WorldWideScience

Sample records for health survey potential

  1. Smart Health - Potential and Pathways: A Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arulananthan, C.; Hanifa, Sabibullah Mohamed

    2017-08-01

    Healthcare is an imperative key field of research, where individuals or groups can be engaged in the self-tracking of any kind of biological, physical, behavioral, or environmental information. In a massive health care data, the valuable information is hidden. The quantity of the available unstructured data has been expanding on an exponential scale. The newly developing Disruptive Technologies can handle many challenges that face data analysis and ability to extract valuable information via data analytics. Connected Wellness in Healthcare would retrieve patient’s physiological, pathological and behavioral parameters through sensors to perform inner workings of human body analysis. Disruptive technologies can take us from a reactive illness-driven to a proactive wellness-driven system in health care. It is need to be strive and create a smart health system towards wellness-driven instead of being illness-driven, today’s biggest problem in health care. Wellness-driven-analytics application help to promote healthiest living environment called “Smart Health”, deliver empower based quality of living. The contributions of this survey reveals and opens (touches uncovered areas) the possible doors in the line of research on smart health and its computing technologies.

  2. Imperial County baseline health survey potential impact of geothermal energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deane, M.

    1981-06-01

    The survey purpose, methods, and statistical methods are presented. Results are discussed according to: area differences in background variables, area differences in health variables, area differences in annoyance reactions, and comparison of symptom frequencies with age, smoking, and drinking. Included in appendices are tables of data, enumeration forms, the questionnaire, interviewer cards, and interviewer instructions. (MHR)

  3. A survey among potential employers for developing a curriculum in public health nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torheim, Liv E; Granli, Gry I; Barikmo, Ingrid; Oshaug, Arne

    2009-08-01

    To describe which functions potential employers of public health nutritionists in Norway find important for a person trained in public health nutrition to be able to carry out. Further, to illustrate how the findings were used in the development of a curriculum for a bachelor in public health nutrition at Akershus University College. A non-random, cross-sectional survey using a questionnaire with both pre-coded and open-ended questions. Ninety-one establishments working in various fields more or less related to nutrition responded (response rate of 45 %). Local offices of the Norwegian Food Safety Authority were over-represented among respondents. Functions related to communication and food and nutrition laws and regulations were most frequently rated as important by the respondents. Functions in nutrition research, project work and policy and planning were also regarded important by more than half of the respondents. The priorities of the potential employers together with the additional comments and suggestions were taken into account when a new curriculum on public health nutrition was developed. The assessment of functions prioritized by employers of public health nutritionists gave a valuable input for developing a new curriculum in public health nutrition. It reflected the challenges of the real world that public health nutritionists will work in and therefore helped making the curriculum potentially more relevant.

  4. Health assessment and seroepidemiologic survey of potential pathogens in wild Antillean manatees (Trichechus manatus manatus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn Sulzner

    Full Text Available The Antillean manatee (Trichechus manatus manatus, a subspecies of the West Indian manatee, inhabits fresh, brackish, and warm coastal waters distributed along the eastern border of Central America, the northern coast of South America, and throughout the Wider Caribbean Region. Threatened primarily by human encroachment, poaching, and habitat degradation, Antillean manatees are listed as endangered by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature. The impact of disease on population viability remains unknown in spite of concerns surrounding the species' ability to rebound from a population crash should an epizootic occur. To gain insight on the baseline health of this subspecies, a total of 191 blood samples were collected opportunistically from wild Antillean manatees in Belize between 1997 and 2009. Hematologic and biochemical reference intervals were established, and antibody prevalence to eight pathogens with zoonotic potential was determined. Age was found to be a significant factor of variation in mean blood values, whereas sex, capture site, and season contributed less to overall differences in parameter values. Negative antibody titers were reported for all pathogens surveyed except for Leptospira bratislava, L. canicola, and L. icterohemorrhagiae, Toxoplasma gondii, and morbillivirus. As part of comprehensive health assessment in manatees from Belize, this study will serve as a benchmark aiding in early disease detection and in the discernment of important epidemiologic patterns in the manatees of this region. Additionally, it will provide some of the initial tools to explore the broader application of manatees as sentinel species of nearshore ecosystem health.

  5. Health assessment and seroepidemiologic survey of potential pathogens in wild Antillean manatees (Trichechus manatus manatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulzner, Kathryn; Kreuder Johnson, Christine; Bonde, Robert K; Auil Gomez, Nicole; Powell, James; Nielsen, Klaus; Luttrell, M Page; Osterhaus, A D M E; Aguirre, A Alonso

    2012-01-01

    The Antillean manatee (Trichechus manatus manatus), a subspecies of the West Indian manatee, inhabits fresh, brackish, and warm coastal waters distributed along the eastern border of Central America, the northern coast of South America, and throughout the Wider Caribbean Region. Threatened primarily by human encroachment, poaching, and habitat degradation, Antillean manatees are listed as endangered by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature. The impact of disease on population viability remains unknown in spite of concerns surrounding the species' ability to rebound from a population crash should an epizootic occur. To gain insight on the baseline health of this subspecies, a total of 191 blood samples were collected opportunistically from wild Antillean manatees in Belize between 1997 and 2009. Hematologic and biochemical reference intervals were established, and antibody prevalence to eight pathogens with zoonotic potential was determined. Age was found to be a significant factor of variation in mean blood values, whereas sex, capture site, and season contributed less to overall differences in parameter values. Negative antibody titers were reported for all pathogens surveyed except for Leptospira bratislava, L. canicola, and L. icterohemorrhagiae, Toxoplasma gondii, and morbillivirus. As part of comprehensive health assessment in manatees from Belize, this study will serve as a benchmark aiding in early disease detection and in the discernment of important epidemiologic patterns in the manatees of this region. Additionally, it will provide some of the initial tools to explore the broader application of manatees as sentinel species of nearshore ecosystem health.

  6. Survey nonresponse among ethnic minorities in a national health survey - a mixed-method study of participation, barriers, and potentials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahlmark, Nanna; Algren, Maria Holst; Holmberg, Teresa

    2015-01-01

    , to alienation generated by the questions' focus on disease and cultural assumptions, or mistrust regarding anonymity. Ethnic minorities seem particularly affected by such barriers. To increase survey participation, questions could be sensitized to reflect multicultural traditions, and the impact of sender......Objectives. The participation rate in the Danish National Health Survey (DNHS) 2010 was significantly lower among ethnic minorities than ethnic Danes. The purpose was to characterize nonresponse among ethnic minorities in DNHS, analyze variations in item nonresponse, and investigate barriers...... and incentives to participation. Design. This was a mixed-method study. Logistic regression was used to analyze nonresponse using data from DNHS (N = 177,639 and chi-square tests in item nonresponse analyses. We explored barriers and incentives regarding participation through focus groups and cognitive...

  7. Increasing both the public health potential of basic research and the scientist satisfaction. An international survey of bio-scientists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorrentino, Carmen; Boggio, Andrea; Confalonieri, Stefano; Hemenway, David; Scita, Giorgio; Ballabeni, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Basic scientific research generates knowledge that has intrinsic value which is independent of future applications. Basic research may also lead to practical benefits, such as a new drug or diagnostic method. Building on our previous study of basic biomedical and biological researchers at Harvard, we present findings from a new survey of similar scientists from three countries. The goal of this study was to design policies to enhance both the public health potential and the work satisfaction and test scientists' attitudes towards these factors. The present survey asked about the scientists' motivations, goals and perspectives along with their attitudes concerning  policies designed to increase both the practical (i.e. public health) benefits of basic research as well as their own personal satisfaction. Close to 900 basic investigators responded to the survey; results corroborate the main findings from the previous survey of Harvard scientists. In addition, we find that most bioscientists disfavor present policies that require a discussion of the public health potential of their proposals in grants but generally favor softer policies aimed at increasing the quality of work and the potential practical benefits of basic research. In particular, bioscientists are generally supportive of those policies entailing the organization of more meetings between scientists and the general public, the organization of more academic discussion about the role of scientists in the society, and the implementation of a "basic bibliography" for each new approved drug.

  8. Effect of direct-to-consumer genetic tests on health behaviour and anxiety: a survey of consumers and potential consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egglestone, Corin; Morris, Anne; O'Brien, Ann

    2013-10-01

    Direct-to-consumer (DTC) genetic tests can be purchased over the internet. Some companies claim to provide relative genetic risks for various diseases and thus encourage healthy behaviour. There are concerns that exposure to such information may actually discourage healthy behaviour or increase health anxiety. An online survey was conducted (n = 275). Respondents were composed of individuals who had purchased a DTC genetic test and received their results (consumers, n = 189), as well as individuals who were either awaiting test results or considering purchasing a test (potential consumers, n = 86). Consumers were asked if their health behaviour or health anxiety had changed after receiving their results. Respondents' current health behaviour and health anxiety were queried and compared. In total, 27.3 % of consumers claimed a change in health behaviour, all either positive or neutral, with no reported cessation of any existing health behaviour. A change in health anxiety was claimed by 24.6 % of consumers, 85.3 % of which were a reduction. Consumers had significantly better health behaviour scores than potential consumers (p = 0.02), with no significant difference in health anxiety. This study points towards an association between receipt of DTC genetic test results and increased adoption of healthy behaviours for a minority of consumers based on self-report, with more mixed results in relation to health anxiety.

  9. Web based health surveys: Using a Two Step Heckman model to examine their potential for population health analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrissey, Karyn; Kinderman, Peter; Pontin, Eleanor; Tai, Sara; Schwannauer, Mathias

    2016-08-01

    In June 2011 the BBC Lab UK carried out a web-based survey on the causes of mental distress. The 'Stress Test' was launched on 'All in the Mind' a BBC Radio 4 programme and the test's URL was publicised on radio and TV broadcasts, and made available via BBC web pages and social media. Given the large amount of data created, over 32,800 participants, with corresponding diagnosis, demographic and socioeconomic characteristics; the dataset are potentially an important source of data for population based research on depression and anxiety. However, as respondents self-selected to participate in the online survey, the survey may comprise a non-random sample. It may be only individuals that listen to BBC Radio 4 and/or use their website that participated in the survey. In this instance using the Stress Test data for wider population based research may create sample selection bias. Focusing on the depression component of the Stress Test, this paper presents an easy-to-use method, the Two Step Probit Selection Model, to detect and statistically correct selection bias in the Stress Test. Using a Two Step Probit Selection Model; this paper did not find a statistically significant selection on unobserved factors for participants of the Stress Test. That is, survey participants who accessed and completed an online survey are not systematically different from non-participants on the variables of substantive interest. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The potential for health-related uses of mobile phones and internet with homeless veterans: results from a multisite survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McInnes, D Keith; Sawh, Leon; Petrakis, Beth Ann; Rao, Sowmya; Shimada, Stephanie L; Eyrich-Garg, Karin M; Gifford, Allen L; Anaya, Henry D; Smelson, David A

    2014-09-01

    Addressing the health needs of homeless veterans is a priority in the United States, and, although information technologies can potentially improve access to and engagement in care, little is known about this population's use of information technologies or their willingness to use technologies to communicate with healthcare providers and systems. This study fills this gap through a survey of homeless veterans' use of information technologies and their attitudes about using these technologies to assist with accessing needed healthcare services. Among the 106 homeless veterans surveyed, 89% had a mobile phone (one-third were smartphones), and 76% used the Internet. Among those with a mobile phone, 71% used text messaging. Nearly all respondents (93%) were interested in receiving mobile phone reminders (text message or phone call) about upcoming medical appointments, and a similar proportion (88%) wanted mobile phone outreach asking if they would like to schedule an appointment if they had not been seen by a health provider in over a year. In addition, respondents already used these technologies for information and communication related to health, housing, and jobs. These findings suggest new avenues for communication and health interventions for hard-to-reach homeless veterans.

  11. Lesotho - Health Facility Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — The main objective of the 2011 Health Facility Survey (HFS) was to establish a baseline for informing the Health Project performance indicators on health facilities,...

  12. National Health Interview Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) is the principal source of information on the health of the civilian noninstitutionalized population of the United States...

  13. Survey on basic knowledge about exposure and potential environmental and health risks for selected nanomaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Sonja Hagen; Hansen, Erik; Christensen, Trine Boe

    Based on a literature review this report provides a general description as well as an environmental and health profile of 7 nanomaterials. The examined nanomaterials are selected because of expected high use or specific environmental and health properties. Fullerenes, iron, silver, nanoclay...... and titanium-, cerium-, and silicondioxides were studied in the project. Based on current uses, it is concluded that current applications of nano-iron and nanoclay can not cause unexpected “nano-associated” health or environmental problems. Although no specific risk associated with current uses of any of the 7...... other nanomaterials were identified, there are areas where there may be reason for attention and thus need for more knowledge....

  14. A survey of parental self-efficacy experiences: maximising potential through health visiting and universal parenting support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittaker, Karen A; Cowley, Sarah

    2012-11-01

    To examine parental self-efficacy experiences for users of a parenting support programme and consider the pertinence of self-efficacy theory to health visiting (public health nursing) practice. Commonly, successful parenting training programmes are underpinned by social learning principles and aim to strengthen parental self-efficacy. However, research examining programme effectiveness rarely discusses how self-efficacy outcomes are achieved. A descriptive survey was completed as the first part of a realistic evaluation study examining how a UK parenting support programme worked. The first part of the realistic evaluation involved validating outcome measures (the Parenting Self-Agency Measure and Self-Efficacy for Parenting Tasks Index subscales) and administering a questionnaire survey. The questionnaire was completed by adults accessing a parenting support programme during a 10-month period (n = 168). Data were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics.   Women were the main users of the programme, which included informal drop-in groups as well as more formalised health visiting services and parenting training courses. The Parenting Self-Agency Measure results indicated good general parental self-efficacy; however, the task-specific Self-Efficacy for Parenting Tasks Indexes scales suggested that parents were less self-efficacious in disciplining children. Lower self-efficacy scores correlated with high ratings for 'feeling tired', 'receiving negative comments' and 'giving-in to a child's demands'. Study results indicate that the domain general and task-specific measures provide different, but helpful, insights into parental self-efficacy experiences. By identifying factors associated with the levels of general and task-specific parental self-efficacy, health visitors can gain a fuller appreciation of support needs. To maximise potential through parenting support, attention should be given to addressing factors associated with poorer self

  15. The Prevalence of Selected Potentially Hazardous Workplace Exposures in the US: Findings From the 2010 National Health Interview Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvert, Geoffrey M.; Luckhaupt, Sara E.; Sussell, Aaron; Dahlhamer, James M.; Ward, Brian W.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Assess the national prevalence of current workplace exposure to potential skin hazards, secondhand smoke (SHS), and outdoor work among various industry and occupation groups. Also, assess the national prevalence of chronic workplace exposure to vapors, gas, dust, and fumes (VGDF) among these groups. Methods Data were obtained from the 2010 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). NHIS is a multistage probability sample survey of the civilian non-institutionalized population of the US. Prevalence rates and their variances were calculated using SUDAAN to account for the complex NHIS sample design. Results The data for 2010 were available for 17,524 adults who worked in the 12 months that preceded interview. The highest prevalence rates of hazardous workplace exposures were typically in agriculture, mining, and construction. The prevalence rate of frequent handling of or skin contact with chemicals, and of non-smokers frequently exposed to SHS at work was highest in mining and construction. Outdoor work was most common in agriculture (85%), construction (73%), and mining (65%). Finally, frequent occupational exposure to VGDF was most common among mining (67%), agriculture (53%), and construction workers (51%). Conclusion We identified industries and occupations with the highest prevalence of potentially hazardous workplace exposures, and provided targets for investigation and intervention activities. PMID:22821700

  16. Survey of potential health and safety hazards of commercial-scale ethanol production facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, A.P.; Smith, J.G.; Elmore, J.L.

    1982-04-01

    Generic safety and health aspects of commercial-scale (60 to 600 million L/y) anhydrous ethanol production were identified. Several common feedstocks (grains, roots and fibers, and sugarcane) and fuels (coal, natural gas, wood, and bagasse) were evaluated throughout each step of generic plant operation, from initial milling and sizing through saccharification, fermentation, distillation, and stillage disposal. The fermentation, digestion, or combustion phases are not particularly hazardous, although the strong acids and bases used for hydrolysis and pH adjustment should be handled with the same precautions that every industrial solvent deserves. The most serious safety hazard is that of explosion from grain dust or ethanol fume ignition and boiler/steam line overpressurization. Inhalation of ethanol and carbon dioxide vapors may cause intoxication or asphyxiation in unventilated areas, which could be particularly hazardous near equipment controls and agitating vats. Contact with low-pressure process steam would produce scalding burns. Benzene, used in stripping water from ethanol in the final distillation column, is a suspected leukemogen. Substitution of this fluid by alternative liquids is addressed.

  17. Primer on Health Surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David L Nordstrom

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to introduce novice researchers to surveys as a method of data collection. It starts with the definition of a survey, its major purposes and types as well as changes in the goals surveys have helped to achieve over time. Advantages and disadvantages of surveys over population censuses and medical examinations are discussed. Approaches to questionnaire construction are introduced along with properties that questionnaires are evaluated for. Modes of administration, sample size issues, and data analysis approaches are also introduced. The primer is illustrated with examples of surveys conducted in different countries with various public health purposes.

  18. Potential for mobile health (mHealth) prevention of cardiovascular diseases in Kerala: A population-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinberg, Leo; Menon, Jaideep; Smith, Rebecca; Rajeev, Jaya G; Kumar, Raman Krishan; Banerjee, Amitava

    India's southern state of Kerala stands at the forefront of India's epidemic of cardiovascular disease (CVD), among other non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Mobile phone use in healthcare (mHealth) has shown promise in India, including NCDs. However, suitability and acceptability of m-Health interventions is poorly researched, particularly in rural settings. METHODS: A questionnaire regarding mobile phone usage and possible use in healthcare was verbally administered in five primary health centres and by home visits in five village councils ("panchayats") of Ernakulam, Kerala. Adults who spoke Malayalam or English, with access to a mobile phone were recruited by convenience sampling in partnership with accredited social health activists (ASHAs). Quantitative data analysis was conducted using SPSS software. 262 participants were recruited. 87% routinely used and 88% owned a mobile phone. 92% were willing to receive mHealth advice, and 94% favoured mobile medication reminders. 70.3% and 73% preferred voice calls over short messaging service (SMS) for delivering health information and medication reminders, respectively. 85.9% would send home recorded information on their blood pressure, weight, medication use and lifestyle to a doctor or ASHA. 75.2% trusted the confidentiality of mHealth data, while 77.1% had no concerns about the privacy of their information. The majority of this population approve mHealth interventions. While further investigation of mHealth as a health education tool is warranted, SMS interventions may fail to maximise equity and penetration across all patient groups. Copyright © 2016 Cardiological Society of India. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Potential Theory Surveys and Problems

    CERN Document Server

    Lukeš, Jaroslav; Netuka, Ivan; Veselý, Jiří

    1988-01-01

    The volume comprises eleven survey papers based on survey lectures delivered at the Conference in Prague in July 1987, which covered various facets of potential theory, including its applications in other areas. The survey papers deal with both classical and abstract potential theory and its relations to partial differential equations, stochastic processes and other branches such as numerical analysis and topology. A collection of problems from potential theory, compiled on the occasion of the conference, is included, with additional commentaries, in the second part of this volume.

  20. Obesity as a Potential Risk Factor for Blepharoptosis: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Sun Paik

    Full Text Available To examine obesity parameters as potential risk factors associated with blepharoptosis in a representative Korean population.We analyzed the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES, conducted between 2008 and 2010. 10,285 Korean adults (4,441 men and 5,844 women aged 40 years or older was enrolled. We compared body mass index (BMI, waist circumference (WC and percentage body fat (BF, according to the severity of blepharoptosis. Multiple logistic regression analysis was conducted to examine the associations of each obesity parameter with blepharoptosis.The overall prevalence of age-related blepharoptosis was 14.8 % in South Korea. There were significant and graded associations between increasing blepharoptosis severity and the mean value of obesity parameters (P for trend < 0.05. As marginal reflex distance 1 (MRD1 decreased, the prevalence of general obesity and overweight status increased (P for trend=0.121 in men and < 0.001 in women; the prevalence of abdominal obesity increased (P for trend < 0.001 for both genders; the prevalence of highest quartile of percentage BF increased (P for trend ≤0.001 for both genders. Blepharoptosis was significantly associated with general obesity in women (adjusted odds ratio (aOR, 2.14; 95% confidence intervals (CI, 1.32-3.47; and with the highest quartile of percentage BF in men (aOR, 2.01; 95% CI, 1.34-2.97 and in women (aOR, 1.52; 95% CI, 1.06-2.3317, after adjusting for age, smoking exercise, drinking alcohol, total energy intake, fat intake, total cholesterol, and high density lipoprotein cholesterol, diabetes, hypertension, and family history of eye disease.The etiology of age-related blepharoptosis may be multifactorial and is unclear. Our results suggest that obesity parameters such as BMI, WC and percentage BF might be potential risk factors for age-related blepharoptosis in a representative Korean population.

  1. ATSDR Marines Health Survey

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-08-30

    This podcast gives an overview of the health survey ATSDR is conducting of more than 300,000 people who lived or worked at Camp Lejeune or Camp Pendleton in the 1970s and 1980s.  Created: 8/30/2011 by Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR).   Date Released: 8/30/2011.

  2. Survey of the potential environmental and health impacts in the immediate aftermath of the coal ash spill in Kingston, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laura Ruhl; Avner Vengosh; Gary S. Dwyer; Heileen Hsu-Kim; Amrika Deonarine; Mike Bergin; Julia Kravchenko [Duke University, Durham, NC (United States). Division of Earth and Ocean Sciences

    2009-08-15

    An investigation of the potential environmental and health impacts in the immediate aftermath of one of the largest coal ash spills in U.S. history at the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) Kingston coal-burning power plant has revealed three major findings. First, the surface release of coal ash with high levels of toxic elements (As = 75 mg/kg; Hg = 150 {mu}g/kg) and radioactivity ({sup 226}Ra + {sup 228}Ra = 8 pCi/g) to the environment has the potential to generate resuspended ambient fine particles (<10 {mu}m) containing these toxics into the atmosphere that may pose a health risk to local communities. Second, leaching of contaminants from the coal ash caused contamination of surface waters in areas of restricted water exchange, but only trace levels were found in the downstream Emory and Clinch Rivers due to river dilution. Third, the accumulation of Hg- and As-rich coal ash in river sediments has the potential to have an impact on the ecological system in the downstream rivers by fish poisoning and methylmercury formation in anaerobic river sediments. 61 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Survey of the potential environmental and health impacts in the immediate aftermath of the coal ash spill in Kingston, Tennessee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhl, Laura; Vengosh, Avner; Dwyer, Gary S; Hsu-Kim, Heileen; Deonarine, Amrika; Bergin, Mike; Kravchenko, Julia

    2009-08-15

    An investigation of the potential environmental and health impacts in the immediate aftermath of one of the largest coal ash spills in U.S. history at the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) Kingston coal-burning power plant has revealed three major findings. First the surface release of coal ash with high levels of toxic elements (As = 75 mg/kg; Hg = 150 microg/kg) and radioactivity (226Ra + 228Ra = 8 pCi/g) to the environment has the potential to generate resuspended ambient fine particles (risk to local communities. Second, leaching of contaminants from the coal ash caused contamination of surface waters in areas of restricted water exchange, but only trace levels were found in the downstream Emory and Clinch Rivers due to river dilution. Third, the accumulation of Hg- and As-rich coal ash in river sediments has the potential to have an impact on the ecological system in the downstream rivers by fish poisoning and methylmercury formation in anaerobic river sediments.

  4. Survey nonresponse among ethnic minorities in a national health survey--a mixed-method study of participation, barriers, and potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlmark, Nanna; Algren, Maria Holst; Holmberg, Teresa; Norredam, Marie Louise; Nielsen, Signe Smith; Blom, Astrid Benedikte; Bo, Anne; Juel, Knud

    2015-01-01

    The participation rate in the Danish National Health Survey (DNHS) 2010 was significantly lower among ethnic minorities than ethnic Danes. The purpose was to characterize nonresponse among ethnic minorities in DNHS, analyze variations in item nonresponse, and investigate barriers and incentives to participation. This was a mixed-method study. Logistic regression was used to analyze nonresponse using data from DNHS (N = 177,639 and chi-square tests in item nonresponse analyses. We explored barriers and incentives regarding participation through focus groups and cognitive interviews. Informants included immigrants and their descendants of both sexes, with and without higher education. The highest nonresponse rate was for non-Western descendants (80.0%) and immigrants 25 (72.3%) with basic education. Immigrants and descendants had higher odds ratios (OR = 3.07 and OR = 3.35, respectively) for nonresponse than ethnic Danes when adjusted for sex, age, marital status, and education. Non-Western immigrants had higher item nonresponse in several question categories. Barriers to non-participation related to the content, language, format, and layout of both the questionnaire and the cover letter. The sender and setting in which to receive the questionnaire also influenced answering incentives. We observed differences in barriers and incentives between immigrants and descendants. Nonresponse appears related to linguistic and/or educational limitations, to alienation generated by the questions' focus on disease and cultural assumptions, or mistrust regarding anonymity. Ethnic minorities seem particularly affected by such barriers. To increase survey participation, questions could be sensitized to reflect multicultural traditions, and the impact of sender and setting considered.

  5. Associations between Food Security Status and Dietary Inflammatory Potential within Lower-Income Adults from the United States National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, Cycles 2007 to 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmans, Rachel S; Palta, Mari; Robert, Stephanie A; Berger, Lawrence M; Ehrenthal, Deborah B; Malecki, Kristen M

    2018-06-01

    Evidence suggests both that chronic inflammation mediates the association of food insecurity with adverse health outcomes and that diet may be a significant source of inflammation among food insecure individuals. To examine whether food security status is associated with dietary inflammatory potential. Cross-sectional data came from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), cycles 2007 to 2014 (n=10,630). The analysis sample is representative of noninstitutionalized US adults with an income-to-poverty ratio ≤3.00. Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII) score, calculated using the average of two 24-hour dietary recalls, was the main outcome measure. Type III F tests or χ 2 tests compared population characteristics by food security status, defined using the US Food Security Survey Module. Multivariable linear regression was used to estimate the association between food security status and the DII score and moderation by demographic factors. Survey weighting procedures accounted for the effects of stratification and clustering used in the NHANES study design. When accounting for socioeconomic status, demographic factors, and health status, DII score was higher at greater levels of food insecurity (P=0.0033). Those with very low food security had a 0.31 (95% CI=0.12 to 0.49) higher DII score than those with high food security. Age moderated the association between food security status and DII score (interaction P=0.0103), where the magnitude of the association between DII score and severity of food insecurity was higher for those >65 years than for younger age groups. Food security status may be associated with dietary inflammatory potential, which is hypothesized to play a role in multiple chronic health conditions. Further research is needed to determine the causal nature of this relationship and evaluate how best to implement programs designed to address health disparities within food insecure populations. Copyright © 2018 Academy of Nutrition and

  6. Primer on Health Surveys

    OpenAIRE

    David L Nordstrom; David L Nordstrom

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to introduce novice researchers to surveys as a method of data collection. It starts with the definition of a survey, its major purposes and types as well as changes in the goals surveys have helped to achieve over time. Advantages and disadvantages of surveys over population censuses and medical examinations are discussed. Approaches to questionnaire construction are introduced along with properties that questionnaires are evaluated for. Modes of administration, sam...

  7. The impact of potentially traumatic events on the mental health of males who have served in the military: Findings from the Australian National Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Darryl; Mewton, Louise; Varker, Tracey; Phelps, Andrea; Forbes, David

    2017-07-01

    The study investigated the impact of potentially traumatic events on mental health outcomes among males who had ever served in the Australian Defence Force. Data from a nationally representative household survey of Australian residents, the 2007 National Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing, were used for this study. Compared with community members, Australian Defence Force males were significantly more likely to have experienced not only deployment and other war-like events but also accidents or other unexpected events, and trauma to someone close. For non-deployed males, Australian Defence Force members were at increased risk of accidents or other unexpected events compared to community members. After controlling for the effect of potentially traumatic events that were more prevalent among all Australian Defence Force members, the increased risk of mental disorders among Australian Defence Force members was no longer evident. For non-deployed males, Australian Defence Force and community members were at comparable risk of poor mental health outcomes. A significant minority of Australian Defence Force members had onset of a mental disorder prior to their first deployment. Deployment and other potentially traumatic events among Australian Defence Force members can help to explain their increased vulnerability to mental disorders compared with community members. Providers should routinely enquire about a range of potentially traumatic events among serving and ex-serving military personnel.

  8. Food survey: levels and potential health risks of chromium, lead, zinc and copper content in fruits and vegetables consumed in Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherfi, Abdelhamid; Abdoun, Samira; Gaci, Ouardia

    2014-08-01

    A food survey was carried out with the aim to investigate the levels of lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu) and chromium (Cr) in various fruits and vegetables sold in Algeria. Concentrations (mg/kgdry wt.) in selected foodstuffs were detected within the following ranges: 4-29.49, 11.17-49, 12.33-39.33 and 3-16.33 for Cu, Zn, Pb and Cr respectively. The food ingestion rate of the selected items was investigated by self-administered questionnaires which were filled by a total of 843 people randomly recruited at the exit of markets. The potential health risk for consumers was investigated by estimating the daily intake (EDI) and the target hazard quotient (THQ) for each heavy metal. For all foodstuffs, the EDI and the THQ were below the threshold values for Cu, Zn and Cr while they exceeded the thresholds for Pb (EDI: 15.66μgPb/kg body weight/day; THQ: 4.37), indicating an obvious health risk over a life time of exposure. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Correlations between Poor Micronutrition in Family Members and Potential Risk Factors for Poor Diet in Children and Adolescents Using Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye Ah Lee

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Based on data from the 2010–2011 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, we investigated correlations between micronutrients in the diet of family members and the possible risk factors for children and adolescents consuming an inadequate diet. We examined two-generation households with children aged 2–18 years. The quality of the family diet with regard to the following nine nutrients (protein, calcium, phosphorous, iron, vitamin A, vitamin B1, vitamin B2, niacin, and vitamin C was assessed based on the Index of Nutritional Quality. Correlations between quality of diet and selected variables were analyzed using the Statistical Analysis for Genetic Epidemiology software, and those between diet quality and potential risk factors for poor diet in offspring were analyzed using multinomial logistic regression. Overall, calcium was the most commonly under-consumed micronutrient. More than half of sons and daughters showed insufficient vitamin A, vitamin C, and iron intake, and both mothers and fathers showed insufficiency with respect to vitamin A, vitamin B2, and vitamin C. The correlation between a poor diet in parents and that in offspring was 0.17 (p < 0.0001, and this correlation coefficient was higher between mothers and offspring than between fathers and offspring. Additionally, eating breakfast provided a significant protective effect against the risk of poor nutrition in offspring, even after adjusting for covariates. Our results add to evidence indicating that children should be encouraged to eat breakfast to improve the quality of their diet.

  10. Potential of integrated continuous surveys and quality management to support monitoring, evaluation, and the scale-up of health interventions in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Alexander K

    2009-06-01

    Well-funded initiatives are challenging developing countries to increase health intervention coverage and show impact. Despite substantial resources, however, major obstacles include weak health systems, a lack of reasonably accurate monitoring data, and inadequate use of data for managing programs. This report discusses how integrated continuous surveys and quality management (I-Q), which are well-recognized approaches in wealthy countries, could support intervention scale-up, monitoring and evaluation, quality control for commodities, capacity building, and implementation research in low-resource settings. Integrated continuous surveys are similar to existing national cross-sectional surveys of households and health facilities, except data are collected over several years by permanent teams, and most results are reported monthly at the national, province, and district levels. Quality management involves conceptualizing work as processes, involving all workers in quality improvement, monitoring quality, and teams that improve quality with "plan-do-study-act" cycles. Implementing and evaluating I-Q in a low-income country would provide critical information on the value of this approach.

  11. Health Educational Potentials of Technologies.

    OpenAIRE

    Magnussen, Rikke; Aagaard-Hansen, Jens

    2012-01-01

    The field of health promotion technology has been in an exponential growth in recent years and smart phone applications, exer-games and self-monitoring devices has become part of fitness activities and health education. In this work-in-progress-paper theoretical perspectives for categorising and analysing health educational potentials of technologies are presented.

  12. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1999-2000 forward. The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) is a program of studies designed to assess the health and nutritional status of...

  13. [Workplace injuries and professional mobility correlated with health problems. The potential and limitations of the ISTAT Labour Force survey--July 1999].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannoni, Francesca; Mamo, C; Demaria, M; Ceccarelli, C; Costa, G

    2005-01-01

    Knowledge on the occupational and social factors that influence the relationship between illness, absence from work and occupational mobility is at present insufficient. To map out, by social class and occupational group, the impact of health problems on work and the distribution of accidents and morbidity associated with occupation. Using data from the National Survey of the Italian Labour Force (ISTAT, 1999), covering a sample of 200,384 subjects, prevalence odds ratios of morbidity, work injuries and change of occupation due to health problems were calculated by social class and occupation, adjusting for age and residence. The working class showed a higher risk, due to health problems, of a reduction in time worked (OR = 3.70 in men and OR = 4.10 in women), of choosing to work part-time (OR = 2.04 in men and OR = 2.27 in women), or of withdrawing from the workforce (for artisans, skilled manual workers, farmers and agricultural labourers OR = 1.63 in men and OR = 1.47 in women). This class was also at a greater disadvantage not only with respect to accident rates (OR = 1.85 in men and OR = 1.88 in women), but also with respect to the time needed for post-trauma rehabilitation and return to work (for absences of one week to one month: OR = 1.67 and 1.83 for men and women, respectively; for absences of more than one month: OR = 1.29 and OR = 1.69). Moreover, the working class, when compared to other social classes, had a higher rate of suffering from illness, physical impairment or other physical and psychological problems caused or aggravated by working activity (25% in men and 32% in women). The ISTAT National Survey provides an estimate of minor accidents with prognoses of less than three days, including those not reported to the National Institute for Insurance against Occupational Accidents and Diseases (INAIL). This allows a preliminary exploration of the relationship between health problems and occupational mobility; however, it seems necessary to collect

  14. Health professional's perceptions of and potential barriers to smoking cessation care: a survey study at a dental school hospital in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makiishi Takemi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smoking is currently accepted as a well-established risk factor for many oral diseases such as oral cancer and periodontal disease. Provision of smoking cessation care to patients with oral problems is a responsibility of health care professionals, particularly dentists and dental hygienists. This study examined the smoking-related perceptions and practices of dental school hospital-based health professionals in Japan. Findings A cross-sectional study design was used. The sample was formed from dentists, dental hygienists, physicians and nurses of a dental school hospital in Tokyo, Japan (n = 93, 72%. Participants were asked to complete an 11-item questionnaire assessing demographic variables and smoking history, provision of smoking cessation advice or care, attitudes about smoking cessation, and perceived barrier(s to smoking cessation care. Eighteen percent of participants reported being current smokers and 15% reported being ex-smokers, with higher smoking rates reported by dentists compared with other health professionals (p = 0.0199. While recognizing the importance of asking patients about their smoking status, actual provision of smoking cessation advice or care by participants was relatively insufficient. Interventions such as 'assess willingness to make a quit attempt' and 'assist in quit attempt' were implemented for less than one-quarter of their patients who smoke. Non-smokers were more likely to acknowledge the need for increased provision in smoking cessation care by oral health professionals. 'Lack of knowledge and training' was identified as a central barrier to smoking cessation care, followed by 'few patients willing to quit'. Conclusions A need for further promotion of smoking cessation activities by the health professionals was identified. The findings also suggest that dentists and dental hygienists, while perceiving a role in smoking care, do require training in the provision of smoking cessation care

  15. National Health Interview Survey (NHIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The NHIS collects data on a broad range of health topics through personal household interviews. The results of NHIS provide data to track health status, health care access, and progress toward achieving national health objectives.

  16. Identifiable Data Files - Health Outcomes Survey (HOS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Medicare Health Outcomes Survey (HOS) identifiable data files are comprised of the entire national sample for a given 2-year cohort (including both respondents...

  17. Health Outcomes Survey - Limited Data Set

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Medicare Health Outcomes Survey (HOS) limited data sets (LDS) are comprised of the entire national sample for a given 2-year cohort (including both respondents...

  18. Associations between lifetime potentially traumatic events and chronic physical conditions in the South African Stress and Health Survey: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwoli, Lukoye; Platt, Jonathan M; Basu, Archana; Williams, David R; Stein, Dan J; Koenen, Karestan C

    2016-07-07

    This study examined the association between the type, and cumulative number of lifetime potentially traumatic events (PTEs), and chronic physical conditions, in a South African sample. PTE exposures have been associated with an increased risk for a wide range of chronic physical conditions, but it is unclear whether psychiatric disorders mediate this association. Given the established differences in trauma occurrence, and the epidemiology of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in South Africa relative to other countries, examining associations between PTEs and chronic physical conditions, particularly while accounting for psychiatric comorbidity is important. Data were drawn from the South African Stress and Health Study, a cross-sectional population-representative study of psychological and physical health of South African adults. Twenty-seven PTEs, based on the World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview Version 3.0, DSM-IV PTSD module were grouped into seven PTE types (war events, physical violence, sexual violence, accidents, unexpected death of a loved one, network events, and witnessing PTEs). Five clusters of physical conditions (cardiovascular, arthritis, respiratory, chronic pain, and other health conditions) were examined. Logistic regressions assessed the odds of reporting a physical condition in relation to type and cumulative number of PTEs. Cochran-Armitage test for trend was used to examine dose-response effect of cumulative PTEs on physical conditions. After adjusting for sociodemographic variables and psychiatric disorders, respondents with any PTE had increased odds of all assessed physical conditions, ranging between 1.48 (95 % CI: 1.06-2.07) for arthritis and 2.07 (95 % CI: 1.57-2.73) for respiratory conditions, compared to those without PTE exposure. Sexual violence, physical violence, unexpected death of a loved one, and network PTEs significantly increased the odds of all or nearly all the physical conditions

  19. NATIONAL EMPLOYER HEALTH INSURANCE SURVEY (NEHIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Employer Health Insurance Survey (NEHIS) was developed to produce estimates on employer-sponsored health insurance data in the United States. The NEHIS was the first Federal survey to represent all employers in the United States by State and obtain information on all...

  20. Cyanotoxins in inland lakes of the continental United States: Photic Zone Occurrence and potential recreational health risks in the 2007 Survey of the Nation's lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    The largest spatial survey of cylindrospermosins, microcystins, and saxitoxins in the United States was conducted as part of the 2007 U.S. Survey of the Nation’s Lakes. Integrated photic zone samples were collected from 1,161 lakes during May-September 2007. Cyanotoxin, cya...

  1. The 2013 Canadian Forces Mental Health Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Rachel E.; Boulos, David; Garber, Bryan G.; Jetly, Rakesh; Sareen, Jitender

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The 2013 Canadian Forces Mental Health Survey (CFMHS) collected detailed information on mental health problems, their impacts, occupational and nonoccupational determinants of mental health, and the use of mental health services from a random sample of 8200 serving personnel. The objective of this article is to provide a firm scientific foundation for understanding and interpreting the CFMHS findings. Methods: This narrative review first provides a snapshot of the Canadian Armed Forces (CAF), focusing on 2 key determinants of mental health: the deployment of more than 40,000 personnel in support of the mission in Afghanistan and the extensive renewal of the CAF mental health system. The findings of recent population-based CAF mental health research are reviewed, with a focus on findings from the very similar mental health survey done in 2002. Finally, key aspects of the methods of the 2013 CFMHS are presented. Results: The findings of 20 peer-reviewed publications using the 2002 mental health survey data are reviewed, along with those of 25 publications from other major CAF mental health research projects executed over the past decade. Conclusions: More than a decade of population-based mental health research in the CAF has provided a detailed picture of its mental health and use of mental health services. This knowledge base and the homology of the 2013 survey with the 2002 CAF survey and general population surveys in 2002 and 2012 will provide an unusual opportunity to use the CFMHS to situate mental health in the CAF in a historical and societal perspective. PMID:27270738

  2. Multidisciplinary eHealth Survey Evaluation Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karras, Bryant T.; Tufano, James T.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the development process of an evaluation framework for describing and comparing web survey tools. We believe that this approach will help shape the design, development, deployment, and evaluation of population-based health interventions. A conceptual framework for describing and evaluating web survey systems will enable the…

  3. Activation Analysis and Public Health. Survey Paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lenihan, I. M.A. [Western Regional Hospital Board, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Smith, H. [University of Glasgow, Glasgow (United Kingdom)

    1967-10-15

    The technique of activation analysis has useful and distinctive applications, not yet fully recognized or exploited, in public health. Three areas of usefulness may be recognized. 1. Industrial hygiene. Activation analysis offers a simple and efficient method for assessing and controlling occupational hazards associated with the handling of toxic materials, such as compounds of arsenic and of mercury. Examination of hair and nail samples, taken at six-monthly intervals, will yield a surprising amount of information regarding the influence on occupational exposure of individual variation in working habits, and inadequacy or non-observance of hygienic rules and other prescribed safety measures. 2. Epidemiology. The advantage conferred by activation analysis lies in the possibility of rapid and accurate estimation of trace element concentrations in small samples of tissue or other materials, such as can readily be obtained from population groups large enough to be statistically significant. Surveys of this kind have interesting potentialities in relation to dental caries, cancer, cirrhosis of the liver and heart disease. 3. Recognition of essential trace elements. Surveys of trace element concentrations suggest that the variability of tissue levels among members of a population is smaller for essential trace elements than for non-essential elements. It is possible also that tissue levels show a normal distribution for essential elements and a log-normal distribution for non-essential elements. (author)

  4. Assessment of mental health and illness by telephone survey: experience with an Alberta mental health survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patten, Scott B; Adair, Carol E; Williams, Jeanne Va; Brant, Rollin; Wang, Jian Li; Casebeer, Ann; Beauséjour, Pierre

    2006-01-01

    Mental health is an emerging priority for health surveillance. It has not been determined that the existing data sources can adequately meet surveillance needs. The objective of this project was to explore the use of telephone surveys as a means of collecting supplementary surveillance information. A computer-assisted telephone interview was administered to 5,400 subjects in Alberta. The interview included a set of brief, validated measures for evaluating mental disorder prevalence and related variables. The individual subject response rate was 78 percent, but a substantial number of refusals occurred at the initial household contact. The age and sex distribution of the study sample differed from that of the provincial population prior to weighting. Prevalence proportions did not vary substantially across administrative health regions. There is a potential role for telephone data collection in mental health surveillance, but these results highlight some associated methodological challenges. They also draw into question the importance of regional variation in mental disorder prevalence--which might otherwise have been a key advantage of telephone survey methodologies.

  5. MENTAL HEALTH AND UNIVERSITY STUDENTS: SURVEY

    OpenAIRE

    Woodgate, Roberta

    2014-01-01

    We want to learn from university students about your experiences and perspectives on mental health and well-being in the context of being a student. Your input can help us develop evidence-based intervention programs that can help address the mental health needs of students. This survey should take 15-20 minutes to complete.

  6. A Market Basket Survey of Horticultural Fruits for Arsenic and Trace Metal Contamination in Southeast Nigeria and Potential Health Risk Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Chigozie Damian Ezeonyejiaku; Maximilian Obinna Obiakor

    2017-01-01

    Background. Elevated arsenic and trace metal contamination of the terrestrial food chain represents one of the most significant environmental risk exposures for human populations in developing countries. Metalloid and metal contamination in horticultural crop produce such as fruit is a public health concern in Nigeria. Local fruits are cheap sources of vitamins and minerals for the resident population and pose an important dietary threat of metal(loid) toxicity through consumption. Objecti...

  7. A Survey of Nursing Home Organizational Characteristics Associated with Potentially Avoidable Hospital Transfers and Care Quality in One Large British Columbia Health Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGregor, Margaret J.; Baumbusch, Jennifer; Abu-Laban, Riyad B.; McGrail, Kimberlyn M.; Andrusiek, Dug; Globerman, Judith; Berg, Shannon; Cox, Michelle B.; Salomons, Kia; Volker, Jan; Ronald, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    Hospitalization of nursing home residents can be futile as well as costly, and now evidence indicates that treating nursing home residents in place produces better outcomes for some conditions. We examined facility organizational characteristics that previous research showed are associated with potentially avoidable hospital transfers and with…

  8. Teens, Health and Technology: A National Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen Wartella

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the age of digital technology, as teens seem to be constantly connected online, via social media, and through mobile applications, it is no surprise that they increasingly turn to digital media to answer their health questions. This study is the first of its kind to survey a large, nationally-representative sample of teens to investigate how they use the newest digital technologies, including mobile apps, social networking sites, electronic gaming and wearable devices, to explore health topics. The survey covered the types of health topics teens most frequently search for, which technologies they are most likely to use and how they use them, and whether they report having changed their behaviors due to digital health information. In addition, this survey explores how the digital divide continues to impact adolescents. Results of this study indicate that teens are concerned about many health issues, ranging from fitness, sexual activity, drugs, hygiene as well as mental health and stress. As teens virtually always have a digital device at their fingertips, it is clear that public health interventions and informational campaigns must be tailored to reflect the ways that teens currently navigate digital health information and the health challenges that concern them most.

  9. Teens, Health and Technology: A National Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Ellen Wartella; Vicky Rideout; Heather Montague; Leanne Beaudoin-Ryan; Alexis Lauricella

    2016-01-01

    In the age of digital technology, as teens seem to be constantly connected online, via social media, and through mobile applications, it is no surprise that they increasingly turn to digital media to answer their health questions. This study is the first of its kind to survey a large, nationally-representative sample of teens to investigate how they use the newest digital technologies, including mobile apps, social networking sites, electronic gaming and wearable devices, to explore health...

  10. A survey of community child health audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, N J; Penlington, E

    1993-03-01

    Community child health medical audit is established in most districts surveyed. A minority have integrated audit with hospital paediatric units. Very few districts use an external auditor. Subject audit is preferred to individual performance audit and school health services were the most common services subjected to medical audit. The need for integrated audit and audit forms suitable for use in the community services is discussed.

  11. Survey of potential applications of superconducting suspensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, D.K.; Bupara, S.S.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to survey the recent developments in applying the bulk superconductors to mechanical applications. These applications, called superconducting suspensions, can be broadly divided into three groups - Passive Magnetic Bearings, Passive Superconducting Dampers and Active Superconducting Bearings. Basically, passive magnetic bearings utilize bulk superconductors to support a rotating shaft without contact while active superconducting bearings employ superconducting wires. Passive superconducting dampers, on the other hand, dissipate energy from a vibrating component. Over the past one year, dramatic improvements have been made in processing large-size specimens made of high grade bulk superconductors. As a result, they can meet the size requirements and load capacity requirements of many applications. With this size-scale up, one can utilize them in a wider number of applications than what was possible a few years back. At present several organizations have demonstrated the capability of passive magnetic bearings. The targeted applications include miniature cryoturboexpanders, cryoturbopumps, energy storage wheels and turbomolecular pumps. These demonstrations indicate that the passive magnetic bearings are closer to technology maturity. (orig.)

  12. Health Educational Potentials of Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnussen, Rikke; Aagaard-Hansen, Jens

    2012-01-01

    The field of health promotion technology has been in an exponential growth in recent years and smart phone applications, exer-games and self-monitoring devices has become part of fitness activities and health education. In this work-in-progress-paper theoretical perspectives for categorising...

  13. Health Physics Enrollments and Degrees Survey, 2006 Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education

    2007-01-01

    This annual survey collects 2006 data on the number of health physics degrees awarded as well as the number of students enrolled in health physics academic programs. Thirty universities offer health physics degrees; all responded to the survey

  14. Literature survey: health effects of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tveten, U.; Garder, K.

    This report was originally written as a chapter of a report entitled 'Air pollution effects of electric power generation, a literature survey', written jointly by the Norwegian Institute for Air Research (NILU) and the Institutt for Atomenergi (IFA). (INIS RN242406). A survey is presented of the health effects of radiation. It has not, however, been the intention of the authors to make a complete list of all the literature relevant to this subject. The NILU/IFA report was meant as a first step towards a method of comparing the health effects of electric power generation by fission, gas and oil. Consequently information relevant to quantification of the health effects on humans has been selected. It is pointed out that quantitative information on the health effects of low radiation and dose rates, as are relevant to routine releases, does not exist for humans. The convention of linear extrapolation from higher doses and dose rates is used worldwide, but it is felt by most that the estimates are conservative. As an example of the use of the current best estimates, a calculation of normal release radiation doses is performed. (Auth.)

  15. Potential health impact of wind turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-05-01

    In response to public health concerns about wind turbines, a study was conducted to review the scientific evidence on the potential health effects of wind turbines. Several research questions were examined, including scientific evidence on the potential health impacts of wind turbines; the relationship between wind turbine noise and health; the relationship between low frequency sound, infrasound and health; assessment of exposure to wind turbines; wind turbine health and safety hazards and Ontario wind turbine setbacks; community consultation prior to wind farm construction and data gaps and research needs. The study showed that although some people living near wind turbines reported symptoms such as dizziness, headaches, and sleep disturbance, the scientific evidence available to date does not demonstrate a direct causal link between wind turbine noise and adverse health effects. The sound level from wind turbines at common residential setbacks is not sufficient to cause hearing impairment or other direct health effects, although some people may find it annoying. 41 refs., 1 appendix.

  16. National Mental Health Services Survey (N-MHSS-2010)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Mental Health Services Survey (N-MHSS) is an annual survey designed to collect statistical information on the numbers and characteristics of all known...

  17. National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH-2015)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) series (formerly titled National Household Survey on Drug Abuse) primarily measures the prevalence and correlates...

  18. National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH-2002)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) series (formerly titled National Household Survey on Drug Abuse) measures the prevalence and correlates of drug...

  19. National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH-2005)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) series (formerly titled National Household Survey on Drug Abuse) primarily measures the prevalence and correlates...

  20. National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH-2006)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) series (formerly titled National Household Survey on Drug Abuse) primarily measures the prevalence and correlates...

  1. National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH-2004)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) series (formerly titled National Household Survey on Drug Abuse) measures the prevalence and correlates of drug...

  2. National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH-2007)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) series (formerly titled National Household Survey on Drug Abuse) primarily measures the prevalence and correlates...

  3. National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH-2013)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) series (formerly titled National Household Survey on Drug Abuse) primarily measures the prevalence and correlates...

  4. National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH-2014)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) series (formerly titled National Household Survey on Drug Abuse) primarily measures the prevalence and correlates...

  5. National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH), 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) series (formerly titled National Household Survey on Drug Abuse) primarily measures the prevalence and correlates...

  6. National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH-2008)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) series (formerly titled National Household Survey on Drug Abuse) primarily measures the prevalence and correlates...

  7. National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH-2003)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) series (formerly titled National Household Survey on Drug Abuse) measures the prevalence and correlates of drug...

  8. National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH-2009)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) series (formerly titled National Household Survey on Drug Abuse) primarily measures the prevalence and correlates...

  9. National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH-2012)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) series (formerly titled National Household Survey on Drug Abuse) primarily measures the prevalence and correlates...

  10. National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH-2011)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) series (formerly titled National Household Survey on Drug Abuse) primarily measures the prevalence and correlates...

  11. National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH-2010)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) series (formerly titled National Household Survey on Drug Abuse) primarily measures the prevalence and correlates...

  12. [Health services access survey for Colombian households].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrivillaga, Marcela; Aristizabal, Juan Carlos; Pérez, Mauricio; Estrada, Victoria Eugenia

    The aim of this study was to design and validate a health services access survey for households in Colombia to provide a methodological tool that allows the country to accumulate evidence of real-life access conditions experienced by the Colombian population. A validation study with experts and a pilot study were performed. It was conducted in the municipality of Jamundi, located in the department of Valle del Cauca, Colombia. Probabilistic, multistage and stratified cluster sampling was carried out. The final sample was 215 households. The survey was composed of 63 questions divided into five modules: socio-demographic profile of the head of the household or adult informant, household socioeconomic profile, access to preventive services, access to curative and rehabilitative services and household out of pocket expenditure. In descriptive terms, the promotion of preventive services only reached 44%; the use of these services was always highest among children younger than one year old and up to the age of ten. The perceived need for emergency medical care and hospitalisation was between 82% and 85%, but 36% perceived the quality of care to be low or very low. Delays were experienced in medical visits with GPs and specialists. The designed survey is valid, relevant and representative of access to health services in Colombia. Empirically, the pilot showed institutional weaknesses in a municipality of the country, indicating that health coverage does not in practice mean real and effective access to health services. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. The Public Health Workforce Interests and Needs Survey: The First National Survey of State Health Agency Employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellers, Katie; Leider, Jonathon P; Harper, Elizabeth; Castrucci, Brian C; Bharthapudi, Kiran; Liss-Levinson, Rivka; Jarris, Paul E; Hunter, Edward L

    2015-01-01

    Public health practitioners, policy makers, and researchers alike have called for more data on individual worker's perceptions about workplace environment, job satisfaction, and training needs for a quarter of a century. The Public Health Workforce Interests and Needs Survey (PH WINS) was created to answer that call. Characterize key components of the public health workforce, including demographics, workplace environment, perceptions about national trends, and perceived training needs. A nationally representative survey of central office employees at state health agencies (SHAs) was conducted in 2014. Approximately 25,000 e-mail invitations to a Web-based survey were sent out to public health staff in 37 states, based on a stratified sampling approach. Balanced repeated replication weights were used to account for the complex sampling design. A total of 10,246 permanently employed SHA central office employees participated in PH WINS (46% response rate). Perceptions about training needs; workplace environment and job satisfaction; national initiatives and trends; and demographics. Although the majority of staff said they were somewhat or very satisfied with their job (79%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 78-80), as well as their organization (65%; 95% CI, 64-66), more than 42% (95% CI, 41-43) were considering leaving their organization in the next year or retiring before 2020; 4% of those were considering leaving for another job elsewhere in governmental public health. The majority of public health staff at SHA central offices are female (72%; 95% CI, 71-73), non-Hispanic white (70%; 95% CI, 69-71), and older than 40 years (73%; 95% CI, 72-74). The greatest training needs include influencing policy development, preparing a budget, and training related to the social determinants of health. PH WINS represents the first nationally representative survey of SHA employees. It holds significant potential to help answer previously unaddressed questions in public health

  14. The World Health Organization World Mental Health Survey Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Ronald C; Haro, Josep Maria; Heeringa, Steven G; Pennell, Beth-Ellen; Ustün, T Bedirhan

    2006-01-01

    To present an overview of the World Health Organization World Mental Health (WMH) Survey Initiative. The discussion draws on knowledge gleaned from the authors' participation as principals in WMH. WMH has carried out community epidemiological surveys in more than two dozen countries with more than 200,000 completed interviews. Additional surveys are in progress. Clinical reappraisal studies embedded in WMH surveys have been used to develop imputation rules to adjust prevalence estimates for within- and between-country variation in accuracy. WMH interviews include detailed information about sub-threshold manifestations to address the problem of rigid categorical diagnoses not applying equally to all countries. Investigations are now underway of targeted substantive issues. Despite inevitable limitations imposed by existing diagnostic systems and variable expertise in participating countries, WMH has produced an unprecedented amount of high-quality data on the general population cross-national epidemiology of mental disorders. WMH collaborators are in thoughtful and subtle investigations of cross-national variation in validity of diagnostic assessments and a wide range of important substantive topics. Recognizing that WMH is not definitive, finally, insights from this round of surveys are being used to carry out methodological studies aimed at improving the quality of future investigations.

  15. National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) - National Cardiovascular Disease Surveillance Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2001 forward. The National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) has monitored the health of the nation since 1957. NHIS data on a broad range of health topics are...

  16. Health impact assessment – A survey on quantifying tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fehr, Rainer, E-mail: rainer.fehr@uni-bielefeld.de [Fakultaet fuer Gesundheitswissenschaften, Universitaet Bielefeld, Universitaetsstr. 25, 33615 Bielefeld (Germany); Mekel, Odile C.L., E-mail: odile.mekel@lzg.nrw.de [Gesundheitsdaten und analysen, Versorgungsstrukturen, Landeszentrum Gesundheit Nordrhein-Westfalen (LZG.NRW), Westerfeldstr. 35-37, 33611 Bielefeld (Germany); Fintan Hurley, J., E-mail: fintan.hurley@iom-world.org [Institute of Occupational Medicine (IOM), Research Avenue North, Riccarton, Edinburgh EH14 4AP, Scotland (United Kingdom); Mackenbach, Johan P., E-mail: j.mackenbach@erasmusmc.nl [Department of Public Health, Erasmus MC, P.O. Box 2040, 3000 CA Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2016-02-15

    Integrating human health into prospective impact assessments is known to be challenging. This is true for both approaches: dedicated health impact assessments (HIA) as well as inclusion of health into more general impact assessments. Acknowledging the full range of participatory, qualitative, and quantitative approaches, this study focuses on the latter, especially on computational tools for quantitative health modelling. We conducted a survey among tool developers concerning the status quo of development and availability of such tools; experiences made with model usage in real-life situations; and priorities for further development. Responding toolmaker groups described 17 such tools, most of them being maintained and reported as ready for use and covering a wide range of topics, including risk & protective factors, exposures, policies, and health outcomes. In recent years, existing models have been improved and were applied in new ways, and completely new models emerged. There was high agreement among respondents on the need to further develop methods for assessment of inequalities and uncertainty. The contribution of quantitative modeling to health foresight would benefit from building joint strategies of further tool development, improving the visibility of quantitative tools and methods, and engaging continuously with actual and potential users. - Highlights: • A survey investigated computational tools for health impact quantification. • Formal evaluation of such tools has been rare. • Handling inequalities and uncertainties are priority areas for further development. • Health foresight would benefit from tool developers and users forming a community. • Joint development strategies across computational tools are needed.

  17. Health impact assessment – A survey on quantifying tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fehr, Rainer; Mekel, Odile C.L.; Fintan Hurley, J.; Mackenbach, Johan P.

    2016-01-01

    Integrating human health into prospective impact assessments is known to be challenging. This is true for both approaches: dedicated health impact assessments (HIA) as well as inclusion of health into more general impact assessments. Acknowledging the full range of participatory, qualitative, and quantitative approaches, this study focuses on the latter, especially on computational tools for quantitative health modelling. We conducted a survey among tool developers concerning the status quo of development and availability of such tools; experiences made with model usage in real-life situations; and priorities for further development. Responding toolmaker groups described 17 such tools, most of them being maintained and reported as ready for use and covering a wide range of topics, including risk & protective factors, exposures, policies, and health outcomes. In recent years, existing models have been improved and were applied in new ways, and completely new models emerged. There was high agreement among respondents on the need to further develop methods for assessment of inequalities and uncertainty. The contribution of quantitative modeling to health foresight would benefit from building joint strategies of further tool development, improving the visibility of quantitative tools and methods, and engaging continuously with actual and potential users. - Highlights: • A survey investigated computational tools for health impact quantification. • Formal evaluation of such tools has been rare. • Handling inequalities and uncertainties are priority areas for further development. • Health foresight would benefit from tool developers and users forming a community. • Joint development strategies across computational tools are needed.

  18. A survey of static and dynamic potential games

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GONZLEZ-SNCHEZ David; HERNNDEZ-LERMA Onsimo

    2016-01-01

    Potential games are noncooperative games for which there exist auxiliary functions, called potentials,such that the maximizers of the potential are also Nash equilibria of the corresponding game. Some properties of Nash equilibria, such as existence or stability, can be derived from the potential, whenever it exists. We survey different classes of potential games in the static and dynamic cases, with a finite number of players, as well as in population games where a continuum of players is allowed. Likewise, theoretical concepts and applications are discussed by means of illustrative examples.

  19. Potential Reach of mHealth Versus Traditional Mass Media for Prevention of Chronic Diseases: Evidence From a Nationally Representative Survey in a Middle-Income Country in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yepes, Maryam; Maurer, Jürgen; Viswanathan, Barathi; Gedeon, Jude; Bovet, Pascal

    2016-05-20

    Public radio and television announcements have a long tradition in public health education. With the global rise of computer and mobile device ownership, short message service (SMS) and email-based health services (mHealth) are promising new tools for health promotion. Our objectives were to examine 1) self-reported exposure to programs related to noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) on national public television and radio during the 12 months preceding the survey (2013-2014), 2) current ownership of a mobile phone, smartphone, computer, or tablet, and use of the Internet, and 3) willingness of individuals to receive SMS or emails with information on health, with a focus on distribution of these variables across different demographic, socioeconomic status (SES), and NCD risk groups. We obtained data in a population survey of 1240 participants aged 25-64 years conducted in 2013-2014 in the Seychelles, a rapidly developing small island state in the African region. We administered a structured questionnaire and measured NCD risk factors. Univariate and multivariate analyses explored the relationships between outcomes and sociodemographic variables. Of 1240 participants, 1037 (83.62%) reported exposure to NCD-related programs on public television, while a lower proportion of 740 adults (59.67%), reported exposure via public radio (Pphone and ownership was positively associated with female sex (Pphones and willingness to receive health-related SMS, mHealth presents an opportunity for health programs, especially when targeted SMS messages are intended for younger adults and those in higher socioeconomic groups. By contrast, due to reduced Internet access, email-based programs had a more limited reach for health promotion programs. These findings emphasize the different reach of interventions using SMS or email versus traditional mass media, according to demographic and socioeconomic categories, for health education programs in a developing country.

  20. Potential health benefits and problems associated with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    inhibitors, oligosaccharides and phytoestrogens in food legumes has both health ... of mixtures of these phytochemicals from food legumes, their interaction with ... potentials and utilization in foods and drugs which could be used as frontline ...

  1. Multinational Population-Based Health Surveys Linked to Outcome Data: An Untapped Resource

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stacey Fisher

    2017-04-01

    This study provides initial support for the methodological feasibility of pooling linked population health surveys however, challenges introduced by dissimilarities will require the use of innovative methodologies, and discussions regarding how to manage jurisdictional data restrictions and privacy issues are needed. Pooled population health data has the potential to improve national and international health surveillance and public health.

  2. Coppicing potential of Eucalyptus nitens : results from a field survey ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to determine factors which could have a positive influence on the coppicing potential of Eucalyptus nitens , a field survey was carried out at Draycott, near Estcourt in the KwaZulu-Natal Midlands. Five measures of the ability to coppice (stump survival, height of coppice, number of dominant shoots, coppicing ...

  3. Health Care Expenditure among People with Disabilities: Potential Role of Workplace Health Promotion and Implications for Rehabilitation Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpur, Arun; Bruyere, Susanne M.

    2012-01-01

    Workplace health-promotion programs have the potential to reduce health care expenditures, especially among people with disabilities. Utilizing nationally representative survey data, the authors provide estimates for health care expenditures related to secondary conditions, obesity, and health behaviors among working-age people with disabilities.…

  4. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 2009-2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) is a program of studies designed to assess the health and nutritional status of adults and children in...

  5. Survey of potential electronic applications of high temperature superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammond, R.B.; Bourne, L.C.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper the authors present a survey of the potential electronic applications of high temperature superconductor (HTSC) thin films. During the past four years there has been substantial speculation on this topic. The authors will cover only a small fraction of the potential electronic applications that have been identified. Their treatment is influenced by the developments over the past few years in materials and device development and in market analysis. They present their view of the most promising potential applications. Superconductors have two important properties that make them attractive for electronic applications. These are (a) low surface resistance at high frequencies, and (b) the Josephson effect

  6. National health interview surveys in Europe: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hupkens, C L; van den Berg, J; van der Zee, J

    1999-05-01

    In order to study the value of national health interview surveys for national and international research and policy activities, this paper examines the existence and content of recent and future health interview surveys in the 15 member states of the European Union (EU), Norway, Iceland and Switzerland. National health interview surveys are performed in most countries, but not in Greece (only regional surveys), Luxembourg, Ireland and Iceland (only multi-purpose surveys). The health interview surveys in the other 14 countries provide regular data on the main health topics. Of the 14 health topics that are examined in this inventory seven are measured in all countries. Questions on health status (e.g. self-assessed health, long-term physical disability, and height and weight) and medical consumption (e.g. consultations with the general practitioner, GP) are often included. Lifestyle topics are less often included, except smoking habits, information about which is sought in all countries. Topics like diet and drugs/narcotics are more often included in special surveys than in general health interview surveys. Despite differences in the content, frequency and methodology of national health interview surveys in different countries, these surveys are a valuable source of information on the health of Europeans.

  7. Barriers to global health development: An international quantitative survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahr Weiss

    Full Text Available Global health's goal of reducing low-and-middle-income country versus high-income country health disparities faces complex challenges. Although there have been discussions of barriers, there has not been a broad-based, quantitative survey of such barriers.432 global health professionals were invited via email to participate in an online survey, with 268 (62% participating. The survey assessed participants' (A demographic and global health background, (B perceptions regarding 66 barriers' seriousness, (C detailed ratings of barriers designated most serious, (D potential solutions.Thirty-four (of 66 barriers were seen as moderately or more serious, highlighting the widespread, significant challenges global health development faces. Perceived barrier seriousness differed significantly across domains: Resource Limitations mean = 2.47 (0-4 Likert scale, Priority Selection mean = 2.20, Corruption, Lack of Competence mean = 1.87, Social and Cultural Barriers mean = 1.68. Some system-level predictors showed significant but relatively limited relations. For instance, for Global Health Domain, HIV and Mental Health had higher levels of perceived Social and Cultural Barriers than other GH Domains. Individual-level global health experience predictors had small but significant effects, with seriousness of (a Corruption, Lack of Competence, and (b Priority Selection barriers positively correlated with respondents' level of LMIC-oriented (e.g., weeks/year spent in LMIC but Academic Global Health Achievement (e.g., number of global health publications negatively correlated with overall barrier seriousness.That comparatively few system-level predictors (e.g., Organization Type were significant suggests these barriers may be relatively fundamental at the system-level. Individual-level and system-level effects do have policy implications; e.g., Priority Selection barriers were among the most serious, yet effects on seriousness of how LMIC-oriented a professional

  8. A health survey of radiologic technologists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boice, J.D. Jr.; Mandel, J.S.; Doody, M.M.; Yoder, R.C.; McGowan, R.

    1992-01-01

    A health survey of more than 143,000 radiologic technologists is described. The population was identified from the 1982 computerized files of the American Registry of Radiologic Technologists, which was established in 1926. Inactive members were traced to obtain current addresses or death notifications. More than 6000 technologists were reported to have died. For all registrants who were alive when located, a detailed 16-page questionnaire was sent, covering occupational histories, medical conditions, and other personal and lifestyle characteristics. Nonrespondents were contacted by telephone to complete an abbreviated questionnaire. More than 104,000 responses were obtained. Most technologists were female (76%), white (93%), and employed for an average of 12 years; 37% attended college, and approximately 50% never smoked cigarettes. Radiation exposure information was sought from employer records and commercial dosimetry companies. Technologists employed for the longest times had the highest estimated cumulative exposures, with approximately 9% with exposures greater than 5 cGy. There was a high correlation between cumulative occupational exposure and personal exposure to medical radiographs, related, in part, to the association of both factors with attained age. It is interesting that 10% of all technologists allowed others to practice taking radiographs on them during their training. Nearly 4% of the respondents reported having some type of cancer, mainly of the skin (1517), breast (665), and cervix (726). Prospective surveys will monitor cancer mortality rates through use of the National Death Index and cancer incidence through periodic mailings of questionnaires. This is the only occupational study of radiation employees who are primarily women and should provide new information on the possible risks associated with relatively low levels of exposure

  9. Health Promoting Schools: Consensus, Strategies, and Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macnab, Andrew J.; Gagnon, Faith A.; Stewart, Donald

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to summarize a consensus statement generated on the current challenges, strategies, and potential of health promoting schools (HPS) at a 2011 colloquium at the Stellenbosch Institute for Advanced Study where 40 people from five continents came together to share their global and regional experience surrounding…

  10. Survey of public participation potential regarding the Muria NPP program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yarianto-SBS; Sri Hariani Syarif; Heni Susiati; Imam Hamzah; Fepriadi

    2003-01-01

    Socio-culture aspect is a part of site feasibility evaluation of Nuclear Power Plant (NPP)program. Indonesia is under going democratization, therefore the paradigm of development has also been changed where the people have freedom or liberty and they can express their opinion independently. The people are significant factor that involving in the decision making of regional development.Even the socio-culture, such as social riot can reject the site. Therefore socio-culture aspect should be considered in the NPP site evaluation. The first step of the study,mapping of public participation potential should be conducted by field survey. The method used in there search is quantitative approach with field survey guided by questioner without any treatment of object sampled. Qualitative approach was also conducted by in-depth interview technique to collect more detailed information. Information were collected from general public without any stratification in the 10 km radius from NPP site. Sampling method used was full random sampling technique. The results of survey show that the most of the people have significant potential for participating in the NPP Program. Conducive atmosphere should be maintained by social setting, therefore the present good momentum will not be lost. (author)

  11. Veterans Health Administration Survey of Healthcare Experiences of Patients (SHEP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — A list of VHA hospitals with inpatient experience of care survey data. The VA SHEP uses the same questions as the Hospital Consumer Assessment of Health Providers...

  12. Coffee: biochemistry and potential impact on health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, Iziar A; Clifford, Michael N; Lean, Michael E J; Ashihara, Hiroshi; Crozier, Alan

    2014-08-01

    This review provides details on the phytochemicals in green coffee beans and the changes that occur during roasting. Key compounds in the coffee beverage, produced from the ground, roasted beans, are volatile constituents responsible for the unique aroma, the alkaloids caffeine and trigonelline, chlorogenic acids, the diterpenes cafestol and kahweol, and melanoidins, which are Maillard reaction products. The fate of these compounds in the body following consumption of coffee is discussed along with evidence of the mechanisms by which they may impact on health. Finally, epidemiological findings linking coffee consumption to potential health benefits including prevention of several chronic and degenerative diseases, such as cancer, cardiovascular disorders, diabetes, and Parkinson's disease, are evaluated.

  13. Transfer of information from personal health records: a survey of veterans using My HealtheVet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turvey, Carolyn L; Zulman, Donna M; Nazi, Kim M; Wakefield, Bonnie J; Woods, Susan S; Hogan, Timothy P; Weaver, Frances M; McInnes, Keith

    2012-03-01

    Personal health records provide patients with ownership of their health information and allow them to share information with multiple healthcare providers. However, the usefulness of these records relies on patients understanding and using their records appropriately. My HealtheVet is a Web-based patient portal containing a personal health record administered by the Veterans Health Administration. The goal of this study was to explore veterans' interest and use of My HealtheVet to transfer and share information as well as to identify opportunities to increase veteran use of the My HealtheVet functions. Two waves of data were collected in 2010 through an American Customer Satisfaction Index Web-based survey. A random sample of veterans using My HealtheVet was invited to participate in the survey conducted on the My HealtheVet portal through a Web-based pop-up browser window. Wave One results (n=25,898) found that 41% of veterans reported printing information, 21% reported saving information electronically, and only 4% ever sent information from My HealtheVet to another person. In Wave Two (n=18,471), 30% reported self-entering medication information, with 18% sharing this information with their Veterans Affairs (VA) provider and 9.6% sharing with their non-VA provider. Although veterans are transferring important medical information from their personal health records, increased education and awareness are needed to increase use. Personal health records have the potential to improve continuity of care. However, more research is needed on both the barriers to adoption as well as the actual impact on patient health outcomes and well-being.

  14. [Potential selection bias in telephone surveys: landline and mobile phones].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Continente, Xavier; Pérez-Giménez, Anna; López, María José; Nebot, Manel

    2014-01-01

    The increasing use of mobile phones in the last decade has decreased landline telephone coverage in Spanish households. This study aimed to analyze sociodemographic characteristics and health indicators by type of telephone service (mobile phone vs. landline or landline and mobile phone). Two telephone surveys were conducted in Spanish samples (February 2010 and February 2011). Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to analyze differences in the main sociodemographic characteristics and health indicators according to the type of telephone service available in Spanish households. We obtained 2027 valid responses (1627 landline telephones and 400 mobile phones). Persons contacted through a mobile phone were more likely to be a foreigner, to belong to the manual social class, to have a lower educational level, and to be a smoker than those contacted through a landline telephone. The profile of the population that has only a mobile phone differs from that with a landline telephone. Therefore, telephone surveys that exclude mobile phones could show a selection bias. Copyright © 2013 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  15. National health interview surveys in Europe: an overview.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hupkens, C.L.H.; Berg, J. van den; Zee, J. van der

    1999-01-01

    In order to study the value of national health interview surveys for national and international research and policy activities, this paper examines the existence and content of recent and future health interview surveys in the 15 member states of the European Union (EU), Norway, Iceland and

  16. Health inequalities: survey data compared to doctor defined data.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westert, G.P.; Schellevis, F.G.

    2003-01-01

    Aim: To compare prevalence of conditions and health inequalities in one study population using two methods of data collection: health interview survey and GP registration of consultations. Methods: Data is from the Second Dutch Survey of General Practice, using a multistage sampling design with

  17. Health insurance exchanges bring potential opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, M Orry; Eggbeer, Bill

    2012-11-01

    The introduction of the state health insurance exchanges, as provided for in the Affordable Care Act, has many strategic implications for healthcare providers: Unprecedented transparency; The "Walmart Effect", with patients playing a greater role as healthcare consumers; A rise in narrow networks spurred by low prices and narrow geographies; The potential end of the cross subsidy of Medicare and Medicaid by commercial plans; The possible end of not-for-profit status for hospitals

  18. Brief 75 Health Physics Enrollments and Degrees Survey, 2014 Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2015-03-05

    The 2014 survey includes degrees granted between September 1, 2013 and August 31, 2014. Enrollment information refers to the fall term 2014. Twenty-two academic programs were included in the survey universe, with all 22 programs providing data. Since 2009, data for two health physics programs located in engineering departments are also included in the nuclear engineering survey. The enrollments and degrees data includes students majoring in health physics or in an option program equivalent to a major.

  19. Survey of potential markets for devices using Californium-252

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Permar, P.H.

    1975-01-01

    Potential applications for devices or systems containing 252 Cf in the years from 1975 to 1980 are estimated. The estimated number of devices and associated business value were derived from a survey of 46 industrial, educational and governmental organizations conducted from Jan. to May, 1975. Applications for devices and systems based on 252 Cf are expected to increase by a factor of 7 in the 6-y period from 1975 to 1980. The annual business value of 252 Cf devices should increase from 1.5 million dollars in 1975 to 10.8 million dollars in 1980. The potential European market should be several times as large as the US market, based on actual sales of 252 Cf, which have been two to four times greater in Europe than in the US

  20. Efficiency of workplace surveys conducted by Finnish occupational health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savinainen, Minna; Oksa, Panu

    2011-07-01

    In Finland, workplace surveys are used to identify and assess health risks and problems caused by work and make suggestions for continuous improvement of the work environment. With the aid of the workplace survey, occupational health services can be tailored to a company. The aims of this study were to determine how occupational health professionals gather data via the workplace survey and the effect survey results have on companies. A total of 259 occupational health nurses and 108 occupational health physicians responded to the questionnaire: 84.2% were women and 15.8% were men. The mean age of the respondents was 48.8 years (range, 26 to 65 years). Usually occupational health nurses and foremen and sometimes occupational health physicians and occupational safety and health representatives initiate the workplace survey. More than 90% of the surveys were followed by action proposals, and about 50% of these were implemented. The proposals implemented most often concerned personal protective equipment and less often leadership. Survey respondents should have both the opportunity and the authority to affect resources, the work environment, work arrangements, and tools. Teamwork among occupational health and safety professionals, management, and employees is vital for cost-effectively solving today's complex problems at workplaces around the globe. Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  1. Decreases in tanning behaviors following a short online survey: Potential for prevention?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Rachel F; Franko, Debra L; Gottlieb, Mark; Daynard, Richard

    2015-01-01

    To date, tanning prevention programs have led to limited success. The aim of the present study was to investigate potential unexpected prevention effects of completing an online survey focused on tanning attitudes, behaviors, and knowledge among female college tanners. A sample of 92 female undergraduate students from the USA, mean age = 20.09, SD = 1.41 years, who engaged in indoor tanning completed an online survey assessing awareness of tanning-related health risks, appearance-based motivations to tan and not to tan, media literacy related to tanning marketing, and tanning behaviors in 2013. Four months later, participants were invited to complete a follow-up survey assessing tanning intentions and behaviors since completing the initial survey. Fifty-one participants (55%) completed the follow-up questions, of whom 43 (84.3%) reported having decreased or ceased engaging in indoor tanning. In addition participants provided comments indicating that completing the survey had lead to decreases in their tanning behaviors. Our study presents novel and compelling support for using brief online surveys for decreasing health-risk behaviors such as sunbed use. Such measures are extremely cost-effective and easy to disseminate and implement. Replication and extension of these findings are warranted.

  2. District nurses' involvement in mental health: an exploratory survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soo; Knight, Denise

    2006-04-01

    This article reports on a survey of district nurses' involvement in mental health interventions in one county. Seventy-nine questionnaires were sent and 46 were returned. Descriptive analysis was carried out using statistical software. The DNs reported encountering a wide range of mental health issues and interventions in practice: dementia, anxiety and depression featured highly. Over half (55%) of the respondents reported involvement in bereavement counselling, and 28% and 23% of respondents reported encountering anxiety management, and problem solving and alcohol advice respectively. A large proportion, however, reported no involvement in mental health interventions. Among the psychiatric professionals, district nurses tended to have most frequent contacts with social workers. GPs were the most likely person to whom DNs made referrals, followed by community psychiatric nurses. Despite the apparent awareness of the values of psychosocial interventions, DNs were equally influenced by the medical model of treatment. In order to realize the potential contribution of district nurses in mental health interventions, there is a need for primary care teams to foster a closer working relationship with mental health specialist services.

  3. Intranet usage and potential in acute care hospitals in the United States: survey-2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatcher, M

    2001-12-01

    This paper provides the results of the Survey-2000 measuring Intranet and its potential in health care. The survey measured the levels of Internet and Intranet existence and usage in acute care hospitals. Business-to-business electronic commerce and electronic commerce for customers were measured. Since the Intranet was not studied in survey-1997, no comparisons could be made. Therefore the results were presented and discussed. The Intranet data were compared with the Internet data and statistically significant differences were presented and analyzed. This information will assist hospitals to plan Internet and Intranet technology. This is the third of three articles based upon the results of the Survey-2000. Readers are referred to prior articles by the author, which discusses the survey design and provides a tutorial on technology transfer in acute care hospitals.(1) The first article based upon the survey results discusses technology transfer, system design approaches, user involvement, and decision-making purposes. (2) The second article based upon the survey results discusses distribution of Internet usage and rating of Internet usage applied to specific applications. Homepages, advertising, and electronic commerce are discussed from an Internet perspective.

  4. Job satisfaction survey among health centers staff

    OpenAIRE

    Shahnazi, Hossein; Daniali, Seyede Shahrbanoo; Sharifirad, Gholamreza

    2014-01-01

    Background: Due to the importance of health care organizations with significant responsibility for prevention and care, assessment of job satisfaction among health care staff is essential. Quality of health services will be decreased provided they are not satisfied. Materials and Methods: This study was a cross-sectional analysis of health care staff in Khomeinishahr (centers, buildings, and networks) If they had at least 6 months work experience, they could enter the study. Data included a t...

  5. Surveying selected European feed and livestock production chains for features enabling the case-specific post-market monitoring of livestock for intake and potential health impacts of animal feeds derived from genetically modified crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleter, Gijs; McFarland, Sarah; Bach, Alex; Bernabucci, Umberto; Bikker, Paul; Busani, Luca; Kok, Esther; Kostov, Kaloyan; Nadal, Anna; Pla, Maria; Ronchi, Bruno; Terre, Marta; Einspanier, Ralf

    2017-10-06

    This review, which has been prepared within the frame of the European Union (EU)-funded project MARLON, surveys the organisation and characteristics of specific livestock and feed production chains (conventional, organic, GM-free) within the EU, with an emphasis on controls, regulations, traceability, and common production practices. Furthermore, an overview of the origin of animal feed used in the EU as well as an examination of the use of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in feed is provided. From the data, it shows that livestock is traceable at the herd or individual level, depending on the species. Husbandry practices can vary widely according to geography and animal species, whilst controls and checks are in place for notifiable diseases and general health symptoms (such as mortality, disease, productive performance). For feeds, it would be possible only to make coarse estimates, at best, for the amount of GM feed ingredients that an animal is exposed to. Labeling requirements are apparently correctly followed. Provided that confounding factors are taken into account, practices such as organic agriculture that explicitly involve the use of non-GM feeds could be used for comparison to those involving the use of GM feed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Survey of renewable energy utilization and development potential in Oceania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    This paper reports fiscal 2000 survey of renewable energy utilization and development potential in Oceania. In Australia and New Zealand, renewable energy has already fairly been used. In Australia, it is promoted on the government policy level, with cost reduction and improved reliability in progress. The growth of 2% is set as a target in the year 2010. Promising are biomass and wind, while contributory in the long run are photovoltaic energies. New installations of hydraulic power generation are few, but potential is high for mini hydraulic power generation. Social interest is also comparatively high in renewable energies and greenhouse effect gas. However, further technological development is necessary for a full-scale contribution to global environmental problems. The situation in other south Pacific nations depends on their policy, economic condition and level of industrialization; each country heavily imports diesel oil for power generation, is under-developed industry-wise, and is a low income nation. The countries are desperately in need of foreign investment for the purpose of solving these problems. (NEDO)

  7. Phytochemicals: health promotion and therapeutic potential

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carkeet, Colleen

    2013-01-01

    .... The book begins with an overview of phytonutrients in human health and disease, and covers chronic disease prevention, bone and joint health, skin health, obesity and metabolism, and brain health...

  8. Online Learning for Mobile Technology Applications in Health Surveys

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Online Learning for Mobile Technology Applications in Health Surveys. In light of ... to develop a globally accessible asynchronous Internet-based training packaged backed by a real-time coaching service. Project ID. 105932. Project status.

  9. Study protocol for the Fukushima health management survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasumura, Seiji; Hosoya, Mitsuaki; Yamashita, Shunichi; Kamiya, Kenji; Abe, Masafumi; Akashi, Makoto; Kodama, Kazunori; Ozasa, Kotaro

    2012-01-01

    The accidents that occurred at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant after the Great East Japan Earthquake on 11 March 2011 have resulted in long-term, ongoing anxiety among the residents of Fukushima, Japan. Soon after the disaster, Fukushima Prefecture launched the Fukushima Health Management Survey to investigate long-term low-dose radiation exposure caused by the accident. Fukushima Medical University took the lead in planning and implementing this survey. The primary purposes of this survey are to monitor the long-term health of residents, promote their future well-being, and confirm whether long-term low-dose radiation exposure has health effects. This report describes the rationale and implementation of the Fukushima Health Management Survey. This cohort study enrolled all people living in Fukushima Prefecture after the earthquake and comprises a basic survey and 4 detailed surveys. The basic survey is to estimate levels of external radiation exposure among all 2.05 million residents. It should be noted that internal radiation levels were estimated by Fukushima Prefecture using whole-body counters. The detailed surveys comprise a thyroid ultrasound examination for all Fukushima children aged 18 years or younger, a comprehensive health check for all residents from the evacuation zones, an assessment of mental health and lifestyles of all residents from the evacuation zones, and recording of all pregnancies and births among all women in the prefecture who were pregnant on 11 March. All data have been entered into a database and will be used to support the residents and analyze the health effects of radiation. The low response rate (<30%) to the basic survey complicates the estimation of health effects. There have been no cases of malignancy to date among 38 114 children who received thyroid ultrasound examinations. The importance of mental health care was revealed by the mental health and lifestyle survey and the pregnancy and birth survey. This long

  10. The incorporation of gender perspective into Spanish health surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohlfs, Izabella; Borrell, Carme; Artazcoz, Lucia; Escribà-Agüir, Vicenta

    2007-12-01

    Most studies into social determinants of health conducted in Spain based on data from health surveys have focused on social class inequalities. This paper aims to review the progressive incorporation of gender perspective and sex differences into health surveys in Spain, and to suggest design, data collection and analytical proposals as well as to make policy proposals. Changes introduced into health surveys in Spain since 1995 to incorporate gender perspective are examined, and proposals for the future are made, which would permit the analysis of differences in health between women and men as a result of biology or because of gender inequalities. The introduction of gender perspective in health surveys requires the incorporation of questions related to family setting and reproductive work, workplace and society in general to detect gender differences and inequalities (for example, domestic work, intimate partner violence, discrimination, contract type or working hours). Health indicators reflecting differential morbidity and taking into account the different life cycle stages must also be incorporated. Analyses ought to be disaggregated by sex and interpretation of results must consider the complex theoretical frameworks explaining the differences in health between men and women based on sex differences and those related to gender. Analysis of survey data ought to consider the impact of social, political and cultural constructs of each society. Any significant modification in procedures for collection of data relevant to the study of gender will require systematic coordination between institutions generating the data and researchers who are trained in and sensitive to the topic.

  11. An epidemiological analysis of potential associations between C-reactive protein, inflammation, and prostate cancer in the male US population using the 2009 - 2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data

    Science.gov (United States)

    St. Hill, Catherine; Lutfiyya, M. Nawal

    2015-08-01

    Prostate cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in US males, yet much remains to be learned about the role of inflammation in its etiology. We hypothesized that preexisting exposure to chronic inflammatory conditions caused by infectious agents or inflammatory diseases increase the risk of prostate cancer. Using the 2009-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, we examined the relationships between demographic variables, inflammation, infection, circulating plasma C-reactive protein (CRP), and the risk of occurrence of prostate cancer in US men over 18 years of age. Using IBM SPSS, we performed bivariate and logistic regression analyses using high CRP values as the dependent variable and five study covariates including prostate cancer status. From 2009 - 2010, an estimated 5,448,373 men reported having prostate cancer of which the majority were Caucasian (70.1%) and were aged 40 years and older (62.7%). Bivariate analyses demonstrated that high CRP was not associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer. Greater odds of having prostate cancer were revealed for men that had inflammation related to disease (OR = 1.029, CI 1.029-1.029) and those who were not taking drugs to control inflammation (OR = 1.330, CI 1.324-1.336). Men who did not have inflammation resulting from non-infectious diseases had greater odds of not having prostate cancer (OR = 1.031, CI 1.030-1.031). Logistic regression analysis yielded that men with the highest CRP values had greater odds of having higher household incomes and lower odds of having received higher education, being aged 40 years or older, being of a race or ethnicity different from other, and of having prostate cancer. Our results show that chronic inflammation of multiple etiologies is a risk factor for prostate cancer and that CRP is not associated with this increased risk. Further research is needed to elucidate the complex interactions between inflammation and prostate cancer.

  12. Potential of Biomass for Energy. Market Survey Portugal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-03-01

    The objective of this market survey is to provide information about the biomass sector in Portugal, relevant to mainly small and medium-sized enterprises (SME) in the Netherlands that are interested to strengthen their position in that sector. Much knowledge could be gathered from conversations with the partners of Sunergy, the company responsible for this survey. Sunergy is producing bio-diesel, and considering further investments in the solid biomass sector, and therefore well familiar with the developments. Other interviews were held with representatives of the Government (DGGE), association of forestry owners (AFLOPS), a biomass trading SME (Sobioen), the leading environmental NGO (Quercus), and an association representing the paper- and pulp industry (CELPA). Chapter 1 is a general introduction on biomass. Chapter 2 gives the background of the Portuguese energy sector and the relative importance of renewable and biomass energies within this market. Some prospects for future developments of the different renewable sources are given. Portugal's energy sector is dominated by a small number of players, which are introduced. Also the current policies and incentives (subsidies) are presented. In Chapter 3 the focus is on the Portuguese biomass sector, presenting the current use of biomass in each of the subsectors: transport, electricity and heat, and an overview of the policy framework specifically for biomass. Chapter 4 is a literature review of the market for existing and potential biomass resources, including demand, supply and other characteristics. Chapter 5 synthesizes the previous chapters. Also an overview of key drivers and key constraints for growth of this sector is given, leading to conclusions regarding the opportunities for Dutch companies. Finally, further information on how to proceed once the interest for Portugal's biomass sector is vested is listed at the end of Chapter 5

  13. Nurse moral distress: A survey identifying predictors and potential interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathert, Cheryl; May, Douglas R; Chung, Hye Sook

    2016-01-01

    Ethical dilemmas and conflicts are inherent in today's health care organizations and may lead to moral distress, which is often associated with physical and psychological symptoms. Although the existence of moral distress has been observed by scholars for decades, most of the research has been descriptive and has examined what types of health care conflicts lead to distress. This study tested a comprehensive model, underpinned by Social Cognitive Theory, that examined work environment and intrapersonal variables that may influence moral distress. We surveyed nursing staff employed in a U.S. acute care hospital (response rate=45%; n=290). More than half of the respondents reported they experience ethical dilemmas and conflicts from several times a month to daily, and nearly half reported they experience moral distress at least several times a month. Structural equation modeling analysis simultaneously examined the effects of five independent variables on moral distress and moral voice: (a) frequency of ethical dilemmas and conflicts; (b) moral efficacy; (c) ethics communication; (d) ethical environment; and (e) organizational ethics support. Results revealed significant independent effects of the frequency of ethics issues and organizational ethics support on moral distress. Bootstrapping analysis indicated that voice fully mediated the relationship between moral efficacy and moral distress, and partially mediated the relationship between organizational ethics support and distress. Supplemental analysis revealed that organizational ethics support moderated the moral efficacy-voice-moral distress relationship such that when organizational support was low, moral efficacy was negatively related to moral distress via voice. Although it may be impossible to eliminate all ethical dilemmas and conflicts, leaders and organizations may wish to help improve nurses' moral efficacy, which appears to give rise to voice, and reduced moral distress. Increasing organizational

  14. Potential impact of fireworks on respiratory health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouder, Caroline; Montefort, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    The world-wide use of fireworks with their consequent detrimental effect on the air quality is widely recognized with elevated ambient air levels of particulate matter and its several metallic components and gases identified in several studies carried out during such events. Exposed individuals may be at risk following inhalation of such produced pollutants. This review focuses on the impact of fireworks on air quality and the potential effect of fireworks on the respiratory system of healthy individuals as well as those suffering from underlying respiratory diseases, particularly asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This applies not only to spectators including children but also to pyrotechnicians themselves. An extensive Medline search revealed that a strong evidence of the impact of fireworks on respiratory health is lacking in susceptible as well as healthy individuals with no formal studies on COPD or asthma, other than a few case reports in the latter. The implementation of global strategies to control the use of fireworks and hence improve air quality could possibly reduce their likely detrimental effect on human respiratory health in exposed individuals, but clearly a more targeted research is needed. PMID:25378846

  15. Carotenoids: potential allies of cardiovascular health?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Alessandra Gammone

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Carotenoids are a class of natural, fat-soluble pigments found principally in plants. They have potential antioxidant biological properties because of their chemical structure and interaction with biological membranes. Epidemiologic studies supported the hypothesis that antioxidants could be used as an inexpensive means of both primary and secondary cardiovascular disease (CVD prevention. In fact, the oxidation of low-density lipoproteins (LDL in the vessels plays a key role in the development of atherosclerotic lesions. The resistance of LDL to oxidation is increased by high dietary antioxidant intake, so that carotenoids, as part of food patterns such as the Mediterranean diet, may have beneficial effects on cardiovascular health too. Further properties of carotenoids leading to a potential reduction of cardiovascular risk are represented by lowering of blood pressure, reduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines and markers of inflammation (such as C-reactive protein, and improvement of insulin sensitivity in muscle, liver, and adipose tissues. In addition, recent nutrigenomics studies have focused on the exceptional ability of carotenoids in modulating the expression of specific genes involved in cell metabolism. The aim of this review is to focus attention to this effect of some carotenoids to prevent CVD.

  16. Assessment of health surveys: fitting a multidimensional graded response model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depaoli, Sarah; Tiemensma, Jitske; Felt, John M

    The multidimensional graded response model, an item response theory (IRT) model, can be used to improve the assessment of surveys, even when sample sizes are restricted. Typically, health-based survey development utilizes classical statistical techniques (e.g. reliability and factor analysis). In a review of four prominent journals within the field of Health Psychology, we found that IRT-based models were used in less than 10% of the studies examining scale development or assessment. However, implementing IRT-based methods can provide more details about individual survey items, which is useful when determining the final item content of surveys. An example using a quality of life survey for Cushing's syndrome (CushingQoL) highlights the main components for implementing the multidimensional graded response model. Patients with Cushing's syndrome (n = 397) completed the CushingQoL. Results from the multidimensional graded response model supported a 2-subscale scoring process for the survey. All items were deemed as worthy contributors to the survey. The graded response model can accommodate unidimensional or multidimensional scales, be used with relatively lower sample sizes, and is implemented in free software (example code provided in online Appendix). Use of this model can help to improve the quality of health-based scales being developed within the Health Sciences.

  17. Consumers' Patient Portal Preferences and Health Literacy: A Survey Using Crowdsourcing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zide, Mary; Caswell, Kaitlyn; Peterson, Ellen; Aberle, Denise R; Bui, Alex At; Arnold, Corey W

    2016-06-08

    eHealth apps have the potential to meet the information needs of patient populations and improve health literacy rates. However, little work has been done to document perceived usability of portals and health literacy of specific topics. Our aim was to establish a baseline of lung cancer health literacy and perceived portal usability. A survey based on previously validated instruments was used to assess a baseline of patient portal usability and health literacy within the domain of lung cancer. The survey was distributed via Amazon's Mechanical Turk to 500 participants. Our results show differences in preferences and literacy by demographic cohorts, with a trend of chronically ill patients having a more positive reception of patient portals and a higher health literacy rate of lung cancer knowledge (Pportals and higher level of health literacy within the domain of lung cancer.

  18. Reducing health care costs - potential and limitations of local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reducing health care costs - potential and limitations of local authority health services. ... both the quality and the cost-effectiveness of health care would be improved. ... LAs offer an appropriate structure for effective community control over the ...

  19. Job satisfaction survey among health centers staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahnazi, Hossein; Daniali, Seyede Shahrbanoo; Sharifirad, Gholamreza

    2014-01-01

    Due to the importance of health care organizations with significant responsibility for prevention and care, assessment of job satisfaction among health care staff is essential. Quality of health services will be decreased provided they are not satisfied. This study was a cross-sectional analysis of health care staff in Khomeinishahr (centers, buildings, and networks) If they had at least 6 months work experience, they could enter the study. Data included a two-part questionnaire with a standardized questionnaire, demographic variables, and Smith job descriptive index, which is a questionnaire with six domains. Reliability was obtained for each domain and its validity was reported 0.93. The results showed an overall satisfaction score averages 43.55 ± 12.8 (from 100). Job satisfaction score was not significantly different between the sexes. However, within the current attitude toward job satisfaction, men scores was better than women (P = 0.001). Highest score in job satisfaction was related to relationships with colleagues and lowest score was related to the income, benefits, and job promotion. The more the years of work, the less the job satisfaction was. The attitude toward the current job had a direct relationship with income (P = 0.01). There was a significant inverse relationship between educational level and job satisfaction in domains promotion, income, and benefits (P = 0.01). The staff with higher education levels was less satisfied with income and job promotion qualification. Managers should focus on job qualification to increase job satisfaction and improve the quality of work.

  20. Public health financial management needs: report of a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costich, Julia F; Honoré, Peggy A; Scutchfield, F Douglas

    2009-01-01

    The work reported here builds on the identification of public health financial management practice competencies by a national expert panel. The next logical step was to provide a validity check for the competencies and identify priority areas for educational programming. We developed a survey for local public health finance officers based on the public health finance competencies and field tested it with a convenience sample of officials. We asked respondents to indicate the importance of each competency area and the need for training to improve performance; we also requested information regarding respondent education, jurisdiction size, and additional comments. Our local agency survey sample drew on the respondent list from the National Association of County and City Health Officials 2005 local health department survey, stratified by agency size and limited to jurisdiction populations of 25,000 to 1,000,000. Identifying appropriate respondents was a major challenge. The survey was fielded electronically, yielding 112 responses from 30 states. The areas identified as most important and needing most additional training were knowledge of budget activities, financial data interpretation and communication, and ability to assess and correct the organization's financial status. The majority of respondents had some postbaccalaureate education. Many provided additional comments and recommendations. Health department finance officers demonstrated a high level of general agreement regarding the importance of finance competencies in public health and the need for training. The findings point to a critical need for additional training opportunities that are accessible, cost-effective, and targeted to individual needs.

  1. Current knowledge of US metal and nonmetal miner health: Current and potential data sources for analysis of miner health status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeoman, K. M.; Halldin, C. N.; Wood, J.; Storey, E.; Johns, D.; Laney, A. S.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Little is known about the current health status of US metal and nonmetal (MNM) miners, in part because no health surveillance systems exist for this population. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) is developing a program to characterize burden of disease among MNM miners. This report discusses current knowledge and potential data sources of MNM miner health. Recent national surveys were analyzed, and literature specific to MNM miner health status was reviewed. No robust estimates of disease prevalence were identified, and national surveys did not provide information specific to MNM miners. Because substantial gaps exist in the understanding of MNM miners' current health status, NIOSH plans to develop a health surveillance program for this population to guide intervention efforts to reduce occupational and personal risks for chronic illness. PMID:25658684

  2. The effect of health, socio-economic position, and mode of data collection on non-response in health interview surveys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekholm, Ola; Gundgaard, Jens; Rasmussen, Niels K R

    2010-01-01

    AIMS: To investigate the relationship between potential explanatory factors (socio-economic factors and health) and non-response in two general population health interview surveys (face-to-face and telephone), and to compare the effects of the two interview modes on non-response patterns. METHODS...... in health interview surveys, but the non-response rate is higher in lower socio-economic groups. Analyses of non-response should be performed to understand the implications of survey findings.......: Data derives from The Danish Health Interview Survey 2000 (face-to-face interview) and The Funen County Health Survey 2000/2001 (telephone interview). Data on all invited individuals were obtained from administrative registers and linked to survey data at individual level. Multiple logistic regression...

  3. Proposed Philippine radiation-sterilization plant, and a survey of market potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singson, C.C.; Ibe, L.D.

    1975-01-01

    The paper deals with a study to assess the market potential of radiation sterilization in the Philippines. A market survey conducted with the technical assistance of an IAEA expert from India shows that most of the pharmaceutical industries engaged in the manufacture of medical products unanimously agree that there is an urgent need for a centralized radiation sterilization plant to meet the demands of sterilization of most of their products and packaging materials. The authorities of the government and some of the private hospitals surveyed are also very keen for the establishment of a sterilization facility since most modern medical products and devices are made of heat-sensitive thermoplastics which cannot be heat or steam sterilized. Availability of sterile products will help improve the public health standards of the population. The scope of the utilization of a radiation-sterilization facility in Diliman Quezon City is also discussed. (author)

  4. Spices: Therapeutic Potential in Cardiovascular Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastogi, Subha; Pandey, Madan Mohan; Rawat, Ajay Kumar Singh

    2017-01-01

    Dietary factors play a key role in the development as well as prevention of certain human diseases, including cardiovascular diseases. Currently there has been an increase in global interest to identify medicinal plants that are pharmacologically effective and have low or no side effects for use in preventive medicine. Culinary herbs and spices are an important part of human nutrition in all the cultures of the world. There is a growing amount of literature concerning the potential benefits of these herbs and spices from a health perspective especially in conferring protection against cardiovascular diseases. The objective of this review is to provide information on the recent scientific findings on some common spices that have a distinct place in folk medicine in several of the Asian countries as well as on their traditional uses for the role they can play in the management of heart diseases and which may be useful in defining cost effective and inexpensive interventions for the prevention and control of CVDs. Systematic literature searches were carried out and the available information on various medicinal plants traditionally used for cardiovascular disorders was collected via electronic search (using Pubmed, SciFinder, Scirus, GoogleScholar, JCCC@INSTIRC and Web of Science) and a library search for articles published in peerreviewed journals. No restrictions regarding the language of publication were imposed. This article highlights the recent scientific findings on four common spices viz. Greater cardamom (Amomum subulatum Roxb.), Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.), Turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) and Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe), for the role they can play in the management of heart diseases. Although they have been used by many cultures since ancient times and have been known to exhibit several medicinal properties, current research shows that they can also be effectively used for the prevention and control of CVDs. Although scientific evidences supporting

  5. Internet information-seeking in mental health: population survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, John; Clarke, Aileen

    2006-09-01

    A major use of the of the internet is for health information-seeking. There has been little research into its use in relation to mental health. To investigate the prevalence of internet use for mental health information-seeking and its relative importance as a mental health information source. General population survey. Questions covered internet use, past psychiatric history and the 12-item General Health Questionnaire. Eighteen per cent of all internet users had used the internet for information related to mental health. The prevalence was higher among those with a past history of mental health problems and those with current psychological distress. Only 12% of respondents selected the internet as one of the three most accurate sources of information, compared with 24% who responded that it was one of the three sources they would use. The internet has a significant role in mental health information-seeking. The internet is used more than it is trusted.

  6. Improving public health surveillance using a dual-frame survey of landline and cell phone numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, S Sean; Balluz, Lina; Battaglia, Michael P; Frankel, Martin R

    2011-03-15

    To meet challenges arising from increasing rates of noncoverage in US landline-based telephone samples due to cell-phone-only households, the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) expanded a traditional landline-based random digit dialing survey to a dual-frame survey of landline and cell phone numbers. In 2008, a survey of adults with cell phones only was conducted in parallel with an ongoing landline-based health survey in 18 states. The authors used the optimal approach to allocate samples into landline and cell-phone-only strata and used a new approach to weighting state-level landline and cell phone samples. They developed logistic models for each of 16 health indicators to examine whether exclusion of adults with cell phones only affected estimates after adjustment for demographic characteristics. The extents of the potential biases in landline telephone surveys that exclude cell phones were estimated. Biases resulting from exclusion of adults with cell phones only from the landline-based survey were found for 9 out of the 16 health indicators. Because landline noncoverage rates for adults with cell phones only continue to increase, these biases are likely to increase. Use of a dual-frame survey of landline and cell phone numbers assisted the BRFSS efforts in obtaining valid, reliable, and representative data. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health 2011.

  7. Methodological design of the National Health and Nutrition Survey 2016

    OpenAIRE

    Martín Romero-Martínez; Teresa Shamah-Levy; Lucia Cuevas-Nasu; Ignacio Méndez Gómez-Humarán; Elsa Berenice Gaona-Pineda; Luz María Gómez-Acosta; Juan Ángel Rivera-Dommarco; Mauricio Hernández-Ávila

    2017-01-01

    Objective. Describe the design methodology of the halfway health and nutrition national survey (Ensanut-MC) 2016. Materials and methods. The Ensanut-MC is a national probabilistic survey whose objective population are the in­habitants of private households in Mexico. The sample size was determined to make inferences on the urban and rural areas in four regions. Describes main design elements: target population, topics of study, sampling procedure, measurement procedure and logistics organizat...

  8. [Colombia 2015 National Mental Health Survey. Study Protocol].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Restrepo, Carlos; de Santacruz, Cecilia; Rodriguez, María Nelcy; Rodriguez, Viviana; Tamayo Martínez, Nathalie; Matallana, Diana; Gonzalez, Lina M

    2016-12-01

    The 2015 National Mental Health Survey (NMHS) is the fourth mental survey conducted in Colombia, and is part of the National System of Surveys and Population Studies for health. A narrative description is used to explain the background, references, the preparation, and characteristics of the 2015 NMHS. The 2015 NMHS and its protocol emerge from the requirements that support the national and international policies related to mental health. Together with the Ministry of Health and Social Protection, the objectives, the collection tools, the sample, and the operational plan are defined. The main objective was to obtain updated information about the mental health, mental problems and disorders, accessibility to health services, and an evaluation of health conditions. Participants were inhabitants from both urban and rural areas, over 7 years old, and in whom the comprehension of social determinants and equity were privileged. An observational cross-sectional design with national, regional and age group representativity, was used. The age groups selected were 7-11, 12-17, and over 18 years old. The regions considered were Central, Orient, Atlantic, Pacific, and Bogota. The calculated sample had a minimum of 12,080 and a maximum of 14,496 participants. A brief summary of the protocol of the 2015 NMHS is presented. The full document with all the collection tools can be consulted on the Health Ministry webpage. Copyright © 2016. Publicado por Elsevier España.

  9. Recruitment of mental health survey participants using Internet advertising: content, characteristics and cost effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batterham, Philip J

    2014-06-01

    Postal and telephone survey research is threatened by declining response rates and high cost. Online recruitment is becoming more popular, although there is little empirical evidence about its cost-effectiveness or the representativeness of online samples. There is also limited research on optimal strategies for developing advertising content for online recruitment. The present study aimed to assess these aspects of online recruitment. Two mental health surveys used advertisements within a social network website (Facebook) to recruit adult Australian participants. The initial survey used advertisements linking directly to an external survey website, and recruited 1283 participants at $9.82 per completed survey. A subsequent survey used advertisements linking to a Facebook page that featured links to the external survey, recruiting 610 participants at $1.51 per completion. Both surveys were more cost-effective than similar postal surveys conducted previously, which averaged $19.10 per completion. Online and postal surveys both had somewhat unrepresentative samples. However, online surveys tended to be more successful in recruiting hard-to-reach populations. Advertising using "problem" terminology was more effective than "positive" terminology, while there was no significant effect of altruistic versus self-gain terminology. Online recruitment is efficient, flexible and cost-effective, suggesting that online recruitment has considerable potential for specific research designs. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Geochemical surveys in the United States in relation to health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tourtelot, H A

    1979-12-11

    Geochemical surveys in relation to health may be classified as having one, two or three dimensions. One-dimensional surveys examine relations between concentrations of elements such as Pb in soils and other media and burdens of the same elements in humans, at a given time. The spatial distributions of element concentrations are not investigated. The primary objective of two-dimensional surveys is to map the distributions of element concentrations, commonly according to stratified random sampling designs based on either conceptual landscape units or artificial sampling strata, but systematic sampling intervals have also been used. Political units have defined sample areas that coincide with the units used to accumulate epidemiological data. Element concentrations affected by point sources have also been mapped. Background values, location of natural or technological anomalies and the geographic scale of variation for several elements often are determined. Three-dimensional surveys result when two-dimensional surveys are repeated to detect environmental changes.

  11. Survey of community pharmacy residents' perceptions of transgender health management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, Caitlin; Layson-Wolf, Cherokee

    2016-01-01

    1) To measure the general perceptions and attitudes of community pharmacy residents toward transgender patients and health; 2) to identify gaps in didactic education regarding transgender health care among residents; and 3) to evaluate residents' level of support for pharmacists receiving education in transgender health care. This study was a cross-sectional survey delivered online. Community residency directors were e-mailed a cover letter and a 34-question online survey. The directors were asked to forward the survey to their residents for completion within 4 weeks. Responses were anonymous with no identifiers collected on the survey. Survey responses used a combination of open-response, multiple-choice, and Likert-scale questions aimed at gathering respondents' demographic information, perceptions of managing transgender patients and the need for receiving additional education in transgender health care. Overall, the results of the survey indicated that community pharmacy residents support integrating transgender health management into pharmacy education and recognize that the overwhelming barriers to care for these patients include discrimination and lack of provider knowledge. Significant findings include: 82.7% of community residents think that community pharmacists play an important role in providing care for transgender patients; 98.2% think that they have a responsibility to treat transgender patients; and 71.4% were not educated about transgender patient issues in pharmacy school. Only 36.2% of community residents felt confident in their ability to treat transgender patients. Community pharmacy residents list discrimination and lack of provider knowledge as the major barriers to care for transgender patients. Residents do not feel confident in their ability to treat and manage transgender patients. The majority of residents were not educated about transgender patient issues while in pharmacy school and think that community pharmacists need more education

  12. Leadership survey. An evaluation of health care executives' challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrall, T H; Hoppszallern, S

    2001-01-01

    Locating and keeping employees represents one of the greatest challenges facing health care leaders today. This is a key finding of the third Leadership Survey of executives in physician practices, managed care organizations and hospitals. The survey is sponsored by the Medical Group Management Association and Hospitals & Health Networks magazine. Other significant results: Practices put the most emphasis on teamwork, training and staff development as methods to combat labor shortages; practice executives count adequacy of reimbursements and physician productivity as top leadership challenges, along with the availability of qualified workers; practices choose print advertising and the addition of new products and services as the best ways for them to build market share.

  13. The relationship between health, education, and health literacy: results from the Dutch Adult Literacy and Life Skills Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Heide, Iris; Wang, Jen; Droomers, Mariël; Spreeuwenberg, Peter; Rademakers, Jany; Uiters, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    Health literacy has been put forward as a potential mechanism explaining the well-documented relationship between education and health. However, little empirical research has been undertaken to explore this hypothesis. The present study aims to study whether health literacy could be a pathway by which level of education affects health status. Health literacy was measured by the Health Activities and Literacy Scale, using data from a subsample of 5,136 adults between the ages of 25 and 65 years, gathered within the context of the 2007 Dutch Adult Literacy and Life Skills Survey. Linear regression analyses were used in separate models to estimate the extent to which health literacy mediates educational disparities in self-reported general health, physical health status, and mental health status as measured by the Short Form-12. Health literacy was found to partially mediate the association between low education and low self-reported health status. As such, improving health literacy may be a useful strategy for reducing disparities in health related to education, as health literacy appears to play a role in explaining the underlying mechanism driving the relationship between low level of education and poor health.

  14. Cohort profile: the Boston Area Community Health (BACH) survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccolo, Rebecca S; Araujo, Andre B; Pearce, Neil; McKinlay, John B

    2014-02-01

    The Boston Area Community Health (BACH) Survey is a community-based, random sample, epidemiologic cohort of n = 5502 Boston (MA) residents. The baseline BACH Survey (2002-05) was designed to explore the mechanisms conferring increased health risks on minority populations with a particular focus on urologic signs/symptoms and type 2 diabetes. To this end, the cohort was designed to include adequate numbers of US racial/ethnic minorities (Black, Hispanic, White), both men and women, across a broad age of distribution. Follow-up surveys were conducted ∼5 (BACH II, 2008) and 7 (BACH III, 2010) years later, which allows for both within- and between-person comparisons over time. The BACH Survey's measures were designed to cover the following seven broad categories: socio-demographics, health care access/utilization, lifestyles, psychosocial factors, health status, physical measures and biochemical parameters. The breadth of measures has allowed BACH researchers to identify disparities and quantify contributions to social disparities in a number of health conditions including urologic conditions (e.g. nocturia, lower urinary tract symptoms, prostatitis), type 2 diabetes, obesity, bone mineral content and density, and physical function. BACH I data are available through the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) Central Repositories (www.niddkrepository.org). Further inquiries can be made through the New England Research Institutes Inc. website (www.neriscience.com/epidemiology).

  15. Global mental health and neuroscience: potential synergies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Dan J; He, Yanling; Phillips, Anthony; Sahakian, Barbara J; Williams, John; Patel, Vikram

    2015-02-01

    Global mental health has emerged as an important specialty. It has drawn attention to the burden of mental illness and to the relative gap in mental health research and services around the world. Global mental health has raised the question of whether this gap is a developmental issue, a health issue, a human rights issue, or a combination of these issues-and it has raised awareness of the need to develop new approaches for building capacity, mobilising resources, and closing the research and treatment gap. Translational neuroscience has also advanced. It comprises an important conceptual approach to understanding the neurocircuitry and molecular basis of mental disorders, to rethinking how best to undertake research on the aetiology, assessment, and treatment of these disorders, with the ultimate aim to develop entirely new approaches to prevention and intervention. Some apparent contrasts exist between these fields; global mental health emphasises knowledge translation, moving away from the bedside to a focus on health systems, whereas translational neuroscience emphasises molecular neuroscience, focusing on transitions between the bench and bedside. Meanwhile, important opportunities exist for synergy between the two paradigms, to ensure that present opportunities in mental health research and services are maximised. Here, we review the approaches of global mental health and clinical neuroscience to diagnosis, pathogenesis, and intervention, and make recommendations for facilitating an integration of these two perspectives. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Creating a Screening Measure of Health Literacy for the Health Information National Trends Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champlin, Sara; Mackert, Michael

    2016-03-01

    Create a screening measure of health literacy for use with the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS). Participants completed a paper-based survey. Items from the survey were used to construct a health literacy screening measure. A population-based survey conducted in geographic areas of high and low minority frequency and in Central Appalachia. Two thousand nine hundred four English-speaking participants were included in this study: 66% white, 93% completed high school, mean age = 52.53 years (SD = 16.24). A health literacy screening measure was created using four items included in the HINTS survey. Scores could range from 0 (no questions affirmative/correct) to 4 (all questions answered affirmatively/correctly). Multiple regression analysis was used to determine whether demographic variables known to predict health literacy were indeed associated with the constructed health literacy screening measure. The weighted average health literacy score was 2.63 (SD = 1.00). Those who were nonwhite (p = .0005), were older (p literacy screening measure scores. This study highlights the need to assess health literacy in national surveys, but also serves as evidence that screening measures can be created within existing datasets to give researchers the ability to consider the impact of health literacy. © The Author(s) 2016.

  17. Examining national trends in worker health with the National Health Interview Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luckhaupt, Sara E; Sestito, John P

    2013-12-01

    To describe data from the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), both the annual core survey and periodic occupational health supplements (OHSs), available for examining national trends in worker health. The NHIS is an annual in-person household survey with a cross-sectional multistage clustered sample design to produce nationally representative health data. The 2010 NHIS included an OHS. Prevalence rates of various health conditions and health behaviors among workers based on multiple years of NHIS core data are available. In addition, the 2010 NHIS-OHS data provide prevalence rates of selected health conditions, work organization factors, and occupational exposures among US workers by industry and occupation. The publicly available NHIS data can be used to identify areas of concern for various industries and for benchmarking data from specific worker groups against national averages.

  18. Evaluating survey quality in health services research: a decision framework for assessing nonresponse bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halbesleben, Jonathon R B; Whitman, Marilyn V

    2013-06-01

    To address the issue of nonresponse as problematic and offer appropriate strategies for assessing nonresponse bias. A review of current strategies used to assess the quality of survey data and the challenges associated with these strategies is provided along with appropriate post-data collection techniques that researchers should consider. Response rates are an incomplete assessment of survey data quality, and quick reactions to response rate should be avoided. Based on a five-question decision making framework, we offer potential ways to assess nonresponse bias, along with a description of the advantages and disadvantages to each. It is important that the quality of survey data be considered to assess the relative contribution to the literature of a given study. Authors and funding agencies should consider the potential effects of nonresponse bias both before and after survey administration and report the results of assessments of nonresponse bias in addition to response rates. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  19. Practicalities of health survey fieldwork research in a resource ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cite as: Abimanyi-Ochom J. Practicalities of health survey field work research in a resource limited setting: challenges and ... vided only ART while TASO provided social support in ..... first aid box in case of any minor accident but was limited.

  20. Health sciences libraries building survey, 1999-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, Logan

    2010-04-01

    A survey was conducted of health sciences libraries to obtain information about newer buildings, additions, remodeling, and renovations. An online survey was developed, and announcements of survey availability posted to three major email discussion lists: Medical Library Association (MLA), Association of Academic Health Sciences Libraries (AAHSL), and MEDLIB-L. Previous discussions of library building projects on email discussion lists, a literature review, personal communications, and the author's consulting experiences identified additional projects. Seventy-eight health sciences library building projects at seventy-three institutions are reported. Twenty-two are newer facilities built within the last ten years; two are space expansions; forty-five are renovation projects; and nine are combinations of new and renovated space. Six institutions report multiple or ongoing renovation projects during the last ten years. The survey results confirm a continuing migration from print-based to digitally based collections and reveal trends in library space design. Some health sciences libraries report loss of space as they move toward creating space for "community" building. Libraries are becoming more proactive in using or retooling space for concentration, collaboration, contemplation, communication, and socialization. All are moving toward a clearer operational vision of the library as the institution's information nexus and not merely as a physical location with print collections.

  1. Is the Urban Child Health Advantage Declining in Malawi?: Evidence from Demographic and Health Surveys and Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lungu, Edgar Arnold; Biesma, Regien; Chirwa, Maureen; Darker, Catherine

    2018-06-01

    In many developing countries including Malawi, health indicators are on average better in urban than in rural areas. This phenomenon has largely prompted Governments to prioritize rural areas in programs to improve access to health services. However, considerable evidence has emerged that some population groups in urban areas may be facing worse health than rural areas and that the urban advantage may be waning in some contexts. We used a descriptive study undertaking a comparative analysis of 13 child health indicators between urban and rural areas using seven data points provided by nationally representative population based surveys-the Malawi Demographic and Health Surveys and Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys. Rate differences between urban and rural values for selected child health indicators were calculated to denote whether urban-rural differentials showed a trend of declining urban advantage in Malawi. The results show that all forms of child mortality have significantly declined between 1992 and 2015/2016 reflecting successes in child health interventions. Rural-urban comparisons, using rate differences, largely indicate a picture of the narrowing gap between urban and rural areas albeit the extent and pattern vary among child health indicators. Of the 13 child health indicators, eight (neonatal mortality, infant mortality, under-five mortality rates, stunting rate, proportion of children treated for diarrhea and fever, proportion of children sleeping under insecticide-treated nets, and children fully immunized at 12 months) show clear patterns of a declining urban advantage particularly up to 2014. However, U-5MR shows reversal to a significant urban advantage in 2015/2016, and slight increases in urban advantage are noted for infant mortality rate, underweight, full childhood immunization, and stunting rate in 2015/2016. Our findings suggest the need to rethink the policy viewpoint of a disadvantaged rural and much better-off urban in child health

  2. Using Smartphones and Health Apps to Change and Manage Health Behaviors: A Population-Based Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernsting, Clemens; Dombrowski, Stephan U; Oedekoven, Monika; O Sullivan, Julie L; Kanzler, Melanie; Kuhlmey, Adelheid; Gellert, Paul

    2017-04-05

    Chronic conditions are an increasing challenge for individuals and the health care system. Smartphones and health apps are potentially promising tools to change health-related behaviors and manage chronic conditions. The aim of this study was to explore (1) the extent of smartphone and health app use, (2) sociodemographic, medical, and behavioral correlates of smartphone and health app use, and (3) associations of the use of apps and app characteristics with actual health behaviors. A population-based survey (N=4144) among Germans, aged 35 years and older, was conducted. Sociodemographics, presence of chronic conditions, health behaviors, quality of life, and health literacy, as well as the use of the Internet, smartphone, and health apps were assessed by questionnaire at home visit. Binary logistic regression models were applied. It was found that 61.25% (2538/4144) of participants used a smartphone. Compared with nonusers, smartphone users were younger, did more research on the Internet, were more likely to work full-time and more likely to have a university degree, engaged more in physical activity, and less in low fat diet, and had a higher health-related quality of life and health literacy. Among smartphone users, 20.53% (521/2538) used health apps. App users were younger, less likely to be native German speakers, did more research on the Internet, were more likely to report chronic conditions, engaged more in physical activity, and low fat diet, and were more health literate compared with nonusers who had a smartphone. Health apps focused on smoking cessation (232/521, 44.5%), healthy diet (201/521, 38.6%), and weight loss (121/521, 23.2%). The most common app characteristics were planning (264/521, 50.7%), reminding (188/521, 36.1%), prompting motivation (179/521 34.4%), and the provision of information (175/521, 33.6%). Significant associations were found between planning and the health behavior physical activity, between feedback or monitoring and physical

  3. Health survey of radiation workers. Results of questionnaire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morikawa, Kaoru; Aoyama, Takashi; Kawagoe, Yasumitsu; Sunayashiki, Tadashi; Tanaka, Kiyoshi; Nishitani, Motohiro; Yoshinaga, Nobuharu

    1998-01-01

    The Japanese Society of Radiological Technology asked radiation workers about the radiation doses and the state of their health as well as family. The reports by the Health and Welfare Ministry were referenced to compare radiation workers with others. The questionnaire was sent to about 4,000 members, and returned from 2,479. The survey showed that 684 persons (27.6%) felt health anxiety, 455 persons (18.4%) had medical check for recent one year, and 1,645 persons (66.4%) had anamnesis. Radiation doses for one year and cumulated doses varied according to engaging duration. (K.H.)

  4. Profiling health-care accreditation organizations: an international survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Charles D; Braithwaite, Jeffrey; Moldovan, Max; Nicklin, Wendy; Grgic, Ileana; Fortune, Triona; Whittaker, Stuart

    2013-07-01

    To describe global patterns among health-care accreditation organizations (AOs) and to identify determinants of sustainability and opportunities for improvement. Web-based questionnaire survey. Organizations offering accreditation services nationally or internationally to health-care provider institutions or networks at primary, secondary or tertiary level in 2010. s) External relationships, scope and activity public information. Forty-four AOs submitted data, compared with 33 in a survey 10 years earlier. Of the 30 AOs that reported survey activity in 2000 and 2010, 16 are still active and stable or growing. New and old programmes are increasingly linked to public funding and regulation. While the number of health-care AOs continues to grow, many fail to thrive. Successful organizations tend to complement mechanisms of regulation, health-care funding or governmental commitment to quality and health-care improvement that offer a supportive environment. Principal challenges include unstable business (e.g. limited market, low uptake) and unstable politics. Many organizations make only limited information available to patients and the public about standards, procedures or results.

  5. A continuing education preference survey of public health graduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, S J; Perkocha, V A; Novotny, T E

    1995-01-01

    Continuing education (CE) is a vital component in strengthening the public health work force, and its importance has been emphasized by the Institute of Medicine and the Council for Education in Public Health. A CE preference survey was undertaken of alumni of the University of California, Berkeley, School of Public Health (UCB-SPH). Questionnaires were mailed to a one-third random sample of 1,500 graduates from 1981-1992 who currently reside in U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) Region IX. A response rate of 57% was achieved. Results of the survey show that CE activities are highly desired among respondents. Overall, 58% of respondents prefer a half-day to one-day seminar format during regular business hours, as opposed to night classes. They prefer a traditional didactic classroom presentation that is within one hour's automobile travel. The optimal setting for CE courses would be at the University of California, Berkeley, or in-house at their institution. Subject areas of interest noted by respondents are health policy development, communication in public health, community involvement, and research. Schools of public health may respond to the CE needs of their alumni through a variety of channels, including the mainstreaming of CE as part of a school's teaching responsibility, special seminars or institutes, extension courses through the larger university system, distance-based learning, and through a separately funded for-profit CE activity.

  6. Are Physician Assistants Needed in Guatemala? A Survey of Potential Urban and Rural Users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna-Asturias, Claudia; Apple, Jennifer; Bolaños, Guillermo A; Bowser, Jonathan M; Asturias, Edwin J

    2017-09-01

    The shortage of trained health care personnel has been increasing worldwide. With the physician assistant (PA) profession, created in the United States in the 1960s, expanding globally, this study sought to ascertain whether PAs can be an innovative solution to this crisis. We conducted a convenience sample survey to assess the need for and acceptability of future PA professionals in Guatemala. Eighty-nine doctors, nurses, and community members from rural and urban areas of Guatemala participated in the survey. More urban (70%) than rural (58%) respondents found it difficult to access a doctor, with cost being the major reason (34%). Access in rural areas was reportedly limited by lack of doctors and inaccessible office hours. Most survey respondents considered PAs to be suitable and potentially helpful providers for Guatemala, with a preference for competencies in the diagnosis of serious illnesses, drug prescription, labor and delivery attendance, and care for injuries and fractures, especially in rural locations. Belonging to the community was deemed very important for a PA who would practice in the country.

  7. Potential health risks due to telecommunications radiofrequency ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The global system mobile telecommunications system (GSM) which was recently introduced in Nigeria is now being used by over 40 million people in Nigeria. The use of GSM is accompanied with exposure of the users to radiofrequency radiation (RFR), which if significant, may produce health hazards. This is ...

  8. Development and Evaluation the Satisfaction of Using an Oral Health Survey Mobile Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detsomboonrat, Palinee; Pisarnturakit, Pagaporn Pantuwadee

    2018-06-05

    Surveying oral health at the community level should be done at regular intervals. Dental health personnel must assess the oral health status and needs of the community through the collection and interpretation of reliable health information. Thus, the aims of this study were (1) to develop a mobile application for oral health surveys, (2) to analyze the oral status of school children in Bangkok using the newly developed application, and (3) to evaluate user satisfaction with using the Oral Health Survey Mobile Application (OHSMA). The OHSMA Android app was created to facilitate the collection and transfer of oral health status data. The survey data on the oral health status of Grades 1-6 Thai schoolchildren were collected and analyzed using the OHSMA. A 5-point Likert scale questionnaire was used to evaluate the satisfaction of 125 dental students when using this new application compared with using paper forms. The prevalence of dental caries in 441 schoolchildren was 79.7%. The total mean decayed, missing, and filled for primary teeth (dmft) and decayed, missing, and filled for permanent teeth (DMFT) were 4.09 (d + D = 3.29, m + M = 0.15, and f + F = 0.65). Users indicated high satisfaction scores for three OHSMA features: font, color, and proper size. The results showed that paper forms were easier for inputting and recording the data compared with the OHSMA. However, the OHSMA was significantly easier for searching data and reporting data compared with paper forms (OHSMA 3.80, paper forms 3.35; p application has the potential to collect valuable oral health survey data.

  9. Changes in retiree health benefits: results of a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lissovoy, G; Kasper, J D; Di Carlo, S; Gabel, J

    1990-01-01

    Employers are increasingly concerned by the cost of health benefits provided to retired workers. One reason is that the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB), the organization that establishes "generally accepted accounting principles," has proposed altering the way firms report expenditures for retiree medical coverage on financial statements. We recently completed a national survey of business firms offering retiree health benefits to address three issues: 1) What is the current structure of retiree health benefit plans? 2) What changes are firms planning to implement in the structure of their retiree health benefits? 3) To what extent are these changes due to the FASB proposal? The FASB reporting proposal is only one factor underlying these changes. More important is the real financial pressure on firms due to the accelerating cost of retiree health care.

  10. Profiling the mobile-only population in Australia: insights from the Australian National Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baffour, Bernard; Haynes, Michele; Dinsdale, Shane; Western, Mark; Pennay, Darren

    2016-10-01

    The Australian population that relies on mobile phones exclusively has increased from 5% in 2005 to 29% in 2014. Failing to include this mobile-only population leads to a potential bias in estimates from landline-based telephone surveys. This paper considers the impacts on selected health prevalence estimates with and without the mobile-only population. Using data from the Australian Health Survey - which, for the first time, included a question on telephone status - we examined demographic, geographic and health differences between the landline-accessible and mobile-only population. These groups were also compared to the full population, controlling for the sampling design and differential non-response patterns in the observed sample through weighting and benchmarking. The landline-accessible population differs from the mobile-only population for selected health measures resulting in biased prevalence estimates for smoking, alcohol risk and private health insurance coverage in the full population. The differences remain even after adjusting for age and gender. Using landline telephones only for conducting population health surveys will have an impact on prevalence rate estimates of health risk factors due to the differing profiles of the mobile-only population from the landline-accessible population. © 2016 Public Health Association of Australia.

  11. Health Phones: A Potential Game Changer in Health Information Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geena Mary Skaria

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Health education has to be one of the most effective ways to reduce morbidity and mortality in developing countries. We need to deliver vital messages and information to people at the lower quarter of the society to use changing behaviour and practices which can save and protect their lives. It is in this context, use of mobile phones in delivering vital health information is of significance. This article reviews few projects which successfully use mobile phones for health information delivery.

  12. The Influence of Israel Health Insurance Law on the Negev Bedouin Population — A Survey Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Morad

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The extension of universal health service insurance to national populations is a relatively new phenomenon. Since 1995, the Israeli National Health Insurance Law (NHIL has provided universal health services to every resident, but the effect of this law on health and health services among minorities has not been examined sufficiently. The goals of this study were to track some of the first changes engendered by the NHIL among the Negev Bedouin Arabs to examine the effects of universal health care services. Methods included analysis of historical and health policy documents, three field appraisals of health care services (1994, 1995, 1999, a region-wide interview survey of Negev Bedouins (1997, and key informant interviews. For the interview survey, a sample of 515 households was chosen from different Bedouin localities representing major sedentarization stages. Results showed that prior to the NHIL, a substantial proportion of the Negev Bedouins were uninsured with limited, locally available health service. Since 1995, health services, particularly primary care clinics and health manpower, have dramatically expanded. The initial expansion appears to have been a marketing ploy, but real improvements have occurred. There was a high level of health service utilization among the Bedouins in the Negev, especially private medical services, hospitals, and night ambulatory medical services. The NHIL brought change to the structure of health services in Israel, namely the institution of a national health system based on proportional allocation of resources (based on size and age and open competition in the provision of quality health care. The expansion of the pool of potential members engendered by the new universal coverage had profound effects on the Health Funds' attitudes towards Negev Bedouins. In addition, real consumer choice was introduced for the first time. Although all the health care needs of this rapidly growing population have yet to be met

  13. Exploring ethnic inequalities in health: Evidence from the Health Survey for England, 1998-2011

    OpenAIRE

    Darlington, F; Norman, P; Ballas, D; Exeter, DJ

    2015-01-01

    Issues of social justice and social and spatial inequalities in health have long been researched, yet there is a relative paucity of research on ethnic inequalities in health. Given the increasing ethnic diversity of England's population and the persistence of unjust differences in health this research is timely. We used annual data from the Health Survey for England between 1998 and 2011, combined into a time-series dataset, to examine the influence of socioeconomic and spatial factors on et...

  14. The Trojan Lifetime Champions Health Survey: Development, Validity, and Reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorenson, Shawn C.; Romano, Russell; Scholefield, Robin M.; Schroeder, E. Todd; Azen, Stanley P.; Salem, George J.

    2015-01-01

    Context Self-report questionnaires are an important method of evaluating lifespan health, exercise, and health-related quality of life (HRQL) outcomes among elite, competitive athletes. Few instruments, however, have undergone formal characterization of their psychometric properties within this population. Objective To evaluate the validity and reliability of a novel health and exercise questionnaire, the Trojan Lifetime Champions (TLC) Health Survey. Design Descriptive laboratory study. Setting A large National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I university. Patients or Other Participants A total of 63 university alumni (age range, 24 to 84 years), including former varsity collegiate athletes and a control group of nonathletes. Intervention(s) Participants completed the TLC Health Survey twice at a mean interval of 23 days with randomization to the paper or electronic version of the instrument. Main Outcome Measure(s) Content validity, feasibility of administration, test-retest reliability, parallel-form reliability between paper and electronic forms, and estimates of systematic and typical error versus differences of clinical interest were assessed across a broad range of health, exercise, and HRQL measures. Results Correlation coefficients, including intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) for continuous variables and κ agreement statistics for ordinal variables, for test-retest reliability averaged 0.86, 0.90, 0.80, and 0.74 for HRQL, lifetime health, recent health, and exercise variables, respectively. Correlation coefficients, again ICCs and κ, for parallel-form reliability (ie, equivalence) between paper and electronic versions averaged 0.90, 0.85, 0.85, and 0.81 for HRQL, lifetime health, recent health, and exercise variables, respectively. Typical measurement error was less than the a priori thresholds of clinical interest, and we found minimal evidence of systematic test-retest error. We found strong evidence of content validity, convergent

  15. A survey of the health needs of hospital staff: implications for health care managers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinks, Annette M; Lawson, Valerie; Daniels, Ruth

    2003-09-01

    Developing strategies to address the health needs of the National Health Services (NHS) workforce are of concern to many health care managers. Focal to the development of such strategies are of being in receipt of baseline information about employees expressed health needs and concerns. This article addresses obtaining such baseline information and presents the findings of a health needs survey of acute hospital staff in a trust in North Wales. The total population of trust employees were surveyed (n = 2300) and a 44% (n = 1021) response rate was achieved. A number of positive findings are given. Included are that the majority of those surveyed stated that their current health status is good, are motivated to improve their health further, do not smoke and their alcohol consumption is within recommended levels. There appears, however, to be a number of areas where trust managers can help its staff improve their health. Included are trust initiatives that focus on weight control and taking more exercise. In addition, there appears to be a reported lack of knowledge and positive health behaviour amongst the male respondents surveyed that would imply the trust needs to be more effective in promoting well man type issues. Finally there appears to be a general lack of pride in working for the trust and a pervasive feeling that the trust does not care about its employees that needs to be addressed. It is concluded that the findings of this survey have implications for management practices in the trust where the survey was conducted and also wider applicability to the management of health care professionals. For example, addressing work-related psychological and physical problems of employees are of importance to all health care managers. This is especially so when considering recruitment and retention issues.

  16. Identifying research priorities for public health research to address health inequalities: use of Delphi-like survey methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, S; Ollerhead, E; Cook, A

    2017-10-09

    In the funding of health research and public health research it is vital that research questions posed are important and that funded research meets a research need or a gap in evidence. Many methods are used in the identification of research priorities, however, these can be resource intensive, costly and logistically challenging. Identifying such research priorities can be particularly challenging for complex public health problems as there is a need to consult a number of experts across disciplines and with a range of expertise. This study investigated the use of Delphi-like survey methods in identifying important research priorities relating to health inequalities and framing tractable research questions for topic areas identified. The study was conducted in two phases, both using Delphi-like survey methods. Firstly, public health professionals with an interest in health inequalities were asked to identify research priorities. Secondly academic researchers were asked to frame tractable research questions relating to the priorities identified. These research priorities identified using Delphi-like survey methods were subsequently compared to those identified using different methods. A total of 52 public health professionals and 21 academics across the United Kingdom agreed to take part. The response rates were high, from public health professionals across three survey rounds (69%, 50% and 40%) and from academics across one round (52%), indicating that participants were receptive to the method and motivated to respond. The themes identified as encompassing the most important research priorities were mental health, healthy environment and health behaviours. Within these themes, the topic areas that emerged most strongly included community interventions for prevention of mental health problems and the food and alcohol environment. Some responses received from academic researchers were (as requested) in the form of tractable research questions, whereas others

  17. National Survey of Yoga Practitioners: Mental and Physical Health Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Alyson; Friedmann, Erika; Bevans, Margaret; Thomas, Sue

    2013-01-01

    Summary Objectives to describe yoga practice and health characteristics of individuals who practice yoga, and to explore their beliefs regarding the effects of their yoga practice on their health. Design a cross-sectional design with anonymous online surveys Setting 4307 randomly selected individuals from 15 US Iyengar yoga studios (n = 18,160), representing 41 states; 1087 individuals responded, with 1045 (24.3%) surveys completed. Outcome Measures Freiberg Mindfulness Inventory, Mental Health Continuum (subjective well-being), Multi-factor Screener (diet), PROMIS sleep disturbance, fatigue, and social support, International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Results Age: 19 to 87 years (M = 51.7 ± 11.7), 84.2% female, 89.2% white, 87.4% well educated (≥ bachelor’s degree). Mean years of yoga practice = 11.4 (± 7.5). BMI = 12.1–49.4 (M = 23.1 ± 3.9). Levels of obesity (4.9%), smoking (2%), and fruit and vegetable consumption (M = 6.1 ± 1.1) were favorable compared to national norms. 60% reported at least one chronic/serious health condition, yet most reported very good (46.3%) or excellent (38.8%) general health. Despite high levels of depression (24.8 %), nearly all were moderately mentally healthy (55.2%) or flourishing (43.8%). Participants agreed yoga improved: energy (84.5%), happiness (86.5%), social relationships (67%), sleep (68.5%), and weight (57.3%), and beliefs did not differ substantially according to race or gender. The more they practiced yoga, whether in years or in amount of class or home practice, the higher their odds of believing yoga improved their health. Conclusions Individuals who practice yoga are not free of health concerns, but most believe their health improved because of yoga. Yoga might be beneficial for a number of populations including elderly women and those with chronic health conditions. PMID:23876562

  18. MELATONIN: POTENTIAL UTILITY FOR IMPROVING PUBLIC HEALTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russel J REITER; Fatih GULTEKIN; Luis J FLORES; Ma Pilar TERRON; Dun-Xian TAN

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available This review summarizes the beneficial actions of melatonin in various experimental conditions/diseases and identifies where the use of melatonin may be helpful in improving public health. The nightly use of melatonin supplements by humans often improves their sleep and helps correct the circadian dyssynchronization associated with “jet lag”. Additionally, melatonin has been found effective in curtailing the growth of a variety of experimental cancers. Mechanistically, this is achieved by melatonin’s ability to limit fatty acid uptake, especially linoleic acid, by tumor cells. Fatty acids are growth factors for many tumors. Additionally, melatonin inhibits the elevated telomerase activity of tumor cells thus making them more fragile and vulnerable to chemotherapies. Melatonin also may inhibit angiogenesis in tumors by suppressing endothelin-1 production and the indole interferes with the stimulatory action of steroids on hormone-responsive tumors. As an ubiquitously-acting antioxidant, melatonin reduces cardiac damage during ischemia/reperfusion (I/R injury (heart attack and during I/R to the brain (stroke. Melatonin also limits the toxicity of amyloid  peptide and of neurofibrillary tangles, two of the cardinal signs of Alzheimer’s disease. Collectively, these data suggest supplementation with melatonin, whose endogenous levels decrease with age, may improve the quality of life in the aged and, as a consequence, be beneficial for public health generally. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2006; 5(2.000: 131-158

  19. Australian academic primary health-care careers: a scoping survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Christopher; Reeve, Joanne; Adams, Ann; McIntyre, Ellen

    2016-01-01

    This study was undertaken to provide a snapshot of the academic primary health-care workforce in Australia and to provide some insight into research capacity in academic primary health care following changes to funding for this sector. A convenience sample of individuals self-identifying as working within academic primary health care (n=405) completed an anonymous online survey. Respondents were identified from several academic primary health-care mailing lists. The survey explored workforce demographics, clarity of career pathways, career trajectories and enablers/barriers to 'getting in' and 'getting on'. A mix of early career (41%), mid-career (25%) and senior academics (35%) responded. Early career academics tended to be female and younger than mid-career and senior academics, who tended to be male and working in 'balanced' (teaching and research) roles and listing medicine as their disciplinary background. Almost three-quarters (74%) indicated career pathways were either 'completely' or 'somewhat unclear', irrespective of gender and disciplinary backgrounds. Just over half (51%) had a permanent position. Males were more likely to have permanent positions, as were those with a medical background. Less than half (43%) reported having a mentor, and of the 57% without a mentor, more than two-thirds (69%) would like one. These results suggest a lack of clarity in career paths, uncertainty in employment and a large number of temporary (contract) or casual positions represent barriers to sustainable careers in academic primary health care, especially for women who are from non-medicine backgrounds. Professional development or a mentoring program for primary health-care academics was desired and may address some of the issues identified by survey respondents.

  20. Bolivia 1998: results from the Demographic and Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-09-01

    This document presents the results of the Bolivia Demographic and Health Survey (DHS), or Encuesta Nacional de Demografia y Salud 1998, conducted by the Instituto Nacional de Estadistica, La Paz, Bolivia, within the framework of the DHS Program of Macro International. Data were collected from 12,109 households and complete interviews were conducted with 11,187 women aged 15-49. A male survey was also conducted, which collected data from 3780 men aged 15-64. The information collected include the following: 1) general characteristics of the population, 2) fertility, 3) fertility preferences, 4) current contraceptive use, 5) contraception, 6) marital and contraceptive status, 7) postpartum variables, 8) infant mortality, 9) health: disease prevention and treatment, and 10) nutritional status: anthropometric measures.

  1. [Methodological design of the National Health and Nutrition Survey 2016].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Martínez, Martín; Shamah-Levy, Teresa; Cuevas-Nasu, Lucía; Gómez-Humarán, Ignacio Méndez; Gaona-Pineda, Elsa Berenice; Gómez-Acosta, Luz María; Rivera-Dommarco, Juan Ángel; Hernández-Ávila, Mauricio

    2017-01-01

    Describe the design methodology of the halfway health and nutrition national survey (Ensanut-MC) 2016. The Ensanut-MC is a national probabilistic survey whose objective population are the inhabitants of private households in Mexico. The sample size was determined to make inferences on the urban and rural areas in four regions. Describes main design elements: target population, topics of study, sampling procedure, measurement procedure and logistics organization. A final sample of 9 479 completed household interviews, and a sample of 16 591 individual interviews. The response rate for households was 77.9%, and the response rate for individuals was 91.9%. The Ensanut-MC probabilistic design allows valid statistical inferences about interest parameters for Mexico´s public health and nutrition, specifically on overweight, obesity and diabetes mellitus. Updated information also supports the monitoring, updating and formulation of new policies and priority programs.

  2. Methodology of the National School-based Health Survey in Malaysia, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusoff, Fadhli; Saari, Riyanti; Naidu, Balkish M; Ahmad, Noor Ani; Omar, Azahadi; Aris, Tahir

    2014-09-01

    The National School-Based Health Survey 2012 was a nationwide school health survey of students in Standard 4 to Form 5 (10-17 years of age), who were schooling in government schools in Malaysia during the period of data collection. The survey comprised 3 subsurveys: the Global School Health Survey (GSHS), the Mental Health Survey, and the National School-Based Nutrition Survey. The aim of the survey was to provide data on the health status of adolescents in Malaysia toward strengthening the adolescent health program in the country. The design of the survey was created to fulfill the requirements of the 3 subsurveys. A 2-stage stratified sampling method was adopted in the sampling. The methods for data collection were via questionnaire and physical examination. The National School-Based Health Survey 2012 adopted an appropriate methodology for a school-based survey to ensure valid and reliable findings. © 2014 APJPH.

  3. Potentials for health promotion at worksite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Rikke; Mikkelsen, Bent Egberg

    2013-01-01

    but also with the social and mental environment. Food and eating has increasingly become an object of public governance, especially when we are eating out of home as part of our work or educational life. Interventions aiming at improve our eating patterns have become mainstream in many of our everyday life......Eating has an immense impact on our health, and the contribution of research literature that tries to understand and explain our food habits has grown considerably over the past decades. These studies have showed that in our eating behaviour, we interact not only with the physical environment...... settings. This paper explores differences and similarities in the foodscapes of bus drivers in a multi-ethnic worksite. Our objective is to identify possibilities for creating healthier food environments and provide opportunities for healthy living. We will analyse how different ethnicities perceive...

  4. Summary of survey of SMR market potential in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoshi, T.; Ochiai, M.

    1998-01-01

    The nuclear power generation in Japan has grown to more than 30% of the total electricity generation as of the end of 1995. Considering the increase of energy demand in the future, the steadily energy supply is requested. The paper presents the outlook of energy supply and consumption in the future, the status of nuclear power generation and market potentials of the small and medium nuclear power plants in Japan. (author)

  5. Regional South Australia Health (RESONATE) survey: study protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Martin; Gillam, Marianne; May, Esther

    2018-01-01

    Introduction Access to quality healthcare services is considered a moral right. However, for people living in regional locations, timely access to the services that they need may not always be possible because of structural and attitudinal barriers. This suggests that people living in regional areas may have unmet healthcare needs. The aim of this research will be to examine the healthcare needs, expectations and experiences of regional South Australians. Methods and analysis The Regional South Australia Health (RESONATE) survey is a cross-sectional study of adult health consumers living in any private or non-private dwelling, in any regional, rural, remote or very remote area of South Australia and with an understanding of written English. Data will be collected using a 45-item, multidimensional, self-administered instrument, designed to measure healthcare need, barriers to healthcare access and health service utilisation, attitudes, experiences and satisfaction. The instrument has demonstrated acceptable psychometric properties, including good content validity and internal reliability, good test–retest reliability and a high level of acceptability. The survey will be administered online and in hard-copy, with at least 1832 survey participants to be recruited over a 12-month period, using a comprehensive, multimodal recruitment campaign. Ethics and dissemination The study has been reviewed and approved by the Human Research Ethics Committee of the University of South Australia. The results will be actively disseminated through peer-reviewed journals, conference presentations, social media, broadcast media, print media, the internet and various community/stakeholder engagement activities. PMID:29654014

  6. The ethics of in vivo calibrations in oral health surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Flávia Reis de; Narvai, Paulo Capel; Montagner, Miguel Ângelo

    2016-01-01

    To analyze the ethics of in vivo calibration, using the discourse of the administrators of the National Oral Health Survey (SBBrasil 2010) as a starting point. This is a qualitative research involving semi-structured individual interviews with 12 members of the Steering Group and Technical Advisory Committee of the Ministry of Health, and two coordinators, one State and the other Municipal. The discourse of the collective subject technique was used for data analysis. When asked about the experiences of SBBrasil 2010, which included ethical aspects, respondents identified the forms of standardization and training of teams who collected field data. For them, there is little scientific evidence to ethically support the way the training stage, including calibration, is carried out in oral health epidemiological surveys, as a certain unease can be predicted in participants of these studies. The ethics of a research also derives from its methodological rigor; the training process; and calibration in particular, is a fundamental technical and ethical requirement in surveys such as the SBBrasil 2010. The unease of the volunteers in face of test repetition does not ethically invalidate the in vivo calibration, but mechanisms to minimize it must be developed.

  7. Ventilation potential during the emissions survey in Toluca Valley, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz Angulo, A.; Peralta, O.; Jurado, O. E.; Ortinez, A.; Grutter de la Mora, M.; Rivera, C.; Gutierrez, W.; Gonzalez, E.

    2017-12-01

    During the late-spring early-summer measurements of emissions and pollutants were carried out during a survey campaign at four different locations within the Toluca Valley. The current emissions inventory typically estimates the generation of pollutants based on pre-estimated values representing an entire sector function of their activities. However, those factors are not always based direct measurements. The emissions from the Toluca Valley are rather large and they could affect the air quality of Mexico City Valley. The air masses interchange between those two valleys is not very well understood; however, based on the measurements obtained during the 3 months campaign we looked carefully at the daily variability of the wind finding a clear signal for mountain-valley breeze. The ventilation coefficient is estimated and the correlations with the concentrations at the 4 locations and in a far away station in Mexico City are addressed in this work. Finally, we discuss the implication of the ventilation capacity in air quality for the system of Valleys that include Mexico City.

  8. Comparison of NIS and NHIS/NIPRCS vaccination coverage estimates. National Immunization Survey. National Health Interview Survey/National Immunization Provider Record Check Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, D L; Ezzati-Rice, T M; Stokley, S; Zhao, Z

    2001-05-01

    The National Immunization Survey (NIS) and the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) produce national coverage estimates for children aged 19 months to 35 months. The NIS is a cost-effective, random-digit-dialing telephone survey that produces national and state-level vaccination coverage estimates. The National Immunization Provider Record Check Study (NIPRCS) is conducted in conjunction with the annual NHIS, which is a face-to-face household survey. As the NIS is a telephone survey, potential coverage bias exists as the survey excludes children living in nontelephone households. To assess the validity of estimates of vaccine coverage from the NIS, we compared 1995 and 1996 NIS national estimates with results from the NHIS/NIPRCS for the same years. Both the NIS and the NHIS/NIPRCS produce similar results. The NHIS/NIPRCS supports the findings of the NIS.

  9. The potential health risk of titania nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Ruinan, E-mail: ruinanzhang87@gmail.com [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Bai, Yuhong, E-mail: yuhong.bai1983@gmail.com [School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Zhang, Bin, E-mail: binzhang1968@hotmail.com [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Chen, Lingxin, E-mail: lxchen@yic.ac.cn [Yantai Institute of Coastal Zone Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Yantai, Shandong 264003 (China); Yan, Bing, E-mail: dr.bingyan@gmail.com [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Department of Chemical Biology and Therapeutics, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, TN 38105 (United States)

    2012-04-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nanotechnology has been widely used in environmental treatments. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The safety of nanomaterials to human is under-studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Taking titania nanoparticle as an example to address nanotoxicity and remedy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The much needed future investigations are suggested. - Abstract: Widespread use of titania nanoparticles (TNPs) has caused a significant release of TNPs into the environment, increasing human exposure to TNPs. The potential toxicity of TNPs has become an urgent concern. Various models have been used to evaluate the toxic effects of TNPs, but the relationship between TNPs' toxicity and physicochemical properties is largely unknown. This review summarizes relevant reports to support the development of better predictive toxicological models and the safe future application of TNPs.

  10. The potential health risk of titania nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Ruinan; Bai, Yuhong; Zhang, Bin; Chen, Lingxin; Yan, Bing

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Nanotechnology has been widely used in environmental treatments. ► The safety of nanomaterials to human is under-studied. ► Taking titania nanoparticle as an example to address nanotoxicity and remedy. ► The much needed future investigations are suggested. - Abstract: Widespread use of titania nanoparticles (TNPs) has caused a significant release of TNPs into the environment, increasing human exposure to TNPs. The potential toxicity of TNPs has become an urgent concern. Various models have been used to evaluate the toxic effects of TNPs, but the relationship between TNPs’ toxicity and physicochemical properties is largely unknown. This review summarizes relevant reports to support the development of better predictive toxicological models and the safe future application of TNPs.

  11. Hass Avocado Composition and Potential Health Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreher, Mark L.; Davenport, Adrienne J.

    2013-01-01

    Hass avocados, the most common commercial avocado cultivars in the world, contain a variety of essential nutrients and important phytochemicals. Although the official avocado serving is one-fifth of a fruit (30 g), according to NHANES analysis the average consumption is one-half an avocado (68 g), which provides a nutrient and phytochemical dense food consisting of the following: dietary fiber (4.6 g), total sugar (0.2 g), potassium (345 mg), sodium (5.5 mg), magnesium (19.5 mg), vitamin A (43 μg), vitamin C (6.0 mg), vitamin E (1.3 mg), vitamin K1 (14 μg), folate (60 mg), vitamin B-6 (0.2 mg), niacin (1.3 mg), pantothenic acid (1.0 mg), riboflavin (0.1 mg), choline (10 mg), lutein/zeaxanthin (185 μg), phytosterols (57 mg), and high-monounsaturated fatty acids (6.7 g) and 114 kcals or 1.7 kcal/g. The avocado oil consists of 71% monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), 13% polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), and 16% saturated fatty acids (SFA), which helps to promote healthy blood lipid profiles and enhance the bioavailability of fat soluble vitamins and phytochemicals from the avocado or other fruits and vegetables, naturally low in fat, which are consumed with avocados. There are eight preliminary clinical studies showing that avocado consumption helps support cardiovascular health. Exploratory studies suggest that avocados may support weight management and healthy aging. PMID:23638933

  12. A Survey of Rural Hospitals’ Perspectives on Health Information Technology Outsourcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Nicholas; Murphy, Alison; McNeese, Nathan; Reddy, Madhu; Purao, Sandeep

    2013-01-01

    A survey of rural hospitals was conducted in the spring of 2012 to better understand their perspectives on health information technology (HIT) outsourcing and the role that hospital-to-hospital HIT partnerships (HHPs) can play as an outsourcing mechanism. The survey sought to understand how HHPs might be leveraged for HIT implementation, as well as the challenges with forming them. The results suggest that HHPs have the potential to address rural hospitals’ slow rate of HIT adoption, but there are also challenges to creating these partnerships. These issues, as well as avenues for further research, are then discussed. PMID:24551373

  13. A survey of rural hospitals' perspectives on health information technology outsourcing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Nicholas; Murphy, Alison; McNeese, Nathan; Reddy, Madhu; Purao, Sandeep

    2013-01-01

    A survey of rural hospitals was conducted in the spring of 2012 to better understand their perspectives on health information technology (HIT) outsourcing and the role that hospital-to-hospital HIT partnerships (HHPs) can play as an outsourcing mechanism. The survey sought to understand how HHPs might be leveraged for HIT implementation, as well as the challenges with forming them. The results suggest that HHPs have the potential to address rural hospitals' slow rate of HIT adoption, but there are also challenges to creating these partnerships. These issues, as well as avenues for further research, are then discussed.

  14. Exposure to Neighborhood Green Space and Mental Health: Evidence from the Survey of the Health of Wisconsin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten M. M. Beyer

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Green space is now widely viewed as a health-promoting characteristic of residential environments, and has been linked to mental health benefits such as recovery from mental fatigue and reduced stress, particularly through experimental work in environmental psychology. Few population level studies have examined the relationships between green space and mental health. Further, few studies have considered the role of green space in non-urban settings. This study contributes a population-level perspective from the United States to examine the relationship between environmental green space and mental health outcomes in a study area that includes a spectrum of urban to rural environments. Multivariate survey regression analyses examine the association between green space and mental health using the unique, population-based Survey of the Health of Wisconsin database. Analyses were adjusted for length of residence in the neighborhood to reduce the impact of neighborhood selection bias. Higher levels of neighborhood green space were associated with significantly lower levels of symptomology for depression, anxiety and stress, after controlling for a wide range of confounding factors. Results suggest that “greening” could be a potential population mental health improvement strategy in the United States.

  15. The burden of multiple sclerosis: A community health survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turpin Karen VL

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health-related quality of life (HRQL in persons with multiple sclerosis (MS who reside within the community relative to the general population is largely unknown. Data from the Canadian Community Health Survey Cycle 1.1 (CCHS 1.1 were used to compare HRQL of persons with MS and the general population. Methods A representative sample of adults (18 years or older from the cross sectional population health survey, CCHS 1.1, was examined to compare scores on the Health Utilities Index Mark 3 (HUI3, a generic preference-based HRQL measure, of respondents with (n = 302 and without (n = 109,741 MS. Selected sociodemographic covariates were adjusted for in ANCOVA models. Normalized sampling weights and bootstrap variance estimates were used in the analysis. Results The mean difference in overall HUI3 scores between respondents with and without MS was 0.25 (95% CI: 0.20, 0.31; eight times greater than the clinically important difference. The largest differences in scores were seen with the ambulation (0.26; 95% CI: 0.20, 0.32 and pain attributes (0.14; 95% CI: 0.09, 0.19. Clinically important differences with dexterity and cognition were also observed. Conclusion While the proportion of the Canadian population with MS is relatively small in comparison to other diseases, the magnitude of the burden is severe relative to the general population.

  16. Experimental survey of the potential energy surfaces associated with fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Britt, H.C.

    1980-01-01

    Progress in the experimental determination of the properties of the potential energy surface associated with fission is reviewed. The importance of nuclear symmetry effects on the calculation of fission widths is demonstrated. Evidence is presented for the fragmentation of the mass-asymmetric second barrier in the thorium region and the axial asymmetric first barrier in the californium region. Detailed analyses of experimental data suggest the presence of two parallel second barriers; the normal mass-asymmetric, axial-symmetric barrier and a slightly higher mass-symmetric, axial-asymmetric barrier. Experimental barrier parameters are determined systematically and compared with calculations from various theoretical models. Techniques for expanding fission probability measurements to higher energies are discussed. (author)

  17. The therapeutic potential of truffle fungi: a patent survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Gajos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to research and retrieve patent information regarding the therapeutic use of truffles. Truffles have a unique value as a foodstuff and impact positively on human health and well-being. They are applied in such industries as the pharmaceutical industry and the cosmetic industry. Patent documentation available in the Espacenet network and the Patentscope service were analyzed by key word and patent specifications were examined to describe state of the art and to identify scientific research trends in therapeutic applications of truffles. Medicinal properties of truffles such as the anticancer or cardiovascular effect, a reduction in blood lipids, immunological resistance and increased energy were identified. Other therapeutic benefits include sedative action, prevention of hormonal imbalances in women, pre-menopause symptom relief, senile urethritis and prostate disorders, sleep disorders and increased absorption of calcium from milk. Truffles can also be used to alleviate symptoms of milk intolerance such as diarrhoea or bloating, to ease rheumatic pains and to treat and prevent further development or recurrence of senile cataract.

  18. Health survey on cancers about the Tricastin nuclear site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    This survey aims at describing the health status of the population around the Tricastin site, and more particularly at determining whether there is a difference between death or cancer occurrence frequencies observed around this site with respect to reference frequencies. It does not aim at assessing the health impact of the site industrial installations. Cancer mortality data, cancer diagnosis data, demographic data, child cancer data, data related to hospital stays in relationship with cancer, long duration hospital stay data, and mortality data are used. Several indicators are defined and used: standardised mortality ratio, standardised hospitalisation ratio. Data are also analysed in terms of location, and socio-demographic categories. It appears that there is no specific health situation for the considered area, except for pancreas cancer for women

  19. National Survey on Drug Use and Health: 4-Year R-DAS (NSDUH-2002-2005)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This file includes data from the 2002 through 2013 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) survey. The only variables included in the data file are ones that...

  20. National Survey on Drug Use and Health: 8-Year R-DAS (NSDUH-2002-2009)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This file includes data from the 2002 through 2009 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) survey. The only variables included in the 8-year 2002-2009 data...

  1. National Survey on Drug Use and Health: 2-Year R-DAS (NSDUH-2002-2003)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This file includes data from the 2002 through 2011 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) survey. The only variables included in the data file are ones that...

  2. American Thoracic Society member survey on climate change and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarfaty, Mona; Bloodhart, Brittany; Ewart, Gary; Thurston, George D; Balmes, John R; Guidotti, Tee L; Maibach, Edward W

    2015-02-01

    The American Thoracic Society (ATS), in collaboration with George Mason University, surveyed a random sample of ATS members to assess their perceptions of, clinical experiences with, and preferred policy responses to climate change. An e-mail containing an invitation from the ATS President and a link to an online survey was sent to 5,500 randomly selected U.S. members; up to four reminder e-mails were sent to nonrespondents. Responses were received from members in 49 states and the District of Columbia (n = 915); the response rate was 17%. Geographic distribution of respondents mirrored that of the sample. Survey estimates' confidence intervals were ±3.5% or smaller. Results indicate that a large majority of ATS members have concluded that climate change is happening (89%), that it is driven by human activity (68%), and that it is relevant to patient care ("a great deal"/"a moderate amount") (65%). A majority of respondents indicated they were already observing health impacts of climate change among their patients, most commonly as increases in chronic disease severity from air pollution (77%), allergic symptoms from exposure to plants or mold (58%), and severe weather injuries (57%). A larger majority anticipated seeing these climate-related health impacts in the next 2 decades. Respondents indicated that physicians and physician organizations should play an active role in educating patients, the public, and policy makers on the human health effects of climate change. Overall, ATS members are observing that human health is already adversely affected by climate change and support responses to address this situation.

  3. Public health informatics in India: the potential and the challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athavale, A V; Zodpey, Sanjay P

    2010-01-01

    Public health informatics is emerging as a new and distinct specialty area in the global scenario within the broader discipline of health informatics. The potential role of informatics in reducing health disparities in underserved populations has been identified by a number of reports from all over the world. The article discusses the scope, the limitations, and future perspective of this novice discipline in context to India. It also highlights information and technology related tools namely Geographical Information Systems, Telemedicine and Electronic Medical Record/Electronic Health Record. India needs to leverage its "technology" oriented growth until now (e.g., few satellite-based telemedicine projects, etc.) simultaneously toward development of "information"-based public health informatics systems in future. Under the rapidly evolving scenario of global public health, the future of the public health governance and population health in India would depend upon building and integrating the comprehensive and responsive domain of public health informatics.

  4. Measuring the Health of an Invisible Population: Lessons from the Colorado Transgender Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, Robin; Mellies, Amy Anderson; Bui, Alison Grace; Lee, Rita; Kattari, Leo; Gray, Courtney

    2018-05-15

    Transgender people, those whose gender identity does not match their sex assigned at birth, face barriers to receiving health care. These include discrimination, prohibitive cost, and difficulty finding transgender-inclusive providers. As transgender identities are not typically recognized in public health research, the ability to compare the health of the transgender population to the overall population is limited. The Colorado Transgender Health Survey sought to explore current disparities and their effects on the health of transgender people in Colorado. The Colorado Transgender Health Survey, based on the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), was developed by the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment, transgender advocates, and transgender community members. Outreach was targeted to transgender-inclusive events and organizations. Responses to the 2014 Colorado Transgender Health Survey were compared side by side to Colorado 2014 BRFSS data. Results from 406 transgender or gender-nonconforming adults who live in Colorado were included in the analysis. Forty percent of respondents report delaying medical care due to cost, inadequate insurance, and/or fear of discrimination. Respondents report significant mental health concerns, with 43% reporting depression, 36% reporting suicidal thoughts, and 10% attempting suicide in the past year. Respondents with a transgender-inclusive provider were more likely to receive wellness exams (76 versus 48%), less likely to delay care due to discrimination (24 versus 42%), less depressed (38 versus 54%), and less likely to attempt suicide (7 versus 15%) than those without. The transgender community in Colorado faces significant disparities, especially around mental health. However, a transgender-inclusive provider is associated with improved mental and physical health and health behaviors. Further population-level research and provider education on transgender health should to be incorporated into

  5. Tehran Survey of Potential Risk Factors for Multiple Births

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Omani Samani

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background The multiple pregnancy incidence is increasing worldwide. This increased incidence is concerning to the health care system. This study aims to determine the frequency of multiple pregnancy and identify factors that affect this frequency in Tehran, Iran. Materials and Methods This cross-sectional study included 5170 mothers in labor between July 6-21, 2015 from 103 hospitals with Obstetrics and Gynecology Wards. The questionnaire used in this study consisted of five parts: demographic characteristics; information related to pregnancy; information related to the infant; information regarding the multiple pregnancy; and information associated with infertility. We recruited 103 trained midwives to collect data related to the questionnaire from eligible participants through an interview and medical records review. Frequencies and odds ratios (OR for the association between multiple pregnancy and the selected characteristics (maternal age, economic status, history of multiple pregnancy in first-degree relatives, and reproductive history were computed by multiple logistic regression. Stata software, version 13 (Stata Corp, College Station, TX, USA was used for all statistical analyses. Results Multiple pregnancy had a prevalence of 1.48% [95% confidence interval (CI: 1.19-1.85]. After controlling for confounding variables, we observed a significant association between frequency of multiple pregnancy and mother’s age (OR=1.04, 95% CI: 1.001-1.09, P=0.044, assisted reproductive technique (ART, OR=6.11, 95% CI: 1.7- 21.97, P=0.006, and history of multiple pregnancy in the mother’s family (OR=5.49, 95% CI: 3.55-9.93, P=0.001. Conclusion The frequency of multiple pregnancy approximated results reported in previous studies in Iran. Based on the results, we observed significantly greater frequency of multiple pregnancy in older women, those with a history of ART, and a history of multiple pregnancy in the mother’s family compared to the other

  6. The potential of educational comics as a health information medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNicol, Sarah

    2017-03-01

    To investigate ways in which educational comics might provide support in dealing with feelings and attitudes towards health conditions, as well as improving understanding of factual information and to identify potential weakness of comics as a medium for health information. Semi-structured interviewees with eleven university students who either had a mental or physical health condition themselves or had a family member with a health condition. The result highlighted the potential value of comics as a format for health information. In addition to conveying factual information, comics offer opportunities for self-awareness, reassurance, empathy, companionship and a means to explore the impact of illness on family relationships. However, there are notable barriers to the greater use of comics to provide health information, namely, a lack of awareness of, and easy access to, educational comics, along with the perception that comics are exclusively light-hearted and for children. Currently, the full potential of comics in health settings is not being realised. Health information professionals may be in a position to address this issue through identifying, cataloguing, indexing and promoting comics as a legitimate format for health information. © 2016 The Author. Health Information and Libraries Journal published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Health Libraries Group.

  7. Health literacy and barriers to health information seeking: A nationwide survey in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Seok Hee; Kim, Hyun Kyung

    2016-11-01

    To identify the level of health literacy and barriers to information seeking and to explore the predictors of health literacy. A cross-sectional descriptive design was used. A total of 1000 Korean adults were recruited through proportional quota sampling. Health literacy, barriers to health information seeking, sociodemographics, and health-related characteristics were surveyed. Descriptive statistics and binary logistic regression were performed for data analysis. About 61% of participants were classified as inadequately health literate. "No health fairs/activities near home" was the most frequently reported barrier. Older age, lower education, living in the capital city, barriers regarding how to get information and access to expensive books and magazines were predictors of inadequate health literacy. Strategies for improving health literacy and reducing barriers to health information seeking should be designed. Education on how to access health-related information with easily accessible sources either free or inexpensive could be a way to help adults with limited health literacy. Health care professionals should assess clients' health literacy levels, particularly amongst those who are older or have less education. They should provide clients with information on how to access credible and readily available sources of health-related information, considering their health literacy level. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Status of simulation in health care education: an international survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qayumi, Karim; Pachev, George; Zheng, Bin; Ziv, Amitai; Koval, Valentyna; Badiei, Sadia; Cheng, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Simulation is rapidly penetrating the terrain of health care education and has gained growing acceptance as an educational method and patient safety tool. Despite this, the state of simulation in health care education has not yet been evaluated on a global scale. In this project, we studied the global status of simulation in health care education by determining the degree of financial support, infrastructure, manpower, information technology capabilities, engagement of groups of learners, and research and scholarly activities, as well as the barriers, strengths, opportunities for growth, and other aspects of simulation in health care education. We utilized a two-stage process, including an online survey and a site visit that included interviews and debriefings. Forty-two simulation centers worldwide participated in this study, the results of which show that despite enormous interest and enthusiasm in the health care community, use of simulation in health care education is limited to specific areas and is not a budgeted item in many institutions. Absence of a sustainable business model, as well as sufficient financial support in terms of budget, infrastructure, manpower, research, and scholarly activities, slows down the movement of simulation. Specific recommendations are made based on current findings to support simulation in the next developmental stages. PMID:25489254

  9. Local health department translation processes: potential of machine translation technologies to help meet needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Anne M; Mandel, Hannah; Capurro, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Limited English proficiency (LEP), defined as a limited ability to read, speak, write, or understand English, is associated with health disparities. Despite federal and state requirements to translate health information, the vast majority of health materials are solely available in English. This project investigates barriers to translation of health information and explores new technologies to improve access to multilingual public health materials. We surveyed all 77 local health departments (LHDs) in the Northwest about translation needs, practices, barriers and attitudes towards machine translation (MT). We received 67 responses from 45 LHDs. Translation of health materials is the principle strategy used by LHDs to reach LEP populations. Cost and access to qualified translators are principle barriers to producing multilingual materials. Thirteen LHDs have used online MT tools. Many respondents expressed concerns about the accuracy of MT. Overall, respondents were positive about its potential use, if low costs and quality could be assured.

  10. The role of house surveys in geological radon potential mapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ball, K.

    1997-01-01

    Because radon levels vary widely between apparently identical buildings on the same geological unit, no map can predict the radon level in an individual building. Maps can, however, give the probability that a building in a particular locality is above a threshold of radon concentration such as a reference or action level. The probability may be calculated for a particular building type or for a mixture of building types. In the latter case the probability is in effect an estimate of the proportion of buildings above the threshold level. Alternatively maps can provide estimates of the mean radon levels in buildings by area. Maps showing the geographical variation in probability that new or existing building will exceed a radon reference level are used to prevent excessive exposures to radon. The information may be used in various ways, such as to target information campaigns encouraging measurement of radon levels in homes or to modify regulations for new buildings. The data which are used to provide the estimates of the proportion of buildings above a threshold may be radon measurements results from a sample of buildings, or may be indirect indicators such as ground radium concentrations, emanation coefficients and permeability measurements. Consistency in radon measurement protocols and detailed positional information are prerequisites for mapping radon prone areas based upon house data. Grouping building radon measurements by geological formation and superficial cover can produce radon potential maps which are more spatially accurate than grid square maps and more accurate in estimating numbers of homes affected than mapping based only on measuring geological and pedagogical properties

  11. Advantages and limitations of web-based surveys: evidence from a child mental health survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiervang, Einar; Goodman, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Web-based surveys may have advantages related to the speed and cost of data collection as well as data quality. However, they may be biased by low and selective participation. We predicted that such biases would distort point-estimates such as average symptom level or prevalence but not patterns of associations with putative risk-factors. A structured psychiatric interview was administered to parents in two successive surveys of child mental health. In 2003, parents were interviewed face-to-face, whereas in 2006 they completed the interview online. In both surveys, interviews were preceded by paper questionnaires covering child and family characteristics. The rate of parents logging onto the web site was comparable to the response rate for face-to-face interviews, but the rate of full response (completing all sections of the interview) was much lower for web-based interviews. Full response was less frequent for non-traditional families, immigrant parents, and less educated parents. Participation bias affected point estimates of psychopathology but had little effect on associations with putative risk factors. The time and cost of full web-based interviews was only a quarter of that for face-to-face interviews. Web-based surveys may be performed faster and at lower cost than more traditional approaches with personal interviews. Selective participation seems a particular threat to point estimates of psychopathology, while patterns of associations are more robust.

  12. The China Health and Nutrition Survey, 1989-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, B; Zhai, F Y; Du, S F; Popkin, B M

    2014-01-01

    The China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) began in 1989 with the goal of creating a multilevel method of data collection from individuals and households and their communities to understand how the wide-ranging social and economic changes in China affect a wide array of nutrition and health-related outcomes. Initiated with a partial sample in 1989, the full survey runs from 1991 to 2011, and this issue documents the CHNS history. The CHNS cohort includes new household formation and replacement communities and households; all household members are studied. Furthermore, in-depth community data are collected. The sample began with eight provinces and added a ninth, Heilongjiang, in 1997 and three autonomous cities, Beijing, Shanghai, and Chongqing, in 2011. The in-depth community contextual measures have allowed us to create a unique measure of urbanicity that captures major dimensions of modernization across all 288 communities currently in the CHNS sample. The standardized, validated urbanicity measure captures the changes in 12 dimensions: population density; economic activity; traditional markets; modern markets; transportation infrastructure; sanitation; communications; housing; education; diversity; health infrastructure; and social services. Each is based on numerous measures applicable to each dimension. They are used jointly and separately in hundreds of studies. © 2014 The Authors. Obesity Reviews published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of the International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  13. 75 FR 20999 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Survey of Health Care Professionals' Awareness and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-22

    ... Request; Survey of Health Care Professionals' Awareness and Perceptions of the National Cancer Institute's... approval. Proposed Collection: Title: The Survey of Health Care Professionals' Awareness and Perceptions of... respondents response (minutes/hour) hours Health care professionals who complete the 330 1 5/60 27.5 survey (0...

  14. Assessing health impacts in complex eco-epidemiological settings in the humid tropics: Modular baseline health surveys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winkler, Mirko S., E-mail: mirko.winkler@unibas.ch [Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, P.O. Box, CH-4002 Basel (Switzerland); University of Basel, P.O. Box, CH-4003 Basel (Switzerland); Divall, Mark J., E-mail: mdivall@shapeconsulting.org [SHAPE Consulting Ltd., Pretoria 0062 (South Africa); Krieger, Gary R., E-mail: gkrieger@newfields.com [NewFields, LLC, Denver, CO 80202 (United States); Schmidlin, Sandro, E-mail: sandro.schmidlin@gmail.com [Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, P.O. Box, CH-4002 Basel (Switzerland); University of Basel, P.O. Box, CH-4003 Basel (Switzerland); Magassouba, Mohamed L., E-mail: laminemagass@yahoo.fr [Clinique Ambroise Pare, P.O. Box, 1042 Conakry (Guinea); Knoblauch, Astrid M., E-mail: astrid.knoblauch@me.com [SHAPE Consulting Ltd., Pretoria 0062 (South Africa); Singer, Burton H., E-mail: bhsinger@epi.ufl.edu [Emerging Pathogens Institute, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610 (United States); Utzinger, Juerg, E-mail: juerg.utzinger@unibas.ch [Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, P.O. Box, CH-4002 Basel (Switzerland); University of Basel, P.O. Box, CH-4003 Basel (Switzerland)

    2012-02-15

    The quantitative assessment of health impacts has been identified as a crucial feature for realising the full potential of health impact assessment (HIA). In settings where demographic and health data are notoriously scarce, but there is a broad range of ascertainable ecological, environmental, epidemiological and socioeconomic information, a diverse toolkit of data collection strategies becomes relevant for the mainly small-area impacts of interest. We present a modular, cross-sectional baseline health survey study design, which has been developed for HIA of industrial development projects in the humid tropics. The modular nature of our toolkit allows our methodology to be readily adapted to the prevailing eco-epidemiological characteristics of a given project setting. Central to our design is a broad set of key performance indicators, covering a multiplicity of health outcomes and determinants at different levels and scales. We present experience and key findings from our modular baseline health survey methodology employed in 14 selected sentinel sites within an iron ore mining project in the Republic of Guinea. We argue that our methodology is a generic example of rapid evidence assembly in difficult-to-reach localities, where improvement of the predictive validity of the assessment and establishment of a benchmark for longitudinal monitoring of project impacts and mitigation efforts is needed.

  15. Assessing health impacts in complex eco-epidemiological settings in the humid tropics: Modular baseline health surveys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkler, Mirko S.; Divall, Mark J.; Krieger, Gary R.; Schmidlin, Sandro; Magassouba, Mohamed L.; Knoblauch, Astrid M.; Singer, Burton H.; Utzinger, Jürg

    2012-01-01

    The quantitative assessment of health impacts has been identified as a crucial feature for realising the full potential of health impact assessment (HIA). In settings where demographic and health data are notoriously scarce, but there is a broad range of ascertainable ecological, environmental, epidemiological and socioeconomic information, a diverse toolkit of data collection strategies becomes relevant for the mainly small-area impacts of interest. We present a modular, cross-sectional baseline health survey study design, which has been developed for HIA of industrial development projects in the humid tropics. The modular nature of our toolkit allows our methodology to be readily adapted to the prevailing eco-epidemiological characteristics of a given project setting. Central to our design is a broad set of key performance indicators, covering a multiplicity of health outcomes and determinants at different levels and scales. We present experience and key findings from our modular baseline health survey methodology employed in 14 selected sentinel sites within an iron ore mining project in the Republic of Guinea. We argue that our methodology is a generic example of rapid evidence assembly in difficult-to-reach localities, where improvement of the predictive validity of the assessment and establishment of a benchmark for longitudinal monitoring of project impacts and mitigation efforts is needed.

  16. Climate Change in the US: Potential Consequences for Human Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, Nancy G.

    2001-01-01

    The U.S. National Assessment identified five major areas of consequences of climate change in the United States: temperature-related illnesses and deaths, health effects related to extreme weather events, air pollution-related health effects, water- and food-borne diseases, and insect-, tick-, and rodent-borne diseases. The U.S. National Assessment final conclusions about these potential health effects will be described. In addition, a summary of some of the new tools for studying human health aspects of climate change as well as environment-health linkages through remotely sensed data and observations will be provided.

  17. Sexual orientation and health among U.S. adults: national health interview survey, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Brian W; Dahlhamer, James M; Galinsky, Adena M; Joestl, Sarah S

    2014-07-15

    To provide national estimates for indicators of health-related behaviors, health status, health care service utilization, and health care access by sexual orientation using data from the 2013 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). NHIS is an annual multipurpose health survey conducted continuously throughout the year. Analyses were based on data collected in 2013 from 34,557 adults aged 18 and over. Sampling weights were used to produce national estimates that are representative of the civilian noninstitutionalized U.S. adult population. Differences in health-related behaviors, health status, health care service utilization, and health care access by sexual orientation were examined for adults aged 18-64, and separately for men and women. Based on the 2013 NHIS data, 96.6% of adults identified as straight, 1.6% identified as gay or lesbian, and 0.7% identified as bisexual. The remaining 1.1% of adults identified as ''something else,'' stated ''I don't know the answer,'' or refused to provide an answer. Significant differences were found in health-related behaviors, health status, health care service utilization, and health care access among U.S. adults aged 18-64 who identified as straight, gay or lesbian, or bisexual. NHIS sexual orientation data can be used to track progress toward meeting the Healthy People 2020 goals and objectives related to the health of lesbian, gay, and bisexual persons. In addition, the data can be used to examine a wide range of health disparities among adults identifying as straight, gay or lesbian, or bisexual. All material appearing in this report is in the public domain and may be reproduced or copied without permission; citation as to source, however, is appreciated.

  18. Health literacy in Europe: comparative results of the European health literacy survey (HLS-EU).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, Kristine; Pelikan, Jürgen M; Röthlin, Florian; Ganahl, Kristin; Slonska, Zofia; Doyle, Gerardine; Fullam, James; Kondilis, Barbara; Agrafiotis, Demosthenes; Uiters, Ellen; Falcon, Maria; Mensing, Monika; Tchamov, Kancho; van den Broucke, Stephan; Brand, Helmut

    2015-12-01

    Health literacy concerns the capacities of people to meet the complex demands of health in modern society. In spite of the growing attention for the concept among European health policymakers, researchers and practitioners, information about the status of health literacy in Europe remains scarce. This article presents selected findings from the first European comparative survey on health literacy in populations. The European health literacy survey (HLS-EU) was conducted in eight countries: Austria, Bulgaria, Germany, Greece, Ireland, the Netherlands, Poland and Spain (n = 1000 per country, n = 8000 total sample). Data collection was based on Eurobarometer standards and the implementation of the HLS-EU-Q (questionnaire) in computer-assisted or paper-assisted personal interviews. The HLS-EU-Q constructed four levels of health literacy: insufficient, problematic, sufficient and excellent. At least 1 in 10 (12%) respondents showed insufficient health literacy and almost 1 in 2 (47%) had limited (insufficient or problematic) health literacy. However, the distribution of levels differed substantially across countries (29-62%). Subgroups within the population, defined by financial deprivation, low social status, low education or old age, had higher proportions of people with limited health literacy, suggesting the presence of a social gradient which was also confirmed by raw bivariate correlations and a multivariate linear regression model. Limited health literacy represents an important challenge for health policies and practices across Europe, but to a different degree for different countries. The social gradient in health literacy must be taken into account when developing public health strategies to improve health equity in Europe. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association.

  19. A score for measuring health risk perception in environmental surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcon, Alessandro; Nguyen, Giang; Rava, Marta; Braggion, Marco; Grassi, Mario; Zanolin, Maria Elisabetta

    2015-09-15

    In environmental surveys, risk perception may be a source of bias when information on health outcomes is reported using questionnaires. Using the data from a survey carried out in the largest chipboard industrial district in Italy (Viadana, Mantova), we devised a score of health risk perception and described its determinants in an adult population. In 2006, 3697 parents of children were administered a questionnaire that included ratings on 7 environmental issues. Items dimensionality was studied by factor analysis. After testing equidistance across response options by homogeneity analysis, a risk perception score was devised by summing up item ratings. Factor analysis identified one latent factor, which we interpreted as health risk perception, that explained 65.4% of the variance of five items retained after scaling. The scale (range 0-10, mean ± SD 9.3 ± 1.9) had a good internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha 0.87). Most subjects (80.6%) expressed maximum risk perception (score = 10). Italian mothers showed significantly higher risk perception than foreign fathers. Risk perception was higher for parents of young children, and for older parents with a higher education, than for their counterparts. Actual distance to major roads was not associated with the score, while self-reported intense traffic and frequent air refreshing at home predicted higher risk perception. When investigating health effects of environmental hazards using questionnaires, care should be taken to reduce the possibility of awareness bias at the stage of study planning and data analysis. Including appropriate items in study questionnaires can be useful to derive a measure of health risk perception, which can help to identify confounding of association estimates by risk perception. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Consumer Use of "Dr Google": A Survey on Health Information-Seeking Behaviors and Navigational Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kenneth; Hoti, Kreshnik; Hughes, Jeffery David; Emmerton, Lynne M

    2015-12-29

    The Internet provides a platform to access health information and support self-management by consumers with chronic health conditions. Despite recognized barriers to accessing Web-based health information, there is a lack of research quantitatively exploring whether consumers report difficulty finding desired health information on the Internet and whether these consumers would like assistance (ie, navigational needs). Understanding navigational needs can provide a basis for interventions guiding consumers to quality Web-based health resources. We aimed to (1) estimate the proportion of consumers with navigational needs among seekers of Web-based health information with chronic health conditions, (2) describe Web-based health information-seeking behaviors, level of patient activation, and level of eHealth literacy among consumers with navigational needs, and (3) explore variables predicting navigational needs. A questionnaire was developed based on findings from a qualitative study on Web-based health information-seeking behaviors and navigational needs. This questionnaire also incorporated the eHealth Literacy Scale (eHEALS; a measure of self-perceived eHealth literacy) and PAM-13 (a measure of patient activation). The target population was consumers of Web-based health information with chronic health conditions. We surveyed a sample of 400 Australian adults, with recruitment coordinated by Qualtrics. This sample size was required to estimate the proportion of consumers identified with navigational needs with a precision of 4.9% either side of the true population value, with 95% confidence. A subsample was invited to retake the survey after 2 weeks to assess the test-retest reliability of the eHEALS and PAM-13. Of 514 individuals who met our eligibility criteria, 400 (77.8%) completed the questionnaire and 43 participants completed the retest. Approximately half (51.3%; 95% CI 46.4-56.2) of the population was identified with navigational needs. Participants with

  1. Posttraumatic stress disorder in the World Mental Health Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenen, K C; Ratanatharathorn, A; Ng, L; McLaughlin, K A; Bromet, E J; Stein, D J; Karam, E G; Meron Ruscio, A; Benjet, C; Scott, K; Atwoli, L; Petukhova, M; Lim, C C W; Aguilar-Gaxiola, S; Al-Hamzawi, A; Alonso, J; Bunting, B; Ciutan, M; de Girolamo, G; Degenhardt, L; Gureje, O; Haro, J M; Huang, Y; Kawakami, N; Lee, S; Navarro-Mateu, F; Pennell, B-E; Piazza, M; Sampson, N; Ten Have, M; Torres, Y; Viana, M C; Williams, D; Xavier, M; Kessler, R C

    2017-10-01

    Traumatic events are common globally; however, comprehensive population-based cross-national data on the epidemiology of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), the paradigmatic trauma-related mental disorder, are lacking. Data were analyzed from 26 population surveys in the World Health Organization World Mental Health Surveys. A total of 71 083 respondents ages 18+ participated. The Composite International Diagnostic Interview assessed exposure to traumatic events as well as 30-day, 12-month, and lifetime PTSD. Respondents were also assessed for treatment in the 12 months preceding the survey. Age of onset distributions were examined by country income level. Associations of PTSD were examined with country income, world region, and respondent demographics. The cross-national lifetime prevalence of PTSD was 3.9% in the total sample and 5.6% among the trauma exposed. Half of respondents with PTSD reported persistent symptoms. Treatment seeking in high-income countries (53.5%) was roughly double that in low-lower middle income (22.8%) and upper-middle income (28.7%) countries. Social disadvantage, including younger age, female sex, being unmarried, being less educated, having lower household income, and being unemployed, was associated with increased risk of lifetime PTSD among the trauma exposed. PTSD is prevalent cross-nationally, with half of all global cases being persistent. Only half of those with severe PTSD report receiving any treatment and only a minority receive specialty mental health care. Striking disparities in PTSD treatment exist by country income level. Increasing access to effective treatment, especially in low- and middle-income countries, remains critical for reducing the population burden of PTSD.

  2. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey: national youth fitness survey plan, operations, and analysis, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrud, Lori; Chiappa, Michele M; Burt, Vicki L; Gahche, Jaime; Zipf, George; Johnson, Clifford L; Dohrmann, Sylvia M

    2014-04-01

    In October 2008, the federal government issued its first-ever Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans to provide science-based guidance on the types and amounts of physical activity that provide substantial health benefits for Americans (1). Guidelines for children and adolescents recommend 60 minutes or more of aerobic, muscle-strengthening, or bone-strengthening physical activity daily (1). While the number of children in the United States who meet the recommendations in the Physical Activity Guidelines is unknown, the percentage that is physically active in the United States may be declining. No recent national data exist on the fitness levels of children and adolescents. The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey's (NHANES) National Youth Fitness Survey (NNYFS) was conducted in 2012 and collected data on physical activity and fitness levels for U.S. children and adolescents aged 3-15 years. The objective of NNYFS was to provide national-level estimates of the physical activity and fitness levels of children, based on interview and physical examination data. Results from the survey are intended to contribute to the development of policies and programs to improve youth fitness nationally. The data also may be used in the development of national reference standards for measures of fitness and physical activity. Methods The NNYFS survey design used the design for NHANES, which is a multistage probability sample of the civilian noninstitutionalized resident population of the United States. NNYFS consisted of a household interview and a physical activity and fitness examination in a mobile examination center. A total of 1,640 children and adolescents aged 3-15 were interviewed, and 1,576 were examined. All material appearing in this report is in the public domain and may be reproduced or copied without permission; citation as to source, however, is appreciated.

  3. Perspectives on global health amongst obstetrician gynecologists: A national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easter, Sarah Rae; Raglan, Greta B; Little, Sarah E; Schulkin, Jay; Robinson, Julian N

    2018-02-01

    Objective To characterize contemporary attitudes toward global health amongst board-certified obstetricians-gynecologists (Ob-Gyns) in the US. Methods A questionnaire was mailed to members of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Respondents were stratified by interest and experience in global health and group differences were reported. Results A total of 202 of 400 (50.5%) surveys were completed; and 67.3% ( n = 136) of respondents expressed an interest in global health while 25.2% ( n = 51) had experience providing healthcare abroad. Personal safety was the primary concern of respondents (88 of 185, 47.6%), with 44.5% (57 of 128) identifying 2 weeks as an optimal period of time to spend abroad. The majority (113 of 186, 60.8%) cited hosting of local physicians in the US as the most valuable service to developing a nation's healthcare provision. Conclusion Despite high interest in global health, willingness to spend significant time abroad was limited. Concerns surrounding personal safety dovetailed with the belief that training local physicians in the US provides the most valuable service to international efforts. These attitudes and concerns suggest novel solutions will be required to increase involvement of Ob-Gyns in global women's health.

  4. Surveillance indicators for potential reduced exposure products (PREPs): developing survey items to measure awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogen, Karen; Biener, Lois; Garrett, Catherine A; Allen, Jane; Cummings, K Michael; Hartman, Anne; Marcus, Stephen; McNeill, Ann; O'Connor, Richard J; Parascandola, Mark; Pederson, Linda

    2009-01-01

    Background Over the past decade, tobacco companies have introduced cigarettes and smokeless tobacco products (known as Potential Reduced Exposure Products, PREPs) with purportedly lower levels of some toxins than conventional cigarettes and smokeless products. It is essential that public health agencies monitor awareness, interest, use, and perceptions of these products so that their impact on population health can be detected at the earliest stages. Methods This paper reviews and critiques existing strategies for measuring awareness of PREPs from 16 published and unpublished studies. From these measures, we developed new surveillance items and subjected them to two rounds of cognitive testing, a common and accepted method for evaluating questionnaire wording. Results Our review suggests that high levels of awareness of PREPs reported in some studies are likely to be inaccurate. Two likely sources of inaccuracy in awareness measures were identified: 1) the tendency of respondents to misclassify "no additive" and "natural" cigarettes as PREPs and 2) the tendency of respondents to mistakenly report awareness as a result of confusion between PREPs brands and similarly named familiar products, for example, Eclipse chewing gum and Accord automobiles. Conclusion After evaluating new measures with cognitive interviews, we conclude that as of winter 2006, awareness of reduced exposure products among U.S. smokers was likely to be between 1% and 8%, with the higher estimates for some products occurring in test markets. Recommended measurement strategies for future surveys are presented. PMID:19840394

  5. Surveillance indicators for potential reduced exposure products (PREPs: developing survey items to measure awareness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McNeill Ann

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over the past decade, tobacco companies have introduced cigarettes and smokeless tobacco products (known as Potential Reduced Exposure Products, PREPs with purportedly lower levels of some toxins than conventional cigarettes and smokeless products. It is essential that public health agencies monitor awareness, interest, use, and perceptions of these products so that their impact on population health can be detected at the earliest stages. Methods This paper reviews and critiques existing strategies for measuring awareness of PREPs from 16 published and unpublished studies. From these measures, we developed new surveillance items and subjected them to two rounds of cognitive testing, a common and accepted method for evaluating questionnaire wording. Results Our review suggests that high levels of awareness of PREPs reported in some studies are likely to be inaccurate. Two likely sources of inaccuracy in awareness measures were identified: 1 the tendency of respondents to misclassify "no additive" and "natural" cigarettes as PREPs and 2 the tendency of respondents to mistakenly report awareness as a result of confusion between PREPs brands and similarly named familiar products, for example, Eclipse chewing gum and Accord automobiles. Conclusion After evaluating new measures with cognitive interviews, we conclude that as of winter 2006, awareness of reduced exposure products among U.S. smokers was likely to be between 1% and 8%, with the higher estimates for some products occurring in test markets. Recommended measurement strategies for future surveys are presented.

  6. Implicit bias and its relation to health disparities: a teaching program and survey of medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Cristina M; Kim, Mimi Y; Marantz, Paul R

    2014-01-01

    The varying treatment of different patients by the same physician are referred to as within provider disparities. These differences can contribute to health disparities and are thought to be the result of implicit bias due to unintentional, unconscious assumptions. The purpose is to describe an educational intervention addressing both health disparities and physician implicit bias and the results of a subsequent survey exploring medical students' attitudes and beliefs toward subconscious bias and health disparities. A single session within a larger required course was devoted to health disparities and the physician's potential to contribute to health disparities through implicit bias. Following the session the students were anonymously surveyed on their Implicit Association Test (IAT) results, their attitudes and experiences regarding the fairness of the health care system, and the potential impact of their own implicit bias. The students were categorized based on whether they disagreed ("deniers") or agreed ("accepters") with the statement "Unconscious bias might affect some of my clinical decisions or behaviors." Data analysis focused specifically on factors associated with this perspective. The survey response rate was at least 69%. Of the responders, 22% were "deniers" and 77% were "accepters." Demographics between the two groups were not significantly different. Deniers were significantly more likely than accepters to report IAT results with implicit preferences toward self, to believe the IAT is invalid, and to believe that doctors and the health system provide equal care to all and were less likely to report having directly observed inequitable care. The recognition of bias cannot be taught in a single session. Our experience supports the value of teaching medical students to recognize their own implicit biases and develop skills to overcome them in each patient encounter, and in making this instruction part of the compulsory, longitudinal undergraduate

  7. Potential human health risk assessment of heavy metals intake via ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Potential human health risk assessment of heavy metals intake via consumption of some leafy vegetables obtained from four market in Lagos Metropolis, Nigeria. ... This result reflected the risk associated with exposure for the period of life expectancy considered, and the inhabitants are highly exposed to health risks ...

  8. Potential Effects of Domestic Energy on the Health of Women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To highlight the various potential health problems women and others exposed to gases/substances emitted from domestic sources of energy are at risk of. A review of the literature on the health problems associated with use of various forms of energy fuels was done. Review: Not much literature has emanated ...

  9. Marketing health educators to employers: survey findings, interpretations, and considerations for the profession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambescia, Stephen F; Cottrell, Randall R; Capwell, Ellen; Auld, M Elaine; Mullen Conley, Kathleen; Lysoby, Linda; Goldsmith, Malcolm; Smith, Becky

    2009-10-01

    In July 2007, a market research report was produced by Hezel Associates on behalf of five sponsoring health education profession member organizations and the National Commission for Health Education Credentialing. The purpose of the survey was to learn about current or potential employers' knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors toward health educators and the health education profession and their future hiring practices. This article presents the background leading up to the production of this report, the major findings of the survey of employers, recommendations from the market research group regarding core messages, and implications for the profession having discovered for the first time information about employers' understanding of professionally prepared health educators. The article discusses the umbrella and key messages that may be incorporated into a marketing plan and other recommendations by the firm that should assist health educators in marketing the profession. Furthermore, this article presents reactions by leaders in this field to these messages and recommendations and concludes with next steps in this project and a call for the overall need to market the profession of health education.

  10. Tracking Psychosocial Health in Adults with Epilepsy—Estimates from the 2010 National Health Interview Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobau, R; Cui, W; Kadima, N; Zack, MM; Sajatovic, M; Kaiboriboon, K; Jobst, B

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study provides population-based estimates of psychosocial health among U.S. adults with epilepsy from the 2010 National Health Interview Survey. Methods Multinomial logistic regression was used to estimate the prevalence of the following measures of psychosocial health among adults with and those without epilepsy: 1) the Kessler-6 scale of Serious Psychological Distress; 2) cognitive limitation; the extent of impairments associated with psychological problems; and work limitation; 3) Social participation; and 4) the Patient Reported Outcome Measurement Information System Global Health scale. Results Compared with adults without epilepsy, adults with epilepsy, especially those with active epilepsy, reported significantly worse psychological health, more cognitive impairment, difficulty in participating in some social activities, and reduced health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Conclusions These disparities in psychosocial health in U.S. adults with epilepsy serve as baseline national estimates of their HRQOL, consistent with Healthy People 2020 national objectives on HRQOL. PMID:25305435

  11. Use of a customer satisfaction survey by health care regulators: a tool for total quality management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrzejewski, N; Lagua, R T

    1997-01-01

    To conduct a survey of health care providers to determine the quality of service provided by the staff of a regulatory agency; to collect information on provider needs and expectations; to identify perceived and potential problems that need improvement; and to make changes to improve regulatory services. The authors surveyed health care providers using a customer satisfaction questionnaire developed in collaboration with a group of providers and a research consultant. The questionnaire contained 20 declarative statements that fell into six quality domains: proficiency, judgment, responsiveness, communication, accommodation, and relevance. A 10% level of dissatisfaction was used as the acceptable performance standard. The survey was mailed to 324 hospitals, nursing homes, home care agencies, hospices, ambulatory care centers, and health maintenance organizations. Fifty-six percent of provider agencies responded; more than half had written comments. The three highest levels of customer satisfaction were in courtesy of regulatory staff (90%), efficient use of onsite time (84%), and respect for provider employees (83%). The three lowest levels of satisfaction were in the judgment domain; only 44% felt that there was consistency among regulatory staff in the interpretation of regulations, only 45% felt that interpretations of regulations were flexible and reasonable, and only 49% felt that regulations were applied objectively. Nine of 20 quality indicators had dissatisfaction ratings of more than 10%; these were considered priorities for improvement. Responses to the survey identified a number of specific areas of concern; these findings are being incorporated into the continuous quality improvement program of the office.

  12. Socioeconomic inequality in domains of health: results from the World Health Surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosseinpoor Ahmad

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In all countries people of lower socioeconomic status evaluate their health more poorly. Yet in reporting overall health, individuals consider multiple domains that comprise their perceived health state. Considered alone, overall measures of self-reported health mask differences in the domains of health. The aim of this study is to compare and assess socioeconomic inequalities in each of the individual health domains and in a separate measure of overall health. Methods Data on 247,037 adults aged 18 or older were analyzed from 57 countries, drawn from all national income groups, participating in the World Health Survey 2002-2004. The analysis was repeated for lower- and higher-income countries. Prevalence estimates of poor self-rated health (SRH were calculated for each domain and for overall health according to wealth quintiles and education levels. Relative socioeconomic inequalities in SRH were measured for each of the eight health domains and for overall health, according to wealth quintiles and education levels, using the relative index of inequality (RII. A RII value greater than one indicated greater prevalence of self-reported poor health among populations of lower socioeconomic status, called pro-rich inequality. Results There was a descending gradient in the prevalence of poor health, moving from the poorest wealth quintile to the richest, and moving from the lowest to the highest educated groups. Inequalities which favor groups who are advantaged either with respect to wealth or education, were consistently statistically significant in each of the individual domains of health, and in health overall. However the size of these inequalities differed between health domains. The prevalence of reporting poor health was higher in the lower-income country group. Relative socioeconomic inequalities in the health domains and overall health were higher in the higher-income country group than the lower-income country group

  13. International survey of occupational health nurses' roles in multidisciplinary teamwork in occupational health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Bonnie; Kono, Keiko; Marziale, Maria Helena Palucci; Peurala, Marjatta; Radford, Jennifer; Staun, Julie

    2014-07-01

    Access to occupational health services for primary prevention and control of work-related injuries and illnesses by the global workforce is limited (World Health Organization [WHO], 2013). From the WHO survey of 121 (61%) participating countries, only one-third of the responding countries provided occupational health services to more than 30% of their workers (2013). How services are provided in these countries is dependent on legal requirements and regulations, population, workforce characteristics, and culture, as well as an understanding of the impact of workplace hazards and worker health needs. Around the world, many occupational health services are provided by occupational health nurses independently or in collaboration with other disciplines' professionals. These services may be health protection, health promotion, or both, and are designed to reduce health risks, support productivity, improve workers' quality of life, and be cost-effective. Rantanen (2004) stated that basic occupational health services must increase rather than decline, especially as work becomes more complex; workforces become more dynamic and mobile, creating new models of work-places; and jobs become more precarious and temporary. To better understand occupational health services provided by occupational health nurses globally and how decisions are made to provide these services, this study examined the scope of services provided by a sample of participating occupational health nurses from various countries. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.

  14. Primary health care providers surveyed commonly misinterpret 'first void urine' for chlamydia screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lusk, M Josephine; Uddin, Ruby; Ferson, Mark; Rawlinson, William; Konecny, Pam

    2009-03-01

    An open question survey of general practitioners (GP) and hospital emergency department (ED) doctors revealed that the term 'FVU' (first void urine) used for urine chlamydia testing, is ambiguous, potentially leading to incorrect urine sample collection and barriers to effective screening. The results of this survey indicate that only 4.3% (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.5-14.5%) of GP and 6.9% (95% CI 0.9-22.8%) of ED doctors respectively, correctly interpreted the meaning of FVU. The majority of clinicians surveyed misunderstood 'FVU' to require the first urine void of the day, accounting for 68.1% (95% CI 52.9-80.9%) of GP responses and 37.9% (95% CI 20.7-57.7%) of ED doctors responses. This highlights the need for clarification and standardisation of terminology used in urine chlamydia screening for health care providers, in order to optimise strategies for diagnosis and control of the ongoing chlamydia epidemic.

  15. Exploring Digital Health Use and Opinions of University Students: Field Survey Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montagni, Ilaria; Cariou, Tanguy; Feuillet, Tiphaine; Langlois, Emmanuel; Tzourio, Christophe

    2018-03-15

    During university, students face some potentially serious health risks, and their lifestyle can have a direct effect on health and health behaviors later in life. Concurrently, university students are digital natives having easy access to the internet and new technologies. Digital health interventions offer promising new opportunities for health promotion, disease prevention, and care in this specific population. The description of the current use of and opinions on digital health among university students can inform future digital health strategies and interventions within university settings. The aim of this exploratory study was to report on university students' use and opinions regarding information and communication technologies for health and well-being, taking into account sociodemographic and self-rated general and mental health correlates. This field survey was conducted from March to April 2017. An informed consent form and a paper questionnaire were given to students aged 18 to 24 years in 4 university campuses in Bordeaux, France. The survey was formulated in 3 sections: (1) sociodemographic characteristics and self-rated general and mental health, (2) information about the use of digital health, and (3) opinions about digital health. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and tests of independence. A total of 59.8% (303/507 females) students completed the questionnaire. Concerning digital health use, 34.9% (174/498) had at least 1 health app mostly for physical activity (49.4%, 86/174) and general health monitoring (41.4%, 72/174,), but only 3.9% (20/507) of students had a wearable device. Almost all (94.8%, 450/476) had searched for Web-based health-related information at least once in the last 12 months. The most sought health-related topics were nutrition (68.1%, 324/476); pain and illnesses (64.5%, 307/476); and stress, anxiety, or depression (51.1%, 243/476). Although Wikipedia (79.7%, 357/448) and general health websites (349/448, 77

  16. Exploring Digital Health Use and Opinions of University Students: Field Survey Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cariou, Tanguy; Feuillet, Tiphaine; Langlois, Emmanuel; Tzourio, Christophe

    2018-01-01

    Background During university, students face some potentially serious health risks, and their lifestyle can have a direct effect on health and health behaviors later in life. Concurrently, university students are digital natives having easy access to the internet and new technologies. Digital health interventions offer promising new opportunities for health promotion, disease prevention, and care in this specific population. The description of the current use of and opinions on digital health among university students can inform future digital health strategies and interventions within university settings. Objective The aim of this exploratory study was to report on university students’ use and opinions regarding information and communication technologies for health and well-being, taking into account sociodemographic and self-rated general and mental health correlates. Methods This field survey was conducted from March to April 2017. An informed consent form and a paper questionnaire were given to students aged 18 to 24 years in 4 university campuses in Bordeaux, France. The survey was formulated in 3 sections: (1) sociodemographic characteristics and self-rated general and mental health, (2) information about the use of digital health, and (3) opinions about digital health. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and tests of independence. Results A total of 59.8% (303/507 females) students completed the questionnaire. Concerning digital health use, 34.9% (174/498) had at least 1 health app mostly for physical activity (49.4%, 86/174) and general health monitoring (41.4%, 72/174,), but only 3.9% (20/507) of students had a wearable device. Almost all (94.8%, 450/476) had searched for Web-based health-related information at least once in the last 12 months. The most sought health-related topics were nutrition (68.1%, 324/476); pain and illnesses (64.5%, 307/476); and stress, anxiety, or depression (51.1%, 243/476). Although Wikipedia (79.7%, 357/448) and

  17. Interdependencies of Health, Education & Poverty in Egypt, Morocco and Turkey Using Demographic and Health Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Driouchi, Ahmed; Baijou, Ahmad

    2009-01-01

    The interdependencies of health, education and poverty that are common knowledge to individuals are also present at the aggregate levels of countries and internationally. The assessment of these interdependencies is the central task of this research but based on the Demographic Health Surveys (DHS) of Egypt, Morocco and Turkey. The results attained through dependency tests and probit models, confirm the existence of major interdependencies at the levels of households. These findings support t...

  18. MATERNAL AND INFANT HEALTH SECTION OF THE DEMOGRAPHIC AND HEALTH SURVEY REPORT OF GHANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel adu Gyamfi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This article is basically a commentary on some sections on infant and maternal healthcare of the 2008 demographic and health survey of Ghana. The attention of both policy makers and academics are drawn to the need to ensure the expansion of the maternal and infant healthcare in Ghana. In same commentary, attention of readers have been drawn to the proclivity of the free maternal health policy to positively shape maternal and infant care in Ghana

  19. Methodological design of the National Health and Nutrition Survey 2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín Romero-Martínez

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Describe the design methodology of the halfway health and nutrition national survey (Ensanut-MC 2016. Materials and methods. The Ensanut-MC is a national probabilistic survey whose objective population are the in­habitants of private households in Mexico. The sample size was determined to make inferences on the urban and rural areas in four regions. Describes main design elements: target population, topics of study, sampling procedure, measurement procedure and logistics organization. Results. A final sample of 9 479 completed household interviews, and a sample of 16 591 individual interviews. The response rate for households was 77.9%, and the response rate for individuals was 91.9%. Conclusions. The Ensanut-MC probabilistic design allows valid statistical inferences about interest parameters for Mexico´s public health and nutrition, specifically on over­weight, obesity and diabetes mellitus. Updated information also supports the monitoring, updating and formulation of new policies and priority programs.

  20. Iranian mental health survey: design and field proced.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afarin Rahimi-Movaghar

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Iranian Mental Health Survey (IranMHS was conducted to assess the twelve-month prevalence and severity of psychiatric disorders in the Iranian adult population and to determine the pattern of health care utilization and cost of services. IranMHS is a cross-sectional national household survey with face-to-face interviews as the main data collection method. The study was carried out between January and June 2011. A three-stage probability sampling was applied for the selection of a representative sample from the non-institutionalized population aged 15 to 64. The primary instrument utilized for assessing the prevalence of mental disorders was the Persian version of Composite International Diagnosis Interview, version 2.1. The instruments for assessing the service and cost of mental illness were developed by the research team. The response rate was 86.2%, and a total of 7886 individuals participated in the study. Sampling weights were the joint product of inverse probability of unit selection, non-response weights and post-stratification weights. This paper presents an overview of the study design, fieldwork organization and procedures, weightings and analysis. The strengths and limitations of the study are also discussed.

  1. USE OF ORTHODONTIC TREATMENT NEEDS INDICES FOR ORAL HEALTH SURVEY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakas, Enita; Tiro, Alisa; Vrazalica, Lejla Redzepagic; Hadzihasanovic, Dzana; Dzemidzic, Vildana

    2016-04-01

    The aim of our study is to compare incidence of orthodontic malocclusion based on occlusal indices and Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need (IOTN), and to evaluate the most commonly used method among the dentists for orthodontic treatment in Sarajevo. The sample consisted of 110 (31 female and 79 male)subjects older than 16 years with complete permanent dentition. Subjects were examined according to Occlusal Index (Angle classification of malocclusion, overjet, overbite, dental arch crowding and tooth rotation) and IOTN index. We conduct survey regarding which indexes are used in deciding on orthodontic treatment need, among primary health care and Orthodontist. The present study show differences between the presence of malocclusion and treatment need as assessed by these two used indices. Based on the survey that we conduct all primary health care doctors use Occlusal Index to decide need for orthodontic treatment, more than 95% of orthodontic specialist use Occlusal Index for treatment need estimation. When measuring and grading treatment needs we should rely on Index of orthodontic treatment need. In such high demand for orthodontic treatment need it is necessary to establish need for the orthodontic treatment as fundamental, so that individuals with greatest treatment need can be assigned priority.

  2. A Measure of the Potential Impact of Hospital Community Health Activities on Population Health and Equity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begun, James W; Kahn, Linda M; Cunningham, Brooke A; Malcolm, Jan K; Potthoff, Sandra

    2017-12-13

    Many hospitals in the United States are exploring greater investment in community health activities that address upstream causes of poor health. Develop and apply a measure to categorize and estimate the potential impact of hospitals' community health activities on population health and equity. We propose a scale of potential impact on population health and equity, based on the cliff analogy developed by Jones and colleagues. The scale is applied to the 317 activities reported in the community health needs assessment implementation plan reports of 23 health care organizations in the Minneapolis-St Paul, Minnesota metropolitan area in 2015. Using a 5-point ordinal scale, we assigned a score of potential impact on population health and equity to each community health activity. A majority (50.2%) of health care organizations' community health activities are classified as addressing social determinants of health (level 4 on the 5-point scale), though very few (5.4%) address structural causes of health equity (level 5 on the 5-point scale). Activities that score highest on potential impact fall into the topic categories of "community health and connectedness" and "healthy lifestyles and wellness." Lower-scoring activities focus on sick or at-risk individuals, such as the topic category of "chronic disease prevention, management, and screening." Health care organizations in the Minneapolis-St Paul metropolitan area vary substantially in the potential impact of their aggregated community health activities. Hospitals can be significant contributors to investment in upstream community health programs. This article provides a scale that can be used not only by hospitals but by other health care and public health organizations to better align their community health strategies, investments, and partnerships with programming and policies that address the foundational causes of population health and equity within the communities they serve.

  3. [Boys' health survey-between gender gap and information backlog].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundl, S; Kranz, J; Rosellen, J; Steffens, C; Steffens, J

    2018-05-02

    Early detection examinations take place from birth to the age of 6 years. The youth screening is a continuation of the screening of the "U-series" and should be carried out between the age of 12-15 and 16-17, respectively. Afterwards adolescent girls have good contact with a gynecologist, but adolescent boys usually do not have a medical contact person who they can trust in. To evaluate the state of knowledge on boys' health, a 15-item comprehensive knowledge survey was conducted among ninth grade students at 7 secondary schools (Gymnasien) in North Rhine-Westphalia. The knowledge survey took place at three specified times (before, immediately after and approximately 3 months after adolescent sexual education classes). Only completed questionnaires were analyzed and evaluated in a gender-specific manner. Overall, 459 students participated from March-September 2017. Before sexual education instruction, about half of all questions were answered correctly by the students. Immediately after class, the proportion increased by a factor of 1.5 to a total of 79.24%. Then 2-3 months after the class, the percentage was 69.67%. Considering gender separately, this resulted in an increase of 15.32% for the female students and 16.99% for the male students. The knowledge survey reveals a need to catch up on facts on the subject of boys' health. Despite evidence of an increase in knowledge of both sexes after sexual education instruction, there is a gender gap. Hence, a preventive check-up especially for boys should be established and offered. Issues such as the prevention of sexually transmitted diseases, options for vaccination against human papillomavirus, etc. should be actively addressed.

  4. Potential of human health in the modern conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Dobryden

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article proves that man’s relationship to their health  in each case have varying traits under the influence of sociocultural, psychological and physiological factors  which the world outlook is created from childhood, which implies the appropriate type of behavior that is fixed through the media and social authorities. It is established that scientific knowledge should not be against a man, and should enhance the power of man over nature, but can be transformed into a powerful weapon against humanity. It is noted that science is neutral in terms of values. Will it carry a positive or negative charge to human health depends on the social and cultural markers specific historical era and behavior of the individual. It was found that in addition to the economic crisis, which requires long-term joint economic and political transformations, the most important factor and more accessible to maintaining high adaptive potential health functions at all levels is valeological literacy social subjects and, therefore, imperative the systematic distribution of hygiene recommendations is a significant component of preventive medicine. With the growth of social and technological factors with their aggressive effect on psychophysiological state of man is seen timely more  talk even not about health in general, but should talk about  potential health, which underlines  the  difficulties adaptive and protective processes and susceptibility factors and resistance to pathological changes in the human body. All the more so when we following the formal standards of medicine is unlikely, unfortunately, we be found absolutely healthy people. Under the proposed potential health understood as a set of quantitative and qualitative structural and functional characteristics of the organism, which determine the level of adaptation and protection of human capabilities in adverse conditions, internal and external environment. It is proposed to examine potential

  5. Health surveys and use of maternal and child health care services in three municipalities within the São Paulo metropolitan area

    OpenAIRE

    de Carvalho, Wladithe Organ; Galvao Cesar, Chester Luiz; Carandina, Luana [UNESP; de Azevedo Barros, Marilisa Berti; Goi Porto Alves, Maria Cecilia; Goldbaum, Moises

    2008-01-01

    Objectives. To describe the changes in the use of maternal and child health care services by residents of three municipalities-Embu, Itapecerica da Serra, and Taboao da Serra-in the São Paulo metropolitan area, 12 years after the implementation of the Unified Health System (SUS) in Brazil, and to analyze the potential of population-based health care surveys as sources of data to evaluate these changes.Methods. Two population-based, cross-sectional surveys were carried out in 1990 and 2002 in ...

  6. Trauma and PTSD in the WHO World Mental Health Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Ronald C; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Alonso, Jordi; Benjet, Corina; Bromet, Evelyn J; Cardoso, Graça; Degenhardt, Louisa; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Dinolova, Rumyana V; Ferry, Finola; Florescu, Silvia; Gureje, Oye; Haro, Josep Maria; Huang, Yueqin; Karam, Elie G; Kawakami, Norito; Lee, Sing; Lepine, Jean-Pierre; Levinson, Daphna; Navarro-Mateu, Fernando; Pennell, Beth-Ellen; Piazza, Marina; Posada-Villa, José; Scott, Kate M; Stein, Dan J; Ten Have, Margreet; Torres, Yolanda; Viana, Maria Carmen; Petukhova, Maria V; Sampson, Nancy A; Zaslavsky, Alan M; Koenen, Karestan C

    2017-01-01

    Background : Although post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) onset-persistence is thought to vary significantly by trauma type, most epidemiological surveys are incapable of assessing this because they evaluate lifetime PTSD only for traumas nominated by respondents as their 'worst.' Objective : To review research on associations of trauma type with PTSD in the WHO World Mental Health (WMH) surveys, a series of epidemiological surveys that obtained representative data on trauma-specific PTSD. Method : WMH Surveys in 24 countries (n = 68,894) assessed 29 lifetime traumas and evaluated PTSD twice for each respondent: once for the 'worst' lifetime trauma and separately for a randomly-selected trauma with weighting to adjust for individual differences in trauma exposures. PTSD onset-persistence was evaluated with the WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Results : In total, 70.4% of respondents experienced lifetime traumas, with exposure averaging 3.2 traumas per capita. Substantial between-trauma differences were found in PTSD onset but less in persistence. Traumas involving interpersonal violence had highest risk. Burden of PTSD, determined by multiplying trauma prevalence by trauma-specific PTSD risk and persistence, was 77.7 person-years/100 respondents. The trauma types with highest proportions of this burden were rape (13.1%), other sexual assault (15.1%), being stalked (9.8%), and unexpected death of a loved one (11.6%). The first three of these four represent relatively uncommon traumas with high PTSD risk and the last a very common trauma with low PTSD risk. The broad category of intimate partner sexual violence accounted for nearly 42.7% of all person-years with PTSD. Prior trauma history predicted both future trauma exposure and future PTSD risk. Conclusions : Trauma exposure is common throughout the world, unequally distributed, and differential across trauma types with respect to PTSD risk. Although a substantial minority of PTSD cases remits

  7. Survey report; health needs of the 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, S U

    1989-01-01

    Sustainability of development assistance programs depends greatly on the perceptions of priorities by recipient countries. A written survey was sent by the Catholic University of America's Institute for International Health and Development to 66 ministers of health in low-income and middle-income countries to assess their views of priority problems in health sector development. Response rate was 33%, coming from countries with highly diverse gross national products (GNPs), growth rates, mortality rates and life expectancies. Nevertheless, there was widespread agreement about priorities: 1) meeting costs of health care; 2) improving health care management and administration; and 3) extending communicable disease control. Communicable disease control and child health programs were more important to low-income countries than to middle-income countries. Costs, management and administration and the control of noncommunicable diseases were predicted to increase in importance. In demographics, urbanization, overall population growth and shift of workers from agriculture to industry and services were seen as the major problems of the past, and urbanization and the aging of populations accompanied by increasing life expectancies the major challenges of the future. Highest predicted training needs were for system managers and paramedical personnel. Government budgets, user fees and donor agencies were seen as the most important sources of past funding, with social security systems and fee-based payments increasing in importance in the future. The role of donor agencies would increase as would the need for more responsiveness. Future uncertainties include national economic growth, environmental problems, issues in ethics and changes in disease and technology.

  8. Small scale hydroelectric power potential in Nevada: a preliminary reconnaissance survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cochran, G.F.; Fordham, J.W.; Richard, K.; Loux, R.

    1981-04-01

    This preliminary reconnaissance survey is intended to: develop a first estimate as to the potential number, location and characteristics of small-scale (50 kW to 15 MW) hydroelectric sites in Nevada; provide a compilation of various Federal and state laws and regulations, including tax and financing regulations, that affect small-scale hydroelectric development and provide information on sources of small-scale hydroelectric generation hardware and consultants/ contractors who do small scale hydroelectric work. The entire survey has been conducted in the office working with various available data bases. The site survey and site evaluation methods used are described, and data are tabulated on the flow, power potential, predicted capital expenditures required, etc. for 61 potential sites with measured flows and for 77 sites with derived flows. A map showing potential site locations is included. (LCL)

  9. The mental health of nurses in acute teaching hospital settings: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Lin; Lamont, Scott; Brunero, Scott; Gallagher, Robyn; Duffield, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Nursing is an emotionally demanding profession and deficiencies in nurses' mental wellbeing, characterised by low vitality and common mental disorders, have been linked to low productivity, absenteeism and presenteeism. Part of a larger study of nurses' health, the aim of this paper was to describe the mental health status and related characteristics of nurses working in two acute metropolitan teaching hospitals. A cross sectional survey design was used. The Registered and Enrolled Nurse workforce, employed on any form of contract, at two teaching hospitals in Sydney Australia were invited to participate. The survey tool was compiled of validated tools and questions. Family and medical history and health risk-related characteristics, current psycho-active medications, smoking status, alcohol intake, eating disorders, self-perceived general health, mental health and vitality, demographic, social and occupational details were collected. A total of 1215 surveys were distributed with a usable response rate of 382 (31.4%). Altogether 53 nurses (14%) reported a history of mental health disorders, of which n = 49 (13%) listed diagnoses of anxiety and/or depression; 22 (6%) were currently taking psychoactive medication. Symptoms that could potentially indicate a mental health issue were more common, with 248 (65.1%) reporting they had experienced symptoms sometimes or often in the last 12 month. Nurses had better mental health if they had better general health, lived with a spouse/ partner rather than alone, had fewer symptoms, sleep problems or disordered eating behaviours, were not an informal carer and did not work nights. Nurses had greater vitality if they were male, had better general health, fewer sleep problems or symptoms generally and lived with a spouse/ partner rather than alone; less vitality if they were an informal carer or had disordered eating. Nurses and their managers should strive to create workplaces where working practices promote nurses' health

  10. Building oral health research infrastructure: the first national oral health survey of Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, John P; Isyagi, Moses; Ntaganira, Joseph; Gatarayiha, Agnes; Pagni, Sarah E; Roomian, Tamar C; Finkelman, Matthew; Steffensen, Jane E M; Barrow, Jane R; Mumena, Chrispinus H; Hackley, Donna M

    2018-01-01

    Oral health affects quality of life and is linked to overall health. Enhanced oral health research is needed in low- and middle-income countries to develop strategies that reduce the burden of oral disease, improve oral health and inform oral health workforce and infrastructure development decisions. To implement the first National Oral Health Survey of Rwanda to assess the oral disease burden and inform oral health promotion strategies. In this cross-sectional study, sample size and site selection were based on the World Health Organization (WHO) Oral Health Surveys Pathfinder stratified cluster methodologies. Randomly selected 15 sites included 2 in the capital city, 2 other urban centers and 11 rural locations representing all provinces and rural/urban population distribution. A minimum of 125 individuals from each of 5 age groups were included at each site. A Computer Assisted Personal Instrument (CAPI) was developed to administer the study instrument. Nearly two-thirds (64.9%) of the 2097 participants had caries experience and 54.3% had untreated caries. Among adults 20 years of age and older, 32.4% had substantial oral debris and 60.0% had calculus. A majority (70.6%) had never visited an oral health provider. Quality-of-life challenges due to oral diseases/conditions including pain, difficulty chewing, self-consciousness, and difficulty participating in usual activities was reported at 63.9%, 42.2% 36.2%, 35.4% respectively. The first National Oral Health Survey of Rwanda was a collaboration of the Ministry of Health of Rwanda, the University of Rwanda Schools of Dentistry and Public Health, the Rwanda Dental Surgeons and Dental (Therapists) Associations, and Tufts University and Harvard University Schools of Dental Medicine. The international effort contributed to building oral health research capacity and resulted in a national oral health database of oral disease burden. This information is essential for developing oral disease prevention and management

  11. Gardening is beneficial for adult mental health: Scottish Health Survey, 2012-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiue, Ivy

    2016-07-01

    Gardening has been reported as being beneficial for mental well-being for vulnerable populations since 2000. However, little is known concerning its role in the general population. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship of gardening and mental health in adults in a countrywide and population-based setting. Data was retrieved from and analysed in the Scottish Health Survey, 2012-2013. Information on demographics, lifestyle factors, gardening engagement, and adult mental health by General Health Questionnaire was obtained by household interview. Statistical analyses including chi-square test, t-test and survey-weighted logistic and multi-nominal regression modelling were performed. Of 9709 Scottish adults aged 16-99, 5 531 (57.0%) people did not do any gardening or building work in the last four weeks. A total of 888 (9.2%) people reported poor self-rated health. Gardening was associated with adult mental health in people both with or without heart conditions including ability to concentrate, feeling playing a useful part in things, feeling capable of making decisions, thinking of self as worthless, feeling reasonably happy, etc. General adults with or without heart conditions could benefit from engaging with gardening or building work. Future public health programmes promoting such activity should be encouraged in order to optimise adult mental health.

  12. A health and safety survey of Irish funeral industry workers.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kelly, N

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Those handling deceased individuals, including the funeral industry, face a variety of health and safety hazards including occupationally acquired infectious disease. AIMS: To identify the knowledge, attitudes and beliefs of Irish funeral industry workers towards occupational hazards and infectious disease in 2009. METHODS: The sample analysed consisted of all listed member premises of the Irish Association of Funeral Directors as at 1 July 2009. A postal survey was sent to each premises in July 2009, with two rounds of follow-up reviews sent to non-responders. Four main areas were covered--occupational hazards, embalming, industry expertise and demographics. The quantitative and qualitative results were analysed to assess knowledge, attitudes and beliefs. Data collection was completed on 31 December 2009. RESULTS: Two hundred and thirty listed member premises were contacted. Twenty-two were unsuitable for the survey. One hundred and thirty-eight valid replies were received from 130 premises, representing a premises response rate of 63% (130\\/208). Seventy-three premises (56%) identified themselves as embalmers. Embalmers had variable vaccine uptake and variable knowledge, attitude and beliefs towards embalming those with blood-borne viruses. Fifteen per cent of respondents reported a work-related injury, back injury being the most common. Splash and sharps injuries were reported as a work-related injury, and infections believed to be work related were also reported. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates widespread occupational health concerns among this professional group. It confirms the need for occupational health advice and services. There is also a strong desire for regulation of this profession in Ireland.

  13. Comparing two survey methods of measuring health-related indicators: Lot Quality Assurance Sampling and Demographic Health Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anoke, Sarah C; Mwai, Paul; Jeffery, Caroline; Valadez, Joseph J; Pagano, Marcello

    2015-12-01

    Two common methods used to measure indicators for health programme monitoring and evaluation are the demographic and health surveys (DHS) and lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS); each one has different strengths. We report on both methods when utilised in comparable situations. We compared 24 indicators in south-west Uganda, where data for prevalence estimations were collected independently for the two methods in 2011 (LQAS: n = 8876; DHS: n = 1200). Data were stratified (e.g. gender and age) resulting in 37 comparisons. We used a two-sample two-sided Z-test of proportions to compare both methods. The average difference between LQAS and DHS for 37 estimates was 0.062 (SD = 0.093; median = 0.039). The average difference among the 21 failures to reject equality of proportions was 0.010 (SD = 0.041; median = 0.009); among the 16 rejections, it was 0.130 (SD = 0.010, median = 0.118). Seven of the 16 rejections exhibited absolute differences of 0.10 and 0.20 (mean = 0.261, SD = 0.083). There is 75.7% agreement across the two surveys. Both methods yield regional results, but only LQAS provides information at less granular levels (e.g. the district level) where managerial action is taken. The cost advantage and localisation make LQAS feasible to conduct more frequently, and provides the possibility for real-time health outcomes monitoring. © 2015 The Authors. Tropical Medicine & International Health Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Mental health literacy in korean older adults: A cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y S; Lee, H Y; Lee, M H; Simms, T; Park, B H

    2017-09-01

    WHAT IS KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT?: Mental health literacy is a fairly new concept, first introduced in 1997. It refers to what people know and believe about mental health disorders. People's knowledge and beliefs help them to recognize, manage and prevent mental disorders. Generally, older adults have lower health literacy compared to young and middle-aged adults. WHAT THIS STUDY ADDS TO EXISTING KNOWLEDGE?: This is the first study on the mental health literacy of Korean older adults. This study looks beyond peoples' ability to recognize mental health disorders and their opinions about them. It identifies factors that are associated with mental health literacy (level of education and social support, the number of people in one's social circles and how individuals rate their health). WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE?: Older adults might get more out of mental health literacy programmes in group or social settings. Programmes that use older adult peer educators/supporters, such as the "older people's champions" of the Healthy Passport programme in England, might make the programmes more effective. Mental health campaigns, such as Australia's beyondblue, might increase mental health literacy of older adults. Introduction Korea is experiencing rapid population ageing, spurring an increased need for mental health services for the elderly. Approximately one-third of Korean older adults experience depressive symptoms, and Korea has the highest elder suicide rate among 34 developed nations. Mental health literacy is an important component of promoting mental health, yet studies on the concept have been conducted in few countries. Aim This study examines the level of mental health literacy among Korean older adults and identifies factors associated with their mental health literacy. Method A cross-sectional survey was conducted with 596 community-dwelling Korean adults aged 65 and older. Andersen's Behavioral Model of Health Services Use framed the study. Results Overall

  15. Health Indicators for Older Sexual Minorities: National Health Interview Survey, 2013-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragon, Christina N; Laffan, Alison M; Erdem, Erkan; Cahill, Sean R; Kenefick, Daniel; Ye, Jiahui; Haffer, Samuel C

    2017-12-01

    Advances in lesbian, gay, and bisexual (sexual minority [SM]) acceptance and equality have been made in the past decade. However, certain SM subgroups continue to be disadvantaged due to lack of data and, thus, lack of knowledge about these populations. Data for older sexual minorities are especially lacking and will be increasingly important as more sexual minorities enter older age. This research explores results from a nationally representative health survey to elucidate some health indicators for older sexual minorities. Data from the 2013 and 2014 National Health Interview Surveys (NHIS) were pooled for increased sample size, and established research methods were followed as recommended by prior NHIS sexual orientation studies. We conducted descriptive analyses on the differences between SM and heterosexual groups, aged 65 years and older, for 12 health indicators. Four out of the 12 health indicators were significantly different for sexual minorities, and three out of those four indicated positive health outcomes or behaviors when compared with heterosexuals. Sexual minorities were more than three times as likely to receive HIV testing as heterosexual peers. Sexual minorities were more likely to receive an influenza vaccination, and much more likely to report excellent or very good health, than their heterosexual peers. Sexual minorities were more than twice as likely to report binge drinking, which is consistent with prior research for adult sexual minorities. This analysis is the first to examine national data on health indicators for sexual minorities, aged 65 years and older, using NHIS data. As more surveys begin to collect SMdata and more years of data are collected by NHIS, a clearer picture of the health of older adult sexual minorities should emerge.

  16. Income inequality in the United States and its potential effect on oral health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeller, Jamie; Starkel, Rebecca; Quiñonez, Carlos; Vujicic, Marko

    2017-06-01

    The authors explored the relationship between income inequality and self-reported oral health and oral health-related quality of life. The authors used an online survey to gather data about US adults' perceptions of their overall oral health and how oral health affected their quality of life. The authors categorized respondents as coming from areas of low, medium, or high income inequality on the basis of a county-level Gini coefficient. Results of χ 2 tests and an analysis of variance indicated that there was a significant association between income inequality and oral health as measured by using the overall condition of the mouth and teeth, life satisfaction, and frequency of experiencing functional and social problems related to oral health. Generally, adults from areas of lower income inequality reported better oral health and oral health-related quality of life. Income inequality has the potential to affect both functional and social dimensions of oral health, possibly through a psychosocial pathway. Future research is necessary to determine whether any causal link exists. Our findings may inform oral health policy. Long-term policies designed to improve the oral health of Americans could work best when supported by policies designed to reduce levels of income inequality, and thereby, may reduce oral health inequalities. Further research is needed to examine the effectiveness of such policies. Copyright © 2017 American Dental Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Health behaviour advice from health professionals to Canadian adults with hypertension: results from a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Robin L; Gee, Marianne E; Bancej, Christina; Nolan, Robert P; Kaczorowski, Janusz; Joffres, Michel; Bienek, Asako; Gwadry-Sridhar, Femida; Campbell, Norman R C

    2011-01-01

    Health professionals play an important role in providing health information to patients. The objectives of this study were to examine the type of advice that Canadians with hypertension recall receiving from health professionals to manage their condition, and to assess if there is an association between health behaviour advice provided by health professionals and self-reported engagement in health behaviour modification. Respondents of the 2009 Survey on Living with Chronic Diseases in Canada (N = 6142) were asked about sociodemographic characteristics, health care utilization, and health behaviour modification to control hypertension. Association between receipt of advice from health professional and ever engaging, continuing to engage, and not engaging in health behaviour modification was quantified by prevalence rate ratios. Most participants (90.9%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 89.6-92.2) reported that the health professional most responsible for treating their high blood pressure was their general practitioner. Approximately 9% reported that they had not received or do not recall receiving any advice for blood pressure control. The most commonly reported advice received from a health professional was to participate in physical activity or exercise (70.0%). Respondents who had received advice on health behaviour change to manage their high blood pressure were more likely to report engaging in the behaviour compared with those who did not receive such advice. Many Canadians with hypertension receive health behaviour change advice from their health professionals. Receiving this advice was associated with a greater likelihood of attempting health behaviour change and attempting to sustain that change. Copyright © 2011 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. All rights reserved.

  18. Correlates of consumer trust in online health information: findings from the health information national trends survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Yinjiao

    2011-01-01

    The past few decades have witnessed a dramatic increase in consumers seeking health information online. However, the quality of such information remains questionable, and the trustworthiness of online health information has become a hot topic, whereas little attention has been paid to how consumers evaluate online health information credibility. This study builds on theoretical perspectives of trust such as personal-capital-based, social-capital-based, and transfer-based, and it examines various correlates of consumer trust in online health information. The author analyzed the 2007 Health Information National Trends Survey data (N = 7,674). Results showed that consumer trust in online health information did not correlate with personal capital such as income, education, and health status. Social capital indicated by visiting social networking Web sites was not associated with trust in online health information either. Nevertheless, trust in online health information transferred from traditional mass media and government health agencies to the Internet, and it varied by such information features as easiness to locate and to understand. Age appeared to be a key factor in understanding the correlates of trust in online health information. Theoretical and empirical implications of the results are discussed.

  19. Are health centers in Thailand ready for health information technology? : a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kijsanayotin, Boonchai; Speedie, Stuart

    2006-01-01

    The Thailand universal health care coverage scheme was instituted in 2001 and The Thailand Ministry of Public Health (MOPH) is restructuring its information systems to support this reform. The MOPH anticipates developing computerized health information systems which can provide information for administration tasks and can improve both healthcare delivery and public health services. To achieve these target goals, knowledge about users and organizations is vital. The knowledge of how health center workers currently use information technology (IT), their knowledge of IT, and acceptance of IT are not only beneficial to policy makers but also to system designers and implementers. The primary objective of this study is to learn how health centers in Thailand use IT, the level of basic IT knowledge among their workers, and their acceptance of health IT. We surveyed a random cross sectional sample of 1,607 health centers representing the total of 9,806 in Thailand in 2005. With an 82% response rate, the preliminary results indicate that information technology usage is pervasive in health centers. The respondents showed a moderately high degree of health information technology acceptance with a modest level of basic IT knowledge. There were no differences in degrees of acceptance among the four geographic regions. The mean score of "intention to use IT" was 5.6 on a scale of 7 and the average basic IT knowledge score was 13 out of 20. These results suggests the possibility of project success if the national health center information system projects are developed and implemented.

  20. A reproductive health survey of rural women in Hebei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J

    1998-12-01

    This article presents the findings of a 1995 family planning survey conducted among 657 women aged 18-49 years in rural areas of Tangshan City, Zhoushou City, and Xingtai City in Hebei province, Northern China. 620 were married, 37 were single, and 6 were widowed. 85.8% of married rural women used a contraceptive method (female sterilization or IUD). There were 1219 pregnancies, 230 abortions, 31 miscarriages, and 3 stillbirths. 68.1% received prenatal check-ups at hospitals and health centers. 47.4% received prenatal care during the first trimester of pregnancy. 76.1% received check-ups at township health centers. Women were aware of the need for sound personal hygiene, sanitary napkins, and avoidance of heavy manual work during menstruation. 45.1% had less than 5 years of education; 51.8% had 6-10 years of education; and 3.1% had over 10 years of education. About 54% delivered at home. Home deliveries were due to lack of transportation, high expenses, and other reasons. Deliveries were attended by a doctor or midwife. Postpartum home visits were not assured. 32.4% had routine gynecological check-ups. 48.1% had never received gynecological services. 51.6% of married women had 2 children; 16.9% had more. The author recommended improved socioeconomic and cultural conditions, a women-centered reproductive health security system integrated with education, and legislative change. Reproductive health education should be integrated into family planning programs and include health awareness and more education. Men should participate in programs and share more responsibility for reproduction. Services should improve in quality.

  1. Agricultural Health and Safety Survey in Friuli Venezia Giulia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirio Rossano Secondo Cividino

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The work in the agricultural sector has taken on a fundamental role in the last decades, due to the still too high rate of fatal injuries, workplace accidents, and dangerous occurrences reported each year. The average old age of agricultural machinery is one of the main issues at stake in Italy. Numerous safety problems stem from that; therefore, two surveys were conducted in two different periods, on current levels of work safety in agriculture in relation to agricultural machinery’s age and efficiency, and to show the levels of actual implementation of the Italian legislation on safety and health at work in the agricultural sector. The surveys were carried out, considering a sample of 161 farms located in the region Friuli Venezia Giulia (North-East of Italy. The research highlights the most significant difficulties the sample of farms considered have in enforcing the law. One hand, sanitary surveillance and workers’ information and training represent the main deficiencies and weakest points in family farms. Moreover, family farms do not generally provide the proper documentation concerning health and safety at workplaces, when they award the contract to other companies. On the other hand, lack of maintenance program for machinery and equipment, and of emergency plans and participation of workers’ health and safety representative, are the most common issues in farms with employees. Several difficulties are also evident in planning workers’ training programs. Furthermore, the company physician’s task is often limited to medical controls, so that he is not involved in risk assessment and training. Interviews in heterogeneous samples of farms have shown meaningful outcomes, which have subsequently been used to implement new databases and guidelines for Health and Safety Experts and courses in the field of Work Safety in agriculture. In conclusion, although the legislation making training courses for tractor operators and tractor

  2. Education in interactive media: a survey on the potentials of computers for visual literacy

    OpenAIRE

    Güleryüz, Hakan

    1996-01-01

    Ankara : Bilkent University, Department of Graphic Design and Institute of Fine Arts, 1996. Thesis (Master's) -- Bilkent University, 1996. Includes bibliographical references leaves 89-94. This study aims at investigating the potentials of multimedia and computers in design. For this purpose, a general survey on the historical development of computers for their use in education and possibilities related to the use of technology in education is conducted. Based on this survey, the dep...

  3. Can Appealing to Patient Altruism Reduce Overuse of Health Care Services? An Experimental Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggs, Kevin R; Ubel, Peter A; Saloner, Brendan

    2017-07-01

    A challenge to reducing overuse of health services is communicating recommendations against unnecessary health services to patients. The predominant approach has been to highlight the limited benefit and potential harm of such services for that patient, but the prudent use of health resources can also benefit others. Whether appealing to patient altruism can reduce overuse is unknown. To determine whether altruistic appeals reduce hypothetical requests for overused services and affect physician ratings. Experimental survey using hypothetical vignettes describing three overused health services (antibiotics for acute sinusitis, imaging for acute low back pain, and annual exams for healthy adults). U.S. adults recruited from Research Now, an online panel of individuals compensated for performing academic and marketing research surveys. In the control version of the vignettes, the physician's rationale for recommending against the service was the minimal benefit and potential for harm. In the altruism version, the rationale additionally included potential benefit to others by forgoing that service. Differences in requests for overused services and physician ratings between participants randomized to the control and altruism versions of the vignettes. A total of 1001 participants were included in the final analyses. There were no significant differences in requests for overused services for any of the clinical scenarios (P values ranged from 0.183 to 0.547). Physician ratings were lower in the altruism version for the acute sinusitis (6.68 vs. 7.03, P = 0.012) and back pain scenarios (6.14 vs. 6.83, P < 0.001), and marginally lower for the healthy adult scenario (5.27 vs. 5.57, P = 0.084). In this experimental survey, altruistic appeals delivered by physicians did not reduce requests for overused services, and resulted in more negative physician ratings. Further studies are warranted to determine whether alternative methods of appealing to patient altruism

  4. A Survey on Ambient Intelligence in Health Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acampora, Giovanni; Cook, Diane J.; Rashidi, Parisa; Vasilakos, Athanasios V.

    2013-01-01

    Ambient Intelligence (AmI) is a new paradigm in information technology aimed at empowering people’s capabilities by the means of digital environments that are sensitive, adaptive, and responsive to human needs, habits, gestures, and emotions. This futuristic vision of daily environment will enable innovative human-machine interactions characterized by pervasive, unobtrusive and anticipatory communications. Such innovative interaction paradigms make ambient intelligence technology a suitable candidate for developing various real life solutions, including in the health care domain. This survey will discuss the emergence of ambient intelligence (AmI) techniques in the health care domain, in order to provide the research community with the necessary background. We will examine the infrastructure and technology required for achieving the vision of ambient intelligence, such as smart environments and wearable medical devices. We will summarize of the state of the art artificial intelligence methodologies used for developing AmI system in the health care domain, including various learning techniques (for learning from user interaction), reasoning techniques (for reasoning about users’ goals and intensions) and planning techniques (for planning activities and interactions). We will also discuss how AmI technology might support people affected by various physical or mental disabilities or chronic disease. Finally, we will point to some of the successful case studies in the area and we will look at the current and future challenges to draw upon the possible future research paths. PMID:24431472

  5. A Survey on Ambient Intelligence in Health Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acampora, Giovanni; Cook, Diane J; Rashidi, Parisa; Vasilakos, Athanasios V

    2013-12-01

    Ambient Intelligence (AmI) is a new paradigm in information technology aimed at empowering people's capabilities by the means of digital environments that are sensitive, adaptive, and responsive to human needs, habits, gestures, and emotions. This futuristic vision of daily environment will enable innovative human-machine interactions characterized by pervasive, unobtrusive and anticipatory communications. Such innovative interaction paradigms make ambient intelligence technology a suitable candidate for developing various real life solutions, including in the health care domain. This survey will discuss the emergence of ambient intelligence (AmI) techniques in the health care domain, in order to provide the research community with the necessary background. We will examine the infrastructure and technology required for achieving the vision of ambient intelligence, such as smart environments and wearable medical devices. We will summarize of the state of the art artificial intelligence methodologies used for developing AmI system in the health care domain, including various learning techniques (for learning from user interaction), reasoning techniques (for reasoning about users' goals and intensions) and planning techniques (for planning activities and interactions). We will also discuss how AmI technology might support people affected by various physical or mental disabilities or chronic disease. Finally, we will point to some of the successful case studies in the area and we will look at the current and future challenges to draw upon the possible future research paths.

  6. Socioeconomic Inequalities in Mental Health of Adult Population: Serbian National Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santric-Milicevic, Milena; Jankovic, Janko; Trajkovic, Goran; Terzic-Supic, Zorica; Babic, Uros; Petrovic, Marija

    2016-01-01

    The global burden of mental disorders is rising. In Serbia, anxiety is the leading cause of disability-adjusted life years. Serbia has no mental health survey at the population level. The information on prevalence of mental disorders and related socioeconomic inequalities are valuable for mental care improvement. To explore the prevalence of mental health disorders and socioeconomic inequalities in mental health of adult Serbian population, and to explore whether age years and employment status interact with mental health in urban and rural settlements. Cross-sectional study. This study is an additional analysis of Serbian Health Survey 2006 that was carried out with standardized household questionnaires at the representative sample of 7673 randomly selected households - 15563 adults. The response rate was 93%. A multivariate logistic regression modeling highlighted the predictors of the 5 item Mental Health Inventory (MHI-5), and of chronic anxiety or depression within eight independent variables (age, gender, type of settlement, marital status and self-perceived health, education, employment status and Wealth Index). The significance level in descriptive statistics, chi square analysis and bivariate and multivariate logistic regressions was set at pinequalities contributed by differences in age, education, employment, marriage and the wealth status of the adult population.

  7. Racial and ethnic disparities in children's oral health: the National Survey of Children's Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Thomas; Culler, Corinna; Garcia, Raul I; Henshaw, Michelle M

    2008-11-01

    The authors evaluated racial/ethnic differences and their socioeconomic determinants in the oral health status of U.S. children, as reported by parents. The authors used interview data from the 2003 National Survey of Children's Health, a large representative survey of U.S. children. They calculated weighted, nationally representative prevalence estimates for non-Hispanic whites, non-Hispanic blacks and Hispanics, and they used logistic regression to explore the association between parents' reports of fair or poor oral health and various socioeconomic determinants of oral health. The results showed significant racial/ethnic differences in parental reports of fair or poor oral health, with prevalences of 6.5 percent for non-Hispanic whites, 12.0 percent for non-Hispanic blacks and 23.4 percent for Hispanics. Although adjustments for family socioeconomic status (poverty level and education) partially explained these racial/ethnic disparities, Hispanics still were twice as likely as non-Hispanic whites to report their children's oral health as fair or poor, independent of socioeconomic status. The authors did find differences in preventive-care attitudes among groups. However, in multivariate models, such differences did not explain the disparities. Significant racial/ethnic disparities exist in parental reports of their children's oral health, with Hispanics being the most disadvantaged group. Disparities appear to exist independent of preventive-care attitudes and socioeconomic status.

  8. [Survey among livestock practices on herd health management and an Internet-based animal health portal in Switzerland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Tavel, L; Buri, S; Witschi, U; Kirchhofer, M

    2009-12-01

    The importance of herd health management in Switzerland, its implementation by veterinarians as well as their willingness to collaborate within an Internet portal have been assessed by a questionnaire. The portal is meant to serve the genetic evaluation, the veterinary herd health management and the obligation to record treatments; it should be at disposal for all users in form of a central database. For the survey, questionnaires were sent to 784 veterinarians (mixed and livestock practices) in Switzerland. Amongst them, 217 (27.7 %) questionnaires could be evaluated. 125 veterinarians already offer a herd health management service and 147 veterinarians are inclined to collaborate in a central registration of animal health data. In this context, they are interested in an efficient veterinary herd health management program, which will allow direct exchange of data with farmers via an Internet portal. However, they fear a lack of interest of their customers and express some concern regarding data protection. The portal providers must therefore consider the needs of all potential users in order to succeed in this project. At this condition, the veterinarians are prepared to spread herd health management amongst the breeders by means of the animal health portal.

  9. The 2003 Australian Breast Health Survey: survey design and preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Favelle Simone

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Breast Health Surveys, conducted by the National Breast Cancer Centre (NBCC in 1996 and 2003, are designed to gain insight into the knowledge, attitudes and behaviours of a nationally representative sample of Australian women on issues relevant to breast cancer. In this article, we focus on major aspects of the design and present results on respondents' knowledge about mammographic screening. Methods The 2003 BHS surveyed English-speaking Australian women aged 30–69 without a history of breast cancer using computer-assisted telephone interviewing. Questions covered the following themes: knowledge and perceptions about incidence, mortality and risk; knowledge and behaviour regarding early detection, symptoms and diagnosis; mammographic screening; treatment; and accessibility and availability of information and services. Respondents were selected using a complex sample design involving stratification. Sample weights against Australian population benchmarks were used in all statistical analyses. Means and proportions for the entire population and by age group and area of residence were calculated. Statistical tests were conducted using a level of significance of 0.01. Results Of the 3,144 respondents who consented to being interviewed, 138 (4.4% had a previous diagnosis of breast cancer and were excluded leaving 3,006 completed interviews eligible for analysis. A majority of respondents (61.1% reported ever having had a mammogram and 29.1% identified mammography as being the best way of finding breast cancer. A majority of women (85.9% had heard of the BreastScreen Australia (BSA program, the national mammographic screening program providing free biennial screening mammograms, with 94.5% believing that BSA attendance was available regardless of the presence or absence of symptoms. There have been substantial gains in women's knowledge about mammographic screening over the seven years between the two surveys. Conclusion The

  10. The 2003 Australian Breast Health Survey: survey design and preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanueva, Elmer V; Jones, Sandra; Nehill, Caroline; Favelle, Simone; Steel, David; Iverson, Donald; Zorbas, Helen

    2008-01-14

    The Breast Health Surveys, conducted by the National Breast Cancer Centre (NBCC) in 1996 and 2003, are designed to gain insight into the knowledge, attitudes and behaviours of a nationally representative sample of Australian women on issues relevant to breast cancer. In this article, we focus on major aspects of the design and present results on respondents' knowledge about mammographic screening. The 2003 BHS surveyed English-speaking Australian women aged 30-69 without a history of breast cancer using computer-assisted telephone interviewing. Questions covered the following themes: knowledge and perceptions about incidence, mortality and risk; knowledge and behaviour regarding early detection, symptoms and diagnosis; mammographic screening; treatment; and accessibility and availability of information and services. Respondents were selected using a complex sample design involving stratification. Sample weights against Australian population benchmarks were used in all statistical analyses. Means and proportions for the entire population and by age group and area of residence were calculated. Statistical tests were conducted using a level of significance of 0.01. Of the 3,144 respondents who consented to being interviewed, 138 (4.4%) had a previous diagnosis of breast cancer and were excluded leaving 3,006 completed interviews eligible for analysis. A majority of respondents (61.1%) reported ever having had a mammogram and 29.1% identified mammography as being the best way of finding breast cancer. A majority of women (85.9%) had heard of the BreastScreen Australia (BSA) program, the national mammographic screening program providing free biennial screening mammograms, with 94.5% believing that BSA attendance was available regardless of the presence or absence of symptoms. There have been substantial gains in women's knowledge about mammographic screening over the seven years between the two surveys. The NBCC Breast Health Surveys provide a valuable picture of the

  11. Potential health hazard of nuclear fuel waste and uranium ore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehta, K.; Sherman, G.R.; King, S.G.

    1991-06-01

    The variation of the radioactivity of nuclear fuel waste (used fuel and fuel reprocessing waste) with time, and the potential health hazard (or inherent radiotoxicity) resulting from its ingestion are estimated for CANDU (Canada Deuterium Uranium) natural-uranium reactors. Four groups of radionuclides in the nuclear fuel waste are considered: actinides, fission products, activation products of zircaloy, and activation products of fuel impurities. Contributions from each of these groups to the radioactivity and to the potential health hazard are compared and discussed. The potential health hazard resulting from used fuel is then compared with that of uranium ore, mine tailings and refined uranium (fresh fuel) on the basis of equivalent amounts of uranium. The computer code HAZARD, specifically developed for these computations, is described

  12. The global burden of mental disorders : An update from the WHO World Mental Health (WMH) Surveys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessler, Ronald C.; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Alonso, Jordi; Chatterji, Somnath; Lee, Sing; Ormel, Johan; Uestuen, T. Bedirhan; Wang, Philip S.

    2009-01-01

    Aims - The paper reviews recent findings from the WHO World Mental Health (WMH) surveys oil the global burden of mental disorders. Methods - The WMH surveys are representative community surveys in 28 countries throughout the world aimed at providing information to mental health policy makers about

  13. Explaining discrepancies in reproductive health indicators from population-based surveys and exit surveys: a case from Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meekers, D; Ogada, E A

    2001-06-01

    Reproductive health programmes often need exit surveys and population-based surveys for monitoring and evaluation. This study investigates why such studies produce discrepant estimates of condom use, sexual behaviour and condom brand knowledge, and discusses the implications for future use of exit surveys for programme monitoring. Logistic regression is used to explain differences between a household survey of 1295 persons and an exit survey among a random sample of 2550 consumers at retail outlets in RWANDA: Discrepancies in ever use of condoms and risky sexual behaviours are due to differences in socioeconomic status of the two samples. After controls, exit surveys at most outlet types have the same results as the household survey. Only exit surveys at bars, nightclubs and hotels yield significantly different estimates. However, the above-average knowledge of Prudence Plus condoms in the exit interviews is not attributable to socioeconomic or demographic variables, most likely because respondents have seen the product at the outlets. Information about condom use and sexual behaviour obtained from exit surveys appears as accurate as that obtained through household surveys. Nevertheless, exit surveys must be used cautiously. Because exit surveys may include wealthier and better-educated respondents, they are not representative of the general population. The composition of exit survey samples should be validated through existing household surveys. Comparisons across survey types are generally unadvisable, unless they control for sample differences. When generalizing to the population at large is not needed (e.g. for studies aimed at identifying the characteristics and behaviour of users of particular products or services), exit surveys can provide an appropriate alternative to household surveys.

  14. [Storytelling in Health Journalism: Online Survey of Health Journalists on Definition and Use].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimes, S

    2016-12-01

    Background: Although health information is of great interest and plays an important role in almost all media, there are very few studies on the actual work of health journalists. Methods: A quantitative online survey with qualitative elements on the definition and use of storytelling in health journalism was carried out among members of various professional journalists' associations (n=86). Results: The results suggest that health journalists understand storytelling especially as a term used when an article has a dramatic construction, and the story is about real people. As reasons for using storytelling, health journalists primarily name the understandable and clear presentation of medical issues. They see better chances for identification and establishing a relationship to the readers' lives. Of particular importance seems to be that narrative elements do not distort the facts and protect the privacy rights of persons mentioned in case reports. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  15. Maternal autonomy and child health care utilization in India: results from the National Family Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhotra, Chetna; Malhotra, Rahul; Østbye, Truls; Subramanian, S V

    2014-07-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the association of maternal autonomy with preventive and curative child health care utilization in India. Data from the National Family Health Survey 2005-2006 were used to ascertain association of maternal autonomy (in 3 dimensions: decision making, access to financial resources, freedom of movement) with child's primary immunization status (indicative of preventive health care use) and treatment seeking for child's acute respiratory infection (indicative of curative health care use). Low maternal freedom of movement was associated with higher odds of incomplete primary immunization of the child and for not seeking treatment for the child's acute respiratory infection. Low maternal financial access was associated with increased odds for incomplete primary immunization of the child. The findings show that improvement in autonomy of Indian mothers, especially their freedom of movement, may help improve utilization of health care for their children. © 2012 APJPH.

  16. Social Media in Health Science Education: An International Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Elizabeth; Cutts, Emily; Kavikondala, Sushma; Salcedo, Alejandra; D'Souza, Karan; Hernandez-Torre, Martin; Anderson, Claire; Tiwari, Agnes; Ho, Kendall; Last, Jason

    2017-01-04

    Social media is an asset that higher education students can use for an array of purposes. Studies have shown the merits of social media use in educational settings; however, its adoption in health science education has been slow, and the contributing reasons remain unclear. This multidisciplinary study aimed to examine health science students' opinions on the use of social media in health science education and identify factors that may discourage its use. Data were collected from the Universitas 21 "Use of social media in health education" survey, distributed electronically among the health science staff and students from 8 universities in 7 countries. The 1640 student respondents were grouped as users or nonusers based on their reported frequency of social media use in their education. Of the 1640 respondents, 1343 (81.89%) use social media in their education. Only 462 of the 1320 (35.00%) respondents have received specific social media training, and of those who have not, the majority (64.9%, 608/936) would like the opportunity. Users and nonusers reported the same 3 factors as the top barriers to their use of social media: uncertainty on policies, concerns about professionalism, and lack of support from the department. Nonusers reported all the barriers more frequently and almost half of nonusers reported not knowing how to incorporate social media into their learning. Among users, more than one fifth (20.5%, 50/243) of students who use social media "almost always" reported sharing clinical images without explicit permission. Our global, interdisciplinary study demonstrates that a significant number of students across all health science disciplines self-reported sharing clinical images inappropriately, and thus request the need for policies and training specific to social media use in health science education. ©Elizabeth O'Sullivan, Emily Cutts, Sushma Kavikondala, Alejandra Salcedo, Karan D'Souza, Martin Hernandez-Torre, Claire Anderson, Agnes Tiwari, Kendall

  17. Perioperative management of obstructive sleep apnea: a survey of Veterans Affairs health care providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanda Patil, Reena; Patil, Yash J

    2012-01-01

    (1) To determine the presence of Veterans Affairs (VA) institutional guidelines for the perioperative management of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA); (2) to examine current use of preoperative screening tools for OSA in the VA; and (3) to understand current VA practice patterns regarding postoperative disposition of patients with OSA. Survey study. Veterans Affairs hospitals with surgical services; sample size 102 facilities. Veterans Affairs health care providers. The authors surveyed health care providers at VA hospitals using a survey tool developed by the authors. The response rate was 80%. A variety of preoperative screening tools for OSA were used by respondents, most commonly American Society of Anesthesiologists guidelines (53%). A policy for postoperative disposition of known and presumed OSA was present in 26% and 19% of responses, respectively. Of those respondents reporting a formal postoperative care policy, 48% and 30% admitted patients to a monitored ward bed and surgical intensive care unit, respectively. Of the 74% of respondents unaware of an institutional policy, Anesthesia and Surgery worked together to dictate postoperative disposition of patients with known OSA 73% of the time. The degree of OSA was ranked as the most important factor (58%) influencing postoperative disposition. Ten percent of respondents reported a major perioperative complication attributable to OSA in the past year. This survey study elucidates the heterogeneity of preoperative screening for and postoperative care of veterans with OSA. Future investigators may use these data to formalize institutional policies with regard to patients with OSA, with potentially significant impacts on patient care and usage of financial resources.

  18. A survey of health care benefits in the apparel industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, W B

    1985-09-01

    Each day as Americans prepare to begin their days, many put on their clothing often without a thought as to how or where it was manufactured. The manufacture of clothing in the United States is a labor intensive industry pressed by competition in foreign countries where labor is abundant and less expensive; therefore, the manufacturers must look for every opportunity to reduce their costs. The survey presented here reviews the health benefit plans in the apparel industry and current initiatives for cost reduction. The results are interesting, for they give the hospital administrator vital information on the types of programs that might be in place in local manufacturers and the method of cost containment expected in this industry.

  19. Health risk behavior among Thai youth: national survey 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirirassamee, Tawima; Sirirassamee, Buppha

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to establish the prevalence of risky health behaviors among Thai youth and to characterize the prevalence of these behaviors by gender, age group, educational status, and region. We analyzed data from a population-based, nationally representative, cross-sectional survey of 938 youth aged between 13 and 24 years, sampled from Bangkok and 4 regions of Thailand. The 2011 Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System questionnaire was used to measure youth risk behaviors. This study finds that 15.9% of respondents had engaged in physical fights, and 8.1% had been cyber bullied. The prevalence of current cigarette smoking, alcohol, and marijuana use were 22.3%, 27.9%, and 2.3%, respectively. The prevalence of risky behaviors among Thai youth were found to be high, including behaviors that contribute to unintentional injuries and violence, unsafe sexual behaviors, and cigarette and alcohol consumption. © 2014 APJPH.

  20. Studies in radioaerosol lung scanning in urban health survey subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doshi, V.B.; Gregat, I.K.; Kamat, S.R.; Papewar, V.N.; Raikar, U.R.; Sharma, S.M.; Ganatra, R.D.

    1984-01-01

    As a part of health survey in relation to air pollution, 16 smokers(11 from 'high' and 5 from 'low' zone) were studied with extensive serial lung functions, chest radiography and radioaerosol lung scanning. The clinical diagnosis were chronic bronchitis(COPD) in 9 subjects; but others (4 'High' and 3 'Low') were considered normal. The values of FVC, FEV were normal in most of these three groups, but FEV 1 /FVC percent values were lower in subjects from 'high' zone.The functional declines were higher in normals of 'high' zone. Radioaerosol (ventilation) scans (with technetium 99 ) showed a normal picture in 2 COPD and 3 normal subjects; in 3 COPD and 1 normal subjects the abnormalities were definite. For perfusion scans, 2 COPD and 3 normal subjects showed a normal pattern while definite abnormalities were seen in 1 COPD and 1 normal subjects. Lung scans may pick up abnormalities in normal smokers at an early stage. (author)

  1. Responding to families with complex needs: a national survey of child and family health nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossiter, Chris; Schmied, Virginia; Kemp, Lynn; Fowler, Cathrine; Kruske, Sue; Homer, Caroline S E

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the extent to which Australian child and family health nurses work with families with complex needs and how their practice responds to the needs of these families. Many families with young children face challenges to their parenting capacity, potentially placing their children at risk of poorer developmental outcomes. Nurses increasingly work with families with mental health problems, trauma histories and/or substance dependence. Universal child health services must respond effectively to these challenges, to address health inequalities and to promote the best outcomes for all children and families. The descriptive study used cross-sectional data from the first national survey of child and family health nurses in Australia, conducted during 2011. Survey data reported how often, where and how child and family health nurses worked with families with complex needs and their confidence in nursing tasks. Many, but not all, of the 679 respondents saw families with complex needs in their regular weekly caseload. Child and family health nurses with diverse and complex caseloads reported using varied approaches to support their clients. They often undertook additional professional development and leadership roles compared with nurses who reported less complex caseloads. Most respondents reported high levels of professional confidence. For health services providing universal support and early intervention for families at risk, the findings underscore the importance of appropriate education, training and support for child and family health professionals. The findings can inform the organization and delivery of services for families in Australia and internationally. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Peru 1996: results from the Demographic and Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-03-01

    This report presents findings of the 1996 Peru Demographic and Health Survey among 28,951 women 15-49 years old and 2487 men 15-59 years old. Fertility was 3.5 children/woman (5.6 in rural and 2.8 in urban areas). Fertility ranged from 2.1 among higher educated women to 6.9 among women with no formal education. 41.7% wanted the births in the 5 years preceding the survey. 23.2% wanted the birth later. 34.8% wanted no more births. A high percentage of women with 3 or more children wanted no more children. 22.9% currently used modern contraceptive methods. 41.3% used traditional methods. Contraceptive prevalence peaked at ages 35-39 years at 72.9%. Prevalence was 46.0% at 15-19 years old and 40.9% at 45-49 years old. 12% used the IUD. 18% used periodic abstinence. 42.7% of nonusers were menopausal. 12.4% were subfecund. 7.5% feared side effects. The median age at first birth was 21.5 years. Infant mortality was 43/100,000. Infant mortality was very high among rural and uneducated women. Only 1.1% were moderately to severely undernourished, but 25.8% were moderately to severely chronically undernourished.

  3. Using Helicopter Electromagnetic Surveys to Identify Potential Hazards at Mine Waste Impoundments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammack, R.W.

    2008-01-01

    In July 2003, helicopter electromagnetic surveys were conducted at 14 coal waste impoundments in southern West Virginia. The purpose of the surveys was to detect conditions that could lead to impoundment failure either by structural failure of the embankment or by the flooding of adjacent or underlying mine works. Specifically, the surveys attempted to: 1) identify saturated zones within the mine waste, 2) delineate filtrate flow paths through the embankment or into adjacent strata and receiving streams, and 3) identify flooded mine workings underlying or adjacent to the waste impoundment. Data from the helicopter surveys were processed to generate conductivity/depth images. Conductivity/depth images were then spatially linked to georeferenced air photos or topographic maps for interpretation. Conductivity/depth images were found to provide a snapshot of the hydrologic conditions that exist within the impoundment. This information can be used to predict potential areas of failure within the embankment because of its ability to image the phreatic zone. Also, the electromagnetic survey can identify areas of unconsolidated slurry in the decant basin and beneath the embankment. Although shallow, flooded mineworks beneath the impoundment were identified by this survey, it cannot be assumed that electromagnetic surveys can detect all underlying mines. A preliminary evaluation of the data implies that helicopter electromagnetic surveys can provide a better understanding of the phreatic zone than the piezometer arrays that are typically used.

  4. An urban survey of paediatric environmental health concerns: Perceptions of parents, guardians and health care professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buka, Irena; Rogers, W Todd; Osornio-Vargas, Alvaro R; Hoffman, Harold; Pearce, Marni; Li, Yuen Yee

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To conduct a survey in Edmonton, Alberta, to gather information regarding concerns about the influence of environmental factors on children’s health and to use the information to set an agenda for the resources of the Paediatric Environmental Health Specialty Unit at Misericordia Hospital (Edmonton, Alberta). METHODS Two questionnaires with 28 closed-ended questions were developed to examine parents’, guardians’ and health care professionals’ concerns. They comprised items about six environmental factors (air, water and food quality; household supplies; radiation; and waste disposal). Health care professionals were also asked four questions about their knowledge of and their needs in Paediatric Environmental Health. Parents and guardians attending the public health centres and nurses working therein received questionnaires. Physicians were surveyed by e-mail. RESULTS After verification, the questionnaire data from 400 parents or guardians and 152 health care professionals were used for analyses. Results from contingency table, Hotelling’s T2 and effect size analyses revealed similarities in the levels of concern in both groups, and the results were combined. The greatest concern of both groups was with environmental tobacco smoke, followed by pesticides in water. Concerns about six additional environmental elements were also expressed. The health care professionals showed a high level of concern about the need for resources, specific training and public education regarding paediatric environmental health. CONCLUSION A significant level of concern was consistently found between the two groups studied, regardless of professional training. The highest level of concern was with a well-documented topic (ie, environmental tobacco smoke). Less concern associated with decreased documentation calls for increasing the knowledge of society, including health care professionals, to address the adverse effects of environmental factors on children. PMID

  5. Workplace Violence in Mental Health: A Victorian Mental Health Workforce Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonso, Michael A; Prematunga, Roshani Kanchana; Norris, Stephen J; Williams, Lloyd; Sands, Natisha; Elsom, Stephen J

    2016-10-01

    The international literature suggests workplace violence in mental health settings is a significant issue, yet little is known about the frequency, nature, severity and health consequences of staff exposure to violence in Australian mental health services. To address this gap, we examined these aspects of workplace violence as reported by mental health services employees in Victoria, Australia. The project used a cross-sectional, exploratory descriptive design. A random sample of 1600 Health and Community Services Union members were invited to complete a survey investigating exposure to violence in the workplace, and related psychological health outcomes. Participants comprised employees from multiple disciplines including nursing, social work, occupational therapy, psychology and administration staff. A total of 411 members responded to the survey (26% response rate). Of the total sample, 83% reported exposure to at least one form of violence in the previous 12 months. The most frequently reported form of violence was verbal abuse (80%) followed by physical violence (34%) and then bullying/mobbing (30%). Almost one in three victims of violence (33%) rated themselves as being in psychological distress, 54% of whom reported being in severe psychological distress. The more forms of violence to which victims were exposed, the greater the frequency of reports of psychological distress. Workplace violence is prevalent in mental health facilities in Victoria. The nature, severity and health impact of this violence represents a serious safety concern for mental health employees. Strategies must be considered and implemented by healthcare management and policy makers to reduce and prevent violence. © 2016 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  6. 2016 Survey of State-Level Health Resources for Men and Boys: Identification of an Inadvertent and Remediable Service and Health Disparity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadich, Ana; Llamas, Ramon P; Giorgianni, Salvatore; Stephenson, Colin; Nwaiwu, Chimezie

    2018-03-01

    This survey evaluated resources available to men and boys at the state level including state public health departments (SPHDs), other state agencies, and governor's offices. Most of the resources and programs are found in the SPHDs and these administer state-initiated and federally funded health programs to provide services and protection to a broad range of populations; however, many men's health advocates believe that SPHDs have failed to create equivalent services for men and boys, inadvertently creating a health disparity. Men's Health Network conducts a survey of state resources, including those found in SPHDs, every 2 years to identify resources available for men and women, determine the extent of any disparity, and establish a relationship with SPHD officials. Data were obtained from all 50 states and Washington, D.C. An analysis of the 2016 survey data indicates that there are few resources allocated and a lack of readily available information on health and preventive care created specifically for men and boys. The data observed that most health information intended for men and boys was scarce among states or oftentimes included on websites that primarily focused on women's health. A potential result of this is a loss of engagement with appropriate health-care providers due to a lack of information. This study continues to validate the disparity between health outcomes for women and men. It continues to highlight the need for better resource allocation, outreach, and health programs specifically tailored to men and boys in order to improve overall community well-being.

  7. Decreases in tanning behaviors following a short online survey: Potential for prevention?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel F. Rodgers

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: Our study presents novel and compelling support for using brief online surveys for decreasing health-risk behaviors such as sunbed use. Such measures are extremely cost-effective and easy to disseminate and implement. Replication and extension of these findings are warranted.

  8. Resource allocation in public health practice: a national survey of local public health officials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Nancy M; DesRoches, Catherine; Campbell, Eric G; Goold, Susan Dorr

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to gain an empirical understanding of the types of allocation decisions local health officials (LHOs) make and the factors that influence those allocation decisions. We conducted a national survey of LHOs in the United States in 2008 to 2009. The sample was stratified by the size of the population served by the department. We merged our data with data from the 2008 National Association of County and City Health Officials Profile survey. Descriptive statistics were generated using weighted data. Our final sample size was 608 respondents, with an average of 10 years experience. The LHOs reported little shifting of resources among population groups but greater capacity to redirect staffing time. Less than half of LHOs reported using economic analyses or conducting needs assessments when setting priorities. Having sole provider status in a community strongly influenced LHOs' allocation decisions. In addition, the effectiveness of activities, previous budget allocations, and input from boards of health were influential factors in allocation decisions. Public expectations were moderately to very influential, but direct public input had a low impact on allocation decisions. Survey findings provide a clearer understanding of how LHOs fulfill their obligations as stewards of public health resources and ensure effective activities and access to needed services. It may be useful to assess the value of more structured allocation methods (eg, decision frameworks) in the allocation process. Expanding opportunities for public engagement in priority setting may also be valuable for difficult allocation decisions.

  9. Public health intelligence and the detection of potential pandemics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Martin; Mykhalovskiy, Eric

    2013-02-01

    This article considers contemporary developments in public health intelligence (PHI), especially their focus on health events of pandemic potential. It argues that the sociological study of PHI can yield important insights for the sociology of pandemics. PHI aims to detect health events as (or even before) they unfold. Whilst its apparatuses envelope traditional public health activities, such as epidemiological surveillance, they increasingly extend to non-traditional public health activities such as data-mining in electronically mediated social networks. With a focus on non-traditional PHI activities, the article first situates the study of PHI in relation to the sociology of public health. It then discusses the conceptualisation and actualisation of pandemics, reflecting on how public health professionals and organisations must equip themselves with diverse allies in order to realise the claims they make about pandemic phenomena. Finally, using the analytic tools of actor-network theory, sites for future empirical research that can contribute to the sociology of pandemics are suggested. © 2012 The Authors. Sociology of Health & Illness © 2012 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness/Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. Prayer for Health and Primary Care: Results From the 2002 National Health Interview Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Joanne E.; Saper, Robert B.; Rosen, Amy K.; Welles, Seth L.; Culpepper, Larry

    2009-01-01

    Background and Objectives Prayer for health (PFH) is common; in 2002, 35% of US adults prayed for their health. We examined the relationship of PFH and primary care visits, with a special focus on African American women, using data from the 2002 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). Methods We used chi-square analyses to compare the demographic (age group, gender, race, region, marital status, educational level, ethnicity) and health-related covariates (alcohol use, smoking status, and selected medical conditions) between individuals who did and did not pray for their health in the past year. Univariate associations between PFH and visit to primary care provider (PCP), with Mantel-Haenszel adjustment for confounding, were determined. Multivariate regression was used to determine independent factors associated with PFH and PCP visit, with SUDAAN to adjust for the clustered survey design. Results Subjects who prayed were more likely to be female, older than 58, Black, Southern, separated, divorced or widowed, and nondrinkers. Subjects who prayed were also more likely to have seen a PCP within the past year. Black women who prayed were also more likely to see a PCP. Conclusions These findings suggest that people who pray for their health do so in addition to, not instead of, seeking primary care. This finding is maintained but with a smaller effect size, in Black women. PMID:18830839

  11. Contingency planning for electronic health record-based care continuity: a survey of recommended practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sittig, Dean F; Gonzalez, Daniel; Singh, Hardeep

    2014-11-01

    Reliable health information technology (HIT) in general, and electronic health record systems (EHRs) in particular are essential to a high-performing healthcare system. When the availability of EHRs are disrupted, alternative methods must be used to maintain the continuity of healthcare. We developed a survey to assess institutional practices to handle situations when EHRs were unavailable for use (downtime preparedness). We used literature reviews and expert opinion to develop items that assessed the implementation of potentially useful practices. We administered the survey to U.S.-based healthcare institutions that were members of a professional organization that focused on collaboration and sharing of HIT-related best practices among its members. All members were large integrated health systems. We received responses from 50 of the 59 (84%) member institutions. Nearly all (96%) institutions reported at least one unplanned downtime (of any length) in the last 3 years and 70% had at least one unplanned downtime greater than 8h in the last 3 years. Three institutions reported that one or more patients were injured as a result of either a planned or unplanned downtime. The majority of institutions (70-85%) had implemented a portion of the useful practices we identified, but very few practices were followed by all organizations. Unexpected downtimes related to EHRs appear to be fairly common among institutions in our survey. Most institutions had only partially implemented comprehensive contingency plans to maintain safe and effective healthcare during unexpected EHRs downtimes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. BEHAVIOR RISK FACTORS IN INDONESIA: NATIONAL HOUSEHOLD HEALTH SURVEY 2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ch. M. Kristanti

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A series of National Household Health Surveys (NHHS reported the occurrence of epidemiological transition caused by demographic transition and prolonged economical diversity, Communicable diseases are still prevalent, followed by the emergence of Non Communicable Diseases (NCDs, which are due to an increasing level of behavior risk factors in the population. In the NHHS 2001, a morbidity survey collected information about behavioral risk indicators, whereas the WHO'S STEPwise approach was one of the study instruments. The 'WHO Step 1 questionnaire' was adapted with some modifications. Samples of NHHS, morbidity survey was sub-sample of module sample of National Social Economic Survey (NSES 2001. A sample of 15,148 people aged 10 years+ were analyzed to identify their behavior regarding smoking, alcohol consumption and physical activity. These findings are a representation of the national figures, which were presented by characteristics of the population such as: sex, age, residence, region and economic status. Economic status was divided into 5 strata, which were calculated from a quintile of household expenditure. The results showed that 29.7% of the population aged 10 years+ are daily smokers. This is more prevalent in males than females (58.9% vs. 3.7%. This behavior increases by age group, except for the oldest; there are slightly more smokers in rural areas than urban areas (31% vs. 28%, and no difference among regions (30-31%. Those with better economic status are less likely to smoke than poorer ones. Alcohol consumption is reportedly very low (2.7%, more prevalent in males than females (4.9% vs. 0.8%, and higher in rural areas than urban areas (3.1% vs. 2.1%. Eastern Indonesia, was higher than Sumatra, Java and Bali (6.3%, 4.7%, and 1.2% respectively. There were no differences in alcohol consumption according to economic status'.' Physical inactivity is very high (68%, more prevalent in females than males (73% vs. 63%, and higher in

  13. Health Status and Health Care Experiences among Homeless Patients in Federally Supported Health Centers: Findings from the 2009 Patient Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebrun-Harris, Lydie A; Baggett, Travis P; Jenkins, Darlene M; Sripipatana, Alek; Sharma, Ravi; Hayashi, A Seiji; Daly, Charles A; Ngo-Metzger, Quyen

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine health status and health care experiences of homeless patients in health centers and to compare them with their nonhomeless counterparts. Data Sources/Study Setting Nationally representative data from the 2009 Health Center Patient Survey. Study Design Cross-sectional analyses were limited to adults (n = 2,683). We compared sociodemographic characteristics, health conditions, access to health care, and utilization of services among homeless and nonhomeless patients. We also examined the independent effect of homelessness on health care access and utilization, as well as factors that influenced homeless patients' health care experiences. Data Collection Computer-assisted personal interviews were conducted with health center patients. Principal Findings Homeless patients had worse health status—lifetime burden of chronic conditions, mental health problems, and substance use problems—compared with housed respondents. In adjusted analyses, homeless patients had twice the odds as housed patients of having unmet medical care needs in the past year (OR = 1.98, 95 percent CI: 1.24–3.16) and twice the odds of having an ED visit in the past year (OR = 2.00, 95 percent CI: 1.37–2.92). Conclusions There is an ongoing need to focus on the health issues that disproportionately affect homeless populations. Among health center patients, homelessness is an independent risk factor for unmet medical needs and ED use. PMID:23134588

  14. Horse Husbandry and Preventive Health Practices in Australia: An Online Survey of Horse Guardians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Kirrilly R; Clarkson, Larissa; Riley, Christopher B; van den Berg, Mariette

    2018-02-08

    Little is known about the horse health management practices of Australian horse caregivers (owners). This article presents findings from a convenience sample of 505 horse owners who participated in an online survey. No large-scale welfare issues were identified, but there were some areas of potential concern, including owners who did not regularly deworm their horses (4%), a lack of strategic parasite control (3.1%), and a lack of regular dental care (11%). Several participants did not have their horse's hooves regularly shod or trimmed (2%), and 14% had an unqualified person maintain their horse's hooves. One in five owners (19%) did not vaccinate their horses against tetanus. The findings are discussed in relation to current Australian horse health guidelines and traditional sources of horse health information, together with recommendations for providing horse owners with relevant information in relevant forms.

  15. Gender differences in health information behaviour: a Finnish population-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ek, Stefan

    2015-09-01

    Narrowing the gaps in health outcomes, including those between men and women, has been a pronounced goal on the agenda of the Finnish health authorities since the mid-1980s. But still there is a huge gap in favour of women when it comes to life expectancy at birth. People's health information behaviour, that is how people seek, obtain, evaluate, categorize and use relevant health-related information to perform desired health behaviours, is a critical prerequisite to appropriate and consistent performances of these behaviours. With respect to gender, it has been noted that men often are unwilling and lack the motivation to engage with health-related information. The purpose of this study was to investigate how gender affects health information behaviour in the Finnish population aged 18-65 years. The survey data were collected via a questionnaire which was posted to a representative cross section consisting of 1500 Finnish citizens. The statistical analysis consists of ANOVA F-tests and Fisher's exact tests. The results show that women were more interested in and reported much more active seeking of health-related information, paid more attention to potential worldwide pandemics and were much more attentive as to how the goods they purchase in everyday life affect their health than men did. Women also reported receiving far more informal health-related information from close family members, other kin and friends/workmates than men did. Thus, to succeed in public health promotion and interventions the measures taken should be much more sensitive to the gender gap in health information behaviour. © The Author (2013). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. [A survey of occupational health among polyether-exposed workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xu-ying; Yu, Bin; Zhang, Chun-ping; Zheng, Guan-hua; Bai, Lan; Zhang, Pan-pan

    2013-06-01

    To investigate the occupational health of the workers simultaneously exposed to acrylonitrile, epoxyethane, epoxypropane, and styrene. A questionnaire survey was conducted in 70 front-line workers simultaneously exposed to acrylonitrile, epoxyethane, epoxypropane, and styrene (exposure group) and 50 managers (control group) in a polyether manufacturer; in addition, air monitoring at workplace and occupational health examination were also performed. The obtained data were analyzed. The female workers in exposure group and the spouses of male workers in exposure group had significantly higher spontaneous abortion rates than their counterparts in control group (P polyether-exposed working years had significantly higher mean levels of DNA damage than the control group (P polyether-exposed working years and those with not less than 20 polyether-exposed working years had significantly higher mean micronucleus rates than the control group (P polyether-exposed working years (P > 0.05); the workers with not less than 5 and less than 20 polyether-exposed working years and workers with not less than 20 polyether-exposed working years had significantly higher mean micronucleus rates than those with less than 5 polyether-exposed working years (P polyether manufacturer.

  17. Sexual orientation and mental and physical health status: findings from a Dutch population survey.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sandfort, T.G.M.; Bakker, F.; Schellevis, F.G.; Vanwesenbeeck, I.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: We sought to determine whether sexual orientation is related to mental and physical health and health behaviors in the general population. METHODS: Data was derived from a health interview survey that was part of the second Dutch National Survey of General Practice, carried out in 2001

  18. "Bring Your Own Device": Considering Potential Risks to Student Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merga, Margaret K.

    2016-01-01

    Background and context: Schools in Australia and internationally are increasingly adopting a Bring Your Own Device (BYOD) approach to teaching and learning. The review: While discussion of a BYOD approach has taken place, there is a dearth of consideration of the potential impact of BYOD policy on student health. Implementation of a BYOD policy…

  19. Health equity in the New Zealand health care system: a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheridan, Nicolette F; Kenealy, Timothy W; Connolly, Martin J; Mahony, Faith; Barber, P Alan; Boyd, Mary Anne; Carswell, Peter; Clinton, Janet; Devlin, Gerard; Doughty, Robert; Dyall, Lorna; Kerse, Ngaire; Kolbe, John; Lawrenson, Ross; Moffitt, Allan

    2011-10-20

    In all countries people experience different social circumstances that result in avoidable differences in health. In New Zealand, Māori, Pacific peoples, and those with lower socioeconomic status experience higher levels of chronic illness, which is the leading cause of mortality, morbidity and inequitable health outcomes. Whilst the health system can enable a fairer distribution of good health, limited national data is available to measure health equity. Therefore, we sought to find out whether health services in New Zealand were equitable by measuring the level of development of components of chronic care management systems across district health boards. Variation in provision by geography, condition or ethnicity can be interpreted as inequitable. A national survey of district health boards (DHBs) was undertaken on macro approaches to chronic condition management with detail on cardiovascular disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, congestive heart failure, stroke and diabetes. Additional data from expert informant interviews on program reach and the cultural needs of Māori and Pacific peoples was sought. Survey data were analyzed on dimensions of health equity relevant to strategic planning and program delivery. Results are presented as descriptive statistics and free text. Interviews were transcribed and NVivo 8 software supported a general inductive approach to identify common themes. Survey responses were received from the majority of DHBs (15/21), some PHOs (21/84) and 31 expert informants. Measuring, monitoring and targeting equity is not systematically undertaken. The Health Equity Assessment Tool is used in strategic planning but not in decisions about implementing or monitoring disease programs. Variable implementation of evidence-based practices in disease management and multiple funding streams made program implementation difficult. Equity for Māori is embedded in policy, this is not so for other ethnic groups or by geography. Populations

  20. Health equity in the New Zealand health care system: a national survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doughty Robert

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction In all countries people experience different social circumstances that result in avoidable differences in health. In New Zealand, Māori, Pacific peoples, and those with lower socioeconomic status experience higher levels of chronic illness, which is the leading cause of mortality, morbidity and inequitable health outcomes. Whilst the health system can enable a fairer distribution of good health, limited national data is available to measure health equity. Therefore, we sought to find out whether health services in New Zealand were equitable by measuring the level of development of components of chronic care management systems across district health boards. Variation in provision by geography, condition or ethnicity can be interpreted as inequitable. Methods A national survey of district health boards (DHBs was undertaken on macro approaches to chronic condition management with detail on cardiovascular disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, congestive heart failure, stroke and diabetes. Additional data from expert informant interviews on program reach and the cultural needs of Māori and Pacific peoples was sought. Survey data were analyzed on dimensions of health equity relevant to strategic planning and program delivery. Results are presented as descriptive statistics and free text. Interviews were transcribed and NVivo 8 software supported a general inductive approach to identify common themes. Results Survey responses were received from the majority of DHBs (15/21, some PHOs (21/84 and 31 expert informants. Measuring, monitoring and targeting equity is not systematically undertaken. The Health Equity Assessment Tool is used in strategic planning but not in decisions about implementing or monitoring disease programs. Variable implementation of evidence-based practices in disease management and multiple funding streams made program implementation difficult. Equity for Māori is embedded in policy, this is not so

  1. Global review of health care surveys using lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS), 1984-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Susan E; Valadez, Joseph J

    2006-09-01

    We conducted a global review on the use of lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS) to assess health care services, health behaviors, and disease burden. Publications and reports on LQAS surveys were sought from Medline and five other electronic databases; the World Health Organization; the World Bank; governments, nongovernmental organizations, and individual scientists. We identified a total of 805 LQAS surveys conducted by different management groups during January 1984 through December 2004. There was a striking increase in the annual number of LQAS surveys conducted in 2000-2004 (128/year) compared with 1984-1999 (10/year). Surveys were conducted in 55 countries, and in 12 of these countries there were 10 or more LQAS surveys. Geographically, 317 surveys (39.4%) were conducted in Africa, 197 (28.5%) in the Americas, 115 (14.3%) in the Eastern Mediterranean, 114 (14.2%) in South-East Asia, 48 (6.0%) in Europe, and 14 (1.8%) in the Western Pacific. Health care parameters varied, and some surveys assessed more than one parameter. There were 320 surveys about risk factors for HIV/AIDS/sexually transmitted infections; 266 surveys on immunization coverage, 240 surveys post-disasters, 224 surveys on women's health, 142 surveys on growth and nutrition, 136 surveys on diarrheal disease control, and 88 surveys on quality management. LQAS surveys to assess disease burden included 23 neonatal tetanus mortality surveys and 12 surveys on other diseases. LQAS is a practical field method which increasingly is being applied in assessment of preventive and curative health services, and may offer new research opportunities to social scientists. When LQAS data are collected recurrently at multiple time points, they can be used to measure the spatial variation in behavior change. Such data provide insight into understanding relationships between various investments in social, human, and physical capital, and into the effectiveness of different public health strategies in achieving

  2. Potential Health Benefits of Deep Sea Water: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samihah Zura Mohd Nani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Deep sea water (DSW commonly refers to a body of seawater that is pumped up from a depth of over 200 m. It is usually associated with the following characteristics: low temperature, high purity, and being rich with nutrients, namely, beneficial elements, which include magnesium, calcium, potassium, chromium, selenium, zinc, and vanadium. Less photosynthesis of plant planktons, consumption of nutrients, and organic decomposition have caused lots of nutrients to remain there. Due to this, DSW has potential to become a good source for health. Research has proven that DSW can help overcome health problems especially related to lifestyle-associated diseases such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, obesity, cancer, and skin problems. This paper reviews the potential health benefits of DSW by referring to the findings from previous researches.

  3. Health and behavioral survey of over 8000 Finnish cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katariina Vapalahti

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive feline health survey was conducted to reveal breed-specific inheritable diseases in Finnish pedigree cats for genetic research. Prevalences of 19 disease categories and 227 feline diseases were defined in a study population of 8175 cats belonging to 30 breeds. Dental and oral diseases with a prevalence of 28% and dental calculus and gingivitis (21% and 8%, respectively were the most prevalent disease category and diseases among all cats and in most of the breeds. An exception was Korats, which were more often affected by the diseases of the respiratory tract (23% and asthma (19%. Other prevalent disease categories affected various organ systems such as the skin (12%, the urinary system (12%, the digestive tract (11%, eyes, (10%, the musculoskeletal system (10%, and genitals of female cats (17%. Prevalent health or developmental issues included repetitive vomiting (4%, tail kink (4%, feline odontoclastic resorption lesion (FORL (4%, urinary tract infections (4%, as well as caesarean section (6% and stillborn kittens (6% among female cats. We found 57 breed-specific conditions by Fisher’s exact tests and logistic regression analyses, including 32 previously described and 19 new breed-specific diseases. The genetic defect has already been found in six of them: polycystic kidney disease (PKD, progressive retinal atrophy (PRA, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM and three types of tail malformations. Behavioral profiling revealed breed-specific traits, such as an increased human avoidance in British Short and Longhairs and a higher level of aggression in Turkish vans. Our epidemiological study reveals the overall health profile in Finnish pure and mixed breed cats and identifies many breed-specific conditions without molecular identity for genetic research.

  4. Attacking the Obesity Epidemic: The Potential Health Benefits of Providing Nutrition Information in Restaurants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Scot; Creyer, Elizabeth H.; Kees, Jeremy; Huggins, Kyle

    2006-01-01

    Objectives. Requiring restaurants to present nutrition information on menus is under consideration as a potential way to slow the increasing prevalence of obesity. Using a survey methodology, we examined how accurately consumers estimate the nutrient content of typical restaurant meals. Based on these results, we then conducted an experiment to address how the provision of nutrition information on menus influences purchase intentions and reported preferences. Methods. For both the survey and experiment, data were analyzed using analysis of variance techniques. Results. Survey results showed that levels of calories, fat, and saturated fat in less-healthful restaurant items were significantly underestimated by consumers. Actual fat and saturated fat levels were twice consumers’ estimates and calories approached 2 times more than what consumers expected. In the subsequent experiment, for items for which levels of calories, fat, and saturated fat substantially exceeded consumers’ expectations, the provision of nutrition information had a significant influence on product attitude, purchase intention, and choice. Conclusions. Most consumers are unaware of the high levels of calories, fat, saturated fat, and sodium found in many menu items. Provision of nutrition information on restaurant menus could potentially have a positive impact on public health by reducing the consumption of less-healthful foods. PMID:16873758

  5. Promoting Staff Health: A Survey of the Health and Wellbeing Division

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Evans, David S.

    2016-01-01

    n order to gain a measure of the health and wellbeing of staff in the Health and Wellbeing Division a survey was undertaken in late 2015 with results contained in this report. It highlights the areas that we are doing well in and identifies a number of areas where improvements are needed. The results and suggestions given provide a benchmark as to the current health and wellbeing status of those in our Division and pave the way for a set of recommendations which will be delivered through the action plan currently being developed. As a starting point and in recognition of the fact that many of our staff are based in other cross divisional worksites, the Staff Health and Wellbeing Funding Initiative 2016 was introduced.

  6. Measuring physical and mental health using the SF-12: implications for community surveys of mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windsor, Timothy D; Rodgers, Bryan; Butterworth, Peter; Anstey, Kaarin J; Jorm, Anthony F

    2006-09-01

    The effects of using different approaches to scoring the SF-12 summary scales of physical and mental health were examined with a view to informing the design and interpretation of community-based survey research. Data from a population-based study of 7485 participants in three cohorts aged 20-24, 40-44 and 60-64 years were used to examine relationships among measures of physical and mental health calculated from the same items using the SF-12 and RAND-12 approaches to scoring, and other measures of chronic physical conditions and psychological distress. A measure of physical health constructed using the RAND-12 scoring showed a monotonic negative association with psychological distress as measured by the Goldberg depression and anxiety scales. However, a non-monotonic association was evident in the relationship between SF-12 physical health scores and distress, with very high SF-12 physical health scores corresponding with high levels of distress. These relationships highlight difficulties in interpretation that can arise when using the SF-12 summary scales in some analytical contexts. It is recommended that community surveys that measure physical and mental functioning using the SF-12 items generate summary scores using the RAND-12 protocol in addition to the SF-12 approach. In general, researchers should be wary of using factor scores based on orthogonal rotation, which assumes that measures are uncorrelated, to represent constructs that have an actual association.

  7. Explaining health care expenditure variation: large-sample evidence using linked survey and health administrative data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Randall P; Fiebig, Denzil G; Johar, Meliyanni; Jones, Glenn; Savage, Elizabeth

    2013-09-01

    Explaining individual, regional, and provider variation in health care spending is of enormous value to policymakers but is often hampered by the lack of individual level detail in universal public health systems because budgeted spending is often not attributable to specific individuals. Even rarer is self-reported survey information that helps explain this variation in large samples. In this paper, we link a cross-sectional survey of 267 188 Australians age 45 and over to a panel dataset of annual healthcare costs calculated from several years of hospital, medical and pharmaceutical records. We use this data to distinguish between cost variations due to health shocks and those that are intrinsic (fixed) to an individual over three years. We find that high fixed expenditures are positively associated with age, especially older males, poor health, obesity, smoking, cancer, stroke and heart conditions. Being foreign born, speaking a foreign language at home and low income are more strongly associated with higher time-varying expenditures, suggesting greater exposure to adverse health shocks. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Older women's health priorities and perceptions of care delivery: results of the WOW health survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tannenbaum, Cara; Mayo, Nancy; Ducharme, Francine

    2005-07-19

    As women get older, their health priorities change. We surveyed a sample of older Canadian women to investigate what health priorities are of concern to them, their perceptions about the care delivered to address these priorities and the extent to which priorities and perceptions of care differ across age groups and provinces. The WOW (What Older women Want) cross-sectional health survey was mailed in October 2003 to 5000 community-dwelling women aged 55-95 years from 10 Canadian provinces. Women were asked questions on 26 health priorities according to the World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health, and their perceptions of whether these priorities were being addressed by health care providers through screening or counselling. Differences in priorities and perceptions of care delivery were examined across age groups and provinces. The response rate was 52%. The mean age of the respondents was 71 (standard deviation 7) years. The health priorities identified most frequently by the respondents were preventing memory loss (88% of the respondents), learning about the side effects of medications (88%) and correcting vision impairment (86%). Items least frequently selected were counselling about community programs (28%), counselling about exercise (33%) and pneumonia vaccination (33%). Up to 97% of the women recalled being adequately screened for heart disease and stroke risk factors, but as little as 11% reported receiving counselling regarding concerns about memory loss or end-of-life issues. Women who stated that specific priorities were of great concern or importance to them were more than twice as likely as those who stated that they were not of great concern or importance to perceive that these priorities were being addressed: osteoporosis (odds ratio [OR] 2.6, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.1- 3.2), end-of-life care (OR 2.6, 95% CI 2.0-3.4), anxiety reduction (OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.8-2.6), fall prevention (OR 2.1, 95

  9. A Nationwide Random Sampling Survey of Potential Complicated Grief in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Yasunao; Kishimoto, Junji; Asukai, Nozomu

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the prevalence of significant loss, potential complicated grief (CG), and its contributing factors, we conducted a nationwide random sampling survey of Japanese adults aged 18 or older (N = 1,343) using a self-rating Japanese-language version of the Complicated Grief Brief Screen. Among them, 37.0% experienced their most significant…

  10. Relationship between Health Literacy, Health-Related Behaviors and Health Status: A Survey of Elderly Chinese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yong-Bing; Liu, Liu; Li, Yan-Fei; Chen, Yan-Li

    2015-01-01

    Background: Despite the large volume of research dedicated to health-related behavior change, chronic disease costs continue to rise, thus creating a major public health burden. Health literacy, the ability to seek, understand, and utilize health information, has been identified as an important factor in the course of chronic conditions. Little research has been conducted on the relationship between health literacy and health-related behaviors and health status in elderly Chinese. The aim of this study was to elucidate the relationship between health literacy and health-related behaviors and health status in China. Methods: The subjects enrolled in this study were selected based on a stratified cluster random sampling design. Information involving >4500 older adults in 44 pension institutions in Urumqi, Changji, Karamay, and Shihezi of Xinjiang between September 2011 and June 2012 was collected. The Chinese Citizen Health Literacy Questionnaire (China Health Education Centre, 2008) and a Scale of the General Status were administered and the information was obtained through face-to-face inquiries by investigators. A total of 1452 respondents met the inclusion criteria. A total of 1452 questionnaires were issued and the valid response rate was 96.14% (1396 of 1452). Factors affecting health literacy and the relationship to health literacy were identified by one-way ANOVA and a multiple linear regression model. Results: The average health literacy level of the elderly in nursing homes was relatively low (71.74 ± 28.35 points). There were significant differences in the health literacy score among the factors of age, gender, race, education level, household income, marital conditions, and former occupation (p 0.05). Multiple linear regression analysis showed that the independent influencing factors of health literacy included education level, race, former occupation, household income, age, physical exercise, health examination, smoking, and health information access (p

  11. Analysis of College Students' Personal Health Information Activities: Online Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sujin; Sinn, Donghee; Syn, Sue Yeon

    2018-04-20

    With abundant personal health information at hand, individuals are faced with a critical challenge in evaluating the informational value of health care records to keep useful information and discard that which is determined useless. Young, healthy college students who were previously dependents of adult parents or caregivers are less likely to be concerned with disease management. Personal health information management (PHIM) is a special case of personal information management (PIM) that is associated with multiple interactions among varying stakeholders and systems. However, there has been limited evidence to understand informational or behavioral underpinning of the college students' PHIM activities, which can influence their health in general throughout their lifetime. This study aimed to investigate demographic and academic profiles of college students with relevance to PHIM activities. Next, we sought to construct major PHIM-related activity components and perceptions among college students. Finally, we sought to discover major factors predicting core PHIM activities among college students we sampled. A Web survey was administered to collect responses about PHIM behaviors and perceptions among college students from the University of Kentucky from January through March 2017. A total of 1408 college students were included in the analysis. PHIM perceptions, demographics, and academic variations were used as independent variables to predict diverse PHIM activities using a principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical regression analyses (SPSS v.24, IBM Corp, Armonk, NY, USA). Majority of the participants were female (956/1408, 67.90%), and the age distribution of this population included an adequate representation of college students of all ages. The most preferred health information resources were family (612/1408, 43.47%), health care professionals (366/1408, 26.00%), friends (27/1408, 1.91%), and the internet (157/1408, 11.15%). Organizational or

  12. Relationship between Health Literacy, Health-Related Behaviors and Health Status: A Survey of Elderly Chinese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Bing Liu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite the large volume of research dedicated to health-related behavior change, chronic disease costs continue to rise, thus creating a major public health burden. Health literacy, the ability to seek, understand, and utilize health information, has been identified as an important factor in the course of chronic conditions. Little research has been conducted on the relationship between health literacy and health-related behaviors and health status in elderly Chinese. The aim of this study was to elucidate the relationship between health literacy and health-related behaviors and health status in China. Methods: The subjects enrolled in this study were selected based on a stratified cluster random sampling design. Information involving >4500 older adults in 44 pension institutions in Urumqi, Changji, Karamay, and Shihezi of Xinjiang between September 2011 and June 2012 was collected. The Chinese Citizen Health Literacy Questionnaire (China Health Education Centre, 2008 and a Scale of the General Status were administered and the information was obtained through face-to-face inquiries by investigators. A total of 1452 respondents met the inclusion criteria. A total of 1452 questionnaires were issued and the valid response rate was 96.14% (1396 of 1452. Factors affecting health literacy and the relationship to health literacy were identified by one-way ANOVA and a multiple linear regression model. Results: The average health literacy level of the elderly in nursing homes was relatively low (71.74 ± 28.35 points. There were significant differences in the health literacy score among the factors of age, gender, race, education level, household income, marital conditions, and former occupation (p < 0.001. The health literacy score was significantly associated with smoking, drinking, physical exercise, and health examination (p < 0.001. The elderly with higher health literacy scores were significantly less likely to have risky behaviors

  13. National nutrition surveys in Asian countries: surveillance and monitoring efforts to improve global health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, SuJin; Song, Won O

    2014-01-01

    Asian regions have been suffering from growing double burden of nutritional health problems, such as undernutrition and chronic diseases. National nutrition survey plays an essential role in helping to improve both national and global health and reduce health disparities. The aim of this review was to compile and present the information on current national nutrition surveys conducted in Asian countries and suggest relevant issues in implementation of national nutrition surveys. Fifteen countries in Asia have conducted national nutrition surveys to collect data on nutrition and health status of the population. The information on national nutrition survey of each country was obtained from government documents, international organizations, survey website of governmental agencies, and publications, including journal articles, books, reports, and brochures. The national nutrition survey of each country has different variables and procedures. Variables of the surveys include sociodemographic and lifestyle variables; foods and beverages intake, dietary habits, and food security of individual or household; and health indicators, such as anthropometric and biochemical variables. The surveys have focused on collecting data about nutritional health status in children aged under five years and women of reproductive ages, nutrition intake adequacy and prevalence of obesity and chronic diseases for all individuals. To measure nutrition and health status of Asian populations accurately, improvement of current dietary assessment methods with various diet evaluation tools is necessary. The information organized in this review is important for researchers, policy makers, public health program developers, educators, and consumers in improving national and global health.

  14. Utilization of health services in relation to mental health problems in adolescents: A population based survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachrisson, Henrik D; Rödje, Kjetil; Mykletun, Arnstein

    2006-01-01

    Background Only a minority of adolescents reporting symptoms above case-levels on screenings for mental health seeks and receives help from specialist health services. The objective of this study was to a) examine help-seeking for symptoms of anxiety and depression in relation to symptom load dimensionally, b) identify the level of specialization in mental health among service-providers, and c) identify associations between mental health problems and contact with different types of health services. Methods This cross-sectional school-based study (response-rate 88%, n = 11154) is based on Norwegian health surveys among 15 and 16 year olds. Results We found a dose-response association between symptom-load and help seeking. Only 34% of individuals with mental symptom-load above 99th percentile reported help-seeking in the last 12 months. Forty percent of help seekers were in contact with specialists (psychiatrists or psychologists), the remaining were mainly in contact with GPs. Mental health problems increased help seeking to all twelve service providers examined. Conclusion It might not be reasonable to argue that all adolescents with case-level mental health problems are in need of treatment. However, concerning the 99th percentile, claiming treatment need is less controversial. Even in the Norwegian context where mental health services are relatively available and free of charge, help-seeking in individuals with the highest symptom-loads is still low. Most help seekers achieved contact with health care providers, half of them at a non specialized level. Our results suggest that adolescents' recognition of mental health problems or intention to seek help for these are the major "filters" restricting treatment. PMID:16480522

  15. A two-phase sampling survey for nonresponse and its paradata to correct nonresponse bias in a health surveillance survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santin, G; Bénézet, L; Geoffroy-Perez, B; Bouyer, J; Guéguen, A

    2017-02-01

    The decline in participation rates in surveys, including epidemiological surveillance surveys, has become a real concern since it may increase nonresponse bias. The aim of this study is to estimate the contribution of a complementary survey among a subsample of nonrespondents, and the additional contribution of paradata in correcting for nonresponse bias in an occupational health surveillance survey. In 2010, 10,000 workers were randomly selected and sent a postal questionnaire. Sociodemographic data were available for the whole sample. After data collection of the questionnaires, a complementary survey among a random subsample of 500 nonrespondents was performed using a questionnaire administered by an interviewer. Paradata were collected for the complete subsample of the complementary survey. Nonresponse bias in the initial sample and in the combined samples were assessed using variables from administrative databases available for the whole sample, not subject to differential measurement errors. Corrected prevalences by reweighting technique were estimated by first using the initial survey alone and then the initial and complementary surveys combined, under several assumptions regarding the missing data process. Results were compared by computing relative errors. The response rates of the initial and complementary surveys were 23.6% and 62.6%, respectively. For the initial and the combined surveys, the relative errors decreased after correction for nonresponse on sociodemographic variables. For the combined surveys without paradata, relative errors decreased compared with the initial survey. The contribution of the paradata was weak. When a complex descriptive survey has a low response rate, a short complementary survey among nonrespondents with a protocol which aims to maximize the response rates, is useful. The contribution of sociodemographic variables in correcting for nonresponse bias is important whereas the additional contribution of paradata in

  16. Health Physics Enrollments and Degrees Survey, 2008 Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The survey includes degrees granted between September 1, 2007 and August 31, 2008. Enrollment information refers to the fall term 2008. Twenty-six academic programs were included in the survey universe, and all 26 programs provided data

  17. Potential health impacts of burning coal beds and waste banks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelman, R.B.

    2004-01-01

    Uncontrolled release of pollutants from burning coal beds and waste banks presents potential environmental and human health hazards. On a global scale, the emissions of large volumes of greenhouse gases from burning coal beds may contribute to climate change that alters ecosystems and patterns of disease occurrence. On regional and local scales, the emissions from burning coal beds and waste banks of acidic gases, particulates, organic compounds, and trace elements can contribute to a range of respiratory and other human health problems. Although there are few published reports of health problems caused by these emissions, the potential for problems can be significant. In India, large numbers of people have been displaced from their homes because of health problems caused by emissions from burning coal beds. Volatile elements such as arsenic, fluorine, mercury, and selenium are commonly enriched in coal deposits. Burning coal beds can volatilize these elements, which then can be inhaled, or adsorbed on crops and foods, taken up by livestock or bioaccumulated in birds and fish. Some of these elements can condense on dust particles that can be inhaled or ingested. In addition, selenium, arsenic, lead, tin, bismuth, fluorine, and other elements condense where the hot gaseous emissions come in contact with ambient air, forming mats of concentrated efflorescent minerals on the surface of the ground. These mats can be leached by rainwater and washed into local water bodies providing other potential routes of exposure. Although there are little data linking burning coal beds and waste banks to known health problems, a possibly analogous situation exists in rural China where mineralized coal burned in a residential environment has caused widespread and severe health problems such as fluorosis and arseniasis. ?? 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Workplace relationships impact self-rated health: A survey of Swedish municipal health care employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Sophie Schön; Lindström, Petra Nilsson; Pettersson, Pär; Andersson, Ingemar

    2018-05-22

    The impact of positive social relationships on the health of municipal employees in the elder care sector in Sweden needs further examination. To explore the association between health and relationships among elderly care employees using a salutogenic perspective. Survey of all employees (n = 997) in special housing, home care and Disabled Support and Services in a Swedish municipality. The questionnaire, which had a salutogenic perspective, included information on self-rated health from the previously validated SHIS (Salutogenic Health Indicator Scale), psychosocial work environment and experiences, social climate, and health-promoting workplace relationships. The response rate was 69% . Results of a multivariable linear regression model showed four significant predictors of health: general work experiences, colleague belongingness and positive relationships with managers and care recipients. In another model, colleague belongingness was significantly related to satisfaction with care recipients, work, length of employment as well as general work experiences and relationships with managers. Strengthening of positive work relationships, not only between workmates but also with managers and care recipients, seems to be an essential area for employee health promotion. Colleague belongingness may be deepened by development of a positive work climate, including satisfactory work experiences, positive manager relationships and a stable work force.

  19. Health Conditions and Passive Suicidal Ideation in the Survey of Health, Ageing, and Retirement in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Kimberly; Turiano, Nicholas A.; Fiske, Amy

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the associations between health conditions and passive suicidal ideation in middle-aged and older adults. Method: Multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted on data from 35,664 middle-aged and older adults from the Survey of Health, Ageing, and Retirement in Europe. Mediation analyses were also conducted to test the roles of disability and depression in risk of ideation. Results: After including demographic variables, disability, depression, and other health conditions as covariates, heart attack, diabetes/high blood sugar, chronic lung disease, arthritis, ulcer, and hip/femoral fractures were associated with increased odds of passive suicidal ideation. When grouped by organ systems, conditions affecting the endocrine, respiratory, and musculoskeletal systems were associated with increased odds of passive suicidal ideation, as was the total number of conditions. Individuals with greater numbers of health conditions exhibited greater levels of disability and depression, which partially explained the increased risk of passive suicidal ideation among those with more health conditions. Discussion: Certain specific health conditions, as well as total number of conditions, are associated with passive suicidal ideation in middle age and older adulthood. Health is a critical risk factor for suicidal ideation in late life and should be further studied in this particularly at-risk population. PMID:27013533

  20. Health Physics Enrollments and Degrees Survey, 2002 Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education

    2003-01-01

    The survey includes degrees granted between July 1, 2001 and June 30, 2002. Enrollment information refers to the fall term 2002. Thirty-six academic programs at 35 different institutions were in the survey universe and all responded (100% response rate). Several of these programs did not have any degrees awarded during the time period. Five programs included in the 2001 survey were either discontinued or out-of-scope and not included in 2002 survey

  1. Health Physics Enrollments and Degrees Survey, 2003 Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education

    2004-01-01

    The survey includes degrees granted between September 1, 2002 and August 31, 2003. Enrollment information refers to the fall term 2003. Thirty-four academic programs at 33 different institutions were included in the survey universe with all responding (100% response rate). Several of the programs did not have any degrees awarded during the time period. Two programs included in the 2002 survey were either discontinued or out-of-scope and not included in 2003 survey

  2. Potential effects on health of radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sousselier, Y.; Parmentier, N.

    1983-07-01

    Radioactive waste is considered to represent a potential health risk for future generation by a section of the public. The main point is that waste management must follow very strict guidelines. The radioactive waste treatment, packaging and disposal are rewieved and discussed from a safety point of view. Health physics aspects are then analysed. The major difficulties for the prediction of exposure are mainly due to the very long time periods involved. Models are studied and carried out for the prediction of radiological consequences for the transport of radioactivity through the different modules

  3. Illinois department of public health H1N1/A pandemic communications evaluation survey.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, D.; Decision and Information Sciences

    2010-09-16

    Because of heightened media coverage, a 24-hour news cycle and the potential miscommunication of health messages across all levels of government during the onset of the H1N1 influenza outbreak in spring 2009, the Illinois Department of Public Health (IDPH) decided to evaluate its H1N1 influenza A communications system. IDPH wanted to confirm its disease information and instructions were helping stakeholders prepare for and respond to a novel influenza outbreak. In addition, the time commitment involved in preparing, issuing, monitoring, updating, and responding to H1N1 federal guidelines/updates and media stories became a heavy burden for IDPH staff. The process and results of the H1N1 messaging survey represent a best practice that other health departments and emergency management agencies can replicate to improve coordination efforts with stakeholder groups during both emergency preparedness and response phases. Importantly, the H1N1 survey confirmed IDPH's messages were influencing stakeholders decisions to activate their pandemic plans and initiate response operations. While there was some dissatisfaction with IDPH's delivery of information and communication tools, such as the fax system, this report should demonstrate to IDPH that its core partners believe it has the ability and expertise to issue timely and accurate instructions that can help them respond to a large-scale disease outbreak in Illinois. The conclusion will focus on three main areas: (1) the survey development process, (2) survey results: best practices and areas for improvement and (3) recommendations: next steps.

  4. Medicinal Cannabis: A Survey Among Health Care Providers in Washington State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlini, Beatriz H; Garrett, Sharon B; Carter, Gregory T

    2017-02-01

    Washington State allows marijuana use for medical (since 1998) and recreational (since 2012) purposes. The benefits of medicinal cannabis (MC) can be maximized if clinicians educate patients about dosing, routes of administration, side effects, and plant composition. However, little is known about clinicians' knowledge and practices in Washington State. An anonymous online survey assessed providers' MC knowledge, beliefs, clinical practices, and training needs. The survey was disseminated through health care providers' professional organizations in Washington State. Descriptive analysis compared providers who had and had not authorized MC for patients. Survey results informed the approach and content of an online training on best clinical practices of MC. Four hundred ninety-four health care providers responded to the survey. Approximately two-third were women, aged 30 to 60 years, and working in family or internal medicine. More than half of the respondents were legally allowed to write MC authorizations per Washington State law, and 27% of those had issued written MC authorizations. Overall, respondents reported low knowledge and comfort level related to recommending MC. Respondents rated MC knowledge as important and supported inclusion of MC training in medical/health provider curriculum. Most Washington State providers have not received education on scientific basis of MC or training on best clinical practices of MC. Clinicians who had issued MC authorizations were more likely to have received MC training than those who had not issued MC authorization. The potential of MCs to benefit some patients is hindered by the lack of comfort of clinicians to recommend it. Training opportunities are badly needed to address these issues.

  5. Global Health Education in Gastroenterology Fellowship: A National Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jirapinyo, Pichamol; Hunt, Rachel S; Tabak, Ying P; Proctor, Deborah D; Makrauer, Frederick L

    2016-12-01

    Interest in global health (GH) education is increasing across disciplines. To assess exposure to and perception of GH training among gastroenterology fellows and program directors across the USA. Design: Electronic survey study. The questionnaire was circulated to accredited US gastroenterology fellowship programs, with the assistance of the American Gastroenterological Association. Gastroenterology program directors and fellows. The questionnaire was returned by 127 respondents (47 program directors, 78 fellows) from 55 training programs (36 % of all training programs). 61 % of respondents had prior experience in GH. 17 % of programs offered GH curriculum with international elective (13 %), didactic (9 %), and research activity (7 %) being the most common. Fellows had adequate experience managing hepatitis B (93 %), cholangiocarcinoma (84 %), and intrahepatic duct stones (84 %). 74, 69 and 68 % reported having little to no experience managing hepatitis E, tuberculosis mesenteritis, or epidemic infectious enteritis, respectively. Most fellows would participate in an elective in an underserved area locally (81 %) or a 4-week elective abroad (71 %), if available. 44 % of fellows planned on working or volunteering abroad after fellowship. Barriers to establishing GH curriculum included funding (94 %), scheduling (88 %), and a lack of standardized objectives (78 %). Lack of interest, however, was not a concern. Fellows (49 %), more than faculty (29 %) (χ 2  = 21.9; p = 0.03), believed that GH education should be included in fellowship curriculum. Program directors and trainees recognize the importance of GH education. However, only 17 % of ACGME-approved fellowship programs offer the opportunity. Global health curriculum may enhance gastroenterology training.

  6. Socioeconomic Inequalities in Mental Health of Adult Population: Serbian National Health Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Santric Milicevic

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The global burden of mental disorders is rising. In Serbia, anxiety is the leading cause of disability-adjusted life years. Serbia has no mental health survey at the population level. The information on prevalence of mental disorders and related socioeconomic inequalities are valuable for mental care improvement. Aims: То explore the prevalence of mental health disorders and socioeconomic inequalities in mental health of adult Serbian population, and to explore whether age years and employment status interact with mental health in urban and rural settlements. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Methods: This study is an additional analysis of Serbian Health Survey 2006 that was carried out with standardized household questionnaires at the representative sample of 7673 randomly selected households – 15563 adults. The response rate was 93%. A multivariate logistic regression modeling highlighted the predictors of the 5 item Mental Health Inventory (MHI-5, and of chronic anxiety or depression within eight independent variables (age, gender, type of settlement, marital status and self-perceived health, education, employment status and Wealth Index. The significance level in descriptive statistics, chi square analysis and bivariate and multivariate logistic regressions was set at p<0.05. Results: Chronic anxiety or depression was seen in 4.9% of the respondents, and poor MHI-5 in 47% of respondents. Low education (Odds Ratios 1.32; 95% confidence intervals=1.16-1.51, unemployment (1.36; 1.18-1.56, single status (1.34; 1.23-1.45, and Wealth Index middle class (1.20; 1.08-1.32 or poor (1.33; 1.21-1.47 were significantly related with poor MHI-5. Unemployed persons in urban settlements had higher odds for poormMHI-5 than unemployed in rural areas (0.73; 0.59-0.89. Single (1.50; 1.26-1.78, unemployed (1.39; 1.07-1.80 and inactive respondents (1.42; 1.10-1.83 had a higher odds of chronic anxiety or depression than married individuals, or

  7. A survey on management perspectives of the state of workplace health and safety practices in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbakaya, C F; Onyoyo, H A; Lwaki, S A; Omondi, O J

    1999-07-01

    A baseline survey was conducted in 1995 on management perspectives of occupational health and safety (OHS) structures and practices in Kenya. This was achieved by interviewing management and supervisory staff attending 1 week multi-disciplinary courses that were organized by the Federation of Kenya Employers (FKE) and the International Labour Office (ILO) at hotel venues in Kenya. The purpose of the survey was to gain some insight into work safety conditions in Kenya and to assess the potential for a new OHS manual to meet existing knowledge gaps. The manual was locally developed in 1993/4 by Kenyan OHS experts in collaboration with colleagues from the Swedish National Institute for Working Life. Results of the survey from 65 participants indicated that most workplace managers were not familiar with the Kenyan work safety legislation. Work injuries were largely attributable to working with dangerous machinery. Occupational diseases and HIV/AIDS were cited as other causes of workplace morbidity and mortality. Although most respondents (70%) were satisfied with their work safety conditions, only 37% said their workplaces were annually audited by labour inspectors while 45% said injured workers were not treated well by management. Many workplaces (65%) violated the mandatory legal requirement on the establishment of health and safety committees. The OHS resource person and course content were rated highly by most respondents (96%). The foregoing results provided the basis of a needs analysis for future OHS programs in Kenya.

  8. Survey of potential light water reactor fuel rod failure mechanisms and damage limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courtright, E.L.

    1979-07-01

    The findings and conclusions are presented of a survey to evaluate current information applicable to the development of fuel rod damage and failure limits for light water reactor fuel elements. The survey includes a review of past fuel failures, and identifies potential damage and failure mechanisms for both steady state operating conditions and postulated accident events. Possible relationships between the various damage and failure mechanisms are also proposed. The report identifies limiting criteria where possible, but concludes that sufficient data are not currently available in many important areas

  9. Survey of insulation used in nuclear power plants and the potential for debris generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolbe, R.; Gahan, E.

    1982-05-01

    In support of Unresolved Safety Issue, USI A-43, Containment emergency Sump Performance, 8 additional nuclear power plants (representative of different US reactor manufacturers and architect-engineers) were surveyed to identify and document the types and amounts of insulation used, location within containment, components insulated, material characteristics, and methods of installation and attachment. These plants were selected to obtain survey information on older plants and supplements information previously reported in NUREG/CR-2403. In addition, a preliminary assessment was made of the potential for migration to the emergency sump of the insulation debris which might be generated as a result of the postulated loss-of-coolant accident

  10. Health survey of atomic bomb survivors in South Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arita, Ken-ichi; Iwamori, Hiroshi; Kishi, Akihiro; Koutoku, Michiya

    1988-05-01

    Health survey was undertaken among Korea survivors exposed to atomic bomb in Japan who now reside in South Korea. Of 232 A-bomb survivors on whom raditation exposure information was available, all were exposed to atomic bomb in Hiroshima. According to the distance from the hypocenter, one (0.4 %) A-bomb survior was exposed at < 1,000 m, 60 (25.9 %) at 1,000 - 2,000 m, 124 (53.4 %) at > 2,000 - 3,000 m, and 43 (18.5 %) at < 3,000 m. In the four remaining, it was unknown. According to age, 14.7 % were in their forties, 33.6 % in their fifties, 32.6 % in their sixties, 16.0 % in their severties, and 3.1 % in their eighties, indicating the tendency for the aging of older persons. Common subjective symptoms were lumbar pain and joint pain, which seemed atributable to osteoarthritis. Other diseases included hypertension, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, sequelae of cerebral stroke, eczema, and mycosis. (Namekawa, K.).

  11. Calcium intake by adolescents: a population-based health survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Assumpção, Daniela; Dias, Marcia Regina Messaggi Gomes; de Azevedo Barros, Marilisa Berti; Fisberg, Regina Mara; de Azevedo Barros Filho, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    To analyze calcium intake in adolescents according to sociodemographic variables, health-related behaviors, morbidities, and body mass index. This was a cross-sectional population-based study, with a two-stage cluster sampling that used data from a survey conducted in Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil, between 2008 and 2009. Food intake was assessed using a 24-hour dietary recall. The study included 913 adolescents aged 10-19 years. Average nutrient intake was significantly lower in the segment with lower education of the head of the family and lower per capita family income, in individuals from other cities or states, those who consumed fruit less than four times a week, those who did not drink milk daily, those who were smokers, and those who reported the occurrence of headaches and dizziness. Higher mean calcium intake was found in individuals that slept less than seven hours a day. The prevalence of calcium intake below the recommendation was 88.6% (95% CI: 85.4-91.2). The results alert to an insufficient calcium intake and suggest that certain subgroups of adolescents need specific strategies to increase the intake of this nutrient. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  12. Calcium intake by adolescents: a population-based health survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela de Assumpção

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To analyze calcium intake in adolescents according to sociodemographic variables, health-related behaviors, morbidities, and body mass index. Methods This was a cross-sectional population-based study, with a two-stage cluster sampling that used data from a survey conducted in Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil, between 2008 and 2009. Food intake was assessed using a 24-hour dietary recall. The study included 913 adolescents aged 10-19 years. Results Average nutrient intake was significantly lower in the segment with lower education of the head of the family and lower per capita family income, in individuals from other cities or states, those who consumed fruit less than four times a week, those who did not drink milk daily, those who were smokers, and those who reported the occurrence of headaches and dizziness. Higher mean calcium intake was found in individuals that slept less than seven hours a day. The prevalence of calcium intake below the recommendation was 88.6% (95% CI: 85.4-91.2. Conclusion The results alert to an insufficient calcium intake and suggest that certain subgroups of adolescents need specific strategies to increase the intake of this nutrient.

  13. The FAA Health Awareness Program: Results of the 1998 Customer Service Assessment Survey

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hilton, Thomas

    2000-01-01

    This report presents the results of an agency-wide survey of employee health and wellness to determine workforce involvement in and satisfaction with the Federal Aviation Administration's Health Awareness Program (HAP...

  14. National Pregnancy and Health Survey: Drug Use Among Women Delivering Live Births (NPHS-1992)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The primary objective of the National Pregnancy and Health Survey (NPHS) was to produce national annual estimates of the percentages and numbers of mothers of live...

  15. Recessions and seniors' health, health behaviors, and healthcare use: analysis of the Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McInerney, Melissa; Mellor, Jennifer M

    2012-09-01

    A number of studies report that U.S. state mortality rates, particularly for the elderly, decline during economic downturns. Further, several prior studies use microdata to show that as state unemployment rates rise, physical health improves, unhealthy behaviors decrease, and medical care use declines. We use data on elderly mortality rates and data from the Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey from a time period that encompasses the start of the Great Recession. We find that elderly mortality is countercyclical during most of the 1994-2008 period. Further, as unemployment rates rise, seniors report worse mental health and are no more likely to engage in healthier behaviors. We find suggestive evidence that inpatient utilization increases perhaps because of an increased physician willingness to accept Medicare patients. Our findings suggest that either elderly individuals respond differently to recessions than do working age adults, or that the relationship between unemployment and health has changed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Forest Cover Associated with Improved Child Health and Nutrition: Evidence from the Malawi Demographic and Health Survey and Satellite Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kiersten B.; Jacob, Anila; Brown, Molly Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Healthy forests provide human communities with a host of important ecosystem services, including the provision of food, clean water, fuel, and natural medicines. Yet globally, about 13 million hectares of forests are lost every year, with the biggest losses in Africa and South America. As biodiversity loss and ecosystem degradation due to deforestation continue at unprecedented rates, with concomitant loss of ecosystem services, impacts on human health remain poorly understood. Here, we use data from the 2010 Malawi Demographic and Health Survey, linked with satellite remote sensing data on forest cover, to explore and better understand this relationship. Our analysis finds that forest cover is associated with improved health and nutrition outcomes among children in Malawi. Children living in areas with net forest cover loss between 2000 and 2010 were 19% less likely to have a diverse diet and 29% less likely to consume vitamin A-rich foods than children living in areas with no net change in forest cover. Conversely, children living in communities with higher percentages of forest cover were more likely to consume vitamin A-rich foods and less likely to experience diarrhea. Net gain in forest cover over the 10-year period was associated with a 34% decrease in the odds of children experiencing diarrhea (P5.002). Given that our analysis relied on observational data and that there were potential unknown factors for which we could not account, these preliminary findings demonstrate only associations, not causal relationships, between forest cover and child health and nutrition outcomes. However, the findings raise concerns about the potential short- and long-term impacts of ongoing deforestation and ecosystem degradation on community health in Malawi, and they suggest that preventing forest loss and maintaining the ecosystems services of forests are important factors in improving human health and nutrition outcomes.

  17. Organizational capacity for chronic disease prevention: a survey of Canadian public health organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanusaik, Nancy; O'Loughlin, Jennifer L; Kishchuk, Natalie; Paradis, Gilles; Cameron, Roy

    2010-04-01

    There are no national data on levels of organizational capacity within the Canadian public health system to reduce the burden of chronic disease. Cross-sectional data were collected in a national survey (October 2004 to April 2005) of all 216 national, provincial and regional-level organizations engaged in chronic disease prevention through primary prevention or healthy lifestyle promotion. Levels of organizational capacity (defined as skills and resources to implement chronic disease prevention programmes), potential determinants of organizational capacity and involvement in chronic disease prevention programming were compared in western, central and eastern Canada and across three types of organizations (formal public health organizations, non-governmental organizations and grouped organizations). Forty percent of organizations were located in Central Canada. Approximately 50% were formal public health organizations. Levels of skill and involvement were highest for activities that addressed tobacco control and healthy eating; lowest for stress management, social determinants of health and programme evaluation. The few notable differences in skill levels by provincial grouping favoured Central Canada. Resource adequacy was rated low across the country; but was lowest in eastern Canada and among formal public health organizations. Determinants of organizational capacity (organizational supports and partnerships) were highest in central Canada and among grouped organizations. These data provide an evidence base to identify strengths and gaps in organizational capacity and involvement in chronic disease prevention programming in the organizations that comprise the Canadian public health system.

  18. Measuring population health: costs of alternative survey approaches in the Nouna Health and Demographic Surveillance System in rural Burkina Faso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrike Lietz

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: There are more than 40 Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS sites in 19 different countries. The running costs of HDSS sites are high. The financing of HDSS activities is of major importance, and adding external health surveys to the HDSS is challenging. To investigate the ways of improving data quality and collection efficiency in the Nouna HDSS in Burkina Faso, the stand-alone data collection activities of the HDSS and the Household Morbidity Survey (HMS were integrated, and the paper-based questionnaires were consolidated into a single tablet-based questionnaire, the Comprehensive Disease Assessment (CDA. Objective: The aims of this study are to estimate and compare the implementation costs of the two different survey approaches for measuring population health. Design: All financial costs of stand-alone (HDSS and HMS and integrated (CDA surveys were estimated from the perspective of the implementing agency. Fixed and variable costs of survey implementation and key cost drivers were identified. The costs per household visit were calculated for both survey approaches. Results: While fixed costs of survey implementation were similar for the two survey approaches, there were considerable variations in variable costs, resulting in an estimated annual cost saving of about US$45,000 under the integrated survey approach. This was primarily because the costs of data management for the tablet-based CDA survey were considerably lower than for the paper-based stand-alone surveys. The cost per household visit from the integrated survey approach was US$21 compared with US$25 from the stand-alone surveys for collecting the same amount of information from 10,000 HDSS households. Conclusions: The CDA tablet-based survey method appears to be feasible and efficient for collecting health and demographic data in the Nouna HDSS in rural Burkina Faso. The possibility of using the tablet-based data collection platform to improve the quality

  19. Oral Health and Risk of Arthritis in the Scottish Population: Results from the Scottish Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbood, Hadeel Mohammed; Cherukara, George; Pathan, Ejaz; Macfarlane, Tatiana V

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the link between self-reported oral health and arthritis in the Scottish population using data from the Scottish Health Survey. Data were available from 2008 to 2013 on self-reported arthritis, oral health conditions and oral hygiene habits from the Scottish Health Survey. Arthritis was defined in this survey by self-reported long standing illness, those who reported having arthritis, rheumatism and/or fibrositis. Oral conditions were defined by self-reported bleeding gums, toothache, biting difficulties and/or edentulousness. Oral hygiene habits were defined by self-reported brushing teeth and/or using dental floss on daily basis. Logistic regression was used for statistical analysis adjusted for age, gender, qualification, smoking and body mass index. Prevalence of self-reported arthritis was 9.3% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 9.03 to 9.57). Those who reported having bleeding gums (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 1.63; 95% CI = 1.35 to 1.96), toothache (OR = 1.32; 95% CI = 1.16 to 1.5), biting difficulties (OR = 1.95; 95% CI = 1.62 to 2.34), and being edentulous (OR = 1.22; 95% CI = 1.08 to 1.37) had an increased risk of arthritis. Brushing teeth (OR = 1.25; 95% CI = 0.74 to 2.12), and using dental floss (OR = 1.11; 95% CI = 0.89 to 1.39) were not associated with arthritis. Self-reported oral conditions were associated with increased risk of self-reported arthritis. Oral hygiene habits were not associated with self-reported arthritis. Further investigation is required to assess the causal association between oral hygiene, oral disease and arthritis.

  20. Potential Health Impacts of Bauxite Mining in Kuantan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Noor Hisham; Mohamed, Norlen; Sulaiman, Lokman Hakim; Zakaria, Thahirahtul Asma; Rahim, Daud Abdul

    2016-05-01

    Bauxite mining is not known to most Malaysian except recently due to environmental pollution issues in Kuantan, Pahang. Potential impacts are expected to go beyond physical environment and physical illness if the situation is not controlled. Loss of economic potentials, and the presence of unpleasant red dust causing mental distress, anger and community outrage. More studies are needed to associate it with chronic physical illness. While evidences are vital for action, merely waiting for a disease to occur is a sign of failure in prevention. All responsible agencies should focus on a wider aspect of health determinants rather than merely on the occurrence of diseases to act and the need to emphasize on sustainable mining to ensure health of people is not compromised.

  1. Mental Health Status of Double Minority Adolescents: Findings from National Cross-Sectional Health Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Szu-Ying; Fleming, Theresa; Lucassen, Mathijs; Fenaughty, John; Clark, Terryann; Denny, Simon

    2017-06-01

    Little population-based work has been published about the mental health of adolescents with both sexual/gender (SG) and ethnic minority (i.e. double minority) status. This study aimed to provide an overview on their mental health. Analysis of data from a total of 17,607 high school students from New Zealand's 2007 and 2012 cross-sectional nationally representative Adolescent Health Surveys, including a total of 1306 (7.4%) SG minority participants, of whom 581 (3.3%) were also an ethnic minority. SG minority status, minority ethnicity, and female sex were associated with higher mental distress and poorer well-being. Generally speaking, double minority students reported poorer mental health than SG majority students of the same ethnicity, but reported better mental health than SG minority New Zealand European students. Explanations and future directions for research were suggested to further explore how double minority students negotiate mental health in the context of their communities/cultures in New Zealand.

  2. Economic hardships in adulthood and mental health in Sweden. The Swedish National Public Health Survey 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahnquist, Johanna; Wamala, Sarah P

    2011-10-11

    Possible accumulative effects of a combined economic hardship's measure, including both income and non-income related economic hardships measures, on mental health has not been well investigated. The aim of this paper was to investigate; (i) independent associations between multiple measures of economic hardships and mental health problems, and (ii) associations between a combined economic hardships measure and mental health problems. We analysed data from the 2009 Swedish National Survey of Public Health comprising a randomly selected representative national sample combined with a randomly selected supplementary sample from four county councils and three municipalities consisting of 23,153 men and 28,261 women aged 16-84 years. Mental health problems included; psychological distress (GHQ-12), severe anxiety and use of antidepressant medication. Economic hardship was measured by a combined economic hardships measure including low household income, inability to meet expenses and lacking cash reserves. The results from multivariate adjusted (age, country of birth, educational level, occupational status, employment status, family status and long term illness) logistic regression analysis indicate that self-reported current economic difficulties (inability to pay for ordinary bills and lack of cash reserves), were significantly associated with both women's and men's mental health problems (all indicators), while low income was not. In addition, we found a statistically significant graded association between mental health problems and levels of economic hardships. The findings indicate that indicators of self-reported current economic difficulties seem to be more strongly associated with poor mental health outcomes than the more conventional measure low income. Furthermore, the likelihood of mental health problems differed significantly in a graded fashion in relation to levels of economic hardships.

  3. Economic hardships in adulthood and mental health in Sweden. the Swedish National Public Health Survey 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahnquist Johanna

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Possible accumulative effects of a combined economic hardship's measure, including both income and non-income related economic hardships measures, on mental health has not been well investigated. The aim of this paper was to investigate; (i independent associations between multiple measures of economic hardships and mental health problems, and (ii associations between a combined economic hardships measure and mental health problems. Methods We analysed data from the 2009 Swedish National Survey of Public Health comprising a randomly selected representative national sample combined with a randomly selected supplementary sample from four county councils and three municipalities consisting of 23,153 men and 28,261 women aged 16-84 years. Mental health problems included; psychological distress (GHQ-12, severe anxiety and use of antidepressant medication. Economic hardship was measured by a combined economic hardships measure including low household income, inability to meet expenses and lacking cash reserves. Results The results from multivariate adjusted (age, country of birth, educational level, occupational status, employment status, family status and long term illness logistic regression analysis indicate that self-reported current economic difficulties (inability to pay for ordinary bills and lack of cash reserves, were significantly associated with both women's and men's mental health problems (all indicators, while low income was not. In addition, we found a statistically significant graded association between mental health problems and levels of economic hardships. Conclusions The findings indicate that indicators of self-reported current economic difficulties seem to be more strongly associated with poor mental health outcomes than the more conventional measure low income. Furthermore, the likelihood of mental health problems differed significantly in a graded fashion in relation to levels of economic hardships.

  4. Risk factors in equine transport-related health problems: A survey of the Australian equine industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padalino, B; Raidal, S L; Hall, E; Knight, P; Celi, P; Jeffcott, L; Muscatello, G

    2017-07-01

    Transportation can affect equine health and is a potential source of economic loss to the industry. To identify journey (duration, vehicle, commercial or noncommercial) and horse (sex, age, breed, use, amateur or professional status) characteristics associated with the development of transport-related health problems in horses. Cross-sectional online survey. An online survey was conducted targeting amateur and professional participants in the Australian equine industry; eligible respondents were required to organise horse movements at least monthly. Respondents provided details of the last case of a transport-related health problem that had affected their horse(s). Associations between type of health problem, journey and horse characteristics were examined with multivariable multinomial regression analysis. Based on 214 responses, health problems were classified as injuries, muscular problems, heat stroke, gastrointestinal and respiratory problems, and death or euthanasia. Respiratory problems were reported most frequently (33.7%), followed by gastrointestinal problems (23.8%) and traumatic injuries (16.3%). The type of health problem was associated with journey duration (Pproblems, and death or euthanasia) were more likely to occur on long journeys. Using Standardbreds as the reference group, Thoroughbreds, Arabians and Warmbloods were more likely to experience a severe illness than an injury. Self-selected participation in the study and the self-reported nature of transport-related problems. Horses undertaking journeys of longer than 24 h are at greater risk for the development of severe disease or death. Further studies on long-haul transportation effects are required to safeguard the welfare of horses moved over long distances. © 2016 EVJ Ltd.

  5. A survey of the governance capacity of national public health associations to enhance population health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauvin, James; Shukla, Mahesh; Rice, James; Rispel, Laetitia

    2016-03-11

    National public health associations (PHAs) are key partners with governments and communities to improve, protect and promote the public's health. Governance and organizational capacity are among the key determinants of a PHA's effectiveness as an advocate for appropriate public health policies and practice. During 2014, the World Federation of Public Health Associations (WFPHA) conducted an on-line survey of its 82 PHA members, to identify the state of organizational governance of national public health associations, as well as the factors that influence optimal organizational governance. The survey consisted of 13 questions and focused on the main elements of organizational governance: cultivating accountability; engaging stakeholders; setting shared direction; stewarding resources; and, continuous governance enhancement. Four questions included a qualitative open-ended response for additional comments. The survey data were analyzed using Microsoft Excel. The qualitative data was analyzed using thematic content analysis Responses were received from 62 PHAs, constituting a 75.6 % response rate. The two most important factors that support governance effectiveness were a high degree of integrity and ethical behavior of the PHA's leaders (77 %) and the competence of people serving on the PHA's governing body (76 %). The lack of financial resources was considered as the most important factor that negatively affected organizational governance effectiveness (73 %). The lack of mentoring for future PHA leaders; ineffective or incompetent leadership; lack of understanding about good governance practices; and lack of accurate information for strategic planning were identified as factors influencing PHA governance effectiveness. Critical elements for PHA sustainability included diversity, gender-responsiveness and inclusive governance practices, and strategies to build the future generation of public health leaders. National PHA have a responsibility to put into place

  6. A survey of the governance capacity of national public health associations to enhance population health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Chauvin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background National public health associations (PHAs are key partners with governments and communities to improve, protect and promote the public’s health. Governance and organizational capacity are among the key determinants of a PHA’s effectiveness as an advocate for appropriate public health policies and practice. Methods During 2014, the World Federation of Public Health Associations (WFPHA conducted an on-line survey of its 82 PHA members, to identify the state of organizational governance of national public health associations, as well as the factors that influence optimal organizational governance. The survey consisted of 13 questions and focused on the main elements of organizational governance: cultivating accountability; engaging stakeholders; setting shared direction; stewarding resources; and, continuous governance enhancement. Four questions included a qualitative open-ended response for additional comments. The survey data were analyzed using Microsoft Excel. The qualitative data was analyzed using thematic content analysis Results Responses were received from 62 PHAs, constituting a 75.6 % response rate. The two most important factors that support governance effectiveness were a high degree of integrity and ethical behavior of the PHA’s leaders (77 % and the competence of people serving on the PHA’s governing body (76 %. The lack of financial resources was considered as the most important factor that negatively affected organizational governance effectiveness (73 %. The lack of mentoring for future PHA leaders; ineffective or incompetent leadership; lack of understanding about good governance practices; and lack of accurate information for strategic planning were identified as factors influencing PHA governance effectiveness. Critical elements for PHA sustainability included diversity, gender-responsiveness and inclusive governance practices, and strategies to build the future generation of public health

  7. Internet usage and potential impact for acute care hospitals: survey in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatcher, M

    1998-12-01

    These survey results are from a national survey of acute care hospitals. A random sample of 813 hospitals was selected with 115 responding and 33 incorrect addresses resulting in a 15% response rate. The purpose of the study was to measure the extent of information systems integration in the financial, medical, and administrative systems of the hospitals. Internet usage including homepages and advertising was measured. Other selected telecommunication applications are analyzed. As demonstration projects from the literature are compared to the survey results, the potential for hospitals is tremendous. Resulting cost savings could be equally impressive. This information will provide a benchmark for hospitals to determine their position relative to Internet technology and to set goals.

  8. Weight Management Advice for Clients with Overweight or Obesity: Allied Health Professional Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne J. Snodgrass

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of obesity is increasing. The potential for allied health professionals to intervene through the provision of lifestyle advice is unknown. This study aimed to determine the knowledge, attitudes and practices of health professionals in the provision of dietary and physical activity advice for clients with overweight or obesity. Dietitians, exercise physiologists, nurses, occupational therapists, physiotherapists and psychologists (n = 296 working in New South Wales were surveyed using paper-based and online methods. The majority of health professionals (71% believed that providing weight management advice was within their scope of practice; 81% provided physical activity advice but only 57% provided dietary advice. Other than dietitians, few had received training in client weight management during their professional qualification (14% or continuing education (16%. Providing dietary advice was associated with: believing it was within their scope of practice (OR 3.9, 95% CI 1.9–7.9, p < 0.01, training during their entry-level qualification (OR 7.2, 3.2–16.4, p < 0.01 and having departmental guidelines (OR 4.7, 2.1–10.9, p < 0.01. Most health professionals are willing to provide lifestyle advice to clients with overweight or obesity but few have received required training. Developing guidelines and training for in client weight management may potentially impact on rising obesity levels.

  9. Smartphone Ownership Among US Adult Cigarette Smokers: 2014 Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS) Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heffner, Jaimee L; Mull, Kristin E

    2017-08-31

    Despite increasing interest in smartphone apps as a platform for delivery of tobacco cessation interventions, no previous studies have evaluated the prevalence and characteristics of smokers who can access smartphone-delivered interventions. To guide treatment development in this new platform and to evaluate disparities in access to smartphone-delivered interventions, we examined associations of smartphone ownership with demographics, tobacco use and thoughts about quitting, other health behaviors, physical and mental health, health care access, and Internet and technology utilization using a nationally representative sample of US adult smokers. Data were from the National Cancer Institute's 2014 Health Information National Trends Survey 4 (HINTS 4), Cycle 4. This mailed survey targeted noninstitutionalized individuals aged 18 years or older using two-stage stratified random sampling. For this analysis, we restricted the sample to current smokers with complete data on smartphone ownership (n=479). Nearly two-thirds (weighted percent=63.8%, 248/479) of smokers reported owning a smartphone. Those who were younger (P<.001), employed (P=.002), never married (P=.002), and had higher education (P=.002) and income (P<.001) had the highest rates of ownership. Smartphone owners did not differ from nonowners on frequency of smoking, recent quit attempts, or future plans to quit smoking, although they reported greater belief in the benefits of quitting (P=.04). Despite being equally likely to be overweight or obese, smartphone owners reported greater fruit and vegetable consumption (P=.03) and were more likely to report past-year efforts to increase exercise (P=.001) and to lose weight (P=.02). No differences in health care access and utilization were found. Smartphone owners reported better physical and mental health in several domains and higher access to and utilization of technology and the Internet, including for health reasons. Smartphone ownership among smokers mirrors

  10. [Survey of occupational health practices of foreign-owned companies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Saki; Maruyama, Takashi; Hasegawa, Kumi; Nagata, Tomohisa; Mori, Koji

    2011-01-01

    We conducted a survey to clarify the present state of the occupational health practices (OHPs) of foreign-owned companies (FOCs) in Japan. The results reveal more strategic OHPs of FOCs located in Japan as local subsidiaries. Furthermore, the results should contribute to smoother global development of OHPs for international corporations with headquarters (HQs) in Japan. A total of 1,220 FOCs in Japan with at least 50 employees that are listed in Gaishikeikigyo-Soran (Overview of FOCs) 2009 published by Toyo Keizai, Inc. were targeted in our survey. A questionnaire with items concerning the (1) present situation of global and local OHP standards, (2) relationships with overseas HQ, and (3) impressions regarding daily OHPs was sent to a high-ranking person engaged in OHPs at each FOC. We ask about renkei-kan (sense of cooperation with overseas HQ), a positive Japanese word, in order to evaluate preferable relationships between FOCs and their HQs. There were 123 valid responses. Of these, only 50 had indicated the implementation of global standards (GS). Of the OHPs that were mentioned in GS, responses mainly included risk management for occupational diseases. With respect to local standards (LS), responses indicated that individual approaches toward each worker were an area of particular focus. Satisfaction with staff numbers and budget was high, although HQ involvement in staff numbers and budget control was low. Furthermore, 71.5% of respondents had low renkei-kan. We also found correlations among: renkei-kan, GS availability, frequency of reporting to overseas superiors, audit interval, and understanding of OHP organization at HQs. We found FOCs established OHPs independently of HQs and that they were satisfied with the present situation. On the other hand, there are many respondents who do not have positive feelings, renkei-kan, toward their relationships with HQs. OHP staff of FOCs can enhance renkei-kan by making use of GS, identifying key HQ personnel, and

  11. Occupation and mental health in a national UK survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stansfeld, Stephen Alfred; Rasul, F R; Head, J; Singleton, N

    2011-02-01

    To measure the prevalence of common mental disorder (CMD) by occupation in a representative sample of Great Britain and to identify occupations with increased and decreased risk of CMD. A cross-sectional interview-based survey was carried out including 5,497 working male and female respondents, 16-64 years from a stratified random survey of private households in Britain. Occupations were classified by the Standard Occupational Classification (SOC) into four groups: major, sub-major, minor and constituent unit groups. Common Mental Disorder was measured by the Revised Clinical Interview Schedule. Major SOC groups with higher prevalence of common mental disorder included clerical and secretarial, sales, and personal and protective services whereas craft and related, 'other' professional occupations and plant and machine operatives had lower prevalence compared to 13% overall prevalence in all adults. In sub-major SOC groups managers and administrators, teaching professionals, clerical and secretarial, 'other' sales and personal service occupations had higher prevalence whereas many professional and skilled occupations had lower prevalence. Specific SOC unit groups with higher prevalence included primary and secondary teachers, welfare community, youth workers, security staff, waiters, bar staff, nurse auxiliaries and care assistants. General managers in government and large organizations (OR=2.79, 95% CI 1.41-5.54), managers in transport and storing (OR=2.44, 95% CI 1.18-5.03), buyers and mobile sales persons (OR=2.48, 95% CI 1.09-5.60), sales occupations (NES) (OR=2.78, 95% CI 1.25-6.19) and clerks (NES) (OR=2.71, 95% CI 1.59-4.61) had increased risk of common mental disorder relative to specialist managers adjusting for social and financial factors and physical ill-health. Occupations with higher risk of common mental disorder may be typified by high levels of job demands, especially emotional demands and lack of job security. The reasons why occupations have low

  12. Lot quality assurance sampling techniques in health surveys in developing countries: advantages and current constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanata, C F; Black, R E

    1991-01-01

    Traditional survey methods, which are generally costly and time-consuming, usually provide information at the regional or national level only. The utilization of lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS) methodology, developed in industry for quality control, makes it possible to use small sample sizes when conducting surveys in small geographical or population-based areas (lots). This article describes the practical use of LQAS for conducting health surveys to monitor health programmes in developing countries. Following a brief description of the method, the article explains how to build a sample frame and conduct the sampling to apply LQAS under field conditions. A detailed description of the procedure for selecting a sampling unit to monitor the health programme and a sample size is given. The sampling schemes utilizing LQAS applicable to health surveys, such as simple- and double-sampling schemes, are discussed. The interpretation of the survey results and the planning of subsequent rounds of LQAS surveys are also discussed. When describing the applicability of LQAS in health surveys in developing countries, the article considers current limitations for its use by health planners in charge of health programmes, and suggests ways to overcome these limitations through future research. It is hoped that with increasing attention being given to industrial sampling plans in general, and LQAS in particular, their utilization to monitor health programmes will provide health planners in developing countries with powerful techniques to help them achieve their health programme targets.

  13. Summary Health Statistics for U.S. Adults: National Health Interview Survey, 2009. Data from the National Health Interview Survey. Vital and Health Statistics. Series 10, Number 249. DHHS Publication No. (PHS) 2011-1577

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleis, J. R.; Ward, B. W.; Lucas, J. W.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: This report presents health statistics from the 2009 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) for the civilian noninstitutionalized adult population, classified by sex, age, race and ethnicity, education, family income, poverty status, health insurance coverage, marital status, and place and region of residence. Estimates are presented…

  14. [Determinants of workplace health promotion in the insurance sector: results of a complete survey of German insurance companies in 2006].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, T; Janssen, C; Plath, S-C; Steinhausen, S; Pfaff, H

    2009-11-01

    The present study is aimed to assess the current level of workplace health promotion (WHP) within the German insurance sector and to examine whether and to what extent internal and external factors play a role in implementing non-statutory health promotion measures. Firstly, a telephone survey was conducted of German insurance companies fulfilling the inclusion criteria for the survey (n=258). It was enquired whether these companies wish to participate in a written survey on workplace health promotion. A written questionnaire was then sent to those companies meeting the criteria (n=140). The questionnaire contained questions on the company, number and type of workplace health promotion measures as well as the internal and external framework for workplace health promotion measures. In total, 68 questionnaires were filled in and returned. Linear regression analysis was applied to investigate how external and internal variables influence workplace health promotion. The response rate was 48.57%. Workplace health promotion measures undertaken by those insurance companies taking part in the written survey were largely dominated by behavioural and relational prevention measures. Also on offer were measures from areas such as further education and prevention that seek to improve communication and team work. By contrast, diagnostic activities were only of minor importance. Incorporation into workplace health management (beta=0.469; pmanagement measures with regard to personnel development, organisational development and quality control (beta=0.243; pcompanies should increasingly incorporate such measures into specific health management programmes as well as general management measures with regard to personnel development, organisational development and quality control. Moreover, workplace health promotion measures should always be evaluated in terms of health and economic indicators. It should also be noted that small and medium-sized companies have the largest potential

  15. National Surveys of Population Health: Big Data Analytics for Mobile Health Monitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schatz, Bruce R

    2015-12-01

    At the core of the healthcare crisis is fundamental lack of actionable data. Such data could stratify individuals within populations to predict which persons have which outcomes. If baselines existed for all variations of all conditions, then managing health could be improved by matching the measuring of individuals to their cohort in the population. The scale required for complete baselines involves effective National Surveys of Population Health (NSPH). Traditionally, these have been focused upon acute medicine, measuring people to contain the spread of epidemics. In recent decades, the focus has moved to chronic conditions as well, which require smaller measures over longer times. NSPH have long utilized quality of life questionnaires. Mobile Health Monitors, where computing technologies eliminate manual administration, provide richer data sets for health measurement. Older technologies of telephone interviews will be replaced by newer technologies of smartphone sensors to provide deeper individual measures at more frequent timings across larger-sized populations. Such continuous data can provide personal health records, supporting treatment guidelines specialized for population cohorts. Evidence-based medicine will become feasible by leveraging hundreds of millions of persons carrying mobile devices interacting with Internet-scale services for Big Data Analytics.

  16. [Organizational well-being in public health. Climate survey in a Piedmont public health organization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnelli, Ileana; Saglietti, Daniele; Zotti, Anna Maria

    2010-01-01

    More and more Italian and European directives refers to organizational health promotion in work placements. As a matter of fact, organization well-being implies important benefits for individuals and improves business efficiency/efficacy. Improving factors involve listening tools aimed to analyze critical situations and needs, focus on working teams and communication development. In this respect, in a public health organization in Piedmont a research was devised for planning interventions of organizational health promotion and improvement, relying on climate analysis. The research process was supported by General Direction and involved the head of physicians and the departments CPSE (Coordinatore Professionale Sanitario Esperto: Professional Health Coordinator). The survey was carried out on the organizational population, focusing on teambuilding, which is the core of daily work life. Team Climate Inventory Questionnaire (TCI) was employed and administered on-line. Beyond the 5 original factorial scales, 6 item groups related to the individuals feeling in working team and consistent with the research interests were identified. 75.42% (n=1264) of employees answered the provided questionnaire. The data highlighted average scores--expressing organizational climate--over other public health organization data. The subjects also showed a good organizational climate perception. Elderly workers appeared more satisfied than the young ones. Furthermore, higher educated subjects took more advantage of technical and organizational supports.

  17. [Socioeconomic differentials in health and health related behaviors: findings from the Korea Youth Panel Survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khang, Young-Ho; Cho, Sung-Il; Yang, Seungmi; Lee, Moo-Song

    2005-11-01

    This study examined the socioeconomic differentials for the health and health related behaviors among South Korean middle school students. A nationwide cross-sectional interview survey of 3,449 middle school second-grade students and their parents was conducted using a stratified multi-stage cluster sampling method. The response rate was 93.3%. The socioeconomic position indicators were based on self-reported information from the students and their parents: parental education, father's occupational class, monthly family income, out-of-pocket expenditure for education, housing ownership, educational expectations, educational performance and the perceived economic hardships. The outcome variables that were measured were also based on the self-reported information from the students. The health measures included self-rated health conditions, psychological or mental problems, the feelings of loneliness at school, the overall satisfaction of life and the perceived level of stress. The health related behaviors included were smoking, alcohol drinking, sexual intercourse, violence, bullying and verbal and physical abuse by parents. Socioeconomic differences for the health and health related behaviors were found among the eighth grade boys and girls of South Korea. However, the pattern varied with gender, the socioeconomic position indicators and the outcome measures. The prevalence rates of the overall dissatisfaction with life for both genders differed according to most of the eight socioeconomic position indicators. All the health measures were significantly different according to the perceived economic hardship. However, the socioeconomic differences in the self-rated health conditions and the psychosocial or mental problems were not clear. The students having higher socioeconomic position tended to be a perpetrator of bullying while those students with lower socioeconomic position were more likely to be a victim. The perceived economic hardships predicted the health

  18. [Survey on a public health emergency event caused by norovirus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Y; Jiang, C; Hua, W Y; Liu, F; Zhao, Z; Ding, Y J; Wang, L; Li, J

    2017-09-10

    Objective: To study the epidemiological characteristics of an outbreak caused by norovirus infection in a school in Haidian district, Beijing. Methods: Basic information of the school and data related to patients in the fields survey were collected and analyzed descriptively. Laboratory tests were performed to test the stool and anal swab specimens of both patients and cooks as well as the environmental specimens. Risk factors related to the incidence were analyzed through a case-control study. Results: A total number of 119 patients were identified in the school. Clinical symptoms were mild, mainly involving vomiting (94.1 % , 112/119), abdominal pain (46.2 % , 55/119), but no need of hospitalization. The average age of the student patients was 6.38, with minimum and maximum between 5 and 11. Patients were found in 22 classes, but mainly in grade 1 and class 7 where 35 patients were found (30.17 % ). A total of 134 specimens of rectal swabs and stool were collected, with 7 positive for norovirus and 6 for sappovirus. Salmonella, Shigella, lapactic Escherichia coli and Vibrio parahaemolyticus were not found in on dinner sets, residual foods, bottled water or in drinking fountains. Index on water hygiene was unsatisfactory in classrooms or dormitories where more cases were found. Accommodation, north-facing-classrooms, abnormal water hygiene indexes were found related to the occurance of the disease ( P <0.05). Conclusions: The outbreak was identified a gastroenteritis infection, caused by norovirus with symptoms as vomiting and abdominal pain. This event reached the reporting standards of public health emergencies-level Ⅳ. Discovery and isolation of the first case was not timely while transmission of the disease might be water-borne. Surveillance programs on symptoms, disinfection of vomit and stool in places like nurseries and schools should be strengthened to prevent the norovirus outbreak.

  19. [European Community Respiratory Health Survey in Adults (ECRHS)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, J; Richter, K; Frye, C; Meyer, I; Wölke, G; Wjst, M; Nowak, D; Magnussen, H; Wichmann, H E

    2002-05-01

    The European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS) was the first study to assess the geographical variation in asthma, allergy, and allergic sensitization in adults using the same instruments and definitions. The database of the ECRHS includes information from approximately 140 000 individuals aged 20 - 44 years from 22 countries. The aim of this review is to summarize the results of the ECRHS and to present the specific contribution of the German centers in Hamburg and Erfurt. The prevalence ranged from 2.0 - 11.9 % for asthma, 9.5 - 40.9 % for allergic rhinitis, 4.0 - 32.0 % for wheeze, 3.4 - 27.9 % for bronchial hyperreactivity, and 16.2 - 44.5 % for allergic sensitisation against common aeroallergens. Although the prevalence of these atopic disorders were found to be consistently higher for the Hamburg center compared to the Erfurt center, strong regional differences in the prevalences were also found within several other European countries. Overall Europe, the lowest prevalences were seen in the Eastern and Middle European countries with the center Erfurt, followed by the Mediterranean region. The highest prevalences were reported for all English speaking centers. Strong geographic variation was reported for medication for asthma. Asthma seems to be undertreated in several countries. Environmental exposures and in particular indoor factors, and exposures at the workplace are playing a major role for asthma in adulthood. Furthermore, protective effects on atopy were found for exposures to pets (dogs) and a large number of siblings in early childhood. In conclusion, the ECRHS has shown that the prevalence of asthma varies widely. The fact that the geographical pattern is consistent with the distribution of atopy and bronchial responsiveness supports the conclusion that the geographical variations in the prevalence of asthma are true and likely due to environmental factors.

  20. Oral health technicians in Brazilian primary health care: potentials and constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, Dulce Maria Lucena de; Tomita, Nilce Emy; Machado, Maria de Fátima Antero Sousa; Martins, Cleide Lavieri; Frazão, Paulo

    2014-07-01

    Different perspectives on the role of mid-level workers in health care might represent a constraint to health policies. This study aimed to investigate how different agents view the participation of oral health technicians in direct activities of oral healthcare with the goal of understanding the related symbolic dispositions. Theoretical assumptions related to inter-professional collaboration and conflicts in the field of healthcare were used for this analysis. A researcher conducted 24 in-depth interviews with general dental practitioners, oral health technicians and local managers. The concepts of Pierre Bourdieu supported the data interpretation. The results indicated inter-professional relations marked by collaboration and conflict that reflect an action space related to different perspectives of primary care delivery. They also unveiled the symbolic devices related to the participation of oral health technicians that represent a constraint to the implementation of oral health policy, thus reducing the potential of primary health care in Brazil.

  1. Racism and health in New Zealand: Prevalence over time and associations between recent experience of racism and health and wellbeing measures using national survey data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, James; Cormack, Donna M.

    2018-01-01

    Objectives Racism is an important health determinant that contributes to ethnic health inequities. This study sought to describe New Zealand adults’ reported recent experiences of racism over a 10 year period. It also sought to examine the association between recent experience of racism and a range of negative health and wellbeing measures. Methods The study utilised previously collected data from multiple cross-sectional national surveys (New Zealand Health Surveys 2002/03, 2006/07, 2011/12; and General Social Surveys 2008, 2010, 2012) to provide prevalence estimates of reported experience of racism (in the last 12 months) by major ethnic groupings in New Zealand. Meta-analytical techniques were used to provide improved estimates of the association between recent experience of racism and negative health from multivariable models, for the total cohorts and stratified by ethnicity. Results Reported recent experience of racism was highest among Asian participants followed by Māori and Pacific peoples, with Europeans reporting the lowest experience of racism. Among Asian participants, reported experience of racism was higher for those born overseas compared to those born in New Zealand. Recent experience of racism appeared to be declining for most groups over the time period examined. Experience of racism in the last 12 months was consistently associated with negative measures of health and wellbeing (SF-12 physical and mental health component scores, self-rated health, overall life satisfaction). While exposure to racism was more common in the non-European ethnic groups, the impact of recent exposure to racism on health was similar across ethnic groups, with the exception of SF-12 physical health. Conclusions The higher experience of racism among non-European groups remains an issue in New Zealand and its potential effects on health may contribute to ethnic health inequities. Ongoing focus and monitoring of racism as a determinant of health is required to inform

  2. World Health Organization approaches for surveys of health behaviour among schoolchildren and for health-promoting schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honkala, Sisko

    2014-01-01

    Adolescents make up about one-sixth of the world's population. Most of the healthy and detrimental habits are adopted during childhood and adolescence. In the mid 1980s, a cross-national Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children (HBSC) survey was created to increase information about the well-being, health behaviours and social context of young people by using standard school-based questionnaires adopted by the World Health Organization (WHO) European office. The European Network of Health-Promoting Schools (HPS) was commenced in 1992, followed by the establishment of the WHO Global School Health Initiative in 1995. The initiative aims to improve the health of students, school personnel, families and other members of the community through schools by mobilizing and strengthening health promotion and educational activities at local, national, regional and global levels. The HBSC and HPS programmes have been accepted as activity areas for the WHO Collaborating Centre for Primary Oral Health Care in Kuwait. This article describes the HBSC and the HPS programmes and discusses the importance of establishing these programmes in Kuwait. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Survey of advertising for nutritional supplements in health and bodybuilding magazines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philen, R M; Ortiz, D I; Auerbach, S B; Falk, H

    1992-08-26

    The use of food supplements by the general public is poorly quantified, and little information on this subject is available in the medical literature. We surveyed 12 recent issues of popular health and bodybuilding magazines (1) to quantify the number of advertisements for food supplements, the number of products advertised, and the number and type of ingredients in these products; (2) to identify the purported health benefits of these products; and (3) as a preliminary effort to identify areas for future research. We counted 89 brands, 311 products, and 235 unique ingredients, the most frequent of which were unspecified amino acids; the most frequently promoted health benefit was muscle growth. We also found many unusual or unidentifiable ingredients, and 22.2% of the products had no ingredients listed in their advertisements. Health professionals may not be aware of how popular food supplements are or of a particular supplement's potential effects or side effects. In addition, patients may be reluctant to discuss their use of these products with traditional medical practitioners. We recommend that routine history taking include specific questions about patients' use of food supplements and that any possible adverse effects or side effects be reported to public health authorities.

  4. The need for health impact assessment in China: Potential benefits for public health and steps forward

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Liming, E-mail: lmwu@scdc.sh.c [Shanghai Municipal Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Shanghai 200336 (China); Center for Environment and Population Health, Griffith University, Nathan 4111 (Australia); Rutherford, Shannon; Chu, Cordia [Center for Environment and Population Health, Griffith University, Nathan 4111 (Australia)

    2011-07-15

    Health impact assessment (HIA) is a useful tool to predict and estimate the potential health impact associated with programs, projects, and policies by comprehensively identifying relevant health determinants and their consequences. China is undergoing massive and rapid socio-economic changes leading to environment and population health challenges such as a large increase in non-communicable diseases, the emergence and re-emergence of infectious diseases, new health risks associated with environmental pollutants and escalating health inequality. These health issues are affected by multiple determinants which can be influenced by planned policies, programs, and projects. This paper discusses the needs for health impact assessment in China in order to minimize the negative health consequences from projects, programs and policies associated with rapid social and economic development. It first describes the scope of China's current impact assessment system and points out its inadequacy in meeting the requirements of population health protection and promotion. It then analyses the potential use of HIA and why China needs to develop and apply HIA as a tool to identify potential health impacts of proposed programs, projects and policies so as to influence decision-making early in the planning process. Thus, the paper recommends the development of HIA as a useful tool in China to enhance decision-making for the protection and promotion of population health. For this to happen, the paper outlines steps necessary for the establishment and successful implementation of HIA in China: beginning with the establishment of a HIA framework, followed by workforce capacity building, methodology design, and intersectoral collaboration and stakeholder engagement.

  5. The need for health impact assessment in China: Potential benefits for public health and steps forward

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Liming; Rutherford, Shannon; Chu, Cordia

    2011-01-01

    Health impact assessment (HIA) is a useful tool to predict and estimate the potential health impact associated with programs, projects, and policies by comprehensively identifying relevant health determinants and their consequences. China is undergoing massive and rapid socio-economic changes leading to environment and population health challenges such as a large increase in non-communicable diseases, the emergence and re-emergence of infectious diseases, new health risks associated with environmental pollutants and escalating health inequality. These health issues are affected by multiple determinants which can be influenced by planned policies, programs, and projects. This paper discusses the needs for health impact assessment in China in order to minimize the negative health consequences from projects, programs and policies associated with rapid social and economic development. It first describes the scope of China's current impact assessment system and points out its inadequacy in meeting the requirements of population health protection and promotion. It then analyses the potential use of HIA and why China needs to develop and apply HIA as a tool to identify potential health impacts of proposed programs, projects and policies so as to influence decision-making early in the planning process. Thus, the paper recommends the development of HIA as a useful tool in China to enhance decision-making for the protection and promotion of population health. For this to happen, the paper outlines steps necessary for the establishment and successful implementation of HIA in China: beginning with the establishment of a HIA framework, followed by workforce capacity building, methodology design, and intersectoral collaboration and stakeholder engagement.

  6. Care for children with special health care needs in a managed care system: a patient satisfaction survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, J M; Bravo, C J; Reyes, O

    2001-09-01

    In 1994 the government of Puerto Rico adopted a capitated managed health care system for the medically indigent. The new law has been implemented in most municipalities. A survey of children with special health care needs treated at a tertiary pediatric center under the capitated managed care system and the prior non-capitated system was analyzed using the Consumer Assessments of Health Plan Survey (CHAPS) instrument. One third of the patients who were under the new capitated managed care system were not satisfied with the medial care they were receiving. The parents of children with multidisciplinary conditions found it much more difficult to access care at the tertiary center. It took parents two years to learn to navigate within the capitated managed care system. Studies to measure outcome and health quality of children with special health care needs in capitated managed health care programs must be developed to learn how the potential benefits of managed care can be maximized and the potential harms minimized. The purpose of this study was to analyze the accessibility and satisfaction of caretakers of children with special health care needs under a capitated managed health care system.

  7. Are patient surveys valuable as a service-improvement tool in health services? An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patwardhan A

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Anjali Patwardhan,1 Charles H Spencer21Nationwide Children’s Hospital Columbus, 2Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USAAbstract: Improving the quality of care in international health services was made a high priority in 1977. The World Health Assembly passed a resolution to greatly improve “Health for all” by the year 2000. Since 1977, the use of patient surveys for quality improvement has become a common practice in the health-care industry. The use of surveys reflects the concept that patient satisfaction is closely linked with that of organizational performance, which is in turn closely linked with organizational culture. This article is a review of the role of patient surveys as a quality-improvement tool in health care. The article explores the characteristics, types, merits, and pitfalls of various patient surveys, as well as the impact of their wide-ranging application in dissimilar scenarios to identify gaps in service provision. It is demonstrated that the conducting of patient surveys and using the results to improve the quality of care are two different processes. The value of patient surveys depends on the interplay between these two processes and several other factors that can influence the final outcome. The article also discusses the business aspect of the patient surveys in detail. Finally, the authors make future recommendations on how the patient survey tool can be best used to improve the quality of care in the health-care sector.Keywords: patient surveys, quality improvement, service gaps 

  8. Uses of Youth Risk Behavior Survey and School Health Profiles Data: Applications for Improving Adolescent and School Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foti, Kathryn; Balaji, Alexandra; Shanklin, Shari

    2011-01-01

    Background: To monitor priority health risk behaviors and school health policies and practices, respectively, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) developed the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) and the School Health Profiles (Profiles). CDC is often asked about the use and application of these survey data to improve…

  9. U.S. Geological Survey Science at the Intersection of Health and Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimball, S. M.; Plumlee, G. S.

    2016-12-01

    People worldwide worry about how their environment affects their health, and expect scientists to help address these concerns. The OneHealth concept recognizes the crucial linkages between environment, human health, and health of other organisms. Many US Geological Survey science activities directly examine or help inform how the Earth and the environment influence toxicological and infectious diseases. Key is our ability to bring to bear a collective expertise in environmental processes, geology, hydrology, hazards, microbiology, analytical chemistry, ecosystems, energy/mineral resources, geospatial technologies, and other disciplines. Our science examines sources, environmental transport and fate, biological effects, and human exposure pathways of many microbial (e.g. bacteria, protozoans, viruses, fungi), inorganic (e.g. asbestos, arsenic, lead, mercury) and organic (e.g. algal toxins, pesticides, pharmaceuticals) contaminants from geologic, anthropogenic, and disaster sources. We develop new laboratory, experimental, and field methods to analyze, model, and map contaminants, to determine their baseline and natural background levels, and to measure their biological effects. We examine the origins, environmental persistence, wildlife effects, and potential for transmission to humans of pathogens that cause zoonotic or vector-borne diseases (e.g., avian influenza or West Nile virus). Collaborations with human health scientists from many organizations are essential. For example, our work with epidemiologists and toxicologists helps understand the exposure pathways and roles of geologically sourced toxicants such as arsenic (via drinking water) and asbestos (via dusts) in cancer. Work with pulmonologists and pathologists helps clarify the sources and fate of inhaled mineral particles in lungs. Wildlife health scientists help human health scientists assess animals as sentinels of human disease. Such transdisciplinary science is essential at the intersection of health

  10. Mandating nutrient menu labeling in restaurants: potential public health benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stran, Kimberly A; Turner, Lori W; Knol, Linda

    2013-03-01

    Many Americans have replaced home-cooked meals with fast food and restaurants meals. This contributes to increased incidences of overweight and obesity. Implementing policies that require restaurants to disclose nutrition information has the potential to improve nutrition knowledge and food behaviors. The purpose of this paper was to examine the potential health benefits of nutrient menu labeling in restaurants, the progress of this legislation and to provide results regarding the implementation of these policies. Data sources were obtained from a search of multiple databases including PubMed, Science Direct, Academic Search Premier, and Google Scholar. Study inclusion criteria were publication in the past ten years, obesity prevention, and utilization of nutrition labeling on menus in restaurants. The initial policies to provide consumers with nutrition information in restaurant settings began at the state levels in 2006. These laws demonstrated success, other states followed, and a national law was passed and is being implemented. Mandating nutrient menu disclosure has the potential to influence a large number of people; this legislation has the opportunity to impact Americans who dine at a fast food or chain restaurant. Given the growing obesity epidemic, continued research is necessary to gauge the effectiveness of this new law and its effects on the health status of the American people.

  11. Baseline survey of oral health of primary and secondary school ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Among the issues that determine the performance of a child at school is health. In recognition of this, the Uganda government has embarked on a school health program for the success of universal primary education. Although dental health is an important component of school health there is little information on ...

  12. A new approach for geochemical surveys of large areas for uranium resource potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arendt, J.W.; Butz, T.R.; Cagle, G.W.; Kane, V.E.; Nichols, C.E.

    1977-01-01

    The Grand Junction, Colorado office of the United States Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) is conducting the National Uranium Resource Evaluation Program to evaluate the uranium resources in the United States and Alaska. The program is designed to identify favorable areas for uranium exploration, to assess the supply of domestic resources, and to improve exploration technology. The Nuclear Division of the Union Carbide Corporation has been assigned the responsibility of conducting a hydrogeochemical and stream sediment survey of the mid-continental states in the United States. This survey covers approximately 2,500,000 km 2 (1,000,000 mi 2 ) and includes the states of Texas, Oklahoma, Kansas, Nebraska, South Dakota, North Dakota, Minnesota, Wisconsin, Michigan, Indiana, Illinois, and Iowa. The uranium potential of sandstones, Precambrian conglomerates, veins, granites, and phosphorites is being assessed utliizing a three-part program consisting of pilot surveys in each geological province and two phases of reconnaissance sampling of drainage basins. Samples of stream sediment, stream water, groundwater, algae, and vegetation are analyzed for uranium and some 20 additional elements. Data resulting from this program is released to private industry by ERDA as it becomes available. Analysis of results from a typical three-part survey are given. For distinctive geological regions, the pilot survey will: (1) define characteristic concentration background levels of the elements of interest, (2) identify potential uranium pathfinder elements, (3) determine relationship between stream, stream sediment and botanical samples, (4) identify any necessary modification to field sampling techniques, and (5) determine necessary sensitivities required for chemical analysis. The first reconnaissance phase average sample spacing of one station per 250 km 2 (100 mi 2 ) drainage basin is shown to delineate general boundaries of uranium provinces, and the second

  13. Identifying electricity-saving potential in rural China: Empirical evidence from a household survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Yihua; Guo, Jin

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a fast-growing body of literature examining energy-saving potential in relation to electricity. However, empirical studies focusing on non-Western nations are limited. To fill this gap, this study intends to examine the electricity-saving potential of rural households in China using a unique data set from the China Residential Electricity Consumption Survey (CRECS) in collaboration with the China General Social Survey (CGSS), conducted nationwide at the household level in rural China. We use a stochastic frontier model, which allows us to decompose residential electricity consumption into the minimum necessary amount of consumption based on physical characteristics (e.g. house size, house age, number of televisions or refrigerators) and estimate the consumption slack (i.e. the amount of electricity consumption that could be saved), which depends on various factors. We find that rural households in China are generally efficient in electricity saving and the saving potential is affected by (fast) information feedback and social-demographic characteristics, instead of by the (averaged) electricity price, or energy efficiency labelling signals. In addition, we find no evidence of regional heterogeneity on electricity saving potential for rural households. Policy implications are derived. - Highlights: •Electricity saving potential of rural households in China is examined. •Unique survey data from the CRECS in collaboration with the CGSS are used. •A stochastic frontier model is applied. •Information feedback and social-demographic characteristics matter. •Electricity price or energy efficiency tier rating does not matter.

  14. Characterization of air freshener emission: the potential health effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sanghwa; Hong, Seong-Ho; Bong, Choon-Keun; Cho, Myung-Haing

    2015-01-01

    Air freshener could be one of the multiple sources that release volatile organic compounds (VOCs) into the indoor environment. The use of these products may be associated with an increase in the measured level of terpene, such as xylene and other volatile air freshener components, including aldehydes, and esters. Air freshener is usually used indoors, and thus some compounds emitted from air freshener may have potentially harmful health impacts, including sensory irritation, respiratory symptoms, and dysfunction of the lungs. The constituents of air fresheners can react with ozone to produce secondary pollutants such as formaldehyde, secondary organic aerosol (SOA), oxidative product, and ultrafine particles. These pollutants then adversely affect human health, in many ways such as damage to the central nervous system, alteration of hormone levels, etc. In particular, the ultrafine particles may induce severe adverse effects on diverse organs, including the pulmonary and cardiovascular systems. Although the indoor use of air freshener is increasing, deleterious effects do not manifest for many years, making it difficult to identify air freshener-associated symptoms. In addition, risk assessment recognizes the association between air fresheners and adverse health effects, but the distinct causal relationship remains unclear. In this review, the emitted components of air freshener, including benzene, phthalate, and limonene, were described. Moreover, we focused on the health effects of these chemicals and secondary pollutants formed by the reaction with ozone. In conclusion, scientific guidelines on emission and exposure as well as risk characterization of air freshener need to be established.

  15. Potential allergy and irritation incidents among health care workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamgir, Hasanat; Yu, Shicheng; Chavoshi, Negar; Ngan, Karen

    2008-07-01

    This study describes the types, causes, and outcomes of potential irritation and allergy incidents among workers in British Columbia's health care industry. Data on occupation-induced allergy and irritation incidents were extracted from a standardized database using the number of productive hours obtained from payroll data as a denominator during a 1-year period from three British Columbia health regions. Younger workers, female workers, facility support service workers, laboratory assistants and technicians, and maintenance and acute care workers were found to be at higher risk for allergy and irritation incidents. Major causes of allergy and irritation incidents included chemicals, blood and body fluids, food and objects, communicable diseases, air quality, and latex. A larger proportion of chemically induced incidents resulted in first aid care only, whereas non-chemical incidents required more emergency room visits.

  16. Vitamin D and Cardiovascular Disease: Potential Role in Health Disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artaza, Jorge N.; Contreras, Sandra; Garcia, Leah A.; Mehrotra, Rajnish; Gibbons, Gary; Shohet, Ralph; Martins, David; Norris, Keith C.

    2012-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD), which includes coronary artery disease and stroke, is the leading cause of mortality in the nation. Excess CVD morbidity and premature mortality in the African American community is one of the most striking examples of racial/ethnic disparities in health outcomes. African Americans also suffer from increased rates of hypovitaminosis D, which has emerged as an independent risk factor for all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. This overview examines the potential role of hypovitaminosis D as a contributor to racial and ethnic disparities in cardiovascular disease (CVD). We review the epidemiology of vitamin D and CVD in African Americans and the emerging biological roles of vitamin D in key CVD signaling pathways that may contribute to the epidemiological findings and provide the foundation for future therapeutic strategies for reducing health disparities. PMID:22102304

  17. Complementary and Alternative Medicine use in oncology: A questionnaire survey of patients and health care professionals

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Chang, Kah Hoong

    2011-05-24

    Abstract Background We aimed to investigate the prevalence and predictors of Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) use among cancer patients and non-cancer volunteers, and to assess the knowledge of and attitudes toward CAM use in oncology among health care professionals. Methods This is a cross-sectional questionnaire survey conducted in a single institution in Ireland. Survey was performed in outpatient and inpatient settings involving cancer patients and non-cancer volunteers. Clinicians and allied health care professionals were asked to complete a different questionnaire. Results In 676 participants including 219 cancer patients; 301 non-cancer volunteers and 156 health care professionals, the overall prevalence of CAM use was 32.5% (29.1%, 30.9% and 39.7% respectively in the three study cohorts). Female gender (p < 0.001), younger age (p = 0.004), higher educational background (p < 0.001), higher annual household income (p = 0.001), private health insurance (p = 0.001) and non-Christian (p < 0.001) were factors associated with more likely CAM use. Multivariate analysis identified female gender (p < 0.001), non-Christian (p = 0.001) and private health insurance (p = 0.015) as independent predictors of CAM use. Most health care professionals thought they did not have adequate knowledge (58.8%) nor were up to date with the best evidence (79.2%) on CAM use in oncology. Health care professionals who used CAM were more likely to recommend it to patients (p < 0.001). Conclusions This study demonstrates a similarly high prevalence of CAM use among oncology health care professionals, cancer and non cancer patients. Patients are more likely to disclose CAM usage if they are specifically asked. Health care professionals are interested to learn more about various CAM therapies and have poor evidence-based knowledge on specific oncology treatments. There is a need for further training to meet to the escalation of CAM use among patients and to raise awareness of

  18. Identifying Key Issues and Potential Solutions for Integrated Arrival, Departure, Surface Operations by Surveying Stakeholder Preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aponso, Bimal; Coppenbarger, Richard A.; Jung, Yoon; Quon, Leighton; Lohr, Gary; O’Connor, Neil; Engelland, Shawn

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate (ARMD) collaborates with the FAA and industry to provide concepts and technologies that enhance the transition to the next-generation air-traffic management system (NextGen). To facilitate this collaboration, ARMD has a series of Airspace Technology Demonstration (ATD) sub-projects that develop, demonstrate, and transitions NASA technologies and concepts for implementation in the National Airspace System (NAS). The second of these sub-projects, ATD-2, is focused on the potential benefits to NAS stakeholders of integrated arrival, departure, surface (IADS) operations. To determine the project objectives and assess the benefits of a potential solution, NASA surveyed NAS stakeholders to understand the existing issues in arrival, departure, and surface operations, and the perceived benefits of better integrating these operations. NASA surveyed a broad cross-section of stakeholders representing the airlines, airports, air-navigation service providers, and industry providers of NAS tools. The survey indicated that improving the predictability of flight times (schedules) could improve efficiency in arrival, departure, and surface operations. Stakeholders also mentioned the need for better strategic and tactical information on traffic constraints as well as better information sharing and a coupled collaborative planning process that allows stakeholders to coordinate IADS operations. To assess the impact of a potential solution, NASA sketched an initial departure scheduling concept and assessed its viability by surveying a select group of stakeholders for a second time. The objective of the departure scheduler was to enable flights to move continuously from gate to cruise with minimal interruption in a busy metroplex airspace environment using strategic and tactical scheduling enhanced by collaborative planning between airlines and service providers. The stakeholders agreed that this departure concept could improve schedule

  19. Mental disorders among college students in the World Health Organization World Mental Health Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auerbach, R P; Alonso, J; Axinn, W G; Cuijpers, P; Ebert, D D; Green, J G; Hwang, I; Kessler, R C; Liu, H; Mortier, P; Nock, M K; Pinder-Amaker, S; Sampson, N A; Aguilar-Gaxiola, S; Al-Hamzawi, A; Andrade, L H; Benjet, C; Caldas-de-Almeida, J M; Demyttenaere, K; Florescu, S; de Girolamo, G; Gureje, O; Haro, J M; Karam, E G; Kiejna, A; Kovess-Masfety, V; Lee, S; McGrath, J J; O'Neill, S; Pennell, B-E; Scott, K; Ten Have, M; Torres, Y; Zaslavsky, A M; Zarkov, Z; Bruffaerts, R

    2016-10-01

    Although mental disorders are significant predictors of educational attainment throughout the entire educational career, most research on mental disorders among students has focused on the primary and secondary school years. The World Health Organization World Mental Health Surveys were used to examine the associations of mental disorders with college entry and attrition by comparing college students (n = 1572) and non-students in the same age range (18-22 years; n = 4178), including non-students who recently left college without graduating (n = 702) based on surveys in 21 countries (four low/lower-middle income, five upper-middle-income, one lower-middle or upper-middle at the times of two different surveys, and 11 high income). Lifetime and 12-month prevalence and age-of-onset of DSM-IV anxiety, mood, behavioral and substance disorders were assessed with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). One-fifth (20.3%) of college students had 12-month DSM-IV/CIDI disorders; 83.1% of these cases had pre-matriculation onsets. Disorders with pre-matriculation onsets were more important than those with post-matriculation onsets in predicting subsequent college attrition, with substance disorders and, among women, major depression the most important such disorders. Only 16.4% of students with 12-month disorders received any 12-month healthcare treatment for their mental disorders. Mental disorders are common among college students, have onsets that mostly occur prior to college entry, in the case of pre-matriculation disorders are associated with college attrition, and are typically untreated. Detection and effective treatment of these disorders early in the college career might reduce attrition and improve educational and psychosocial functioning.

  20. Future and potential spending on health 2015-40

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dieleman, Joseph L.; Campbell, Madeline; Chapin, Abigail; Eldrenkamp, Erika; Fan, Victoria Y.; Haakenstad, Annie; Kates, Jennifer; Li, Zhiyin; Matyasz, Taylor; Micah, Angela; Reynolds, Alex; Sadat, Nafis; Schneider, Matthew T.; Sorensen, Reed; Abbas, Kaja M.; Abera, Semaw Ferede; Ahmad Kiadaliri, Aliasghar; Ahmed, Muktar Beshir; Alam, Khurshid; Alizadeh-Navaei, Reza; Alkerwi, A.; Amini, Erfan; Ammar, Walid; Antonio, Carl Abelardo T.; Atey, Tesfay Mehari; Avila-Burgos, Leticia; Awasthi, Ashish; Barac, Aleksandra; Berheto, Tezera Moshago; Beyene, Addisu Shunu; Beyene, Tariku Jibat; Birungi, Charles; Bizuayehu, Habtamu Mellie; Breitborde, Nicholas J.K.; Cahuana-Hurtado, Lucero; Castro, Ruben Estanislao; Catalá-López, Ferran; Dalal, Koustuv; Dandona, Lalit; Dharmaratne, Rakhi Dandona Samath D.; Dubey, Manisha; Faro, Andé; Feigl, Andrea B.; Fischer, Florian; Anderson Fitchett, Joseph R.; Foigt, Nataliya; Giref, Ababi Zergaw; Gupta, Rahul; Hamidi, Samer; Harb, Hilda L.; Hay, Simon I.; Hendrie, Delia; Horino, Masako; Jürisson, Mikk; Jakovljevic, Mihajlo B.; Javanbakht, Mehdi; John, Denny; Jonas, Jost B.; Karimi, Seyed M.; Khang, Young Ho; Khubchandani, Jagdish; Kim, Yun Jin; Kinge, Jonas M.; Krohn, Kristopher J.; Kumar, G.A.; Leung, Ricky; Magdy Abd El Razek, Hassan; Magdy Abd El Razek, Mohammed; Majeed, Azeem; Malekzadeh, Reza; Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Meretoja, Atte; Miller, Ted R.; Mirrakhimov, Erkin M.; Mohammed, Shafiu; Molla, Gedefaw; Nangia, Vinay; Olgiati, Stefano; Owolabi, Mayowa O.; Patel, Tejas; Paternina Caicedo, Angel J.; Pereira, David M.; Perelman, Julian; Polinder, Suzanne; Rafay, Anwar; Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa; Rai, Rajesh Kumar; Ram, Usha; Ranabhat, Chhabi Lal; Roba, Hirbo Shore; Savic, Miloje; Sepanlou, Sadaf G.; Ao, Te Braden J.; Tesema, Azeb Gebresilassie; Thomson, Alan J.; Tobe-Gai, Ruoyan; Topor-Madry, Roman; Undurraga, Eduardo A.; Vargas, Veronica; Vasankari, Tommi; Violante, Francesco S.; Wijeratne, Tissa; Xu, Gelin; Yonemoto, Naohiro; Younis, Mustafa Z.; Yu, Chuanhua; Zaidi, Zoubida; Sayed Zaki, El Maysaa; Murray, Christopher J.L.

    2017-01-01

    Background: The amount of resources, particularly prepaid resources, available for health can affect access to health care and health outcomes. Although health spending tends to increase with economic development, tremendous variation exists among health financing systems. Estimates of future

  1. Comparing cancer screening estimates: Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System and National Health Interview Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, Ann Goding; Liu, Benmei; Siegel, Rebecca L; Jemal, Ahmedin; Fedewa, Stacey A

    2018-01-01

    Cancer screening prevalence from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), designed to provide state-level estimates, and the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), designed to provide national estimates, are used to measure progress in cancer control. A detailed description of the extent to which recent cancer screening estimates vary by key demographic characteristics has not been previously described. We examined national prevalence estimates for recommended breast, cervical, and colorectal cancer screening using data from the 2012 and 2014 BRFSS and the 2010 and 2013 NHIS. Treating the NHIS estimates as the reference, direct differences (DD) were calculated by subtracting NHIS estimates from BRFSS estimates. Relative differences were computed by dividing the DD by the NHIS estimates. Two-sample t-tests (2-tails), were performed to test for statistically significant differences. BRFSS screening estimates were higher than those from NHIS for breast (78.4% versus 72.5%; DD=5.9%, pNHIS, each survey has a unique and important role in providing information to track cancer screening utilization among various populations. Awareness of these differences and their potential causes is important when comparing the surveys and determining the best application for each data source. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Using Text Message Surveys to Evaluate a Mobile Sexual Health Question-and-Answer Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willoughby, Jessica Fitts; L'Engle, Kelly Ladin; Jackson, Kennon; Brickman, Jared

    2018-01-01

    Text message programs for sexual health are becoming increasingly popular as practitioners aim to meet youth on media they use frequently. Two-way mobile health (mHealth) interventions allow for feedback solicitation from participants. This study explores the use of a text message survey to assess demographics and program feedback from users of an adolescent sexual health text message question-and-answer service. Development and feasibility of the short-message service survey are discussed. The text message survey achieved a 43.9% response rate, which is comparable to response rates of surveys conducted via other methods. When compared to respondents who used the service and completed an online in-school questionnaire, text survey respondents were more likely to be female and older. They also reported higher service satisfaction. Results have implications for text message service providers and researchers. This article examines a community application of a new intervention strategy and research methodology.

  3. [What potential do geographic information systems have for population-wide health monitoring in Germany? : Perspectives and challenges for the health monitoring of the Robert Koch Institute].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thißen, Martin; Niemann, Hildegard; Varnaccia, Gianni; Rommel, Alexander; Teti, Andrea; Butschalowsky, Hans; Manz, Kristin; Finger, Jonas David; Kroll, Lars Eric; Ziese, Thomas

    2017-12-01

    Geographic information systems (GISs) are computer-based systems with which geographical data can be recorded, stored, managed, analyzed, visualized and provided. In recent years, they have become an integral part of public health research. They offer a broad range of analysis tools, which enable innovative solutions for health-related research questions. An analysis of nationwide studies that applied geographic information systems underlines the potential this instrument bears for health monitoring in Germany. Geographic information systems provide up-to-date mapping and visualization options to be used for national health monitoring at the Robert Koch Institute (RKI). Furthermore, objective information on the residential environment as an influencing factor on population health and on health behavior can be gathered and linked to RKI survey data at different geographic scales. Besides using physical information, such as climate, vegetation or land use, as well as information on the built environment, the instrument can link socioeconomic and sociodemographic data as well as information on health care and environmental stress to the survey data and integrate them into concepts for analyses. Therefore, geographic information systems expand the potential of the RKI to present nationwide, representative and meaningful health-monitoring results. In doing so, data protection regulations must always be followed. To conclude, the development of a national spatial data infrastructure and the identification of important data sources can prospectively improve access to high quality data sets that are relevant for the health monitoring.

  4. Potential use of telephone surveys for non-communicable disease surveillance in developing countries: evidence from a national household survey in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibai, Abla M; Ghandour, Lilian A; Chaaban, Rawan; Mokdad, Ali H

    2016-05-31

    Given the worldwide proliferation of cellphones, this paper examines their potential use for the surveillance of non-communicable disease (NCD) risk factors in a Middle Eastern country. Data were derived from a national household survey of 2,656 adults (aged 18 years or older) in Lebanon in 2009. Responses to questions on phone ownership yielded two subsamples, the 'cell phone sample' (n = 1,404) and the 'any phone sample' (n = 2,158). Prevalence estimates of various socio-demographics and 11 key NCD risk factors and comorbidities were compared between each subsample and the overall household sample. Adjusting for baseline age and sex distribution, no differences were observed for all NCD indicators when comparing either of subsamples to the overall household sample, except for binge drinking [(OR = 1.55, 95 % CI: 1.33-1.81) and (OR = 1.48, 95 % CI: 1.18-1.85) for 'cell phone subsample' and 'any phone subsample', respectively] and self-rated health (OR = 1.23, 95 % CI: 1.10-1.36) and (OR = 1.16, 95 % CI: 1.02-1.32), respectively). Differences in the odds of hyperlipidemia (OR = 1.27, 95 % CI: 1.06-1.51) was also found in the subsample of 'any phone' carriers. Multi-mode telephone surveillance techniques provide viable alternative to face-to-face surveys in developing countries. Cell phones may also be useful for personalized public health and medical care interventions in young populations.

  5. A Global Oral Health Survey of professional opinion using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougall, Alison; Molina, Gustavo F; Eschevins, Caroline; Faulks, Denise

    2015-06-01

    The concept of oral health is frequently reduced to the absence of disease, despite existing conceptual models exploring the wider determinants of oral health and quality of life. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) (WHO) is designed to qualify functional, social and environmental aspects of health. This survey aimed to reach a consensual description of adult oral health, derived from the ICF using international professional opinion. The Global Oral Health Survey involved a two-round, online survey concerning factors related to oral health including functioning, participation and social environment. Four hundred eighty-six oral health professionals from 74 countries registered online. Professionals were pooled into 18 groups of six WHO world regions and three professional groups. In a randomised stratification process, eight professionals from each pool (n=144) completed the survey. The first round consisted of eight open-ended questions. Open expression replies were analysed for meaningful concepts and linked using established rules to the ICF. In Round 2, items were rated for their relevance to oral health (88% response rate). Eighty-nine ICF items and 30 other factors were considered relevant by at least 80% of participants. International professionals reached consensus on a holistic description of oral health, which could be qualified and quantified using the ICF. These results represent the first step towards developing an ICF Core Set in Oral Health, which would provide a practical tool for reporting outcome measures in clinical practice, for research and epidemiology, and for the improvement of interdisciplinary communication regarding oral health. Professional consensus reached in this survey is the foundation stone for developing an ICF Core Set in Oral Health, allowing the holistic aspects of oral health to be qualified and quantified. This tool is necessary to widen our approach to clinical decision making

  6. Survey of CAM interest, self-care, and satisfaction with health care for type 2 diabetes at group health cooperative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley Ryan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Very little research has explored the factors that influence interest in complementary and alternative medicine (CAM treatments. We surveyed persons with sub-optimally controlled type 2 diabetes to evaluate potential relationships between interest in complementary and alternative medicine (CAM treatments, current self-care practices, motivation to improve self-care practices and satisfaction with current health care for diabetes. Methods 321 patients from a large integrated healthcare system with type 2 diabetes, who were not using insulin and had hemoglobin A1c values between 7.5-9.5%, were telephoned between 2009-2010 and asked about their self-care behaviors, motivation to change, satisfaction with current health care and interest in trying naturopathic (ND care for their diabetes. Responses from patients most interested in trying ND care were compared with those from patients with less interest. Results 219 (68.5% patients completed the survey. Nearly half (48% stated they would be very likely to try ND care for their diabetes if covered by their insurance. Interest in trying ND care was not related to patient demographics, health history, clinical status, or self-care behaviors. Patients with greater interest in trying ND care rated their current healthcare as less effective for controlling their blood sugar (mean response 5.9 +/- 1.9 vs. 6.6 +/- 1.5, p = 0.003, and were more determined to succeed in self-care (p = 0.007. Current CAM use for diabetes was also greater in ND interested patients. Conclusions Patients with sub-optimally controlled type 2 diabetes expressed a high level of interest in trying ND care. Those patients with the greatest interest were less satisfied with their diabetes care, more motivated to engage in self-care, and more likely to use other CAM therapies for their diabetes.

  7. Designing and conducting health surveys: a comprehensive guide

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Aday, Lu Ann; Cornelius, Llewellyn Joseph

    2006-01-01

    ... and Carrying Out the Survey 311 14 Preparing the Data for Analysis 340 15 Planning and Implementing the Analysis of the Data 360 16 Writing the Research Report 391 Resource A: Personal Interview Sur...

  8. Sex Education, First Sex and Sexual Health Outcomes in Adulthood: Findings from a Nationally Representative Sexual Health Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourke, Ashling; Boduszek, Daniel; Kelleher, Caroline; McBride, Orla; Morgan, Karen

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between school sex education and sexual health behaviours at first sex and later in adulthood, using nationally representative data. Respondents were adults from the 2010 Irish Contraception and Crisis Pregnancy Survey, a cross-sectional survey designed to assess knowledge, attitudes and behaviours relating…

  9. Patterns of Kratom use and health impact in the US-Results from an online survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundmann, Oliver

    2017-07-01

    Kratom preparations have raised concerns of public health and safety in the US. Investigation into the demographics, perceived beneficial and detrimental effects of Kratom as well as common doses and purposes of its use are important to properly evaluate its potential health impact. An anonymous cross-sectional online survey was conducted in October 2016 of 10,000 current Kratom users through available social media and online resources from the American Kratom Association. A total of 8049 respondents completed the survey. Kratom is primarily used by a middle-aged (31-50 years), middle-income ($35,000 and above) population for purposes of self-treating pain (68%) and emotional or mental conditions (66%). Kratom preparations present with a dose-dependent effect with negative effects, which were primarily gastrointestinal related including nausea and constipation, mainly presenting at high (5g or more/dose) and more frequent (22 or more doses/week) dosing. Kratom shows a dose-dependent opioid-like effect providing self-reported perceived beneficial effects in alleviating pain and relieving mood disorders. Kratom was primarily used for self-treatment of pain, mood disorders, and withdrawal symptoms associated with prescription opioid use. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Health literacy and the determinants of obesity: a population-based survey of sixth grade school children in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Shu-Fang; Liu, Chieh-Hsing; Liao, Li-Ling; Osborne, Richard H

    2016-03-22

    Health literacy has become an important health policy and health promotion agenda item in recent years. It had been seen as a means to reduce health disparities and a critical empowerment strategy to increase people's control over their health. So far, most of health literacy studies mainly focus on adults with few studies investigating associations between child health literacy and health status. This study aimed to investigate the association between health literacy and body weight in Taiwan's sixth grade school children. Using a population-based survey, 162,209 sixth grade (11-12 years old) school children were assessed. The response rate at school level was 83%, with 70% of all students completing the survey. The Taiwan child health literacy assessment tool was applied and information on sex, ethnicity, self-reported health, and health behaviors were also collected. BMI was used to classify the children as underweight, normal, overweight, or obese. A multinomial logit model with robust estimation was used to explore associations between health literacy and the body weight with an adjustment for covariates. The sample consisted of 48.9% girls, 3.8% were indigenous and the mean BMI was 19.55 (SD = 3.93). About 6% of children self-reported bad or very bad health. The mean child health literacy score was 24.03 (SD = 6.12, scale range from 0 to 32). The overall proportion of obese children was 15.2%. Children in the highest health literacy quartile were less likely to be obese (12.4%) compared with the lowest quartile (17.4%). After controlling for gender, ethnicity, self-rated health, and health behaviors, children with higher health literacy were less likely to be obese (Relative Risk Ratio (RRR) = 0.94, p 1.10, p obese. This study demonstrates strong links between health literacy and obesity, even after adjusting for key potential confounders, and provides new insights into potential intervention points in school education for obesity prevention. Systematic

  11. Health literacy and the determinants of obesity: a population-based survey of sixth grade school children in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Fang Shih

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health literacy has become an important health policy and health promotion agenda item in recent years. It had been seen as a means to reduce health disparities and a critical empowerment strategy to increase people’s control over their health. So far, most of health literacy studies mainly focus on adults with few studies investigating associations between child health literacy and health status. This study aimed to investigate the association between health literacy and body weight in Taiwan’s sixth grade school children. Methods Using a population-based survey, 162,209 sixth grade (11–12 years old school children were assessed. The response rate at school level was 83 %, with 70 % of all students completing the survey. The Taiwan child health literacy assessment tool was applied and information on sex, ethnicity, self-reported health, and health behaviors were also collected. BMI was used to classify the children as underweight, normal, overweight, or obese. A multinomial logit model with robust estimation was used to explore associations between health literacy and the body weight with an adjustment for covariates. Results The sample consisted of 48.9 % girls, 3.8 % were indigenous and the mean BMI was 19.55 (SD = 3.93. About 6 % of children self-reported bad or very bad health. The mean child health literacy score was 24.03 (SD = 6.12, scale range from 0 to 32. The overall proportion of obese children was 15.2 %. Children in the highest health literacy quartile were less likely to be obese (12.4 % compared with the lowest quartile (17.4 %. After controlling for gender, ethnicity, self-rated health, and health behaviors, children with higher health literacy were less likely to be obese (Relative Risk Ratio (RRR = 0.94, p  1.10, p < 0.0001 were more likely to report being overweight or obese. Conclusions This study demonstrates strong links between health literacy and obesity, even after

  12. Violence in the emergency department: a survey of health care workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, C M; Bouthillette, F; Raboud, J M; Bullock, L; Moore, C F; Christenson, J M; Grafstein, E; Rae, S; Ouellet, L; Gillrie, C; Way, M

    1999-11-16

    Violence in the workplace is an ill-defined and underreported concern for health care workers. The objectives of this study were to examine perceived levels of violence in the emergency department, to obtain health care workers' definitions of violence, to determine the effect of violence on health care workers and to determine coping mechanisms and potential preventive strategies. A retrospective written survey of all 163 emergency department employees working in 1996 at an urban inner-city tertiary care centre in Vancouver. The survey elicited demographic information, personal definition of violence, severity of violence, degree of stress as a result of violence and estimate of the number of encounters with violence in the workplace in 1996. The authors examined the effects of violence on job performance and job satisfaction, and reviewed coping and potential preventive strategies. Of the 163 staff, 106 (65%) completed the survey. A total of 68% (70/103) reported an increased frequency of violence over time, and 60% (64/106) reported an increased severity. Most of the respondents felt that violence included witnessing verbal abuse (76%) and witnessing physical threats or assaults (86%). Sixty respondents (57%) were physically assaulted in 1996. Overall, 51 respondents (48%) reported impaired job performance for the rest of the shift or the rest of the week after an incident of violence. Seventy-seven respondents (73%) were afraid of patients as a result of violence, almost half (49%) hid their identities from patients, and 78 (74%) had reduced job satisfaction. Over one-fourth of the respondents (27/101) took days off because of violence. Of the 18 respondents no longer working in the emergency department, 12 (67%) reported that they had left the job at least partly owing to violence. Twenty-four-hour security and a workshop on violence prevention strategies were felt to be the most useful potential interventions. Physical exercise, sleep and the company of

  13. Allotment gardening and health: a comparative survey among allotment gardeners and their neighbors without an allotment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, Agnes E; van Winsum-Westra, Marijke; de Vries, Sjerp; van Dillen, Sonja M E

    2010-11-23

    The potential contribution of allotment gardens to a healthy and active life-style is increasingly recognized, especially for elderly populations. However, few studies have empirically examined beneficial effects of allotment gardening. In the present study the health, well-being and physical activity of older and younger allotment gardeners was compared to that of controls without an allotment. A survey was conducted among 121 members of 12 allotment sites in the Netherlands and a control group of 63 respondents without an allotment garden living next to the home addresses of allotment gardeners. The survey included five self-reported health measures (perceived general health, acute health complaints, physical constraints, chronic illnesses, and consultations with GP), four self-reported well-being measures (stress, life satisfaction, loneliness, and social contacts with friends) and one measure assessing self-reported levels of physical activity in summer. Respondents were divided into a younger and older group at the median of 62 years which equals the average retirement age in the Netherlands. After adjusting for income, education level, gender, stressful life events, physical activity in winter, and access to a garden at home as covariates, both younger and older allotment gardeners reported higher levels of physical activity during the summer than neighbors in corresponding age categories. The impacts of allotment gardening on health and well-being were moderated by age. Allotment gardeners of 62 years and older scored significantly or marginally better on all measures of health and well-being than neighbors in the same age category. Health and well-being of younger allotment gardeners did not differ from younger neighbors. The greater health and well-being benefits of allotment gardening for older gardeners may be related to the finding that older allotment gardeners were more oriented towards gardening and being active, and less towards passive relaxation

  14. Allotment gardening and health: a comparative survey among allotment gardeners and their neighbors without an allotment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Winsum-Westra Marijke

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The potential contribution of allotment gardens to a healthy and active life-style is increasingly recognized, especially for elderly populations. However, few studies have empirically examined beneficial effects of allotment gardening. In the present study the health, well-being and physical activity of older and younger allotment gardeners was compared to that of controls without an allotment. Methods A survey was conducted among 121 members of 12 allotment sites in the Netherlands and a control group of 63 respondents without an allotment garden living next to the home addresses of allotment gardeners. The survey included five self-reported health measures (perceived general health, acute health complaints, physical constraints, chronic illnesses, and consultations with GP, four self-reported well-being measures (stress, life satisfaction, loneliness, and social contacts with friends and one measure assessing self-reported levels of physical activity in summer. Respondents were divided into a younger and older group at the median of 62 years which equals the average retirement age in the Netherlands. Results After adjusting for income, education level, gender, stressful life events, physical activity in winter, and access to a garden at home as covariates, both younger and older allotment gardeners reported higher levels of physical activity during the summer than neighbors in corresponding age categories. The impacts of allotment gardening on health and well-being were moderated by age. Allotment gardeners of 62 years and older scored significantly or marginally better on all measures of health and well-being than neighbors in the same age category. Health and well-being of younger allotment gardeners did not differ from younger neighbors. The greater health and well-being benefits of allotment gardening for older gardeners may be related to the finding that older allotment gardeners were more oriented towards gardening

  15. Potential health effects associated with dermal exposure to occupational chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Stacey E; Meade, B Jean

    2014-01-01

    There are a large number of workers in the United States, spanning a variety of occupational industries and sectors, who are potentially exposed to chemicals that can be absorbed through the skin. Occupational skin exposures can result in numerous diseases that can adversely affect an individual's health and capacity to perform at work. In general, there are three types of chemical-skin interactions of concern: direct skin effects, immune-mediated skin effects, and systemic effects. While hundreds of chemicals (metals, epoxy and acrylic resins, rubber additives, and chemical intermediates) present in virtually every industry have been identified to cause direct and immune-mediated effects such as contact dermatitis or urticaria, less is known about the number and types of chemicals contributing to systemic effects. In an attempt to raise awareness, skin notation assignments communicate the potential for dermal absorption; however, there is a need for standardization among agencies to communicate an accurate description of occupational hazards. Studies have suggested that exposure to complex mixtures, excessive hand washing, use of hand sanitizers, high frequency of wet work, and environmental or other factors may enhance penetration and stimulate other biological responses altering the outcomes of dermal chemical exposure. Understanding the hazards of dermal exposure is essential for the proper implementation of protective measures to ensure worker safety and health.

  16. Community Gardens as Environmental Health Interventions: Benefits Versus Potential Risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Delaimy, W K; Webb, M

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this paper was to summarize current findings on community gardens relevant to three specific areas of interest as follows: (1) health benefits, (2) garden interventions in developing versus developed countries, and (3) the concerns and risks of community gardening. Community gardens are a reemerging phenomenon in many low- and high-income urban neighborhoods to address the common risk factors of modern lifestyle. Community gardens are not limited to developed countries. They also exist in developing low-income countries but usually serve a different purpose of food security. Despite their benefits, community gardens can become a source of environmental toxicants from the soil of mostly empty lands that might have been contaminated by toxicants in the past. Therefore, caution should be taken about gardening practices and the types of foods to be grown on such soil if there was evidence of contamination. We present community gardens as additional solutions to the epidemic of chronic diseases in low-income urban communities and how it can have a positive physical, mental and social impact among participants. On balance, the benefits of engaging in community gardens are likely to outweigh the potential risk that can be remedied. Quantitative population studies are needed to provide evidence of the benefits and health impacts versus potential harms from community gardens.

  17. Bioavailability, metabolism and potential health protective effects of dietary flavonoids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bredsdorff, Lea

    Dietary flavonoids constitute an important group of potential health protective compounds from fruits, vegetables, and plant-based products such as tea and wine. The beneficial effects of a diet high in flavonoids on the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) have been shown in several epidemiologi......Dietary flavonoids constitute an important group of potential health protective compounds from fruits, vegetables, and plant-based products such as tea and wine. The beneficial effects of a diet high in flavonoids on the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) have been shown in several...... of their content. In addition, variation in individual metabolic genotype and microflora may greatly affect the actual flavonoid exposure. The preventive effects of flavonoids on CHD are mainly ascribed to their anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. Several mechanisms of anti-inflammatory and antioxidant...... effective absorption of hesperetin and naringenin from the small intestine when consumed as glucosides compared to absorption in the colon VII after microbial degradation of the rhamnoglucosides. In addition it was shown that the conjugate profile was neither affected by the absorption site nor by a 3-fold...

  18. Educating women about congenital cytomegalovirus: assessment of health education materials through a web-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Simani M; Bonilla, Erika; Zador, Paul; Levis, Denise M; Kilgo, Christina L; Cannon, Michael J

    2014-11-30

    Congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) is the most common congenital infection in the U.S. and can result in permanent disabilities, such as hearing and vision loss, intellectual disability, and psychomotor and language impairments. Women can adopt prevention behaviors in an attempt to reduce their exposure to CMV. Currently, few women are familiar with CMV. To increase awareness of CMV, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) developed draft health education materials. The purpose of this study was to pilot test two health education materials to gauge their appeal and to determine if they increase knowledge about CMV and motivate audiences to seek additional information on CMV and adopt CMV prevention behaviors. African-American (n = 404) and Caucasian women (n = 405), who had a young child and were either pregnant or planning a pregnancy, were recruited to participate in a 15-minute web survey. Participants were randomly assigned to view one of two CMV health education materials, either a factsheet or video. Pre and post survey measures were used to assess changes in knowledge of CMV and motivation to adopt prevention behaviors. We also examined audience preferences regarding materials and motivation. CMV knowledge score increased significantly after presentation of either the video or factsheet (from 3.7 out of 10 to 9.1 out of 10, p knowledge score, and viewing the video (vs. factsheet) were significantly positively associated with increased support for CMV prevention behaviors. Overall, we found that the health education materials improved women's knowledge of CMV and encouraged them to adopt prevention behaviors. Given the low awareness levels among women currently, these findings suggest that appropriate education materials have the potential to greatly increase knowledge of CMV. As women become more knowledgeable about CMV and transmission routes, we expect they will be more likely to adopt prevention behaviors, thereby reducing their risk of

  19. Association between Maternal and Child Dietary Diversity: An Analysis of the Ghana Demographic and Health Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dickson Abanimi Amugsi

    Full Text Available This study examined the association between maternal and child dietary diversity in a population-based national sample in Ghana.The data for this analysis are from the 2008 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey. We used data obtained from 1187 dyads comprised of mothers' ages 15-49 and their youngest child (ages 6-36 months. Maternal and child dietary diversity scores (DDS were created based on the mother's recall of her own and her child's consumption of 15 food groups, during the 24 hours prior to the in-home survey. The same food groups were used to compose both maternal and child DDS. Linear regression was used to assess the relationship between the predicted outcome--child DDS--and maternal DDS, taking into account child age and sex, maternal factors (age, education, occupation, literacy, empowerment, number of antenatal visits as an indicator of health care use, household Wealth Index, and urban/rural place of residence.There was a statistically significant positive association between child and maternal DDS, after adjusting for all other variables. A difference of one food group in mother's consumption was associated with a difference of 0.72 food groups in the child's food consumption (95% CI: 0.63, 0.82. Also, statistically significant positive associations were observed such that higher child DDS was associated with older child age, and with greater women's empowerment.The results show a significant positive association between child and maternal DD, after accounting for the influence of child, maternal and household level factors. Since the likely path of influence is that maternal DDS impacts child DDS, public health efforts to improve child health may be strengthened by promoting maternal DDS due to its potential for a widened effect on the entire family.

  20. Association between Maternal and Child Dietary Diversity: An Analysis of the Ghana Demographic and Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amugsi, Dickson Abanimi; Mittelmark, Maurice B; Oduro, Abraham

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the association between maternal and child dietary diversity in a population-based national sample in Ghana. The data for this analysis are from the 2008 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey. We used data obtained from 1187 dyads comprised of mothers' ages 15-49 and their youngest child (ages 6-36 months). Maternal and child dietary diversity scores (DDS) were created based on the mother's recall of her own and her child's consumption of 15 food groups, during the 24 hours prior to the in-home survey. The same food groups were used to compose both maternal and child DDS. Linear regression was used to assess the relationship between the predicted outcome--child DDS--and maternal DDS, taking into account child age and sex, maternal factors (age, education, occupation, literacy, empowerment, number of antenatal visits as an indicator of health care use), household Wealth Index, and urban/rural place of residence. There was a statistically significant positive association between child and maternal DDS, after adjusting for all other variables. A difference of one food group in mother's consumption was associated with a difference of 0.72 food groups in the child's food consumption (95% CI: 0.63, 0.82). Also, statistically significant positive associations were observed such that higher child DDS was associated with older child age, and with greater women's empowerment. The results show a significant positive association between child and maternal DD, after accounting for the influence of child, maternal and household level factors. Since the likely path of influence is that maternal DDS impacts child DDS, public health efforts to improve child health may be strengthened by promoting maternal DDS due to its potential for a widened effect on the entire family.

  1. Health status of school children during questionnaire survey in Ogun ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    that school children in Ogun State do not perceive themselves to be healthy and suggest the use of school health questionnaire to assess and identify common health problems in school children. Keywords: School-age children, common health problems, questionnaire, Nigeria. Nigerian Journal of Parasitology Vol.

  2. Health Physics Enrollments and Degrees Survey, 2005 Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education

    2006-01-01

    This annual report details the number of health physics bachelor's, master's, and postdoctoral degrees awarded at a sampling of academic programs from 1998-2005. It also looks at health physics degrees by curriculum and the number of students enrolled in health physics degree programs at 30 U.S. universities in 2005

  3. Health Physics Enrollments and Degrees Survey, 2004 Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education

    2005-01-01

    This annual report details the number of health physics bachelor's, master's, and doctoral degrees awarded at a sampling of academic programs from 1998-2004. It also looks at health physics degrees by curriculum and the number of students enrolled in health physics degree programs at 28 U.S. universities in 2004

  4. Burnout Evaluation and Potential Predictors in a Greek Cohort of Mental Health Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantinou, Adamos-Konstantinos; Bonotis, Konstantinos; Sokratous, Maria; Siokas, Vasileios; Dardiotis, Efthimios

    2018-06-01

    Job burnout is one of the most serious occupational health hazards, especially, among mental health nurses. It has been attributed among others to staff shortages, health service changes, poor morale and insufficient employee participation in decision-making. The aim of this study was to measure burnout among mental health nurses, investigate relations between burnout and organizational factors and examine potential predictors of nurses' burnout. Specifically, this study aimed to investigate whether role conflict, role ambiguity, organizational commitment and subsequent job satisfaction could predict each of the three dimensions of burnout. During current cross sectional, the survey was administered to 232 mental health nurses, employed in four private psychiatric clinics in the region of Larissa, Thessaly, Greece in May 2015. Our findings were based on the responses to 78 usable questionnaires. Different statistical analyses, such as correlation analyses, regression analyses and analyses of variance were performed in order to explore possible relations. High emotional exhaustion (EE) accounted for 53.8% of the sample, while high depersonalization (DP) and high personal accomplishment (PA) accounted for 24.4% and 25.6%, respectively. The best predictors of burnout were found to be role conflict, satisfaction with workload, satisfaction with training, role ambiguity, satisfaction with pay and presence of serious family issues. These findings have implications for organizational and individual interventions, indicating that mental health nurses' burnout could be reduced, or even prevented by team building strategies, training, application of operation management, clear instructions and psychological support. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Measuring inequalities in health from survey data using self-assessed social class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacak, Valerio

    2018-03-01

    Asking participants to assess their social class may be an efficient approach to examining inequalities in heath from survey data. The present study investigated this possibility empirically by testing whether subjective class identification is related to overall health. I used pooled cross-sectional data from the 2012 and the 2014 General Social Survey, a nationally representative survey carried out among adults in the United States. The association between health and class was estimated separately by gender, race and age. The association follows a gradient pattern where health deteriorates with lower class position even after controlling for indicators typically used in research that examines class differences in health-educational attainment, family income and occupational prestige. The results largely hold when the data are stratified by gender, race and age. These findings demonstrate the empirical value of subjective class identification for assessing social inequalities in health from survey data.

  6. Potential Moderators of Physical Activity on Brain Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina L. Leckie

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Age-related cognitive decline is linked to numerous molecular, structural, and functional changes in the brain. However, physical activity is a promising method of reducing unfavorable age-related changes. Physical activity exerts its effects on the brain through many molecular pathways, some of which are regulated by genetic variants in humans. In this paper, we highlight genes including apolipoprotein E (APOE, brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, and catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT along with dietary omega-3 fatty acid, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, as potential moderators of the effect of physical activity on brain health. There are a growing number of studies indicating that physical activity might mitigate the genetic risks for disease and brain dysfunction and that the combination of greater amounts of DHA intake with physical activity might promote better brain function than either treatment alone. Understanding whether genes or other lifestyles moderate the effects of physical activity on neurocognitive health is necessary for delineating the pathways by which brain health can be enhanced and for grasping the individual variation in the effectiveness of physical activity interventions on the brain and cognition. There is a need for future research to continue to assess the factors that moderate the effects of physical activity on neurocognitive function.

  7. The Danish Health Examination Survey 2007-2008 (DANHES 2007-2008)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Louise; Grønbæk, Morten; Helge, Jørn Wulff

    2011-01-01

    AIMS: The Danish Health Examination Survey (DANHES 2007-2008) was carried out by the National Institute of Public Health, University of Southern Denmark, in 13 Danish municipalities in 2007-2008. The focus of the survey was diet, smoking, alcohol, and physical activity. The aim of the survey......, and living conditions, and a supplementary food frequency questionnaire. The health examination contained measurements of blood pressure, resting heart rate, height, weight, fat percentage, waist and hip circumference, blood and hair samples, spirometry, bone mineral density, physical performance, muscle...

  8. Expert Consensus Survey on Digital Health Tools for Patients With Serious Mental Illness: Optimizing for User Characteristics and User Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatch, Ainslie; Hoffman, Julia E; Ross, Ruth; Docherty, John P

    2018-06-12

    Digital technology is increasingly being used to enhance health care in various areas of medicine. In the area of serious mental illness, it is important to understand the special characteristics of target users that may influence motivation and competence to use digital health tools, as well as the resources and training necessary for these patients to facilitate the use of this technology. The aim of this study was to conduct a quantitative expert consensus survey to identify key characteristics of target users (patients and health care professionals), barriers and facilitators for appropriate use, and resources needed to optimize the use of digital health tools in patients with serious mental illness. A panel of 40 experts in digital behavioral health who met the participation criteria completed a 19-question survey, rating predefined responses on a 9-point Likert scale. Consensus was determined using a chi-square test of score distributions across three ranges (1-3, 4-6, 7-9). Categorical ratings of first, second, or third line were designated based on the lowest category into which the CI of the mean ratings fell, with a boundary >6.5 for first line. Here, we report experts' responses to nine questions (265 options) that focused on (1) user characteristics that would promote or hinder the use of digital health tools, (2) potential benefits or motivators and barriers or unintended consequences of digital health tool use, and (3) support and training for patients and health care professionals. Among patient characteristics most likely to promote use of digital health tools, experts endorsed interest in using state-of-the-art technology, availability of necessary resources, good occupational functioning, and perception of the tool as beneficial. Certain disease-associated signs and symptoms (eg, more severe symptoms, substance abuse problems, and a chaotic living situation) were considered likely to make it difficult for patients to use digital health tools

  9. Fukushima health management survey. What can we do for the health of our children?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohtsuru, Akira; Yasumura, Seiji; Suzuki, Shinichi

    2013-01-01

    Various emergent medical measures taken soon after the Tohoku earthquake/tsunami disaster and Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident (Mar. 2011), and the consequent, long term Survey in the title for residents of Fukushima prefecture are described. In addition to the early estimation of the effective external exposure dose, the survey involves the programs of thyroid examination for children, of health examination for expectant and nursing mothers, and for residents in evacuation area with mental and life-style medicare. The thyroid examination of 0-18 years old, 360 thousands children at the Accident is to be conducted by ultrasonography once 2 years until their age of 20 y and once 5 years thereafter. Preceding examinations in 2011 and 2012 are conceived helpful to detect the early change, if any, of the tissue in the Survey afterward. At Mar. 2013, the preceding test is finished for 170 thousands children, in 40% and 0.5% of whom, cyst(s) and nodule(s), respectively, are found. Results are rapidly reported to the examinee with concerned information. For maternity, questionnaire had been done to 15,954 expectant and nursing mothers in 2011, and 9,266 answers were obtained, 1,393 of whom are judged to be necessary for help of health consultation. Mental situation stands on questionnaire in 2011 and is evaluated by post traumatic stress disorder-checklist stressor specific version (PCL) in adult, by Kessler 6 in >15 years old residents and by Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) in children of 4-15 y age. Children with > SDQ cutoff-value are found to amount to 21.5% in contrast to Japanese control 9.5%, suggesting that they feel mental stress and load. Life-style medicare for 210 thousands residents in the evacuation area is continued: 75 thousands have received the health examination: and abnormal cases possibly related with life-style change are recognized increased. Medicare and support are to be continued further in future. (T.T.)

  10. Barriers to Mental Health Treatment: Results from the WHO World Mental Health (WMH) Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, L. H.; Alonso, J.; Mneimneh, Z.; Wells, J. E.; Al-Hamzawi, A.; Borges, G.; Bromet, E.; Bruffaerts, R.; de Girolamo, G.; de Graaf, R.; Florescu, S.; Gureje, O.; Hinkov, H. R.; Hu, C.; Huang, Y.; Hwang, I.; Jin, R.; Karam, E. G.; Kovess-Masfety, V.; Levinson, D.; Matschinger, H.; O’Neill, S.; Posada-Villa, J.; Sagar, R.; Sampson, N. A.; Sasu, C.; Stein, D.; Takeshima, T.; Viana, M. C.; Xavier, M.; Kessler, R. C.

    2014-01-01

    Background To examine barriers to initiation and continuation of mental health treatment among individuals with common mental disorders. Methods Data are from the WHO World Mental Health (WMH) Surveys. Representative household samples were interviewed face-to-face in 24 countries. Reasons to initiate and continue treatment were examined in a subsample (n= 63,678) and analyzed at different levels of clinical severity. Results Among those with a DSM-IV disorder in the past twelve months, low perceived need was the most common reason for not initiating treatment and more common among moderate and mild than severe cases. Women and younger people with disorders were more likely to recognize a need for treatment. Desire to handle the problem on one’s own was the most common barrier among respondents with a disorder who perceived a need for treatment (63.8%). Attitudinal barriers were much more important than structural barriers both to initiating and continuing treatment. However, attitudinal barriers dominated for mild-moderate cases and structural barriers for severe cases. Perceived ineffectiveness of treatment was the most commonly reported reason for treatment dropout (39.3%) followed by negative experiences with treatment providers (26.9% of respondents with severe disorders). Conclusions Low perceived need and attitudinal barriers are the major barriers to seeking and staying in treatment among individuals with common mental disorders worldwide. Apart from targeting structural barriers, mainly in countries with poor resources, increasing population mental health literacy is an important endeavor worldwide. PMID:23931656

  11. The representation of health care services in Mexican television: potential consequences for health subjectivities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soledad Rojas Rajs

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to analyze the representation of health services in Mexican television, considering that television plays an important role in the production and reproduction of the social meanings of health. A descriptive study analyzed the contents of 672 hours of continuous television (media flows broadcast in Mexico in 2011, examining advertising, television shows and newscasts. The analysis of all these messages shows that the representation of private care services predominates. When public care services are mentioned, the communication is mainly regarding the Seguro Popular de Salud [Popular Health Insurance, for those with low incomes], while the social security model of care is underrepresented. We therefore conclude that television favors the two first models of health care. This kind of representation could hold potential consequences for health subjectivities.

  12. The Digital Divide and Health Disparities in China: Evidence From a National Survey and Policy Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Y Alicia; Zhou, Zi; Fang, Ya; Shi, Leiyu

    2017-09-11

    The digital divide persists despite broad accessibility of mobile tools. The relationship between the digital divide and health disparities reflects social status in terms of access to resources and health outcomes; however, data on this relationship are limited from developing countries such as China. The aim of this study was to examine the current rates of access to mobile tools (Internet use and mobile phone ownership) among older Chinese individuals (aged ≥45 years), the predictors of access at individual and community levels, and the relationship between access to mobile tools and health outcomes. We drew cross-sectional data from a national representative survey, the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS), which focused on the older population (aged ≥45 years). We used two-level mixed logistic regression models, controlling for unobserved heterogeneity at the community and individual levels for data analysis. In addition to individual-level socioeconomic status (SES), we included community-level resources such as neighborhood amenities, health care facilities, and community organizations. Health outcomes were measured by self-reported health and absence of disability based on validated scales. Among the 18,215 participants, 6.51% had used the Internet in the past month, and 83% owned a mobile phone. In the multivariate models, Internet use was strongly associated with SES, rural or urban residence, neighborhood amenities, community resources, and geographic region. Mobile phone ownership was strongly associated with SES and rural/urban residence but not so much with neighborhood amenities and community resources. Internet use was a significant predictor of self-reported health status, and mobile phone ownership was significantly associated with having disability even after controlling for potential confounders at the individual and community levels. This study is one of the first to examine digital divide and its relationship with health

  13. National Survey on Drug Use and Health: 10-Year Substate R-DAS (NSDUH-2002-2011)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This file includes data from the 2002 through 2011 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) survey. The only variables included in the data file are ones that...

  14. Knowledge, attitude, willingness and readiness of primary health care providers to provide oral health services to children in Niagara, Ontario: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhal, Sonica; Figueiredo, Rafael; Dupuis, Sandy; Skellet, Rachel; Wincott, Tara; Dyer, Carolyn; Feller, Andrea; Quiñonez, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    Most children are exposed to medical, but not dental, care at an early age, making primary health care providers an important player in the reduction of tooth decay. The goal of this research was to understand the feasibility of using primary health care providers in promoting oral health by assessing their knowledge, attitude, willingness and readiness in this regard. Using the Dillman method, a mail-in cross-sectional survey was conducted among all family physicians and pediatricians in the Niagara region of Ontario who have primary contact with children. A descriptive analysis was performed. Close to 70% (181/265) of providers responded. More than 90% know that untreated tooth decay could affect the general health of a child. More than 80% examine the oral cavity for more than 50% of their child patients. However, more than 50% are not aware that white spots or lines on the tooth surface are the first signs of tooth decay. Lack of clinical time was the top reason for not performing oral disease prevention measures. Overall, survey responses show a positive attitude and willingness to engage in the oral health of children. To capitalize on this, there is a need to identify mechanisms of providing preventive oral health care services by primary health care providers; including improving their knowledge of oral health and addressing other potential barriers.

  15. Implementation of a guideline for local health policy making by regional health services: exploring determinants of use by a web survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuunders, Theo J M; Jacobs, Monique A M; Goor, Ien A M van de; Bon-Martens, Marja J H van; Oers, Hans A M van; Paulussen, Theo G W M

    2017-08-15

    Previous evaluation showed insufficient use of a national guideline for integrated local health policy by Regional Health Services (RHS) in the Netherlands. The guideline focuses on five health topics and includes five checklists to support integrated municipal health policies. This study explores the determinants of guideline use by regional Dutch health professionals. A web survey was send to 304 RHS health professionals. The questionnaire was based on a theory- and research-based framework of determinants of public health innovations. Main outcomes were guideline use and completeness of use, defined as the number of health topics and checklists used. Associations between determinants and (completeness of) guideline use were explored by multivariate regression models. The survey was started by 120 professionals (39%). Finally, results from 73 respondents (24%) were eligible for analyses. All 28 Dutch RHS organizations were represented in the final dataset. About half of the respondents (48%) used the guideline. The average score for completeness of use (potential range 1-10) was 2.37 (sd = 1.78; range 1-7). Knowledge, perceived task responsibility and usability were significantly related to guideline use in univariate analyses. Only usability remained significant in the multivariate model on guideline use. Only self-efficacy accounted for significant proportions of variance in completeness of use. The results imply that strategies to improve guideline use by RHSs should primarily target perceived usability. Self-efficacy appeared the primary target for improving completeness of guideline use. Methods for targeting these determinants in RHSs are discussed.

  16. The effect of mode and context on survey results: Analysis of data from the Health Survey for England 2006 and the Boost Survey for London

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roth Marilyn A

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health-related data at local level could be provided by supplementing national health surveys with local boosts. Self-completion surveys are less costly than interviews, enabling larger samples to be achieved for a given cost. However, even when the same questions are asked with the same wording, responses to survey questions may vary by mode of data collection. These measurement differences need to be investigated further. Methods The Health Survey for England in London ('Core' and a London Boost survey ('Boost' used identical sampling strategies but different modes of data collection. Some data were collected by face-to-face interview in the Core and by self-completion in the Boost; other data were collected by self-completion questionnaire in both, but the context differed. Results were compared by mode of data collection using two approaches. The first examined differences in results that remained after adjusting the samples for differences in response. The second compared results after using propensity score matching to reduce any differences in sample composition. Results There were no significant differences between the two samples for prevalence of some variables including long-term illness, limiting long-term illness, current rates of smoking, whether participants drank alcohol, and how often they usually drank. However, there were a number of differences, some quite large, between some key measures including: general health, GHQ12 score, portions of fruit and vegetables consumed, levels of physical activity, and, to a lesser extent, smoking consumption, the number of alcohol units reported consumed on the heaviest day of drinking in the last week and perceived social support (among women only. Conclusion Survey mode and context can both affect the responses given. The effect is largest for complex question modules but was also seen for identical self-completion questions. Some data collected by interview and self

  17. Mental Health Services for Students at Postsecondary Institutions: A National Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaworska, Natalia; De Somma, Elisea; Fonseka, Bernice; Heck, Emma

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Although the high prevalence of mental health issues among postsecondary students is well documented, comparatively little is known about the adequacy, accessibility, and adherence to best practices of mental health services (MHSs)/initiatives on postsecondary campuses. We evaluated existing mental health promotion, identification, and intervention initiatives at postsecondary institutions across Canada, expanding on our previous work in one Canadian province. Methods: A 54-question online survey was sent to potential respondents (mainly front-line workers dealing directly with students [e.g., psychologists/counsellors, medical professionals]) at Canada’s publicly funded postsecondary institutions. Data were analyzed overall and according to institutional size (small [students], medium [2000–10 000 students], large [>10 000 students]). Results: In total, 168 out of 180 institutions were represented, and the response rate was high (96%; 274 respondents). Most institutions have some form of mental health promotion and outreach programs, although most respondents felt that these were not a good use of resources. Various social supports exist at most institutions, with large ones offering the greatest variety. Most institutions do not require incoming students to disclose mental health issues. While counselling services are typically available, staff do not reliably have a diverse complement (e.g., gender or race diversity). Counselling sessions are generally limited, and follow-up procedures are uncommon. Complete diagnostic assessments and the use of standardized diagnostic systems are rare. Conclusions: While integral MHSs are offered at most Canadian postsecondary institutions, the range and depth of available services are variable. These data can guide policy makers and stakeholders in developing comprehensive campus mental health strategies. PMID:27310230

  18. Tetanus: A Potential Public Health Threat in Times of Disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelstein, Paige; Teisch, Laura; Allen, Casey J; Ruiz, Gabriel

    2017-06-01

    Tetanus is a potentially fatal condition that is rare in urban environments but is seen in developing countries and post-natural-disaster. Therefore, the purpose of this report was to review the epidemiology, pathogenesis, and management of tetanus in the trauma patient. A thorough literature review was conducted to look for the most current and thorough guidelines on the prophylaxis and treatment of tetanus. PUBMED (National Center for Biotechnology Information, National Institutes of Health; Bethesda, Maryland USA), MEDLINE (US National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health; Bethesda, Maryland USA), and Cochrane Library (The Cochrane Collaboration; Oxford, United Kingdom) databases were searched for articles in English, published from 2005 to 2015, using the keywords "Tetanus," "Trauma/Surgery," and "Disaster." Controlled trials, randomized controlled trials, trials of adult patients, published guidelines, expert opinions, and review articles were selected and extracted. Current vaccination schedules in developed countries provide prophylaxis for tetanus. However, when severe natural disasters occur, many patients may not be able to provide a reliable vaccination history. In these situations, tetanus immune globulin (TIG) is indicated; if resources are not limited, both tetanus toxoid and TIG should be given to those with high-risk wounds. If resources are limited, TIG should be reserved for those that would benefit most or those least likely to have the protective antibodies. Although tetanus is a disease that has a low incidence in the developed world due to high rates of immunization, during large-scale natural disasters, compounding factors like the types of injuries, lack of medical services and supplies, and the delay in treatment associated with an already low immunization rate result in an increased incidence and outbreaks of the disease that has higher mortality in an underdeveloped society. It is important for the urban physician that cares

  19. Environmental health science at the U.S. Geological Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buxton, Herbert T.; Bright, Patricia R.

    2013-01-01

    USGS environmental health science focuses on the environment-health interface. Research characterizes the processes that affect the interaction among the physical environment, the living environment, and people, as well as the factors that affect ecological and human exposure to disease agents and the resulting toxicologic or infectious disease. The mission of USGS in environmental health science is to contribute scientific information to environmental, natural resource, agricultural, and public-health managers, who use that information to support sound decisionmaking. Coordination with partners and stakeholders will enable USGS to focus on the highest priority environmental health issues, to make relevant, timely, and useable contributions, and to become a “partner of first choice” for environmental health science.

  20. Survey of mental health needs of Hamedanian people

    OpenAIRE

    farshid Shamsaei; fatemeh Elhani; fatemeh Cheraghi; ali Ghale Iha

    2010-01-01

    For all individuals, mental, physical and social health is vital strands of life that are closely interwoven and deeply interdependent. And mental health is crucial to the overall well-being of individuals, societies and countries. Objectives: The aim of this study is to identify the mental health needs of Hamedanian people. Materials and Methods: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study. The participants consist of 1300 persons who were selected by stratified sampling. A 30- item quest...

  1. Survey of mental health needs of Hamedanian people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    farshid Shamsaei

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available For all individuals, mental, physical and social health is vital strands of life that are closely interwoven and deeply interdependent. And mental health is crucial to the overall well-being of individuals, societies and countries. Objectives: The aim of this study is to identify the mental health needs of Hamedanian people. Materials and Methods: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study. The participants consist of 1300 persons who were selected by stratified sampling. A 30- item questionnaire was used to gather data from the samples. It consisted of three parts: A-demographic factors, B-questions related to mental health service delivery and C- questions related to mental health needs. Results: Results showed that the Hamedan city people believed that mental health services are inadequate, they did not access services near their home (76% and mass media educational programs about services was poor(34%. The expressed needs of people were: mental health education (72%, established mental health centers in schools (52. 8% and factories (50. 7% and expanding the comprehensive mental health centers in the city(57. 8%. Expanding the assurance services (85. 6%, modifying wrong beliefs and ideas about mental illness (42. 6%, and improving the mental health in society. Conclusion: Community based mental health services should to provide comprehensive and local cares and treatments. Services should be comprehensive in that they provide a range of facilities to meet the mental health needs of the population at large as well as of special groups, such as children, adolescents, women and elderly people.

  2. Modelling the relationship between obesity and mental health in children and adolescents: findings from the Health Survey for England 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Summerbell Carolyn D

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A number of studies have reported significant associations between obesity and poor psychological wellbeing in children but findings have been inconsistent. Methods: This study utilised data from 3,898 children aged 5-16 years obtained from the Health Survey for England 2007. Information was available on Body Mass Index (BMI, parental ratings of child emotional and behavioural health (Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, self-reported physical activity levels and sociodemographic variables. A multilevel modelling approach was used to allow for the clustering of children within households. Results: Curvilinear relationships between both internalising (emotional and externalising (behavioural symptoms and adjusted BMI were observed. After adjusting for potential confounders the relationships between obesity and psychological adjustment (reported externalising and internalising symptoms remained statistically significant. Being overweight, rather than obese, had no impact on overall reported mental health. 17% of children with obesity were above the suggested screening threshold for emotional problems, compared to 9% of non-obese children. Allowing for clustering and potential confounding variables children classified as obese had an odds ratio (OR of 2.13 (95% CI 1.39 to 3.26 for being above the screening threshold for an emotional disorder compared to non-obese young people. No cross-level interactions between household income and the relationships between obesity and internalising or externalising symptoms were observed. Conclusions: In this large, representative, UK-based community sample a curvilinear association with emotional wellbeing was observed for adjusted BMI suggesting the possibility of a threshold effect. Further research could focus on exploring causal relationships and developing targeted interventions.

  3. Secondary Data Analysis of National Surveys in Japan Toward Improving Population Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Nayu

    2016-01-01

    Secondary data analysis of national health surveys of the general population is a standard methodology for health metrics and evaluation; it is used to monitor trends in population health over time and benchmark the performance of health systems. In Japan, the government has established electronic databases of individual records from national surveys of the population’s health. However, the number of publications based on these datasets is small considering the scale and coverage of the surveys. There appear to be two major obstacles to the secondary use of Japanese national health survey data: strict data access control under the Statistics Act and an inadequate interdisciplinary research environment for resolving methodological difficulties encountered when dealing with secondary data. The usefulness of secondary analysis of survey data is evident with examples from the author’s previous studies based on vital records and the National Health and Nutrition Surveys, which showed that (i) tobacco smoking and high blood pressure are the major risk factors for adult mortality from non-communicable diseases in Japan; (ii) the decrease in mean blood pressure in Japan from the late 1980s to the early 2000s was partly attributable to the increased use of antihypertensive medication and reduced dietary salt intake; and (iii) progress in treatment coverage and control of high blood pressure is slower in Japan than in the United States and Britain. National health surveys in Japan are an invaluable asset, and findings from secondary analyses of these surveys would provide important suggestions for improving health in people around the world. PMID:26902170

  4. The Design and Implementation of the 2016 National Survey of Children's Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghandour, Reem M; Jones, Jessica R; Lebrun-Harris, Lydie A; Minnaert, Jessica; Blumberg, Stephen J; Fields, Jason; Bethell, Christina; Kogan, Michael D

    2018-05-09

    Introduction Since 2001, the Health Resources and Services Administration's Maternal and Child Health Bureau (HRSA MCHB) has funded and directed the National Survey of Children's Health (NSCH) and the National Survey of Children with Special Health Care Needs (NS-CSHCN), unique sources of national and state-level data on child health and health care. Between 2012 and 2015, HRSA MCHB redesigned the surveys, combining content into a single survey, and shifting from a periodic interviewer-assisted telephone survey to an annual self-administered web/paper-based survey utilizing an address-based sampling frame. Methods The U.S. Census Bureau fielded the redesigned NSCH using a random sample of addresses drawn from the Census Master Address File, supplemented with a unique administrative flag to identify households most likely to include children. Data were collected June 2016-February 2017 using a multi-mode design, encouraging web-based responses while allowing for paper mail-in responses. A parent/caregiver knowledgeable about the child's health completed an age-appropriate questionnaire. Experiments on incentives, branding, and contact strategies were conducted. Results Data were released in September 2017. The final sample size was 50,212 children; the overall weighted response rate was 40.7%. Comparison of 2016 estimates to those from previous survey iterations are not appropriate due to sampling and mode changes. Discussion The NSCH remains an invaluable data source for key measures of child health and attendant health care system, family, and community factors. The redesigned survey extended the utility of this resource while seeking a balance between previous strengths and innovations now possible.

  5. National health and nutrition examination survey: plan and operations, 1999-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zipf, George; Chiappa, Michele; Porter, Kathryn S; Ostchega, Yechiam; Lewis, Brenda G; Dostal, Jennifer

    2013-08-01

    Background-Starting in 1999, the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) became a continuous, ongoing annual survey of the noninstitutionalized civilian resident population of the United States. A continuous survey allowed content to change to meet emerging needs. Objective-This report describes how NHANES for 1999-2010 was designed and implemented. NHANES is a national survey designed to provide national estimates on various health-related topics. Methods-The survey used in-person face-to-face interviews and physical examinations for data collection. Approximately 5,000 people per year participated in NHANES. The 5,000 people surveyed each year are representative of the entire U.S. population. All material appearing in this report is in the public domain and may be reproduced or copied without permission; citation as to source, however, is appreciated.

  6. Climate change and health in Bangladesh: a baseline cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabir, Md Iqbal; Rahman, Md Bayzidur; Smith, Wayne; Lusha, Mirza Afreen Fatima; Milton, Abul Hasnat

    2016-01-01

    Bangladesh is facing the unavoidable challenge of adaptation to climate change. However, very little is known in relation to climate change and health. This article provides information on potential climate change impact on health, magnitude of climate-sensitive diseases, and baseline scenarios of health systems to climate variability and change. A cross-sectional study using multistage cluster sampling framework was conducted in 2012 among 6,720 households of 224 rural villages in seven vulnerable districts of Bangladesh. Information was obtained from head of the households using a pretested, interviewer-administered, structured questionnaire. A total of 6,720 individuals participated in the study with written, informed consent. The majority of the respondents were from the low-income vulnerable group (60% farmers or day labourers) with an average of 30 years' stay in their locality. Most of them (96%) had faced extreme weather events, 45% of people had become homeless and displaced for a mean duration of 38 days in the past 10 years. Almost all of the respondents (97.8%) believe that health care expenditure increased after the extreme weather events. Mean annual total health care expenditure was 6,555 Bangladeshi Taka (BDT) (1 USD=77 BDT in 2015) and exclusively out of pocket of the respondents. Incidence of dengue was 1.29 (95% CI 0.65-2.56) and malaria 13.86 (95% CI 6.00-32.01) per 1,000 adult population for 12 months preceding the data collection. Incidence of diarrhoea and pneumonia among under-five children of the households for the preceding month was 10.3% (95% CI 9.16-11.66) and 7.3% (95% CI 6.35-8.46), respectively. The findings of this survey indicate that climate change has a potential adverse impact on human health in Bangladesh. The magnitude of malaria, dengue, childhood diarrhoea, and pneumonia was high among the vulnerable communities. Community-based adaptation strategy for health could be beneficial to minimise climate change attributed health

  7. Climate change and health in Bangladesh: a baseline cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Iqbal Kabir

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bangladesh is facing the unavoidable challenge of adaptation to climate change. However, very little is known in relation to climate change and health. This article provides information on potential climate change impact on health, magnitude of climate-sensitive diseases, and baseline scenarios of health systems to climate variability and change. Design: A cross-sectional study using multistage cluster sampling framework was conducted in 2012 among 6,720 households of 224 rural villages in seven vulnerable districts of Bangladesh. Information was obtained from head of the households using a pretested, interviewer-administered, structured questionnaire. A total of 6,720 individuals participated in the study with written, informed consent. Results: The majority of the respondents were from the low-income vulnerable group (60% farmers or day labourers with an average of 30 years’ stay in their locality. Most of them (96% had faced extreme weather events, 45% of people had become homeless and displaced for a mean duration of 38 days in the past 10 years. Almost all of the respondents (97.8% believe that health care expenditure increased after the extreme weather events. Mean annual total health care expenditure was 6,555 Bangladeshi Taka (BDT (1 USD=77 BDT in 2015 and exclusively out of pocket of the respondents. Incidence of dengue was 1.29 (95% CI 0.65–2.56 and malaria 13.86 (95% CI 6.00–32.01 per 1,000 adult population for 12 months preceding the data collection. Incidence of diarrhoea and pneumonia among under-five children of the households for the preceding month was 10.3% (95% CI 9.16–11.66 and 7.3% (95% CI 6.35–8.46, respectively. Conclusions: The findings of this survey indicate that climate change has a potential adverse impact on human health in Bangladesh. The magnitude of malaria, dengue, childhood diarrhoea, and pneumonia was high among the vulnerable communities. Community-based adaptation strategy for health

  8. Potential demand for household alternative fuelled vehicles in Hamilton, Canada : a stated choices experiment and survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potoglou, D.; Kanaroglou, P.S. [McMaster Univ., Hamilton, ON (Canada). Centre for Spatial Analysis]|[McMaster Univ., Hamilton, ON (Canada). School of Geography and Earth Science

    2005-07-01

    Alternative fuelled vehicle (AFV) technologies are a key strategy towards improved air quality and sustainable development. These fuel-efficient, low- or zero-emission vehicles have the potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and other negative externalities linked with the transportation sector. They include battery electric vehicles, fuel cell vehicles, and hybrid electric vehicles with internal combustion engines. This paper discussed AFVs development trends and modelling the demand for AFVs. It was noted that before creating policy measures that promote new vehicle technologies, one should first evaluate the demand for AFVs and the effectiveness of incentives and marketing promotions. This paper discussed the design and application of a stated choices experiment in which urban level surveys were conducted on the Internet to obtain data and public opinion on the demand for AFVs. A Choice Internet Based Experiment for Research on Cars (CIBER-CARS) was designed. This self-administered online questionnaire was used in Hamilton, Ontario. The survey design was described in detail and its implementation and data collection procedures were reviewed. Measures for evaluating the efficiency of the Internet survey were also highlighted and the characteristics of the collected information were summarized with emphasis on the profiles of respondents and households. The purpose was to determine the impact of vehicle attributes and household characteristics to the actual choice of certain vehicles. 28 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs.

  9. Synthetic Biology and Human Health: Potential Applications for Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karouia, Fathi; Carr, Christopher; Cai, Yizhi; Chen, Y.; Grenon, Marlene; Larios-Sanz, Maia; Jones, Jeffrey A.; Santos, Orlando

    2011-01-01

    Human space travelers experience a unique environment that affects homeostasis and physiologic adaptation. Spaceflight-related changes have been reported in the musculo-skeletal, cardiovascular, neurovestibular, endocrine, and immune systems. The spacecraft environment further subjects the traveler to noise and gravitational forces, as well as airborne chemical, microbiological contaminants, and radiation exposure. As humans prepare for longer duration missions effective countermeasures must be developed, verified, and implemented to ensure mission success. Over the past ten years, synthetic biology has opened new avenues for research and development in areas such as biological control, biomaterials, sustainable energy production, bioremediation, and biomedical therapies. The latter in particular is of great interest to the implementation of long-duration human spaceflight capabilities. This article discusses the effects of spaceflight on humans, and reviews current capabilities and potential needs associated with the health of the astronauts where synthetic biology could play an important role in the pursuit of space exploration.

  10. Bioavailability, metabolism and potential health protective effects of dietary flavonoids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bredsdorff, Lea

    Dietary flavonoids constitute an important group of potential health protective compounds from fruits, vegetables, and plant-based products such as tea and wine. The beneficial effects of a diet high in flavonoids on the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) have been shown in several...... epidemiological studies but the evidence is inconclusive. One major obstacle for epidemiological studies investigating associations between flavonoid intake and risk of CHD is the estimation of flavonoid intake. There is a vast variety of flavonoids in commonly eaten food products but only limited knowledge...... of their content. In addition, variation in individual metabolic genotype and microflora may greatly affect the actual flavonoid exposure. The preventive effects of flavonoids on CHD are mainly ascribed to their anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. Several mechanisms of anti-inflammatory and antioxidant...

  11. Using a patient survey for marketing a professional health care practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, R J

    1990-06-01

    Small, private, professional health care practices are at a disadvantage when conducting market survey research because they cannot afford to employ or purchase the expensive specialized marketing skills of their larger competitors. The author describes a method that small private practices can use to conduct patient marketing surveys. Survey findings are reported and examples are provided of how the results influenced subsequent marketing decisions. Suggestions are offered to help ensure the success of similar studies in other practices.

  12. Empirical Survey of Oral Health Information Exposure to Obafemi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Information about tooth brushing had the highest score with inadequate information about tooth decay and gum diseases. Oral health information received showed no gender variation. Television shows had the highest score. Information received from medical doctors, dentists and health talks were perceived to be most ...

  13. International survey on attitudes toward ethics in health technology assessment: An exploratory study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arellano, L.E.; Willett, J.M.; Borry, P.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of this exploratory study was to survey international health technology assessment (HTA) professionals to determine attitudes toward ethics in HTA. Methods: An exploratory, quantitative, cross-sectional study design was developed. The sample population (n = 636) was

  14. Understanding the Problems of Death and Dying: A Health Professionals' Attitude Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Joseph S.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Attitudes of health practitioners and others toward death and dying and their emotional reactions to dying patients were surveyed both before and after a Veterans Administration workshop. Some attitude changes were noted, with implications for future workshops. (MF)

  15. 2005 Department of Defense Survey of Health Related Behaviors among Active Duty Military Personnel

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bray, Robert M; Hourani, Laurel L; Rae Olmsted, Kristine L; Witt, Michael; Brown, Janice M; Pemberton, Michael R; Marsden, Mary Ellen; Marriott, Bernadette; Scheffler, Scott; Vandermaas-Peeler, Russ

    2006-01-01

    ... Secretary of Defense (Health Affairs). All of the surveys investigated the prevalence of alcohol use, illicit drug use, and tobacco use, as well as negative consequences associated with substance use...

  16. Incorporating intersectionality theory into population health research methodology: challenges and the potential to advance health equity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Greta R

    2014-06-01

    Intersectionality theory, developed to address the non-additivity of effects of sex/gender and race/ethnicity but extendable to other domains, allows for the potential to study health and disease at different intersections of identity, social position, processes of oppression or privilege, and policies or institutional practices. Intersectionality has the potential to enrich population health research through improved validity and greater attention to both heterogeneity of effects and causal processes producing health inequalities. Moreover, intersectional population health research may serve to both test and generate new theories. Nevertheless, its implementation within health research to date has been primarily through qualitative research. In this paper, challenges to incorporation of intersectionality into population health research are identified or expanded upon. These include: 1) confusion of quantitative terms used metaphorically in theoretical work with similar-sounding statistical methods; 2) the question of whether all intersectional positions are of equal value, or even of sufficient value for study; 3) distinguishing between intersecting identities, social positions, processes, and policies or other structural factors; 4) reflecting embodiment in how processes of oppression and privilege are measured and analysed; 5) understanding and utilizing appropriate scale for interactions in regression models; 6) structuring interaction or risk modification to best convey effects, and; 7) avoiding assumptions of equidistance or single level in the design of analyses. Addressing these challenges throughout the processes of conceptualizing and planning research and in conducting analyses has the potential to improve researchers' ability to more specifically document inequalities at varying intersectional positions, and to study the potential individual- and group-level causes that may drive these observed inequalities. A greater and more thoughtful incorporation

  17. A survey of system architecture requirements for health care-based wireless sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egbogah, Emeka E; Fapojuwo, Abraham O

    2011-01-01

    Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) have emerged as a viable technology for a vast number of applications, including health care applications. To best support these health care applications, WSN technology can be adopted for the design of practical Health Care WSNs (HCWSNs) that support the key system architecture requirements of reliable communication, node mobility support, multicast technology, energy efficiency, and the timely delivery of data. Work in the literature mostly focuses on the physical design of the HCWSNs (e.g., wearable sensors, in vivo embedded sensors, et cetera). However, work towards enhancing the communication layers (i.e., routing, medium access control, et cetera) to improve HCWSN performance is largely lacking. In this paper, the information gleaned from an extensive literature survey is shared in an effort to fortify the knowledge base for the communication aspect of HCWSNs. We highlight the major currently existing prototype HCWSNs and also provide the details of their routing protocol characteristics. We also explore the current state of the art in medium access control (MAC) protocols for WSNs, for the purpose of seeking an energy efficient solution that is robust to mobility and delivers data in a timely fashion. Furthermore, we review a number of reliable transport layer protocols, including a network coding based protocol from the literature, that are potentially suitable for delivering end-to-end reliability of data transmitted in HCWSNs. We identify the advantages and disadvantages of the reviewed MAC, routing, and transport layer protocols as they pertain to the design and implementation of a HCWSN. The findings from this literature survey will serve as a useful foundation for designing a reliable HCWSN and also contribute to the development and evaluation of protocols for improving the performance of future HCWSNs. Open issues that required further investigations are highlighted.

  18. A Survey of System Architecture Requirements for Health Care-Based Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham O. Fapojuwo

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs have emerged as a viable technology for a vast number of applications, including health care applications. To best support these health care applications, WSN technology can be adopted for the design of practical Health Care WSNs (HCWSNs that support the key system architecture requirements of reliable communication, node mobility support, multicast technology, energy efficiency, and the timely delivery of data. Work in the literature mostly focuses on the physical design of the HCWSNs (e.g., wearable sensors, in vivo embedded sensors, et cetera. However, work towards enhancing the communication layers (i.e., routing, medium access control, et cetera to improve HCWSN performance is largely lacking. In this paper, the information gleaned from an extensive literature survey is shared in an effort to fortify the knowledge base for the communication aspect of HCWSNs. We highlight the major currently existing prototype HCWSNs and also provide the details of their routing protocol characteristics. We also explore the current state of the art in medium access control (MAC protocols for WSNs, for the purpose of seeking an energy efficient solution that is robust to mobility and delivers data in a timely fashion. Furthermore, we review a number of reliable transport layer protocols, including a network coding based protocol from the literature, that are potentially suitable for delivering end-to-end reliability of data transmitted in HCWSNs. We identify the advantages and disadvantages of the reviewed MAC, routing, and transport layer protocols as they pertain to the design and implementation of a HCWSN. The findings from this literature survey will serve as a useful foundation for designing a reliable HCWSN and also contribute to the development and evaluation of protocols for improving the performance of future HCWSNs. Open issues that required further investigations are highlighted.

  19. Consumers' health perceptions of three types of milk: a survey in Australia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bus, A.E.M.; Worsley, A.

    2003-01-01

    A survey was conducted among 345 randomly selected shoppers in Melbourne, Australia, to identify their perceptions of the healthiness of whole milk, reduced fat milk and soy milk and to investigate demographic influences on health perceptions and types of milk consumption. The survey revealed major

  20. Health and safety risks at the workplace: a joint analysis of three major surveys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houtman, I.L.D.; Eekhout, I.; Venema, A.; Bakhuys Roozeboom, M.; Buuren, S. van

    2017-01-01

    This report presents the key findings of a joint analysis of EU-OSHA’s second European Survey of Enterprises on New and Emerging Risks (ESENER-2), Eurostat’s Labour Force Survey (LFS) 2013 ad hoc module on accidents at work and other work-related health problems, and Eurofound’s 6th European Working

  1. Spontaneous Food Fermentations and Potential Risks for Human Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vittorio Capozzi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Fermented foods and beverages are a heterogeneous class of products with a relevant worldwide significance for human economy, nutrition and health for millennia. A huge diversity of microorganisms is associated with the enormous variety in terms of raw materials, fermentative behavior and obtained products. In this wide microbiodiversity it is possible that the presence of microbial pathogens and toxic by-products of microbial origin, including mycotoxins, ethyl carbamate and biogenic amines, are aspects liable to reduce the safety of the consumed product. Together with other approaches (e.g., use of preservatives, respect of specific physico-chemical parameters, starter cultures technology has been conceived to successfully dominate indigenous microflora and to drive fermentation to foresee the desired attributes of the matrix, assuring quality and safety. Recent trends indicate a general return to spontaneous food fermentation. In this review, we point out the potential risks for human health associated with uncontrolled (uninoculated food fermentation and we discuss biotechnological approaches susceptible to conciliate fermented food safety, with instances of an enhanced contribution of microbes associated to spontaneous fermentation.

  2. Proposed nurse-led initiatives in improving physical health of people with serious mental illness: a survey of nurses in mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Happell, Brenda; Platania-Phung, Chris; Scott, David

    2014-04-01

    To identify nurse perceptions on the potential value of general and specific nursing approaches to improving physical health outcomes of people with serious mental illness. People diagnosed with serious mental illnesses experience heightened rates of physical illnesses and can be supported better via healthcare system prevention and management. Nurses working in mental health are a critical part of a system-wide approach to improving physical health care, but there is little known on their views on specific approaches within Australia (e.g. screening for risks, stigma reduction). A national, cross-sectional and nonrandom survey study delivered online. Members of the Australian College of Mental Health Nurses (n = 643), representing nurses employed in mental healthcare services across Australia (71·6% from public mental health services). Participants were asked to rate the potential of nine nurse-based strategies for improving physical health (options: 'yes', 'no', 'not sure') and the potential value of 10 nursing and general strategies for improving physical health (rating from 'negative value' to 'significant value'). There was a high endorsement of all nine nurse-based strategies for physical health (e.g. lifestyle programmes, screening, linking services), although there was less support for reducing antipsychotics or advocating for fewer side effects. Participants mainly viewed all strategies as of moderate to significant value, with the most promising value attached to colocation of primary and mental care services, lifestyle programmes and improving primary care services (reduce stigma, train GPs). Australian nurses working in mental health services view a range of nurse-based strategies for improving physical healthcare services and standards as important. Nurses collectively need to work with consumers, health agencies and the general public to further define how to organise and implement physical health integration strategies, towards more comprehensive

  3. Personal health records in the Netherlands: potential user preferences quantified by a discrete choice experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Determann, Domino; Lambooij, Mattijs S; Gyrd-Hansen, Dorte; de Bekker-Grob, Esther W; Steyerberg, Ewout W; Heldoorn, Marcel; Pedersen, Line Bjørnskov; de Wit, G Ardine

    2017-05-01

    To identify groups of potential users based on their preferences for characteristics of personal health records (PHRs) and to estimate potential PHR uptake. We performed a discrete choice experiment, which consisted of 12 choice scenarios, each comprising 2 hypothetical PHR alternatives and an opt-out. The alternatives differed based on 5 characteristics. The survey was administered to Internet panel members of the Dutch Federation of Patients and Consumer Organizations. We used latent class models to analyze the data. A total of 1,443 potential PHR users completed the discrete choice experiment. We identified 3 latent classes: "refusers" (class probability 43%), "eager adopters" (37%), and "reluctant adopters" (20%). The predicted uptake for the reluctant adopters ranged from 4% in the case of a PHR with the worst attribute levels to 68% in the best case. Those with 1 or more chronic diseases were significantly more likely to belong to the eager adopter class. The data storage provider was the most decisive aspect for the eager and reluctant adopters, while cost was most decisive for the refusers. Across all classes, health care providers and independent organizations were the most preferred data storage providers. We identified 3 groups, of which 1 group (more than one-third of potential PHR users) indicated great interest in a PHR irrespective of PHR characteristics. Policymakers who aim to expand the use of PHRs will be most successful when health care providers and health facilities or independent organizations store PHR data while refraining from including market parties. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  4. Chemical analysis and potential health risks of hookah charcoal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elsayed, Yehya, E-mail: yelsayed@aus.edu; Dalibalta, Sarah, E-mail: sdalibalta@aus.edu; Abu-Farha, Nedal

    2016-11-01

    Hookah (waterpipe) smoking is a very common practice that has spread globally. There is growing evidence on the hazardous consequences of smoking hookah, with studies indicating that its harmful effects are comparable to cigarette smoking if not worse. Charcoal is commonly used as a heating source for hookah smoke. Although charcoal briquettes are thought to be one of the major contributors to toxicity, their composition and impact on the smoke generated remains largely unidentified. This study aims to analyze the elemental composition of five different raw synthetic and natural charcoals by using Carbon-Hydrogen-Nitrogen (CHN) analysis, inductively coupled plasma (ICP), and scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-Ray spectrometry (SEM-EDS). Elemental analysis showed that the raw charcoals contain heavy metals such as zinc, iron, cadmium, vanadium, aluminum, lead, chromium, manganese and cobalt at concentrations similar, if not higher than, cigarettes. In addition, thermal desorption-gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (TD-GC–MS) was used to analyze the chemical composition of the smoke produced from burning the charcoal samples. The smoke emitted from charcoal was found to be the source of numerous compounds which could be hazardous to health. A total of seven carcinogens, 39 central nervous system depressants and 31 respiratory irritants were identified. - Highlights: • Hookah charcoals, mainly synthetic brands, contains trace/heavy metals in concentrations exceeding those in cigarettes. • The concentration of lead in synthetic charcoal briquettes may impose adverse effects on human health. • The amount of nitrogen in synthetic charcoal is comparable to that reported in cigarettes. • Chemical profiling of smoke emitted from hookah charcoal reveals many compounds associated with potential health risks.

  5. Chemical analysis and potential health risks of hookah charcoal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elsayed, Yehya; Dalibalta, Sarah; Abu-Farha, Nedal

    2016-01-01

    Hookah (waterpipe) smoking is a very common practice that has spread globally. There is growing evidence on the hazardous consequences of smoking hookah, with studies indicating that its harmful effects are comparable to cigarette smoking if not worse. Charcoal is commonly used as a heating source for hookah smoke. Although charcoal briquettes are thought to be one of the major contributors to toxicity, their composition and impact on the smoke generated remains largely unidentified. This study aims to analyze the elemental composition of five different raw synthetic and natural charcoals by using Carbon-Hydrogen-Nitrogen (CHN) analysis, inductively coupled plasma (ICP), and scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-Ray spectrometry (SEM-EDS). Elemental analysis showed that the raw charcoals contain heavy metals such as zinc, iron, cadmium, vanadium, aluminum, lead, chromium, manganese and cobalt at concentrations similar, if not higher than, cigarettes. In addition, thermal desorption-gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (TD-GC–MS) was used to analyze the chemical composition of the smoke produced from burning the charcoal samples. The smoke emitted from charcoal was found to be the source of numerous compounds which could be hazardous to health. A total of seven carcinogens, 39 central nervous system depressants and 31 respiratory irritants were identified. - Highlights: • Hookah charcoals, mainly synthetic brands, contains trace/heavy metals in concentrations exceeding those in cigarettes. • The concentration of lead in synthetic charcoal briquettes may impose adverse effects on human health. • The amount of nitrogen in synthetic charcoal is comparable to that reported in cigarettes. • Chemical profiling of smoke emitted from hookah charcoal reveals many compounds associated with potential health risks.

  6. Potential exposures and health effects from spent fuel transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandquist, G.M.; Rogers, V.C.

    1986-01-01

    The radiation exposures and consequent health effects associated with normal operations and accidents during transportation of spent fuel have been analyzed and evaluated. This study was performed for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) as contributory data for response to specific public inquires regarding the Draft Environmental Assessments issued by DOE in 1984. Large quantities of spent fuel from power reactors will be shipped by truck and/or rail from the site of generation or temporary storage to nuclear waste repositories. This transportation activity has the potential for increasing radiation exposures and risks above normal background levels in the vicinity of the transportation route. For normal, accident-free transport of spent fuel, radiation exposures arise from both gamma and neutron sources within the spent fuel cask. U.S. regulations limit the radiation dose equivalent rate to 10 millirem per hour at any point 2 meters from the outer lateral surfaces of the transport vehicle. Computer program PATHRAE-T was developed and employed to determine the total, combined dose field. PATHRAE-T was used to estimate the maximum individual doses from rail cask accidents. The maximum individual exposure, primarily due to inhalation, is about 10 rem and occurs about 70 meters downwind. Ground deposited nuclides account for 99 percent of the population dose. The maximum population dose accident could result in about 22 latent health effects for the urban population. The same case rail cask accidents were also evaluated for a maximum water pathway contamination scenario. The nuclide contaminated plume was assumed to be transported over a large reservoir used for domestic and agricultural water. This accident could result in a 63,000 person-rem dose causing about 13 latent health effects in the absence of any natural and industrial processes for nuclide removal from the water

  7. Phytochemical profile of sugarcane and its potential health aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Amandeep; Lal, Uma Ranjan; Mukhtar, Hayat Muhammad; Singh, Prabh Simran; Shah, Gagan; Dhawan, Ravi Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum Linn.) is an important perennial grass of Poaceae family, indigenous to tropical South Asia and Southeast Asia. It is cultivated worldwide due to the economical and medicinal value of its high yielding products. Sugarcane juice is well known as a raw material for the production of refined sugar and its wax is considered as a potential substitute for the expensive carnauba wax, which is of cosmetic and pharmaceutical interest. Refined sugar is the primary product of sugarcane juice, but during its processing, various other valuable products are also obtained in an unrefined form, such as, brown sugar, molasses, and jaggery. Sugarcane juice is widely used in India in the treatment of jaundice, hemorrhage, dysuria, anuria, and other urinary diseases. Herein, we have summarized the different phytoconstituents and health benefits of sugarcane and its valuable products. The phytochemistry of sugarcane wax (obtained from the leaves and stalks of sugarcane), leaves, juice, and its products has revealed the presence of various fatty acid, alcohol, phytosterols, higher terpenoids, flavonoids, -O- and -C-glycosides, and phenolic acids. The future prospective of some of the sugarcane products has been discussed, which needs a phytopharmacological study and has a great potential to be a valuable medicinal product.

  8. Conducting health survey research in a deep rural South African community: challenges and adaptive strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casale, Marisa; Lane, Tyler; Sello, Lebo; Kuo, Caroline; Cluver, Lucie

    2013-04-24

    In many parts of the developing world, rural health requires focused policy attention, informed by reliable, representative health data. Yet there is surprisingly little published material to guide health researchers who face the unique set of hurdles associated with conducting field research in remote rural areas. In this paper we provide a detailed description of the key challenges encountered during health survey field research carried out in 2010 in a deep rural site in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. The aim of the field research was to collect data on the health of children aged 10 to 17 years old, and their primary adult caregivers, as part of a larger national health survey; the research was a collaboration between several South African and foreign universities, South African national government departments, and various NGO partners. In presenting each of the four fieldwork challenges encountered on this site, we describe the initial planning decisions made, the difficulties faced when implementing these in the field, and the adaptive strategies we used to respond to these challenges. We reflect on learnings of potential relevance for the research community. Our four key fieldwork challenges were scarce research capacity, staff relocation tensions, logistical constraints, and difficulties related to community buy-in. Addressing each of these obstacles required timely assessment of the situation and adaptation of field plans, in collaboration with our local NGO partner. Adaptive strategies included a greater use of local knowledge; the adoption of tribal authority boundaries as the smallest geopolitical units for sampling; a creative developmental approach to capacity building; and planned, on-going engagement with multiple community representatives. We argue that in order to maintain high scientific standards of research and manage to 'get the job done' on the ground, it is necessary to respond to fieldwork challenges that arise as a cohesive team, with timely

  9. Job satisfaction among public health nurses: a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Elizabeth A; Glacken, Michele

    2014-07-01

    Despite increasing interest in nurses' job satisfaction relatively few studies have investigated job satisfaction among public health nurses. To establish current level of job satisfaction among public health nurses and identify the main contributing variables/factors to job satisfaction among this population. Quantitative descriptive design. A simple random sample of 1000 public health nurses was conducted yielding a response rate of 35.1% (n = 351). Data was collected using the Index of Work Satisfaction Questionnaire. Descriptive and inferential statistics were deployed. Low levels of job satisfaction among public health nurses emerged. Professional status, interaction and autonomy contributed most to job satisfaction while pay and task-related activities contributed least. Age and tenure were the only biographic factors that correlated significantly with job satisfaction. Public health nurse managers/leaders need to find creative ways of improving the factors that contribute to job satisfaction and address robustly those factors that result in low job satisfaction. The critical issue for public health nurse managers is to determine how job satisfaction can be improved. Greater collaboration and consultation between managers and public health nurses can be regarded as a useful way to begin this process, especially if contemporary nursing is to embrace a responsive approach within the profession. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Multidimensional profiles of health status: an application of the grade of membership model to the world health survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Andreotti

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization (WHO conducted the World Health Survey (WHS between 2002 and 2004 in 70 countries to provide cross-population comparable data on health, health-related outcomes and risk factors. The aim of this study was to apply Grade of Membership (GoM modelling as a means to condense extensive health information from the WHS into a set of easily understandable health profiles and to assign the degree to which an individual belongs to each profile. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This paper described the application of the GoM models to summarize population health status using World Health Survey data. Grade of Membership analysis is a flexible, non-parametric, multivariate method, used to calculate health profiles from WHS self-reported health state and health conditions. The WHS dataset was divided into four country economic categories based on the World Bank economic groupings (high, upper-middle, lower-middle and low income economies for separate GoM analysis. Three main health profiles were produced for each of the four areas: I. Robust; II. Intermediate; III. Frail; moreover population health, wealth and inequalities are defined for countries in each economic area as a means to put the health results into perspective. CONCLUSIONS: These analyses have provided a robust method to better understand health profiles and the components which can help to identify healthy and non-healthy individuals. The obtained profiles have described concrete levels of health and have clearly delineated characteristics of healthy and non-healthy respondents. The GoM results provided both a useable way of summarising complex individual health information and a selection of intermediate determinants which can be targeted for interventions to improve health. As populations' age, and with limited budgets for additional costs for health care and social services, applying the GoM methods may assist with identifying higher risk profiles for decision

  11. Address-based versus random-digit-dial surveys: comparison of key health and risk indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Link, Michael W; Battaglia, Michael P; Frankel, Martin R; Osborn, Larry; Mokdad, Ali H

    2006-11-15

    Use of random-digit dialing (RDD) for conducting health surveys is increasingly problematic because of declining participation rates and eroding frame coverage. Alternative survey modes and sampling frames may improve response rates and increase the validity of survey estimates. In a 2005 pilot study conducted in six states as part of the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, the authors administered a mail survey to selected household members sampled from addresses in a US Postal Service database. The authors compared estimates based on data from the completed mail surveys (n = 3,010) with those from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System telephone surveys (n = 18,780). The mail survey data appeared reasonably complete, and estimates based on data from the two survey modes were largely equivalent. Differences found, such as differences in the estimated prevalences of binge drinking (mail = 20.3%, telephone = 13.1%) or behaviors linked to human immunodeficiency virus transmission (mail = 7.1%, telephone = 4.2%), were consistent with previous research showing that, for questions about sensitive behaviors, self-administered surveys generally produce higher estimates than interviewer-administered surveys. The mail survey also provided access to cell-phone-only households and households without telephones, which cannot be reached by means of standard RDD surveys.

  12. Social media, knowledge translation, and action on the social determinants of health and health equity: A survey of public health practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndumbe-Eyoh, Sume; Mazzucco, Agnes

    2016-11-01

    The growth of social media presents opportunities for public health to increase its influence and impact on the social determinants of health and health equity. The National Collaborating Centre for Determinants of Health at St. Francis Xavier University conducted a survey during the first half of 2016 to assess how public health used social media for knowledge translation, relationship building, and specific public health roles to advance health equity. Respondents reported that social media had an important role in public health. Uptake of social media, while relatively high for personal use, was less present in professional settings and varied for different platforms. Over 20 per cent of those surveyed used Twitter or Facebook at least weekly for knowledge exchange. A lesser number used social media for specific health equity action. Opportunities to enhance the use of social media in public health persist. Capacity building and organizational policies that support social media use may help achieve this.

  13. Association between socioeconomic status and oral health behaviors: The 2008-2010 Korea national health and nutrition examination survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jun-Beom; Han, Kyungdo; Park, Yong-Gyu; Ko, Youngkyung

    2016-10-01

    Socioeconomic status (SES) has been reported to be associated with oral health behavior. Therefore, the present study was conducted to assess the relationship between SES and oral health behaviors in a large sample of the Korean population. Data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, which was conducted between 2008 and 2010 by the Division of Chronic Disease Surveillance under the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Korean Ministry of Health and Welfare, were used in the present study. Daily tooth brushing frequency and the use of secondary oral products according to demographic variables and anthropometric characteristics of the participants were assessed. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to analyze the associations between daily tooth brushing frequency and the use of secondary oral products, and SES, urban/rural residence, body mass index (BMI), alcohol intake and smoking. An association between SES and tooth brushing frequency and the use of secondary oral products was detected after adjustment. Following adjustment for age, gender, BMI, smoking, drinking, exercise, energy intake, fat intake, periodontal treatment needs and education or income, the adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of tooth brushing ≥3 per day in the highest income group were 1.264 (95% CI, 1.094-1.460) and 2.686 (95% CI, 2.286-3.155) for highest education level group. The adjusted odds ratios for the use of secondary oral products in the highest income and highest education groups were 1.835 (95% CI, 1.559-2.161) and 5.736 (95% CI, 4.734-6.951), respectively, after adjustment for age, gender, smoking, BMI, exercise, calorie intake, periodontal treatment requirements or income. The present study demonstrated an association between SES and oral health behaviors in a large sample of the Korean population. Within the limits of the present study, income and education were suggested as potential risk indicators

  14. Income-related inequality in health insurance coverage: analysis of China Health and Nutrition Survey of 2006 and 2009

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Jinan; Shi, Lizheng; Meng, Qingyue; Khan, M Mahmud

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Introduction China introduced the urban resident basic medical insurance (URBMI) in 2007 to cover children and urban unemployed adults, in addition to the new cooperative medical scheme (NCMS) for rural residents in 2003 and the basic health insurance scheme (BHIS) for urban employees in 1998. This study examined whether the overall income-related inequality in health insurance coverage improved during 2006 and 2009 in China. Methods The China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) data ...

  15. The Internet as a Mental Health Advisor in Germany—Results of a National Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichenberg, Christiane; Wolters, Carolin; Brähler, Elmar

    2013-01-01

    The internet constitutes a popular source of health information. However, the use of the internet and other modern media in the domain of mental health remains widely unclear. This study aimed at exploring the readiness for seeking information online and making use of online counseling and media-assisted psychotherapy. A representative survey of N = 2411 Germans was conducted. Results indicated that more than one fourth of Germans would consider seeking help online in case of psychic strain. Participants reported that they would use the internet when needing to research about mental health topics and to communicate with persons concerned on internet forums. Only a small number of participants had already used psychological online-counseling. The majority of subjects reported not having known about the possibility of online counseling. However, the willingness to make use of this option in the future was in a medium range. Concerning the treatment of mental disorders, participants showed a clear preference toward conventional face-to-face treatment. Less than 10% of participants considered the use of treatment supported by mobile phones, the internet, or virtual realities as likely. Certainly, readiness was significantly higher in persons who were already using the relevant devices—mobile phones, computers, and the internet. In the future, there will presumably be an increasing demand for media-assisted psychological counseling and interventions. Members of the health care system should therefore prepare for current developments and help enlighten patients with regard to the possibilities, and also the potential risks of e-mental health. PMID:24278121

  16. The internet as a mental health advisor in Germany--results of a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichenberg, Christiane; Wolters, Carolin; Brähler, Elmar

    2013-01-01

    The internet constitutes a popular source of health information. However, the use of the internet and other modern media in the domain of mental health remains widely unclear. This study aimed at exploring the readiness for seeking information online and making use of online counseling and media-assisted psychotherapy. A representative survey of N = 2411 Germans was conducted. Results indicated that more than one fourth of Germans would consider seeking help online in case of psychic strain. Participants reported that they would use the internet when needing to research about mental health topics and to communicate with persons concerned on internet forums. Only a small number of participants had already used psychological online-counseling. The majority of subjects reported not having known about the possibility of online counseling. However, the willingness to make use of this option in the future was in a medium range. Concerning the treatment of mental disorders, participants showed a clear preference toward conventional face-to-face treatment. Less than 10% of participants considered the use of treatment supported by mobile phones, the internet, or virtual realities as likely. Certainly, readiness was significantly higher in persons who were already using the relevant devices--mobile phones, computers, and the internet. In the future, there will presumably be an increasing demand for media-assisted psychological counseling and interventions. Members of the health care system should therefore prepare for current developments and help enlighten patients with regard to the possibilities, and also the potential risks of e-mental health.

  17. The internet as a mental health advisor in Germany--results of a national survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane Eichenberg

    Full Text Available The internet constitutes a popular source of health information. However, the use of the internet and other modern media in the domain of mental health remains widely unclear. This study aimed at exploring the readiness for seeking information online and making use of online counseling and media-assisted psychotherapy. A representative survey of N = 2411 Germans was conducted. Results indicated that more than one fourth of Germans would consider seeking help online in case of psychic strain. Participants reported that they would use the internet when needing to research about mental health topics and to communicate with persons concerned on internet forums. Only a small number of participants had already used psychological online-counseling. The majority of subjects reported not having known about the possibility of online counseling. However, the willingness to make use of this option in the future was in a medium range. Concerning the treatment of mental disorders, participants showed a clear preference toward conventional face-to-face treatment. Less than 10% of participants considered the use of treatment supported by mobile phones, the internet, or virtual realities as likely. Certainly, readiness was significantly higher in persons who were already using the relevant devices--mobile phones, computers, and the internet. In the future, there will presumably be an increasing demand for media-assisted psychological counseling and interventions. Members of the health care system should therefore prepare for current developments and help enlighten patients with regard to the possibilities, and also the potential risks of e-mental health.

  18. A decomposition analysis of change in skilled birth attendants, 2003 to 2008, Ghana Demographic and Health Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosomprah, Samuel; Aryeetey, Genevieve Cecelia; Nonvignon, Justice; Adanu, Richard M

    2014-12-24

    The single most critical intervention to improve maternal and neonatal survival is to ensure that a competent health worker with midwifery skills is present at every birth, and transport is available to a referral facility for obstetric care in case of an emergency. This study aims to describe changes in percentage of skilled birth attendants in Ghana and to identify causes of the observed changes as well as the contribution of different categories of mother's characteristics to these changes. This study uses two successive nationally representative household surveys: the 2003 and 2008 Ghana Demographic and Health Surveys (GDHS). The two datasets have comparable information on household characteristics and skilled attendants at birth at the time of the survey. The 2003 GDHS database includes information on 6,251 households and 3639 live births in the five years preceding the survey, whereas the 2008 GDHS database had information on11, 778 households and 2909 live births in the five years preceding the survey. A decomposition approach was used to explain the observed change in percentage of skilled birth attendants. Random-effects generalized least square regression was used to explore the effect of changes in population structure in respect of the mother's characteristics on percentage of skilled birth attendants over the period. Overall, the data showed absolute gain in the proportion of births attended by a health professional from 47.1% in 2003 to 58.7% in 2008, which represents 21.9% of gap closed to reach universal coverage. The increase in skilled birth attendants was found to be caused by changes in general health behaviour. The gain is regardless of the mother's characteristics. The structural change in the proportion of births in respect of birth order and mother's education had little effect on the change in percentage of skilled birth attendants. Improvement in general health behaviour can potentially contribute to an accelerated increase in proportion

  19. Use of the internet as a resource for consumer health information: results of the second osteopathic survey of health care in America (OSTEOSURV-II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licciardone, J C; Smith-Barbaro, P; Coleridge, S T

    2001-01-01

    The Internet offers consumers unparalleled opportunities to acquire health information. The emergence of the Internet, rather than more-traditional sources, for obtaining health information is worthy of ongoing surveillance, including identification of the factors associated with using the Internet for this purpose. To measure the prevalence of Internet use as a mechanism for obtaining health information in the United States; to compare such Internet use with newspapers or magazines, radio, and television; and to identify sociodemographic factors associated with using the Internet for acquiring health information. Data were acquired from the Second Osteopathic Survey of Health Care in America (OSTEOSURV-II), a national telephone survey using random-digit dialing within the United States during 2000. The target population consisted of adult, noninstitutionalized, household members. As part of the survey, data were collected on: facility with the Internet, sources of health information, and sociodemographic characteristics. Multivariate analysis was used to identify factors associated with acquiring health information on the Internet. A total of 499 (64% response rate) respondents participated in the survey. With the exception of an overrepresentation of women (66%), respondents were generally similar to national referents. Fifty percent of respondents either strongly agreed or agreed that they felt comfortable using the Internet as a health information resource. The prevalence rates of using the health information sources were: newspapers or magazines, 69%; radio, 30%; television, 56%; and the Internet, 32%. After adjusting for potential confounders, older respondents were more likely than younger respondents to use newspapers or magazines and television to acquire health information, but less likely to use the Internet. Higher education was associated with greater use of newspapers or magazines and the Internet as health information sources. Internet use was lower

  20. Multinational surveys for monitoring eHealth policy implementations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilstad, Heidi; Faxvaag, Arild; Hyppönen, Hannele

    2014-01-01

    Development of multinational variables for monitoring eHealth policy implementations is a complex task and requires multidisciplinary, knowledgebased international collaboration. Experts in an interdisciplinary workshop identified useful data and pitfalls for comparative variable development...

  1. Health behaviours associated with indoor tanning based on the 2012/13 Manitoba Youth Health Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Harland

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Although indoor tanning causes cancer, it remains relatively common among adolescents. Little is known about indoor tanning prevalence and habits in Canada, and even less about associated behaviours. This study explores the prevalence of adolescent indoor tanning in Manitoba and its association with other demographic characteristics and health behaviours. Methods: We conducted secondary analyses of the 2012/13 Manitoba Youth Health Survey data collected from Grade 7 to 12 students (n = 64 174 and examined associations between indoor tanning (whether participants had ever used artificial tanning equipment and 25 variables. Variables with statistically significant associations to indoor tanning were tested for collinearity and grouped based on strong associations. For each group of highly associated variables, the variable with the greatest effect upon indoor tanning was placed into the final logistic regression model. Separate analyses were conducted for males and females to better understand sex-based differences, and analyses were adjusted for age. Results: Overall, 4% of male and 9% of female students reported indoor tanning, and prevalence increased with age. Relationships between indoor tanning and other variables were similar for male and female students. Binary logistic regression models indicated that several variables significantly predicted indoor tanning, including having part-time work, being physically active, engaging in various risk behaviours such as driving after drinking for males and unplanned sex after alcohol/drugs for females, experiencing someone say something bad about one's body shape/size/appearance, identifying as trans or with another gender, consuming creatine/other supplements and, for females only, never/rarely using sun protection. Conclusion: Indoor tanning among adolescents was associated with age, part-time work, physical activity and many consumption behaviours and lifestyle risk factors. Though

  2. Health care among adults with self-reported diabetes mellitus in Brazil, National Health Survey, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Iser, Betine Pinto Moehlecke; Chueiri, Patricia Sampaio; Stopa, Sheila Rizzato; Szwarcwald, Celia Landmann; Schmidt, Maria Inês; Duncan, Bruce Bartholow

    2015-12-01

    To describe the care measurements provided to patients with self-reported diabetes mellitus in Brazil. Data from the Brazilian National Health Survey (2013) were used. This is a cross-sectional population-based study in which the subjects with self-reported diabetes mellitus answered questions concerning their use of health services and access to medicine. The prevalence of self-reported diabetes mellitus was 6.2%, while 11.5% of the population had never undergone a glucose testing. From the adults with diabetes mellitus, 80.2% had taken medications two weeks before the interview, 57.4% used the Popular Pharmacy Program, 73.2% received medical care, and 47.1% were cared for in the Health Basic Units. In 65.2%, the physician who cared for them in the last appointment was the same from previous ones, 95.3% of the patients were able to perform the required complementary examinations, and 83.3% could go to the appointments with a specialist. About 35.6 and 29.1% of the subjects with diabetes mellitus reported feet and eyes examination, respectively. About 13.4% declared previous hospitalization owing to diabetes or any complications, and 7.0% mentioned limitations in their daily activities owing to the disease. In general, women and the elderly people, those with higher education levels, white, and those living in the south and southeastern regions showed a higher prevalence of the disease and greater access to services, medicine, and appointments. The care reported by patients with diabetes, which is essential to maintain their quality of life and prevent serious outcomes, seemed, in most cases, to be adequate.

  3. National Survey of Prison Health Care: Selected Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruschak, Laura; Chari, Karishma A; Simon, Alan E; DeFrances, Carol J

    2016-07-01

    This report presents selected findings on the provision of health care services in U.S. state prisons. Findings on admissions testing for infectious disease, cardiovascular risk factors, and mental health conditions, as well as the location of the provision of care and utilization of telemedicine are all included. All material appearing in this report is in the public domain and may be reproduced or copied without permission; citation as to source, however, is appreciated.

  4. The Role of Character in the Hiring Process: A Pilot Study Survey of College Seniors' Potential Employers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firmin, Michael; Proemmel, Elizabeth; McDivitt, Sarah; Evens, Jennifer; Gibbs, Lew

    2009-01-01

    We surveyed 31 prospective employers (65% response rate) regarding their views on character as part of the employment selection process. The results showed character qualities superordinate, relative to skills that prospective employees bring to potential jobs. We discuss survey results in light of business educators' responsibility for helping…

  5. Benefits of measuring half-cell potentials and rebar corrosion rates in condition surveys of concrete bridge decks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    The practice of conducting a half-cell potential survey during the assessment of the condition of a concrete deck was reexamined with the objective of eliminating some of the doubts concerning its benefits. It was found that the survey grid size of 4...

  6. U.S. Naval Unit Behavioral Health Needs Assessment Survey, Overview of Survey Items and Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-20

    all Soldiers. The BHNAS and MHAT surveys have yielded valuable information regarding the effects of combat and deployment on service members...and Barriers to Care • Amount of Sleep and Sleep Deficit • Sleep Difficulties • Military Specialty • Positive Effects of Assignment • Contribution...nonopioid prescription painkillers was added; (3) the definition of “constantly and frequent” was omitted in the question; and (4) the NUBHNAS

  7. Racialized identity and health in Canada: results from a nationally representative survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veenstra, Gerry

    2009-08-01

    This article uses survey data to investigate health effects of racialization in Canada. The operative sample was comprised of 91,123 Canadians aged 25 and older who completed the 2003 Canadian Community Health Survey. A "racial and cultural background" survey question contributed a variable that differentiated respondents who identified with Aboriginal, Black, Chinese, Filipino, Latin American, South Asian, White, or jointly Aboriginal and White racial/cultural backgrounds. Indicators of diabetes, hypertension and self-rated health were used to assess health. The healthy immigrant effect suppressed some disparity in risk for diabetes by racial/cultural identification. In logistic regression models also containing gender, age, and immigrant status, no racial/cultural identifications corresponded with significantly better health outcomes than those reported by survey respondents identifying as White. Subsequent models indicated that residential locale did little to explain the associations between racial/cultural background and health and that socioeconomic status was only implicated in relatively poor health outcomes for respondents identifying as Aboriginal or Aboriginal/White. Sizable and statistically significant relative risks for poor health for respondents identifying as Aboriginal, Aboriginal/White, Black, Chinese, or South Asian remained unexplained by the models, suggesting that other explanations for health disparities by racialized identity in Canada - perhaps pertaining to experiences with institutional racism and/or the wear and tear of experiences of racism and discrimination in everyday life - also deserve empirical investigation in this context.

  8. The relationship between sleep time and self-rated health: an analysis based on Italian survey data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Citoni

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: a growing and broadly discussed literature has shown that the relationship between sleep duration and health is not linear. Not only are insomnia and insufficient sleep harmful to one’s health, but excessive sleep too is also not beneficial. This study tests the association between selfrated state of health and the duration and pattern of sleep: we discuss the losses and costs in terms of quality of life deriving from excessive sleep time.Methods: we use an ordered probit specification, applied to the Italian Survey on the Use of Time (sample of Italians aged fifteen and over who keep a diary for a working day.Results: we show that greater sleep duration is negatively correlated both with self-reported state of health and with self-reported health satisfaction, while respondents’ subjective perceptions of too much and too little sleep are associated with health conditions in the usual u-shaped way.Conclusions: the negative impact of long sleep on self-reported health is confirmed. However, the effect of short sleep on health conditions is positive, while a measure of decreasing sleep quality - comprising number of interruptions of sleep, insomnia and napping - is correlated to some extent with decreasing health. The public health consequences are still to be explored: the potential gains from sleep restriction are substantial, but little is known about the causal link or the risks. Further research is needed before taking policy decisions.

  9. Animal-assisted interventions: A national survey of health and safety policies in hospitals, eldercare facilities, and therapy animal organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linder, Deborah E; Siebens, Hannah C; Mueller, Megan K; Gibbs, Debra M; Freeman, Lisa M

    2017-08-01

    Animal-assisted intervention (AAI) programs are increasing in popularity, but it is unknown to what extent therapy animal organizations that provide AAI and the hospitals and eldercare facilities they work with implement effective animal health and safety policies to ensure safety of both animals and humans. Our study objective was to survey hospitals, eldercare facilities, and therapy animal organizations on their AAI policies and procedures. A survey of United States hospitals, eldercare facilities, and therapy animal organizations was administered to assess existing health and safety policies related to AAI programs. Forty-five eldercare facilities, 45 hospitals, and 27 therapy animal organizations were surveyed. Health and safety policies varied widely and potentially compromised human and animal safety. For example, 70% of therapy animal organizations potentially put patients at risk by allowing therapy animals eating raw meat diets to visit facilities. In general, hospitals had stricter requirements than eldercare facilities. This information suggests that there are gaps between the policies of facilities and therapy animal organizations compared with recent guidelines for animal visitation in hospitals. Facilities with AAI programs need to review their policies to address recent AAI guidelines to ensure the safety of animals and humans involved. Copyright © 2017 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Energy systems evaluation of potential for incidents having health or safety impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Speas, I.G.

    1986-01-01

    The paper discusses the results of safety surveys of Martin Marietta Energy Systems - operated nuclear facilities. The purpose was to identify potential incidents that could cause large numbers of casualties, evaluate existing prevention/response actions, and identify possible improvements. The survey findings indicate the potential for an accident with consequences similar to those at Bhopal, India, is essentially non-existent

  11. Demand Potential for Goat Meat in Southern States: Empirical Evidence from a Multi-State Goat Meat Consumer Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson, Mack C.; Liu, Xuanli

    2005-01-01

    A survey conducted in 11 Southeastern states elicits consumers' demand and preferences for various goat meat products. The data permit examination of goat meat demand of ethnic populations and the diversity among the states surveyed. The study uses five econometric models to examine the current demand, potential demand, and demand related to season and occasions on the goat meat market. Our analysis suggests that there exist a substantial demand for goat meat and the potential increase in the...

  12. Practitioner survey of the state of health integration in environmental assessment: The case of northern Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noble, Bram; Bronson, Jackie

    2006-01-01

    Based on a case study of health integration in Canadian northern EA, this paper further demonstrates the lack of consistent integration of health in EA practice. A survey was administered to northern EA and health practitioners, administrators and special interest groups to assess current northern health assessment practices, the scope of health in EA, EA performance with regard to health assessment and the perceived barriers to health integration. Results suggest that health is currently recognized as an important component of northern EA and is addressed in the majority of cases; however, health is addressed primarily during the pre-decision stages of EA and less often during post-decision follow-up and monitoring. Moreover, when health is addressed, attention is limited to the physical components of health and health impacts due to physical environmental change, with considerably less attention given to the social aspects of health. Results also suggest dissent between EA practitioners, health practitioners and other interests concerning the overall state of health in EA; however, there is consensus on the key challenges to improved integration, namely differences in understanding of the scope of health and expectations of EA to assess health impacts; limited coordination between EA and health practitioners; limited scope and requirements of current EA legislation for health assessment; and the lack of supporting EA methods and frameworks

  13. Kangaroo mother care: a multi-country analysis of health system bottlenecks and potential solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesel, Linda; Bergh, Anne-Marie; Kerber, Kate J; Valsangkar, Bina; Mazia, Goldy; Moxon, Sarah G; Blencowe, Hannah; Darmstadt, Gary L; de Graft Johnson, Joseph; Dickson, Kim E; Ruiz Peláez, Juan; von Xylander, Severin; Lawn, Joy E

    2015-01-01

    Preterm birth is now the leading cause of under-five child deaths worldwide with one million direct deaths plus approximately another million where preterm is a risk factor for neonatal deaths due to other causes. There is strong evidence that kangaroo mother care (KMC) reduces mortality among babies with birth weight Asia as part of the Every Newborn Action Plan process. Country workshops involved technical experts to complete the survey tool, which is designed to synthesise and grade health system "bottlenecks", factors that hinder the scale-up, of maternal-newborn intervention packages. We used quantitative and qualitative methods to analyse the bottleneck data, combined with literature review, to present priority bottlenecks and actions relevant to different health system building blocks for KMC. Marked differences were found in the perceived severity of health system bottlenecks between Asian and African countries, with the former reporting more significant or very major bottlenecks for KMC with respect to all the health system building blocks. Community ownership and health financing bottlenecks were significant or very major bottlenecks for KMC in both low and high mortality contexts, particularly in South Asia. Significant bottlenecks were also reported for leadership and governance and health workforce building blocks. There are at least a dozen countries worldwide with national KMC programmes, and we identify three pathways to scale: (1) champion-led; (2) project-initiated; and (3) health systems designed. The combination of all three pathways may lead to more rapid scale-up. KMC has the potential to save lives, and change the face of facility-based newborn care, whilst empowering women to care for their preterm newborns.

  14. An oral health survey of vulnerable older people in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Visschere, Luc; Janssens, Barbara; De Reu, Griet; Duyck, Joke; Vanobbergen, Jacques

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to gain insight in the oral health of persons aged 65 years or more. Data were obtained from 652 vulnerable older persons (≥65) by means of a clinical oral examination. Additional demographic data were gathered including age, gender, residence, and care dependency. The mean age of the total study sample was 83 (7.7) years and 71 % was female. Nearly 33 % of the sample was living at home with support, and 67 % was residing in nursing homes. The number of occluding pairs was low and the proportion of edentulous people was highest among persons with the highest care dependency. The mean Decay-missing-filled teeth index (DMFT) was 20.3 (9.0). A prosthetic treatment need and inadequate oral hygiene levels were observed in 40 % and more than 60 % of the subjects, respectively. The highest treatment need was observed in the oldest age group and the highest mean dental plaque in older persons with the highest care dependency. The oral health in frail older people in Belgium is poor. The restorative and prosthetic treatment need is high and oral hygiene levels are problematic. Age, residence, and care dependency seemed to have some influence on oral health parameters. In the long term, the most important future challenge of oral health care policies is to identify older adults before they begin to manifest such oral health deterioration. Regular dental visits should be strongly promoted by all (oral) health care workers during the lifespan of all persons including older adults.

  15. [Health and indigenous peoples in Brazil: reflections based on the First National Survey of Indigenous People's Health and Nutrition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlos, E A Coimbra

    2014-04-01

    The current configuration of indigenous peoples' health in Brazil results from a complex historical trajectory, responsible for major delays for this population segment in the countrywide social advances seen in recent decades, particularly in the fields of health, education, housing, and sanitation. The main focus of this contribution is to review synthetically a selection of the main results of the First National Survey of Indigenous People's Health and Nutrition, conducted in the period 2008-2009, which visited 113 villages across the Brazil and interviewed 6,692 women and 6,128 children. Among the results, emphasis is given to the observed poor sanitation conditions in villages, high prevalence of chronic malnutrition, anemia, diarrhea, and acute respiratory infections in children, and the emergence of non-communicable chronic diseases in women. The scenario depicted by this survey requires urgent critical review of indigenous health policy in order to better meet the health needs of Brazil's indigenous population.

  16. Future of Health: Findings from a survey of stakeholders on the future of health and healthcare in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbett, Jennie; d'Angelo, Camilla; Gangitano, Lorenzo; Freeman, Jon

    2018-04-01

    This article presents findings from a survey conducted by RAND Europe at the request of the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) to gather and synthesise stakeholder views on the future of health and healthcare in England in 20 to 30 years' time. The aim of the research was to generate an evidenced-based picture of the future health and healthcare needs, and how it might differ from today, in order to inform strategic discussions about the future priorities of the NIHR and the health and social care research communities more broadly. The survey provided a rich and varied dataset based on responses from 300 stakeholders in total. A wide range of fields were represented, including public health, social care, primary care, cancer, genomics, mental health, geriatrics, child health, patient advocacy and health policy. The respondent group also included a number of professional and private stakeholder categories, such as clinicians, policy experts, academics and patient and public representatives. The study findings validate a number of prominent health research priorities currently visible in England, such as antimicrobial resistance, the burden of dementia and age-related multi-morbidity, digital health and genomics. Interest in these areas and other themes, such as mental health, health inequalities and transforming health service models, cut across multiple disciplinary boundaries. However, it is clear that there are a variety of views among stakeholders on the relative importance of these areas of focus, and the best approach to manage their emergence in the coming decades. The full dataset of survey responses, for which permission to share was given, is a useful resource for those seeking to engage with a particular issue in more depth. The dataset can be found on NIHR's website at: http://nihr.ac.uk/news-and-events/documents/quotes.xls.

  17. Environmental Survey preliminary report, Laboratory for Energy-Related Health Research, Davis, California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-03-01

    This report presents the preliminary findings from the first phase of the Survey of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Laboratory for Energy-Related Health Research (LEHR) at the University of California, Davis (UC Davis), conducted November 16 through 20, 1987. The Survey is being conducted by an interdisciplinary team of environmental specialists, led and managed by the Office of Environment, Safety and Health's Office of Environmental Audit. Individual team components are being supplied by a private contractor. The objective of the Survey is to identify environmental problems and areas of environmental risk associated with the LEHR. The Survey covers all environmental media and all areas of environmental regulation, and is being performed in accordance with the DOE Environmental Survey Manual. This phase of the Survey involves the review of existing site environmental data, observations of the operations at the LEHR and interviews with site personnel. The Survey team developed a Sampling and Analysis Plan to assist in further assessing certain of the environmental problems identified during its on-site activities. The Sampling and Analysis Plan will be executed by a DOE National Laboratory or a support contractor. When completed, the results will be incorporated into the Environmental Survey Interim Report for the LEHR at UC Davis. The Interim Report will reflect the final determinations of the LEHR Survey. 75 refs., 26 figs., 23 tabs

  18. Patient Discussion About Sexual Health With Health Care Providers After Cancer-A National Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Charif, Ali; Bouhnik, Anne-Déborah; Courbiere, Blandine; Rey, Dominique; Préau, Marie; Bendiane, Marc-Karim; Peretti-Watel, Patrick; Mancini, Julien

    2016-11-01

    A discussion about sexuality should become a routine part of the personalized care pathway for patients with cancer. To assess rates of patient discussion about sexuality with health care providers after cancer. We used data from the representative French nationwide 2012 VICAN survey, which included 4,349 adults 18 to 82 years old who were still alive 2 years after diagnosis at 12 cancer sites. Self-reported rates of discussion about sexuality with health care providers were assessed, and associated factors were tested after systematic adjustment for a sexual health indicator (created from six items of the Relationship and Sexuality Scale). Of 4,181 respondents to the question on a discussion about sexuality, 54.7% reported that nobody had proposed a discussion to them, 21.9% did not want any discussion, and 23.4% had had a discussion. Women had less discussion about sexuality with health care providers (11.1% vs 36.7% of men, P < .001) and were more likely to request a discussion at their own initiative (62.9% vs 48.0% of men, P < .001). Discussion about sexuality was more frequent with patients with prostate (56.3%) and cervical (39.6%) cancer, but increasing age was associated with a greater reluctance to discuss this issue (odds ratio = 1.17, 95% CI = 1.04-1.2). The likelihood of discussion increased with severe sexual problems, radiotherapy, general sequelae, having an information-seeker profile, previous professional psychological help, and initial treatment in private centers. Patients initially wishing for psychological help were more likely to desire a discussion about sexuality. Sexuality receives little attention in French patients with cancer. Inequalities in the discussion about sexuality were observed in relation to the type of care center where the patient was initially managed. Information on supportive interventions, including more systematic referral for professional psychological help, should be developed to facilitate discussion and should be

  19. Discovering online learning barriers: survey of health educational stakeholders in dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönwetter, D; Reynolds, P

    2013-02-01

    Given the exponential explosion of online learning tools and the challenge to harness their influence in dental education, there is a need to determine the current status of online learning tools being adopted at dental schools, the barriers that thwart the potential of adopting these and to capture this information from each of the various stakeholders involved in dental online learning (administrators, instructors, students and software/hardware technicians). The aims of this exploratory study are threefold: first, to understand which online learning tools are currently being adopted at dental schools; second, to determine the barriers in adopting online learning in dental education; and third, to identify a way of better preparing stakeholders in their quest to encourage others at their institutions to adopt online learning tools. Seventy-two participants representing eight countries and 13 stakeholder groups in dentistry were invited to complete the online Survey of Barriers in Online Learning Education in Health Professional Schools. The survey was created for this study but generic to all healthcare education domains. Twenty participants completed the survey. demonstrated that many online learning tools are being successfully adopted at dental schools, but computer-based assessment tools are the least successful. Added to this are challenges of support and resources for online learning tools. Participants offered suggestions of creating a blended (online and face-to-face) tutorial aimed at assisting stakeholders to help their dental schools in adopting online learning tools The information from this study is essential in helping us to better prepare the next generation of dental providers in terms of adopting online learning tools. This paper will not only provide strategies of how best to proceed, but also inspire participants with the necessary tools to move forward as they assist their clients with adopting and sustaining online learning tools and models

  20. Pilates program design and health benefits for pregnant women: A practitioners' survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzarino, Melissa; Kerr, Debra; Morris, Meg E

    2018-04-01

    Little is known about recommendations for safe and appropriate instruction of Pilates exercises to women during pregnancy. The aim of this study was to examine Pilates practitioners' perspectives regarding Pilates program design for pregnant women. We also sought to elucidate their views on the potential benefits, restrictions and contraindications on Pilates in pregnancy. A cross-sectional survey was performed. Pilates practitioners were invited to participate via email. Participants were surveyed about their experience and views on: screening processes in alignment with The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) (2002) guidelines; (ii) optimal exercise program features and (iii) physical and mental health benefits of Pilates for pregnant women. The survey was completed by 192 Pilates practitioners from a range of settings. Practitioners reported conducting formal screening (84%) for safety in pregnant women prior to commencing Pilates classes. Most did not routinely seek medical approval from the woman's general practitioner. Divergent views emerged regarding the safety and benefits of Pilates exercises in the supine position. Mixed opinions were also generated regarding the effects of spinal flexion exercises, single-leg stance exercises and breathing manoeuvres. There was little agreement on the optimal frequency or dosage of exercises. Views regarding absolute contraindications to exercise differed from The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) (2002) guidelines which cautioned about the dangers of persistent bleeding, premature labour, pre-eclampsia, placental praevia and incompetent cervix. The most frequent reported physical and psychological benefit of Pilates was improving pelvic floor strength (12%) and improved social wellbeing (23%). The study highlighted wide variations in practice for Pilates exercises with pregnant woman as well as low adherence to clinical practice guidelines. Further evidence is required to

  1. Environmental engineering of navigation infrastructure: a survey of existing practices, challenges, and potential opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredette, Thomas J; Foran, Christy M; Brasfield, Sandra M; Suedel, Burton C

    2012-01-01

    Navigation infrastructure such as channels, jetties, river training structures, and lock-and-dam facilities are primary components of a safe and efficient water transportation system. Planning for such infrastructure has until recently involved efforts to minimize impacts on the environment through a standardized environmental assessment process. More recently, consistent with environmental sustainability concepts, planners have begun to consider how such projects can also be constructed with environmental enhancements. This study examined the existing institutional conditions within the US Army Corps of Engineers and cooperating federal agencies relative to incorporating environmental enhancements into navigation infrastructure projects. The study sought to (1) investigate institutional attitudes towards the environmental enhancement of navigation infrastructure (EENI) concept, (2) identify potential impediments to implementation and solutions to such impediments, (3) identify existing navigation projects designed with the express intent of enhancing environmental benefit in addition to the primary project purpose, (4) identify innovative ideas for increasing environmental benefits for navigation projects, (5) identify needs for additional technical information or research, and (6) identify laws, regulations, and policies that both support and hinder such design features. The principal investigation tool was an Internet-based survey with 53 questions. The survey captured a wide range of perspectives on the EENI concept including ideas, concerns, research needs, and relevant laws and policies. Study recommendations included further promotion of the concept of EENI to planners and designers, documentation of existing projects, initiation of pilot studies on some of the innovative ideas provided through the survey, and development of national goals and interagency agreements to facilitate implementation. Copyright © 2011 SETAC.

  2. Global comparison of national individual food consumption surveys as a basis for health research and integration in national health surveillance programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huybrechts, Inge; Aglago, Elom K; Mullee, Amy; De Keyzer, Willem; Leclercq, Catherine; Allemand, Pauline; Balcerzak, Agnieszka; Zotor, Francis B; Gunter, Marc J

    2017-11-01

    Individual food consumption surveys (IFCS) are performed to evaluate compliance with food/nutrient intake requirements or exposure to potential harmful dietary contaminants/components. In this review, we inventoried methods and designs used in national IFCS and discussed the methodologies applied across countries. Literature searches were performed using fixed sets of search terms in different online databases. We identified IFCS in thirty-nine countries from six world continents. National IFCS systems are available in most of the high-income countries, while such surveys are scarce in low- and middle-income countries (e.g. Africa, Eastern Europe and several Asian countries). Few countries (n 9) have their national IFCS incorporated into national health and nutrition surveys, allowing the investigation of dietary-related disease outcomes. Of the integrated surveys, most have the advantage of being continuous/regular, contrary to other IFCS that are mostly erratic. This review serves as the basis to define gaps and needs in IFCS worldwide and assists in defining priorities for resource allocation. In addition, it can serve as a source of inspiration for countries that do not have an IFCS system in place yet and advocate for national IFCS to be incorporated into national health and nutrition surveys in order to create: (1) research opportunities for investigating diet-disease relationships and (2) a frame to plan and evaluate the effect of diet-related policies (e.g. promotion of local nutrient-rich foods) and of nutrition recommendations, such as food-based dietary guidelines. Countries that integrate their IFCS within their national health and nutrition survey can serve as proof-of-principle for other countries.

  3. [Reproductive health survey of young adults in greater Santiago].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela, M S; Herold, J M; Morris, L; López, I M

    1992-01-01

    In 1988 a survey was carried out in order to obtain information on knowledge about reproduction, sexual activity, attitudes, and use of contraceptive methods among residents between 15 and 24 years of age in Greater Santiago. For this purpose, a multistage, self-weighted, non-replacement probability sample was chosen from the entire Santiago urban area. After 2,898 households were visited, 865 women and 800 men were selected and interviewed. For the interview, a questionnaire with 156 questions was developed; many questions were similar to those included in similar surveys in Brazil and Guatemala. The interviewers were professionals who had received prior training. Although 75% of the interviewees had attended sex education classes, they had erroneous ideas on various basic subjects. Sixty-nine percent of the women interviewed had undergone menarche before attending these classes. In addition, 35.4% of the women and 65.0% of the men had had