as a succession of independent transitions between milestones. This approximation is justified if the transition probabilities and transition times are statistically independent. In practice, this amounts to a requirement that milestones are spaced such that trajectories lose position and velocity memory between subsequent transitions. Unfortunately, limiting the number of milestones limits both the resolution at which a system's properties can be analyzed, and the computational speedup achieved by the method. We propose a generalized milestoning procedure, milestoning with transition memory (MTM), which accounts for memory of previous transitions made by the system. When a reaction coordinate is used to define the milestones, the MTM procedure can be carried out at no significant additional expense as compared to conventional milestoning. To test MTM, we have applied its version that allows for the memory of the previous step to the toy model of a polymer chain undergoing Langevin dynamics in solution. We have computed the mean first passage time for the chain to attain a cyclic conformation and found that the number of milestones that can be used, without incurring significant errors in the first passage time is at least 8 times that permitted by conventional milestoning. We further demonstrate that, unlike conventional milestoning, MTM permits
Koster, Auriane Magdalena
Energy is a central concern of sustainability because how we produce and consume energy affects society, economy, and the environment. Sustainability scientists are interested in energy transitions away from fossil fuels because they are nonrenewable, increasingly expensive, have adverse health effects, and may be the main driver of climate change. They see an opportunity for developing countries to avoid the negative consequences fossil-fuel-based energy systems, and also to increase resilience, by leap-frogging-over the centralized energy grid systems that dominate the developed world. Energy transitions pose both challenges and opportunities. Obstacles to transitions include 1) an existing, centralized, complex energy-grid system, whose function is invisible to most users, 2) coordination and collective-action problems that are path dependent, and 3) difficulty in scaling up RE technologies. Because energy transitions rely on technological and social innovations, I am interested in how institutional factors can be leveraged to surmount these obstacles. The overarching question that underlies my research is: What constellation of institutional, biophysical, and social factors are essential for an energy transition? My objective is to derive a set of "design principles," that I term institutional drivers, for energy transitions analogous to Ostrom's institutional design principles. My dissertation research will analyze energy transitions using two approaches: applying the Institutional Analysis and Development Framework and a comparative case study analysis comprised of both primary and secondary sources. This dissertation includes: 1) an analysis of the world's energy portfolio; 2) a case study analysis of five countries; 3) a description of the institutional factors likely to promote a transition to renewable-energy use; and 4) an in-depth case study of Thailand's progress in replacing nonrenewable energy sources with renewable energy sources. My research will
Petry, W.; Neuhaus, J.
Many elements transform from a high temperature bcc phase to a more dense packed temperature phase. The great majority of these transitions are of 1st order, displacive and reconstructive. The lattice potentials which govern these martensitic transitions can be probed by inelastic neutron scattering, thereby answering fundamental questions like : Will the transition be announced by dynamical or static fluctuations? What are the trajectories for the displacements needed for the transformation? Does the vibrational entropy stabilize the high temperature phase? Are the unusual transport properties in these materials related to their ability to transform? (author) 17 figs., 1 tab., 46 refs
Truhlar, Donald G. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)
This is the final report on a project involving the development and applications of variational transition state theory. This project involved the development of variational transition state theory for gas-phase reactions, including optimized multidimensional tunneling contributions and the application of this theory to gas-phase reactions with a special emphasis on developing reaction rate theory in directions that are important for applications to combustion. The development of variational transition state theory with optimized multidimensional tunneling as a useful computational tool for combustion kinetics involved eight objectives.
Petry, W; Neuhaus, J [Techn. Universitaet Muenchen, Physik Department E13, Munich (Germany)
Many elements transform from a high temperature bcc phase to a more dense packed temperature phase. The great majority of these transitions are of 1st order, displacive and reconstructive. The lattice potentials which govern these martensitic transitions can be probed by inelastic neutron scattering, thereby answering fundamental questions like : Will the transition be announced by dynamical or static fluctuations? What are the trajectories for the displacements needed for the transformation? Does the vibrational entropy stabilize the high temperature phase? Are the unusual transport properties in these materials related to their ability to transform? (author) 17 figs., 1 tab., 46 refs.
Passalacqua, Arnaud; Billes-Garabedian, Laurent; Jancovici, Jean-Marc; Arnoux, Mathieu; Auverlot, Dominique; Leguet, Benoit; Grandjean, Alain; Morel, Julien; Lambert, Quentin; Tranie, Jean-Pascal; Bureau, Dominique; Dron, Dominique; Beeker, Etienne
This special dossier about energy transition is made of 10 contributions dealing with: thousands of years of energy transition (Jean-Marc Jancovici); a recurring problem after a thousand years of fight (Mathieu Arnoux); urban mobility: another energy story (Arnaud Passalacqua); an opportunity subjected to conditions for the French competitiveness (Dominique Auverlot, Benoit Leguet); Germany: an energy utopia or a role model? (Etienne Beeker); environment: the financing stakes (Dominique Dron); reconciling the economical, social and ecological stakes (Alain Grandjean); Sweden in the face of transportation challenge (Julien Morel, Quentin Lambert); India and China with a commitment to global warming (Jean-Pascal Tranie); training the energy transition managers (Dominique Bureau)
Providing safe, reliable transportation has long been a priority at all levels of the transit industry including the Federal Transit Administration (FTA), California Department of Transportation (Caltrans) and individual transit providers. Over the l...
This project explores two major components that affect transit ridership: travel time reliability and rider : retention. It has been recognized that transit travel time reliability may have a significant impact on : attractiveness of transit to many ...
"The seven-county Southeast Michigan region, that encompasses the Detroit Metropolitan Area, : ranks fifth in population among top 25 regions in the nation. It also ranks among bottom five in : the transit service provided, measured in miles or hours...
Chini, Emilio Zanetti
We introduce a variant of the smooth transition autoregression - the GSTAR model - capable to parametrize the asymmetry in the tails of the transition equation by using a particular generalization of the logistic function. A General-to-Specific modelling strategy is discussed in detail, with part......We introduce a variant of the smooth transition autoregression - the GSTAR model - capable to parametrize the asymmetry in the tails of the transition equation by using a particular generalization of the logistic function. A General-to-Specific modelling strategy is discussed in detail......, with particular emphasis on two different LM-type tests for the null of symmetric adjustment towards a new regime and three diagnostic tests, whose power properties are explored via Monte Carlo experiments. Four classical real datasets illustrate the empirical properties of the GSTAR, jointly to a rolling...
de Azevedo, Cristina G.; Vollhardt, K. Peter C.
Synthesis, characterization, and reactivity studies of oligocyclopentadienyl transition metal complexes, namely those of fulvalene, tercyclopentadienyl, quatercyclopentadienyl, and pentacyclopentadienyl(cyclopentadienyl) are the subject of this account. Thermal-, photo-, and redox chemistries of homo- and heteropolynuclear complexes are described.
This book provides a comprehensive review of the theory of phase transitions and its modern applications, based on the five pillars of the modern theory of phase transitions i.e. the Ising model, mean field, scaling, renormalization group and universality. This expanded second edition includes, along with a description of vortices and high temperature superconductivity, a discussion of phase transitions in chemical reaction and moving systems. The book covers a close connection between phase transitions and small world phenomena as well as scale-free systems such as the stock market and the Internet. Readership: Scientists working in different fields of physics, chemistry, biology and economics as well as teaching material for undergraduate and graduate courses.
TTI worked closely with the Landscape Architecture and Urban Planning Department : (LAUP) of Texas A&M University (TAMU) to develop a transit management certificate : focus for the current Graduate Certificate in Transportation Planning (CTP) housed ...
Bharucha, Adil E.; Philips, Sidney F.
Idiopathic slow-transit constipation is a clinical syndrome predominantly affecting women, characterized by intractable constipation and delayed colonic transit. This syndrome is attributed to disordered colonic motor function. The disorder spans a spectrum of variable severity, ranging from patients who have relatively mild delays in transit but are otherwise indistinguishable from irritable bowel syndrome to patients with colonic inertia or chronic megacolon. The diagnosis is made after excluding colonic obstruction, metabolic disorders (hypothyroidism, hypercalcemia), drug-induced constipation, and pelvic floor dysfunction (as discussed by Wald ). Most patients are treated with one or more pharmacologic agents, including dietary fiber supplementation, saline laxatives (milk of magnesia), osmotic agents (lactulose, sorbitol, and polyethylene glycol 3350), and stimulant laxatives (bisacodyl and glycerol). A subtotal colectomy is effective and occasionally is indicated for patients with medically refractory, severe slow-transit constipation, provided pelvic floor dysfunction has been excluded or treated.
Slocombe, Daniel R; Kuznetsov, Vladimir L; Grochala, Wojciech; Williams, Robert J P; Edwards, Peter P
A qualitative account of the occurrence and magnitude of superconductivity in the transition metals is presented, with a primary emphasis on elements of the first row. Correlations of the important parameters of the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer theory of superconductivity are highlighted with respect to the number of d-shell electrons per atom of the transition elements. The relation between the systematics of superconductivity in the transition metals and the periodic table high-lights the importance of short-range or chemical bonding on the remarkable natural phenomenon of superconductivity in the chemical elements. A relationship between superconductivity and lattice instability appears naturally as a balance and competition between localized covalent bonding and so-called broken covalency, which favours d-electron delocalization and superconductivity. In this manner, the systematics of superconductivity and various other physical properties of the transition elements are related and unified. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.
In this work it is reviewed a few known types of transition to turbulence, as the cascade of period doubling and the intermittent transition. This happens in dynamical systems with a few degrees of freedom, as modelled by the iteration of non linear maps. Then it is presented specific transitions for systems with many degrees of freedom. It is condidered first the occurence of a low frequency broadband noise in large cells at the onset of Rayleigh-Benard convection; then the transition by intermittent bursts in parallel flows. In this last case, one is concerned with localized and finite amplitude perturbations. Simple geometric arguments show that these fluctuations, when they are isolated and with a well definite relative speed, exist for a single value of the Reynolds number only [fr
Holm, Emil Kongsted; Bünger, Cody; Foldager, Casper Bindzus
Bertolotti's syndrome (BS) refers to the possible association between the congenital malformation lumbosacral transitional vertebra (LSTV), and low back pain (LBP). Several treatments have been proposed including steroid injections, resections of the LSTV, laminectomy, and lumbar spinal fusion...
McAra, Lesley; McVie, Susan
This report explores transitions into the adult criminal justice system amongst a large cohort of young people who were involved in the Edinburgh Study of Youth Transitions and Crime. It includes: a description of patterns of criminal convictions and disposals for young people up to age 19 (on average); an examination of the characteristics and institutional histories of cohort members with a criminal record as compared with youngsters with no such record; and an exploration of the profile of...
Full Text Available The WFCAM Transit Survey (WTS has been obtaining data on the United Kingdom Infrared Telescope since 2007. The WTS targets about 8,000 M dwarfs over several square degrees of sky, and aims to ﬁnd low-mass eclipsing binaries and planets, down to the size of the Earth, transiting M dwarf stars with periods up to a few days.
Rubin, Karen R
To highlight the importance of an improved, seamless, and effective transition from pediatric to adult care, especially for medically complex conditions such as Turner syndrome (TS). The morbidities in adult patients with TS are reviewed, including features of the metabolic syndrome, congenital and acquired cardiovascular conditions, osteopenia and osteoporosis, autoimmune thyroid disease, and obesity, and psychobehavioral issues are addressed, in terms of promoting the development of independent self-care and autonomy in adolescent patients. An essential component of high-quality health care, transition for adolescents with TS needs to be reengineered as a staged process initiated during early-stage adolescence (about age 12 years), when exogenous estrogen therapy is begun in coordination with the final phase of growth hormone therapy. At this time, the focus of care shifts from the parent to the adolescent and from maximizing final adult height to inducing puberty with gradually increasing doses of estrogen. During this transition, the development of healthful and independent healthcare behaviors should be promoted to prepare patients with TS for the adult responsibility of self-care. During the final phase of transition, an adult care plan should be formulated in collaboration with the adolescent with TS and her providers of adult care to improve the likelihood that she will continue to be carefully monitored in a way that optimizes her adult health and longevity. The transitional period from pediatrics to adulthood is the ideal time for patients with TS to be made aware of their health history and health needs and of the evolving impact of TS into adulthood.
... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Packaging of transit shipments. 322.24 Section 322.24 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... Restricted Organisms Through the United States § 322.24 Packaging of transit shipments. (a) Restricted...
Five workshops held in Turkey and Egypt will discuss five topics: transitional justice and judicial reform; political reform; security reform; economic reform; and reforms to health systems and education. Each of these workshops will result in policy papers offering practical recommendations about the transition process and ...
The Bechtel Hanford, Inc. facility transition instruction was initiated in response to the need for a common, streamlined process for facility transitions and to capture the knowledge and experience that has accumulated over the last few years. The instruction serves as an educational resource and defines the process for transitioning facilities to long-term surveillance and maintenance (S and M). Generally, these facilities do not have identified operations missions and must be transitioned from operational status to a safe and stable configuration for long-term S and M. The instruction can be applied to a wide range of facilities--from process canyon complexes like the Plutonium Uranium Extraction Facility or B Plant, to stand-alone, lower hazard facilities like the 242B/BL facility. The facility transition process is implemented (under the direction of the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office [RL] Assistant Manager-Environmental) by Bechtel Hanford, Inc. management, with input and interaction with the appropriate RL division and Hanford site contractors as noted in the instruction. The application of the steps identified herein and the early participation of all organizations involved are expected to provide a cost-effective, safe, and smooth transition from operational status to deactivation and S and M for a wide range of Hanford Site facilities
Shanske, Susan; Arnold, Janis; Carvalho, Maria; Rein, Jennifer
Transition from pediatric to adult medical care and the significant psychosocial considerations impacting this developmental process are a primary focus in health care today. Social workers are often the informal brokers of this complex and nuanced process and are uniquely trained to complete biopsychosocial assessments to understand the needs of patients and families and address psychosocial factors. Their extensive knowledge of resources and systems, along with their sophisticated understanding of the relationship issues, family dynamics, cultural implications, and basic person-in-context approach allow for unique collaboration with the health care team, family, and community supports to develop successful transition plans and programs.
Brown, Barbara B.; Werner, Carol M.; Smith, Ken R.; Tribby, Calvin P.; Miller, Harvey J.; Jensen, Wyatt A.; Tharp, Doug
Understanding who takes advantage of new transit (public transportation) interventions is important for personal and environmental health. We examine transit ridership for residents living near a new light rail construction as part of “complete street,” pedestrian-friendly improvements. Adult residents (n=536) completed surveys and wore accelerometer and GPS units that tracked ridership before and after new transit service started. Transit riders were more physically active. Those from environments rated as more walkable were likely to be continuing transit riders. Place attachment, but not perceived physical incivilities on the path to transit, was associated with those who continued to ride or became new riders of transit. This effect was mediated through pro-city attitudes, which emphasize how the new service makes residents eager to explore areas around transit. Thus, place attachment, along with physical and health conditions, may be important predictors and promoters of transit use. PMID:27672237
Imada, Masatoshi; Fujimori, Atsushi; Tokura, Yoshinori
Metal-insulator transitions are accompanied by huge resistivity changes, even over tens of orders of magnitude, and are widely observed in condensed-matter systems. This article presents the observations and current understanding of the metal-insulator transition with a pedagogical introduction to the subject. Especially important are the transitions driven by correlation effects associated with the electron-electron interaction. The insulating phase caused by the correlation effects is categorized as the Mott Insulator. Near the transition point the metallic state shows fluctuations and orderings in the spin, charge, and orbital degrees of freedom. The properties of these metals are frequently quite different from those of ordinary metals, as measured by transport, optical, and magnetic probes. The review first describes theoretical approaches to the unusual metallic states and to the metal-insulator transition. The Fermi-liquid theory treats the correlations that can be adiabatically connected with the noninteracting picture. Strong-coupling models that do not require Fermi-liquid behavior have also been developed. Much work has also been done on the scaling theory of the transition. A central issue for this review is the evaluation of these approaches in simple theoretical systems such as the Hubbard model and t-J models. Another key issue is strong competition among various orderings as in the interplay of spin and orbital fluctuations. Experimentally, the unusual properties of the metallic state near the insulating transition have been most extensively studied in d-electron systems. In particular, there is revived interest in transition-metal oxides, motivated by the epoch-making findings of high-temperature superconductivity in cuprates and colossal magnetoresistance in manganites. The article reviews the rich phenomena of anomalous metallicity, taking as examples Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, and Ru compounds. The diverse phenomena include strong spin and
Plotkin, S. E.; Energy Systems
This report describes the results of an effort to identify key analytic issues associated with modeling a transition to hydrogen as a fuel for light duty vehicles, and using insights gained from this effort to suggest ways to improve ongoing modeling efforts. The study reported on here examined multiple hydrogen scenarios reported in the literature, identified modeling issues associated with those scenario analyses, and examined three DOE-sponsored hydrogen transition models in the context of those modeling issues. The three hydrogen transition models are HyTrans (contractor: Oak Ridge National Laboratory), MARKAL/DOE* (Brookhaven National Laboratory), and NEMS-H2 (OnLocation, Inc). The goals of these models are (1) to help DOE improve its R&D effort by identifying key technology and other roadblocks to a transition and testing its technical program goals to determine whether they are likely to lead to the market success of hydrogen technologies, (2) to evaluate alternative policies to promote a transition, and (3) to estimate the costs and benefits of alternative pathways to hydrogen development.
Moretto, L.G.; Phair, L.; Wozniak, G.J.
A critical overview of the low energy phase transitions in nuclei is presented with particular attention to the 2nd (1st) order pairing phase transitions, and to the 1st order liquid-vapor phase transition. The role of fluctuations in washing out these transitions is discussed and illustrated with examples. A robust indicator of phase coexistence in multifragmentation is presented.
Moretto, L.G.; Phair, L.; Wozniak, G.J.
A critical overview of the low energy phase transitions in nuclei is presented with particular attention to the 2nd (1st) order pairing phase transitions, and to the 1st order liquid-vapor phase transition. The role of fluctuations in washing out these transitions is discussed and illustrated with examples. A robust indicator of phase coexistence in multifragmentation is presented
Hedman, Jonas; Xiao, Xiao
The rising of cloud computing has dramatically changed the way software companies provide and distribute their IT product and related services over the last decades. Today, most software is bought offthe-shelf and distributed over the Internet. This transition is greatly influencing how software...... companies operate. In this paper, we present a case study of an ERP vendor for SMB (small and mediumsize business) in making a transition towards a cloud-based business model. Through the theoretical lens of ecosystem, we are able to analyze the evolution of the vendor and its business network as a whole......, and find that the relationship between vendor and Value-added-Reseller (VAR) is greatly affected. We conclude by presenting critical issues and challenges for managing such cloud transition....
Hoffmann, Birgitte; Agger, Annika
The paper explores how local public authorities can support and facilitate citizens’ participa-tion and learning in sustainable transition in urban neighbourhoods, by supporting local in-termediaries. The role of intermediaries can be performed by a variety of actors such as public housing...... associations; NGO´s, or semi public institutions. Our claim is that intermediary actors have the potential to facilitate new platforms for citizens’ participation in urban sustainable transition due to their particular role in between public authorities and civil society. The key question of the paper is how...... the intermediary actors facilitate citizens' participatory processes in sustainable urban transitions, and the paper explores the concept of institutional capacity building as a way to develop learning processes and new practises? The aim is to analyse approaches of creating platforms for involving citizens...
Regnier, Yannick; Maciel, Guillaume; Zeroual, Bouchra; Leca, Christel; Guillou, Maelle; Mossalgue, Marc; Raguet, Alex; Sabot, Guillaume; Coton, Patrice; Olesen, Gunnar Boye; Friggens, Sam; Pouyet, Regis; Blanc, Nicolas; Laurent, Pierre; Ruedinger, Andreas
A set of brief articles illustrates the emergence of innovating and operational financing tools aimed at supporting energy transition in France and in Europe. As far as France is concerned, different examples are evoked: raising local savings, crowd-funding for renewable energies, citizen investment, cooperation between industries, communities and citizens, a semi-public company with citizen participation, the case of the Nancy urban community, a joint experience by a local public company and an investment fund. As far as Europe is concerned, the following topics or examples are evoked: local policies as lever for European financing, the Danish example of citizen-based financing, crowd-funding in the UK, the European emergence of cooperatives. As far as banks and institutions are concerned, the following topics are addressed: tools implemented by the Caisse des Depots for energy transition, the roles of banks and of public institutions in the financing of energy transition
An analytic treatment of the one Higgs doublet, electroweak phase transition is given. The phase transition is first order, occurs by the nucleation of thin walled bubbles and completes at a temperature where the order parameter, left-angle φ right-angle T is significantly smaller than it is when the origin becomes absolutely unstable. The rate of anomalous baryon number violation is an exponentially function of left-angle φ right-angle T . In very minimal extensions of the standard model it is quite easy to increase left-angle φ right-angle T so that anomalous baryon number violation is suppressed after completion of the phase transition. Hence baryogenesis at the electroweak phase transition is tenable in minimal of the standard model. In some cases additional phase transitions are possible. For a light Higgs boson, when the top quark mass is sufficiently large, the state where the Higgs field has a vacuum expectation value left-angle φ right-angle = 246 GeV is not the true minimum of the Higgs potential. When this is the case, and when the top quark mass exceeds some critical value, thermal fluctuations in the early universe would have rendered the state left-angle φ right-angle = 246 GeV unstable. The requirement that the state left-angle φ right-angle = 246 GeV is sufficiently long lived constrains the masses of the Higgs boson and the top quark. Finally, we consider whether local phase transitions can be induced by heavy particles which act as seeds for deformations in the scalar field
Beneš, Nikola; Křetínský, Jan; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand
Modal transition systems (MTS) is a well-studied specification formalism of reactive systems supporting a step-wise refinement methodology. Despite its many advantages, the formalism as well as its currently known extensions are incapable of expressing some practically needed aspects in the refin......Modal transition systems (MTS) is a well-studied specification formalism of reactive systems supporting a step-wise refinement methodology. Despite its many advantages, the formalism as well as its currently known extensions are incapable of expressing some practically needed aspects...
Boks, Casper; McAloone, Tim C.
In the past 15 years, stimulated by a growing environmental concern and awareness in the media, ecodesign, or design for environment, has expanded considerably as a scientific research area; from a group of opportunistic eco-pathfinders trying to optimise a product’s recyclability......, into acknowledged scientific research regarding technology transfer and commercialisation. This paper proposes that this maturing process took place through a number of transitions; this is illustrated by discussing characteristic aspects of each transition, together providing a historic account of how academic...
Full Text Available The literature has been considered by Freud and others after him, a form of unaware exploration of mind that can leads to discoveries similar to psychoanalysis’s discoveries. From this perspective, the author puts forward the following hypothesis: Pinocchio is a puppet who comes to life and is therefore, from a child's perception, a transitional object according to Winnicott. Consequently Geppetto is nothing more than the involuntary representation of any child interacting with the transitional object. The author explains the results of the analysis of the text in support of the hypothesis and reflects on the impact of The adventure of Pinocchio on the reader.
Gautier, Celia; Pescia, Dimitri; Ferreira, Francisco; Antunes, Rita; Claustre, Raphael; Priesner, Goerg C.; Pidous, Blandine; Dufour, Manon; Zuloaga, Francisco
From the Atlantic Ocean to the Baltic Sea, from Portugal to Poland through UK, Germany or Austria, energy transition is in progress everywhere in Europe, but at different rhythms and in various conditions from one country to the other. How does the European framework promote the energy transition at the local and regional scales? What advantages the most advanced countries are relying on? How do citizens and local projects take over slow or retrograde governmental policies? This dossier gives some elements of answer through an overview of some energy policy scenarios under implementation in some European countries (Germany, Portugal, Denmark, Austria, UK, Spain)
Fusion is beginning its transition from a scientific research programme to that of an engineering development programme aimed at practical applications. This transition is likely to last a decade or more because many scientific questions remain and because of the magnitude and cost of the engineering issues. This article reviews briefly the encouraging results produced at the Joint European Torus (JET) where 1.7 MW of fusion power was generated for 2 seconds in experiments in November 1991, the remaining scientific issues, the role of near-term experimental reactors like the International Thermonuclear Experimental reactor (ITER) and other approaches to a demonstration power plant. (author)
Electronic Phase Transitions deals with topics, which are presently at the forefront of scientific research in modern solid-state theory. Anderson localization, which has fundamental implications in many areas of solid-state physics as well as spin glasses, with its influence on quite different research activities such as neural networks, are two examples that are reviewed in this book. The ab initio statistical mechanics of structural phase transitions is another prime example, where the interplay and connection of two unrelated disciplines of solid-state theory - first principle ele
Illustrated by many graphs, figures, maps and tables, this Power Point document presents the main issues related to energy and concerning citizens and consumers, proposes a definition of energy transition, identifies the main levers for energy transition and the main questions raised by the objectives of energy transition: energy efficiency and sobriety, trajectory to reach the energy mix, choices related to renewable energies and to energy technologies, costs and financing, governance. Other challenges are outlined and discussed: governance, energy mix, industrial policy, competitiveness and jobs, energy management, household energy consumption and poverty, climate and energy, supply safety and trade balance, health and environmental impacts, price, cost, taxing, financing and macro-economic consistency. For each of these challenges, facts are highlighted and problems to be solved are identified
Maturo, Donna; Powell, Alexis; Major-Wilson, Hannah; Sanchez, Kenia; De Santis, Joseph P; Friedman, Lawrence B
Advances in care and treatment of adolescents/young adults with HIV infection have made survival into adulthood possible, requiring transition to adult care. Researchers have documented that the transition process is challenging for adolescents/young adults. To ensure successful transition, a formal transition protocol is needed. Despite existing research, little quantitative evaluation of the transition process has been conducted. The purpose of the study was to pilot test the "Movin' Out" Transitioning Protocol, a formalized protocol developed to assist transition to adult care. A retrospective medical/nursing record review was conducted with 38 clients enrolled in the "Movin' Out" Transitioning Protocol at a university-based adolescent medicine clinic providing care to adolescents/young adults with HIV infection. Almost half of the participants were able to successfully transition to adult care. Reasons for failure to transition included relocation, attrition, lost to follow-up, and transfer to another adult service. Failure to transition to adult care was not related to adherence issues, X(2) (1, N=38)=2.49, p=.288; substance use, X(2) (1, N=38)=1.71, p=.474; mental health issues, X(2) (1, N=38)=2.23, p=.322; or pregnancy/childrearing, X(2) (1, N=38)=0.00, p=.627). Despite the small sample size, the "Movin' Out" Transitioning Protocol appears to be useful in guiding the transition process of adolescents/young adults with HIV infection to adult care. More research is needed with a larger sample to fully evaluate the "Movin' Out" Transitioning Protocol. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Beech, Nick; Gold, Jeff; Beech, Susan
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to first consider how veterans use talk to shape interpretations of personal and social identity. Second, this paper seeks to gain an understanding of how veterans see themselves in a civilian world, their ability to re-conceptualise and realign their perspective on life to support their transition in to a…
These include: Afghanistan is the graveyard of empires ; efforts to centralize power in Afghanistan provoke local resistance; and Afghanistan is an...ethnically fragmented and decentralized country inca - pable of forming a unified state. Afghanistan in Transition Autumn 2010 7 The realities
... equality of opportunity, full participation, independent living, and economic self-sufficiency for individuals with disabilities.” [20 U.S. ... a lot of ground to cover! But it’s essential ground, if the student’s transition to the adult ...
Koenderink, Jan; van Doorn, Andrea J.; Pinna, Baingio; Wagemans, Johan
Many pictures are approximately piecewise uniform quilts. The patches meet in transitional areas that have a vague, ribbon-like geometry. These borders may occasionally get lost and sometimes pick up again, creating a 'passage' that partly blends adjacent patches. This type of structure is widely
The ferroelectric phase transition is diffuse in nature and broadening of the peak increases with La content. Keywords. PLZT ... Marssi et al (1998) concluded the PLZTs x/65/35 as a model. ∗ ... by analysing field cooled (FC) and zero field cooled (ZFC) dielectric ... material are fitted with universal dielectric behaviour within.
Bundy, Michael L., Ed.; Gumaer, James, Ed.
Focuses on disrupted families and the role of the school counselor in helping children adjust. Describes characteristics of healthy families, and discusses the transition to the blended family, effects of divorce groups on children's classroom behavior, counseling children in stepfamilies, single-parent families, and parenting strengths of single…
One of the many problems facing the countries in transition from socialism to capitalism after the initial phase of privatization and restructuring is the lack of proven entrepreneurial talent in addition to a low initial level of capital. New entrepreneurs might find it hard to finance their
Lange, Ida Sofie Gøtzsche; Laursen, Lea Louise Holst; Lassen, Claus
how a town primarily characterized by ferry transit is being challenged on its capacity to be a 'place' of meaning and social importance to its inhabitants. The paper raises the key question: Can a place become too well connected and this in such a manner that its identity and key character becomes...
Mathews, Sarah E.
Just as humming a merry tune helped Snow White and her furry animal friends to quickly clean a filthy cottage in the movie "Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs" (Disney & Cottrell, 1937), singing can be an effective way to help keep young children fully engaged during classroom transitions. The purposes of this article are to: (1) consider why…
Jeffs, Lianne; Saragosa, Marianne; Zahradnik, Michelle; Maione, Maria; Hindle, Aimee; Santiago, Cecilia; Krock, Murray; Stergiopoulos, Vicky; Bulmer, Beverly; Mitchell, Kaleil; McNamee, Colleen; Ramji, Noor
There are promising signs that interprofessional collaborative practice is associated with quality care transitions and improved access to patient-centred healthcare. A one-day symposium was held to increase awareness and capacity to deliver quality collaborative care transitions to interprofessional health disciplines and service users. A mixed methods study was used that included a pre-post survey design and interviews to examine the impact of the symposium on knowledge, attitudes and practice change towards care transitions and collaborative practice with symposium participants. Our survey results revealed a statistically significant increase in only a few of the scores towards care transitions and collaborative practice among post-survey respondents. Three key themes emerged from the qualitative analysis, including: (1) engaging the patient at the heart of interprofessional collaboration and co-design of care transitions; (2) having time to reach out, share and learn from each other; and (3) reflecting, reinforcing and revising practice. Further efforts that engage inter-organizational learning by exchanging knowledge and evaluating these forums are warranted. Copyright © 2017 Longwoods Publishing.
Eggbeer, Bill; Bowers, Krista
The transition for hospitals from having only a provider's perspective to thinking more like a health plan will require strategic alignment on four fronts: Health plan alignment. Hospital and physician alignment. Leadership alignment. Organizational alignment.
Amato, Paul R.; Kane, Jennifer B.
The authors used data from the Add Health study to estimate the effects of parents' marital status and relationship distress on daughters' early family formation transitions. Outcomes included traditional transitions (marriage and marital births) and nontraditional transitions (cohabitation and nonmarital births). Relationship distress among…
Ferrando, D; Aramburu, C E
Data from national censuses and sample surveys are the basis for this examintion of differential fertility and the fertility transition in Peru. Changes in the level and structure of fertility in the 3 major geographic regions are compared, and the role of contraceptive usage and nuptiality changes in the fertility decline are analyzed. Peru's total fertility rate was estimated at 6.85 in 1965 and has since declined to 6.56 in 1965-70, 6.00 in 1970-75, 5.30 in 1975-80, 4.65 in 1980-85, and 4.00 in 1985-90. The fertility decline varied in intensity and timing in the geographic regions. A clear fertility decline began among upper and middle income groups in the principal cities in the 1960s, spreading gradually to the urban low income sectors. Not until the late 1970s did the fertility decline spread to the rest of the population, coinciding with the years of severe economic crisis. The urban total fertility rate declined from 6 to 3.77 during 1961-86, but rural fertility increased through 1972 to 8.12, before declining slightly to 7.62 in 1981 and more markedly to 6.65 in 1986. Sociocultural and economic differences between Peru's natural regions are appreciable, and account for the contrasts in fertility trends. The greatest changes occurred in metropolitan Lima, which already had relatively low fertility in 1961. Its total fertility rate declined 44% from 5.6 in 1961 to 3.13 in 1986. Fertility declined by slightly under 40% in the rest of the coast, by almost 25% in the jungle, and by scarcely 14% in the sierra. The total fertility rates in 1961 and 1986, respectively, were 6.38 and 4.13 on the coast, 6.64 and 6.45 in the highlands, and 7.92 and 5.97 in the lowlands. The fertility decline, especially in the lower classes, was a response initially to the process of cultural modernization which in slightly over 2 decades saw a profound transformation of Peru from a rural, Andean, illiterate, and agrarian society to an urban, coastal, literate, and commercial society
This manual attempts to provide a step by step transit funding process. Included in this manual : is an overview of Caltrans Division of Mass Transportation, roles and responsibilities in : assisting local agencies to deliver transit projects. Transi...
of a sustainable mobility discourse can be traced in the policy documents, how mobility is framed, and which arguments are used to legitimate or envision strategies and planning practices. Is Fredericia performing a transition towards low-carbon mobility? The paper will draw on concepts from transition theory...... urban complexity within transition processes. Transitions are always taking place, but the question is which direction they take and if these directions are in line with a planning approach for sustainable mobility....
Baldonado, Analiza; Hawk, Ofelia; Ormiston, Thomas; Nelson, Danielle
Patients who are high risk high cost (HRHC), those with severe or multiple medical issues, and the chronically ill elderly are major drivers of rising health care costs.1 The HRHC patients with complex health conditions and functional limitations may likely go to emergency rooms and hospitals, need more supportive services, and use long-term care facilities.2 As a result, these patient populations are vulnerable to fragmented care and "falling through the cracks".2 A large county health and hospital system in California, USA introduced evidence-based interventions in accordance with the Triple AIM3 focused on patient-centered health care, prevention, health maintenance, and safe transitions across the care continuum. The pilot program embedded a Transitional Care Manager (TCM) within an outpatient Family Medicine clinic to proactively assist HRHC patients with outreach assistance, problem-solving and facilitating smooth transitions of care. This initiative is supported by a collaborative team that included physicians, nurses, specialists, health educator, and pharmacist. The initial 50 patients showed a decrease in Emergency Department (ED) encounters (pre-vs post intervention: 33 vs 17) and hospital admissions (pre-vs post intervention: 32 vs 11), improved patient outcomes, and cost saving. As an example, one patient had 1 ED visit and 5 hospital admission with total charges of $217,355.75 in the 6 months' pre-intervention with no recurrence of ED or hospital admissions in the 6 months of TCM enrollment. The preliminary findings showed improvement of patient-centered outcomes, quality of care, and resource utilization however more data is required.
Oswald, Linda; Grosser, Steffen; Smith, David M.; Käs, Josef A.
The traditional picture of tissues, where they are treated as liquids defined by properties such as surface tension or viscosity has been redefined during the last few decades by the more fundamental question: under which conditions do tissues display liquid-like or solid-like behaviour? As a result, basic concepts arising from the treatment of tissues as solid matter, such as cellular jamming and glassy tissues, have shifted into the current focus of biophysical research. Here, we review recent works examining the phase states of tissue with an emphasis on jamming transitions in cancer. When metastasis occurs, cells gain the ability to leave the primary tumour and infiltrate other parts of the body. Recent studies have shown that a linkage between an unjamming transition and tumour progression indeed exists, which could be of importance when designing surgery and treatment approaches for cancer patients.
After having recalled the main issues and stakes addressed by the French national debate on energy transition (strategic stakes, priority to a reduction of French energy consumption, options for the evolution of the French energy mix), the author comments the possible evolution of energy prices and of the energy taxing policy (evolution of oil prices, carbon price). In a second part, the author addresses the issue of financing of building and housing renovation. He shows that this operation cannot be only based on financial markets which are not efficient. This means that a public intervention is required, and different solutions are then possible. Some of them seem difficult to implement (creation of money by the central Bank, creation of a public bank which could lend money to private actors), and some others need to be further examined (creation of a financing company for energy transition, use of national savings, simplified circuits for a financing of local projects by local savings, and so on)
Tan, Biying; Zhu, Feida; Qu, Qiang
communities over time. How to automatically detect the online community transitions of individual users is a research problem of immense practical value yet with great technical challenges. In this paper, we propose an algorithm based on the Minimum Description Length (MDL) principle to trace the evolution......Mining user behavior patterns in social networks is of great importance in user behavior analysis, targeted marketing, churn prediction and other applications. However, less effort has been made to study the evolution of user behavior in social communities. In particular, users join and leave...... of community transition of individual users, adaptive to the noisy behavior. Experiments on real data sets demonstrate the efficiency and effectiveness of our proposed method....
Oswald, Linda; Grosser, Steffen; Käs, Josef A; Smith, David M
The traditional picture of tissues, where they are treated as liquids defined by properties such as surface tension or viscosity has been redefined during the last few decades by the more fundamental question: under which conditions do tissues display liquid-like or solid-like behaviour? As a result, basic concepts arising from the treatment of tissues as solid matter, such as cellular jamming and glassy tissues, have shifted into the current focus of biophysical research. Here, we review recent works examining the phase states of tissue with an emphasis on jamming transitions in cancer. When metastasis occurs, cells gain the ability to leave the primary tumour and infiltrate other parts of the body. Recent studies have shown that a linkage between an unjamming transition and tumour progression indeed exists, which could be of importance when designing surgery and treatment approaches for cancer patients. (topical review)
Allan, G.; Lannoo, M.
A calculation of the formation energy and volume for a vacancy in transition metals is described. A tight-binding scheme is used for the d band and a Born-Mayer type potential to account for the repulsive part of the energy at small distances. The results show that the relaxation energy is small in all cases, less than 0.1 eV. This seems to be coherent with the good agreement obtained for the theoretical and experimental values of the formation energy Esub(F)sup(V) of the vacancy, without including relaxation. The center of the transitional series is found to give a contraction (Formation volume of order -0.4 at.vol.) whereas the edges are found to produce dilations. (author)
Im, Eun-Ok; Lee, Seung Hee; Chee, Wonshik
To describe the experience of menopausal symptoms of midlife Black women in the United States. Qualitative online forum using a feminist perspective. Internet communities for midlife women and Blacks. Twenty midlife Black women recruited using a quota sampling method. A 6-month online forum was conducted with seven discussion topics on menopausal symptoms. The discussion topics were posted sequentially on the forum site, and the women posted messages at their convenience over 6 months. The data were analyzed using thematic analysis. The identified themes were raised to be strong, accepting a natural aging process, silent and without knowledge, and our own experience. The women tried to be strong during their menopausal transitions while dealing with other important family matters. The women did not report their menopausal symptoms and were silent about or downplayed their symptoms, but many emphasized the importance of education about menopausal symptoms and highlighted their own lack of knowledge. These women generally did not talk about their symptoms because they believed that nobody except other Black midlife women could understand their menopausal experience. Health care providers need to develop a mechanism to deliver the necessary knowledge about menopausal symptoms and management strategies to Black midlife women in their health care practices.
Les périodes de transformation risquent de provoquer le chaos, mais elles sont également porteuses de rapides progrès sur le plan social et économique. Le CRDI est intervenu dans quelque 25 pays ayant amorcé une transition de la guerre à la paix, de la dictature à la démocratie ou d'une économie fermée à une.
Van Eylen, Vincent; Albrecht, Simon
and can be described by a Rayleigh distribution with $\\sigma$ = 0.049 $\\pm$ 0.013. This is in full agreement with solar system eccentricities, but in contrast to the eccentricity distributions previously derived for exoplanets from radial velocity studies. Our findings are helpful in identifying which...... (TTVs), and we present some previously unreported TTVs. Finally transit durations help distinguish between false positives and true planets and we use our measurements to confirm six new exoplanets....
handicap in violation of Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. Title IX of the Educational Amendments of 1972 and Section 504 of the...to make productive use of the technology. Note that, for those technologies where commercialisation would be a prerequisite for institutionalisation...leverage, and nurture the ensuing transition activities (e.g., as a resource) as much as possible. This is where commercialisation would give a boost
Coherent radiation emitted from a relativistic electron bunch consists of wavelengths longer than or comparable to the bunch length. The intensity of this radiation out-numbers that of its incoherent counterpart, which extends to wavelengths shorter than the bunch length, by a factor equal to the number of electrons in the bunch. In typical accelerators, this factor is about 8 to 11 orders of magnitude. The spectrum of the coherent radiation is determined by the Fourier transform of the electron bunch distribution and, therefore, contains information of the bunch distribution. Coherent transition radiation emitted from subpicosecond electron bunches at the Stanford SUNSHINE facility is observed in the far-infrared regime through a room-temperature pyroelectric bolometer and characterized through the electron bunch-length study. To measure the bunch length, a new frequency-resolved subpicosecond bunch-length measuring system is developed. This system uses a far-infrared Michelson interferometer to measure the spectrum of coherent transition radiation through optical autocorrelation with resolution far better than existing time-resolved methods. Hence, the radiation spectrum and the bunch length are deduced from the autocorrelation measurement. To study the stimulation of coherent transition radiation, a special cavity named BRAICER is invented. Far-infrared light pulses of coherent transition radiation emitted from electron bunches are delayed and circulated in the cavity to coincide with subsequent incoming electron bunches. This coincidence of light pulses with electron bunches enables the light to do work on electrons, and thus stimulates more radiated energy. The possibilities of extending the bunch-length measuring system to measure the three-dimensional bunch distribution and making the BRAICER cavity a broadband, high-intensity, coherent, far-infrared light source are also discussed
Kettemann, S.; Mucciolo, E. R.; Varga, I.; Slevin, K.
Dilute magnetic impurities in a disordered Fermi liquid are considered close to the Anderson metal-insulator transition (AMIT). Critical power-law correlations between electron wave functions at different energies in the vicinity of the AMIT result in the formation of pseudogaps of the local density of states. Magnetic impurities can remain unscreened at such sites. We determine the density of the resulting free magnetic moments in the zero-temperature limit. While it is finite on the insulating side of the AMIT, it vanishes at the AMIT, and decays with a power law as function of the distance to the AMIT. Since the fluctuating spins of these free magnetic moments break the time-reversal symmetry of the conduction electrons, we find a shift of the AMIT, and the appearance of a semimetal phase. The distribution function of the Kondo temperature TK is derived at the AMIT, in the metallic phase, and in the insulator phase. This allows us to find the quantum phase diagram in an external magnetic field B and at finite temperature T. We calculate the resulting magnetic susceptibility, the specific heat, and the spin relaxation rate as a function of temperature. We find a phase diagram with finite-temperature transitions among insulator, critical semimetal, and metal phases. These new types of phase transitions are caused by the interplay between Kondo screening and Anderson localization, with the latter being shifted by the appearance of the temperature-dependent spin-flip scattering rate. Accordingly, we name them Kondo-Anderson transitions.
En 2002, une certaine paix sociale avait été rétablie, bien qu'elle fut instable et souvent entachée de violence. Le pays amorçait le ... mieux comprendre comment il recueille et diffuse l'information destinée ... transition) et les technologies de l'information et de la communication (TIC). Les étapes suivantes ont consisté à ...
At the occasion of the promulgation on August 17, 2015 of law no. 2015-992 relative to energy transition, this bibliography reviews the legal, economical and political aspects of the recent evolutions in the energy domain. Basic and synthetic documents are listed first. Then follow documents dealing with: general data, energy models, sustainable agriculture, green technologies, energy conservation, waste processing, renewable energy sources, sustainable cities and buildings. The bibliography ends with a selection of relevant web sites
The courseware allows users to tailor training materials to specific needs. Users access this at the CAL AKO website or Army eLearning https...usarmy.skillport.com/ skillportfe/login/usarmylogin.cfm. New users must register with eLearning . Then login, select “Army Custom Curricula” and scroll to...challenges of your transition. Patience, flexibility and a good understanding of influence techniques on your part will help make any needed realignment a
Hansen, Bertel T; Sønderskov, Kim M; Hageman, Ida
Background: Daylight savings time transitions affect approximately 1.6 billion people worldwide. Prior studies have documented associations between daylight savings time transitions and adverse health outcomes, but it remains unknown whether they also cause an increase in the incidence rate...... of depressive episodes. This seems likely because daylight savings time transitions affect circadian rhythms, which are implicated in the etiology of depressive disorder. Therefore, we investigated the effects of daylight savings time transitions on the incidence rate of unipolar depressive episodes. Methods...
Transit bus automation could deliver many potential benefits, but transit agencies need additional research and policy guidance to make informed deployment decisions. Although funding and policy constraints may play a role, there is also a reasonable...
Department of Transportation — Displays a breakdown of vessel transit through Eisenhower lock in Massena, NY by different types of vessels and comparing current year transits to the year previous....
The Enterprise Transition Plan (ETP) is the Department of Defense's integrated business transformation plan, which incorporates the transition plans of the Military Services, Components and the DoD Enterprise...
New transit investments can be a double-edged sword for disadvantaged communities (e.g., those included in environmental justice and Title VI protected classes). Transit investments improve communities mobility and access, and may improve health w...
In a first part, the author proposes an analysis of energy transition and of its consequences on the competitive environment. He recalls the main characteristics of energy transition and more particularly focuses on two aspects: the development of renewable energies and the management of demand. Thus, the author discusses the following issues: the relationship between the struggle against climate change and the low carbon economy, the development of renewable energies, the evolution and main actors of photovoltaic array and of wind turbine production, the distribution of photovoltaic and wind energy installed production among countries, and some key figures about the main renewable energy operators in Europe. He discusses how to manage consumptions, and operations performed. In a second part, the author addresses the impact of the German energy transition (Energiewende) on the business models of the main German energy operators (RWE and E.On). He recalls and comments the objective of this energy policy, presents the German electric and gas sector, comments the evolution of the electric utilities since 1998, more presently presents and discusses the activities of RWE and E.On, the evolution of their main financial indicators, and the levels of installed power with respect of energy sources
The principal point of the author was to discuss energy systems (ES) in transition, transition addresses the next 10-25 years, and strategy of the transition. He considers different scenarios of future development of ES. Further he presents considerations elaborated during the last years on the concept of novel horizontally integrated ES which gives promise to be at least an approximation to the desired object of no emissions. The main ideas of the concept are: to decompose and thereby clean all the primary inputs before they are brought to combustion; to develop a network combining all the primary inputs to an integrated supply structure of high absorption, buffer, and storage capacity that resembles in some way the supply and utility functions of the well established electric grid but completes it at best on the basis of mass flows; to achieve a high flexibility in supplying the final energy. The author considers the long run perspective of hydrogen, solar, and nuclear energy with respect to alternative energy sources. 6 refs, 24 figs
Full Text Available The transitional recession in countries of Eastern Europe has been much longer than expected. The legacy and recent policy mistakes have both contributed to the slow progress. As structural reforms and gradual institution building have taken hold, the post-socialist economics have started to recover, with some leading countries building momentum toward faster growth. There is a possibility that in wider context of globalization several of these emerging market economies will be able to catch up with the more advanced industrial economies in a matter of one or two generations. Over the past few years, most candidate countries have made progress in the transition to a competitive market economy, macroeconomic stabilization and structural reform. However their income levels have remained far below those in the Member States. Measured by per capita income in purchasing power standards, there has been a very limited amount of catching up over the past fourteen years. Prior, the distinctions between Solow-Swan model and endogenous growth model. The interdependence between transition and integration are stated in this study. Finally, some measures of macroeconomic policy for sustainable growth are proposed in correlation with real macroeconomic situation of the Romanian economy. Our study would be considered the real convergence for the Romanian economy and the recommendations for the adequate policies to achieve a fast real convergence and sustainable growth.
Full Text Available The transitional recession in countries of Eastern Europe has been much longer than expected. The legacy and recent policy mistakes have both contributed to the slow progress. As structural reforms and gradual institution building have taken hold, the post-socialist economics have started to recover, with some leading countries building momentum toward faster growth. There is a possibility that in wider context of globalization several of these emerging market economies will be able to catch up with the more advanced industrial economies in a matter of one or two generations. Over the past few years, most candidate countries have made progress in the transition to a competitive market economy, macroeconomic stabilization and structural reform. However their income levels have remained far below those in the Member States. Measured by per capita income in purchasing power standards, there has been a very limited amount of catching up over the past fourteen years. Prior, the distinctions between Solow-Swan model and endogenous growth model. The interdependence between transition and integration are stated in this study. Finally, some measures of macroeconomic policy for sustainable growth are proposed in correlation with real macroeconomic situation of the Romanian economy. Our study would be considered the real convergence for the Romanian economy and the recommendations for the adequate policies to achieve a fast real convergence and sustainable growth.
From Tobacco to Food Production: Constraints and Transition Strategies in Bangladesh. Bangladesh is one of the many countries that has not only signed but also ratified the world's first public health treaty, the World Health Organization's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC). While the Bangladeshi ...
Yu, Chia-Yuan; Lin, Hsien-Chang
Transit-related walking to work is a potential strategy for incorporating physical activity into daily life and promoting health benefits. This study estimated the transit-related walking time for work trips on the journey to and from work and examined the predictors of transit users who walked to/from transit and the workplace and those who walked 30 minutes or more per day. This study used the 2009 National Household Travel Survey and identified 772 subjects who took transit to/from work, 355 subjects who walked to/from transit and the workplace, and 145 subjects who walked 30 minutes or more per day among the 40,659 workers. Weighted logistic regressions were used for the analysis. Of the people who walked to/from transit and the workplace, 40.9% walked 30 minutes or more per day. The weighted logistic regressions revealed that low-income groups and workers living in high population density areas were more likely to walk to/from transit and the workplace. Workers living in high population density areas were more likely to walk 30 minutes or more per day. Transit-related walking to work provides an opportunity to increase physical activity levels and to meet the physical activity recommendations.
Jeffrey D. Sachs; Wing Thye Woo; Xiaokai Yang
This paper investigates the relationship between economic reforms and constitutional transition, which has been neglected by many transition economists. It is argued that assessment of reform performance might be very misleading if it is not recognized that economic reforms are just a small part of large scale of constitutional transition. Rivalry and competition between states and between political forces within each country are the driving forces for constitutional transition. We use Russia...
J. Barkley Rosser, Jr.
Full Text Available This paper traces the transition from planned command socialism to market capitalism and the accompanying complex non-linear dynamics involved. Long wave chaotic hysteretic investment cycles emerge under socialism leading to crisis and breakdown. Macroeconomic collapse occurs with bifurcations of coordination structures during transition. During recovery, transitional cobweb labor market dynamics exhibit chaos, fractal basin boundaries between coexisting non-chaotic attractors, discontinuous phase transitions, strange attractors, and cascades of infinitely many period-doubling bifurcations.
Taking a post-colonial stand and using school to work transition as an example, the author re-examines the special education discourses in Taiwan and attempts to construct alternate understandings of transition from sociological and cultural perspectives. A review of past transition literature and a survey of the educational background of the…
Chandler, K.; Eudy, L.
This report provides an evaluation of three prototype fuel cell-powered transit buses operating at AC Transit in Oakland, California, and six baseline diesel buses similar in design to the fuel cell buses.
Dann, R.K.; Crites, T.R.; Rahm-Crites, L.K.
After many years of operation as government-owned/contractor-operated facilities, large portions of the gaseous diffusion plants (GDPs) at Portsmouth, Ohio, and Paducah, Kentucky, were leased to the United States Enrichment Corporation (USEC). These facilities are now certified by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and subject to oversight by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). The transition from DOE to NRC regulation was more difficult than expected. The original commitment was to achieve NRC certification in October 1995; however, considerably more time was required and transition-related costs escalated. The Oak Ridge Operations Office originally estimated the cost of transition at $60 million; $240 million has been spent to date. The DOE's experience in transitioning the GDPs to USEC operation with NRC oversight provides valuable lessons (both positive and negative) that could be applied to future transitions
Ortiz, C. P.; Jerolmack, D. J.
Landscapes are patterns in a dynamic steady-state, due to competing processes that smooth or sharpen features over large distances and times. Geomorphic transport laws have been developed to model the mass-flux due to different processes, but are unreasonably effective at recovering the scaling relations of landscape features. Using a continuum approximation to compare experimental landscapes and the observed landscapes of the earth, one finds they share similar morphodynamics despite a breakdown of classical dynamical similarity between the two. We propose the origin of this effectiveness is a different kind of dynamic similarity in the statistics of initiation and cessation of motion of groups of grains, which is common to disordered systems of grains under external driving. We will show how the existing data of sediment transport points to common signatures with dynamical phase transitions between "mobile" and "immobile" phases in other disordered systems, particularly granular materials, colloids, and foams. Viewing landscape evolution from the lens of non-equilibrium statistical physics of disordered systems leads to predictions that the transition of bulk measurements such as particle flux is continuous from one phase to another, that the collective nature of the particle dynamics leads to very slow aging of bulk properties, and that the dynamics are history-dependent. Recent results from sediment transport experiments support these predictions, suggesting that existing geomorphic transport laws may need to be replaced by a new generation of stochastic models with ingredients based on the physics of disordered phase transitions. We discuss possible strategies for extracting the necessary information to develop these models from measurements of geomorphic transport noise by connecting particle-scale collective dynamics and space-time fluctuations over landscape features.
Hicks, C. L.; Wheatley, M. J.; Godfrey, M. J.; Moore, M. A.
The Gardner transition is the transition that at mean-field level separates a stable glass phase from a marginally stable phase. This transition has similarities with the de Almeida-Thouless transition of spin glasses. We have studied a well-understood problem, that of disks moving in a narrow channel, which shows many features usually associated with the Gardner transition. We show that some of these features are artifacts that arise when a disk escapes its local cage during the quench to higher densities. There is evidence that the Gardner transition becomes an avoided transition, in that the correlation length becomes quite large, of order 15 particle diameters, even in our quasi-one-dimensional system.
Tesař, Václav; Kordík, Jozef
Roč. 187, NOV 2012 (2012), s. 105-117 ISSN 0924-4247 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR(CZ) TA02020795; GA ČR(CZ) GPP101/12/P556; GA ČR(CZ) GCP101/11/J019 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : turbulence * synthetic jet * transition * velocity spectra Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 1.841, year: 2012 http://www. science direct.com/ science /article/pii/S0924424712005031
Fernández, Leobardo; Good, Chris; Puljiz, Mate; Ramírez, Ártico
Given a non-empty compact metric space X and a continuous function f: X → X, we study the dynamics of the induced maps on the hyperspace of non-empty compact subsets of X and on various other invariant subspaces thereof, in particular symmetric products. We show how some important dynamical properties transfer across induced systems. These amongst others include, chain transitivity, chain (weakly) mixing, chain recurrence, exactness by chains. From our main theorem we derive an ε-chain version of Furstenberg’s celebrated 2 implies n Theorem. We also show the implications our results have for dynamics on continua.
Miranda, F., E-mail: Francisco.Miranda@pwc.ca [Pratt & Whitney Canada, Longueuil, Quebec (Canada)
This article provides insight on the technical and business considerations necessary to implement or to transition to digital radiography Continued refinements in digital radiography technology have resulted in significant improvements in image quality and detectability of indications. These improvements have resulted in the acceptance of the technology by users and aerospace primes for final product inspection and disposition. Digital radiography has also been identified as an interesting cost reduction initiative with the potential of providing gains in productivity through increased throughput and decreased inspection lead-times and resulting costs. (author)
The Transition Radiation Detector (TRD) is the main electron detector in ALICE. In conduction with the TPC and the ITS, it provides the necessary electron identification capability to study: - Production of light and heavy vector mesons as well as the continuum in the di-electron channel, - Semi leptonic decays of hadrons with open charm and open beauty via the single-electron channel using the displaced vertex information provided by the ITS, - Correlated DD and BB pairs via coincidences of electrons in the central barrel and muons in the forward muon arm, - Jets with high Pτ tracks in one single TRD stack.
Heinskou, Marie Bruvik
such an approach, the complexities of sexual assault, changing power relations and unstable narratives of gender and sexuality are illuminated. The analysis shows that the traditional divide between public and private has dissolved and that public spaces of pop culture are drawn into spaces of intimacy and thereby......Through an investigation of a reported rape, this article suggests that we conceive sexuality as a transitional object that changes and transforms depending on space and temporality. This makes sexuality difficult to grasp within specific and stable frames of gender and power analysis. Applying...
Salinas, Daniel; Baker, David P
Objective Previous studies found that developed and developing countries present opposite education-overweight gradients but have not considered the dynamics at different levels of national development. A U-inverted curve is hypothesized to best describe the education-overweight association. It is also hypothesized that as the nutrition transition unfolds within nations the shape of education-overweight curve change. Design Multi-level logistic regression estimates the moderating effect of the nutrition transition at the population level on education-overweight gradient. At the individual level, a non-linear estimate of the education association assesses the optimal functional form of the association across the nutrition transition. Setting Twenty-two administrations of the Demographic and Health Survey, collected at different time points across the nutrition transition in nine Latin American/Caribbean countries. Subjects Mothers of reproductive age (15–49) in each administration (n 143,258). Results In the pooled sample, a non-linear education gradient on mothers‘ overweight is found; each additional year of schooling increases the probability of being overweight up to the end of primary schooling, after which each additional year of schooling decreases the probability of overweight. Also, as access to diets of high animal fats and sweeteners increases over time, the curve‘s critical point moves to lower education levels, the detrimental positive effect of education diminishes, and both occur as the overall risk of overweight increases with greater access to harmful diets. Conclusions Both hypotheses are supported. As the nutrition transition progresses, the education-overweight curve steadily shifts to a negative linear association with higher average risk of overweight; and education, at increasingly lower levels, acts as a “social vaccine” against increasing risk of overweight. These empirical patterns fit the general “population education
This review is to explore the childhood nutrition and health in relation to socioeconomic changes in transitional countries, and to describe the good experiences and policies in these countries to combat childhood nutritional challenges. Double burden of malnutrition - the coexistence of under-nutrition and over-nutrition in the same population - is a prominent public health concern in transitional countries. With rapid industrialization, these countries are facing a growing epidemic of overweight/obesity in children and adolescents. The increasing prevalence of childhood overweight/obesity is a likely consequence of behavioral changes, and accompanied with an increasing incidence of noncommunicable chronic diseases. Although remarkable improvement of childhood nutrition was achieved, the stunting growth and micronutrient deficiency remain to be child health issues in transitional countries. The social transition caused a broad range of nutrition-associated problems. Previous successful experiences indicated that if appropriate action is undertaken, the child nutritional problems accompanied with economic transition could be controlled to some extent. However, greater efforts are needed to improve the status of childhood nutrition in transitional countries.
Diego Carlo D'agostino
Full Text Available The project “Tiber Personal Rapid Transit” have been presented by the author at the Rome City Vision Competition1 2010, an ideas competition, which challenges architects, engineers, designers, students and creatives individuals to develop visionary urban proposals with the intention of stimulating and supporting the contemporary city, in this case Rome. The Tiber PRT proposal tries to answer the competition questions with the definition of a provocative idea: a Personal Rapid transit System on the Tiber river banks. The project is located in the central section of the Tiber river and aims at the renewal of the river banks with the insertion of a Personal Rapid Transit infrastructure. The project area include the riverbank of Tiber from Rome Transtevere RFI station to Piazza del Popolo, an area where main touristic and leisure attractions are located. The intervention area is actually no used by the city users and residents and constitute itself a strong barrier in the heart of the historic city.
The preparation for decontamination and decommissioning (transition) of the 309 Building is projected to be completed by the end of the fiscal year (FY) 1998. The major stabilization and decontamination efforts include the Plutonium Recycle Test Reactor (PRTR), fuel storage and transfer pits, Transfer Waste (TW) tanks and the Ion Exchange Vaults. In addition to stabilizing contaminated areas, equipment, components, records, waste products, etc., will be dispositioned. All nonessential systems, i.e., heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC), electrical, monitoring, fluids, etc., will be shut down and drained/de-energized. This will allow securing of the process, laboratory, and office areas of the facility. After that, the facility will be operated at a level commensurate with its surveillance needs while awaiting D ampersand D. The implementation costs for FY 1995 through FY 1998 for the transition activities are estimated to be $1,070K, $2,115K, $2,939K, and $4,762K, respectively. Costs include an assumed company overhead of 20% and a 30% out year contingency
This project is concerned with the development and applications of generalized transition state theory and multidimensional tunneling approximations to chemical reaction rates. They have developed and implemented several practical versions of variational transition state theory (VTST), namely canonical variational theory (CVT), improved canonical variational theory (ICVT), and microcanonical variational theory (μVT). They have also developed and implemented several accurate multidimensional semiclassical tunneling approximations, the most accurate of which are the small-curvature semiclassical adiabatic (SCSA), large-curvature version-3 (LC3), and least-action (LA) approximations. They have applied the methods to thermal rate constants, using transmission coefficients based on ground-state tunneling, and they have also presented and applied adiabatic and diabatic extensions to calculated rate constants for vibrationally excited reactants. Their general goal is to develop accurate methods for calculating chemical reaction rate constants that remain practical even for reasonably complicated molecules. The approximations mentioned above yield rate constants for systems whose potential energy surface is known or assumed. Thus a second, equally important aspect of their work is the determination or modeling, semi-empirically and/or from electronic structure calculations, of potential energy surfaces
Health effects of measures and technologies of the energy transition. The views expressed in this paper need not necessarily coincide with those of the Environment Agency; Gesundheitliche Auswirkungen von Massnahmen und Technologien der Energiewende. Die in diesem Beitrag geaeusserten Ansichten muessen nicht notwendigerweise mit denen des Umweltbundesamtes uebereinstimmen
Plass, Dietrich [Umweltbundesamt, Berlin (Germany). Fachrichtung: Expositionsschaetzung, gesundheitsbezogene Indikatoren; Conrad, Andre
A sustainable supply of future generations with energy is not possible on the basis of fossil and nuclear energy sources. With the measures and technologies used, energy transition offers the opportunity to gradually reduce the use of these energy sources and to convert the energy supply system to the use of renewable energies. This chapter has shown that the departure from the existing system can contribute to a significant improvement in the health of the population. However, it is important parallel to the nationwide implementation of measures and technologies of the energy transition to ensure a continuous monitoring of possible health effects in order to be able to respond to potential risks at an early stage and to take adequate measures to reduce them. [German] Eine nachhaltige Versorgung zukuenftiger Generationen mit Energie ist auf Basis fossiler und nuklearer Energiequellen nicht moeglich. Die Energiewende bietet mit den eingesetzten Massnahmen und Technologien die Moeglichkeit, die Nutzung dieser Energiequellen sukzessiv abzubauen und das Energieversorgungssystem auf die Verwendung erneuerbarer Energien umzustellen. Das vorliegende Kapitel hat aufgezeigt, dass die Abkehr vom bestehenden System zu einer deutlichen Verbesserung der Bevoelkerungsgesundheit beitragen kann. Es ist jedoch wichtig, bei der flaechendeckenden Einfuehrung von Massnahmen und Technologien der Energiewende eine kontinuierliche Beobachtung moeglicher Effekte auf die Gesundheit sicherzustellen, um fruehzeitig auf potenzielle Risiken reagieren zu koennen und adaequate Massnahmen zu ihrer Reduktion zu ergreifen.
Altman, Stephanie; O'Connor, Sarah; Anapolsky, Ellyce; Sexton, Laura
While all children face challenges as they become adults, children with chronic medical conditions or disabilities face unique barriers in their transition to adulthood. Children, especially those who are low income and have special needs, are eligible for a range of supports including income supports, health care coverage, vocational and educational supports. These supports are critical to sound health because they ensure access to necessary medical services, while also offsetting the social determinants that negatively affect health. Unfortunately, as children transition into adulthood, eligibility for these benefits can change abruptly or even end entirely. If medical providers have a better understanding of five transition key dates, they can positively impact their patients' health by ensuring continuous coverage through the transition to adulthood. The key dates are as follows: (1) transition services for students with an Individualized Education Program (IEP) must begin by age 16 (in some states such as Illinois, these services must be in place by age 14 1/2); (2) at age 18, eligibility for income supports may change; (3) at age 19, eligibility for Medicaid may change; (4) at graduation, eligibility for educational supports will end unless steps are taken to extend those benefits until age 22; and (5) when individuals prepare to enter the workforce, they will become eligible for vocational rehabilitation services. With an understanding of these key transition dates and how to partner with social services and advocacy organizations on behalf of their patients, medical providers can help to ensure that transition-age patients retain the holistic social services and supports they need to protect their health.
Roager, Henrik Munch; Hansen, Lea Benedicte Skov; Bahl, Martin Iain
Little is known about how colonic transit time relates to human colonic metabolism, and its importance for host health, although stool consistency, a proxy for colonic transit time, has recently been negatively associated with gut microbial richness. To address the relationships between colonic t...... imply a healthy gut microbial ecosystem and points at colonic transit time as a highly important factor to consider in microbiome and metabolomics studies.......Little is known about how colonic transit time relates to human colonic metabolism, and its importance for host health, although stool consistency, a proxy for colonic transit time, has recently been negatively associated with gut microbial richness. To address the relationships between colonic...... transit time and the gut microbial composition and metabolism, we assessed the colonic transit time of 98 subjects using radiopaque markers, and profiled their gut microbiota by16S rRNA gene sequencing and their urine metabolome by ultra performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. Based...
Bronzaft, Arline L
From the latter part of the 19th century, when New York City trains began to operate, until the present time, New York City's Transit Authority has received train noise complaints from riders and residents living near its transit system. The growing body of literature demonstrating the adverse effects of noise on physical and mental health raises the question as to whether transit noise is hazardous to the health of New York City's transit riders and residents living near the transit system. Several studies have examined the impacts of the noise of New York's transit system on hearing, health and learning. Despite the Transit Authority's efforts to remedy transit noise in response to complaints, the noise problem has not yet been satisfactorily ameliorated. This paper will suggest how the Transit Authority could employ techniques that could lower the noise levels of its system and benefit the health and welfare of New Yorkers. The recommendations in this paper could also apply to other cities with major transit systems where noise abatement has not been treated seriously.
Arline L Bronzaft
Full Text Available From the latter part of the 19 th century, when New York City trains began to operate, until the present time, New York City′s Transit Authority has received train noise complaints from riders and residents living near its transit system. The growing body of literature demonstrating the adverse effects of noise on physical and mental health raises the question as to whether transit noise is hazardous to the health of New York City′s transit riders and residents living near the transit system. Several studies have examined the impacts of the noise of New York′s transit system on hearing, health and learning. Despite the Transit Authority′s efforts to remedy transit noise in response to complaints, the noise problem has not yet been satisfactorily ameliorated. This paper will suggest how the Transit Authority could employ techniques that could lower the noise levels of its system and benefit the health and welfare of New Yorkers. The recommendations in this paper could also apply to other cities with major transit systems where noise abatement has not been treated seriously.
Lawson, Lisa; Harfe, Brian D
A tissue that commonly deteriorates in older vertebrates is the intervertebral disc, which is located between the vertebrae. Age-related changes in the intervertebral discs are thought to cause most cases of back pain. Back pain affects more than half of people over the age of 65, and the treatment of back pain costs 50-100 billion dollars per year in the USA. The normal intervertebral disc is composed of three distinct regions: a thick outer ring of fibrous cartilage called the annulus fibrosus, a gel-like material that is surrounded by the annulus fibrosus called the nucleus pulposus, and superior and inferior cartilaginous end plates. The nucleus pulposus has been shown to be critical for disc health and function. Damage to this structure often leads to disc disease. Recent reports have demonstrated that the embryonic notochord, a rod-like structure present in the midline of vertebrate embryos, gives rise to all cell types found in adult nuclei pulposi. The mechanism responsible for the transformation of the notochord into nuclei pulposi is unknown. In this review, we discuss potential molecular and physical mechanisms that may be responsible for the notochord to nuclei pulposi transition.
Albala, C; Vio, F; Yáñez, M
In the last decade, Latin America has experienced important transformations in its health conditions, due to demographic changes and a rapid urbanization process. To analyze socioeconomic, demographic and epidemiological changes in Chile, Guatemala, Mexico and Uruguay and relate them to the different stages in the demographic and epidemiological transition of these countries. Data was obtained from official information of local and international organizations such as Pan-American Health Organization, United Nations, Latin American Center for Demography (CELADE) and World Bank. Guatemala is in a pre-transition stage with a high proportion of communicable diseases as causes of death (61%) as compared with Mexico (22%), Chile (13%) and Uruguay (7%). Mexico is in a prolonged transition situation and Chile is close to Uruguay in a post-transitional stage. Despite decreasing rates of mortality, the proportion of deaths represented by chronic diseases and injuries has increased to over 30% in all countries, except Uruguay. Adjusted mortality rates for cardiovascular diseases are lower in Latin American countries, as compared to Canada. However, excepting Guatemala, there are differences in the pattern of cardiovascular disease, with a higher mortality due to cerebrovascular and a lower mortality due to coronary artery diseases. An increment in non communicable diseases is expected for the next decades in Latin America. Analysis of demographic and epidemiological transition is crucial to define health policies and to adequate health systems to the new situations.
Chung, Richard J; Jasien, Joan; Maslow, Gary R
Youth with special health care needs often experience difficulty transitioning from pediatric to adult care. These difficulties may derive in part from lack of physician training in transition care and the challenges health care providers experience establishing interdisciplinary partnerships to support these patients. This educational innovation sought to improve pediatrics and adult medicine residents' interdisciplinary communication and collaboration. Residents from pediatrics, medicine-pediatrics, and internal medicine training programs participated in a transitions clinic for patients with chronic health conditions aged 16 to 26 years. Residents attended 1 to 4 half-day clinic sessions during 1-month ambulatory rotations. Pediatrics/adult medicine resident dyads collaboratively performed psychosocial and medical transition consultations that addressed health care navigation, self-care, and education and vocation topics. Two to 3 attending physicians supervised each clinic session (4 hours) while concurrently seeing patients. Residents completed a preclinic survey about baseline attitudes and experiences, and a postclinic survey about their transitions clinic experiences, changes in attitudes, and transition care preparedness. A total of 46 residents (100% of those eligible) participated in the clinic and completed the preclinic survey, and 25 (54%) completed the postclinic survey. A majority of respondents to the postclinic survey reported positive experiences. Residents in both pediatrics and internal medicine programs reported improved preparedness for providing transition care to patients with chronic health conditions and communicating effectively with colleagues in other disciplines. A dyadic model of collaborative transition care training was positively received and yielded improvements in immediate self-assessed transition care preparedness.
The structure of the set of all the invariant probabilities and the structure of various types of individual invariant probabilities of a transition function are two topics of significant interest in the theory of transition functions, and are studied in this book. The results obtained are useful in ergodic theory and the theory of dynamical systems, which, in turn, can be applied in various other areas (like number theory). They are illustrated using transition functions defined by flows, semiflows, and one-parameter convolution semigroups of probability measures. In this book, all results on transition probabilities that have been published by the author between 2004 and 2008 are extended to transition functions. The proofs of the results obtained are new. For transition functions that satisfy very general conditions the book describes an ergodic decomposition that provides relevant information on the structure of the corresponding set of invariant probabilities. Ergodic decomposition means a splitting of t...
Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li; Skjoldjensen, Frederik Rye
of states and transitions) of the subsequence automaton is O(nσ) and that this bound is asymptotically optimal. In this paper, we consider subsequence automata with default transitions, that is, special transitions to be taken only if none of the regular transitions match the current character, and which do...... not consume the current character. We show that with default transitions, much smaller subsequence automata are possible, and provide a full trade-off between the size of the automaton and the delay, i.e., the maximum number of consecutive default transitions followed before consuming a character......(nσ) and delay O(1), thus matching the bound for the standard subsequence automaton construction. The key component of our result is a novel hierarchical automata construction of independent interest....
Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li; Skjoldjensen, Frederik Rye
of states and transitions) of the subsequence automaton is O(nσ) and that this bound is asymptotically optimal. In this paper, we consider subsequence automata with default transitions, that is, special transitions to be taken only if none of the regular transitions match the current character, and which do...... not consume the current character. We show that with default transitions, much smaller subsequence automata are possible, and provide a full trade-off between the size of the automaton and the delay, i.e., the maximum number of consecutive default transitions followed before consuming a character......(1), thus matching the bound for the standard subsequence automaton construction. Finally, we generalize the result to multiple strings. The key component of our result is a novel hierarchical automata construction of independent interest....
Chomaz, Ph.; Duflot, V.; Duflot, V.; Gulminelli, F.
In this paper we present a review of selected aspects of Phase transitions in finite systems applied in particular to the liquid-gas phase transition in nuclei. We show that the problem of the non existence of boundary conditions can be solved by introducing a statistical ensemble with an averaged constrained volume. In such an ensemble the microcanonical heat capacity becomes negative in the transition region. We show that the caloric curve explicitly depends on the considered transformation of the volume with the excitation energy and so does not bear direct informations on the characteristics of the phase transition. Conversely, partial energy fluctuations are demonstrated to be a direct measure of the equation of state. Since the heat capacity has a negative branch in the phase transition region, the presence of abnormally large kinetic energy fluctuations is a signal of the liquid gas phase transition. (author)
Mikkelsen, Jacob Bjerre; Lange, Ida Sofie Gøtzsche
from the 'Everyday World'. Within mobilities studies, research has focused on different aspects and consequences of the post-oil society (see Dennis & Urry 2009, Urry 2013). This paper discusses the conception of place within the enclosed 'Oil World' with point of departure in relocation...... and redefinition of oil rigs from an urban design perspective. The paper constitutes a theoretical basis for future design scenarios - exemplified through visionary urban design proposals for a specific site in the city of Esbjerg, Denmark. Relocating rigs to an urban context initiates discussions of conception...... of 'Place' questioning the fixity of 'Place' (Jensen 2010). Scoped through a relational sense of place (Massey 1993) and the potential of exploring new relations between places (Burns & Kahn 2005), the paper challenges the notion of 'Place as God' (Hvattum 2010). These places in transition contest...
Larsen, Britt Østergaard; Jensen, Leif; Pilegaard Jensen, Torben
statistical model of educational progression. By using this method, we parcel educational attainment into a series of transitions and the model is able to control for educational selection and unobserved heterogeneity. We apply counterfactual analyses to allow a formal decomposition of the effects of social......The purpose of this article is to investigate educational choices and attainment of children who experience social problems during their upbringing. The study explores the extent to which social problems can help explain the gaps in entry and dropout rates in upper secondary education in Denmark...... between students from different socioeconomic backgrounds. Population-based registers are used to include information on family upbringing, e.g. alcohol abuse, criminality, use of psychopharmaca and out-of-home placement. We estimate a parsimonious version of Cameron and Heckman's (2001) dynamic...
Viterna, Larry A.
A government, industry, and university cooperative is developing an advanced hybrid electric city transit bus. Goals of this effort include doubling the fuel economy compared to current buses and reducing emissions to one-tenth of current EPA standards. Unique aspects of the vehicle's power system include the use of ultra-capacitors as an energy storage system, and a planned natural gas fueled turbogenerator developed from a small jet engine. Power from both the generator and energy storage system is provided to a variable speed electric motor attached to the rear axle. At over 15000 kg gross weight, this is the largest vehicle of its kind ever built using ultra-capacitor energy storage. This paper describes the overall power system architecture, the evolution of the control strategy, and its performance over industry standard drive cycles.
Miyazono, Kazuhiro; Fukuda, Kazuo; Toyonaga, Atsushi
A new technique employed sup(99m)Tc-MAA for the study of esophageal dysfunction and its clinical implication were evaluated in the patients with achalasia, progressive systemic sclerosis, reflux esophagitis and 10 normal controls. To investigate esophageal emptying and gastroesophageal reflux, a homogeneous bolus of sup(99m)Tc-MAA in 15ml of water was swallowed in the upright and supine positions under the collimeter of a gamma camera linked to nuclear medicine data analyser (Shimazu Scinti Pack 1200). This radionuclide transit studies made a quantitative evaluation of the esophageal dysfunction possible in all cases. Comparing the conventional esophageal function test procedures, this test is a safe, noninvasive and more physiological and sensitive in detecting abnormal esophageal emptying and gastroesophageal reflux. (author)
By presenting examples and experiments implemented in France, this publication illustrates the various ways to translate the objectives of energy transition into practical actions. A first part addresses the building sector and shows how to better renovate buildings: exemplary rehabilitations, techniques of construction to decrease energy consumption and equipment to control it, insulation by vegetal fibres, control of consumption decrease. The second part addresses the development of renewable energies: a heat network for household heating, innovative use of biogas, production of hot water by using solar energy, a waste incineration plant, heating by using waste waters. The third part addresses the promotion of circular economy: a recycling project, an optics-based glass sorting system, the commitment of Parisian restaurateurs for waste valorisation, a plant for waste sorting and valorisation
Osorio M.R. Zapatero
Full Text Available Thanks to different ground-based surveys and space missions, nowadays we have a fairly large sample of discovered extra-solar planets to study and, without a doubt, this number will increase in the future. One of the most succesful techniques that allows us to prove the physical properties and atmospheric composition of these exoplanets is transmission spectroscopy. The level of precision that is require to measure these effects provides a technical challenge that is solved by using big telescopes and stable instruments to reach low noise levels. In this article, we will discuss the use of the 10m class telescope GTC to observed planetary transits in spectroscopic mode and some of the results that we are currently obtaining.
Olesen, Kristian; Richardson, Tim
In this paper, we analyse how contested transitions in planning rationalities and spatial logics have shaped the processes and outputs of recent episodes of Danish ‘strategic spatial planning’. The practice of ‘strategic spatial planning’ in Denmark has undergone a concerted reorientation...... style of ‘strategic spatial planning’ with its associated spatial logics is continuously challenged by a persistent regulatory, top-down rationality of ‘strategic spatial planning’, rooted in spatial Keynesianism, which has long characterised the Danish approach. The findings reveal the emergence...... of a particularly Danish approach, retaining strong regulatory aspects. However this approach does not sit easily within the current neoliberal political climate, raising concerns of an emerging crisis of ‘strategic spatial planning’....
Sherman, M. C.; Corcelli, S. A.
Fewest-switches surface hopping (FSSH) is combined with transition path sampling (TPS) to produce a new method called nonadiabatic path sampling (NAPS). The NAPS method is validated on a model electron transfer system coupled to a Langevin bath. Numerically exact rate constants are computed using the reactive flux (RF) method over a broad range of solvent frictions that span from the energy diffusion (low friction) regime to the spatial diffusion (high friction) regime. The NAPS method is shown to quantitatively reproduce the RF benchmark rate constants over the full range of solvent friction. Integrating FSSH within the TPS framework expands the applicability of both approaches and creates a new method that will be helpful in determining detailed mechanisms for nonadiabatic reactions in the condensed-phase.
Previous communications have described some of the many changes that will occur in the next few months as AGU makes the transition to fully electronic publishing. With the advent of the new AGU electronic publishing system, manuscripts will be submitted, edited, reviewed, and published in electronic formats. This piece discusses how the electronic journals will differ from the print journals. Electronic publishing will require some adjustments to the ways we currently think about journals from our perspective of standard print versions. Visiting the Web site of AGU's Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems (G-Cubed) is a great way to get familiar with the look and feel of electronic publishing. However, protocols, especially for citations of articles, are still evolving. Some of the biggest changes for users of AGU publications may be the lack of page numbers, the use of a unique identifier (DOI),and changes in citation style.
Adamchik, Vera A.; Brada, Josef C.; King, Arthur E.
We examine the extent to which workers in transition and developed market economies are able to obtain wages that fully reflect their skills and labor force characteristics. We find that workers in two transition economies, the Czech Republic and Poland, are able to better attain the maximum wage available than are workers in a sample of developed market economies. This greater wage-setting efficiency in the transition economies ap-pears to be more the result of social and demographic charact...
This paper reviews the ground state and transition charge densities in nuclei via electron scattering. Using electrons as a spectroscopic tool in nuclear physics, these transition densities can be determined with high precision, also in the nuclear interior. These densities generally ask for a microscopic interpretation in terms of contributions from individual nucleons. The results for single particle transitions confirm the picture of particle-phonon coupling. (Auth.)
Osborn, R.; Lovesey, S.W.; Taylor, A.D.; Balcar, E.
Neutron inelastic scattering is used here to attempt to obtain optical spectra for lanthanide metals and compounds. Intermultiplet spectroscopy provides information about transitions from different electronic configurations and hybridisation of the 4f shell. This report discusses the relatively limited contribution that neutron scattering has played in intermultiplet spectroscopy, and covers spin-orbit transitions and coulomb transitions Racah algebra is developed in calculating the scattering cross sections. (author)
Full Text Available In this paper, we consider the transition complexity of regular languages based on the incomplete deterministic finite automata. A number of results on Boolean operations have been obtained. It is shown that the transition complexity results for union and complementation are very different from the state complexity results for the same operations. However, for intersection, the transition complexity result is similar to that of state complexity.
The current state of nuclear regulations in the USA is examined. Since Three Mile Island the regulation of the nuclear power industry has been undergoing a noticeable transition. It will be argued here that the transition is characterized by two indicia. First, the primary focus of state and federal regulators has been on the financial aspects of the industry: this is best seen in the context of decisions allocating the costs of nuclear plant cancellations. Second, decisionmaking power has been decentralized: although the regulatory history of nuclear power demonstrates the tradition of centralized decisionmaking power (i.e., formerly the primary decisionmaking body was the Atomic Energy Commission), now States share decisionmaking power with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. In Section 1 a brief legislative history of nuclear regulation is presented to establish the assertion that nuclear regulation, both de jure and de facto, was centralized. Next, Section 2 canvasses recent United States Supreme Court opinions regarding nuclear regulation. The Court frequently acts as policymaker through the consequences of its opinions, if not by its intent. In the area of nuclear policymaking, the Court has paid allegiance recently both to the tradition of centralization and to the movement toward decentralization. This dualism is reflected in other federal court decisions as well which will be briefly mentioned. Continuing the analysis of Federal regulation, Section 3 examines the current reform efforts of the NRC. Section 4 presents an examination of State responses to nuclear plant cancellations. In this section, State administrative agency and court decisions will be examined and recent State legislation will be discussed. (author)
Tomain, J.P. (Cincinnati Univ., OH, US. Coll. of Law)
The current state of nuclear regulations in the USA is examined. Since Three Mile Island the regulation of the nuclear power industry has been undergoing a noticeable transition. It will be argued here that the transition is characterized by two indicia. First, the primary focus of state and federal regulators has been on the financial aspects of the industry: this is best seen in the context of decisions allocating the costs of nuclear plant cancellations. Second, decisionmaking power has been decentralized: although the regulatory history of nuclear power demonstrates the tradition of centralized decisionmaking power (i.e., formerly the primary decisionmaking body was the Atomic Energy Commission), now States share decisionmaking power with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. In Section 1 a brief legislative history of nuclear regulation is presented to establish the assertion that nuclear regulation, both de jure and de facto, was centralized. Next, Section 2 canvasses recent United States Supreme Court opinions regarding nuclear regulation. The Court frequently acts as policymaker through the consequences of its opinions, if not by its intent. In the area of nuclear policymaking, the Court has paid allegiance recently both to the tradition of centralization and to the movement toward decentralization. This dualism is reflected in other federal court decisions as well which will be briefly mentioned. Continuing the analysis of Federal regulation, Section 3 examines the current reform efforts of the NRC. Section 4 presents an examination of State responses to nuclear plant cancellations. In this section, State administrative agency and court decisions will be examined and recent State legislation will be discussed.
Svanholm, Jette Rolf; Ludvigsen, Mette Spliid; Aagaard, Hanne
University, Denmark Jeanette.Svanholm@skejby.rm.dk, Mette.Ludvigsen@skejby.rm.dk, Hanne.Aagaard@skejby.rm.dk Background: Adolescents do not get involved in the preparation and planning of their health care transition, which leaves them with negative experiences and feelings of not having their health care......’ with congenial heart diseases, chronic kidney diseases and cystic fibrosis perspective. Objective: To study experiences of transition in adolescents with severe chronic diseases in the context of child-centred health care to adult-centred health care Research questions: • What are the adolescents’ experiences...... study, longitudinal design • systematic literature search • ethnographic fieldwork (Hammersley, Atkinson 2007) o participant observations of consultations between adolescents and health care staff o individual semi-structured interviews with the adolescents (Kvale, Brinkmann 2009). Participants...
Donna L. M. Kurtz
Full Text Available Increasing Indigenous health care professional presence in health care aims to reduce health inequities of Indigenous Peoples in Canada. Nurses are the largest health professional group and nurse graduates the main source of recruitment. The quality of graduate transition to practice is evident in the literature; however, little is reported about Indigenous new graduates. We describe using Indigenous methodology and two-eyed seeing (Indigenous and Western perspectives in exploring Indigenous transition experiences. Talking circles provided a safe environment for nurses, nurse educators and students, health managers, and policy makers to discuss Indigenous new graduate case scenarios. The methodology was critical in identifying challenges faced, recommendations for change, and a new collective commitment for cultural safety education, and ethical and respectful relationships within education, practice, and policy.
Bezchastnov, Victor G.; Pavlov, George G.
A charged particle in a magnetic field possesses discrete energy levels associated with particle rotation around the field lines. The radiative transitions between these levels are the well-known cyclotron transitions. We show that a bound complex of particles with a nonzero net charge displays analogous transitions between the states of confined motion of the entire complex in the field. The latter bound-ion cyclotron transitions are affected by a coupling between the collective and internal motions of the complex and, as a result, differ from the transitions of a "reference" bare ion with the same mass and charge. We analyze the cyclotron transitions for complex ions by including the coupling within a rigorous quantum approach. Particular attention is paid to comparison of the transition energies and oscillator strengths to those of the bare ion. Selection rules based on integrals of collective motion are derived for the bound-ion cyclotron transitions analytically, and the perturbation and coupled-channel approaches are developed to study the transitions quantitatively. Representative examples are considered and discussed for positive and negative atomic and cluster ions.
Cummings Greta G
Full Text Available Abstract Background Changes in health status, triggered by events such as infections, falls, and geriatric syndromes, are common among nursing home (NH residents and necessitate transitions between NHs and Emergency Departments (EDs. During transitions, residents frequently experience care that is delayed, unnecessary, not evidence-based, potentially unsafe, and fragmented. Furthermore, a high proportion of residents and their family caregivers report substantial unmet needs during transitions. This study is part of a program of research whose overall aim is to improve quality of care for frail older adults who reside in NHs. The purpose of this study is to identify successful transitions from multiple perspectives and to identify organizational and individual factors related to transition success, in order to inform improvements in care for frail elderly NH residents during transitions to and from acute care. Specific objectives are to: 1. define successful and unsuccessful elements of transitions from multiple perspectives; 2. develop and test a practical tool to assess transition success; 3. assess transition processes in a discrete set of transfers in two study sites over a one year period; 4. assess the influence of organizational factors in key practice locations, e.g., NHs, emergency medical services (EMS, and EDs, on transition success; and 5. identify opportunities for evidence-informed management and quality improvement decisions related to the management of NH – ED transitions. Methods/Design This is a mixed-methods observational study incorporating an integrated knowledge translation (IKT approach. It uses data from multiple levels (facility, care unit, individual and sources (healthcare providers, residents, health records, and administrative databases. Discussion Key to study success is operationalizing the IKT approach by using a partnership model in which the OPTIC governance structure provides for team decision-makers and
Chandler, K.; Eudy, L.
This report provides preliminary results from a National Renewable Energy Laboratory evaluation of a protoptye fuel cell transit bus operating at Connecticut Transit in Hartford. Included are descriptions of the planned fuel cell bus demonstration and equipment; early results and agency experience are also provided.
D.A. Loorbach (Derk); R. Kemp (René)
textabstractThe term transition is a key term of the fourth national environmental policy plan (NMP4, 2001), which put forward transition management (Rotmans et al, 2000) as a new policy approach for dealing with persistent and highly complex societal problems such as climate change, loss of
Tan, Adrienne; Philipp, Diane; Malat, Jan; Feder, Victor; Kulkarni, Chetana; Lawson, Andrea; So, Vivien; Ravitz, Paula
Disruptions are inevitable during psychiatry residency training and can affect resident learning and patient care. This exploratory study examined the nature and impact of transitions in psychotherapy training. PGY2-5 residents (45/150; 30% response rate) and psychotherapy supervisors (46/247; 18.6% response rate) were surveyed about transitional events during residency training in psychotherapy. Supervisors and residents ranked the frequency of occurrence of transitional events and their impact very similarly, as well as the "feed forward" items when transitioning to a new supervisor. Residents feeling confused or overwhelmed with the balancing of learning differing models with differing levels of comfort or knowledge was ranked as the issue that occurred most frequently by both supervisors and residents. This study highlights issues that arise at transitions during psychotherapy training in psychiatry residency. Strategies for managing these periods are discussed, with a focus on resident learning and improved continuity of patient care.
Belyaev, V.B.; Miller, M.B.
Full text: The spectra in some light nuclei have one interesting property. For example, in the closed vicinity of some resonance states of such nuclei as 5 He, 8 Be, 18 F, 18 Ne the thresholds exist for two- or three-body decay of those nuclei. Let us consider the lightest of the above nuclei, 5 He. The energy threshold for 5 He > d+t decay is ∼50 keV lower than the energy of 3/2 + state of 5 He nucleus. However, due to a rather large width of this state, ∼70 keV, the nuclear capture of deuterons by tritons in dtm-molecule is highly enhanced in comparison with the process of dd capture in the ddm molecule. The physical reason for the enhancement of the probability of the capture into the resonant state can be associated with a long tail of wave function of the resonant state and, accordingly, with the large value of the overlap integral determining in general the probability of the transition between two systems. Thus, one can expect the enhancement of the molecular-nuclear transitions, and this was indeed observed experimentally for the case of dtm molecule. Now, let us consider some other molecular-nuclear combinations: 18 Ne - H 2 O, 18 F - 17 OH, and 8 Be - 6 LiD molecule. With the high accuracy the energies of the above molecular systems coincide with the energies of the resonant states in the appropriate nuclei. Due to the uncertainty in the experimental nuclear data it is not known at present whether the energies of these thresholds are lower or higher of the corresponding energies of the nuclear resonances. Let us assume that the molecular energy is few keV over the energy of the nuclear resonance. Then, we will deal with a very interesting phenomenon: the molecular-nuclear complex constitutes a two level system, which in some sense is analogous to the two-level atomic system, as in a laser. The crucial difference between this one and the two-level atomic systems consists in a fact that in the molecular-nuclear case no special procedure of pumping up
Tanner, Amanda E; Philbin, Morgan M; DuVal, Anna; Ellen, Jonathan; Kapogiannis, Bill; Fortenberry, J Dennis
To maximize positive health outcomes for youth with HIV as they transition from youth to adult care, clinical staff need strategies and protocols to help youth maintain clinic engagement and medication adherence. Accordingly, this paper describe transition processes across twelve clinics within the Adolescent Medicine Trials Network for HIV/AIDS Interventions (ATN) to provide lessons learned and inform the development of transition protocols to improve health outcomes as youth shift from adolescent to adult HIV care. During a large multi-method Care Initiative program evaluation, three annual visits were completed at each site from 2010-2012 and conducted 174 semi-structured interviews with clinical and program staff (baseline n=64, year 1 n=56, year 2=54). The results underscore the value of adhering to recent American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) transition recommendations, including: developing formal transition protocols, preparing youth for transition, facilitating youth's connection to the adult clinic, and identifying necessary strategies for transition evaluation. Transitioning youth with HIV involves targeting individual-, provider-, and system-level factors. Acknowledging and addressing key barriers is essential for developing streamlined, comprehensive, and context-specific transition protocols. Adolescent and adult clinic involvement in transition is essential to reduce service fragmentation, provide coordinated and continuous care, and support individual and community level health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
J. Rotmans (Jan); D.A. Loorbach (Derk); R. Kemp (René)
textabstractTransition management has rapidly emerged over the past few years as a new approach to dealing with complex societal problems and governance in the context of these problems. In the Netherland, UK and Belgium, serious efforts have been and are being undertaken to develop transition