Hanlin, Rebecca; Andersen, Margrethe Holm
The Global Network for the Economics of Learning, Innovation, and Competence Building Systems (Globelics) is an open and diverse community of scholars working on innovation and competence building in the context of economic development. The major purpose of the network is to contribute to buildin...
Home · What we do ... As a result, Pakistan's health system has suffered and health service delivery has worsened. ... This four-year project aims to strengthen health systems governance for reproductive health and rights in Pakistan.
Petersen, Poul Erik
is either due to low availability and accessibility of oral health care or because oral health care is costly. In all countries, the poor and disadvantaged population groups are heavily affected by a high burden of oral disease compared to well-off people. Promotion of oral health and prevention of oral...... diseases must be provided through financially fair primary health care and public health intervention. Integrated approaches are the most cost-effective and realistic way to close the gap in oral health between rich and poor. The World Health Organization (WHO) Oral Health Programme will work......Around the globe many people are suffering from oral pain and other problems of the mouth or teeth. This public health problem is growing rapidly in developing countries where oral health services are limited. Significant proportions of people are underserved; insufficient oral health care...
Atun, Rifat; Weil, Diana E C; Eang, Mao Tan; Mwakyusa, David
Weak health systems are hindering global efforts for tuberculosis care and control, but little evidence is available on effective interventions to address system bottlenecks. This report examines published evidence, programme reviews, and case studies to identify innovations in system design and tuberculosis control to resolve these bottlenecks. We outline system bottlenecks in relation to governance, financing, supply chain management, human resources, health-information systems, and service delivery; and adverse effects from rapid introduction of suboptimum system designs. This report also documents innovative solutions for disease control and system design. Solutions pursued in individual countries are specific to the nature of the tuberculosis epidemic, the underlying national health system, and the contributors engaged: no one size fits all. Findings from countries, including Bangladesh, Cambodia, India, Tanzania, Thailand, and Vietnam, suggest that advances in disease control and system strengthening are complementary. Tuberculosis care and control are essential elements of health systems, and simultaneous efforts to innovate systems and disease response are mutually reinforcing. Highly varied and context-specific responses to tuberculosis show that solutions need to be documented and compared to develop evidence-based policies and practice. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Mozambique's health sector is dealing with system-wide challenges. ... the Ministry's work on national health accounts, resource allocation, and national health ... a combined INS-FIOCRUS program, and the master's in public health and field ...
Full Text Available Background: Good quality and timely data from health information systems are the foundation of all health systems. However, too often data sit in reports, on shelves or in databases and are not sufficiently utilised in policy and program development, improvement, strategic planning and advocacy. Without specific interventions aimed at improving the use of data produced by information systems, health systems will never fully be able to meet the needs of the populations they serve. Objective: To employ a logic model to describe a pathway of how specific activities and interventions can strengthen the use of health data in decision making to ultimately strengthen the health system. Design: A logic model was developed to provide a practical strategy for developing, monitoring and evaluating interventions to strengthen the use of data in decision making. The model draws on the collective strengths and similarities of previous work and adds to those previous works by making specific recommendations about interventions and activities that are most proximate to affect the use of data in decision making. The model provides an organizing framework for how interventions and activities work to strengthen the systematic demand, synthesis, review, and use of data. Results: The logic model and guidance are presented to facilitate its widespread use and to enable improved data-informed decision making in program review and planning, advocacy, policy development. Real world examples from the literature support the feasible application of the activities outlined in the model. Conclusions: The logic model provides specific and comprehensive guidance to improve data demand and use. It can be used to design, monitor and evaluate interventions, and to improve demand for, and use of, data in decision making. As more interventions are implemented to improve use of health data, those efforts need to be evaluated.
This project seeks to improve the governance of health systems by designing and ... of the data (locally elected officials, health authorities, civil society groups), the ... In partnership with UNESCO's Organization for Women in Science for the ...
The project is timely for Lebanon, a country that is working to strengthen its primary health care system to respond to current priorities such as the emerging crisis of Syrian refugees. Timely access to information The project will strengthen institutional and individual abilities to conduct and use systematic and rapid reviews to ...
Fang, Hai; Yang, Li; Zhang, Huyang; Li, Chenyang; Wen, Liankui; Sun, Li; Hanson, Kara; Meng, Qingyue
Immunization is the most cost-effective method to prevent and control vaccine-preventable diseases. Migrant population in China has been rising rapidly, and their immunization status is poor. China has tried various strategies to strengthen its health system, which has significantly improved immunization for migrants. This study applied a qualitative retrospective review method aiming to collect, analyze and synthesize health system strengthening experiences and practices about improving immunizations for migrants in China. A conceptual framework of Theory of Change was used to extract the searched literatures. 11 searched literatures and 4 national laws and policies related to immunizations for migrant children were carefully studied. China mainly employed 3 health system strengthening strategies to significantly improve immunization for migrant population: stop charging immunization fees or immunization insurance, manage immunization certificates well, and pay extra attentions on immunization for special children including migrant children. These health system strengthening strategies were very effective, and searched literatures show that up-to-date and age-appropriate immunization rates were significantly improved for migrant children. Economic development led to higher migrant population in China, but immunization for migrants, particularly migrant children, were poor. Fortunately various health system strengthening strategies were employed to improve immunization for migrants in China and they were rather successful. The experiences and lessons of immunization for migrant population in China might be helpful for other developing countries with a large number of migrant population.
Apr 3, 2013 ... ... maternal health risks and make better, more informed decisions about care. .... Corps examines a woman patient at a mobile health clinic in Pakistan. ... With the support of IDRC, Lehmann has studied the role of nurses in ...
AJRH Managing Editor
to urban area due to unavailability of the service facilities. ... established to improve access and quality of health care in Ghana. ... programmes de planification et de services de santé à base communautaire ont été mis en place pour améliorer .... pregnancies, they can reduce the body's reserve ... emergency prenatal care.
Curioso, Walter H; Espinoza-Portilla, Elizabeth
In this article we present the essential components and policies that are most relevant regarding the conceptual framework to strengthen the health information systems in Peru. The article also presents the main policies, actions and strategies made in the field of electronic health in Peru that are most significant. The health information systems in Peru play a key role and are expected to achieve an integrated and interoperable information system. This will allow health information to be complete, efficient, of good quality and available in a timely manner to achieve better quality of life for people and allow meaningful modernization of public health in the context of health reform in Peru.
Strengthening Health Information Systems to Support Post-Disaster Healthcare in Haiti. The occurrence of a natural disaster may seem to carry repercussions that are indiscriminate in nature; however, it is the vulnerable populations that suffer most during such events, and in the days, months and years that follow. In Haiti ...
Full Text Available Understanding Health systems have now become the priority focus of researchers and policy makers, who have progressively moved away from a project-centred perspectives. The new tendency is to facilitate a convergence between health system developers and disease-specific programme managers in terms of both thinking and action, and to reconcile both approaches: one focusing on integrated health systems and improving the health status of the population and the other aiming at improving access to health care. Eye care interventions particularly in developing countries have generally been vertically implemented (e.g. trachoma, cataract surgeries often with parallel organizational structures or specialised disease specific services. With the emergence of health system strengthening in health strategies and in the service delivery of interventions there is a need to clarify and examine inputs in terms governance, financing and management. This present paper aims to clarify key concepts in health system strengthening and describe the various components of the framework as applied in eye care interventions.
Israel, Anne-Dominique; Gallagher, Maureen
pertinently tackle those constrains/ barriers. AM specialists need to join efforts with health specialists to achieve the reduction of the barriers identified as “common”. In order to strengthen coverage, the approach to health systems strengthening has to be two-fold – to increase availability and access as part of the health system. Taking on a more horizontal approach with AM integrated to basic package of health services can support improved availability. In turn, to increase access for AM, there is a need to identify barriers that are specific to SAM/ MAM management within that package. These barriers could be what the “Acute malnutrition champions” could focus on while strengthening the capacity of health actors to mainstream acute malnutrition management in their activities. Efforts have to be coordinated with the health system in order to ensure that the various barriers are addressed nonetheless. (author)
Curioso, Walter H
Health information systems play a key role in enabling high quality, complete health information to be available in a timely fashion for operational and strategic decision-making that makes it possible to save lives and improve the health and quality of life of the population. In many countries, health information systems are weak, incomplete, and fragmented. However, there is broad consensus in the literature of the need to strengthen health information systems in countries around the world. The objective of this paper is to present the essential components of the conceptual framework to strengthen health information systems in Peru. It describes the principal actions and strategies of the Ministry of Health of Peru during the process of strengthening health information systems. These systems make it possible to orient policies for appropriate decision-making in public health.
Warren, Ashley E; Wyss, Kaspar; Shakarishvili, George; Atun, Rifat; de Savigny, Don
Background: Millions of dollars are invested annually under the umbrella of national health systems strengthening. Global health initiatives provide funding for low- and middle-income countries through disease-oriented programmes while maintaining that the interventions simultaneously strengthen systems. However, it is as yet unclear which, and to what extent, system-level interventions are being funded by these initiatives, nor is it clear how much funding they allocate to disease-specific a...
Kluge, Hans; Martín-Moreno, Jose Maria; Emiroglu, Nedret; Rodier, Guenael; Kelley, Edward; Vujnovic, Melitta; Permanand, Govin
The International Health Regulations (IHR) 2005, as the overarching instrument for global health security, are designed to prevent and cope with major international public health threats. But poor implementation in countries hampers their effectiveness. In the wake of a number of major international health crises, such as the 2014 Ebola and 2016 Zika outbreaks, and the findings of a number of high-level assessments of the global response to these crises, it has become clear that there is a need for more joined-up thinking between health system strengthening activities and health security efforts for prevention, alert and response. WHO is working directly with its Member States to promote this approach, more specifically around how to better embed the IHR (2005) core capacities into the main health system functions. This paper looks at how and where the intersections between the IHR and the health system can be best leveraged towards developing greater health system resilience. This merging of approaches is a key component in pursuit of Universal Health Coverage and strengthened global health security as two mutually reinforcing agendas.
informed policies. Accordingly, a critical way of addressing these challenges facing health systems in the region is through the linking of health research findings to policy. Keywords: Evidence; Sub-Saharan Africa; Health Policy; Health Systems ...
Warren, Ashley E; Wyss, Kaspar; Shakarishvili, George; Atun, Rifat; de Savigny, Don
Millions of dollars are invested annually under the umbrella of national health systems strengthening. Global health initiatives provide funding for low- and middle-income countries through disease-oriented programmes while maintaining that the interventions simultaneously strengthen systems. However, it is as yet unclear which, and to what extent, system-level interventions are being funded by these initiatives, nor is it clear how much funding they allocate to disease-specific activities - through conventional 'vertical-programming' approach. Such funding can be channelled to one or more of the health system building blocks while targeting disease(s) or explicitly to system-wide activities. We operationalized the World Health Organization health system framework of the six building blocks to conduct a detailed assessment of Global Fund health system investments. Our application of this framework framework provides a comprehensive quantification of system-level interventions. We applied this systematically to a random subset of 52 of the 139 grants funded in Round 8 of the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (totalling approximately US$1 billion). According to the analysis, 37% (US$ 362 million) of the Global Fund Round 8 funding was allocated to health systems strengthening. Of that, 38% (US$ 139 million) was for generic system-level interventions, rather than disease-specific system support. Around 82% of health systems strengthening funding (US$ 296 million) was allocated to service delivery, human resources, and medicines & technology, and within each of these to two to three interventions. Governance, financing, and information building blocks received relatively low funding. This study shows that a substantial portion of Global Fund's Round 8 funds was devoted to health systems strengthening. Dramatic skewing among the health system building blocks suggests opportunities for more balanced investments with regard to governance, financing, and
Yuan, Beibei; Jian, Weiyan; He, Li; Wang, Bingyu; Balabanova, Dina
Systems of governance play a key role in the operation and performance of health systems. In the past six decades, China has made great advances in strengthening its health system, most notably in establishing a health insurance system that enables residents of rural areas to achieve access to essential services. Although there have been several studies of rural health insurance schemes, these have focused on coverage and service utilization, while much less attention has been given to the role of governance in designing and implementing these schemes. Information from publications and policy documents relevant to the development of two rural health insurance policies in China was obtained, analysed, and synthesise. 92 documents on CMS (Cooperative Medical Scheme) or NCMS (New Rural Cooperative Medical Scheme) from four databases searched were included. Data extraction and synthesis of the information were guided by a framework that drew on that developed by the WHO to describe health system governance and leadership. We identified a series of governance practices that were supportive of progress, including the prioritisation by the central government of health system development and certain health policies within overall national development; strong government commitment combined with a hierarchal administrative system; clear policy goals coupled with the ability for local government to adopt policy measures that take account of local conditions; and the accumulation and use of the evidence generated from local practices. However these good practices were not seen in all governance domains. For example, poor collaboration between different government departments was shown to be a considerable challenge that undermined the operation of the insurance schemes. China's success in achieving scale up of CMS and NCMS has attracted considerable interest in many low and middle income countries (LMICs), especially with regard to the schemes' designs, coverage, and funding
Yuasa, Motoyuki; Yamaguchi, Yoshie; Imada, Mihoko
The Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) has focused its attention on appraising health development assistance projects and redirecting efforts towards health system strengthening. This study aimed to describe the type of project and targets of interest, and assess the contribution of JICA health-related projects to strengthening health systems worldwide. We collected a web-based Project Design Matrix (PDM) of 105 JICA projects implemented between January 2005 and December 2009. We developed an analytical matrix based on the World Health Organization (WHO) health system framework to examine the PDM data and thereby assess the projects' contributions to health system strengthening. The majority of JICA projects had prioritized workforce development, and improvements in governance and service delivery. Conversely, there was little assistance for finance or medical product development. The vast majority (87.6%) of JICA projects addressed public health issues, for example programs to improve maternal and child health, and the prevention and treatment of infectious diseases such as AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria. Nearly 90% of JICA technical healthcare assistance directly focused on improving governance as the most critical means of accomplishing its goals. Our study confirmed that JICA projects met the goals of bilateral cooperation by developing workforce capacity and governance. Nevertheless, our findings suggest that JICA assistance could be used to support financial aspects of healthcare systems, which is an area of increasing concern. We also showed that the analytical matrix methodology is an effective means of examining the component of health system strengthening to which the activity and output of a project contributes. This may help policy makers and practitioners focus future projects on priority areas.
Elizabeth H. Bradley
Full Text Available Despite a renewed focus in the field of global health on strengthening health systems, inadequate attention has been directed to a key ingredient of high-performing health systems: management. We aimed to develop the argument that management – defined here as the process of achieving predetermined objectives through human, financial, and technical resources – is a cross-cutting function necessary for success in all World Health Organization (WHO building blocks of health systems strengthening. Management within health systems is particularly critical in low-income settings where the efficient use of scarce resources is paramount to attaining health goals. More generally, investments in management capacity may be viewed as a key leverage point in grand strategy, as strong management enables the achievement of large ends with limited means. We also sought to delineate a set of core competencies and identify key roles to be targeted for management capacity building efforts. Several effective examples of management interventions have been described in the research literature. Together, the existing evidence underscores the importance of country ownership of management capacity building efforts, which often challenge the status quo and thus need country leadership to sustain despite inevitable friction. The literature also recognizes that management capacity efforts, as a key ingredient of effective systems change, take time to embed, as new protocols and ways of working become habitual and integrated as standard operating procedures. Despite these challenges, the field of health management as part of global health system strengthening efforts holds promise as a fundamental leverage point for achieving health system performance goals with existing human, technical, and financial resources. The evidence base consistently supports the role of management in performance improvement but would benefit from additional research with improved
Huang, Kehui; Song, Yu Ting; He, Yong Huan; Feng, Xing Lin
Non-communicable diseases are the leading causes of global burden of diseases, and hypertension is one of the most important risk factors. Hypertension prevalence doubled in China in the past decade and affects more than 300 million Chinese people. In the review we systematically searched peer-reviewed publications that link health system level factors with hypertension management in China and provide the current knowledge on how to improve a country's health system to manage the hypertension epidemic. A framework was developed to guide the review. The database of PubMed, CNKI were systematically searched from inception to April 13, 2016. Two authors independently screened the searched results for inclusion, conducted data extraction and appraised the quality of studies. Key findings were described according to the framework. Five hundred seventy-two publications were identified, where 11 articles were left according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria. The study periods range from 2010 to 2015. All about 11 researches linked health system factors to the outcome of hypertension management. And the outcomes were just focused on the awareness, treatment and control of hypertension but not hypertension incidence. One study is about the role of health system governance, investigating the performance of different organized community health care centers; three studies were about health financing comparing differences in insurance coverage; three studies were about health information practicing the hypertension guidelines of China or the WHO, and the rest three about mechanisms of health service delivery. No researches were identified about physical resources for health and human resources for health. Hypertension prevalence has been rising rapidly in China and the management of hypertension in China is a detection problem rather than treatment problem. Limited evidence shows the positive effect of health system factors on hypertension management and joint efforts
Kayode O. Osungbade; Olusimbo K. Ige
Objectives. Review of public health perspectives of preeclampsia in developing countries and implications for health system strengthening. Methods. Literature from Pubmed (MEDLINE), AJOL, Google Scholar, and Cochrane database were reviewed. Results. The prevalence of preeclampsia in developing countries ranges from 1.8% to 16.7%. Many challenges exist in the prediction, prevention, and management of preeclampsia. Promising prophylactic measures like low-dose aspirin and calcium supplem...
Snowdon, Anne W; Bassi, Harpreet; Scarffe, Andrew D; Smith, Alexander D
Canada, when compared to other OECD countries, ranks poorly with respect to innovation and innovation adoption while struggling with increasing health system costs. As a result of its failure to innovate, the Canadian health system will struggle to meet the needs and demands of both current and future populations. The purpose of this initiative was to explore if a competition-based reverse innovation challenge could mobilize and stimulate current and future leaders to identify and lead potential reverse innovation projects that address health system challenges in Canada. An open call for applications took place over a 4-month period. Applicants were enticed to submit to the competition with a $50,000 prize for the top submission to finance their project. Leaders from a wide cross-section of sectors collectively developed evaluation criteria and graded the submissions. The criteria evaluated: proof of concept, potential value, financial impact, feasibility, and scalability as well as the use of prize money and innovation team. The competition received 12 submissions from across Canada that identified potential reverse innovations from 18 unique geographical locations that were considered developing and/or emerging markets. The various submissions addressed health system challenges relating to education, mobile health, aboriginal health, immigrant health, seniors health and women's health and wellness. Of the original 12 submissions, 5 finalists were chosen and publically profiled, and 1 was chosen to receive the top prize. The results of this initiative demonstrate that a competition that is targeted to reverse innovation does have the potential to mobilize and stimulate leaders to identify reverse innovations that have the potential for system level impact. The competition also provided important insights into the capacity of Canadian students, health care providers, entrepreneurs, and innovators to propose and implement reverse innovation in the context of the
Swanson, R Chad; Cattaneo, Adriano; Bradley, Elizabeth; Chunharas, Somsak; Atun, Rifat; Abbas, Kaja M; Katsaliaki, Korina; Mustafee, Navonil; Mason Meier, Benjamin; Best, Allan
While reaching consensus on future plans to address current global health challenges is far from easy, there is broad agreement that reductionist approaches that suggest a limited set of targeted interventions to improve health around the world are inadequate. We argue that a comprehensive systems perspective should guide health practice, education, research and policy. We propose key 'systems thinking' tools and strategies that have the potential for transformational change in health systems. Three overarching themes span these tools and strategies: collaboration across disciplines, sectors and organizations; ongoing, iterative learning; and transformational leadership. The proposed tools and strategies in this paper can be applied, in varying degrees, to every organization within health systems, from families and communities to national ministries of health. While our categorization is necessarily incomplete, this initial effort will provide a valuable contribution to the health systems strengthening debate, as the need for a more systemic, rigorous perspective in health has never been greater.
Drobac, Peter C; Basinga, Paulin; Condo, Jeanine; Farmer, Paul E; Finnegan, Karen E; Hamon, Jessie K; Amoroso, Cheryl; Hirschhorn, Lisa R; Kakoma, Jean Baptise; Lu, Chunling; Murangwa, Yusuf; Murray, Megan; Ngabo, Fidele; Rich, Michael; Thomson, Dana; Binagwaho, Agnes
Nationally, health in Rwanda has been improving since 2000, with considerable improvement since 2005. Despite improvements, rural areas continue to lag behind urban sectors with regard to key health outcomes. Partners In Health (PIH) has been supporting the Rwanda Ministry of Health (MOH) in two rural districts in Rwanda since 2005. Since 2009, the MOH and PIH have spearheaded a health systems strengthening (HSS) intervention in these districts as part of the Rwanda Population Health Implementation and Training (PHIT) Partnership. The partnership is guided by the belief that HSS interventions should be comprehensive, integrated, responsive to local conditions, and address health care access, cost, and quality. The PHIT Partnership represents a collaboration between the MOH and PIH, with support from the National University of Rwanda School of Public Health, the National Institute of Statistics, Harvard Medical School, and Brigham and Women's Hospital. The PHIT Partnership's health systems support aligns with the World Health Organization's six health systems building blocks. HSS activities focus across all levels of the health system - community, health center, hospital, and district leadership - to improve health care access, quality, delivery, and health outcomes. Interventions are concentrated on three main areas: targeted support for health facilities, quality improvement initiatives, and a strengthened network of community health workers. The impact of activities will be assessed using population-level outcomes data collected through oversampling of the demographic and health survey (DHS) in the intervention districts. The overall impact evaluation is complemented by an analysis of trends in facility health care utilization. A comprehensive costing project captures the total expenditures and financial inputs of the health care system to determine the cost of systems improvement. Targeted evaluations and operational research pieces focus on specific
Grundy, John; Moodie, Rob
The Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea (DPRK), under the leadership of the Ministry of Public Health (MOPH), undertook the development of a Health System Strengthening (HSS) proposal through the support of the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization (GAVI). The aim of this paper is to outline the approach to the development of the HSS strategy in DPRK, and describe opportunities and challenges associated with its development and future implementation. Sources of information for this review have included national programme plans, in country social sector reviews, information generated through HSS proposal developments and the international literature. Updated assessments in DPRK indicate some recent improvements in the health situation for women and children, but there remain ongoing concerns regarding health management, human resource and physical infrastructure barriers to health services access. In response to this situation, the DPRK developed a health system strengthening strategy, the main elements of which are the strengthening of health management and service delivery systems at the implementing agency levels of county (district) and Ri (sub district). Three success factors were associated with the reaching of consensus on HSS strategy in DPRK. These were partnerships formed between system planners and programme planners, the identification of an overall health sector strategic framework, and high-level leadership of the MOPH. Although DPRK is in the very early stages of health system reconstruction, there are significant and new opportunities to alleviate the health conditions of women and children in DPRK, through implementation of health system strengthening strategies that are nationally coordinated and internationally supported.
Mahomed, Ozayr Haroon; Asmall, Shaidah; Freeman, Melvyn
The integrated chronic disease management model provides a systematic framework for creating a fundamental change in the orientation of the health system. This model adopts a diagonal approach to health system strengthening by establishing a service-linked base to training, supervision, and the opportunity to try out, assess, and implement integrated interventions.
Zhang, Jing; Luo, Rong; Chen, Shi; Petrovic, Djordje; Redfern, Julie; Xu, Dong Roman; Patel, Anushka
Background With rapidly expanding infrastructure in China, mobile technology has been deemed to have the potential to revolutionize health care delivery. There is particular promise for mobile health (mHealth) to positively influence health system reform and confront the new challenges of chronic diseases. Objective The aim of this study was to systematically review existing mHealth initiatives in China, characterize them, and examine the extent to which mHealth contributes toward the health system strengthening in China. Furthermore, we also aimed to identify gaps in mHealth development and evaluation. Methods We systematically reviewed the literature from English and Chinese electronic database and trial registries, including PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane, China National Knowledge of Infrastructure (CNKI), and World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform. We used the English keywords of mHealth, eHealth, telemedicine, telehealth, mobile phone, cell phone, text messaging, and China, as well as their corresponding Chinese keywords. All articles using mobile technology for health care management were included in the study. Results A total of 1704 articles were found using the search terms, and eventually 72 were included. Overall, few high quality interventions were identified. Most interventions were found to be insufficient in scope, and their evaluation was of inadequate rigor to generate scalable solutions and provide reliable evidence of effectiveness. Most interventions focused on text messaging for consumer education and behavior change. There were a limited number of interventions that addressed health information management, health workforce issues, use of medicines and technologies, or leadership and governance from a health system perspective. Conclusions We provide four recommendations for future mHealth interventions in China that include the need for the development, evaluation and trials examining integrated mHealth
The West Africa Health Organization (WAHO), Health Research Unit, has been mandated by its member states to address this issue. ... In each member country, researchers will map existing research for health capacity/needs, formulate a plan of action, design a training curriculum for a course on research for health, and ...
Mar 30, 2017 ... ... African Youth Initiative on Population, Health and Development (AfrYPOD), ... health and sustainable development through the active participation of ... has the highest rates of maternal, infant, and child mortality in the world.
Sharma, Anjali; Moonga, Clement N; Chileshe, Chisele; Magwende, George; Henostroza, German
Introduction In 2013, the Zambian Correctional Service (ZCS) partnered with the Centre for Infectious Disease Research in Zambia on the Zambian Prisons Health System Strengthening project, seeking to tackle structural, organisational and cultural weaknesses within the prison health system. We present findings from a nested evaluation of the project impact on high, mid-level and facility-level health governance and health service arrangements in the Zambian Correctional Service. Methods Mixed methods were used, including document review, indepth interviews with ministry (11) and prison facility (6) officials, focus group discussions (12) with male and female inmates in six of the eleven intervention prisons, and participant observation during project workshops and meetings. Ethical clearance and verbal informed consent were obtained for all activities. Analysis incorporated deductive and iterative inductive coding. Results Outcomes: Improved knowledge of the prison health system strengthened political and bureaucratic will to materially address prison health needs. This found expression in a tripartite Memorandum of Understanding between the Ministry of Home Affairs, Ministry of Health (MOH) and Ministry of Community Development, and in the appointment of a permanent liaison between MOH and ZCS. Capacity-building workshops for ZCS Command resulted in strengthened health planning and management outcomes, including doubling ZCS health professional workforce (from 37 to78 between 2014 and 2016), new preservice basic health training for incoming ZCS officers and formation of facility-based prison health committees with a mandate for health promotion and protection. Mechanisms: continuous and facilitated communication among major stakeholders and the emergence of interorganisational trust were critical. Enabling contextual factors included a permissive political environment, a shift within ZCS from a ‘punitive’ to ‘correctional’ organisational culture, and
Petersen, Poul Erik
Around the globe many people are suffering from oral pain and other problems of the mouth or teeth. This public health problem is growing rapidly in developing countries where oral health services are limited. Significant proportions of people are underserved; insufficient oral health care is either due to low availability and accessibility of oral health care or because oral health care is costly. In all countries, the poor and disadvantaged population groups are heavily affected by a high burden of oral disease compared to well-off people. Promotion of oral health and prevention of oral diseases must be provided through financially fair primary health care and public health intervention. Integrated approaches are the most cost-effective and realistic way to close the gap in oral health between rich and poor. The World Health Organization (WHO) Oral Health Programme will work with the newly established WHO Collaborating Centre, Kuwait University, to strengthen the development of appropriate models for primary oral health care. PMID:24525450
Health workers from Bauchi and Cross River states ponder how best to respond to findings they ... these skills over the long term. An integrated ... social audits. Learning in interdiscipli- nary teams, they share their practical challenges through frequent presenta- tions and discussions. The program, which is offered at both a ...
Windisch, Ricarda; Waiswa, Peter; Neuhann, Florian; Scheibe, Florian; de Savigny, Don
Strengthened national health systems are necessary for effective and sustained expansion of antiretroviral therapy (ART). ART and its supply chain management in Uganda are largely based on parallel and externally supported efforts. The question arises whether systems are being strengthened to sustain access to ART. This study applies systems thinking to assess supply chain management, the role of external support and whether investments create the needed synergies to strengthen health systems. This study uses the WHO health systems framework and examines the issues of governance, financing, information, human resources and service delivery in relation to supply chain management of medicines and the technologies. It looks at links and causal chains between supply chain management for ART and the national supply system for essential drugs. It combines data from the literature and key informant interviews with observations at health service delivery level in a study district. Current drug supply chain management in Uganda is characterized by parallel processes and information systems that result in poor quality and inefficiencies. Less than expected health system performance, stock outs and other shortages affect ART and primary care in general. Poor performance of supply chain management is amplified by weak conditions at all levels of the health system, including the areas of financing, governance, human resources and information. Governance issues include the lack to follow up initial policy intentions and a focus on narrow, short-term approaches. The opportunity and need to use ART investments for an essential supply chain management and strengthened health system has not been exploited. By applying a systems perspective this work indicates the seriousness of missing system prerequisites. The findings suggest that root causes and capacities across the system have to be addressed synergistically to enable systems that can match and accommodate investments in
Tian, Maoyi; Zhang, Jing; Luo, Rong; Chen, Shi; Petrovic, Djordje; Redfern, Julie; Xu, Dong Roman; Patel, Anushka
With rapidly expanding infrastructure in China, mobile technology has been deemed to have the potential to revolutionize health care delivery. There is particular promise for mobile health (mHealth) to positively influence health system reform and confront the new challenges of chronic diseases. The aim of this study was to systematically review existing mHealth initiatives in China, characterize them, and examine the extent to which mHealth contributes toward the health system strengthening in China. Furthermore, we also aimed to identify gaps in mHealth development and evaluation. We systematically reviewed the literature from English and Chinese electronic database and trial registries, including PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane, China National Knowledge of Infrastructure (CNKI), and World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform. We used the English keywords of mHealth, eHealth, telemedicine, telehealth, mobile phone, cell phone, text messaging, and China, as well as their corresponding Chinese keywords. All articles using mobile technology for health care management were included in the study. A total of 1704 articles were found using the search terms, and eventually 72 were included. Overall, few high quality interventions were identified. Most interventions were found to be insufficient in scope, and their evaluation was of inadequate rigor to generate scalable solutions and provide reliable evidence of effectiveness. Most interventions focused on text messaging for consumer education and behavior change. There were a limited number of interventions that addressed health information management, health workforce issues, use of medicines and technologies, or leadership and governance from a health system perspective. We provide four recommendations for future mHealth interventions in China that include the need for the development, evaluation and trials examining integrated mHealth interventions to guide the development of future mHealth
Sajwani, Afroz; Qureshi, Kiran; Shaikh, Tehniat; Sayani, Saleem
Isolated communities in remote regions of Afghanistan, Kyrgyz Republic, Pakistan and Tajikistan lack access to high-quality, low-cost health care services, forcing them to travel to distant parts of the country, bearing an unnecessary financial burden. The eHealth Programme under Central Asia Health Systems Strengthening (CAHSS) Project, a joint initiative between the Aga Khan Foundation, Canada and the Government of Canada, was initiated in 2013 with the aim to utilize Information and Communication Technologies to link health care institutions and providers with rural communities to provide comprehensive and coordinated care, helping minimize the barriers of distance and time. Under the CAHSS Project, access to low-cost, quality health care is provided through a regional hub and spoke teleconsultation network of government and non-government health facilities. In addition, capacity building initiatives are offered to health professionals. By 2017, the network is expected to connect seven Tier 1 tertiary care facilities with 14 Tier 2 secondary care facilities for teleconsultation and eLearning. From April 2013 to September 2014, 6140 teleconsultations have been provided across the project sites. Additionally, 52 new eLearning sessions have been developed and 2020 staff members have benefitted from eLearning sessions. Ethics and patient rights are respected during project implementation.
Naimoli, Joseph F; Saxena, Sweta; Hatt, Laurel E; Yarrow, Kristina M; White, Trenton M; Ifafore-Calfee, Temitayo
In 2013, Hafner and Shiffman applied Kingdon's public policy process model to explain the emergence of global attention to health system strengthening (HSS). They questioned, however, HSS's sustainability on the global health policy agenda, citing various concerns. Guided by the Grindle and Thomas interactive model of policy implementation, we advance and elaborate a proposition: a confluence of developments will contribute to maintaining HSS's prominent place on the agenda until at least 2030. Those developments include (1) technical, managerial, financial, and political responses to unpredictable public health crises that imperil the routine functioning of health systems, such as the 2014-2015 Ebola virus disease (Ebola) epidemic in West Africa; (2) similar responses to non-crisis situations requiring fully engaged, robust health systems, such as the pursuit of the new Sustainable Development Goal for health (SDG3); and (3) increased availability of new knowledge about system change at macro, meso, and micro levels and its effects on people's health and well-being. To gauge the accuracy of our proposition, we carried out a speculative assessment of credible threats to our premise by discussing all of the Hafner-Shiffman concerns. We conclude that (1) the components of our proposition and other forces that have the potential to promote continuing attention to HSS are of sufficient strength to counteract these concerns, and (2) prospective monitoring of HSS agenda status and further research on agenda sustainability can increase confidence in our threat assessment. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Stucki, Gerold; Bickenbach, Jerome; Melvin, John
A complete understanding of the experience of health requires information relevant not merely to the health indicators of mortality and morbidity but also to functioning-that is, information about what it means to live in a health state, "the lived experience of health." Not only is functioning information relevant to healthcare and the overall objectives of person-centered healthcare but to the successful operation of all components of health systems.In light of population aging and major epidemiological trends, the health strategy of rehabilitation, whose aim has always been to optimize functioning and minimize disability, will become a key health strategy. The increasing prominence of the rehabilitative strategy within the health system drives the argument for the integration of functioning information as an essential component in national health information systems.Rehabilitation professionals and researchers have long recognized in WHO's International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health the best prospect for an internationally recognized, sufficiently complete and powerful information reference for the documentation of functioning information. This paper opens the discussion of the promise of integrating the ICF as an essential component in national health systems to secure access to functioning information for rehabilitation, across health systems and countries.
Semrau, Maya; Evans-Lacko, Sara; Alem, Atalay; Ayuso-Mateos, Jose Luis; Chisholm, Dan; Gureje, Oye; Hanlon, Charlotte; Jordans, Mark; Kigozi, Fred; Lempp, Heidi; Lund, Crick; Petersen, Inge; Shidhaye, Rahul; Thornicroft, Graham
There is a large treatment gap for mental health care in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), with the majority of people with mental, neurological, and substance use (MNS) disorders receiving no or inadequate care. Health system factors are known to play a crucial role in determining the coverage and effectiveness of health service interventions, but the study of mental health systems in LMICs has been neglected. The 'Emerging mental health systems in LMICs' (Emerald) programme aims to improve outcomes of people with MNS disorders in six LMICs (Ethiopia, India, Nepal, Nigeria, South Africa, and Uganda) by generating evidence and capacity to enhance health system performance in delivering mental health care. A mixed-methods approach is being applied to generate evidence on: adequate, fair, and sustainable resourcing for mental health (health system inputs); integrated provision of mental health services (health system processes); and improved coverage and goal attainment in mental health (health system outputs). Emerald has a strong focus on capacity-building of researchers, policymakers, and planners, and on increasing service user and caregiver involvement to support mental health systems strengthening. Emerald also addresses stigma and discrimination as one of the key barriers for access to and successful delivery of mental health services.
Theobald, Sally; Morgan, Rosemary; Hawkins, Kate; Ssali, Sarah; George, Asha; Molyneux, Sassy
This editorial discusses a collection of papers examining gender across a range of health policy and systems contexts, from access to services, governance, health financing, and human resources for health. The papers interrogate differing health issues and core health systems functions using a gender lens. Together they produce new knowledge on the multiple impacts of gender on health experiences and demonstrate the importance of gender analyses and gender sensitive interventions for promoting well-being and health systems strengthening. The findings from these papers collectively show how gender intersects with other axes of inequity within specific contexts to shape experiences of health and health seeking within households, communities and health systems; illustrate how gender power relations affect access to important resources; and demonstrate that gender norms, poverty and patriarchy interplay to limit women's choices and chances both within household interactions and within the health sector. Health systems researchers have a responsibility to promote the incorporation of gender analyses into their studies in order to inform more strategic, effective and equitable health systems interventions, programmes, and policies. Responding to gender inequitable systems, institutions, and services in this sector requires an 'all hands-on deck' approach. We cannot claim to take a 'people-centred approach' to health systems if the status quo continues. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Strengthened national health systems are necessary for effective and sustained expansion of antiretroviral therapy (ART. ART and its supply chain management in Uganda are largely based on parallel and externally supported efforts. The question arises whether systems are being strengthened to sustain access to ART. This study applies systems thinking to assess supply chain management, the role of external support and whether investments create the needed synergies to strengthen health systems. Methods This study uses the WHO health systems framework and examines the issues of governance, financing, information, human resources and service delivery in relation to supply chain management of medicines and the technologies. It looks at links and causal chains between supply chain management for ART and the national supply system for essential drugs. It combines data from the literature and key informant interviews with observations at health service delivery level in a study district. Results Current drug supply chain management in Uganda is characterized by parallel processes and information systems that result in poor quality and inefficiencies. Less than expected health system performance, stock outs and other shortages affect ART and primary care in general. Poor performance of supply chain management is amplified by weak conditions at all levels of the health system, including the areas of financing, governance, human resources and information. Governance issues include the lack to follow up initial policy intentions and a focus on narrow, short-term approaches. Conclusion The opportunity and need to use ART investments for an essential supply chain management and strengthened health system has not been exploited. By applying a systems perspective this work indicates the seriousness of missing system prerequisites. The findings suggest that root causes and capacities across the system have to be addressed synergistically to
Fonjungo, Peter N; Kebede, Yenew; Messele, Tsehaynesh; Ayana, Gonfa; Tibesso, Gudeta; Abebe, Almaz; Nkengasong, John N; Kenyon, Thomas
Properly functioning laboratory equipment is a critical component for strengthening health systems in developing countries. The laboratory can be an entry point to improve population health and care of individuals for targeted diseases - prevention, care, and treatment of TB, HIV/AIDS, and malaria, plus maternal and neonatal health - as well as those lacking specific attention and funding. We review the benefits and persistent challenges associated with sustaining laboratory equipment maintenance. We propose equipment management policies as well as a comprehensive equipment maintenance strategy that would involve equipment manufacturers and strengthen local capacity through pre-service training of biomedical engineers. Strong country leadership and commitment are needed to assure development and sustained implementation of policies and strategies for standardization of equipment, and regulation of its procurement, donation, disposal, and replacement.
Rosewell, Alexander; Makita, Leo; Muscatello, David; John, Lucy Ninmongo; Bieb, Sibauk; Hutton, Ross; Ramamurthy, Sundar; Shearman, Phil
The objective of the study was to describe an m-health initiative to strengthen malaria surveillance in a 184-health facility, multi-province, project aimed at strengthening the National Health Information System (NHIS) in a country with fragmented malaria surveillance, striving towards enhanced control, pre-elimination. A remote-loading mobile application and secure online platform for health professionals was created to interface with the new system (eNHIS). A case-based malaria testing register was developed and integrated geo-coded households, villages and health facilities. A malaria programme management dashboard was created, with village-level malaria mapping tools, and statistical algorithms to identify malaria outbreaks. Since its inception in 2015, 160,750 malaria testing records, including village of residence, have been reported to the eNHIS. These case-based, geo-coded malaria data are 100% complete, with a median data entry delay of 9 days from the date of testing. The system maps malaria to the village level in near real-time as well as the availability of treatment and diagnostics to health facility level. Data aggregation, analysis, outbreak detection, and reporting are automated. The study demonstrates that using mobile technologies and GIS in the capture and reporting of NHIS data in Papua New Guinea provides timely, high quality, geo-coded, case-based malaria data required for malaria elimination. The health systems strengthening approach of integrating malaria information management into the eNHIS optimizes sustainability and provides enormous flexibility to cater for future malaria programme needs.
Marzuki, Nuraidah; Ismail, Saimy; Al-Sadat, Nabilla; Ehsan, Fauziah Z; Chan, Chee-Khoon; Ng, Chiu-Wan
Despite the high costs involved and the lack of definitive evidence of sustained effectiveness, many low- and middle-income countries had begun to strengthen their health information system using information and communication technology in the past few decades. Following this international trend, the Malaysian Ministry of Health had been incorporating Telehealth (National Telehealth initiatives) into national health policies since the 1990s. Employing qualitative approaches, including key informant interviews and document review, this study examines the agenda-setting processes of the Telehealth policy using Kingdon's framework. The findings suggested that Telehealth policies emerged through actions of policy entrepreneurs within the Ministry of Health, who took advantage of several simultaneously occurring opportunities--official recognition of problems within the existing health information system, availability of information and communication technology to strengthen health information system and political interests surrounding the national Multimedia Super Corridor initiative being developed at the time. The last was achieved by the inclusion of Telehealth as a component of the Multimedia Super Corridor. © 2015 APJPH.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Trust is critical to generate and maintain demand for vaccines in low and middle income countries. However, there is little documentation on how health system insufficiencies affect trust in vaccination and the process of re-building trust once it has been compromised. We reflect on how disruptions to immunizations systems can affect trust in vaccination and can compromise vaccine utilization. We then explore key pathways for overcoming system vulnerabilities in order to restore trust, to strengthen the resilience of health systems and communities, and to promote vaccine utilization. Methods Utilizing secondary data and a review of the literature, we developed a causal loop diagram (CLD to map the determinants of building trust in immunizations. Using the CLD, we devised three scenarios to illustrate common vulnerabilities that compromise trust and pathways to strengthen trust and utilization of vaccines, specifically looking at weak health systems, harmful communication channels, and role of social capital. Spill-over effects, interactions and other dynamics in the CLD were then examined to assess leverage points to counter these vulnerabilities. Results Trust in vaccination arises from the interactions among experiences with the health system, the various forms of communication and social capital – both external and internal to communities. When experiencing system-wide shocks such as the case in Ebola-affected countries, distrust is reinforced by feedback between the health and immunization systems where distrust often lingers even after systems are restored and spills over beyond vaccination in the broader health system. Vaccine myths or anti-vaccine movements reinforce distrust. Social capital – the collective value of social networks of community members – plays a central role in increasing levels of trust. Conclusions Trust is important, yet underexplored, in the context of vaccine utilization. Using a CLD to
Full Text Available The emergence and re-emergence of infectious diseases are now more than ever considered threats to public health systems. There have been over 20 outbreaks of Ebola in the past 40 years. Only recently, the World Health Organization has declared a public health emergency of international concern (PHEIC in West Africa, with a projected estimate of 1.2 million deaths expected in the next 6 months. Ebola virus is a highly virulent pathogen, often fatal in humans and non-human primates. Ebola is now a great priority for global health security and often becomes fatal if left untreated. This study employed a narrative review. Three major databases – MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Global Health – were searched using both ‘text-words’ and ‘thesaurus terms’. Evidence shows that low- and middle-income countries (LMICs are not coping well with the current challenges of Ebola, not only because they have poor and fragile systems but also because there are poor infectious disease surveillance and response systems in place. The identification of potential cases is problematic, particularly in the aspects of contact tracing, infection control, and prevention, prior to the diagnosis of the case. This review therefore aims to examine whether LMICs’ health systems would be able to control and manage Ebola in future and identifies two key elements of health systems strengthening that are needed to ensure the robustness of the health system to respond effectively.
Bowser, Diana; Sparkes, Susan Powers; Mitchell, Andrew; Bossert, Thomas J; Bärnighausen, Till; Gedik, Gulin; Atun, Rifat
a variety of mechanisms including salary top-ups, performance incentives, extra compensation and contracting of workers for part-time work, to pay health workers using Global Fund financing. Global Fund support for training and salary support was not co-ordinated with national strategic plans and there were major deficiencies in the data collected by the Global Fund to track HRH financing and to provide meaningful assessments of health system performance. The narrow disease focus and lack of co-ordination with national governments call into question the efficiency of funding and sustainability of Global Fund investments in HRH and their effectiveness in strengthening recipient countries' health systems. The lessons that emerge from this analysis can be used by both the Global Fund and other donors to improve co-ordination of investments and the effectiveness of programmes in recipient countries. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine © The Author 2013; all rights reserved.
Harries, Anthony D; Zachariah, Rony; Tayler-Smith, Katie; Schouten, Erik J; Chimbwandira, Frank; Van Damme, Wim; El-Sadr, Wafaa M
The debate on the interaction between disease-specific programmes and health system strengthening in the last few years has intensified as experts seek to tease out common ground and find solutions and synergies to bridge the divide. Unfortunately, the debate continues to be largely academic and devoid of specificity, resulting in the issues being irrelevant to health care workers on the ground. Taking the theme 'What would entice HIV- and tuberculosis (TB)-programme managers to sit around the table on a Monday morning with health system experts', this viewpoint focuses on infection control and health facility safety as an important and highly relevant practical topic for both disease-specific programmes and health system strengthening. Our attentions, and the examples and lessons we draw on, are largely aimed at sub-Saharan Africa where the great burden of TB and HIV ⁄ AIDS resides, although the principles we outline would apply to other parts of the world as well. Health care infections, caused for example by poor hand hygiene, inadequate testing of donated blood, unsafe disposal of needles and syringes, poorly sterilized medical and surgical equipment and lack of adequate airborne infection control procedures, are responsible for a considerable burden of illness amongst patients and health care personnel, especially in resource-poor countries. Effective infection control in a district hospital requires that all the components of a health system function well: governance and stewardship, financing,infrastructure, procurement and supply chain management, human resources, health information systems, service delivery and finally supervision. We argue in this article that proper attention to infection control and an emphasis on safe health facilities is a concrete first step towards strengthening the interaction between disease-specific programmes and health systems where it really matters – for patients who are sick and for the health care workforce who provide
Freeman, Rachel; Luyirika, Emmanuel Bk; Namisango, Eve; Kiyange, Fatia
The high burden of non-communicable diseases and communicable diseases in Africa characterised by late presentation and diagnosis makes the need for palliative care a priority from the point of diagnosis to death and through bereavement. Palliative care is an intervention that requires a multidisciplinary team to address the multifaceted needs of the patient and family. Thus, its development takes a broad approach that involves engaging all key stakeholders ranging from policy makers, care providers, educators, the public, patients, and families. The main focus of stakeholder engagement should address some core interventions geared towards improving knowledge and awareness, strengthening skills and attitudes about palliative care. These interventions include educating health and allied healthcare professionals on the palliative care-related problems of patients and best practices for care, explaining palliative care as a clinical and holistic discipline and demonstrating its effectiveness, the need to include palliative care into national policies, strategic plans, training curriculums of healthcare professionals and the engagement of patients, families, and communities. Interventions from a five-year programme that was aimed at strengthening the health system of Namibia through the integration of palliative care for people living with HIV and AIDS and cancer in Namibia are shared. This article illustrates how a country can implement the World Health Organisation's public health strategy for developing palliative care services, which recommends four pillars: government policy, education, drug availability, and implementation.
Simba, Daudi O; Mwangu, Mughwira
Information Communication Technology (ICT) revolution brought opportunities and challenges to developing countries in their efforts to strengthen the Health Management Information Systems (HMIS). In the wake of globalisation, developing countries have no choice but to take advantage of the opportunities and face the challenges. The last decades saw developing countries taking action to strengthen and modernise their HMIS using the existing ICT. Due to poor economic and communication infrastructure, the process has been limited to national and provincial/region levels leaving behind majority of health workers living in remote/rural areas. Even those with access do not get maximum benefit from ICT advancements due to inadequacies in data quality and lack of data utilisation. Therefore, developing countries need to make deliberate efforts to address constraints threatening to increase technology gap between urban minority and rural majority by setting up favourable policies and appropriate strategies. Concurrently, strategies to improve data quality and utilisation should be instituted to ensure that HMIS has positive impact on people's health. Potential strength from private sector and opportunities for sharing experiences among developing countries should be utilised. Short of this, advancement in ICT will continue to marginalise health workers in developing countries especially those living in remote areas.
Tsai, Feng-Jen; Lee, Howard; Fan, Victoria Y
This paper aimed to compare the health systems strengthening (HSS) framework of Gavi and WHO and to analyze resource allocation in HSS by Gavi. Among 76 countries which received HSS funding from Gavi from 2006 to 2013, summary reports of 44 countries and approved proposals of 10 countries were collected. After comparing the HSS framework of WHO and Gavi, each activity described in documents was categorized according to Gavi's framework and funding allocation was analyzed. Compared with WHO's HSS framework, Gavi's has a distinctive function within the building block 'Drugs, Equipment, Supplies, Facilities' and a distinctive function of 'providing incentive and bonuses' under the building block 'Human Resource/Performance Management'. Gavi has steadily invested 10% of their total budget on HSS, but 47% were allocated in these categories, whereas 78% were for activities arguably not covered by WHO's HSS framework. In Africa, 70% of Gavi's budget fell under 'Drugs, Equipment, Supplies, Facilities' and 92.8% were for activities arguably not deemed as HSS by WHO. Gavi's HSS support emphasized inputs with short-term measurable outcomes. Harmonization of the concept of HSS and collaboration between Gavi and multilateral international agencies, such as World Bank and WHO, are needed. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Varley Dias Sousa
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Regulatory transparency is an imperative characteristic of a reliable National Regulatory Authority. In the region of the Americas, the process of building an open government is still fragile and fragmented across various Health Regulatory Agencies (HRAs and Regional Reference Authorities (RRAs. This study assessed the transparency status of RRAs, focusing on various medicine life-cycle documents (the Medicine Dossier, Clinical Trial Report, and Inspection Report as tools for strengthening health systems. Based on a narrative (nonsystematic review of RRA regulatory transparency, transparency status was classified as one of two types: public disclosure of information (intra-agency data and data- and work-sharing (inter-agency data. The risks/benefits of public disclosure of medicine-related information were assessed, taking into account 1 the involvement and roles of multiple stakeholders (health care professionals, regulators, industry, community, and academics and 2 the protection of commercial and personal confidential data. Inter-agency data- and work-sharing was evaluated in the context of harmonization and cooperation projects that focus on regulatory convergence. Technical and practical steps for establishing an openness directive for the pharmaceutical regulatory environment are proposed to improve and strengthen health systems in the Americas. Addressing these challenges requires leadership from entities such as the Pan American Health Organization to steer and support collaborative regional alliances that advance the development and establishment of a trustworthy regulatory environment and a sustainable public health system in the Americas, using international successful initiatives as reference and taking into account the domestic characteristics and experiences of each individual country.
Sousa, Varley Dias; Ramalho, Pedro I; Silveira, Dâmaris
Regulatory transparency is an imperative characteristic of a reliable National Regulatory Authority. In the region of the Americas, the process of building an open government is still fragile and fragmented across various Health Regulatory Agencies (HRAs) and Regional Reference Authorities (RRAs). This study assessed the transparency status of RRAs, focusing on various medicine life-cycle documents (the Medicine Dossier, Clinical Trial Report, and Inspection Report) as tools for strengthening health systems. Based on a narrative (nonsystematic) review of RRA regulatory transparency, transparency status was classified as one of two types: public disclosure of information (intra-agency data) and data- and work-sharing (inter-agency data). The risks/benefits of public disclosure of medicine-related information were assessed, taking into account 1) the involvement and roles of multiple stakeholders (health care professionals, regulators, industry, community, and academics) and 2) the protection of commercial and personal confidential data. Inter-agency data- and work-sharing was evaluated in the context of harmonization and cooperation projects that focus on regulatory convergence. Technical and practical steps for establishing an openness directive for the pharmaceutical regulatory environment are proposed to improve and strengthen health systems in the Americas. Addressing these challenges requires leadership from entities such as the Pan American Health Organization to steer and support collaborative regional alliances that advance the development and establishment of a trustworthy regulatory environment and a sustainable public health system in the Americas, using international successful initiatives as reference and taking into account the domestic characteristics and experiences of each individual country.
Shaikh, Simran; Mburu, Gitau; Arumugam, Viswanathan; Mattipalli, Naveen; Aher, Abhina; Mehta, Sonal; Robertson, James
Transgender populations face inequalities in access to HIV, health and social services. In addition, there is limited documentation of models for providing appropriately tailored services and social support for transgender populations in low- and middle-income countries. This paper presents outcomes of the Global Fund-supported Pehchan programme, which aimed to strengthen community systems and provide HIV, health, legal and social services to transgender communities across 18 Indian states through a rights-based empowerment approach. We used a pre- and post-intervention cross-sectional survey design with retrospective analysis of programmatic data. Using stratified sampling, we identified 268 transgender participants in six Indian states from a total of 48,280 transgender people served by Pehchan through 186 community-based organizations. We quantified the impact of interventions by comparing baseline and end line indicators of accessed health social and legal services. We also assessed end line self-efficacy and collective action with regard to social support networks. There were significant increases in community-based demand and use of tailored health, legal, social and psychological services over the time of the Pehchan programme. We report significant increases in access to condoms (12.5%, pgender-affirming approaches significantly improved both demand and access to tailored HIV, health and social services for transgender individuals across India. Furthermore, the Pehchan programme successfully fostered both self-efficacy and collective identity and served as a model for addressing the unique health needs of transgender communities. Continued strengthening of health, social and community systems to better respond to the unique needs of transgender communities is needed in order to sustain these gains.
Shaikh, Simran; Mburu, Gitau; Arumugam, Viswanathan; Mattipalli, Naveen; Aher, Abhina; Mehta, Sonal; Robertson, James
Introduction Transgender populations face inequalities in access to HIV, health and social services. In addition, there is limited documentation of models for providing appropriately tailored services and social support for transgender populations in low- and middle-income countries. This paper presents outcomes of the Global Fund-supported Pehchan programme, which aimed to strengthen community systems and provide HIV, health, legal and social services to transgender communities across 18 Indian states through a rights-based empowerment approach. Methods We used a pre- and post-intervention cross-sectional survey design with retrospective analysis of programmatic data. Using stratified sampling, we identified 268 transgender participants in six Indian states from a total of 48,280 transgender people served by Pehchan through 186 community-based organizations. We quantified the impact of interventions by comparing baseline and end line indicators of accessed health social and legal services. We also assessed end line self-efficacy and collective action with regard to social support networks. Results There were significant increases in community-based demand and use of tailored health, legal, social and psychological services over the time of the Pehchan programme. We report significant increases in access to condoms (12.5%, pgender-affirming approaches significantly improved both demand and access to tailored HIV, health and social services for transgender individuals across India. Furthermore, the Pehchan programme successfully fostered both self-efficacy and collective identity and served as a model for addressing the unique health needs of transgender communities. Continued strengthening of health, social and community systems to better respond to the unique needs of transgender communities is needed in order to sustain these gains. PMID:27431474
Risso-Gill, Isabelle; McKee, Martin; Coker, Richard; Piot, Peter; Legido-Quigley, Helena
Myanmar has undergone a remarkable political transformation in the last 2 years, with its leadership voluntarily transitioning from an isolated military regime to a quasi-civilian government intent on re-engaging with the international community. Decades of underinvestment have left the country underdeveloped with a fragile health system and poor health outcomes. International aid agencies have found engagement with the Myanmar government difficult but this is changing rapidly and it is opportune to consider how Myanmar can engage with the global health system strengthening (HSS) agenda. Nineteen semi-structured, face-to-face interviews were conducted with representatives from international agencies working in Myanmar to capture their perspectives on HSS following political reform. They explored their perceptions of HSS and the opportunities for implementation. Participants reported challenges in engaging with government, reflecting the disharmony between actors, economic sanctions and barriers to service delivery due to health system weaknesses and bureaucracy. Weaknesses included human resources, data and medical products/infrastructure and logistical challenges. Agencies had mixed views of health system finance and governance, identifying problems and also some positive aspects. There is little consensus on how HSS should be approached in Myanmar, but much interest in collaborating to achieve it. Despite myriad challenges and concerns, participants were generally positive about the recent political changes, and remain optimistic as they engage in HSS activities with the government.
Gumede, Nicksy; Coulibaly, Sheick Oumar; Yahaya, Ali Ahmed; Ndihokubwayo, Jean-Bosco; Nsubuga, Peter; Okeibunor, Joseph; Dosseh, Annick; Salla, Mbaye; Mihigo, Richard; Mkanda, Pascal; Byabamazima, Charles
The laboratory has always played a very critical role in diagnosis of the diseases. The success of any disease programme is based on a functional laboratory network. Health laboratory services are an integral component of the health system. Efficiency and effectiveness of both clinical and public health functions including surveillance, diagnosis, prevention, treatment, research and health promotion are influenced by reliable laboratory services. The establishment of the African Regional polio laboratory for the Polio Eradication Initiative (PEI) has contributed in supporting countries in their efforts to strengthen laboratory capacity. On the eve of the closing of the program, we have shown through this article, examples of this contribution in two countries of the African region: Côte d'Ivoire and the Democratic Republic of Congo. Descriptive studies were carried out in Côte d'Ivoire (RCI) and Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) from October to December 2014. Questionnaires and self-administered and in-depth interviews and group discussions as well as records and observation were used to collect information during laboratory visits and assessments. The PEI financial support allows to maintain the majority of the 14 (DRC) and 12 (RCI) staff involved in the polio laboratory as full or in part time members. Through laboratory technical staff training supported by the PEI, skills and knowledge were gained to reinforce laboratories capacity and performance in quality laboratory functioning, processes and techniques such as cell culture. In the same way, infrastructure was improved and equipment provided. General laboratory quality standards, including the entire laboratory key elements was improved through the PEI accreditation process. The Polio Eradication Initiative (PEI) is a good example of contribution in strengthening public health laboratories systems in the African region. It has established strong Polio Laboratory network that contributed to the
Health policy and systems research (HPSR) is a transdisciplinary field of global importance, with its own emerging standards for creating, evaluating, and utilizing knowledge, and distinguished by a particular orientation towards influencing policy and wider action to strengthen health systems. In this commentary, we argue that the ability of the HPSR field to influence real world change hinges on its becoming more people-centred. We see people-centredness as recognizing the field of enquiry as one of social construction, requiring those conducting HPSR to locate their own position in the system, and conduct and publish research in a manner that foregrounds human agency attributes and values, and is acutely attentive to policy context. Change occurs at many layers of a health system, shaped by social, political, and economic forces, and brought about by different groups of people who make up the system, including service users and communities. The seeds of transformative practice in HPSR lie in amplifying the breadth and depth of dialogue across health system actors in the conduct of research – recognizing that these actors are all generators, sources, and users of knowledge about the system. While building such a dialogic practice, those conducting HPSR must strive to protect the autonomy and integrity of their ideas and actions, and also clearly explain their own positions and the value-basis of their work. We conclude with a set of questions that health policy and systems researchers may wish to consider in making their practice more people-centred, and hence more oriented toward real-world change. PMID:24739525
Full Text Available Background Performance-based financing (PBF is often proposed as a way to improve health system performance. In Benin, PBF was launched in 2012 through a World Bank-supported project. The Belgian Development Agency (BTC followed suit through a health system strengthening (HSS project. This paper analyses and draws lessons from the experience of BTC-supported PBF alternative approach – especially with regards to institutional aspects, the role of demand-side actors, ownership, and cost-effectiveness – and explores the mechanisms at stake so as to better understand how the “PBF package” functions and produces effects. Methods An exploratory, theory-driven evaluation approach was adopted. Causal mechanisms through which PBF is hypothesised to impact on results were singled out and explored. This paper stems from the co-authors’ capitalisation of experiences; mixed methods were used to collect, triangulate and analyse information. Results are structured along Witter et al framework. Results Influence of context is strong over PBF in Benin; the policy is donor-driven. BTC did not adopt the World Bank’s mainstream PBF model, but developed an alternative approach in line with its HSS support programme, which is grounded on existing domestic institutions. The main features of this approach are described (decentralised governance, peer review verification, counter-verification entrusted to health service users’ platforms, as well as its adaptive process. PBF has contributed to strengthen various aspects of the health system and led to modest progress in utilisation of health services, but noticeable improvements in healthcare quality. Three mechanisms explaining observed outcomes within the context are described: comprehensive HSS at district level; acting on health workers’ motivation through a complex package of incentives; and increased accountability by reinforcing dialogue with demand-side actors. Cost-effectiveness and
Full Text Available Jessica S Grignon,1,2 Jenny H Ledikwe,1,2 Ditsapelo Makati,2 Robert Nyangah,2 Baraedi W Sento,2 Bazghina-werq Semo1,2 1Department of Global Health, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA; 2International Training and Education Center for Health, Gaborone, Botswana Abstract: To address health systems challenges in limited-resource settings, global health initiatives, particularly the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief, have seconded health workers to the public sector. Implementation considerations for secondment as a health workforce development strategy are not well documented. The purpose of this article is to present outcomes, best practices, and lessons learned from a President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief-funded secondment program in Botswana. Outcomes are documented across four World Health Organization health systems' building blocks. Best practices include documentation of joint stakeholder expectations, collaborative recruitment, and early identification of counterparts. Lessons learned include inadequate ownership, a two-tier employment system, and ill-defined position duration. These findings can inform program and policy development to maximize the benefit of health workforce secondment. Secondment requires substantial investment, and emphasis should be placed on high-level technical positions responsible for building systems, developing health workers, and strengthening government to translate policy into programs. Keywords: human resources, health policy, health worker, HIV/AIDS, PEPFAR
Grundy, John; Khut, Qiu Yi; Oum, Sophal; Annear, Peter; Ky, Veng
Cambodia, following decades of civil conflict and social and economic transition, has in the last 10 years developed health policy innovations in the areas of health contracting, health financing and health planning. This paper aims to outline recent social, epidemiological and demographic health trends in Cambodia, and on the basis of this outline, to analyse and discuss these policy responses to social transition. Sources of information included a literature review, participant observation in health planning development in Cambodia between 1993 and 2008, and comparative analysis of demographic health surveys between 2000 and 2005. In Cambodia there have been sharp but unequal improvements in child mortality, and persisting high maternal mortality rates. Data analysis demonstrates associations between location, education level and access to facility based care, suggesting the dominant role of socio-economic factors in determining access to facility based health care. These events are taking place against a background of rapid social transition in Cambodian history, including processes of decentralization, privatization and the development of open market economic systems. Primary policy responses of the Ministry of Health to social transition and associated health inequities include the establishment of health contracting, hospital health equity funds and public-private collaborations. Despite the internationally recognized health policy flexibility and innovation demonstrated in Cambodia, policy response still lags well behind the reality of social transition. In order to minimize the delay between transition and response, new policy making tactics are required in order to provide more flexible and timely responses to the ongoing social transition and its impacts on population health needs in the lowest socio-economic quintiles.
García, Patricia J.; Cárcamo, César P.; Chiappe, Marina; Valderrama, Maria; La Rosa, Sayda; Holmes, King K.; Mabey, David C. W.; Peeling, Rosanna W.
Objectives Untreated maternal syphilis leads to adverse pregnancy outcomes. The use of point of care tests (POCT) offers an opportunity to improve screening coverage for syphilis and other aspects of health systems. Our objective is to present the experience of the introduction of POCT for syphilis in Peru and describe how new technology can catalyze health system strengthening. Methods The study was implemented from September 2009–November 2010 to assess the feasibility of the use of a POCT for syphilis for screening pregnant women in Lima, Peru. Outcomes measured included access to syphilis screening, treatment coverage, partner treatment, effect on patient flow and service efficiency, acceptability among providers and patients, and sustainability. Results Before the introduction of POCT, a pregnant woman needed 6 visits to the health center in 27 days before she received her syphilis result. We trained 604 health providers and implemented the POCT for syphilis as the “two for one strategy”, offering with one finger stick both syphilis and HIV testing. Implementation of the POCT resulted in testing and treatment on the first visit. Screening and treatment coverages for syphilis improved significantly compared with the previous year. Implementation of POCT has been scaled up nationally since the study ended, and coverages for screening, treatment and partner treatment have remained over 92%. Conclusions Implementation of POCT for syphilis proved feasible and acceptable, and led to improvement in several aspects of health services. For the process to be effective we highlight the importance of: (1) engaging the authorities; (2) dissipating tensions between providers and identifying champions; (3) training according to the needs; (4) providing monitoring, supervision, support and recognition; (5) sharing results and discussing actions together; (6) consulting and obtaining feedback from users; and (7) integrating with other services such as with rapid HIV
Patricia J García
Full Text Available Untreated maternal syphilis leads to adverse pregnancy outcomes. The use of point of care tests (POCT offers an opportunity to improve screening coverage for syphilis and other aspects of health systems. Our objective is to present the experience of the introduction of POCT for syphilis in Peru and describe how new technology can catalyze health system strengthening.The study was implemented from September 2009-November 2010 to assess the feasibility of the use of a POCT for syphilis for screening pregnant women in Lima, Peru. Outcomes measured included access to syphilis screening, treatment coverage, partner treatment, effect on patient flow and service efficiency, acceptability among providers and patients, and sustainability.Before the introduction of POCT, a pregnant woman needed 6 visits to the health center in 27 days before she received her syphilis result. We trained 604 health providers and implemented the POCT for syphilis as the "two for one strategy", offering with one finger stick both syphilis and HIV testing. Implementation of the POCT resulted in testing and treatment on the first visit. Screening and treatment coverages for syphilis improved significantly compared with the previous year. Implementation of POCT has been scaled up nationally since the study ended, and coverages for screening, treatment and partner treatment have remained over 92%.Implementation of POCT for syphilis proved feasible and acceptable, and led to improvement in several aspects of health services. For the process to be effective we highlight the importance of: (1 engaging the authorities; (2 dissipating tensions between providers and identifying champions; (3 training according to the needs; (4 providing monitoring, supervision, support and recognition; (5 sharing results and discussing actions together; (6 consulting and obtaining feedback from users; and (7 integrating with other services such as with rapid HIV testing.
Balabanova, Dina; Mills, Anne; Conteh, Lesong; Akkazieva, Baktygul; Banteyerga, Hailom; Dash, Umakant; Gilson, Lucy; Harmer, Andrew; Ibraimova, Ainura; Islam, Ziaul; Kidanu, Aklilu; Koehlmoos, Tracey P; Limwattananon, Supon; Muraleedharan, V R; Murzalieva, Gulgun; Palafox, Benjamin; Panichkriangkrai, Warisa; Patcharanarumol, Walaiporn; Penn-Kekana, Loveday; Powell-Jackson, Timothy; Tangcharoensathien, Viroj; McKee, Martin
In 1985, the Rockefeller Foundation published Good health at low cost to discuss why some countries or regions achieve better health and social outcomes than do others at a similar level of income and to show the role of political will and socially progressive policies. 25 years on, the Good Health at Low Cost project revisited these places but looked anew at Bangladesh, Ethiopia, Kyrgyzstan, Thailand, and the Indian state of Tamil Nadu, which have all either achieved substantial improvements in health or access to services or implemented innovative health policies relative to their neighbours. A series of comparative case studies (2009-11) looked at how and why each region accomplished these changes. Attributes of success included good governance and political commitment, effective bureaucracies that preserve institutional memory and can learn from experience, and the ability to innovate and adapt to resource limitations. Furthermore, the capacity to respond to population needs and build resilience into health systems in the face of political unrest, economic crises, and natural disasters was important. Transport infrastructure, female empowerment, and education also played a part. Health systems are complex and no simple recipe exists for success. Yet in the countries and regions studied, progress has been assisted by institutional stability, with continuity of reforms despite political and economic turmoil, learning lessons from experience, seizing windows of opportunity, and ensuring sensitivity to context. These experiences show that improvements in health can still be achieved in countries with relatively few resources, though strategic investment is necessary to address new challenges such as complex chronic diseases and growing population expectations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Seriously Implementing Health Capacity Strengthening Programs in Africa; Comment on “Implementation of a Health Management Mentoring Program: Year-1 Evaluation of Its Impact on Health System Strengthening in Zambézia Province, Mozambique”
Luis Velez Lapão
Full Text Available Faced with the challenges of healthcare reform, skills and new capabilities are needed to support the reform and it is of crucial importance in Africa where shortages affects the health system resilience. Edwards et al provides a good example of the challenge of implementing a mentoring program in one province in a sub-Saharan country. From this example, various aspects of strengthening the capacity of managers in healthcare are examined based on our experience in action-training in Africa, as mentoring shares many characteristics with action-training. What practical lessons can be drawn to promote the strengthening so that managers can better intervene in complex contexts? Deeper involvement of health authorities and more rigorous approaches are seriously desirable for the proper development of health capacity strengthening programs in Africa.
Abayneh, Sisay; Lempp, Heidi; Alem, Atalay; Alemayehu, Daniel; Eshetu, Tigist; Lund, Crick; Semrau, Maya; Thornicroft, Graham; Hanlon, Charlotte
It is essential to involve service users in efforts to expand access to mental health care in integrated primary care settings in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). However, there is little evidence from LMICs to guide this process. The aim of this study was to explore barriers to, and facilitators of, service user/caregiver involvement in rural Ethiopia to inform the development of a scalable approach. Thirty nine semi-structured interviews were carried out with purposively selected mental health service users (n = 13), caregivers (n = 10), heads of primary care facilities (n = 8) and policy makers/planners/service developers (n = 8). The interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed in Amharic, and translated into English. Thematic analysis was applied. All groups of participants supported service user and caregiver involvement in mental health system strengthening. Potential benefits were identified as (i) improved appropriateness and quality of services, and (ii) greater protection against mistreatment and promotion of respect for service users. However, hardly any respondents had prior experience of service user involvement. Stigma was considered to be a pervasive barrier, operating within the health system, the local community and individuals. Competing priorities of service users included the need to obtain adequate individual care and to work for survival. Low recognition of the potential contribution of service users seemed linked to limited empowerment and mobilization of service users. Potential health system facilitators included a culture of community oversight of primary care services. All groups of respondents identified a need for awareness-raising and training to equip service users, caregivers, service providers and local community for involvement. Empowerment at the level of individual service users (information about mental health conditions, care and rights) and the group level (for advocacy and representation) were considered
Samuels, Fiona; Amaya, Ana B; Balabanova, Dina
There is a growing understanding that strong health systems are crucial to sustain progress. Health systems, however, are complex and much of their success depends on factors operating at different levels and outside the health system, including broader governance and political commitment to health and social development priorities. Recognizing these complexities, this article offers a pragmatic approach to exploring the drivers of progress in maternal and child health in Mozambique, Nepal and Rwanda. To do this, the article builds on a semi-systematic literature review and case study findings, designed and analysed using a multi-level framework. At the macro level, governance with effective and committed leaders was found to be vital for achieving positive health outcomes. This was underpinned by clear commitment from donors coupled by a significant increase in funding to the health sector. At the meso level, where policies are operationalized, inter-sectoral partnerships as well as decentralization and task-shifting emerged as critical. At micro (service interface) level, community-centred models and accessible and appropriately trained and incentivized local health providers play a central role in all study countries. The key drivers of progress are multiple, interrelated and transversal in terms of their operation; they are also in a constant state of flux as health systems and contexts develop. Without seeking to offer a blueprint, the study demonstrates that a 'whole-system' approach can help elicit the key drivers of change and potential pathways towards desirable outcomes. Furthermore, understanding the challenges and opportunities that are instrumental to progress at each particular level of a health system can help policy-makers and implementers to navigate this complexity and take action to strengthen health systems. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. All rights
Haro, A. S.
Discusses the need to apply modern scientific management to health administration in order to effectively manage programs utilizing increased preventive and curative capabilities. The value of having maximum information in order to make decisions, and problems of determining information content are reviewed. For journal availability, see SO 506…
Uneke, Chigozie Jesse; Ezeoha, Abel Ebeh; Ndukwe, Chinwendu Daniel; Oyibo, Patrick Gold; Onwe, Friday; Aulakh, Bhupinder Kaur
Nigeria is one of the low and middle income countries (LMICs) facing severe resource constraint, making it impossible for adequate resources to be allocated to the health sector. Priority setting becomes imperative because it guides investments in health care, health research and respects resource constraints. The objective of this study was to enhance the knowledge and understanding of policymakers on research priority setting and to conduct a research priority setting exercise. A one-day evidence-to-policy research priority setting meeting was held. The meeting participants included senior and middle level policymakers and key decision makers/stakeholders in the health sector in Ebonyi State southeastern Nigeria. The priorities setting meeting involved a training session on priority setting process and conduction of priority setting exercise using the essential national health research (ENHR) approach. The focus was on the health systems building blocks (health workforce; health finance; leadership/governance; medical products/technology; service delivery; and health information/evidence). Of the total of 92 policymakers invited 90(97.8%) attended the meeting. It was the consensus of the policymakers that research should focus on the challenges of optimal access to health products and technology; effective health service delivery and disease control under a national emergency situation; the shortfalls in the supply of professional personnel; and the issues of governance in the health sector management. Research priority setting exercise involving policymakers is an example of demand driven strategy in the health policymaking process capable of reversing inequities and strengthening the health systems in LMICs.
Osungbade, Kayode O.; Oladunjoye, Olubunmi O.
Objectives. Review of burden of congenital transmission of malaria, challenges of preventive measures, and implications for health system strengthening in sub-Saharan Africa. Methods. Literature from Pubmed (MEDLINE), Biomed central, Google Scholar, and Cochrane Database were reviewed. Results. The prevalence of congenital malaria in sub-Saharan Africa ranges from 0 to 23%. Diagnosis and existing preventive measures are constantly hindered by weak health systems and sociocultural issues. WHO ...
Rajan, Dheepa; Kalambay, Hyppolite; Mossoko, Mathias; Kwete, Dieudonné; Bulakali, Joseph; Lokonga, Jean-Pierre; Porignon, Denis; Schmets, Gerard
This case study from DR Congo demonstrates how rational operational planning based on a health systems strengthening strategy (HSSS) can contribute to policy dialogue over several years. It explores the operationalization of a national strategy at district level by elucidating a normative model district resource plan which details the resources and costs of providing an essential health services package at district level. This paper then points to concrete examples of how the results of this exercise were used for Ministry of Health (MoH) decision-making over a time period of 5 years. DR Congo's HSSS and its accompanying essential health services package were taken as a base to construct a normative model health district comprising of 10 Health Centres (HC) and 1 District Hospital (DH). The normative model health district represents a standard set by the Ministry of Health for providing essential primary health care services. The minimum operating budget necessary to run a normative model health district is $17.91 per inhabitant per year, of which $11.86 is for the district hospital and $6.05 for the health centre. The Ministry of Health has employed the results of this exercise in 4 principal ways: 1.Advocacy and negotiation instrument; 2. Instrument to align donors; 3. Field planning; 4. Costing database to extract data from when necessary. The above results have been key in the policy dialogue on affordability of the essential health services package in DR Congo. It has allowed the MoH to provide transparent information on financing needs around the HSSS; it continues to help the MoH negotiate with the Ministry of Finance and bring partner support behind the HSSS.
Semrau, Maya; Lempp, Heidi; Keynejad, Roxanne; Evans-Lacko, Sara; Mugisha, James; Raja, Shoba; Lamichhane, Jagannath; Alem, Atalay; Thornicroft, Graham; Hanlon, Charlotte
The involvement of mental health service users and their caregivers in health system policy and planning, service monitoring and research can contribute to mental health system strengthening, but as yet there have been very few efforts to do so in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). This systematic review examined the evidence and experience of service user and caregiver involvement in mental health system strengthening, as well as models of best practice for evaluation of capacity-building activities that facilitate their greater participation. Both the peer-reviewed and the grey literature were included in the review, which were identified through database searches (MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, Web of Knowledge, Web of Science, Scopus, CINAHL, LILACS, SciELO, Google Scholar and Cochrane), as well as hand-searching of reference lists and the internet, and a snowballing process of contacting experts active in the area. This review included any kind of study design that described or evaluated service user, family or caregiver (though not community) involvement in LMICs (including service users with intellectual disabilities, dementia, or child and adolescent mental health problems) and that were relevant to mental health system strengthening across five categories. Data were extracted and summarised as a narrative review. Twenty papers matched the inclusion criteria. Overall, the review found that although there were examples of service user and caregiver involvement in mental health system strengthening in numerous countries, there was a lack of high-quality research and a weak evidence base for the work that was being conducted across countries. However, there was some emerging research on the development of policies and strategies, including advocacy work, and to a lesser extent the development of services, service monitoring and evaluation, with most service user involvement having taken place within advocacy and service delivery. Research was scarce within
Sombié, Issiaka; Aidam, Jude; Montorzi, Gabriela
Since the Commission on Health Research for Development (COHRED) published its flagship report, more attention has been focused on strengthening national health research systems (NHRS). This paper evaluates the contribution of a regional project that used a participatory approach to strengthen NHRS in four post-conflict West African countries - Guinea-Bissau, Liberia, Sierra Leone and Mali. The data from the situation analysis conducted at the start of the project was compared to data from the project's final evaluation, using a hybrid conceptual framework built around four key areas identified through the analysis of existing frameworks. The four areas are governance and management, capacities, funding, and dissemination/use of research findings. The project helped improve the countries' governance and management mechanisms without strengthening the entire NHRS. In the four countries, at least one policy, plan or research agenda was developed. One country put in place a national health research ethics committee, while all four countries could adopt a research information management system. The participatory approach and support from the West African Health Organisation and COHRED were all determining factors. The lessons learned from this project show that the fragile context of these countries requires long-term engagement and that support from a regional institution is needed to address existing challenges and successfully strengthen the entire NHRS.
Clifford, Katie L; Zaman, Muhammad H
The recent drafting of the Sustainable Development Goals challenges the research community to rethink the traditional approach to global health and provides the opportunity for science, technology, engineering, and mathematical (STEM) disciplines, particularly engineering, to demonstrate their benefit to the field. Higher education offers a platform for engineering to intersect with global health research through interdisciplinary partnerships among international universities that provide excellence in education, attract nontraditional STEM students, and foster a sense of innovation. However, a traditional lack of engineering-global health collaborations, as well as limited faculty and inadequate STEM research funding in low-income countries, has stifled progress. Still, the impact of higher education on development efforts holds great potential. This value will be realized in low-income countries through strengthening local capacity, supporting innovation through educational initiatives, and encouraging the inclusion of women and minorities in STEM programs. Current international university-level partnerships are working towards integrating engineering into global health research and strengthening STEM innovation among universities in low-income countries, but more can be done. Global health research informs sustainable development, and through integrating engineering into research efforts through university partnerships, we can accelerate progress and work towards a healthier future for all.
Katie L. Clifford
Full Text Available The recent drafting of the Sustainable Development Goals challenges the research community to rethink the traditional approach to global health and provides the opportunity for science, technology, engineering, and mathematical (STEM disciplines, particularly engineering, to demonstrate their benefit to the field. Higher education offers a platform for engineering to intersect with global health research through interdisciplinary partnerships among international universities that provide excellence in education, attract nontraditional STEM students, and foster a sense of innovation. However, a traditional lack of engineering–global health collaborations, as well as limited faculty and inadequate STEM research funding in low-income countries, has stifled progress. Still, the impact of higher education on development efforts holds great potential. This value will be realized in low-income countries through strengthening local capacity, supporting innovation through educational initiatives, and encouraging the inclusion of women and minorities in STEM programs. Current international university-level partnerships are working towards integrating engineering into global health research and strengthening STEM innovation among universities in low-income countries, but more can be done. Global health research informs sustainable development, and through integrating engineering into research efforts through university partnerships, we can accelerate progress and work towards a healthier future for all.
Full Text Available Objective: Rwanda's Ministry of Health, with the Clinton Health Access Initiative, implemented the Human Resources for Health (HRH Program. The purpose of the program is to train and retain high-quality health care professionals to improve and sustain health in Rwanda. Design: In May 2011, an oral health team from Rwanda and the United States proposed that oral health be included in the HRH Program, due to its important links to health, in a recommendation to the Rwandan Ministry of Health. The proposal outlined a diagonal approach to curriculum design that supports the principles of global health through interconnected training for both treatment and collaborative prevention, rather than discipline-based fragmented training focused on isolated risk factors. It combined ‘vertical’ direct patient care training with ‘horizontal’ interdisciplinary training to address common underlying risk factors and associations for disease through primary care, program retention, and sustainability. Results: The proposal was accepted by the Ministry of Health and was approved for funding by the US Government and The Global Fund. Rwanda's first Bachelor of Dental Surgery program, which is in the planning phase, is being developed. Conclusions: Competencies, the training curriculum, insurance and payment schemes, licensure, and other challenges are currently being addressed. With the Ministry of Health supporting the dental HRH efforts and fully appreciating the importance of oral health, all are hopeful that these developments will ultimately lead to more robust oral health data collection, a well-trained and well-retained dental profession, and vastly improved oral health and overall health for the people of Rwanda in the decades to come.
Seymour, Brittany; Muhumuza, Ibra; Mumena, Chris; Isyagi, Moses; Barrow, Jane; Meeks, Valli
Objective Rwanda's Ministry of Health, with the Clinton Health Access Initiative, implemented the Human Resources for Health (HRH) Program. The purpose of the program is to train and retain high-quality health care professionals to improve and sustain health in Rwanda. Design In May 2011, an oral health team from Rwanda and the United States proposed that oral health be included in the HRH Program, due to its important links to health, in a recommendation to the Rwandan Ministry of Health. The proposal outlined a diagonal approach to curriculum design that supports the principles of global health through interconnected training for both treatment and collaborative prevention, rather than discipline-based fragmented training focused on isolated risk factors. It combined ‘vertical’ direct patient care training with ‘horizontal’ interdisciplinary training to address common underlying risk factors and associations for disease through primary care, program retention, and sustainability. Results The proposal was accepted by the Ministry of Health and was approved for funding by the US Government and The Global Fund. Rwanda's first Bachelor of Dental Surgery program, which is in the planning phase, is being developed. Conclusions Competencies, the training curriculum, insurance and payment schemes, licensure, and other challenges are currently being addressed. With the Ministry of Health supporting the dental HRH efforts and fully appreciating the importance of oral health, all are hopeful that these developments will ultimately lead to more robust oral health data collection, a well-trained and well-retained dental profession, and vastly improved oral health and overall health for the people of Rwanda in the decades to come. PMID:23473054
Mussa, Abdul H; Pfeiffer, James; Gloyd, Stephen S; Sherr, Kenneth
In the rapid scale-up of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) care and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) treatment, many donors have chosen to channel their funds to non-governmental organizations and other private partners rather than public sector systems. This approach has reinforced a private sector, vertical approach to addressing the HIV epidemic. As progress on stemming the epidemic has stalled in some areas, there is a growing recognition that overall health system strengthening, including health workforce development, will be essential to meet AIDS treatment goals. Mozambique has experienced an especially dramatic increase in disease-specific support over the last eight years. We explored the perspectives and experiences of key Mozambican public sector health managers who coordinate, implement, and manage the myriad donor-driven projects and agencies. Over a four-month period, we conducted 41 individual qualitative interviews with key Ministry workers at three levels in the Mozambique national health system, using open-ended semi-structured interview guides. We also reviewed planning documents. All respondents emphasized the value and importance of international aid and vertical funding to the health sector and each highlighted program successes that were made possible by recent increased aid flows. However, three serious concerns emerged: 1) difficulties coordinating external resources and challenges to local control over the use of resources channeled to international private organizations; 2) inequalities created within the health system produced by vertical funds channeled to specific services while other sectors remain under-resourced; and 3) the exodus of health workers from the public sector health system provoked by large disparities in salaries and work. The Ministry of Health attempted to coordinate aid by implementing a "sector-wide approach" to bring the partners together in setting priorities, harmonizing planning, and coordinating
Elioenai Dornelles Alves
Full Text Available This portal UNB had the institutional support through DEX and the CPD of UNB creating a website specifi c for hosting applications and certifi cations. referrals this portal, we have the following results:the possibility of disclosing the Journal Management & Health and referrals of local health councils, such as events, debates, legislation and forums. Currently, The portal is hosted by thesite of the Center for Research on Education and Health Promotion - NESPROM of UNB. Continuing this portal was the embryo for creating training courses counselors and multipliers theme social control on health, depending on support for updating and continuity information.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Health systems are expected to serve the population needs in an effective, efficient and equitable manner. Therefore, the importance of strengthening of public, private and community health systems has been emphasized time and again. In most of the developing countries, certain weaknesses and gaps in the government health systems have been hampering the achievement of improved health outcomes. Public sector in Pakistan has been deficient in the capacity to deliver equitable and quality health services and thus has been grossly underutilized. Methods A qualitative study comprising in-depth interviews was conducted capturing the perceptions of the government functionaries, NGO representatives and donor community about the role and position of NGOs in health systems strengthening in Pakistan's context. Analysis of the data was done manually to generate nodes, sub-nodes and themes. Results Since many years, international and local non-governmental organizations (NGOs have endeavored to fill the gaps in health service delivery, research and advocacy. NGOs have relatively performed better and achieved the results because of the flexible planning and the ability to design population based projects on health education, health promotion, social marketing, community development and advocacy. This paper captures the need and the opportunity of public private partnership in Pakistan and presents a framework for a meaningful engagement of the government and the private and nonprofit NGOs. Conclusion Involving the NGOs for health system strengthening may eventually contribute to create a healthcare system reflecting an increased efficiency, more equity and good governance in the wake of the Millennium Development Goals. Nevertheless, few questions need to be answered and pre-requisites have to be fulfilled before moving on.
Matsuoka, Sadatoshi; Obara, Hiromi; Nagai, Mari; Murakami, Hitoshi; Chan Lon, Rasmey
Though Cambodia made impressive gains in immunization coverage between the years 2000 and 2005, it recognized several health system challenges to greater coverage of immunization and sustainability. The Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization (GAVI) opened a Health System Strengthening (HSS) funding window in 2006. To address the health system challenges, Cambodia has been receiving the GAVI HSS fund since October 2007. The major component of the support is performance-based financing (PBF) for maternal, neonatal and child health (MNCH) services. To examine the impact of the PBF scheme on MNCH services and administrative management in rural Cambodia. Quantitative and qualitative studies were conducted in Kroch Chhmar Operational District (OD), Cambodia. Quantitative analyses were conducted on the trends of the numbers of MNCH services. A brief analysis was conducted using qualitative data. After the commencement of the PBF support, the volume of MNCH services was significantly boosted. In addition, strengthened financial and operational management was observed in the study area. However, the quality of the MNCH services was not ensured. Technical assistance, rather than the PBF scheme, was perceived by stakeholders to play a vital role in increasing the quality of the services. To improve the quality of the health services provided, it is better to include indicators on the quality of care in the PBF scheme. Mutual co-operation between PBF models and technical assistance may ensure better service quality while boosting the quantity. A robust but feasible data validation mechanism should be in place, as a PBF could incentivize inaccurate reporting. The capacity for financial management should be strengthened in PBF recipient ODs. To address the broader aspects of MNCH, a balanced input of resources and strengthening of all six building blocks of a health system are necessary. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene
Naimoli, Joseph F
Despite a burgeoning literature on global health partnerships (GHPs), there have been few studies of how GHPs, particularly those trying to build a bridge between horizontal and vertical modes of delivering essential health services, operate at global and country levels. This paper will help address this knowledge gap by describing and analyzing the GAVI Alliance's early experience with health systems strengthening (HSS) to improve immunization coverage and other maternal-child health outcomes. To date, the strengths of HSS reside in its potential to optimize GAVI's overall investment in immunization, efforts to harmonize with other initiatives, willingness to acknowledge risk and identify mitigation strategies, engagement of diverse stakeholders, responsiveness to country needs, and effective management of an ambitious grant-making enterprise. The challenges have been forging a common vision and approach, governance, balancing pressure to move money with incremental learning, managing partner roles and relationships, managing the "value for money" risk, and capacity building. This mid-point stock-taking makes recommendations for moving GAVI forward in a thoughtful manner. The findings should be of interest to other GHPs because of their larger significance. This is a story about how a successful alliance that decided to broaden its mandate has responded to the technical, organizational, and political complexities that challenge its traditional business model. Copyright (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Prodinger, Birgit; Tennant, Alan; Stucki, Gerold; Cieza, Alarcos; Üstün, Tevfik Bedirhan
Our aim was to specify the requirements of an architecture to serve as the foundation for standardized reporting of health information and to provide an exemplary application of this architecture. The World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) served as the conceptual framework. Methods to establish content comparability were the ICF Linking Rules. The Rasch measurement model, as a special case of additive conjoint measurement, which satisfies the required criteria for fundamental measurement, allowed for the development of a common metric foundation for measurement unit conversion. Secondary analysis of data from the North Yorkshire Survey was used to illustrate these methods. Patients completed three instruments and the items were linked to the ICF. The Rasch measurement model was applied, first to each scale, and then to items across scales which were linked to a common domain. Based on the linking of items to the ICF, the majority of items were grouped into two domains, Mobility and Self-care. Analysis of the individual scales and of items linked to a common domain across scales satisfied the requirements of the Rasch measurement model. The measurement unit conversion between items from the three instruments linked to the Mobility and Self-care domains, respectively, was demonstrated. The realization of an ICF-based architecture for information on patients' functioning enables harmonization of health information while allowing clinicians and researchers to continue using their existing instruments. This architecture will facilitate access to comprehensive and consistently reported health information to serve as the foundation for informed decision-making. © The Author(s) 2016.
Okoroh, Juliet S; Chia, Victoria; Oliver, Emily A; Dharmawardene, Marisa; Riviello, Robert
Universal health coverage (UHC) has its roots in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and has recently gained momentum. Out-of-pocket payments (OPP) remain a significant barrier to care. There is an increasing global prevalence of non-communicable diseases, many of which are surgically treatable. We sought to provide a comparative analysis of the inclusion of surgical care in operating plans for UHC in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). We systematically searched PubMed and Google Scholar using pre-defined criteria for articles published in English, Spanish, or French between January 1991 and November 2013. Keywords included "insurance," "OPP," "surgery," "trauma," "cancer," and "congenital anomalies." World Health Organization (WHO), World Bank, and Joint Learning Network for UHC websites were searched for supporting documents. Ministries of Health were contacted to provide further information on the inclusion of surgery. We found 696 articles and selected 265 for full-text review based on our criteria. Some countries enumerated surgical conditions in detail (India, 947 conditions). Other countries mentioned surgery broadly. Obstetric care was most commonly covered (19 countries). Solid organ transplantation was least covered. Cancer care was mentioned broadly, often without specifying the therapeutic modality. No countries were identified where hospitals are required to provide emergency care regardless of insurance coverage. OPP varied greatly between countries. Eighty percent of countries had OPP of 60% or more, making these services, even if partially covered, largely inaccessible. While OPP, delivery, and utilization continue to represent challenges to health care access in many LMICs, the inclusion of surgery in many UHC policies sets an important precedent in addressing a growing global prevalence of surgically treatable conditions. Barriers to access, including inequalities in financial protection in the form of high OPP, remain a fundamental
Barasa, Edwine W; Cloete, Keith; Gilson, Lucy
Recent health system shocks such as the Ebola disease outbreak have focused global health attention on the notion of resilient health systems. In this commentary, we reflect on the current framing of the concept of resilience in health systems discourse and propose a reframing. Specifically, we propose that: (1) in addition to sudden shocks, health systems face the ongoing strain of multiple factors. Health systems need the capacity to continue to deliver services of good quality and respond effectively to wider health challenges. We call this capacity everyday resilience; (2) health system resilience entails more than bouncing back from shock. In complex adaptive systems (CAS), resilience emerges from a combination of absorptive, adaptive and transformative strategies; (3) nurturing the resilience of health systems requires understanding health systems as comprising not only hardware elements (such as finances and infrastructure), but also software elements (such as leadership capacity, power relations, values and appropriate organizational culture). We also reflect on current criticisms of the concept of resilient health systems, such as that it assumes that systems are apolitical, ignoring actor agency, promoting inaction, and requiring that we accept and embrace vulnerability, rather than strive for stronger and more responsive systems. We observe that these criticisms are warranted to the extent that they refer to notions of resilience that are mismatched with the reality of health systems as CAS. We argue that the observed weaknesses of resilience thinking can be addressed by reframing and applying a resilience lens that is better suited to the attributes of health systems as CAS. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Background Despite its importance in providing evidence for health-related policy and decision-making, an insufficient amount of health systems research (HSR) is conducted in low-income countries (LICs). Schools of public health (SPHs) are key stakeholders in HSR. This paper, one in a series of four, examines human and financial resources capacities, policies and organizational support for HSR in seven Africa Hub SPHs in East and Central Africa. Methods Capacity assessment done included document analysis to establish staff numbers, qualifications and publications; self-assessment using a tool developed to capture individual perceptions on the capacity for HSR and institutional dialogues. Key informant interviews (KIIs) were held with Deans from each SPH and Ministry of Health and non-governmental officials, focusing on perceptions on capacity of SPHs to engage in HSR, access to funding, and organizational support for HSR. Results A total of 123 people participated in the self-assessment and 73 KIIs were conducted. Except for the National University of Rwanda and the University of Nairobi SPH, most respondents expressed confidence in the adequacy of staffing levels and HSR-related skills at their SPH. However, most of the researchers operate at individual level with low outputs. The average number of HSR-related publications was only capacity. This study underscores the need to form effective multidisciplinary teams to enhance research of immediate and local relevance. Capacity strengthening in the SPH needs to focus on knowledge translation and communication of findings to relevant audiences. Advocacy is needed to influence respective governments to allocate adequate funding for HSR to avoid donor dependency that distorts local research agenda. PMID:24888371
Scott, Vera; Schaay, Nikki; Olckers, Patti; Nqana, Nomsa; Lehmann, Uta; Gilson, Lucy
Health system governance has been recognized as a critical element of the health system strengthening agenda. To date, health governance research often focuses at national or global levels, adopting a macro-perspective that deals with governance structures, forms and principles. Little attention has been given to a micro-perspective which recognizes the role of health system actors in governance, or to considering the operational level of the health system. This article presents a South African case study of an intervention to address conflict in roles and responsibilities between multiple actors supporting service delivery at the local level, and explores the broader insights this experience generates about the nature of local health system governance. In an embedded case study, action learning and reflection theory were used to design and implement the intervention. Data in this article were drawn from minutes, observations and recorded reflections of the meetings and workshops that comprised the intervention. A theoretical governance framework was used both to understand the context of the intervention and to analyse the dimensions of governance relevant in the experience. The study shows how, through action learning and reflection, local managers in two organizations came to understand how the higher level misalignment of organizational structures and processes imposed governance constraints on them, and to see the impact this had on their organizational relationships. By re-framing the conflict as organizational, they were then able to create opportunities for staff to understand their context and participate in negotiating principles for communication and collaborative work. The result reduced conflict between staff in the two organizations, leading to improved implementation of programme support. Strengthening relationships among those working at local level by building collaborative norms and values is an important part of local health system governance for
Alotaibi, Badriah M; Yezli, Saber; Bin Saeed, Abdul-Aziz A; Turkestani, Abdulhafeez; Alawam, Amnah H; Bieh, Kingsley L
Hajj is one of the largest and the most ethnically and culturally diverse mass gatherings worldwide. The use of appropriate surveillance systems ensures timely information management for effective planning and response to infectious diseases threats during the pilgrimage. The literature describes infectious diseases prevention and control strategies for Hajj but with limited information on the operations and characteristics of the existing Hajj infectious diseases surveillance systems. We reviewed documents, including guidelines and reports from the Saudi Ministry of Health's database, to describe the characteristics of the infectious diseases surveillance systems that were operational during the 2015 Hajj, highlighting best practices and gaps and proposing strategies for strengthening and improvement. Using Pubmed and Embase online search engines and a combination of search terms including, 'mass gatherings' 'Olympics' 'surveillance' 'Hajj' 'health security', we explored the existing literature and highlighted some lessons learnt from other international mass gatherings. A regular indicator-based infectious disease surveillance system generates routine reports from health facilities within the Kingdom to the regional and central public health directorates all year round. During Hajj, enhanced indicator-based notifiable diseases surveillance systems complement the existing surveillance tool to ensure timely reporting of event information for appropriate action by public health officials. There is need to integrate the existing Hajj surveillance data management systems and to implement syndromic surveillance as an early warning system for infectious disease control during Hajj. International engagement is important to strengthen Hajj infectious diseases surveillance and to prevent disease transmission and globalization of infectious agents which could undermine global health security. © International Society of Travel Medicine, 2017. Published by Oxford University
Dusabe-Richards, John N; Tesfaye, Hayley Teshome; Mekonnen, Jarso; Kea, Aschenaki; Theobald, Sally; Datiko, Daniel G
This study assesses the feasibility of female health extension workers (HEWs) using eHealth within their core duties, supporting both the design and capacity building for an eHealth system project focussed initially on tuberculosis, maternal child health, and gender equity. Health extension workers, Health Centre Heads, District Health Officers, Zonal Health Department and Regional Health Bureau representatives in Southern Ethiopia. The study was undertaken in Southern Ethiopia with three districts in Sidama zone (population of 3.5 million) and one district in Gedeo zone (control zone with similar health service coverage and population density). Mixed method baseline data collection was undertaken, using quantitative questionnaires (n = 57) and purposively sampled qualitative face-to-face semi-structured interviews (n = 10) and focus group discussions (n = 3). Themes were identified relating to HEW commitment and role, supervision, and performance management. The Health Management Information System (HMIS) was seen as important by all participants, but with challenges of information quality, accuracy, reliability and timeliness. Participants' perceptions varied by group regarding the purpose and benefits of HMIS as well as the potential of an eHealth system. Mobile phones were used regularly by all participants. eHealth technology presents a new opportunity for the Ethiopian health system to improve data quality and community health. Front-line female HEWs are a critical bridge between communities and health systems. Empowering HEWs, supporting them and responding to the challenges they face will be an important part of ensuring the sustainability and responsiveness of eHealth strategies. Findings have informed the subsequent eHealth technology design and implementation, capacity strengthening approach, supervision, and performance management approach.
Fan, Victoria Y; Tsai, Feng-Jen J; Shroff, Zubin C; Nakahara, Branden; Vargha, Nabil; Weathers, Scott
This study aims to understand the determinants of the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria's dedicated channel for health systems strengthening (HSS) funding across countries and to analyze their health system priorities expressed in budgets and performance indicators. We obtained publicly available data for disease-specific and HSS grants from the Global Fund over 2004-2013 prior to the new funding model. Regression analysis was employed to assess the determinants of dedicated HSS funding across 111 countries. Documents for 27 dedicated HSS grants including budgets and performance indicators were collected, and activities were analyzed by health system functions. HSS funding per capita is significantly associated with TB and HIV funding per capita, but not per capita income and health worker density. Of 27 dedicated HSS grants, 11 had line-item budgets publicly available, in which health workforce and medical products form the majority (89% or US$132 million of US$148 million) of funds. Yet these areas accounted for 41.7% (215) of total 516 performance indicators. Health worker densities were not correlated with HSS funding, despite the emphasis on health workforce in budgets and performance indicators. Priorities in health systems in line-item budgets differ from the numbers of indicators used. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Nkengasong, John N; Mesele, Tsehaynesh; Orloff, Sherry; Kebede, Yenew; Fonjungo, Peter N; Timperi, Ralph; Birx, Deborah
Medical laboratory services are an essential, yet often neglected, component of health systems in developing countries. Their central role in public health, disease control and surveillance, and patient management is often poorly recognized by governments and donors. However, medical laboratory services in developing countries can be strengthened by leveraging funding from other sources of HIV/AIDS prevention, care, surveillance, and treatment programs. Strengthening these services will require coordinated efforts by national governments and partners and can be achieved by establishing and implementing national laboratory strategic plans and policies that integrate laboratory systems to combat major infectious diseases. These plans should take into account policy, legal, and regulatory frameworks; the administrative and technical management structure of the laboratories; human resources and retention strategies; laboratory quality management systems; monitoring and evaluation systems; procurement and maintenance of equipment; and laboratory infrastructure enhancement. Several countries have developed or are in the process of developing their laboratory plans, and others, such as Ethiopia, have implemented and evaluated their plan.
Full Text Available The paper emphasizes the vital need to address the rising burden of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs in India with a health systems approach. The authors argue that adoption of such approach may soon be imperative. Applying the health systems framework developed by the WHO in 2000 to NCDs means in summary re-examining the planning and organization of the entire health system, from service provision to financing, from information generation to ensuring adequate supply of pharmaceuticals/technologies or human resources, from improving facility management to performance monitoring. Using this framework the authors seek to highlight core issues and identify possible policy actions required. The challenge is to ensure the best implementation of what works, aligning the service provision function with the financial incentives, ensuring leadership/stewardship by the government across local/municipal, state or regional and national level while involving stakeholders. A health system perspective would also ensure that action against NCD goes hand in hand with tackling the remaining burden from communicable diseases, maternal, child health and nutrition issues.
Dansereau, Emily; Miangotar, Yodé; Squires, Ellen; Mimche, Honoré; El Bcheraoui, Charbel
Since 2005, Gavi has provided health system strengthening (HSS) grants to address bottlenecks affecting immunization services. This study is the first to evaluate the Gavi HSS implementation process in either Cameroon or Chad, two countries with significant health system challenges and poor achievement on the child and maternal health Millennium Development Goals. We triangulated quantitative and qualitative data including financial records, document review, field visit questionnaires, and key informant interviews (KII) with representatives from the Ministries of Health, Gavi, and other partners. We conducted a Root Cause Analysis of key implementation challenges, guided by the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research. We conducted 124 field visits and 43 KIIs in Cameroon, and 57 field visits and 39 KIIs in Chad. Cameroon's and Chad's HSS programs were characterized by delayed disbursements, significant deviations from approved expenditures, and reprogramming of funds. Nearly a year after the programs were intended to be complete, many district and facility-level activities were only partially implemented and significant funds remained unabsorbed. Root causes of these challenges included unpredictable Gavi processes and disbursements, poor communication between the countries and Gavi, insufficient country planning without adequate technical assistance, lack of country staff and leadership, and weak country systems to manage finances and promote institutional memory. Though Chad and Cameroon both critically needed support to strengthen their weak health systems, serious challenges drastically limited implementation of their Gavi HSS programs. Implementation of future HSS programs in these and similar settings can be improved by transparent and reliable procedures and communication from Gavi, proposals that account for countries' programmatic capacity and the potential for delayed disbursements, implementation practices that foster learning and adaptation
Full Text Available Several African countries have recently introduced or are currently introducing the HPV vaccine, either nationwide or through demonstration projects, while some countries are planning for introduction. A collaborative project was developed to strengthen country adolescent immunisation programmes and health systems in the African Region, addressing unique public health considerations of HPV vaccination: adolescents as the primary target group, delivery platforms (e.g. school-based and facility based, socio-behavioural issues, and the opportunity to deliver other health interventions alongside HPV vaccination.Following a successful âtaking-stockâ meeting, a training programme was drafted to assist countries to strengthen the integration of adolescent health interventions using HPV vaccination as an entry point. Two workshops were conducted in the Eastern and Southern African Regions. All countries reported on progress made during a final joint symposium.Of the 20 countries invited to participate in either of the workshops and/or final symposium, 17 countries participated: Angola, Botswana, Ethiopia, Kenya, Malawi, Mauritius, Mozambique, Namibia, Rwanda, Seychelles, South Africa, South Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia and Zimbabwe. Countries that are currently implementing HPV vaccination programmes, either nationally or through demonstration projects, reported varying degrees of integration with other adolescent health interventions. The most commonly reported adolescent health interventions alongside HPV vaccination include health education (including sexually transmitted infections, deworming and delivering of other vaccines like tetanus toxoid (TT or tetanus diphtheria (Td.The project has successfully (a established an African-based network that will advocate for incorporating the HPV vaccine into national immunisation programmes; (b created a platform for experience exchange and thereby contributed to novel ideas of
Oliver, Sandra; Dickson, Kelly
Support for producing systematic reviews about health systems is less well developed than for those about clinical practice. From interviewing policy makers and systematic reviewers we identified institutional mechanisms which bring systematic reviews and policy priorities closer by harnessing organisational and individual motivations, emphasising…
Strengthening rural health placements for medical students: Lessons for South Africa ... rural health, primary healthcare and National Health Insurance strategies. ... preferential selection of students with a rural background, positioning rural ...
Full Text Available Abstract Background The GAVI Alliance was created in 2000 to increase access to vaccines. More recently, GAVI has supported evidence-based health systems strengthening to overcome barriers to vaccination. Our objectives were: to explore countries' priorities for health systems strengthening; to describe published research summaries for each priority area in relation to their number, quality and relevance; and to describe the use of national data from surveys in identifying barriers to immunisation. Methods From 44 health systems strengthening proposals submitted to GAVI in 2007 and 2008, we analysed the topics identified, the coverage of these topics by existing systematic reviews and the use of nation-wide surveys with vaccination data to justify the needs identified in the proposals. Results Thirty topics were identified and grouped into three thematic areas: health workforce (10 topics; organisation and management (14; and supply, distribution and maintenance (6. We found 51 potentially relevant systematic reviews, although for the topic that appeared most frequently in the proposals ('Health information systems' no review was identified. Thematic and geographic relevance were generally categorised as "high" in 33 (65% and 25 (49% reviews, respectively, but few reviews were categorised as "highly relevant for policy" (7 reviews, 14%. With regard to methodological quality, 14 reviews (27% were categorised as "high". The number of topics that were addressed by at least one high quality systematic review was: seven of the 10 topics in the 'health workforce' thematic area; six of the 14 topics in the area of 'organisation and management'; and none of the topics in the thematic area of 'supply, distribution and maintenance'. Only twelve of the 39 countries with available national surveys referred to them in their proposals. Conclusion Relevant, high quality research summaries were found for few of the topics identified by managers. Few proposals
Chan Brian T
Full Text Available Abstract Background Globally, chronic diseases are responsible for an enormous burden of deaths, disability, and economic loss, yet little is known about the optimal health sector response to chronic diseases in poor, post-conflict countries. Liberia's experience in strengthening health systems and health financing overall, and addressing HIV/AIDS and mental health in particular, provides a relevant case study for international stakeholders and policymakers in other poor, post-conflict countries seeking to understand and prioritize the global response to chronic diseases. Methods We conducted a historical review of Liberia's post-conflict policies and their impact on general economic and health indicators, as well as on health systems strengthening and chronic disease care and treatment. Key sources included primary documents from Liberia's Ministry of Health and Social Welfare, published and gray literature, and personal communications from key stakeholders engaged in Liberia's Health Sector Reform. In this case study, we examine the early reconstruction of Liberia's health care system from the end of conflict in 2003 to the present time, highlight challenges and lessons learned from this initial experience, and describe future directions for health systems strengthening and chronic disease care and treatment in Liberia. Results Six key lessons emerge from this analysis: (i the 2007 National Health Policy's 'one size fits all' approach met aggregate planning targets but resulted in significant gaps and inefficiencies throughout the system; (ii the innovative Health Sector Pool Fund proved to be an effective financing mechanism to recruit and align health actors with the 2007 National Health Policy; (iii a substantial rural health delivery gap remains, but it could be bridged with a robust cadre of community health workers integrated into the primary health care system; (iv effective strategies for HIV/AIDS care in other settings should be
Izugbara, Chimaraoke O; Kabiru, Caroline W; Amendah, Djesika; Dimbuene, Zacharie Tsala; Donfouet, Hermann Pythagore Pierre; Atake, Esso-Hanam; Ingabire, Marie-Gloriose; Maluka, Stephen; Mumah, Joyce N; Mwau, Matilu; Ndinya, Mollyne; Ngure, Kenneth; Sidze, Estelle M; Sossa, Charles; Soura, Abdramane; Ezeh, Alex C
Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) experiences an acute dearth of well-trained and skilled researchers. This dearth constrains the region's capacity to identify and address the root causes of its poor social, health, development, and other outcomes. Building sustainable research capacity in SSA requires, among other things, locally led and run initiatives that draw on existing regional capacities as well as mutually beneficial global collaborations. This paper describes a regional research capacity strengthening initiative-the African Doctoral Dissertation Research Fellowship (ADDRF) program. This Africa-based and African-led initiative has emerged as a practical and tested platform for producing and nurturing research leaders, strengthening university-wide systems for quality research training and productivity, and building a critical mass of highly-trained African scholars and researchers. The program deploys different interventions to ensure the success of fellows. These interventions include research methods and scientific writing workshops, research and reentry support grants, post-doctoral research support and placements, as well as grants for networking and scholarly conferences attendance. Across the region, ADDRF graduates are emerging as research leaders, showing signs of becoming the next generation of world-class researchers, and supporting the transformations of their home-institutions. While the contributions of the ADDRF program to research capacity strengthening in the region are significant, the sustainability of the initiative and other research and training fellowship programs on the continent requires significant investments from local sources and, especially, governments and the private sector in Africa. The ADDRF experience demonstrates that research capacity building in Africa is possible through innovative, multifaceted interventions that support graduate students to develop different critical capacities and transferable skills and build, expand, and
Hirschhorn, Lisa R; Baynes, Colin; Sherr, Kenneth; Chintu, Namwinga; Awoonor-Williams, John Koku; Finnegan, Karen; Philips, James F; Anatole, Manzi; Bawah, Ayaga A; Basinga, Paulin
Integrated into the work in health systems strengthening (HSS) is a growing focus on the importance of ensuring quality of the services delivered and systems which support them. Understanding how to define and measure quality in the different key World Health Organization building blocks is critical to providing the information needed to address gaps and identify models for replication. We describe the approaches to defining and improving quality across the five country programs funded through the Doris Duke Charitable Foundation African Health Initiative. While each program has independently developed and implemented country-specific approaches to strengthening health systems, they all included quality of services and systems as a core principle. We describe the differences and similarities across the programs in defining and improving quality as an embedded process essential for HSS to achieve the goal of improved population health. The programs measured quality across most or all of the six WHO building blocks, with specific areas of overlap in improving quality falling into four main categories: 1) defining and measuring quality; 2) ensuring data quality, and building capacity for data use for decision making and response to quality measurements; 3) strengthened supportive supervision and/or mentoring; and 4) operational research to understand the factors associated with observed variation in quality. Learning the value and challenges of these approaches to measuring and improving quality across the key components of HSS as the projects continue their work will help inform similar efforts both now and in the future to ensure quality across the critical components of a health system and the impact on population health.
The global financial crisis threatens global health, particularly exacerbating diseases of inequality, e.g. HIV/AIDS, and diseases of poverty, e.g. tuberculosis. The aim of this paper is to reconsider established practices and policies for HIV and tuberculosis epidemic control, aiming at delivering better results and value for money. This may be achieved by promoting greater integration of HIV and tuberculosis control programme activities within a strengthened health system. HIV and tuberculosis share many similarities in terms of their disease burden and the recommended stratagems for their control. HIV and tuberculosis programmes implement similar sorts of control activities, e.g. case finding and treatment, which depend for success on generic health system issues, including vital registration, drug procurement and supply, laboratory network, human resources, and financing. However, the current health system approach to HIV and tuberculosis control often involves separate specialised services. Despite some recent progress, collaboration between the programmes remains inadequate, progress in obtaining synergies has been slow, and results remain far below those needed to achieve universal access to key interventions. A fundamental re-think of the current strategic approach involves promoting integrated delivery of HIV and tuberculosis programme activities as part of strengthened general health services: epidemiological surveillance, programme monitoring and evaluation, community awareness of health-seeking behavior, risk behaviour modification, infection control, treatment scale-up (first-line treatment regimens), drug-resistance surveillance, containing and countering drug-resistance (second-line treatment regimens), research and development, global advocacy and global partnership. Health agencies should review policies and progress in HIV and tuberculosis epidemic control, learn mutual lessons for policy development and scaling up interventions, and identify ways
Full Text Available Abstract Background The global financial crisis threatens global health, particularly exacerbating diseases of inequality, e.g. HIV/AIDS, and diseases of poverty, e.g. tuberculosis. The aim of this paper is to reconsider established practices and policies for HIV and tuberculosis epidemic control, aiming at delivering better results and value for money. This may be achieved by promoting greater integration of HIV and tuberculosis control programme activities within a strengthened health system. Discussion HIV and tuberculosis share many similarities in terms of their disease burden and the recommended stratagems for their control. HIV and tuberculosis programmes implement similar sorts of control activities, e.g. case finding and treatment, which depend for success on generic health system issues, including vital registration, drug procurement and supply, laboratory network, human resources, and financing. However, the current health system approach to HIV and tuberculosis control often involves separate specialised services. Despite some recent progress, collaboration between the programmes remains inadequate, progress in obtaining synergies has been slow, and results remain far below those needed to achieve universal access to key interventions. A fundamental re-think of the current strategic approach involves promoting integrated delivery of HIV and tuberculosis programme activities as part of strengthened general health services: epidemiological surveillance, programme monitoring and evaluation, community awareness of health-seeking behavior, risk behaviour modification, infection control, treatment scale-up (first-line treatment regimens, drug-resistance surveillance, containing and countering drug-resistance (second-line treatment regimens, research and development, global advocacy and global partnership. Health agencies should review policies and progress in HIV and tuberculosis epidemic control, learn mutual lessons for policy
Home · What we do ... The services they provide vary immensely in complexity and national importance. ... for achieving universal health coverage in the form of quality health services that are accessible without the risk of financial hardship.
Mutale, Wilbroad; Bond, Virginia; Mwanamwenge, Margaret Tembo; Mlewa, Susan; Balabanova, Dina; Spicer, Neil; Ayles, Helen
The primary bottleneck to achieving the MDGs in low-income countries is health systems that are too fragile to deliver the volume and quality of services to those in need. Strong and effective health systems are increasingly considered a prerequisite to reducing the disease burden and to achieving the health MDGs. Zambia is one of the countries that are lagging behind in achieving millennium development targets. Several barriers have been identified as hindering the progress towards health related millennium development goals. Designing an intervention that addresses these barriers was crucial and so the Better Health Outcomes through Mentorship (BHOMA) project was designed to address the challenges in the Zambia's MOH using a system wide approach. We applied systems thinking approach to describe the baseline status of the Six WHO building blocks for health system strengthening. A qualitative study was conducted looking at the status of the Six WHO building blocks for health systems strengthening in three BHOMA districts. We conducted Focus group discussions with community members and In-depth Interviews with key informants. Data was analyzed using Nvivo version 9. The study showed that building block specific weaknesses had cross cutting effect in other health system building blocks which is an essential element of systems thinking. Challenges noted in service delivery were linked to human resources, medical supplies, information flow, governance and finance building blocks either directly or indirectly. Several barriers were identified as hindering access to health services by the local communities. These included supply side barriers: Shortage of qualified health workers, bad staff attitude, poor relationships between community and health staff, long waiting time, confidentiality and the gender of health workers. Demand side barriers: Long distance to health facility, cost of transport and cultural practices. Participating communities seemed to lack the capacity
Background The primary bottleneck to achieving the MDGs in low-income countries is health systems that are too fragile to deliver the volume and quality of services to those in need. Strong and effective health systems are increasingly considered a prerequisite to reducing the disease burden and to achieving the health MDGs. Zambia is one of the countries that are lagging behind in achieving millennium development targets. Several barriers have been identified as hindering the progress towards health related millennium development goals. Designing an intervention that addresses these barriers was crucial and so the Better Health Outcomes through Mentorship (BHOMA) project was designed to address the challenges in the Zambia’s MOH using a system wide approach. We applied systems thinking approach to describe the baseline status of the Six WHO building blocks for health system strengthening. Methods A qualitative study was conducted looking at the status of the Six WHO building blocks for health systems strengthening in three BHOMA districts. We conducted Focus group discussions with community members and In-depth Interviews with key informants. Data was analyzed using Nvivo version 9. Results The study showed that building block specific weaknesses had cross cutting effect in other health system building blocks which is an essential element of systems thinking. Challenges noted in service delivery were linked to human resources, medical supplies, information flow, governance and finance building blocks either directly or indirectly. Several barriers were identified as hindering access to health services by the local communities. These included supply side barriers: Shortage of qualified health workers, bad staff attitude, poor relationships between community and health staff, long waiting time, confidentiality and the gender of health workers. Demand side barriers: Long distance to health facility, cost of transport and cultural practices. Participating
Application of system thinking concepts in health system strengthening in low-income settings: a proposed conceptual framework for the evaluation of a complex health system intervention: the case of the BHOMA intervention in Zambia.
Mutale, Wilbroad; Balabanova, Dina; Chintu, Namwinga; Mwanamwenge, Margaret Tembo; Ayles, Helen
The current drive to strengthen health systems provides an opportunity to develop new strategies that will enable countries to achieve targets for millennium development goals. In this paper, we present a proposed framework for evaluating a new health system strengthening intervention in Zambia known as Better Health Outcomes through Mentoring and Assessment. We briefly describe the intervention design and focus on the proposed evaluation approach through the lens of systems thinking. In this paper, we present a proposed framework to evaluate a complex health system intervention applying systems thinking concepts. We hope that lessons learnt from this process will help to adapt the intervention and limit unintended negative consequences while promoting positive effects. Emphasis will be paid to interaction and interdependence between health system building blocks, context and the community. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Lempp, H; Abayneh, S; Gurung, D; Kola, L; Abdulmalik, J; Evans-Lacko, S; Semrau, M; Alem, A; Thornicroft, G; Hanlon, C
The aims of this paper are to: (i) explore the experiences of involvement of mental health service users, their caregivers, mental health centre heads and policy makers in mental health system strengthening in three low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) (Ethiopia, Nepal and Nigeria); (ii) analyse the potential benefits and barriers of such involvement; and (iii) identify strategies required to achieve greater service user and caregiver participation. A cross-country qualitative study was conducted, interviewing 83 stakeholders of mental health services. Our analysis showed that service user and caregiver involvement in the health system strengthening process was an alien concept for most participants. They reported very limited access to direct participation. Stigma and poverty were described as the main barriers for involvement. Several strategies were identified by participants to overcome existing hurdles to facilitate service user and caregiver involvement in the mental health system strengthening process, such as support to access treatment, mental health promotion and empowerment of service users. This study suggests that capacity building for service users, and strengthening of user groups would equip them to contribute meaningfully to policy development from informed perspectives. Involvement of service users and their caregivers in mental health decision-making is still in its infancy in LMICs. Effective strategies are required to overcome existing barriers, for example making funding more widely available for Ph.D. studies in participatory research with service users and caregivers to develop, implement and evaluate approaches to involvement that are locally and culturally acceptable in LMICs.
Balakrishnan, Ramkrishnan; Gopichandran, Vijayaprasad; Chaturvedi, Sharadprakash; Chatterjee, Rahul; Mahapatra, Tanmay; Chaudhuri, Indrajit
Mobile phone technology is utilized for better delivery of health services worldwide. In low-and-middle income countries mobile phones are now ubiquitous. Thus leveraging mHealth applications in health sector is becoming popular rapidly in these countries. To assess the effectiveness of the Continuum of Care Services (CCS) mHealth platform in terms of strengthening the delivery of maternal and child health (MCH) services in a district in Bihar, a resource-poor state in India. The CommCare mHealth platform was customized to CCS as one of the innovations under a project funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation to improve the maternal and newborn health services in Bihar. The intervention was rolled out in one project district in Bihar, during July 2012. More than 550 frontline workers out of a total of 3000 including Accredited Social Health Activists, Anganwadi Workers, Auxilliary Nurse Midwives and Lady Health Supervisors were trained to use the mHealth platform. The service delivery components namely early registration of pregnant women, three antenatal visits, tetanus toxoid immunization of the mother, iron and folic acid tablet supply, institutional delivery, postnatal home visits and early initiation of breastfeeding were used as indicators for good quality services. The resultant coverage of these services in the implementation area was compared with rest of Bihar and previous year statistics of the same area. The time lag between delivery of a service and its record capture in the maternal and child tracking system (MCTS) database was computed in a random sample of 16,000 beneficiaries. The coverage of services among marginalized and non-marginalized castes was compared to indicate equity of service delivery. Health system strengthening was viewed from the angle of coverage, quality, equity and efficiency of services. The implementation blocks had higher coverage of all the eight indicator services compared to rest of Bihar and the previous year. There
) governance and governance structures of health systems. .... Strengthened evidence base from the awarded research projects complemented by a set of ..... Canadian recipients which purchase equipment using IDRC funds ...
Abayneh, Sisay; Lempp, Heidi; Alem, Atalay; Alemayehu, Daniel; Eshetu, Tigist; Lund, Crick; Semrau, Maya; Thornicroft, Graham; Hanlon, Charlotte
Background It is essential to involve service users in efforts to expand access to mental health care in integrated primary care settings in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). However, there is little evidence from LMICs to guide this process. The aim of this study was to explore barriers to, and facilitators of, service user/caregiver involvement in rural Ethiopia to inform the development of a scalable approach. Methods Thirty nine semi-structured interviews were carried out with pur...
The Mos@n project, part of the SEARCH initiative, leveraged the widespread use of mobile phones to monitor patients and their use of healthcare services in 26 villages. The mobile phone-based system — with content in five local languages — in addition to the training of midwives and engagement with national and ...
Alfonso C. Rosales
Full Text Available World Vision implemented the community-based Maternal and Child Health Transformation (MaCHT Project from September 2010 to September 2014 in fragile-state South Sudan. To document and measure health-related activities executed by an international nongovernmentalo rganisation to sustainably strengthen the capacity of the health system in delivering essential health services to pregnant women and children under two years of age, including new-borns and infants. A range of mixed methods, including in-depth interviews, focus group discussions, observation, and uncontrolled cross-sectional before-and-after surveys using Henderson’s method were carried out. The unit of analysis was mothers of children under two years of age, and community health workers (CHWs. An estimated 39 000 children under age two were attended to by CHWs. Coverage of essential maternal and childhealth care (MCH increased in all single interventions, ranging from a minimum of 5% points to a maximum of 49% points during the implementation period. The capacity of the health system to deliver essential MCH services improved by building the supply and performance of the health workforce through task-shifting and in-service training. Likewise, operational linkages between community structures and local health services were strengthened. In conclusion, this program supported health system strengthening, mainly in the areas of service delivery, health workforce, and medical products, vaccines, and technologies. The project also informed policy at district and national levels and repositioned the maternal, neonatal, and child health (MNCH agenda to further scale up these activities. An evaluation of a four year USAID-funded child survival project implemented by an international non-governmental organisation (NGO in fragile-state context showed progress and challenges in health system strengthening for maternal health practices and community case management of diarrhoea, pneumonia, and
Sears, Clinton; Andersson, Zach; Cann, Meredith
Supporting the diverse needs of people living with HIV (PLHIV) can help reduce the individual and structural barriers they face in adhering to antiretroviral treatment (ART). The Livelihoods and Food Security Technical Assistance II (LIFT) project sought to improve adherence in Malawi by establishing 2 referral systems linking community-based economic strengthening and livelihoods services to clinical health facilities. One referral system in Balaka district, started in October 2013, connected clients to more than 20 types of services while the other simplified approach in Kasungu and Lilongwe districts, started in July 2014, connected PLHIV attending HIV and nutrition support facilities directly to community savings groups. From June to July 2015, LIFT visited referral sites in Balaka, Kasungu, and Lilongwe districts to collect qualitative data on referral utility, the perceived association of referrals with client and household health and vulnerability, and the added value of the referral system as perceived by network member providers. We interviewed a random sample of 152 adult clients (60 from Balaka, 57 from Kasungu, and 35 from Lilongwe) who had completed their referral. We also conducted 2 focus group discussions per district with network providers. Clients in all 3 districts indicated their ability to save money had improved after receiving a referral, although the percentage was higher among clients in the simplified Kasungu and Lilongwe model than the more complex Balaka model (85.6% vs. 56.0%, respectively). Nearly 70% of all clients interviewed had HIV infection; 72.7% of PLHIV in Balaka and 95.7% of PLHIV in Kasungu and Lilongwe credited referrals for helping them stay on their ART. After the referral, 76.0% of clients in Balaka and 92.3% of clients in Kasungu and Lilongwe indicated they would be willing to spend their savings on health costs. The more diverse referral network and use of an mHealth app to manage data in Balaka hindered provider uptake
Byskov, Jens; Bloch, Paul; Blystad, Astrid
Despite multiple efforts to strengthen health systems in low and middle income countries, intended sustainable improvements in health outcomes have not been shown. To date most priority setting initiatives in health systems have mainly focused on technical approaches involving information derived...... from burden of disease statistics, cost effectiveness analysis, and published clinical trials. However, priority setting involves value-laden choices and these technical approaches do not equip decision-makers to address a broader range of relevant values - such as trust, equity, accountability...... and fairness - that are of concern to other partners and, not least, the populations concerned. A new focus for priority setting is needed.Accountability for Reasonableness (AFR) is an explicit ethical framework for legitimate and fair priority setting that provides guidance for decision-makers who must...
Macpherson, Eleanor E; Adams, Emily R; Bockarie, Moses J; Hollingsworth, T Deirdre; Kelly-Hope, Louise A; Lehane, Mike; Kovacic, Vanja; Harrison, Robert A; Paine, Mark Ji; Reimer, Lisa J; Torr, Stephen J
Achieving the 2020 goals for Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs) requires scale-up of Mass Drug Administration (MDA) which will require long-term commitment of national and global financing partners, strengthening national capacity and, at the community level, systems to monitor and evaluate activities and impact. For some settings and diseases, MDA is not appropriate and alternative interventions are required. Operational research is necessary to identify how existing MDA networks can deliver this more complex range of interventions equitably. The final stages of the different global programmes to eliminate NTDs require eliminating foci of transmission which are likely to persist in complex and remote rural settings. Operational research is required to identify how current tools and practices might be adapted to locate and eliminate these hard-to-reach foci. Chronic disabilities caused by NTDs will persist after transmission of pathogens ceases. Development and delivery of sustainable services to reduce the NTD-related disability is an urgent public health priority. LSTM and its partners are world leaders in developing and delivering interventions to control vector-borne NTDs and malaria, particularly in hard-to-reach settings in Africa. Our experience, partnerships and research capacity allows us to serve as a hub for developing, supporting, monitoring and evaluating global programmes to eliminate NTDs.
Hirose, Atsumi; Hall, Sarah; Memon, Zahid; Hussein, Julia
Policy and decision making should be based on evidence, but translating evidence into policy and practice is often sporadic and slow. It is recognised that the relationship between research and policy uptake is complex and that dissemination of research findings is necessary, but insufficient, for policy uptake. Political, social, and economic context, use of (credible) data and dialogues between and across networks of researchers and policymakers play important roles in evidence uptake. Advocacy is the process of mobilising political and public opinions to achieve specific aims and its role is crucial in mobilising key actors to push for policy uptake. Advocacy and research groups (i.e. those who would like to see research evidence used by policymakers) may use different approaches and tools to stimulate the diffusion of research findings. The use of mass- and social media, communication with study participants, and the involvement of stakeholders at the early stages of research development are examples of the approaches that can be employed to stimulate diffusion of evidence and increase evidence uptake. The Research and Advocacy Fund (RAF) for Maternal and Newborn Health (MNH) worked within the health system context in Pakistan with the aim of espousing the principles of evidence, advocacy, and dissemination to improve MNH outcomes. The articles included in this special issue are outputs of RAF and highlight where RAF's approaches contributed to MNH policy reforms. The papers discuss critical health system issues facing Pakistan, including service delivery components, demand creation, equitable access, transportation interventions for improved referrals, availability of medicines and equipment, and health workforce needs. In addition to these tangible elements, the health system 'software', i.e. the power and the political and social contexts, is also represented in the collection. These articles highlight three considerations for the future: the growing
Full Text Available Abstract Background During the last decade, donor governments and international agencies have increasingly emphasized the importance of building the capacity of indigenous health care organizations as part of strengthening health systems and ensuring sustainability. In 2009, the U.S. Global Health Initiative made country ownership and capacity building keystones of U.S. health development assistance, and yet there is still a lack of consensus on how to define either of these terms, or how to implement “country owned capacity building”. Discussion Concepts around capacity building have been well developed in the for-profit business sector, but remain less well defined in the non-profit and social sectors in low and middle-income countries. Historically, capacity building in developing countries has been externally driven, related to project implementation, and often resulted in disempowerment of local organizations rather than local ownership. Despite the expenditure of millions of dollars, there is no consensus on how to conduct capacity building, nor have there been rigorous evaluations of capacity building efforts. To shift to a new paradigm of country owned capacity building, donor assistance needs to be inclusive in the planning process and create true partnerships to conduct organizational assessments, analyze challenges to organizational success, prioritize addressing challenges, and implement appropriate activities to build new capacity in overcoming challenges. Before further investments are made, a solid evidence base should be established concerning what works and what doesn’t work to build capacity. Summary Country-owned capacity building is a relatively new concept that requires further theoretical exploration. Documents such as The Paris Declaration on Aid Effectiveness detail the principles of country ownership to which partner and donor countries should commit, but do not identify the specific mechanisms to carry out these
Semrau, M; Alem, A; Abdulmalik, J; Docrat, S; Evans-Lacko, S; Gureje, O; Kigozi, F; Lempp, H; Lund, C; Petersen, I; Shidhaye, R; Thornicroft, G; Hanlon, C
There is increasing international recognition of the need to build capacity to strengthen mental health systems. This is a fundamental goal of the 'Emerging mental health systems in low- and middle-income countries' (Emerald) programme, which is being implemented in six low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) (Ethiopia, India, Nepal, Nigeria, South Africa, Uganda). This paper discusses Emerald's capacity-building approaches and outputs for three target groups in mental health system strengthening: (1) mental health service users and caregivers, (2) service planners and policy-makers, and (3) mental health researchers. When planning the capacity-building activities, the approach taken included a capabilities/skills matrix, needs assessments, a situational analysis, systematic reviews, qualitative interviews and stakeholder meetings, as well as the application of previous theory, evidence and experience. Each of the Emerald LMIC partners was found to have strengths in aspects of mental health system strengthening, which were complementary across the consortium. Furthermore, despite similarities across the countries, capacity-building interventions needed to be tailored to suit the specific needs of individual countries. The capacity-building outputs include three publicly and freely available short courses/workshops in mental health system strengthening for each of the target groups, 27 Masters-level modules (also open access), nine Emerald-linked PhD students, two MSc studentships, mentoring of post-doctoral/mid-level researchers, and ongoing collaboration and dialogue with the three groups. The approach taken by Emerald can provide a potential model for the development of capacity-building activities across the three target groups in LMICs.
Feng, Xing Lin; Pang, Mingfan; Beard, John
To monitor hypertension prevalence, awareness, treatment and control in China two to three years after major reform of the health system. Data from a national survey conducted in 2011-2012 among Chinese people aged 45 years or older - which included detailed anthropometric measurements - were used to estimate the prevalence of hypertension and the percentages of hypertensive individuals who were unaware of, receiving no treatment for, and/or not controlling their hypertension well. Modified Poisson regressions were used to estimate relative risks (RRs). At the time of the survey, nearly 40% of Chinese people aged 45 years or older had a hypertensive disorder. Of the individuals with hypertension, more than 40% were unaware of their condition, about 50% were receiving no medication for it and about 80% were not controlling it well. Compared with the other hypertensive individuals, those who were members of insurance schemes that covered the costs of outpatient care were more likely to be aware of their hypertension (adjusted RR, aRR: 0.737; 95% confidence interval, CI: 0.619-0.878) to be receiving treatment for it (aRR: 0.795; 95% CI: 0.680-0.929) and to be controlling it effectively (aRR: 0.903; 95% CI: 0.817-0.996). In China many cases of hypertension are going undetected and untreated, even though the health system appears to deliver effective care to individuals who are aware of their hypertension. A reduction in the costs of outpatient care to patients would probably improve the management of hypertension in China.
Keugoung, Basile; Macq, Jean; Buve, Anne; Meli, Jean; Criel, Bart
Tuberculosis remains a major public health problem in sub-Saharan Africa. District hospitals (DHs) play a central role in district-based health systems, and their relation with vertical programmes is very important. Studies on the impact of vertical programmes on DHs are rare. This study aims to fill this gap. Its purpose is to analyse the interaction between the National Tuberculosis Control Programme (NTCP) and DHs in Cameroon, especially its effects on the human resources, routine health information system (HIS) and technical capacity at the hospital level. We used a multiple case study methodology. From the Adamaoua Region, we selected two DHs, one public and one faith-based. We collected qualitative and quantitative data through document reviews, semi-structured interviews with district and regional staff, and observations in the two DHs. The NTCP trained and supervised staff, designed and provided tuberculosis data collection and reporting tools, and provided anti-tuberculosis drugs, reagents and microscopes to DHs. However, these interventions were limited to the hospital units designated as Tuberculosis Diagnostic and Treatment Centres and to staff dedicated to tuberculosis control activities. The NTCP installed a parallel HIS that bypassed the District Health Services. The DH that performs well in terms of general hospital care and that is well managed was successful in tuberculosis control. Based on the available resources, the two hospitals adapt the organisation of tuberculosis control to their settings. The management teams in charge of the District Health Services are not involved in tuberculosis control. In our study, we identified several opportunities to strengthen the local health system that have been missed by the NTCP and the health system managers. Well-managed DHs perform better in terms of tuberculosis control than DHs that are not well managed. The analysis of the effects of the NTCP on the human resources, HIS and technical capacity of DHs
Kayode O. Osungbade
Full Text Available Objectives. We conducted a review of effectiveness of preventive treatments of iron deficiency anaemia in pregnancy in developing countries and highlighted their constraints as well as interventions required to strengthen the health services. Methods. Literature from Pubmed (MEDLINE, AJOL, Google Scholar, and Cochrane database was reviewed. Results. Evidence-based preventive treatment options for iron deficiency anaemia in pregnancy include prophylaxis iron supplements and food fortification with iron. Evidence abounds on their effectiveness in reducing the prevalence of iron deficiency anaemia in pregnancy. However, these prospects are threatened by side effects of iron supplements, low utilization of maternal health service in developing countries, partial implementation of preventive treatments, and weak infrastructure and political commitment to implement mass fortification of local staple foods by national governments. Conclusion. Sustainability of effectiveness of preventive treatments of iron deficiency anaemia in pregnancy could be achieved if the identified threats are adequately addressed.
Kurniati, A; Rosskam, E; Afzal, M M; Suryowinoto, T B; Mukti, A G
results. Indonesia's experience indicates that irrespective of geographical or economic status, countries can benefit from multi-stakeholder coordination and engagement to increase access to health workers, strengthen health systems, as well as achieve and sustain UHC. Copyright © 2015 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Salmon, Marla E; Maeda, Akiko
In September of 2014, the Institute of Medicine (IOM) convened a global Rockefeller Bellagio Center workshop focusing on the largely overlooked area of investment in nursing and midwifery enterprise as a means for both empowering women and strengthening health systems and services. The report of this meeting, Empowering Women and Strengthening Health Systems and Services Through Investing in Nursing and Midwifery Enterprise: Lessons from Lower-Income Countries: Workshop Summary, was released in February, 2015. This report represents a pivotal point in a growing body of work begun in 2012, providing insights and perspectives of global experts that have resulted in subsequent global discussions and are paving the way for the future. This three-part article summarizes the initial exploration leading to the IOM workshop and report, followed by highlights and insights from the report and related meetings, and authors concluding discussion of implications for the future and next steps. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Equity in Health and Health Financing: Building and Strengthening Developing Country Networks. Equity in health is a pressing global concern. Disparities in health status and access to health care within and across countries are both a cause and a consequence of social inequality. Access to health services continues to ...
The editorial is commendable and I agree with many of the points raised. Management is an important aspect of health system strengthening which is often overlooked. In order to build the capacity of management, we need to consider other factors such as, the environment within which managers work, their numbers, support systems and distribution. Effective leadership is an issue which cannot be overemphasized as part of management capacity in resource deprived settings as difficult settings require leadership skills in order to achieve managerial success. A primary issue of importance highlighted in the editorial is country ownership of management effectiveness initiatives, which may be very difficult when the health sector is dependent on support and funding from donors and influential partners, who drive change often without a good understanding of the context. How partners finance health programmes is another dilemma as it can distract from locally determined priorities. Further research should help us to understand better what works and under different settings. © 2016 by Kerman University of Medical Sciences.
Motevalian Seyed Abbas
Full Text Available 【Abstract】Objective: To strengthen the current Injury Surveillance System (IS System in order to better monitor injury conditions, improve protection ways and promote safety. Methods: At first we carried out a study to evaluate the frameworks of IS System in the developed countries. Then all the available documents from World Health Organization, Eastern Mediterranean Regional Organization, as well as Minister of Health and Medical Education concerning Iran were reviewed. Later a national stakeholder抯 consultation was held to collect opinions and views. A national workshop was also intended for provincial representatives from 41 universities to identify the barriers and limitations of the existing program and further to strengthen injury surveillance. Results: The evaluation of the current IS System revealed many problems, mainly presented as lack of accurate pre- and post-hospital death registry, need of precise injury data registry in outpatient medical centers, incomplete injury data registry in hospitals and lack of accuracy in definition of variables in injury registry. The five main characteristics of current IS System including flexibility, acceptability, simplicity, usefulness and timeliness were evaluated as moderate by experts. Conclusions: Major revisions must be considered in the current IS System in Iran. The following elements should be added to the questionnaire: identifier, manner of arrival to the hospital, situation of the injured patient, consumption of alcohol and opioids, other involved participants in the accident, intention, severity and site of injury, side effects of surgery and medication, as well as one month follow-up results. Data should be collected from 10% of all hospitals in Iran and analyzed every 3 months. Simultaneously data should be online to be retrieved by researches. Key words: Wounds and injuries; Population surveillance; Registries; Iran
Seyed Abbas Motevalian; Mashyaneh Haddadi; Hesam Akbari; Reza Khorramirouz; Soheil Saadat; Arash Tehrani; Vafa Rahimi-Movaghar
Objective:To strengthen the current Injury Surveillance System (IS System) in order to better monitor injury conditions,improve protection ways and promote safety.Methods:At first we carried out a study to evaluate the frameworks of IS System in the developed countries.Then all the available documents from World Health OrganizationEastern Mediterranean Regional Organization,as well as Minister of Health and Medical Education concerning Iran were reviewed.Later a national stakeholder's consultation was held to collect opinions and views.A national workshop was also intended for provincial representatives from 41 universities to identify the barriers and limitations of the existing program and further to strengthen injury surveillance.Results:The evaluation of the current IS System revealed many problems,mainly presented as lack of accurate pre- and post-hospital death registry,need of precise injury data registry in outpatient medical centers,incomplete injury data registry in hospitals and lack of accuracy in definition of variables in injury registry.The five main characteristics of current IS System including flexibility,acceptability,simplicity,usefulness and timeliness were evaluated as moderate by experts.Contusions:Major revisions must be considered in the current IS System in Iran.The following elements should be added to the questionnaire:identifier,manner of arrival to the hospital,situation of the injured patient,consumption of alcohol and opioids,other involved participants in the accident,intention,severity and site of injury,side effects of surgery and medication,as well as one month follow-up results.Data should be collected from 10％ of all hospitals in Iran and analyzed every 3 months.Simultaneously data should be online to be retrieved by researches.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the interventions required to build the capacity of mental health policy-makers and planners in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs. We conducted a systematic review with the primary aim of identifying and synthesizing the evidence base for building the capacity of policy-makers and planners to strengthen mental health systems in LMICs. Methods We searched MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, Web of Knowledge, Web of Science, Scopus, CINAHL, LILACS, ScieELO, Google Scholar and Cochrane databases for studies reporting evidence, experience or evaluation of capacity-building of policy-makers, service planners or managers in mental health system strengthening in LMICs. Reports in English, Spanish, Portuguese, French or German were included. Additional papers were identified by hand-searching references and contacting experts and key informants. Database searches yielded 2922 abstracts and 28 additional papers were identified. Following screening, 409 full papers were reviewed, of which 14 fulfilled inclusion criteria for the review. Data were extracted from all included papers and synthesized into a narrative review. Results Only a small number of mental health system-related capacity-building interventions for policy-makers and planners in LMICs were described. Most models of capacity-building combined brief training with longer term mentorship, dialogue and/or the establishment of networks of support. However, rigorous research and evaluation methods were largely absent, with studies being of low quality, limiting the potential to separate mental health system strengthening outcomes from the effects of associated contextual factors. Conclusions This review demonstrates the need for partnership approaches to building the capacity of mental health policy-makers and planners in LMICs, assessed rigorously against pre-specified conceptual frameworks and hypotheses, utilising longitudinal evaluation and mixed
Beaufort B. Longest
Full Text Available The authors of “Management matters: a leverage point for health systems strengthening in global health,” raise a crucial issue. Because more effective management can contribute to better performing health systems, attempts to strengthen health systems require attention to management. As a guide toward management capacity building, the authors outline a comprehensive set of core management competencies needed for managing global health efforts. Although, I agree with the authors’ central premise about the important role of management in improving global health and concur that focusing on competencies can guide management capacity building, I think it is important to recognize that a set of relevant competencies is not the only way to conceptualize and organize efforts to teach, learn, practice, or conduct research on management. I argue the added utility of also viewing management as a set of functions or activities as an alternative paradigm and suggest that the greatest utility could lie in some hybrid that combines various ways of conceptualizing management for study, practice, and research.
Petersen, Inge; Marais, Debbie; Abdulmalik, Jibril; Ahuja, Shalini; Alem, Atalay; Chisholm, Dan; Egbe, Catherine; Gureje, Oye; Hanlon, Charlotte; Lund, Crick; Shidhaye, Rahul; Jordans, Mark; Kigozi, Fred; Mugisha, James; Upadhaya, Nawaraj; Thornicroft, Graham
Poor governance has been identified as a barrier to effective integration of mental health care in low- and middle-income countries. Governance includes providing the necessary policy and legislative framework to promote and protect the mental health of a population, as well as health system design and quality assurance to ensure optimal policy implementation. The aim of this study was to identify key governance challenges, needs and potential strategies that could facilitate adequate integration of mental health into primary health care settings in low- and middle-income countries. Key informant qualitative interviews were held with 141 participants across six countries participating in the Emerging mental health systems in low- and middle-income countries (Emerald) research program: Ethiopia, India, Nepal, Nigeria, South Africa, and Uganda. Data were transcribed (and where necessary, translated into English) and analysed thematically using framework analysis, first at the country level, then synthesized at a cross-country level. While all the countries fared well with respect to strategic vision in the form of the development of national mental health policies, key governance strategies identified to address challenges included: strengthening capacity of managers at sub-national levels to develop and implement integrated plans; strengthening key aspects of the essential health system building blocks to promote responsiveness, efficiency and effectiveness; developing workable mechanisms for inter-sectoral collaboration, as well as community and service user engagement; and developing innovative approaches to improving mental health literacy and stigma reduction. Inadequate financing emerged as the biggest challenge for good governance. In addition to the need for overall good governance of a health care system, this study identifies a number of specific strategies to improve governance for integrated mental health care in low- and middle-income countries. © The
Olsen Øystein E
Full Text Available Abstract Despite multiple efforts to strengthen health systems in low and middle income countries, intended sustainable improvements in health outcomes have not been shown. To date most priority setting initiatives in health systems have mainly focused on technical approaches involving information derived from burden of disease statistics, cost effectiveness analysis, and published clinical trials. However, priority setting involves value-laden choices and these technical approaches do not equip decision-makers to address a broader range of relevant values - such as trust, equity, accountability and fairness - that are of concern to other partners and, not least, the populations concerned. A new focus for priority setting is needed. Accountability for Reasonableness (AFR is an explicit ethical framework for legitimate and fair priority setting that provides guidance for decision-makers who must identify and consider the full range of relevant values. AFR consists of four conditions: i relevance to the local setting, decided by agreed criteria; ii publicizing priority-setting decisions and the reasons behind them; iii the establishment of revisions/appeal mechanisms for challenging and revising decisions; iv the provision of leadership to ensure that the first three conditions are met. REACT - "REsponse to ACcountable priority setting for Trust in health systems" is an EU-funded five-year intervention study started in 2006, which is testing the application and effects of the AFR approach in one district each in Kenya, Tanzania and Zambia. The objectives of REACT are to describe and evaluate district-level priority setting, to develop and implement improvement strategies guided by AFR and to measure their effect on quality, equity and trust indicators. Effects are monitored within selected disease and programme interventions and services and within human resources and health systems management. Qualitative and quantitative methods are being
Byskov, Jens; Bloch, Paul; Blystad, Astrid; Hurtig, Anna-Karin; Fylkesnes, Knut; Kamuzora, Peter; Kombe, Yeri; Kvåle, Gunnar; Marchal, Bruno; Martin, Douglas K; Michelo, Charles; Ndawi, Benedict; Ngulube, Thabale J; Nyamongo, Isaac; Olsen, Oystein E; Onyango-Ouma, Washington; Sandøy, Ingvild F; Shayo, Elizabeth H; Silwamba, Gavin; Songstad, Nils Gunnar; Tuba, Mary
Despite multiple efforts to strengthen health systems in low and middle income countries, intended sustainable improvements in health outcomes have not been shown. To date most priority setting initiatives in health systems have mainly focused on technical approaches involving information derived from burden of disease statistics, cost effectiveness analysis, and published clinical trials. However, priority setting involves value-laden choices and these technical approaches do not equip decision-makers to address a broader range of relevant values - such as trust, equity, accountability and fairness - that are of concern to other partners and, not least, the populations concerned. A new focus for priority setting is needed.Accountability for Reasonableness (AFR) is an explicit ethical framework for legitimate and fair priority setting that provides guidance for decision-makers who must identify and consider the full range of relevant values. AFR consists of four conditions: i) relevance to the local setting, decided by agreed criteria; ii) publicizing priority-setting decisions and the reasons behind them; iii) the establishment of revisions/appeal mechanisms for challenging and revising decisions; iv) the provision of leadership to ensure that the first three conditions are met.REACT - "REsponse to ACcountable priority setting for Trust in health systems" is an EU-funded five-year intervention study started in 2006, which is testing the application and effects of the AFR approach in one district each in Kenya, Tanzania and Zambia. The objectives of REACT are to describe and evaluate district-level priority setting, to develop and implement improvement strategies guided by AFR and to measure their effect on quality, equity and trust indicators. Effects are monitored within selected disease and programme interventions and services and within human resources and health systems management. Qualitative and quantitative methods are being applied in an action research
Information Communication Technology (ICT) revolution brought opportunities and challenges to developing countries in their efforts to strengthen the Health Management Information Systems (HMIS). In the wake of globalisation, developing countries have no choice but to take advantage of the opportunities and face the ...
Heung, Carly M; Rempel, Benjamin; Krank, Marvin
Research evidence points to harmful effects from alcohol advertising among children and youth. In particular, exposure to alcohol advertising has been associated with adolescents drinking both earlier and heavier. Although current federal and provincial guidelines have addressed advertising practices to prevent underage drinking, practice has not been supported by existing policy. While protective measures such as social marketing campaigns have the potential for counteracting the effects from alcohol advertising, the effectiveness of such measures can be easily drowned out with increasing advertising activities from the alcohol industry, especially without effective regulation. Research reviewed by the European Focus on Alcohol Safe Environment (FASE) Project has identified a set of key elements that are necessary to make alcohol advertising policy measures effective at protecting children and youth from the harmful effects of alcohol marketing. Using these key elements as an evaluation framework, there are critical components in the Canadian alcohol advertising regulatory system that clearly require strengthening. To protect impressionable children and youth against the harmful effects of alcohol advertising, 13 recommendations to strengthen current alcohol advertising regulations in Canada are provided for Canadian policy-makers, advertising standard agencies, and public health groups.
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: There is growing interest in health system performance and recently WHO launched a report on health systems strengthening emphasising the need for close monitoring using system-wide approaches. One recent method is the balanced scorecard system. There is limited application of this method in middle- and low-income countries. This paper applies the concept of balanced scorecard to describe the baseline status of three intervention districts in Zambia. METHODOLOGY: The Better Health Outcome through Mentoring and Assessment (BHOMA project is a randomised step-wedged community intervention that aims to strengthen the health system in three districts in the Republic of Zambia. To assess the baseline status of the participating districts we used a modified balanced scorecard approach following the domains highlighted in the MOH 2011 Strategic Plan. RESULTS: Differences in performance were noted by district and residence. Finance and service delivery domains performed poorly in all study districts. The proportion of the health workers receiving training in the past 12 months was lowest in Kafue (58% and highest in Luangwa district (77%. Under service capacity, basic equipment and laboratory capacity scores showed major variation, with Kafue and Luangwa having lower scores when compared to Chongwe. The finance domain showed that Kafue and Chongwe had lower scores (44% and 47% respectively. Regression model showed that children's clinical observation scores were negatively correlated with drug availability (coeff -0.40, p = 0.02. Adult clinical observation scores were positively association with adult service satisfaction score (coeff 0.82, p = 0.04 and service readiness (coeff 0.54, p = 0.03. CONCLUSION: The study applied the balanced scorecard to describe the baseline status of 42 health facilities in three districts of Zambia. Differences in performance were noted by district and residence in most domains with finance and service
Mutale, Wilbroad; Godfrey-Fausset, Peter; Mwanamwenge, Margaret Tembo; Kasese, Nkatya; Chintu, Namwinga; Balabanova, Dina; Spicer, Neil; Ayles, Helen
There is growing interest in health system performance and recently WHO launched a report on health systems strengthening emphasising the need for close monitoring using system-wide approaches. One recent method is the balanced scorecard system. There is limited application of this method in middle- and low-income countries. This paper applies the concept of balanced scorecard to describe the baseline status of three intervention districts in Zambia. The Better Health Outcome through Mentoring and Assessment (BHOMA) project is a randomised step-wedged community intervention that aims to strengthen the health system in three districts in the Republic of Zambia. To assess the baseline status of the participating districts we used a modified balanced scorecard approach following the domains highlighted in the MOH 2011 Strategic Plan. Differences in performance were noted by district and residence. Finance and service delivery domains performed poorly in all study districts. The proportion of the health workers receiving training in the past 12 months was lowest in Kafue (58%) and highest in Luangwa district (77%). Under service capacity, basic equipment and laboratory capacity scores showed major variation, with Kafue and Luangwa having lower scores when compared to Chongwe. The finance domain showed that Kafue and Chongwe had lower scores (44% and 47% respectively). Regression model showed that children's clinical observation scores were negatively correlated with drug availability (coeff -0.40, p = 0.02). Adult clinical observation scores were positively association with adult service satisfaction score (coeff 0.82, p = 0.04) and service readiness (coeff 0.54, p = 0.03). The study applied the balanced scorecard to describe the baseline status of 42 health facilities in three districts of Zambia. Differences in performance were noted by district and residence in most domains with finance and service delivery performing poorly in all study districts. This tool could
Mutale, Wilbroad; Godfrey-Fausset, Peter; Mwanamwenge, Margaret Tembo; Kasese, Nkatya; Chintu, Namwinga; Balabanova, Dina; Spicer, Neil; Ayles, Helen
Introduction There is growing interest in health system performance and recently WHO launched a report on health systems strengthening emphasising the need for close monitoring using system-wide approaches. One recent method is the balanced scorecard system. There is limited application of this method in middle- and low-income countries. This paper applies the concept of balanced scorecard to describe the baseline status of three intervention districts in Zambia. Methodology The Better Health Outcome through Mentoring and Assessment (BHOMA) project is a randomised step-wedged community intervention that aims to strengthen the health system in three districts in the Republic of Zambia. To assess the baseline status of the participating districts we used a modified balanced scorecard approach following the domains highlighted in the MOH 2011 Strategic Plan. Results Differences in performance were noted by district and residence. Finance and service delivery domains performed poorly in all study districts. The proportion of the health workers receiving training in the past 12 months was lowest in Kafue (58%) and highest in Luangwa district (77%). Under service capacity, basic equipment and laboratory capacity scores showed major variation, with Kafue and Luangwa having lower scores when compared to Chongwe. The finance domain showed that Kafue and Chongwe had lower scores (44% and 47% respectively). Regression model showed that children's clinical observation scores were negatively correlated with drug availability (coeff −0.40, p = 0.02). Adult clinical observation scores were positively association with adult service satisfaction score (coeff 0.82, p = 0.04) and service readiness (coeff 0.54, p = 0.03). Conclusion The study applied the balanced scorecard to describe the baseline status of 42 health facilities in three districts of Zambia. Differences in performance were noted by district and residence in most domains with finance and service delivery
Fisher, K J; Deeds, S; Siebel, R; Allen, J
The Australian workplace has emerged as an important venue for influencing the health of employees through regulations and behaviour change programs. Recent surveys have highlighted a growth in this activity but the effectiveness of these programs in changing unhealthy work practices and policies is questionable. The need for strengthening programs by stronger designs and evaluation, and addressing organisational factors and employee participation in planning and implementation processes is documented. Efforts in that direction in Queensland are cited, Building on these existing foundations, redirecting existing resources, and building intersectoral cooperation in public-private partnerships hold a creative, exemplary vision of the future for Australian workplace programming.
Khan, M Mahmud; Hotchkiss, David R; Dmytraczenko, Tania; Zunaid Ahsan, Karar
This paper illustrates the importance of collecting facility-based data through regular surveys to supplement the administrative data, especially for developing countries of the world. In Bangladesh, measures based on facility survey indicate that only 70% of very basic medical instruments and 35% of essential drugs were available in health facilities. Less than 2% of officially designated obstetric care facilities actually had required drugs, injections and personnel on-site. Majority of (80%) referral hospitals at the district level were not ready to provide comprehensive emergency obstetric care. Even though the Management Information System reports availability of diagnostic machines in all district-level and sub-district-level facilities, it fails to indicate that 50% of these machines are not functional. In terms of human resources, both physicians and nurses are in short supply at all levels of the healthcare system. The physician-nurse ratio also remains lower than the desirable level of 3.0. Overall job satisfaction index was less than 50 for physicians and 66 for nurses. Patient satisfaction score, however, was high (86) despite the fact that process indicators of service quality were poor. Facility surveys can help strengthen not only the management decision-making process but also the quality of administrative data. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Full Text Available Research in public health is a range that includes from fundamental research to research in clinical practice, including novel advances, evaluation of results and their spreading. Actually, public health research is considered multidisciplinary incorporating numerous factors in its development. Establishing as a mainstay the scientific method, deepens in basic research, clinical epidemiological research and health services. The premise of quality and relevance is reflected in international scientific research, and in the daily work and good biomedical practices that should be included in the research as a common task. Therefore, the research must take a proactive stance of inquiry, integrating a concern planned and ongoing development of knowledge. This requires improve international coordination, seeking a balance between basic and applied research as well as science and technology. Thus research cannot be considered without innovation, weighing up the people and society needs. Acting on knowledge of scientific production processes requires greater procedures thoroughness and the effective expression of the results. It is noted as essential to establish explicit principles in review and evaluation of the adjustments of actions, always within the standards of scientific conduct and fairness of the research process. In the biomedical scientific lines it have to be consider general assessments that occur related to the impact and quality of health research, mostly leading efforts to areas that require further attention. However, other subject areas that may be deficient or with lower incidence in the population should not be overlook. Health research as a source of new applications and development provides knowledge, improving well-being. However, it is understandable without considering the needs and social demands. Therefore, in public health research and to improve the health of the population, we must refine and optimize the prevention and
Wolfe, Ingrid; Mandeville, Kate; Harrison, Katherine; Lingam, Raghu
The United Kingdom, like all European countries, is struggling to strengthen health systems and improve conditions for child health and survival. Child mortality in the UK has failed to improve in line with other countries. Securing optimal conditions for child health requires a healthy society, strong health system, and effective health care. We examine inter-sectoral and intra-sectoral policy and governance for child health and survival in England. Literature reviews and universally applicable clinical scenarios were used to examine child health problems and English policy and governance responses for improving child health through integrating care and strengthening health systems, over the past 15 years. We applied the TAPIC framework for analysing policy governance: transparency, accountability, participation, integrity, and capacity. We identified strengths and weaknesses in child health governance in all the five domains. However there remain policy failures that are not fully explained by the TAPIC framework. Other problems with successfully translating policy to improved health that we identified include policy flux; policies insufficiently supported by delivery mechanisms, measurable targets, and sufficient budgets; and policies with unintended or contradictory aspects. We make recommendations for inter-sectoral and intra-sectoral child health governance, policy, and action to improve child health in England with relevant lessons for other countries. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Rockers, Peter C; Tugwell, Peter; Grimshaw, Jeremy; Oliver, Sandy; Atun, Rifat; Røttingen, John-Arne; Fretheim, Atle; Ranson, M Kent; Daniels, Karen; Luiza, Vera Lucia; Bärnighausen, Till
Evidence from quasi-experimental studies is often excluded from systematic reviews of health systems research despite the fact that such studies can provide strong causal evidence when well conducted. This article discusses global coordination of efforts to institutionalize the inclusion of causal evidence from quasi-experiments in systematic reviews of health systems research. In particular, we are concerned with identifying opportunities for strengthening capacity at the global and local level for implementing protocols necessary to ensure that reviews that include quasi-experiments are consistently of the highest quality. We first describe the current state of the global infrastructure that facilitates the production of systematic reviews of health systems research. We identify five important types of actors operating within this infrastructure: review authors; synthesis collaborations that facilitate the review process; synthesis interest groups that supplement the work of the larger collaborations; review funders; and end users, including policymakers. Then, we examine opportunities for intervening to build the capacity of each type of actors to support the inclusion of quasi-experiments in reviews. Finally, we suggest practical next steps for proceeding with capacity building efforts. Because of the complexity and relative nascence of the field, we recommend a carefully planned and executed approach to strengthening global capacity for the inclusion of quasi-experimental studies in systematic reviews. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Verani, André; Shayo, Peter; Howse, Genevieve
The lack of sufficient, high-quality health workers is one of the primary barriers to improving health in sub-saharan africa. An approach to address this challenge is for public health practitioners to increase their cooperation with public health lawyers, regulators and other policymakers in order to develop strengthened health workforce laws, regulations, and policies that are vigorously implemented and enforced. Conceptual frameworks can help clarify the meaning of health system governance and the pathways between law and health. International recommendations for policy interventions governing health workers provide countries with valuable guidance for domestic reforms. Monitoring and evaluation of legal, regulatory, and other policy interventions are required to ascertain their public health impact. At the intersection of law and public health, professionals from both fields can collaborate in concrete ways such as those discussed here to improve laws and policies governing health.
Liberalisation of the electricity market pushes Slovak distribution companies to upgrade their sale technologies. The first one to invest into a complex electronic sales system will be Stredoslovenska energetika, a.s., Zilina. The system worth 200 million Sk (4,83 million Euro) will be supplied by Polish software company Winuel. The company should also supply a software that would allow forecasting and planning of sales. The system should be fully operational by 2006. TREND has not managed to obtain information regarding plans Zapadoslovenska energetika - the largest and most active distribution company - might have in this area. In eastern Slovakia distribution company Vychodoslovenska energetika, a.s., Kosice has also started addressing this issue. (Author)
Heide, I. van der; Snoeijs, S.P.; Boerma, W.G.W.; Schellevis, F.; Rijken, P.M.
Making care focus on patients is a way of overcoming the fragmentation that results from the “disease orientation” of Europe’s health systems, which still tend to organize around single medical specialities. Patient-centredness increases patient satisfaction and counters the problems associated with
Contreras, C; Aguilar, M; Eappen, B; Guzmán, C; Carrasco, P; Millones, A K; Galea, J T
Mental health is an important factor in responding to natural disasters. Observations of unmet mental health needs motivated the subsequent development of a community-based mental health intervention following one such disaster affecting Peru in 2017. Two informal human settlements on the outskirts of Lima were selected for a mental health intervention that included: (1) screening for depression and domestic violence, (2) children's activities to strengthen social and emotional skills and diminish stress, (3) participatory theater activities to support conflict resolution and community resilience, and (4) community health worker (CHW) accompaniment to government health services. A total of 129 people were screened across both conditions, of whom 12/116 (10%) presented with depression and 21/58 (36%) reported domestic violence. 27 unique individuals were identified with at least one problem. Thirteen people (48%) initially accepted CHW accompaniment to government-provided services. This intervention provides a model for a small-scale response to disasters that can effectively and acceptably identify individuals in need of mental health services and link them to a health system that may otherwise remain inaccessible.
Full Text Available The scale-up of HIV services in sub-Saharan Africa has catalyzed the development of highly effective chronic care systems. The strategies, systems, and tools developed to support life-long HIV care and treatment are locally owned contextually appropriate resources, many of which could be adapted to support continuity care for noncommunicable chronic diseases (NCD, such as diabetes mellitus (DM. We conducted two proof-of-concept studies to further the understanding of the status of NCD programs and the feasibility and effectiveness of adapting HIV program-related tools and systems for patients with DM. In Swaziland, a rapid assessment illustrated gaps in the approaches used to support DM services at 15 health facilities, despite the existence of chronic care systems at HIV clinics in the same hospitals, health centers, and clinics. In Ethiopia, a pilot study found similar gaps in DM services at baseline and illustrated the potential to rapidly improve the quality of care and treatment for DM by adapting HIV-specific policies, systems, and tools.
Manzi, Anatole; Hirschhorn, Lisa R; Sherr, Kenneth; Chirwa, Cindy; Baynes, Colin; Awoonor-Williams, John Koku
Despite global efforts to increase health workforce capacity through training and guidelines, challenges remain in bridging the gap between knowledge and quality clinical practice and addressing health system deficiencies preventing health workers from providing high quality care. In many developing countries, supervision activities focus on data collection, auditing and report completion rather than catalyzing learning and supporting system quality improvement. To address this gap, mentorship and coaching interventions were implemented in projects in five African countries (Ghana, Mozambique, Rwanda, Tanzania, and Zambia) as components of health systems strengthening (HSS) strategies funded through the Doris Duke Charitable Foundation's African Health Initiative. We report on lessons learned from a cross-country evaluation. The evaluation was designed based on a conceptual model derived from the project-specific interventions. Semi-structured interviews were administered to key informants to capture data in six categories: 1) mentorship and coaching goals, 2) selection and training of mentors and coaches, 3) integration with the existing systems, 4) monitoring and evaluation, 5) reported outcomes, and 6) challenges and successes. A review of project-published articles and technical reports from the individual projects supplemented interview information. Although there was heterogeneity in the approaches to mentorship and coaching and targeted areas of the country projects, all led to improvements in core health system areas, including quality of clinical care, data-driven decision making, leadership and accountability, and staff satisfaction. Adaptation of approaches to reflect local context encouraged their adoption and improved their effectiveness and sustainability. We found that incorporating mentorship and coaching activities into HSS strategies was associated with improvements in quality of care and health systems, and mentorship and coaching represents an
O'Connell, Meghan; Wonodi, Chizoba
Since 2002, the Nigerian government has deployed consultants to states to provide technical assistance for routine immunization (RI). RI consultants are expected to play a role in supportive supervision of health facility staff, capacity building, advocacy, and monitoring and evaluation. We conducted a retrospective review of the RI consultant program's strengths and weaknesses in 7 states and at the national level from June to September 2014 using semi-structured interviews and online surveys. Participants included RI consultants, RI program leaders, and implementers purposively drawn from national, state, and local government levels. Thematic analysis was used to analyze qualitative data from the interviews, which were triangulated with results from the quantitative surveys. At the time of data collection, 23 of 36 states and the federal capital territory had an RI consultant. Of the 7 states visited during the study, only 3 states had present and visibly working consultants. We conducted 84 interviews with 101 participants across the 7 states and conducted data analysis on 70 interviews (with 82 individuals) that had complete data. Among the full sample of interview respondents (N = 101), most (66%) were men with an average age of 49 years (±5.6), and the majority were technical officers (63%) but a range of other roles were also represented, including consultants (22%), directors (13%), and health workers (2%). Fifteen consultants and 44 program leaders completed the online surveys. Interview data from the 3 states with active RI consultants indicated that the consultants' main contribution was supportive supervision at the local level, particularly for collecting and using RI data for decision making. They also acted as effective advocates for RI funding. In states without an RI consultant, gaps were highlighted in data management capacity and in monitoring of RI funds. Program design strengths: the broad terms of reference and autonomy of the consultants
Matovu Joseph KB
Full Text Available Abstract Background Although much attention has been given to increasing the number of health workers, less focus has been directed at developing models of training that address real-life workplace needs. Makerere University School of Public Health (MakSPH with funding support from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC developed an eight-month modular, in-service work-based training program aimed at strengthening the capacity for monitoring and evaluation (M&E and continuous quality improvement (CQI in health service delivery. Methods This capacity building program, initiated in 2008, is offered to in-service health professionals working in Uganda. The purpose of the training is to strengthen the capacity to provide quality health services through hands-on training that allows for skills building with minimum work disruptions while encouraging greater involvement of other institutional staff to enhance continuity and sustainability. The hands-on training uses practical gaps and challenges at the workplace through a highly participatory process. Trainees work with other staff to design and implement ‘projects’ meant to address work-related priority problems, working closely with mentors. Trainees’ knowledge and skills are enhanced through short courses offered at specific intervals throughout the course. Results Overall, 143 trainees were admitted between 2008 and 2011. Of these, 120 (84% from 66 institutions completed the training successfully. Of the trainees, 37% were Social Scientists, 34% were Medical/Nursing/Clinical Officers, 5.8% were Statisticians, while 23% belonged to other professions. Majority of the trainees (80% were employed by Non-Government Organizations while 20% worked with the public health sector. Trainees implemented 66 projects which addressed issues such as improving access to health care services; reducing waiting time for patients; strengthening M&E systems; and improving data collection and
Clarke, David; Duke, Jan; Wuliji, Tana; Smith, Alyson; Phuong, Keat; San, Un
This paper describes a rapid assessment of Cambodia's current system for regulating its health professions. The assessment forms part of a co-design process to set strategic priorities for strengthening health profession regulation to improve the quality and safety of health services. A health system approach for strengthening health professions' regulation is underway and aims to support the Government of Cambodia's plans for scaling up its health workforce, improving health services' safety and quality, and meeting its Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) obligations to facilitate trade in health care services. The assessment used a mixed methods approach including: A desktop review of key laws, plans, reports and other documents relating to the regulation of the health professions in Cambodia (medicine, dentistry, midwifery, nursing and pharmacy); Key informant interviews with stakeholders in Cambodia (The term "stakeholders" refers to government officials, people working on health professional regulation, people working for the various health worker training institutions and health workers at the national and provincial level); Surveys and questionnaires to assess Cambodian stakeholder knowledge of regulation; Self-assessments by members of the five Cambodian regulatory councils regarding key capacities and activities of high-performing regulatory bodies; and A rapid literature review to identify: The key functions of health professional regulation; The key issues affecting the Cambodian health sector (including relevant developments in the wider ASEAN region); and "Smart" health profession regulation practices of possible relevance to Cambodia. We found that the current regulatory system only partially meets Cambodia's needs. A number of key regulatory functions are being performed, but overall, the current system was not designed with Cambodia's specific needs in mind. The existing system is also overly complex, with considerable duplication and
McCuskee, Sarah; Garchitorena, Andres; Miller, Ann C; Hall, Lara; Ouenzar, Mohammed Ali; Rabeza, Victor R; Ramananjato, Ranto H; Razanadrakato, Hery-Tiana Rahaniraka; Randriamanambintsoa, Marius; Barry, Michele; Bonds, Matthew H
Child malnutrition, a leading cause of death and disability worldwide, is particularly severe in Madagascar, where 47% of children under 5 years are stunted (low height-for-age) and 8% are wasted (low weight-for-height). Widespread poverty and a weak health system have hindered attempts to implement life-saving malnutrition interventions in Madagascar during critical periods for growth faltering. This study aimed to shed light on the most important factors associated with child malnutrition, both acute and chronic, and the timing of growth faltering, in Ifanadiana, a rural district of Madagascar. We analyzed data from a 2014 district-representative cluster household survey, which had information on 1175 children ages 6 months to 5 years. We studied the effect of child health, birth history, maternal and paternal health and education, and household wealth and sanitation on child nutritional status. Variables associated with stunting and wasting were modeled separately in multivariate logistic regressions. Growth faltering was modeled by age range. All analyses were survey-adjusted. Stunting was associated with increasing child age (OR = 1.03 (95%CI 1.02-1.04) for each additional month), very small birth size (OR = 2.32 (1.24-4.32)), low maternal weight (OR = 0.94 (0.91-0.97) for each kilogram, kg) and height (OR = 0.95 (0.92-0.99) for each centimeter), and low paternal height (OR = 0.95 (0.92-0.98)). Wasting was associated with younger child age (OR = 0.98 (0.97-0.99)), very small birth size (OR = 2.48 (1.23-4.99)), and low maternal BMI (OR = 0.84 (0.75-0.94) for each kg/m 2 ). Height-for-age faltered rapidly before 24 months, then slowly until age 5 years, whereas weight-for-height faltered rapidly before 12 months, then recovered gradually until age 5 years but did not reach the median. Intergenerational transmission of growth faltering and early life exposures may be important determinants of malnutrition in Ifanadiana. Timing of growth
Full Text Available The editorial is commendable and I agree with many of the points raised. Management is an important aspect of health system strengthening which is often overlooked. In order to build the capacity of management, we need to consider other factors such as, the environment within which managers work, their numbers, support systems and distribution. Effective leadership is an issue which cannot be overemphasized as part of management capacity in resource deprived settings as difficult settings require leadership skills in order to achieve managerial success. A primary issue of importance highlighted in the editorial is country ownership of management effectiveness initiatives, which may be very difficult when the health sector is dependent on support and funding from donors and influential partners, who drive change often without a good understanding of the context. How partners finance health programmes is another dilemma as it can distract from locally determined priorities. Further research should help us to understand better what works and under different settings.
Home · What we do ... Access to quality sexual and reproductive health information, services, prenatal services, and delivery services is ... should contribute to strengthening and improving the quality of provincial maternal health services.
Barnett, Daniel J; Thompson, Carol B; Semon, Natalie L; Errett, Nicole A; Harrison, Krista L; Anderson, Marilyn K; Ferrell, Justin L; Freiheit, Jennifer M; Hudson, Robert; McKee, Mary; Mejia-Echeverry, Alvaro; Spitzer, James; Balicer, Ran D; Links, Jonathan M; Storey, J Douglas
This study examines the attitudinal impact of an Extended Parallel Process Model (EPPM)-based training curriculum on local public health department (LHD) workers' willingness to respond to representative public health emergency scenarios. Data are from 71 U.S. LHDs in urban and rural settings across nine states. The study explores changes in response willingness and EPPM threat and efficacy appraisals between randomly assigned control versus intervention health departments, at baseline and 1 week post curriculum, through an EPPM-based survey/resurvey design. Levels of response willingness and emergency response-related attitudes/beliefs are measured. Analyses focus on two scenario categories that have appeared on a U.S. government list of scenarios of significant concern: a weather-related emergency and a radiological "dirty" bomb event (U.S. Department of Homeland Security, 2007). The greatest impact from the training intervention on response willingness was observed among LHD workers who had low levels of EPPM-related threat and efficacy perceptions at baseline. Self-efficacy and response efficacy and response willingness increased in intervention LHDs for both scenarios, with greater response willingness increases observed for the radiological "dirty" bomb terrorism scenario. Findings indicate the importance of building efficacy versus enhancing threat perceptions as a path toward greater response willingness, and suggest the potential applicability of such curricular interventions for boosting emergency response willingness among other cadres of health providers.
Hanlon, C; Semrau, M; Alem, A; Abayneh, S; Abdulmalik, J; Docrat, S; Evans-Lacko, S; Gureje, O; Jordans, M; Lempp, H; Mugisha, J; Petersen, I; Shidhaye, R; Thornicroft, G
Efforts to support the scale-up of integrated mental health care in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) need to focus on building human resource capacity in health system strengthening, as well as in the direct provision of mental health care. In a companion editorial, we describe a range of capacity-building activities that are being implemented by a multi-country research consortium (Emerald: Emerging mental health systems in low- and middle-income countries) for (1) service users and caregivers, (2) service planners and policy-makers and (3) researchers in six LMICs (Ethiopia, India, Nepal, Nigeria, South Africa and Uganda). In this paper, we focus on the methodology being used to evaluate the impact of capacity-building in these three target groups. We first review the evidence base for approaches to evaluation of capacity-building, highlighting the gaps in this area. We then describe the adaptation of best practice for the Emerald capacity-building evaluation. The resulting mixed method evaluation framework was tailored to each target group and to each country context. We identified a need to expand the evidence base on indicators of successful capacity-building across the different target groups. To address this, we developed an evaluation plan to measure the adequacy and usefulness of quantitative capacity-building indicators when compared with qualitative evaluation. We argue that evaluation needs to be an integral part of capacity-building activities and that expertise needs to be built in methods of evaluation. The Emerald evaluation provides a potential model for capacity-building evaluation across key stakeholder groups and promises to extend understanding of useful indicators of success.
Willacy, Erika; Bratton, Shelly
Public health management is a pillar of public health practice. Only through effective management can research, theory, and scientific innovation be translated into successful public health action. With this in mind, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has developed an innovative program called Improving Public Health Management for Action (IMPACT) which aims to address this critical need by building an effective cadre of public health managers to work alongside scientists to prepare for and respond to disease threats and to effectively implement public health programs. IMPACT is a 2-year, experiential learning program that provides fellows with the management tools and opportunities to apply their new knowledge in the field, all while continuing to serve the Ministry of Health (MoH). IMPACT will launch in 2016 in 2 countries with the intent of expanding to additional countries in future years resulting in a well-trained cadre of public health managers around the world. © 2016 by Kerman University of Medical Sciences.
Horwood, Christiane M; Youngleson, Michele S; Moses, Edward; Stern, Amy F; Barker, Pierre M
Achieving long-term retention in HIV care is an important challenge for HIV management and achieving elimination of mother-to-child transmission. Sustainable, affordable strategies are required to achieve this, including strengthening of community-based interventions. Deployment of community-based health workers (CHWs) can improve health outcomes but there is a need to identify systems to support and maintain high-quality performance. Quality-improvement strategies have been successfully implemented to improve quality and coverage of healthcare in facilities and could provide a framework to support community-based interventions. Four community-based quality-improvement projects from South Africa, Malawi and Mozambique are described. Community-based improvement teams linked to the facility-based health system participated in learning networks (modified Breakthrough Series), and used quality-improvement methods to improve process performance. Teams were guided by trained quality mentors who used local data to help nurses and CHWs identify gaps in service provision and test solutions. Learning network participants gathered at intervals to share progress and identify successful strategies for improvement. CHWs demonstrated understanding of quality-improvement concepts, tools and methods, and implemented quality-improvement projects successfully. Challenges of using quality-improvement approaches in community settings included adapting processes, particularly data reporting, to the education level and first language of community members. Quality-improvement techniques can be implemented by CHWs to improve outcomes in community settings but these approaches require adaptation and additional mentoring support to be successful. More research is required to establish the effectiveness of this approach on processes and outcomes of care.
required for the education and training of health professionals within the specific learning environment of ... health professions, today's health professionals have to be highly skilled and knowledgeable in a ... examines the improvement of the learning environment and wellness of trainee regis trars to prevent burnout and ...
school students to apply for health professional training, supporting them during their undergraduate degrees, providing post- graduate and continuing education oppor- tunities, and developing appropriate recruit ment and retention strategies for.
Integrated Disease Investigations and Surveillance planning: a systems approach to strengthening national surveillance and detection of events of public health importance in support of the International Health Regulations
Full Text Available Abstract The international community continues to define common strategic themes of actions to improve global partnership and international collaborations in order to protect our populations. The International Health Regulations (IHR offer one of these strategic themes whereby World Health Organization (WHO Member States and global partners engaged in biosecurity, biosurveillance and public health can define commonalities and leverage their respective missions and resources to optimize interventions. The U.S. Defense Threat Reduction Agency’s Cooperative Biologica Engagement Program (CBEP works with partner countries across clinical, veterinary, epidemiological, and laboratory communities to enhance national disease surveillance, detection, diagnostic, and reporting capabilities. CBEP, like many other capacity building programs, has wrestled with ways to improve partner country buy-in and ownership and to develop sustainable solutions that impact integrated disease surveillance outcomes. Designing successful implementation strategies represents a complex and challenging exercise and requires robust and transparent collaboration at the country level. To address this challenge, the Laboratory Systems Development Branch of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC and CBEP have partnered to create a set of tools that brings together key leadership of the surveillance system into a deliberate system design process. This process takes into account strengths and limitations of the existing system, how the components inter-connect and relate to one another, and how they can be systematically refined within the local context. The planning tools encourage cross-disciplinary thinking, critical evaluation and analysis of existing capabilities, and discussions across organizational and departmental lines toward a shared course of action and purpose. The underlying concepts and methodology of these tools are presented here.
Sofian, Neal; Newton, Daniel; DeClaire, Joan
Highlights one strategy to improve health promotion delivery and generate better outcomes by creating "Microcultures of Meaning" (MOMs), which are intended to provide a context to help people learn and take action. The issue introduces key theoretical concepts associated with the MOM methodology, describes the scientific rationale, discusses…
Raul Rodrigues Cipriano Sousa
Full Text Available Introduction: Breast milk is, without a doubt, the food that provides all the nutrients essential for the healthy growth and development of children. Through effective breastfeeding practices, it is possible to prevent several chronic noncommunicable diseases in childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. Objective: To investigate the relevance of using an educational strategy in breastfeeding promotion. Methods: It was a descriptive study with uncontrolled analytical approach conducted with 36 mothers of children under 2 years of age about breastfeeding, through an educational intervention using the booklet “Breastfeeding: an act of love”. Data collection took place in two moments (pre-test and post-test. Ethics Committee approved the project under protocol No. 058657. Results: Data analysis revealed that 41.6% of the interviewees stated that they did not receive guidance about breast problems from any professional during prenatal care, and 22% reported having presented nipple fissures. Regarding the initiation of breastfeeding, 11.1% of the women interviewed did not knowthe importance of colostrum, and 30.6% did not know its benefits. Assessment of the mothers’ knowledge before and after the intervention obtained a percentage of correctness of 50.7% and 70%, respectively. Conclusion: The educational activity to encourage breastfeeding was able to increase the mothers’ knowledge about breastfeeding and its health benefits for women and children. It is imperative to carry out activities such as the one proposed in this study, which enables the prevention of several problems that directly affect the health of families, acting effectively to promote a solid knowledge for the population. Keywords: Breast Feeding. Child Health. Health Education. Infant Nutrition. Food and Nutrition Education.
... current state of medical product regulation globally, including challenges, risks, and emerging trends... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2013-N-0010... product regulation; generation and analysis of evidence of regulatory systems performance; and provision...
Gutenbrunner, Christoph; Bickenbach, Jerome; Melvin, John; Lains, Jorge; Nugraha, Boya
One of the aims of the World Health Organization's Global Disability Action Plan is to strengthen rehabilitation services. Some countries have requested support to develop (scale-up) rehabilitation services. This paper describes the measures required and how (advisory) missions can support this purpose, with the aim of developing National Disability, Health and Rehabilitation Plans. It is important to clarify the involvement of governments in the mission, to define clear terms of reference, and to use a systematic pathway for situation assessment. Information must be collected regarding policies, health, disability, rehabilitation, social security systems, the need for rehabilitation, and the existing rehabilitation services and workforce. Site visits and stakeholder dialogues must be done. In order to develop a Rehabilitation Service Implementation Framework, existing rehabilitation services, workforce, and models for service implementation and development of rehabilitation professions are described. Governance, political will and a common understanding of disability and rehabilitation are crucial for implementation of the process. The recommendations of the World Report on Disability are used for reporting purposes. This concept is feasible, and leads to concrete recommendations and proposals for projects and a high level of consensus stakeholders.
Full Text Available Objective: One of the aims of the World Health Organization’s Global Disability Action Plan is to strengthen rehabilitation services. Some countries have requested support to develop (scale-up rehabilitation services. This paper describes the measures required and how (advisory missions can support this purpose, with the aim of developing National Disability, Health and Rehabilitation Plans. Recommendations: It is important to clarify the involvement of governments in the mission, to define clear terms of reference, and to use a systematic pathway for situation assessment. Information must be collected regarding policies, health, disability, rehabilitation, social security systems, the need for rehabilitation, and the existing rehabilitation services and workforce. Site visits and stakeholder dialogues must be done. In order to develop a Rehabilitation Service Implementation Framework, existing rehabilitation services, workforce, and models for service implementation and development of rehabilitation professions are described. Governance, political will and a common understanding of disability and rehabilitation are crucial for implementation of the process. The recommendations of the World Report on Disability are used for reporting purposes. Conclusion: This concept is feasible, and leads to concrete recommendations and proposals for projects and a high level of consensus stakeholders.
A multi-center prospective cohort study to evaluate the effect of differential pricing and health systems strengthening on access to medicines and management of hypertension and diabetes in Ghana: A study protocol.
Mobula, Linda Meta; Sarfo, Stephen; Arthur, Lynda; Burnham, Gilbert; Plange-Rhule, Jacob; Ansong, Daniel; Gavor, Edith; Ofori-Adjei, David
Background: There is evidence to suggest that the prevalence of non-communicable diseases (NCDs), in particular cardiovascular diseases and diabetes, are being recognized as forming a substantial proportion of the burden of disease among populations in Low- and Middle-Income Countries (LMICs). Access to treatment is likely a key barrier to the control and prevention of NCD outcomes. Differential pricing, an approach used to price drugs based on the purchasing power of patients in different socioeconomic segments, has been shown to be beneficial and leads to improved access and affordability. Methods: This is a quasi-experimental study, with a pragmatic trial design, to be conducted over the course of three years. A mixed methods design will be used to evaluate the effects of health systems strengthening and differential pricing on the management of diabetes, hypertension and selected cancers in Ghana. A public private partnership was established between all sites that will receive multi-level interventions, including health systems strengthening and access to medicines interventions. Study populations and sites: Study participants will include individuals with new or recently diagnosed hypertension and diabetes (n=3,300), who present to two major referral hospitals, Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital and Tamale Teaching Hospital, as well as three district hospitals, namely Kings Medical Centre, Agogo Presbyterian District Hospital, and Atua Government Hospital. Discussion: The objective of this study aims to test approaches intended to improve access to drugs for the treatment of hypertension and diabetes, and improve disease control. Patients with these conditions will benefit from health systems strengthening interventions (education, counseling, improved management of disease), and increased access to innovative medicines via differential pricing. Pilot programs also will facilitate health system strengthening at the participating institutions, which includes
Learning from developing countries in strengthening health systems: an evaluation of personal and professional impact among global health volunteers at Addis Ababa University's Tikur Anbessa Specialized Hospital (Ethiopia).
Busse, Heidi; Aboneh, Ephrem A; Tefera, Girma
The positive impact of global health activities by volunteers from the United States in low-and middle-income countries has been recognized. Most existing global health partnerships evaluate what knowledge, ideas, and activities the US institution transferred to the low- or middle-income country. However, what this fails to capture are what kinds of change happen to US-based partners due to engagement in global health partnerships, both at the individual and institutional levels. "Reverse innovation" is the term that is used in global health literature to describe this type of impact. The objectives of this study were to identify what kinds of impact global partnerships have on health volunteers from developed countries, advance this emerging body of knowledge, and improve understanding of methods and indicators for assessing reverse innovation. The study population consisted of 80 US, Canada, and South Africa-based health care professionals who volunteered at Tikur Anbessa Specialized Hospital in Ethiopia. Surveys were web-based and included multiple choice and open-ended questions to assess global health competencies. The data were analyzed using IBRM SPSS® version 21 for quantitative analysis; the open-ended responses were coded using constant comparative analysis to identify themes. Of the 80 volunteers, 63 responded (79 percent response rate). Fifty-two percent of the respondents were male, and over 60 percent were 40 years of age and older. Eighty-three percent reported they accomplished their trip objectives, 95 percent would participate in future activities and 96 percent would recommend participation to other colleagues. Eighty-nine percent reported personal impact and 73 percent reported change on their professional development. Previous global health experience, multiple prior trips, and the desire for career advancement were associated with positive impact on professional development. Professionally and personally meaningful learning happens often
Agrawal, Priya; Barton, Iain; Bianco, Roberto Dal; Hovig, Dana; Sarley, David; Yadav, Prashant
Senegal and other developing countries are improving access to health commodities by outsourcing supply chain logistics to private providers. To achieve broader, lasting reform, we must support further adoption of the outsourced model; assist country-led cost-benefit analyses; and help governments build capacity to manage contracts and overcome other barriers.
Leadership and management training as a catalyst to health system strengthening in low-income settings: Evidence from implementation of the Zambia Management and Leadership course for district health managers in Zambia.
Mutale, Wilbroad; Vardoy-Mutale, Anne-Thora; Kachemba, Arthur; Mukendi, Roman; Clarke, Kupela; Mulenga, Dennis
environment, especially in handling human resource management matters. The smallest improvement was noted in ethics and accountability. Qualitative interviews showed improvements in the meeting culture and a greater appreciation for the importance of meetings. Shared vision, teamwork and coordination seemed to have improved more in work places where the overall manager had received ZMLA training. Leadership and management training will be a key ingredient in health system strengthening in low-income settings. The ZMLA model was found to be acceptable and effective in improving knowledge and skills for health system managers with minimal disruption to health services.
Leadership and management training as a catalyst to health system strengthening in low-income settings: Evidence from implementation of the Zambia Management and Leadership course for district health managers in Zambia.
environment, especially in handling human resource management matters. The smallest improvement was noted in ethics and accountability. Qualitative interviews showed improvements in the meeting culture and a greater appreciation for the importance of meetings. Shared vision, teamwork and coordination seemed to have improved more in work places where the overall manager had received ZMLA training.Leadership and management training will be a key ingredient in health system strengthening in low-income settings. The ZMLA model was found to be acceptable and effective in improving knowledge and skills for health system managers with minimal disruption to health services.
Leadership and management training as a catalyst to health system strengthening in low-income settings: Evidence from implementation of the Zambia Management and Leadership course for district health managers in Zambia
Mutale, Wilbroad; Vardoy-Mutale, Anne-Thora; Kachemba, Arthur; Mukendi, Roman; Clarke, Kupela; Mulenga, Dennis
improvements in the workplace environment, especially in handling human resource management matters. The smallest improvement was noted in ethics and accountability. Qualitative interviews showed improvements in the meeting culture and a greater appreciation for the importance of meetings. Shared vision, teamwork and coordination seemed to have improved more in work places where the overall manager had received ZMLA training. Conclusion Leadership and management training will be a key ingredient in health system strengthening in low-income settings. The ZMLA model was found to be acceptable and effective in improving knowledge and skills for health system managers with minimal disruption to health services. PMID:28742853
Buus, Niels; Cassedy, Paul; Gonge, Henrik
In this article, we report findings from a study aimed at developing the content and implementation of a manual for a research-based intervention on clinical supervision of mental health nursing staff. The intervention was designed to strengthen already existing supervision practices through...... educational preparation for supervision and systematic reflection on supervision. The intervention consists of three sessions and was implemented on two groups of mental health hospital staff. We present an outline of the manual and explain how the trial sessions made us adjust the preliminary manual....... The effects of implementing the manual will subsequently be analysed in an independent randomised controlled trial....
Murthy, R K
Accountability refers to the processes by which those with power in the health sector engage with, and are answerable to, those who make demands on it, and enforce disciplinary action on those in the health sector who do not perform effectively. This paper reviews the practice of accountability to citizens on gender and health, assesses gaps, and recommends strategies. Four kinds of accountability mechanisms have been used by citizens to press for accountability on gender and health. These include international human rights instruments, legislation, governance structures, and other tools, some of which are relevant to all public sector services, some to the health sector alone, some to gender issues alone, and some to gender-specific health concerns of women. However, there are few instances wherein private health sector and donors have been held accountable. Rarely have accountability processes reduced gender inequalities in health, or addressed 'low priority' gender-specific health needs of women. Accountability with respect to implementation and to marginalized groups has remained weak. This paper recommends that: (1) the four kinds of accountability mechanisms be extended to the private health sector and donors; (2) health accountability mechanisms be engendered, and gender accountability mechanisms be made health-specific; (3) resources be earmarked to enable government to respond to gender-specific health demands; (4) mechanisms for enforcement of such policies be improved; and (5) democratic spaces and participation of marginalized groups be strengthened.
Zuleta-Marin, Ingrid; Dieleman, M.A.; Zwanikken, Prisca; Bjegovic-Mikanovic, Vesna; Santric-Milicevic, Milena; Perfilieva, Galina; Krayer von Krauss, Martin; Cichowska, Anna
Through the WHO European Region’s Health 2020 policy framework, countries agreed to work together on policy priorities for public health such as strengthening people-centred public health systems and public health capacity. Alongside the Health 2020 strategy, the seventh of the 10 essential public
Mshelia, C; Huss, R; Mirzoev, T; Elsey, H; Baine, S O; Aikins, M; Kamuzora, P; Bosch-Capblanch, X; Raven, J; Wyss, K; Green, A; Martineau, T
The single biggest barrier for countries in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) to scale up the necessary health services for addressing the three health-related Millennium Development Goals and achieving Universal Health Coverage is the lack of an adequate and well-performing health workforce. This deficit needs to be addressed both by training more new health personnel and by improving the performance of the existing and future health workforce. However, efforts have mostly been focused on training new staff and less on improving the performance of the existing health workforce. The purpose of this paper is to disseminate the protocol for the PERFORM project and reflect on the key challenges encountered during the development of this methodology and how they are being overcome. The overall aim of the PERFORM project is to identify ways of strengthening district management in order to address health workforce inadequacies by improving health workforce performance in SSA. The study will take place in three districts each in Ghana, Tanzania and Uganda using an action research approach. With the support of the country research teams, the district health management teams (DHMTs) will lead on planning, implementation, observation, reflection and redefinition of the activities in the study. Taking into account the national and local human resource (HR) and health systems (HS) policies and practices already in place, 'bundles' of HR/HS strategies that are feasible within the context and affordable within the districts' budget will be developed by the DHMTs to strengthen priority areas of health workforce performance. A comparative analysis of the findings from the three districts in each country will add new knowledge on the effects of these HR/HS bundles on DHMT management and workforce performance and the impact of an action research approach on improving the effectiveness of the DHMTs in implementing these interventions. Different challenges were faced during the development of
For the past 30 years, the IAEA's safeguards system has contributed to the international non-proliferation regime by providing, inter alia, assurances regarding the peaceful uses of declared nuclear material. However, the discovery of a clandestine nuclear weapons program in Iraq in 1991 drew world-wide attention to the need to strengthen the system to address the absence of undeclared nuclear material and activities. Efforts to strengthen the IAEA's safeguards system began in 1991 and culminated in 1997 when the IAEA's Board of Governors approved a Model Protocol Additional to IAEA Safeguards Agreements which greatly expands the legal basis and scope of IAEA safeguards. Within this strengthened system it is expected that the IAEA be able to provide assurance not only of the absence of diversion of declared nuclear material but also on the absence of undeclared nuclear material and activities. This is to be done within a safeguards system that uses an optimal combination of all safeguards measures available, thereby achieving maximum effectiveness and efficiency within the available resources. The paper summarizes the evolution of the safeguards system, describes strengthened safeguards, reports on the status of implementing the strengthening measures, and outlines plans for integrating all available safeguards measures. (author)
Ventura, Carla Aparecida Arena; Mendes, Isabel Amélia Costa; Fumincelli, Laís; Trevizan, Maria Auxiliadora
To describe the evolution in the resolutions approved by World Health Organization (WHO)'s World Health Assembly (WHA) to strengthen nursing and midwifery. Qualitative and descriptive study, undertaken through a search of resolutions presented by WHA, on the WHO website, regarding the theme "strengthening of nursing and midwifery." The resolutions on the theme "nursing and midwifery" were included, whose titles were available and whose full texts were accessed, excluding those on general health themes. The key words used were resolutions, strengthening, and nursing and midwifery. Among the 20 resolutions found, 12 were selected, adopted between 1948 and 2013, in accordance with the study inclusion criteria. The data were interpreted using thematic qualitative analysis, identifying and grouping the data in categories related to the study theme. Based on the content analysis of the 12 resolutions studied, three thematic categories were defined: "nursing and midwifery in primary health"; "role of nursing and midwifery in health for all"; and "nurses and midwives' professional training." Based on the categories, the evolution in the strengthening of nursing and midwifery was demonstrated through the initiatives and resolutions approved by WHA, highlighting the importance of nurses and midwives as multiprofessional health team members and their fundamental role in the improvements of the health system. Therefore, in accordance with the needs of each country, the member states can implement strategies presented by the WHA resolutions to strengthen nursing and midwifery services. This study has relevance for the development of health policies considering the relevant contributions of nurses and midwives to healthcare systems and services, based on the analysis of WHO resolutions involving these professions. © 2015 Sigma Theta Tau International.
Sijbrandij, Marit; Acarturk, Ceren; Bird, Martha; Bryant, Richard A; Burchert, Sebastian; Carswell, Kenneth; de Jong, Joop; Dinesen, Cecilie; Dawson, Katie S; El Chammay, Rabih; van Ittersum, Linde; Jordans, Mark; Knaevelsrud, Christine; McDaid, David; Miller, Kenneth; Morina, Naser; Park, A-La; Roberts, Bayard; van Son, Yvette; Sondorp, Egbert; Pfaltz, Monique C; Ruttenberg, Leontien; Schick, Matthis; Schnyder, Ulrich; van Ommeren, Mark; Ventevogel, Peter; Weissbecker, Inka; Weitz, Erica; Wiedemann, Nana; Whitney, Claire; Cuijpers, Pim
The crisis in Syria has resulted in vast numbers of refugees seeking asylum in Syria's neighbouring countries as well as in Europe. Refugees are at considerable risk of developing common mental disorders, including depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Most refugees do not have access to mental health services for these problems because of multiple barriers in national and refugee specific health systems, including limited availability of mental health professionals. To counter some of challenges arising from limited mental health system capacity the World Health Organization (WHO) has developed a range of scalable psychological interventions aimed at reducing psychological distress and improving functioning in people living in communities affected by adversity. These interventions, including Problem Management Plus (PM+) and its variants, are intended to be delivered through individual or group face-to-face or smartphone formats by lay, non-professional people who have not received specialized mental health training, We provide an evidence-based rationale for the use of the scalable PM+ oriented programmes being adapted for Syrian refugees and provide information on the newly launched STRENGTHS programme for adapting, testing and scaling up of PM+ in various modalities in both neighbouring and European countries hosting Syrian refugees.
Full Text Available Adding micronutrient powders (MNP to complementary foods at the point of preparation (home fortification can improve micronutrient status of young children. Ensuring sustained access to MNPs at scale, however, remains challenging in many countries. The Global Alliance for Improved Nutrition (GAIN partnered with the National Institute of Nutrition (NIN in Vietnam to pioneer the distribution of a locally-produced MNP, provided for sale through the public health system with counseling on optimal infant and young child feeding practices by trained health workers. Different packaging options were available to adapt to caregivers’ disposable income. During the six-month pilot, 1.5 million sachets were sold through 337 health centers across four provinces, targeting children 6–59 months of age. Sales were routinely monitored, and a cross-sectional survey in 32 communes for caregivers (n = 962 and health staff (n = 120 assessed MNP coverage and compliance, five months after the start of distribution. A total of 404 caregivers among the 962 caregivers surveyed (i.e., 42% had visited the health center in the past year. Among them, 290 caregivers had heard about the product and a total of 217caregivers had given the MNP to their child at least once, representing a conversion rate from product awareness to product trial of 74.8%. The effective coverage (i.e., consumption of ≥3 sachets/child/week was 11.5% among the total surveyed caregivers and reached 27.3% amongst caregivers who visited health centers in the previous month. The MNP purchase trends showed that the number of sachets bought by caregivers was positively correlated with the wealth index. The pilot showed that providing MNPs for sale in packs of various quantities, combined with infant and young child feeding (IYCF counseling at the health center, is effective for groups accessing the health system.
Tilahun M. Hiwotu
Full Text Available Background: In 2010, a National Laboratory Strategic Plan was set forth in Ethiopia to strengthen laboratory quality systems and set the stage for laboratory accreditation. As a result, the Strengthening Laboratory Management Toward Accreditation (SLMTA programme was initiated in 45 Ethiopian laboratories. Objectives: This article discusses the implementation of the programme, the findings from the evaluation process and key challenges. Methods: The 45 laboratories were divided into two consecutive cohorts and staff from each laboratory participated in SLMTA training and improvement projects. The average amount of supportive supervision conducted in the laboratories was 68 hours for cohort I and two hoursfor cohort II. Baseline and exit audits were conducted in 44 of the laboratories and percent compliance was determined using a checklist with scores divided into zero- to five-star ratinglevels. Results: Improvements, ranging from < 1 to 51 percentage points, were noted in 42 laboratories, whilst decreases were recorded in two. The average scores at the baseline and exit audits were 40% and 58% for cohort I (p < 0.01; and 42% and 53% for cohort II (p < 0.01,respectively. The p-value for difference between cohorts was 0.07. At the exit audit, 61% ofthe first and 48% of the second cohort laboratories achieved an increase in star rating. Poor awareness, lack of harmonisation with other facility activities and the absence of a quality manual were challenges identified. Conclusion: Improvements resulting from SLMTA implementation are encouraging. Continuous advocacy at all levels of the health system is needed to ensure involvement of stakeholders and integration with other improvement initiatives and routine activities.
To effectively reduce health risks at the animal-human-ecosystems interface, a One Health strategy is crucially important to create strong national and regional animal health systems that are well coordinated with strong public health systems. Animal diseases, particularly those caused by new and emerging zoonotic pathogens, must be effectively controlled at their source to reduce their potentially devastating impact upon both animal and human health. As the international organisation responsible for developing standards, guidelines and recommendations for animal health, the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) plays an important role in minimising animal and public health risks attributable to zoonoses and other animal diseases, which can have severe consequences for global food safety and security. National Veterinary Services, which implement OIE animal health and welfare standards and other measures, are the first line of defence against these diseases, and must have the capacity to meet the core requirements necessary for their diagnosis and control. The OIE works collaboratively with the World Health Organization and Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations to improve the ability of national animal and public health systems to respond to current and emerging animal health risks with public health consequences. In addition to improving and aligning national laboratory capacities in high-risk areas, the OIE collaborates on One Health-oriented projects for key diseases, establishing model frameworks which can be applied to manage other existing and emerging priority diseases. This article reviews the role and activities of the OIE in strengthening the national Veterinary Services of its Member Countries for a more effective and sustainable One Health collaboration.
Full Text Available Access to healthcare is an important public health concept and has been traditionally measured by using population level parameters, such as availability, distribution and proximity of the health facilities in relation to the population. However, client based factors such as their expectations, experiences and perceptions which impact their evaluations of health care access were not well studied and integrated into health policy frameworks and implementation programs.This study aimed to investigate factors associated with perceived access to HIV/AIDS Treatment and care services in Wolaita Zone, Ethiopia.A cross-sectional survey was conducted on 492 people living with HIV, with 411 using ART and 81 using pre-ART services accessed at six public sector health facilities from November 2014 to March 2015. Data were analyzed using the ologit function of STATA. The variables explored consisted of socio-demographic and health characteristics, type of health facility, type of care, distance, waiting time, healthcare responsiveness, transportation convenience, satisfaction with service, quality of care, financial fairness, out of pocket expenses and HIV disclosure.Of the 492 participants, 294 (59.8% were females and 198 (40.2% were males, with a mean age of 38.8 years. 23.0% and 12.2% believed they had 'good' or 'very good' access respectively, and 64.8% indicated lower ratings. In the multivariate analysis, distance from the health facility, type of care, HIV clinical stage, out of pocket expenses, employment status, type of care, HIV disclosure and perceived transportation score were not associated with the perceived access (PA. With a unit increment in satisfaction, perceived quality of care, health system responsiveness, transportation convenience and perceived financial fairness scores, the odds of providing higher rating of PA increased by 29.0% (p<0.001, 6.0%(p<0.01, 100.0% (p<0.001, 9.0% (p<0.05 and 6.0% (p<0.05 respectively.Perceived quality of
Ahamed Kameel Mydin Meera
Full Text Available Economic and financial crises seem to occur with increased frequency. Indeed now most countries, including several advanced economies like the US, Europe and Japan, are in serious economic recession. Employment and business opportunities have been much dampened. Inflation seems to be soaring globally and nations are witnessing widening gaps in income and wealth distribution. Many of these advanced economies are also facing shrinking population sizes that translate into aging problems and labor shortages. On top of those, there are environmental issues, including global warming. All these, in turn, have caused regional and global political conflicts and turmoil. The Arab Spring and the sovereign debt problems faced by some European countries like Greece are examples of this. Sustainability of economics and environment is thus of paramount concern of today. This paper considers those problems and suggests Interest-free Gold-based Electronic Netting System (IGENS as an effective way of injecting liquidity into the economy, practically free, that can spur business and employment while bringing about structural stability, inflation checked with both economic and environmental sustainability. Netting or muqassah is a transaction allowed in shari’ah and is practiced worldwide in different forms. Examples include the highly successful WIR Bank of Switzerland, various Local Exchange Trading Schemes (LETS and Bilateral and Multilateral Payment Arrangements between central banks. Keywords: Global crisis, Payment system, Gold, Netting, Muqassah, Liquidity, Sustainability, Financial system stability JEL Classification: E40, E42, E51
Instituto Mesoamericano de Salud Pública: órgano de apoyo técnico y fortalecimiento del Sistema Mesoamericano de Salud Pública Mesoamerican Public Health Institute: Technical support and capacity strengthening arm of the Mesoamerican Public Health System
Miguel A González-Block
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: El Instituto Mesoamericano de Salud Pública (IMSP se constituyó en 2009 como órgano técnico del Sistema Mesoamericano de Salud Pública (SMSP y la Red Virtual de Instituciones Académicas. En la primera fase se identificaron las necesidades de fortalecimiento de sistemas de salud y se evaluaron los primeros resultados de capacitación. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se realizó un análisis de contenido de los Planes Maestros del SMSP para cada prioridad y se encuestó a los integrantes del Grupo de Trabajo en Malaria y Dengue. RESULTADOS: Se identificaron los temas de capacitación requeridos por áreas de prioridad del SMSP y las necesidades de gestión de conocimiento para control y eliminación de la malaria y dengue. Se elaboró un mapeo de competencias a desarrollar con el personal estratégico, táctico y operativo. El IMSP capacitó a 91 funcionarios de ocho países en su primer año. Estas actividades se desarrollaron de julio 2009 a junio 2010, en consulta a directivos de servicios de salud de países integrantes del Sistema Mesoamericano de Salud Pública, Colombia y México. CONCLUSIONES: El IMSP está respondiendo a las necesidades de salud pública en la región mesoamericana.OBJECTIVE: The Mesoamerican Public Health Institute (IMSP was constituted in 2009 as the technical organ of the Mesoamerican Public Health System (SMSP and the Virtual Network of Academic Institutions. Health system capacity strengthening needs and preliminary training results were assessed in the first phase. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The SMSP Master Plans were content-analyzed for each priority and members of the Malaria and Dengue Working Group were surveyed. RESULTS: The training needs required for each SMSP priority area were identified and knowledge management needs for malaria and dengue analyzed. Competencies were mapped across strategic, tactical and operative personnel that will be requiring them. IMSP trained in its first year 91 persons in eight
The School of Public health and the Ministry of Health therefore requested the technical and financial assistance of the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in organizing the Programme. The collaboration started by organizing short courses in disease outbreak investigations and response for ...
Tetui, Moses; Zulu, Joseph Mumba; Hurtig, Anna-Karin; Ekirapa-Kiracho, Elizabeth; Kiwanuka, Suzanne N; Coe, Anna-Britt
which the use of PAR can be harnessed, not only to strengthen health managers' capacity, but also to foster other health systems strengthening initiatives involving implementation research. In addition, the findings demonstrated the intricate and complex relations between the elements, which further affirms the need for a systems thinking approach to tackling health systems challenges.
Doherty, Tanya; Zembe, Wanga; Ngandu, Nobubelo; Kinney, Mary; Manda, Samuel; Besada, Donela; Jackson, Debra; Daniels, Karen; Rohde, Sarah; van Damme, Wim; Kerber, Kate; Daviaud, Emmanuelle; Rudan, Igor; Muniz, Maria; Oliphant, Nicholas P; Zamasiya, Texas; Rohde, Jon; Sanders, David
Malawi is estimated to have achieved its Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 4 target. This paper explores factors influencing progress in child survival in Malawi including coverage of interventions and the role of key national policies. We performed a retrospective evaluation of the Catalytic Initiative (CI) programme of support (2007-2013). We developed estimates of child mortality using four population household surveys undertaken between 2000 and 2010. We recalculated coverage indicators for high impact child health interventions and documented child health programmes and policies. The Lives Saved Tool (LiST) was used to estimate child lives saved in 2013. The mortality rate in children under 5 years decreased rapidly in the 10 CI districts from 219 deaths per 1000 live births (95% confidence interval (CI) 189 to 249) in the period 1991-1995 to 119 deaths (95% CI 105 to 132) in the period 2006-2010. Coverage for all indicators except vitamin A supplementation increased in the 10 CI districts across the time period 2000 to 2013. The LiST analysis estimates that there were 10 800 child deaths averted in the 10 CI districts in 2013, primarily attributable to the introduction of the pneumococcal vaccine (24%) and increased household coverage of insecticide-treated bednets (19%). These improvements have taken place within a context of investment in child health policies and scale up of integrated community case management of childhood illnesses. Malawi provides a strong example for countries in sub-Saharan Africa of how high impact child health interventions implemented within a decentralised health system with an established community-based delivery platform, can lead to significant reductions in child mortality.
Full Text Available Malawi is estimated to have achieved its Millennium Development Goal (MDG 4 target. This paper explores factors influencing progress in child survival in Malawi including coverage of interventions and the role of key national policies. We performed a retrospective evaluation of the Catalytic Initiative (CI programme of support (2007–2013. We developed estimates of child mortality using four population household surveys undertaken between 2000 and 2010. We recalculated coverage indicators for high impact child health interventions and documented child health programmes and policies. The Lives Saved Tool (LiST was used to estimate child lives saved in 2013. The mortality rate in children under 5 years decreased rapidly in the 10 CI districts from 219 deaths per 1000 live births (95% confidence interval (CI 189 to 249 in the period 1991–1995 to 119 deaths (95% CI 105 to 132 in the period 2006–2010. Coverage for all indicators except vitamin A supplementation increased in the 10 CI districts across the time period 2000 to 2013. The LiST analysis estimates that there were 10 800 child deaths averted in the 10 CI districts in 2013, primarily attributable to the introduction of the pneumococcal vaccine (24% and increased household coverage of insecticide–treated bednets (19%. These improvements have taken place within a context of investment in child health policies and scale up of integrated community case management of childhood illnesses. Malawi provides a strong example for countries in sub–Saharan Africa of how high impact child health interventions implemented within a decentralised health system with an established community–based delivery platform, can lead to significant reductions in child mortality.
Strengthening local seed systems within the bean value chain: Experience of agricultural innovation platforms in the Democratic Republic of Congo. ... associations, local grain/seed traders, private and public extension agents, researchers, finance and credit cooperatives and Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs).
Ager, A; Burnham, G; Checchi, F; Gayer, M; Grais, R F; Henkens, M; Massaquoi, M B F; Nandy, R; Navarro-Colorado, C; Spiegel, P
Given the growing scale and complexity of responses to humanitarian crises, it is important to develop a stronger evidence base for health interventions in such contexts. Humanitarian crises present unique challenges to rigorous and effective research, but there are substantial opportunities for scientific advance. Studies need to focus where the translation of evidence from noncrisis scenarios is not viable and on ethical ways of determining what happens in the absence of an intervention. Robust methodologies suited to crisis settings have to be developed and used to assess interventions with potential for delivery at scale. Strengthening research capacity in the low- to middle-income countries that are vulnerable to crises is also crucial. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.
Badr, Elsheikh; Mohamed, Nazar A; Afzal, Muhammad Mahmood; Bile, Khalif Mohamud
Human resources for health (HRH) in the Sudan were limited by shortages and the maldistribution of health workers, poor management, service fragmentation, poor retention of health workers in rural areas, and a weak health information system. A "country coordination and facilitation" process was implemented to strengthen the national HRH observatory, provide a coordination platform for key stakeholders, catalyse policy support and HRH planning, harmonize the mobilization of resources, strengthen HRH managerial structures, establish new training institutions and scale up the training of community health workers. The national government of the Sudan sanctioned state-level governance of the health system but many states lacked coherent HRH plans and policies. A paucity of training institutions constrained HRH production and the adequate and equitable deployment of health workers in rural areas. The country coordination and facilitation process prompted the establishment of a robust HRH information system and the development of the technical capacities and tools necessary for data analysis and evidence-based participatory decision-making and action. The success of the country coordination and facilitation process was substantiated by the stakeholders' coordinated support, which was built on solid evidence of the challenges in HRH and shared accountability in the planning and implementation of responses to those challenges. The support led to political commitment and the mobilization of resources for HRH. The leadership that was promoted and the educational institutions that were opened should facilitate the training, deployment and retention of the health workers needed to achieve universal health coverage.
Huda, Fauzia Akhter; Ahmed, Anisuddin; Ford, Evelyn Rebecca; Johnston, Heidi Bart
. Notable gaps were identified in providing post-abortion contraceptive services for women treated for PAC. By systematic implementation of the SMRAC model, health systems can track and measure progress and gaps in their implementation and identify strategies for further reduction of abortion-related morbidity and mortality in Bangladesh.
Varol, Nesrin; Hall, John J; Black, Kirsten; Turkmani, Sabera; Dawson, Angela
The physical and psychological impact of female genital mutilation / cutting (FGM/C) can be substantial, long term, and irreversible. Parts of the health sector in Australia have developed guidelines in the management of FGM/C, but large gaps exist in community and professional knowledge of the consequences and treatment of FGM/C. The prevalence of FGM/C amongst Australian women is unknown. Our article reviews the literature on research on FGM/C in Australia, which focuses on health system response to women and girls with FGM/C. Recommendations are made for policy reform in health, legislation, and community programs to provide the best healthcare, protect children, and help communities abandon this harmful practice. Midwives and doctors in Australia acknowledged a lack of knowledge on FGM/C, clinical guidelines and consequences for maternity care. In a metropolitan Australian hospital with specialised FGM/C care, women with FGM/C had similar obstetric outcomes as women without FGM/C, underlining the importance of holistic FGM/C clinics. Greater focus on integration of refugee and migrant populations into their new cultures may be an important way of facilitating the abandonment of this practice, as is education of communities that practise FGM/C, and experts involved in the care and protection of children. Men could be important advocates for protecting women and girls from violence and FGM/C through a man-to-man strategy with programs focussing on men's health and other personal issues, education, and communication. The Australian Government has identified gender-based violence as an area of priority and has been implementing a National plan to reduce violence against women and their children 2010-2022. A multidisciplinary network of experts on FGM/C could be established within this taskforce to develop well-defined and rapid referral pathways to care for and protect these children, as well as coordinate education and prevention programs to help communities
This grant will support the creation of two task forces in Kenya and Malawi, respectively, to articulate nationally owned and strategies for an effective health research system in each country. The idea is to enhance the capacity of health research institutions to generate new scientific knowledge, and health policymaking ...
Ebrahimi, Zahra; Dahlin-Ivanoff, Synneve; Eklund, Kajsa; Jakobsson, Annika; Wilhelmson, Katarina
The aim of this study was to analyse the explanatory power of variables measuring health-strengthening factors for self-rated health among community-living frail older people. Frailty is commonly constructed as a multi-dimensional geriatric syndrome ascribed to the multi-system deterioration of the reserve capacity in older age. Frailty in older people is associated with decreased physical and psychological well-being. However, knowledge about the experiences of health in frail older people is still limited. The design of the study was cross-sectional. The data were collected between October 2008 and November 2010 through face-to-face structured interviews with older people aged 65-96 years (N = 161). Binary logistic regression was used to analyse whether a set of explanatory relevant variables is associated with self-rated health. The results from the final model showed that satisfaction with one's ability to take care of oneself, having 10 or fewer symptoms and not feeling lonely had the best explanatory power for community-living frail older peoples' experiences of good health. The results indicate that a multi-disciplinary approach is desirable, where the focus should not only be on medical problems but also on providing supportive services to older people to maintain their independence and experiences of health despite frailty. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Strengthening Emergency Care Systems to Mitigate Public Health Challenges Arising from Influxes of Individuals with Different Socio-Cultural Backgrounds to a Level One Emergency Center in South East Europe.
Twomey, Michèle; Šijački, Ana; Krummrey, Gert; Welzel, Tyson; Exadaktylos, Aristomenis K; Ercegovac, Marko
Emergency center visits are mostly unscheduled, undifferentiated, and unpredictable. A standardized triage process is an opportunity to obtain real-time data that paints a picture of the variation in acuity found in emergency centers. This is particularly pertinent as the influx of people seeking asylum or in transit mostly present with emergency care needs or first seek help at an emergency center. Triage not only reduces the risk of missing or losing a patient that may be deteriorating in the waiting room but also enables a time-critical response in the emergency care service provision. As part of a joint emergency care system strengthening and patient safety initiative, the Serbian Ministry of Health in collaboration with the Centre of Excellence in Emergency Medicine (CEEM) introduced a standardized triage process at the Clinical Centre of Serbia (CCS). This paper describes four crucial stages that were considered for the integration of a standardized triage process into acute care pathways.
Strengthening Emergency Care Systems to Mitigate Public Health Challenges Arising from Influxes of Individuals with Different Socio-Cultural Backgrounds to a Level One Emergency Center in South East Europe
Full Text Available Emergency center visits are mostly unscheduled, undifferentiated, and unpredictable. A standardized triage process is an opportunity to obtain real-time data that paints a picture of the variation in acuity found in emergency centers. This is particularly pertinent as the influx of people seeking asylum or in transit mostly present with emergency care needs or first seek help at an emergency center. Triage not only reduces the risk of missing or losing a patient that may be deteriorating in the waiting room but also enables a time-critical response in the emergency care service provision. As part of a joint emergency care system strengthening and patient safety initiative, the Serbian Ministry of Health in collaboration with the Centre of Excellence in Emergency Medicine (CEEM introduced a standardized triage process at the Clinical Centre of Serbia (CCS. This paper describes four crucial stages that were considered for the integration of a standardized triage process into acute care pathways.
Rowaida Al Maaitah
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: to explore priority actions for strengthening the role of Advanced Practice Nurses (APNs towards the achievement of Universal Health Converge (UHC as perceived by health key informants in Jordan. Methods: an exploratory qualitative design, using a semi-structured survey, was utilized. A purposive sample of seventeen key informants from various nursing and health care sectors was recruited for the purpose of the study. Content analysis utilizing the five-stage framework approach was used for data analysis. Results: the findings revealed that policy and regulation, nursing education, research, and workforce were identified as the main elements that influence the role of APNs in contributing to the achievement of UHC. Priority actions were identified by the participants for the main four elements. Conclusion: study findings confirm the need to strengthen the role of APNs to achieve UHC through a major transformation in nursing education, practice, research, leadership, and regulatory system. Nurses should unite to come up with solid nursing competencies related to APNs, PHC, UHC, leadership and policy making to strengthen their position as main actors in influencing the health care system and evidence creation.
de Almeida, Patty Fidelis; Fausto, Márcia Cristina Rodrigues; Giovanella, Lígia
To describe and analyze the actions developed in four large cities to strengthen the family health strategy (FHS) in Brazil. Case studies were carried out in Aracaju, Belo Horizonte, Florianópolis, and Vitória based on semi-structured interviews with health care managers. In addition, a cross-sectional study was conducted with questionnaires administered to a sample of FHS workers and services users. Actions needed to strengthen primary health care services were identified in all four cities. These include increasing the number of services offered at the primary health care level, removing barriers to access, restructuring primary services as the entry point to the health care system, enhancing problem-solving capacity (diagnostic and therapeutic support and networking between health units to organize the work process, training, and supervision), as well as improving articulation between surveillance and care actions. The cities studied have gained solid experience in the reorganization of the health care model based on a strengthening of health primary care and of the capacity to undertake the role of health care coordinator. However, to make the primary care level the customary entry point and first choice for users, additional actions are required to balance supplier-induced and consumer-driven demands. Consumer driven demand is the biggest challenge for the organization of teamwork processes. Support for and recognition of FHS as a basis for primary health care is still an issue. Initiatives to make FHS better known to the population, health care professionals at all levels, and civil society organizations are still needed.
Schoeppner, Rachel Lynn
Nano-scale strengthening mechanisms for thin films were investigated for systems governed by two different strengthening techniques: nano-laminate strengthening and oxide dispersion strengthening. Films were tested under elevated temperature conditions to investigate changes in deformation mechanisms at different operating temperatures, and the structural stability. Both systems exhibit remarkable stability after annealing and thus long-term reliability. Nano-scale metallic multilayers with smaller layer thicknesses show a greater relative resistance to decreasing strength at higher temperature testing conditions than those with larger layer thicknesses. This is seen in both Cu/Ni/Nb multilayers as well as a similar tri-component bi-layer system (Cu-Ni/Nb), which removed the coherent interface from the film. Both nanoindentation and micro-pillar compression tests investigated the strain-hardening ability of these two systems to determine what role the coherent interface plays in this mechanism. Tri-layer films showed a higher strain-hardening ability as the layer thickness decreased and a higher strain-hardening exponent than the bi-layer system: verifying the presence of a coherent interface increases the strain-hardening ability of these multilayer systems. Both systems exhibited hardening of the room temperature strength after annealing, suggesting a change in microstructure has occurred, unlike that seen in other multilayer systems. Oxide dispersion strengthened Au films showed a marked increase in hardness and wear resistance with the addition of ZnO particles. The threshold for stress-induced grain-refinement as opposed to grain growth is seen at concentrations of at least 0.5 vol%. These systems exhibited stable microstructures during thermal cycling in films containing at least 1.0%ZnO. Nanoindentation experiments show the drop in hardness following annealing is almost completely attributed to the resulting grain growth. Four-point probe resistivity
Full Text Available Abstract Background Strengthening Community Health Worker systems has been recognized to improve access to chronic disease prevention and management efforts in low-resource communities. The Community Outreach and Patient Empowerment (COPE Program is a Native non-profit organization with formal partnerships with both the Navajo Nation Community Health Representative (CHR Program and the clinical facilities serving the Navajo Nation. COPE works to better integrate CHRs into the local health care system through training, strengthening care coordination, and a standardized culturally appropriate suite of health promotion materials for CHRs to deliver to high-risk individuals in their homes. Methods The objective of this mixed methods, cross sectional evaluation of a longitudinal cohort study was to explore how the COPE Program has effected CHR teams over the past 6 years. COPE staff surveyed CHRs in concurrent years (2014 and 2015 about their perceptions of and experience working with COPE, including potential effects COPE may have had on communication among patients, CHRs, and hospital-based providers. COPE staff also conducted focus groups with all eight Navajo Nation CHR teams. Results CHRs and other stakeholders who viewed our results agree that COPE has improved clinic-community linkages, primarily through strengthened collaborations between Public Health Nurses and CHRs, and access to the Electronic Health Records. CHRs perceived that COPE’s programmatic support has strengthened their validity and reputation with providers and clients, and has enhanced their ability to positively effect health outcomes among their clients. CHRs report an improved ability to deliver health coaching to their clients. Survey results show that 80.2% of CHRs feel strongly positive that COPE trainings are useful, while 44.6% of CHRs felt that communication and teamwork had improved because of COPE. Conclusions These findings suggest that CHRs have experienced
Training for Better Management: Avante Zambézia, PEPFAR and Improving the Quality of Administrative Services Comment on "Implementation of a Health Management Mentoring Program: Year-1 Evaluation of Its Impact on Health System Strengthening in Zambézia Province, Mozambique".
Schwarcz, Sandra K; Rutherford, George W; Horvath, Hacsi
The United States President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) emphasizes health systems strengthening as a cornerstone of programmatic success. Health systems strengthening, among other things, includes effective capacity building for clinical care, administrative management and public health practice. Avante Zambézia is a district-level in-service training program for administrative staff. It is associated with improved accounting practices and human resources and transportation management but not monitoring and evaluation. We discuss other examples of successful administrative training programs that vary in the proportion of time that is spent learning on the job and the proportion of time spent in classrooms. We suggest that these programs be more rigorously evaluated so that lessons learned can be generalized to other countries and regions. © 2015 by Kerman University of Medical Sciences.
Training for Better Management: Avante Zambézia, PEPFAR and Improving the Quality of Administrative Services; Comment on “Implementation of a Health Management Mentoring Program: Year-1 Evaluation of Its Impact on Health System Strengthening in Zambézia Province, Mozambique”
Sandra K. Schwarcz
Full Text Available The United States President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR emphasizes health systems strengthening as a cornerstone of programmatic success. Health systems strengthening, among other things, includes effective capacity building for clinical care, administrative management and public health practice. Avante Zambéziais a district-level in-service training program for administrative staff. It is associated with improved accounting practices and human resources and transportation management but not monitoring and evaluation. We discuss other examples of successful administrative training programs that vary in the proportion of time that is spent learning on the job and the proportion of time spent in classrooms. We suggest that these programs be more rigorously evaluated so that lessons learned can be generalized to other countries and regions.
Krubiner, Carleigh B; Salmon, Marla; Synowiec, Christina; Lagomarsino, Gina
Women's empowerment and global health promotion are both central aims in the development agenda, with positive associations and feedback loops between empowerment and health outcomes. To date, most of the work exploring connections between health and empowerment has focused on women as health consumers. This article summarizes a much longer landscape review that examines ways in which various health programs can empower women as providers, specifically nurses and midwives. We conducted a scan of the Center for Health Market Innovations database to identify how innovative health programs can create empowerment opportunities for nurses and midwives. We reviewed 94 programs, exploring nurses' and midwives' roles and inputs that contribute to their empowerment. There were four salient models: provider training, information and communications technologies, cooperatives, and clinical franchises. By documenting these approaches and their hallmarks for empowering female health workers, we hope to stimulate greater uptake of health innovations coupled with gender-empowerment opportunities globally. The full report with expanded methodology and findings is available online. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Tran, Phu Dac; Vu, Long Ngoc; Nguyen, Hien Tran; Phan, Lan Trong; Lowe, Wayne; McConnell, Michelle S; Iademarco, Michael F; Partridge, Jeffrey M; Kile, James C; Do, Trang; Nadol, Patrick J; Bui, Hien; Vu, Diep; Bond, Kyle; Nelson, David B; Anderson, Lauren; Hunt, Kenneth V; Smith, Nicole; Giannone, Paul; Klena, John; Beauvais, Denise; Becknell, Kristi; Tappero, Jordan W; Dowell, Scott F; Rzeszotarski, Peter; Chu, May; Kinkade, Carl
Over the past decade, Vietnam has successfully responded to global health security (GHS) challenges, including domestic elimination of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and rapid public health responses to human infections with influenza A(H5N1) virus. However, new threats such as Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) and influenza A(H7N9) present continued challenges, reinforcing the need to improve the global capacity to prevent, detect, and respond to public health threats. In June 2012, Vietnam, along with many other nations, obtained a 2-year extension for meeting core surveillance and response requirements of the 2005 International Health Regulations (IHR). During March-September 2013, CDC and the Vietnamese Ministry of Health (MoH) collaborated on a GHS demonstration project to improve public health emergency detection and response capacity. The project aimed to demonstrate, in a short period, that enhancements to Vietnam's health system in surveillance and early detection of and response to diseases and outbreaks could contribute to meeting the IHR core capacities, consistent with the Asia Pacific Strategy for Emerging Diseases. Work focused on enhancements to three interrelated priority areas and included achievements in 1) establishing an emergency operations center (EOC) at the General Department of Preventive Medicine with training of personnel for public health emergency management; 2) improving the nationwide laboratory system, including enhanced testing capability for several priority pathogens (i.e., those in Vietnam most likely to contribute to public health emergencies of international concern); and 3) creating an emergency response information systems platform, including a demonstration of real-time reporting capability. Lessons learned included awareness that integrated functions within the health system for GHS require careful planning, stakeholder buy-in, and intradepartmental and interdepartmental coordination and
Full Text Available Background: In Uganda maternal and neonatal mortality remains high due to a number of factors, including poor quality of care at health facilities. Objective: This paper describes the experience of building capacity for maternal and newborn care at a district hospital and lower-level health facilities in eastern Uganda within the existing system parameters and a robust community outreach programme. Design: This health system strengthening study, part of the Uganda Newborn Study (UNEST, aimed to increase frontline health worker capacity through district-led training, support supervision, and mentoring at one district hospital and 19 lower-level facilities. A once-off supply of essential medicines and equipment was provided to address immediate critical gaps. Health workers were empowered to requisition subsequent supplies through use of district resources. Minimal infrastructure adjustments were provided. Quantitative data collection was done within routine process monitoring and qualitative data were collected during support supervision visits. We use the World Health Organization Health System Building Blocks to describe the process of district-led health facility strengthening. Results: Seventy two per cent of eligible health workers were trained. The mean post-training knowledge score was 68% compared to 32% in the pre-training test, and 80% 1 year later. Health worker skills and competencies in care of high-risk babies improved following support supervision and mentoring. Health facility deliveries increased from 3,151 to 4,115 (a 30% increase in 2 years. Of 547 preterm babies admitted to the newly introduced kangaroo mother care (KMC unit, 85% were discharged alive to continue KMC at home. There was a non-significant declining trend for in-hospital neonatal deaths across the 2-year study period. While equipment levels remained high after initial improvement efforts, maintaining supply of even the most basic medications was a challenge, with
Full Text Available Adoption of a performance management system in municipalities presented a serious challenge for its implementation. This scenario is implicitly manifesting itself in the reports of the Auditor-General on the financial statements and performance of municipalities, as well as in the state of local government in South Africa overview report (2009. These reports called for the conceptualisation of a model that to strengthen the implementation in municipalities of a performance management system that is efficient and effective. And most importantly, this model could be beneficial for growth, development and effective service delivery.
Short-term and sustained effects of a health system strengthening intervention to improve mortality trends for paediatric severe malnutrition in rural South African hospitals: An interrupted time series design
Full Text Available Background. Case fatality rates for childhood severe acute malnutrition (SAM remain high in some resource-limited facilities in South Africa (SA, despite the widespread availability of the World Health Organization treatment guidelines. There is a need to develop reproducible interventions that reinforce the implementation of these guidelines and assess their effect and sustainability. Objectives. To assess the short-term and sustained effects of a health system strengthening intervention on mortality attributable to SAM in two hospitals located in the Eastern Cape Province of SA. Methods. This was a theory-driven evaluation conducted in two rural hospitals in SA over a 69-month period (2009 - 2014. In both facilities, a health system strengthening intervention was implemented within the first 32 months, and thereafter discontinued. Sixty-nine monthly data series were collected on: (i monthly total SAM case fatality rate (CFR; (ii monthly SAM CFR within 24 hours of admission; and (iii monthly SAM CFR among HIV-positive cases, to determine the intervention’s effect within the first 32 months and sustainability over the remaining 37 months. The data were analysed using Linden’s method for analysing interrupted time series data. Results. The study revealed that the intervention was associated with a statistically significant decrease of up to 0.4% in monthly total SAM CFR, a non-statistically significant decrease of up to 0.09% in monthly SAM CFR within 24 hours of admission and a non-statistically significant decrease of up to 0.11% in monthly SAM CFR among HIV-positive cases. The decrease in mortality trends for both outcomes was only slightly reversed upon the discontinuation of the intervention. No autocorrelation was detected in the regression models generated during data analyses. Conclusion. The study findings suggest that although the intervention was designed to be self-sustaining, this may not have been the case. A qualitative enquiry
Lizziane Souza Queiroz Franco de Oliveira
Full Text Available The budget planning is the duty of every manager and fundamental for the implementation of key policies such as health. To implement them, it’s necessary to control the provision of these services; hence the importance of the audit. This article intends to, through documentary and bibliographic research, analyzing quantitative and qulitatively budgetary forecasting and execution aimed at audit’s actions - SUS, provideds for PPA/2014-2017 and LOA-2014, both the city of Fortaleza, in order to ascertain whether the municipal management performs its expenditure aimed at encouraging good planning and provide to society an efficient public management and responsive to social control.
Full Text Available Health care systems are faced with the challenge of resource scarcity and have insufficient resources to respond to all health problems and target groups simultaneously. Hence, priority setting is an inevitable aspect of every health system. However, priority setting is complex and difficult because the process is frequently influenced by political, institutional and managerial factors that are not considered by conventional priority-setting tools. In a five-year EU-supported project, which started in 2006, ways of strengthening fairness and accountability in priority setting in district health management were studied. This review is based on a PhD thesis that aimed to analyse health care organisation and management systems, and explore the potential and challenges of implementing Accountability for Reasonableness (A4R approach to priority setting in Tanzania. A qualitative case study in Mbarali district formed the basis of exploring the sociopolitical and institutional contexts within which health care decision making takes place. The study also explores how the A4R intervention was shaped, enabled and constrained by the contexts. Key informant interviews were conducted. Relevant documents were also gathered and group priority-setting processes in the district were observed. The study revealed that, despite the obvious national rhetoric on decentralisation, actual practice in the district involved little community participation. The assumption that devolution to local government promotes transparency, accountability and community participation, is far from reality. The study also found that while the A4R approach was perceived to be helpful in strengthening transparency, accountability and stakeholder engagement, integrating the innovation into the district health system was challenging. This study underscores the idea that greater involvement and accountability among local actors may increase the legitimacy and fairness of priority
Full Text Available Over the past 20 years, education of scientists and public health professionals in Vaccinology has increased dramatically. There are now many international, regional, and national courses that provide education in vaccinology. The proliferation of these courses and the high number of applications submitted demonstrate the increasing and continuous need for improved education in this field since, generally, comprehensive vaccinology training is not offered to medical and/or biological sciences students as part of their Universities courses and consequently there is insufficient knowledge of vaccine topics among health-care providers. Multidisciplinary vaccinology courses have not only educational purposes but they may also contribute to strengthening the development, testing, and use of vaccines, which remain the most efficient tool for infectious disease prevention. The courses available have a varied focus and prioritize topics based on the trainees’ different levels of professional exposure and requirements. Overall, they might be classified in two key categories: (i courses targeting students who, after their university studies in Medicine, Biology, etc., develop a strong interest in vaccines, would like to learn more about the various aspects of vaccinology, and potentially develop a career in this field (postgraduate courses; (ii courses targeting postdoctoral professionals, who already have a sufficiently broad knowledge of vaccinology, but would like to develop stronger skills to be able to play a leading role in decision-making for vaccine development (advanced professional courses. Both postgraduate and professional courses are available and are based on comprehensive curricula. In the future, particular attention should be paid to include in the training curricula topics that might help vaccine development, efficient and sustainable vaccine introduction through epidemiologically sound vaccination programs, and best practices to
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Quality management systems (QMS, based on ISO 9001 requirements, are applicable to government service organizations such as Health Canada’s Biologics and Genetic Therapies Directorate (BGTD. This communication presents the process that the BGTD followed since the early 2000s to implement a quality management system and describes how the regulatory system was improved as a result of this project. BGTD undertook the implementation of a quality management system based on ISO 9001 and containing aspects of ISO 17025 with the goal of strengthening the regulatory system through improvements in the people, processes, and services of the organization. We discuss the strategy used by BGTD to implement the QMS and the benefits that were realized from the various stages of implementation. The eight quality principals upon which the QMS standards of the ISO 9000 series are based were used by senior management as a framework to guide QMS implementation.
Verdasco Martinez, Andrea
children. By identifying children’s reasons for migrating, it identifies the main risks they encounter once they start living and working in Ressano Garcia. These include: lack of access to educational opportunities, exposure to child labour exploitation, trafficking and smuggling. This paper argues......This research sets out to understand the why, how and with whom of rural-urban internal migration of children to Ressano Garcia, a border town between Mozambique and South Africa. It addresses the overarching research question of how to strengthen child protection systems for unaccompanied migrant...... that child protection systems must respond to the unique situation of migrant children’s needs. Child protection and migration policies need to strike a balance between discouraging unsafe migration, which has the potential to expose children to violence, and ensuring that systems are in place for safe...
The African Health Systems Initiative (AHSI) is a 10-year Canadian International ... for strengthening African-led health systems and human resources for health. ... IDRC congratulates first cohort of Women in Climate Change Science Fellows.
Thomson, Dana R; Semakula, Muhammed; Hirschhorn, Lisa R; Murray, Megan; Ndahindwa, Vedaste; Manzi, Anatole; Mukabutera, Assumpta; Karema, Corine; Condo, Jeanine; Hedt-Gauthier, Bethany
To guide efficient investment of limited health resources in sub-Saharan Africa, local researchers need to be involved in, and guide, health system and policy research. While extensive survey and census data are available to health researchers and program officers in resource-limited countries, local involvement and leadership in research is limited due to inadequate experience, lack of dedicated research time and weak interagency connections, among other challenges. Many research-strengthening initiatives host prolonged fellowships out-of-country, yet their approaches have not been evaluated for effectiveness in involvement and development of local leadership in research. We developed, implemented and evaluated a multi-month, deliverable-driven, survey analysis training based in Rwanda to strengthen skills of five local research leaders, 15 statisticians, and a PhD candidate. Research leaders applied with a specific research question relevant to country challenges and committed to leading an analysis to publication. Statisticians with prerequisite statistical training and experience with a statistical software applied to participate in class-based trainings and complete an assigned analysis. Both statisticians and research leaders were provided ongoing in-country mentoring for analysis and manuscript writing. Participants reported a high level of skill, knowledge and collaborator development from class-based trainings and out-of-class mentorship that were sustained 1 year later. Five of six manuscripts were authored by multi-institution teams and submitted to international peer-reviewed scientific journals, and three-quarters of the participants mentored others in survey data analysis or conducted an additional survey analysis in the year following the training. Our model was effective in utilizing existing survey data and strengthening skills among full-time working professionals without disrupting ongoing work commitments and using few resources. Critical to our
Bates, Imelda; Boyd, Alan; Smith, Helen; Cole, Donald C
Despite increasing investment in health research capacity strengthening efforts in low and middle income countries, published evidence to guide the systematic design and monitoring of such interventions is very limited. Systematic processes are important to underpin capacity strengthening interventions because they provide stepwise guidance and allow for continual improvement. Our objective here was to use evidence to inform the design of a replicable but flexible process to guide health research capacity strengthening that could be customized for different contexts, and to provide a framework for planning, collecting information, making decisions, and improving performance. We used peer-reviewed and grey literature to develop a five-step pathway for designing and evaluating health research capacity strengthening programmes, tested in a variety of contexts in Africa. The five steps are: i) defining the goal of the capacity strengthening effort, ii) describing the optimal capacity needed to achieve the goal, iii) determining the existing capacity gaps compared to the optimum, iv) devising an action plan to fill the gaps and associated indicators of change, and v) adapting the plan and indicators as the programme matures. Our paper describes three contrasting case studies of organisational research capacity strengthening to illustrate how our five-step approach works in practice. Our five-step pathway starts with a clear goal and objectives, making explicit the capacity required to achieve the goal. Strategies for promoting sustainability are agreed with partners and incorporated from the outset. Our pathway for designing capacity strengthening programmes focuses not only on technical, managerial, and financial processes within organisations, but also on the individuals within organisations and the wider system within which organisations are coordinated, financed, and managed. Our five-step approach is flexible enough to generate and utilise ongoing learning. We have
Marín, J M
Strengthening the ability of health authorities to provide leadership and guidance, now and in the future, is an important issue within the context of health sector reform. It means, among other things, redefining the role of health in light of leading social and economic trends seen in the world at the beginning of the 21st century, increasing participation in health by nongovernmental entities, moving toward participatory democracy in many countries, and modifying concepts of what is considered "public" and "private." Within this scenario, it is necessary to redirect the role of the health sector toward coordinating the mobilization of national resources, on a multisectoral scale, in order to improve equity and social well-being and to channel the limited available resources to the most disadvantaged groups in society. The liberalization of the production and distribution of health-related goods and services, including insurance, challenges the exercise of authority in the area of health. Furthermore, the formation of regional economic blocks and the enormous weight wielded by multinational companies in the areas of pharmaceuticals and other medical supplies and technologies are forcing the health sector to seek ways of harmonizing health legislation and international negotiations. According to many experts, all of these demands surpass the ability of Latin American ministries of health to effectively respond, given most countries' current organizational, legal, and political conditions and technical infrastructure. The countries of the Americas must make it a priority to strengthen their health officials' ability to provide leadership and guidance in order to meet present and future challenges.
López-Cevallos, Daniel; Dierwechter, Tatiana; Volkmann, Kelly; Patton-López, Megan
This article describes the Latino Health Ambassadors Network (Voceros de Salud ) project created to support and mobilize Latino community leaders to address health inequalities in a rural Oregon county. Voceros de Salud is discussed as a model that other rural communities may implement towards strengthening Latino civic engagement for health.
The Innovating for Maternal and Child Health in Africa program aims to assist targeted developing ... The program is part of the Global Health Research Initiative, a collaboration between Foreign Affairs, Trade and Development Canada, the ...
Martineau, Tim; Raven, Joanna; Aikins, Moses; Alonso-Garbayo, Alvaro; Baine, Sebastian; Huss, Reinhard; Maluka, Stephen; Wyss, Kaspar
To achieve Universal Health Coverage (UHC), more health workers are needed; also critical is supporting optimal performance of existing staff. Integrated human resource management (HRM) strategies, complemented by other health systems strategies, are needed to improve health workforce performance, which is possible at district level in decentralised contexts. To strengthen the capacity of district management teams to develop and implement workplans containing integrated strategies for workforce performance improvement, we introduced an action-research-based management strengthening intervention (MSI). This consisted of two workshops, follow-up by facilitators and meetings between participating districts. Although often used in the health sector, there is little evaluation of this approach in middle-income and low-income country contexts. The MSI was tested in three districts in Ghana, Tanzania and Uganda. This paper reports on the appropriateness of the MSI to the contexts and its effects. Documentary evidence (workshop reports, workplans, diaries, follow-up visit reports) was collected throughout the implementation of the MSI in each district and interviews (50) and focus-group discussions (6) were conducted with managers at the end of the MSI. The findings were analysed using Kirkpatrick's evaluation framework to identify effects at different levels. The MSI was appropriate to the needs and work patterns of District Health Management Teams (DHMTs) in all contexts. DHMT members improved management competencies for problem analysis, prioritisation and integrated HRM and health systems strategy development. They learnt how to refine plans as more information became available and the importance of monitoring implementation. The MSI produced changes in team behaviours and confidence. There were positive results regarding workforce performance or service delivery; these would increase with repetition of the MSI. The MSI is appropriate to the contexts where tested and
Milstein, Ricarda; Blankart, Carl Rudolf
The lack of integration of health-care sectors and specialist groups is widely accepted as a necessity to effectively address the most urgent challenges in modern health care systems. Germany follows a more decentralized approach that allows for many degrees of freedom. With its latest bill, the German government has introduced several measures to explicitly foster the integration of health-care services. This article presents the historic development of integrated care services and offers insights into the construction of integrated care programs in the German health-care system. The measures of integrated care within the Health Care Strengthening Act are presented and discussed in detail from the perspective of the provider, the payer, and the political arena. In addition, the effects of the new act are assessed using scenario technique based on an analysis of the effects of previously implemented health policy reforms. Germany now has a flourishing integrated care scene with many integrated care programs being able to contain costs and improve quality. Although it will be still a long journey for Germany to reach the coordination of care standards set by leading countries such as the United Kingdom, New Zealand or Switzerland, international health policy makers may deliberately and selectively adopt elements of the German approach such as the extensive freedom of contract, the strong patient-focus by allowing for very need-driven and regional solutions, or the substantial start-up funding allowing for more unproven and progressive endeavors to further improve their own health systems. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.
McPhail-Bell, Karen; Matthews, Veronica; Bainbridge, Roxanne; Redman-MacLaren, Michelle Louise; Askew, Deborah; Ramanathan, Shanthi; Bailie, Jodie; Bailie, Ross; Matthews, Veronica
In Australia, Indigenous people experience poor access to health care and the highest rates of morbidity and mortality of any population group. Despite modest improvements in recent years, concerns remains that Indigenous people have been over-researched without corresponding health improvements. Embedding Indigenous leadership, participation, and priorities in health research is an essential strategy for meaningful change for Indigenous people. To centralize Indigenous perspectives in research processes, a transformative shift away from traditional approaches that have benefited researchers and non-Indigenous agendas is required. This shift must involve concomitant strengthening of the research capacity of Indigenous and non-Indigenous researchers and research translators—all must teach and all must learn. However, there is limited evidence about how to strengthen systems and stakeholder capacity to participate in and lead continuous quality improvement (CQI) research in Indigenous primary health care, to the benefit of Indigenous people. This paper describes the collaborative development of, and principles underpinning, a research capacity strengthening (RCS) model in a national Indigenous primary health care CQI research network. The development process identified the need to address power imbalances, cultural contexts, relationships, systems requirements and existing knowledge, skills, and experience of all parties. Taking a strengths-based perspective, we harnessed existing knowledge, skills and experiences; hence our emphasis on capacity “strengthening”. New insights are provided into the complex processes of RCS within the context of CQI in Indigenous primary health care. PMID:29761095
... effluent turbidity limits must my system meet? 141.551 Section 141.551 Protection of Environment... Effluent Requirements § 141.551 What strengthened combined filter effluent turbidity limits must my system meet? Your system must meet two strengthened combined filter effluent turbidity limits. (a) The first...
The present status of the strengthened safeguards system includes the origins, aims, features, issues and future prospects. The areas of emphasis concerning the strengthened safeguards system are: access to information (environmental sampling and improved information analysis), access to sites, rational use of resources (cost analysis of present safeguards, increased cooperation with state systems, cost savings in traditional safeguards activities)
), as ... Introduction. The New Partnership for Africa's Development. (NEPAD) is ... are: better harmonization of the health policies of member ... cultural development, and the integration of .... promote regional public goods and combat regional.
Eriksen, Kristin Ådnøy; Dahl, Hellen; Karlsson, Bengt; Arman, Maria
Practical wisdom, understood as knowing how to be or act in any present situation with clients, is believed to be an essential part of the knowledge needed to be a professional mental health worker. Exploring processes of adapting, extending knowledge and refining tacit knowledge grounded in mental health workers' experiences with being in practice may bring awareness of how mental health workers reflect, learn and practice professional 'artistry'. The aim of the article was to explore mental health workers' processes of development and learning as they appeared in focus groups intended to develop practical wisdom. The main research question was 'How might the processes of development and learning contribute to developing practical wisdom in the individual as well as in the practice culture?' The design was multi-stage focus groups, and the same participants met four times. A phenomenological hermeneutical method for researching lived experience guided the analysis. Eight experienced mental health workers representing four Norwegian municipalities participated. The research context was community-based mental health services. The study was reported to Norwegian Social Data Services, and procedures for informed consent were followed. Two examples of processes of re-evaluation of experience (Association, Integration, Validation, Appropriation and Outcomes and action) were explored. The health workers had developed knowledge in previous encounters with clients. In sharing practice experiences, this knowledge was expressed and developed, and also tested and validated against the aims of practice. Discussions led to adapted and extended knowledge, and as tacit knowledge was expressed it could be used actively. Learning to reflect, being ready to be provoked and learning to endure indecisiveness may be foundational in developing practical wisdom. Openness is demanding, and changing habits of mind is difficult. Reflection on, and confrontation with, set practices are
The Nutrition Communication Project has overseen production of a training video interpersonal communication for health workers involved in growth monitoring and promotion (GMP) programs in Latin America entitled Comuniquemonos, Ya] Producers used the following questions as their guidelines: Who is the audience?, Why is the training needed?, and What are the objectives and advantages of using video? Communication specialists, anthropologists, educators, and nutritionists worked together to write the script. Then video camera specialists taped the video in Bolivia and Guatemala. A facilitator's guide complete with an outline of an entire workshop comes with the video. The guide encourages trainees to participate in various situations. Trainees are able to compare their interpersonal skills with those of the health workers on the video. Further they can determine cause and effect. The video has 2 scenes to demonstrate poor and good communication skills using the same health worker in both situations. Other scenes highlight 6 communication skills: developing a warm environment, asking questions, sharing results, listening, observing, and doing demonstration. All types of health workers ranging from physicians to community health workers as well as health workers from various countries (Guatemala, Honduras, Bolivia, and Ecuador) approve of the video. Some trainers have used the video without using the guide and comment that it began a debate on communication 's role in GMP efforts.
Rule, John; Ngo, Duc Anh; Oanh, Tran Thi Mai; Asante, Augustine; Doyle, Jennifer; Roberts, Graham; Taylor, Richard
Since the publication of the World Health Report 2008, there has been renewed interest in the potential of primary health care (PHC) to deliver global health policy agendas. The WHO Western Pacific Regional Strategy 2010 states that health systems in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) can be strengthened using PHC values as core principles. This review article explores the development of an evidence-based approach for assessing the effectiveness of PHC programs and interventions in LMICs. A realist review method was used to investigate whether there is any internationally consistent approach to evaluating PHC. Studies from LMICs using an explicit methodology or framework for measuring PHC effectiveness were collated. Databases of published articles were searched, and a review of gray literature was undertaken to identify relevant reports. The review found no consistent approach for assessing the effectiveness of PHC interventions in LMICs. An innovative approach used in China, which developed a set of core community health facility indicators based on stakeholder input, does show some potential for use in other LMIC contexts. © 2013 APJPH.
The Innovating for Maternal and Child Health in Africa program aims to assist targeted developing countries in sub-Saharan Africa improve maternal, newborn, and ... Le CRDI investit dans des solutions locales aux problèmes auxquels l'Inde est confrontée, comme le stress thermique, la gestion de l'eau et les migrations ...
West Africa has many of the lowest development indicators in the world - 10 of the 15 member states of the West African Community number among the world's 35 low-income countries. The World Health Organization reports that 14 of the member states have a high maternal mortality ratio, defined as 300 or more maternal ...
The Regional Economic Communities (RECs) are the pillars of the African Union (AU), and have been recognized by the AU as the key vehicles for economic integration and cooperation in Africa. The 2003 Session of the AU Conference of African Ministers of. Health (CAMH) considered and adopted, inter alia, ...
Heath, Melissa Allen; Nickerson, Amanda B.; Annandale, Neil; Kemple, Ana; Dean, Brenda
During and following natural or man-made disasters, relief efforts have a long history of initially focusing on basic survival needs, then restoring community stability. Disaster mental health is a relatively new aspect of relief efforts, particularly in regard to children's needs. After reviewing objectives of major relief organizations and…
Lekhan, Valery; Rudiy, Volodymyr; Shevchenko, Maryna; Nitzan Kaluski, Dorit; Richardson, Erica
This analysis of the Ukrainian health system reviews recent developments in organization and governance, health financing, health care provision, health reforms and health system performance. Since the country gained independence from the Soviet Union in 1991, successive governments have sought to overcome funding shortfalls and modernize the health care system to meet the needs of the population's health. However, no fundamental reform of the system has yet been implemented and consequently it has preserved the main features characteristic of the Semashko model; there is a particularly high proportion of total health expenditure paid out of pocket (42.3 % in 2012), and incentives within the system do not focus on quality or outcomes. The most recent health reform programme began in 2010 and sought to strengthen primary and emergency care, rationalize hospitals and change the model of health care financing from one based on inputs to one based on outputs. Fundamental issues that hampered reform efforts in the past re-emerged, but conflict and political instability have proved the greatest barriers to reform implementation and the programme was abandoned in 2014. More recently, the focus has been on more pressing humanitarian concerns arising from the conflict in the east of Ukraine. It is hoped that greater political, social and economic stability in the future will provide a better environment for the introduction of deep reforms to address shortcomings in the Ukrainian health system. World Health Organization 2015 (acting as the host organization for, and secretariat of, the European Observatory on Health Systems and Policies).
Luís Felipe Ferro
Full Text Available The Social Control guidelines for public policy obtained legislative framework with the drafting of the 1988 Brazilian Constitution. Although expected to provide control, supervision, and joint planning of public actions, Social Control still shows weaknesses in its pragmatic application. In the Brazilian context, the health sector presents similar difficulties in spite of its pioneering role in the construction of a legislative body to support the practice of social control. Aiming to confront this issue, a classroom course it was developed to provide popular education for the exercise of Social Control of public health actions, with focus on mental health. This course started in 2010 in the municipality of Curitiba, and it is currently in its tenth class. This article seeks to report this experience through the presentation of the course structure, content, and strategies applied during its maturation process. It is intended to provide a critical and reflective field for the composition of actions related to the Social Control theme that enable the strengthening of vulnerable populations and the collective construction of the “Sistema Único de Saúde” (Brazilian National Health System.
Alemnji, G A; Zeh, C; Yao, K; Fonjungo, P N
Efforts to combat the HIV/AIDS pandemic have underscored the fragile and neglected nature of some national health laboratories in Africa. In response, national and international partners and various governments have worked collaboratively over the last several years to build sustainable laboratory capacities within the continent. Key accomplishments reflecting this successful partnership include the establishment of the African-based World Health Organization Regional Office for Africa (WHO-AFRO) Stepwise Laboratory Quality Improvement Process Towards Accreditation (SLIPTA); development of the Strengthening Laboratory Management Toward Accreditation (SLMTA) training programme; and launching of a Pan African-based institution, the African Society for Laboratory Medicine (ASLM). These platforms continue to serve as the foundations for national health laboratory infrastructure enhancement, capacity development and overall quality system improvement. Further targeted interventions should encourage countries to aim at integrated tiered referral networks, promote quality system improvement and accreditation, develop laboratory policies and strategic plans, enhance training and laboratory workforce development and a retention strategy, create career paths for laboratory professionals and establish public-private partnerships. Maintaining the gains and ensuring sustainability will require concerted action by all stakeholders with strong leadership and funding from African governments and from the African Union. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the U.S.A.
Qian, Yi; Yan, Fei; Wang, Wei; Clancy, Shayna; Akkhavong, Kongsap; Vonglokham, Manithong; Outhensackda, Somphou; Østbye, Truls
The Lao People's Democratic Republic is facing a critical shortage and maldistribution of health workers. Strengthening of the health workforce has been adopted as one of the five priorities of the National Health Sector Strategy (2013-2025). This study aims to identify, explore, and better understand the key challenges for strengthening the Laotian health workforce. This study applied exploratory and descriptive qualitative methods and adapted a working life-span framework. Twenty-three key stakeholders with particular insights into the current situation of the health workforce were purposively recruited for in-depth interviews. Important policy documents were also collected from key informants during the interviews. Thematic analysis was employed for the textual data using MAXQDA 10. The overarching problem is that there is a perceived severe shortage of skilled health workers (doctors, nurses, and midwives) and lab technicians, especially in primary health facilities and rural areas. Key informants also identified five problems: insufficient production of health workers both in quantity and quality, a limited national budget to recruit enough health staff and provide sufficient and equitable salaries and incentives, limited management capacity, poor recruitment for work in rural areas, and lack of well-designed continuing education programs for professional development. These problems are interrelated, both in how the issues arise and in the effect they have on one another. To improve the distribution of health workers in rural areas, strategies for increasing production and strengthening retention should be well integrated for better effectiveness. It is also essential to take the Laotian-specific context into consideration during intervention development and implementation. Furthermore, the government should acknowledge the inadequate health management capacity and invest to improve human resource management capacity at all levels. Finally, assessment of
Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Capacity building has been employed in international health and development sectors to describe the process of ‘experts’ from more resourced countries training people in less resourced countries. Hence the concept has an implicit power imbalance based on ‘expert’ knowledge. In 2011, a health research strengthening workshop was undertaken at Atoifi Adventist Hospital, Solomon Islands to further strengthen research skills of the Hospital and College of Nursing staff and East Kwaio community leaders through partnering in practical research projects. The workshop was based on participatory research frameworks underpinned by decolonising methodologies, which sought to challenge historical power imbalances and inequities. Our research question was, “Is research capacity strengthening a two-way process?” Methods In this qualitative study, five Solomon Islanders and five Australians each responded to four open-ended questions about their experience of the research capacity strengthening workshop and activities: five chose face to face interview, five chose to provide written responses. Written responses and interview transcripts were inductively analysed in NVivo 9. Results Six major themes emerged. These were: Respectful relationships; Increased knowledge and experience with research process; Participation at all stages in the research process; Contribution to public health action; Support and sustain research opportunities; and Managing challenges of capacity strengthening. All researchers identified benefits for themselves, their institution and/or community, regardless of their role or country of origin, indicating that the capacity strengthening had been a two-way process. Conclusions The flexible and responsive process we used to strengthen research capacity was identified as mutually beneficial. Using community-based participatory frameworks underpinned by decolonising methodologies is assisting to redress
Olmsted, Stuart S; Moore, Melinda; Meili, Robin C; Duber, Herbert C; Wasserman, Jeffrey; Sama, Preethi; Mundell, Ben; Hilborne, Lee H
Considerable resources have been invested in recent years to improve laboratory systems in resource-limited settings. We reviewed published reports, interviewed major donor organizations, and conducted case studies of laboratory systems in 3 countries to assess how countries and donors have worked together to improve laboratory services. While infrastructure and the provision of services have seen improvement, important opportunities remain for further advancement. Implementation of national laboratory plans is inconsistent, human resources are limited, and quality laboratory services rarely extend to lower tier laboratories (eg, health clinics, district hospitals). Coordination within, between, and among governments and donor organizations is also frequently problematic. Laboratory standardization and quality control are improving but remain challenging, making accreditation a difficult goal. Host country governments and their external funding partners should coordinate their efforts effectively around a host country's own national laboratory plan to advance sustainable capacity development throughout a country's laboratory system.
Lee, Chiachi Bonnie; Chen, Michael S; Chien, Sou-Hsin; Pelikan, Jürgen M; Wang, Ying Wei; Chu, Cordia Ming-Yeuk
Organizational capacity building for health promotion (HP) is beneficial to the effective implementation of HP in organizational settings. The World Health Organization (WHO) Health Promoting Hospitals' (HPHs) initiative encourages hospitals to promote the health of their stakeholders by developing organizational capacity. This study analyzes an application case of one hospital of the HPH initiative in Taiwan, characterizes actions aiming at building organizational support to strengthen health gains and identifies facilitators of and barriers to the implementation of the HP in this hospital. Case study methodology was used with a triangulation of various sources; thematic analysis was used to analyze qualitative information. This study found a positive impact of the HPH initiative on the case hospital, such as more support from leadership, a fine-tuned HP mission and strategy, cultivated pro-HP habits of physical activities, a supportive intramural structure, an HP-inclusive system, improved management practices and enhanced staff participation. Transformational and transactional enablers are of equal importance in implementing HPH. However, it was also found that the case hospital encountered more transactional barriers than transformational ones. This hospital was hindered by insufficient support from external environments, leadership with limited autonomy and authority, a preference for ideals over professionalism, insufficient participation by physicians, a lack of manpower and time, a merit system with limited stimulating effect, ineffective management practices in weak central project management, a lack of integration, insufficient communication and an inability to inculcate the staff on the importance of HP, and inadequate staff participation. Several implications for other hospitals are suggested. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Minja, Happiness; Nsanzabana, Christian; Maure, Christine; Hoffmann, Axel; Rumisha, Susan; Ogundahunsi, Olumide; Zicker, Fabio; Tanner, Marcel; Launois, Pascal
Measuring the impact of capacity strengthening support is a priority for the international development community. Several frameworks exist for monitoring and evaluating funding results and modalities. Based on its long history of support, we report on the impact of individual and institutional capacity strengthening programmes conducted by the UNICEF/UNDP/World Bank/WHO Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR) and on the factors that influenced the outcome of its Research Capacity Strengthening (RCS) activities. A mix of qualitative and quantitative methods (questionnaires and in-depth interviews) was applied to a selected group of 128 individual and 20 institutional capacity development grant recipients that completed their training/projects between 2000 and 2008. A semi-structured interview was also conducted on site with scientists from four institutions. Most of the grantees, both individual and institutional, reported beneficial results from the grant. However, glaring inequities stemming from gender imbalances and a language bias towards English were identified. The study showed that skills improvement through training contributed to better formulation of research proposals, but not necessarily to improved project implementation or communication of results. Appreciation of the institutional grants' impact varied among recipient countries. The least developed countries saw the programmes as essential for supporting basic infrastructure and activities. Advanced developing countries perceived the research grants as complementary to available resources, and particularly suitable for junior researchers who were not yet able to compete for major international grants. The study highlights the need for a more equitable process to improve the effectiveness of health research capacity strengthening activities. Support should be tailored to the existing research capacity in disease endemic countries and should focus on strengthening
capacity in disease endemic countries and should focus on strengthening national health research systems, particularly in the least developing countries. The engagement of stakeholders at country level would facilitate the design of more specific and comprehensive strategies based on local needs.
Full Text Available Externally bonded composites reinforced with high-strength fibers are increasingly popular in construction, especially in structures’ strengthening, where the best possible mechanical properties are required. At the same time the ability to autodetect threats is one of the most desirable features of contemporary structures. The authors of the paper have developed an intelligent fabric, wherein the carbon fibers play the role of not only tensile reinforcement but also strain sensor. The idea is based on the construction of the strain gauge, where the thread of carbon fibers arranged in zig-zag pattern works as electrical conductor and is insulated by parallel thread of glass or acrylic fibers. Preliminary laboratory tests were designed to create effective measurement techniques and assess the effectiveness of the strengthening of selected building structures, as reinforced concrete and timber beams. Presented in the paper, selected results of these studies are very promising, although there were some noted problems to be considered in next steps. The main problem here is the control of the cross section of the fibers tow, affecting the total resistance of the fabric. One of the main deficiencies of the proposed solution is also sensitivity to moisture.
Ndihokubwayo Jean B
Full Text Available Abstract Background The recent emergence of a novel strain of influenza virus with pandemic potential underscores the need for quality surveillance and laboratory services to contribute to the timely detection and confirmation of public health threats. To provide a framework for strengthening disease surveillance and response capacities in African countries, the World Health Organization Regional Headquarters for Africa (AFRO developed Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response (IDSR aimed at improving national surveillance and laboratory systems. IDSR emphasizes the linkage of information provided by public health laboratories to the selection of relevant, appropriate and effective public health responses to disease outbreaks. Methods We reviewed the development of Rwanda's National Reference Laboratory (NRL to understand essential structures involved in creating a national public health laboratory network. We reviewed documents describing the NRL's organization and record of test results, conducted site visits, and interviewed health staff in the Ministry of Health and in partner agencies. Findings were developed by organizing thematic categories and grouping examples within them. We purposefully sought to identify success factors as well as challenges inherent in developing a national public health laboratory system. Results Among the identified success factors were: a structured governing framework for public health surveillance; political commitment to promote leadership for stronger laboratory capacities in Rwanda; defined roles and responsibilities for each level; coordinated approaches between technical and funding partners; collaboration with external laboratories; and use of performance results in advocacy with national stakeholders. Major challenges involved general infrastructure, human resources, and budgetary constraints. Conclusions Rwanda's experience with collaborative partnerships contributed to creation of a functional
Valaitis, Ruta K; O'Mara, Linda; Wong, Sabrina T; MacDonald, Marjorie; Murray, Nancy; Martin-Misener, Ruth; Meagher-Stewart, Donna
AimThe aim of this paper is to examine Canadian key informants' perceptions of intrapersonal (within an individual) and interpersonal (among individuals) factors that influence successful primary care and public health collaboration. Primary health care systems can be strengthened by building stronger collaborations between primary care and public health. Although there is literature that explores interpersonal factors that can influence successful inter-organizational collaborations, a few of them have specifically explored primary care and public health collaboration. Furthermore, no papers were found that considered factors at the intrapersonal level. This paper aims to explore these gaps in a Canadian context. This interpretative descriptive study involved key informants (service providers, managers, directors, and policy makers) who participated in one h telephone interviews to explore their perceptions of influences on successful primary care and public health collaboration. Transcripts were analyzed using NVivo 9.FindingsA total of 74 participants [from the provinces of British Columbia (n=20); Ontario (n=19); Nova Scotia (n=21), and representatives from other provinces or national organizations (n=14)] participated. Five interpersonal factors were found that influenced public health and primary care collaborations including: (1) trusting and inclusive relationships; (2) shared values, beliefs and attitudes; (3) role clarity; (4) effective communication; and (5) decision processes. There were two influencing factors found at the intrapersonal level: (1) personal qualities, skills and knowledge; and (2) personal values, beliefs, and attitudes. A few differences were found across the three core provinces involved. There were several complex interactions identified among all inter and intra personal influencing factors: One key factor - effective communication - interacted with all of them. Results support and extend our understanding of what influences
Tetui, Moses; Coe, Anna-Britt; Hurtig, Anna-Karin; Bennett, Sara; Kiwanuka, Suzanne N; George, Asha; Kiracho, Elizabeth Ekirapa
Many approaches to improving health managers' capacity in poor countries, particularly those pursued by external agencies, employ non-participatory approaches and often seek to circumvent (rather than strengthen) weak public management structures. This limits opportunities for strengthening local health managers' capacity, improving resource utilisation and enhancing service delivery. This study explored the contribution of a participatory action research approach to strengthening health managers' capacity in Eastern Uganda. This was a qualitative study that used open-ended key informant interviews, combined with review of meeting minutes and observations to collect data. Both inductive and deductive thematic analysis was undertaken. The Competing Values Framework of organisational management functions guided the deductive process of analysis and the interpretation of the findings. The framework builds on four earlier models of management and regards them as complementary rather than conflicting, and identifies four managers' capacities (collaborate, create, compete and control) by categorising them along two axes, one contrasting flexibility versus control and the other internal versus external organisational focus. The findings indicate that the participatory action research approach enhanced health managers' capacity to collaborate with others, be creative, attain goals and review progress. The enablers included expanded interaction spaces, encouragement of flexibility, empowerment of local managers, and the promotion of reflection and accountability. Tension and conflict across different management functions was apparent; for example, while there was a need to collaborate, maintaining control over processes was also needed. These tensions meant that managers needed to learn to simultaneously draw upon and use different capacities as reflected by the Competing Values Framework in order to maximise their effectiveness. Improved health manager capacity is
Tambo, Ernest; Madjou, Ghislaine; Khayeka-Wandabwa, Christopher; Tekwu, Emmanuel N; Olalubi, Oluwasogo A; Midzi, Nicolas; Bengyella, Louis; Adedeji, Ahmed A; Ngogang, Jeanne Y
Tackling emerging epidemics and infectious diseases burden in Africa requires increasing unrestricted open access and free use or reuse of regional and global policies reforms as well as timely communication capabilities and strategies. Promoting, scaling up data and information sharing between African researchers and international partners are of vital importance in accelerating open access at no cost. Free Open Access (FOA) health data and information acceptability, uptake tactics and sustainable mechanisms are urgently needed. These are critical in establishing real time and effective knowledge or evidence-based translation, proven and validated approaches, strategies and tools to strengthen and revamp health systems. As such, early and timely access to needed emerging public health information is meant to be instrumental and valuable for policy-makers, implementers, care providers, researchers, health-related institutions and stakeholders including populations when guiding health financing, and planning contextual programs.
Michelo, Charles; Zulu, Joseph Mumba; Simuyemba, Moses; Andrews, Benjamin; Katubulushi, Max; Chi, Benjamin; Njelesani, Evariste; Vwalika, Bellington; Bowa, Kasonde; Maimbolwa, Margaret; Chipeta, James; Goma, Fastone; Nzala, Selestine; Banda, Sekelani; Mudenda, John; Ahmed, Yusuf; Hachambwa, Lotti; Wilson, Craig; Vermund, Sten; Mulla, Yakub
Zambia is facing a chronic shortage of health care workers. The paper aimed at understanding how the Medical Education Partnership Initiative (MEPI) program facilitated strengthening and expanding of the national capacity and quality of medical education as well as processes for retaining faculty in Zambia. Data generated through documentary review, key informant interviews and observations were analyzed using a thematic approach. The MEPI program triggered the development of new postgraduate programs thereby increasing student enrollment. This was achieved by leveraging of existing and new partnerships with other universities and differentiating the old Master in Public Health into specialized curriculum. Furthermore, the MEPI program improved the capacity and quality of training by facilitating installation and integration of new technology such as the eGranary digital library, E-learning methods and clinical skills laboratory into the Schools. This technology enabled easy access to relevant data or information, quicker turn around of experiments and enhanced data recording, display and analysis features for experiments. The program also facilitated transforming of the academic environment into a more conducive work place through strengthening the Staff Development program and support towards research activities. These activities stimulated work motivation and interest in research by faculty. Meanwhile, these processes were inhibited by the inability to upload all courses on to Moodle as well as inadequate operating procedures and feedback mechanisms for the Moodle. Expansion and improvement in training processes for health care workers requires targeted investment within medical institutions and strengthening local and international partnerships.
Mpofu, Mulamuli; Semo, Bazghina-Werq; Grignon, Jessica; Lebelonyane, Refeletswe; Ludick, Steven; Matshediso, Ellah; Sento, Baraedi; Ledikwe, Jenny H
The demand for quality data and the interest in health information systems has increased due to the need for country-level progress reporting towards attainment of the United Nations Millennium Development Goals and global health initiatives. To improve monitoring and evaluation (M&E) of health programs in Botswana, 51 recent university graduates with no experience in M&E were recruited and provided with on-the-job training and mentoring to develop a new cadre of health worker: the district M&E officer. Three years after establishment of the cadre, an assessment was conducted to document achievements and lessons learnt. This qualitative assessment included in-depth interviews at the national level (n = 12) with officers from government institutions, donor agencies, and technical organizations; and six focus group discussions separately with district M&E officers, district managers, and program officers coordinating different district health programs. Reported achievements of the cadre included improved health worker capacity to monitor and evaluate programs within the districts; improved data quality, management, and reporting; increased use of health data for disease surveillance, operational research, and planning purposes; and increased availability of time for nurses and other health workers to concentrate on core clinical duties. Lessons learnt from the assessment included: the importance of clarifying roles for newly established cadres, aligning resources and equipment to expectations, importance of stakeholder collaboration in implementation of sustainable programs, and ensuring retention of new cadres. The development of a dedicated M&E cadre at the district level contributed positively to health information systems in Botswana by helping build M&E capacity and improving data quality, management, and data use. This assessment has shown that such cadres can be developed sustainably if the initiative is country-led, focusing on recruitment and capacity
Salvado, Rita; Lopes, Catarina; Szojda, Leszek; Araújo, Pedro; Gorski, Marcin; Velez, Fernando José; Castro-Gomes, João; Krzywon, Rafal
This paper presents a study of the electrical and mechanical behavior of several continuous carbon fibers epoxy composites for both strengthening and monitoring of structures. In these composites, the arrangement of fibers was deliberately diversified to test and understand the ability of the composites for self-sensing low strains. Composites with different arrangements of fibers and textile weaves, mainly unidirectional continuous carbon reinforced composites, were tested at the dynamometer. A two-probe method was considered to measure the relative electrical resistance of these composites during loading. The measured relative electrical resistance includes volume and contact electrical resistances. For all tested specimens, it increases with an increase in tensile strain, at low strain values. This is explained by the improved alignment of fibers and resulting reduction of the number of possible contacts between fibers during loading, increasing as a consequence the contact electrical resistance of the composite. Laboratory tests on strengthening of structural elements were also performed, making hand-made composites by the "wet process", which is commonly used in civil engineering for the strengthening of all types of structures in-situ. Results show that the woven epoxy composite, used for strengthening of concrete elements is also able to sense low deformations, below 1%. Moreover, results clearly show that this textile sensor also improves the mechanical work of the strengthened structural elements, increasing their bearing capacity. Finally, the set of obtained results supports the concept of a textile fabric capable of both structural upgrade and self-monitoring of structures, especially large structures of difficult access and needing constant, sometimes very expensive, health monitoring.
Full Text Available This paper presents a study of the electrical and mechanical behavior of several continuous carbon fibers epoxy composites for both strengthening and monitoring of structures. In these composites, the arrangement of fibers was deliberately diversified to test and understand the ability of the composites for self-sensing low strains. Composites with different arrangements of fibers and textile weaves, mainly unidirectional continuous carbon reinforced composites, were tested at the dynamometer. A two-probe method was considered to measure the relative electrical resistance of these composites during loading. The measured relative electrical resistance includes volume and contact electrical resistances. For all tested specimens, it increases with an increase in tensile strain, at low strain values. This is explained by the improved alignment of fibers and resulting reduction of the number of possible contacts between fibers during loading, increasing as a consequence the contact electrical resistance of the composite. Laboratory tests on strengthening of structural elements were also performed, making hand-made composites by the “wet process”, which is commonly used in civil engineering for the strengthening of all types of structures in-situ. Results show that the woven epoxy composite, used for strengthening of concrete elements is also able to sense low deformations, below 1%. Moreover, results clearly show that this textile sensor also improves the mechanical work of the strengthened structural elements, increasing their bearing capacity. Finally, the set of obtained results supports the concept of a textile fabric capable of both structural upgrade and self-monitoring of structures, especially large structures of difficult access and needing constant, sometimes very expensive, health monitoring.
Oni, Gbolahan; Fatusi, Adesegun; Tsui, Amy; Enquselassie, Fikre; Ojengbede, Oladosu; Agbenyega, Tsiri; Ojofeitimi, Ebenezer; Taulo, Frank; Quakyi, Isabella
Poor reproductive health constitutes one of the leading public health problems in the world, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). We report here an academic partnership that commenced in 2003 between a US institution and six universities in SSA. The partnership addresses the human resources development challenge in Africa by strengthening public health education and research capacity to improve population and reproductive health (PRH) outcomes in low-resource settings. The partnership's core activities focused on increasing access to quality education, strengthening health research capacity and translating scholarship and science into policy and practices. Partnership programmes focused on the educational dimension of the human resources equation provide students with improved learning facilities and enhanced work environments and also provide faculty with opportunities for professional development and an enhanced capacity for curriculum delivery. By 2007, 48 faculty members from the six universities in SSA attended PRH courses at Johns Hopkins University, 93 PRH courses were offered across the six universities, 625 of their master's students elected PRH concentrations and 158 had graduated. With the graduation of these and future student cohorts, the universities in SSA will systematically be expanding the number of public health practitioners and strengthening programme effectiveness to resolve reproductive health needs. Some challenges facing the partnership are described in this article.
Full Text Available A large share of reinforced concrete (RC framed buildings is provided with wide beams being a type of beam allowing greater freedom in the architectural arrangement of interiors, beyond further advantage due to fewer formworks needed during the construction. Nevertheless, little attention has been devoted to the seismic vulnerability of this kind of framed RC buildings as well as to the study of strengthening systems purposely developed for wide beams and wide beam-column connections. Under these premises, this paper proposes simple strengthening solutions made by Fibre Reinforced Polymers (FRP systems able to effectively improve seismic capacity through feasible arrangement suitable in case a wide beam is present. On the basis of wide beam-column joints previously tested without strengthening system, detailed nonlinear finite element models were calibrated. Then, an FRP strengthening intervention based on a brand new arrangement was modeled in order to perform additional simulations under seismic actions. This way, the effectiveness of the strengthening intervention was assessed finding out that significant strength and ductility increments were achieved with a relatively simple and cheap strengthening arrangement. Additional research would be desirable in the form of experimental tests on the simulated wide beam-column joints.
De Pietro, Carlo; Camenzind, Paul; Sturny, Isabelle; Crivelli, Luca; Edwards-Garavoglia, Suzanne; Spranger, Anne; Wittenbecher, Friedrich; Quentin, Wilm
This analysis of the Swiss health system reviews recent developments in organization and governance, health financing, health care provision, health reforms and health system performance. The Swiss health system is highly complex, combining aspects of managed competition and corporatism (the integration of interest groups in the policy process) in a decentralized regulatory framework shaped by the influences of direct democracy. The health system performs very well with regard to a broad range of indicators. Life expectancy in Switzerland (82.8 years) is the highest in Europe after Iceland, and healthy life expectancy is several years above the European Union (EU) average. Coverage is ensured through mandatory health insurance (MHI), with subsidies for people on low incomes. The system offers a high degree of choice and direct access to all levels of care with virtually no waiting times, though managed care type insurance plans that include gatekeeping restrictions are becoming increasingly important. Public satisfaction with the system is high and quality is generally viewed to be good or very good. Reforms since the year 2000 have improved the MHI system, changed the financing of hospitals, strengthened regulations in the area of pharmaceuticals and the control of epidemics, and harmonized regulation of human resources across the country. In addition, there has been a slow (and not always linear) process towards more centralization of national health policy-making. Nevertheless, a number of challenges remain. The costs of the health care system are well above the EU average, in particular in absolute terms but also as a percentage of gross domestic product (GDP) (11.5%). MHI premiums have increased more quickly than incomes since 2003. By European standards, the share of out-of-pocket payments is exceptionally high at 26% of total health expenditure (compared to the EU average of 16%). Low and middle-income households contribute a greater share of their income to
Super, S; Wagemakers, M A E; Picavet, H S J; Verkooijen, K T; Koelen, M A
Sense of coherence (SOC) reflects a coping capacity of people to deal with everyday life stressors and consists of three elements: comprehensibility, manageability and meaningfulness. SOC is often considered to be a stable entity that is developed in young adulthood and stabilizes around the age of 30. Recent studies have questioned this stability of SOC and some studies report on interventions that have been successful in strengthening SOC in adult populations. Currently, however, there is no clear understanding of the mechanisms underlying SOC. As a consequence, it is a challenge to determine what is needed in health promotion activities to strengthen SOC. This article aims to explore the mechanisms underlying SOC as these insights may underpin future health promotion efforts. An exploration of the salutogenic model suggests two important mechanisms: the behavioural and the perceptual. The behavioural mechanism highlights the possibility to empower people to use their resources in stressful situations. The perceptual mechanism suggests that, in order for people to deal with life stressors, it is essential that they are able to reflect on their understanding of the stressful situation and the resources that are available. Based on these mechanisms, we suggest that both empowerment and reflection processes, which are interdependent, may be relevant for health promotion activities that aim to strengthen SOC. The successful application of resources to deal with stressors is not only likely to have a positive influence on health, but also creates consistent and meaningful life experiences that can positively reinforce SOC levels. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Flentge, Felix; Eggleston, James; Garcia Mateos, Marc
A common approach to address information security has been implemented in ESA's Mission Operations (MOI) Infrastructure during the last years. This paper reports on the specific challenges to the Data Systems domain within the MOI and how security can be properly managed with an Information Security Management System (ISMS) according to ISO 27001. Results of an initial security risk assessment are reported and the different types of security controls that are being implemented in order to reduce the risks are briefly described.
mortality measures for health policy and monitoring in Indonesia. Strong demand for data from different stakeholders can stimulate further strengthening of mortality registration systems.
... and the development of MSMEs and electronic commerce. Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) are key to modernizing public administration systems in general and public procurement in particular. In 2002, national government procurement bodies established the Inter-American Network for Government ...
Vicens, H.R.; Maceiras, E.; Dominguez, C.A.
The purpose of the paper is to explain how the system of a regional safeguard has been operating and developing in the framework of the Brazilian-Argentine Agency of Accounting and control of nuclear Materials (ABACC), and how the international recommendations of radiological protection must be taken into account in the safeguards implementation and its impact in the international context.
Alessandro De Vita
Full Text Available This paper presents the results of an experimental campaign performed at the Laboratory of Materials and Structural Testing of the University of Salerno (Italy in order to investigate the seismic performance of reinforced concrete (RC beam-column joints strengthened with steel reinforced polymer (SRP systems. With the aim to represent typical façade frames’ beam-column subassemblies found in existing RC buildings, specimens were provided with two short beam stubs orthogonal to the main beam and were designed with inadequate seismic details. Five members were strengthened by using two different SRP layouts while the remaining ones were used as benchmarks. Once damaged, two specimens were also repaired, retrofitted with SRP, and subjected to cyclic test again. The results of cyclic tests performed on SRP strengthened joints are examined through a comparison with the outcomes of the previous experimental program including companion specimens not provided with transverse beam stubs and strengthened by carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP systems. In particular, both qualitative and quantitative considerations about the influence of the confining effect provided by the secondary beams on the joint response, the suitability of all the adopted strengthening solutions (SRP/CFRP systems, the performances and the failure modes experienced in the several cases studied are provided.
De Vita, Alessandro; Napoli, Annalisa; Realfonzo, Roberto
This paper presents the results of an experimental campaign performed at the Laboratory of Materials and Structural Testing of the University of Salerno (Italy) in order to investigate the seismic performance of RC beam-column joints strengthened with Steel Reinforced Polymer (SRP) systems. With the aim to represent typical façade frames’ beam-column subassemblies found in existing RC buildings, specimens were provided with two short beam stubs orthogonal to the main beam and were designed with inadequate seismic details. Five members were strengthened by using two different SRP layouts while the remaining ones were used as benchmarks. Once damaged, two specimens were also repaired, retrofitted with SRP and subjected to cyclic test again. The results of cyclic tests performed on SRP strengthened joints are examined through a comparison with the outcomes of the previous experimental program including companion specimens not provided with transverse beam stubs and strengthened by Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) systems. In particular, both qualitative and quantitative considerations about the influence of the confining effect provided by the secondary beams on the joint response, the suitability of all the adopted strengthening solutions (SRP/CFRP systems), the performances and the failure modes experienced in the several cases studied are provided.
Maaitah, Rowaida Al; AbuAlRub, Raeda Fawzi
to explore priority actions for strengthening the role of Advanced Practice Nurses (APNs) towards the achievement of Universal Health Converge (UHC) as perceived by health key informants in Jordan. an exploratory qualitative design, using a semi-structured survey, was utilized. A purposive sample of seventeen key informants from various nursing and health care sectors was recruited for the purpose of the study. Content analysis utilizing the five-stage framework approach was used for data analysis. the findings revealed that policy and regulation, nursing education, research, and workforce were identified as the main elements that influence the role of APNs in contributing to the achievement of UHC. Priority actions were identified by the participants for the main four elements. study findings confirm the need to strengthen the role of APNs to achieve UHC through a major transformation in nursing education, practice, research, leadership, and regulatory system. Nurses should unite to come up with solid nursing competencies related to APNs, PHC, UHC, leadership and policy making to strengthen their position as main actors in influencing the health care system and evidence creation. analisar as ações prioritárias para o fortalecimento do papel da enfermeira em prática avançada na Cobertura Universal de Saúde , segundo a percepção dos informantes-chave na Jordânia. foi utilizado desenho qualitativo exploratório, com um questionário semiestruturado. A amostra intencional de dezessete informantes-chave de vários setores de enfermagem e de saúde foi recrutado para o propósito do estudo. A análise de conteúdo utilizando a abordagem do quadro de cinco estágios foi utilizada para a análise de dados. os resultados revelaram que as políticas e regulações, educação em enfermagem, pesquisa e força de trabalho foram identificados como os principais elementos que influenciam o papel da enfermeira em prática avançada em contribuir para a realização da
Vicens, Hugo; Maceiras, Elena; Dominguez, Cristina A.
The purpose of the paper is to explain how the system of a regional safeguard has been operating and developing in the framework of the Brazilian Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials (ABACC), and how the international recommendation of radiological protection must be taken into account in the safeguards implementation and its impact in the international context. The ABACC has been a dynamic system, which contributes worldwide in the application of the regional and international safeguard. In 2006, the ABACC celebrated its 15th anniversary. The ABBAC was created in 1991 in the framework of a Bilateral Agreement for the Exclusively Peaceful use of Nuclear Energy, the ABBAC was created in order to apply the aforementioned system called 'Common System for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials' (SCCC). During this time, the ABBAC has grown in its implementation and has become a model in the application of regional safeguards that is recognized internationally. The ABBAC was the pillar to signed an Agreement between Argentina, Brazil, the ABBAC and the International Atomic Energy Agency, called 'Quadripartite Agreement', committed themselves to accept the application of safeguards to all nuclear materials in all the nuclear activities performed in both countries. The ABACC and the relevant implementing and supplementary agreements, set forth the conditions for the peaceful use of nuclear energy, the exchange of technical staff, the transfer of knowledge and international cooperation in a strong commitment to non-proliferation of nuclear weapons. This introduction provides an overview of political, legal and technical aspects implemented in the ABACC, which will be developed later in the paper. (author)
Liu, Bin; Sun, Yan; Dong, Qian; Zhang, Zongjiu; Zhang, Liang
As an international legal instrument, the International Health Regulations (IHR) is internationally binding in 196 countries, especially in all the member states of the World Health Organization (WHO). The IHR aims to prevent, protect against, control, and respond to the international spread of disease and aims to cut out unnecessary interruptions to traffic and trade. To meet IHR requirements, countries need to improve capacity construction by developing, strengthening, and maintaining core response capacities for public health risk and Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC). In addition, all the related core capacity requirements should be met before June 15, 2012. If not, then the deadline can be extended until 2016 upon request by countries. China has promoted the implementation of the IHR comprehensively, continuingly strengthening the core public health capacity and advancing in core public health emergency capacity building, points of entry capacity building, as well as risk prevention and control of biological events (infectious diseases, zoonotic diseases, and food safety), radiological, nuclear, and chemical events, and other catastrophic events. With significant progress in core capacity building, China has dealt with many public health emergencies successfully, ensuring that its core public health capacity has met the IHR requirements, which was reported to WHO in June 2014. This article describes the steps, measures, and related experiences in the implementation of IHR in China. PMID:26029897
Full Text Available As an international legal instrument, the International Health Regulations (IHR is internationally binding in 196 countries, especially in all the member states of the World Health Organization (WHO. The IHR aims to prevent, protect against, control, and respond to the international spread of disease and aims to cut out unnecessary interruptions to traffic and trade. To meet IHR requirements, countries need to improve capacity construction by developing, strengthening, and maintaining core response capacities for public health risk and Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC. In addition, all the related core capacity requirements should be met before June 15, 2012. If not, then the deadline can be extended until 2016 upon request by countries. China has promoted the implementation of the IHR comprehensively, continuingly strengthening the core public health capacity and advancing in core public health emergency capacity building, points of entry capacity building, as well as risk prevention and control of biological events (infectious diseases, zoonotic diseases, and food safety, radiological, nuclear, and chemical events, and other catastrophic events. With significant progress in core capacity building, China has dealt with many public health emergencies successfully, ensuring that its core public health capacity has met the IHR requirements, which was reported to WHO in June 2014. This article describes the steps, measures, and related experiences in the implementation of IHR in China.
Full Text Available Background: Quality-assured tuberculosis laboratory services are critical to achieve global and national goals for tuberculosis prevention and care. Implementation of a quality management system (QMS in laboratories leads to improved quality of diagnostic tests and better patient care. The Strengthening Laboratory Management Toward Accreditation (SLMTA programme has led to measurable improvements in the QMS of clinical laboratories. However, progress in tuberculosis laboratories has been slower, which may be attributed to the need for a structured tuberculosis-specific approach to implementing QMS. We describe the development and early implementation of the Strengthening Tuberculosis Laboratory Management Toward Accreditation (TB SLMTA programme. Development: The TB SLMTA curriculum was developed by customizing the SLMTA curriculum to include specific tools, job aids and supplementary materials specific to the tuberculosis laboratory. The TB SLMTA Harmonized Checklist was developed from the World Health Organisation Regional Office for Africa Stepwise Laboratory Quality Improvement Process Towards Accreditation checklist, and incorporated tuberculosis-specific requirements from the Global Laboratory Initiative Stepwise Process Towards Tuberculosis Laboratory Accreditation online tool. Implementation: Four regional training-of-trainers workshops have been conducted since 2013. The TB SLMTA programme has been rolled out in 37 tuberculosis laboratories in 10 countries using the Workshop approach in 32 laboratories in five countries and the Facility based approach in five tuberculosis laboratories in five countries. Conclusion: Lessons learnt from early implementation of TB SLMTA suggest that a structured training and mentoring programme can build a foundation towards further quality improvement in tuberculosis laboratories. Structured mentoring, and institutionalisation of QMS into country programmes, is needed to support tuberculosis laboratories
Regina Stella Spagnuolo
Full Text Available This was a qualitative study with the purpose of designing a meta-model for the work process of the Family Health Strategy (FHS team. It was based on the experience of six sample groups, composed of their members (physicians, professional nurses, dentists, dental assistants, licensed technical nurses and community health agents in a city in São Paulo state, Brazil, totaling 54 subjects. Six theoretical models emerged from non-directive interviews. These were analyzed according to Grounded Theory and submitted to the meta-synthesis strategy, which produced the meta-model "between the processes of strengthening and weakening of the FHS model: professional-team-community reciprocity as an intervening component". When analyzed in light of the Theory of Complexity (TC, it showed to be a work with a vertical and authoritarian tendency, which is largely hegemonic in the tradition of public health care policies.
Girons Lopez, Marc; Di Baldassarre, Giuliano; Seibert, Jan
Flood warning and response have normally been focused on the technical aspects and disregarded the connections and feedbacks between the hydrological and social dimensions. An increasing body of research, however, points at the importance of considering socio-hydrological aspects to improve flood damage mitigation. One of the key factors is the preparedness of the public and first responders during flood situations, which is influenced by many behavioural traits such as perceived benefits, risk awareness, or denial. In this study, we investigate the impact of social preparedness on the efficiency of flood early warning systems by using the recency of flood experience as a proxy for social preparedness. To this end, we developed a stylised model and a synthetic data-set to perform a hypothetical analysis. The main findings point to the importance of social preparedness for flood loss mitigation, especially when the technical forecasting and warning capabilities are limited. More specifically, efforts to promote and preserve social preparedness may help to reduce disaster-induced losses by almost one half. The findings from this study provide insights into the importance of considering social preparedness in decision-making for disaster risk reduction.
Jiang, Guoliang; Dawood, Mina; Peters, Kara; Rizkalla, Sami
Fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) materials are currently used for strengthening civil engineering infrastructures. The strengthening system is dependant on the bond characteristics of the FRP to the external surface of the structure to be effective in resisting the applied loads. This paper presents an innovative self-monitoring FRP strengthening system. The system consists of two components which can be embedded in FRP materials to monitor the global and local behavior of the strengthened structure respectively. The first component of the system is designed to evaluate the applied load acting on a structure based on elongation of the FRP layer along the entire span of the structure. Success of the global system has been demonstrated using a full-scale prestressed concrete bridge girder which was loaded up to failure. The test results indicate that this type of sensor can be used to accurately determine the load prior to failure within 15 percent of the measured value. The second sensor component consists of fiber Bragg grating sensors. The sensors were used to monitor the behavior of steel double-lap shear splices tested under tensile loading up to failure. The measurements were used to identify abnormal structural behavior such as epoxy cracking and FRP debonding. Test results were also compared to numerical values obtained from a three dimensional shear-lag model which was developed to predict the sensor response.
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to evaluate, through a nonlinear Finite Element (FE analysis, the structural behavior of Reinforced Concrete (RC beams externally strengthened by using Steel Reinforced Grout (SRG and Steel Reinforced Polymer (SRP systems. The parameters taken into account were the external strengthening configuration, with or without U-wrap end anchorages, as well as the strengthening materials. The numerical simulations were carried out by using a three-dimensional (3D FE model. The linear and nonlinear behavior of all materials was modeled by appropriate constitutive laws and the connection between concrete substrate and external reinforcing layer was simulated by means of cohesive surfaces with appropriate bond-slip laws. In order to overcome convergence difficulties, to simulate the quasi-static response of the strengthened RC beams, a dynamic approach was adopted. The numerical results in terms of load-displacement curves, failure modes, and load and strain values at critical stages were validated against some experimental data. As a result, the proposed 3D FE model can be used to predict the structural behavior up to ultimate stage of similar strengthened beams without carrying out experimental tests.
Shrivastava, Ritu; Gadde, Renuka; Nkengasong, John N
After the launch of the US President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief in 2003, it became evident that inadequate laboratory systems and services would severely limit the scale-up of human immunodeficiency virus infection prevention, care, and treatment programs. Thus, the Office of the US Global AIDS Coordinator, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and Becton, Dickinson and Company developed a public-private partnership (PPP). Between October 2007 and July 2012, the PPP combined the competencies of the public and private sectors to boost sustainable laboratory systems and develop workforce skills in 4 African countries. Key accomplishments of the initiative include measurable and scalable outcomes to strengthen national capacities to build technical skills, develop sample referral networks, map disease prevalence, support evidence-based health programming, and drive continuous quality improvement in laboratories. This report details lessons learned from our experience and a series of recommendations on how to achieve successful PPPs. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail email@example.com.
Full Text Available Background: Documenting specific knowledge and attitudes about HIV in the culturally diverse nation of Solomon Islands is essential to inform locally targeted public health responses. As part of a large capacity-strengthening project at Atoifi Adventist Hospital in East Kwaio, Solomon Islands, researchers, using a ‘learn-by-doing’ process, worked with participants in public health research methods. Methods: Overall, 43 people attended research capacity building workshops in 2011; eight joined the HIV study group. A cross-sectional survey including semi-structured interviews on HIV was conducted by the group. In February 2014, a hospital administrator was interviewed about how the 2011 study informed local HIV responses. Results: Of the 53 survey participants, 64% self-assessed as having little or no HIV knowledge, but 90% knew HIV could be transmitted between men and women during sex. Less than 50% knew HIV could be transmitted between two men having sex, 45% thought HIV could be transmitted by mosquitoes and 55% agreed condoms help protect from HIV. Most participants reported negative attitudes towards people with HIV. Three years later the health administrator reported ad hoc responses to HIV because of low HIV prevalence, increasing noncommunicable diseases, staff turnover and resource shortages. Discussion: This HIV study was used to strengthen research skills in local health professionals and community members in Solomon Islands. It showed that community members require accurate information about HIV transmission and that entrenched stigma is an issue. Although results provided local evidence for local response, ongoing health system challenges and little local HIV transmission meant HIV services remain rudimentary.
Horn, Annett; Vogt, Dominique; Messer, Melanie; Schaeffer, Doris
The concept of "health literacy", which has gained attention in English-speaking countries during the last decade, is becoming increasingly popular in Germany. While studies on an international level indicate that people with migration background are often limited in their health literacy, there is a lack of empirical data on that topic in Germany. However, it is well known that they are exposed to health-related risks and problems comparatively often whereas they use health care services less frequently. This article focuses on the native speaking counseling services of the Independent Patient Counseling Germany (UPD gGmbH) as an example of good practice and introduces the results of the evaluation of this counseling service. Qualitative interviews were conducted with UPD-consultants as well as with users of the services. It became apparent that Turkish and Russian-speaking immigrants often have limited health-related literacy. Therefore, support and counseling services should focus not only on issues concerning language and cultural aspects. Furthermore, strategies strengthening the health literacy of persons with migration background are required. Therefore, instruments and strategies will be developed in cooperation with the UPD which aim to improve such skills of the UPD-consultants.
Seyed Rohollah Hosseini Vaez
Full Text Available In the last decade, conventional materials such as steel and concrete are being replaced by fiber reinforced polymer (FRP materials for the strengthening of concrete structures. Among the strengthening techniques based on Fiber Reinforced Polymer composites, the use of near-surface mounted (NSM FRP rods is emerging as a promising technology for increasing flexural and shear strength of deficient concrete, masonry and timber members. An artificial neural network is an information processing tool that is inspired by the way biological nervous systems (such as the brain process the information. The key element of this tool is the novel structure of the information processing system. In engineering applications, a neural network can be a vector mapper which maps an input vector to an output one. In the present study, a new approach is developed to predict the behavior of strengthened concrete beam using a large number of experimental data by applying artificial neural networks. Having parameters used as input nodes in ANN modeling such as elastic modulus of the FRP reinforcement, the ratio of the steel longitudinal reinforcement, dimensions of the beam section, the ratio of the NSM-FRP reinforcement and characteristics of concrete, the output node was the flexural strength of beams. The idealized neural network was employed to generate empirical charts and equations to be used in design. The aim of this study is to investigate the behavior of strengthened RC beam using artificial neural networks.
• the adoption of coherent strategies, involving all sectors, to address large movements of refugees. This paper draws heavily, albeit not exclusively, from a series of papers published as a special collection in the Journal on Migration and Human Security on strengthening the global system of refugee protection.  Rethinking the Global Refugee Protection System, Journal on Migration and Human Security, Center for Migration Studies, 2016-2017. See http://cmsny.org/cms_research/refugeeproject/.
Lehto, M.; Karilainen, T.; Rog, T.
In vitro toxicological studies together with atomistic molecular dynamics simulations show that occupational co-exposure with C-60 fullerene may strengthen the health effects of organic industrial chemicals. The chemicals studied are acetophenone, benzaldehyde, benzyl alcohol, m-cresol, and toluene...... which can be used with fullerene as reagents or solvents in industrial processes. Potential co-exposure scenarios include a fullerene dust and organic chemical vapor, or a fullerene solution aerosolized in workplace air. Unfiltered and filtered mixtures of C-60 and organic chemicals represent different...... co-exposure scenarios in in vitro studies where acute cytotoxicity and immunotoxicity of C-60 and organic chemicals are tested together and alone by using human THP-1-derived macrophages. Statistically significant co-effects are observed for an unfiltered mixture of benzaldehyde and C-60 that is more...
Britto, Pia Rebello; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; van Ravens, Jan; Ponguta, Liliana Angelica; Reyes, Maria; Oh, Soojin; Dimaya, Roland; Nieto, Ana María; Seder, Richard
While there has been substantial growth in early childhood development (ECD) services in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), there is considerable inequity in their distribution and quality. Evidence-based governance strategies are necessary, but currently they are insufficient for widespread, quality implementation. In particular, there is a limited understanding of the use of systems approaches for the analysis of ECD services as they go to scale. The aim of this paper is to present findings from four countries, using a cross-national case study approach to explore governance mechanisms required to strengthen national systems of ECD services. While different sets of governance strategies and challenges were identified in each country, overarching themes also emerged with implications for systems strengthening. Study results focus on local, mid-level and central governance, with recommendations for effective coordination and the integration of ECD services in LMICs. © 2014 New York Academy of Sciences.
Chahal, Harinder Singh; Kashfipour, Farrah; Susko, Matt; Feachem, Neelam Sekhri; Boyle, Colin
Medicines Regulatory Authorities (MRAs) are an essential part of national health systems and are charged with protecting and promoting public health through regulation of medicines. However, MRAs in resource-constrained settings often struggle to provide effective oversight of market entry and use of health commodities. This paper proposes a regulatory value chain model (RVCM) that policymakers and regulators can use as a conceptual framework to guide investments aimed at strengthening regulatory systems. The RVCM incorporates nine core functions of MRAs into five modules: (i) clear guidelines and requirements; (ii) control of clinical trials; (iii) market authorization of medical products; (iv) pre-market quality control; and (v) post-market activities. Application of the RVCM allows national stakeholders to identify and prioritize investments according to where they can add the most value to the regulatory process. Depending on the economy, capacity, and needs of a country, some functions can be elevated to a regional or supranational level, while others can be maintained at the national level. In contrast to a "one size fits all" approach to regulation in which each country manages the full regulatory process at the national level, the RVCM encourages leveraging the expertise and capabilities of other MRAs where shared processes strengthen regulation. This value chain approach provides a framework for policymakers to maximize investment impact while striving to reach the goal of safe, affordable, and rapidly accessible medicines for all.
Therefore, in-service training and updating of staff involved in health information system (HIS) at district, strengthening health information system inputs, timely and concrete feedbacks with establishment of functional health management information system (HMIS). KEY WORDS: Health Management Information System, ...
Martha J. Decker
Full Text Available Through considerable efforts and investments of resources, adolescent pregnancy and birth rates in the United States have decreased significantly over the past two decades. Nonetheless, large disparities persist for many populations of youth. Reducing unintended adolescent pregnancies is considered a “winnable public health battle,” but one that will require innovative thinking and continued persistence. This paper reviews the recent research literature and innovative programmatic efforts to identify six promising strategies that address the challenge of adolescent pregnancy in new ways. These strategies aim to: (1 understand and address the complexity of adolescent lives; (2 expand the provision of quality sexual health education; (3 engage youth through technology and media; (4 increase access to contraceptives and other sexual health services; (5 create tailored interventions for populations with special needs; and (6 create a supportive policy environment. By building upon lessons learned from past efforts, we can move the field toward the development, strengthening, and promotion of future strategies that enhance the sexual well-being of all adolescents.
Kandel, Nirmal; Hapsari, Ratna Budi; Riana, Dyah Armi; Setiawaty, Vivi; Larasati, Wita; Wulandari, Endang; Purwanto, Edy
Background: Establishment of Early Warning Alert and Response System (EWARS) in Indonesia was initiated since 2009 in few selected provinces and government was planning to roll out in other provinces. Before initiating this roll out the assessment of performance of EWARS in 2012 was conducted. The aim of the assessment is to strengthen laboratory for supporting to EWARS for alerts testing. Methods: Laboratory capacity mapping tool and laboratory algorithm for twenty two priority diseases of ...
many levels, and underscores the fact that health ... The health of mothers and their children depends on the status of women. INSIGHT ... tions find fertile ground when poverty ... Dr Gita Sen, Professor of Public Policy at the Indian Institute.
Full Text Available Externally Bonded Reinforcement (EBR technique has been widely used for flexural strengthening of concrete structures by using carbon fiber-reinforced polymers (CFRP. EBR technique offers several structural advantages when the CFRP material is prestressed. This paper presents an experimental and numerical study on reinforced (RC slabs strengthened in flexure with prestressed CFRP strips as a structural strengthening system. The strips are applied as an externally bonded reinforcement (EBR and anchored with either a mechanical or a gradient anchorage. The former foresees metallic anchorage plates fixed to the concrete substrate, while the latter is based on an accelerated epoxy resin curing followed by a segment-wise prestress force decrease at the strip ends. Both anchorage systems, in combination with different CFRP strip geometries, were subjected to static loading tests. It could be demonstrated that the composite strip’s performance is better exploited when prestressing is used, with slightly higher overall load carrying capacities for mechanical anchorages than for the gradient anchorage. The performed investigations by means of a cross-section analysis supported the experimental observation that in case a mechanical anchorage is used, progressive strip debonding changes the fully bonded configuration to an unbonded end-anchored system. The inclusion of defined debonding criteria for both the anchorage zones and free length between the anchorage regions allowed to precisely capture the ultimate loading forces.
Konduri, Niranjan; Rauscher, Megan; Wang, Shiou-Chu Judy; Malpica-Llanos, Tanya
Medicines use related challenges such as inadequate adherence, high levels of antimicrobial resistance and preventable adverse drug reactions have underscored the need to incorporate pharmaceutical services to help achieve desired treatment outcomes, and protect patients from inappropriate use of medicines. This situation is further constrained by insufficient numbers of pharmaceutical personnel and inappropriate skill mix. Studies have addressed individual capacity building approaches of logistics, supply chain or disease specific interventions but few have documented those involving such pharmacy assistants/professionals, or health workers/professionals charged with improving access and provision of pharmaceutical services. We examined how different training modalities have been employed and adapted to meet country-specific context and needs by a global pharmaceutical systems strengthening program in collaboration with a country's Ministry of Health and local stakeholders. Structured, content analysis of training approaches from twelve selected countries and a survey among conveniently selected trainees in Bangladesh and Ethiopia. Case-based learning, practice and feedback, and repetitive interventions such as post-training action plan, supportive supervision and mentoring approaches are effective, evidence-based training techniques. In Ethiopia and Bangladesh, over 94% of respondents indicated that they have improved or developed skills or competencies as a result of the program's training activities. Supportive supervision structures and mentorship have been institutionalized with appropriate management structures. National authorities have been sensitized to secure funding from domestic resources or from the global fund grants for post-training follow-up initiatives. The Pharmaceutical Leadership Development Program is an effective, case-based training modality that motivates staff to develop quality-improvement interventions and solve specific challenges
Peruski, Anne Harwood; Birmingham, Maureen; Tantinimitkul, Chawalit; Chungsamanukool, Ladawan; Chungsamanukool, Preecha; Guntapong, Ratigorn; Pulsrikarn, Chaiwat; Saengklai, Ladapan; Supawat, Krongkaew; Thattiyaphong, Aree; Wongsommart, Duangdao; Wootta, Wattanapong; Nikiema, Abdoulaye; Pierson, Antoine; Peruski, Leonard F; Liu, Xin; Rayfield, Mark A
Thailand conducted a national laboratory assessment of core capacities related to the International Health Regulations (IHR) (2005), and thereby established a baseline to measure future progress. The assessment was limited to public laboratories found within the Thai Bureau of Quality and Safety of Food, National Institute of Health and regional medical science centres. The World Health Organization (WHO) laboratory assessment tool was adapted to Thailand through a participatory approach. This adapted version employed a specific scoring matrix and comprised 16 modules with a quantitative output. Two teams jointly performed the on-site assessments in December 2010 over a two-week period, in 17 public health laboratories in Thailand. The assessment focused on the capacity to identify and accurately detect pathogens mentioned in Annex 2 of the IHR (2005) in a timely manner, as well as other public health priority pathogens for Thailand. Performance of quality management, budget and finance, data management and communications was considered strong (>90%); premises quality, specimen collection, biosafety, public health functions, supplies management and equipment availability were judged as very good (>70% but ≤90%); while microbiological capacity, staffing, training and supervision, and information technology needed improvement (>60% but ≤70%). This assessment is a major step in Thailand towards development of an optimized and standardized national laboratory network for the detection and reporting of infectious disease that would be compliant with IHR (2005). The participatory strategy employed to adapt an international tool to the Thai context can also serve as a model for use by other countries in the Region. The participatory approach probably ensured better quality and ownership of the results, while providing critical information to help decision-makers determine where best to invest finite resources.
Full Text Available A polymeric hybrid composite system made of UHPC and CFRP was proposed as a retrofit system to enhance flexural strength and ductility of RC slabs. While the effectiveness of the proposed system was confirmed previously through testing three full-scale one-way slabs having two continuous spans, the slabs retrofitted with the hybrid system failed in shear. This sudden shear failure would stem from the excessive enhancement of the flexural strength over the shear strength. In this study, shear connectors were installed between the hybrid system and a RC slab. Using simple beam, only positive moment section was examined. Two full-scale RC slabs were cast and tested to failure: the first as a control and the second using this new strengthening technique. The proposed strengthening system increased the ultimate load carrying capacity of the slab by 70%, the stiffness by 60%, and toughness by 128%. The efficiency of shear connectors on ductile behavior of the retrofitted slab was also confirmed. After the UHPC top is separated from the slab, the shear connector transfer shear load and the slab system were in force equilibrium by compression in UHPC and tension in CFRP.
Mackey, Tim K; Liang, Bryan A
Health worker migration from resource-poor countries to developed countries, also known as ''brain drain'', represents a serious global health crisis and a significant barrier to achieving global health equity. Resource-poor countries are unable to recruit and retain health workers for domestic health systems, resulting in inadequate health infrastructure and millions of dollars in healthcare investment losses. Using acceptable methods of policy analysis, we first assess current strategies aimed at alleviating brain drain and then propose our own global health policy based solution to address current policy limitations. Although governments and private organizations have tried to address this policy challenge, brain drain continues to destabilise public health systems and their populations globally. Most importantly, lack of adequate financing and binding governance solutions continue to fail to prevent health worker brain drain. In response to these challenges, the establishment of a Global Health Resource Fund in conjunction with an international framework for health worker migration could create global governance for stable funding mechanisms encourage equitable migration pathways, and provide data collection that is desperately needed.
Tim K. Mackey
Full Text Available Background: Health worker migration from resource-poor countries to developed countries, also known as ‘‘brain drain’’, represents a serious global health crisis and a significant barrier to achieving global health equity. Resource-poor countries are unable to recruit and retain health workers for domestic health systems, resulting in inadequate health infrastructure and millions of dollars in healthcare investment losses. Methods: Using acceptable methods of policy analysis, we first assess current strategies aimed at alleviating brain drain and then propose our own global health policy based solution to address current policy limitations. Results: Although governments and private organizations have tried to address this policy challenge, brain drain continues to destabilise public health systems and their populations globally. Most importantly, lack of adequate financing and binding governance solutions continue to fail to prevent health worker brain drain. Conclusions: In response to these challenges, the establishment of a Global Health Resource Fund in conjunction with an international framework for health worker migration could create global governance for stable funding mechanisms encourage equitable migration pathways, and provide data collection that is desperately needed.
Full Text Available Fibre Reinforced Polymer (FRP and Textile Reinforced Mortar (TRM have been studied, compared and applied to strengthen brick masonry walls. The comparison of their performance against second order bending effects is addressed in this paper for the first time. Experimental and analytical data from previous researches and new analytical data for TRM cases are summarised, ordered and systematically compared to analyse the structural response of strengthened brick masonry walls. The results show a similar performance for both systems in terms of load bearing capacity and in-plane response. However, TRM strengthened cases showed greater lateral deformation than FRP ones.Materiales tipo Fibre Reinforced Polymer (FRP y Textile Reinforced Mortar (TRM han sido estudiados, comparados y aplicados para reforzar muros de fábrica de ladrillo. La comparación de su comportamiento frente a efectos de flexión de segundo orden se abordada en este artículo por primera vez. Datos experimentales y analíticos de investigaciones previas y nuevos datos analíticos para los casos de TRM son resumidos, ordenados y sistemáticamente comparados para analizar la respuesta estructural de los muros de fábrica de ladrillo reforzados. Los resultados muestran un comportamiento similar de los dos sistemas respecto su capacidad de carga y su respuesta en el plano. Los casos reforzados con TRM mostraron desplazamientos laterales superiores a los reforzados con FRP.
Full Text Available In vitro toxicological studies together with atomistic molecular dynamics simulations show that occupational co-exposure with C60 fullerene may strengthen the health effects of organic industrial chemicals. The chemicals studied are acetophenone, benzaldehyde, benzyl alcohol, m-cresol, and toluene which can be used with fullerene as reagents or solvents in industrial processes. Potential co-exposure scenarios include a fullerene dust and organic chemical vapor, or a fullerene solution aerosolized in workplace air. Unfiltered and filtered mixtures of C60 and organic chemicals represent different co-exposure scenarios in in vitro studies where acute cytotoxicity and immunotoxicity of C60 and organic chemicals are tested together and alone by using human THP-1-derived macrophages. Statistically significant co-effects are observed for an unfiltered mixture of benzaldehyde and C60 that is more cytotoxic than benzaldehyde alone, and for a filtered mixture of m-cresol and C60 that is slightly less cytotoxic than m-cresol. Hydrophobicity of chemicals correlates with co-effects when secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and TNF-α is considered. Complementary atomistic molecular dynamics simulations reveal that C60 co-aggregates with all chemicals in aqueous environment. Stable aggregates have a fullerene-rich core and a chemical-rich surface layer, and while essentially all C60 molecules aggregate together, a portion of organic molecules remains in water.
Tantivess, Sripen; Teerawattananon, Yot; Mills, Anne
Capacity is limited in the developing world to conduct cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) of health interventions. In Thailand, there have been concerted efforts to promote evidence-based policy making, including the introduction of economic appraisals within health technology assessment (HTA). This paper reviews the experience of this lower middle-income country, with an emphasis on the creation of the Health Intervention and Technology Assessment Program (HITAP), including its mission, management structures and activities. Over the past 3 decades, several HTA programmes were implemented in Thailand but not sustained or developed further into a national institute. As a response to increasing demands for HTA evidence including CEA information, the HITAP was created in 2007 as an affiliate unit of a semi-autonomous research arm of the Ministry of Public Health. An advantage of this HTA programme over previous initiatives was that it was hosted by a research institute with long-term experience in conducting health systems and policy research and capacity building of its research staff, and excellent research and policy networks. To deal with existing impediments to conducting health economics research, the main strategies of the HITAP were carefully devised to include not only capacity strengthening of its researchers and administrative staff, but also the development of essential elements for the country's health economic evaluation methodology. These included, for example, methodological guidelines, standard protocols and benchmarks for resource allocation, many of which have been adopted by national policy-making bodies including the three major public health insurance plans. Networks and collaborations with domestic and foreign institutes have been sought as a means of resource mobilization and exchange. Although the HITAP is well financed by a number of government agencies and international organizations, the programme is vulnerable to shortages of qualified
Hawkes, Sarah; K Aulakh, Bhupinder; Jadeja, Nidhee; Jimenez, Michelle; Buse, Kent; Anwar, Iqbal; Barge, Sandhya; Odubanjo, M Oladoyin; Shukla, Abhay; Ghaffar, Abdul; Whitworth, Jimmy
Increasing the use of evidence in policy making means strengthening capacity on both the supply and demand sides of evidence production. However, little experience of strengthening the capacity of policy makers in low- and middle- income countries has been published to date. We describe the experiences of five projects (in Bangladesh, Gambia, India and Nigeria), where collaborative teams of researchers and policy makers/policy influencers worked to strengthen policy maker capacity to increase the use of evidence in policy. Activities were focused on three (interlinked) levels of capacity building: individual, organizational and, occasionally, institutional. Interventions included increasing access to research/data, promoting frequent interactions between researchers and members of the policy communities, and increasing the receptivity towards research/data in policy making or policy-implementing organizations. Teams were successful in building the capacity of individuals to access, understand and use evidence/data. Strengthening organizational capacity generally involved support to infrastructure (e.g. through information technology resources) and was also deemed to be successful. There was less appetite to address the need to strengthen institutional capacity—although this was acknowledged to be fundamental to promoting sustainable use of evidence, it was also recognized as requiring resources, legitimacy and regulatory support from policy makers. Evaluation across the three spheres of capacity building was made more challenging by the lack of agreed upon evaluation frameworks. In this article, we propose a new framework for assessing the impact of capacity strengthening activities to promote the use of evidence/data in policy making. Our evaluation concluded that strengthening the capacity of individuals and organizations is an important but likely insufficient step in ensuring the use of evidence/data in policy-cycles. Sustainability of evidence
In Bangladesh, the UN Population Fund is working to strengthen nongovernmental organization (NGO) capacity and linkages to improve reproductive health services and information. Specifically, the aim is to strengthen the technical and human resource capacity of participating NGOs and the functional linkages between national NGOs and relevant government agencies to help harmonize and standardize the delivery of reproductive health information and services. This umbrella project collaborates with RHI-participating NGOs in a policy paper on adolescent reproductive health, and will maintain contact with the regional dimension project to collaborate its activities. Programs implemented by partner NGOs are being reviewed and monitored, and linkages among national NGOs and government agencies are being developed. The main activities of the project are enumerated.
Takayanagi, Kazue; Hagihara, Yukiko
Under the Japanese Government's strong enforcement of Japanese national medical cost reduction, only hospitals which emphasize patient values, and creation of brands according to them can survive. This study extracted patients' expectations as brand from Campbell's Brand-Contact lists. The authors also proposed to add Brand-strengthening strategies both for short-term strategies (large improvement is not required) and for long-term strategies (restructuring hardware and systems). This method would enable hospitals to collect customers' underlying expectations, and would create high-value brands. Trustful medical service would provide mutual and synergetic medical care effects. It is already considered out of date to conduct qualitative patient satisfaction interviews on current medical services to current customers. It is the only way to survive that hospitals themselves produce their original brands to increase patient loyalty and customer satisfaction. In the process, customer value should be reconsidered from both aspects of the quality of clinical care and of other medically related services. Then hospitals would be able to satisfy both customers' output and process expectations.
Hejll, Arvid; Täljsten, Björn; Carolin, Anders
To obtain a better knowledge of existing structures behaviour monitoring can be used. The use of monitoring in bridge structures by the use of instruments to assess the integrity of structures is not new and there are reports from structures tested as early as in the 19th century according to ISIS Canada1 However, the term SHM (Structural Health Monitoring) is relatively new to civil engineering and the driving force to implement SHM comes from recognising the limitations of conventional visual inspections and evaluations using conservative codes of practice. The possibilities to monitor existing structures with help of the rapidly evolving Information Technology are to day carried out. The objective of SHM is to monitor the in-situ behaviour of a structure accurately and efficiently, to assess its performance under various service conditions, to detect damage or deterioration, and to determine the health or condition of the structure1. In Sweden strengthening and periodic monitoring of a large freivorbau bridge (pre-stresed concrete box girder bridge) has been carried out, the Gröndals Bridge. The bridge is located in Stockholm and is approximately 400 m in length with a free span of 120 m. It was opened to tram traffic in year 2000. Just after opening cracks were noticed in the webs, these cracks have then increased, the size of the largest cracks exceeded 0.5 mm, and at the end of year 2001 the bridge was temporarily strengthened. This was carried out with externally placed prestressed steel stays. The reason for cracking is quite clear but the responsibility is still debated. Nevertheless, it was evidently that the bridge needed to be strengthened. The strengthening methods used were CFRP plates in the Service Limit State (SLS) and prestressed dywidag stays in the Ultimate Limit State (ULS). The strengthening was carried out during year 2002. At the same time monitoring of the bridge commenced, using LVDT crack gauges as well as optical fibre sensors. This
New recruitment and retention methods are therefore an important way to build staffing in rural areas. Research in Uganda ... Telemedicine studied by researchers in French-speaking Africa helped to reduce decision-making errors in remote areas, increase the number of consultations, and save patients money. The Africa ...
IDRC's partner Laboratoire d'étude et de recherches sur les dynamiques sociales et ... Dans les années 1980, conformément aux recommandations d'organismes ... réformes régionales peuvent aider à renforcer le système de santé au Niger.
I examine possibilities for strengthening essential public health functions in the context of India's drive to implement universal health care. In a country where population health outcomes are rooted in social, political, economic, cultural, and ecological conditions, it is important to have a state mediated public health system that can modify the causes of the major public health problems. This calls for strengthening the social epidemiological approach in public health by demarcating public health functions distinct from medical care. This will be a prerequisite for the growth of the public health profession in the country, because it can offer avenues for newly trained professionals within the country to work in 'core' public health.
Rice, Brian; Boulle, Andrew; Baral, Stefan; Egger, Matthias; Mee, Paul; Fearon, Elizabeth; Reniers, Georges; Todd, Jim; Schwarcz, Sandra; Weir, Sharon; Rutherford, George; Hargreaves, James
The global HIV response has entered a new phase with the recommendation of treating all persons living with HIV with antiretroviral therapy, and with the goals of reducing new infections and AIDS-related deaths to fewer than 500,000 by 2020. This new phase has intensive data requirements that will need to utilize routine data collected through service delivery platforms to monitor progress toward these goals. With a focus on sub-Saharan African, we present the following priorities to improve the demand, supply, and use of routine HIV data: (1) strengthening patient-level HIV data systems that support continuity of clinical care and document sentinel events; (2) leveraging data from HIV testing programs; (3) using targeting data collection in communities and among clients; and (4) building capacity and promoting a culture of HIV data quality assessment and use. When fully leveraged, routine data can efficiently provide timely information at a local level to inform action, as well as provide information at scale with wide geographic coverage to strengthen estimation efforts. ©Brian Rice, Andrew Boulle, Stefan Baral, Matthias Egger, Paul Mee, Elizabeth Fearon, Georges Reniers, Jim Todd, Sandra Schwarcz, Sharon Weir, George Rutherford, James Hargreaves. Originally published in JMIR Public Health and Surveillance (http://publichealth.jmir.org), 03.04.2018.
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the PNPM program and follow the program with SIDA Strengthening Program. The research method used is a qualitative method approach of this research through the evaluation research design that builds on the CIPP evaluation model (Context-Input-Process-Product. Since the failure of theories and models of development are too glorifies growth, makes many people turn to focus on people development, which includes requiring optimization of local resources, participation, and empowerment. Since then, "empowerment" which was introduced in Indonesia has been anesthetized and made many hopes among many parties. In 2007 started the National Program for Community Empowerment (PNPM which continue Kecamatan Development Program (KDP. PNPM 2014 which is part of the United Indonesia Cabinet Volume 2 is going to end. For that we need to look for an exit strategy program that can maintain sustainability of PNPM. Regional Innovation Systems Strengthening Program (SIDA is a program of the whole process in one system to foster innovation made between government institutions, local governments, research institutions, educational institutions, innovation support institutions, businesses, and communities in areas that have been implemented since the 2012 SIDA program is an empowerment program as well, both to the public and even empowering to all elements such as academia, private industry, government and society.
Anderson-Hanley, Cay; Nimon, Joseph P; Westen, Sarah C
While aerobic exercise has been linked to improved performance on cognitive tasks of executive functioning among older adults, not all older adults can avail themselves of such exercise due to physical limitations. In this study, community-dwelling older adults were evaluated on tasks of executive functioning before and after a month-long strengthening, nonaerobic exercise program. A total of 16 participants who engaged in such exercise showed significantly improved scores on Digits Backward and Stroop C tasks when compared to 16 participants who were on an exercise waiting list. Positive benefits of strengthening exercise on cognition are supported. Additional research is needed to clarify the generalizability of these findings.
Ya. N. Kovalev
Full Text Available Presently bitumen-mineral materials (including asphalt-concrete comprise nearly 98 % for construction of expensive road pavement. Large resources of local minerals (quartz sand and industrial wastes in the form of used molding sand (foundry by-product are widely applied for reduction of their cost. Such approach is economically and ecologically reasonable but it requires its justification because an adhesion interaction in the bitumen-quartz substrate system (with SiO2 more than 95 % is rather poor in natural state and due to water action it is still more decreasing. In this connection an objective necessity arises to modify significantly technology of bitumen-mineral compositions for ensuring reliability of road pavements while using silicon components.All the ideas pertaining to strengthening of adhesion bonds in the “quartz mineral substrate - bitumen” system are traditionally of physical and chemical nature and they presuppose mainly usage of colloidal chemistry methods. The paper considers the matter on the basis of molecular kinetic theory of matter taking into account the fact that there is absence of generally accepted calculations for intermolecular interactions of components in the SiO2 - organic matrix material system.As a theoretical supposition the following well-known regulatory principle in physics is used: as every atom or molecular have its own electromagnetic field then action of external electromagnetic fields initiates their interaction that leads to excitement of electrons, deformations and rupture of chemical bonds. Literature analysis shows that the existing electric bonds between components of the SiO2 - organic matrix material system provide the possibility to apply various electro-physical methods having an effect on these components with the purpose to strengthen their adhesion interaction.The paper investigates matters for determination of bond energy during physical adsorption and adhesion in the SiO2 - organic
Santos, Joao Regis dos
The present study investigated and analyzed the importance of a system of integrated safety manage, environment and health in a nuclear installation, having as perspective, the fire protection manage. The inquiry was made using a qualitative research involving a case study, where the considered environment was the Reconversion and UO 2 Plant of the Industrias Nucleares do Brasil (INB), located in Resende, Rio de Janeiro and the studied population, the managers and the staff directly involved with the aspects related to the safety of the industrial complex of the related company. The motivation for the research was the search of a bigger interaction of the questions related to the safety, environment and health in the nuclear industry having, as axle of the investigation, the fire protection. As a result, it was observed that in a nuclear installation, although dealing with diversified safety processes, integration is possible and necessary, since there are more reasons for integration than otherwise. (author)
Gregory D Koblentz
Full Text Available Since 2004, the Republic of Iraq has undertaken a concerted effort to comply with all of its international obligations to prevent the proliferation of chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear (CBRN weapons. A centerpiece of this effort is Iraq’s development of a national biorisk management system to prevent, prepare for, and respond to naturally occurring and deliberate biological threats. The Iraqi National Monitoring Authority (INMA, which is responsible for CBRN security and nonproliferation in Iraq, has played a key role in establishing this system. This article provides an overview of Iraq’s international nonproliferation commitments, describes the legal and organizational steps it has taken to implement these commitments, and examines current initiatives to strengthen Iraq’s biosecurity.
Derne, Bonnie; Fearnley, Emily; Goater, Sarah; Carter, Karen; Weinstein, Philip
Ciguatera Fish Poisoning (CFP), a significant public health problem in the Pacific, is intrinsically linked to the health of coral reef ecosystems. Incidence data on CFP could therefore be used, in theory, as indicators of disruption to coral reefs. Some disruptions, such as increasing sea surface temperatures, result from global environmental change--therefore suggesting that CFP is likely to become an increasing public health problem in the region. The proactive management of increasing numbers of cases will depend on an understanding of the ecology of the disease, sound health surveillance systems to report cases of CFP including appropriate case definitions, and quantifiable correlations between case numbers and environmental variables. Here, we briefly review the knowledge about these components in Pacific Island Countries and Territories (PICTs), including summarising regional variation in symptoms of CFP cases, investigating media as an enhanced surveillance tool, and summarising regional environmental drivers of CFP cases. We conclude that CFP could be an important indicator of the health of reef ecosystems in the face of global climate change and more novel approaches such as combining environmental and health data, need to be implemented to improve surveillance of CFP.
Dossou, Jean-Paul; Assarag, Bouchra; Delamou, Alexandre; Van der Veken, Karen; Belaid, Loubna; Ouédraogo, Moctar; Khalfallah, Sonia; Aouras, Hayet; Diadhiou, Mohamed; Fassassi, Raïmi; Delvaux, Thérèse
Health research capacities have been improved in Africa but still remain weak as compared to other regions of the World. To strengthen these research capacities, international collaboration and networking for knowledge and capacity transfer are needed. In this commentary, we present the Network for Scientific Support in the field of Sexual and Reproductive Health in West and North Africa, its priority research topics and discuss its implementation process. Established in January 2014, the Network aims at generating human rights and gender-based research fully carried out and driven by South based institutions. It is composed of 12 institutions including the Institute of Tropical Medicine of Antwerp (Belgium) and 11 institutions from eight Francophone West and North African countries. The key areas of interest of this network are health policies analysis and health system research in family planning, HIV prevention among vulnerable groups, quality of care and breast cancers. Since it started, seventeen research proposals based on locally relevant research questions have been developed. Among the seventeen proposals, eleven have been implemented. Several research institutions enhanced linkages with local representations of international partners such as UNFPA. The network is committed to strengthening methodological research capacities and soft skills such as fundraising, advocacy and leadership. Such competencies are strongly needed for developing an effective South-based leadership in Sexual and Reproductive Health research, and for achieving the Sustainable Development Goals.
Nlandu Roger Ngatu
Full Text Available Ebolavirus disease (EVD is a severe contagious disease in humans, and health care workers (HCW are at risk of infection when caring for EVD patients. This paper highlights the epidemiologic profile of EVD and its impact on the health care workforce in Africa. A documentary study was conducted which consisted of a review of available literature regarding the epidemiology of EVD, occupational EVD (OEVD, and work safety issues in Sub-Saharan Africa; the literature findings are enriched by field experiences from the authors. EVD outbreaks have already caused 30,500 cases in humans of whom 12,933 died (as of September 9, 2015, and the number of infected HCW has dramatically increased. All eight HCW infected during the 2014 outbreak in Democratic Republic of the Congo died, whereas during the recent West African EVD epidemic more than 890 HCW were infected, with a case fatality rate of 57%. Occupational exposure to blood and other body fluids due to inadequate use of personal protective equipment and needle stick or sharp injuries are among factors that contribute to the occurrence of OEVD. Prevention of OEVD should be one of the top priorities in EVD outbreak preparedness and management, and research should be conducted to elucidate occupational and other factors that expose HCW to EVD. In addition to regularly training HCW to be adequately prepared to care for patients with EVD, it is critical to strengthen the general health care system and improve occupational safety in medical settings of countries at risk.
South-South cooperation as a mechanism to strengthen public health services in Africa: ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... Implementation of new models of development cooperation have been on the increase ... health system strengthening, aid effectiveness, sustainable development goals, Africa ...
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Health System Measurement Project tracks government data on critical U.S. health system indicators. The website presents national trend data as well as detailed...
Firmo, J.P.; Arruda, M.R.T.; Correia, J.R.; Tiago, C.
Highlights: • The mechanical behaviour of partially bonded CFRP strengthened beams was modelled. • Two dimensional non-linear finite element models were developed. • Partially bonded beams can present similar flexural strength to fully bonded ones. • Relations between the bonded length and the strength reduction were proposed. • The proposed relations were used for the design of fire protection systems. - Abstract: Recent fire resistance tests on reinforced concrete (RC) beams strengthened with carbon fibre reinforced polymers (CFRP) laminates showed that it is possible to attain considerable fire endurance provided that thermal insulation is applied at the anchorage zones of the strengthening system. With such protection, although the CFRP laminate prematurely debonds in the central part of the beam, it transforms into a cable fixed at the extremities until one of the anchorage zones loses its bond strength. The main objective of this paper is to propose a simplified methodology for the design of fire protection systems for CFRP strengthened-RC beams, which is based on applying thicker insulation at the anchorage zones (promoting the above mentioned “cable behaviour”) and a thinner one at the current zone (avoiding tensile rupture of the carbon fibres). As a first step towards the validation of this methodology, finite element (FE) models were developed to simulate the flexural behaviour at ambient temperature of full-scale RC beams strengthened with CFRP laminates according to the externally bonded reinforcement (EBR) and near surface mounted (NSM) techniques, in both cases fully or partially bonded (the latter simulating the cable). The FE models were calibrated with results of 4-point bending tests on small-scale beams and then extended for different beam geometries, with spans (L) varying from 2 m to 5 m, in which the influence of the CFRP bonded length (l b ) and the loading type (point or uniformly distributed) on the strength reduction was
Dente, Maria Grazia; Riccardo, Flavia; Nacca, Gloria; Ranghiasci, Alessia; Escadafal, Camille; Gaayeb, Lobna; Jiménez-Clavero, Miguel Angel; Manuguerra, Jean-Claude; Picard, Marie; Fernández-Pinero, Jovita; Pérez-Ramírez, Elisa; Robert, Vincent; Victoir, Kathleen; Declich, Silvia
In the context of One Health, there is presently an effort to integrate surveillance of human, animal, entomological, and environmental sectors. This aims to strengthen the prevention of, and preparedness against, arbovirus infections, also in the light of environmental and climate changes that could increase the risk of transmission. However, criteria to define integrated surveillance, and to compare different systems, still need to be identified and tested. We conducted a scoping review to identify and examine surveillance systems for West Nile virus (WNV), chikungunya virus (CHKV), dengue virus (DENV), and Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), which involve human, animal, entomological, and environmental sectors. We analyzed findings using a conceptual framework we developed for this purpose. The review highlights that the criteria proposed in the conceptual framework to describe integrated surveillance are consistently reported in the context of studies and programs related to integrated surveillance of the selected arboviral diseases. These criteria can facilitate the identification and description of operationalized One Health surveillance.
Lozano-Fuentes, Saul; Elizondo-Quiroga, Darwin; Farfan-Ale, Jose Arturo; Loroño-Pino, Maria Alba; Garcia-Rejon, Julian; Gomez-Carro, Salvador; Lira-Zumbardo, Victor; Najera-Vazquez, Rosario; Fernandez-Salas, Ildefonso; Calderon-Martinez, Joaquin; Dominguez-Galera, Marco; Mis-Avila, Pedro; Morris, Natashia; Coleman, Michael; Moore, Chester G; Beaty, Barry J; Eisen, Lars
Novel, inexpensive solutions are needed for improved management of vector-borne and other diseases in resource-poor environments. Emerging free software providing access to satellite imagery and simple editing tools (e.g. Google Earth) complement existing geographic information system (GIS) software and provide new opportunities for: (i) strengthening overall public health capacity through development of information for city infrastructures; and (ii) display of public health data directly on an image of the physical environment. We used freely accessible satellite imagery and a set of feature-making tools included in the software (allowing for production of polygons, lines and points) to generate information for city infrastructure and to display disease data in a dengue decision support system (DDSS) framework. Two cities in Mexico (Chetumal and Merida) were used to demonstrate that a basic representation of city infrastructure useful as a spatial backbone in a DDSS can be rapidly developed at minimal cost. Data layers generated included labelled polygons representing city blocks, lines representing streets, and points showing the locations of schools and health clinics. City blocks were colour-coded to show presence of dengue cases. The data layers were successfully imported in a format known as shapefile into a GIS software. The combination of Google Earth and free GIS software (e.g. HealthMapper, developed by WHO, and SIGEpi, developed by PAHO) has tremendous potential to strengthen overall public health capacity and facilitate decision support system approaches to prevention and control of vector-borne diseases in resource-poor environments.
Sharma, Anjali; Zodpey, Sanjay; Batra, Bipin
A trained and adequate heath workforce forms the crux in designing, implementing and monitoring health programs and delivering quality health services. Education is recognized as a critical instrument for creating such trained health professionals who can effectively address the 21 st century health challenges. At present, the Public Health Education in India is offered through medical colleges and also outside the corridors of medical colleges which was not the scenario earlier. Traditionally, Public Health Education has been a domain of medical colleges and was open for medical graduates only. In order to standardize the Postgraduate Medical Education in India, the National Board of Examinations (NBE) was set up as an independent autonomous body of its kind in the country in the field of medical sciences with the prime objective of improving the quality of the medical education. NBE has also played a significant role in enhancing Public Health Education in India through its Diplomat of National Board (DNB) Programs in Social and Preventive Medicine, Health and Hospital Administration, Maternal and Child Health, Family Medicine and Field Epidemiology. It envisions creating a cadre of skilled and motivated public health professionals and also developing a roadmap for postgraduate career pathways. However, there still exists gamut of opportunities for it to engage in expanding the scope of Public Health Education. It can play a key role in accreditation of public health programs and institutions which can transform the present landscape of education of health professionals. It also needs to revisit and re-initiate programs like DNB in Tropical Medicine and Occupational Health which were discontinued. The time is imperative for NBE to seize these opportunities and take necessary actions in strengthening and expanding the scope of Public Health Education in India.
Stratton, J; Toribio, J-A L M L; Suon, S; Young, J R; Cowled, B; Windsor, P A
A cross-sectional survey of 445 Village Animal Health Workers (VAHWs) from 19 provinces in Cambodia was undertaken. The aim was to establish their levels of training, farm visit frequency, reasons for visits and disease reporting practices, enabling the strengths and weaknesses of the VAHW system in Cambodia to be determined, in providing both a fee-based smallholder livestock clinical service and a government partnership in transboundary animal disease (TAD) surveillance and control. The study used 'guided group interviews' and identified that VAHWs had good contact with farmers with 61.5% making more than one farm visit daily. However, incomes from services remained low, with 45% VAHWs obtaining between 20 and 40% of their household income from VAHW activities. VAHWs recorded relatively high rates of disease reporting, with 72% claiming they report diseases immediately and 74% undertaking monthly reporting to veterinary authorities. Logistic regression analysis revealed VAHW contact frequency with district and/or provincial officers was associated with more VAHW farm visits, and frequency of VAHW visits to smallholder farms was positively associated with average monthly expenditure on animal medication and equipment. This suggests that increased veterinary extension to VAHWs and access to veterinary equipment, vaccines and drugs may further increase VAHW-farmer engagement. VAHWs provide an accessible, market-based, animal health 'treatment and reporting' service linked to livestock smallholders across Cambodia. However, for improved TAD prevention and more efficient control of outbreaks, research that assesses provision of an animal health 'preventive-based' business model is urgently needed to reduce both the costs to farmers and the risks to the economy due to foot-and-mouth disease and other TADs in Cambodia. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
Osaki, Carl S; Hinchey, Deborah; Harris, Joy
The 10 essential services of environmental health, which are based on the 10 essential public health services, can guide environmental health practitioners in systematically organizing and managing environmental public health programs and activities. The National Center for Environmental Health of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has used the 10 essential services of environmental health as a basis for its six goals for the revitalization of environmental health in the 21st century. Nevertheless, studies indicate that very few environmental health practitioners are aware of the 10 essential services. This article discusses how essential-services training has increased the awareness and knowledge of environmental health practitioners about the development, value, and use of the essential services. Examples of training outcomes are offered to illustrate how the use of the essential-services framework has improved environmental health performance and practice.
Davis, Kristin E.; Ekboir, Javier; Spielman, David J.
This paper examines how post-secondary agricultural education and training (AET) in sub-Saharan Africa can contribute to agricultural development by strengthening the capacity to innovate--to introduce new products and processes that are socially or economically relevant to smallholder farmers and other agents. Using the AET system in Mozambique…
Wang, Julia Shu-Huah; Ssewamala, Fred M.; Han, Chang-Keun
In sub-Saharan Africa, many extended families assume the role of caregivers for children orphaned by AIDS (AIDS-affected children). The economic and psychological stress ensued from caregiving duties often predispose caregivers to poor mental health outcomes. Yet, very few studies exist on effective interventions to support these caregivers. Using data from a randomized controlled trial called Suubi-Maka (N = 346), this paper examines whether a family economic strengthening intervention among families caring for AIDS-affected children (ages 12–14) in Uganda would improve the primary caregivers’ mental health functioning. The Suubi-Maka study comprised of a control condition (n = 167) receiving usual care for AIDS-affected children, and a treatment condition (n = 179) receiving a family economic strengthening intervention, including matched savings accounts, and financial planning and management training to incentivize families to save money for education and/or family-level income generating projects. This paper uses data from baseline/pre-intervention (wave 1) interviews with caregivers and 12-month post-intervention initiation (wave 2). The caregiver’s mental health measure adapted from previous studies in sub- Saharan Africa had an internal consistency of .88 at wave 1 and .90 at wave 2. At baseline, the two study groups did not significantly differ on caregiver’s mental health functioning. However, at 12-month follow-up, multiple regression analysis located significant differences between the two study groups on mental health functioning. Specifically, following the intervention, caregivers in the treatment condition reported positive improvements on their mental health functioning, especially in the symptom areas of obsession–compulsion, interpersonal sensitivity, hostility, and psychoticism. Findings point to a need for programs and policies aimed at supporting caregivers of AIDS-affected children to begin to consider incorporating family
Henry Ford Health Systems evolved from a hospital into a system delivering care to 2.5 million patients and includes the Cancer Epidemiology, Prevention and Control Program, which focuses on epidemiologic and public health aspects of cancer.
Ngatu, Nlandu Roger; Kayembe, Ntumba Jean-Marie; Phillips, Elayne Kornblatt; Okech-Ojony, Joa; Patou-Musumari, Masika; Gaspard-Kibukusa, Mukunda; Madone-Mandina, Ndona; Godefroid-Mayala, Mabasi; Mutaawe, Lubogo; Manzengo, Casimir; Roger-Wumba, Dimosi; Nojima, Sayumi
Ebolavirus disease (EVD) is a severe contagious disease in humans, and health care workers (HCW) are at risk of infection when caring for EVD patients. This paper highlights the epidemiologic profile of EVD and its impact on the health care workforce in Africa. A documentary study was conducted which consisted of a review of available literature regarding the epidemiology of EVD, occupational EVD (OEVD), and work safety issues in Sub-Saharan Africa; the literature findings are enriched by field experiences from the authors. EVD outbreaks have already caused 30,500 cases in humans of whom 12,933 died (as of September 9, 2015), and the number of infected HCW has dramatically increased. All eight HCW infected during the 2014 outbreak in Democratic Republic of the Congo died, whereas during the recent West African EVD epidemic more than 890 HCW were infected, with a case fatality rate of 57%. Occupational exposure to blood and other body fluids due to inadequate use of personal protective equipment and needle stick or sharp injuries are among factors that contribute to the occurrence of OEVD. Prevention of OEVD should be one of the top priorities in EVD outbreak preparedness and management, and research should be conducted to elucidate occupational and other factors that expose HCW to EVD. In addition to regularly training HCW to be adequately prepared to care for patients with EVD, it is critical to strengthen the general health care system and improve occupational safety in medical settings of countries at risk. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Lettenmaier, Cheryl; Kraft, Joan Marie; Raisanen, Keris; Serlemitsos, Elizabeth
HIV communication is most effective and sustainable when it is designed and implemented locally and tailored to the local context. This requires capacity strengthening at national, subnational, and community levels. Through a review of the published and selected "grey" literature, we examine HIV communication capacity strengthening: definitions, measurements, implementation, and effects. We found limited documentation of HIV communication capacity needs or systematic approaches to address them. Most HIV communication capacity strengthening to date has focused on building individual competencies to design and manage social and behavior change communication programs through training courses, often coupled with networking opportunities for participants, post-training mentoring, and technical assistance. A few of these efforts have been evaluated through pre- and post-training tests and qualitative interviews with participants and have shown potential for improvement in individual skills and knowledge. Health communication capacity assessment tools that measure individual and organizational competencies exist, but they have most often been used to identify capacity building needs, not for evaluating capacity strengthening efforts. A new definition of capacity strengthening, grown out of recent efforts to improve effectiveness of international health and development programs, focuses on improving organizational and societal systems that support performance and individual competencies. We propose a holistic model for HIV communication capacity strengthening and call for rigorous documentation and evaluation to determine and scale-up optimal capacity building interventions for strengthening social and behavior change communication for HIV prevention, care, and treatment in developing countries.
Juul, Annegrete; Krasnik, Allan; Rudkjøbing, Andreas
The Health Systems in Transition (HiT) series provide detailed descriptions of health systems in the countries of the WHO European Region as well as some additional OECD countries. An individual health system review (HiT) examines the specific approach to the organization, financing and delivery...... of health services in a particular country and the role of the main actors in the health system. It describes the institutional framework, process, content, and implementation of health and health care policies. HiTs also look at reforms in progress or under development and make an assessment of the health...... system based on stated objectives and outcomes with respect to various dimensions (health status, equity, quality, efficiency, accountability)....
Shieshia, Mildred; Noel, Megan; Andersson, Sarah; Felling, Barbara; Alva, Soumya; Agarwal, Smisha; Lefevre, Amnesty; Misomali, Amos; Chimphanga, Boniface; Nsona, Humphreys; Chandani, Yasmin
In 2010, 7.6 million children under five died globally - largely due to preventable diseases. Majority of these deaths occurred in sub-Saharan Africa. As a strategy to reduce child mortality, the Government of Malawi, in 2008, initiated integrated community case management allowing health surveillance assistants (HSAs) to treat sick children in communities. Malawi however, faces health infrastructure challenges, including weak supply chain systems leading to low product availability. A baseline assessment conducted in 2010 identified data visibility, transport and motivation of HSAs as challenges to continuous product availability. The project designed a mHealth tool as part of two interventions to address these challenges. A mobile health (mHealth) technology - cStock, for reporting on community stock data - was designed and implemented as an integral component of Enhanced Management (EM) and Efficient Product Transport (EPT) interventions. We developed a feasibility and acceptability framework to evaluate the effectiveness and predict the likelihood of scalability and ownership of the interventions. Mixed methods were used to conduct baseline and follow up assessments in May 2010 and February 2013, respectively. Routine monitoring data on community stock level reports, from cStock, were used to analyze supply chain performance over 18-month period in the intervention groups. Mean stock reporting rate by HSAs was 94% in EM group (n = 393) and 79% in EPT group (n = 253); mean reporting completeness was 85% and 65%, respectively. Lead time for HSA drug resupply over the 18-month period was, on average, 12.8 days in EM and 26.4 days in EPT, and mean stock out rate for 6 tracer products was significantly lower in EM compared to EPT group. Results demonstrate that cStock was feasible and acceptable to test users in Malawi, and that based on comparison with the EPT group, the team component of the EM group was an essential pairing with cStock to achieve the best
Shieshia, Mildred; Noel, Megan; Andersson, Sarah; Felling, Barbara; Alva, Soumya; Agarwal, Smisha; Lefevre, Amnesty; Misomali, Amos; Chimphanga, Boniface; Nsona, Humphreys; Chandani, Yasmin
Background In 2010, 7.6 million children under five died globally – largely due to preventable diseases. Majority of these deaths occurred in sub–Saharan Africa. As a strategy to reduce child mortality, the Government of Malawi, in 2008, initiated integrated community case management allowing health surveillance assistants (HSAs) to treat sick children in communities. Malawi however, faces health infrastructure challenges, including weak supply chain systems leading to low product availability. A baseline assessment conducted in 2010 identified data visibility, transport and motivation of HSAs as challenges to continuous product availability. The project designed a mHealth tool as part of two interventions to address these challenges. Methods A mobile health (mHealth) technology – cStock, for reporting on community stock data – was designed and implemented as an integral component of Enhanced Management (EM) and Efficient Product Transport (EPT) interventions. We developed a feasibility and acceptability framework to evaluate the effectiveness and predict the likelihood of scalability and ownership of the interventions. Mixed methods were used to conduct baseline and follow up assessments in May 2010 and February 2013, respectively. Routine monitoring data on community stock level reports, from cStock, were used to analyze supply chain performance over 18–month period in the intervention groups. Results Mean stock reporting rate by HSAs was 94% in EM group (n = 393) and 79% in EPT group (n = 253); mean reporting completeness was 85% and 65%, respectively. Lead time for HSA drug resupply over the 18–month period was, on average, 12.8 days in EM and 26.4 days in EPT, and mean stock out rate for 6 tracer products was significantly lower in EM compared to EPT group. Conclusions Results demonstrate that cStock was feasible and acceptable to test users in Malawi, and that based on comparison with the EPT group, the team component of the EM group was an
Goodrum, J.W.; LeFevre, B.G.
The strength characteristics and microstructures of aged Ni-Mo alloys containing ordered (Ni 4 Mo) precipitates were studied as a function of aging time and temperature. It was found that 17 at. percent Mo alloy aged at 750 0 C produced a uniform dispersion of cuboidal β precipitates which coarsened with time producing a gradual increase in flow stress. The flow stress increment was found to vary in qualitative agreement with both order strengthening and coherency strain models. Both these models give over-estimates of the strengthening increment. A negative dependence of flow stress on temperature is attributed to coherency strain contributions
Hadgraft, Nyssa; Owen, Neville
We provide an overview of a recently published, edited book in a rapidly emerging field of research, policy, and practice for physical activity: "Sedentary Behavior and Health". In this commentary, we highlight the broad perspectives provided in the 27 chapters of "Sedentary Behavior and Health" and suggest a research strategy…
Villadsen, Sarah Fredsted; Negussie, Dereje; GebreMariam, Abebe
(OR 2.4, 95% CI: 1.5; 3.5). There was no effect on infant immunisation coverage and negative effect on number of antenatal visits. The effect on various outcomes was modified by maternal education, and results indicate increased health facility delivery (OR 2.4, 95% CI: 0.8; 6.9) and breast feeding...... AND MEASUREMENTS: an intervention was designed participatorily and comprised trainings, supervisions, equipment, health education material, and adaption of guidelines. It was implemented at public facilities. Household surveys, before (2008) and after (2010) intervention, were conducted amongst all women who had...... given birth within the previous 12 months. The effect of the intervention was assessed by comparing the change in health behaviours (number of antenatal visits, health facility delivery, breast feeding, preventive infant health check, and infant immunisation) from before to after the intervention period...
Lebbie, Sowo A; Le Voir, Rosanna; Tom-Kargbo, Joanna; Yilla, Mohamed Drissa; Kamara, Abu Bakarr; Nam, Sara L
In 2012, the government of Sierra Leone cut the national budget allocation to the health sector. Civil society organizations planned a nationwide health budget advocacy campaign, coinciding with the 2012 general elections, to hold future leaders to account on financing for women's and children's health. As part of the campaign, Evidence for Action produced district health budget tracking scorecards. The scorecards presented Ministry of Finance data on the allocation and disbursement of health funds in each district. The data were communicated using simple, non-technical language so that citizens could understand the key messages and take action. A total of 5600 scorecards were shared at district electoral forums attended by political candidates, community members, and health activists. Since the election, the proportion of the total government budget allocated to health increased from 7.4% in 2012 to 11.2% in 2014. However, transforming politicians' commitments and pledges into implementation has been challenging, confirming that accountability is a long-term process. Copyright Â© 2016 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Studies have consistently found positive associations between social participation and health, but it is unclear if they vary across the life course. Younger individuals are likely to initiate and benefit from social participation in different ways from older individuals, which may in turn alter its overall influence on health outcomes. Age-varying associations, if present, may then attenuate or amplify the health consequences stemming from changes in social participation over the adult life course. To assess the strength of the association between social participation and health across the life course, and whether it increases with age. I use five waves of panel data (N = 11202 person-year observations) from the Americans' Changing Lives Survey, collected over 25 years (1986-2011), to examine the association of formal and informal social participation with (1) the number of chronic health conditions and (2) depressive symptoms, focusing on whether these associations become stronger with age. Growth curve models (stratified by gender) with an accelerated longitudinal design were used to construct age trajectories of the dependent variables. An interaction term was then included to test for age-varying effects for each health outcome. Results show that the association between formal social participation and depressive symptoms grew stronger with age, but only for men. For women, positive associations between social participation and health were found, but seemed to remain consistent over the life course. Findings suggest that the social participation and health association over the life course is likely to be contingent on gender, the type of social participation, and the specific health outcome being considered. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The link between pollution and poor health and mortality has been established globally. Developing countries carry most of the burden of ill health from air pollution, and urban centres like the City of Cape Town even more so. Effective air quality management to protect human health relies on the attainment of air quality standards. This study uses the Benefits Mapping and Analysis Program (BenMAP along with a locally derived exposure-response function and air quality monitor data to investigate whether the consistent attainment of current or more stringent air quality standards would avoid loss of life. The results show that attaining the PM10 24-hour mean South Africa National Standard limit and the PM10 and SO2 24-hour mean World Health Organisation guidelines in Cape Town reduces levels of pollutants and does reduce excess risk of mortality in Cape Town.
Kuhlmann, Ellen; Burau, Viola
There is now widespread agreement on the benefits of an integrated, people-centred health workforce, but the implementation of new models is difficult. We argue that we need to think about stakeholders and power, if we want to ensure change in the health workforce. We discuss these issues from a governance perspective and suggest a critical approach to stakeholder involvement as an indicator of good governance. Three models of involving stakeholders in health workforce governance can be identified: corporatist professional involvement either in a continental European model of conservative corporatism or in a Nordic model of public corporatism; managerialist and market-centred involvement of professions as organizational agents; and a more inclusive, network-based involvement of plural professional experts at different levels of governance. The power relations embedded in these models of stakeholder involvement have different effects on capacity building for an integrated health workforce.
This paper discusses what is meant by 'global health promotion' and the extent to which global governance architecture is emerging, enabling people to increase control over, and to improve, their health within an increasingly global context. A review of selected initiatives on breast-milk substitutes, healthy cities, tobacco control and diet and nutrition suggests that existing institutions are uneven in their capacity to tackle global health issues. The strategic building of a global approach to health promotion will draw on a broad range of governance instruments, give careful attention to implementation in the medium to longer term, reflect on the nature and appropriateness of partnerships and develop fuller understanding of effective policies for harnessing the positive influences of globalization and countering the negatives.
Goater, Sarah; Cook, Angus; Hogan, Anthony; Mengersen, Kerrie; Hieatt, Arron; Weinstein, Philip
Under current climate change projections, the capacity to provide safe drinking water to Australian communities will be challenged. Part of this challenge is the lack of an adaptive governance strategy that transcends jurisdictional boundaries to support integrated policy making, regulation, or infrastructural adaptation. Consequently, some water-related health hazards may not be adequately captured or forecast under existing water resource management policies to ensure safe water supplies. Given the high degree of spatial and temporal variability in climate conditions experienced by Australian communities, new strategies for national health planning and prioritization for safe water supplies are warranted. The challenges facing public health in Australia will be to develop flexible and robust governance strategies that strengthen public health input to existing water policy, regulation, and surveillance infrastructure through proactive risk planning, adopting new technologies, and intersectoral collaborations. The proposed approach could assist policy makers avert or minimize risk to communities arising from changes in climate and water provisions both in Australia and in the wider Asia Pacific region.
Hindhede, Anette Lykke; Aagaard-Hansen, Jens
This article provides an example of the application of social network analysis method to assess community participation thereby strengthening planning and implementation of health promotion programming. Community health promotion often takes the form of services that reach out to or are located within communities. The concept of community reflects the idea that people's behavior and well-being are influenced by interaction with others, and here, health promotion requires participation and local leadership to facilitate transmission and uptake of interventions for the overall community to achieve social change. However, considerable uncertainty exists over exact levels of participation in these interventions. The article draws on a mixed methods research within a community development project in a vulnerable neighborhood of a town in Denmark. It presents a detailed analysis of the way in which social network analysis can be used as a tool to display participation and nonparticipation in community development and health promotion activities, to help identify capacities and assets, mobilize resources, and finally to evaluate the achievements. The article concludes that identification of interpersonal ties among people who know one another well as well as more tenuous relationships in networks can be used by community development workers to foster greater cohesion and cooperation within an area.
Full Text Available Background: Following the adoption of the Women Evaluation Policy in 2012, a series of systems and mechanisms were introduced in the organisation to strengthen the evaluation function at both central and decentralised levels. They were based on a systemic approach and a Theory of Change for building an enabling environment for evaluation in UN Women. Objectives: The purpose of this article was to analyse progress made and challenges with respect to establishing evaluation systems and institutionalising an evaluation culture in the UN Women Africa region. Method: The article draws on UN Women evaluation performance data collected over the past five years, discussions and practical experience by the author of working on evaluation with UN Women since 2009. It also analyses UN Women documents and the broader literature on the topic. Results: The findings illustrate that the different mechanisms to strengthen the evaluation function in UN Women show progress in the Africa region on four out of the five selected evaluation performance indicators. The Theory of Change to strengthen the UN Women evaluation function is largely validated by the wider literature on evaluation use. External assessments confirm that the UN Women evaluation function is sound overall. Conclusion: The article concludes that evaluation performance indicators only provide a partial snapshot of the many different factors that help or undermine evaluative thinking and a learning culture within an organisation. Institutional systems and mechanisms are necessary but not sufficient for nurturing an evaluation culture and ensuring utilisation of evaluation for better development effectiveness.
Albreht, Tit; Pribakovic Brinovec, Radivoje; Josar, Dusan; Poldrugovac, Mircha; Kostnapfel, Tatja; Zaletel, Metka; Panteli, Dimitra; Maresso, Anna
This analysis of the Slovene health system reviews recent developments in organization and governance, health financing, health care provision, health reforms and health system performance. The health of the population has improved over the last few decades. While life expectancy for both men and women is similar to EU averages, morbidity and mortality data show persistent disparities between regions, and mortality from external causes is particularly high. Satisfaction with health care delivery is high, but recently waiting times for some outpatient specialist services have increased. Greater focus on preventive measures is also needed as well as better care coordination, particularly for those with chronic conditions. Despite having relatively high levels of co-payments for many services covered by the universal compulsory health insurance system, these expenses are counterbalanced by voluntary health insurance, which covers 95% of the population liable for co-payments. However, Slovenia is somewhat unique among social health insurance countries in that it relies almost exclusively on payroll contributions to fund its compulsory health insurance system. This makes health sector revenues very susceptible to economic and labour market fluctuations. A future challenge will be to diversify the resource base for health system funding and thus bolster sustainability in the longer term, while preserving service delivery and quality of care. Given changing demographics and morbidity patterns, further challenges include restructuring the funding and provision of long-term care and enhancing health system efficiency through reform of purchasing and provider-payment systems. World Health Organization 2016 (acting as the host organization for, and secretariat of, the European Observatory on Health Systems and Policies).
Gerkens, Sophie; Merkur, Sherry
The Health Systems in Transition (HiT) profiles are country-based reports that provide a detailed description of a health system and of policy initiatives in progress or under development. HiTs examine different approaches to the organization, financing and delivery of health services and the role of the main actors in health systems; describe the institutional framework, process, content and implementation of health and health care policies; and highlight challenges and areas that require more in-depth analysis. The Belgian population continues to enjoy good health and long life expectancy. This is partly due to good access to health services of high quality. Financing is based mostly on proportional social security contributions and progressive direct taxation. The compulsory health insurance is combined with a mostly private system of health care delivery, based on independent medical practice, free choice of physician and predominantly fee-for-service payment. This Belgian HiT profile (2010) presents the evolution of the health system since 2007, including detailed information on new policies. While no drastic reforms were undertaken during this period, policy-makers have pursued the goals of improving access to good quality of care while making the system sustainable. Reforms to increase the accessibility of the health system include measures to reduce the out-of-pocket payments of more vulnerable populations (low-income families and individuals as well as the chronically ill). Quality of care related reforms have included incentives to better integrate different levels of care and the establishment of information systems, among others. Additionally, several measures on pharmaceutical products have aimed to reduce costs for both the National Institute for Health and Disability Insurance (NIHDI) and patients, while maintaining the quality of care. World Health Organization 2010, on behalf of the European Observatory on health systems and Policies.
Landrigan, Philip J; Goldman, Lynn R
A key policy breakthrough occurred nearly twenty years ago with the discovery that children are far more sensitive than adults to toxic chemicals in the environment. This finding led to the recognition that chemical exposures early in life are significant and preventable causes of disease in children and adults. We review this knowledge and recommend a new policy to regulate industrial and consumer chemicals that will protect the health of children and all Americans, prevent disease, and reduce health care costs. The linchpins of a new US chemical policy will be: first, a legally mandated requirement to test the toxicity of chemicals already in commerce, prioritizing chemicals in the widest use, and incorporating new assessment technologies; second, a tiered approach to premarket evaluation of new chemicals; and third, epidemiologic monitoring and focused health studies of exposed populations.
Teig, Ellen; Amulya, Joy; Bardwell, Lisa; Buchenau, Michael; Marshall, Julie A; Litt, Jill S
Community gardens are viewed as a potentially useful environmental change strategy to promote active and healthy lifestyles but the scientific evidence base for gardens is limited. As a step towards understanding whether gardens are a viable health promotion strategy for local communities, we set out to examine the social processes that might explain the connection between gardens, garden participation and health. We analyzed data from semi-structured interviews with community gardeners in Denver. The analysis examined social processes described by community gardeners and how those social processes were cultivated by or supportive of activities in community gardens. After presenting results describing these social processes and the activities supporting them, we discuss the potential for the place-based social processes found in community gardens to support collective efficacy, a powerful mechanism for enhancing the role of gardens in promoting health.
Chevreul, Karine; Berg Brigham, Karen; Durand-Zaleski, Isabelle; Hernandez-Quevedo, Cristina
This analysis of the French health system reviews recent developments in organization and governance, health financing, health care provision, health reforms and health system performance. The French population has a good level of health, with the second highest life expectancy in the world for women. It has a high level of choice of providers, and a high level of satisfaction with the health system. However, unhealthy habits such as smoking and harmful alcohol consumption remain significant causes of avoidable mortality. Combined with the significant burden of chronic diseases, this has underscored the need for prevention and integration of services, although these have not historically been strengths of the French system. Although the French health care system is a social insurance system, it has historically had a stronger role for the state than other Bismarckian social insurance systems. Public financing of health care expenditure is among the highest in Europe and out-of-pocket spending among the lowest. Public insurance is compulsory and covers the resident population; it is financed by employee and employer contributions as well as increasingly through taxation. Complementary insurance plays a significant role in ensuring equity in access. Provision is mixed; providers of outpatient care are largely private, and hospital beds are predominantly public or private non-profit-making. Despite health outcomes being among the best in the European Union, social and geographical health inequities remain. Inequality in the distribution of health care professionals is a considerable barrier to equity. The rising cost of health care and the increasing demand for long-term care are also of concern. Reforms are ongoing to address these issues, while striving for equity in financial access; a long-term care reform including public coverage of long-term care is still pending. World Health Organization 2015 (acting as the host organization for, and secretariat of, the
Azzopardi Muscat, Natasha; Calleja, Neville; Calleja, Antoinette; Cylus, Jonathan
This analysis of the Maltese health system reviews the developments in its organization and governance, health financing, health-care provision, health reforms and health system performance. The health system in Malta consists of a public sector, which is free at the point of service and provides a comprehensive basket of health services for all its citizens, and a private sector, which accounts for a third of total health expenditure and provides the majority of primary care. Maltese citizens enjoy one of the highest life expectancies in Europe. Nevertheless, non-communicable diseases pose a major concern with obesity being increasingly prevalent among both adults and children. The health system faces important challenges including a steadily ageing population, which impacts the sustainability of public finances. Other supply constraints stem from financial and infrastructural limitations. Nonetheless, there exists a strong political commitment to ensure the provision of a healthcare system that is accessible, of high quality, safe and also sustainable. This calls for strategic investments to underpin a revision of existing processes whilst shifting the focus of care away from hospital into the community. World Health Organization 2014 (acting as the host organization for, and secretariat of, the European Observatory on Health Systems and Policies).
Hofmarcher, Maria M; Quentin, Wilm
This analysis of the Austrian health system reviews recent developments in organization and governance, health financing, health-care provision, health reforms and health-system performance. The Austrian health system provides universal coverage for a wide range of benefits and high-quality care. Free choice of providers and unrestricted access to all care levels (general practitioners, specialist physicians and hospitals) are characteristic features of the system. Unsurprisingly, population satisfaction is well above EU average. Income-related inequality in health has increased since 2005, although it is still relatively low compared to other countries. The health-care system has been shaped by both the federal structure of the state and a tradition of delegating responsibilities to self-governing stakeholders. On the one hand, this enables decentralized planning and governance, adjusted to local norms and preferences. On the other hand, it also leads to fragmentation of responsibilities and frequently results in inadequate coordination. For this reason, efforts have been made for several years to achieve more joint planning, governance and financing of the health-care system at the federal and regional level. As in any health system, a number of challenges remain. The costs of the health-care system are well above the EU15 average, both in absolute terms and as a percentage of GDP. There are important structural imbalances in healthcare provision, with an oversized hospital sector and insufficient resources available for ambulatory care and preventive medicine. This is coupled with stark regional differences in utilization, both in curative services (hospital beds and specialist physicians) and preventative services such as preventive health check-ups, outpatient rehabilitation, psychosocial and psychotherapeutic care and nursing. There are clear social inequalities in the use of medical services, such as preventive health check-ups, immunization or dentistry
Simmons, R; Phillips, J F; Rahman, M
An ongoing study at the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (ICDDR,B) is based on the premise that public sector health and family planning programs can be improved through an assessment of the dysfunctional aspects of their operations, the development of problem-solving capabilities, and the transfer of strategies successfully tested in a small-scale pilot project. This paper reports findings from a field trial implemented in a subunit of the project area at an early stage of the project. Operational barriers to public sector program implementation are discussed with regard to the quantity of work, the quality of work, supplies and facilities, integration of health and family planning, and leadership, supervision, and decision making. Initial results of the ICDDR,B intervention on these managerial processes are also indicated.
Gavin, Loretta E; Williams, Jessica R; Rivera, Maria I; Lachance, Christina R
When caring for an adolescent client, providers of contraceptive services must consider whether and how to encourage parent/guardian-child communication about the adolescent's reproductive health. The objective of this systematic review was to summarize the evidence on the effectiveness of programs designed to increase parent-child communication about reproductive health. The review was used to inform national recommendations on quality family planning services. Data analysis occurred from mid-2011 through 2012. Several electronic bibliographic databases were used to identify relevant articles, including PubMed, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and Popline, published from January 1985 through February 2011. Sixteen articles met the inclusion criteria: all studies examined the impact on at least one medium- or short-term outcome, and two studies assessed the impact on teen pregnancy. One study examined the impact of a program conducted in a clinic setting; the remainder examined the impact of programs in community settings. All studies showed a positive impact on at least one short-term outcome, and 12 of 16 studies showed an increase in parent-child communication about reproductive health. Four of seven studies found an impact on sexual risk behavior. Most programs increased parent-child communication, and several resulted in reduced sexual risk behavior of adolescents. This suggests that delivering a clinic-based program that effectively helps parents/guardians talk to their adolescent child(ren) about reproductive health, or referring parents/guardians to an evidence-based program in the community, may be beneficial. However, further rigorous research on delivery of these programs in clinical settings is needed. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Santos-Beltran, A.; Gallegos-Orozco, V.; Reyes, R. Goytia; Miki-Yoshida, M.; Estrada-Guel, I.; Martinez-Sanchez, R.
Al and different amounts of C and C-Cu mixtures were used to produce Al-C and Al-C-Cu powder samples by mechanical milling. Microhardness tests were carried out to evaluate the mechanical properties of the nanocomposites in the as-milled condition. In general, the measured values were considerably higher than pure Al. In order to determine the causes of this hardening, the crystallite size and dislocation density were measured by means of X-ray analyses coupled with a convolutional multiple whole profile (CMWP) fitting program and a comparison with atomic force microscopy (AFM) observations. In Al-C samples, the hardening is mainly due to the decrease of the crystallite size, however for the Al-C-Cu, an additional strengthening mechanism appears and it seems that it is due by a dispersion of graphite nanoparticles in the Al matrix. The strengthening contributions of dislocation density, crystallite size and particle dispersion were modeled by superposing of every single contribution to strengthening (via hardness analyses). We found a direct relationship between the mechanical properties and the nominal amount of C-Cu, where Cu apparently acts as C nanoparticles integration and dispersion agent.
Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the feasibility and acceptability of a comprehensive educational strategy designed to improve care quality in rural areas of Mexico. Materials and methods. A demonstration study was performed in 18 public rural health centers in Mexico, including an educational intervention that consists of the following steps: Development of the strategy; Selection and training of instructors (specialist physicians from the referral hospital and multidisciplinary field teams; Implementation of the strategy among health care teams for six priority causes of visit, through workshops, individual tutorials, and round-table case-review sessions. Feasibility and acceptability were evaluated using checklists, direct observation, questionnaires and in-depth interviews with key players. Results. Despite some organizational barriers, the strategy was perceived as worthy by the participants because of the personalized tutorials and the improved integration of health teams within their usual professional practice. Conclusion. The educational strategy proved to be acceptable; its feasibility for usual care conditions will depend on the improvement of organizational processes at rural facilities.
Conclusion: Xpert MTB/RIF will only improve patient outcomes if optimally implemented within the context of strong tuberculosis programmes and systems. Roll-out of this technology to people living with HIV and others in resource-limited settings offers the opportunity to leverage current tuberculosis and HIV laboratory, diagnostic and programmatic investments, while also addressing challenges and strengthening coordination between laboratory systems, laboratory-programme interfaces, and tuberculosis-HIV programme interfaces. If successful, the benefits of this tool could extend beyond progress toward global End TB Strategy goals, to improve system-wide capacity for global disease detection and control.
Stevens, F.; Zee, J. van der
A health care delivery system is the organized response of a society to the health problems of its inhabitants. Societies choose from alternative health care delivery models and, in doing so, they organize and set goals and priorities in such a way that the actions of different actors are effective,
Yarmoshuk, Aaron N; Guantai, Anastasia Nkatha; Mwangu, Mughwira; Cole, Donald C; Zarowsky, Christina
International university partnerships are recommended for increasing the capacity of sub-Saharan African universities. Many publications describe individual partnerships and projects, and tools are available for guiding collaborations, but systematic mappings of the basic, common characteristics of partnerships are scarce. To document and categorize the international interuniversity partnerships deemed significant to building the capacity of medicine, nursing, and public health programs of 4 East African universities. Two universities in Kenya and 2 in Tanzania were purposefully selected. Key informant interviews, conducted with 42 senior representatives of the 4 universities, identified partnerships they considered significant for increasing the capacity of their institutions' medicine, nursing, and public health programs in education, research, or service. Interviews were transcribed and analyzed. Partners were classified by country of origin and corresponding international groupings, duration, programs, and academic health science components. One hundred twenty-nine university-to-university partnerships from 23 countries were identified. Each university reported between 25 and 36 international university partners. Seventy-four percent of partnerships were with universities in high-income countries, 15% in low- and middle-income countries, and 11% with consortia. Seventy percent included medicine, 37% nursing, and 45% public health; 15% included all 3 programs. Ninety-two percent included an education component, 47% research, and 24% service; 12% included all 3 components. This study confirms the rapid growth of interuniversity cross-border health partnerships this century. It also finds, however, that there is a pool of established international partnerships from numerous countries at each university. Most partnerships that seek to strengthen universities in East Africa should likely ensure they have a significant education component. Universities should make
Dare, Lola; Reeler, Anne
Strengthening healthcare systems has been identified as central to Africa achieving global and regional development targets, including the millennium development goals. Lola Dare and Anne Reeler present case studies on issues that can contribute to improved integration and lead to better performance of health systems in Africa
Evaluating implementation of the World Health Organization's Strategic Approach to strengthening sexual and reproductive health policies and programs to address unintended pregnancy and unsafe abortion.
Rashid, Shusmita; Moore, Julia E; Timmings, Caitlyn; Vogel, Joshua P; Ganatra, Bela; Khan, Dina N; Sayal, Radha; Metin Gülmezoglu, A; Straus, Sharon E
We conducted a process evaluation to assess how the World Health Organization's (WHO) Strategic Approach to strengthening sexual and reproductive health policies and programs ("the SA") was used in 15 countries that requested WHO's technical support in addressing unintended pregnancy and unsafe abortion. The SA is a three-stage planning, policy, and program implementation process. We used the social ecological model (SEM) to analyze the contextual factors that influenced SA implementation. We used a two-phased sequential approach to data collection and analysis. In Phase A, we conducted a document and literature review and synthesized data thematically. In Phase B, we conducted interviews with stakeholders who used the SA in the countries of interest. We used a qualitative method triangulation technique to analyze and combine data from both phases to understand how the SA was implemented in each country. Data from 145 documents and 19 interviews described the SA process and activities in each country. All 15 countries completed Stage 1 activities. The activities of Stage 1 determined activities in subsequent stages and varied across countries. Following Stage 1, some countries focused on reforming policies to improve access to sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services whereas others focused on improving provider-level capacity to enhance SRH service quality and improving community-level SRH education. We identified factors across SEM levels that affected SA implementation, including individual- and community-level perceptions of using the SA and the recommendations that emerged from its use, organizational capacity to conduct SA activities, and how well these activities aligned with the existing political climate. Stakeholders perceived SA implementation to be country-driven and systematic in bringing attention to important SRH issues in their countries. We identified key success factors for influencing the individual, organization, and system change required
Full text: The following main points will be dealt with and underlined by illustrative examples: 0. A preliminary clarification: Contrary to the title's short-hand language, it is of course, not the Additional Protocols entered into by the Agency and States and other Parties to Safeguards Agreements since 1997 nor the Model Additional Protocol adopted by the Board of Governors and endorsed by the General Conference in 1997 that are, by themselves, an important tool for the strengthening of the Agency's safeguards system. They are, however, the necessary legal prerequisite as well as a strong political and moral boost for enabling the Agency to develop and apply additional tools in order to make the international nuclear non-proliferation regime more effective and, therefore, more reassuring and at the same time, more efficient and therefore, more widely accepted. 1. The importance of the new tools cannot be assessed yet. Hopefully, it will grow quickly and consistently. This will depend primarily on two factors: - The extent to which Additional Protocols are entered into force and at what speed this is achieved, and the extent to which these Protocols cover all important peaceful nuclear activities and resources, whether these exist in states with comprehensive safeguards agreements or not; - The extent to which the Agency succeeds in merging the new measures with those applicable before into an optimized, integrated toolbox. 2. The first factor tends to increase effectiveness by permitting the collection of safeguards- relevant data provided not only in reports from countries in which such activities are conducted or such resources exist but also in information coming from other sources such as publications in. or intelligence made available by, other countries. Cross-checking all those data against each other may, in the best case, reinforce their credibility or, in the worst case, reveal gaps and inconsistencies, but will at any rate, in one way or other, help
Lai, Taavi; Habicht, Triin; Kahur, Kristiina; Reinap, Marge; Kiivet, Raul; van Ginneken, Ewout
This analysis of the Estonian health system reviews recent developments in organization and governance, health financing, health-care provision, health reforms and health system performance. Without doubt, the main issue has been the 2008 financial crisis. Although Estonia has managed the downturn quite successfully and overall satisfaction with the system remains high, it is hard to predict the longer-term effects of the austerity package. The latter included some cuts in benefits and prices, increased cost sharing for certain services, extended waiting times, and a reduction in specialized care. In terms of health outcomes, important progress was made in life expectancy, which is nearing the European Union (EU) average, and infant mortality. Improvements are necessary in smoking and alcohol consumption, which are linked to the majority of avoidable diseases. Although the health behaviour of the population is improving, large disparities between groups exist and obesity rates, particularly among young people, are increasing. In health care, the burden of out-of-pocket payments is still distributed towards vulnerable groups. Furthermore, the number of hospitals, hospital beds and average length of stay has decreased to the EU average level, yet bed occupancy rates are still below EU averages and efficiency advances could be made. Going forwards, a number of pre-crisis challenges remain. These include ensuring sustainability of health care financing, guaranteeing a sufficient level of human resources, prioritizing patient-centred health care, integrating health and social care services, implementing intersectoral action to promote healthy behaviour, safeguarding access to health care for lower socioeconomic groups, and, lastly, improving evaluation and monitoring tools across the health system. World Health Organization 2013 (acting as the host organization for, and secretariat of, the European Observatory on Health Systems and Policies).
Sagan, Anna; Panteli, Dimitra; Borkowski, W; Dmowski, M; Domanski, F; Czyzewski, M; Gorynski, Pawel; Karpacka, Dorota; Kiersztyn, E; Kowalska, Iwona; Ksiezak, Malgorzata; Kuszewski, K; Lesniewska, A; Lipska, I; Maciag, R; Madowicz, Jaroslaw; Madra, Anna; Marek, M; Mokrzycka, A; Poznanski, Darius; Sobczak, Alicja; Sowada, Christoph; Swiderek, Maria; Terka, A; Trzeciak, Patrycja; Wiktorzak, Katarzyna; Wlodarczyk, Cezary; Wojtyniak, B; Wrzesniewska-Wal, Iwona; Zelwianska, Dobrawa; Busse, Reinhard
Since the successful transition to a freely elected parliament and a market economy after 1989, Poland is now a stable democracy and is well represented within political and economic organizations in Europe and worldwide. The strongly centralized health system based on the Semashko model was replaced with a decentralized system of mandatory health insurance, complemented with financing from state and territorial self-government budgets. There is a clear separation of health care financing and provision: the National Health Fund (NFZ) the sole payer in the system is in charge of health care financing and contracts with public and non-public health care providers. The Ministry of Health is the key policy-maker and regulator in the system and is supported by a number of advisory bodies, some of them recently established. Health insurance contributions, borne entirely by employees, are collected by intermediary institutions and are pooled by the NFZ and distributed between the 16 regional NFZ branches. In 2009, Poland spent 7.4% of its gross domestic product (GDP) on health. Around 70% of health expenditure came from public sources and over 83.5% of this expenditure can be attributed to the (near) universal health insurance. The relatively high share of private expenditure is mostly represented by out-of-pocket (OOP) payments, mainly in the form of co-payments and informal payments. Voluntary health insurance (VHI) does not play an important role and is largely limited to medical subscription packages offered by employers. Compulsory health insurance covers 98% of the population and guarantees access to a broad range of health services. However, the limited financial resources of the NFZ mean that broad entitlements guaranteed on paper are not always available. Health care financing is overall at most proportional: while financing from health care contributions is proportional and budgetary subsidies to system funding are progressive, high OOP expenditures
Full Text Available Background and objective: Peru's Ministry of Health has made efforts to increase the cultural inclusiveness of maternal health services. In 2005, the Ministry adopted an intercultural birthing policy (IBP that authorizes and encourages the use of culturally acceptable birthing practices in government-run health facilities. However, studies suggest that indigenous women may receive inconsistent benefits from these kinds of policies. This article examines whether a grassroots accountability initiative based on citizen monitoring of local health facilities by indigenous women can help to promote the objectives of the IBP and improve intercultural maternal health care. Design: Findings are drawn from a larger qualitative research study completed in 2015 that included fieldwork done between 2010 and 2011. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 23 women working as citizen monitors in local health facilities in Puno and 30 key informants, including frontline health workers, health officials, and civil society actors in Puno and Lima, and human rights lawyers from the Defensoría del Pueblo Office in Puno. Results: Monitors confirmed from their own personal experiences in the 1990s and early 2000s that respect for intercultural aspects of maternal health care, including traditional indigenous birthing practices, were not readily accepted in publicly funded health facilities. It was also common for indigenous women to face discrimination when seeking health service provided by the state. Although the government's adoption of the IBP in 2005 was a positive step, considerable efforts are still needed to ensure high-quality, culturally appropriate maternal health care is consistently available in local health facilities. Conclusions: Despite important progress in the past two decades, policies aimed at improving intercultural maternal health care are unevenly implemented in local health facilities. Civil society, in particular indigenous women
Background and objective Peru's Ministry of Health has made efforts to increase the cultural inclusiveness of maternal health services. In 2005, the Ministry adopted an intercultural birthing policy (IBP) that authorizes and encourages the use of culturally acceptable birthing practices in government-run health facilities. However, studies suggest that indigenous women may receive inconsistent benefits from these kinds of policies. This article examines whether a grassroots accountability initiative based on citizen monitoring of local health facilities by indigenous women can help to promote the objectives of the IBP and improve intercultural maternal health care. Design Findings are drawn from a larger qualitative research study completed in 2015 that included fieldwork done between 2010 and 2011. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 23 women working as citizen monitors in local health facilities in Puno and 30 key informants, including frontline health workers, health officials, and civil society actors in Puno and Lima, and human rights lawyers from the Defensoría del Pueblo Office in Puno. Results Monitors confirmed from their own personal experiences in the 1990s and early 2000s that respect for intercultural aspects of maternal health care, including traditional indigenous birthing practices, were not readily accepted in publicly funded health facilities. It was also common for indigenous women to face discrimination when seeking health service provided by the state. Although the government's adoption of the IBP in 2005 was a positive step, considerable efforts are still needed to ensure high-quality, culturally appropriate maternal health care is consistently available in local health facilities. Conclusions Despite important progress in the past two decades, policies aimed at improving intercultural maternal health care are unevenly implemented in local health facilities. Civil society, in particular indigenous women themselves, can play an
Dimova, Antoniya; Rohova, Maria; Moutafova, Emanuela; Atanasova, Elka; Koeva, Stefka; Panteli, Dimitra; van Ginneken, Ewout
In the last 20 years, demographic development in Bulgaria has been characterized by population decline, a low crude birth rate, a low fertility rate, a high mortality rate and an ageing population. A stabilizing political situation since the early 2000s and an economic upsurge since the mid-2000s were important factors in the slight increase of the birth and fertility rates and the slight decrease in standardized death rates. In general, Bulgaria lags behind European Union (EU) averages in most mortality and morbidity indicators. Life expectancy at birth reached 73.3 years in 2008 with the main three causes of death being diseases of the circulatory system, malignant neoplasms and diseases of the respiratory system. One of the most important risk factors overall is smoking, and the average standardized death rate for smoking-related causes in 2008 was twice as high as the EU15 average. The Bulgarian health system is characterized by limited statism. The Ministry of Health is responsible for national health policy and the overall organization and functioning of the health system and coordinates with all ministries with relevance to public health. The key players in the insurance system are the insured individuals, the health care providers and the third party payers, comprising the National Health Insurance Fund, the single payer in the social health insurance (SHI) system, and voluntary health insurance companies (VHICs). Health financing consists of a publicprivate mix. Health care is financed from compulsory health insurance contributions, taxes, outofpocket (OOP) payments, voluntary health insurance (VHI) premiums, corporate payments, donations, and external funding. Total health expenditure (THE) as a share of gross domestic product (GDP) increased from 5.3% in 1995 to 7.3% in 2008. At the latter date it consisted of 36.5% OOP payments, 34.8% SHI, 13.6% Ministry of Health expenditure, 9.4% municipality expenditure and 0.3% VHI. Informal payments in the health
Amoah, Padmore Adusei; Phillips, David R
The referral system in health care has been noted as very influential in determining which services are accessed and when. Nonetheless, existing studies have relied on specific measurable factors relating to health personnel, transportation and communication infrastructure, and finance to explain the challenges facing the referral policy in developing countries. While this is understandable, the role of social capital remains mostly uncharted even though it is implicit in the well-known lay referral system. Using various facets of the social capital concept, this paper empirically examines how the resources embedded in both structural and cognitive aspects of social relationships influence knowledge of, and adherence to, referral policy. This study is based on semi-structured in-depth interviews conducted with 79 adults in the Ashanti Region of Ghana in 2015. Of the 79 participants, 28 lived in urban areas and 51 in rural localities. Eight health personnel and eight community leaders also contributed to the study. Additionally, six focus group discussions were held. The findings indicated that both cognitive and structural forms of social capital considerably underpinned the ability and willingness of people to adhere to the referral process. Moreover, the role of social capital was double-barrelled. It contributed in a significant way to encouraging or dissuading potential patients from rightly embracing the policy. In addition, precepts of social capital reinforced both positive and adverse effects of the other determinants of the policy such as finance and transportation. However, the magnitude of such impact was linked to how 'resourceful' and 'trustworthy' one's available social acquaintances were. The paper suggests that a cautious engagement with social capital will make it a potentially powerful tool for understanding the gaps in and improving the effectiveness of referral policy.
Campbell, Jorien; Ahalt, Cyrus; Hagar, Randall; Arroyo, William
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to describe the current state of law enforcement training related to the high number of interactions with persons with mental illness, and to recommend next steps in preparing law enforcement to effectively meet this challenge. Design/methodology/approach The authors reviewed the current literature on relevant law enforcement training programs, focusing primarily on crisis intervention team (CIT) training, and used the case example of California to identify opportunities to improve and enhance law enforcement preparedness for the challenge of responding to persons with mental illness. Findings Broad-based community partnerships working together to develop programs that meet the local needs of both those with mental illness and law enforcement, the availability of mental health treatment centers with no-refusal policies, and a coordinating person or agency to effectively liaise among stakeholders are critical enhancements to CIT training. Originality/value As increasing attention is paid to adverse interactions between police and vulnerable populations, this paper identifies policies that would build on existing training programs to improve police responses to persons with mental illness.
Kofotolis, Nikolaos; Kellis, Eleftherios; Vlachopoulos, Symeon P; Gouitas, Iraklis; Theodorakis, Yannis
Pilates programs are widely used as a form of regular exercise in a broad range of populations investigating their effectiveness for chronic low back pain (CLBP) treatment. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of a Pilates program and a trunk strengthening exercise program on functional disability and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in women with nonspecific CLBP. A total of 101 volunteer women with CLBP provided data with a 3-month follow-up. They were randomized to either a Pilates (n= 37), trunk strengthening exercise (n= 36) or a control group (n= 28), exercising for a period of 8 weeks, three times a week. Data were collected on HRQOL using the Short-Form 36 Health Survey (SF-36v2), and functional disability using the Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire prior to program initiation, mid-intervention, immediately after program termination, and three months post-intervention. The Pilates participants reported greater improvements on self-reported functional disability and HRQOL compared with participants in the trunk strengthening exercise and control groups (p Pilates group and to a lesser extent for the trunk strengthening exercise group. An 8-week Pilates program improved HRQOL and reduced functional disability more than either a trunk strengthening exercise program or controls among women with CLBP.
Ellsworth, Leanna; O'Keeffe, Annmaree
The Inuit are an indigenous people totalling about 160,000 and living in 4 countries across the Arctic - Canada, Greenland, USA (Alaska) and Russia (Chukotka). In essence, they are one people living in 4 countries. Although there have been significant improvements in Inuit health and survival over the past 50 years, stark differences persist between the key health indicators for Inuit and those of the national populations in the United States, Canada and Russia and between Greenland and Denmark. On average, life expectancy in all 4 countries is lower for Inuit. Infant mortality rates are also markedly different with up to 3 times more infant deaths than the broader national average. Underlying these statistical differences are a range of health, social, economic and environmental factors which have affected Inuit health outcomes. Although the health challenges confronting the Inuit are in many cases similar across the Arctic, the responses to these challenges vary in accordance with the types of health systems in place in each of the 4 countries. Each of the 4 countries has a different health care system with varying degrees of accessibility and affordability for Inuit living in urban, rural and remote areas. To describe funding and governance arrangements for health services to Inuit in Canada, Greenland, USA (Alaska) and Russia (Chukotka) and to determine if a particular national system leads to better outcomes than any of the other 3 systems. Literature review. It was not possible to draw linkages between the different characteristics of the respective health systems, the corresponding financial investment and the systems' effectiveness in adequately serving Inuit health needs for several reasons including the very limited and inadequate collection of Inuit-specific health data by Canada, Alaska and Russia; and second, the data that are available do not necessarily provide a feasible point of comparison in terms of methodology and timing of the available data
for the understanding of polycrystalline strengthening is obtained mainly from surface relief patterns and from bulk structures observed by transmission electron microscopy of thin foils. The results obtained by these methods are discussed and correlations are proposed. A number of features characterizing the deformed...... structure are summarized and the behavior of a number of metals and alloys is reviewed with emphasis on the structural changes in the interior of the grains and in the vicinity of the grain boundaries. The models for strain accommodation during deformation are discussed on the basis of the microstructures...
Full Text Available Background . The Inuit are an indigenous people totalling about 160,000 and living in 4 countries across the Arctic – Canada, Greenland, USA (Alaska and Russia (Chukotka. In essence, they are one people living in 4 countries. Although there have been significant improvements in Inuit health and survival over the past 50 years, stark differences persist between the key health indicators for Inuit and those of the national populations in the United States, Canada and Russia and between Greenland and Denmark. On average, life expectancy in all 4 countries is lower for Inuit. Infant mortality rates are also markedly different with up to 3 times more infant deaths than the broader national average. Underlying these statistical differences are a range of health, social, economic and environmental factors which have affected Inuit health outcomes. Although the health challenges confronting the Inuit are in many cases similar across the Arctic, the responses to these challenges vary in accordance with the types of health systems in place in each of the 4 countries. Each of the 4 countries has a different health care system with varying degrees of accessibility and affordability for Inuit living in urban, rural and remote areas. Objective . To describe funding and governance arrangements for health services to Inuit in Canada, Greenland, USA (Alaska and Russia (Chukotka and to determine if a particular national system leads to better outcomes than any of the other 3 systems. Study design . Literature review. Results . It was not possible to draw linkages between the different characteristics of the respective health systems, the corresponding financial investment and the systems’ effectiveness in adequately serving Inuit health needs for several reasons including the very limited and inadequate collection of Inuit-specific health data by Canada, Alaska and Russia; and second, the data that are available do not necessarily provide a feasible point of
Romaní, Franco; Cabezas, César; Espinoza, Manuel; Minaya, Gabriela; Huaripata, José; Ureta, Juan Manuel; Yazuda, Myriam; Gastañaga, María del Carmen; Miraval, María Luz; Aparco, Juan Pablo; Anaya, Elizabeth; Castro, José; Esquivel, Silvia
The development of scientific health research requires a sustained and articulated research system that is consistent with the research priorities, as well as both internal and external funding, and availability of competent human resources. The Mining Canon, a constitutional right, has been partly used to foster applied scientific research in public universities (PU). In addition, the National Health Institute (INSTITUTO NACIONAL DE SALUD - INS) is devoted, among others, to promoting, managing and disseminating health research development at a national level. As part of these activities, a technical team was created to provide technical assistance to PU for research development using Mining Canon funds by making local adjustments to research protocols promoted by the INS and assumed by the professors-researchers at the Universities. This article aims at describing the reality of research at Peruvian public universities that have access to Mining Canon funds, as well as to elaborate on the work the INS is carrying out in order to strengthen research capabilities, starting with the development of research proposals that could potentially be funded by the Mining Canon.
Rao, Krishna D; Arora, Radhika; Ghaffar, Abdul
Research on health systems is an important contributor to improving health system performance. Importantly, research on program and policy implementation can also create a culture of public accountability. In the last decade, significant health system reforms have been implemented in India. These include strengthening the public sector health system through the National Rural Health Mission (NRHM), and expansion of government-sponsored insurance schemes for the poor. This paper provides a situation analysis of health systems research during the reform period. We reviewed 9,477 publications between 2005 and 2013 in two online databases, PubMed and IndMED. Articles were classified according to the WHO classification of health systems building blocks. Our findings indicate the number of publications on health systems progressively increased every year from 92 in 2006 to 314 in 2012. The majority of papers were on service delivery (40%), with fewer on information (16%), medical technology and vaccines (15%), human resources (11%), governance (5%), and financing (8%). Around 70% of articles were lead by an author based in India, the majority by authors located in only four states. Several states, particularly in eastern and northeastern India, did not have a single paper published by a lead author located in a local institution. Moreover, many of these states were not the subject of a single published paper. Further, a few select institutions produced the bulk of research. Of the foreign author lead papers, 77% came from five countries (USA, UK, Canada, Australia, and Switzerland). The growth of published research during the reform period in India is a positive development. However, bulk of this research is produced in a few states and by a few select institutions Further strengthening health systems research requires attention to neglected health systems domains like human resources, financing, and governance. Importantly, research capacity needs to be strengthened in
Maria Grazia Dente
Full Text Available In the context of One Health, there is presently an effort to integrate surveillance of human, animal, entomological, and environmental sectors. This aims to strengthen the prevention of, and preparedness against, arbovirus infections, also in the light of environmental and climate changes that could increase the risk of transmission. However, criteria to define integrated surveillance, and to compare different systems, still need to be identified and tested. We conducted a scoping review to identify and examine surveillance systems for West Nile virus (WNV, chikungunya virus (CHKV, dengue virus (DENV, and Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV, which involve human, animal, entomological, and environmental sectors. We analyzed findings using a conceptual framework we developed for this purpose. The review highlights that the criteria proposed in the conceptual framework to describe integrated surveillance are consistently reported in the context of studies and programs related to integrated surveillance of the selected arboviral diseases. These criteria can facilitate the identification and description of operationalized One Health surveillance.
the technology and expertise to process and share ... services. GEHS supports efforts that reach beyond healthcare institutions to capture evidence ... Health information systems are a foundation for quality care, and can increase accountability ...
Scattergood, R.O.; Das, E.S.P.
Using digital computer-based methods, models for dispersion strengthening can now be developed which take into account many of the important effects that have been neglected in the past. In particular, the self interaction of a dislocation can be treated, and a computer simulation method was developed to determine the flow stress of a random distribution of circular, impenetrable obstacles, taking into account all such interactions. The flow stress values depended on the obstacle sizes and spacings, over and above the usual 1/L dependence where L is the average obstacle spacing. From an analysis of the results, it was found that the main effects of the self interactions can be captured in a line tension analogue in which the obstacles appear to be penetrable
Fortuin, Jill; Salie, Faatiema; Abdullahi, Leila H; Douglas, Tania S
Mobile health (mHealth) has been described as a health enabling tool that impacts positively on the health system in terms of improved access, quality and cost of health care. The proposed systematic review will examine the impact of mHealth on health systems by assessing access, quality and cost of health care as indicators. The systematic review will include literature from various sources including published and unpublished/grey literature. The databases to be searched include: PubMed, Cochrane Library, Google Scholar, NHS Health Technology Assessment Database and Web of Science. The reference lists of studies will be screened and conference proceedings searched for additional eligible reports. Literature to be included will have mHealth as the primary intervention. Two authors will independently screen the search output, select studies and extract data; discrepancies will be resolved by consensus and discussion with the assistance of the third author. The systematic review will inform policy makers, investors, health professionals, technologists and engineers about the impact of mHealth in strengthening the health system. In particular, it will focus on three metrics to determine whether mHealth strengthens the health system, namely quality of, access to and cost of health care services. Systematic review registration: PROSPERO CRD42015026070.
Full Text Available Abstract Background In low-income countries, only about a third of Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS patients eligible for anti-retroviral treatment currently receive it. Providing decentralized treatment close to where patients live is crucial to a faster scale up, however, a key obstacle is limited health system capacity due to a shortage of trained health-care workers and challenges of integrating HIV/AIDS care with other primary care services (e.g. tuberculosis, malaria, respiratory conditions. This study will test an adapted primary care health care worker training and guideline intervention, Practical Approach to Lung Health and HIV/AIDS Malawi (PALM PLUS, on staff retention and satisfaction, and quality of patient care. Methods/Design A cluster-randomized trial design is being used to compare usual care with a standardized clinical guideline and training intervention, PALM PLUS. The intervention targets middle-cadre health care workers (nurses, clinical officers, medical assistants in 30 rural primary care health centres in a single district in Malawi. PALM PLUS is an integrated, symptom-based and user-friendly guideline consistent with Malawian national treatment protocols. Training is standardized and based on an educational outreach approach. Trainers will be front-line peer healthcare workers trained to provide outreach training and support to their fellow front-line healthcare workers during focused (1-2 hours, intermittent, interactive sessions on-site in health centers. Primary outcomes are health care worker retention and satisfaction. Secondary outcomes are clinical outcomes measured at the health centre level for HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, prevention-of-mother-to-child-transmission of HIV and other primary care conditions. Effect sizes and 95% confidence intervals for outcomes will be presented. Assessment of outcomes will occur at 1 year post- implementation. Discussion The PALM PLUS trial
Andze, Gervais Ondobo; Namsenmo, Abel; Illunga, Benoit Kebella; Kazambu, Ditu; Delissaint, Dieula; Kuaban, Christopher; Mbopi-Kéou, Francois-Xavier; Gabsa, Wilfred; Mulumba, Leopold; Bangamingo, Jean Pierre; Ngulefac, John; Dahlke, Melissa; Mukanga, David; Nsubuga, Peter
The Central African Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program (CAFELTP) is a 2-year public health leadership capacity building training program. It was established in October 2010 to enhance capacity for applied epidemiology and public health laboratory services in three countries: Cameroon, Central African Republic, and the Democratic Republic of Congo. The aim of the program is to develop a trained public health workforce to assure that acute public health events are detected, investigated, and responded to quickly and effectively. The program consists of 25% didactic and 75% practical training (field based activities). Although the program is still in its infancy, the residents have already responded to six outbreak investigations in the region, evaluated 18 public health surveillance systems and public health programs, and completed 18 management projects. Through these various activities, information is shared to understand similarities and differences in the region leading to new and innovative approaches in public health. The program provides opportunities for regional and international networking in field epidemiology and laboratory activities, and is particularly beneficial for countries that may not have the immediate resources to host an individual country program. Several of the trainees from the first cohort already hold leadership positions within the ministries of health and national laboratories, and will return to their assignments better equipped to face the public health challenges in the region. They bring with them knowledge, practical training, and experiences gained through the program to shape the future of the public health landscape in their countries.
Reneke, J.A.; Fryer, M.O.
Well designed large systems include many instrument taking data. These data are used in a variety of ways. They are used to control the system and its components, to monitor system and component health, and often for historical or financial purposes. This paper discusses a new method of using data from low level instrumentation to monitor system and component health. The method uses the covariance of instrument outputs to calculate a measure of system change. The method involves no complicated modeling since it is not a parameter estimation algorithm. The method is iterative and can be implemented on a computer in real time. Examples are presented for a metal lathe and a high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter. It is shown that the proposed method is quite sensitive to system changes such as wear out and failure. The method is useful for low level system diagnostics and fault detection
Haslam, Catherine; Cruwys, Tegan; Haslam, S Alexander; Dingle, Genevieve; Chang, Melissa Xue-Ling
Social isolation and disconnection have profound negative effects on mental health, but there are few, if any, theoretically-derived interventions that directly target this problem. We evaluate a new intervention, Groups 4 Health (G4H), a manualized 5-module psychological intervention that targets the development and maintenance of social group relationships to treat psychological distress arising from social isolation. G4H was tested using a non-randomized control design. The program was delivered to young adults presenting with social isolation and affective disturbance. Primary outcome measures assessed mental health (depression, general anxiety, social anxiety, and stress), well-being (life satisfaction, self-esteem) and social connectedness (loneliness, social functioning). Our secondary goal was to assess whether mechanisms of social identification were responsible for changes in outcomes. G4H was found to significantly improve mental health, well-being, and social connectedness on all measures, both on program completion and 6-month follow-up. In line with social identity theorizing, analysis also showed that improvements in depression, anxiety, stress, loneliness, and life satisfaction were underpinned by participants' increased identification both with their G4H group and with multiple groups. This study provides preliminary evidence of the potential value of G4H and its underlying mechanisms, but further examination is required in other populations to address issues of generalizability, and in randomized controlled trials to address its wider efficacy. Results of this pilot study confirm that G4H has the potential to reduce the negative health-related consequences of social disconnection. Future research will determine its utility in wider community contexts. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
The Health Systems in Transition (HiT) profiles are country-based reports that provide a detailed description of a health system and of policy initiatives in progress or under development. HiTs examine different approaches to the organization, financing and delivery of health services and the role of the main actors in health systems; describe the institutional framework, process, content and implementation of health and health care policies; and highlight challenges and areas that require more in-depth analysis. The health status of the Greek population has strongly improved over the last few decades and seems to compare relatively favourably with other OECD and European Union (EU) countries. The health system is a mixture of public integrated, public contract and public reimbursement models, comprising elements from both the public and private sectors and incorporating principles of different organizational patterns. Access to services is based on citizenship as well as on occupational status.The system is financed by the state budget, social insurance contributions and private payments.The largest share of health expenditure constitutes private expenditure, mainly in the form of out of pocket payments which is also the element contributing most to the overall increase in health expenditure. The delivery of health care services is based on both public and private providers. The presence of private providers is more obvious in primary care,especially in diagnostic technologies, private physicians' practices and pharmaceuticals. Despite success in improving the health of the population, the Greek health care system faces serious structural problems concerning the organization, financing and delivery of services. It suffers from the absence of cost-containment measures and defined criteria for funding, resulting in sickness funds experiencing economic constraints and budget deficits. The high percentage of private expenditure goes against the principle of fair
Canada is a high-income country with a population of 33 million people. Its economic performance has been solid despite the recession that began in 2008. Life expectancy in Canada continues to rise and is high compared with most OECD countries; however, infant and maternal mortality rates tend to be worse than in countries such as Australia, France and Sweden. About 70% of total health expenditure comes from the general tax revenues of the federal, provincial and territorial governments. Most public revenues for health are used to provide universal medicare (medically necessary hospital and physician services that are free at the point of service for residents) and to subsidise the costs of outpatient prescription drugs and long-term care. Health care costs continue to grow at a faster rate than the economy and government revenue, largely driven by spending on prescription drugs. In the last five years, however, growth rates in pharmaceutical spending have been matched by hospital spending and overtaken by physician spending, mainly due to increased provider remuneration. The governance, organization and delivery of health services is highly decentralized, with the provinces and territories responsible for administering medicare and planning health services. In the last ten years there have been no major pan-Canadian health reform initiatives but individual provinces and territories have focused on reorganizing or fine tuning their regional health systems and improving the quality, timeliness and patient experience of primary, acute and chronic care. The medicare system has been effective in providing Canadians with financial protection against hospital and physician costs. However, the narrow scope of services covered under medicare has produced important gaps in coverage and equitable access may be a challenge in these areas. World Health Organization 2013 (acting as the host organization for, and secretariat of, the European Observatory on Health Systems and
Sherr, Kenneth; Fernandes, Quinhas; Kanté, Almamy M; Bawah, Ayaga; Condo, Jeanine; Mutale, Wilbroad
Health systems are essential platforms for accessible, quality health services, and population health improvements. Global health initiatives have dramatically increased health resources; however, funding to strengthen health systems has not increased commensurately, partially due to concerns about health system complexity and evidence gaps demonstrating health outcome improvements. In 2009, the African Health Initiative of the Doris Duke Charitable Foundation began supporting Population Health Implementation and Training Partnership projects in five sub-Saharan African countries (Ghana, Mozambique, Rwanda, Tanzania, and Zambia) to catalyze significant advances in strengthening health systems. This manuscript reflects on the experience of establishing an evaluation framework to measure health systems strength, and associate measures with health outcomes, as part of this Initiative. Using the World Health Organization's health systems building block framework, the Partnerships present novel approaches to measure health systems building blocks and summarize data across and within building blocks to facilitate analytic procedures. Three Partnerships developed summary measures spanning the building blocks using principal component analysis (Ghana and Tanzania) or the balanced scorecard (Zambia). Other Partnerships developed summary measures to simplify multiple indicators within individual building blocks, including health information systems (Mozambique), and service delivery (Rwanda). At the end of the project intervention period, one to two key informants from each Partnership's leadership team were asked to list - in rank order - the importance of the six building blocks in relation to their intervention. Though there were differences across Partnerships, service delivery and information systems were reported to be the most common focus of interventions, followed by health workforce and leadership and governance. Medical products, vaccines and technologies, and
Arcarese, T; Boi, S; Gagliardi, R
The concepts expressed in this paper concerns the activities to be developed within HEALTHLINE, a European project under the Telematics Application programme. HEALTHLINE is an umbrella project which takes initiatives and provides links to other international projects on health telematics. The projects involved are NIVEMES and RISE; they represent the starting point from which a common approach will be developed. The experience gained from these projects has highlighted two emerging requirements: information dissemination and training. To fulfil the needs of information, an Internet corner will be set up; it will allow citizens and health professionals to find and exchange information as well as to discuss themes concerning health care. Due to the most advanced technologies recently introduced, the Health care sector has had to modify its traditional ways of working to aid professionals in exploiting new training techniques and Health Care provision methods. HEALTHLINE will focus on training and on the development of the use of new tools and services. Furthermore, the project will exploit the training methodologies based on multimedia technology for developing training-on-the-job modules. The entire system, in its final stage, will consist of a network for co-operating training and information dissemination; European sites in the project will share information, training material and provide education and information on tele-health, medical and health-care issues to health care providers, beneficiaries and the general public.
Cabral de Mello Meena
Full Text Available Abstract Background Most adolescents live in resource-constrained countries and their mental health has been less well recognised than other aspects of their health. The World Health Organization's 4-S Framework provides a structure for national initiatives to improve adolescent health through: gathering and using strategic information; developing evidence-informed policies; scaling up provision and use of health services; and strengthening linkages with other government sectors. The aim of this paper is to discuss how the findings of a recent systematic review of mental health problems in adolescents in resource-constrained settings might be applied using the 4-S Framework. Method Analysis of the implications of the findings of a systematic search of the English-language literature for national strategies, policies, services and cross-sectoral linkages to improve the mental health of adolescents in resource-constrained settings. Results Data are available for only 33/112 [29%] resource-constrained countries, but in all where data are available, non-psychotic mental health problems in adolescents are identifiable, prevalent and associated with reduced quality of life, impaired participation and compromised development. In the absence of evidence about effective interventions in these settings expert opinion is that a broad public policy response which addresses direct strategies for prevention, early intervention and treatment; health service and health workforce requirements; social inclusion of marginalised groups of adolescents; and specific education is required. Specific endorsed strategies include public education, parent education, training for teachers and primary healthcare workers, psycho-educational curricula, identification through periodic screening of the most vulnerable and referral for care, and the availability of counsellors or other identified trained staff members in schools from whom adolescents can seek assistance for
Zhao, Ran; Chen, Ren; Zhang, Bing; Ma, Ying; Qin, Xia; Hu, Zhi
Monitoring and evaluation (M&E) for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) capacity building has become a significant step for HIV prevention and control. The M&E system strengthening tool published by the United Nations Joint Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) was intended to be the most authoritative assessment tool internationally. Facing the fact that the M&E system in China did not function at an optimum level, we considered taking the international standards for reference. By linguistic validating and different stages' discussions and revisions, we came up with the Chinese version of the capacity diagnosis tool with at least 12 components and tested its validity and reliability. The tool turned out to have a sufficiently linguistic validation and proved to be a scientific and feasible instrument which was suitable for China's national conditions.
Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2001, the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS carried out a major reorganization to provide comprehensive preventive care to reinforce primary care services through the PREVENIMSS program. This program divides the population into programmatic age groups that receive specific preventive services: children (0-9 years, adolescents (10-19 years, men (20-59 years, women (20-59 years and older adults (> = 60 years. The objective of this paper is to describe the improvement of the PREVENIMSS program in terms of the increase of coverage of preventive actions and the identification of unmet needs of unsolved and emergent health problems. Methods From 2003 to 2006, four nation-wide cross-sectional probabilistic population based surveys were conducted using a four stage sampling design. Thirty thousand households were visited in each survey. The number of IMSS members interviewed ranged from 79,797 respondents in 2003 to 117,036 respondents in 2006. Results The four surveys showed a substantial increase in coverage indicators for each age group: children, completed schemes of vaccination (> 90%, iron supplementation (17.8% to 65.5%, newborn screening for metabolic disorders (60.3% to 81.6%. Adolescents, measles - rubella vaccine (52.4% to 71.4%, hepatitis vaccine (9.3% to 46.2%, use of condoms (17.9% to 59.9%. Women, measles-rubella vaccine (28.5% to 59-2%, cervical cancer screening (66.7% to 75%, breast cancer screening (> 2.1%. Men, type 2 diabetes screening (38.6% to 57.8% hypertension screening (48-4% to 64.0%. Older adults, pneumococcal vaccine (13.2% to 24.9%, influenza vaccine (12.6% to 52.9 Regarding the unmet needs, the prevalence of anemia in children was 30% and a growing prevalence of overweight and obesity, type 2 diabetes, and hypertension was found in men, women and older adults. Conclusion PREVENIMSS showed an important increase in the coverage of preventive services and stressed the magnitude of the old and
A protocol for a pragmatic randomized controlled trial using the Health Teams Advancing Patient Experience: Strengthening Quality (Health TAPESTRY) platform approach to promote person-focused primary healthcare for older adults.
Dolovich, Lisa; Oliver, Doug; Lamarche, Larkin; Agarwal, Gina; Carr, Tracey; Chan, David; Cleghorn, Laura; Griffith, Lauren; Javadi, Dena; Kastner, Monika; Longaphy, Jennifer; Mangin, Dee; Papaioannou, Alexandra; Ploeg, Jenny; Raina, Parminder; Richardson, Julie; Risdon, Cathy; Santaguida, P Lina; Straus, Sharon; Thabane, Lehana; Valaitis, Ruta; Price, David
Healthcare systems are not well designed to help people maintain or improve their health. They are generally not person-focused or well-coordinated. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of the Health Teams Advancing Patient Experience: Strengthening Quality (Health TAPESTRY) approach in older adults. The overarching hypothesis is that using the Health TAPESTRY approach to achieve better integration of the health and social care systems into a person's life that centers on meeting a person's health goals and needs will result in optimal aging. This is a 12-month delayed intervention pragmatic randomized controlled trial. The study will be performed in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada in the two-site McMaster Family Health Team. Participants will include 316 patients who are 70 years of age or older. Participants will be randomized to the Health TAPESTRY approach or control group. The Health TAPESTRY approach includes intentional, proactive conversations about a person's life and health goals and health risks and then initiation of congruent tailored interventions that support achievement of those goals and addressing of risks through (1) trained volunteers visiting clients in their homes to serve as a link between the primary care team and the client; (2) the use of novel technology including a personal health record from the home to link directly with the primary healthcare team; and (3) improved processes for connections, system navigation, and care delivery among interprofessional primary care teams, community service providers, and informal caregivers. The primary outcome will be the goal attainment scaling score. Secondary outcomes include self-efficacy for managing chronic disease, quality of life, the participant perspective on their own aging, social support, access to health services, comprehensiveness of care, patient empowerment, patient-centeredness, caregiver strain, satisfaction with care, healthcare resource utilization, and cost
Snowdon, Anne W
Global health systems are challenged by escalating costs and growing demands for care created by the demands of aging populations and rising rates of chronic illness which place unsustainable pressure on health systems to meet population health needs. To overcome these challenges, transformational change is needed to strengthen health system performance and sustainability. Innovation is widely viewed as the strategy to drive transformational change in health systems; yet to date, innovation has lacked a clearly defined focus or agenda to achieve transformation. An actionable innovation agenda is needed to achieve transformational change for health systems. The key conditions for success as an innovation strategy are examined, including clearly defined innovation objectives, key milestones, and actionable steps every system stakeholder must pursue in order to guide the innovation agenda and ultimately accelerate the transformational changes needed for a sustainable healthcare system that delivers value to populations.
Džakula, Aleksandar; Sagan, Anna; Pavić, Nika; Lonćčarek, Karmen; Sekelj-Kauzlarić, Katarina
Croatia is a small central European country on the Balkan peninsula, with a population of approximately 4.3 million and a gross domestic product (GDP) of 62% of the European Union (EU) average (expressed in purchasing power parity; PPP) in 2012. On 1 July 2013, Croatia became the 28th Member State of the EU. Life expectancy at birth has been increasing steadily in Croatia (with a small decline in the years following the 1991 to 1995 War of Independence) but is still lower than the EU average. Prevalence of overweight and obesity in the population has increased during recent years and trends in physical inactivity are alarming. The Croatian Health Insurance Fund (CHIF), established in 1993, is the sole insurer in the mandatory health insurance (MHI) system that provides universal health coverage to the whole population. The ownership of secondary health care facilities is distributed between the State and the counties. The financial position of public hospitals is weak and recent reforms were aimed at improving this. The introduction of concessions in 2009 (public private partnerships whereby county governments organize tenders for the provision of specific primary health care services) allowed the counties to play a more active role in the organization, coordination and management of primary health care; most primary care practices have been privatized. The proportion of GDP spent on health by the Croatian government remains relatively low compared to western Europe, as does the per capita health expenditure. Although the share of public expenditure as a proportion of total health expenditure (THE) has been decreasing, at around 82% it is still relatively high, even by European standards. The main source of the CHIFs revenue is compulsory health insurance contributions, accounting for 76% of the total revenues of the CHIF, although only about a third of the population (active workers) is liable to pay full health care contributions. Although the breadth and scope
Casalicchio, Emiliano; Caselli, Marco; Coletta, Alessio; Di Blasi, Salvatore; Fovino, Igor Nai; Butts, Jonathan; Shenoi, Sujeet
Modern critical infrastructure assets are exposed to security threats arising from their use of IP networks and the Domain Name System (DNS). This paper focuses on the health of DNS. Indeed, due to the increased reliance on the Internet, the degradation of DNS could have significant consequences for
A vote on reforming the nation's health care system seems likely this summer as President Obama makes good on a campaign pledge. Although the Democratic leadership in Congress appears ready to push through reform legislation before the next election, TMA and AMA leaders say very little is known about what that "reform" likely will look like.
Villadsen, Sarah Fredsted; Tersbøl, Britt Pinkowski; Negussie, Dereje
Objective. We assessed how health system priorities matched user expectations and what the needs for antenatal care (ANC) strengthening were for improved maternal health in Jimma, Ethiopia. Methods. A questionnaire survey among all recent mothers in the study area was conducted to study the content...... was given high priority, and that contributed to a lack of continuity and privacy. To the women, poor user-provider interaction was a serious concern hindering the trust in the health care providers. Further, the care provision was compromised by the inadequate laboratory facilities, unstructured health...
Atun, Rifat; de Andrade, Luiz Odorico Monteiro; Almeida, Gisele; Cotlear, Daniel; Dmytraczenko, T; Frenz, Patricia; Garcia, Patrícia; Gómez-Dantés, Octavio; Knaul, Felicia M; Muntaner, Carles; de Paula, Juliana Braga; Rígoli, Felix; Serrate, Pastor Castell-Florit; Wagstaff, Adam
Starting in the late 1980s, many Latin American countries began social sector reforms to alleviate poverty, reduce socioeconomic inequalities, improve health outcomes, and provide financial risk protection. In particular, starting in the 1990s, reforms aimed at strengthening health systems to reduce inequalities in health access and outcomes focused on expansion of universal health coverage, especially for poor citizens. In Latin America, health-system reforms have produced a distinct approach to universal health coverage, underpinned by the principles of equity, solidarity, and collective action to overcome social inequalities. In most of the countries studied, government financing enabled the introduction of supply-side interventions to expand insurance coverage for uninsured citizens--with defined and enlarged benefits packages--and to scale up delivery of health services. Countries such as Brazil and Cuba introduced tax-financed universal health systems. These changes were combined with demand-side interventions aimed at alleviating poverty (targeting many social determinants of health) and improving access of the most disadvantaged populations. Hence, the distinguishing features of health-system strengthening for universal health coverage and lessons from the Latin American experience are relevant for countries advancing universal health coverage. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Extension professionals play an increasingly central role in supporting community garden and other community-based agriculture projects. With growing interest in community gardens as tools to improve community health and vitality, the best strategies for supporting these projects should be explored. Due to the importance of inter-personal networks…
Tountas, Yannis; Karnaki, Panagiota; Pavi, Elpida
The National Health System (ESY) in Greece, which was established in 1983, is in a state of continuous crisis. This situation is caused mainly by the system's problematic administration, low productivity and inadequate Primary Health Care. These have led the re-elected PASOK government to introduce by the end of 2000 a radical reform of the health system. The 200 reform measures announced by the new Minister of Health and Welfare include changes aiming at: the decentralization of the ESY, the creation of a unified financing system for the social insurance funds, a new management structure in public hospitals, the organization of a Primary Health System in urban areas, and the strengthening of Public Health and Health Promotion. These changes are presented and discussed in this paper.
Prologue is a health information system developed for underserved communities in Bihar, India. It is aimed at helping people living in poverty and with low literacy to take the right steps to manage their and their family’s health. Bihar suffers from one of the worst healthcare records in the country. This is as much due to the lack of access to the right information as it is due to the economic condition of the region. The inaccessibility of information is aggravated by the complex social se...
Iso, S.; Nishiyama, N.; Kumakura, S.; Takizawa, K.; Yoshida, H.; Kobayashi, I.; Kikuchi, M.; Kimura, N.; Matsubara, T.; Yatsu, S.
IAEA has stated the importance of enhancing cooperation with SSAC. Therefore, Japan has developed the Integrated Safeguards Information System for enhancing confidence in compliance with the national obligation under the safeguards agreement and the additional protocol. Japan already established the National System including national inspections with NDA and DA verification functions and evaluation of data obtained from national inspections and has maintained the National System of safeguards as a SSAC in accordance with the safeguards agreement. Nuclear Material Control Center (NMCC) is engaged in national safeguards activities as designated organization of national inspectorate and information treatment including safeguards data analysis. Recently, purpose of IAEA's safeguards activities may shift to detection of proliferation based on plausible proliferation paths from detection of diversion by certain material accountancy measures. Major safeguards activities of IAEA have changed from quantitative aspects to qualitative them. As supplements for declining the quantitative measures such as the activities based on the safeguards criteria the IAEA would expect the SSAC functions for maintaining the activities of quantitative manners. Japan believes that the State's responsibility for enhancing cooperation between the National System and the IAEA must assure the confidence level of correctness and completeness of the State declarations with accurate and precise accountability as findings from SSAC. Japan has started the development of the strengthened and autonomous national system namely the Integrated safeguards Information System for Japan (ISIS-J) in order to fulfil our responsibility. Japan would seek to improve quality of information including nuclear material accounting data as well as expanded declaration relevant to nuclear activities in Japan, and to increase abilities for explaining safeguards relevant events in Japan. The enhanced findings could include
Russell Paul SS
Full Text Available Abstract Background Paediatricians can be empowered to address the Priority Mental Health Disorders at primary care level. To evaluate the effectiveness of a collaborative workshop in enhancing the adolescent psychiatry knowledge among paediatricians. Methods A 3-day, 27-hours workshop was held for paediatricians from different regions of India under the auspices of the National Adolescent Paediatric Task Force of the Indian Academy of Paediatrics. A 5-item pretest-posttest questionnaire was developed and administered at the beginning and end of the workshop to evaluate the participants' knowledge acquisition in adolescent psychiatry. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were performed on an intention-to-participate basis. Results Forty-eight paediatricians completed the questionnaire. There was significant enhancement of the knowledge in understanding the phenomenology, identifying the psychopathology, diagnosing common mental disorder and selecting the psychotropic medication in the bivariate analysis. When the possible confounders of level of training in paediatrics and number of years spent as paediatrician were controlled, in addition to the above areas of adolescent psychiatry, the diagnostic ability involving multiple psychological concepts also gained significance. However, both in the bivariate and multivariate analyses, the ability to refer to appropriate psychotherapy remained unchanged after the workshop. Conclusions This workshop was effective in enhancing the adolescent psychiatry knowledge of paediatricians. Such workshops could strengthen paediatricians in addressing the priority mental health disorders at the primary-care level in countries with low-human resource for health as advocated by the World Health Organization. However, it remains to be seen if this acquisition of adolescent psychiatry knowledge results in enhancing their adolescent psychiatry practice.
Phillips, James F; Sheff, Mallory; Boyer, Christopher B
Growing international concern about the need for improved health systems in Africa has catalyzed an expansion of the health systems literature. This review applies a bibliometric procedure to analyze the acceleration of scientific writing on this theme. We focus on research published during the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) era between 1990 and 2014, reporting findings from a systematic review of a database comprised of 17,655 articles about health systems themes from sub-Saharan African countries or subregions. Using bibliometric tools for co-word textual analysis, we analyzed the incidence and associations of keywords and phrases to generate and visualize topical foci on health systems as clusters of themes, much in the manner that astronomers represent groupings of stars as galaxies of celestial entities. The association of keywords defines their relative position, with the size of images weighted by the relative frequency of terms. Sets of associated keywords are arrayed as stars that cluster as "galaxies" of concepts in the knowledge universe represented by health systems research from sub-Saharan Africa. Results show that health systems research is dominated by literature on diseases and categorical systems research topics, rather than on systems science that cuts across diseases or specific systemic themes. Systems research is highly developed in South Africa but relatively uncommon elsewhere in the region. "Black holes" are identified by searching for terms in our keyword library related to terms in widely cited reviews of health systems. Results identify several themes that are unexpectedly uncommon in the country-specific health systems literature. This includes research on the processes of achieving systems change, the health impact of systems strengthening, processes that explain the systems determinants of health outcomes, or systematic study of organizational dysfunction and ways to improve system performance. Research quantifying the relationship
Present safeguards systems against nuclear proliferation as well as their improvement activities for more effective results are reviewed. First, the mechanism of the NPT Safeguards System is explained, which is the grasp of inventories of nuclear materials through change and transfer booking starting with actual investigation. Then, other various safeguards systems are described, including TLATELOCO (Treaty for the prohibition of nuclear weapons in Latin America), VO (Voluntary Offer), OCA (Other Comprehensive Safeguards Agreement), PA (Project Agreement), US (Unilateral Submission), and OSA (Other Safeguards Agreement). Thirdly, the present status and problems of the nuclear proliferation prevention in the world are described, including competitive nuclear weapon development in India and Pakistan, and Iraq and North Korea problems. Lastly, the 93 + 2 plan to improve the present system is explained. (M.M.)
As spaceflight systems increase in complexity, Fault Management (FM) systems are ranked high in risk-based assessment of software criticality, emphasizing the importance of establishing highly competent domain expertise to provide assurance. Adverse conditions (ACs) and specific vulnerabilities encountered by safety- and mission-critical software systems have been identified through efforts to reduce the risk posture of software-intensive NASA missions. Acknowledgement of potential off-nominal conditions and analysis to determine software system resiliency are important aspects of hazard analysis and FM. A key component of assuring FM is an assessment of how well software addresses susceptibility to failure through consideration of ACs. Focus on significant risk predicted through experienced analysis conducted at the NASA Independent Verification Validation (IVV) Program enables the scoping of effective assurance strategies with regard to overall asset protection of complex spaceflight as well as ground systems. Research efforts sponsored by NASA's Office of Safety and Mission Assurance defined terminology, categorized data fields, and designed a baseline repository that centralizes and compiles a comprehensive listing of ACs and correlated data relevant across many NASA missions. This prototype tool helps projects improve analysis by tracking ACs and allowing queries based on project, mission type, domaincomponent, causal fault, and other key characteristics. Vulnerability in off-nominal situations, architectural design weaknesses, and unexpected or undesirable system behaviors in reaction to faults are curtailed with the awareness of ACs and risk-significant scenarios modeled for analysts through this database. Integration within the Enterprise Architecture at NASA IVV enables interfacing with other tools and datasets, technical support, and accessibility across the Agency. This paper discusses the development of an improved workflow process utilizing this
Sirintrapun, S Joseph; Artz, David R
This article provides surgical pathologists an overview of health information systems (HISs): what they are, what they do, and how such systems relate to the practice of surgical pathology. Much of this article is dedicated to the electronic medical record. Information, in how it is captured, transmitted, and conveyed, drives the effectiveness of such electronic medical record functionalities. So critical is information from pathology in integrated clinical care that surgical pathologists are becoming gatekeepers of not only tissue but also information. Better understanding of HISs can empower surgical pathologists to become stakeholders who have an impact on the future direction of quality integrated clinical care. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Gomes, Renata Machado Dos Santos; Oliveira, Valdir de Castro
The present article investigates the role of Haitian community radios in strengthening social mobilization, with the aim of supporting the actions undertaken in the field of public health in Haiti, based on the development of the Workshop for community radios, as part of the Tripartite Cooperation Brazil-Cuba-Haiti. The qualitative methodology is justified because of the study content, an analysis of documents and direct observation, through a case study presented at the Workshop held in the department of Hinches, in Haiti. This meeting was held in the context of the Working Group on Tripartite Communication, under the responsibility of the Health Channel/Fiocruz, in partnership with the Department for Health Promotion and Environmental Prevention of the Ministry of Health and Population of Haiti (DPSPE/MSPP/Haiti), with a proposal to better structure a network of multipliers in health promotion.
The main objective of the Country Environmental Analysis (CEA) in Nepal is to identify opportunities for enhancing the overall performance of select environmental management systems through improvements in the effectiveness of institutions, policies, and processes. CEA has been built upon the following three primary study components: (a) an examination of the environmental issues associate...
changes in what the warfighter wants – in the middle of an acquisition cycle such changes create havoc in terms of delays, recycling of the research...A little bit later the first personal computers (PCs) came on the market, mostly as curiosities . The operating systems were either ms-dos or cp/m
Benneworth, Paul Stephen; Coenen, Lars; Moodysson, Jerker; Asheim, Björn
Universities are increasingly seen as potential contributors to regional innovative capacity by serving as local knowledge conduits, bringing global state-of-the-art science and technology into the region. In practice, however, more active university engagement with their regional innovation systems
Watters, David A; Guest, Glenn D; Tangi, Viliami; Shrime, Mark G; Meara, John G
Progress in achieving "universal access to safe, affordable surgery, and anesthesia care when needed" is dependent on consensus not only about the key messages but also on what metrics should be used to set goals and measure progress. The Lancet Commission on Global Surgery not only achieved consensus on key messages but also recommended 6 key metrics to inform national surgical plans and monitor scale-up toward 2030. These metrics measure access to surgery, as well as its timeliness, safety, and affordability: (1) Two-hour access to the 3 Bellwether procedures (cesarean delivery, emergency laparotomy, and management of an open fracture); (2) Surgeon, Anesthetist, and Obstetrician workforce >20/100,000; (3) Surgical volume of 5000 procedures/100,000; (4) Reporting of perioperative mortality rate; and (5 and 6) Risk rates of catastrophic expenditure and impoverishment when requiring surgery. This article discusses the definition, validity, feasibility, relevance, and progress with each of these metrics. The authors share their experience of introducing the metrics in the Pacific and sub-Saharan Africa. We identify appropriate messages for each potential stakeholder-the patients, practitioners, providers (health services and hospitals), public (community), politicians, policymakers, and payers. We discuss progress toward the metrics being included in core indicator lists by the World Health Organization and the World Bank and how they have been, or may be, used to inform National Surgical Plans in low- and middle-income countries to scale-up the delivery of safe, affordable, and timely surgical and anesthesia care to all who need it.
Nadkarni, Devika; Elhajj, Imad; Dawy, Zaher; Ghattas, Hala; Zaman, Muhammad H
Conflict and the subsequent displacement of populations creates unique challenges in the delivery of quality health care to the affected population. Equitable access to quality care demands a multi-pronged strategy with a growing need, and role, for technological innovation to address these challenges. While there have been significant contributions towards alleviating the burden of conflict via data informatics and analytics, communication technology, and geographic information systems, little has been done within biomedical engineering. This article elaborates on the causes for gaps in biomedical innovation for refugee populations affected by conflict, tackles preconceived notions, takes stock of recent developments in promising technologies to address these challenges, and identifies tangible action items to create a stronger and sustainable pipeline for biomedical technological innovation to improve the health and well-being of an increasing group of vulnerable people around the world.
Lammintakanen, Johanna; Kivinen, Tuula; Saranto, Kaija; Kinnunen, Juha
The aim of this study is to describe nurse managers' perceptions of the strategic management of information systems in health care. Lack of strategic thinking is a typical feature in health care and this may also concern information systems. The data for this study was collected by eight focus group interviews including altogether 48 nurse managers from primary and specialised health care. Five main categories described the strategic management of information systems in health care; IT as an emphasis of strategy; lack of strategic management of information systems; the importance of management; problems in privacy protection; and costs of IT. Although IT was emphasised in the strategies of many health care organisations, a typical feature was a lack of strategic management of information systems. This was seen both as an underutilisation of IT opportunities in health care organisations and as increased workload from nurse managers' perspective. Furthermore, the nurse managers reported that implementation of IT strengthened their managerial roles but also required stronger management. In conclusion, strategic management of information systems needs to be strengthened in health care and nurse managers should be more involved in this process.
Verstrynge, E; Wevers, M; Ghiassi, B; Lourenço, P B
Different types of strengthening systems, based on fiber reinforced materials, are under investigation for external strengthening of historic masonry structures. A full characterization of the bond behavior and of the short- and long-term failure mechanisms is crucial to ensure effective design, compatibility with the historic substrate and durability of the strengthening solution. Therein, non-destructive techniques are essential for bond characterization, durability assessment and on-site condition monitoring. In this paper, the acoustic emission (AE) technique is evaluated for debonding characterization and localization on fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) and steel reinforced grout-strengthened clay bricks. Both types of strengthening systems are subjected to accelerated ageing tests under thermal cycles and to single-lap shear bond tests. During the reported experimental campaign, AE data from the accelerated ageing tests demonstrated the thermal incompatibility between brick and epoxy-bonded FRP composites, and debonding damage was successfully detected, characterized and located. In addition, a qualitative comparison is made with digital image correlation and infrared thermography, in view of efficient on-site debonding detection. (paper)
Olu, Olushayo; Usman, Abdulmumini; Kalambay, Kalula; Anyangwe, Stella; Voyi, Kuku; Orach, Christopher Garimoi; Azazh, Aklilu; Mapatano, Mala Ali; Nsenga, Ngoy; Manga, Lucien; Woldetsadik, Solomon; Nguessan, Francois; Benson, Angela
As part of efforts to implement the human resources capacity building component of the African Regional Strategy on Disaster Risk Management (DRM) for the health sector, the African Regional Office of the World Health Organization, in collaboration with selected African public health training institutions, followed a multistage process to develop core competencies and curricula for training the African health workforce in public health DRM. In this article, we describe the methods used to develop the competencies, present the identified competencies and training curricula, and propose recommendations for their integration into the public health education curricula of African member states. We conducted a pilot research using mixed methods approaches to develop and test the applicability and feasibility of a public health disaster risk management curriculum for training the African health workforce. We identified 14 core competencies and 45 sub-competencies/training units grouped into six thematic areas: 1) introduction to DRM; 2) operational effectiveness; 3) effective leadership; 4) preparedness and risk reduction; 5) emergency response and 6) post-disaster health system recovery. These were defined as the skills and knowledge that African health care workers should possess to effectively participate in health DRM activities. To suit the needs of various categories of African health care workers, three levels of training courses are proposed: basic, intermediate, and advanced. The pilot test of the basic course among a cohort of public health practitioners in South Africa demonstrated their relevance. These competencies compare favourably to the findings of other studies that have assessed public health DRM competencies. They could provide a framework for scaling up the capacity development of African healthcare workers in the area of public health DRM; however further validation of the competencies is required through additional pilot courses and follow up of
Yao, Bobin; Dong, Zhi; Zhang, Weile; Wang, Wei; Wu, Qisheng
In spatial spectrum estimation, difference co-array can provide extra degrees-of-freedom (DOFs) for promoting parameter identifiability and parameter estimation accuracy. For the sake of acquiring as more DOFs as possible with a given number of physical sensors, we herein design a novel sensor array geometry named cascade array. This structure is generated by systematically connecting a uniform linear array (ULA) and a non-uniform linear array, and can provide more DOFs than some exist array structures but less than the upper-bound indicated by minimum redundant array (MRA). We further apply this cascade array into multiple input multiple output (MIMO) array systems, and propose a novel joint direction of departure (DOD) and direction of arrival (DOA) estimation algorithm, which is based on a reduced-dimensional weighted subspace fitting technique. The algorithm is angle auto-paired and computationally efficient. Theoretical analysis and numerical simulations prove the advantages and effectiveness of the proposed array structure and the related algorithm.
Interactions: trade policy and healthcare reform after Chaoulli v. Quebec: is it time for Canada to acknowledge the fragile boundary between health and trade policies and strengthen the separation between private and public health insurance?
The insulation of Canada's healthcare system from trade treaty obligations is crucial to the legitimacy of Canada's trade policy. Legal analysis has suggested, however, that competitive and for-profit delivery of the kind contemplated by the Kirby Report and some provinces may make healthcare more vulnerable to challenges under NAFTA and GATS. The Government of Canada has tried to counter this interpretation by stressing the importance of public financing as the principal criterion for exemption of healthcare from trade treaties, but now the potential for private financing of essential medical services indicated by the Supreme Court's decision in Chaoulli v. Quebec has made that line of argument look risky as well. It is apparent that Canada failed to anticipate the possible interactions of domestic, international and constitutional law when it made commitments in the area of private health insurance at the WTO in 1997. Accordingly, the time has come to acknowledge the fragility of the boundary between health and trade policies, to take the risks and costs associated with trade treaty obligations fully into account when undertaking healthcare reform and to strengthen the separation between private and public health insurance.
Full Text Available The 2014-16 Ebola Virus Disease (EVD outbreak in West Africa highlighted the necessity for readily available, accurate and rapid diagnostics. The magnitude of the outbreak and the re-emergence of clusters of EVD cases following the declaration of interrupted transmission in Liberia, reinforced the need for sustained diagnostics to support surveillance and emergency preparedness. We describe implementation of the Xpert Ebola Assay, a rapid molecular diagnostic test run on the GeneXpert platform, at a mobile laboratory in Liberia and the subsequent impact on EVD outbreak response, case management and laboratory system strengthening. During the period of operation, site coordination, management and operational capacity was supported through a successful collaboration between Ministry of Health (MoH, World Health Organization (WHO and international partners. A team of Liberian laboratory technicians were trained to conduct EVD diagnostics and the laboratory had capacity to test 64-100 blood specimens per day. Establishment of the laboratory significantly increased the daily testing capacity for EVD in Liberia, from 180 to 250 specimens at a time when the effectiveness of the surveillance system was threatened by insufficient diagnostic capacity. During the 18 months of operation, the laboratory tested a total of 9,063 blood specimens, including 21 EVD positives from six confirmed cases during two outbreaks. Following clearance of the significant backlog of untested EVD specimens in November 2015, a new cluster of EVD cases was detected at the laboratory. Collaboration between surveillance and laboratory coordination teams during this and a later outbreak in March 2016, facilitated timely and targeted response interventions. Specimens taken from cases during both outbreaks were analysed at the laboratory with results informing clinical management of patients and discharge decisions. The GeneXpert platform is easy to use, has relatively low running
Condell, Orla; Wasunna, Christine; Kpaka, Jonathan; Zwizwai, Ruth; Nuha, Mahmood; Fallah, Mosoka; Freeman, Maxwell; Harris, Victoria; Miller, Mark; Baller, April; Massaquoi, Moses; Katawera, Victoria; Saindon, John; Bemah, Philip; Hamblion, Esther; Castle, Evelyn; Williams, Desmond; Gasasira, Alex; Nyenswah, Tolbert
The 2014–16 Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) outbreak in West Africa highlighted the necessity for readily available, accurate and rapid diagnostics. The magnitude of the outbreak and the re-emergence of clusters of EVD cases following the declaration of interrupted transmission in Liberia, reinforced the need for sustained diagnostics to support surveillance and emergency preparedness. We describe implementation of the Xpert Ebola Assay, a rapid molecular diagnostic test run on the GeneXpert platform, at a mobile laboratory in Liberia and the subsequent impact on EVD outbreak response, case management and laboratory system strengthening. During the period of operation, site coordination, management and operational capacity was supported through a successful collaboration between Ministry of Health (MoH), World Health Organization (WHO) and international partners. A team of Liberian laboratory technicians were trained to conduct EVD diagnostics and the laboratory had capacity to test 64–100 blood specimens per day. Establishment of the laboratory significantly increased the daily testing capacity for EVD in Liberia, from 180 to 250 specimens at a time when the effectiveness of the surveillance system was threatened by insufficient diagnostic capacity. During the 18 months of operation, the laboratory tested a total of 9,063 blood specimens, including 21 EVD positives from six confirmed cases during two outbreaks. Following clearance of the significant backlog of untested EVD specimens in November 2015, a new cluster of EVD cases was detected at the laboratory. Collaboration between surveillance and laboratory coordination teams during this and a later outbreak in March 2016, facilitated timely and targeted response interventions. Specimens taken from cases during both outbreaks were analysed at the laboratory with results informing clinical management of patients and discharge decisions. The GeneXpert platform is easy to use, has relatively low running costs and can
Raftery, Philomena; Condell, Orla; Wasunna, Christine; Kpaka, Jonathan; Zwizwai, Ruth; Nuha, Mahmood; Fallah, Mosoka; Freeman, Maxwell; Harris, Victoria; Miller, Mark; Baller, April; Massaquoi, Moses; Katawera, Victoria; Saindon, John; Bemah, Philip; Hamblion, Esther; Castle, Evelyn; Williams, Desmond; Gasasira, Alex; Nyenswah, Tolbert
The 2014-16 Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) outbreak in West Africa highlighted the necessity for readily available, accurate and rapid diagnostics. The magnitude of the outbreak and the re-emergence of clusters of EVD cases following the declaration of interrupted transmission in Liberia, reinforced the need for sustained diagnostics to support surveillance and emergency preparedness. We describe implementation of the Xpert Ebola Assay, a rapid molecular diagnostic test run on the GeneXpert platform, at a mobile laboratory in Liberia and the subsequent impact on EVD outbreak response, case management and laboratory system strengthening. During the period of operation, site coordination, management and operational capacity was supported through a successful collaboration between Ministry of Health (MoH), World Health Organization (WHO) and international partners. A team of Liberian laboratory technicians were trained to conduct EVD diagnostics and the laboratory had capacity to test 64-100 blood specimens per day. Establishment of the laboratory significantly increased the daily testing capacity for EVD in Liberia, from 180 to 250 specimens at a time when the effectiveness of the surveillance system was threatened by insufficient diagnostic capacity. During the 18 months of operation, the laboratory tested a total of 9,063 blood specimens, including 21 EVD positives from six confirmed cases during two outbreaks. Following clearance of the significant backlog of untested EVD specimens in November 2015, a new cluster of EVD cases was detected at the laboratory. Collaboration between surveillance and laboratory coordination teams during this and a later outbreak in March 2016, facilitated timely and targeted response interventions. Specimens taken from cases during both outbreaks were analysed at the laboratory with results informing clinical management of patients and discharge decisions. The GeneXpert platform is easy to use, has relatively low running costs and can be
Development of a Unifying Target and Consensus Indicators for Global Surgical Systems Strengthening: Proposed by the Global Alliance for Surgery, Obstetric, Trauma, and Anaesthesia Care (The G4 Alliance).
Haider, Adil; Scott, John W; Gause, Colin D; Meheš, Mira; Hsiung, Grace; Prelvukaj, Albulena; Yanocha, Dana; Baumann, Lauren M; Ahmed, Faheem; Ahmed, Na'eem; Anderson, Sara; Angate, Herve; Arfaa, Lisa; Asbun, Horacio; Ashengo, Tigistu; Asuman, Kisembo; Ayala, Ruben; Bickler, Stephen; Billingsley, Saul; Bird, Peter; Botman, Matthijs; Butler, Marilyn; Buyske, Jo; Capozzi, Angelo; Casey, Kathleen; Clayton, Charles; Cobey, James; Cotton, Michael; Deckelbaum, Dan; Derbew, Miliard; deVries, Catherine; Dillner, Jeanne; Downham, Max; Draisin, Natalie; Echinard, David; Elneil, Sohier; ElSayed, Ahmed; Estelle, Abigail; Finley, Allen; Frenkel, Erica; Frykman, Philip K; Gheorghe, Florin; Gore-Booth, Julian; Henker, Richard; Henry, Jaymie; Henry, Orion; Hoemeke, Laura; Hoffman, David; Ibanga, Iko; Jackson, Eric V; Jani, Pankaj; Johnson, Walter; Jones, Andrew; Kassem, Zeina; Kisembo, Asuman; Kocan, Abbey; Krishnaswami, Sanjay; Lane, Robert; Latif, Asad; Levy, Barbara; Linos, Dimitrios; Linz, Peter; Listwa, Louis A; Magee, Declan; Makasa, Emmanuel; Marin, Michael L; Martin, Claude; McQueen, Kelly; Morgan, Jamie; Moser, Richard; Neighbor, Robert; Novick, William M; Ogendo, Stephen; Omigbodun, Akinyinka; Onajin-Obembe, Bisola; Parsan, Neil; Philip, Beverly K; Price, Raymond; Rasheed, Shahnawaz; Ratel, Marjorie; Reynolds, Cheri; Roser, Steven M; Rowles, Jackie; Samad, Lubna; Sampson, John; Sanghvi, Harshadkumar; Sellers, Marchelle L; Sigalet, David; Steffes, Bruce C; Stieber, Erin; Swaroop, Mamta; Tarpley, John; Varghese, Asha; Varughese, Julie; Wagner, Richard; Warf, Benjamin; Wetzig, Neil; Williamson, Susan; Wood, Joshua; Zeidan, Anne; Zirkle, Lewis; Allen, Brendan; Abdullah, Fizan
After decades on the margins of primary health care, surgical and anaesthesia care is gaining increasing priority within the global development arena. The 2015 publications of the Disease Control Priorities third edition on Essential Surgery and the Lancet Commission on Global Surgery created a compelling evidenced-based argument for the fundamental role of surgery and anaesthesia within cost-effective health systems strengthening global strategy. The launch of the Global Alliance for Surgical, Obstetric, Trauma, and Anaesthesia Care in 2015 has further coordinated efforts to build priority for surgical care and anaesthesia. These combined efforts culminated in the approval of a World Health Assembly resolution recognizing the role of surgical care and anaesthesia as part of universal health coverage. Momentum gained from these milestones highlights the need to identify consensus goals, targets and indicators to guide policy implementation and track progress at the national level. Through an open consultative process that incorporated input from stakeholders from around the globe, a global target calling for safe surgical and anaesthesia care for 80% of the world by 2030 was proposed. In order to achieve this target, we also propose 15 consensus indicators that build on existing surgical systems metrics and expand the ability to prioritize surgical systems strengthening around the world.
Azétsop, Jacquineau; Ochieng, Michael
There is increasing consensus that the right to health can provide ethical, policy and practical groundings for health systems development. The goals of the right to health are congruent with those of health systems development, which are about strengthening health promotion organizations and actions so as to improve public health. The poor shape and performance of health systems in Chad question the extent of realization of the right to health. Due to its comprehensiveness and inclusiveness, the right to health has the potential of being an organizational and a normative backbone for public health policy and practice. It can then be understood and studied as an integral component of health systems development. This paper uses a secondary data analysis of existing documents by the Ministry of Public Health, Institut National de la Statistique, des Etudes Economiques et Démographiques (INSEED), the Ministry of Economy and Agence Française de Cooperation to analyze critically the shape and performance of health systems in Chad based on key concepts and components of the right to health contained in article 12 of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, and on General Comment 14. The non-realization of the right to health, even in a consistently progressive manner, raises concerns about the political commitment of state officials to public health, about the justice of social institutions in ensuring social well-being and about individual and public values that shape decision-making processes. Social justice, democratic rule, transparency, accountability and subsidiarity are important groundings for ensuring community participation in public affairs and for monitoring the performance of public institutions. The normative ideals of health systems development are essentially democratic in nature and are rooted in human rights and in ethical principles of human dignity, equality, non-discrimination and social justice. These ideals are grounded
J van Olmen
Full Text Available Frameworks can clarify concepts and improve understanding of underlying mechanisms in the domain of health systems research and strengthening. Many existing frameworks have a limited capacity to analyze interactions and equilibriums within a health system overlooking values as an underlying steering mechanism. This paper introduces the health system dynamics framework and demonstrates its application as a tool for analysis and modelling. The added value of this framework is: 1 consideration of different levels of a health system and tracing how interventions or events at one level influence other elements and other levels; 2 emphasizes the importance of values; 3 a central axis linking governance, human resources, service delivery and population, and 4 taking into account the key elements of complexity in analysis and strategy development. We urge the analysis of individual health systems and meta-analysis, for a better understanding of their functioning and strengthening.
The African Health Systems Initiative (AHSI) is a 10-year Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA)-supported program for strengthening African-led ... Le nouveau site Web et la nouvelle bibliothèque de ressources aideront à améliorer les systèmes d'information et d'enregistrement des faits d'état civil dans les ...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Inter-professional learning (IPL and inter-professional practice (IPP are thought to be critical determinants of effective care, improved quality and safety and enhanced provider morale, yet few empirical studies have demonstrated this. Whole-of-system research is even less prevalent. We aim to provide a four year, multi-method, multi-collaborator action research program of IPL and IPP in defined, bounded health and education systems located in the Australian Capital Territory (ACT. The project is funded by the Australian Research Council under its industry Linkage Program. Methods/Design The program of research will examine in four inter-related, prospective studies, progress with IPL and IPP across tertiary education providers, professional education, regulatory and registration bodies, the ACT health system's streams of care activities and teams, units and wards of the provider facilities of the ACT health system. One key focus will be on push-pull mechanisms, ie, how the education sector creates student-enabled IPP and the health sector demands IPL-oriented practitioners. The studies will examine four research aims and meet 20 research project objectives in a comprehensive evaluation of ongoing progress with IPL and IPP. Discussion IPP and IPL are said to be cornerstones of health system reforms. We will measure progress across an entire health system and the clinical and professional education systems that feed into it. The value of multi-methods, partnership research and a bi-directional push-pull model of IPL and IPP will be tested. Widespread dissemination of results to practitioners, policymakers, managers and researchers will be a key project goal.
Abdulmalik, J; Kola, L; Gureje, O
A health systems approach to understanding efforts for improving health care services is gaining traction globally. A component of this approach focuses on health system governance (HSG), which can make or mar the successful implementation of health care interventions. Very few studies have explored HSG in low- and middle-income countries, including Nigeria. Studies focusing on mental health system governance, are even more of a rarity. This study evaluates the mental HSG of Nigeria with a view to understanding the challenges, opportunities and strategies for strengthening it. This study was conducted as part of the project, Emerging Mental Health Systems in Low and Middle Income Countries (Emerald). A multi-method study design was utilized to evaluate the mental HSG status of Nigeria. A situational analysis of the health policy and legal environment in the country was performed. Subsequently, 30 key informant interviews were conducted at national, state and district levels to explore the country's mental HSG. The existing policy, legislative and institutional framework for HSG in Nigeria reveals a complete exclusion of mental health in key health sector documents. The revised mental health policy is however promising. Using the Siddiqi framework categories, we identified pragmatic strategies for mental health system strengthening that include a consideration of existing challenges and opportunities within the system. The identified strategies provide a template for the subsequent activities of the Emerald Programme (and other interventions), towards strengthening the mental health system of Nigeria.
Greene, Carolyn A.; Ford, Julian D.; Ward-Zimmerman, Barbara; Honigfeld, Lisa; Pidano, Anne E.
Background: Collaborative pediatric mental health and primary care is increasingly recognized as optimal for meeting the needs of children with mental health problems. This paper describes the challenges faced by freestanding specialty mental health clinics and pediatric health practices to provide such coordinated mind-and-body treatment. It…
The private sector is the largest health provider in India, and unregulated private ... and girls in the last two decades, yet gender inequality and gender-based ... View moreIWRA/IDRC webinar on climate change and adaptive water ... Socially equitable climate action is essential to strengthen the resilience of all people, ...
The international situation after the end of the Cold-War has been quite unstable, due to the occurrence of frequent regional conflicts and domestic wars based on ethnic, religious or racial reasons. Further, threats to the would peace and security by non-state actors, like international terrorist groups, have been recognized after 9.11 terrorist attacks to the World Trade Center buildings and to the Pentagon. Utilization of nuclear energy, which encompasses both peaceful uses and military ones, required an establishment of regulatory system, by which risks associated with the development of nuclear energy can be controlled. Accordingly, nuclear safety control system, and then non-proliferation control system has been developed, both in the international level and notional level. In recognition of the present unstable international situations, it is required to establish, maintain and strengthen a system which control nuclear security aspect, in addition to the present systems. (author)
Schäfer, W.; Kroneman, M.; Boerma, W.; van den Berg, M.; Westert, G.; Devillé, W.; van Ginneken, E.
The Health Systems in Transition (HiT) profiles are country-based reports that provide a detailed description of health systems and of policy initiatives in progress or under development. HiTs examine different approaches to the organization, financing and delivery of health services and the role of
Henschke, Nicholas; Mirny, Anna; Haafkens, Joke A; Ramroth, Heribert; Padmawati, Siwi; Bangha, Martin; Berkman, Lisa; Trisnantoro, Laksono; Blomstedt, Yulia; Becher, Heiko; Sankoh, Osman; Byass, Peter; Kinsman, John
The INDEPTH Training & Research Centres of Excellence (INTREC) collaboration developed a training programme to strengthen social determinants of health (SDH) research in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). It was piloted among health- and demographic researchers from 9 countries in Africa and Asia. The programme followed a blended learning approach and was split into three consecutive teaching blocks over a 12-month period: 1) an online course of 7 video lectures and assignments on the theory of SDH research; 2) a 2-week qualitative and quantitative methods workshop; and 3) a 1-week data analysis workshop. This report aims to summarise the student evaluations of the pilot and to suggest key lessons for future approaches to strengthen SDH research capacity in LMICs. Semi-structured interviews and questionnaires with 24 students from 9 countries in Africa and Asia were used to evaluate each teaching block. Information was collected about the students' motivation and interest in studying SDH, any challenges they faced during the consecutive teaching blocks, and suggestions they had for future courses on SDH. Of the 24 students who began the programme, 13 (54%) completed all training activities. The students recognised the need for such a course and its potential to improve their skills as health researchers. The main challenges with the online course were time management, prior knowledge and skills required to participate in the course, and the need to get feedback from teaching staff throughout the learning process. All students found the face-to-face workshops to be of high quality and value for their work, because they offered an opportunity to clarify SDH concepts taught during the online course and to gain practical research skills. After the final teaching block, students felt they had improved their data analysis skills and were better able to develop research proposals, scientific manuscripts, and policy briefs. The INTREC programme has trained a
Full Text Available Abstract Background The INDEPTH Training & Research Centres of Excellence (INTREC collaboration developed a training programme to strengthen social determinants of health (SDH research in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs. It was piloted among health- and demographic researchers from 9 countries in Africa and Asia. The programme followed a blended learning approach and was split into three consecutive teaching blocks over a 12-month period: 1 an online course of 7 video lectures and assignments on the theory of SDH research; 2 a 2-week qualitative and quantitative methods workshop; and 3 a 1-week data analysis workshop. This report aims to summarise the student evaluations of the pilot and to suggest key lessons for future approaches to strengthen SDH research capacity in LMICs. Methods Semi-structured interviews and questionnaires with 24 students from 9 countries in Africa and Asia were used to evaluate each teaching block. Information was collected about the students’ motivation and interest in studying SDH, any challenges they faced during the consecutive teaching blocks, and suggestions they had for future courses on SDH. Results Of the 24 students who began the programme, 13 (54% completed all training activities. The students recognised the need for such a course and its potential to improve their skills as health researchers. The main challenges with the online course were time management, prior knowledge and skills required to participate in the course, and the need to get feedback from teaching staff throughout the learning process. All students found the face-to-face workshops to be of high quality and value for their work, because they offered an opportunity to clarify SDH concepts taught during the online course and to gain practical research skills. After the final teaching block, students felt they had improved their data analysis skills and were better able to develop research proposals, scientific manuscripts, and policy
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Lucio, Ruth; Villacrés, Nilhda; Henríquez, Rodrigo
This paper describes the health conditions in Ecuador and, in more detail, the characteristics of the Ecuadorian health system, including its structure and coverage, its financial sources, the physical, material and human resources available, and the stewardship activities developed by the Ministry of Public Health. It also describes the structure and content of its health information system, and the participation of citizens in the operation and evaluation of the health system. The paper ends with a discussion of the most recent policy innovations implemented in the Ecuadorian system, including the incorporation of a chapter on health into the new Constitution which recognizes the protection of health as a human right, and the construction of the Comprehensive Public Health Network.
Brown, Kenneth H; McLachlan, Milla; Cardosa, Placido; Tchibindat, Félicité; Baker, Shawn K
A three-day workshop was convened in Dakar, Senegal, to provide participants from West African and international academic and research institutions, public health agencies, and donor organisations an opportunity to review current public health nutrition research and training capabilities in West Africa, assess needs for strengthening the regional institutional and workforce capacities, and discuss appropriate steps required to advance this agenda. The workshop included presentations of background papers, experiences of regional and international training programmes and small group discussions. Participants concluded that there is an urgent need to: (1) increase the throughput of public health nutrition training programmes, including undergraduate education, pre-service and in-service professional training, and higher education in public health nutrition and related research skills; and (2) enhance applied research capacity, to provide the evidence base necessary for nutrition program planning and evaluation. A Task Team was appointed to inform the regional Assembly of Health Ministers of the workshop conclusions and to develop political and financial support for a regional nutrition initiative to: (1) conduct advocacy and nutrition stewardship; (2) survey existing training programmes and assist with curriculum development; and (3) develop a plan for a regional applied research institute in Public Health Nutrition.
Zhang, Luyu; Cheng, Gang; Song, Suhang; Yuan, Beibei; Zhu, Weiming; He, Li; Ma, Xiaochen; Meng, Qingyue
Improving efficiency performance of the health care delivery system has been on the agenda for the health system reform that China initiated in 2009. This study examines the changes in efficiency performance and determinants of efficiency after the reform to provide evidence to assess the progress of the reform from the perspective of efficiency. Descriptive analysis, Data Envelopment Analysis, the Malmquist Index, and multilevel regressions are used with data from multiple sources, including the World Bank, the China Health Statistical Yearbook, and routine reports. The results indicate that over the last decade, health outcomes compared with health investment were relatively higher in China than in most other countries worldwide, and the trend was stable. The overall efficiency and total factor productivity increased after the reform, indicating that the reform was likely to have had a positive impact on the efficiency performance of the health care delivery system. However, the health care delivery structure showed low system efficiency, mainly attributed to the weakened primary health care system. Strengthening the primary health care system is central to enhancing the future performance of China's health care delivery system. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Peltier, J W; Boyt, T; Westfall, J E
Physician turnover is costly for health care organizations, especially for rural organizations. One approach management can take to reduce turnover is to promote physician loyalty by treating them as an important customer segment. The authors develop an information--oriented framework for generating physician loyalty and illustrate how this framework has helped to eliminate physician turnover at a rural health care clinic. Rural health care organizations must develop a more internal marketing orientation in their approach to establishing strong relationship bonds with physicians.
The new International Health Regulations (IHR) (2005) cover events of international importance including contaminated food and outbreaks of foodborne disease. The IHR (2005) and other international as well as regional agreements require Member States to strengthen surveillance systems including surveillance for ...
Full Text Available Background: Healthcare personnel in specialist care in Norway took the initiative to develop their practice in order to improve follow-up of patients with chronic illness. A research project was constructed that involved a close collaboration between practice and research in the development of a new, complex intervention to strengthen patients' ability to live with long-term conditions. Aims and objectives: This paper seeks to describe a part of the research process that involved the first- stage development of the intervention. The first objective is to describe how clinicians, patients and a health researcher collaborated, and to discuss the benefits of this collaborative work for improving practice. The second objective is to outline the intervention's aspects and components. Method: Three clinical sites were chosen for developing the intervention: a rehabilitation unit, an outpatient clinic and a centre for patient education. An interdisciplinary team of nine healthcare personnel and four patients engaged with the researcher(s in the formative research. A list of criteria for reporting on the development of complex interventions was applied to elaborate on intervention components. Results: An intervention was developed that entailed a person-centred approach to facilitating overall health in chronic illness. This involved a change in practice as the professionals acquired a new approach to the use of patients' capacity for health, and as patients began to function as active partners in health promotion. Conclusions: A close collaboration between clinicians, former patients and researcher was necessary for developing a theory and a research-based intervention that improved the follow-up of individuals diagnosed with long-term conditions. The intervention was designed to be applicable across diagnostic categories and in a variety of clinical settings. These patients experience a multitude of challenges that require attention in health
Ek, P.; Wredberg, L.
internal control, quality assurance, security culture and individual responsibilities; Shortage of suitable and modern equipment for monitoring and detection of radioactive material; Shortage of staff and training capabilities and insufficient financial resources concerning supervision and law enforcement authorities; Insufficient access to relevant information and data bases. A first step to improve national systems would be to assist states, by educating key-persons and authority staff, how to establish good, state-of-the-art national systems for combating of illicit trafficking, which would meet the requirements of international legal instruments, recommendations and guidelines. State Governments need to be made more aware of the seriousness of the proliferation threat and be convinced that supervision and law enforcement resources must be reinforced for bringing their national systems up to international standard. On the international level, combating of illicit trafficking would be ameliorated by improving the communication links between national authorities bi-laterally and with the international organisations. Also increased information exchange between national and international databases would improve prevention and detection capabilities. For the effective and consequent combating of illicit trafficking of nuclear material and equipment, it is, however, necessary that the international non-proliferation regime be strengthened through new initiatives and approaches. These should focus on, inter alia, a set of minimum requirements to be implemented, and to pursue, impose, follow-up and audit the implementation of those requirements into the national systems for combating of illicit trafficking. The IAEA is the recognised international organisation, both for nuclear energy promoting activities, and for the implementation of the international non-proliferation regime. The IAEA has, within its area of competence, relevant know-how and capability, including qualified
Muhammad Amir Khan
Full Text Available Background: Respiratory diseases, namely asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, account for one-fourth of the patients at the primary health-care (PHC facilities in Pakistan. Standard care practices to manage these diseases are necessary to reduce the morbidity and mortality rate associated with non-communicable diseases in developing countries. Objective: To develop and measure the effectiveness of operational guidelines and implementation materials, with sound scientific evidence, for expanding lung health care, especially asthma and COPD through PHC facilities already strengthened for tuberculosis (TB care in Pakistan. Design: A cluster randomized controlled trial with two arms (intervention and control, with qualitative and costing study components, is being conducted in 34 clusters; 17 clusters per arm (428 asthma and 306 COPD patients, in three districts in Pakistan from October 2014 to December 2016. The intervention consists of enhanced case management of asthma and COPD patients through strengthening of PHC facilities. The main outcomes to be measured are asthma and COPD control among the registered cases at 6 months. Cluster- and individual-level analyses will be done according to intention to treat. Residual confounding will be addressed by multivariable logistic and linear regression models for asthma and COPD control, respectively. The trial is registered with ISRCTN registry (ISRCTN 17409338. Conclusions: Currently, only about 20% of the estimated prevalent asthma and COPD cases are being identified and reported through the respective PHC network. Lung health care and prevention has not been effectively integrated into the core PHC package, although a very well-functioning TB program exists at the PHC level. Inclusion of these diseases in the already existent TB program is expected to increase detection rates and care for asthma and COPD.
Hansen, Christian Skodborg
The theory for concrete structures strengthened with fiber reinforced polymer materials has been developing for approximately two decades, and there are at the present time numerous guidelines covering strengthening of many commonly encountered structural building elements. Strengthening of in...... that describes a unit width strip of a strengthened disk. The unit width strip is named a strengthened concrete tension member and contains a single tensile crack and four debonding cracks. Analysis of the member results in closed form expressions for the load-crack opening relationship. Further analysis...... of the response, results in the ability to determine and characterize the two-way crack propagation, i.e. the relationship between tensile cracking in the concrete and interface debonding between strengthening and concrete. Using the load-crack opening relationship from the strengthened