WorldWideScience

Sample records for health surveillance programs

  1. Health surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    The Code includes a number of requirements for the health surveillance of employees associated with the mining and milling of radioactive ores. This guideline is particularly directed at determining the level of fitness of employees and prospective employees, detecting any symptom which might contraindicate exposure to the environment encountered in mine/mill situations, examination of any employee who may have been exposed to radiation in excess of defined limits and the accumulation and provision of data on the health of employees

  2. [A review on the advancement of internet-based public health surveillance program].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Y Q; Ma, W J

    2017-02-10

    Internet data is introduced into public health arena under the features of fast updating and tremendous volume. Mining and analyzing internet data, researchers can model the internet-based surveillance system to assess the distribution of health-related events. There are two main types of internet-based surveillance systems, i.e. active and passive, which are distinguished by the sources of information. Through passive surveillance system, information is collected from search engine and social media while the active system gathers information through provision of the volunteers. Except for serving as a real-time and convenient complementary approach to traditional disease, food safety and adverse drug reaction surveillance program, Internet-based surveillance system can also play a role in health-related behavior surveillance and policy evaluation. Although several techniques have been applied to filter information, the accuracy of internet-based surveillance system is still bothered by the false positive information. In this article, we have summarized the development and application of internet-based surveillance system in public health to provide reference for a better surveillance program in China.

  3. Process Evaluation of a Workers' Health Surveillance Program for Meat Processing Workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Holland, Berry J; Brouwer, Sandra; de Boer, Michiel R; Reneman, Michiel F; Soer, Remko

    2017-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the implementation process of a workers' health surveillance (WHS) program in a Dutch meat processing company. Methods Workers from five plants were eligible to participate in the WHS program. The program consisted of four evaluative components and an intervention component.

  4. Process Evaluation of a Workers' Health Surveillance Program for Meat Processing Workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Holland, Berry; Brouwer, Sandra; de Boer, Michiel R; Reneman, Michiel F; Soer, Remko

    Objective To evaluate the implementation process of a workers' health surveillance (WHS) program in a Dutch meat processing company. Methods Workers from five plants were eligible to participate in the WHS program. The program consisted of four evaluative components and an intervention component.

  5. Feasibility and acceptability of a workers' health surveillance program for hospital physicians

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruitenburg, Martijn M.; Plat, Marie-Christine J.; Frings-Dresen, Monique H. W.; Sluiter, Judith K.

    2015-01-01

    A Workers' Health Surveillance (WHS) program is an occupational health strategy used to detect and address the health of individual workers to improve their ability to work. This study aims to investigate the feasibility and acceptability of a new job-specific WHS for hospital physicians. All

  6. Analysis of participation in the federally mandated coal workers' health-surveillance program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nickolaus, M.E.

    1987-01-01

    The Federal Coal Mine Health and Safety Act of 1969 required that periodic chest radiographs be offered to underground coal miners to protect the miners from the development of Coal Workers' Pneumoconiosis (CWP) and progression of the disease to progressive massive fibrosis (PMF). These examinations are administered by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) through the Coal Workers' Health Surveillance Program (CWHSP). This study developed rates of participation for each of 558 West Virginia underground coal mines who submitted or had NIOSH assigned plans for making chest radiographs available during the third round, July 1978 through December 1980. These rates were analyzed in relation to desired levels of participation and to reinforcing, predisposing and enabling factors presumed to affect rates of participation in disease prevention and surveillance programs

  7. Characteristics of national and statewide health care-associated infection surveillance programs: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Philip L; Havers, Sally M; Cheng, Allen C; Richards, Michael; Graves, Nicholas; Hall, Lisa

    2016-12-01

    There are many well-established national health care-associated infection surveillance programs (HAISPs). Although validation studies have described data quality, there is little research describing important characteristics of large HAISPs. The aim of this study was to broaden our understanding and identify key characteristics of large HAISPs. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with purposively selected leaders from national and state-based HAISPs. Interview data were analyzed following an interpretive description process. Seven semi-structured interviews were conducted over a 6-month period during 2014-2015. Analysis of the data generated 5 distinct characteristics of large HAISPs: (1) triggers: surveillance was initiated by government or a cooperative of like-minded people, (2) purpose: a clear purpose is needed and determines other surveillance mechanisms, (3) data measures: consistency is more important than accuracy, (4) processes: a balance exists between the volume of data collected and resources, and (5) implementation and maintenance: a central coordinating body is crucial for uniformity and support. National HAISPs are complex and affect a broad range of stakeholders. Although the overall goal of health care-associated infection surveillance is to reduce the incidence of health care-associated infection, there are many crucial factors to be considered in attaining this goal. The findings from this study will assist the development of new HAISPs and could be used as an adjunct to evaluate existing programs. Copyright © 2016 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Establishment of a health surveillance program for reintroduction of the Eurasian beaver (Castor fiber) into Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Gidona; Girling, Simon; Pizzi, Romain; Meredith, Anna; Rosell, Frank; Campbell-Palmer, Roisin

    2012-10-01

    In 2009 and 2010 16 Norwegian Eurasian beavers (Castor fiber) were reintroduced to Knapdale, Scotland as part of a 5-yr reintroduction trial (Scottish Beaver Trial). Despite numerous reintroduction programs throughout Europe there is no published information concerning recommended health surveillance during beaver reintroduction and only one publication describing causes of mortality. We describe the establishment of a health surveillance program based on International Union of Conservation of Nature (IUCN) and governmental guidelines, and report preliminary results based on the fecal and blood samples following the completion of the first stage of reintroduction. Animals underwent at least one general anesthetic to allow collection of fecal and blood samples and a thorough clinical examination. No bacterial enteric pathogens such as Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp., or Yersinia pseudotuberculosis were isolated, nor were Giardia spp. or Cryptosporidium spp. However, numerous helminths including Travassosius rufus and Stichorchis subtriquetrus were detected. Five animals were positive for Leptospira antibodies. This included Leptospira saxkoebing, Leptospira canicola, Leptospira copenhageni, Leptospira icterohaemorrhagiae, Leptospira autumnalis, and Leptospira javanica. The highest loss of animals (20%) was during the statutory 6-mo rabies quarantine period. No common cause of death was determined. The rabies quarantine conditions were waived for four remaining animals, three of which were introduced to the wild successfully. The authors recommend the shortest possible quarantine period when introducing beavers, but allowing for the minimum recommended IUCN 35 days to allow for implementation of the initial stage of the health surveillance program, examination of animals, sample collection, and processing.

  9. Process Evaluation of a Workers' Health Surveillance Program for Meat Processing Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Holland, Berry J; Brouwer, Sandra; de Boer, Michiel R; Reneman, Michiel F; Soer, Remko

    2017-09-01

    Objective To evaluate the implementation process of a workers' health surveillance (WHS) program in a Dutch meat processing company. Methods Workers from five plants were eligible to participate in the WHS program. The program consisted of four evaluative components and an intervention component. Qualitative and quantitative methods were used to evaluate seven process aspects. Data were gathered by interviews with stakeholders, participant questionnaires, and from registries of the company and occupational health service. Results Two recruitment strategies were used: open invitation or automatic participation. Of the 986 eligible workers, 305 participated in the program. Average reach was 53 %. Two out of five program components could not be assessed on dose delivered, dose received and fidelity. If components were assessable, 85-100 % of the components was delivered, 66-100 % of the components was received by participants, and fidelity was 100 %. Participants were satisfied with the WHS program (mean score 7.6). Contextual factors that facilitated implementation were among others societal developments and management support. Factors that formed barriers were program novelty and delayed follow-up. Conclusion The WHS program was well received by participants. Not all participants were offered the same number of program components, and not all components were performed according to protocol. Deviation from protocol is an indication of program failure and may affect program effectiveness.

  10. Deployment Health Surveillance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    DeNicola, Anthony D

    2004-01-01

    ... of stress in causing chronic illness. The lack of comprehensive deployment health surveillance has made it difficult to determine possible causes of adverse health effects reported by Gulf War veterans...

  11. Health surveillance of radiological work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pauw, H.; Vliet, J.V.D.; Zuidema, H.

    1988-01-01

    Shielding x-ray devices and issuing film badges to radiological workers in 1936 can be considered the start of radiological protection in the Philips enterprises in the Netherlands. Shielding and equipment were constantly improved based upon the dosimetry results of the filmbadges. The problem of radioactive waste led to the foundation of a central Philips committee for radiological protection in 1956, which in 1960 also issued an internal license system in order to regulate the proper precautions to be taken : workplace design and layout, technological provisions and working procedures. An evaluation of all radiological work in 1971 learnt that a stricter health surveillance program was needed to follow up the precautions issued by the license. On one hand a health surveillance program was established and on the other hand all types of radiological work were classified. In this way an obligatory and optimal health surveillance program was issued for each type of radiological work

  12. A trial of a job-specific workers' health surveillance program for construction workers: study protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boschman, J.S.; van der Molen, H.F.; van Duivenbooden, C.; Sluiter, J.K.; Frings-Dresen, M.H.W.

    2011-01-01

    Dutch construction workers are offered periodic health examinations. This care can be improved by tailoring this workers health surveillance (WHS) to the demands of the job and adjust the preventive actions to the specific health risks of a worker in a particular job. To improve the quality of the

  13. Feasibility and acceptability of a workers' health surveillance program for hospital physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruitenburg, Martijn M; Plat, Marie-Christine J; Frings-Dresen, Monique H W; Sluiter, Judith K

    2015-01-01

    A Workers' Health Surveillance (WHS) program is an occupational health strategy used to detect and address the health of individual workers to improve their ability to work. This study aims to investigate the feasibility and acceptability of a new job-specific WHS for hospital physicians. All hospital physicians of the general surgery, radiotherapy and obstetrics and gynecology departments from 1 academic hospital were invited to participate in the WHS by the in-company occupational health service. An occupational physician and a medical assistant were trained to use the protocol. Feasibility was operationalized as the received and delivered dose, observed success factors and potential obstacles. Acceptability was assessed by asking whether the WHS was desirable and feasible for future use and by estimating the effects on health and work ability. Written questions and semi-structured interviews were conducted with the participating physicians, 5 department managers and the 2 occupational health professionals involved in the study. One-third of the hospital physicians (34%) participated in every part of the WHS. The delivered dose was 77/84 (92%). Almost all hospital physicians who received recommendations expected to adhere to this advice. The study participants appreciated the organization of the WHS. This WHS was positively graded (8 out of 10 max) in terms of acceptability. Positive effects of the WHS on health, work functioning and long-term work ability were perceived by 2/3 of the physicians. The new job-specific WHS for hospital physicians showed good feasibility and acceptability among participating hospital physicians, occupational health professionals and medical managers. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  14. Feasibility and acceptability of a workers’ health surveillance program for hospital physicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martijn M. Ruitenburg

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: A Workers’ Health Surveillance (WHS program is an occupational health strategy used to detect and address the health of individual workers to improve their ability to work. This study aims to investigate the feasibility and acceptability of a new job-specific WHS for hospital physicians. Material and Methods: All hospital physicians of the general surgery, radiotherapy and obstetrics and gynecology departments from 1 academic hospital were invited to participate in the WHS by the in-company occupational health service. An occupational physician and a medical assistant were trained to use the protocol. Feasibility was operationalized as the received and delivered dose, observed success factors and potential obstacles. Acceptability was assessed by asking whether the WHS was desirable and feasible for future use and by estimating the effects on health and work ability. Written questions and semi-structured interviews were conducted with the participating physicians, 5 department managers and the 2 occupational health professionals involved in the study. Results: One-third of the hospital physicians (34% participated in every part of the WHS. The delivered dose was 77/84 (92%. Almost all hospital physicians who received recommendations expected to adhere to this advice. The study participants appreciated the organization of the WHS. This WHS was positively graded (8 out of 10 max in terms of acceptability. Positive effects of the WHS on health, work functioning and long-term work ability were perceived by 2/3 of the physicians. Conclusions: The new job-specific WHS for hospital physicians showed good feasibility and acceptability among participating hospital physicians, occupational health professionals and medical managers.

  15. Effectiveness and Cost-benefit Evaluation of a Comprehensive Workers' Health Surveillance Program for Sustainable Employability of Meat Processing Workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holland, van Berry J.; Reneman, Michiel F; Soer, Remko; Brouwer, Sandra; de Boer, Michiel R

    Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of a comprehensive workers' health surveillance (WHS) program on aspects of sustainable employability and cost-benefit. Methods A cluster randomized stepped wedge trial was performed in a Dutch meat processing company from february 2012 until march 2015. In

  16. Effectiveness and Cost-benefit Evaluation of a Comprehensive Workers' Health Surveillance Program for Sustainable Employability of Meat Processing Workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Holland, Berry J; Reneman, Michiel F; Soer, Remko; Brouwer, Sandra; de Boer, Michiel R

    2017-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of a comprehensive workers' health surveillance (WHS) program on aspects of sustainable employability and cost-benefit. Methods A cluster randomized stepped wedge trial was performed in a Dutch meat processing company from february 2012 until march 2015. In

  17. NASA Astronaut Occupational Surveillance Program and Lifetime Surveillance of Astronaut Health, LSAH, Astronaut Exposures and Risk in the Terrestrial and Spaceflight Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keprta, Sean R.; Tarver, William; Van Baalen, Mary; McCoy, Torin

    2015-01-01

    United States Astronauts have a very unique occupational exposure profile. In order to understand these risks and properly address them, the National Aeronautics and Atmospheric Administration, NASA, originally created the Longitudinal Study of Astronaut Health, LSAH. The first LSAH was designed to address a variety of needs regarding astronaut health and included a 3 to 1 terrestrial control population in order to compare United States "earth normal" disease and aging to that of a microgravity exposed astronaut. Over the years that program has been modified, now termed Lifetime Surveillance of Astronaut Health, still LSAH. Astronaut spaceflight exposures have also changed, with the move from short duration shuttle flights to long duration stays on international space station and considerable terrestrial training activities. This new LSAH incorporates more of an occupational health and medicine model to the study of occupationally exposed astronauts. The presentation outlines the baseline exposures and monitoring of the astronaut population to exposures, both terrestrial, and in space.

  18. U.S. Department of Energy, Illness and Injury Surveillance Program, Worker Health Summary, 1995-2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2007-10-01

    The Department of Energy’s (DOE) Illness and Injury Surveillance Program has created an opportunity to assess illness and injury rates and patterns among workers at participating sites for well over a decade. The Worker Health Summary introduces an additional perspective on worker health with the introduction of analyses comparing the experience of sites in different program offices and a focus on time trends covering a decade of worker illness and injury experience. These analyses by program office suggest that illness and injury patterns among National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) workers diverge in many ways from those seen among Environmental Management (EM) and Science workers for reasons not yet understood. These differences will receive further investigation in future special focus studies, as will other findings of interest. With the time depth now available in our data, the Worker Health Summary reveals an additional nuance in worker health trends: changing health patterns in a specialized and skilled but aging work force. Older workers are becoming an increasing percentage of the work force, and their absence rates for diseases such as diabetes and hypertension are increasing as well. The impact of these emerging health issues, if properly addressed, can be managed to maintain or even enhance worker health and productivity. Prevention strategies designed to reduce the toll of these health conditions appear warranted, and this report gives us an indication of where to focus them. The analyses that follow reflect the Illness and Injury Surveillance Program’s continued commitment to apply a public health perspective in protecting the health of DOE’s work force.

  19. U.S. Department of Energy Illness, and Injury Surveillance Program, Worker Health At A Glance, 1995-2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2007-10-01

    The Department of Energy’s (DOE) Illness and Injury Surveillance Program (IISP) has monitored the health of contractor workers at selected DOE sites since 1990. For the first time, the IISP has sufficient data to describe, in a collective manner, the health trends occurring among workers at a number of DOE sites during a 10-year period. This brief report and the more detailed Worker Health Summary assess illness and injury trends of DOE workers according to gender, age, occupational group, and program office over the 10-year period, 1995 through 2004. During this time, over 137,000 individual contractor workers were employed at the 15 DOE sites participating in the IISP.

  20. A trial of a job-specific workers' health surveillance program for construction workers: study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boschman, Julitta S; van der Molen, Henk F; van Duivenbooden, Cor; Sluiter, Judith K; Frings-Dresen, Monique H W

    2011-09-29

    Dutch construction workers are offered periodic health examinations. This care can be improved by tailoring this workers health surveillance (WHS) to the demands of the job and adjust the preventive actions to the specific health risks of a worker in a particular job. To improve the quality of the WHS for construction workers and stimulate relevant job-specific preventive actions by the occupational physician, we have developed a job-specific WHS. The job-specific WHS consists of modules assessing both physical and psychological requirements. The selected measurement instruments chosen, are based on their appropriateness to measure the workers' capacity and health requirements. They include a questionnaire and biometrical tests, and physical performance tests that measure physical functional capabilities. Furthermore, our job-specific WHS provides occupational physicians with a protocol to increase the worker-behavioural effectiveness of their counselling and to stimulate job-specific preventive actions. The objective of this paper is to describe and clarify our study to evaluate the behavioural effects of this job-specific WHS on workers and occupational physicians. The ongoing study of bricklayers and supervisors is a nonrandomised trial to compare the outcome of an intervention (job-specific WHS) group (n = 206) with that of a control (WHS) group (n = 206). The study includes a three-month follow-up. The primary outcome measure is the proportion of participants who have undertaken one or more of the preventive actions advised by their occupational physician in the three months after attending the WHS. A process evaluation will be carried out to determine context, reach, dose delivered, dose received, fidelity, and satisfaction. The present study is in accordance with the TREND Statement. This study will allow an evaluation of the behaviour of both the workers and occupational physician regarding the preventive actions undertaken by them within the scope of a job

  1. A trial of a job-specific workers' health surveillance program for construction workers: study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sluiter Judith K

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dutch construction workers are offered periodic health examinations. This care can be improved by tailoring this workers health surveillance (WHS to the demands of the job and adjust the preventive actions to the specific health risks of a worker in a particular job. To improve the quality of the WHS for construction workers and stimulate relevant job-specific preventive actions by the occupational physician, we have developed a job-specific WHS. The job-specific WHS consists of modules assessing both physical and psychological requirements. The selected measurement instruments chosen, are based on their appropriateness to measure the workers' capacity and health requirements. They include a questionnaire and biometrical tests, and physical performance tests that measure physical functional capabilities. Furthermore, our job-specific WHS provides occupational physicians with a protocol to increase the worker-behavioural effectiveness of their counselling and to stimulate job-specific preventive actions. The objective of this paper is to describe and clarify our study to evaluate the behavioural effects of this job-specific WHS on workers and occupational physicians. Methods/Design The ongoing study of bricklayers and supervisors is a nonrandomised trial to compare the outcome of an intervention (job-specific WHS group (n = 206 with that of a control (WHS group (n = 206. The study includes a three-month follow-up. The primary outcome measure is the proportion of participants who have undertaken one or more of the preventive actions advised by their occupational physician in the three months after attending the WHS. A process evaluation will be carried out to determine context, reach, dose delivered, dose received, fidelity, and satisfaction. The present study is in accordance with the TREND Statement. Discussion This study will allow an evaluation of the behaviour of both the workers and occupational physician regarding the

  2. Health surveillance - myth and reality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharp, C.

    1998-01-01

    This paper discusses the principles, health benefit and cost-effectiveness of health surveillance in the occupational setting, which apply to exposure to ionising radiations in the same manner as to other hazards in the workplace. It highlights the techniques for undertaking health surveillance, discusses their relative advantages and disadvantages and illustrates these in relation to specific hazards. The responsibilities of the medical staff and of the worker are also discussed. (author)

  3. Effectiveness and Cost-benefit Evaluation of a Comprehensive Workers' Health Surveillance Program for Sustainable Employability of Meat Processing Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Holland, Berry J; Reneman, Michiel F; Soer, Remko; Brouwer, Sandra; de Boer, Michiel R

    2018-03-01

    Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of a comprehensive workers' health surveillance (WHS) program on aspects of sustainable employability and cost-benefit. Methods A cluster randomized stepped wedge trial was performed in a Dutch meat processing company from february 2012 until march 2015. In total 305 workers participated in the trial. Outcomes were retrieved during a WHS program, by multiple questionnaires, and from company registries. Primary outcomes were sickness absence, work ability, and productivity. Secondary outcomes were health, vitality, and psychosocial workload. Data were analyzed with linear and logistic multilevel models. Cost-benefit analyses from the employer's perspective were performed as well. Results Primary outcomes sickness absence (OR = 1.40), work ability (B = -0.63) and productivity (OR = 0.71) were better in the control condition. Secondary outcomes did not or minimally differ between conditions. Of the 12 secondary outcomes, the only outcome that scored better in the experimental condition was meaning of work (B = 0.18). Controlling for confounders did not or minimally change the results. However, our stepped wedge design did not enable adjustment for confounding in the last two periods of the trial. The WHS program resulted in higher costs for the employer on the short and middle term. Conclusions Primary outcomes did not improve after program implementation and secondary outcomes remained equal after implementation. The program was not cost-beneficial after 1-3 year follow-up. Main limitation that may have contributed to absence of positive effects may be program failure, because interventions were not deployed as intended.

  4. The effectiveness of a health-surveillance program for caisson saturation divers in a tunnel-boring machine: a microbiological survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rees Vellinga, T. P.; Sterk, W.; van Dijk, F. J. H.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this field study is to report and evaluate the implementation of a health surveillance program we developed to monitor the microbiological load for saturation divers, including preventive and therapeutic interventions. We extended the DMAC protocol for Saturation Diving Chamber

  5. National Cardiac Device Surveillance Program Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The National Cardiac Device Surveillance Program Database supports the Eastern Pacemaker Surveillance Center (EPSC) staff in its function of monitoring some 11,000...

  6. Informatics enables public health surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott J. N McNabb

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decade, the world has radically changed. New advances in information and communication technologies (ICT connect the world in ways never imagined. Public health informatics (PHI leveraged for public health surveillance (PHS, can enable, enhance, and empower essential PHS functions (i.e., detection, reporting, confirmation, analyses, feedback, response. However, the tail doesn't wag the dog; as such, ICT cannot (should not drive public health surveillance strengthening. Rather, ICT can serve PHS to more effectively empower core functions. In this review, we explore promising ICT trends for prevention, detection, and response, laboratory reporting, push notification, analytics, predictive surveillance, and using new data sources, while recognizing that it is the people, politics, and policies that most challenge progress for implementation of solutions.

  7. Distributed data processing for public health surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yih Katherine

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many systems for routine public health surveillance rely on centralized collection of potentially identifiable, individual, identifiable personal health information (PHI records. Although individual, identifiable patient records are essential for conditions for which there is mandated reporting, such as tuberculosis or sexually transmitted diseases, they are not routinely required for effective syndromic surveillance. Public concern about the routine collection of large quantities of PHI to support non-traditional public health functions may make alternative surveillance methods that do not rely on centralized identifiable PHI databases increasingly desirable. Methods The National Bioterrorism Syndromic Surveillance Demonstration Program (NDP is an example of one alternative model. All PHI in this system is initially processed within the secured infrastructure of the health care provider that collects and holds the data, using uniform software distributed and supported by the NDP. Only highly aggregated count data is transferred to the datacenter for statistical processing and display. Results Detailed, patient level information is readily available to the health care provider to elucidate signals observed in the aggregated data, or for ad hoc queries. We briefly describe the benefits and disadvantages associated with this distributed processing model for routine automated syndromic surveillance. Conclusion For well-defined surveillance requirements, the model can be successfully deployed with very low risk of inadvertent disclosure of PHI – a feature that may make participation in surveillance systems more feasible for organizations and more appealing to the individuals whose PHI they hold. It is possible to design and implement distributed systems to support non-routine public health needs if required.

  8. Deployment Health Surveillance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    DeNicola, Anthony D

    2004-01-01

    .... Gulf War health questions have resulted in controversy over potentially hazardous exposures during the deployment, the possibility of adverse affects from preventive health measures, and the role...

  9. Evaluation of the novel respiratory virus surveillance program: Pediatric Early Warning Sentinel Surveillance (PEWSS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, Patricia A; Nguyen, Linh M; Lutman, Michelle L; Middaugh, John P

    2013-01-01

    Infections caused by respiratory viruses are associated with recurrent epidemics and widespread morbidity and mortality. Routine surveillance of these pathogens is necessary to determine virus activity, monitor for changes in circulating strains, and plan for public health preparedness. The Southern Nevada Health District in Las Vegas, Nevada, recruited five pediatric medical practices to serve as sentinel sites for the Pediatric Early Warning Sentinel Surveillance (PEWSS) program. Sentinel staff collected specimens throughout the year from ill children who met the influenza-like illness case definition and submitted specimens to the Southern Nevada Public Health Laboratory for molecular testing for influenza and six non-influenza viruses. Laboratory results were analyzed and reported to the medical and general communities in weekly bulletins year-round. PEWSS data were also used to establish viral respiratory seasonal baselines and in influenza vaccination campaigns. The surveillance program was evaluated using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC's) Updated Guidelines for Evaluating Public Health Surveillance Systems. PEWSS met three of six program usefulness criteria and seven of nine surveillance system attributes, which exceeded the CDC Guidelines evaluation criteria for a useful and complete public health surveillance program. We found that PEWSS is a useful and complete public health surveillance system that is simple, flexible, accessible, and stable.

  10. Approaches to canine health surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Dan G; Church, David B; McGreevy, Paul D; Thomson, Peter C; Brodbelt, Dave C

    2014-01-01

    Effective canine health surveillance systems can be used to monitor disease in the general population, prioritise disorders for strategic control and focus clinical research, and to evaluate the success of these measures. The key attributes for optimal data collection systems that support canine disease surveillance are representativeness of the general population, validity of disorder data and sustainability. Limitations in these areas present as selection bias, misclassification bias and discontinuation of the system respectively. Canine health data sources are reviewed to identify their strengths and weaknesses for supporting effective canine health surveillance. Insurance data benefit from large and well-defined denominator populations but are limited by selection bias relating to the clinical events claimed and animals covered. Veterinary referral clinical data offer good reliability for diagnoses but are limited by referral bias for the disorders and animals included. Primary-care practice data have the advantage of excellent representation of the general dog population and recording at the point of care by veterinary professionals but may encounter misclassification problems and technical difficulties related to management and analysis of large datasets. Questionnaire surveys offer speed and low cost but may suffer from low response rates, poor data validation, recall bias and ill-defined denominator population information. Canine health scheme data benefit from well-characterised disorder and animal data but reflect selection bias during the voluntary submissions process. Formal UK passive surveillance systems are limited by chronic under-reporting and selection bias. It is concluded that active collection systems using secondary health data provide the optimal resource for canine health surveillance.

  11. Reactor Vessel Surveillance Program for Advanced Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Kyeong-Hoon; Kim, Tae-Wan; Lee, Gyu-Mahn; Kim, Jong-Wook; Park, Keun-Bae; Kim, Keung-Koo

    2008-10-15

    This report provides the design requirements of an integral type reactor vessel surveillance program for an integral type reactor in accordance with the requirements of Korean MEST (Ministry of Education, Science and Technology Development) Notice 2008-18. This report covers the requirements for the design of surveillance capsule assemblies including their test specimens, test block materials, handling tools, and monitors of the surveillance capsule neutron fluence and temperature. In addition, this report provides design requirements for the program for irradiation surveillance of reactor vessel materials, a layout of specimens and monitors in the surveillance capsule, procedures of installation and retrieval of the surveillance capsule assemblies, and the layout of the surveillance capsule assemblies in the reactor.

  12. Post-tensioning system surveillance program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drew, G.E.

    1979-01-01

    Nuclear power plant containment structure post-tensioning system tendon surveillance program is described in detail. Data collected over three yearly post-tensioning system Surveillance Programs is presented and evaluated to correlate anticipated stress losses with actual losses. In addition corrosion protected system performance is analyzed

  13. History and evolution of surveillance in public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varun Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The modern concept of surveillance has evolved over the centuries. Public health surveillance provides the scientific database essential for decision making and appropriate public health action. It is considered as the best public health tool to prevent the occurrence of epidemics and is the backbone of public health programs and provides information so that effective action can be taken in controlling and preventing diseases of public health importance. This article reviews the history of evolution of public health surveillance from historical perspective: from Hippocrates, Black Death and quarantine, recording of vital events for the first time, first field investigation, legislations that were developed over time and modern concepts in public health surveillance. Eradication of small pox is an important achievement in public health surveillance but the recent Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS and Influenza pandemics suggest still there is a room for improvement. Recently new global disease surveillance networks like FluNet and DengueNet were developed as internet sites for monitoring influenza and dengue information. In spite of these developments, global public health surveillance still remains unevenly distributed. There is a need for increased international cooperation to address the global needs of public health surveillance.

  14. Health effects and medical surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This Practical Radiation Technical Manual is one of a series which has been designed to provide guidance on radiological protection for employers, Radiation Protection Officers, managers and other technically competent persons who have a responsibility to ensure the safety of employees working with ionizing radiation. The Manual may be used with the appropriate IAEA Practical Radiation Safety Manuals to provide adequate training, instruction or information on health effects and medical surveillance for all employees engaged in work with ionizing radiation. Sources of ionizing radiations have a large number of applications in the workplace. Usually, even where the work is performed safely, the employees involved inevitably receive small, regular exposures to radiation that are not harmful. Some applications involve sources that could deliver more significant radiation doses, particularly when poor methods are practised or an accident occurs. The radiations cannot be seen, felt or sensed by the human body in any way and excessive exposures may cause detriment to the health of a worker in a way that is not immediately apparent. When the symptoms occur, weeks or possibly years later, an untrained worker or inexperienced medical staff probably cannot recognize the effects to be due to the radiation exposure. This Manual explains how ionizing radiations can interact with and affect human tissues, the various factors that influence the outcome and the detrimental effects that may result. The medical surveillance that is appropriate for those working with radiation sources, depending on the degree of hazard of the work, is described. The Manual will be of most benefit if it forms part of more comprehensive training or is supplemented by the advice of a medically qualified expert. Where medical surveillance is appropriate for radiation employees, the services of a qualified doctor, occupational physician or other trained medical staff will be required

  15. The effectiveness of a health-surveillance program for caisson saturation divers in a tunnel-boring machine: a microbiological survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Rees Vellinga, T P; Sterk, W; Van Dijk, F J H

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this field study is to report and evaluate the implementation of a health surveillance program we developed to monitor the microbiological load for saturation divers, including preventive and therapeutic interventions. We extended the DMAC protocol for Saturation Diving Chamber Hygiene and added some components: ear inspections, swabs and environmental swabs every third day. The implementation was evaluated by analyzing the results of the activities. In a pre-saturation dive check we examined a total of 17 divers. Here we present the data from all seven saturation phases, collected over a period of 1.5 years. In every saturation phase we have found pathogenic bacteria or fungi in divers and in the environment, but more in some periods than in others. We did not observe any serious infection that required a diver to abort his stay in the living chamber. This health surveillance program has demonstrated the potential value of an early warning system to prevent problems. The bacterial load found in divers and in the environment was clearly visible. Prevention could be improved by more consistent implementation of the protocol. Fortunately, the infections had no serious consequences for the health of the workers or for the continuation of the work process.

  16. Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children participation and infants' growth and health: a multisite surveillance study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Maureen M; Cutts, Diana B; Frank, Deborah A; Geppert, Joni; Skalicky, Anne; Levenson, Suzette; Casey, Patrick H; Berkowitz, Carol; Zaldivar, Nieves; Cook, John T; Meyers, Alan F; Herren, Tim

    2004-07-01

    The Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) is the largest food supplement program in the United States, serving almost 7 500 000 participants in 2002. Because the program is a grant program, rather than an entitlement program, Congress is not mandated to allocate funds to serve all eligible participants. Little is known about the effects of WIC on infant growth, health, and food security. To examine associations between WIC participation and indicators of underweight, overweight, length, caregiver-perceived health, and household food security among infants 95th percentile, varied from 7% to 9% and did not differ among the 3 groups but were higher than the 5% expected from national growth charts. Rates of food insecurity were consistent with national data for minority households with children. Families that did not receive WIC assistance because of access problems had higher rates of food insecurity (28%) than did WIC participants (23%), although differences were not significant after covariate control. Caregivers who did not perceive a need for WIC services had more economic and personal resources than did WIC participants and were less likely to be food-insecure, but there were no differences in infants' weight-for-age, perceived health, or overweight between families that did not perceive a need for WIC services and those that received WIC assistance. Infants participation. Health care providers should promote WIC utilization for eligible families and advocate that WIC receive support to reduce waiting lists and eliminate barriers that interfere with access.

  17. Environmental health surveillance system; Kankyo hoken surveillance system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ono, M. [National Inst. for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1998-02-01

    The Central Environmental Pollution Prevention Council pointed out the necessity to establish an environmental health surveillance system (hereinafter referred to as System) in its report `on the first type district specified by the Environmental Pollution Caused Health Damages Compensation Act,` issued in 1986. A study team, established in Environment Agency, has been discussing to establish System since 1986. This paper outlines System, and some of the pilot surveillance results. It is not aimed at elucidation of the cause-effect relationships between health and air pollution but at discovery of problems, in which the above relationships in a district population are monitored periodically and continuously from long-term and prospective viewpoints, in order to help take necessary measures in the early stage. System is now collecting the data of the chronic obstructive lung diseases on a nation-wide scale through health examinations of 3-year-old and preschool children and daily air pollution monitoring. 6 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  18. New England States environmental radiation surveillance programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molloy, E.J.

    1980-01-01

    An overview of the environmental radiation surveillance programs in the New England States from the viewpoint of their organization and administration is provided. Moreover, the specific monitoring and analytical programs conducted at selected sites in each state is detailed with emphasis on sample types, collection frequencies, and analysis. Also, a comparison is made between the programs of all the states in order to determine the reasons for their differences

  19. Rapid surveillance for health events following a mass meningococcal B vaccine program in a university setting: A Canadian Immunization Research Network study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langley, J M; MacDougall, D M; Halperin, B A; Swain, A; Halperin, S A; Top, K A; McNeil, S A; MacKinnon-Cameron, D; Marty, K; De Serres, G; Dubé, E; Bettinger, J A

    2016-07-25

    An outbreak of Neisseria meningitidis serotype B infection occurred at a small residential university; public health announced an organizational vaccination program with the 4-component Meningococcal B (4CMenB) vaccine (Bexsero(TM), Novartis/GlaxoSmithKline Inc.) several days later. Since there were limited published data on reactogenicity of 4CMenB in persons over 17years of age, this study sought to conduct rapid surveillance of health events in vaccinees and controls using an online survey. Vaccine uptake was 84.7% for dose 1 (2967/3500) and 70% (2456/3500) for dose 2; the survey response rates were 33.0% (987/2967) and 18.7% (459/2456) in dose 1 and dose 1 recipients respectively, and 12% in unvaccinated individuals (63/533). Most students were 20-29years of age (vaccinees, 64.0%; controls, 74.0). A new health problem or worsening of an existing health problem was reported by 30.0% and 30.3% of vaccine recipients after doses 1 and 2 respectively; and by 15.9% of controls. These health problems interfered with the ability to perform normal activities in most vaccinees reporting these events (74.7% post dose 1; 62.6% post dose 2), and in 60% of controls. The health problems led to a health care provider visit (including emergency room) in 12.8% and 14.4% of vaccinees post doses 1 and 2, respectively and in 40% of controls. The most common reactions in vaccinees were injection site reactions (20.6% post dose 1, 16.1% post dose 20 and non-specific systemic complaints (22.6% post dose 1, 17.6% post dose 2). No hospitalizations were reported. An online surveillance program during an emergency meningococcal B vaccine program was successfully implemented, and detected higher rates of health events in vaccinees compared to controls, and high rates of both vaccinees and controls seeking medical attention. The types of adverse events reported by young adult vaccinees were consistent with those previously. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Community-Operated Environmental Surveillance Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the environmental surveillance activities with which citizens living near the Hanford Site have been participating. Local teachers have been managing and operating three special radiological air sampling stations located in Richland, Basin City, and Franklin County, Washington. Other expansion efforts of this program are also described.

  1. Community-Operated Environmental Surveillance Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the environmental surveillance activities with which citizens living near the Hanford Site have been participating. Local teachers have been managing and operating three special radiological air sampling stations located in Richland, Basin City, and Franklin County, Washington. Other expansion efforts of this program are also described

  2. Mobile phones used for public health surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kebede Deribe

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In Darfur, the Ministry of Health, WHO and partners have developed a mobile phone-based infectious disease surveillance system for use where resources and facilities may be limited.

  3. Army's drinking water surveillance program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sneeringer, P.V.; Belkin, F.; Straffon, N.; Costick, S.A.

    1977-01-01

    In 1976 a total of 827 water sources from Army installations throughout the world were sampled and analyzed for 53 chemical constituents and physical parameters. Medically significant contaminants included radiation measurements, heavy metals, fluoride, nitrate, and pesticides. Radiological activity appeared to vary with geographic location; a majority being from water sources in the western part of the U.S. No results for tritium were found to exceed the health-reference limit. Confirmatory analyses for radium-226 identified 3 groundwater sources as exceeding the limit; one was attributed to natural activity and the other sources are currently being investigated. Of the metals considered to be medically significant, mercury, chromium, lead, cadmium, silver, barium and arsenic were found in amounts within health level limits. Nitrate levels exceeding the health limit were confirmed for 2 drinking water sources

  4. Master schedule for CY-1979 Hanford environmental surveillance routine program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blumer, P.J.; Houston, J.R.; Eddy, P.A.

    1978-12-01

    The current schedule of data collection for the routine environmental surveillance program at the Hanford Site, as conducted by the Environmental Evaluation Section of Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratory for the Department of Energy (DOE), is given. Modifications to the schedule are made during the year and special areas of study, usually of short duration, are not scheduled. The environmental surveillance program objectives are to evaluate the levels of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants in the Hanford environs, and to monitor Hanford operations for compliance with applicable environmental criteria and Washington State Water Quality Standards. Air quality data are obtained in a separate program administered by the Hanford Environmental Health Foundation. The collection schedule for potable water is shown but it is not part of the routine environmental surveillance program. Water quality data for Hanford Site potable water systems are published each year by the Hanford Environmental Health Foundation. The data collected are available in routine reports issued by the Environmental Evaluations staff. Groundwater data and evaluation are reported in the series, ''Radiological Status of the Groundwater Beneath the Hanford Project for...,'' the latest issue being PNL-2624 for CY-1977. Data from locations within the plant boundaries are presented in the annual ''Environmental Status of the Hanford Site for...'' report series, the most recent report being PNL-2677 for 1977. Data from offsite locations are presented in the annual ''Environmental Surveillance at Hanford for...'' series of reports, the latest being PNL-2614 for 1977

  5. Converging requirements and emerging challenges to public health diseases surveillance and bio surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, V.; Abel, T.

    2009-01-01

    Disease surveillance systems are a critical component of an early warning system for public health agencies to prepare and respond to major public health catastrophes. With a growing emphasis for more robust early indicator and warning systems to track emerging and dangerous diseases of suspicious nature, considerable emphasis is now placed on deployment of more expanded electronic disease surveillance systems. The architectural considerations for bio surveillance information system are based on collection, analysis and dissemination of human, veterinary and agricultural related disease surveillance to broader regional areas likely to be affected in the event of an emerging disease, or due to bioterrorism and better coordinate plans, preparations and response by governmental agencies and multilateral forums. The diseases surveillance systems architectures by intent and design could as well support biological threat monitoring and threat reduction initiatives. As an illustrative sample set, this paper will describe the comparative informatics requirements for a disease surveillance systems developed by CSC for the US Centers for Diseases Control and Prevention (CDC) currently operational nationwide, and biological weapons threat assessment developed as part of the Threat Agent Detection and Response (TADR) Network under the US Biological Threat Reduction Program and deployed at Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, Georgia, and Azerbaijan.(author)

  6. Advanced neutron source materials surveillance program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heavilin, S.M.

    1995-01-01

    The Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) will be composed of several different materials, one of which is 6061-T6 aluminum. Among other components, the reflector vessel and the core pressure boundary tube (CPBT), are to be made of 6061-T6 aluminum. These components will be subjected to high thermal neutron fluences and will require a surveillance program to monitor the strength and fracture toughness of the 6061-T6 aluminum over their lifetimes. The purpose of this paper is to explain the steps that were taken in the summer of 1994 toward developing the surveillance program. The first goal was to decide upon standard specimens to use in the fracture toughness and tensile testing. Second, facilities had to be chosen for specimens representing the CPBT and the reflector vessel base, weld, and heat-affected-zone (HAZ) metals. Third, a timetable had to be defined to determine when to remove the specimens for testing

  7. Health effects and medical surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    Source of ionizing radiations have innumerable applications in the work place. Usually, even where the work is performed safely, the employees involved inevitably receive small, regular exposures to radiation that are not manifestly harmful. This Module explains how ionizing radiations can interact with and affect human tissues, the various factors that influence the outcome and the detrimental effects that may result. The medical surveillance that is appropriate for those working with radiation sources, depending on the degree of hazard of the work, is described. The Manual will be of most benefit it if forms part of more comprehensive training or is supplemented by the advice of a medically qualified expert. Where medical surveillance is appropriate for radiation employees, the services of a qualified doctor, occupational physician or other trained medical staff will be required

  8. N-CDAD in Canada: Results of the Canadian Nosocomial Infection Surveillance Program 1997 N-CDAD Prevalence Surveillance Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meaghen Hyland

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A 1996 preproject survey among Canadian Hospital Epidemiology Committee (CHEC sites revealed variations in the prevention, detection, management and surveillance of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD. Facilities wanted to establish national rates of nosocomially acquired CDAD (N-CDAD to understand the impact of control or prevention measures, and the burden of N-CDAD on health care resources. The CHEC, in collaboration with the Laboratory Centre for Disease Control (Health Canada and under the Canadian Nosocomial Infection Surveillance Program, undertook a prevalence surveillance project among selected hospitals throughout Canada.

  9. Developing regional workplace health and hazard surveillance in the Americas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choi Bernard C. K.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available An objective of the Workers' Health Program at the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO is to strengthen surveillance in workers' health in the Region of the Americas in order to implement prevention and control strategies. To date, four phases of projects have been organized to develop multinational workplace health and hazard surveillance in the Region. Phase 1 was a workshop held in 1999 in Washington, D.C., for the purpose of developing a methodology for identifying and prioritizing the top three occupational sentinel health events to be incorporated into the surveillance systems in the Region. Three surveillance protocols were developed, one each for fatal occupational injuries, pesticide poisoning,4 and low back pain, which were identified in the workshop as the most important occupational health problems. Phase 2 comprised projects to disseminate the findings and recommendations of the Washington Workshop, including publications, pilot projects, software development, electronic communication, and meetings. Phase 3 was a sub-regional meeting in 2000 in Rosario, Argentina, to follow up on the progress in carrying out the recommendations of the Washington workshop and to create a Virtual Regional Center for Latin America that could coordinate the efforts of member countries. Currently phase 4 includes a number of projects to achieve the objectives of this Center, such as pilot projects, capacity building, editing a compact disk, analyzing legal systems and intervention strategies, software training, and developing an internet course on surveillance. By documenting the joint efforts made to initiate and develop Regional multinational surveillance of occupational injuries and diseases in the Americas, this paper aims to provide experience and guidance for others wishing to initiate and develop regional multinational surveillance for other diseases or in other regions.

  10. Flu Surveillance: Department of Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Health & Wellness Food, Water & Environment Birth, Death & Marriage Records Laboratory Healthcare facility managers Schools & child care providers Rhode Island Data Flu Surviellance Healthcare Management Agency Centers for Disease Control &amo; Prevention Flu.gov World Health Organization We can

  11. Extending cluster lot quality assurance sampling designs for surveillance programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hund, Lauren; Pagano, Marcello

    2014-07-20

    Lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS) has a long history of applications in industrial quality control. LQAS is frequently used for rapid surveillance in global health settings, with areas classified as poor or acceptable performance on the basis of the binary classification of an indicator. Historically, LQAS surveys have relied on simple random samples from the population; however, implementing two-stage cluster designs for surveillance sampling is often more cost-effective than simple random sampling. By applying survey sampling results to the binary classification procedure, we develop a simple and flexible nonparametric procedure to incorporate clustering effects into the LQAS sample design to appropriately inflate the sample size, accommodating finite numbers of clusters in the population when relevant. We use this framework to then discuss principled selection of survey design parameters in longitudinal surveillance programs. We apply this framework to design surveys to detect rises in malnutrition prevalence in nutrition surveillance programs in Kenya and South Sudan, accounting for clustering within villages. By combining historical information with data from previous surveys, we design surveys to detect spikes in the childhood malnutrition rate. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Sustainable Monitoring and Surveillance Systems to Improve HIV Programs: Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low-Beer, Daniel; Mahy, Mary; Renaud, Francoise; Calleja, Txema

    2018-04-24

    HIV programs have provided a major impetus for investments in surveillance data, with 5-10% of HIV program budgets recommended to support data. However there are questions concerning the sustainability of these investments. The Sustainable Development Goals have consolidated health into one goal and communicable diseases into one target (Target 3.3). Sustainable Development Goals now introduce targets focused specifically on data (Targets 17.18 and 17.19). Data are seen as one of the three systemic issues (in Goal 17) for implementing Sustainable Development Goals, alongside policies and partnerships. This paper reviews the surveillance priorities in the context of the Sustainable Development Goals and highlights the shift from periodic measurement towards sustainable disaggregated, real-time, case, and patient data, which are used routinely to improve programs. Finally, the key directions in developing person-centered monitoring systems are assessed with country examples. The directions contribute to the Sustainable Development Goal focus on people-centered development applied to data. ©Daniel Low-Beer, Mary Mahy, Francoise Renaud, Txema Calleja. Originally published in JMIR Public Health and Surveillance (http://publichealth.jmir.org), 24.04.2018.

  13. Evaluation of surveillance of dengue fever cases in the public health centre of Putat Jaya based on attribute surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zumaroh Zumaroh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever (DHF is a public health problem in the village of Putat Jaya which is an endemic area. Surveilans activity in DHF control program is the most important activity in controlling and monitoring disease progression. The program is expected to achieve incidence rate 55/100.000 population. This study aimed to evaluate the implementation of case surveilans in health centre of putat jaya based on attribute surveillance. Attribute surveillance is an indicator that describes the characteristics of the surveillance system. This research was an evaluation research with descriptive study design. As informants were clinic staff who deal specifically with cases of dengue hemorrhagic fever and laboratory workers. The techniques of data collection by interviews and document study. The variables of this study were simplicity, flexibility, acceptability, sensitivity, positive predictive value, representativeness, timeliness, data quality and data stability. It could be seen from Incidence Rate in 2013 has reached 133/100.00 population. The activity of surveilance in the village of Putat Jaya reviewed from disease contol program management was not succeed into decrease incidence rate of DHF. Therefore, dengue control programs in health centers Putat Jaya need to do cross-sector cooperation and cross-program cooperation, strengthening the case reporting system by way increasing in the utilization of information and communication technology electromedia. Keywords: case surveillance, dengue hemorrhagic fever, evaluation, attribute surveillance, Putat Jaya

  14. The development of passive health surveillance by a sentinel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SASPREN), a volunteer network of family practitioners in South Africa, to develop a health surveillance system through the surveillance of important health events. Motivation. The incidence of important preventable diseases and the burden of disease ...

  15. Workers' Health Surveillance in the Meat Processing Industry : Work and Health Indicators Associated with Work Ability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Holland, Berry J.; Soer, Remko; de Boer, Michiel R.; Reneman, Michiel F.; Brouwer, Sandra

    Background Workers' health surveillance (WHS) programs commonly measure a large number of indicators addressing health habits and health risks. Recently, work ability and functional capacity have been included as important risk measures in WHS. In order to address work ability appropriately,

  16. Workers' Health Surveillance in the Meat Processing Industry: Work and Health Indicators Associated with Work Ability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Holland, B.J.; Soer, R.; de Boer, M.R.; Reneman, M.F.; Brouwer, S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Workers’ health surveillance (WHS) programs commonly measure a large number of indicators addressing health habits and health risks. Recently, work ability and functional capacity have been included as important risk measures in WHS. In order to address work ability appropriately,

  17. Training General Practice Registrars on conducting child health and developmental surveillance. Evaluation of a blended eLearning Program

    OpenAIRE

    Ong, Natalie; Llewellyn, Cathy; Brown, Nicola; Woolfenden, Susan; Reti, Thomas; Magiros, Marisa; Todd, Katherine; Booth, Karen; Eastwood, Anne; Eastwood, John

    2018-01-01

    Introduction: Community-based integrated care initiatives for children and families had been developed in Sydney Australia over five years.  One of those is the Healthy Homses and Neighbourhoods Integrated Care (HHAN) Initiative. The HHAN design includes several sector workforce capacity building initiatives.  A partnership was formed with: primary health networks (PHN), child and family nurses, practice nurses, a general practice training organisation, Sydney Children's Hospita Network and t...

  18. Occupational health provision and health surveillance in the semiconductor industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoulty, Mary; Williams, Nerys

    2006-03-01

    To identify the nature of occupational health provision in UK semiconductor-manufacturing plants. To identify the level of industry compliance with legal health surveillance requirements. A national inspection programme was carried out by Health & Safety Executive inspectors using a developed protocol. A wide range of occupational health provision was identified from none to use of an accredited specialist. The majority of work was of a reactive nature even where there was specialist occupational health input. Seven companies were identified as not meeting legal compliance and one as having unacceptable compliance for health surveillance. The spectrum of occupational health provision was very wide. Where health surveillance was provided, it was poorly targeted with limited interpretation and feedback to management.

  19. Risky Bodies: Health Surveillance and Teachers' Embodiment of Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Louisa; Quennerstedt, Mikael

    2010-01-01

    In the current climate of health surveillance, governmental measurement and control as well as a focus on individual responsibility for risk are prevalent in school contexts. Physical education is a crucial site for the production and reproduction of health messages and thus is an important location through which health and healthy bodies are…

  20. U.S. Department of Energy Office of Health, Safety and Security Illness and Injury Surveillance Program Worker Health at a Glance, 2000-2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strader, Cliff [US Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Richter, Bonnie [US Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

    2013-01-23

    The Worker Health at a Glance, 2000 – 2009 provides an overview of selected illness and injury patterns among the current DOE contractor workforce that have emerged over the 10-years covered by this report. This report is a roll-up of data from 16 individual DOE sites, assigned to one of three program offices (Office of Environmental Management, Office of Science and the National Nuclear Security Administration). In this report, an absences is defined as 40 or more consecutive work hours (5+ calendar days) off the job. Shorter absences were not included.

  1. Application of DNA barcoding in forest biosecurity surveillance programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leland M. Humble; Jeremy R. deWaard

    2011-01-01

    The ability to distinguish non-indigenous species from the background diversity of native taxa is critical to the success of surveillance programs for detecting new introductions. Surveillance programs for alien taxa rely on the precise diagnosis of species, which can be complicated by sizable trap samples, damaged specimens, immature life stages, and incomplete...

  2. Extension of the surveillance program at NPP Paks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillemot, F.

    1992-01-01

    In WWER-440 reactors the surveillance specimens are located in accelerated irradiation positions. After five years all specimens are withdrawn and the operational changes are not monitored. At Paks NPP a new surveillance program extension is started to eliminate of this disadvantage of the original program. (author)

  3. Surveillance and in-service inspection (SISI) program at FFTF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conrads, T.J.

    1980-01-01

    Assurance of the integrity of the sodium coolant pressure boundaries of the Fast Flux Test Facility systems and components is essential for safe operation. A program has been developed to monitor the integrity of the coolant boundaries and certain plant conditions. Specific equipment and features have been designed into the plant for monitoring. The purpose of SISI is to prevent failures or minimize their consequences through early detection. The program which administers the requirements for monitoring applicable plant conditions whose integrity is necessary to protect public health and safety is known as the Surveillance and In-service Inspection (SISI) Program. The SISI program utilizes a wide range of monitoring techniques to ensure that material degradation or structural deficiencies will not result in the loss of the ability to shut down the reactor, cool the reactor core, or cause the release of radioactive material to the environment

  4. Medical surveillance program for uranium workers in Grants, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valdivia, A.A.

    1981-01-01

    A medical surveillance program at the Grants Clinic in Grants, New Mexico designed for early detection of pre-invasive and invasive lung neoplasms is discussed. The parameters of the surveillance profile are: age, race, mining history, smoking history, radiation exposure, chest x-rays, and sputum cytology. The best tool is the cytological examination of the sputum

  5. Irradiation temperature measurements in the surveillance program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pav, T.; Krhounek, V.

    1991-01-01

    Evaluation of the diamond monitor method for the determination of the irradiation temperature in the surveillance programme of WWER-440 reactors is discussed. One of the difficulties with the practical application of the method is that the measured values of irradiation temperature are unlikely high. Using a thermodynamical model of the processes in the annealing of the irradiated diamond crystals, it was shown that experimental difficulties came from the principles of the method used. An analysis was performed of the thermal field inside the capsule of the surveillance chain in operational conditions, using the finite element method. The diamond monitor method was suggested to be eliminated from the surveillance programme and the use was proposed of the value of 273+-3 degC (as the most likely value) for the irradiation temperature of surveillance samples in WWER-440 reactors. (Z.S.). 3 tabs., 6 figs., 4 refs

  6. Quality assurance applied to an environmental surveillance program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oakes, T.W.; Shank, K.E.; Eldridge, J.S.

    1977-01-01

    A discussion of a quality assurance program applied to environmental surveillance activities is presented. This includes the philosophy and concepts of quality assurance, along with a detailed assessment of the sources of uncertainty in a monitoring program. The role management must play for a successful program is also discussed, and the quality assurance program implemented at Oak Ridge National Laboratory is presented

  7. An evaluation of the Australian Rotavirus Surveillance Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts-Witteveen, April R; Patel, Mahomed S; Roche, Paul W

    2008-09-01

    The Australian Rotavirus Serotyping Program (ARSP) serotypes rotavirus isolates obtained from stool samples sent from Australian laboratories. In collaboration with ARSP the Australian Government Department of Health and Ageing evaluated the program for its utility and capacity to monitor effectiveness of the rotavirus vaccines recently introduced into the Australian National Immunisation Program. The system was described using ARSP annual reports and staff interviews. The attributes of the system were assessed by adapting standard guidelines for evaluating a surveillance system. Email surveys or face to face interviews were conducted with staff of ARSP, participating laboratories, rotavirus vaccine manufacturing companies and representatives of the Communicable Diseases Network Australia. The ability of the ARSP to monitor changes in rotavirus serotype epidemiology was assessed. ARSP serotypes rotavirus isolates received from participating laboratories at least bi-annually, with results being reported at least as often. Serotype analyses have informed formulation of rotavirus vaccines and contributed to forecasting the extent of outbreaks caused by novel serotypes. The ARSP will be able to monitor changes in rotavirus serotype epidemiology and identify probable vaccination failures. Enhancement of the representativeness and sensitivity of the system are needed for the data to remain useful in the public health context. Methods for transferring data between the program and state and territory health departments need to be developed.

  8. Master schedule for CY-1978. Hanford Environmental Surveillance Routine Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blumer, P.J.; Myers, D.A.; Fix, J.J.

    1977-12-01

    This report provides the current schedule of data collection for the routine environmental surveillance program at the Hanford Site. No results are presented in this report. The data collected are available in routine reports issued by the Environmental Evaluations staff

  9. Master schedule for CY-1981 Hanford environmental surveillance routine program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blumer, P.J.; Sula, M.J.; Eddy, P.A.

    1980-12-01

    The current schedule of data collection for the routine environmental surveillance program at the Hanford Site is provided. Questions about specific entries should be referred to the authors since modifications to the schedule are made during the year and special areas of study, usually of short duration, are not scheduled. The environmental surveillance program objectives are to evaluate the levels of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants in the Hanford environs, as required in Manual Chapter 0513, and to monitor Hanford operations for compliance with applicable environmental criteria given in Manual Chapter 0524 and Washington State Water Quality Standards. Air quality data obtained in a separate program are also reported. The collection schedule for potable water is shown but it is not part of the routine environmental surveillance program. Schedules are presented for the following subjects: air, Columbia River, sanitary water, surface water, ground water, foodstuffs, wildlife, soil and vegetation, external radiation measurement, portable instrument surveys, and surveillance of waste disposal sites

  10. [Protocols for the health surveillance of fisherman].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soleo, Leonardo; Cannizzaro, Emanuele; Lovreglio, Piero; Basso, Antonella; D'Errico, Maria Nicolà; Pira, Enrico

    2013-01-01

    To define protocols for health surveillance of workers in the marine fishing sector for specific occupational risk factors, considering the latest and most advanced scientific knowledge. The specific literature was analyzed to identify the occupational risk factors to which fishermen are exposed. Then, for each risk factor a protocol for the relative health checkups and their time schedule was defined. The risk factors to which fishermen are exposed are essentially noise, vibrations, solar and ultraviolet radiation, climatic agents (heat, cold, wind, rain, damp), chemical agents, shifts, work rate, night work, physical strain, stress, manual handling of loads, upper limb repetitive tasks, incongruous postures. The health protocols stipulate the health screening investigations to be carried out in all workers of a homogeneous group, and in-depth diagnostic investigations to be carried out in symptomatic workers. Complementary health investigations must be focused on a functional exploration of the organs specifically exposed to the risk factor. For hearing impairments due to noise exposure, the medico-legal measures with which the occupational health physician must comply, in cases of occupational disease, are indicated.

  11. A model surveillance program based on regulatory experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conte, R.J.

    1980-01-01

    A model surveillance program is presented based on regulatory experience. The program consists of three phases: Program Delineation, Data Acquistion and Data Analysis. Each phase is described in terms of key quality assurance elements and some current philosophies is the United States Licensing Program. Other topics include the application of these ideas to test equipment used in the surveillance progam and audits of the established program. Program Delineation discusses the establishment of administrative controls for organization and the description of responsibilities using the 'Program Coordinator' concept, with assistance from Data Acquisition and Analysis Teams. Ideas regarding frequency of surveillance testing are also presented. The Data Acquisition Phase discusses various methods for acquiring data including operator observations, test procedures, operator logs, and computer output, for trending equipment performance. The Data Analysis Phase discusses the process for drawing conclusions regarding component/equipment service life, proper application, and generic problems through the use of trend analysis and failure rate data. (orig.)

  12. Master schedule for CY-1980 Hanford Environmental Surveillance Routine Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blumer, P.J.; Houston, J.R.; Eddy, P.A.

    1979-12-01

    The current schedule of data collection for the routine environmental surveillance program at the Hanford Site is presented. The enviromental surveillance program objectives are to evaluate the levels of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants in the Hanford environs, as required in Manual Chapter 0513, and to monitor Hanford operations for compliance with applicable environmental criteria given in Manual Chapter 0524 and Washington State Water Quality Standards. Data are reported on the following topics: air; Columbia River; sanitary water; surface water; ground water; foodstuffs; wildlife; soil and vegetation; external radiation measurement; portable instrument surveys; and surveillance of waste disposal sites;

  13. Weighing in on Surveillance: Perception of the Impact of Surveillance on Female Ballet Dancers' Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dryburgh, Anne; Fortin, Sylvie

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this qualitative study was to investigate professional ballet dancers' perceptions of the impact of surveillance on their psychological and physical health. The theoretical framework was inspired by Foucault's writing, particularly his concepts of surveillance, power, discipline and docile bodies. Fifteen professional ballet dancers…

  14. The analysis of reactor vessel surveillance program data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norris, E.B.

    1979-01-01

    Commercial nuclear power reactor vessel surveillance programs are provided by the reactor supplier and are designed to meet the requirements of ASTM Method E 185. (3). Each surveillance capsule contains sets of Charpy V-notch (Csub(v)) specimens representing selected materials from the vessel beltline region and some reference steel, tension test specimens machined from selected beltline materials, temperature monitors, and neutron flux dosimeters. Surveillance capsules may also contain fracture mechanics specimens machined from selected vessel beltline materials. The major steps in the conduct of a surveillance program include (1) the testing of the surveillance specimens to determine the exposure conditions at the capsule location and the resulting embrittlement of the vessel steel, (2) the extrapolation of the capsule results to the pressure vessel wall, and (3) the determination of the heatup and cooldown limits for normal, upset, and test operation. This paper will present data obtained from commercial light water reactor surveillance programs to illustrate the methods of analysis currently in use at Southwest Research Institute and to demonstrate some of the limitations imposed by the data available. Details concerning the procedures for testing the surveillance capsule specimens will not be included because they are considered to be outside of the scope of this paper

  15. A review of zoonotic disease surveillance supported by the Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, R L; Kronmann, K C; Daniels, C C; Meyers, M; Byarugaba, D K; Dueger, E; Klein, T A; Evans, B P; Vest, K G

    2012-05-01

    The Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center (AFHSC), Division of Global Emerging Infections Surveillance and Response System conducts disease surveillance through a global network of US Department of Defense research laboratories and partnerships with foreign ministries of agriculture, health and livestock development in over 90 countries worldwide. In 2010, AFHSC supported zoonosis survey efforts were organized into four main categories: (i) development of field assays for animal disease surveillance during deployments and in resource limited environments, (ii) determining zoonotic disease prevalence in high-contact species which may serve as important reservoirs of diseases and sources of transmission, (iii) surveillance in high-risk human populations which are more likely to become exposed and subsequently infected with zoonotic pathogens and (iv) surveillance at the human-animal interface examining zoonotic disease prevalence and transmission within and between human and animal populations. These efforts have aided in the detection, identification and quantification of the burden of zoonotic diseases such as anthrax, brucellosis, Crimean Congo haemorrhagic fever, dengue fever, Hantaan virus, influenza, Lassa fever, leptospirosis, melioidosis, Q fever, Rift Valley fever, sandfly fever Sicilian virus, sandfly fever Naples virus, tuberculosis and West Nile virus, which are of military and public health importance. Future zoonotic surveillance efforts will seek to develop local capacity for zoonotic surveillance focusing on high risk populations at the human-animal interface. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  16. Under observation : The interplay between eHealth and surveillance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Purtova, Nadezhda; Adams, Samantha; Leenes, Ronald

    2016-01-01

    The essays in this book clarify the technical, legal, ethical, and social aspects of the interaction between eHealth technologies and surveillance practices. The book starts out by presenting a theoretical framework on eHealth and surveillance, followed by an introduction to the various ideas on

  17. Video Surveillance in Mental Health Facilities: Is it Ethical?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolovy, Tali; Melamed, Yuval; Afek, Arnon

    2015-05-01

    Video surveillance is a tool for managing safety and security within public spaces. In mental health facilities, the major benefit of video surveillance is that it enables 24 hour monitoring of patients, which has the potential to reduce violent and aggressive behavior. The major disadvantage is that such observation is by nature intrusive. It diminishes privacy, a factor of huge importance for psychiatric inpatients. Thus, an ongoing debate has developed following the increasing use of cameras in this setting. This article presents the experience of a medium-large academic state hospital that uses video surveillance, and explores the various ethical and administrative aspects of video surveillance in mental health facilities.

  18. Detecting, reporting, and analysis of priority diseases for routine public health surveillance in Liberia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frimpong, Joseph Asamoah; Park, Meeyoung Mattie; Amo-Addae, Maame Pokuah; Adewuyi, Peter Adebayo; Nagbe, Thomas Knue

    2017-01-01

    An essential component of a public health surveillance system is its ability to detect priority diseases which fall within the mandate of public health officials at all levels. Early detection, reporting and response to public health events help to reduce the burden of mortality and morbidity on communities. Analysis of reliable surveillance data provides relevant information which can enable implementation of timely and appropriate public health interventions. To ensure that a resilient system is in place, the World Health Organization (WHO) has provided guidelines for detection, reporting and response to public health events in the Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response (IDSR) strategy. This case study provides training on detection, reporting and analysis of priority diseases for routine public health surveillance in Liberia and highlights potential errors and challenges which can hinder effective surveillance. Table-top exercises and group discussion lead participants through a simulated verification and analyses of summary case reports in the role of the District Surveillance Officer. This case study is intended for public health training in a classroom setting and can be accomplished within 2 hours 30 minutes. The target audience include residents in Frontline Epidemiology Training Programs (FETP-Frontline), Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Programs (FELTPs), and others who are interested in this topic.

  19. CONSTITUTIONALITY AND LEGALITY OF NSA SURVEILLANCE PROGRAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Committee Headquarters in what would eventually culminate as the Watergate Scandal . While the far reaching consequences of the Watergate scandal are...the Church Committee that investigated the Watergate Scandal , recommended the FBI be limited to only investigating “conduct rather than ideas or...TSP wiretapping scandal , the Bush Administration instead attempted to codify into law greater surveillance powers for intelligence agencies. When TSP

  20. Estimating the cost to U.S. health departments to conduct HIV surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Ram K; Sansom, Stephanie L; Laffoon, Benjamin T; Farnham, Paul G; Shouse, R Luke; MacMaster, Karen; Hall, H Irene

    2014-01-01

    HIV case surveillance is a primary source of information for monitoring HIV burden in the United States and guiding the allocation of prevention and treatment funds. While the number of people living with HIV and the need for surveillance data have increased, little is known about the cost of surveillance. We estimated the economic cost to health departments of conducting high-quality HIV case surveillance. We collected primary data on the unit cost and quantity of resources used to operate the HIV case surveillance program in Michigan, where HIV burden (i.e., the number of HIV cases) is moderate to high (n=14,864 cases). Based on Michigan's data, we projected the expected annual HIV surveillance cost for U.S., state, local, and territorial health departments. We based our cost projection on the variation in the number of new and established cases, area-specific wages, and potential economies of scale. We estimated the annual total HIV surveillance cost to the Michigan health department to be $1,286,524 ($87/case), the annual total cost of new cases to be $108,657 ($133/case), and the annual total cost of established cases to be $1,177,867 ($84/case). Our projected median annual HIV surveillance cost per health department ranged from $210,600 in low-HIV burden sites to $1,835,000 in high-HIV burden sites. Our analysis shows that a systematic approach to costing HIV surveillance at the health department level is feasible. For HIV surveillance, a substantial portion of total surveillance costs is attributable to maintaining established cases.

  1. Master schedule for CY-1982 Hanford environmental surveillance routine program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blumer, P.J.; Sula, M.J.; Eddy, P.A.

    1981-12-01

    This report provides the current schedule of data collection for the routine environmental surveillance program at the Hanford Site. The environmental surveillance program objectives are to evaluate and report the levels of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants in the Hanford environs, as required in DOE Order 5484.1. The routine sampling schedule provided does not include samples which are planned to be collected during FY-1982 in support of special studies or for quality control purposes. In addition, the routine program outlined in this schedule is subject to modification during the year in response to changes in Site operations, program requirements, or unusual sample results. Sampling schedules are presented for the following: air; Columbia River; sanitary water; surface water; ground water; foodstuffs; wildlife; soil and vegetation; external radiation measurements; portable instrument surveys; and surveillance of waste disposal sites

  2. Process monitoring using a Quality and Technical Surveillance Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafferty, C.A.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of process monitoring using a Quality and Technical Surveillance Program was to help ensure manufactured clad vents sets fully met technical and quality requirements established by the manufacturer and the customer, and that line and program management were immediately alerted if any aspect of the manufacturing activities drifted out of acceptable limits. The Quality and Technical Surveillance Program provided a planned, scheduled approach to monitor key processes and documentation illuminated potential problem areas early enough to permit timely corrective actions to reverse negative trends that, if left uncorrected, could have resulted in deficient hardware. Significant schedule and cost impacts were eliminated

  3. Extending cluster Lot Quality Assurance Sampling designs for surveillance programs

    OpenAIRE

    Hund, Lauren; Pagano, Marcello

    2014-01-01

    Lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS) has a long history of applications in industrial quality control. LQAS is frequently used for rapid surveillance in global health settings, with areas classified as poor or acceptable performance based on the binary classification of an indicator. Historically, LQAS surveys have relied on simple random samples from the population; however, implementing two-stage cluster designs for surveillance sampling is often more cost-effective than ...

  4. The issue of mental health in occupational health surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Henrique da Costa Leão

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the issue of mental health in the Occupational Health Surveillance (VISAT context. It seeks to present theoretical aspects and institutional policies contributing to the incorporation of mental health dimensions into the VISAT process, in view of the pressing need to attend to this demand that is becoming increasingly important in the occupational health area, especially within the scope of the National Comprehensive Occupational Healthcare Network (RENAST. Some theoretical approaches and practical experiences in mental health and work are systematically presented and discussed in this essay. A survey is also conducted of potential strategies to integrate mental health into VISAT actions. It is our view that the origins of illnesses and ensuing harm are closely linked to the elements involved in work organization and management. Consequently, surveillance practices should include and identify generating components of these negative aspects. The diversity of illnesses caused by work processes and conditions calls for major investment to ascertain and change the situations that give rise to such illnesses.

  5. The issue of mental health in occupational health surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leão, Luís Henrique da Costa; Gomez, Carlos Minayo

    2014-12-01

    This paper addresses the issue of mental health in the Occupational Health Surveillance (VISAT) context. It seeks to present theoretical aspects and institutional policies contributing to the incorporation of mental health dimensions into the VISAT process, in view of the pressing need to attend to this demand that is becoming increasingly important in the occupational health area, especially within the scope of the National Comprehensive Occupational Healthcare Network (RENAST). Some theoretical approaches and practical experiences in mental health and work are systematically presented and discussed in this essay. A survey is also conducted of potential strategies to integrate mental health into VISAT actions. It is our view that the origins of illnesses and ensuing harm are closely linked to the elements involved in work organization and management. Consequently, surveillance practices should include and identify generating components of these negative aspects. The diversity of illnesses caused by work processes and conditions calls for major investment to ascertain and change the situations that give rise to such illnesses.

  6. Process monitoring using a quality and technical surveillance program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafferty, C.A.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of process monitoring using a quality and technical surveillance program was to help ensure that manufactured clad went sets fully met technical and quality requirements established by the manufacturer and the customer and that line and program management were immediately alerted if any aspect of the manufacturing activities drifted out of acceptable limits. The quality and technical surveillance program provided a planned, scheduled approach to monitor key processes and documentation and certification systems to prevent noncompliances or any manufacturing discrepancies. These surveillances illuminated potential problem areas early enough to permit timely corrective actions to reverse negative trends that, if left uncorrected, could have resulted in deficient hardware. Significant schedule and cost impacts were eliminated. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  7. Climate Change and Public Health Surveillance: Toward a Comprehensive Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulton, Anthony Drummond; Schramm, Paul John

    Climate change poses a host of serious threats to human health that robust public health surveillance systems can help address. It is unknown, however, whether existing surveillance systems in the United States have adequate capacity to serve that role, nor what actions may be needed to develop adequate capacity. Our goals were to review efforts to assess and strengthen the capacity of public health surveillance systems to support health-related adaptation to climate change in the United States and to determine whether additional efforts are warranted. Building on frameworks issued by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, we specified 4 core components of public health surveillance capacity relevant to climate change health threats. Using standard methods, we next identified and analyzed multiple assessments of the existing, relevant capacity of public health surveillance systems as well as attempts to improve that capacity. We also received information from selected national public health associations. Multiple federal, state, and local public health agencies, professional associations, and researchers have made valuable, initial efforts to assess and strengthen surveillance capacity. These efforts, however, have been made by entities working independently and without the benefit of a shared conceptual framework or strategy. Their principal focus has been on identifying suitable indicators and data sources largely to the exclusion of other core components of surveillance capacity. A more comprehensive and strategic approach is needed to build the public health surveillance capacity required to protect the health of Americans in a world of rapidly evolving climate change. Public health practitioners and policy makers at all levels can use the findings and issues reviewed in this article as they lead design and execution of a coordinated, multisector strategic plan to create and sustain that capacity.

  8. Climate Change and Public Health Surveillance: Toward a Comprehensive Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulton, Anthony Drummond; Schramm, Paul John

    2017-01-01

    Context Climate change poses a host of serious threats to human health that robust public health surveillance systems can help address. It is unknown, however, whether existing surveillance systems in the United States have adequate capacity to serve that role, nor what actions may be needed to develop adequate capacity. Objective Our goals were to review efforts to assess and strengthen the capacity of public health surveillance systems to support health-related adaptation to climate change in the United States and to determine whether additional efforts are warranted. Methods Building on frameworks issued by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, we specified 4 core components of public health surveillance capacity relevant to climate change health threats. Using standard methods, we next identified and analyzed multiple assessments of the existing, relevant capacity of public health surveillance systems as well as attempts to improve that capacity. We also received information from selected national public health associations. Findings Multiple federal, state, and local public health agencies, professional associations, and researchers have made valuable, initial efforts to assess and strengthen surveillance capacity. These efforts, however, have been made by entities working independently and without the benefit of a shared conceptual framework or strategy. Their principal focus has been on identifying suitable indicators and data sources largely to the exclusion of other core components of surveillance capacity. Conclusions A more comprehensive and strategic approach is needed to build the public health surveillance capacity required to protect the health of Americans in a world of rapidly evolving climate change. Public health practitioners and policy makers at all levels can use the findings and issues reviewed in this article as they lead design and execution of a coordinated, multisector strategic

  9. Surveillance of the exposure to ionizing radiations of the University health staff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomasina, F.; Sponton, F.; Pintado, C.; Laborde, A.; Blanco, D.; Stolovas, N.; Satragno, N.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction The surveillance program for the workers exposed to ionizing radiations involves personal dosemeters of exposed workers, and their assessment and comparison with the reference values, which allow prioritizing and taking effective preventive action. Objectives To present the occupational health surveillance program for university workers exposed to ionizing radiations during the 2003-2006 period.Methods Longitudinal and descriptive study. Dosimetric data were obtained from secondary source, on the basis of the dosimetric surveillance program in the University of the Republic. The exposure was evaluated through film dosimetry. The personal dosimetric value records were analyzed within the surveillance program in 2003, 2004, 2005 and 2006.Results It was observed that the dosimetric values did not exceed the reference values accepted as annual maximum figures. The annual maximum dose received was 15,72 milisieverts in the diagnosis and specialized treatment areas of the university hospital. Conclusions Surveillance of exposure to radiations allowed directing the specific systematic medical check-ups as well as stretching the taking of radioprotective measures. In this regard, the Department of Occupational Health is carrying out educational tasks and disseminating the surveillance program in order to reinforce preventive measures.

  10. Quality-control activities of the Hanford Environmental Surveillance Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, K.R.; Jaquish, R.E.

    1982-01-01

    A comprehensive approach to quality control (QC) has been developed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory for the Hanford Environmental Surveillance Program. The framework of quality control for the surveillance program has been documented in a QC implementation guide wherein QC requirements are specified and specific responsibilities and authorities are described. Subjects in the guide include the collection, analysis, and reporting of samples as well as equipment calibration and maintenance, training, audits, and record keeping. A QC file and library have been established to store pertinent documentation, records, and references for ready access

  11. Enhanced surveillance program FY97 accomplishments. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mauzy, A. [ed.; Laake, B. [comp.

    1997-10-01

    This annual report is one volume of the Enhanced Surveillance Program (ESP) FY97 Accomplishments. The complete accomplishments report consists of 11 volumes. Volume 1 includes an ESP overview and a summary of selected unclassified FY97 program highlights. Volume 1 specifically targets a general audience, reflecting about half of the tasks conducted in FY97 and emphasizing key program accomplishments and contributions. The remaining volumes of the accomplishments report are classified, organized by program focus area, and present in technical detail the progress achieved in each of the 104 FY97 program tasks. Focus areas are as follows: pits; high explosives; organics; dynamics; diagnostics; systems; secondaries; nonnuclear materials; nonnuclear components; and Surveillance Test Program upgrades.

  12. 3013/9975 Surveillance Program Interim Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, K.; Hackney, B.; McClard, J.

    2011-06-22

    The K-Area Materials Storage (KAMS) Documented Safety Analysis (DSA) requires a surveillance program to monitor the safety performance of 3013 containers and 9975 shipping packages stored in KAMS. The SRS surveillance program [Reference 1] outlines activities for field surveillance and laboratory tests that demonstrate the packages meet the functional performance requirements described in the DSA. The SRS program also supports the complexwide Integrated Surveillance Program (ISP) [Reference 2] for 3013 containers. The purpose of this report is to provide a summary of the SRS portion of the surveillance program activities through fiscal year 2010 (FY10) and formally communicate the interpretation of these results by the Surveillance Program Authority (SPA). Surveillance for the initial 3013 container random sampling of the Innocuous bin and the Pressure bin has been completed and there has been no indication of corrosion or significant pressurization. The maximum pressure observed was less than 50 psig, which is well below the design pressure of 699 psig for the 3013 container [Reference 3]. The data collected during surveillance of these bins has been evaluated by the Materials Identification and Surveillance (MIS) Working Group and no additional surveillance is necessary for these bins at least through FY13. A decision will be made whether additional surveillance of these bins is needed during future years of storage and as additional containers are generated. Based on the data collected to date, the SPA concludes that 3013 containers in these bins can continue to be safely stored in KAMS. This year, 13 destructive examinations (DE) were performed on random samples from the Pressure & Corrosion bin. To date, DE has been completed for approximately 30% of the random samples from the Pressure & Corrosion bin. In addition, DE has been performed on 6 engineering judgment (EJ) containers, for a total of 17 to date. This includes one container that exceeded the 3013

  13. 3013/9975 Surveillance Program Interim Summary Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn, K.; Hackney, B.; McClard, J.

    2011-01-01

    The K-Area Materials Storage (KAMS) Documented Safety Analysis (DSA) requires a surveillance program to monitor the safety performance of 3013 containers and 9975 shipping packages stored in KAMS. The SRS surveillance program (Reference 1) outlines activities for field surveillance and laboratory tests that demonstrate the packages meet the functional performance requirements described in the DSA. The SRS program also supports the complexwide Integrated Surveillance Program (ISP) (Reference 2) for 3013 containers. The purpose of this report is to provide a summary of the SRS portion of the surveillance program activities through fiscal year 2010 (FY10) and formally communicate the interpretation of these results by the Surveillance Program Authority (SPA). Surveillance for the initial 3013 container random sampling of the Innocuous bin and the Pressure bin has been completed and there has been no indication of corrosion or significant pressurization. The maximum pressure observed was less than 50 psig, which is well below the design pressure of 699 psig for the 3013 container (Reference 3). The data collected during surveillance of these bins has been evaluated by the Materials Identification and Surveillance (MIS) Working Group and no additional surveillance is necessary for these bins at least through FY13. A decision will be made whether additional surveillance of these bins is needed during future years of storage and as additional containers are generated. Based on the data collected to date, the SPA concludes that 3013 containers in these bins can continue to be safely stored in KAMS. This year, 13 destructive examinations (DE) were performed on random samples from the Pressure and Corrosion bin. To date, DE has been completed for approximately 30% of the random samples from the Pressure and Corrosion bin. In addition, DE has been performed on 6 engineering judgment (EJ) containers, for a total of 17 to date. This includes one container that exceeded the 3013

  14. Ethical issues in public health surveillance: a systematic qualitative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingler, Corinna; Silva, Diego Steven; Schuermann, Christopher; Reis, Andreas Alois; Saxena, Abha; Strech, Daniel

    2017-04-04

    Public health surveillance is not ethically neutral and yet, ethics guidance and training for surveillance programmes is sparse. Development of ethics guidance should be based on comprehensive and transparently derived overviews of ethical issues and arguments. However, existing overviews on surveillance ethics are limited in scope and in how transparently they derived their results. Our objective was accordingly to provide an overview of ethical issues in public health surveillance; in addition, to list the arguments put forward with regards to arguably the most contested issue in surveillance, that is whether to obtain informed consent. Ethical issues were defined based on principlism. We assumed an ethical issue to arise in surveillance when a relevant normative principle is not adequately considered or two principles come into conflict. We searched Pubmed and Google Books for relevant publications. We analysed and synthesized the data using qualitative content analysis. Our search strategy retrieved 525 references of which 83 were included in the analysis. We identified 86 distinct ethical issues arising in the different phases of the surveillance life-cycle. We further identified 20 distinct conditions that make it more or less justifiable to forego informed consent procedures. This is the first systematic qualitative review of ethical issues in public health surveillance resulting in a comprehensive ethics matrix that can inform guidelines, reports, strategy papers, and educational material and raise awareness among practitioners.

  15. World Alliance for Risk Factor Surveillance White Paper on Surveillance and Health Promotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Campostrini

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This is not a research paper on risk factor surveillance. It is an effort by a key group of researchers and practitioners of risk factor surveillance to define the current state of the art and to identify the key issues involved in the current practice of behavioral risk factor surveillance. Those of us who are the principal authors have worked and carried out research in this area for some three decades. As a result of a series of global meetings beginning in 1999 and continuing every two years since then, a collective working group of the International Union of Health Promotion and Education (IUHPE was formed under the name World Alliance of Risk Factor Surveillance (WARFS. Under this banner the organization sought to write a comprehensive statement on the importance of surveillance to health promotion and public health. This paper, which has been revised and reviewed by established peers in the field, is the result. It provides the reader with a clear summary of the major issues that need to be considered by any and all seeking to carry out behavioral risk factor surveillance.

  16. Summary report of the state surveillance program on the transportation of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-11-01

    From 1973 to 1976, a surveillance program was conducted in New Jersey, Oregon, Missouri, New York, Illinois, Texas, Louisiana, South Carolina, Minnesota, and New York City to provide training support for State radiation personnel and to determine actual radiation exposure conditions and radioactive material package handling practices through the terminals of air carriers and freight forwarders. NRC and DOT along with the participating States, developed the surveillance program. In general, the results did not indicate a public health or safety problem due to the transportation of radioactive materials. Some employees of several freight forwarders, are, however, receiving annual exposures in excess of 500 mrem. Recommendations are given

  17. LWR-PV Surveillance Dosimetry Improvement Program review graphics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McElroy, W.N.; Gold, R.; Gutherie, G.L.

    1979-10-01

    A primary objective of the multilaboratory program is to prepare an updated and improved set of dosimetry, damage correlation, and the associated reactor analysis ASTM standards for LWR-PV irradiation surveillance programs. Supporting this objective are a series of analytical and experimental validation and calibration studies in Benchmark Neutron Fields, reactor Test Regions, and operating power reactor Surveillance Positions. These studies will establish and certify the precision and accuracy of the measurement and predictive methods which are recommended for use in these standards. Consistent and accurate measurement and data analysis techniques and methods, therefore, will have been developed and validated along with guidelines for required neutron field calculations that are used to (1) correlate changes in material properties with the characteristics of the neutron radiation field and (2) predict pressure vessel steel toughness and embrittlement from power reactor surveillance data

  18. Targeted surveillance for postnatal hearing loss: a program evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beswick, Rachael; Driscoll, Carlie; Kei, Joseph; Glennon, Shirley

    2012-07-01

    The importance of monitoring hearing throughout early childhood cannot be understated. However, there is a lack of evidence available regarding the most effective method of monitoring hearing following the newborn screen. The goal of this study was to describe a targeted surveillance program using a risk factor registry to identify children with a postnatal hearing loss. All children who were born in Queensland, Australia between September 2004 and December 2009, received a bilateral 'pass' on newborn hearing screening, and had at least one risk factor, were referred for targeted surveillance and were included in this study. The cohort was assessed throughout early childhood in accordance with Queensland's diagnostic assessment protocols. During the study period, 7320 (2.8% of 261,328) children were referred for targeted surveillance, of which 56 were identified with a postnatal hearing loss (0.77%). Of these, half (50.0%) were identified with a mild hearing loss, and 64.3% were identified with a sensorineural hearing loss. In regards to risk factors, syndrome, craniofacial anomalies, and severe asphyxia had the highest yield of positive cases of postnatal hearing loss for children referred for targeted surveillance, whereas, low birth weight, bacterial meningitis, and professional concern had a particularly low yield. Limitations of the targeted surveillance program were noted and include: (1) a lost contact rate of 32.4%; (2) delays in first surveillance assessment; (3) a large number of children who required on-going monitoring; and (4) extensive diagnostic assessments were completed on children with normal hearing. Examination of the lost contact rate revealed indigenous children were more likely to be documented as lost contact. In addition, children with one risk factor only were significantly more likely to not attend a surveillance appointment. Positive cases of postnatal hearing loss were detected through the targeted surveillance program. However, the

  19. Towards One Health disease surveillance: The Southern African Centre for Infectious Disease Surveillance approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esron D. Karimuribo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Africa has the highest burden of infectious diseases in the world and yet the least capacity for its risk management. It has therefore become increasingly important to search for ‘fit-for- purpose’ approaches to infectious disease surveillance and thereby targeted disease control. The fact that the majority of human infectious diseases are originally of animal origin means we have to consider One Health (OH approaches which require inter-sectoral collaboration for custom-made infectious disease surveillance in the endemic settings of Africa. A baseline survey was conducted to assess the current status and performance of human and animal health surveillance systems and subsequently a strategy towards OH surveillance system was developed. The strategy focused on assessing the combination of participatory epidemiological approaches and the deployment of mobile technologies to enhance the effectiveness of disease alerts and surveillance at the point of occurrence, which often lies in remote areas. We selected three study sites, namely the Ngorongoro, Kagera River basin and Zambezi River basin ecosystems. We have piloted and introduced the next-generation Android mobile phones running the EpiCollect application developed by Imperial College to aid geo-spatial and clinical data capture and transmission of this data from the field to the remote Information Technology (IT servers at the research hubs for storage, analysis, feedback and reporting. We expect that the combination of participatory epidemiology and technology will significantly improve OH disease surveillance in southern Africa.

  20. Towards one health disease surveillance: the Southern African Centre for Infectious Disease Surveillance approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimuribo, Esron D; Sayalel, Kuya; Beda, Eric; Short, Nick; Wambura, Philemon; Mboera, Leonard G; Kusiluka, Lughano J M; Rweyemamu, Mark M

    2012-06-20

    Africa has the highest burden of infectious diseases in the world and yet the least capacity for its risk management. It has therefore become increasingly important to search for 'fit-for- purpose' approaches to infectious disease surveillance and thereby targeted disease control. The fact that the majority of human infectious diseases are originally of animal origin means we have to consider One Health (OH) approaches which require inter-sectoral collaboration for custom-made infectious disease surveillance in the endemic settings of Africa. A baseline survey was conducted to assess the current status and performance of human and animal health surveillance systems and subsequently a strategy towards OH surveillance system was developed. The strategy focused on assessing the combination of participatory epidemiological approaches and the deployment of mobile technologies to enhance the effectiveness of disease alerts and surveillance at the point of occurrence, which often lies in remote areas. We selected three study sites, namely the Ngorongoro, Kagera River basin and Zambezi River basin ecosystems. We have piloted and introduced the next-generation Android mobile phones running the EpiCollect application developed by Imperial College to aid geo-spatial and clinical data capture and transmission of this data from the field to the remote Information Technology (IT) servers at the research hubs for storage, analysis, feedback and reporting. We expect that the combination of participatory epidemiology and technology will significantly improve OH disease surveillance in southern Africa.

  1. Health surveillance of persons engaged in radiation work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The aims of the health surveillance of the workers engaged in radiation work prescribed in the section 33 of the Finnish Radiation Act (592/91) are: (1) to ensure that the workers are suitable for the radiation work, (2) to monitor the health of the workers during the radiation work, and (3) to define the implications to the health if the radiation exposure exceeding the prescribed maximum value or other abnormal exposure is suspected or observed. The health requirements related to radiation work, aspects to be considered in the health surveillance, and procedures relating to observed or suspected overexposure are defined in this guide

  2. Smart Health Surveillance with Automated Database Using Android Mobile Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anitha Karthi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Smart Health Surveillance system is to measure and display the Electrocardiogram (ECG and temperature of patient’s body continuously and also to communicate to the doctor. The system measures ECG using infrared sensor and the temperatures at oral and wrist of the patient using temperature sensors. Microcontroller, receives the data from the sensors, displays the same and communicates to the web server automatically. In the existing system, patient’s vital parameters are obtained and the obtained values are entered into database and then uploaded into a web-based server manually. The existing system has no alert signal, during abnormal condition to the surrounding and to the doctor. The proposed system consists of a visualization module of the server program, which graphically displays the recorded biomedical signals on android mobile devices used by doctors at the receiver end. It also gives a buzzer or an alarm in case of abnormal condition of the patient.

  3. Epidemiological surveillance, virulence and public health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    gulab pandove

    Epidemiological surveillance of drinking water from Punjab, India reported occurrence of Listeria spp. in 58.67% of Municipal ... water system by direct contamination of the water or through ... sis causes fever, diarrhea, muscle pain, headache, nau- ... with a yellow background (Rhamnose positive) or blue without a yellow ...

  4. 2003 Long-Term Surveillance and Maintenance Program Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    Radioactive waste was created by the Federal Government and private industry at locations around the country in support of national defense, research, and civilian power-generation programs. If not controlled, much of this legacy waste would remain hazardous to human health and the environment indefinitely. Current technology does not allow us to render this waste harmless, so the available methods to control risk rely on consolidation, isolation, and long-term management of the waste. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has an obligation to safely control the radioactive waste and to inform and train future generations to maintain and, perhaps, improve established protections. DOE is custodian for much of the radioactive and other hazardous waste under control of the Federal Government. DOE established the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) in 1974 and the Defense Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) Program and the Surplus Facilities Management Program in the 1980s. Congress passed the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) in 1978. These federal programs and legislation were established to identify, remediate, and manage legacy waste. Remedial action is considered complete at a radioactive waste site when the identified hazardous material is isolated and the selected remedial action remedy is in place and functioning. Radioactive or other hazardous materials remain in place as part of the remedy at many DOE sites. Long-term management of radioactive waste sites incorporates a set of actions necessary to maintain protection of human health and the environment. These actions include maintaining physical impoundment structures in good repair to ensure that they perform as designed, preventing exposure to the wastes by maintaining access restrictions and warnings, and recording site conditions and activities for future custodians. Any actions, therefore, that will prevent exposure to the radioactive waste now or in the future

  5. 2003 Long-Term Surveillance and Maintenance Program Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2004-07-01

    Radioactive waste was created by the Federal Government and private industry at locations around the country in support of national defense, research, and civilian power-generation programs. If not controlled, much of this legacy waste would remain hazardous to human health and the environment indefinitely. Current technology does not allow us to render this waste harmless, so the available methods to control risk rely on consolidation, isolation, and long-term management of the waste. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has an obligation to safely control the radioactive waste and to inform and train future generations to maintain and, perhaps, improve established protections. DOE is custodian for much of the radioactive and other hazardous waste under control of the Federal Government. DOE established the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) in 1974 and the Defense Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) Program and the Surplus Facilities Management Program in the 1980s. Congress passed the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) in 1978. These federal programs and legislation were established to identify, remediate, and manage legacy waste. Remedial action is considered complete at a radioactive waste site when the identified hazardous material is isolated and the selected remedial action remedy is in place and functioning. Radioactive or other hazardous materials remain in place as part of the remedy at many DOE sites. Long-term management of radioactive waste sites incorporates a set of actions necessary to maintain protection of human health and the environment. These actions include maintaining physical impoundment structures in good repair to ensure that they perform as designed, preventing exposure to the wastes by maintaining access restrictions and warnings, and recording site conditions and activities for future custodians. Any actions, therefore, that will prevent exposure to the radioactive waste now or in the future

  6. Materials surveillance program for C-E NSSS reactor vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koziol, J.J.

    1977-01-01

    Irradiation surveillance programs for light water NSSS reactor vessels provide the means by which the utility can assess the extent of neutron-induced changes in the reactor vessel materials. These programs are conducted to verify, by direct measurement, the conservatism in the predicted radiation-induced changes and hence the operational parameters (i.e., heat-up, cooldown, and pressurization rates). In addition, such programs provide assurance that the scheduled adjustments in the operational parameters are made with ample margin for safe operation of the plant. During the past 3 years, several documents have been promulgated establishing the criteria for determining both the initial properties of the reactor vessel materials as well as measurement of changes in these initial properties as a result of irradiation. These documents, ASTM E-185-73, ''Recommended Practice for Surveillance Tests for Nuclear Reactor Vessels,'' and Appendix H to 10 CFR 50, ''Reactor Vessel Material Surveillance Program Requirements,'' are complementary to each other. They are the result of a change in the basic philosophy regarding the design and analysis of reactor vessels. In effect, the empirical ''transition temperature approach,'' which was used for design, was replaced by the ''analytical fracture mechanics approach.'' The implementation of this technique was described in Welding Research Council Bulletin 1975 and Appendix G to ASME Code Section III. Further definition of requirements appears in Appendix G to 10 CFR 50 published in July 1973. It is the intent of this paper to describe (1) a typical materials surveillance program for the reactor vessel of a Combustion Engineering NSSS, and (2) how the results of such programs, as well as experimental programs provide feed-back for improvement of materials to enhance their radiation resistance and thereby further improve the safety and reliability of future plants. (author)

  7. Job-specific workers’ health surveillance for construction workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boschman, J.S.

    2013-01-01

    Workers’ health surveillance (WHS) aims at the assessment of workers’ health and work ability by detecting any clinical or preclinical abnormalities. In that way, it can be verified whether the occupational exposures have any detrimental effect on the health of workers and whether the worker is fit

  8. FINAL REPORT FORMER RADIATION WORKER MEDICAL SURVEILLANCE PROGRAM AT ROCKY FLATS For Department of Energy Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joe M. Aldrich

    2004-11-01

    The Former Radiation Worker Medical Surveillance Program at Rocky Flats was conducted in Arvada, CO, by Oak Ridge Associated Universities through the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education under DOE Contract DE-AC05-00OR22750. Objectives of the program were to obtain information on the value of medical surveillance among at-risk former radiation workers and to provide long-term internal radiation dosimetry information to the scientific community. This program provided the former radiation workers of the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (formerly Rocky Flats Plant) an opportunity to receive follow-up medical monitoring and a re-evaluation of their internal radiation dose. The former Rocky Flats radiation worker population is distinctive because it was a reasonably stable work force that received occupational exposures, at times substantial, over several decades. This report reflects the summation of health outcomes, statistical analyses, and dose assessment information on former Rocky Flats radiation workers to the date of study termination as of March 2004.

  9. FINAL REPORT. FORMER RADIATION WORKER MEDICAL SURVEILLANCE PROGRAM AT ROCKY FLATS For Department of Energy Programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldrich, Joe M.

    2004-01-01

    The Former Radiation Worker Medical Surveillance Program at Rocky Flats was conducted in Arvada, CO, by Oak Ridge Associated Universities through the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education under DOE Contract DE-AC--05-00OR22750. Objectives of the program were to obtain information on the value of medical surveillance among at-risk former radiation workers and to provide long-term internal radiation dosimetry information to the scientific community. This program provided the former radiation workers of the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (formerly Rocky Flats Plant) an opportunity to receive follow-up medical monitoring and a re-evaluation of their internal radiation dose. The former Rocky Flats radiation worker population is distinctive because it was a reasonably stable work force that received occupational exposures, at times substantial, over several decades. This report reflects the summation of health outcomes, statistical analyses, and dose assessment information on former Rocky Flats radiation workers to the date of study termination as of March 2004

  10. Evaluation of Syndromic Surveillance Systems in 6 US State and Local Health Departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Mathew J; Yoon, Paula W; Collins, James M; Davidson, Arthur J; Mac Kenzie, William R

    Evaluating public health surveillance systems is critical to ensuring that conditions of public health importance are appropriately monitored. Our objectives were to qualitatively evaluate 6 state and local health departments that were early adopters of syndromic surveillance in order to (1) understand the characteristics and current uses, (2) identify the most and least useful syndromes to monitor, (3) gauge the utility for early warning and outbreak detection, and (4) assess how syndromic surveillance impacted their daily decision making. We adapted evaluation guidelines from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and gathered input from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention subject matter experts in public health surveillance to develop a questionnaire. We interviewed staff members from a convenience sample of 6 local and state health departments with syndromic surveillance programs that had been in operation for more than 10 years. Three of the 6 interviewees provided an example of using syndromic surveillance to identify an outbreak (ie, cluster of foodborne illness in 1 jurisdiction) or detect a surge in cases for seasonal conditions (eg, influenza in 2 jurisdictions) prior to traditional, disease-specific systems. Although all interviewees noted that syndromic surveillance has not been routinely useful or efficient for early outbreak detection or case finding in their jurisdictions, all agreed that the information can be used to improve their understanding of dynamic disease control environments and conditions (eg, situational awareness) in their communities. In the jurisdictions studied, syndromic surveillance may be useful for monitoring the spread and intensity of large outbreaks of disease, especially influenza; enhancing public health awareness of mass gatherings and natural disasters; and assessing new, otherwise unmonitored conditions when real-time alternatives are unavailable. Future studies should explore opportunities to

  11. Innovative uses of electronic health records and social media for public health surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggleston, Emma M; Weitzman, Elissa R

    2014-03-01

    Electronic health records (EHRs) and social media have the potential to enrich public health surveillance of diabetes. Clinical and patient-facing data sources for diabetes surveillance are needed given its profound public health impact, opportunity for primary and secondary prevention, persistent disparities, and requirement for self-management. Initiatives to employ data from EHRs and social media for diabetes surveillance are in their infancy. With their transformative potential come practical limitations and ethical considerations. We explore applications of EHR and social media for diabetes surveillance, limitations to approaches, and steps for moving forward in this partnership between patients, health systems, and public health.

  12. LESSONS LEARNED ABOUT PUBLIC HEALTH FROM ONLINE CROWD SURVEILLANCE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Shawndra; Merchant, Raina; Ungar, Lyle

    2013-09-10

    The Internet has forever changed the way people access information and make decisions about their healthcare needs. Patients now share information about their health at unprecedented rates on social networking sites such as Twitter and Facebook and on medical discussion boards. In addition to explicitly shared information about health conditions through posts, patients reveal data on their inner fears and desires about health when searching for health-related keywords on search engines. Data are also generated by the use of mobile phone applications that track users' health behaviors (e.g., eating and exercise habits) as well as give medical advice. The data generated through these applications are mined and repackaged by surveillance systems developed by academics, companies, and governments alike to provide insight to patients and healthcare providers for medical decisions. Until recently, most Internet research in public health has been surveillance focused or monitoring health behaviors. Only recently have researchers used and interacted with the crowd to ask questions and collect health-related data. In the future, we expect to move from this surveillance focus to the "ideal" of Internet-based patient-level interventions where healthcare providers help patients change their health behaviors. In this article, we highlight the results of our prior research on crowd surveillance and make suggestions for the future.

  13. Health & demographic surveillance system profile: the Nahuche Health and Demographic Surveillance System, Northern Nigeria (Nahuche HDSS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alabi, Olatunji; Doctor, Henry V; Jumare, Abdulazeez; Sahabi, Nasiru; Abdulwahab, Ahmad; Findley, Sally E; Abubakar, Sani D

    2014-12-01

    The Nahuche Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) study site, established in 2009 with 137 823 individuals is located in Zamfara State, north western Nigeria. North-West Nigeria is a region with one of the worst maternal and child health indicators in Nigeria. For example, the 2013 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey estimated an under-five mortality rate of 185 deaths per 1000 live births for the north-west geo-political zone compared with a national average of 128 deaths per 1000 live births. The site comprises over 100 villages under the leadership of six district heads. Virtually all the residents of the catchment population are Hausa by ethnicity. After a baseline census in 2010, regular update rounds of data collection are conducted every 6 months. Data collection on births, deaths, migration events, pregnancies, marriages and marriage termination events are routinely conducted. Verbal autopsy (VA) data are collected on all deaths reported during routine data collection. Annual update data on antenatal care and household characteristics are also collected. Opportunities for collaborations are available at Nahuche HDSS. The Director of Nahuche HDSS, M.O. Oche at [ochedr@hotmail.com] is the contact person for all forms of collaboration. © The Author 2014; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.

  14. Surveillance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrechtslund, Anders; Coeckelbergh, Mark; Matzner, Tobias

    Studying surveillance involves raising questions about the very nature of concepts such as information, technology, identity, space and power. Besides the maybe all too obvious ethical issues often discussed with regard to surveillance, there are several other angles and approaches that we should...... like to encourage. Therefore, our panel will focus on the philosophical, yet non-ethical issues of surveillance in order to stimulate an intense debate with the audience on the ethical implications of our enquiries. We also hope to provide a broader and deeper understanding of surveillance....

  15. Motivation of health surveillance assistants in Malawi: A qualitative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Motivation of health workers is a critical component of performance and is shaped by multiple factors. This study explored factors that influence motivation of health surveillance assistants (HSAs) in Malawi, with the aim of identifying interventions that can be applied to enhance motivation and performance of ...

  16. Tenaga Nasional Berhad dam safety and surveillance program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansen Luis; Zulkhairi Abd Talib

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses the current practice of dam surveillance, which includes dam monitoring which is a process of visual inspections, measuring, processing, compiling and analyzing dam instrumentation data to determine the performance of a dam. The prime objective of the dam surveillance system is to ensure that any occurrence and development of safety deficiencies and problems are quickly detected, identified, analyzed and the required remedial actions are determined and consequently carried out in due time. In brief, the section is responsible to ensure that the dam monitoring and surveillance works are implemented as per scheduled and in accordance with the requirement and guidelines prepared by the dam designers and in accordance with international commission on large dams, ICOLD. The paper also illustrates and recommends an alternative approach for dam surveillance program using risk management approach, which is currently being actively adopted by some countries like USA, Canada, Australia and etc, towards improving the dam safety management and the decision making process. The approach provides a wider area of opportunity, improvements and benefits particular in the evaluation and modifications to the dam performance and safety. The process provides an effective and efficient tool for the decision makers and engineers through a comprehensive evaluation and a good understanding of the hazards, risks and consequences in relation to dam safety investigations. (Author)

  17. Comprehensive effective and efficient global public health surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McNabb Scott JN

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract At a crossroads, global public health surveillance exists in a fragmented state. Slow to detect, register, confirm, and analyze cases of public health significance, provide feedback, and communicate timely and useful information to stakeholders, global surveillance is neither maximally effective nor optimally efficient. Stakeholders lack a globa surveillance consensus policy and strategy; officials face inadequate training and scarce resources. Three movements now set the stage for transformation of surveillance: 1 adoption by Member States of the World Health Organization (WHO of the revised International Health Regulations (IHR[2005]; 2 maturation of information sciences and the penetration of information technologies to distal parts of the globe; and 3 consensus that the security and public health communities have overlapping interests and a mutual benefit in supporting public health functions. For these to enhance surveillance competencies, eight prerequisites should be in place: politics, policies, priorities, perspectives, procedures, practices, preparation, and payers. To achieve comprehensive, global surveillance, disparities in technical, logistic, governance, and financial capacities must be addressed. Challenges to closing these gaps include the lack of trust and transparency; perceived benefit at various levels; global governance to address data power and control; and specified financial support from globa partners. We propose an end-state perspective for comprehensive, effective and efficient global, multiple-hazard public health surveillance and describe a way forward to achieve it. This end-state is universal, global access to interoperable public health information when it’s needed, where it’s needed. This vision mitigates the tension between two fundamental human rights: first, the right to privacy, confidentiality, and security of personal health information combined with the right of sovereign, national entities

  18. Comprehensive effective and efficient global public health surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNabb, Scott J N

    2010-12-03

    At a crossroads, global public health surveillance exists in a fragmented state. Slow to detect, register, confirm, and analyze cases of public health significance, provide feedback, and communicate timely and useful information to stakeholders, global surveillance is neither maximally effective nor optimally efficient. Stakeholders lack a globa surveillance consensus policy and strategy; officials face inadequate training and scarce resources.Three movements now set the stage for transformation of surveillance: 1) adoption by Member States of the World Health Organization (WHO) of the revised International Health Regulations (IHR[2005]); 2) maturation of information sciences and the penetration of information technologies to distal parts of the globe; and 3) consensus that the security and public health communities have overlapping interests and a mutual benefit in supporting public health functions. For these to enhance surveillance competencies, eight prerequisites should be in place: politics, policies, priorities, perspectives, procedures, practices, preparation, and payers.To achieve comprehensive, global surveillance, disparities in technical, logistic, governance, and financial capacities must be addressed. Challenges to closing these gaps include the lack of trust and transparency; perceived benefit at various levels; global governance to address data power and control; and specified financial support from globa partners.We propose an end-state perspective for comprehensive, effective and efficient global, multiple-hazard public health surveillance and describe a way forward to achieve it. This end-state is universal, global access to interoperable public health information when it's needed, where it's needed. This vision mitigates the tension between two fundamental human rights: first, the right to privacy, confidentiality, and security of personal health information combined with the right of sovereign, national entities to the ownership and stewardship

  19. Public Health Service Safety Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McBride, J R [Southwestern Radiological Health Laboratory, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    1969-07-01

    Off-Site Radiological Safety Programs conducted on past Plowshare experimental projects by the Southwestern Radiological Health Laboratory for the AEC will be presented. Emphasis will be placed on the evaluation of the potential radiation hazard to off-site residents, the development of an appropriate safety plan, pre- and post-shot surveillance activities, and the necessity for a comprehensive and continuing community relations program. In consideration of the possible wide use of nuclear explosives in industrial applications, a new approach to off-site radiological safety will be discussed. (author)

  20. Public Health Service Safety Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McBride, J.R.

    1969-01-01

    Off-Site Radiological Safety Programs conducted on past Plowshare experimental projects by the Southwestern Radiological Health Laboratory for the AEC will be presented. Emphasis will be placed on the evaluation of the potential radiation hazard to off-site residents, the development of an appropriate safety plan, pre- and post-shot surveillance activities, and the necessity for a comprehensive and continuing community relations program. In consideration of the possible wide use of nuclear explosives in industrial applications, a new approach to off-site radiological safety will be discussed. (author)

  1. Surveillance of adverse effects following vaccination and safety of immunization programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldman, Eliseu Alves; Luhm, Karin Regina; Monteiro, Sandra Aparecida Moreira Gomes; Freitas, Fabiana Ramos Martin de

    2011-02-01

    The aim of the review was to analyze conceptual and operational aspects of systems for surveillance of adverse events following immunization. Articles available in electronic format were included, published between 1985 and 2009, selected from the PubMed/Medline databases using the key words "adverse events following vaccine surveillance", "post-marketing surveillance", "safety vaccine" and "Phase IV clinical trials". Articles focusing on specific adverse events were excluded. The major aspects underlying the Public Health importance of adverse events following vaccination, the instruments aimed at ensuring vaccine safety, and the purpose, attributes, types, data interpretation issues, limitations, and further challenges in adverse events following immunization were describe, as well as strategies to improve sensitivity. The review was concluded by discussing the challenges to be faced in coming years with respect to ensuring the safety and reliability of vaccination programs.

  2. Linking Compensation and Health Surveillance Data Sets to Improve Knowledge of US Coal Miners' Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almberg, Kirsten S; Cohen, Robert A; Blackley, David J; Laney, Anthony S; Storey, Eileen; Halldin, Cara N

    2017-10-01

    Increase knowledge of US coal miners' respiratory health by linking data from the black lung benefits program (BLBP) and the coal workers' health surveillance program (CWHSP). BLBP claims data from 2000 through 2013 was linked to CWHSP data from 1970 through 2016. Overall, 273,644 miners participated in CWHSP, 37,548 in BLBP, and 22,903 in both programs. Median age of miners at their time of first/only participation in CWHSP was 28 and 32 years, respectively. BLBP claimants were older (median age 59). Thirty-nine percent of BLBP claimants had not participated in CWHSP. The relative contributions of states to participation differed between CWHSP and BLBP. For example, Kentucky miners accounted for 18% of CWHSP participants, but 36% of BLPB participants. Many BLBP claimants never appeared in CWHSP, indicating missed opportunities for secondary prevention.

  3. Monitoring activities review of the Radiological Environmental Surveillance Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritter, P.D.

    1992-03-01

    The 1992 Monitoring Activities Review (MAR) is directed at the Radiological Environment Surveillance Program (RESP) activities at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) of Idaho Engineering Laboratory (INEL). MAR panelists studied RESP documents and discussed their concerns with Environmental Monitoring Unit (EMU) staff and other panel members. These concerns were subsequently consolidated into a collection of recommendations with supporting discussions. Recommendations focus on specific monitoring activities, as well as the overall program. The MAR report also contains pertinent comments that should not require further action

  4. Medical surveillance of employee health at the superconducting super collider laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chester, T.J.

    1992-01-01

    Medical surveillance can best be defined as conducting specific, targeted medical examinations at predetermined intervals for the purpose of assessing whether individuals have suffered work-related illness or injury. The objectives of the medical examinations are to determine if there is any evidence of illness or injury and to determine whether any illness or injury found is occupationally related. If illness or injury is found, the employee under medical surveillance can be referred for immediate treatment. Other employees in the same work group can be examined, and any hazardous defects in the workplace can be corrected. Additional objectives of these periodic examinations are to determine whether the employee's health status and physical fitness continue to be compatible with the safe performance of his assigned job tasks; to contribute to employee health maintenance by providing the opportunity for early detection, treatment, and prevention of disease or injuries; and to provide a documented record of health status that can be used in analysis of the health of the work group as a whole. Medical surveillance is one of several measures used in a good occupational health and safety program to prevent occupational illness or injury. A heirarchy of preventive health and safety programs is offered: system safety-design review; health and safety procedures; operational readiness review; management safety awareness; employee safety awareness; periodic professional inspections of industrial hygiene, health physics, safety, fire, medical; industrial hygiene/health physics monitoring; medical surveillance examinations; epidemiologic analysis. The earlier in the list a program appears, the more basic it is to the prevention effort and the more likely it is to prevent occupational illness and injuries with the least risk and least expense. A good occupational safety and health program contains all of these elements

  5. The Surveillance Database Development of Risk Factor for Dengue Fever in Mataram District Health Office

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinawan Sinawan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available System of DHF epidemiological surveillance that is currently running in Mataram District Health Office has not been able to provide information about the incidence of DHF is based on risk factors. Besides, the process of manufacturing and analysis of data were still done manually, so the level of consistency and accuracy of data was still less. This research aimed to develop database surveillance risk factor of DHF incidence. This type of research is action research. This research was conducted at the Mataram District Health Office NTB province at April 2014 until August 2014, informants in this study consists of three (3 members, namely Head of P2PB Section, DHF P2 Program Manager and Surveillance Staff. The data used are primary and secondary data. Database design includes logical and physical design. Performed on the logic design is the normalization of the data, create relationships between data illustrates the entity relationship diagram (ERD and proceed to the physical design to create a prototype database using Epi Info software application for Windows version 3.5.1. Trial involving two (2 the informants. Evaluation trials database surveillance of risk factors DHF incidence to assess the ease, speed, accuracy and completeness of the resulting data. Results of this study is new database surveillance risk factor of DHF incidence that can be used easily, quickly and can be results more accurate information. Keywords: DHF, surveillance, risk factor, database.

  6. Hepatocellular Carcinoma Surveillance Among Cirrhotic Patients With Commercial Health Insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, David S; Valderrama, Adriana; Kamalakar, Rajesh; Sansgiry, Sujit S; Babajanyan, Svetlana; Lewis, James D

    2016-03-01

    To evaluate hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) surveillance rates among commercially insured patients, and evaluate factors associated with compliance with surveillance recommendations. Most HCC occurs in patients with cirrhosis. American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases and European Association for the Study of the Liver guidelines each recommend biannual HCC surveillance for cirrhotic patients to diagnose HCC at an early, curable stage. However, compliance with these guidelines in commercially insured patients is unknown. We used the Truven Health Analytics databases from 2006 to 2010, using January 1, 2006 as the anchor date for evaluating outcomes. The primary outcome was continuous surveillance measure, defined as the proportion of time "up-to-date" with surveillance (PTUDS), with the 6-month interval immediately following each ultrasound categorized as "up-to-date." During a median follow-up of 22.9 (interquartile range, 16.3 to 33.9) months among 8916 cirrhotic patients, the mean PTUDS was 0.34 (SD, 0.29), and the median was 0.31 (interquartile range, 0.03 to 0.52). These values increased only modestly with inclusion of serum alpha-fetoprotein testing, contrast-enhanced abdominal computed tomographic scans or magnetic resonance imagings, and/or extension of up-to-date time to 12 months. Being diagnosed by a nongastroenterology provider and increasing age were significantly associated with decreased HCC surveillance (Psurveillance (Psurveillance rates remained low. HCC surveillance rates in commercially insured at-risk patients remain poor despite formalized guidelines, highlighting the need to develop interventions to improve surveillance rates.

  7. Modeling of Food and Nutrition Surveillance in Primary Health Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santuzza Arreguy Silva VITORINO

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To describe the modeling stages of food and nutrition surveillance in the Primary Health Care of the Unified Health Care System, considering its activities, objectives, and goals Methods: Document analysis and semi-structured interviews were used for identifying the components, describe the intervention, and identify potential assessment users. Results: The results include identification of the objectives and goals of the intervention, the required inputs, activities, and expected effects. The intervention was then modeled based on these data. The use of the theoretical logic model optimizes times, resources, definition of the indicators that require monitoring, and the aspects that require assessment, identifying more clearly the contribution of the intervention to the results Conclusion: Modeling enabled the description of food and nutrition surveillance based on its components and may guide the development of viable plans to monitor food and nutrition surveillance actions so that modeling can be established as a local intersectoral planning instrument.

  8. Health & Demographic Surveillance System profile: the Muzaffarpur-TMRC Health and Demographic Surveillance System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malaviya, Paritosh; Picado, Albert; Hasker, Epco; Ostyn, Bart; Kansal, Sangeeta; Singh, Rudra Pratap; Shankar, Ravi; Boelaert, Marleen; Sundar, Shyam

    2014-10-01

    The Muzaffarpur-TMRC Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS), established in 2007, was developed as an enlargement of the scope of a research collaboration on the project Visceral Leishmaniasis in Bihar, which had been ongoing since 2005. The HDSS is located in a visceral leishmaniasis (VL)-endemic area in the Muzaffarpur district of Bihar state in India. It is the only HDSS conducting research on VL, which is a vector-borne infectious disease transmitted by female phlebotomine sandflies and is fatal if left untreated. Currently the HDSS serves a population of over 105,000 in 66 villages. The HDSS collects data on vital events including pregnancies, births, deaths, migration and marriages, as well as other socio-economic indicators, at regular intervals. Incident VL cases are identified. The HDSS team is experienced in conducting both qualitative and quantitative studies, sample collection and rapid diagnostic tests in the field. In each village, volunteers connect the HDSS team with the community members. The Muzaffarpur-TMRC HDSS provides opportunities for studies on VL and other neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) and their interaction with demographic events such as migration. Queries related to research collaborations and data sharing can be sent to Dr Shyam Sundar at [drshyamsundar@hotmail.com]. © The Author 2014; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.

  9. Epidemiology, public health, and health surveillance around point sources of pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stebbings, J.H. Jr.

    1981-01-01

    In industrial society a large number of point sources of pollution exist, such as chemical plants, smelters, and nuclear power plants. Public concern has forced the practising epidemiologist to undertake health surveillance of the usually small populations living around point sources. Although not justifiable as research, such epidemiologic surveillance activities are becoming a routine part of public health practice, and this trend will continue. This introduction reviews concepts of epidemiologic surveillance, and institutional problems relating to the quality of such applied research

  10. Feasibility and acceptability of workers' health surveillance for fire fighters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plat, Marie-Christine J.; Frings-Dresen, Monique H. W.; Sluiter, Judith K.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to test the feasibility and acceptability of a new workers' health surveillance (WHS) for fire fighters in a Dutch pilot-implementation project. In three fire departments, between November 2007 and February 2009, feasibility was tested with respect to i) worker intent

  11. Motivation and job satisfaction of Health Surveillance Assistants in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Malawi, hardly any research has been done on factors that motivate this cadre. This qualitative assessment was undertaken to identify factors that influence motivation and job satisfaction of health surveillance assistants (HSAs) in Mwanza district, Malawi, in order to inform development of strategies to influence staff ...

  12. Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant Decontamination and Decommissioning Program surveillance and maintenance plan, FY 1993--2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schloesslin, W.

    1992-11-01

    The Decontamination and Decommissioning (D ampersand D) Program at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS) is part of the Environmental Restoration (ER) and Waste Management (WM) Programs (ERWM). The objective of the ER Program is to provide PORTS the capability to meet applicable environmental regulations through facility development activities and site remedial actions. The WM Program supports the ER Program. The D ampersand D Program provides collective management of the sites within the plant which require decontamination and decommissioning, prioritizes those areas in terms of health, safety and environmental concerns, and implements the appropriate level of remedial action. The D ampersand D Program provides support to facilities which formerly served one or more of the many Plant functions. Program activities include (1) surveillance and maintenance of facilities awaiting decommissioning; (2) planning safe and orderly facility decommissioning; and (3) implementing a program to accomplish facility disposition in a safe, cost effective, and timely manner. In order to achieve the first objective, a formal plan which documents the surveillance and maintenance needs for each inactive facility has been prepared. This report provides this documentation for the PORTS facilities currently included in the D ampersand D Program and includes projected resource requirements for the planning period of FY 1993 through FY 2002

  13. Use of Electronic Health Records and Administrative Data for Public Health Surveillance of Eye Health and Vision-Related Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Amanda; Davidson, Arthur; Lum, Flora; Chiang, Michael; Saaddine, Jinan B; Zhang, Xinzhi; Crews, John E.; Chou, Chiu-Fang

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To discuss the current trend toward greater use of electronic health records and how these records could enhance public health surveillance of eye health and vision-related conditions. Methods We describe three currently available sources of electronic health data (Kaiser Permanente, the Veterans Health Administration, and the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services) and how these sources can contribute to a comprehensive vision and eye health surveillance system. Results Each of the three sources of electronic health data can contribute meaningfully to a comprehensive vision and eye health surveillance system, but none currently provide all the information required. The use of electronic health records for vision and eye health surveillance has both advantages and disadvantages. Conclusions Electronic health records may provide additional information needed to create a comprehensive vision and eye health surveillance system. Recommendations for incorporating electronic health records into such a system are presented. PMID:23158225

  14. Regional surveillance program for the detection of fatal infant abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleinman, P.K.; Blackbourne, B.D.; Marks, S.C.; Adams, V.I.; Karellas, A.

    1987-01-01

    From 1984 to 1986, a regional surveillance program for the detection of infant abuse was carried out. Infants dying of uncertain cause were studied with a protocol designed to identify possible cases of infant abuse. At autopsy, resection of selected osseous material was performed, followed by meticulous specimen radiography and histopathologic analysis. Characteristic injuries involving the metaphyses, posterior rib arcs and spine, as well as less specific fractures of the long bone shafts and clavicles, were identified in eight abused infants. The authors believe that this multidisciplinary approach to unexplained infant death enhances detection of abuse and provides valuable documentary evidence for criminal prosecution

  15. Public health surveillance response following the southern Alberta floods, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahni, Vanita; Scott, Allison N; Beliveau, Marie; Varughese, Marie; Dover, Douglas C; Talbot, James

    2016-08-15

    In June of 2013, southern Alberta underwent flooding that affected approximately 100,000 people. We describe the process put in place for public health surveillance and assessment of the impacts on health. Public health surveillance was implemented for the six-week period after the flood to detect anticipated health events, including injuries, mental health problems and infectious diseases. Data sources were emergency departments (EDs) for presenting complaints, public health data on the post-exposure administration of tetanus vaccine/immunoglobulin, administrative data on prescription drugs, and reportable diseases. An increase in injuries was detected through ED visits among Calgary residents (rate ratio [RR] 1.28, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.14-1.43) and was supported by a 75% increase in the average weekly administration of post-exposure prophylaxis against tetanus. Mental health impacts in High River residents were observed among females through a 1.64-fold (95% CI: 1.11-2.43) and 2.32-fold (95% CI: 1.45-3.70) increase in new prescriptions for anti-anxiety medication and sleep aids respectively. An increase in sexual assaults presenting to EDs (RR 3.18, 95% CI: 1.29-7.84) was observed among Calgary residents. No increases in infectious gastrointestinal disease or respiratory illness were identified. Timely identification and communication of surveillance alerts allowed for messaging around the use of personal protective equipment and precautions for personal safety. Existing data sources were used for surveillance following an emergency situation. The information produced, though limited, was sufficiently timely to inform public health decision-making.

  16. Experiences with the Twitter Health Surveillance (THS) System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Martínez, Manuel

    2017-06-01

    Social media has become an important platform to gauge public opinion on topics related to our daily lives. In practice, processing these posts requires big data analytics tools since the volume of data and the speed of production overwhelm single-server solutions. Building an application to capture and analyze posts from social media can be a challenge simply because it requires combining a set of complex software tools that often times are tricky to configure, tune, and maintain. In many instances, the application ends up being an assorted collection of Java/Scala programs or Python scripts that developers cobble together to generate the data products they need. In this paper, we present the Twitter Health Surveillance (THS) application framework. THS is designed as a platform to allow end-users to monitor a stream of tweets, and process the stream with a combination of built-in functionality and their own user-defined functions. We discuss the architecture of THS, and describe its implementation atop the Apache Hadoop Ecosystem. We also present several lessons learned while developing our current prototype.

  17. Experiences with the Twitter Health Surveillance (THS) System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Martínez, Manuel

    2018-01-01

    Social media has become an important platform to gauge public opinion on topics related to our daily lives. In practice, processing these posts requires big data analytics tools since the volume of data and the speed of production overwhelm single-server solutions. Building an application to capture and analyze posts from social media can be a challenge simply because it requires combining a set of complex software tools that often times are tricky to configure, tune, and maintain. In many instances, the application ends up being an assorted collection of Java/Scala programs or Python scripts that developers cobble together to generate the data products they need. In this paper, we present the Twitter Health Surveillance (THS) application framework. THS is designed as a platform to allow end-users to monitor a stream of tweets, and process the stream with a combination of built-in functionality and their own user-defined functions. We discuss the architecture of THS, and describe its implementation atop the Apache Hadoop Ecosystem. We also present several lessons learned while developing our current prototype. PMID:29607412

  18. Animal health surveillance applications: The interaction of science and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willeberg, Preben

    2012-08-01

    Animal health surveillance is an ever-evolving activity, since health- and risk-related policy and management decisions need to be backed by the best available scientific evidence and methodology. International organizations, trade partners, politicians, media and the public expect fast, understandable, up-to-date presentation and valid interpretation of animal disease data to support and document proper animal health management - in crises as well as in routine control applications. The delivery and application of surveillance information need to be further developed and optimized, and epidemiologists, risk managers, administrators and policy makers need to work together in order to secure progress. Promising new developments in areas such as risk-based surveillance, spatial presentation and analysis, and genomic epidemiology will be mentioned. Limitations and areas in need of further progress will be underlined, such as the general lack of a wide and open exchange of international animal disease surveillance data. During my more than 30 year career as a professor of Veterinary Epidemiology I had the good fortune of working in challenging environments with different eminent colleagues in different countries on a variety of animal health surveillance issues. My career change from professor to Chief Veterinary Officer (CVO) - "from science to application" - was caused by my desire to see for myself if and how well epidemiology would actually work to solve real-life problems as I had been telling my students for years that it would. Fortunately it worked for me! The job of a CVO is not that different from that of a professor of Veterinary Epidemiology; the underlying professional principles are the same. Every day I had to work from science, and base decisions and discussions on documented evidence - although sometimes the evidence was incomplete or data were simply lacking. A basic understanding of surveillance methodology is very useful for a CVO, since it provides

  19. Monitoring positive mental health and its determinants in Canada: the development of the Positive Mental Health Surveillance Indicator Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Orpana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The Mental Health Strategy for Canada identified a need to enhance the collection of data on mental health in Canada. While surveillance systems on mental illness have been established, a data gap for monitoring positive mental health and its determinants was identified. The goal of this project was to develop a Positive Mental Health Surveillance Indicator Framework, to provide a picture of the state of positive mental health and its determinants in Canada. Data from this surveillance framework will be used to inform programs and policies to improve the mental health of Canadians. Methods: A literature review and environmental scan were conducted to provide the theoretical base for the framework, and to identify potential positive mental health outcomes and risk and protective factors. The Public Health Agency of Canada’s definition of positive mental health was adopted as the conceptual basis for the outcomes of this framework. After identifying a comprehensive list of risk and protective factors, mental health experts, other governmental partners and non-governmental stakeholders were consulted to prioritize these indicators. Subsequently, these groups were consulted to identify the most promising measurement approaches for each indicator. Results: A conceptual framework for surveillance of positive mental health and its determinants has been developed to contain 5 outcome indicators and 25 determinant indicators organized within 4 domains at the individual, family, community and societal level. This indicator framework addresses a data gap identified in Canada’s strategy for mental health and will be used to inform programs and policies to improve the mental health status of Canadians throughout the life course.

  20. Wisconsin’s Environmental Public Health Tracking Network: Information Systems Design for Childhood Cancer Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanrahan, Lawrence P.; Anderson, Henry A.; Busby, Brian; Bekkedal, Marni; Sieger, Thomas; Stephenson, Laura; Knobeloch, Lynda; Werner, Mark; Imm, Pamela; Olson, Joseph

    2004-01-01

    In this article we describe the development of an information system for environmental childhood cancer surveillance. The Wisconsin Cancer Registry annually receives more than 25,000 incident case reports. Approximately 269 cases per year involve children. Over time, there has been considerable community interest in understanding the role the environment plays as a cause of these cancer cases. Wisconsin’s Public Health Information Network (WI-PHIN) is a robust web portal integrating both Health Alert Network and National Electronic Disease Surveillance System components. WI-PHIN is the information technology platform for all public health surveillance programs. Functions include the secure, automated exchange of cancer case data between public health–based and hospital-based cancer registrars; web-based supplemental data entry for environmental exposure confirmation and hypothesis testing; automated data analysis, visualization, and exposure–outcome record linkage; directories of public health and clinical personnel for role-based access control of sensitive surveillance information; public health information dissemination and alerting; and information technology security and critical infrastructure protection. For hypothesis generation, cancer case data are sent electronically to WI-PHIN and populate the integrated data repository. Environmental data are linked and the exposure–disease relationships are explored using statistical tools for ecologic exposure risk assessment. For hypothesis testing, case–control interviews collect exposure histories, including parental employment and residential histories. This information technology approach can thus serve as the basis for building a comprehensive system to assess environmental cancer etiology. PMID:15471739

  1. SRS environmental air surveillance program 1954-2015: General trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbott, K. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Jannik, T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-06-02

    The radiological monitoring program at SRS was established under the DuPont Company in June 1951 and was used as a measurement of the effectiveness of plant controls and as an authoritative record of environmental conditions surrounding the plant. It also served as a method of demonstrating compliance with applicable federal regulations and guidance. This document serves as a general summary of changes made specifically to the environmental air monitoring program since its inception, and a discussion of the general trends seen in the air monitoring program at SRS from 1954 to 2015. Initially, the environmental air surveillance program focused not only on releases from SRS but also on fallout from various weapons testing performed through the end of 1978. Flypaper was used to measure the amount of fallout in the atmosphere during this period, and was present at each of the 10 monitoring stations. By 1959, all site stacks were included in the air monitoring program to determine their contribution to the airborne radioactivity onsite, and the number of air surveillance samplers rose to 18. This trend of an increased number of sampling locations continued to a peak of 35 sampling locations before shifting to a downward trend in the mid-1990s. In 1962, 4 outer-range samplers were placed in Savannah and Macon, GA, and in Greenville and Columbia, SC. Until 1976, air samplers were simply placed around the perimeter of the various operation locations (after 1959, this included stacks to determine their contribution to the airborne radioactivity), with the intent of creating as representative a distribution as possible of the air surrounding operations.

  2. Meeting the International Health Regulations (2005) surveillance core capacity requirements at the subnational level in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ziemann, Alexandra; Rosenkötter, Nicole; Riesgo, Luis Garcia-Castrillo

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The revised World Health Organization's International Health Regulations (2005) request a timely and all-hazard approach towards surveillance, especially at the subnational level. We discuss three questions of syndromic surveillance application in the European context for assessing...... public health emergencies of international concern: (i) can syndromic surveillance support countries, especially the subnational level, to meet the International Health Regulations (2005) core surveillance capacity requirements, (ii) are European syndromic surveillance systems comparable to enable cross...... effect of different types of public health emergencies in a timely manner as required by the International Health Regulations (2005)....

  3. The Perceived and Real Value of Health Information Exchange in Public Health Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Brian Edward

    2011-01-01

    Public health agencies protect the health and safety of populations. A key function of public health agencies is surveillance or the ongoing, systematic collection, analysis, interpretation, and dissemination of data about health-related events. Recent public health events, such as the H1N1 outbreak, have triggered increased funding for and…

  4. Sanitary surveillance of ionizing radiations use in health services in Sao Paulo State, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldred, Martha Aurelia; Eduardo, Maria Bernardete de Paula; Goncalves Junior, Nelson

    1997-01-01

    An evaluation of the Sanitarian Surveillance actions developed at Sao Paulo State, Brazil, concerning the control of ionizing radiation is presented. Aspects such as technical standards, inspection forms, assessment and quality assurance programs, in the fields of medical and dental radiology, radiotherapy and nuclear medicine are discussed. A program is also introduced for sample monitoring of these instruments. A set of protocol with criteria to be used in quality assurance programs, including equipment and procedures is presented. Participation of several societies of specialists and consumer defense organizations in the elaboration of technical regulations has contributed to concrete adoption by health care services

  5. Regulatory standards applicable or relevant to the independent Hanford environmental surveillance and oversight program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, S.E.; Hendrickson, P.L.; Siegel, M.R.; Woodruff, M.G.; Belfiglio, J.; Elliott, R.W.

    1990-03-01

    The authors reviewed federal and state statutes and regulations, as well as Department of Energy (DOE) orders and other guidance material, for potential applicability to the environmental surveillance program conducted for the Hanford site by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). There are no federal or state statutes or regulations which are directly applicable to the environmental surveillance program. However, other regulatory schemes, while not directly applicable to the environmental surveillance program, are important insofar as they are indicative of regulatory concern and direction. Because of the evolving nature of environmental regulations, this area needs to be closely monitored for future impact on environmental surveillance activities. 9 refs.,

  6. Delivery of health surveillance for hand-arm vibration in the West Midlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoulty, Mary

    2006-01-01

    Concerns about provider competence and quality of hand-arm vibrations (HAVs) health surveillance programmes were identified by Health & Safety Executive (HSE) inspectors. To evaluate health surveillance programmes and compare them with published HSE guidance. To identify deficiencies and areas for improvement in the health surveillance programmes. A proforma was developed for the study and used on a sample of 10 local occupational health providers. All 10 organizations were aware of current HSE guidance for health surveillance for HAVs but only a minority (30%) were following it. Occupational health provider training, written procedures and health surveillance delivery were all identified as areas requiring improvement. The majority of organizations were not following HSE guidance. Occupational health providers undertaking health surveillance for HAV require specific training.

  7. Guidelines for Whole-Body Vibration Health Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    POPE, M.; MAGNUSSON, M.; LUNDSTRÖM, R.; HULSHOF, C.; VERBEEK, J.; BOVENZI, M.

    2002-05-01

    There is strong epidemiological evidence that occupational exposure to WBV is associated with an increased risk of low back pain (LBP), sciatic pain, and degenerative changes in the spinal system, including lumbar intervertebral disc disorders. A prototype health surveillance scheme for WBV is presented in this paper. Surveillance is the collection, analysis, and dissemination of data for the purpose of prevention. The aims are to assess health status and diagnose vibration-induced disorders at an early stage, to inform the workers on the potential risk associated with vibration exposure, to give preventive advice to employers and employees and to control whether preventive measures which have been taken, were successful. It is suggested that a pre-placement health examination should be offered to each worker who will be exposed to WBV so as to make the worker aware of the hazards, to obtain baseline health data, and to identify medical conditions that may increase the risk due to WBV. The case history should focus on personal history, work history, and leisure activities involving driving of vehicles. The personal medical history should detail back pain complaints, disorders in the spine, any injuries or surgery to the musculoskeletal system. A physical examination on the lower back should be performed on workers who have experienced LBP symptoms over the past 12 months. The preplacement examination should be followed by periodic health reassessment with a regular interval according to the legislation of the country. It is suggested that periodic medical examination should be made available at least every 2 years to all workers who are exposed to WBV. Any change in vibration exposure at the workplace should be reported by the employer. If an increase in vibration exposure or a change in health status have occurred, the medical re-examination should be offered at shorter intervals at the discretion of the attending physician. There should be a periodic medical

  8. "Blueprint version 2.0": updating public health surveillance for the 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Perry F; Hadler, James L; Stanbury, Martha; Rolfs, Robert T; Hopkins, Richard S

    2013-01-01

    Rapid changes to the United States public health system challenge the current strategic approach to surveillance. During 2011, the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists convened national experts to reassess public health surveillance in the United States and update surveillance strategies that were published in a 1996 report and endorsed by the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists. Although surveillance goals, historical influences, and most methods have not changed, surveillance is being transformed by 3 influences: public health information and preparedness as national security issues; new information technologies; and health care reform. Each offers opportunities for surveillance, but each also presents challenges that public health epidemiologists can best meet by rigorously applying surveillance evaluation concepts, engaging in national standardization activities driven by electronic technologies and health care reform, and ensuring an adequately trained epidemiology workforce.

  9. Monitoring of health and demographic outcomes in poor urban settlements: evidence from the Nairobi Urban Health and Demographic Surveillance System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emina, Jacques; Beguy, Donatien; Zulu, Eliya M; Ezeh, Alex C; Muindi, Kanyiva; Elung'ata, Patricia; Otsola, John K; Yé, Yazoumé

    2011-06-01

    The Nairobi Urban Health and Demographic Surveillance System (NUHDSS) was set up in Korogocho and Viwandani slum settlements to provide a platform for investigating linkages between urban poverty, health, and demographic and other socioeconomic outcomes, and to facilitate the evaluation of interventions to improve the wellbeing of the urban poor. Data from the NUHDSS confirm the high level of population mobility in slum settlements, and also demonstrate that slum settlements are long-term homes for many people. Research and intervention programs should take account of the duality of slum residency. Consistent with the trends observed countrywide, the data show substantial improvements in measures of child mortality, while there has been limited decline in fertility in slum settlements. The NUHDSS experience has shown that it is feasible to set up and implement long-term health and demographic surveillance system in urban slum settlements and to generate vital data for guiding policy and actions aimed at improving the wellbeing of the urban poor.

  10. Integrated Disease Investigations and Surveillance planning: a systems approach to strengthening national surveillance and detection of events of public health importance in support of the International Health Regulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kennedy Sarah

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The international community continues to define common strategic themes of actions to improve global partnership and international collaborations in order to protect our populations. The International Health Regulations (IHR[2005] offer one of these strategic themes whereby World Health Organization (WHO Member States and global partners engaged in biosecurity, biosurveillance and public health can define commonalities and leverage their respective missions and resources to optimize interventions. The U.S. Defense Threat Reduction Agency’s Cooperative Biologica Engagement Program (CBEP works with partner countries across clinical, veterinary, epidemiological, and laboratory communities to enhance national disease surveillance, detection, diagnostic, and reporting capabilities. CBEP, like many other capacity building programs, has wrestled with ways to improve partner country buy-in and ownership and to develop sustainable solutions that impact integrated disease surveillance outcomes. Designing successful implementation strategies represents a complex and challenging exercise and requires robust and transparent collaboration at the country level. To address this challenge, the Laboratory Systems Development Branch of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC and CBEP have partnered to create a set of tools that brings together key leadership of the surveillance system into a deliberate system design process. This process takes into account strengths and limitations of the existing system, how the components inter-connect and relate to one another, and how they can be systematically refined within the local context. The planning tools encourage cross-disciplinary thinking, critical evaluation and analysis of existing capabilities, and discussions across organizational and departmental lines toward a shared course of action and purpose. The underlying concepts and methodology of these tools are presented here.

  11. A novel surveillance approach for disaster mental health.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Gruebner

    Full Text Available Disasters have substantial consequences for population mental health. Social media data present an opportunity for mental health surveillance after disasters to help identify areas of mental health needs. We aimed to 1 identify specific basic emotions from Twitter for the greater New York City area during Hurricane Sandy, which made landfall on October 29, 2012, and to 2 detect and map spatial temporal clusters representing excess risk of these emotions.We applied an advanced sentiment analysis on 344,957 Twitter tweets in the study area over eleven days, from October 22 to November 1, 2012, to extract basic emotions, a space-time scan statistic (SaTScan and a geographic information system (QGIS to detect and map excess risk of these emotions.Sadness and disgust were among the most prominent emotions identified. Furthermore, we noted 24 spatial clusters of excess risk of basic emotions over time: Four for anger, one for confusion, three for disgust, five for fear, five for sadness, and six for surprise. Of these, anger, confusion, disgust and fear clusters appeared pre disaster, a cluster of surprise was found peri disaster, and a cluster of sadness emerged post disaster.We proposed a novel syndromic surveillance approach for mental health based on social media data that may support conventional approaches by providing useful additional information in the context of disaster. We showed that excess risk of multiple basic emotions could be mapped in space and time as a step towards anticipating acute stress in the population and identifying community mental health need rapidly and efficiently in the aftermath of disaster. More studies are needed to better control for bias, identify associations with reliable and valid instruments measuring mental health, and to explore computational methods for continued model-fitting, causal relationships, and ongoing evaluation. Our study may be a starting point also for more fully elaborated models that can

  12. The use of animals as a surveillance tool for monitoring environmental health hazards, human health hazards and bioterrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neo, Jacqueline Pei Shan; Tan, Boon Huan

    2017-05-01

    This review discusses the utilization of wild or domestic animals as surveillance tools for monitoring naturally occurring environmental and human health hazards. Besides providing early warning to natural hazards, animals can also provide early warning to societal hazards like bioterrorism. Animals are ideal surveillance tools to humans because they share the same environment as humans and spend more time outdoors than humans, increasing their exposure risk. Furthermore, the biologically compressed lifespans of some animals may allow them to develop clinical signs more rapidly after exposure to specific pathogens. Animals are an excellent channel for monitoring novel and known pathogens with outbreak potential given that more than 60 % of emerging infectious diseases in humans originate as zoonoses. This review attempts to highlight animal illnesses, deaths, biomarkers or sentinel events, to remind human and veterinary public health programs that animal health can be used to discover, monitor or predict environmental health hazards, human health hazards, or bioterrorism. Lastly, we hope that this review will encourage the implementation of animals as a surveillance tool by clinicians, veterinarians, ecosystem health professionals, researchers and governments. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Evaluation of health surveillance activities of hajj 2013 in the hajj embarkation Palangkaraya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvan Virgo Hoesea

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Meningococcal meningitis and MERS-CoV is a disease that can be transmitted to a wary pilgrim considering the high incidence of both diseases in the Middle East region. This study was conducted to evaluate the surveillance activities conducted at embarkation Palangkaraya pilgrimage between 2013 and assess the surveillance activities based on the attributes of surveillance and barriers that occur in the implementation of activities. Experiment was conducted with descriptive design using quantitative approach. Questionnaires were completed at 6 implementing surveillance activities. Interviews were conducted to obtain information about the variables under study includes data collection, processing, analysis and interpretation, dissemination of information and surveillance attributes such as simplicity, flexibility, acceptability, sensitivity, positive predictive value, representatif, timeliness, data quality and data stability. Implementation health surveillance in the hajj embarkation Palangkaraya in 2013 showed all stages of the surveillance activities have been conducted in accordance with the procedures as well as evaluating surveillance activities in accordance attribute shows all the attributes of surveillance can be assessed, unless the sensitivity and positive predictive value because no cases of meningococcal meningitis. Conclusion that the implementation of health surveillance activities Hajj has been running quite well based approach to surveillance and surveillance attributes. The report has been used by the agency activities related to the activities of hajj embarkation. Need to increase the quantity and quality of manpower resources and facilities Keywords: disease transmission, hajj health surveillance, assessment                             attributes

  14. A focused ethnographic study of Alberta cattle veterinarians' decision making about diagnostic laboratory submissions and perceptions of surveillance programs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Sawford

    Full Text Available The animal and public health communities need to address the challenge posed by zoonotic emerging infectious diseases. To minimize the impacts of future events, animal disease surveillance will need to enable prompt event detection and response. Diagnostic laboratory-based surveillance systems targeting domestic animals depend in large part on private veterinarians to submit samples from cases to a laboratory. In contexts where pre-diagnostic laboratory surveillance systems have been implemented, this group of veterinarians is often asked to input data. This scenario holds true in Alberta where private cattle veterinarians have been asked to participate in the Alberta Veterinary Surveillance Network-Veterinary Practice Surveillance, a platform to which pre-diagnostic disease and non-disease case data are submitted. Consequently, understanding the factors that influence these veterinarians to submit cases to a laboratory and the complex of factors that affect their participation in surveillance programs is foundational to interpreting disease patterns reported by laboratories and engaging veterinarians in surveillance. A focused ethnographic study was conducted with ten cattle veterinarians in Alberta. Individual in-depth interviews with participants were recorded and transcribed to enable thematic analysis. Laboratory submissions were biased toward outbreaks of unknown cause, cases with unusual mortality rates, and issues with potential herd-level implications. Decreasing cattle value and government support for laboratory testing have contributed to fewer submissions over time. Participants were willing participants in surveillance, though government support and collaboration were necessary. Changes in the beef industry and veterinary profession, as well as cattle producers themselves, present both challenges and opportunities in surveillance.

  15. The Health and Occupation Research Network: An Evolving Surveillance System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carder, Melanie; Hussey, Louise; Money, Annemarie; Gittins, Matthew; McNamee, Roseanne; Stocks, Susan Jill; Sen, Dil; Agius, Raymond M

    2017-09-01

    Vital to the prevention of work-related ill-health (WRIH) is the availability of good quality data regarding WRIH burden and risks. Physician-based surveillance systems such as The Health and Occupation Research (THOR) network in the UK are often established in response to limitations of statutory, compensation-based systems for addressing certain epidemiological aspects of disease surveillance. However, to fulfil their purpose, THOR and others need to have methodologic rigor in capturing and ascertaining cases. This article describes how data collected by THOR and analogous systems can inform WRIH incidence, trends, and other determinants. An overview of the different strands of THOR research is provided, including methodologic advancements facilitated by increased data quantity/quality over time and the value of the research outputs for informing Government and other policy makers. In doing so, the utility of data collected by systems such as THOR to address a wide range of research questions, both in relation to WRIH and to wider issues of public and social health, is demonstrated.

  16. The Health and Occupation Research Network: An Evolving Surveillance System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Carder

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Vital to the prevention of work-related ill-health (WRIH is the availability of good quality data regarding WRIH burden and risks. Physician-based surveillance systems such as The Health and Occupation Research (THOR network in the UK are often established in response to limitations of statutory, compensation-based systems for addressing certain epidemiological aspects of disease surveillance. However, to fulfil their purpose, THOR and others need to have methodologic rigor in capturing and ascertaining cases. This article describes how data collected by THOR and analogous systems can inform WRIH incidence, trends, and other determinants. An overview of the different strands of THOR research is provided, including methodologic advancements facilitated by increased data quantity/quality over time and the value of the research outputs for informing Government and other policy makers. In doing so, the utility of data collected by systems such as THOR to address a wide range of research questions, both in relation to WRIH and to wider issues of public and social health, is demonstrated.

  17. 76 FR 25695 - Public Health Information Network (PHIN) Messaging Guide for Syndromic Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-05

    .../library/2011/guides/Syndromic_Surveillance_Implementation_Guide_Release_1_4.pdf . Written comments... http://www.cdc.gov/phin/library/2011/guides/Syndromic_Surveillance_Implementation_Guide_Release_1_4.pdf...-2011-0004] Public Health Information Network (PHIN) Messaging Guide for Syndromic Surveillance AGENCY...

  18. Impact of a surgical site infection (SSI) surveillance program in orthopedics and traumatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabit, C; Marcheix, P S; Mounier, M; Dijoux, P; Pestourie, N; Bonnevialle, P; Bonnomet, F

    2012-10-01

    Surveillance of surgical site infections (SSI) is a priority. One of the fundamental principles for the surveillance of SSI is based on receiving effective field feedback (retro-information). The aim of this study was to report the results of a program of SSI surveillance and validate the hypothesis that there is a correlation between creating a SSI surveillance program and a reduction in SSI. The protocol was based on the weekly collection of surveillance data obtained directly from the different information systems in different departments. A delay of 3 months was established before extraction and analysis of data and information from the surgical teams. The NNIS index (National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance System) developed by the American surveillance system and the reduction of length of hospital stay index Journées d'hospitalisation évitées (JHE). Since the end of 2009, 7156 surgical procedures were evaluated (rate of inclusion 97.3%), and 84 SSI were registered with a significant decrease over time from 1.86% to 0.66%. A total of 418 days of hospitalization have been saved since the beginning of the surveillance system. Our surveillance system has three strong points: follow-up is continuous, specifically adapted to orthopedic traumatology and nearly exhaustive. The extraction of data directly from hospital information systems effectively improves the collection of data on surgical procedures. The implementation of a SSI surveillance protocol reduces SSI. Level III. Prospective study. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Botulinum Neurotoxin Detection Methods for Public Health Response and Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagarajan Thirunavukkarasu

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Botulism outbreak due to consumption of food contaminated with botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs is a public health emergency. The threat of bioterrorism through deliberate distribution in food sources and/or aerosolization of BoNTs raises global public health and security concerns due to the potential for high mortality and morbidity. Rapid and reliable detection methods are necessary to support clinical diagnosis and surveillance for identifying the source of contamination, performing epidemiological analysis of the outbreak, preventing and responding to botulism outbreaks. This review considers the applicability of various BoNT detection methods and examines their fitness-for-purpose in safeguarding the public health and security goals.

  20. Economic evaluation and budget impact analysis of the surveillance program for hepatocellular carcinoma in Thai chronic hepatitis B patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangmala, Pannapa; Chaikledkaew, Usa; Tanwandee, Tawesak; Pongchareonsuk, Petcharat

    2014-01-01

    The incidence rate and the treatment costs of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are high, especially in Thailand. Previous studies indicated that early detection by a surveillance program could help by down-staging. This study aimed to compare the costs and health outcomes associated with the introduction of a HCC surveillance program with no program and to estimate the budget impact if the HCC surveillance program were implemented. A cost utility analysis using a decision tree and Markov models was used to compare costs and outcomes during the lifetime period based on a societal perspective between alternative HCC surveillance strategies with no program. Costs included direct medical, direct non-medical, and indirect costs. Health outcomes were measured as life years (LYs), and quality adjusted life years (QALYs). The results were presented in terms of the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) in Thai THB per QALY gained. One- way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were applied to investigate parameter uncertainties. Budget impact analysis (BIA) was performed based on the governmental perspective. Semi-annual ultrasonography (US) and semi-annual ultrasonography plus alpha-fetoprotein (US plus AFP) as the first screening for HCC surveillance would be cost-effective options at the willingness to pay (WTP) threshold of 160,000 THB per QALY gained compared with no surveillance program (ICER=118,796 and ICER=123,451 THB/QALY), respectively. The semi-annual US plus AFP yielded more net monetary benefit, but caused a substantially higher budget (237 to 502 million THB) than semi-annual US (81 to 201 million THB) during the next ten fiscal years. Our results suggested that a semi-annual US program should be used as the first screening for HCC surveillance and included in the benefit package of Thai health insurance schemes for both chronic hepatitis B males and females aged between 40-50 years. In addition, policy makers considered the program could be feasible

  1. The AFHSC-Division of GEIS Operations Predictive Surveillance Program: a multidisciplinary approach for the early detection and response to disease outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, Clara J; Richards, Allen L; Masuoka, Penny M; Foley, Desmond H; Buczak, Anna L; Musila, Lillian A; Richardson, Jason H; Colacicco-Mayhugh, Michelle G; Rueda, Leopoldo M; Klein, Terry A; Anyamba, Assaf; Small, Jennifer; Pavlin, Julie A; Fukuda, Mark M; Gaydos, Joel; Russell, Kevin L; Wilkerson, Richard C; Gibbons, Robert V; Jarman, Richard G; Myint, Khin S; Pendergast, Brian; Lewis, Sheri; Pinzon, Jorge E; Collins, Kathrine; Smith, Matthew; Pak, Edwin; Tucker, Compton; Linthicum, Kenneth; Myers, Todd; Mansour, Moustafa; Earhart, Ken; Kim, Heung Chul; Jiang, Ju; Schnabel, Dave; Clark, Jeffrey W; Sang, Rosemary C; Kioko, Elizabeth; Abuom, David C; Grieco, John P; Richards, Erin E; Tobias, Steven; Kasper, Matthew R; Montgomery, Joel M; Florin, Dave; Chretien, Jean-Paul; Philip, Trudy L

    2011-03-04

    The Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center, Division of Global Emerging Infections Surveillance and Response System Operations (AFHSC-GEIS) initiated a coordinated, multidisciplinary program to link data sets and information derived from eco-climatic remote sensing activities, ecologic niche modeling, arthropod vector, animal disease-host/reservoir, and human disease surveillance for febrile illnesses, into a predictive surveillance program that generates advisories and alerts on emerging infectious disease outbreaks. The program's ultimate goal is pro-active public health practice through pre-event preparedness, prevention and control, and response decision-making and prioritization. This multidisciplinary program is rooted in over 10 years experience in predictive surveillance for Rift Valley fever outbreaks in Eastern Africa. The AFHSC-GEIS Rift Valley fever project is based on the identification and use of disease-emergence critical detection points as reliable signals for increased outbreak risk. The AFHSC-GEIS predictive surveillance program has formalized the Rift Valley fever project into a structured template for extending predictive surveillance capability to other Department of Defense (DoD)-priority vector- and water-borne, and zoonotic diseases and geographic areas. These include leishmaniasis, malaria, and Crimea-Congo and other viral hemorrhagic fevers in Central Asia and Africa, dengue fever in Asia and the Americas, Japanese encephalitis (JE) and chikungunya fever in Asia, and rickettsial and other tick-borne infections in the U.S., Africa and Asia.

  2. Environmental surveillance program. Quarterly progress report, July--September, 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, D.W.; Hall, L.F.; Downs, J.

    1996-01-01

    This report contains data developed from monitoring site measurements and laboratory analyses of environmental samples that were collected during the period of July-September, 1993. Because some laboratory procedures are lengthy and could adversely affect the desired timeliness of reports, results of some analyses from this time period will be included in the next quarterly report. Quarterly reports, then, will be routine periodic documents that present continually updated information concerning the potential presence of environmental contaminants in the vicinity of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). During the third calendar quarter of 1993, Environmental Surveillance Program (ESP) measurements did not reveal unexpected levels of contaminants in any environmental samples measured or analyzed. Most of the results reported in this document are related to off-site air and ground water measurements. Future reports will include results of monitoring at additional locations and for additional environmental materials. Annual reports from the ESP will contain data generated during the previous four calendar quarters, and will display measurement trends for various combinations of locations, contaminants and environmental media. The annual report will also include more interpretive material and discussions than will normally be found in quarterly reports

  3. Strengthening Preparedness for Arbovirus Infections in Mediterranean and Black Sea Countries: A Conceptual Framework to Assess Integrated Surveillance in the Context of the One Health Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dente, Maria Grazia; Riccardo, Flavia; Nacca, Gloria; Ranghiasci, Alessia; Escadafal, Camille; Gaayeb, Lobna; Jiménez-Clavero, Miguel Angel; Manuguerra, Jean-Claude; Picard, Marie; Fernández-Pinero, Jovita; Pérez-Ramírez, Elisa; Robert, Vincent; Victoir, Kathleen; Declich, Silvia

    2018-03-10

    In the context of One Health, there is presently an effort to integrate surveillance of human, animal, entomological, and environmental sectors. This aims to strengthen the prevention of, and preparedness against, arbovirus infections, also in the light of environmental and climate changes that could increase the risk of transmission. However, criteria to define integrated surveillance, and to compare different systems, still need to be identified and tested. We conducted a scoping review to identify and examine surveillance systems for West Nile virus (WNV), chikungunya virus (CHKV), dengue virus (DENV), and Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), which involve human, animal, entomological, and environmental sectors. We analyzed findings using a conceptual framework we developed for this purpose. The review highlights that the criteria proposed in the conceptual framework to describe integrated surveillance are consistently reported in the context of studies and programs related to integrated surveillance of the selected arboviral diseases. These criteria can facilitate the identification and description of operationalized One Health surveillance.

  4. Outcomes of an Enhanced Surveillance Program for Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae

    OpenAIRE

    Fitzpatrick, Margaret; Zembower, Teresa; Malczynski, Michael; Qi, Chao; Bolon, Maureen K.

    2014-01-01

    Optimal surveillance strategies for identifying patients colonized with and at risk for transmitting carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) are urgently needed. We instituted an enhanced surveillance program for CRE that identified unrecognized CRE-colonized patients but failed to identify possible CRE transmissions. We also identified risk factors associated with transmitting CRE.

  5. Linezolid Surveillance Results for the United States (LEADER Surveillance Program 2014).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flamm, Robert K; Mendes, Rodrigo E; Hogan, Patricia A; Streit, Jennifer M; Ross, James E; Jones, Ronald N

    2016-04-01

    Thelinezolidexperience andaccuratedetermination ofresistance (LEADER) surveillance program has monitored linezolid activity, spectrum, and resistance since 2004. In 2014, a total of 6,865 Gram-positive pathogens from 60 medical centers from 36 states were submitted. The organism groups evaluated wereStaphylococcus aureus(3,106), coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS; 797), enterococci (855),Streptococcus pneumoniae(874), viridans group streptococci (359), and beta-hemolytic streptococci (874). Susceptibility testing was performed by reference broth microdilution at the monitoring laboratory. Linezolid-resistant isolates were confirmed by repeat testing. PCR and sequencing were performed to detect mutations in 23S rRNA, L3, L4, and L22 proteins and acquired genes (cfrandoptrA). The MIC50/90forStaphylococcus aureuswas 1/1 μg/ml, with 47.2% of isolates being methicillin-resistantStaphylococcus aureus Linezolid was active against allStreptococcus pneumoniaestrains and beta-hemolytic streptococci with a MIC50/90of 1/1 μg/ml and against viridans group streptococci with a MIC50/90of 0.5/1 μg/ml. Among the linezolid-nonsusceptible MRSA strains, one strain harboredcfronly (MIC, 4 μg/ml), one harbored G2576T (MIC, 8 μg/ml), and one containedcfrand G2576T with L3 changes (MIC, ≥8 μg/ml). Among CoNS, 0.75% (six isolates) of all strains demonstrated linezolid MIC results of ≥4 μg/ml. Five of these were identified asStaphylococcus epidermidis, four of which containedcfrin addition to the presence of mutations in the ribosomal proteins L3 and L4, alone or in combination with 23S rRNA (G2576T) mutations. Six enterococci (0.7%) were linezolid nonsusceptible (≥4 μg/ml; five with G2576T mutations, including one with an additionalcfrgene, and one strain withoptrAonly). Linezolid demonstrated excellent activity and a sustained susceptibility rate of 99.78% overall. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  6. ASM LabCap's contributions to disease surveillance and the International Health Regulations (2005).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Specter, Steven; Schuermann, Lily; Hakiruwizera, Celestin; Sow, Mah-Séré Keita

    2010-12-03

    The revised International Health Regulations [IHR(2005)], which requires the Member States of the World Health Organization (WHO) to develop core capacities to detect, assess, report, and respond to public health threats, is bringing new challenges for national and international surveillance systems. As more countries move toward implementation and/or strengthening of their infectious disease surveillance programs, the strengthening of clinical microbiology laboratories becomes increasingly important because they serve as the first line responders to detect new and emerging microbial threats, re-emerging infectious diseases, the spread of antibiotic resistance, and the possibility of bioterrorism. In fact, IHR(2005) Core Capacity #8, "Laboratory", requires that laboratory services be a part of every phase of alert and response.Public health laboratories in many resource-constrained countries require financial and technical assistance to build their capacity. In recognition of this, in 2006, the American Society for Microbiology (ASM) established an International Laboratory Capacity Building Program, LabCap, housed under the ASM International Board. ASM LabCap utilizes ASM's vast resources and its membership's expertise-40,000 microbiologists worldwide-to strengthen clinical and public health laboratory systems in low and low-middle income countries. ASM LabCap's program activities align with HR(2005) by building the capability of resource-constrained countries to develop quality-assured, laboratory-based information which is critical to disease surveillance and the rapid detection of disease outbreaks, whether they stem from natural, deliberate or accidental causes.ASM LabCap helps build laboratory capacity under a cooperative agreement with the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and under a sub-contract with the Program for Appropriate Technology in Health (PATH) funded by the United States Agency for International Development (USAID

  7. Management of environmental health issues for the 2004 Athens Olympic Games: is enhanced integrated environmental health surveillance needed in every day routine operation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chervoni Julia

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Management of environmental health issues is an integral part of public health systems. An active integrated environmental health surveillance and response system was developed for the Athens Olympics to monitor and prevent exposure to environmental hazards. The potential for permanent implementation of the program was examined. Methods The environmental health surveillance and response system included standardization, computerization and electronic transmission of data concerning environmental inspections of 17 site categories (restaurants, swimming pools etc of public health interest, drinking and recreational water examinations and suggested corrective actions. The Olympic Planning Unit integrated and centrally managed data from 13 public health agencies, recommended, supervised and coordinated prompt corrective actions. Methods used to test the effectiveness of the program were the assessment of water quality test and inspection results trends over time using linear regression and epidemiological surveillance findings. Results Between January 2003 and September the 30th, 2004, 196 inspectors conducted 8562 inspections, collected 5024 water samples and recommended 17 027 corrective actions. In 10 cruise ships used as floating hotels inspectors conducted 10 full inspections, 2 re-inspections, and 27 follow-up inspections. Unsatisfactory inspection results (r = 0.44, p Conclusion Lessons learned for future events include timely implementation and installation of communication processes, and rapid and coordinated response to unsatisfactory inspection results. Routine national programs need to adopt enhanced environmental health surveillance aimed at public health decision-making, but with a different perspective.

  8. Management of environmental health issues for the 2004 Athens Olympic Games: is enhanced integrated environmental health surveillance needed in every day routine operation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjichristodoulou, Christos; Mouchtouri, Varvara; Vaitsi, Vasiliki; Kapoula, Christina; Vousoureli, Anastasia; Kalivitis, Isidiros; Chervoni, Julia; Papastergiou, Panagiotis; Vasilogiannakopoulos, Antonios; Daniilidis, Vasilis D; Kremastinou, Jenny

    2006-12-18

    Management of environmental health issues is an integral part of public health systems. An active integrated environmental health surveillance and response system was developed for the Athens Olympics to monitor and prevent exposure to environmental hazards. The potential for permanent implementation of the program was examined. The environmental health surveillance and response system included standardization, computerization and electronic transmission of data concerning environmental inspections of 17 site categories (restaurants, swimming pools etc) of public health interest, drinking and recreational water examinations and suggested corrective actions. The Olympic Planning Unit integrated and centrally managed data from 13 public health agencies, recommended, supervised and coordinated prompt corrective actions. Methods used to test the effectiveness of the program were the assessment of water quality test and inspection results trends over time using linear regression and epidemiological surveillance findings. Between January 2003 and September the 30th, 2004, 196 inspectors conducted 8562 inspections, collected 5024 water samples and recommended 17 027 corrective actions. In 10 cruise ships used as floating hotels inspectors conducted 10 full inspections, 2 re-inspections, and 27 follow-up inspections. Unsatisfactory inspection results (r = 0.44, p quality tests (r = 0.39, p restaurant which accommodated athletes during a test event. Lessons learned for future events include timely implementation and installation of communication processes, and rapid and coordinated response to unsatisfactory inspection results. Routine national programs need to adopt enhanced environmental health surveillance aimed at public health decision-making, but with a different perspective.

  9. Profile: Agincourt Health and Socio-demographic Surveillance System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Kathleen; Collinson, Mark A; Gómez-Olivé, F Xavier; Mokoena, Obed; Twine, Rhian; Mee, Paul; Afolabi, Sulaimon A; Clark, Benjamin D; Kabudula, Chodziwadziwa W; Khosa, Audrey; Khoza, Simon; Shabangu, Mildred G; Silaule, Bernard; Tibane, Jeffrey B; Wagner, Ryan G; Garenne, Michel L; Clark, Samuel J; Tollman, Stephen M

    2012-01-01

    The Agincourt health and socio-demographic surveillance system (HDSS), located in rural northeast South Africa close to the Mozambique border, was established in 1992 to support district health systems development led by the post-apartheid ministry of health. The HDSS (90 000 people), based on an annual update of resident status and vital events, now supports multiple investigations into the causes and consequences of complex health, population and social transitions. Observational work includes cohorts focusing on different stages along the life course, evaluation of national policy at population, household and individual levels and examination of household responses to shocks and stresses and the resulting pathways influencing health and well-being. Trials target children and adolescents, including promoting psycho-social well-being, preventing HIV transmission and reducing metabolic disease risk. Efforts to enhance the research platform include using automated measurement techniques to estimate cause of death by verbal autopsy, full ‘reconciliation’ of in- and out-migrations, follow-up of migrants departing the study area, recording of extra-household social connections and linkage of individual HDSS records with those from sub-district clinics. Fostering effective collaborations (including INDEPTH multi-centre work in adult health and ageing and migration and urbanization), ensuring cross-site compatibility of common variables and optimizing public access to HDSS data are priorities. PMID:22933647

  10. The AFHSC-Division of GEIS Operations Predictive Surveillance Program: a multidisciplinary approach for the early detection and response to disease outbreaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    The Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center, Division of Global Emerging Infections Surveillance and Response System Operations (AFHSC-GEIS) initiated a coordinated, multidisciplinary program to link data sets and information derived from eco-climatic remote sensing activities, ecologic niche modeling, arthropod vector, animal disease-host/reservoir, and human disease surveillance for febrile illnesses, into a predictive surveillance program that generates advisories and alerts on emerging infectious disease outbreaks. The program’s ultimate goal is pro-active public health practice through pre-event preparedness, prevention and control, and response decision-making and prioritization. This multidisciplinary program is rooted in over 10 years experience in predictive surveillance for Rift Valley fever outbreaks in Eastern Africa. The AFHSC-GEIS Rift Valley fever project is based on the identification and use of disease-emergence critical detection points as reliable signals for increased outbreak risk. The AFHSC-GEIS predictive surveillance program has formalized the Rift Valley fever project into a structured template for extending predictive surveillance capability to other Department of Defense (DoD)-priority vector- and water-borne, and zoonotic diseases and geographic areas. These include leishmaniasis, malaria, and Crimea-Congo and other viral hemorrhagic fevers in Central Asia and Africa, dengue fever in Asia and the Americas, Japanese encephalitis (JE) and chikungunya fever in Asia, and rickettsial and other tick-borne infections in the U.S., Africa and Asia. PMID:21388561

  11. People, pets, and parasites: one health surveillance in southeastern Saskatchewan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schurer, Janna M; Ndao, Momar; Quewezance, Helen; Elmore, Stacey A; Jenkins, Emily J

    2014-06-01

    Residents of remote and Indigenous communities might experience higher exposure to some zoonotic parasites than the general North American population. Human sero-surveillance conducted in two Saulteaux communities found 113 volunteers exposed as follows: Trichinella (2.7%), Toxocara canis (4.4%), Echinococcus (4.4%), and Toxoplasma gondii (1.8%). In dogs, 41% of 51 fecal samples were positive for at least one intestinal parasite, 3% of 77 were sero-positive for Borrelia burgdorferi, and 21% of 78 for T. gondii. Echinococcus exposure was more likely to occur in non-dog owners (odds ratio [OR]: 11.4, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.2-107, P = 0.03); while T. canis was more likely to occur in children (ages 4-17) (OR: 49, 95% CI: 3.9-624; P = 0.003), and those with a history of dog bites (OR: 13.5, 95% CI: 1.02-179; P = 0.048). Our results emphasize the use of dogs as sentinels for emerging pathogens such as Lyme disease, and the need for targeted surveillance and intervention programs tailored for parasite species, cultural groups, and communities. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  12. One Health concept for strengthening public health surveillance and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The School of Public health and the Ministry of Health therefore requested the technical and financial assistance of the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in organizing the Programme. The collaboration started by organizing short courses in disease outbreak investigations and response for ...

  13. Achieving an optimal allocation of resources for animal health surveillance, intervention and disease mitigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasler, B; Delabouglise, A; Babo Martins, S

    2017-04-01

    The primary role of animal health economics is to inform decision-making by determining optimal investments for animal health. Animal health surveillance produces information to guide interventions. Consequently, investments in surveillance and intervention must be evaluated together. This article explores the different theoretical frameworks and methods developed to assess and optimise the spending of resources in surveillance and intervention and their technical interdependence. The authors present frameworks that define the relationship between health investment and losses due to disease, and the relationship between surveillance and intervention resources. Surveillance and intervention are usually considered as technical substitutes, since increased investments in surveillance reduce the level of intervention resources required to reach the same benefit. The authors also discuss approaches used to quantify externalities and non-monetary impacts. Finally, they describe common economic evaluation types, including optimisation, acceptability and least-cost studies.

  14. Active epidemiological surveillance in the program of poliomyelitis eradication in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jevremović Ivana

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The main strategy of the worldwide Program of Poliomyelitis Eradication is based on immunization with oral poliovirus vaccine and active epidemiological surveillance aimed to demonstrate the absence of wild poliovirus circulation. The specification of the surveillance in the program, reporting and investigation of certain syndrome – the acute flaccid paralysis - as a specific feature of surveillance of poliomyelitis, is a new experience both for clinicians and epidemiologists. Along with the achieved results, problems in conducting the active epidemiological surveillance in Serbia, applied measures, and suggestions for improving its quality were presented. This experience might help in implementing the active surveillance for some other diseases that could be prevented by vaccine immunization.

  15. [Horizon scanning in preparation for future health threats: a pilot exercise conducted by the French Institute for Public Health Surveillance in 2014].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eilstein, Daniel; Xerri, Bertrand; Viso, Anne-Catherine; Therre, Hélène; Gorza, Maud; Fuchs, Doriane; Pozuelos, Jérôme; Ioos, Sophie; Che, Didier; Bertrand, Edwige; El Yamani, Mounia; Empereur-Bissonnet, Pascal; Duport, Nicolas; Desenclos, Jean-Claude

    2016-01-01

    Background: Health surveillance is a reactive process, with no real hindsight for dealing with signals and alerts. It may fail to detect more radical changes with a major medium-term or long-term impact on public health. To increase proactivity, the French Institute for Public Health Surveillance has opted for a prospective monitoring approach.Methods: Several steps were necessary: 1) Identification of public health determinants. 2) Identification of key variables based on a combination of determinants. Variables were classified into three groups (health event trigger factors, dissemination factors and response factors) and were submitted to future development assumptions. 3) Identification, in each of the three groups, of micro-scenarios derived from variable trends. 4) Identification of macro-scenarios, each built from the three micro-scenarios for each of the three groups. 5) Identification of issues for the future of public health.Results: The exercise identified 22 key variables, 17 micro-scenarios and 5 macro-scenarios. The topics retained relate to issues on social and territorial health inequalities, health burden, individual and collective responsibilities in terms of health, ethical aspects, emerging phenomena, ‘Big data’, data mining, new health technologies, interlocking of analysis scales.Conclusions: The approach presented here guides the programming of activities of a health safety agency, particularly for monitoring and surveillance. By describing possible future scenarios, health surveillance can help decision-makers to influence the context towards one or more favourable futures.

  16. 522 Postmarket Surveillance Studies

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The 522 Postmarket Surveillance Studies Program encompasses design, tracking, oversight, and review responsibilities for studies mandated under section 522 of the...

  17. Identifying risk factors for brain metastasis in breast cancer patients: Implication for a vigorous surveillance program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorraine Chow

    2015-10-01

    Conclusion: Chinese breast cancer patients with brain metastasis were more likely to have high-grade tumors and negative estrogen receptor status. A more vigorous surveillance program for the central nervous system should be considered for this group of patients.

  18. Evaluation of the ability of standardized supports to improve public health response to syndromic surveillance for respiratory diseases in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura A. Rivera

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite widespread implementation of syndromic surveillance systems within public health agencies, previous studies of the implementation and use of these systems have indicated that the functions and responses taken in response to syndromic surveillance data vary widely according to local context and preferences. The objective of the Syndromic Surveillance Evaluation Study was to develop and implement standardized supports in local public health agencies in Ontario, Canada, and evaluate the ability of these supports to affect actions taken as part of public health communicable disease control programs. Methods Local public health agencies (LPHA in Ontario, which used syndromic surveillance based on emergency department visits for respiratory disease, were recruited and randomly allocated to the study intervention or control group. The intervention group health agencies received standardized supports in terms of a standardized aberrant event detection algorithm and a response protocol dictating steps to investigate and assess the public health significance of syndromic surveillance alerts. The control group continued with their pre-existing syndromic surveillance infrastructure and processes. Outcomes were assessed using logbooks, which collected quantitative and qualitative information about alerts received, investigation steps taken, and public health responses. The study was conducted prospectively for 15 months (October 2013 to February 2015. Results Fifteen LPHAs participated in the study (n = 9 intervention group, n = 6 control group. A total of 1,969 syndromic surveillance alerts were received by all LPHAs. Variations in the types and amount of responses varied by LPHA, in particularly differences were noted by the size of the health unit. Smaller health units had more challenges to both detect and mount a response to any alerts. LPHAs in the control group were more likely to declare alerts to have public

  19. Guidance for implementing the UMTRA Project long-term surveillance program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-09-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has issued a general license for the custody and long-term care of US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project permanent disposal sites. The purpose of this general license is to ensure that the UMTRA disposal sites will be cared for in such a manner as to protect the public health and safety and the environment upon completion of remedial actions. The general license will be in effect for a disposal site when NRC accepts the disposal site long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) that meets the requirements of 10 CFR 40.27. The site LTSP describes in detail the long-term surveillance program, including any monitoring, maintenance, and emergency measures necessary to fulfill the conditions of the general license. This guidance document provides (1) instructions for preparing the disposal site LTSPs and (2) instructions for carrying out the UMTRA Project long-term surveillance program, including any monitoring that may be required. The information provided in this document also is in accordance with the regulatory requirements set forth in 40 CFR 192. On January 5, 1985, the US Tenth Circuit Court of Appeals remanded the groundwater standards, 40 CFR 192.02. Proposed groundwater standards were issued for comment on September 24, 1987 (52 FR 3600). When the groundwater standards become final, this document will be revised, as appropriate. This document also will be updated in response to any changes to 10 CFR 40, or in response to changes in the manner in which the long-term care of the licensed disposal sites is carried out

  20. Occupational health surveillance: Pulmonary function testing in emergency responders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James D McCluskey

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Emergency responders may be exposed to a variety of fumes, gases, and particulates during the course of their job that can affect pulmonary function (PF and require the use of respiratory protection. This investigation used occupational health monitoring examination data to characterize PF in a population currently employed as emergency responders. PF tests for workers who required health examinations to ensure fitness for continued respirator use were compared to the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III Raw Spirometry database to determine if decreased PF was associated with employment as an emergency responder. The results of this research indicated that the emergency responders experienced a modest, but statistically significant, increase in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1 and forced vital capacity (FVC mean values over the NHANES III population in both total and stratified analyses, including stratification by age, gender, height, and smoking history. Results are likely due to a combination of effectively controlled exposures in the workplace, and the healthy worker effect among long-term workers. PF testing required by the Occupational and Safety Health Administration (OSHA has substantial utility for conducting occupational surveillance at the population level. In this investigation, we were able to quickly evaluate if abnormal PF existed in an industrial sector known to have exposures that, when uncontrolled, can lead to PF impairment.

  1. Low-Cost National Media-Based Surveillance System for Public Health Events, Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ao, Trong T.; Rahman, Mahmudur; Haque, Farhana; Chakraborty, Apurba; Hossain, M. Jahangir; Haider, Sabbir; Alamgir, A.S.M.; Sobel, Jeremy; Luby, Stephen P.

    2016-01-01

    We assessed a media-based public health surveillance system in Bangladesh during 2010–2011. The system is a highly effective, low-cost, locally appropriate, and sustainable outbreak detection tool that could be used in other low-income, resource-poor settings to meet the capacity for surveillance outlined in the International Health Regulations 2005. PMID:26981877

  2. Workers' health surveillance: implementation of the Directive 89/391/EEC in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Colosio, C.; Mandic-Rajcevic, S.; Godderis, L.; van der Laan, G.; Hulshof, C.; van Dijk, F.

    2017-01-01

    Background European Union (EU) Directive 89/391 addressed occupational health surveillance, which recommends to provide workers with `access to health surveillance at regular intervals', aiming to prevent work-related and occupational diseases. Aims To investigate how EU countries adopted this

  3. Surveillance for Health Protection in England and Wales: An analysis of NHS Direct syndromic data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cooper, D. L.

    2008-01-01

    Disease surveillance is the collection and analysis health data to provide information for action and to inform decisions relating to public health policy. Surveillance systems in the UK typically rely on data about diagnoses made by clinicians, or laboratory confirmations of specific disease

  4. Prática da enfermeira no Programa de Saúde da Família: a interface da vigilância da saúde versus as ações programáticas em saúde The nurse's role in the Family Health Program: an interface between health surveillance and health program actions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maristella Santos Nascimento

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available O estudo analisa a prática da enfermeira no Programa de Saúde da Família (PSF em Jequié (BA; compreende as concepções sobre o PSF; identifica as atividades e aponta limites, avanços e perspectivas. Pesquisa qualitativa, em que as técnicas de coleta de dados são a entrevista semi-estruturada, a observação e a análise de documentos. O método de análise de dados foi a hermenêutica dialética. Os resultados evidenciaram que o PSF é uma estratégia de (reorientação do Modelo de Atenção à Saúde e um caminho para consolidação do Sistema Único de Saúde. As práticas das enfermeiras do PSF são assistenciais, gerenciais e educativas. Durante a sua execução utiliza uma dada organização tecnológica do trabalho em saúde, com práticas articuladas de promoção, prevenção de doenças e agravos, recuperação e reabilitação da saúde de grupos populacionais e intervenções sobre a família, o que tem resultado na reestruturação da atenção básica e a reorganização do sistema local de saúde. Como limites apresentam-se dificuldades em assegurar o acesso dos usuários aos serviços de média e alta complexidade e estabelecer o sistema de referência e contra-referência; como avanços, destaca-se a participação no treinamento introdutório, e têm perspectivas o aumento da cobertura do PSF no município e a hierarquização da rede local.This study analyzes the nurse's practice in the Program of Family Health (PSF in the municipal district of Jequié (BA, comprising the conceptions attributed to it, identifing activities and pointing out limits, progress and perspectives. A qualitative research, where techniques and data collection have been semi-structured interview and observation, and analysis of documents. Data analysis has been hermeneutic dialectics. The results made evident that the PSF is a strategy of (reorientation of the model of attention to the health and a means of consolidation of the Unique System of

  5. Surveillance of avian influenza in the Caribbean through the Caribbean Animal Health Network: surveillance tools and epidemiologic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefrançois, T; Hendrikx, P; Ehrhardt, N; Millien, M; Gomez, L; Gouyet, L; Gaidet, N; Gerbier, G; Vachiéry, N; Petitclerc, F; Carasco-Lacombe, C; Pinarello, V; Ahoussou, S; Levesque, A; Gongora, H V; Trotman, M

    2010-03-01

    The Caribbean region is considered to be at risk for avian influenza (AI) due to a large backyard poultry system, an important commercial poultry production system, the presence of migratory birds, and disparities in the surveillance systems. The Caribbean Animal Health Network (CaribVET) has developed tools to implement AI surveillance in the region with the goals to have 1) a regionally harmonized surveillance protocol and specific web pages for AI surveillance on www.caribvet.net, and 2) an active and passive surveillance for AI in domestic and wild birds. A diagnostic network for the Caribbean, including technology transfer and AI virus molecular diagnostic capability in Guadeloupe (real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction for the AI virus matrix gene), was developed. Between 2006 and 2009, 627 samples from four Caribbean countries were tested for three circumstances: importation purposes, following a clinical suspicion of AI, or through an active survey of wild birds (mainly waders) during the southward and northward migration periods in Guadeloupe. None of the samples tested were positive, suggesting a limited role of these species in the AI virus ecology in the Caribbean. Following low pathogenic H5N2 outbreaks in the Dominican Republic in 2007, a questionnaire was developed to collect data for a risk analysis of AI spread in the region through fighting cocks. The infection pathway of the Martinique commercial poultry sector by AI, through introduction of infected cocks, was designed, and recommendations were provided to the Caribbean Veterinary Services to improve cock movement control and biosecurity measures. The CaribVET and its organization allowed interaction between diagnostic and surveillance tools on the one hand and epidemiologic studies on the other, both of them developed in congruence with regional strategies. Together, these CaribVET activities contribute to strengthening surveillance of avian influenza virus (AIV) in the

  6. Epidemiological surveillance - air and health. Surveillance of effects on health linked to air pollution; Surveillance epidemiologique air et sante. Surveillance des effets sur la sante lies a la pollution atmospherique en milieu urbain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quenel, Ph; Cassadou, S; Eilstein, D; Filleul, L; Le Goaster, C; Le Tertre, A; Medina, S; Pascal, L; Prouvost, H; Saviuc, Ph; Zeghnoun, A [Institut National de Veille Sanitaire, 94 - Saint Maurice (France); Declerq, Ch [Observatoire Regional de Sante Nord Pas de Calais (France)

    1999-03-01

    In the field of air pollution, the France is the first country to be endowed with a device of epidemiological surveillance allowing to to evaluate and monitor the impact of urban air pollution on the health of population. This new approach is based on the analysis of relationship between pollution indicators and health indicators, it leads to confirm the partnership between actors of environment and health, at the national level as well at the local level. It confirms the development of assessment in the field of environmental health. (N.C.)

  7. An occupational health surveillance for the former miners of Wismut

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otten, H.; Friedrich, K.

    1995-01-01

    From 1946 to 1990 between 300.000 and 400.000 persons were employed in uranium mining and milling of Wismut Company in Thuringia and Saxonia. Due to exposure to increased radiation (radon and its decay products), dusts, and other hazardous substances thousands of subjects got ill. Between 1952 and 1990 Wismut accepted lung cancer as an occupational disease in 5.275 cases. According to the kind of exposure more than 3.000 cancers have to be expected for the 10 years among the 150.000 former miners still living. The Berufsgenossenschaften (statutory accident insurance institutions) therefore set up an occupational health surveillance for all former miners of Wismut. It is designed for early detection of health effects of miners, for the organisation of therapy and financial compensation. Data of the medical examinations as well as data about exposure are scientifically analysed. Therefore more information might be available about health effects of ionizing radiation in the near future. All activities are coordinated by the 'Zentrale Betreuungsstelle Wismut' (ZeBWis) of the Berufsgenossenschaften. (orig.) [de

  8. Feasibility and acceptability of workers' health surveillance for fire fighters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plat, Marie-Christine J; Frings-Dresen, Monique Hw; Sluiter, Judith K

    2011-09-01

    The objective of this study was to test the feasibility and acceptability of a new workers' health surveillance (WHS) for fire fighters in a Dutch pilot-implementation project. In three fire departments, between November 2007 and February 2009, feasibility was tested with respect to i) worker intent to change health and behavior; ii) the quality of instructions for testing teams; iii) the planned procedure in the field; and iv) future WHS organisation. Acceptability involved i) satisfaction with WHS and ii) verification of the job-specificity of the content of two physical tests of WHS. Fire fighters were surveyed after completing WHS, three testing teams were interviewed, and the content of the two tests was studied by experts. nearly all of the 275 fire fighters intended to improve their health when recommended by the occupational physician. The testing teams found the instructions to be clear, and they were mostly positive about the organisation of WHS. Acceptability: the fire fighters rated WHS at eight points (out of a maximum of ten). The experts also reached a consensus about the optimal job-specific content of the future functional physical tests. Overall, it is feasible and acceptable to implement WHS in a definitive form in the Dutch fire-fighting sector.

  9. State of the reactor vessel surveillance programs in Korea and foreign countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jeong Kyu; Hwang, Jong Keun; Park, Keon Woo; Kim, Bum Sik; Jeong, Kyung Hoon

    1996-06-01

    ASTM standards are dominating all over the world in the field of the reactor vessel surveillance program. They are mainly used directly or that the national standards in use correspond quite well with ASTM. According to, however, increasing concerns about the protection of environment and safety of nuclear plant, various approaches to establish and reinforce the national standards are made actively in Europe. In addition, some methods to share the nuclear data by integrating the existing test, analysis procedures and units system are considered. For nuclear plants in Korea, MOST Notice No. 92-20 should be applied for all PWRs after UCN units 3 and 4 since it was promulgated at Dec. 1992. The notice almost reflects the contents of ASTM E 185. But, the notice has much to be desired to provide the technical back-ground for reactor vessel surveillance program because it is not a standard such as ASTM or ASME code but regulation such as CFR or RG. Several Korean Standards are also used in limited area of the surveillance program. Therefore, practical requirements and rules for surveillance program are in accordance with the ASTM and CFR. In this report, the state of application of the standards to the surveillance program in Korea and Europe are reviewed and their national standards re compared with US standards or regulations. Current level and the future prospect of surveillance technology for PWR vessel are discussed at this point of view. 15 tabs., 12 figs., 38 refs. (Author)

  10. Honey bee surveillance: a tool for understanding and improving honey bee health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kathleen; Steinhauer, Nathalie; Travis, Dominic A; Meixner, Marina D; Deen, John; vanEngelsdorp, Dennis

    2015-08-01

    Honey bee surveillance systems are increasingly used to characterize honey bee health and disease burdens of bees in different regions and/or over time. In addition to quantifying disease prevalence, surveillance systems can identify risk factors associated with colony morbidity and mortality. Surveillance systems are often observational, and prove particularly useful when searching for risk factors in real world complex systems. We review recent examples of surveillance systems with particular emphasis on how these efforts have helped increase our understanding of honey bee health. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Health and Safety in Waste Collection: Towards Evidence-Based Worker Health Surveillance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijer, P. Paul F. M.; Sluiter, Judith K.; Frings-Dresen, Monique H. W.

    2010-01-01

    Background Waste collectors around the world are at risk for work-related disorders and injuries. The aim of this study was to assess work demands, acute physiologic responses, illnesses, and injuries as a starting point for worker health surveillance (WHS). Methods A systematic search was performed

  12. Conceptual framework of public health surveillance and action and its application in health sector reform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alemu Wondi

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Because both public health surveillance and action are crucial, the authors initiated meetings at regional and national levels to assess and reform surveillance and action systems. These meetings emphasized improved epidemic preparedness, epidemic response, and highlighted standardized assessment and reform. Methods To standardize assessments, the authors designed a conceptual framework for surveillance and action that categorized the framework into eight core and four support activities, measured with indicators. Results In application, country-level reformers measure both the presence and performance of the six core activities comprising public health surveillance (detection, registration, reporting, confirmation, analyses, and feedback and acute (epidemic-type and planned (management-type responses composing the two core activities of public health action. Four support activities – communications, supervision, training, and resource provision – enable these eight core processes. National, multiple systems can then be concurrently assessed at each level for effectiveness, technical efficiency, and cost. Conclusions This approach permits a cost analysis, highlights areas amenable to integration, and provides focused intervention. The final public health model becomes a district-focused, action-oriented integration of core and support activities with enhanced effectiveness, technical efficiency, and cost savings. This reform approach leads to sustained capacity development by an empowerment strategy defined as facilitated, process-oriented action steps transforming staff and the system.

  13. Motivation of health surveillance assistants in Malawi: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikaphupha, Kingsley R; Kok, Maryse C; Nyirenda, Lot; Namakhoma, Ireen; Theobald, Sally

    2016-06-01

    Motivation of health workers is a critical component of performance and is shaped by multiple factors. This study explored factors that influence motivation of health surveillance assistants (HSAs) in Malawi, with the aim of identifying interventions that can be applied to enhance motivation and performance of HSAs. A qualitative study capturing the perspectives of purposively selected participants was conducted in two districts: Salima and Mchinji. Participants included HSAs, health managers, and various community members. Data were collected through focus group discussions (n = 16) and in-depth interviews (n = 44). The study sample was comprised of 112 women and 65 men. Qualitative data analysis was informed by existing frameworks on factors influencing health worker motivation. Our analysis identified five key themes shaping HSA motivation: salary, accommodation, human resource management, supplies and logistics, and community links. Each of these played out at different levels-individual, family, community, and organisational-with either positive or negative effects. Demotivating factors related primarily to the organisational level, while motivating factors were more often related to individual, family, and community levels. A lack of financial incentives and shortages of basic supplies and materials were key factors demotivating HSAs. Supervision was generally perceived as unsupportive, uncoordinated, and top-down. Most HSAs complained of heavy workload. Many HSAs felt further recognition and support from the Ministry of Health, and the development of a clear career pathway would improve their motivation. Factors shaping motivation of HSAs are complex and multilayered; experiences at one level will impact other levels. Interventions are required to enhance HSA motivation, including strengthening the supervision system, developing career progression pathways, and ensuring clear and transparent incentives. HSAs have unique experiences, and there is need to hear

  14. Integrating air-related health surveillance into air quality management: perceptions and practicalities

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wright, C

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Health surveillance is presently not an integral part of air quality management in South Africa, although ambient air pollution standards are derived from health effects of personal exposure. In a survey to air quality officials and environmental...

  15. Introduction of Mobile Health Tools to Support Ebola Surveillance and Contact Tracing in Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacks, Jilian A; Zehe, Elizabeth; Redick, Cindil; Bah, Alhoussaine; Cowger, Kai; Camara, Mamady; Diallo, Aboubacar; Gigo, Abdel Nasser Iro; Dhillon, Ranu S; Liu, Anne

    2015-11-12

    Challenges in data availability and quality have contributed to the longest and deadliest Ebola epidemic in history that began in December 2013. Accurate surveillance data, in particular, has been difficult to access, as it is often collected in remote communities. We describe the design, implementation, and challenges of implementing a smartphone-based contact tracing system that is linked to analytics and data visualization software as part of the Ebola response in Guinea. The system, built on the mobile application CommCare and business intelligence software Tableau, allows for real-time identification of contacts who have not been visited and strong accountability of contact tracers through timestamps and collection of GPS points with their surveillance data. Deployment of this system began in November 2014 in Conakry, Guinea, and was expanded to a total of 5 prefectures by April 2015. To date, the mobile system has not replaced the paper-based system in the 5 prefectures where the program is active. However, as of April 30, 2015, 210 contact tracers in the 5 prefectures were actively using the mobile system to collectively monitor 9,162 contacts. With proper training, some investment in technical hardware, and adequate managerial oversight, there is opportunity to improve access to surveillance data from difficult-to-reach communities in order to inform epidemic control strategies while strengthening health systems to reduce risk of future disease outbreaks. © Liu et al.

  16. LWR surveillance dosimetry improvement program: PSF metallurgical blind test results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kam, F.B.K.; Stallmann, F.W.; Guthrie, G.; McElroy, W.N.

    1985-01-01

    The ORR-PSF benchmark experiment was designed to simulate the surveillance capsule-pressure vessel configuration in power reactors and to test the validity of procedures which determine the radiation damage in the vessel from test results in the surveillance capsule. The PSF metallurgical blind test was initiated to give participants an opportunity to test their current embrittlement prediction methodologies. Experimental results were withheld from the participants except for the type of information which is normally contained in surveillance reports. Preliminary analysis of the PSF metallurgical blind test results shows that: (1) current prediction methodologies, as used by the PSF Blind Test participants, are adequate, falling within +- 20 0 C of the measured values for Δ NDT. None of the different methods is clearly superior; (2) the proposed revision of Reg. Guide 1.99 (Rev. 2) gives a better representation of the fluence and chemistry dependency of Δ NDT than the current version (Rev. 1); and (3) fluence rate effects can be seen but not quantified. Fluence spectral effects are too small to be detectable in this experiment. (orig.)

  17. Web-based infectious disease surveillance systems and public health perspectives: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jihye Choi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases are a significant public health concern, and early detection and immediate response is crucial for disease control. These challenges have led to the need for new approaches and technologies to reinforce the capacity of traditional surveillance systems for detecting emerging infectious diseases. In the last few years, the availability of novel web-based data sources has contributed substantially to infectious disease surveillance. This study explores the burgeoning field of web-based infectious disease surveillance systems by examining their current status, importance, and potential challenges. Methods A systematic review framework was applied to the search, screening, and analysis of web-based infectious disease surveillance systems. We searched PubMed, Web of Science, and Embase databases to extensively review the English literature published between 2000 and 2015. Eleven surveillance systems were chosen for evaluation according to their high frequency of application. Relevant terms, including newly coined terms, development and classification of the surveillance systems, and various characteristics associated with the systems were studied. Results Based on a detailed and informative review of the 11 web-based infectious disease surveillance systems, it was evident that these systems exhibited clear strengths, as compared to traditional surveillance systems, but with some limitations yet to be overcome. The major strengths of the newly emerging surveillance systems are that they are intuitive, adaptable, low-cost, and operated in real-time, all of which are necessary features of an effective public health tool. The most apparent potential challenges of the web-based systems are those of inaccurate interpretation and prediction of health status, and privacy issues, based on an individual’s internet activity. Conclusion Despite being in a nascent stage with further modification

  18. Vector surveillance and eradication in primary health care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ada Crespo Guzmán

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A bibliographical revision was done about in Dengue fever and the control that is carrier on against the Aedes aegypti “mosquito”, the principal agent that treatments this illness, with the objective of describing the functioning of the Control and Elimination Program of the Mosquito in the Cuban Primary Health Care System. The main objective of this program is to avoid the Dengue epidemics and the loss of human life and the negative impact that will cost to, the socioeconomic development of over country. Accomplishing the promotion, prevention and controlling actions by the basic health care team the mosquito campaign workers and our population, the vector infestation index has been diminished below 0.5 in the last five years. It is important to point out that the rapid decisions taken by our government and its consequent efforts and political willingness has made this program sustained.

  19. [Actively promote nutrition and health surveillance, achieve the national nutrition and health goals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Gangqiang; Zhao, Wenhua; Chen, Junshi

    2016-03-01

    The results of Chinese Nutrition and Health Surveillance (2010-2012) showed that the anemia prevalence in China reduced significantly compared with 2002, and people's nutrition and health status have improved. Unbalanced diet still exist, such as low intake of vegetables and fruits, and high intake of salt. The serum total cholesterol level and the prevalence of hypercholesterolemia and borderline high cholesterolemia were high among urban adults, and more attention should be paid for high serum total cholesterol level among older adults. These results are significant to the development of nutrition and health intervention strategy, carry out nutrition intervention and the achievement of national nutrition and health goals.

  20. Use of electronic health records and administrative data for public health surveillance of eye health and vision-related conditions in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Amanda F; Davidson, Arthur; Lum, Flora; Chiang, Michael F; Saaddine, Jinan B; Zhang, Xinzhi; Crews, John E; Chou, Chiu-Fang

    2012-12-01

    To discuss the current trend toward greater use of electronic health records and how these records could enhance public health surveillance of eye health and vision-related conditions. Perspective, comparing systems. We describe 3 currently available sources of electronic health data (Kaiser Permanente, the Veterans Health Administration, and the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services) and how these sources can contribute to a comprehensive vision and eye health surveillance system. Each of the 3 sources of electronic health data can contribute meaningfully to a comprehensive vision and eye health surveillance system, but none currently provide all the information required. The use of electronic health records for vision and eye health surveillance has both advantages and disadvantages. Electronic health records may provide additional information needed to create a comprehensive vision and eye health surveillance system. Recommendations for incorporating electronic health records into such a system are presented. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Arthritis, Rheumatism and Aging Medical Information System Post-Marketing Surveillance Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, G

    2001-05-01

    The Arthritis, Rheumatism, and Aging Post-Marketing Surveillance Program (ARAMIS-PMS) is a collection of multicenter, prospective, noninterventional, observational longitudinal studies of patients with rheumatic diseases. The ARAMIS-PMS program aims to study patients in normal clinical setting to evaluate the real-life effectiveness, toxicity, and cost effectiveness of various medications used to treat rheumatic diseases.

  2. Surveillance in Programming Plagiarism beyond Techniques: An Incentive-Based Fishbone Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanqing; Chen, Min; Liang, Yaowen; Jiang, Yu

    2013-01-01

    Lots of researches have showed that plagiarism becomes a severe problem in higher education around the world, especially in programming learning for its essence. Therefore, an effective strategy for plagiarism surveillance in program learning is much essential. Some literature focus on code similarity algorithm and the related tools can help to…

  3. Study of operational conditions in medical radiodiagnostic services - ionizing radiation surveillance program in Sao Paulo State, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldred, Marta Aurelia; Eduardo, Maria Bernardete de Paula; Carvalho, Marisa Lima

    1996-01-01

    A radiation surveillance program was created in Sao Paulo State (Brazil) in 1994 to identify the risks in health care services. A total number of 259 centres were visited and 411 radiodiagnostic rooms were inspected. During the survey an 'inspection form' of 32 items was filled in. Analysis of the answers classified 24% of services as high risk, 22% of rooms showed irregular installations, 25% of X-ray equipment presented problems and 22% of personnel used inadequate procedures. Additional and regular surveys were programmed for the services considered of high risk in order to reduce it

  4. Public Health Surveillance Strategies for Mass Gatherings: Super Bowl XLIX and Related Events, Maricopa County, Arizona, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala, Aurimar; Berisha, Vjollca; Goodin, Kate; Pogreba-Brown, Kristen; Levy, Craig; McKinney, Benita; Koski, Lia; Imholte, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Super Bowl XLIX took place on February 1, 2015, in Glendale, Arizona. In preparation for this event and associated activities, the Maricopa County Department of Public Health (MCDPH) developed methods for enhanced surveillance, situational awareness, and early detection of public health emergencies. Surveillance strategies implemented from January 22 to February 6, 2015, included enhanced surveillance alerts; animal disease surveillance; review of NFL clinic visits; syndromic surveillance for emergency room visits, urgent care facilities, and hotels; real-time onsite syndromic surveillance; all-hazards mortality surveillance; emergency medical services surveillance, review of poison control center reports; media surveillance; and aberration detection algorithms for notifiable diseases. Surveillance results included increased influenzalike illness activity reported from urgent care centers and a few influenza cases reported in the NFL clinic. A cyanide single event exposure was investigated and determined not to be a public health threat. Real-time field syndromic surveillance documented minor injuries at all events and sporadic cases of gastrointestinal and neurological (mostly headaches) disease. Animal surveillance reports included a cat suspected of carrying plague and tularemia and an investigation of highly pathogenic avian influenza in a backyard chicken flock. Laboratory results in both instances were negative. Aberration detection and syndromic surveillance detected an increase in measles reports associated with a Disneyland exposure, and syndromic surveillance was used successfully during this investigation. Coordinated enhanced epidemiologic surveillance during Super Bowl XLIX increased the response capacity and preparedness of MCDPH to make informed decisions and take public health actions in a timely manner during these mass gathering events.

  5. The Nigerian health care system: Need for integrating adequate medical intelligence and surveillance systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menizibeya Osain Welcome

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : As an important element of national security, public health not only functions to provide adequate and timely medical care but also track, monitor, and control disease outbreak. The Nigerian health care had suffered several infectious disease outbreaks year after year. Hence, there is need to tackle the problem. This study aims to review the state of the Nigerian health care system and to provide possible recommendations to the worsening state of health care in the country. To give up-to-date recommendations for the Nigerian health care system, this study also aims at reviewing the dynamics of health care in the United States, Britain, and Europe with regards to methods of medical intelligence/surveillance. Materials and Methods : Databases were searched for relevant literatures using the following keywords: Nigerian health care, Nigerian health care system, and Nigerian primary health care system. Additional keywords used in the search were as follows: United States (OR Europe health care dynamics, Medical Intelligence, Medical Intelligence systems, Public health surveillance systems, Nigerian medical intelligence, Nigerian surveillance systems, and Nigerian health information system. Literatures were searched in scientific databases Pubmed and African Journals OnLine. Internet searches were based on Google and Search Nigeria. Results : Medical intelligence and surveillance represent a very useful component in the health care system and control diseases outbreak, bioattack, etc. There is increasing role of automated-based medical intelligence and surveillance systems, in addition to the traditional manual pattern of document retrieval in advanced medical setting such as those in western and European countries. Conclusion : The Nigerian health care system is poorly developed. No adequate and functional surveillance systems are developed. To achieve success in health care in this modern era, a system well grounded in routine

  6. Arthropod Surveillance Programs: Basic Components, Strategies, and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    CA. 9 NAMRU-3, US Navy, Cairo, Egypt . inferences from trap capture data. The following is a review of the three arthropod surveillance compo- nents...by thigmotaxis. Fig. 1. The two traps used for stored product insects, A) the commonly used Dome trap (Trècè) and B) the newly developed pyramid ...trap. The pyramid trap is made up of two elements: a cover (1) and a base (2) with a center pitfall (3). (Online Þgure in color.) 140 ANNALS OF THE

  7. Window of Opportunity for New Disease Surveillance: Developing Keyword Lists for Monitoring Mental Health and Injury Through Syndromic Surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauper, Ursula; Chen, Jian-Hua; Lin, Shao

    2017-04-01

    Studies have documented the impact that hurricanes have on mental health and injury rates before, during, and after the event. Since timely tracking of these disease patterns is crucial to disaster planning, response, and recovery, syndromic surveillance keyword filters were developed by the New York State Department of Health to study the short- and long-term impacts of Hurricane Sandy. Emergency department syndromic surveillance is recognized as a valuable tool for informing public health activities during and immediately following a disaster. Data typically consist of daily visit reports from hospital emergency departments (EDs) of basic patient data and free-text chief complaints. To develop keyword lists, comparisons were made with existing CDC categories and then integrated with lists from the New York City and New Jersey health departments in a collaborative effort. Two comprehensive lists were developed, each containing multiple subcategories and over 100 keywords for both mental health and injury. The data classifiers using these keywords were used to assess impacts of Sandy on mental health and injuries in New York State. The lists will be validated by comparing the ED chief complaint keyword with the final ICD diagnosis code. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;11:173-178).

  8. [Winter surveillance of cold exposure effects on health among the homeless population in the Paris area: data from the Coordinated Health Surveillance of Emergency Department network (Organisation de la surveillance coordonnée des urgences [Oscour(®)])].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouquette, A; Mandereau-Bruno, L; Baffert, E; Laaidi, K; Josseran, L; Isnard, H

    2011-12-01

    A program for helping homeless individuals in winter is implemented from November 1(st) to March 31(st) each year in France. Its aim is to prevent morbidity and mortality in this population during cold spells and periods of severe cold. A health surveillance system of the homeless population in the Paris area has been proposed to evaluate the effectiveness of the program and to alert decision-makers if an unusual increase in cold-weather effects is observed. The goal of this study was the creation of an indicator for the proposed surveillance system based on emergency department activity in the Paris area (Oscour(®) Network - Organisation de la surveillance coordonnée des urgences). The winter 2007-2008 computer medical files of 11 emergency departments in the Paris area were examined to confirm diagnosis and ascertain patient-homelessness for each patient visit which was selected from the Oscour(®) database by the patient chief-complaint or diagnosis code referring to hypothermia or frostbites. The proposed indicator is based on the maximization of three criteria: the positive predictive value, the proportion of people identified as being homeless and the number of emergency department visits. A Shewhart control chart was applied to the indicator for the four winters between 2005 and 2009 in the Paris area. Values beyond the statistical threshold would indicate a need for an adjustment to the program strategy. Two hundred and sixteen medical files were analyzed. An indicator was created, "number of emergency department visits of 15 to 69-years-old persons with chief-complaint or diagnosis code referring to hypothermia". It had a positive predictive value estimated near 85 % and identified 61.7 % people as being homeless. In the winter of 2008-2009, the statistical threshold was reached in December during the first cold spell, and again at the beginning of January during a period of severe cold. Our results support the use of this health indicator

  9. Occupational health surveillance: a means to identify work-related risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froines, J R; Dellenbaugh, C A; Wegman, D H

    1986-09-01

    The lack of successful disease surveillance methods has resulted in few reliable estimates of workplace-related disease. Hazard surveillance--the ongoing assessment of chemical use and worker exposure to the chemicals--is presented as a way to supplement occupational disease surveillance. Existing OSHA (Occupational Safety and Health Administration) and NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Health) data systems are adapted to this function to characterize the distribution and type of hazardous industry in Los Angeles County. A new method is developed for ranking potentially hazardous industries in the county using actual exposure measurements from federal OSHA compliance inspections. The strengths of the different systems are presented along with considerations of industrial employment and types of specific chemical exposures. Applications for information from hazard surveillance are discussed in terms of intervention, monitoring exposure control, planning, research, and as a complement to disease surveillance.

  10. The role of the pharmaceutical animal health industry in post-marketing surveillance of resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lens, S

    1993-06-01

    The pharmaceutical animal health industry must be committed to the total life cycle of products, i.e. during both the pre- and post-marketing period. Support of antibacterial agents during the postmarketing period is not restricted to maintaining a well-established distribution and promotion system. Care has to be taken continuously to maintain and/or improve the quality, safety (for user, target animal and environment) and clinical efficacy. The pharmaceutical industry contributes to this by: 1. Introducing antibacterials in different animal species for the most effective disease condition only and by ensuring the veterinary profession is informed about relevant findings on: a. the mechanism of action; b. pharmacodynamic properties; c. pharmacokinetic properties (plasma, target tissue); d. clinical efficacy data and in vitro sensitivity data; e. valid species-specific MIC breakpoints; f. precise dose and treatment regime. 2. Updating on a regular basis on: a. new findings on the mechanism of action (in vitro and in vivo); b. the optimal use program in the light of changes in animal husbandry, farm management and epidemiology on national and international level; c. adjustment of species-specific MIC breakpoints when necessary. 3. Providing continuous information in collaboration with animal health laboratories about: a. clinical field surveillance for efficacy (national, international); b. in vitro sensitivity/resistance surveillance (national, international); c. use of in vitro data to support prediction of in vivo efficacy. Surveillance of resistance, in vitro, is therefore part of a package of information needed on a routine basis by the pharmaceutical industry to allow the best possible use of antibacterials and to minimize induction of resistance.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. Evaluation of the surveillance program of Streptococcus agalactiae in Danish dairy herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, H. J.; Pedersen, L. H.; Aarestrup, Frank Møller

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the Danish surveillance program of Streptococcus agalactiae in dairy herds with respect to 1) fluctuation over time of the presence of S. agalactiae in bulk tank milk, 2) sensitivity and specificity of the bacteriological method used, and 3) contamination...... the isolates. Streptococcus agalactiae was found in eight of 96 herds in which S. agalactiae had never previously been found during the surveillance program. Streptococcus agalactiae was not found in all seven sampling rounds in any of the eight herds. Comparing the approved method with supplemental findings...

  12. Strengthening Acute Flaccid Paralysis Surveillance through the Village Polio Volunteers Program in Somalia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbaeyi, Chukwuma; Mohamed, Abdinoor; Owino, Brian Ogola; Mengistu, Kumlachew F; Ehrhardt, Derek; Elsayed, Eltayeb Ahmed

    2018-03-02

    Surveillance for cases of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) is a key strategy adopted for the eradication of polio. Detection of poliovirus circulation is often predicated on the ability to identify AFP cases and test their stool specimens for poliovirus infection in a timely manner. The Village Polio Volunteers (VPV) program was established in 2013 in a bid to strengthen polio eradication activities in Somalia, including AFP surveillance, given the country's vulnerability to polio outbreaks. To assess the impact of the VPV program on AFP surveillance, we determined case counts, case-reporting sources, and non-polio AFP rates in the years before and after program introduction, i.e., 2011-2016. We also compared the stool adequacy and timeliness of cases reported by VPVs to those reported by other sources. In the years following program introduction, VPVs accounted for a high proportion of AFP cases reported in Somalia. AFP case counts rose from 148 cases in 2012, the year before program introduction, to 279 cases in 2015, during which VPVs accounted for 40% of reported cases. Further, the non-polio AFP rate improved from 2.8 cases in 2012 to 4.8 cases per 100,000 persons Somalia, similar community-based programs could play a crucial role in enhancing surveillance activities in countries with limited healthcare infrastructure.

  13. ORNL Surplus Facilities Management Program maintenance and surveillance plan for fiscal year 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coobs, J.H.; Myrick, T.E.

    1986-10-01

    The Surplus Facilities Management Program (SFMP) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is part of the Department of Energy's (DOE) National SFMP, administered by the Richland Operations Office. The purpose and objectives of the national program are set forth in the current SFMP Program Plan and include (1) the maintenance and surveillance of facilities awaiting decommissioning, (2) planning for the orderly decommissioning of these facilities, and (3) implementation of a program to accomplish the facility disposition in a safe, cost-effective, and timely manner. As outlined in the national program plan, participating SFMP contractors are required to prepare a formal plan that documents the maintenance and surveillance (M and S) programs established for each site. This report has been prepared to provide this documentation for those facilties included in the ORNL SFMP

  14. 77 FR 64389 - Proposed Information Collection (Health Surveillance for a New Generation of U.S. Veterans...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-19

    ... Surveillance for a New Generation of U.S. Veterans); Comment Request AGENCY: Veterans Health Administration... Surveillance for a New Generation of U.S. Veterans Survey. OMB Control Number: 2900-0722 Type of Review: Extension of a currently approved collection. Abstract: The Health Surveillance for a New Generation of U.S...

  15. How to Define the Content of a Job-Specific Worker's Health Surveillance for Hospital Physicians?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruitenburg, Martijn M.; Frings-Dresen, Monique H. W.; Sluiter, Judith K.

    2016-01-01

    Background: A job-specific Worker's Health Surveillance (WHS) for hospital physicians is a preventive occupational health strategy aiming at early detection of their diminished work-related health in order to improve or maintain physician's health and quality of care. This study addresses what steps

  16. LWR surveillance dosimetry improvement program: PSF metallurgical blind test results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kam, F.B.K.; Maerker, R.E.; Stallmann, F.W.

    1984-01-01

    The metallurgical irradiation experiment at the Oak Ridge Research Reactor Poolside Facility (ORR-PSF) was designed as a benchmark to test the accuracy of radiation embrittlement predictions in the pressure vessel wall of light water reactors on the basis of results from surveillance capsules. The PSF metallurgical Blind Test is concerned with the simulated surveillance capsule (SSC) and the simulated pressure vessel capsule (SPVC). The data from the ORR-PSF benchmark experiment are the basis for comparison with the predictions made by participants of the metallurgical ''Blind Test''. The Blind Test required the participants to predict the embrittlement of the irradiated specimen based only on dosimetry and metallurgical data from the SSC1 capsule. This exercise included both the prediction of damage fluence and the prediction of embrittlement based on the predicted fluence. A variety of prediction methodologies was used by the participants. No glaring biases or other deficiencies were found, but neither were any of the methods clearly superior to the others. Closer analysis shows a rather complex and poorly understood relation between fluence and material damage. Many prediction formulas can give an adequate approximation, but further improvement of the prediction methodology is unlikely at this time given the many unknown factors. Instead, attention should be focused on determining realistic uncertainties for the predicted material changes. The Blind Test comparisons provide some clues for the size of these uncertainties. In particular, higher uncertainties must be assigned to materials whose chemical composition lies outside the data set for which the prediction formula was obtained. 16 references, 14 figures, 5 tables

  17. SERVAL: a new framework for the evaluation of animal health surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewe, J A; Hoinville, L J; Cook, A J C; Floyd, T; Gunn, G; Stärk, K D C

    2015-02-01

    Animal health surveillance programmes may change in response to altering requirements or perceived weaknesses but are seldom subjected to any formal evaluation to ensure that they provide valuable information in an efficient manner. The literature on the evaluation of animal health surveillance systems is sparse, and those that are published may be unstructured and therefore incomplete. To address this gap, we have developed SERVAL, a SuRveillance EVALuation framework, which is novel and aims to be generic and therefore suitable for the evaluation of any animal health surveillance system. The inclusion of socio-economic criteria ensures that economic evaluation is an integral part of this framework. SERVAL was developed with input from a technical workshop of international experts followed by a consultation process involving providers and users of surveillance and evaluation data. It has been applied to a range of case studies encompassing different surveillance and evaluation objectives. Here, we describe the development, structure and application of the SERVAL framework. We discuss users' experiences in applying SERVAL to evaluate animal health surveillance systems in Great Britain. © 2013 Crown Copyright. This article is published with the permission of the Controller of HMSO and the Queen's Printer for Scotland.

  18. Establishment of a Canine Rabies Burden in Haiti through the Implementation of a Novel Surveillance Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Ryan M; Reses, Hannah; Franka, Richard; Dilius, Pierre; Fenelon, Natael; Orciari, Lillian; Etheart, Melissa; Destine, Apollon; Crowdis, Kelly; Blanton, Jesse D; Francisco, Calvin; Ludder, Fleurinord; Del Rio Vilas, Victor; Haim, Joseph; Millien, Max

    2015-01-01

    The Republic of Haiti is one of only several countries in the Western Hemisphere in which canine rabies is still endemic. Estimation methods have predicted that 130 human deaths occur per year, yet existing surveillance mechanisms have detected few of these rabies cases. Likewise, canine rabies surveillance capacity has had only limited capacity, detecting only two rabid dogs per year, on average. In 2013, Haiti initiated a community-based animal rabies surveillance program comprised of two components: active community bite investigation and passive animal rabies investigation. From January 2013 –December 2014, 778 rabies suspect animals were reported for investigation. Rabies was laboratory-confirmed in 70 animals (9%) and an additional 36 cases were identified based on clinical diagnosis (5%), representing an 18-fold increase in reporting of rabid animals compared to the three years before the program was implemented. Dogs were the most frequent rabid animal (90%). Testing and observation ruled out rabies in 61% of animals investigated. A total of 639 bite victims were reported to the program and an additional 364 bite victims who had not sought medical care were identified during the course of investigations. Only 31% of people with likely rabies exposures had initiated rabies post-exposure prophylaxis prior to the investigation. Rabies is a neglected disease in-part due to a lack of surveillance and understanding about the burden. The surveillance methods employed by this program established a much higher burden of canine rabies in Haiti than previously recognized. The active, community-based bite investigations identified numerous additional rabies exposures and bite victims were referred for appropriate medical care, averting potential human rabies deaths. The use of community-based rabies surveillance programs such as HARSP should be considered in canine rabies endemic countries. PMID:26600437

  19. Measurement of sexual health in the U.S.: an inventory of nationally representative surveys and surveillance systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivankovich, Megan B; Leichliter, Jami S; Douglas, John M

    2013-01-01

    To identify opportunities within nationally representative surveys and surveillance systems to measure indicators of sexual health, we reviewed and inventoried existing data systems that include variables relevant to sexual health. We searched for U.S. nationally representative surveys and surveillance systems that provided individual-level sexual health data. We assessed the methods of each data system and catalogued them by their measurement of the following domains of sexual health: knowledge, communication, attitudes, service access and utilization, sexual behaviors, relationships, and adverse health outcomes. We identified 18 U.S.-focused, nationally representative data systems: six assessing the general population, seven focused on special populations, and five addressing health outcomes. While these data systems provide a rich repository of information from which to assess national measures of sexual health, they present several limitations. Most importantly, apart from data on service utilization, routinely gathered, national data are currently focused primarily on negative aspects of sexual health (e.g., risk behaviors and adverse health outcomes) rather than more positive attributes (e.g., healthy communication and attitudes, and relationship quality). Nationally representative data systems provide opportunities to measure a broad array of domains of sexual health. However, current measurement gaps indicate the need to modify existing surveys, where feasible and appropriate, and develop new tools to include additional indicators that address positive domains of sexual health of the U.S. population across the life span. Such data can inform the development of effective policy actions, services, prevention programs, and resource allocation to advance sexual health.

  20. Development of a supplemental surveillance program for reactor pressure vessel thermal annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Server, W.L.; Rosinski, S.T.

    1997-01-01

    The technical decision to thermally anneal a nuclear reactor pressure vessel (RPV) depends upon the level of embrittlement in the RPV steels, the amount of recovery of fracture toughness properties expected from the anneal, and the rate of re-embrittlement after the vessel is placed back into service. The recovery of Charpy impact toughness properties after annealing can be estimated initially by using a recovery model developed using experimental measurements of recovery (such as that developed by Eason et al. for U.S. vessel materials). However, actual validation measurements on plant-specific archived vessel materials (hopefully in the existing surveillance program) are needed; otherwise, irradiated surrogate materials, essentially the same as the RPV steels or bounding in expected behavior, must be utilized. The efficient use of any of these materials requires a supplemental surveillance program focused at both recovery and reirradiation embrittlement. Reconstituted Charpy specimens and new surveillance capsules will most likely be needed as part of this supplemental surveillance program. A new version of ASTM E 509 has recently been approved which provides guidance on thermal annealing in general and specifically for the development of an annealing supplemental surveillance program. The post-anneal re-embrittlement properties are crucial for continued plant operation, and the use of a re-embrittlement model, such as the lateral shift approach, may be overly conservative. This paper illustrates the new ASTM E 509 Standard Guide methodology for an annealing supplemental surveillance program. As an example, the proposed program for the Palisades RPV beltline steels is presented which covers the time from annealing to the end of operating license and beyond, if license renewal is pursued. The Palisades nuclear power plant RPV was planned to be annealed in 1998, but that plant is currently being re-evaluated. The proposed anneal was planned to be conducted at a

  1. Opportunities for Enhanced Strategic Use of Surveys, Medical Records, and Program Data for HIV Surveillance of Key Populations: Scoping Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baral, Stefan D; Edwards, Jessie K; Zadrozny, Sabrina; Hargreaves, James; Zhao, Jinkou; Sabin, Keith

    2018-01-01

    Background Normative guidelines from the World Health Organization recommend tracking strategic information indicators among key populations. Monitoring progress in the global response to the HIV epidemic uses indicators put forward by the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS. These include the 90-90-90 targets that require a realignment of surveillance data, routinely collected program data, and medical record data, which historically have developed separately. Objective The aim of this study was to describe current challenges for monitoring HIV-related strategic information indicators among key populations ((men who have sex with men [MSM], people in prisons and other closed settings, people who inject drugs, sex workers, and transgender people) and identify future opportunities to enhance the use of surveillance data, programmatic data, and medical record data to describe the HIV epidemic among key populations and measure the coverage of HIV prevention, care, and treatment programs. Methods To provide a historical perspective, we completed a scoping review of the expansion of HIV surveillance among key populations over the past three decades. To describe current efforts, we conducted a review of the literature to identify published examples of SI indicator estimates among key populations. To describe anticipated challenges and future opportunities to improve measurement of strategic information indicators, particularly from routine program and health data, we consulted participants of the Third Global HIV Surveillance Meeting in Bangkok, where the 2015 World Health Organization strategic information guidelines were launched. Results There remains suboptimal alignment of surveillance and programmatic data, as well as routinely collected medical records to facilitate the reporting of the 90-90-90 indicators for HIV among key populations. Studies (n=3) with estimates of all three 90-90-90 indicators rely on cross-sectional survey data. Programmatic data and

  2. European surveillance network for influenza in pigs: surveillance programs, diagnostic tools and Swine influenza virus subtypes identified in 14 European countries from 2010 to 2013.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaëlle Simon

    Full Text Available Swine influenza causes concern for global veterinary and public health officials. In continuing two previous networks that initiated the surveillance of swine influenza viruses (SIVs circulating in European pigs between 2001 and 2008, a third European Surveillance Network for Influenza in Pigs (ESNIP3, 2010-2013 aimed to expand widely the knowledge of the epidemiology of European SIVs. ESNIP3 stimulated programs of harmonized SIV surveillance in European countries and supported the coordination of appropriate diagnostic tools and subtyping methods. Thus, an extensive virological monitoring, mainly conducted through passive surveillance programs, resulted in the examination of more than 9 000 herds in 17 countries. Influenza A viruses were detected in 31% of herds examined from which 1887 viruses were preliminary characterized. The dominating subtypes were the three European enzootic SIVs: avian-like swine H1N1 (53.6%, human-like reassortant swine H1N2 (13% and human-like reassortant swine H3N2 (9.1%, as well as pandemic A/H1N1 2009 (H1N1pdm virus (10.3%. Viruses from these four lineages co-circulated in several countries but with very different relative levels of incidence. For instance, the H3N2 subtype was not detected at all in some geographic areas whereas it was still prevalent in other parts of Europe. Interestingly, H3N2-free areas were those that exhibited highest frequencies of circulating H1N2 viruses. H1N1pdm viruses were isolated at an increasing incidence in some countries from 2010 to 2013, indicating that this subtype has become established in the European pig population. Finally, 13.9% of the viruses represented reassortants between these four lineages, especially between previous enzootic SIVs and H1N1pdm. These novel viruses were detected at the same time in several countries, with increasing prevalence. Some of them might become established in pig herds, causing implications for zoonotic infections.

  3. The insertion of the environmental health surveillance in the unified health system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edenilo Baltazar Barreira Filho

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The integration of environmental monitoring activities in the Unified Health System (SUS shows some characteristics that differentiate it from the practice of epidemiological surveillance. This occurs mainly because much data on exposure to environmental factors is obtained outside the health sector and the adoption of actions that seek to control and/or prevent requires, in most cases, an intra andintersectoral understanding and articulation, since the health sector is not able, by itself, to provide answers to environmental health issues.In recent years, there has been an increasingly consolidation of the field of environmental health, which includes the area of public health, accustomed to scientific knowledge, to the formulation of public policies and the corresponding interventions (actions related to the interaction between human health and both natural and anthropic environmental factors, which determine, modulate and influence such interaction, in order to improve the quality of human life from the point of view of sustainability(1.As agreed at the Ist Seminar of the National Environmental Health, held in October 2005 and consolidated in the first National Conference on Environmental Health, held in December 2009, it is understood as an area of intersectoral and interdisciplinarypractice focused on the outcomes, in human health, of ecogeossocialrelations between man and environment(1.Accordingly, the Ministry of Health has been implementing, throughout the country, a Surveillance System in Environmental Health (SINVISA, seeking the improvement of this “model” of activities, establishing expertise into the three levels of government, aiming to consolidate the practice of Environmental Health within the SUS.Normative Instruction No. 1, March 7, 2005, creates SINVISA, establishes the area of action, the scope of the three levels of management within SUS and defines the Environmental Health Surveillance as a set of actions and services

  4. Assessing the public health impact of using poison center data for public health surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Alice; Law, Royal; Lyons, Rebecca; Choudhary, Ekta; Wolkin, Amy; Schier, Joshua

    2017-12-13

    The National Poison Data System (NPDS) is a database and surveillance system for US poison centers (PCs) call data. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and American Association of Poison Control Centers (AAPCC) use NPDS to identify incidents of potential public health significance. State health departments are notified by CDC of incidents identified by NPDS to be of potential public health significance. Our objective was to describe the public health impact of CDC's notifications and the use of NPDS data for surveillance. We described how NPDS data informed three public health responses: the Deepwater Horizon incident, national exposures to laundry detergent pods, and national exposures to e-cigarettes. Additionally, we extracted survey results of state epidemiologists regarding NPDS incident notification follow-up from 1 January 2015 to 31 December 2016 to assess current public health application of NPDS data using Epi Info 7.2 and analyzed data using SAS 9.3. We assessed whether state health departments were aware of incidents before notification, what actions were taken, and whether CDC notifications contributed to actions. NPDS data provided evidence for industry changes to improve laundry detergent pod containers safety and highlighted the need to regulate e-cigarette sale and manufacturing. NPDS data were used to improve situational awareness during the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill. Of 59 health departments and PCs who responded to CDC notifications about anomalies (response rate = 49.2%), 27 (46%) reported no previous awareness of the incident, and 20 (34%) said that notifications contributed to public health action. Monitoring NPDS data for anomalies can identify emerging public health threats and provide evidence-based science to support public health action and policy changes.

  5. Integrating animal health and food safety surveillance data from slaughterhouse control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, J A; Silva, P

    2013-08-01

    Surveillance at the slaughterhouse level for animal health and food safety purposes encompasses examination for the presence of pathology, pathogens, drug residues, chemical contaminants and antimicrobial resistance. Government, industry and academia are the primary proponents of such surveillance. A variety of policies and policy instruments from voluntary to legislative may be applied to promote or obligate participation. Efforts to integrate data across such diverse organisations encounter significant legal, logistical and financial challenges. Enhancement of policies to encourage effective integration of animal health and food safety surveillance data from slaughterhouse control should promote: a long-term approach; collaboration among government, industry and academia; application of a risk-based scheme; and transparent public access to data, with generation of consumer-oriented communications derived from the data. A strong case can be made that the complementary pursuit of both sustainable animal health and food safety can continue to be aided by surveillance at the slaughterhouse level.

  6. Surveillance of Washington OSHA exposure data to identify uncharacterized or emerging occupational health hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lofgren, Don J; Reeb-Whitaker, Carolyn K; Adams, Darrin

    2010-07-01

    Chemical substance exposure data from the Washington State Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) program were reviewed to determine if inspections conducted as a result of a report of a hazard from a complainant or referent may alert the agency to uncharacterized or emerging health hazards. Exposure and other electronically stored data from 6890 health inspection reports conducted between April 2003 and August 2008 were extracted from agency records. A total of 515 (7%) inspections with one or more personal airborne chemical substance samples were identified for further study. Inspections by report of a hazard and by targeting were compared for the following: number of inspections, number and percentage of inspections with workers exposed to substances above an agency's permissible exposure limit, types of industries inspected, and number and type of chemical substances assessed. Report of a hazard inspections documented work sites with worker overexposure at the same rate as agency targeted inspections (approximately 35% of the time), suggesting that complainants and referents are a credible pool of observers capable of directing the agency to airborne chemical substance hazards. Report of a hazard inspections were associated with significantly broader distribution of industries as well as a greater variety of chemical substance exposures than were targeted inspections. Narrative text that described business type and processes inspected was more useful than NAICS codes alone and critical in identifying processes and industries that may be associated with new hazards. Finally, previously identified emerging hazards were found among the report of a hazard data. These findings indicate that surveillance of OSHA inspection data can be a valid tool to identify uncharacterized and emerging health hazards. Additional research is needed to develop criteria for objective review and prioritization of the data for intervention. Federal OSHA and other state

  7. Development of a web-based epidemiological surveillance system with health system response for improving maternal and newborn health: Field-testing in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liabsuetrakul, Tippawan; Prappre, Tagoon; Pairot, Pakamas; Oumudee, Nurlisa; Islam, Monir

    2017-06-01

    Surveillance systems are yet to be integrated with health information systems for improving the health of pregnant mothers and their newborns, particularly in developing countries. This study aimed to develop a web-based epidemiological surveillance system for maternal and newborn health with integration of action-oriented responses and automatic data analysis with results presentations and to assess the system acceptance by nurses and doctors involved in various hospitals in southern Thailand. Freeware software and scripting languages were used. The system can be run on different platforms, and it is accessible via various electronic devices. Automatic data analysis with results presentations in the forms of graphs, tables and maps was part of the system. A multi-level security system was incorporated into the program. Most doctors and nurses involved in the study felt the system was easy to use and useful. This system can be integrated into country routine reporting system for monitoring maternal and newborn health and survival.

  8. Detection of imminent vein graft occlusion: what is the optimal surveillance program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinder, Chelsey N; Bandyk, Dennis F

    2009-12-01

    The prediction of infrainguinal vein bypass failure remains an inexact judgment. Patient demographics, technical factors, and vascular laboratory graft surveillance testing are helpful in identifying a high-risk graft cohort. The optimal surveillance program to detect the bypass at risk for imminent occlusion continues to be developed, but required elements are known and include clinical assessment for new or changes in limb ischemia symptoms, measurement of ankle and/or toe systolic pressure, and duplex ultrasound imaging of the bypass graft. Duplex ultrasound assessment of bypass hemodynamics may be the most accurate method to detect imminent vein graft occlusion. The finding of low graft flow during intraoperative assessment or at a scheduled surveillance study predicts failure; and if associated with an occlusive lesion, a graft revision can prolong patency. The most common abnormality producing graft failure is conduit stenosis caused by myointimal hyperplasia; and the majority can be repaired by an endovascular intervention. Frequency of testing to detect the failing bypass should be individualized to the patient, the type of arterial bypass, and prior duplex ultrasound scan findings. The focus of surveillance is on identification of the low-flow arterial bypass and timely repair of detected critical stenosis defined by duplex velocity spectra criteria of a peak systolic velocity 300 cm/s and peak systolic velocity ratio across the stenosis >3.5-correlating with >70% diameter-reducing stenosis. When conducted appropriately, a graft surveillance program should result in an unexpected graft failure rate of <3% per year.

  9. Improving work functioning and mental health of health care employees using an e-mental health approach to workers' health surveillance: pretest-posttest study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ketelaar, Sarah M.; Nieuwenhuijsen, Karen; Bolier, Linda; Smeets, Odile; Sluiter, Judith K.

    2014-01-01

    Mental health complaints are quite common in health care employees and can have adverse effects on work functioning. The aim of this study was to evaluate an e-mental health (EMH) approach to workers' health surveillance (WHS) for nurses and allied health professionals. Using the waiting-list group

  10. A Web-Based, Hospital-Wide Health Care-Associated Bloodstream Infection Surveillance and Classification System: Development and Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Yi-Ju; Wu, Jung-Hsuan; Lin, Hui-Chi; Chen, Ming-Yuan; Ping, Xiao-Ou; Sun, Chun-Chuan; Shang, Rung-Ji; Sheng, Wang-Huei; Chen, Yee-Chun; Lai, Feipei; Chang, Shan-Chwen

    2015-09-21

    Surveillance of health care-associated infections is an essential component of infection prevention programs, but conventional systems are labor intensive and performance dependent. To develop an automatic surveillance and classification system for health care-associated bloodstream infection (HABSI), and to evaluate its performance by comparing it with a conventional infection control personnel (ICP)-based surveillance system. We developed a Web-based system that was integrated into the medical information system of a 2200-bed teaching hospital in Taiwan. The system automatically detects and classifies HABSIs. In this study, the number of computer-detected HABSIs correlated closely with the number of HABSIs detected by ICP by department (n=20; r=.999 Psystem performed excellently with regard to sensitivity (98.16%), specificity (99.96%), positive predictive value (95.81%), and negative predictive value (99.98%). The system enabled decreasing the delay in confirmation of HABSI cases, on average, by 29 days. This system provides reliable and objective HABSI data for quality indicators, improving the delay caused by a conventional surveillance system.

  11. Detection capacity, information gaps and the design of surveillance programs for invasive forest pests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denys Yemshanov; Frank Koch; Yakov Ben-Haim; William Smith

    2010-01-01

    Integrated pest risk maps and their underlying assessments provide broad guidance for establishing surveillance programs for invasive species, but they rarely account for knowledge gaps regarding the pest of interest or how these can be reduced. In this study we demonstrate how the somewhat competing notions of robustness to uncertainty and potential knowledge gains...

  12. 10 CFR Appendix H to Part 50 - Reactor Vessel Material Surveillance Program Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... arrangement for data sharing between plants. d. There must be a contingency plan to assure that the... Requirements I. Introduction II. Definitions III. Surveillance Program Criteria IV. Report of Test Results I..., Rockville, MD 20852-2738. II. Definitions All terms used in this appendix have the same meaning as in...

  13. 9 CFR 145.15 - Diagnostic surveillance program for low pathogenic avian influenza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... low pathogenic avian influenza. 145.15 Section 145.15 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT... pathogenic avian influenza. (a) The Official State Agency must develop a diagnostic surveillance program for H5/H7 low pathogenic avian influenza for all poultry in the State. The exact provisions of the...

  14. [Training programs for staff at local Infectious Disease Surveillance Centers: the needs and usefulness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Tomoyuki; Kamiya, Nobuyuki; Yahata, Yuichiro; Ozeki, Yukie; Kishimoto, Tsuyoshi; Nadaoka, Yoko; Nakanishi, Yoshiko; Yoshimura, Takesumi; Shimada, Tomoe; Tada, Yuki; Shirabe, Komei; Kozawa, Kunihisa

    2013-03-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the need for and usefulness of training programs for Local Infectious Disease Surveillance Center (LIDSC) staff. A structured questionnaire survey was conducted to assess the needs and usefulness of training programs. The subjects of the survey were participants of a workshop held after an annual conference for the LIDSC staff. Data on demographic information, the necessity of training programs for LIDSC staff, the themes and contents of the training program, self-assessment of knowledge on epidemiology and statistics were covered by the questionnaire. A total of 55 local government officials responded to the questionnaire (response rate: 100%). Among these, 95% of participants believed that the training program for the LIDSC staff was necessary. Basic statistical analysis (85%), descriptive epidemiology (65%), outline of epidemiology (60%), interpretation of surveillance data (65%), background and objectives of national infectious disease surveillance in Japan (60%), methods of field epidemiology (60%), and methods of analysis data (51%) were selected by over half of the respondents as suitable themes for training programs. A total of 34 LIDSC staff answered the self-assessment question on knowledge of epidemiology. A majority of respondents selected "a little" or "none" for all questions about knowledge. Only a few respondents had received education in epidemiology. The results of this study indicate that LIDSC staff have basic demands for fundamental and specialized education to improve their work. Considering the current situation regarding the capacity of LIDSC staff, these training programs should be started immediately.

  15. Mobile phone-based mHealth approaches for public health surveillance in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkel, Johanna; Krämer, Alexander; Krumkamp, Ralf; May, Jürgen; Fobil, Julius

    2014-11-12

    Whereas mobile phone-based surveillance has the potential to provide real-time validated data for disease clustering and prompt respond and investigation, little evidence is available on current practice in sub-Sahara Africa. The objective of this review was to examine mobile phone-based mHealth interventions for Public Health surveillance in the region. We conducted electronic search in MEDLINE, EMBASE, IEE Xplore, African Index Medicus (AIM), BioMed Central, PubMed Central (PMC), the Public Library of Science (PLoS) and IRIS for publications used in the review. In all, a total of nine studies were included which focused on infectious disease surveillance of malaria (n = 3), tuberculosis (n = 1) and influenza-like illnesses (n = 1) as well as on non-infectious disease surveillance of child malnutrition (n = 2), maternal health (n = 1) and routine surveillance of various diseases and symptoms (n = 1). Our review revealed that mobile phone-based surveillance projects in the sub-Saharan African countries are on small scale, fragmented and not well documented. We conclude by advocating for a strong drive for more research in the applied field as well as a better reporting of lessons learned in order to create an epistemic community to help build a more evidence-based field of practice in mHealth surveillance in the region.

  16. Mobile Phone-Based mHealth Approaches for Public Health Surveillance in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Brinkel

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Whereas mobile phone-based surveillance has the potential to provide real-time validated data for disease clustering and prompt respond and investigation, little evidence is available on current practice in sub-Sahara Africa. The objective of this review was to examine mobile phone-based mHealth interventions for Public Health surveillance in the region. We conducted electronic search in MEDLINE, EMBASE, IEE Xplore, African Index Medicus (AIM, BioMed Central, PubMed Central (PMC, the Public Library of Science (PLoS and IRIS for publications used in the review. In all, a total of nine studies were included which focused on infectious disease surveillance of malaria (n = 3, tuberculosis (n = 1 and influenza-like illnesses (n = 1 as well as on non-infectious disease surveillance of child malnutrition (n = 2, maternal health (n = 1 and routine surveillance of various diseases and symptoms (n = 1. Our review revealed that mobile phone-based surveillance projects in the sub-Saharan African countries are on small scale, fragmented and not well documented. We conclude by advocating for a strong drive for more research in the applied field as well as a better reporting of lessons learned in order to create an epistemic community to help build a more evidence-based field of practice in mHealth surveillance in the region.

  17. Taking care of hospital physicians: Development and implementation of a job-specific workers’ health surveillance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruitenburg, M.M.

    2016-01-01

    A Workers’ Health Surveillance (WHS) can serve as an occupational health strategy to maintain or promote work-related health and work functioning of employees. The aims of this thesis were to assess the evidence-based content of a job-specific WHS for hospital physicians (medical specialists and

  18. A mobile field-work data collection system for the wireless era of health surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsell, Marianne; Sjögren, Petteri; Renard, Matthew; Johansson, Olle

    2011-03-01

    In many countries or regions the capacity of health care resources is below the needs of the population and new approaches for health surveillance are needed. Innovative projects, utilizing wireless communication technology, contribute to reliable methods for field-work data collection and reporting to databases. The objective was to describe a new version of a wireless IT-support system for field-work data collection and administration. The system requirements were drawn from the design objective and translated to system functions. The system architecture was based on fieldwork experiences and administrative requirements. The Smartphone devices were HTC Touch Diamond2s, while the system was based on a platform with Microsoft .NET components, and a SQL Server 2005 with Microsoft Windows Server 2003 operating system. The user interfaces were based on .NET programming, and Microsoft Windows Mobile operating system. A synchronization module enabled download of field data to the database, via a General Packet Radio Services (GPRS) to a Local Area Network (LAN) interface. The field-workers considered the here-described applications user-friendly and almost self-instructing. The office administrators considered that the back-office interface facilitated retrieval of health reports and invoice distribution. The current IT-support system facilitates short lead times from fieldwork data registration to analysis, and is suitable for various applications. The advantages of wireless technology, and paper-free data administration need to be increasingly emphasized in development programs, in order to facilitate reliable and transparent use of limited resources.

  19. Active animal health surveillance in European Union Member States: gaps and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisdorff, B; Schauer, B; Taylor, N; Rodríguez-Prieto, V; Comin, A; Brouwer, A; Dórea, F; Drewe, J; Hoinville, L; Lindberg, A; Martinez Avilés, M; Martínez-López, B; Peyre, M; Pinto Ferreira, J; Rushton, J; VAN Schaik, G; Stärk, K D C; Staubach, C; Vicente-Rubiano, M; Witteveen, G; Pfeiffer, D; Häsler, B

    2017-03-01

    Animal health surveillance enables the detection and control of animal diseases including zoonoses. Under the EU-FP7 project RISKSUR, a survey was conducted in 11 EU Member States and Switzerland to describe active surveillance components in 2011 managed by the public or private sector and identify gaps and opportunities. Information was collected about hazard, target population, geographical focus, legal obligation, management, surveillance design, risk-based sampling, and multi-hazard surveillance. Two countries were excluded due to incompleteness of data. Most of the 664 components targeted cattle (26·7%), pigs (17·5%) or poultry (16·0%). The most common surveillance objectives were demonstrating freedom from disease (43·8%) and case detection (26·8%). Over half of components applied risk-based sampling (57·1%), but mainly focused on a single population stratum (targeted risk-based) rather than differentiating between risk levels of different strata (stratified risk-based). About a third of components were multi-hazard (37·3%). Both risk-based sampling and multi-hazard surveillance were used more frequently in privately funded components. The study identified several gaps (e.g. lack of systematic documentation, inconsistent application of terminology) and opportunities (e.g. stratified risk-based sampling). The greater flexibility provided by the new EU Animal Health Law means that systematic evaluation of surveillance alternatives will be required to optimize cost-effectiveness.

  20. A four-year surveillance program for detection of Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine resistance in Honduras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo A Fontecha

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Countries could use the monitoring of drug resistance in malaria parasites as an effective early warning system to develop the timely response mechanisms that are required to avert the further spread of malaria. Drug resistance surveillance is essential in areas where no drug resistance has been reported, especially if neighbouring countries have previously reported resistance. Here, we present the results of a four-year surveillance program based on the sequencing of the pfcrt gene of Plasmodium falciparum populations from endemic areas of Honduras. All isolates were susceptible to chloroquine, as revealed by the pfcrt “CVMNK” genotype in codons 72-76.

  1. A four-year surveillance program for detection of Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine resistance in Honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontecha, Gustavo A; Sanchez, Ana L; Mendoza, Meisy; Banegas, Engels; Mejía-Torres, Rosa E

    2014-07-01

    Countries could use the monitoring of drug resistance in malaria parasites as an effective early warning system to develop the timely response mechanisms that are required to avert the further spread of malaria. Drug resistance surveillance is essential in areas where no drug resistance has been reported, especially if neighbouring countries have previously reported resistance. Here, we present the results of a four-year surveillance program based on the sequencing of the pfcrt gene of Plasmodium falciparum populations from endemic areas of Honduras. All isolates were susceptible to chloroquine, as revealed by the pfcrt "CVMNK" genotype in codons 72-76.

  2. The Necessity of Mobile Phone Technologies for Public Health Surveillance in Benin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaovi M. G. Hounmanou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional study was conducted in March 2016 to assess the need of mobile phone technologies for health surveillance and interventions in Benin. Questionnaires were administered to 130 individuals comprising 25 medical professionals, 33 veterinarians, and 72 respondents from the public. All respondents possess cell phones and 75%, 84%, and 100% of the public, medical professionals, and veterinarians, respectively, generally use them for medical purposes. 75% of respondents including 68% of medics, 84.8% of veterinarians, and 72.2% of the public acknowledged that the current surveillance systems are ineffective and do not capture and share real-time information. More than 92% of the all respondents confirmed that mobile phones have the potential to improve health surveillance in the country. All respondents reported adhering to a nascent project of mobile phone-based health surveillance and confirmed that there is no existing similar approach in the country. The most preferred methods by all respondents for effective implementation of such platform are phone calls (96.92% followed by SMS (49.23% and smart phone digital forms (41.53%. This study revealed urgent needs of mobile phone technologies for health surveillance and interventions in Benin for real-time surveillance and efficient disease prevention.

  3. The evolution of the federal funding policies for the public health surveillance component of Brazil's Unified Health System (SUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor Laerte Pinto Junior

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Health surveillance (HS is one of the key components of the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS. This article describes recent changes in health surveillance funding models and the role these changes have had in the reorganization and decentralization of health actions. Federal law no. 8.080 of 1990 defined health surveillance as a fundamental pillar of the SUS, and an exclusive fund with equitable distribution criteria was created in the Basic Operational Norm of 1996 to pay for health surveillance actions. This step facilitated the decentralization of health care at the municipal level, giving local authorities autonomy to plan and provide services. The Health Pact of 2006 and its regulation under federal decree No. 3252 in 2009 bolstered the processes of decentralization, regionalization and integration of health care. Further changes in the basic concepts of health surveillance around the world and in the funding policies negotiated by different spheres of government in Brazil have been catalysts for the process of HS institutionalization in recent years.

  4. The evolution of the federal funding policies for the public health surveillance component of Brazil's Unified Health System (SUS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Vitor Laerte; Cerbino Neto, José; Penna, Gerson Oliveira

    2014-12-01

    Health surveillance (HS) is one of the key components of the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS). This article describes recent changes in health surveillance funding models and the role these changes have had in the reorganization and decentralization of health actions. Federal law no. 8.080 of 1990 defined health surveillance as a fundamental pillar of the SUS, and an exclusive fund with equitable distribution criteria was created in the Basic Operational Norm of 1996 to pay for health surveillance actions. This step facilitated the decentralization of health care at the municipal level, giving local authorities autonomy to plan and provide services. The Health Pact of 2006 and its regulation under federal decree No. 3252 in 2009 bolstered the processes of decentralization, regionalization and integration of health care. Further changes in the basic concepts of health surveillance around the world and in the funding policies negotiated by different spheres of government in Brazil have been catalysts for the process of HS institutionalization in recent years.

  5. Master schedule for CY-1984 Hanford environmental surveillance routine sampling program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blumer, P.J.; Price, K.R.; Eddy, P.A.; Carlile, J.M.V.

    1983-12-01

    This report provides the current schedule of data collection for the routine Hanford environmental surveillance and ground-water Monitoring Programs at the Hanford Site. The purpose is to evaluate and report the levels of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants in the Hanford environs. The routine sampling schedule provided herein does not include samples that are planned to be collected during FY-1984 in support of special studies, special contractor support programs, or for quality control purposes

  6. Improving public health training and research capacity in Africa: a replicable model for linking training to health and socio-demographic surveillance data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill R. Williams

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Research training for public health professionals is key to the future of public health and policy in Africa. A growing number of schools of public health are connected to health and socio-demographic surveillance system field sites in developing countries, in Africa and Asia in particular. Linking training programs with these sites provides important opportunities to improve training, build local research capacity, foreground local health priorities, and increase the relevance of research to local health policy. Objective: To increase research training capacity in public health programs by providing targeted training to students and increasing the accessibility of existing data. Design: This report is a case study of an approach to linking public health research and training at the University of the Witwatersrand. We discuss the development of a sample training database from the Agincourt Health and Socio-demographic Surveillance System in South Africa and outline a concordant transnational intensive short course on longitudinal data analysis offered by the University of the Witwatersrand and the University of Colorado-Boulder. This case study highlights ways common barriers to linking research and training can be overcome. Results and Conclusions: This collaborative effort demonstrates that linking training to ongoing data collection can improve student research, accelerate student training, and connect students to an international network of scholars. Importantly, the approach can be adapted to other partnerships between schools of public health and longitudinal research sites.

  7. The Typhoid Fever Surveillance in Africa Program (TSAP): Clinical, Diagnostic, and Epidemiological Methodologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Kalckreuth, Vera; Konings, Frank; Aaby, Peter; Adu-Sarkodie, Yaw; Ali, Mohammad; Aseffa, Abraham; Baker, Stephen; Breiman, Robert F; Bjerregaard-Andersen, Morten; Clemens, John D; Crump, John A; Cruz Espinoza, Ligia Maria; Deerin, Jessica Fung; Gasmelseed, Nagla; Sow, Amy Gassama; Im, Justin; Keddy, Karen H; Cosmas, Leonard; May, Jürgen; Meyer, Christian G; Mintz, Eric D; Montgomery, Joel M; Olack, Beatrice; Pak, Gi Deok; Panzner, Ursula; Park, Se Eun; Rakotozandrindrainy, Raphaël; Schütt-Gerowitt, Heidi; Soura, Abdramane Bassiahi; Warren, Michelle R; Wierzba, Thomas F; Marks, Florian

    2016-03-15

    New immunization programs are dependent on data from surveillance networks and disease burden estimates to prioritize target areas and risk groups. Data regarding invasive Salmonella disease in sub-Saharan Africa are currently limited, thus hindering the implementation of preventive measures. The Typhoid Fever Surveillance in Africa Program (TSAP) was established by the International Vaccine Institute to obtain comparable incidence data on typhoid fever and invasive nontyphoidal Salmonella (iNTS) disease in sub-Saharan Africa through standardized surveillance in multiple countries. Standardized procedures were developed and deployed across sites for study site selection, patient enrolment, laboratory procedures, quality control and quality assurance, assessment of healthcare utilization and incidence calculations. Passive surveillance for bloodstream infections among febrile patients was initiated at thirteen sentinel sites in ten countries (Burkina Faso, Ethiopia, Ghana, Guinea-Bissau, Kenya, Madagascar, Senegal, South Africa, Sudan, and Tanzania). Each TSAP site conducted case detection using these standardized methods to isolate and identify aerobic bacteria from the bloodstream of febrile patients. Healthcare utilization surveys were conducted to adjust population denominators in incidence calculations for differing healthcare utilization patterns and improve comparability of incidence rates across sites. By providing standardized data on the incidence of typhoid fever and iNTS disease in sub-Saharan Africa, TSAP will provide vital input for targeted typhoid fever prevention programs. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Mark of the reconstitution process of the surveillance program of the CLV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero, J.; Hernandez, R.; Fernandez, F.

    2006-01-01

    The surveillance program of the reactor vessel of the nucleo electric central of Mexico it evaluates the mechanical state of the vessel, for it are had surveillance capsules with a series of witness test tubes, subjected to a similar or major neutron flux to that of the vessel. The objective is to evaluate in advance the embrittlement grade of the vessel in its design life. However the number of capsules with the witness test tubes it is only for the design life of the plant and at the moment the nucleo electric plants negotiate an extension of life of these, until for 20 years or more, of there the importance of this witness material that stores the information of the damage accumulated by irradiation. This material requires to be taken advantage after being rehearsed and the normative one settles down as obligatory to qualify the rebuilding process to obtain other 'new' Charpy test tubes that are again introduced in the reactor, reusing this material, as much for the surveillance program as for the extension of the plant life. In this work the qualification of the welding process by 'Stud Welding' for the rebuilding of Charpy test tubes of the surveillance program of the BWR reactor Unit 2 of the Laguna Verde Nucleo electric plant, Veracruz, Mexico is described. (Author)

  9. How can a climate change perspective be integrated into public health surveillance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascal, M; Viso, A C; Medina, S; Delmas, M C; Beaudeau, P

    2012-08-01

    Climate change may be considered as a key factor for environmental change, exposure to health risks and pathogens, consequently impairing the state of health among populations. Efficient health surveillance systems are required to support adaptation to climate change. However, despite a growing awareness, the public health surveillance sector has had very little involvement in the drafting of adaptation plans. This paper proposes a method to raise awareness about climate change in the public health community, to identify possible health risks and to assess the needs for reinforced health surveillance systems. A working group was set up comprising surveillance experts in the following fields: environmental health; chronic diseases and; infectious diseases. Their goal was to define common objectives, to propose a framework for risk analysis, and to apply it to relevant health risks in France. The framework created helped to organize available information on climate-sensitive health risks, making a distinction between three main determinants as follows: (1) environment; (2) individual and social behaviours; and (3) demography and health status. The process is illustrated using two examples: heatwaves and airborne allergens. Health surveillance systems can be used to trigger early warning systems, to create databases which improve scientific knowledge about the health impacts of climate change, to identify and prioritize needs for intervention and adaptation measures, and to evaluate these measures. Adaptation requires public health professionals to consider climate change as a concrete input parameter in their studies and to create partnerships with professionals from other disciplines. Copyright © 2012 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. [Health surveillance of workers with prior exposure to asbestos. Application in the metallurgy/metal mechanical field].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivolta, G; Della Foglia, M; Donelli, S; Riboldi, L

    2006-01-01

    To improve the health surveillance program for workers with a known previous exposure to asbestos in a big metallurgic-mechanical industry from Lombardy, the sources of risk and the different exposure levels hare been reconstructed based on specific jobs. The eligibility criteria and a specific work program including information and organization supports hare been established by a work group composed by health physicians, workers and industrial hygienists. The major goals of the program were: to listen and support each worker who perceives worries about his health status; to prevent, if possible, diseases, especially cancer, resulting from exposure; to document the existing injuries for legal compensation. The resulting actions consist of counselling; indication to follow an adequate life and work style; indication, based on specific request of worker, of sanitary checks of first or eventually second level.

  11. Evaluation of the national health surveillance program of workers previously exposed to asbestos in Spain (2008 Evaluación del programa integral de vigilancia de la salud de los trabajadores que han estado expuestos a amianto en España (2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montserrat García Gómez

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Although asbestos was banned in Spain in 2001, monitoring the health of previously-exposed workers is required. In 2002 the Ministry of Health and the autonomous regions of Spain planned a health surveillance program for workers exposed to asbestos (Programa de Vigilancia de la Salud de los Trabajadores Expuestos al Amianto [PIVISTEA] with employers' organizations, trade unions and scientific societies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the PIVISTEA to improve its effectiveness. Methods: A questionnaire with indicators for the year 2008 was sent to Spain's 17 autonomous regions, as well as to the autonomous cities of Ceuta and Melilla. The results were analyzed by evaluating the compliance of each program with the activities established by the PIVISTEA. Results: In December 2008, a total of 22,158 workers from 14 autonomous regions and 306 companies were included in the program. The program had been started in 88% of the regions but surveillance activities remained scarce in 24%. Fifty-seven percent of the autonomous regions (69% of the total number of workers provided the information requested. Seven autonomous regions provided data on the relationship between the diseases found and asbestos exposure. Only 5% of these diseases entitled affected individuals to receive compensation for occupational diseases. Conclusions: The health surveillance of workers previously exposed to asbestos in Spain, as well as medical-legal recognition of diseases caused by exposure at work, remain in adequate. Although the trend is positive, the effectiveness of many regional programs is limited, and inter-regional inequalities among affected workers have been detected.Objetivos: Después de la prohibición del amianto en España en 2001, resulta necesario vigilar la salud de los trabajadores expuestos en el pasado. En 2002, el Ministerio de Sanidad y las Comunidades Autónomas consensuaron un Programa de Vigilancia de la Salud de los Trabajadores

  12. Verifying Elimination Programs with a Special Emphasis on Cysticercosis Endpoints and Postelimination Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukwan Handali

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Methods are needed for determining program endpoints or postprogram surveillance for any elimination program. Cysticercosis has the necessary effective strategies and diagnostic tools for establishing an elimination program; however, tools to verify program endpoints have not been determined. Using a statistical approach, the present study proposed that taeniasis and porcine cysticercosis antibody assays could be used to determine with a high statistical confidence whether an area is free of disease. Confidence would be improved by using secondary tests such as the taeniasis coproantigen assay and necropsy of the sentinel pigs.

  13. Discourses of healthcare professionals about health surveillance actions for Tuberculosis control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Mitano

    Full Text Available Abstract OBJECTIVE To analyze the meanings produced in the Health Surveillance actions for tuberculosis control, carried out by healthcare professionals in Mozambique. METHOD Qualitative study using the theoretical and methodological framework of the French Discourse Analysis. RESULTS A total of 15 healthcare professionals with more than one year of experience in disease control actions participated in the study. Four discursive blocks have emerged from the analysis: tuberculosis diagnosis process; meeting, communication and discussion of treatment; local strategies for tuberculosis control; involvement of family and community leaders in the tuberculosis control. CONCLUSION The statements of the healthcare professionals suggest, as Health Surveillance actions, practices that include collecting sputum in the patient's home and sending it to the laboratory; deployment of the medical team with a microscope for tuberculosis testing; and testing for diseases that may be associated with tuberculosis. In this context, the actions of Health Surveillance for tuberculosis control involve valuing all actors: family, community leaders, patients and health professionals.

  14. Query Health: standards-based, cross-platform population health surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klann, Jeffrey G; Buck, Michael D; Brown, Jeffrey; Hadley, Marc; Elmore, Richard; Weber, Griffin M; Murphy, Shawn N

    2014-01-01

    Understanding population-level health trends is essential to effectively monitor and improve public health. The Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology (ONC) Query Health initiative is a collaboration to develop a national architecture for distributed, population-level health queries across diverse clinical systems with disparate data models. Here we review Query Health activities, including a standards-based methodology, an open-source reference implementation, and three pilot projects. Query Health defined a standards-based approach for distributed population health queries, using an ontology based on the Quality Data Model and Consolidated Clinical Document Architecture, Health Quality Measures Format (HQMF) as the query language, the Query Envelope as the secure transport layer, and the Quality Reporting Document Architecture as the result language. We implemented this approach using Informatics for Integrating Biology and the Bedside (i2b2) and hQuery for data analytics and PopMedNet for access control, secure query distribution, and response. We deployed the reference implementation at three pilot sites: two public health departments (New York City and Massachusetts) and one pilot designed to support Food and Drug Administration post-market safety surveillance activities. The pilots were successful, although improved cross-platform data normalization is needed. This initiative resulted in a standards-based methodology for population health queries, a reference implementation, and revision of the HQMF standard. It also informed future directions regarding interoperability and data access for ONC's Data Access Framework initiative. Query Health was a test of the learning health system that supplied a functional methodology and reference implementation for distributed population health queries that has been validated at three sites. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under

  15. The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory DOE-STD-3013 Surveillance Program for the Storage of Plutonium Packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riley, D

    2005-01-01

    This document presents a site-specific DOE-STD-3013 (3013) surveillance program for 3013 material stored at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in the B332 Plutonium Facility. The 3013 standard requires the development of a surveillance program to assure the long-term safety of plutonium storage in 3013 compliant containers. A complex-wide Integrated Surveillance Program in Support of Long-Term Storage of Plutonium-Bearing Materials (ISP)(LA-UR-00-3246, Revision 1, March 2001) has been developed to give guidance on an acceptable surveillance approach and to set up a mechanism to integrate surveillance activities and facilitate the sharing of lessons learned. This LLNL 3013 surveillance program has been developed following guidelines established for Storage Sites in the ISP and is sufficient for the storage in the LLNL Plutonium Facility. The LLNL 3013 surveillance program must be coupled with the DOE complex wide Materials Identification and Surveillance (MIS) program and the ISP led by Savannah River Site (SRS). These programs support the technical basis for continuing safe storage of plutonium packages and provide the technical basis for the limited scope of the site-specific LLNL 3013 surveillance program. The LLNL 3013 surveillance program calls for surveillance of 3013 packages to begin approximately three years after packaging of the first oxide. One percent of the stored packages per year will be randomly selected and nondestructively examined (NDE) by LLNL per the guidelines of the ISP. Additional packages may be selected for NDE if recommended by the ISP Steering Committee and agreed upon by the MIS Working Group. One selected package will be shipped to SRS for destructive analysis each year starting when SRS can receive them. This is expected to be in FY2007. We expect to store a maximum of 400 3013 packages. This would result in an expected maximum of 4 surveillances per year. The activities outlined in the program evolved from the current

  16. Clinic Health Awareness Program Subsystem -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Clinic Health Awareness Program Subystem (CHAPS) is a comprehensive system for recording, reporting, and analyzing a patient’s medical information and managing an...

  17. National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) - National Cardiovascular Disease Surveillance Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2001 forward. The National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) has monitored the health of the nation since 1957. NHIS data on a broad range of health topics are...

  18. Health behaviour surveillance of Health Sciences students in Northern Germany: Design and first results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Tobisch

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundHealth of students have most often been neglected in recent studies, although students face a transition of life during their studies which has strong implications on health.  During that time, universities play a key role as a setting where future professionals develop independence and learn skills possibly affecting their development and health. Nevertheless, less in known about this group in society and consequently, the aim of this research project was to monitor health of Health Sciences students through a long-term health surveillance system.MethodsSince 2014, an almost complete convenience sample of Health Sciences students is surveyed twice a year at Hamburg University of Applied Sciences. A paper-pencil questionnaire, which includes questions about socio-demographics, well-being, health-promoting and health-risk behaviours, is administered during courses.ResultsOur first surveys achieved response rates of more than 97%. Up to 83% of enrolled students were reached. Undergraduate Health Sciences students reported health-risk behaviours, e.g. binge-drinking on 1 to 2 days (33.9%, regular cannabis use (4.2%, regular cognitive-enhancement (4.0%. Moreover, unhealthy diet was prevalent but almost all students were physically active.ConclusionsA short paper-pencil questionnaire administered during courses and conducted according to standardized processes provides complete data on students’ health with little effort. Trends can be determined, which assist in making decision whether to take action in prevention and/or to evaluate campaigns. These first results show the need for a more targeted health promotion action for students.

  19. London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games: public health surveillance and epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCloskey, Brian; Endericks, Tina; Catchpole, Mike; Zambon, Maria; McLauchlin, Jim; Shetty, Nandini; Manuel, Rohini; Turbitt, Deborah; Smith, Gillian; Crook, Paul; Severi, Ettore; Jones, Jane; Ibbotson, Sue; Marshall, Roberta; Smallwood, Catherine A H; Isla, Nicolas; Memish, Ziad A; Al-Rabeeah, Abdullah A; Barbeschi, Maurizio; Heymann, David L; Zumla, Alimuddin

    2014-06-14

    Mass gatherings are regarded as potential risks for transmission of infectious diseases, and might compromise the health system of countries in which they are hosted. The evidence for increased transmission of infectious diseases at international sporting mass gatherings that attract many visitors from all over the world is not clear, and the evidence base for public health surveillance, epidemiology, and response at events such as the Olympics is small. However, infectious diseases are a recognised risk, and public health planning is, and should remain, a crucial part of the overall planning of sporting events. In this Series paper, we set out the planning and the surveillance systems that were used to monitor public health risks during the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games in the summer of 2012, and draw attention to the public health issues-infectious diseases and chemical, radiation, and environmental hazards-that arose. Although the absolute risk of health-protection problems, including infectious diseases, at sporting mass gatherings is small, the need for reassurance of the absence of problems is higher than has previously been considered; this could challenge conventional public health surveillance systems. Recognition of the limitations of health-surveillance systems needs to be part of the planning for future sporting events. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. DIAGNOSTIC OF SYSTEM OF FOOD AND NUTRITIONAL SURVEILLANCE IN A BASIC HEALTH UNIT - CUIABÁ/MT.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amélia Dreyer Machado

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The System of Food and Nutritional Surveillance (SFNS is a vigilance system that stores information about population feeding and nutrition and also data about the nutritional conditions that can affect their health. The aim of this study, therefore, was to diagnose the reality of SFNS in the Basic Health Unit (BHU Despraiado I / Cuiabá-MT. Based on previously prepared forms that were created for the Family Health Team (FHT and the program technical manager, and in information available in the BHU registration cadastres, data collection happened in August 2010. The SFNS at the studied BHU began in 2007, being detected incomplete and inconsistent data in 43 forms, with a coverage of 0% of the related group. Feeling unable to implement the SFNS relevant actions, the FHT questions the lack of feedback to the community concerning to improvements in their dietary pattern. In turn, the SFNS technical manager attaches to BHU the existing flaws concerning to low coverage and inconsistent data. It was observed, therefore, the great importance of capacitating the FHT in order to increase the coverage and quality of data in forms filling out.

  1. Occupational safety and health program for a model uranium mill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, H.T.

    1981-01-01

    The basic purpose of this paper is to suggest procedures and practices to insure that no employee working in a uranium milling operation receives exposure to radioactive, toxic, or other materials or agents that might produce a permanent, deleterious effect upon his physical health and well-being. This program is also designed to insure that each employee can carry out his assigned duties without risk to his health or to that of his fellow workers. The total program is envisioned as a balanced combination of occupational hygiene and radiation monitoring. This includes surveying, air sampling, personnel dosimetry, bioassay, medical surveillance, epidemiology, and training - all backed by a thoroughly tested and evaluated set of emergency procedures. The program, as presented, is keyed to the results of monitoring, surveying, air sampling, medical surveillance, and epidemiology - it being obvious that no problem can result when no hazard can be identified

  2. Master schedule for CY-1983 Hanford environmental surveillance routine sampling program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blumer, P.J.; Sula, M.J.; Eddy, P.A.; Dirkes, R.L.

    1982-12-01

    The current schedule of data collection for the routine Hanford environmental surveillance and ground-water monitoring programs at the Hanford Site is presented. The purpose of the programs is to evaluate and report the levels of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants in the Hanford environs. Radiological monitoring data are reported for air (particulate filter and gases/vapor), Columbia River water, sanitary water, onsite pond water, foodstuffs (whole milk, leafy vegetables, fruit, wheat/alfalfa, beef, poultry/eggs), wildlife, soil and vegetation, and direct radiation. Information is also given for on site radiation control audit surveys (roadway, railway, aerial, and waste disposal sites, and the Hanford ground-water monitoring program

  3. Occupational health and safety surveillance and research using workers' compensation data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utterback, David F; Schnorr, Teresa M; Silverstein, Barbara A; Spieler, Emily A; Leamon, Tom B; Amick, Benjamin C

    2012-02-01

    Examine uses of US workers' compensation (WC) data for occupational safety and health purposes. This article is a summary of the proceedings from an invitational workshop held in September 2009 to discuss the use of WC data for occupational safety and health prevention purposes. Workers' compensation data systems, although limited in many ways, contain information such as medical treatments, their costs and outcomes, and disability causes that are unavailable from national occupational surveillance sources. Despite their limitations, WC records are collected in a manner consistent with many occupational health and safety surveillance needs. Reports are available on the use of WC data for surveillance and research purposes such as estimating the frequency, magnitude, severity, and cost of compensated injuries. Inconsistencies in WC data can limit generalization of research results.

  4. Cost-effectiveness of surveillance programs for families at high and moderate risk of hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Kim R.; Bojesen, Stig E.; Gerdes, Anne-Marie M.

    2007-01-01

    for the group at high risk. The aim of the present study is to determine cost-effectiveness of surveillance programs where families at both high and moderate risk of HNPCC participate. METHODS: A decision analytic model (Markov model) is developed to assess surveillance programs where families at high......OBJECTIVES: Surveillance programs are recommended to both families at high risk (Amsterdam-positive families with known- and unknown mutation) and moderate risk (families not fulfilling all Amsterdam criteria) of colorectal cancer (CRC). Cost-effectiveness has so far only been estimated...

  5. Application of advanced irradiation analysis methods to light water reactor pressure vessel test and surveillance programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odette, R.; Dudey, N.; McElroy, W.; Wullaert, R.; Fabry, A.

    1977-01-01

    Inaccurate characterization and inappropriate application of neutron irradiation exposure variables contribute a substantial amount of uncertainty to embrittlement analysis of light water reactor pressure vessels. Damage analysis involves characterization of the irradiation environment (dosimetry), correlation of test and surveillance metallurgical and dosimetry data, and projection of such data to service conditions. Errors in available test and surveillance dosimetry data are estimated to contribute a factor of approximately 2 to the data scatter. Non-physical (empirical) correlation procedures and the need to extrapolate to the vessel may add further error. Substantial reductions in these uncertainties in future programs can be obtained from a more complete application of available damage analysis tools which have been developed for the fast reactor program. An approach to reducing embrittlement analysis errors is described, and specific examples of potential applications are given. The approach is based on damage analysis techniques validated and calibrated in benchmark environments

  6. Surveillance and Maintenance Plan for the ORNL Decontamination and Decommissioning Program FY 1993--2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, M.K.; Holder, L. Jr.

    1992-07-01

    The Decontamination and Decommissioning (D ampersand D) Program at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is part of the Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Restoration D ampersand D program. The purpose and objectivesof this program include: (1) surveillance and maintenance (S ampersand M) of facilities awaiting decommissioning; (2) planning for the orderly decommissioning of these facilities; and (3) implementation of a program to accomplish facility disposition in a safe, cost-effective, and timely manner. Participating D ampersand D contractors are required to prepare formal plans that document the S ampersand M programs established for each site. This report has been prepared to provide this documentation for those facilities included in the ORNL D ampersand D Program

  7. [Surveillance in Spain 3 years since the enactment of the Public Health Law].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pousa, Anxela; Godoy, Pere; Aragonés, Nuria; Cano, Rosa; Sierra, María José; González, Francisco; Mayoral, José María

    2016-01-01

    In 2014, the Epidemiological Surveillance Working Group of the Sociedad Española de Epidemiología (Spanish Society of Epidemiology), carried out a descriptive study in order to evaluate the level of development of the Spanish Public Health Law since its enactment in 2011. A survey collecting data on the existence of information systems and other aspects pertaining to each surveillance section included in the law was sent to all 19 autonomous communities and cities. All regional authorities reported the presence of an information system for communicable diseases, and six also reported an information system for social factors. 18 reported that at least one chronic disease was subject to surveillance and 14 confirmed surveillance of some of its determinants. They all systematically analysed the data derived from the communicable diseases. There is room for improvement in Public Health surveillance in Spain, and action should be aimed at the main health problems. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  8. Standard Practice for Design of Surveillance Programs for Light-Water Moderated Nuclear Power Reactor Vessels

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers procedures for designing a surveillance program for monitoring the radiation-induced changes in the mechanical properties of ferritic materials in light-water moderated nuclear power reactor vessels. This practice includes the minimum requirements for the design of a surveillance program, selection of vessel material to be included, and the initial schedule for evaluation of materials. 1.2 This practice was developed for all light-water moderated nuclear power reactor vessels for which the predicted maximum fast neutron fluence (E > 1 MeV) at the end of license (EOL) exceeds 1 × 1021 neutrons/m2 (1 × 1017 n/cm2) at the inside surface of the reactor vessel. 1.3 This practice applies only to the planning and design of surveillance programs for reactor vessels designed and built after the effective date of this practice. Previous versions of Practice E185 apply to earlier reactor vessels. 1.4 This practice does not provide specific procedures for monitoring the radiation induced cha...

  9. Strengthening Preparedness for Arbovirus Infections in Mediterranean and Black Sea Countries: A Conceptual Framework to Assess Integrated Surveillance in the Context of the One Health Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Grazia Dente

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In the context of One Health, there is presently an effort to integrate surveillance of human, animal, entomological, and environmental sectors. This aims to strengthen the prevention of, and preparedness against, arbovirus infections, also in the light of environmental and climate changes that could increase the risk of transmission. However, criteria to define integrated surveillance, and to compare different systems, still need to be identified and tested. We conducted a scoping review to identify and examine surveillance systems for West Nile virus (WNV, chikungunya virus (CHKV, dengue virus (DENV, and Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV, which involve human, animal, entomological, and environmental sectors. We analyzed findings using a conceptual framework we developed for this purpose. The review highlights that the criteria proposed in the conceptual framework to describe integrated surveillance are consistently reported in the context of studies and programs related to integrated surveillance of the selected arboviral diseases. These criteria can facilitate the identification and description of operationalized One Health surveillance.

  10. A One Health approach to antimicrobial resistance surveillance: is there a business case for it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queenan, Kevin; Häsler, Barbara; Rushton, Jonathan

    2016-10-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is a global problem of complex epidemiology, suited to a broad, integrated One Health approach. Resistant organisms exist in humans, animals, food and the environment, and the main driver of this resistance is antimicrobial usage. A One Health conceptual framework for surveillance is presented to include all of these aspects. Global and European (regional and national) surveillance systems are described, highlighting shortcomings compared with the framework. Policy decisions rely on economic and scientific evidence, so the business case for a fully integrated system is presented. The costs of integrated surveillance are offset by the costs of unchecked resistance and the benefits arising from interventions and outcomes. Current estimates focus on costs and benefits of human health outcomes. A One Health assessment includes wider societal costs of lost labour, changes in health-seeking behaviour, impacts on animal health and welfare, higher costs of animal-origin food production, and reduced consumer confidence in safety and international trade of such food. Benefits of surveillance may take years to realise and are dependent on effective and accepted interventions. Benefits, including the less tangible, such as improved synergies and efficiencies in service delivery and more timely and accurate risk identification, should also be recognised. By including these less tangible benefits to society, animal welfare, ecosystem health and resilience, together with the savings and efficiencies through shared resources and social capital-building, a stronger business case for a One Health approach to surveillance can be made. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  11. Northeast Regional Cancer Institute's Cancer Surveillance and Risk Factor Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lesko, Samuel M.

    2007-07-31

    OBJECTIVES The Northeast Regional Cancer Institute is conducting a program of ongoing epidemiologic research to address cancer disparities in northeast Pennsylvania. Of particular concern are disparities in the incidence of, stage at diagnosis, and mortality from colorectal cancer. In northeast Pennsylvania, age-adjusted incidence and mortality rates for colorectal cancer are higher, and a significantly smaller proportion of new colorectal cancer cases are diagnosed with local stage disease than is observed in comparable national data. Further, estimates of the prevalence of colorectal cancer screening in northeast Pennsylvania are lower than the US average. The Northeast Regional Cancer Institute’s research program supports surveillance of common cancers, investigations of cancer risk factors and screening behaviors, and the development of resources to further cancer research in this community. This project has the following specific objectives: I. To conduct cancer surveillance in northeast Pennsylvania. a. To monitor incidence and mortality for all common cancers, and colorectal cancer, in particular, and b. To document changes in the stage at diagnosis of colorectal cancer in this high-risk, underserved community. II. To conduct a population-based study of cancer risk factors and screening behavior in a six county region of northeast Pennsylvania. a. To monitor and document changes in colorectal cancer screening rates, and b. To document the prevalence of cancer risk factors (especially factors that increase the risk of colorectal cancer) and to identify those risk factors that are unusually common in this community. APPROACH Cancer surveillance was conducted using data from the Northeast Regional Cancer Institute’s population-based Regional Cancer Registry, the Pennsylvania Cancer Registry, and NCI’s SEER program. For common cancers, incidence and mortality were examined by county within the region and compared to data for similar populations in the US

  12. Improving Work Functioning and Mental Health of Health Care Employees Using an E-Mental Health Approach to Workers' Health Surveillance: Pretest–Posttest Study

    OpenAIRE

    Sarah M. Ketelaar; Karen Nieuwenhuijsen; Linda Bolier; Odile Smeets; Judith K. Sluiter

    2014-01-01

    Background: Mental health complaints are quite common in health care employees and can have adverse effects on work functioning. The aim of this study was to evaluate an e-mental health (EMH) approach to workers' health surveillance (WHS) for nurses and allied health professionals. Using the waiting-list group of a previous randomized controlled trial with high dropout and low compliance to the intervention, we studied the pre- and posteffects of the EMH approach in a larger group of particip...

  13. Malware and Disease: Lessons from Cyber Intelligence for Public Health Surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Frank L

    2016-01-01

    Malicious software and infectious diseases are similar is several respects, as are the functional requirements for surveillance and intelligence to defend against these threats. Given these similarities, this article compares and contrasts the actors, relationships, and norms at work in cyber intelligence and disease surveillance. Historical analysis reveals that civilian cyber defense is more decentralized, private, and voluntary than public health in the United States. Most of these differences are due to political choices rather than technical necessities. In particular, political resistance to government institutions has shaped cyber intelligence over the past 30 years, which is a troubling sign for attempts to improve disease surveillance through local, state, and federal health departments. Information sharing about malware is also limited, despite information technology being integral to cyberspace. Such limits suggest that automation through electronic health records will not automatically improve public health surveillance. Still, certain aspects of information sharing and analysis for cyber defense are worth emulating or, at the very least, learning from to help detect and manage health threats.

  14. Surface Environmental Surveillance Procedures Manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanf, Robert W.; Poston, Ted M.

    2000-01-01

    Shows and explains certain procedures needed for surface environmental surveillance. Hanford Site environmental surveillance is conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) under the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP). The basic requirements for site surveillance are set fourth in DOE Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program Requirements. Guidance for the SESP is provided in DOE Order 5484.1, Environmental Protection, Safety, and Health Protection Information Reporting Requirements and DOE Order 5400.5, Radiation Protection of the Public and Environment. Guidelines for environmental surveillance activities are provided in DOE/EH-0173T, Environmental Regulatory Guide for Radiological Effluent Monitoring and Environmental Surveillance. An environmental monitoring plan for the Hanford Site is outlined in DOE/RL 91-50 Rev. 2, Environmental Monitoring Plan, United States Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office. Environmental surveillance data are used in assessing the impact of current and past site operations on human health and the environment, demonstrating compliance with applicable local, state, and federal environmental regulations, and verifying the adequacy of containment and effluent controls. SESP sampling schedules are reviewed, revised, and published each calendar year in the Hanford Site Environmental Surveillance Master Sampling Schedule. Environmental samples are collected by SESP staff in accordance with the approved sample collection procedures documented in this manual. Personnel training requirements are documented in SESP-TP-01 Rev.2, Surface Environmental Surveillance Project Training Program.

  15. Increasing the capacity of health surveillance assistants in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    stigma and discrimination. The focus of ... behaviour and stigma, including holding alternative ... with mental health problems avoid seeking help from health services. This is .... issues of risk of harm to self or others by providing HSAs with the ...

  16. Health and demographic surveillance systems: contributing to an understanding of the dynamics in migration and health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerritsen, Annette; Bocquier, Philippe; White, Michael; Mbacké, Cheikh; Alam, Nurul; Beguy, Donatien; Odhiambo, Frank; Sacoor, Charfudin; Phuc, Ho Dang; Punpuing, Sureeporn; Collinson, Mark A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Migration is difficult to measure because it is highly repeatable. Health and Demographic Surveillance Systems (HDSSs) provide a unique opportunity to study migration as multiple episodes of migration are captured over time. A conceptual framework is needed to show the public health implications of migration. Objective/design Research conducted in seven HDSS centres [International Network for the Demographic Evaluation of Populations and Their Health (INDEPTH) Network], published in a peer-reviewed volume in 2009, is summarised focussing on the age–sex profile of migrants, the relation between migration and livelihoods, and the impact of migration on health. This illustrates the conceptual structure of the implications of migration. The next phase is described, the Multi-centre Analysis of the Dynamics In Migration And Health (MADIMAH) project, consisting of workshops focussed on preparing data and conducting the analyses for comparative studies amongst HDSS centres in Africa and Asia. The focus here is on the (standardisation of) determinants of migration and the impact of migration on adult mortality. Results The findings in the volume showed a relatively regular age structure for migration among all HDSS centres. Furthermore, migration generally contributes to improved living conditions at the place of origin. However, there are potential negative consequences of migration on health. It was concluded that there is a need to compare results from multiple centres using uniform covariate definitions as well as longitudinal analysis techniques. This was the starting point for the on-going MADIMAH initiative, which has increased capacity at the participating HDSS centres to produce the required datasets and conduct the analyses. Conclusions HDSS centres brought together within INDEPTH Network have already provided strong evidence of the potential negative consequences of migration on health, which contrast with the beneficial impacts of migration on

  17. Cholera public health surveillance in the Republic of Cameroon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We used the matrix and conceptual framework from the World Health Organization (WHO) and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, WHO Regional Office for Africa Technical Guidelines to frame the study. Site visits included the WHO country office, the ministry of public health (MoPH), two Regional Public Health ...

  18. Contribution of community health workers to surveillance of vaccine-preventable diseases in the Obala health district

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vouking, Marius Zambou; Binde, Thierry; Tadenfok, Carine Nouboudem; Ekani, Jean Marie Edengue; Ekra, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The establishment of effective community-based surveillance is an essential objective of all disease surveillance systems. Several studies and reports have found that the situation is far from optimal in several developing countries such as Cameroon. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional descriptive study to assess the contribution of community health workers to surveillance of vaccine-preventable diseases in Obala health district. The performance of community health workers was measured using: the number of cases referred to the health center, the percentage of accomplished referrals, the percentage of cases referred by community health workers confirmed by the staff of health centers. A questionnaire containing forty-seven questions (open-ended and closed-ended) was used for interviews with community health workers. The data were analyzed using SPSS 21 and Excel 2007. Counts and percentages are reported. Results The study showed that the age ranged of community health workers was from 24 to 61 years with an average of 37.9 years ± 6.7 years. The most represented age group was between 40 and 50 with a percentage of 38.6%. The male sex was more represented than the female sex (61.4% vs 38.6%) or a sex ratio male man of 1.7. Forty-five percent of community health workers were selected at a village meeting, 93.1% of community health workers were involved in the surveillance of vaccine-preventable diseases and 87% experienced at least one preventable disease. Only 45.8% of them had the case definitions of the four diseases. Analysis of community health workers attendance at organized health committee meetings showed that 79% of community health workers attended at least one health committee meeting in 2015 and only 49% were monitored in 2015. Community health workers reported 42 suspected cases of measles, 37 of which actually went to the nearest Health Center, a baseline rate of 88%. Conclusion Community health workers play a key role in the control of

  19. Death surveillance as an indicator of the quality of health care for women and children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Cristiane Magalhães de; Aquino, Talita Iasmim Soares; Soares, Marcela Quaresma; Bevilacqua, Paula Dias

    2017-10-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the implementation of a regional death surveillance network, reflecting on challenges and potentialities of performance as observatory of violence against women. The research involved nine municipalities of a health region set at the Zona da Mata, Minas Gerais, Brazil. We followed the meetings of the regional death surveillance committee and conducted semi-structured interviews with professional members of the committee and municipal health managers. Furthermore, we analyzed information concerning investigations conducted and, in one municipality, we analyzed the notifications of deaths and cases of violence against women. The results point to some difficulties: lack of recognition of the death surveillance activity; work overload; failure in communication between institutions and poor resources, infrastructure and professional training. There were also improvements, namely: greater interaction between municipalities; increased investigations and greater awareness of the importance of death surveillance among workers. We identified cases of domestic, obstetric and institutional violence through the investigation of deaths. The experience as a regional committee reinforces the strategy of strengthening death surveillance and the network of care for women in situation of violence.

  20. Health Programs for Veterans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Accountability & Whistleblower Protection Transparency Media Room Inside the Media Room Public Affairs News Releases Speeches Videos Publications National Observances Veterans Day Memorial Day Celebrating America's Freedoms Special Events Adaptive Sports Program Creative Arts Festival ...

  1. Re-utilization by '' Stud Welding'' of capsules charpy-V belonged to surveillance programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapena, J.; Perosanz, F. J.; Gachuz, M.

    1998-01-01

    The perspectives of nuclear plants life extension that are approximating to their end of design life compels to make new surveillance programs. The re-utilization of specimens belonging to surveillance capsules already tested in these new surveillance programs seems be a solution worldwide accepted. The two possible re-utilization processes of this irradiated material are: Subsized specimens and Reconstitution. While the first alternative (Subsized specimens) outlines serious problems for apply the results, the reconstitution eliminates this problem, since the resulting specimens after of the reconstruction procedure would be of the same dimensions that the original. The reconstruction process involves welds, and therefore it has associated the specific problems of this type of joints. Furthermore, by be tried to material irradiated with certain degree of internal damage, that is the variable to evaluate, requires that the heat contribution to the piece not originate local thermal treatments that alter its mechanical qualities. In this work has been followed the evolution by the variables of the weld process and their influence on the quality by the union from metallographic al point of view as well as mechanical for a weld procedure by Stud Welding. The principal objective is to optimize said parameters to assure a good mechanical continuity, without detriment of the microstructural characteristics of the original material. To verify this last have been accomplished with metallographical tests, temperature profile, hardness and will be carried out also Charpy tests. (Author)

  2. 76 FR 63352 - Proposed Information Collection (Health Surveillance for a New Generation of U.S. Veterans...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-12

    ... Surveillance for a New Generation of U.S. Veterans); Comment Request AGENCY: Veterans Health Administration.... Title: Health Surveillance for a New Generation of U.S. Veterans Survey. OMB Control Number: 2900-0722... New Generation of U.S. Veterans survey will be used to collect data from Operation Iraqi Freedom and...

  3. Sheen surveillance: An environmental monitoring program subsequent to the 1989 Exxon Valdez shoreline cleanup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taft, D.G.; Egging, D.E.; Kuhn, H.A.

    1995-01-01

    In the fall of 1989, an aerial surveillance program was implemented to locate oil sheens (or slicks) originating from shorelines affected by the Exxon Valdez spill. The objectives of the program were to identify any oil on the water that warranted response and to identify those sections of shoreline that would be priority candidates for further cleanup in 1990. The program initially surveyed the entire affected area, but, because proportionally fewer sheens were spotted in the Gulf of Alaska, the program was refocused on Prince Williams Sound in early 1990. The surveillance program consisted of frequent low-altitude flights with trained observers in a deHavilland Twin otter outfitted with observation ports and communication equipment. The primary surveillance technique used was direct visual observation. Other techniques, including photography, were tested but proved less effective. The flights targeted all shorelines of concern, particularly those near fishing, subsistence, and recreational areas.the observers attempted to locate all sheens, estimate their size and color, ad identify the source of the oil found in the sheen. Size and color were used to estimate the volume of oil in each sheen. Samples were collected whenever possible during the summer of 1990 using a floating Teflon trademark sampling device that was developed for easy deployment from a boat or the pontoon of a float plane. Forty four samples were analyzed by UV-fluorescence spectroscopy. Eleven of these samples were also analyzed by GC/MS. In general, the analyses confirmed the observers' judgment of source. 16 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs

  4. Workers' health surveillance: implementation of the Directive 89/391/EEC in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colosio, C; Mandic-Rajcevic, S; Godderis, L; van der Laan, G; Hulshof, C; van Dijk, F

    2017-10-01

    European Union (EU) Directive 89/391 addressed occupational health surveillance, which recommends to provide workers with 'access to health surveillance at regular intervals', aiming to prevent work-related and occupational diseases. To investigate how EU countries adopted this Directive. We invited one selected representative per member state to complete a questionnaire. All 28 EU countries implemented the Directive in some form. Workers' health surveillance (WHS) is available to all workers in 15 countries, while in 12, only specific subgroups have access. In 21 countries, workers' participation is mandatory, and in 22, the employer covers the cost. In 13 countries, access to WHS is not available to all workers but depends on exposure to specific risk factors, size of the enterprise or belonging to vulnerable groups. In 26 countries, the employer appoints and revokes the physician in charge of WHS. Twelve countries have no recent figures, reports or cost-benefit analyses of their WHS programmes. In 15 countries where reports exist, they are often in the native language. Coverage and quality of occupational health surveillance should be evaluated to facilitate learning from good practice and from scientific studies. We propose a serious debate in the EU with the aim of protecting workers more effectively, including the use of evidence-based WHS programmes. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  5. Preventive actions taken by workers after workers' health surveillance: a controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boschman, J. S.; van der Molen, H. F.; Frings-Dresen, M. H. W.; Sluiter, J. K.

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate construction workers' preventive actions and occupational physician's (OPs) recommendations after a job-specific workers' health surveillance (WHS) compared with the currently used generic WHS. After the WHS, the OPs' written recommendations were captured. At the 3-month follow-up, the

  6. Elevated Prostate Health Index (phi) and Biopsy Reclassification During Active Surveillance of Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreas, Darian; Tosoian, Jeffrey J; Landis, Patricia; Wolf, Sacha; Glavaris, Stephanie; Lotan, Tamara L; Schaeffer, Edward M; Sokoll, Lori J; Ross, Ashley E

    2016-07-01

    The Prostate Health Index (phi) has been FDA approved for decision-making regarding prostate biopsy. Phi has additionally been shown to positively correlate with tumor volume, extraprostatic disease and higher Gleason grade tumors. Here we describe a case in which an elevated phi encouraged biopsy of a gentleman undergoing active surveillance leading to reclassification of his disease as high risk prostate cancer.

  7. Environmental health program activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergtholdt, C. P.

    1969-01-01

    Activities reported include studies on toxic air contaminants, excessive noise, poor lighting, food sanitation, water pollution, and exposure to nonionizing radiation as health hazards. Formulations for a radiological health manual provide guidance to personnel in the procurement and safe handling of radiation producing equipment and Apollo mission planning. A literature search and development of a water analysis laboratory are outlined to obtain information regarding microbiological problems involving potable water, waste management, and personal hygiene.

  8. 2003 Nevada Test Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2007-05-23

    Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Program report for 2003 for the Nevada Test Site. The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  9. Core state preconception health indicators - pregnancy risk assessment monitoring system and behavioral risk factor surveillance system, 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Cheryl L; Zapata, Lauren B; Farr, Sherry L; Kroelinger, Charlan D; Morrow, Brian; Ahluwalia, Indu; D'Angelo, Denise V; Barradas, Danielle; Cox, Shanna; Goodman, David; Williams, Letitia; Grigorescu, Violanda; Barfield, Wanda D

    2014-04-25

    Promoting preconception health can potentially improve women's health and pregnancy outcomes. Evidence-based interventions exist to reduce many maternal behaviors and chronic conditions that are associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes such as tobacco use, alcohol use, inadequate folic acid intake, obesity, hypertension, and diabetes. The 2006 national recommendations to improve preconception health included monitoring improvements in preconception health by maximizing public health surveillance (CDC. Recommendations to improve preconception health and health care-United States: a report of the CDC/ATSDR Preconception Care Work Group and the Select Panel on Preconception Care. MMWR 2006;55[No. RR-6]). 2009 for 38 indicators; 2008 for one indicator. DESCRIPTION OF SURVEILLANCE SYSTEMS: The Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS) is an ongoing state- and population-based surveillance system designed to monitor selected self-reported maternal behaviors, conditions, and experiences that occur shortly before, during, and after pregnancy among women who deliver live-born infants. The Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) is an ongoing state-based telephone survey of noninstitutionalized adults aged ≥18 years in the United States that collects state-level data on health-related risk behaviors, chronic conditions, and preventive health services. This surveillance summary includes PRAMS data from 29 reporting areas (n = 40,388 respondents) and BRFSS data from 51 reporting areas (n = 62,875 respondents) for nonpregnant women of reproductive age (aged 18-44 years). To establish a comprehensive, nationally recognized set of indicators to be used for monitoring, evaluation, and response, a volunteer group of policy and program leaders and epidemiologists identified 45 core state preconception health indicators, of which 41 rely on PRAMS or BRFSS as data sources. This report includes 39 of the 41 core state preconception health indicators for which

  10. Childrens Health Insurance Program (CHIP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This Web site discusses and provides downloadable data on state and program type, number of children ever enrolled, and the percentage of growth compared to the...

  11. Lessons from Canada's health program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terris, M

    1990-01-01

    The Canadian health program is described and analyzed. Positive features include financing through progressive taxation; complete coverage of physician and hospital services; complete absence of deductibles, copayments, and extra charges by physicians and hospitals; lower administrative costs because private insurance companies are excluded from the program; and avoidance of the straitjacket of a single federal program by decentralization to the provinces. Negative features include ever-rising costs due to the almost complete dominance of fee-for-service payment to physicians; failure to monitor the quality of care; and neglect of serious support for preventive services and improved living standards--the two most important determinants of health status. Recommendations are made for a U.S. national health program that would incorporate the positive features of the Canadian program and avoid its deficiencies.

  12. Guidance for implementing the long-term surveillance program for UMTRA Project Title I Disposal Sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-02-01

    This guidance document has two purposes: it provides guidance for writing site-specific long-term surveillance plans (LTSP) and it describes site surveillance, monitoring, and long-term care techniques for Title I disposal sites of the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) (42 USC Section 7901 et seq.). Long-term care includes monitoring, maintenance, and emergency measures needed to protect public health and safety and the environment after remedial action is completed. This document applies to the UMTRCA-designated Title I disposal sites. The requirements for long-term care of the Title I sites and the contents of the LTSPs are provided in U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations (10 CFR Section 40.27) provided in Attachment 1

  13. National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System: Two Decades of Advancing Public Health Through Integrated Surveillance of Antimicrobial Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karp, Beth E; Tate, Heather; Plumblee, Jodie R; Dessai, Uday; Whichard, Jean M; Thacker, Eileen L; Hale, Kis Robertson; Wilson, Wanda; Friedman, Cindy R; Griffin, Patricia M; McDermott, Patrick F

    2017-10-01

    Drug-resistant bacterial infections pose a serious and growing public health threat globally. In this review, we describe the role of the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System (NARMS) in providing data that help address the resistance problem and show how such a program can have broad positive impacts on public health. NARMS was formed two decades ago to help assess the consequences to human health arising from the use of antimicrobial drugs in food animal production in the United States. A collaboration among the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, the United States Department of Agriculture, and state and local health departments, NARMS uses an integrated "One Health" approach to monitor antimicrobial resistance in enteric bacteria from humans, retail meat, and food animals. NARMS has adapted to changing needs and threats by expanding surveillance catchment areas, examining new isolate sources, adding bacteria, adjusting sampling schemes, and modifying antimicrobial agents tested. NARMS data are not only essential for ensuring that antimicrobial drugs approved for food animals are used in ways that are safe for human health but they also help address broader food safety priorities. NARMS surveillance, applied research studies, and outbreak isolate testing provide data on the emergence of drug-resistant enteric bacteria; genetic mechanisms underlying resistance; movement of bacterial populations among humans, food, and food animals; and sources and outcomes of resistant and susceptible infections. These data can be used to guide and evaluate the impact of science-based policies, regulatory actions, antimicrobial stewardship initiatives, and other public health efforts aimed at preserving drug effectiveness, improving patient outcomes, and preventing infections. Many improvements have been made to NARMS over time and the program will continue to adapt to address emerging resistance threats, changes in

  14. OPPIDUM surveillance program: 20 years of information on drug abuse in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frauger, Elisabeth; Moracchini, Christophe; Le Boisselier, Reynald; Braunstein, David; Thirion, Xavier; Micallef, Joëlle

    2013-12-01

    It is important to assess drug abuse liability in 'real life' using different surveillance systems. Some are based on specific population surveys, such as individuals with drug abuse or dependence, or under opiate maintenance treatment, because this population is very familiar with drugs and is more likely to divert or abuse them. In France, an original surveillance system based on this specific population and called 'Observation of illegal drugs and misuse of psychotropic medications (OPPIDUM) survey' was set up in 1990 as the first of its kind. The aim of this article is to describe this precursor of French drug abuse surveillance using different examples, to demonstrate its ability to effectively give health authorities and physicians interesting data on drug abuse. OPPIDUM is an annual, cross-sectional survey that anonymously collects information on abuse and dependence observed in patients recruited in specialized care centers dedicated to drug dependence. From 1990 to 2010, a total of 50,734 patients were included with descriptions of 102,631 psychoactive substance consumptions. These data have outlined emergent behaviors such as the misuse of buprenorphine by intravenous or nasal administration. It has contributed to assess abuse liability of emergent drugs such as clonazepam or methylphenidate. This surveillance system was also able to detect the decrease of flunitrazepam abuse following implementation of regulatory measures. OPPIDUM's twenty years of experience clearly demonstrate that collection of valid and useful data on drug abuse is possible and can provide helpful information for physicians and health authorities. © 2013 The Authors Fundamental and Clinical Pharmacology © 2013 Société Française de Pharmacologie et de Thérapeutique.

  15. Framework for evaluating public health surveillance systems for early detection of outbreaks: recommendations from the CDC Working Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buehler, James W; Hopkins, Richard S; Overhage, J Marc; Sosin, Daniel M; Tong, Van

    2004-05-07

    The threat of terrorism and high-profile disease outbreaks has drawn attention to public health surveillance systems for early detection of outbreaks. State and local health departments are enhancing existing surveillance systems and developing new systems to better detect outbreaks through public health surveillance. However, information is limited about the usefulness of surveillance systems for outbreak detection or the best ways to support this function. This report supplements previous guidelines for evaluating public health surveillance systems. Use of this framework is intended to improve decision-making regarding the implementation of surveillance for outbreak detection. Use of a standardized evaluation methodology, including description of system design and operation, also will enhance the exchange of information regarding methods to improve early detection of outbreaks. The framework directs particular attention to the measurement of timeliness and validity for outbreak detection. The evaluation framework is designed to support assessment and description of all surveillance approaches to early detection, whether through traditional disease reporting, specialized analytic routines for aberration detection, or surveillance using early indicators of disease outbreaks, such as syndromic surveillance.

  16. Alaska Dental Health Aide Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoffstall-Cone, Sarah; Williard, Mary

    2013-01-01

    In 1999, An Oral Health Survey of American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) Dental Patients found that 79% of 2- to 5-year-olds had a history of tooth decay. The Alaska Native Tribal Health Consortium in collaboration with Alaska's Tribal Health Organizations (THO) developed a new and diverse dental workforce model to address AI/AN oral health disparities. This paper describes the workforce model and some experience to date of the Dental Health Aide (DHA) Initiative that was introduced under the federally sanctioned Community Health Aide Program in Alaska. These new dental team members work with THO dentists and hygienists to provide education, prevention and basic restorative services in a culturally appropriate manner. The DHA Initiative introduced 4 new dental provider types to Alaska: the Primary Dental Health Aide, the Expanded Function Dental Health Aide, the Dental Health Aide Hygienist and the Dental Health Aide Therapist. The scope of practice between the 4 different DHA providers varies vastly along with the required training and education requirements. DHAs are certified, not licensed, providers. Recertification occurs every 2 years and requires the completion of 24 hours of continuing education and continual competency evaluation. Dental Health Aides provide evidence-based prevention programs and dental care that improve access to oral health care and help address well-documented oral health disparities.

  17. Alaska Dental Health Aide Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Shoffstall-Cone

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. In 1999, An Oral Health Survey of American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN Dental Patients found that 79% of 2- to 5-year-olds had a history of tooth decay. The Alaska Native Tribal Health Consortium in collaboration with Alaska’s Tribal Health Organizations (THO developed a new and diverse dental workforce model to address AI/AN oral health disparities. Objectives. This paper describes the workforce model and some experience to date of the Dental Health Aide (DHA Initiative that was introduced under the federally sanctioned Community Health Aide Program in Alaska. These new dental team members work with THO dentists and hygienists to provide education, prevention and basic restorative services in a culturally appropriate manner. Results. The DHA Initiative introduced 4 new dental provider types to Alaska: the Primary Dental Health Aide, the Expanded Function Dental Health Aide, the Dental Health Aide Hygienist and the Dental Health Aide Therapist. The scope of practice between the 4 different DHA providers varies vastly along with the required training and education requirements. DHAs are certified, not licensed, providers. Recertification occurs every 2 years and requires the completion of 24 hours of continuing education and continual competency evaluation. Conclusions. Dental Health Aides provide evidence-based prevention programs and dental care that improve access to oral health care and help address well-documented oral health disparities.

  18. Evaluation of a Spotted Fever Group Rickettsia Public Health Surveillance System in Tennessee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fill, Mary-Margaret A; Moncayo, Abelardo C; Bloch, Karen C; Dunn, John R; Schaffner, William; Jones, Timothy F

    2017-09-01

    Spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsioses are endemic in Tennessee, with ∼2,500 cases reported during 2000-2012. Because of this substantial burden of disease, we performed a three-part evaluation of Tennessee's routine surveillance for SFG rickettsioses cases and deaths to assess the system's effectiveness. Tennessee Department of Health (TDH) SFG rickettsioses surveillance records were matched to three patient series: 1) patients with positive serologic specimens from a commercial reference laboratory during 2010-2011, 2) tertiary medical center patients with positive serologic tests during 2007-2013, and 3) patients identified from death certificates issued during 1995-2014 with SFG rickettsiosis-related causes of death. Chart reviews were performed and patients were classified according to the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists' case definition. Of 254 SFG Rickettsia -positive serologic specimens from the reference laboratory, 129 (51%) met the case definition for confirmed or probable cases of rickettsial disease after chart review. The sensitivity of the TDH surveillance system to detect cases was 45%. Of the 98 confirmed or probable cases identified from the medical center, the sensitivity of the TDH surveillance system to detect cases was 34%. Of 27 patients identified by death certificates, 12 (44%) were classified as confirmed or probable cases; four (33%) were reported to TDH, but none were correctly identified as deceased. Cases of SFG rickettsioses were underreported and fatalities not correctly identified. Efforts are needed to improve SFG rickettsiosis surveillance in Tennessee.

  19. Surveillance program for former PCB-exposed workers of a transformer and capacitor recycling company, family members, employees of surrounding companies, and area residents--executive summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Thomas; Gube, Monika; Lang, Jessica; Esser, Andre; Sturm, Walter; Fimm, Bruno; Willmes, Klaus; Neulen, Joseph; Baron, Jens Malte; Merk, Hans; Schettgen, Thomas; Konrad, Kerstin; Deisz, Sabine; Rink, Lothar; Hagmann, Michael; Fillies, Birgit; Zschiesche, Wolfgang; Wittsiepe, Jürgen; Wilhelm, Michael

    2012-01-01

    In a German company polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB)-containing transformers and capacitors were recycled on a large scale. Human biomonitoring revealed a high PCB body burden in workers of the recycling company, in surrounding locations of this plant, in companies in the neighborhood of this plant, and in family members of these employees. In order to clarify whether possible adverse health effects occurred or may occur in the future, a prospective surveillance program was initiated. After an extensive literature search, an interdisciplinary group of experts developed a surveillance program based on current knowledge with respect to possible adverse health effects that might occur in the recycling process of transformers and capacitors. Exposure to various hazardous substances (PCB, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzo-furans [PCDD/F], metals, solvents) was considered. Criteria derived from human biomonitoring results of PCB were used for admission to the program. Participants in the surveillance program are first informed about risks and aims of the program. Subsequently, physicians started a detailed documentation of participants' general and occupational history, with their complaints, diseases, and nutritional habits, as well as information regarding their living areas, by means of a standardized questionnaire. In addition, separate examinations were performed to detect possible neurological, immunological, (neuro)psychological, hormonal, and skin effects. Moreover, DNA exposure as assessed by the comet assay and antioxidative status were determined. The program will be offered at yearly intervals for 3 years, and then at 5 and 10 years after program onset. Until now the program has proved to be feasible, and acceptance among workers and their families has been high. Based on the results, criteria will be developed to define adverse health effects that might be attributable to a hazardous substance exposure.

  20. The availability and consistency of dengue surveillance data provided online by the World Health Organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruberto, Irene; Marques, Ernesto; Burke, Donald S; Van Panhuis, Willem G

    2015-04-01

    The use of high quality disease surveillance data has become increasingly important for public health action against new threats. In response, countries have developed a wide range of disease surveillance systems enabled by technological advancements. The heterogeneity and complexity of country data systems have caused a growing need for international organizations such as the World Health Organization (WHO) to coordinate the standardization, integration, and dissemination of country disease data at the global level for research and policy. The availability and consistency of currently available disease surveillance data at the global level are unclear. We investigated this for dengue surveillance data provided online by the WHO. We extracted all dengue surveillance data provided online by WHO Headquarters and Regional Offices (RO's). We assessed the availability and consistency of these data by comparing indicators within and between sources. We also assessed the consistency of dengue data provided online by two example countries (Brazil and Indonesia). Data were available from WHO for 100 countries since 1955 representing a total of 23 million dengue cases and 82 thousand deaths ever reported to WHO. The availability of data on DengueNet and some RO's declined dramatically after 2005. Consistency was lacking between sources (84% across all indicators representing a discrepancy of almost half a million cases). Within sources, data at high spatial resolution were often incomplete. The decline of publicly available, integrated dengue surveillance data at the global level will limit opportunities for research, policy, and advocacy. A new financial and operational framework will be necessary for innovation and for the continued availability of integrated country disease data at the global level.

  1. One Health-ness Evaluation of Cysticercosis Surveillance Design in Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Gloria Fonseca

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The increasing occurrence of human cysticercosis, a zoonotic neglected disease, is challenging the traditional prevention and control paradigm and calling for One Health (OH solutions in industrialized countries. OH solutions for health interventions are increasingly being used to capture expected and unexpected outcomes across people, animals, and the environment. The Network for Evaluation of One Health (NEOH proposes an evidence-based framework, relying on systems and mixed methods approaches to evaluate the One Health-ness. In this case study, this tool is used to evaluate the design of the Observatory of Taeniasis and Cysticercosis, as an example of intersectorial collaboration for surveillance in Portugal. The OH Initiative (drivers and expected outcomes and its system (boundaries, aim, dimensions, actors, and stakeholders were described. The different aspects of this Initiative were scored with values from 0 (=no OH approach to 1 (=perfect OH approach. The OH index was 0.31. Its OH ratio is 1.98. Overall scores were as follows: OH thinking 0.75; OH planning 0.60; OH working 0.60; OH sharing 0.35; OH learning 0.50; and systemic organization 0.50. Operational levels of the Initiative are the main strengths, indicating a comprehensive multidimensional innovative approach and transdisciplinarity. Critical issues in the supporting infrastructure were observed, related to communication, learning and organizational gaps in the project, with the evaluation being conducted as the project is being designed and implemented. The strengths and weaknesses detected may be used to refine the Initiative. This case study therefore exemplifies and supports OH assessment also for ongoing projects, at design and early implementation stages for guiding and guaranteeing an OH-oriented perspective.

  2. Ciguatera fish poisoning and environmental change: a case for strengthening health surveillance in the Pacific?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derne, Bonnie; Fearnley, Emily; Goater, Sarah; Carter, Karen; Weinstein, Philip

    2010-09-01

    Ciguatera Fish Poisoning (CFP), a significant public health problem in the Pacific, is intrinsically linked to the health of coral reef ecosystems. Incidence data on CFP could therefore be used, in theory, as indicators of disruption to coral reefs. Some disruptions, such as increasing sea surface temperatures, result from global environmental change--therefore suggesting that CFP is likely to become an increasing public health problem in the region. The proactive management of increasing numbers of cases will depend on an understanding of the ecology of the disease, sound health surveillance systems to report cases of CFP including appropriate case definitions, and quantifiable correlations between case numbers and environmental variables. Here, we briefly review the knowledge about these components in Pacific Island Countries and Territories (PICTs), including summarising regional variation in symptoms of CFP cases, investigating media as an enhanced surveillance tool, and summarising regional environmental drivers of CFP cases. We conclude that CFP could be an important indicator of the health of reef ecosystems in the face of global climate change and more novel approaches such as combining environmental and health data, need to be implemented to improve surveillance of CFP.

  3. Use of a Digital Health Application for Influenza Surveillance in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hswen, Yulin; Brownstein, John S; Liu, Jeremiah; Hawkins, Jared B

    2017-07-01

    To examine whether a commercial digital health application could support influenza surveillance in China. We retrieved data from the Thermia online and mobile educational tool, which allows parents to monitor their children's fever and infectious febrile illnesses including influenza. We modeled monthly aggregated influenza-like illness case counts from Thermia users over time and compared them against influenza monthly case counts obtained from the National Health and Family Planning Commission of the People's Republic of China by using time series regression analysis. We retrieved 44 999 observations from January 2014 through July 2016 from Thermia China. Thermia appeared to predict influenza outbreaks 1 month earlier than the National Health and Family Planning Commission influenza surveillance system (P = .046). Being younger, not having up-to-date immunizations, and having an underlying health condition were associated with participant-reported influenza-like illness. Digital health applications could supplement traditional influenza surveillance systems in China by providing access to consumers' symptom reporting. Growing popularity and use of commercial digital health applications in China potentially affords opportunities to support disease detection and monitoring and rapid treatment mobilization.

  4. Extension of the RPV irradiation surveillance program of NPP GKN II by T0 approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barthelmes, J.; Keim, E.; Hein, H.; Koenig, G.

    2015-01-01

    The nuclear power plant (NPP) Neckarwestheim II (GKN II) started operation in 1989 and was designed for 40 years of operation. During the plant life time the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) integrity is a main aspect for nuclear safety since the RPV is exposed to neutron irradiation affecting the mechanical material properties, in particular toughness. In this context the ductile to brittle transition reference temperature of the RPV materials can be determined either indirectly according to the RT(NDT) concept by means of comparative examinations of irradiated and unirradiated notched-bar impact specimens or directly according to the Master Curve concept by means of examination of irradiated fracture mechanic specimens and determination of an alternative reference temperature RT(T0). With the implementation and evaluation of the first irradiation surveillance program consisting of three sets, one unirradiated reference set (set 1) and two irradiated sets (set 2 and 3), the RPV safety could be proven for the assessment fluence (AF) of 8*10 18 cm -2 (E > 1 MeV) using the RT(NDT) concept. Against the background of a possible long term operation and the state-of-the-art of science and technology in 1998 the NPP GKN II initiated a supplemental irradiation surveillance program with two irradiation sets (set 4 and 5) containing fracture mechanic specimens for complementary proof of safety according to the Master Curve concept. The results of the first irradiated set 4 are presented and assessed by means of the reference temperatures according to the Master Curve concept and compared to the results of the irradiation sets 1 to 3 of the conventional irradiation surveillance program. As an important outcome the existing RPV integrity assessment could be ensured by the Master Curve results. The applied approach adapts to the state-of-the-art of science and technology and is best practice to ensure the safe operation of RPV supplementary. (authors)

  5. Fast neutron fluence calculations as support for a BWR pressure vessel and internals surveillance program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucatero, Marco A.; Palacios-Hernandez, Javier C.; Ortiz-Villafuerte, Javier; Xolocostli-Munguia, J. Vicente; Gomez-Torres, Armando M.

    2010-01-01

    Materials surveillance programs are required to detect and prevent degradation of safety-related structures and components of a nuclear power reactor. In this work, following the directions in the Regulatory Guide 1.190, a calculational methodology is implemented as additional support for a reactor pressure vessel and internals surveillance program for a BWR. The choice of the neutronic methods employed was based on the premise of being able of performing all the expected future survey calculations in relatively short times, but without compromising accuracy. First, a geometrical model of a typical BWR was developed, from the core to the primary containment, including jet pumps and all other structures. The methodology uses the Synthesis Method to compute the three-dimensional neutron flux distribution. In the methodology, the code CORE-MASTER-PRESTO is used as the three-dimensional core simulator; SCALE is used to generate the fine-group flux spectra of the components of the model and also used to generate a 47 energy-groups job cross section library, collapsed from the 199-fine-group master library VITAMIN-B6; ORIGEN2 was used to compute the isotopic densities of uranium and plutonium; and, finally, DORT was used to calculate the two-dimensional and one-dimensional neutron flux distributions required to compute the synthesized three-dimensional neutron flux. Then, the calculation of fast neutron fluence was performed using the effective full power time periods through six operational fuel cycles of two BWR Units and until the 13th cycle for Unit 1. The results showed a maximum relative difference between the calculated-by-synthesis fast neutron fluxes and fluences and those measured by Fe, Cu and Ni dosimeters less than 7%. The dosimeters were originally located adjacent to the pressure vessel wall, as part of the surveillance program. Results from the computations of peak fast fluence on pressure vessel wall and specific weld locations on the core shroud are

  6. HIV surveillance in needlestick accidents with health workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janete Lane Amadei

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To characterize the occurrence of needlestick accidents with health professionals submitted to rapid HIV tests. Methods: A descriptive, epidemiological study, carried out by notification of the occurrence of needlestick accidents in the Epidemiology Sector of the State Health Secretariat, in 2008. The following variables were assessed: gender, age, exposed biological material, type of exposure, source patient, and injured patient, progression of the case, accident situation, and use of personal protective equipment (PPE, 180 days serology and occupational area. Results: There have been reports of 143 accidents, prevailing in nursing, female, 20 to 30 years, involving the blood and biological material by percutaneous puncture. We found no standardization in the use of PPE. The HIV test revealed no positive cases. Conclusion: This study helped to characterize the occurrence of accidents reported in health care professionals and evaluate the protocol of care given. It also revealed non-contamination by HIV.

  7. Sentinel health events (occupational): a basis for physician recognition and public health surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutstein, D.D.; Mullan, R.J.; Frazier, T.M.; Halperin, W.E.; Melius, J.M.; Sestito, J.P.

    1984-01-01

    A Sentinel Health Event (SHE) is a preventable disease, disability, or untimely death whose occurrence serves as a warning signal that the quality of preventive and/or therapeutic medical care may need to be improved. A SHE (Occupational) is a disease, disability, or untimely death which is occupationally related and whose occurrence may: (1) provide the impetus for epidemiologic or industrial hygiene studies; or (2) serve as a warning signal that materials substitution, engineering control, personal protection, or medical care may be required. The present SHE(O) list encompasses 50 disease conditions that are linked to the workplace. Only those conditions are included for which objective documentation of an associated agent, industry, and occupation exists in the scientific literature. The list will serve as a framework for developing a national system for occupational health surveillance that may be applied at the state and local level, and as a guide for practicing physicians caring for patients with occupational illnesses. The list will be updated periodically to accommodate new occupational disease events which meet the criteria for inclusion. 190 references, 1 figure, 1 table

  8. Clinical, Bacteriologic, and Geographic Stratification of Melioidosis Emerges from the Sri Lankan National Surveillance Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathkumara, Harindra D; Merritt, Adam J; Corea, Enoka M; Krishnananthasivam, Shivankari; Natesan, Mohan; Inglis, Timothy J J; De Silva, Aruna Dharshan

    2018-02-01

    Melioidosis, a potentially fatal tropical infection, is said to be underdiagnosed in low-income countries. An increase in melioidosis cases in Sri Lanka allowed us to analyze the relationship among clinical outcome, bacteriology, epidemiology, and geography in the first 108 laboratory-confirmed cases of melioidosis from a nationwide surveillance program. The additional 76 cases of laboratory-confirmed melioidosis confirmed further associations between Burkholderia pseudomallei multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and infection phenotype; ST1137/unifocal bacteremic infection (χ 2 = 3.86, P national genotyping-supported melioidosis registry will improve melioidosis diagnosis, treatment, and prevention where underdiagnosis and mortality rates remain high.

  9. Trends in health surveillance and joint service delivery for pastoralists in West and Central Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abakar, M F; Schelling, E; Béchir, M; Ngandolo, B N; Pfister, K; Alfaroukh, I O; Hassane, H M; Zinsstag, J

    2016-11-01

    In most sub-Saharan African countries, pastoralism represents an important economic resource and contributes significantly to national growth; however, challenges remain, particularly in providing social services to pastoralists (especially health and education) and in avoiding conflict with local sedentary communities and local authorities. All of this takes place while pastoralists try to maintain their mobile lifestyle within a rapidly changing ecosystem. Transdisciplinary approaches, such as 'One Health', which covers both human and animal health, have proven effective in delivering services and reaching mobile pastoralists in remote areas. The pastoralist way of life could be described as being linked to both their livestock and their environment, which makes social science an important element when researching the delivery and adaptation of social services to pastoralists. Early or pre-diagnostic detection of emerging and endemic infectious disease remains a vital aspect of health surveillance targeted at preventing further transmission and spread. Community-based syndromic surveillance, coupled with visual mobile phone technology, adapted to the high levels of illiteracy among nomads, could offer an alternative to existing health surveillance systems. Such an approach could contribute to accelerated reporting, which could in turn lead to targeted intervention among mobile pastoralists in sub-Saharan Africa. Although considerable efforts have been made towards integrating mobile pastoralists into social services, obstacles remain to the adoption of a clear, specific and sustainable policy on pastoralism in sub-Saharan Africa.

  10. A new source of data for public health surveillance: Facebook likes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gittelman, Steven; Lange, Victor; Gotway Crawford, Carol A; Okoro, Catherine A; Lieb, Eugene; Dhingra, Satvinder S; Trimarchi, Elaine

    2015-04-20

    Investigation into personal health has become focused on conditions at an increasingly local level, while response rates have declined and complicated the process of collecting data at an individual level. Simultaneously, social media data have exploded in availability and have been shown to correlate with the prevalence of certain health conditions. Facebook likes may be a source of digital data that can complement traditional public health surveillance systems and provide data at a local level. We explored the use of Facebook likes as potential predictors of health outcomes and their behavioral determinants. We performed principal components and regression analyses to examine the predictive qualities of Facebook likes with regard to mortality, diseases, and lifestyle behaviors in 214 counties across the United States and 61 of 67 counties in Florida. These results were compared with those obtainable from a demographic model. Health data were obtained from both the 2010 and 2011 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) and mortality data were obtained from the National Vital Statistics System. Facebook likes added significant value in predicting most examined health outcomes and behaviors even when controlling for age, race, and socioeconomic status, with model fit improvements (adjusted R(2)) of an average of 58% across models for 13 different health-related metrics over basic sociodemographic models. Small area data were not available in sufficient abundance to test the accuracy of the model in estimating health conditions in less populated markets, but initial analysis using data from Florida showed a strong model fit for obesity data (adjusted R(2)=.77). Facebook likes provide estimates for examined health outcomes and health behaviors that are comparable to those obtained from the BRFSS. Online sources may provide more reliable, timely, and cost-effective county-level data than that obtainable from traditional public health surveillance systems as

  11. Surveillance of health care workers exposed to ionising radiation: Rimed pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The project so-called RIMED aimed to set up epidemiological surveillance of health care workers exposed to ionizing radiation. A pilot study was conducted in a sample of hospital personnel to examine the possibility of identifying exposed subjects in order to analyse mortality patterns according to occupational characteristics such as medical departments or occupations in a historical cohort. Seven hospitals participated in this pilot study. Health-care workers who had worn a dosimeter up to December 2003 were to be included in this cohort. The subjects' identification data were obtained from the SISERI (Systeme d'information de la surveillance de l'exposition aux rayonnements ionisants - Ionizing Radiation Exposure Monitoring Information System) database managed by the Institut de radioprotection et de surete nucleaire - Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Institute (IRSN). The SISERI system was in a 'pilot' phase in 2004. According to SISERI database, a total of 5126 subjects were found to have worn a dosimeter up to December 2003. The subjects' identification data were completed by the administrative services of the hospitals and occupational physicians searched for subjects' occupational data. Information required for the vital status search was satisfactorily completed only for 38% of the cohort subjects. This pilot study showed that obtaining data from SISERI database completed by hospital administrative data in 2004 led to a database of insufficient quality for epidemiological surveillance. The Institut de veille sanitaire (French Institute of Public Health Surveillance) recommends that transmission by the employers of some specific personal or occupational data of the exposed subjects should be made compulsory. In this way, SISERI system should be able to constitute any database with required quality for epidemiological surveillance of ionizing radiation exposed subjects. (authors)

  12. A One Health Evaluation of the Southern African Centre for Infectious Disease Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie C. E. Hanin

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Rooted in the recognition that emerging infectious diseases occur at the interface of human, animal, and ecosystem health, the Southern African Centre for Infectious Disease Surveillance (SACIDS initiative aims to promote a trans-sectoral approach to address better infectious disease risk management in five countries of the Southern African Development Community. Nine years after SACIDS’ inception, this study aimed to evaluate the program by applying a One Health (OH evaluation framework developed by the Network for Evaluation of One Health (NEOH. The evaluation included a description of the context and the initiative, illustration of the theory of change, identification of outputs and outcomes, and assessment of the One Healthness. The latter is the sum of characteristics that defines an integrated approach and includes OH thinking, OH planning, OH working, sharing infrastructure, learning infrastructure, and systemic organization. The protocols made available by NEOH were used to develop data collection protocols and identify the study design. The framework relies on a mixed methods approach by combining a descriptive and qualitative assessment with a semi-quantitative evaluation (scoring. Data for the analysis were gathered during a document review, in group and individual interviews and in an online survey. Operational aspects (i.e., OH thinking, planning, and working were found to be balanced overall with the highest score in the planning dimension, whereas the infrastructure (learning infrastructure, systemic organization, and sharing infrastructure was high for the first two dimensions, but low for sharing. The OH index calculated was 0.359, and the OH ratio calculated was 1.495. The program was praised for its great innovative energy in a difficult landscape dominated by poor infrastructure and its ability to create awareness for OH and enthuse people for the concept; training of people and networking. Shortcomings were identified

  13. ORBiT: Oak Ridge Bio-surveillance Toolkit for Public Health Dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramanathan, Arvind [ORNL; Pullum, Laura L [ORNL; Hobson, Tanner C [ORNL; Steed, Chad A [ORNL; Chennubhotla, Chakra [University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine; Quinn, Shannon [University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine

    2015-01-01

    With novel emerging infectious diseases being reported across different parts of the world, there is a need to build effective bio-surveillance systems that can track, monitor and report such events in a timely manner. Apart from monitoring for emerging disease outbreaks, it is also important to identify susceptible geographic regions and populations where these diseases may have a significant impact. The digitization of health related information through electronic health records (EHR) and electronic healthcare claim reimbursements (eHCR) and the continued growth of self-reported health information through social media provides both tremendous opportunities and challenges in developing novel public health surveillance tools. In this paper, we present an overview of Oak Ridge Bio-surveillance Toolkit (ORBiT), which we have developed specifically to address data analytic challenges in the realm of public health surveillance. In particular, ORBiT provides an extensible environment to pull together diverse, large-scale datasets and analyze them to identify spatial and temporal patterns for various bio-surveillance related tasks. We demonstrate the utility of ORBiT in automatically extracting a small number of spatial and temporal patterns during the 2009-2010 pandemic H1N1 flu season using eHCR data. These patterns provide quantitative insights into the dynamics of how the pandemic flu spread across different parts of the country. We discovered that the eHCR data exhibits multi-scale patterns from which we could identify a small number of states in the United States (US) that act as bridge regions contributing to one or more specific influenza spread patterns. Similar to previous studies, the patterns show that the south-eastern regions of the US were widely affected by the H1N1 flu pandemic. Several of these south-eastern states act as bridge regions, which connect the north-east and central US in terms of flu occurrences. These quantitative insights show how the e

  14. The Establishment of the Colombian Integrated Program for Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance (COIPARS): A Pilot Project on Poultry Farms, Slaughterhouses and Retail Market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donado-Godoy, P; Castellanos, R; León, M; Arevalo, A; Clavijo, V; Bernal, J; León, D; Tafur, M A; Byrne, B A; Smith, W A; Perez-Gutierrez, E

    2015-04-01

    The development of antimicrobial resistance among bacteria (AMR) is currently one of the world's most pressing public health problems. The use of antimicrobial agents in humans and animals has resulted in AMR which has narrowed the potential use of antibiotics for the treatment of infections in humans. To monitor AMR and to develop control measures, some countries, such as the USA, Canada and Denmark, have established national integrated surveillance systems (FDA, , CIPARS, 2007, DANMAP,2002). The components of these programs monitor changes in susceptibility/resistance to antimicrobial agents of selected zoonotic pathogens and commensal organisms recovered from animals, retail meats and humans. The rapid development of Colombia's animal production industry has raised food safety issues including the emergence of antibiotic resistance. The Colombian Integrated Surveillance Program for Antimicrobial Resistance (COIPARS) was established as a pilot project to monitor AMR on poultry farms, slaughter houses and retail markets. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  15. Utilization of Healthcare in the Typhoid Fever Surveillance in Africa Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panzner, Ursula; Pak, Gi Deok; Aaby, Peter; Adu-Sarkodie, Yaw; Ali, Mohammad; Aseffa, Abraham; Baker, Stephen; Bjerregaard-Andersen, Morten; Crump, John A; Deerin, Jessica; Cruz Espinoza, Ligia Maria; Gasmelseed, Nagla; Heriniaina, Jean Noël; Hertz, Julian T; Im, Justin; von Kalckreuth, Vera; Keddy, Karen H; Lankoande, Bruno; Løfberg, Sandra; Meyer, Christian G; Oresto, Michael Munishi; Park, Jin Kyung; Park, Se Eun; Rakotozandrindrainy, Raphaël; Sarpong, Nimako; Soura, Abdramane Bassiahi; Gassama Sow, Amy; Tall, Adama; Teferi, Mekonnen; Worku, Alemayehu; Yeshitela, Biruk; Wierzba, Thomas F; Marks, Florian

    2016-03-15

    Assessing healthcare utilization is important to identify weaknesses of healthcare systems, to outline action points for preventive measures and interventions, and to more accurately estimate the disease burden in a population. A healthcare utilization survey was developed for the Typhoid Fever Surveillance in Africa Program (TSAP) to adjust incidences of salmonellosis determined through passive, healthcare facility-based surveillance. This cross-sectional survey was conducted at 11 sites in 9 sub-Saharan African countries. Demographic data and healthcare-seeking behavior were assessed at selected households. Overall and age-stratified percentages of each study population that sought healthcare at a TSAP healthcare facility and elsewhere were determined. Overall, 88% (1007/1145) and 81% (1811/2238) of the population in Polesgo and Nioko 2, Burkina Faso, respectively, and 63% (1636/2590) in Butajira, Ethiopia, sought healthcare for fever at any TSAP healthcare facility. A far smaller proportion-namely, 20%-45% of the population in Bissau, Guinea-Bissau (1743/3885), Pikine, Senegal (1473/4659), Wad-Medani, Sudan (861/3169), and Pietermaritzburg, South Africa (667/2819); 18% (483/2622) and 9% (197/2293) in Imerintsiatosika and Isotry, Madagascar, respectively; and 4% (127/3089) in Moshi, Tanzania-sought healthcare at a TSAP healthcare facility. Patients with fever preferred to visit pharmacies in Imerintsiatosika and Isotry, and favored self-management of fever in Moshi. Age-dependent differences in healthcare utilization were also observed within and across sites. Healthcare utilization for fever varied greatly across sites, and revealed that not all studied populations were under optimal surveillance. This demonstrates the importance of assessing healthcare utilization. Survey data were pivotal for the adjustment of the program's estimates of salmonellosis and other conditions associated with fever. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the

  16. Strengthening health security at the Hajj mass gatherings: characteristics of the infectious diseases surveillance systems operational during the 2015 Hajj.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alotaibi, Badriah M; Yezli, Saber; Bin Saeed, Abdul-Aziz A; Turkestani, Abdulhafeez; Alawam, Amnah H; Bieh, Kingsley L

    2017-05-01

    Hajj is one of the largest and the most ethnically and culturally diverse mass gatherings worldwide. The use of appropriate surveillance systems ensures timely information management for effective planning and response to infectious diseases threats during the pilgrimage. The literature describes infectious diseases prevention and control strategies for Hajj but with limited information on the operations and characteristics of the existing Hajj infectious diseases surveillance systems. We reviewed documents, including guidelines and reports from the Saudi Ministry of Health's database, to describe the characteristics of the infectious diseases surveillance systems that were operational during the 2015 Hajj, highlighting best practices and gaps and proposing strategies for strengthening and improvement. Using Pubmed and Embase online search engines and a combination of search terms including, 'mass gatherings' 'Olympics' 'surveillance' 'Hajj' 'health security', we explored the existing literature and highlighted some lessons learnt from other international mass gatherings. A regular indicator-based infectious disease surveillance system generates routine reports from health facilities within the Kingdom to the regional and central public health directorates all year round. During Hajj, enhanced indicator-based notifiable diseases surveillance systems complement the existing surveillance tool to ensure timely reporting of event information for appropriate action by public health officials. There is need to integrate the existing Hajj surveillance data management systems and to implement syndromic surveillance as an early warning system for infectious disease control during Hajj. International engagement is important to strengthen Hajj infectious diseases surveillance and to prevent disease transmission and globalization of infectious agents which could undermine global health security. © International Society of Travel Medicine, 2017. Published by Oxford University

  17. Evaluation of tuberculosis public health surveillance, Al-Madinah province, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed J. Alkhalawi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study is to evaluate the quality of the data, the sensitivity of the surveillance, and the completeness of identification and investigation of tuberculosis (TB patient’s contacts. The study covered the TB surveillance program in Al-Madinah province in 2011. First, we reviewed all the notifications, treatment cards, and register books, as well as monthly and quarterly reports, for completeness and accuracy of data. Then, we searched for the missed cases that were not reported. Finally, we reviewed all the patients’ household contacts’ reports to assess the degree of completion of identification and investigation. There were 444 cases detected during the study period; only 200 cases were reported. The sensitivity of the TB surveillance system was 45%. Among the 200 reported cases, the results revealed high completeness rates for demographic and disease data and low completeness rates for the test result fields. The contact identification and investigation showed that 34.4% of smear-positive cases’ contacts were not identified. Only 67% of identified contacts were investigated. The review of hospital records and lab registers showed that 244 cases were not reported. In conclusion, the TB surveillance system has several areas that need improvement.

  18. Continuous high-temperature surveillance instrumentation for Dresden-2 hydrogen water chemistry program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleming, M.F.; Mitchell, R.A.; Nelson, J.L.

    1987-01-01

    The objective of this program (under EPRI Contract RP1930-11) is to install and operate a high-temperature surveillance instrumentation system capable of monitoring the length of cracks in boiling water reactor (BWR) piping during plant operation. The ability to measure crack growth in BWR power plant piping welds is important to rapidly identify the effectiveness of repairs (such as the Hydrogen Water Chemistry Program). The feasibility of a system capable of continuous ultrasonic instrumentation at 600 0 F (288 0 C) was successfully demonstrated at the Dresden-2 suction line known as N1B. This intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) surveillance instrumentation is sound in principal, because it survived on N1B for a time period of more than nine months from April 1985 to January 1986 (the last time data were recorded). The redesigned low-profile transducer system used for this system operated successfully for the same nine-month time period. This low profile transducer fits in the two-inch space normally occupied by insulation. As a result of poor routing of the coaxial cables running from the low-profile transducer to the electrical feed-throughs between the drywell and containment, these cables melted. Other instrument cables nearby were not damaged

  19. Environmental Restoration Program pollution prevention checklist guide for the surveillance and maintenance project phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    DOE Order 5820.2 mandates that a surveillance and maintenance program be established in all shut-down facilities to ensure adequate containment of contamination, provide physical safety and security, and reduce potential public and environmental hazards. A key consideration in this process is the prevention of any waste to be generated from these activities. The purpose of this checklist guide is to assist the user with incorporating pollution prevention/waste minimization (PP/WM) in all Surveillance and Maintenance (S ampersand M) phase projects of the Environmental Restoration (ER) Program. This guide will help users document their PP/WM activities for technology transfer and reporting requirements. Automated computer screens will be created from the checklist data to assist users with implementing and evaluating waste reduction. Users can then establish numerical performance measures to measure progress in planning, training, self-assessments, field implementation, documentation, and technology transfer. Cost savings result as users train and assess themselves and perform preliminary waste assessments

  20. Gastrointestinal Illnesses among French Forces Deployed to Djibouti: French Military Health Surveillance, 2005–2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ollivier, Lénaïck; Decam, Christophe; de Santi, Vincent Pommier; Darar, Houssein Y.; Dia, Aïssata; Nevin, Remington L.; Romand, Olivier; Bougère, Jacques; Deparis, Xavier; Boutin, Jean-Paul

    2010-01-01

    Despite an increase in foreign tourism and in the numbers of foreign military personnel deployed to Djibouti, little is known about the risk of gastrointestinal illness in this country in eastern Africa. To assess risk and to describe common features of gastrointestinal illnesses, reports of illness derived from military health surveillance data collected during 2005–2009 among French service members deployed to Djibouti were reviewed. Diarrhea was the most common problem; it had an annual incidence ranging from 260 to 349 cases per 1,000 person-years. The risk was higher among soldiers deployed short-term (four months) than among soldiers deployed long-term (two years). This five-year review of French health surveillance data documents a significant burden of diarrhea among French soldiers in Djibouti. The identification of factors associated with risk may permit efficient targeting of interventions to reduce morbidity from gastrointestinal illness. PMID:20889897

  1. Gastrointestinal illnesses among French forces deployed to Djibouti: French military health surveillance, 2005-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ollivier, Lénaïck; Decam, Christophe; Pommier de Santi, Vincent; Darar, Houssein Y; Dia, Aïssata; Nevin, Remington L; Romand, Olivier; Bougère, Jacques; Deparis, Xavier; Boutin, Jean-Paul

    2010-10-01

    Despite an increase in foreign tourism and in the numbers of foreign military personnel deployed to Djibouti, little is known about the risk of gastrointestinal illness in this country in eastern Africa. To assess risk and to describe common features of gastrointestinal illnesses, reports of illness derived from military health surveillance data collected during 2005-2009 among French service members deployed to Djibouti were reviewed. Diarrhea was the most common problem; it had an annual incidence ranging from 260 to 349 cases per 1,000 person-years. The risk was higher among soldiers deployed short-term (four months) than among soldiers deployed long-term (two years). This five-year review of French health surveillance data documents a significant burden of diarrhea among French soldiers in Djibouti. The identification of factors associated with risk may permit efficient targeting of interventions to reduce morbidity from gastrointestinal illness.

  2. A reliability program for emergency diesel generators at nuclear power plants: Maintenance, surveillance, and condition monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lofgren, E.V.; Henderson, W.; Burghardt, D.; Kripps, L.; Rothleder, B.

    1988-12-01

    This report is a companion report on NUREG/CR-5078, Volume 1, ''A Reliability Program for Emergency Diesel Generators at Nuclear Power Plants: Program Structure.'' The purpose of this report is to provide technical findings and insights related to: failure evaluation, troubleshooting, maintenance, surveillance, and condition monitoring. Examples and recommendations are provided for each of these areas based on actual emergency diesel generator (EDG) operating experience and the opinions of diesel generator experts. This report expands the more general guidance provided in Volume 1. In addition, a discussion of EDG interactions with other plant systems (e.g., instrument, air, service water, dc power) is provided since experience has shown that these support systems and their operation can adversely affect EDG reliability. Portions of this report have been designed for use by onsite personnel for evaluating operational characteristics of EDGs. 5 refs., 8 figs., 7 tabs

  3. Annual Surveillance Summary: Escherichia coli (E. coli) Infections in the Military Health System (MHS), 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Annual Surveillance Summary: Escherichia coli ( E . coli ) Infections in the Military Health System (MHS...or position of the Department of the Navy, Department of Defense, nor the U.S. Government. i i E . coli in the MHS: Annual Summary 2015 Prepared...March 2017 EpiData Center Department NMCPHC-EDC-TR-187-2017 ii ii E . coli in the MHS: Annual Summary 2015 Prepared March 2017 EpiData

  4. [Is it possible to improve the preventive usefulness of workers' health surveillance in the current regulatory framework?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Jareño, Mari Cruz; De Montserrat I Nonó, Jaume

    In Spain, the limited preventive usefulness of health surveillance is determined by the indiscriminate use of nonspecific "generic" health examinations aimed at producing a "fitness for work list", presumably allowing companies to comply with health and safety regulations. This study aimed to produce a technical interpretation of the Spanish Prevention of Risks at Work Act and propose a new conceptual framework to favour greater preventive usefulness of health surveillance within the current regulatory framework. Using qualitative techniques of content analysis, the text of the Law was studied, the key concepts that impeded the fulfilment of the preventive objectives of health surveillance were identified, and a technical interpretation adjusted to regulations was made in order to propose a new conceptual framework RESULTS: This conceptual framework would include: clearly differentiating health surveillance from health examinations (one of its instruments) and from fitness for work evaluations (an independent concept in itself); restricting mandatory health surveillance to situations in which it is "imperative" to carry it out because of the existence of a substantial risk to workers or third parties, including potentially vulnerable workers; and communicating the results of health surveillance through preventive recommendations to the company, reserving fitness for duty certificates -always based on clear, pre-established and justified criteria in relation to risk- for mandatory surveillance. The proposed new conceptual framework falls within the scope of the Spanish Prevention of Risks at Work Act, and its implementation could contribute to improving the preventive usefulness of health surveillance without the need to reform the legislation. Copyright belongs to the Societat Catalana de Salut Laboral.

  5. School Health: Findings from Evaluated Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Public Health Service (DHHS), Rockville, MD. Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion.

    This publication presents findings from evaluations of many school health programs from across the United States. Each program includes at least one of the following eight components of a comprehensive school health program: health education, clinical services, counseling and mental health services, school environment, school food programs,…

  6. [The senses of sanitary safety in the discourse of the National Health Surveillance Agency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Ana de Oliveira; Costa, Ediná Alves

    2010-11-01

    The term sanitary safety (SS) appeared in the international debate mainly due to the emerging sanitary crisis, although its meaning has remained obscure. This paper aims to analyze the concept of SS brought into the Brazilian sanitary surveillance upon the creation of the National Health Surveillance Agency. An exploratory case study was undertaken with technical data analysis and semi-structured interviews with informants who had taken part in the process of formulating the body's institutional design. The following categories were analyzed: incorporation of the SS term into the institutional mission, the SS concept and SS mechanisms. The SS concept was analyzed in both institutional and technical discursive dimensions. The former elicits the sense of strategy, a reliable relationship and legitimacy whereas the latter shows the sense of an acceptable risk-benefit relationship from the perspective of individual and collective health protection and promotion. The SS concept was found to encompass health-related products, technologies and services, especially those designed for medical diagnosis and treatment, but environmental issues received little mention. The scope of the SS concept was shown to be widening to include the surveillance of hospital infection, drugs and blood.

  7. Locating People Diagnosed With HIV for Public Health Action: Utility of HIV Case Surveillance and Other Data Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, Mabel; Mattson, Christine L; Scheer, Susan; Udeagu, Chi-Chi N; Buskin, Susan E; Hughes, Alison J; Jaenicke, Thomas; Wohl, Amy Rock; Prejean, Joseph; Wei, Stanley C

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) case surveillance and other health care databases are increasingly being used for public health action, which has the potential to optimize the health outcomes of people living with HIV (PLWH). However, often PLWH cannot be located based on the contact information available in these data sources. We assessed the accuracy of contact information for PLWH in HIV case surveillance and additional data sources and whether time since diagnosis was associated with accurate contact information in HIV case surveillance and successful contact. The Case Surveillance-Based Sampling (CSBS) project was a pilot HIV surveillance system that selected a random population-based sample of people diagnosed with HIV from HIV case surveillance registries in 5 state and metropolitan areas. From November 2012 through June 2014, CSBS staff members attempted to locate and interview 1800 sampled people and used 22 data sources to search for contact information. Among 1063 contacted PLWH, HIV case surveillance data provided accurate telephone number, address, or HIV care facility information for 239 (22%), 412 (39%), and 827 (78%) sampled people, respectively. CSBS staff members used additional data sources, such as support services and commercial people-search databases, to locate and contact PLWH with insufficient contact information in HIV case surveillance. PLWH diagnosed surveillance than were PLWH diagnosed ≥1 year ago ( P = .002), and the benefit from using additional data sources was greater for PLWH with more longstanding HIV infection ( P surveillance cannot provide accurate contact information, health departments can prioritize searching additional data sources, especially for people with more longstanding HIV infection.

  8. Methodological challenges to multivariate syndromic surveillance: a case study using Swiss animal health data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vial, Flavie; Wei, Wei; Held, Leonhard

    2016-12-20

    In an era of ubiquitous electronic collection of animal health data, multivariate surveillance systems (which concurrently monitor several data streams) should have a greater probability of detecting disease events than univariate systems. However, despite their limitations, univariate aberration detection algorithms are used in most active syndromic surveillance (SyS) systems because of their ease of application and interpretation. On the other hand, a stochastic modelling-based approach to multivariate surveillance offers more flexibility, allowing for the retention of historical outbreaks, for overdispersion and for non-stationarity. While such methods are not new, they are yet to be applied to animal health surveillance data. We applied an example of such stochastic model, Held and colleagues' two-component model, to two multivariate animal health datasets from Switzerland. In our first application, multivariate time series of the number of laboratories test requests were derived from Swiss animal diagnostic laboratories. We compare the performance of the two-component model to parallel monitoring using an improved Farrington algorithm and found both methods yield a satisfactorily low false alarm rate. However, the calibration test of the two-component model on the one-step ahead predictions proved satisfactory, making such an approach suitable for outbreak prediction. In our second application, the two-component model was applied to the multivariate time series of the number of cattle abortions and the number of test requests for bovine viral diarrhea (a disease that often results in abortions). We found that there is a two days lagged effect from the number of abortions to the number of test requests. We further compared the joint modelling and univariate modelling of the number of laboratory test requests time series. The joint modelling approach showed evidence of superiority in terms of forecasting abilities. Stochastic modelling approaches offer the

  9. Health Care Providers' Knowledge and Practice Gap towards Joint Zoonotic Disease Surveillance System: Challenges and Opportunities, Gomma District, Southwest Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gemeda, Desta Hiko; Sime, Abiot Girma; Hajito, Kifle Woldemichael; Gelalacha, Benti Deresa; Tafese, Wubit; Gebrehiwot, Tsegaye Tewelde

    2016-01-01

    Background. Health care providers play a crucial role for realization of joint zoonotic diseases surveillance by human and animal health sectors, yet there is limited evidence. Hence, this study aimed to determine knowledge and practice gap of health care providers towards the approach for Rabies and Anthrax in Southwest Ethiopia. Methods. A cross-sectional survey was conducted from December 16, 2014, to January 14, 2015. Eligible health care providers were considered for the study. Data were entered in to Epi-data version 3.1 and analyzed using SPSS version 20. Results. A total of 323 (92.02%) health care providers participated in the study. Three hundred sixteen (97.8%) of participants reported that both human and animal health sectors can work together for zoonotic diseases while 96.9% of them replied that both sectors can jointly conduct surveillance. One hundred seventeen (36.2%) of them reported that their respective sectors had conducted joint surveillance for zoonotic diseases. Their involvement was, however, limited to joint outbreak response. Conclusion. There is good opportunity in health care providers' knowledge even though the practice was unacceptably low and did not address all surveillance components. Therefore, formal joint surveillance structure should be in place for optimal implementation of surveillance.

  10. Health Care Providers’ Knowledge and Practice Gap towards Joint Zoonotic Disease Surveillance System: Challenges and Opportunities, Gomma District, Southwest Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desta Hiko Gemeda

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Health care providers play a crucial role for realization of joint zoonotic diseases surveillance by human and animal health sectors, yet there is limited evidence. Hence, this study aimed to determine knowledge and practice gap of health care providers towards the approach for Rabies and Anthrax in Southwest Ethiopia. Methods. A cross-sectional survey was conducted from December 16, 2014, to January 14, 2015. Eligible health care providers were considered for the study. Data were entered in to Epi-data version 3.1 and analyzed using SPSS version 20. Results. A total of 323 (92.02% health care providers participated in the study. Three hundred sixteen (97.8% of participants reported that both human and animal health sectors can work together for zoonotic diseases while 96.9% of them replied that both sectors can jointly conduct surveillance. One hundred seventeen (36.2% of them reported that their respective sectors had conducted joint surveillance for zoonotic diseases. Their involvement was, however, limited to joint outbreak response. Conclusion. There is good opportunity in health care providers’ knowledge even though the practice was unacceptably low and did not address all surveillance components. Therefore, formal joint surveillance structure should be in place for optimal implementation of surveillance.

  11. Partnering with a medical specialty society to perform online public health surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampson, Neil B; Bell, Jeneita; Clower, Jacquelyn H; Dunn, Susan L; Weaver, Lindell K

    2012-01-01

    While accidental carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is common, it is felt to be largely preventable through targeted public education. Development of effective education programs requires accurate epidemiologic information about the condition. Many acute, severe cases of CO poisoning are treated with hyperbaric oxygen (HBO2) at hospital-based facilities staffed by members of the Undersea and Hyperbaric Medical Society (UHMS). In 2008, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) began sponsoring a UHMS proposal to use online reporting by UHMS members of cases treated with HBO2. This report describes development and implementation of the internet-based surveillance system, as well as its first year of operation. From August 2008 to July 2009, a total of 740 cases were reported by the 82 hyperbaric facilities participating nationwide. Extensive epidemiologic information about CO poisoning in the United States has been collected, and the utility of partnering with a medical specialty society for disease-specific surveillance demonstrated.

  12. Easier surveillance of climate-related health vulnerabilities through a Web-based spatial OLAP application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gosselin Pierre

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Climate change has a significant impact on population health. Population vulnerabilities depend on several determinants of different types, including biological, psychological, environmental, social and economic ones. Surveillance of climate-related health vulnerabilities must take into account these different factors, their interdependence, as well as their inherent spatial and temporal aspects on several scales, for informed analyses. Currently used technology includes commercial off-the-shelf Geographic Information Systems (GIS and Database Management Systems with spatial extensions. It has been widely recognized that such OLTP (On-Line Transaction Processing systems were not designed to support complex, multi-temporal and multi-scale analysis as required above. On-Line Analytical Processing (OLAP is central to the field known as BI (Business Intelligence, a key field for such decision-support systems. In the last few years, we have seen a few projects that combine OLAP and GIS to improve spatio-temporal analysis and geographic knowledge discovery. This has given rise to SOLAP (Spatial OLAP and a new research area. This paper presents how SOLAP and climate-related health vulnerability data were investigated and combined to facilitate surveillance. Results Based on recent spatial decision-support technologies, this paper presents a spatio-temporal web-based application that goes beyond GIS applications with regard to speed, ease of use, and interactive analysis capabilities. It supports the multi-scale exploration and analysis of integrated socio-economic, health and environmental geospatial data over several periods. This project was meant to validate the potential of recent technologies to contribute to a better understanding of the interactions between public health and climate change, and to facilitate future decision-making by public health agencies and municipalities in Canada and elsewhere. The project also aimed at

  13. Easier surveillance of climate-related health vulnerabilities through a Web-based spatial OLAP application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernier, Eveline; Gosselin, Pierre; Badard, Thierry; Bédard, Yvan

    2009-04-03

    Climate change has a significant impact on population health. Population vulnerabilities depend on several determinants of different types, including biological, psychological, environmental, social and economic ones. Surveillance of climate-related health vulnerabilities must take into account these different factors, their interdependence, as well as their inherent spatial and temporal aspects on several scales, for informed analyses. Currently used technology includes commercial off-the-shelf Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and Database Management Systems with spatial extensions. It has been widely recognized that such OLTP (On-Line Transaction Processing) systems were not designed to support complex, multi-temporal and multi-scale analysis as required above. On-Line Analytical Processing (OLAP) is central to the field known as BI (Business Intelligence), a key field for such decision-support systems. In the last few years, we have seen a few projects that combine OLAP and GIS to improve spatio-temporal analysis and geographic knowledge discovery. This has given rise to SOLAP (Spatial OLAP) and a new research area. This paper presents how SOLAP and climate-related health vulnerability data were investigated and combined to facilitate surveillance. Based on recent spatial decision-support technologies, this paper presents a spatio-temporal web-based application that goes beyond GIS applications with regard to speed, ease of use, and interactive analysis capabilities. It supports the multi-scale exploration and analysis of integrated socio-economic, health and environmental geospatial data over several periods. This project was meant to validate the potential of recent technologies to contribute to a better understanding of the interactions between public health and climate change, and to facilitate future decision-making by public health agencies and municipalities in Canada and elsewhere. The project also aimed at integrating an initial collection of geo

  14. Legionella spp. and legionellosis in southeastern Italy: disease epidemiology and environmental surveillance in community and health care facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbuti Giovanna

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Following the publication of the Italian Guidelines for the control and prevention of legionellosis an environmental and clinical surveillance has been carried out in Southeastern Italy. The aim of the study is to identify the risk factors for the disease, so allowing better programming of the necessary prevention measures. Methods During the period January 2000 - December 2009 the environmental surveillance was carried out by water sampling of 129 health care facilities (73 public and 56 private hospitals and 533 buildings within the community (63 private apartments, 305 hotels, 19 offices, 4 churches, 116 gyms, 3 swimming pools and 23 schools. Water sampling and microbiological analysis were carried out following the Italian Guidelines. From January 2005, all facilities were subject to risk analysis through the use of a standardized report; the results were classified as good (G, medium (M and bad (B. As well, all the clinical surveillance forms for legionellosis, which must be compiled by physicians and sent to the Regional Centre for Epidemiology (OER, were analyzed. Results Legionella spp. was found in 102 (79.1% health care facilities and in 238 (44.7% community buildings. The percentages for the contamination levels 10,000 cfu/L were respectively 33.1%, 53.4% and 13.5% for samples from health care facilities and 33.5%, 43.3% and 23.2% for samples from the community. Both in hospital and community environments, Legionella pneumophila serogroup (L. pn sg 2-14 was the most frequently isolate (respectively 54.8% and 40.8% of positive samples, followed by L. pn sg 1 (respectively 31.3% and 33%. The study showed a significant association between M or B score at the risk analysis and Legionella spp. positive microbiological test results (p Conclusions Our experience suggests that risk analysis and environmental microbiological surveillance should be carried out more frequently to control the environmental spread of Legionella

  15. Health surveillance under adverse ergonomics conditions--validity of a screening method adapted for the occupational health service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonker, Dirk; Gustafsson, Ewa; Rolander, Bo; Arvidsson, Inger; Nordander, Catarina

    2015-01-01

    A new health surveillance protocol for work-related upper-extremity musculoskeletal disorders has been validated by comparing the results with a reference protocol. The studied protocol, Health Surveillance in Adverse Ergonomics Conditions (HECO), is a new version of the reference protocol modified for application in the Occupational Health Service (OHS). The HECO protocol contains both a screening part and a diagnosing part. Sixty-three employees were examined. The screening in HECO did not miss any diagnosis found when using the reference protocol, but in comparison to the reference protocol considerable time savings could be achieved. Fair to good agreement between the protocols was obtained for one or more diagnoses in neck/shoulders (86%, k = 0.62) and elbow/hands (84%, k = 0.49). Therefore, the results obtained using the HECO protocol can be compared with a reference material collected with the reference protocol, and thus provide information of the magnitude of disorders in an examined work group. Practitioner Summary: The HECO protocol is a relatively simple physical examination protocol for identification of musculoskeletal disorders in the neck and upper extremities. The protocol is a reliable and cost-effective tool for the OHS to use for occupational health surveillance in order to detect workplaces at high risk for developing musculoskeletal disorders.

  16. Health surveillance under adverse ergonomics conditions – validity of a screening method adapted for the occupational health service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonker, Dirk; Gustafsson, Ewa; Rolander, Bo; Arvidsson, Inger; Nordander, Catarina

    2015-01-01

    A new health surveillance protocol for work-related upper-extremity musculoskeletal disorders has been validated by comparing the results with a reference protocol. The studied protocol, Health Surveillance in Adverse Ergonomics Conditions (HECO), is a new version of the reference protocol modified for application in the Occupational Health Service (OHS). The HECO protocol contains both a screening part and a diagnosing part. Sixty-three employees were examined. The screening in HECO did not miss any diagnosis found when using the reference protocol, but in comparison to the reference protocol considerable time savings could be achieved. Fair to good agreement between the protocols was obtained for one or more diagnoses in neck/shoulders (86%, k = 0.62) and elbow/hands (84%, k = 0.49). Therefore, the results obtained using the HECO protocol can be compared with a reference material collected with the reference protocol, and thus provide information of the magnitude of disorders in an examined work group. Practitioner Summary: The HECO protocol is a relatively simple physical examination protocol for identification of musculoskeletal disorders in the neck and upper extremities. The protocol is a reliable and cost-effective tool for the OHS to use for occupational health surveillance in order to detect workplaces at high risk for developing musculoskeletal disorders. PMID:25761380

  17. The US Support Program to IAEA Safeguards Priority of Containment and Surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz,R.A.

    2008-06-13

    The United States Support Program (USSP) priority for containment and surveillance (US) focuses on maintaining or improving the reliability and cost-effectiveness of C/S systems for IAEA safeguards, expanding the number of systems that are unattended and remotely monitored, and developing verification methods that help streamline the on-site inspection process. Existing IAEA C/S systems have evolved to become complex, integrated systems, which may include active seals, nondestructive assay (NDA) instruments, video cameras, and other sensors. These systems operate autonomously. They send analytical data to IAEA headquarters where it can be reviewed. These systems present challenges to the goals of improved system performance, standardization, reliability, maintainability, documentation, and cost effectiveness. One critical lesson from past experiences is the need for cooperation and common objectives among the IAEA, the developer, and the facility operator, to create a successful, cost effective system. Recent USSP C/S activities include Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant safeguard systems, production of a new shift register, numerous vulnerability assessments of C/S systems, a conduit monitoring system which identifies tampering of IAEA conduit deployed in the field, fiber optic seal upgrades, unattended monitoring system software upgrades, next generation surveillance system which will upgrade existing camera systems, and support of the IAEA's development of the universal nondestructive assay data acquisition platform.

  18. Child development surveillance: intervention study with nurses of the Family Health Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altamira Pereira da Silva Reichert

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the effectiveness of an educational action in child development surveillance performed by nurses working in primary health care.Methods: interventional study with a before-and-after type of design, carried out with 45 nurses and 450 mothers of children under 2 years of age. Initially, it was evaluated the practices and knowledge of nurses on child development surveillance and the mothers were interviewed about these practices. Subsequently, workshops were carried out with nurses and four months later, the knowledge of nurses and the maternal information were reevaluated.Results: after intervention there was significant increase in the frequency of the following aspects: from 73% to 100%, in relation to the practice of nurses of asking the opinion of mothers about their children's development; from 42% to 91%, regarding the use of the systematized instrument of evaluation; from 91% to 100% with respect to guidance to mothers on how to stimulate child development.Conclusions: the intervention contributed to the increase of knowledge of nurses and implementation of child development surveillance, showing the importance of this initiative to improve the quality of child health care.

  19. Child development surveillance: intervention study with nurses of the Family Health Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichert, Altamira Pereira da Silva; Collet, Neusa; Eickmann, Sophie Helena; Lima, Marília de Carvalho

    2015-01-01

    to evaluate the effectiveness of an educational action in child development surveillance performed by nurses working in primary health care. interventional study with a before-and-after type of design, carried out with 45 nurses and 450 mothers of children under 2 years of age. Initially, it was evaluated the practices and knowledge of nurses on child development surveillance and the mothers were interviewed about these practices. Subsequently, workshops were carried out with nurses and four months later, the knowledge of nurses and the maternal information were reevaluated. after intervention there was significant increase in the frequency of the following aspects: from 73% to 100%, in relation to the practice of nurses of asking the opinion of mothers about their children's development; from 42% to 91%, regarding the use of the systematized instrument of evaluation; from 91% to 100% with respect to guidance to mothers on how to stimulate child development. the intervention contributed to the increase of knowledge of nurses and implementation of child development surveillance, showing the importance of this initiative to improve the quality of child health care.

  20. Minutes of the 13th light water reactor pressure vessel surveillance dosimetry improvement program (LWR-PV-SDIP) meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-04-01

    Information is presented concerning ASTM LWR standards and program documentation; trend curves, PSF, and other test reactor metallurgical programs; PSF dosimetry and metallurgical capsule neutron and gamma environment characterization and metallurgical studies; PVS characterization program; other neutron fields; surveillance dosimetry measurement facility (SDMF) and perturbation studies; transport theory calculations; gamma field benchmarks and photo-reaction studies; and fission and non-fission sensor inventories and quality assurance

  1. Establishment of a High Canine Rabies Burden in Haiti through the Implementation of a Novel Surveillance Program [corrected].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan M Wallace

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The Republic of Haiti is one of only several countries in the Western Hemisphere in which canine rabies is still endemic. Estimation methods have predicted that 130 human deaths occur per year, yet existing surveillance mechanisms have detected few of these rabies cases. Likewise, canine rabies surveillance capacity has had only limited capacity, detecting only two rabid dogs per year, on average. In 2013, Haiti initiated a community-based animal rabies surveillance program comprised of two components: active community bite investigation and passive animal rabies investigation. From January 2013 -December 2014, 778 rabies suspect animals were reported for investigation. Rabies was laboratory-confirmed in 70 animals (9% and an additional 36 cases were identified based on clinical diagnosis (5%, representing an 18-fold increase in reporting of rabid animals compared to the three years before the program was implemented. Dogs were the most frequent rabid animal (90%. Testing and observation ruled out rabies in 61% of animals investigated. A total of 639 bite victims were reported to the program and an additional 364 bite victims who had not sought medical care were identified during the course of investigations. Only 31% of people with likely rabies exposures had initiated rabies post-exposure prophylaxis prior to the investigation. Rabies is a neglected disease in-part due to a lack of surveillance and understanding about the burden. The surveillance methods employed by this program established a much higher burden of canine rabies in Haiti than previously recognized. The active, community-based bite investigations identified numerous additional rabies exposures and bite victims were referred for appropriate medical care, averting potential human rabies deaths. The use of community-based rabies surveillance programs such as HARSP should be considered in canine rabies endemic countries.

  2. Cancer surveillance and information: balancing public health with privacy and confidentiality concerns (United States).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deapen, Dennis

    2006-06-01

    Rapid advances in informatics and communication technologies are greatly expanding the capacity for information capture and transportation. While these tools can be used for great good, they also offer new opportunities for those who seek to obtain and use information for improper purposes. While issues related to identity theft for financial gain garner the most attention, protection of privacy in public health endeavors such as cancer surveillance is also a significant concern. Some efforts to protect health-related information have had unintended consequences detrimental to health research and public health practice. Achieving a proper balance between measures to protect privacy and the ability to guard and improve public health requires careful consideration and development of appropriate policies, regulations and use of technology.

  3. What Have We Learned From the Typhoid Fever Surveillance in Africa Program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Stephen; Hombach, Joachim; Marks, Florian

    2016-03-15

    The Typhoid Fever Surveillance in Africa Program (TSAP) was established in 2009 to fill the data void concerning invasive Salmonella disease in sub-Saharan Africa, and to specifically estimate the burden of bloodstream infections caused by the key pathogen, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi. TSAP has achieved this ambitious target, finding high incidences of typhoid fever in both rural and urban populations in several countries in sub-Saharan Africa. The results of TSAP will undoubtedly dictate the direction of future typhoid fever research in Africa, and at last provides a key piece of the disease burden jigsaw puzzle. With the dawn of new Vi conjugate vaccines against Salmonella Typhi, the next priority for the typhoid community must be providing the required data on these vaccines so they can be licensed and provided to those in high-risk groups and locations across sub-Saharan Africa. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  4. Cholera public health surveillance in the Republic of Cameroon-opportunities and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngwa, Moise Chi; Liang, Song; Mbam, Leonard Mbam; Mouhaman, Arabi; Teboh, Andrew; Brekmo, Kaousseri; Mevoula, Onana; Morris, John Glenn

    2016-01-01

    In Cameroon, cholera has periodically resurfaced since it was first reported in 1971. In 2003, Cameroon adapted the Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response (IDSR) strategy to strengthen surveillance in the country. This study was an in-depth description and assessment of the structure, core and support functions, and attributes of the current cholera surveillance system in Cameroon. It also discussed its strengths and challenges with hope that lessons learned could improve the system in Cameroon and in other countries in Africa implementing the IDSR strategy. Semi-structured key informant interviews, peer reviewed articles, and government record review were conducted in the Far North and Centre Regions of Cameroon. We used the matrix and conceptual framework from the World Health Organization (WHO) and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, WHO Regional Office for Africa Technical Guidelines to frame the study. Site visits included the WHO country office, the ministry of public health (MoPH), two Regional Public Health Delegations (RPHDs), eight health districts (HDs) and health facilities (HFs) including two labs. Cholera surveillance is passive but turns active during outbreaks and follows a hierarchical structure. Cholera data are collected at HFs and sent to HDs where data are compiled and sent to the RPHD in paper format. RPHDs de-identify, digitalize, and send the data to the MoPH via internet and from there to the WHO. The case definition was officially changed in 2010 but the outdated definition was still in use in 2013. Nationally, there are 3 laboratories that have the ability to confirm cholera cases; the lack of laboratory capacity at HFs hampers case and outbreak confirmation. The absence of structured data analysis at the RPHD, HD, and HF further compounds the situation, making the goal of IDSR of data analysis and rapid response at the HD very challenging. Feedback is strongest at the central level (MoPH) and non-existent at the levels

  5. 3 CFR - State Children's Health Insurance Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false State Children's Health Insurance Program... Insurance Program Memorandum for the Secretary of Health and Human Services The State Children's Health Insurance Program (SCHIP) encourages States to provide health coverage for uninsured children in families...

  6. Advancing environmental health surveillance in the US through a national human biomonitoring network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latshaw, Megan Weil; Degeberg, Ruhiyyih; Patel, Surili Sutaria; Rhodes, Blaine; King, Ewa; Chaudhuri, Sanwat; Nassif, Julianne

    2017-03-01

    The United States lacks a comprehensive, nationally-coordinated, state-based environmental health surveillance system. This lack of infrastructure leads to: • varying levels of understanding of chemical exposures at the state & local levels • often inefficient public health responses to chemical exposure emergencies (such as those that occurred in the Flint drinking water crisis, the Gold King mine spill, the Elk river spill and the Gulf Coast oil spill) • reduced ability to measure the impact of public health interventions or environmental policies • less efficient use of resources for cleaning up environmental contamination Establishing the National Biomonitoring Network serves as a step toward building a national, state-based environmental health surveillance system. The Network builds upon CDC investments in emergency preparedness and environmental public health tracking, which have created advanced chemical analysis and information sharing capabilities in the state public health systems. The short-term goal of the network is to harmonize approaches to human biomonitoring in the US, thus increasing the comparability of human biomonitoring data across states and communities. The long-term goal is to compile baseline data on exposures at the state level, similar to data found in CDC's National Report on Human Exposure to Environmental Chemicals. Barriers to success for this network include: available resources, effective risk communication strategies, data comparability & sharing, and political will. Anticipated benefits include high quality data on which to base public health and environmental decisions, data with which to assess the success of public health interventions, improved risk assessments for chemicals, and new ways to prioritize environmental health research. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Can a general health surveillance between birth and 10 months identify children with mental disorder at 1(1/2) year? A case-control study nested in cohort CCC 2000

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, Anne Mette; Houmann, Tine; Christiansen, Eva Storgaard

    2008-01-01

    Mental health surveillance in infancy was studied in an existing child health surveillance programme with child psychiatric disorder at 1(1/2) year as the outcome.......Mental health surveillance in infancy was studied in an existing child health surveillance programme with child psychiatric disorder at 1(1/2) year as the outcome....

  8. 76 FR 17139 - Health Center Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Health Center Program AGENCY: Health Resources and Services Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice of Noncompetitive... Improvement Project (CIP) from Saint Vincent's Catholic Medical Centers (SVCMC) of New York, current grantee...

  9. 76 FR 1441 - Health Center Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Health Center Program AGENCY: Health Resources and Services Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice of Noncompetitive... for Services (IDS) and a portion of the Capital Improvement Project (CIP) from Saint Vincent's...

  10. The antimicrobial resistance containment and surveillance approach--a public health tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonsen, Gunnar S.; Tapsall, John W.; Allegranzi, Benedetta; Talbot, Elizabeth A.; Lazzari, Stefano

    2004-01-01

    Antimicrobial drug resistance (AMR) is widely recognized as a global public health threat because it endangers the effectiveness of treatment of infectious diseases. In 2001 WHO issued the Global Strategy for Containment of Antimicrobial Resistance, but it has proved difficult to translate the recommendations of the Global Strategy into effective public health actions. The purpose of the Antimicrobial Resistance Containment and Surveillance (ARCS) approach is to facilitate the formulation of public health programmes and the mobilization of human and financial resources for the containment of AMR. The ARCS approach highlights the fundamental link between rational drug use and containment of AMR. Clinical management of human and animal infections should be improved through better disease control and prevention, high quality diagnostic testing, appropriate treatment regimens and consumer health education. At the same time, systems for supplying antimicrobial drugs should include appropriate regulations, lists of essential drugs, and functional mechanisms for the approval and delivery of drugs. Containment of AMR is defined in the ARCS approach as the continuous application of this package of core interventions. Surveillance of the extent and trends of antimicrobial resistance as well as the supply, selection and use of antimicrobial drugs should be established to monitor the process and outcome of containment of AMR. The ARCS approach is represented in the ARCS diagram (Fig. 2) which provides a simplified, but comprehensive illustration of the complex problem of containment and monitoring of AMR. PMID:15654407

  11. What Could Be Future Scenarios?-Lessons from the History of Public Health Surveillance for the Future: --A keynote address presented at the 8th World Alliance for Risk Factor Surveillance (WARFS) Global Conference on October 30, 2013, Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Bernard C K

    2015-01-01

    This article provides insights into the future based on a review of the past and present of public health surveillance-the ongoing systematic collection, analysis, interpretation, and dissemination of health data for the planning, implementation, and evaluation of public health action. Public health surveillance dates back to the first recorded epidemic in 3180 BC in Egypt. A number of lessons and items of interest are summarised from a review of historical perspectives in the past 5,000 years and the current practice of surveillance. Some future scenarios are presented: exploring new frontiers; enhancing computer technology; improving epidemic investigations; improving data collection, analysis, dissemination and use; building on lessons from the past; building capacity; and enhancing global surveillance. It is concluded that learning from the past, reflecting on the present, and planning for the future can further enhance public health surveillance.

  12. Experience gained with the development of a performance test program for the monitoring and surveillance systems in the Embalse nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arestin, M.L.

    1988-01-01

    The monitoring and surveillance system for Embalse nuclear power plant are presented. The reactor, the nuclear fuel management, the equipments from monitoring and surveillance system, the activities developed by the AIEA experts in each mission of this test program and the management of the components for this test program in Argentine are described. (E.G.) [pt

  13. Ethics issues experienced in HBM within Portuguese health surveillance and research projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel J Pereira

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In keeping with the fundamental practice of transparency in the discussion and resolution of ethics conflicts raised by research, a summary of ethics issues raised during Portuguese biomonitoring in health surveillance and research is presented and, where applicable, their resolution is described. Methods Projects underway aim to promote the surveillance of public health related to the presence of solid waste incinerators or to study associations between human exposure to environmental factors and adverse health effects. The methodological approach involves biomonitoring of heavy metals, dioxins and/or other persistent organic pollutants in tissues including blood, human milk and both scalp and pubic hair in groups such as the general population, children, pregnant women or women attempting pregnancy. As such, the projects entail the recruitment of individuals representing different demographic and health conditions, the collection of body tissues and personal data, and the processing of the data and results. Results The issue of autonomy is raised during the recruitment of participants and during the collection of samples and data. This right is protected by the requirement for prior written, informed consent from the participant or, in the case of children, from their guardian. Recruitment has been successful, among eligible participants, in spite of incentives rarely being offered. The exception has been in obtaining guardians' consent for children's participation, particularly for blood sampling. In an attempt to mitigate the harm-benefit ratio, current research efforts include alternative less invasive biomarkers. Surveys are currently being conducted under contract as independent biomonitoring actions and as such, must be explicitly disclosed as a potential conflict of interests. Communication of results to participants is in general only practised when a health issue is present and corrective action possible

  14. 9 CFR 146.14 - Diagnostic surveillance program for H5/H7 low pathogenic avian influenza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    .../H7 low pathogenic avian influenza. 146.14 Section 146.14 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT... pathogenic avian influenza. (a) The Official State Agency must develop a diagnostic surveillance program for H5/H7 low pathogenic avian influenza for all poultry in the State. The exact provisions of the...

  15. Do Health and Demographic Surveillance Systems benefit local populations? Maternal care utilisation in Butajira HDSS, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mesganaw Fantahun Afework

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The benefits of Health and Demographic Surveillance sites for local populations have been the topic of discussion as countries such as Ethiopia take efforts to achieve their Millennium Development Goal targets, on which they lag behind. Ethiopia's maternal mortality ratio is very high, and in the 2011 Ethiopia Demographic and Health Survey (2011 EDHS it was estimated to be 676/100,000 live births. Recent Global Burden of Disease (GBD and estimates based on the United Nations model reported better, but still unacceptably high, figures of 497/100,000 and 420/100,000 live births for 2013. In the 2011 EDHS, antenatal care (ANC utilization was estimated at 34%, and delivery in health facilities was only 10%. Objectives: To compare maternal health service utilization among populations in a Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS to non-HDSS populations in Butajira district, south central Ethiopia. Design: A community-based comparative cross-sectional study was conducted in January and February 2012 among women who had delivered in the 2 years before the survey. Results: A total of 2,296 women were included in the study. One thousand eight hundred and sixty two (81.1% had attended ANC at least once, and 37% of the women had attended ANC at least four times. A quarter of the women delivered their last child in a health facility. Of the women living outside the HDSS areas, 715 (75.3% attended ANC at least once compared to 85.1% of women living in the HDSS areas [adjusted odds ratio (AOR 0.59; 95% CI 0.46, 0.74]. Of the women living outside the HDSS areas, only 170 (17.9% delivered in health facilities and were assisted by skilled attendants during delivery, whereas 30.0% of those living in HDSS areas delivered in health facilities (AOR 0.66; 95% CI 0.48, 0.91. Conclusion: This paper provides possible evidence that living in an HDSS site has a positive influence on maternal health. In addition, there may be a positive influence on

  16. Do Health and Demographic Surveillance Systems benefit local populations? Maternal care utilisation in Butajira HDSS, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afework, Mesganaw Fantahun; Gebregiorgis, Seifu Hagos; Roro, Meselech Assegid; Lemma, Alemayehu Mekonnen; Ahmed, Saifuddin

    2014-01-01

    The benefits of Health and Demographic Surveillance sites for local populations have been the topic of discussion as countries such as Ethiopia take efforts to achieve their Millennium Development Goal targets, on which they lag behind. Ethiopia's maternal mortality ratio is very high, and in the 2011 Ethiopia Demographic and Health Survey (2011 EDHS) it was estimated to be 676/100,000 live births. Recent Global Burden of Disease (GBD) and estimates based on the United Nations model reported better, but still unacceptably high, figures of 497/100,000 and 420/100,000 live births for 2013. In the 2011 EDHS, antenatal care (ANC) utilization was estimated at 34%, and delivery in health facilities was only 10%. To compare maternal health service utilization among populations in a Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) to non-HDSS populations in Butajira district, south central Ethiopia. A community-based comparative cross-sectional study was conducted in January and February 2012 among women who had delivered in the 2 years before the survey. A total of 2,296 women were included in the study. One thousand eight hundred and sixty two (81.1%) had attended ANC at least once, and 37% of the women had attended ANC at least four times. A quarter of the women delivered their last child in a health facility. Of the women living outside the HDSS areas, 715 (75.3%) attended ANC at least once compared to 85.1% of women living in the HDSS areas [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 0.59; 95% CI 0.46, 0.74]. Of the women living outside the HDSS areas, only 170 (17.9%) delivered in health facilities and were assisted by skilled attendants during delivery, whereas 30.0% of those living in HDSS areas delivered in health facilities (AOR 0.66; 95% CI 0.48, 0.91). This paper provides possible evidence that living in an HDSS site has a positive influence on maternal health. In addition, there may be a positive influence on those living nearby or in the same district where an HDSS is

  17. The insertion of the environmental health surveillance in the unified health system - 10.5020/18061230.2012.p3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edenilo Baltazar Barreira Filho

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The integration of environmental monitoring activities in the Unified Health System (SUS shows some characteristics that differentiate it from the practice of epidemiological surveillance. This occurs mainly because much data on exposure to environmental factors is obtained outside the health sector and the adoption of actions that seek to control and/or prevent requires, in most cases, an intra andintersectoral understanding and articulation, since the health sector is not able, by itself, to provide answers to environmental health issues.In recent years, there has been an increasingly consolidation of the field of environmental health, which includes the area of public health, accustomed to scientific knowledge, to the formulation of public policies and the corresponding interventions (actions related to the interaction between human health and both natural and anthropic environmental factors, which determine, modulate and influence such interaction, in order to improve the quality of human life from the point of view of sustainability(1.As agreed at the Ist Seminar of the National Environmental Health, held in October 2005 and consolidated in the first National Conference on Environmental Health, held in December 2009, it is understood as an area of intersectoral and interdisciplinarypractice focused on the outcomes, in human health, of ecogeossocialrelations between man and environment(1.Accordingly, the Ministry of Health has been implementing, throughout the country, a Surveillance System in Environmental Health (SINVISA, seeking the improvement of this “model” of activities, establishing expertise into the three levels of government, aiming to consolidate the practice of Environmental Health within the SUS.Normative Instruction No. 1, March 7, 2005, creates SINVISA, establishes the area of action, the scope of the three levels of management within SUS and defines the Environmental Health Surveillance as a set of actions and services

  18. The insertion of the environmental health surveillance in the unified health system - 10.5020/18061230.2012.p1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edenilo Baltazar Barreira Filho

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The integration of environmental monitoring activities in the Unified Health System (SUS shows some characteristics that differentiate it from the practice of epidemiological surveillance. This occurs mainly because much data on exposure to environmental factors is obtained outside the health sector and the adoption of actions that seek to control and/or prevent requires, in most cases, an intra andintersectoral understanding and articulation, since the health sector is not able, by itself, to provide answers to environmental health issues.In recent years, there has been an increasingly consolidation of the field of environmental health, which includes the area of public health, accustomed to scientific knowledge, to the formulation of public policies and the corresponding interventions (actions related to the interaction between human health and both natural and anthropic environmental factors, which determine, modulate and influence such interaction, in order to improve the quality of human life from the point of view of sustainability(1.As agreed at the Ist Seminar of the National Environmental Health, held in October 2005 and consolidated in the first National Conference on Environmental Health, held in December 2009, it is understood as an area of intersectoral and interdisciplinarypractice focused on the outcomes, in human health, of ecogeossocialrelations between man and environment(1.Accordingly, the Ministry of Health has been implementing, throughout the country, a Surveillance System in Environmental Health (SINVISA, seeking the improvement of this “model” of activities, establishing expertise into the three levels of government, aiming to consolidate the practice of Environmental Health within the SUS.Normative Instruction No. 1, March 7, 2005, creates SINVISA, establishes the area of action, the scope of the three levels of management within SUS and defines the Environmental Health Surveillance as a set of actions and services

  19. Examining the social construction of surveillance: A critical issue for health visitors and public health nurses working with mothers and children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peckover, Sue; Aston, Megan

    2018-01-01

    To critically examine surveillance practices of health visitors (HV) in the UK and public health nurses (PHNs) in Canada. The practice and meaning of surveillance shifts and changes depending on the context and intent of relationships between mothers and HVs or PHNs. We present the context and practice of HVs in the UK and PHNs in Canada and provide a comprehensive literature review regarding surveillance of mothers within public health systems. We then present our critique of the meaning and practice of surveillance across different settings. Concepts from Foucault and discourse analysis are used to critically examine and discuss the meaning of surveillance. Surveillance is a complex concept that shifts meaning and is socially and institutionally constructed through relations of power. Healthcare providers need to understand the different meanings and practices associated with surveillance to effectively inform practice. Healthcare providers should be aware of how their positions of expert and privilege within healthcare systems affect relationships with mothers. A more comprehensive understanding of personal, social and institutional aspects of surveillance will provide opportunities to reflect upon and change practices that are supportive of mothers and their families. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. 75 FR 2549 - Health Center Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-15

    ... Program AGENCY: Health Resources and Services Administration, HHS ACTION: Notice of Noncompetitive Replacement Award to Regional Health Care Affiliates. SUMMARY: The Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) will be transferring Health Center Program (section 330 of the Public Health Service Act...

  1. Current best practice for the health surveillance of enzyme workers in the soap and detergent industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, P J; Newman Taylor, A J; Oliver, P; Cathcart, M

    2001-03-01

    This study defines current best practice for the health surveillance of workers who are potentially exposed to enzymes in the manufacture of enzymatic detergent products. It is recommended that health surveillance is performed 6-monthly for the first 2 years and annually thereafter. The health surveillance programme should include a respiratory questionnaire to detect symptoms, assessment of lung function to detect pre-symptomatic changes and an immunological test to detect specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) to enzymes. The International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease respiratory questionnaire should be used since it has been validated extensively for detecting asthma. Operators should observe the American Thoracic Society performance criteria for spirometers and standardized procedures for conducting spirometry. Since current airborne monitoring techniques for enzymes do not detect short-duration peak exposures, the incidence of employee sensitizations remains the most reliable measure of the integrity of environmental control. The Pepys skin prick test has been validated as a sensitive, specific and practical test for detecting specific IgE to many inhalant allergens including enzymes. For newly sensitized workers, a multi-cause investigation should be conducted to identify potential sources of exposure. Group results of immunological test results assist in the evaluation of workplace control measures, and should be used to monitor the effectiveness of hygiene and engineering programmes and to help prioritize areas for improvement. Positive responses to a questionnaire or abnormal spirometry should be assessed further. Occupational asthma should be excluded in any case of adult-onset asthma that starts or deteriorates during working life. This is particularly important because an accurate diagnosis of occupational asthma with early avoidance of exposure to its cause can result in remission of symptoms and restoration of lung function.

  2. Health surveillance in milling, baking and other food manufacturing operations--five years' experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, T A; Patton, J

    1999-04-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the incidence of allergic respiratory disease and its outcome in terms of symptoms and jobs, across different flour-using industries. It uses the findings of a health surveillance programme in a large food organization over a five-year period. The population under surveillance consisted of 3,450 employees with exposure to ingredient dusts, of whom 400 were in flour milling, 1,650 in bread baking, 550 in cake baking and 850 in other flour-using operations. A total of 66 employees with either asthma or rhinitis symptoms attributable to sensitization to allergens in the workplace were identified. The majority of these (48/66) had become symptomatic prior to the commencement of the health surveillance programme in 1993. The incidence rates (per million employees per year) for those who developed symptoms between 1993 and 1997 were 550 for flour milling, 1,940 for bread baking, 0 for cake baking and 235 for other flour-using operations. The agent believed to be responsible for symptoms was most commonly grain dust in flour millers and fungal amylase in bread bakers. Wheat flour appeared to have a weaker sensitizing potential than these other two substances. In terms of outcome, at follow-up 18% of symptomatically sensitized employees had left the company. Two of the ex-employees retired through ill health due to occupational asthma. Of those still in employment, 63% described an improvement in symptoms, 32% were unchanged and 4% were worse than when first diagnosed. Over half the cases still in employment were continuing to work in the same job as at the time of diagnosis.

  3. Reliability of case definitions for public health surveillance assessed by Round-Robin test methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claus Hermann

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Case definitions have been recognized to be important elements of public health surveillance systems. They are to assure comparability and consistency of surveillance data and have crucial impact on the sensitivity and the positive predictive value of a surveillance system. The reliability of case definitions has rarely been investigated systematically. Methods We conducted a Round-Robin test by asking all 425 local health departments (LHD and the 16 state health departments (SHD in Germany to classify a selection of 68 case examples using case definitions. By multivariate analysis we investigated factors linked to classification agreement with a gold standard, which was defined by an expert panel. Results A total of 7870 classifications were done by 396 LHD (93% and all SHD. Reporting sensitivity was 90.0%, positive predictive value 76.6%. Polio case examples had the lowest reporting precision, salmonellosis case examples the highest (OR = 0.008; CI: 0.005–0.013. Case definitions with a check-list format of clinical criteria resulted in higher reporting precision than case definitions with a narrative description (OR = 3.08; CI: 2.47–3.83. Reporting precision was higher among SHD compared to LHD (OR = 1.52; CI: 1.14–2.02. Conclusion Our findings led to a systematic revision of the German case definitions and build the basis for general recommendations for the creation of case definitions. These include, among others, that testable yes/no criteria in a check-list format is likely to improve reliability, and that software used for data transmission should be designed in strict accordance with the case definitions. The findings of this study are largely applicable to case definitions in many other countries or international networks as they share the same structural and editorial characteristics of the case definitions evaluated in this study before their revision.

  4. Animal Health Surveillance in Scotland in 2030: Using Scenario Planning to Develop Strategies in the Context of “Brexit”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa A. Boden

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Animal health surveillance is necessary to protect human and animal health, rural economies, and the environment from the consequences of large-scale disease outbreaks. In Scotland, since the Kinnaird review in 2011, efforts have been made to engage with stakeholders to ensure that the strategic goals of surveillance are better aligned with the needs of the end-users and other beneficiaries. The aims of this study were to engage with Scottish surveillance stakeholders and multidisciplinary experts to inform the future long-term strategy for animal health surveillance in Scotland. In this paper, we describe the use of scenario planning as an effective tool for the creation and exploration of five plausible long-term futures; we describe prioritization of critical drivers of change (i.e., international trade policy, data-sharing philosophies, and public versus private resourcing of surveillance capacity that will unpredictably influence the future implementation of animal health surveillance activities. We present 10 participant-developed strategies to support 3 long-term visions to improve future resilience of animal health surveillance and contingency planning for animal and zoonotic disease outbreaks in Scotland. In the absence of any certainty about the nature of post-Brexit trade agreements for agriculture, participants considered the best investments for long-term resilience to include data collection strategies to improve animal health benchmarking, user-benefit strategies to improve digital literacy in farming communities, and investment strategies to increase veterinary and scientific research capacity in rural areas. This is the first scenario planning study to explore stakeholder beliefs and perceptions about important environmental, technological, societal, political, and legal drivers (in addition to epidemiological “risk factors” and effective strategies to manage future uncertainties for both the Scottish livestock industry and

  5. Animal Health Surveillance in Scotland in 2030: Using Scenario Planning to Develop Strategies in the Context of "Brexit".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boden, Lisa A; Auty, Harriet; Reeves, Aaron; Rydevik, Gustaf; Bessell, Paul; McKendrick, Iain J

    2017-01-01

    Animal health surveillance is necessary to protect human and animal health, rural economies, and the environment from the consequences of large-scale disease outbreaks. In Scotland, since the Kinnaird review in 2011, efforts have been made to engage with stakeholders to ensure that the strategic goals of surveillance are better aligned with the needs of the end-users and other beneficiaries. The aims of this study were to engage with Scottish surveillance stakeholders and multidisciplinary experts to inform the future long-term strategy for animal health surveillance in Scotland. In this paper, we describe the use of scenario planning as an effective tool for the creation and exploration of five plausible long-term futures; we describe prioritization of critical drivers of change (i.e., international trade policy, data-sharing philosophies, and public versus private resourcing of surveillance capacity) that will unpredictably influence the future implementation of animal health surveillance activities. We present 10 participant-developed strategies to support 3 long-term visions to improve future resilience of animal health surveillance and contingency planning for animal and zoonotic disease outbreaks in Scotland. In the absence of any certainty about the nature of post-Brexit trade agreements for agriculture, participants considered the best investments for long-term resilience to include data collection strategies to improve animal health benchmarking, user-benefit strategies to improve digital literacy in farming communities, and investment strategies to increase veterinary and scientific research capacity in rural areas. This is the first scenario planning study to explore stakeholder beliefs and perceptions about important environmental, technological, societal, political, and legal drivers (in addition to epidemiological "risk factors") and effective strategies to manage future uncertainties for both the Scottish livestock industry and animal health

  6. Animal Health Surveillance in Scotland in 2030: Using Scenario Planning to Develop Strategies in the Context of “Brexit”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boden, Lisa A.; Auty, Harriet; Reeves, Aaron; Rydevik, Gustaf; Bessell, Paul; McKendrick, Iain J.

    2017-01-01

    Animal health surveillance is necessary to protect human and animal health, rural economies, and the environment from the consequences of large-scale disease outbreaks. In Scotland, since the Kinnaird review in 2011, efforts have been made to engage with stakeholders to ensure that the strategic goals of surveillance are better aligned with the needs of the end-users and other beneficiaries. The aims of this study were to engage with Scottish surveillance stakeholders and multidisciplinary experts to inform the future long-term strategy for animal health surveillance in Scotland. In this paper, we describe the use of scenario planning as an effective tool for the creation and exploration of five plausible long-term futures; we describe prioritization of critical drivers of change (i.e., international trade policy, data-sharing philosophies, and public versus private resourcing of surveillance capacity) that will unpredictably influence the future implementation of animal health surveillance activities. We present 10 participant-developed strategies to support 3 long-term visions to improve future resilience of animal health surveillance and contingency planning for animal and zoonotic disease outbreaks in Scotland. In the absence of any certainty about the nature of post-Brexit trade agreements for agriculture, participants considered the best investments for long-term resilience to include data collection strategies to improve animal health benchmarking, user-benefit strategies to improve digital literacy in farming communities, and investment strategies to increase veterinary and scientific research capacity in rural areas. This is the first scenario planning study to explore stakeholder beliefs and perceptions about important environmental, technological, societal, political, and legal drivers (in addition to epidemiological “risk factors”) and effective strategies to manage future uncertainties for both the Scottish livestock industry and animal health

  7. Snapshot from Superstorm Sandy: American Red Cross mental health risk surveillance in lower New York State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, Merritt D; Yin, Rob; Omaish, Mostafa; Broderick, Joan E

    2014-07-01

    Disasters often cause psychological injury, as well as dramatic physical damage. Epidemiologic research has identified a set of disaster experiences and predisposing characteristics that place survivors at risk for post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and anxiety. Rapid triage of at-risk survivors could have benefits for individual and population-level outcomes. We examine American Red Cross mental health risk surveillance data collected from October 29 to November 20, 2012, immediately after Hurricane Sandy in 8 lower New York State counties to evaluate the feasibility and utility of collecting these data. PsySTART, an evidence-based disaster mental health triage tool, was used to record survivor-reported risk factors after each survivor contact. Red Cross disaster mental health volunteers interfaced with survivors at disaster operation sites, including shelters, emergency aid stations, and mobile feeding and community outreach centers. Risk data were called into the operations center each day and reported by county. PsySTART risk surveillance data for 18,823 disaster mental health contacts are presented for adults and children. A total of 17,979 risk factors were reported. Overall levels of risk per contact were statistically different (χ(2)(1, N=6,045)=248.1; PSuperstorm Sandy indicate substantial population-level impact suggestive of risk for disorders that may persist chronically without treatment. Mental health triage has the potential to improve care of individual disaster survivors, as well as inform disaster management, local health providers, and public health officials. Copyright © 2013 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. [Health surveillance in a steel making industry with electric arc furnace: 15 years of experience].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corti, P

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyzes the results of health surveillance carried out in an electric steel mill for 15 years. We have analyzed the trend of audiometry, spirometry and main indicators of exposure to chemical risk: serum lead, urinary OH-pyrene, erythrocyte ZPP, and the results of risk assessment of stress work related. The analyses of the trend of audiometry, spirometry and biological monitoring shows an important improving in the working environment due to the progressive automation of production steps in the course of several years, consistent and correct use of DPI, information and training.

  9. Medical surveillance of employee health at the Superconducting Super Collider Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chester, T.J.

    1992-03-01

    Medical surveillance can best be defined as conducting specific, targeted medical examinations at pre-determined intervals for the purpose of assessing whether individuals have suffered work-related illness or injury. The objectives of the medical examinations are to determine if there is any evidence of illness or injury and to determine whether any illness or injury found is occupationally related. If illness or injury is found, the employee under medical surveillance can be referred for immediate treatment. Other employees in the same work group can be examined, and any hazardous defects in the workplace can be corrected. Additional objectives of these periodic examinations are to determine whether the employee's health status and physical fitness continue to be compatible with the safe performance of his assigned job tasks; to contribute to employee health maintenance by providing the opportunity for early detection, treatment, and prevention of disease or injuries; and to provide a documented record status that can be used in analysis of the health of the work group as a whole

  10. Can Health Surveillance be emancipatory? An alternative way of thinking about alternatives in times of crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porto, Marcelo Firpo de Souza

    2017-10-01

    This article in essay form is an invitation to reflect upon the emancipatory character of health surveillance, a debate that was interrupted in the 1990s. In these times of grave political and institutional crisis in Brazil and in the year of the first National Conference on Health Surveillance (1ª CNVS, acronym in Portuguese), it is particularly appropriate to revive the critical theoretical and epistemological discussions that have grounded the trajectory of Latin American social medicine and public health over the last 40 years. To this end, I draw on aspects of critical thinking on modernity devised by the Portuguese sociologist Boaventura de Sousa Santos, who postulates three pillars of domination: capitalism, colonialism (or coloniality), and patriarchy. In the current context of a crisis of civilization, rethinking emancipation requires us to refresh our understanding of the meaning of social struggles in terms of their relationship with the knowledges and epistemologies undermined by modern civilization and still present in the Global South, whether in spaces occupied by indigenous peoples and poor farmers or in urban peripheries.

  11. 8 x 8 fuel surveillance program at Monticello site - end of Cycle 6: fourth post-irradiation inspection, October 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skarshaug, N.H.

    1980-09-01

    A fuel surveillance program for a lead 8 x 8 reload fuel assembly was implemented at the Monticello Nuclear Power Station in May 1974 prior to Reactor Cycle 3. Inspection results of the fourth post-irradiation inspection performed on this surveillance fuel assembly in October 1978 at EOC 6, after a bundle average exposure of 25,900 MWd/MT, are presented. The measurement techniques, results obtained and comparisons to previous measurements are discussed. The bundle and individual rods examined exhibited characteristics of normal operation and were approved for continued irradiation during Monticello operating Cycle 7

  12. Program of environmental radiological surveillance of the radioactive wastes storage center of Maquixco in the period January-December 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaso P, M.I.

    1991-12-01

    The primary objective of all program of environmental radiological surveillance (PVRA), it is to follow the evolution of the radioactive content of the links of the chains that constitute the different ways of transfer of the radioactivity toward the man, with the purpose of making a realistic evaluation of the environmental impact produced by the installation under surveillance. In the CADER in Mexico, only accidents or escapes of radioactivity of slow evolution can be detected. At the moment the radioactive wastes in this installation are not treated. In this report the results obtained during the year 1991 are presented. (Author)

  13. Online surveillance of media health event reporting in Nepal: digital disease detection from a One Health perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwind, Jessica S; Norman, Stephanie A; Karmacharya, Dibesh; Wolking, David J; Dixit, Sameer M; Rajbhandari, Rajesh M; Mekaru, Sumiko R; Brownstein, John S

    2017-09-21

    Traditional media and the internet are crucial sources of health information. Media can significantly shape public opinion, knowledge and understanding of emerging and endemic health threats. As digital communication rapidly progresses, local access and dissemination of health information contribute significantly to global disease detection and reporting. Health event reports in Nepal (October 2013-December 2014) were used to characterize Nepal's media environment from a One Health perspective using HealthMap - a global online disease surveillance and mapping tool. Event variables (location, media source type, disease or risk factor of interest, and affected species) were extracted from HealthMap. A total of 179 health reports were captured from various sources including newspapers, inter-government agency bulletins, individual reports, and trade websites, yielding 108 (60%) unique articles. Human health events were reported most often (n = 85; 79%), followed by animal health events (n = 23; 21%), with no reports focused solely on environmental health. By expanding event coverage across all of the health sectors, media in developing countries could play a crucial role in national risk communication efforts and could enhance early warning systems for disasters and disease outbreaks.

  14. Factors influencing moisture analysis in the 3013 destructive examination surveillance program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scogin, J. H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-10-24

    Thermogravimetric analysis of a solid sample with mass spectrometry (TGA-MS) of the evolved gas is used in the destructive examination (DE) portion of the Integrated Surveillance Program to quantify the moisture content of the material stored in a 3013 container. As with any measurement determined from a small sample, the collection, storage, transportation, and handling of the sample can affect its ability to represent the properties of the bulk material. During the course of the DE program, questions have periodically arisen concerning the ability of the moisture sample to reflect reliably the actual moisture content of the entire material stored in the 3013 container. Most concerns are related to the ability to collect a representative sample and to preserve the moisture content of the sample between collection and analysis. Recent delays in analysis caused by maintenance issues with the TGA-MS instrument presented a unique opportunity to document and quantify the effects various factors have on the TGA-MS moisture measurement. This report will use recent data to document the effects that current sample collection and handling practices have on the TGA-MS moisture measurement. Some suggestions will be made which could improve the current sample collection and handling practices for the TGA-MS moisture measurement so that the analytical results more accurately reflect the moisture content of the material stored in the 3013 container.

  15. Overview of a comprehensive environmental monitoring and surveillance program: The role of fish and wildlife

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, R.H.

    1988-05-01

    Concern about the effects of potential releases from nuclear and non-nuclear activities on the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site in southeastern Washington has evolved over four decades into a comprehensive environmental monitoring and surveillance program. The program includes field sampling, and chemical and physical analyses of air, surface and ground water, fish and wildlife, soil, foodstuffs, and natural vegetation. In addition to monitoring radioactivity in fish and wildlife, population numbers of key species are determined, usually during the breeding season. Data from monitoring efforts are used to assess the environmental impacts of Hanford operations and calculate the overall radiological dose to humans onsite, at the Site perimeter, or residing in nearby communities. Chinook salmon spawning in the Columbia River at Hanford has increased in recent years with a concomitant increase in winter nesting activity of bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus). An elk (Cervus elaphus) herd, established by immigration in 1972, is also increasing. Nesting Canada goose (Branta canadensis) and great blue heron (Ardea herodias), and various other animals, e.g., mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) and coyotes (Canis latrans) are common. Measured exposure to penetrating radiation and calculated radiation doses to the public are well below applicable regulatory limits

  16. Factors influencing moisture analysis in the 3013 destructive examination surveillance program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scogin, J. H.

    2017-01-01

    Thermogravimetric analysis of a solid sample with mass spectrometry (TGA-MS) of the evolved gas is used in the destructive examination (DE) portion of the Integrated Surveillance Program to quantify the moisture content of the material stored in a 3013 container. As with any measurement determined from a small sample, the collection, storage, transportation, and handling of the sample can affect its ability to represent the properties of the bulk material. During the course of the DE program, questions have periodically arisen concerning the ability of the moisture sample to reflect reliably the actual moisture content of the entire material stored in the 3013 container. Most concerns are related to the ability to collect a representative sample and to preserve the moisture content of the sample between collection and analysis. Recent delays in analysis caused by maintenance issues with the TGA-MS instrument presented a unique opportunity to document and quantify the effects various factors have on the TGA-MS moisture measurement. This report will use recent data to document the effects that current sample collection and handling practices have on the TGA-MS moisture measurement. Some suggestions will be made which could improve the current sample collection and handling practices for the TGA-MS moisture measurement so that the analytical results more accurately reflect the moisture content of the material stored in the 3013 container.

  17. Improving occupational injury surveillance by using a severity threshold: development of a new occupational health indicator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sears, Jeanne M; Bowman, Stephen M; Rotert, Mary; Blanar, Laura; Hogg-Johnson, Sheilah

    2016-06-01

    Hospital discharge data are used for occupational injury surveillance, but observed hospitalisation trends are affected by trends in healthcare practices and workers' compensation coverage that may increasingly impair ascertainment of minor injuries relative to severe injuries. The objectives of this study were to (1) describe the development of a severe injury definition for surveillance purposes and (2) assess the impact of imposing a severity threshold on estimated occupational and non-occupational injury trends. Three independent methods were used to estimate injury severity for the severe injury definition. 10 population-based hospital discharge databases were used to estimate trends (1998-2009), including the National Hospital Discharge Survey (NHDS) and State Inpatient Databases (SID) from the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP), Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. Negative binomial regression was used to model injury trends with and without severity restriction and to test trend divergence by severity. Trend estimates for occupational injuries were biased downwards in the absence of severity restriction, more so than for non-occupational injuries. Imposing a severity threshold resulted in a markedly different historical picture. Severity restriction can be used as an injury surveillance methodology to increase the accuracy of trend estimates, which can then be used by occupational health researchers, practitioners and policy-makers to identify prevention opportunities and to support state and national investments in occupational injury prevention efforts. The newly adopted state-based occupational health indicator, 'Work-Related Severe Traumatic Injury Hospitalizations', incorporates a severity threshold that will reduce temporal ascertainment threats to accurate trend estimates. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  18. The Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS in Nouna, Burkina Faso, 1993–2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Sié

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The Nouna1 Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS is located in rural Burkina Faso and has existed since 1992. Currently, it has about 78,000 inhabitants. It is a member of the International Network for the Demographic Evaluation of Populations and Their Health in Developing Countries (INDEPTH, a global network of memberswho conducts longitudinal health and demographic evaluation of populations in low- and middle-income countries. The health facilities consist of one hospital and 13 basic health centres (locally known as CSPS. The Nouna HDSS has been used as a sampling frame for numerous studies in the fields of clinical research, epidemiology, health economics, and health systems research. In this paper we review some of the main findings, and we describe the effects that almost 20 years of health research activities have shown in the population in general and in terms of the perception, economic implications, and other indicators. Longitudinal data analyses show that childhood, as well as overall mortality, has significantly decreased over the observation period 1993–2007. The under-five mortality rate dropped from about 40 per 1,000 person-years in the mid-1990s to below 30 per 1,000 in 2007. Further efforts are needed to meet goal four of the Millennium Development Goals, which is to reduce the under-five mortality rate by two-thirds between 1990 and 2015.

  19. Description of the MHS Health Level 7 Radiology for Public Health Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    0704-0188 r Lbhe: r;.. ) ort n:) bur:l ?n fcr ths co:IV..ct\\or of i1lom:tioo is e~t n:~I:M tv £1\\’?ft:)? 1 t"vJrr.err~>~f. )’" ISo ? , irck.K’ r:, tho...records, and outpatient/inpatient pharmacy transactions. Consequently, surveillance methods are largely disease-specific, but this specificity depends

  20. Public health efforts to build a surveillance system for child maltreatment mortality: lessons learned for stakeholder engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Lucia Rojas; Gibbs, Deborah; Wetterhall, Scott; Schnitzer, Patricia G; Farris, Tonya; Crosby, Alex E; Leeb, Rebecca T

    2011-01-01

    Reducing the number of largely preventable and tragic deaths due to child maltreatment (CM) requires an understanding of the magnitude of and risk factors for fatal CM and targeted research, policy, and prevention efforts. Public health surveillance offers an opportunity to improve our understanding of the problem of CM. In 2006, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) funded state public health agencies in California, Michigan, and Oregon to implement a model approach for routine and sustainable CM surveillance and evaluated the experience of those efforts. We describe the experiences of 3 state health agencies in building collaborations and partnerships with multiple stakeholders for CM surveillance. Qualitative, structured key informant interviews were carried out during site visits as part of an evaluation of a CDC-funded project to implement a model approach to CM surveillance. Key informants included system stakeholders from state health agencies, law enforcement, child protective services, the medical community, and child welfare advocacy groups in the 3 funded states. Factors that facilitated stakeholder engagement for CM surveillance included the following: streamlining and coordinating the work of Child Death Review Teams (CDRTs); demonstrating the value of surveillance to non-public health partners; codifying relationships with participating agencies; and securing the commitment of decision-makers. Legislative mandates were helpful in bringing key stakeholders together, but it was not sufficient to ensure sustained engagement. The engagement process yielded multiple benefits for the stakeholders including a deeper appreciation of the complexity of defining CM; a greater understanding of risk factors for CM; and enhanced guidance for prevention and control efforts. States considering or currently undertaking CM surveillance can glean useful insights from the experiences of these 3 states and apply them to their own efforts to engage

  1. Electronic surveillance systems in infection prevention: organizational support, program characteristics, and user satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grota, Patti G; Stone, Patricia W; Jordan, Sarah; Pogorzelska, Monika; Larson, Elaine

    2010-09-01

    The use of electronic surveillance systems (ESSs) is gradually increasing in infection prevention and control programs. Little is known about the characteristics of hospitals that have a ESS, user satisfaction with ESSs, and organizational support for implementation of ESSs. A total of 350 acute care hospitals in California were invited to participate in a Web-based survey; 207 hospitals (59%) agreed to participate. The survey included a description of infection prevention and control department staff, where and how they spent their time, a measure of organizational support for infection prevention and control, and reported experience with ESSs. Only 23% (44/192) of responding infection prevention and control departments had an ESS. No statistically significant difference was seen in how and where infection preventionists (IPs) who used an ESS and those who did not spend their time. The 2 significant predictors of whether an ESS was present were score on the Organizational Support Scale (odds ratio [OR], 1.10; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02-1.18) and hospital bed size (OR, 1.004; 95% CI, 1.00-1.007). Organizational support also was positively correlated with IP satisfaction with the ESS, as measured on the Computer Usability Scale (P = .02). Despite evidence that such systems may improve efficiency of data collection and potentially improve patient outcomes, ESSs remain relatively uncommon in infection prevention and control programs. Based on our findings, organizational support appears to be a major predictor of the presence, use, and satisfaction with ESSs in infection prevention and control programs.

  2. Electronic surveillance systems in infection prevention: Organizational support, program characteristics, and user satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grota, Patti G.; Stone, Patricia W.; Jordan, Sarah; Pogorzelska, Monika; Larson, Elaine

    2012-01-01

    Background The use of electronic surveillance systems (ESSs) is gradually increasing in infection prevention and control programs. Little is known about the characteristics of hospitals that have a ESS, user satisfaction with ESSs, and organizational support for implementation of ESSs. Methods A total of 350 acute care hospitals in California were invited to participate in a Web-based survey; 207 hospitals (59%) agreed to participate. The survey included a description of infection prevention and control department staff, where and how they spent their time, a measure of organizational support for infection prevention and control, and reported experience with ESSs. Results Only 23% (44/192) of responding infection prevention and control departments had an ESS. No statistically significant difference was seen in how and where infection preventionists (IPs) who used an ESS and those who did not spend their time. The 2 significant predictors of whether an ESS was present were score on the Organizational Support Scale (odds ratio [OR], 1.10; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02-1.18) and hospital bed size (OR, 1.004; 95% CI, 1.00-1.007). Organizational support also was positively correlated with IP satisfaction with the ESS, as measured on the Computer Usability Scale (P = .02). Conclusion Despite evidence that such systems may improve efficiency of data collection and potentially improve patient outcomes, ESSs remain relatively uncommon in infection prevention and control programs. Based on our findings, organizational support appears to be a major predictor of the presence, use, and satisfaction with ESSs in infection prevention and control programs. PMID:20176411

  3. 2003 Oak Ridge National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2007-05-23

    Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Program report for 2003 for ORNL. The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  4. 2004 Hanford Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report, Revised October 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2007-10-24

    Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Program for 2004 for the Hanford site. The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  5. 2003 Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2007-05-23

    Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Program report for 2003 for Idaho National Lab. The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  6. Quality of newborn care: a health facility assessment in rural Ghana using survey, vignette and surveillance data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vesel, Linda; Manu, Alexander; Lohela, Terhi J.; Gabrysch, Sabine; Okyere, Eunice; ten Asbroek, Augustinus H. A.; Hill, Zelee; Agyemang, Charlotte Tawiah; Owusu-Agyei, Seth; Kirkwood, Betty R.

    2013-01-01

    To assess the structural capacity for, and quality of, immediate and essential newborn care (ENC) in health facilities in rural Ghana, and to link this with demand for facility deliveries and admissions. Health facility assessment survey and population-based surveillance data. Seven districts in

  7. Genomically Informed Surveillance for Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae in a Health Care System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecora, Nicole D; Li, Ning; Allard, Marc; Li, Cong; Albano, Esperanza; Delaney, Mary; Dubois, Andrea; Onderdonk, Andrew B; Bry, Lynn

    2015-07-28

    Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) are an urgent public health concern. Rapid identification of the resistance genes, their mobilization capacity, and strains carrying them is essential to direct hospital resources to prevent spread and improve patient outcomes. Whole-genome sequencing allows refined tracking of both chromosomal traits and associated mobile genetic elements that harbor resistance genes. To enhance surveillance of CREs, clinical isolates with phenotypic resistance to carbapenem antibiotics underwent whole-genome sequencing. Analysis of 41 isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae and Enterobacter cloacae, collected over a 3-year period, identified K. pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC) genes encoding KPC-2, -3, and -4 and OXA-48 carbapenemases. All occurred within transposons, including multiple Tn4401 transposon isoforms, embedded within more than 10 distinct plasmids representing incompatibility (Inc) groups IncR, -N, -A/C, -H, and -X. Using short-read sequencing, draft maps were generated of new KPC-carrying vectors, several of which were derivatives of the IncN plasmid pBK31551. Two strains also had Tn4401 chromosomal insertions. Integrated analyses of plasmid profiles and chromosomal single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) profiles refined the strain patterns and provided a baseline hospital mobilome to facilitate analysis of new isolates. When incorporated with patient epidemiological data, the findings identified limited outbreaks against a broader 3-year period of sporadic external entry of many different strains and resistance vectors into the hospital. These findings highlight the utility of genomic analyses in internal and external surveillance efforts to stem the transmission of drug-resistant strains within and across health care institutions. We demonstrate how detection of resistance genes within mobile elements and resistance-carrying strains furthers active surveillance efforts for drug resistance. Whole-genome sequencing is increasingly

  8. National and Regional Representativeness of Hospital Emergency Department Visit Data in the National Syndromic Surveillance Program, United States, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, Ralph J.; Pérez, Alejandro; Baer, Atar; Zhou, Hong; English, Roseanne; Coletta, Michael; Dey, Achintya

    2016-01-01

    Objective We examined the representativeness of the nonfederal hospital emergency department (ED) visit data in the National Syndromic Surveillance Program (NSSP). Methods We used the 2012 American Hospital Association Annual Survey Database, other databases, and information from state and local health departments participating in the NSSP about which hospitals submitted data to the NSSP in October 2014. We compared ED visits for hospitals submitting 15 data with all ED visits in all 50 states and Washington, DC. Results Approximately 60.4 million of 134.6 million ED visits nationwide (~45%) were reported to have been submitted to the NSSP. ED visits in 5 of 10 regions and the majority of the states were substantially underrepresented in the NSSP. The NSSP ED visits were similar to national ED visits in terms of many of the characteristics of hospitals and their service areas. However, visits in hospitals with the fewest annual ED visits, in rural trauma centers, and in hospitals serving populations with high percentages of Hispanics and Asians were underrepresented. Conclusions NSSP nonfederal hospital ED visit data were representative for many hospital characteristics and in some geographic areas but were not very representative nationally and in many locations. Representativeness could be improved by increasing participation in more states and among specific types of hospitals. PMID:26883318

  9. Health surveillance of persons occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation: Guidance for occupational physicians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This Safety Report is intended mainly for occupational physicians, as well as for occupational health service personnel, to assist them in routine practice by specifying the features of work under radiation conditions, the general rules of radiological protection for occupational exposure and the organization of the medical surveillance of workers occupationally exposed to radiation. The Report is consistent with the recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection presented in its Publication 60 (1990) and with the International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources published by the IAEA in 1966. It supersedes Safety Series No.83 (Radiation Protection in Occupational Health: Manual for Occupational Physicians) published by the IAEA in 1987

  10. Surveillance for Certain Health Behaviors, Chronic Diseases, and Conditions, Access to Health Care, and Use of Preventive Health Services Among States and Selected Local Areas
- Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, United States, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Pranesh P; Mawokomatanda, Tebitha; Xu, Fang; Gamble, Sonya; Flegel, David; Pierannunzi, Carol; Garvin, William; Town, Machell

    2016-04-29

    Chronic diseases (e.g., heart diseases, cancer, chronic lower respiratory disease, stroke, diabetes, and arthritis) and unintentional injuries are the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in the United States. Behavioral risk factors (e.g., tobacco use, poor diet, physical inactivity, excessive alcohol consumption, failure to use seat belts, and insufficient sleep) are linked to the leading causes of death. Modifying these behavioral risk factors and using preventive health services (e.g., cancer screenings and influenza and pneumococcal vaccination of adults aged ≥65 years) can substantially reduce morbidity and mortality in the U.S. Continuous monitoring of these health-risk behaviors, chronic conditions, and use of preventive services are essential to the development of health promotion strategies, intervention programs, and health policies at the state, city, and county level. January-December 2012. The Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) is an ongoing, state-based, random-digit-dialed landline- and cellular-telephone survey of noninstitutionalized adults aged ≥18 years residing in the United States. BRFSS collects data on health-risk behaviors, chronic diseases and conditions, access to health care, and use of preventive health services related to the leading causes of death and disability. This report presents results for all 50 states, the District of Columbia, participating U.S. territories that include the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico (Puerto Rico) and Guam, 187 Metropolitan/Micropolitan Statistical Areas (MMSAs), and 210 counties (n = 475,687 survey respondents) for the year 2012. In 2012, the estimated prevalence of health-risk behaviors, chronic diseases or conditions, access to health care, and use of preventive health services substantially varied by state and territory, MMSA, and county. The following portion of the abstract lists a summary of results by selected BRFSS measures. Each set of proportions refers to the range of

  11. The Department of Defense Global, Laboratory-Based Influenza Surveillance Program: Technical Report on Program Methods for the 2012-2013 Influenza Season

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    PNL (EPI)” in AHLTA/CHCS, where available To request col lection kits, use the current ve rsion of the “Supply Orde r Form ” avai lable (under...Influenza Surveillance Program Sentinel Sites • Order the “RESPIRATORY CULTURE PNL (EPI)” in AHLTA/CHCS, where available • Submit 6-10 specimens

  12. European Surveillance Network for Influenza in Pigs: Surveillance Programs, Diagnostic Tools and Swine Influenza Virus Subtypes Identified in 14 European Countries from 2010 to 2013

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simon, Gaelle; Larsen, Lars Erik; Duerrwald, Ralf

    2014-01-01

    : avian-like swine H1N1 (53.6%), human-like reassortant swine H1N2 (13%) and human-like reassortant swine H3N2 (9.1%), as well as pandemic A/H1N1 2009 (H1N1pdm) virus (10.3%). Viruses from these four lineages co-circulated in several countries but with very different relative levels of incidence....... For instance, the H3N2 subtype was not detected at all in some geographic areas whereas it was still prevalent in other parts of Europe. Interestingly, H3N2-free areas were those that exhibited highest frequencies of circulating H1N2 viruses. H1N1pdm viruses were isolated at an increasing incidence in some......Swine influenza causes concern for global veterinary and public health officials. In continuing two previous networks that initiated the surveillance of swine influenza viruses (SIVs) circulating in European pigs between 2001 and 2008, a third European Surveillance Network for Influenza in Pigs...

  13. Bat ecology and public health surveillance for rabies in an urbanizing region of Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shea, T.J.; Neubaum, D.J.; Neubaum, M.A.; Cryan, P.M.; Ellison, L.E.; Stanley, T.R.; Rupprecht, C.E.; Pape, W.J.; Bowen, R.A.

    2011-01-01

    We describe use of Fort Collins, Colorado, and nearby areas by bats in 2001-2005, and link patterns in bat ecology with concurrent public health surveillance for rabies. Our analyses are based on evaluation of summary statistics, and information-theoretic support for results of simple logistic regression. Based on captures in mist nets, the city bat fauna differed from that of the adjacent mountains, and was dominated by big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus). Species, age, and sex composition of bats submitted for rabies testing locally and along the urbanizing Front Range Corridor were similar to those of the mist-net captures and reflected the annual cycle of reproduction and activity of big brown bats. Few submissions occurred November- March, when these bats hibernated elsewhere. In summer females roosted in buildings in colonies and dominated health samples; fledging of young corresponded to a summer peak in health submissions with no increase in rabies prevalence. Roosting ecology of big brown bats in buildings was similar to that reported for natural sites, including colony size, roost-switching behavior, fidelity to roosts in a small area, and attributes important for roost selection. Attrition in roosts occurred from structural modifications of buildings to exclude colonies by citizens, but without major effects on long-term bat reproduction or survival. Bats foraged in areas set aside for nature conservation. A pattern of lower diversity in urban bat communities with dominance by big brown bats may occur widely in the USA, and is consistent with national public health records for rabies surveillance. ?? 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC (outside the USA).

  14. Surveillance programs in Denmark has revealed the circulation of novel reassortant influenza A viruses in swine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lars Erik; Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane; Trebbien, Ramona

    2014-01-01

    avH1N1 and H3N2 which is different from the dominating European H1N2 subtype (1). The prevalence of the H1N1pdm09 virus in swine has increased since 2009 in some countries including Denmark. Here we present the results of the national passive surveillance program on influenza in swine performed from...... by the combination of the gene segments hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA). In most European countries, the avian-like (av)H1N1, the 2009 pandemic variant (H1N1pdm09), H1N2 and H3N2 subtypes have constituted the dominating SIV subtypes during recent years. In Denmark, the H1N2 subtype is a reassortant between......Swine influenza is a respiratory disease caused by multiple subtypes of influenza A virus. Swine influenza virus (SIV) is enzootic in swine populations in Europe, Asia, North and South America. The influenza A virus genome consist of eight distinct gene segments and SIV subtypes are defined...

  15. Minutes of the Twelfth LWR pressure vessel surveillance dosimtery improvement program meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The 1983 Twelfth Light Water Reactor Pressure Vessel Surveillance Dosimetry Improvement Program (LWR-PV-SDIP) Meeting, which was held October 24-28, 1983. Sections 1 through 14 of this report provide documentation of agreements, commitments, and reports that are subject to the approval and concurrence of the participating laboratories and supporting agencies and organizations. Attachment No. 1 provides information on the preparation of a number of NUREG publications that will document the results of various aspects of the LWR-PV-SDIP. For each NUREG publication, a tentative ''Table of Contents'' is provided in addition to suggested interlaboratory writing assignments and camera-ready copy contribution due dates, as appropriate. Attachment No. 2 provides information on planning for the Fifth ASTM-EURATOM Symposium. Attachment No. 3 provides information on an ASTM press release about an MPC-6 meeting and dpa and E > 1 MeV exposure parameters. Attachments No. 4 and 5 provide copies of two LWR-PV-SDIP related papers presented at the Eleventh WRSR Information Meeting, October 24-28, 1983

  16. Corrosion surveillance program of aluminum spent fuel elements in wet storage sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linardi, E; Haddad, R

    2012-01-01

    Due to different degradation issues observed in aluminum-clad spent fuel during long term storage in water, the IAEA implemented in 1996 a Coordinated Research Project (CRP) and a Regional Project for Latin America, on Corrosion of Research Reactor Aluminum Clad Spent Fuel in Water. Argentine has been among the participant countries of these projects, carrying out spent fuel corrosion surveillance activities in its storage facilities. As a result of the research a large database on corrosion of aluminum-clad fuel has been generated. It was determined that the main types of corrosion affecting the spent fuel are pitting and galvanic corrosion due to contact with stainless steel. It was concluded that the quality of the water is the critical factor to control in a spent fuel storage facility. Another phase of the program is being conducted currently, which began in 2011 with the immersion of test racks in the RA1 reactor pool, and in the Research Reactor Spent Fuel Storage Facility (FACIRI), located in Ezeiza Atomic Center. This paper presents the results of the chemical analysis of the water performed so far, and its relationship with the examination of the coupons extracted from the sites (author)

  17. The EBR-II materials-surveillance program. 4: Results of SURV-4 and SURV-6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruther, W.E.; Hayner, G.O.; Carlson, B.G.; Ebersole, E.R.; Allen, T.R.

    1998-01-01

    In March of 1965, a set of surveillance (SURV) samples was placed in the EBR-II reactor to determine the effect of irradiation, thermal aging, and sodium corrosion on reactor materials. Eight subassemblies were placed into row 12 positions of EBR-II to determine the effect of irradiation at 370 C. Two subassemblies were placed into the primary sodium basket to determine the effect of thermal aging at 370 C. For both the irradiated and thermally aged samples, one half of all samples were exposed to primary system sodium while one half were sealed in capsules with a helium atmosphere. Fifteen different structural materials were tested in the SURV program. In addition to the fifteen types of metal samples, graphite blocks were irradiated in the SURV subassemblies to determine the effect of irradiation on the graphite neutron shield. In this report, the properties of these materials irradiated at 370 C to a total fluence of 2.2 x 10 22 n/cm 2 (over 2,994 days) are compared with those of similar specimens thermally aged at 370 C for 2,994 days in the storage basket of the reactor. The properties analyzed were weight, density, microstructure, hardness, tensile and yield strength, impact strength, and creep

  18. A latent process model for forecasting multiple time series in environmental public health surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Kathryn T; Shaddick, Gavin; Henderson, Sarah B; Buckeridge, David L

    2016-08-15

    This paper outlines a latent process model for forecasting multiple health outcomes arising from a common environmental exposure. Traditionally, surveillance models in environmental health do not link health outcome measures, such as morbidity or mortality counts, to measures of exposure, such as air pollution. Moreover, different measures of health outcomes are treated as independent, while it is known that they are correlated with one another over time as they arise in part from a common underlying exposure. We propose modelling an environmental exposure as a latent process, and we describe the implementation of such a model within a hierarchical Bayesian framework and its efficient computation using integrated nested Laplace approximations. Through a simulation study, we compare distinct univariate models for each health outcome with a bivariate approach. The bivariate model outperforms the univariate models in bias and coverage of parameter estimation, in forecast accuracy and in computational efficiency. The methods are illustrated with a case study using healthcare utilization and air pollution data from British Columbia, Canada, 2003-2011, where seasonal wildfires produce high levels of air pollution, significantly impacting population health. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Discourses of healthcare professionals about health surveillance actions for Tuberculosis control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitano, Fernando; Sicsú, Amélia Nunes; Sousa, Luciana de Oliveira; Silva, Laís Mara Caetano da; Palha, Pedro Fredemir

    2017-04-06

    To analyze the meanings produced in the Health Surveillance actions for tuberculosis control, carried out by healthcare professionals in Mozambique. Qualitative study using the theoretical and methodological framework of the French Discourse Analysis. A total of 15 healthcare professionals with more than one year of experience in disease control actions participated in the study. Four discursive blocks have emerged from the analysis: tuberculosis diagnosis process; meeting, communication and discussion of treatment; local strategies for tuberculosis control; involvement of family and community leaders in the tuberculosis control. The statements of the healthcare professionals suggest, as Health Surveillance actions, practices that include collecting sputum in the patient's home and sending it to the laboratory; deployment of the medical team with a microscope for tuberculosis testing; and testing for diseases that may be associated with tuberculosis. In this context, the actions of Health Surveillance for tuberculosis control involve valuing all actors: family, community leaders, patients and health professionals. Analisar os sentidos produzidos sobre as ações de Vigilância em Saúde no controle da tuberculose desenvolvidas por profissionais de saúde em Moçambique. Estudo qualitativo que tem como referencial teórico-metodológico a Análise de Discurso de matriz francesa. Participaram do estudo 15 profissionais de saúde, com mais de 1 ano de experiência em ações de controle da doença. Da análise, emergiram quatro blocos discursivos: processo do diagnóstico da tuberculose; reunião, comunicação e discussão do tratamento; estratégias locais para o controle da tuberculose; envolvimento da família e dos líderes comunitários no controle da tuberculose. Os dizeres dos profissionais de saúde sugerem, como ações de Vigilância em Saúde, práticas que incluem a coleta de escarro na residência do paciente e seu encaminhamento ao laboratório; o

  20. Health-related quality of life surveillance--United States, 1993-2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahran, Hatice S; Kobau, Rosemarie; Moriarty, David G; Zack, Matthew M; Holt, James; Donehoo, Ralph

    2005-10-28

    Population-based surveillance of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) is needed to promote the health and quality of life of U.S. residents and to monitor progress in achieving the two overall Healthy People 2010 goals: 1) increase the quality and years of healthy life and 2) eliminate health disparities. This report examines surveillance-based HRQOL data from 1993 through 2002. Survey data from a validated set of HRQOL measures (CDC HRQOL-4) were analyzed for 1993-2001 from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) surveys for the 50 states and the District of Columbia (DC) and for 2001-2002 from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). These measures assessed self-rated health; physically unhealthy days (i.e., the number of days during the preceding 30 days for which physical health, including physical illness and injury, was not good); mentally unhealthy days (i.e., the number of days during the preceding 30 days for which mental health, including stress, depression, and problems with emotions, was not good); and days with activity limitation (i.e., number of days during the preceding 30 days that poor physical or mental health prevented normal daily activities). A summary measure of overall unhealthy days also was computed from the sum of a respondent's physically unhealthy and mentally unhealthy days, with a maximum of 30 days. During 1993-2001, the mean number of physically unhealthy days, mentally unhealthy days, overall unhealthy days, and activity limitation days was higher after 1997 than before 1997. During 1993-1997, the percentage of respondents with zero overall unhealthy days was stable (51%-53%) but declined to 48% by 2001. The percentage of respondents with >/=14 overall unhealthy days increased from 15%-16% during 1993-1997 to 18% by 2001. Adults increasingly rated their health as fair or poor and decreasingly rated it as excellent or very good. Women, American Indians/Alaska Natives, persons of "other races

  1. Time for an Adolescent Health Surveillance System in Saudi Arabia: Findings From "Jeeluna".

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlBuhairan, Fadia S; Tamim, Hani; Al Dubayee, Mohammad; AlDhukair, Shahla; Al Shehri, Sulieman; Tamimi, Waleed; El Bcheraoui, Charbel; Magzoub, Mohi Eldin; de Vries, Nanne; Al Alwan, Ibrahim

    2015-09-01

    With the increasing burden of noncommunicable disease, adolescence is viewed as an opportune time to prevent the onset of certain behaviors and promote healthy states. Although adolescents comprise a considerable portion of Saudi Arabia's population, they have received insufficient attention and indicators of their health status, as a first step in a prevention cycle are unavailable. This study was carried out with the aim of identifying the health risk behaviors and health status of adolescents in Saudi Arabia. This cross-sectional, school-based study was carried out in all 13 regions of Saudi Arabia. Through multistage, cluster, random sampling, intermediate, and secondary school students were invited to participate. Data were collected by means of a self-administered questionnaire addressing health risk behaviors and health status, clinical anthropometric measurements, and laboratory investigations. A total of 12,575 adolescents participated. Various health risk behaviors, including dietary and sedentary behaviors, lack of safety measures, tobacco use, bullying, and violence were highly prevalent. Twenty-eight percent of adolescents reported having a chronic health condition, 14.3% reported having symptoms suggestive of depression, 30.0% were overweight/obese, and 95.6% were vitamin D deficient. Behaviors and conditions known to persist into adulthood and result in morbidity and premature mortality are prevalent among adolescents in Saudi Arabia. Preventive measures and local health policies are urgently needed and can impact adolescents and future adults. Establishing adolescent health surveillance is necessary to monitor trends and impacts of such measures. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The Mental Vitality @ Work study: design of a randomized controlled trial on the effect of a workers' health surveillance mental module for nurses and allied health professionals

    OpenAIRE

    Gärtner, Fania R; Ketelaar, Sarah M; Smeets, Odile; Bolier, Linda; Fischer, Eva; van Dijk, Frank JH; Nieuwenhuijsen, Karen; Sluiter, Judith K

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Employees in health care service are at high risk for developing mental health complaints. The effects of mental health complaints on work can have serious consequences for the quality of care provided by these workers. To help health service workers remain healthy and productive, preventive actions are necessary. A Workers' Health Surveillance (WHS) mental module may be an effective strategy to monitor and promote good (mental) health and work performance. The objective o...

  3. The EBR-II materials-surveillance program. 5: Results of SURV-5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruther, W.E.; Staffon, J.D.; Carlson, B.G.; Allen, T.R.

    1998-01-01

    In March of 1965, a set of surveillance (SURV) samples was placed in the EBR-II reactor to determine the effect of irradiation, thermal aging, and sodium corrosion on reactor materials. Eight subassemblies were placed into row 12 positions of EBR-II to determine the effect of irradiation at 370 C. Two subassemblies were placed into the primary sodium basket to determine the effect of thermal aging at 370 C. One half of all samples were exposed to primary system sodium while one half were sealed in capsules with a helium atmosphere. Fifteen different structural materials were tested in the SURV program. In this work, the properties of these materials irradiated at 370 C to a total fluence of 3.2 x 10 22 n/cm 2 were determined. These materials are the fifth set of irradiated subassemblies to be examined as part of the SURV program (SURV-5). The properties analyzed were weight, density, microstructure, hardness, tensile and yield strength, and fracture resistance. Of all the alloys examined in SURV-5, only Berylco-25 showed any significant weight loss. Stainless steel (both 304 and 347) had the largest density decrease, although the density decrease from irradiation for all alloys was less than 0.4 percent. The microstructure of both Berylco-25 and the aluminum-bronze alloy was altered significantly. Iron- and nickel-base alloys showed little change in microstructure. Austenitic steels (304 and 347) harden with irradiation. The hardness of Inconel X750 did not change significantly with irradiation. The ultimate tensile strength of Inconel X750, 304 stainless steel, 420 stainless steel and welded 304 changed little due to a fluence increase from 2.2 x 10 22 n/cm 2 (the maximum fluence of the SURV-4 samples) to 3.2 x 10 22 n/cm 2

  4. Establishing a health demographic surveillance site in Bhaktapur district, Nepal: initial experiences and findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aryal Umesh

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A health demographic surveillance system (HDSS provides longitudinal data regarding health and demography in countries with coverage error and poor quality data on vital registration systems due to lack of public awareness, inadequate legal basis and limited use of data in health planning. The health system in Nepal, a low-income country, does not focus primarily on health registration, and does not conduct regular health data collection. This study aimed to initiate and establish the first HDSS in Nepal. Results We conducted a baseline survey in Jhaukhel and Duwakot, two villages in Bhaktapur district. The study surveyed 2,712 households comprising a total population of 13,669. The sex ratio in the study area was 101 males per 100 females and the average household size was 5. The crude birth and death rates were 9.7 and 3.9/1,000 population/year, respectively. About 11% of births occurred at home, and we found no mortality in infants and children less than 5 years of age. Various health problems were found commonly and some of them include respiratory problems (41.9%; headache, vertigo and dizziness (16.7%; bone and joint pain (14.4%; gastrointestinal problems (13.9%; heart disease, including hypertension (8.8%; accidents and injuries (2.9%; and diabetes mellitus (2.6%. The prevalence of non-communicable disease (NCD was 4.3% (95% CI: 3.83; 4.86 among individuals older than 30 years. Age-adjusted odds ratios showed that risk factors, such as sex, ethnic group, occupation and education, associated with NCD. Conclusion Our baseline survey demonstrated that it is possible to collect accurate and reliable data in a village setting in Nepal, and this study successfully established an HDSS site. We determined that both maternal and child health are better in the surveillance site compared to the entire country. Risk factors associated with NCDs dominated morbidity and mortality patterns.

  5. Medical Surveillance, Continuous Health Promotion and a Participatory Intervention in a Small Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Magnavita

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The workplace is an ideal setting for health promotion. The regular medical examination of workers enables us to screen for numerous diseases, spread good practices and correct lifestyles, and obtain a favourable risk/benefit ratio. The continuous monitoring of the level of workers’ wellbeing using a holistic approach during medical surveillance enables us to promptly identify problems in work organisation and the company climate. Problems of this kind can be adequately managed by using a participatory approach. The aim of this paper is twofold: to signal this way of proceeding with medical surveillance, and to describe an organisational development intervention. Participatory groups were used to improve occupational life in a small company. After intervention we observed a reduction in levels of perceived occupational stress measured with the Effort/Reward Imbalance questionnaire, and an improvement in psychological wellbeing assessed by means of the Goldberg Anxiety/Depression scale. Although the limited size of the sample and the lack of a control group call for a cautious evaluation of this study, the participatory strategy proved to be a useful tool due to its cost-effectiveness.

  6. Medical Surveillance, Continuous Health Promotion and a Participatory Intervention in a Small Company.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnavita, Nicola

    2018-04-02

    The workplace is an ideal setting for health promotion. The regular medical examination of workers enables us to screen for numerous diseases, spread good practices and correct lifestyles, and obtain a favourable risk/benefit ratio. The continuous monitoring of the level of workers' wellbeing using a holistic approach during medical surveillance enables us to promptly identify problems in work organisation and the company climate. Problems of this kind can be adequately managed by using a participatory approach. The aim of this paper is twofold: to signal this way of proceeding with medical surveillance, and to describe an organisational development intervention. Participatory groups were used to improve occupational life in a small company. After intervention we observed a reduction in levels of perceived occupational stress measured with the Effort/Reward Imbalance questionnaire, and an improvement in psychological wellbeing assessed by means of the Goldberg Anxiety/Depression scale. Although the limited size of the sample and the lack of a control group call for a cautious evaluation of this study, the participatory strategy proved to be a useful tool due to its cost-effectiveness.

  7. Towards One Health Knowledge Networks: A Southern African Centre of Infectious Disease Surveillance case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Beda

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The dynamic nature of new information and/or knowledge is a big challenge for information systems. Early knowledge management systems focused entirely on technologies for storing, searching and retrieving data; these systems have proved a failure. Juirsica and Mylopoulos1 suggested that in order to build effective technologies for knowledge management, we need to further our understanding of how individuals, groups and organisations use knowledge. As the focus on knowledge management for organisations and consortia alike is moving towards a keen appreciation of how deeply knowledge is embedded in people’s experiences, there is a general realisation that knowledge cannot be stored or captured digitally. This puts more emphasis in creating enabling environments for interactions that stimulate knowledge sharing. Our work aims at developing an un-obtrusive intelligent system that glues together effective contemporary and traditional technologies to aid these interactions and manage the information captured. In addition this system will include tools to aid propagating a repository of scientific information relevant to surveillance of infectious diseases to complement knowledge shared and/or acts as a point of reference. This work is ongoing and based on experiences in developing a knowledge network management system for the Southern African Centre of Infectious Disease Surveillance (SACIDS, A One Health consortium of southern African academic and research institutions involved with infectious diseases of humans and animals in partnership with world-renowned centres of research in industrialised countries.

  8. Annual summary report on the surveillance and maintenance activities for the Oak Rige National Laboratory Environmental Restoration Program for fiscal year 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    This Annual Summary Report on the Surveillance and Maintenance Activities for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Environmental Restoration Program for Fiscal Year 1995 was prepared to communicate the accomplishments of the Program during fiscal year 1995. This work was performed under work breakdown structure element 1.4.12.6.1.14.20 (activity data sheet 3314, ''Remedial Action Surveillance and Maintenance''). Publication of this document meets the Life Cycle Baseline milestone date of November 30, 1995. This document provides the accomplishments for both the Remedial Action and Decontamination and Decommissioning Surveillance and Maintenance programs

  9. Annual summary report of the Decontamination and Decommissioning Surveillance and Maintenance Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory for period ending September 30, 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, L.A.; Burwinkle, T.W.; Ford, M.K.; Gaddis, H.R.; Holder, L. Jr.; Mandry, G.J.; Nelson, T.R.; Patton, B.D.

    1995-03-01

    The Surplus Facilities Management Program (SFMP) was established at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in 1976 to provide collective management of all surplus sites under ORNL's control on the Oak Ridge Reservation. Presently, over 50 facilities, grouped into projects, are currently managed by the Decontamination and Decommissioning Program, the successor program to the SFMP. Support includes (1) surveillance and maintenance planning; (2) routine surveillance and maintenance; and (3) special maintenance projects. This report documents routine surveillance and maintenance, special projects, and special maintenance performed on these facilities for the period of October 1993 through September 1994

  10. A Smartphone App (AfyaData) for Innovative One Health Disease Surveillance from Community to National Levels in Africa: Intervention in Disease Surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimuribo, Esron Daniel; Mutagahywa, Eric; Sindato, Calvin; Mboera, Leonard; Mwabukusi, Mpoki; Kariuki Njenga, M; Teesdale, Scott; Olsen, Jennifer; Rweyemamu, Mark

    2017-12-18

    We describe the development and initial achievements of a participatory disease surveillance system that relies on mobile technology to promote Community Level One Health Security (CLOHS) in Africa. The objective of this system, Enhancing Community-Based Disease Outbreak Detection and Response in East and Southern Africa (DODRES), is to empower community-based human and animal health reporters with training and information and communication technology (ICT)-based solutions to contribute to disease detection and response, thereby complementing strategies to improve the efficiency of infectious disease surveillance at national, regional, and global levels. In this study, we refer to techno-health as the application of ICT-based solutions to enhance early detection, timely reporting, and prompt response to health events in human and animal populations. An EpiHack, involving human and animal health experts as well as ICT programmers, was held in Tanzania in 2014 to identify major challenges facing early detection, timely reporting, and prompt response to disease events. This was followed by a project inception workshop in 2015, which brought together key stakeholders, including policy makers and community representatives, to refine the objectives and implementation plan of the DODRES project. The digital ICT tools were developed and packaged together as the AfyaData app to support One Health disease surveillance. Community health reporters (CHRs) and officials from animal and human health sectors in Morogoro and Ngorongoro districts in Tanzania were trained to use the AfyaData app. The AfyaData supports near- to real-time data collection and submission at both community and health facility levels as well as the provision of feedback to reporters. The functionality of the One Health Knowledge Repository (OHKR) app has been integrated into the AfyaData app to provide health information on case definitions of diseases of humans and animals and to synthesize advice that

  11. How to Define the Content of a Job-Specific Worker's Health Surveillance for Hospital Physicians?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruitenburg, Martijn M; Frings-Dresen, Monique H W; Sluiter, Judith K

    2016-03-01

    A job-specific Worker's Health Surveillance (WHS) for hospital physicians is a preventive occupational health strategy aiming at early detection of their diminished work-related health in order to improve or maintain physician's health and quality of care. This study addresses what steps should be taken to determine the content of a job-specific WHS for hospital physicians and outlines that content. Based on four questions, decision trees were developed for physical and psychological job demands and for biological, chemical, and physical exposures to decide whether or not to include work-related health effects related to occupational exposures or aspects of health reflecting insufficient job requirements. Information was gathered locally through self-reporting and systematic observations at the workplace and from evidence in international publications. Information from the decision trees on the prevalence and impact of the health- or work-functioning effect led to inclusion of occupational exposures (e.g., biological agents, emotionally demanding situations), job requirements (e.g., sufficient vision, judging ability), or health effects (e.g., depressive symptoms, neck complaints). Additionally, following the Dutch guideline for occupational physicians and based on specific job demands, screening for cardiovascular diseases, work ability, drug use, and alcohol consumption was included. Targeted interventions were selected when a health or work functioning problem existed and were chosen based on evidence for effectiveness. The process of developing a job-specific WHS for hospital physicians was described and the content presented, which might serve as an example for other jobs. Before implementation, it must first be tested for feasibility and acceptability.

  12. Incorporating Health Education into Employee Assistance Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Richard E.

    1985-01-01

    Methods of aligning health education with the goals and functions of employee assistance programs are discussed. The role of the health educator in developing these programs is explained in a description of employee assistance program service standards and specific sub-tasks. (DF)

  13. CDC's National Environmental Public Health Tracking Program in Action: Case Studies From State and Local Health Departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eatman, Shana; Strosnider, Heather M

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC's) National Environmental Public Health Tracking Program (Tracking Program) is a multidisciplinary collaboration that involves the ongoing collection, integration, analysis, interpretation, and dissemination of data from environmental hazard monitoring, human exposure surveillance, and health effects surveillance. With a renewed focus on data-driven decision-making, the CDC's Tracking Program emphasizes dissemination of actionable data to public health practitioners, policy makers, and communities. The CDC's National Environmental Public Health Tracking Network (Tracking Network), a Web-based system with components at the national, state, and local levels, houses environmental public health data used to inform public health actions (PHAs) to improve community health. This article serves as a detailed landscape on the Tracking Program and Tracking Network and the Tracking Program's leading performance measure, "public health actions." Tracking PHAs are qualitative statements addressing a local problem or situation, the role of the state or local Tracking Program, how the problem or situation was addressed, and the action taken. More than 400 PHAs have been reported by funded state and local health departments since the Tracking Program began collecting PHAs in 2005. Three case studies are provided to illustrate the use of the Tracking Program resources and data on the Tracking Network, and the diversity of actions taken. Through a collaborative network of experts, data, and tools, the Tracking Program and its Tracking Network are actively informing state and local PHAs. In a time of competing priorities and limited funding, PHAs can serve as a powerful tool to advance environmental public health practice.

  14. Determinants of Health Service Responsiveness in Community-Based Vector Surveillance for Chagas Disease in Guatemala, El Salvador, and Honduras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Ken; Zúniga, Concepción; Romero, Eduardo; Morales, Zoraida; Maguire, James H.

    2015-01-01

    Background Central American countries face a major challenge in the control of Triatoma dimidiata, a widespread vector of Chagas disease that cannot be eliminated. The key to maintaining the risk of transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi at lowest levels is to sustain surveillance throughout endemic areas. Guatemala, El Salvador, and Honduras integrated community-based vector surveillance into local health systems. Community participation was effective in detection of the vector, but some health services had difficulty sustaining their response to reports of vectors from the population. To date, no research has investigated how best to maintain and reinforce health service responsiveness, especially in resource-limited settings. Methodology/Principal Findings We reviewed surveillance and response records of 12 health centers in Guatemala, El Salvador, and Honduras from 2008 to 2012 and analyzed the data in relation to the volume of reports of vector infestation, local geography, demography, human resources, managerial approach, and results of interviews with health workers. Health service responsiveness was defined as the percentage of households that reported vector infestation for which the local health service provided indoor residual spraying of insecticide or educational advice. Eight potential determinants of responsiveness were evaluated by linear and mixed-effects multi-linear regression. Health service responsiveness (overall 77.4%) was significantly associated with quarterly monitoring by departmental health offices. Other potential determinants of responsiveness were not found to be significant, partly because of short- and long-term strategies, such as temporary adjustments in manpower and redistribution of tasks among local participants in the effort. Conclusions/Significance Consistent monitoring within the local health system contributes to sustainability of health service responsiveness in community-based vector surveillance of Chagas disease. Even with

  15. Determinants of Health Service Responsiveness in Community-Based Vector Surveillance for Chagas Disease in Guatemala, El Salvador, and Honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Ken; Zúniga, Concepción; Romero, Eduardo; Morales, Zoraida; Maguire, James H

    2015-01-01

    Central American countries face a major challenge in the control of Triatoma dimidiata, a widespread vector of Chagas disease that cannot be eliminated. The key to maintaining the risk of transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi at lowest levels is to sustain surveillance throughout endemic areas. Guatemala, El Salvador, and Honduras integrated community-based vector surveillance into local health systems. Community participation was effective in detection of the vector, but some health services had difficulty sustaining their response to reports of vectors from the population. To date, no research has investigated how best to maintain and reinforce health service responsiveness, especially in resource-limited settings. We reviewed surveillance and response records of 12 health centers in Guatemala, El Salvador, and Honduras from 2008 to 2012 and analyzed the data in relation to the volume of reports of vector infestation, local geography, demography, human resources, managerial approach, and results of interviews with health workers. Health service responsiveness was defined as the percentage of households that reported vector infestation for which the local health service provided indoor residual spraying of insecticide or educational advice. Eight potential determinants of responsiveness were evaluated by linear and mixed-effects multi-linear regression. Health service responsiveness (overall 77.4%) was significantly associated with quarterly monitoring by departmental health offices. Other potential determinants of responsiveness were not found to be significant, partly because of short- and long-term strategies, such as temporary adjustments in manpower and redistribution of tasks among local participants in the effort. Consistent monitoring within the local health system contributes to sustainability of health service responsiveness in community-based vector surveillance of Chagas disease. Even with limited resources, countries can improve health service

  16. Evaluating a Health Risk Reduction Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagelberg, Daniel B.

    1981-01-01

    A health risk reduction program at Bowling Green State University (Ohio) tested the efficacy of peer education against the efficacy of returning (by mail) health questionnaire results. A peer health education program did not appear to be effective in changing student attitudes or lifestyles; however, the research methodology may not have been…

  17. Studies and research concerning BNFP: process monitoring and process surveillance demonstration program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kight, H R

    1979-11-01

    Computerized methods of monitoring process functions and alarming off-standard conditions were implemented and demonstrated during the FY 1979 Uranium Run. In addition, prototype applications of instruments for the purpose of tamper indication and surveillance were tested.

  18. Surveillance programs for detection and characterization of emergent pathogens and antimicrobial resistance: results from the Division of Infectious Diseases, UNIFESP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, Arnaldo L; Janini, Mario; Salomão, Reinaldo; Medeiros, Eduardo A S; Wey, Sergio B; Pignatari, Antonio C C

    2009-09-01

    Several epidemiological changes have occurred in the pattern of nosocomial and community acquired infectious diseases during the past 25 years. Social and demographic changes possibly related to this phenomenon include a rapid population growth, the increase in urban migration and movement across international borders by tourists and immigrants, alterations in the habitats of animals and arthropods that transmit disease, as well as the raise of patients with impaired host defense abilities. Continuous surveillance programs of emergent pathogens and antimicrobial resistance are warranted for detecting in real time new pathogens, as well as to characterize molecular mechanisms of resistance. In order to become more effective, surveillance programs of emergent pathogens should be organized as a multicenter laboratory network connected to the main public and private infection control centers. Microbiological data should be integrated to guide therapy, adapting therapy to local ecology and resistance patterns. This paper presents an overview of data generated by the Division of Infectious Diseases, Federal University of São Paulo, along with its participation in different surveillance programs of nosocomial and community acquired infectious diseases.

  19. A GIS-driven integrated real-time surveillance pilot system for national West Nile virus dead bird surveillance in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aramini Jeff

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An extensive West Nile virus surveillance program of dead birds, mosquitoes, horses, and human infection has been launched as a result of West Nile virus first being reported in Canada in 2001. Some desktop and web GIS have been applied to West Nile virus dead bird surveillance. There have been urgent needs for a comprehensive GIS services and real-time surveillance. Results A pilot system was developed to integrate real-time surveillance, real-time GIS, and Open GIS technology in order to enhance West Nile virus dead bird surveillance in Canada. Driven and linked by the newly developed real-time web GIS technology, this integrated real-time surveillance system includes conventional real-time web-based surveillance components, integrated real-time GIS components, and integrated Open GIS components. The pilot system identified the major GIS functions and capacities that may be important to public health surveillance. The six web GIS clients provide a wide range of GIS tools for public health surveillance. The pilot system has been serving Canadian national West Nile virus dead bird surveillance since 2005 and is adaptable to serve other disease surveillance. Conclusion This pilot system has streamlined, enriched and enhanced national West Nile virus dead bird surveillance in Canada, improved productivity, and reduced operation cost. Its real-time GIS technology, static map technology, WMS integration, and its integration with non-GIS real-time surveillance system made this pilot system unique in surveillance and public health GIS.

  20. Health surveillance of medical personnel occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation sources: Biomonitoring and dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brumen, V.; Prlic, I.; Radalj, Z.; Horvat, D.; Cerovac, H.

    1996-01-01

    The aim of this work is to present the complete results of periodical health surveillance of medical personnel occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation sources, conducted according to established law regulations in Croatia. The report comprises a total of 21 examinees (11 female, 10 male), mean age 43,19 ± 9,85 years, originating from different professional groups and working in a radiation zone 14,7 ± 8,27 years on the average. Within the framework of this study, the results of their biomonitoring, including haematological parameters (whole blood count), ophthalmological findings (fundus oculi), cytogenetic test (conventional structural chromosomal aberration analysis) and peripheral blood flow survey (capillaroscopy and dermothermometry) will be presented. Filmdosimetric data for the referred period will also be reported. (author)

  1. Preventive actions taken by workers after workers' health surveillance: a controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boschman, J S; Van der Molen, H F; Frings-Dresen, M H W; Sluiter, J K

    2013-12-01

    To evaluate construction workers' preventive actions and occupational physician's (OPs) recommendations after a job-specific workers' health surveillance (WHS) compared with the currently used generic WHS. After the WHS, the OPs' written recommendations were captured. At the 3-month follow-up, the workers were asked about the preventive actions they had undertaken. A generalized linear mixed model was used to compare proportions of workers. At follow-up, the proportion of workers who reported taking preventive actions was significantly higher in the intervention group (80%, 44/55) than in the control group (67%, 80 of 121), (P = 0.04). In the intervention group, the OPs provided a higher proportion of workers with written recommendations (82%, 63 of 77, vs 57%, 69 of 121; P = 0.03). The job-specific WHS aided OPs in providing workers with recommendations and workers in undertaking (job-specific) preventive actions.

  2. A training manual for event history data management using Health and Demographic Surveillance System data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocquier, Philippe; Ginsburg, Carren; Herbst, Kobus; Sankoh, Osman; Collinson, Mark A

    2017-06-26

    The objective of this research note is to introduce a training manual for event history data management. The manual provides a first comprehensive guide to longitudinal Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) data management that allows for a step-by-step description of the process of structuring and preparing a dataset for the calculation of demographic rates and event history analysis. The research note provides some background information on the INDEPTH Network, and the iShare data repository and describes the need for a manual to guide users as to how to correctly handle HDSS datasets. The approach outlined in the manual is flexible and can be applied to other longitudinal data sources. It facilitates the development of standardised longitudinal data management and harmonization of datasets to produce a comparative set of results.

  3. Severe Maternal or Near Miss Morbidity: Implications for Public Health Surveillance and Clinical Audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuklina, Elena V; Goodman, David A

    2018-06-01

    This chapter reviews the historical development of indicators to identify severe maternal morbidity/maternal near miss (SMM/MNM), and their use for public health surveillance, research, and clinical audit. While there has been progress toward identifying standard definitions for SMM/MNM within countries, there remain inconsistencies in the definition of SMM/MNM indicators and their application between countries. Using these indicators to screen for events that then trigger a clinical audit may both under identify select SMM/MNM (false negative)and over identify select SMM/MNM (false positive). Thus, indicators which support the efficient identification of SMM/MNM for the purpose of facility-based clinical audits are still needed.

  4. Facility Decontamination and Decommissioning Program Surveillance and Maintenance Plan, Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poderis, Reed J. [NSTec; King, Rebecca A. [NSTec

    2013-09-30

    This Surveillance and Maintenance (S&M) Plan describes the activities performed between deactivation and final decommissioning of the following facilities located on the Nevada National Security Site, as documented in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order under the Industrial Sites program as decontamination and decommissioning sites: ? Engine Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly (EMAD) Facility: o EMAD Building (Building 25-3900) o Locomotive Storage Shed (Building 25-3901) ? Test Cell C (TCC) Facility: o Equipment Building (Building 25-3220) o Motor Drive Building (Building 25-3230) o Pump Shop (Building 25-3231) o Cryogenic Lab (Building 25-3232) o Ancillary Structures (e.g., dewars, water tower, piping, tanks) These facilities have been declared excess and are in various stages of deactivation (low-risk, long-term stewardship disposition state). This S&M Plan establishes and implements a solid, cost-effective, and balanced S&M program consistent with federal, state, and regulatory requirements. A graded approach is used to plan and conduct S&M activities. The goal is to maintain the facilities in a safe condition in a cost-effective manner until their final end state is achieved. This plan accomplishes the following: ? Establishes S&M objectives and framework ? Identifies programmatic guidance for S&M activities to be conducted by National Security Technologies, LLC, for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office (NNSA/NFO) ? Provides present facility condition information and identifies hazards ? Identifies facility-specific S&M activities to be performed and their frequency ? Identifies regulatory drivers, NNSA/NFO policies and procedures, and best management practices that necessitate implementation of S&M activities ? Provides criteria and frequencies for revisions and updates ? Establishes the process for identifying and dispositioning a condition that has not been previously identified or

  5. Improving public health surveillance using a dual-frame survey of landline and cell phone numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, S Sean; Balluz, Lina; Battaglia, Michael P; Frankel, Martin R

    2011-03-15

    To meet challenges arising from increasing rates of noncoverage in US landline-based telephone samples due to cell-phone-only households, the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) expanded a traditional landline-based random digit dialing survey to a dual-frame survey of landline and cell phone numbers. In 2008, a survey of adults with cell phones only was conducted in parallel with an ongoing landline-based health survey in 18 states. The authors used the optimal approach to allocate samples into landline and cell-phone-only strata and used a new approach to weighting state-level landline and cell phone samples. They developed logistic models for each of 16 health indicators to examine whether exclusion of adults with cell phones only affected estimates after adjustment for demographic characteristics. The extents of the potential biases in landline telephone surveys that exclude cell phones were estimated. Biases resulting from exclusion of adults with cell phones only from the landline-based survey were found for 9 out of the 16 health indicators. Because landline noncoverage rates for adults with cell phones only continue to increase, these biases are likely to increase. Use of a dual-frame survey of landline and cell phone numbers assisted the BRFSS efforts in obtaining valid, reliable, and representative data. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health 2011.

  6. [The Brazilian National Health Surveillance Agency performance evaluation at the management contract model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Elka Maltez de Miranda; Costa, Ediná Alves

    2010-11-01

    The Brazilian National Health Surveillance Agency (Anvisa) is supervised by the Ministry of Health by means of a management contract, a performance evaluation tool. This case study was aimed at describing and analyzing Anvisa's performance evaluation model based on the agency's institutional purpose, according to the following analytical categories: the management contract formalization, evaluation tools, evaluators and institutional performance. Semi-structured interviews and document analysis revealed that Anvisa signed only one management contract with the Ministry of Health in 1999, updated by four additive terms. The Collegiate Board of Directors and the Advisory Center for Strategic Management play the role of Anvisa's internal evaluators and an Assessing Committee, comprising the Ministry of Health, constitutes its external evaluator. Three phases were identified in the evaluation model: the structuring of the new management model (1999-2000), legitimation regarding the productive segment (2001-2004) and widespread legitimation (2005). The best performance was presented in 2000 (86.05%) and the worst in 2004 (40.00%). The evaluation model was shown to have contributed little towards the agency's institutional purpose and the effectiveness measurement of the implemented actions.

  7. A National Surveillance Survey on Noncommunicable Disease Risk Factors: Suriname Health Study Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smits, Christel CF; Jaddoe, Vincent WV; Hofman, Albert; Toelsie, Jerry R

    2015-01-01

    Background Noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) are the leading cause of death in low- and middle-income countries. Therefore, the surveillance of risk factors has become an issue of major importance for planning and implementation of preventive measures. Unfortunately, in these countries data on NCDs and their risk factors are limited. This also prevails in Suriname, a middle-income country of the Caribbean, with a multiethnic/multicultural population living in diverse residential areas. For these reasons, “The Suriname Health Study” was designed. Objective The main objective of this study is to estimate the prevalence of NCD risk factors, including metabolic syndrome, hypertension, and diabetes in Suriname. Differences between specific age groups, sexes, ethnic groups, and geographical areas will be emphasized. In addition, risk groups will be identified and targeted actions will be designed and evaluated. Methods In this study, several methodologies were combined. A stratified multistage cluster sample was used to select the participants of 6 ethnic groups (Hindustani, Creole, Javanese, Maroon, Chinese, Amerindians, and mixed) divided into 5 age groups (between 15 and 65 years) who live in urban/rural areas or the hinterland. A standardized World Health Organization STEPwise approach to surveillance questionnaire was adapted and used to obtain information about demographic characteristics, lifestyle, and risk factors. Physical examinations were performed to measure blood pressure, height, weight, and waist circumference. Biochemical analysis of collected blood samples evaluated the levels of glucose, high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol, total cholesterol, and triglycerides. Statistical analysis will be used to identify the burden of modifiable and unmodifiable risk factors in the aforementioned subgroups. Subsequently, tailor-made interventions will be prepared and their effects will be evaluated. Results The data as collected allow for national inference and

  8. History and Medicine: ex voto as a tool for health and epidemiological surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nante, N; Azzolini, E; Troiano, G; Serafini, A; Gentile, A; Messina, G

    2016-01-01

    Ex voto is a donation for a divinity, a Saint or to Virgin Mary for a received mercy. From the analysis of an ex voto it's possible to obtain lots of information and therefore it can be used as a tool for health and epidemiological surveillance, to study morbidity in the past. The aim of this study was the creation of a database to rebuild epidemiological events and diseases, using ex voto as a source of health surveillance. We chose to study votive pictures using three types of sources: photographed alive, on-line archives, books and photographic collections. Ex voto have been saved in an Hard Disk, numbered and inserted in a database, then analyzed using Stata®. total of 6231 ex voto were collected and catalogued in our database. Ex voto referring to diseases are the most represented (41%), but they have decreased with the time. Road accidents (21.4%) have a constant increase, especially with the appearance of cars and motorcycles. Aggressions (5.45%) decrease constantly; warlike accidents (4.44%) had a peak in the period including both world wars; non professional accidents (10.60%) and accidents at work (3.79%) increase without peaks; maritime accidents (8.88%) have not uniform ups and downs during the time. The database let us rebuild epidemiological events of the past, which are not deductible from other sources. Our purpose is to expand in the space-time our source data in order to perform an interesting comparison between past and present.

  9. Starting a Health Professions Education Graduate Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansman, Catherine A.

    2018-01-01

    This chapter is a case story of the evolution of the Master of Education in Health Professions Education (MEHPE), a collaborative graduate program developed by the Adult Learning and Development program at Cleveland State University and the Cleveland Clinic.

  10. Anxiety, depression, and oral health among US pregnant women: 2010 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Marushka L; Whitcomb, Brian W; Pekow, Penelope; Carbone, Elena T; Chasan-Taber, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Maternal periodontal disease is associated with adverse perinatal outcomes. Anxiety and depression adversely impact oral health in nonpregnant women; however, this association has not been evaluated during pregnancy, a time characterized by higher rates of anxiety and depression. Therefore, we examined the association between these factors and oral disease and oral healthcare utilization among 402 pregnant respondents to the 2010 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Self-reported lifetime diagnoses of anxiety, depression, and current depression were assessed. Oral health outcomes included self-reported tooth loss and dental visits in the past year. One-fifth (21.2 percent) of respondents reported a tooth loss and 32.5 percent reported nonuse of oral health services. The prevalence of lifetime diagnosed anxiety and depression was 13.6 percent and 11.3 percent, respectively, whereas 10.6 percent reported current depression. After adjusting for risk factors, pregnant women with diagnosed anxiety had increased odds of one or more tooth loss [odds ratio (OR) = 3.30; 95 percent confidence interval (CI): 1.01-10.77] compared with those without the disorder. Similarly, after adjusting for socioeconomic factors, women with anxiety had increased odds of nonuse of oral health services (OR = 2.67; 95 percent CI: 1.03-6.90); however, this was no longer significant after adjusting for health behaviors and body mass index. We observed no significant association with depression. In this population-based sample, we found a two- to threefold increased odds of tooth loss and nonuse of oral health services among pregnant women with a lifetime diagnosis of anxiety. To our knowledge, this is the first study to examine these associations among pregnant women. © 2015 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  11. Prioritized schedule for review of industrial safety and occupational health programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-12-01

    This document provides the rationale and criteria for developing a schedule for reviewing the Industrial Safety and Occupational Health programs for the Management and Operating Contractor (MOC) of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. The reviews will evaluate the MOC's compliance with applicable Department of Energy (DOE) orders and regulatory requirements. The scope of this task includes developing prioritization criteria, determining the review priority of each program based upon the criteria, identifying review requirements for each program, and preparing a detailed review schedule. In keeping with the Carlsbad Area Office (CAO) structure for the review of site activities, these review activities will be addressed as surveillances, although the original basis for this requirement refers to these activities as appraisals. Surveillances and appraisals are the same within this document. Surveillances are defined as: ''The act of monitoring or observing to verify whether an item, activity, system, or process conforms to specified requirements. Surveillance of a technical work activity is normally done in real time, i.e., the surveillance is accomplished as the work is being performed.''

  12. Incidence, treatment and survival of patients with craniopharyngioma in the surveillance, epidemiology and end results program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacharia, Brad E.; Bruce, Samuel S.; Goldstein, Hannah; Malone, Hani R.; Neugut, Alfred I.; Bruce, Jeffrey N.

    2012-01-01

    Craniopharyngioma is a rare primary central nervous system neoplasm. Our objective was to determine factors associated with incidence, treatment, and survival of craniopharyngiomas in the United States. We used the surveillance, epidemiology and end results program (SEER) database to identify patients who received a diagnosis of craniopharyngioma during 2004–2008. We analyzed clinical and demographic information, including age, race, sex, tumor histology, and treatment. Age-adjusted incidence rates and age, sex, and race-adjusted expected survival rates were calculated. We used Cox proportional hazards models to determine the association between covariates and overall survival. We identified 644 patients with a diagnosis of craniopharyngioma. Black race was associated with an age-adjusted relative risk for craniopharyngioma of 1.26 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.98–1.59), compared with white race. One- and 3-year survival rates of 91.5% (95% CI, 88.9%–93.5%), and 86.2% (95% CI, 82.7%–89.0%) were observed for the cohort; relative survival rates were 92.1% (95% CI, 89.5%–94.0%) and 87.6% (95% CI, 84.1%–90.4%) for 1- and 3-years, respectively. In the multivariable model, factors associated with prolonged survival included younger age, smaller tumor size, subtotal resection, and radiation therapy. Black race, on the other hand, was associated with worse overall survival in the final model. We demonstrated that >85% of patients survived 3 years after diagnosis and that subtotal resection and radiation therapy were associated with prolonged survival. We also noted a higher incidence rate and worse 1- and 3-year survival rates in the black population. Future investigations should examine these racial disparities and focus on evaluating the efficacy of emerging treatment paradigms. PMID:22735773

  13. Using data from a nationally representative nutrition surveillance system to assess trends and influence nutrition programs and policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasima Akhter

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The Nutritional Surveillance Project (NSP* of Helen Keller International (HKI, Bangladesh, implemented in partnership with the Government of Bangladesh’s (GOB Institute of Public Health Nutrition (IPHN from 1990 until 2006, is among the longest running surveillance systems; and was implemented with an overall goal to monitor nutrition and health status of children and mothers in Bangladesh. From 1990-1997, NSP data collection included rural and urban poor populations of disaster prone areas of Bangladesh. Since 1998, it evolved into a nationally representative nutrition surveillance system in rural Bangladesh and also continued assessing trends of malnutrition in urban poor areas. Over the 16 year period, the NSP produced plethora of information that was packaged and shared as bulletins, in peer reviewed journal articles, as presentations at conferences, seminars, workshops. The NSP had a flexible framework that allowed it to assess trends and underlying factors of malnutrition, monitor and evaluate selected programs and conduct special studies related to current and emerging issues. NSP findings were available to contribute to program development and supported policy discussions in-country and internationally. The NSP continuously highlighted the importance of monitoring, which is not only an indispensible element for a successful program, but also helps prioritization and decision making to maximize utilization of limited resources for developing countries burdened with numerous problems to address. The NSP provides an example of a technically sound surveillance system with rapid turnover of data and findings, which is imperative to successful program planning, policy formulation and tracking progress toward developmental goals.Le projet Nutritional Surveillance Project (NSP* de l’association Helen Keller International (HKI, mis en œuvre au Bangladesh en partenariat avec l’Institute of Public Health Nutrition (IPHN,

  14. CDC’s National Environmental Public Health Tracking Program in Action: Case Studies From State and Local Health Departments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eatman, Shana; Strosnider, Heather M.

    2017-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s (CDC’s) National Environmental Public Health Tracking Program (Tracking Program) is a multidisciplinary collaboration that involves the ongoing collection, integration, analysis, interpretation, and dissemination of data from environmental hazard monitoring, human exposure surveillance, and health effects surveillance. With a renewed focus on data-driven decision-making, the CDC’s Tracking Program emphasizes dissemination of actionable data to public health practitioners, policy makers, and communities. The CDC’s National Environmental Public Health Tracking Network (Tracking Network), a Web-based system with components at the national, state, and local levels, houses environmental public health data used to inform public health actions (PHAs) to improve community health. This article serves as a detailed landscape on the Tracking Program and Tracking Network and the Tracking Program’s leading performance measure, “public health actions.” Tracking PHAs are qualitative statements addressing a local problem or situation, the role of the state or local Tracking Program, how the problem or situation was addressed, and the action taken. More than 400 PHAs have been reported by funded state and local health departments since the Tracking Program began collecting PHAs in 2005. Three case studies are provided to illustrate the use of the Tracking Program resources and data on the Tracking Network, and the diversity of actions taken. Through a collaborative network of experts, data, and tools, the Tracking Program and its Tracking Network are actively informing state and local PHAs. In a time of competing priorities and limited funding, PHAs can serve as a powerful tool to advance environmental public health practice. PMID:28763381

  15. Exploring the Utility of Model-based Meteorology Data for Heat-Related Health Research and Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidyanathan, A.; Yip, F.

    2017-12-01

    Context: Studies that have explored the impacts of environmental exposure on human health have mostly relied on data from weather stations, which can be limited in geographic scope. For this assessment, we: (1) evaluated the performance of the meteorological data from the North American Land Data Assimilation System Phase 2 (NLDAS) model with measurements from weather stations for public health and specifically for CDC's Environmental Public Health Tracking Program, and (2) conducted a health assessment to explore the relationship between heat exposure and mortality, and examined region-specific differences in heat-mortality (H-M) relationships when using model-based estimates in place of measurements from weather stations.Methods: Meteorological data from the NLDAS Phase 2 model was evaluated against measurements from weather stations. A time-series analysis was conducted, using both station- and model-based data, to generate H-M relationships for counties in the U.S. The county-specific risk information was pooled to characterize regional relationships for both station- and model-based data, which were then compared to identify degrees of overlap and discrepancies between results generated using the two data sources. Results: NLDAS-based heat metrics were in agreement with those generated using weather station data. In general, the H-M relationship tended to be non-linear and varied by region, particularly the heat index value at which the health risks become positively significant. However, there was a high degree of overlap between region-specific H-M relationships generated from weather stations and the NLDAS model.Interpretation: Heat metrics from NLDAS model are available for all counties in the coterminous U.S. from 1979-2015. These data can facilitate health research and surveillance activities exploring health impacts associated with long-term heat exposures at finer geographic scales.Conclusion: High spatiotemporal coverage of environmental health data

  16. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Oxide Material Representation in the Material Identification and Surveillance (MIS) Program, Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riley, D C; Dodson, K

    2004-06-30

    The Materials Identification and Surveillance (MIS) program was established within the 94-1 R&D Program to confirm the suitability of plutonium-bearing materials for stabilization, packaging, and long-term storage under DOE-STD-3013-2000. Oxide materials from different sites were chemically and physically characterized. The adequacy of the stabilization process parameters of temperature and duration at temperature (950 C and 2 hours) for eliminating chemical reactivity and reducing the moisture content to less than 0.5 weight percent were validated. Studies also include surveillance monitoring to determine the behavior of the oxides and packaging materials under storage conditions. Materials selected for this program were assumed to be representative of the overall inventory for DOE sites. The Quality Assurance section of the DOE-STD-3013-2000 required that each site be responsible for assuring that oxides packaged according to this standard are represented by items in the MIS characterization program. The purpose of this document is to define the path for determining if an individual item is ''represented'' in the MIS Program and to show that oxides being packaged at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) are considered represented in the MIS program. The methodology outlined in the MIS Representation Document (LA-14016-MS) for demonstrating representation requires concurrence of the MIS working Group (MIS-WG). The signature page on this document provides for the MIS-WG concurrence.

  17. Airborne Video Surveillance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Blask, Steven

    2002-01-01

    The DARPA Airborne Video Surveillance (AVS) program was established to develop and promote technologies to make airborne video more useful, providing capabilities that achieve a UAV force multiplier...

  18. Prospective surveillance of device-associated health care-associated infection in an intensive care unit of a tertiary care hospital in New Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Shilpee; Sen, Poornima; Gaind, Rajni; Verma, Pardeep Kumar; Gupta, Poonam; Suri, Prem Rose; Nagpal, Sunita; Rai, Anil Kumar

    2018-02-01

    Surveillance of health care-associated infections (HAIs) plays a key role in the hospital infection control program and reduction of HAIs. In India, most of the surveillance of HAIs is reported from private sector hospitals that do not depict the situation of government sector hospitals. Other studies do not confirm with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN) surveillance criterion, or deal with ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) instead of ventilator-associated event (VAE). The aim of this study was to identify the incidences of 3 device-associated HAIs (DA-HAIs) (VAE, central line-associated bloodstream infection [CLABSI], and catheter-associated urinary tract infection [CAUTI]) by active surveillance using CDC's NHSN surveillance criteria and to identify the pathogens associated with these DA-HAIs. This was a prospective surveillance study (January 2015-December 2016) conducted in an intensive care unit (ICU) of a large, tertiary care, government hospital situated in Delhi, India. Targeted surveillance was done as per the CDC's NHSN 2016 surveillance criteria. There were 343 patients admitted to the ICU that were included in the study. The surveillance data was reported over 3,755 patient days. A DA-HAIs attack rate of 20.1 per 100 admissions and incidence of 18.3 per 1,000 patient days was observed. The duration of use for each device for patients with DA-HAIs was significantly longer than for patients without DA-HAIs. The device utilization ratios of central line, ventilator, and urinary catheters were 0.57, 0.85, and 0.72, respectively. The crude excess length of stay for patients with DA-HAI was 13 days, and crude excess mortality rate was 11.8%. VAE, CLABSI, and CAUTI rates were 11.8, 7.4, and 9.7 per 1,000 device days, respectively. Among 69 DA-HAIs reported, pathogens could be identified for 49 DA-HAI cases. Klebsiella spp was the most common organism isolated, accounting 28.5% for all DA

  19. Influenza surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Bednarska

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Influenza surveillance was established in 1947. From this moment WHO (World Health Organization has been coordinating international cooperation, with a goal of monitoring influenza virus activity, effective diagnostic of the circulating viruses and informing society about epidemics or pandemics, as well as about emergence of new subtypes of influenza virus type A. Influenza surveillance is an important task, because it enables people to prepare themselves for battle with the virus that is constantly mutating, what leads to circulation of new and often more virulent strains of influenza in human population. As vaccination is the most effective method of fighting the virus, one of the major tasks of GISRS is developing an optimal antigenic composition of the vaccine for the current epidemic season. European Influenza Surveillance Network (EISN has also developed over the years. EISN is running integrated epidemiological and virological influenza surveillance, to provide appropriate data to public health experts in member countries, to enable them undertaking relevant activities based on the current information about influenza activity. In close cooperation with GISRS and EISN are National Influenza Centres - national institutions designated by the Ministry of Health in each country.

  20. DVT surveillance program in the ICU: analysis of cost-effectiveness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajai K Malhotra

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Venous Thrombo-embolism (VTE--Deep venous thrombosis (DVT and/or pulmonary embolism (PE--in traumatized patients causes significant morbidity and mortality. The current study evaluates the effectiveness of DVT surveillance in reducing PE, and performs a cost-effectiveness analysis. METHODS: All traumatized patients admitted to the adult ICU underwent twice weekly DVT surveillance by bilateral lower extremity venous Duplex examination (48-month surveillance period--SP. The rates of DVT and PE were recorded and compared to the rates observed in the 36-month pre-surveillance period (PSP. All patients in both periods received mechanical and pharmacologic prophylaxis unless contraindicated. Total costs--diagnostic, therapeutic and surveillance--for both periods were recorded and the incremental cost for each Quality Adjusted Life Year (QALY gained was calculated. RESULTS: 4234 patients were eligible (PSP--1422 and SP--2812. Rate of DVT in SP (2.8% was significantly higher than in PSP (1.3% - p<0.05, and rate of PE in SP (0.7% was significantly lower than that in PSP (1.5% - p<0.05. Logistic regression demonstrated that surveillance was an independent predictor of increased DVT detection (OR: 2.53 - CI: 1.462-4.378 and decreased PE incidence (OR: 0.487 - CI: 0.262-0.904. The incremental cost was $509,091/life saved in the base case, translating to $29,102/QALY gained. A sensitivity analysis over four of the parameters used in the model indicated that the incremental cost ranged from $18,661 to $48,821/QALY gained. CONCLUSIONS: Surveillance of traumatized ICU patients increases DVT detection and reduces PE incidence. Costs in terms of QALY gained compares favorably with other interventions accepted by society.

  1. The new classification system for slaughter-pig herds in the Danish Salmonella surveillance-and-control program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alban, L.; Stege, Helle; Dahl, J.

    2002-01-01

    the Danish Salmonella Database including all herds in 2000. The classification scheme has been adjusted on the following points. (1) The sampling has been simplified into 60, 75, or 100 samples per herd per year depending on herd size. This means more-precise estimates for the seroprevalence among smaller......The Danish surveillance-and-control program for Salmonella in slaughter pigs was introduced in 1995. The key element of the program is a quick and correct identification of herds with high seroprevalence. After 5 years, the classification scheme was evaluated-and a revision was made. Data from two...

  2. Economics of One Health: Costs and benefits of integrated West Nile virus surveillance in Emilia-Romagna.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Paternoster

    Full Text Available Since 2013 in Emilia-Romagna, Italy, surveillance information generated in the public health and in the animal health sectors has been shared and used to guide public health interventions to mitigate the risk of West Nile virus (WNV transmission via blood transfusion. The objective of the current study was to identify and estimate the costs and benefits associated with this One Health surveillance approach, and to compare it to an approach that does not integrate animal health information in blood donations safety policy (uni-sectoral scenario. Costs of human, animal, and entomological surveillance, sharing of information, and triggered interventions were estimated. Benefits were quantified as the averted costs of potential human cases of WNV neuroinvasive disease associated to infected blood transfusion. In the 2009-2015 period, the One Health approach was estimated to represent a cost saving of €160,921 compared to the uni-sectoral scenario. Blood donation screening was the main cost for both scenarios. The One Health approach further allowed savings of €1.21 million in terms of avoided tests on blood units. Benefits of the One Health approach due to short-term costs of hospitalization and compensation for transfusion-associated disease potentially avoided, were estimated to range from €0 to €2.98 million according to the probability of developing WNV neuroinvasive disease after receiving an infected blood transfusion.

  3. Assessing the population coverage of a health demographic surveillance system using satellite imagery and crowd-sourcing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pasquale, Di Aurelio; Mc Cann, Robert; Maire, Nicolas

    2017-01-01

    Remotely sensed data can serve as an independent source of information about the location of residential structures in areas under demographic and health surveillance. We report on results obtained combining satellite imagery, imported from Bing, with location data routinely collected using the

  4. Health surveillance of specific pathogen-free and conventionally-housed mice and rats in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seok, Seunghyeok; Park, Jonghwan; Cho, Suna; Baek, Minwon; Lee, Huiyoung; Kim, Dongjae; Yang, Kihwa; Jang, Dongdeuk; Han, Beomseok; Nam, Kitaek; Park, Jaehak

    2005-01-01

    The present study contains information about proper microbiological monitoring of laboratory animals' health and the standardization of microbiological monitoring methods in Korea. Microbiological quality control for laboratory animals, composed of biosecurity and health surveillance, is essential to guard against research complications and public health dangers that have been associated with adventitious infections. In this study, one hundred and twenty-two mice and ninety rats from laboratory animal breeding companies and one animal facility of the national universities in Korea were monitored in 2000-2003. Histopathologically, thickening of the alveolar walls and lymphocytic infiltration around the bronchioles were observed in mice and rats from microbiologically contaminated facilities. Cryptosporidial oocysts were observed in the gastric pits of only conventionally-housed mice and rats. Helicobacter spp. infection was also detected in 1 of 24 feces DNA samples in mice and 9 of 40 feces DNA samples in rats by PCR in 2003, but they were not Helicobacter hepaticus. This paper describes bacteriological, parasitological, and virological examinations of the animals.

  5. Identifying malaria hotspots in Keur Soce health and demographic surveillance site in context of low transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndiath, Mansour; Faye, Babacar; Cisse, Badara; Ndiaye, Jean Louis; Gomis, Jules François; Dia, Anta Tal; Gaye, Oumar

    2014-11-24

    Malaria is major public health problem in Senegal. In some parts of the country, it occurs almost permanently with a seasonal increase during the rainy season. There is evidence to suggest that the prevalence of malaria in Senegal has decreased considerably during the past few years. Recent data from the Senegalese National Malaria Control Programme (NMCP) indicates that the number of malaria cases decrease from 1,500,000 in 2006 to 174,339 in 2010. With the decline of malaria morbidity in Senegal, the characterization of the new epidemiological profile of this disease is crucial for public health decision makers. SaTScan™ software using the Kulldorf method of retrospective space-time permutation and the Bernoulli purely spatial model was used to identify malaria clusters using confirmed malaria cases in 74 villages. ArcMAp was used to map malaria hotspots. Logistic regression was used to investigate risk factors for malaria hotspots in Keur Soce health and demographic surveillance site. A total of 1,614 individuals in 440 randomly selected households were enrolled. The overall malaria prevalence was 12%. The malaria prevalence during the study period varied from less than 2% to more than 25% from one village to another. The results showed also that rooms located between 50 m to 100 m away from livestock holding place [adjusted O.R = 0.7, P = 0.044, 95% C.I (1.02 - 7.42)], bed net use [adjusted O.R = 1.2, P = 0.024, 95% C.I (1.02 -1.48)], are good predictors for malaria hotspots in the Keur Soce health and demographic surveillance site. The socio economic status of the household also predicted on hotspots patterns. The less poor household are 30% less likely to be classified as malaria hotspots area compared to the poorest household [adjusted O.R = 0.7, P = 0.014, 95% C.I (0.47 - 0.91)]. The study investigated risk factors for malaria hotspots in small communities in the Keur Soce site. The result showed considerable variation of malaria

  6. A Smartphone App (AfyaData) for Innovative One Health Disease Surveillance from Community to National Levels in Africa: Intervention in Disease Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindato, Calvin; Mwabukusi, Mpoki; Teesdale, Scott; Olsen, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    Background We describe the development and initial achievements of a participatory disease surveillance system that relies on mobile technology to promote Community Level One Health Security (CLOHS) in Africa. Objective The objective of this system, Enhancing Community-Based Disease Outbreak Detection and Response in East and Southern Africa (DODRES), is to empower community-based human and animal health reporters with training and information and communication technology (ICT)–based solutions to contribute to disease detection and response, thereby complementing strategies to improve the efficiency of infectious disease surveillance at national, regional, and global levels. In this study, we refer to techno-health as the application of ICT-based solutions to enhance early detection, timely reporting, and prompt response to health events in human and animal populations. Methods An EpiHack, involving human and animal health experts as well as ICT programmers, was held in Tanzania in 2014 to identify major challenges facing early detection, timely reporting, and prompt response to disease events. This was followed by a project inception workshop in 2015, which brought together key stakeholders, including policy makers and community representatives, to refine the objectives and implementation plan of the DODRES project. The digital ICT tools were developed and packaged together as the AfyaData app to support One Health disease surveillance. Community health reporters (CHRs) and officials from animal and human health sectors in Morogoro and Ngorongoro districts in Tanzania were trained to use the AfyaData app. The AfyaData supports near- to real-time data collection and submission at both community and health facility levels as well as the provision of feedback to reporters. The functionality of the One Health Knowledge Repository (OHKR) app has been integrated into the AfyaData app to provide health information on case definitions of diseases of humans and animals

  7. Status report - The Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program: a dynamic and innovative injury surveillance system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Crain

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This status report on the Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program (CHIRPP, an emergency department-based injury and poisoning surveillance system, describes the result of migrating from a centralized data entry and coding process to a decentralized process, the web-based eCHIRPP system, in 2011. This secure system is improving the CHIRPP’s overall flexibility and timeliness, which are key attributes of an effective surveillance system. The integrated eCHIRPP platform enables near real-time data entry and access, has user-friendly data management and analysis tools, and allows for easier communication and connectivity across the CHIRPP network through an online collaboration centre. Current pilot testing of automated data monitoring and trend analysis tools—designed to monitor and flag incoming data according to predefined criteria (for example, a new consumer product—is revealing eCHIRPP’s potential for providing early warnings of new hazards, issues and trends.

  8. Carbapenem non-susceptible enterobacteriaceae in Quebec, Canada: results of a laboratory surveillance program (2010-2012.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brigitte Lefebvre

    Full Text Available The emergence and spread of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE represent a major public health concern because these bacteria are usually extensively resistant to most antibiotics. In order to evaluate their dissemination in Quebec, a surveillance program was introduced in 2010. We report the molecular and epidemiological profiles of CPE isolates collected. Between August 2010 and December 2012, a total of 742 non-duplicate isolates non-susceptible to carbapenems were analysed. AmpC β-lactamase and metallo-β-lactamase production were detected by Etest and carbapenemase production by the modified Hodge test (MHT. Antibiotic susceptibility profiles were determined using broth microdilution or Etest. Clonality of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC strains was analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE. The presence of genes encoding carbapenemases as well as other β-lactamases was detected using PCR. Of the 742 isolates tested, 169 (22.8% were CPE. Of these 169 isolates, 151 (89.3% harboured a blaKPC gene while the remaining isolates carried blaSME (n = 9, blaOXA-48 (n = 5, blaNDM (n = 3, and blaNMC (n = 1 genes. Among the 93 KPC strains presenting with a unique pattern (unique PFGE pattern and/or unique antibiotics susceptibility profile, 99% were resistant to ertapenem, 95% to imipenem, 87% to meropenem, 97% to aztreonam, 31% to colistin and 2% to tigecycline. In 19 patients, 2 to 5 KPC strains from different species or with a different PFGE pattern were isolated. CPE strains were present in the province of Quebec with the majority of strains harbouring KPC. Alternately, SME, OXA-48 and NMC containing strains were rarely found.

  9. Occupational health impact of the 2009 H1N1 flu pandemic: surveillance of sickness absence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torá-Rocamora, Isabel; Delclos, George L; Martínez, José Miguel; Jardí, Josefina; Alberti, Constança; Manzanera, Rafael; Yasui, Yutaka; Clèries, Ramón; Tobías, Aurelio; Benavides, Fernando G

    2012-03-01

    Workplace absences due to illness can disrupt usual operations and increase costs for businesses. This study of sickness absence due to influenza and influenza-related illness presents a unique opportunity to characterise and measure the impact of the 2009 (H1N1) pandemic, by comparing trends during the pandemic to those of previous years, and adding this information to that obtained by traditional epidemiological surveillance systems. We compared the numbers of cases of sickness absence due to illness caused by influenza and influenza-related illness in 2007-2009, and in the first 3 months of 2010 in Catalonia (n=811 940) using a time series approach. Trends were examined by economic activity, age and gender. The weekly endemic-epidemic index (EEI) was calculated and its 95% CI obtained with the delta method, with observed and expected cases considered as independent random variables. Influenza activity peaked earlier in 2009 and yielded more cases than in previous years. Week 46 (in November 2009) had the highest number of new cases resulting in sickness absence (EEI 20.99; 95% CI 9.44 to 46.69). Women and the 'education, health and other social activities' sector were the most affected. Results indicate that the new H1N1 pandemic had a significant impact on business, with shifts in the timing of peak incidence, a doubling in the number of cases, and changes in the distribution of cases by economic activity sector and gender. Traditional epidemiological surveillance systems could benefit from the addition of information based on sickness absence data.

  10. Influence of border disease virus (BDV) on serological surveillance within the bovine virus diarrhea (BVD) eradication program in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, V; Nebel, L; Schüpbach-Regula, G; Zanoni, R G; Schweizer, M

    2017-01-13

    In 2008, a program to eradicate bovine virus diarrhea (BVD) in cattle in Switzerland was initiated. After targeted elimination of persistently infected animals that represent the main virus reservoir, the absence of BVD is surveilled serologically since 2012. In view of steadily decreasing pestivirus seroprevalence in the cattle population, the susceptibility for (re-) infection by border disease (BD) virus mainly from small ruminants increases. Due to serological cross-reactivity of pestiviruses, serological surveillance of BVD by ELISA does not distinguish between BVD and BD virus as source of infection. In this work the cross-serum neutralisation test (SNT) procedure was adapted to the epidemiological situation in Switzerland by the use of three pestiviruses, i.e., strains representing the subgenotype BVDV-1a, BVDV-1h and BDSwiss-a, for adequate differentiation between BVDV and BDV. Thereby the BDV-seroprevalence in seropositive cattle in Switzerland was determined for the first time. Out of 1,555 seropositive blood samples taken from cattle in the frame of the surveillance program, a total of 104 samples (6.7%) reacted with significantly higher titers against BDV than BVDV. These samples originated from 65 farms and encompassed 15 different cantons with the highest BDV-seroprevalence found in Central Switzerland. On the base of epidemiological information collected by questionnaire in case- and control farms, common housing of cattle and sheep was identified as the most significant risk factor for BDV infection in cattle by logistic regression. This indicates that pestiviruses from sheep should be considered as a source of infection of domestic cattle and might well impede serological BVD surveillance.

  11. Performance excellence: using Lean Six Sigma tools to improve the US Army behavioral health surveillance process, boost team morale, and maximize value to customers and stakeholders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Eren Youmans; Kemeter, Dave M; Spiess, Anita; Corrigan, Elizabeth; Kateley, Keri; Wills, John V; Mancha, Brent Edward; Nichols, Jerrica; Bell, Amy Millikan

    2014-01-01

    Lean Six Sigma (LSS) is a process improvement, problem-solving methodology used in business and manufacturing to improve the speed, quality, and cost of products. LSS can also be used to improve knowledge-based products integral to public health surveillance. An LSS project by the Behavioral Social Health Outcomes Program of the Army Institute of Public Health reduced the number of labor hours spent producing the routine surveillance of suicidal behavior publication. At baseline, the total number of labor hours was 448; after project completion, total labor hours were 199. Based on customer feedback, publication production was reduced from quarterly to annually. Process improvements enhanced group morale and established best practices in the form of standard operating procedures and business rules to ensure solutions are sustained. LSS project participation also fostered a change in the conceptualization of tasks and projects. These results demonstrate that LSS can be used to inform the public health process and should be considered a viable method of improving knowledge-based products and processes.

  12. Interaction between research and diagnosis and surveillance of avian influenza within the Caribbean animal health network (CaribVET).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefrançois, T; Hendrikx, P; Vachiéry, N; Ehrhardt, N; Millien, M; Gomez, L; Gouyet, L; Gerbier, G; Gongora, V; Shaw, J; Trotman, M

    2010-04-01

    The Caribbean region is considered to be at risk for avian influenza (AI) because of predominance of the backyard poultry system, important commercial poultry production, migratory birds and disparities in the surveillance systems. The Caribbean animal health network (CaribVET) has developed tools to implement AI surveillance in the region: (i) a regionally harmonized surveillance protocol, (ii) specific web pages for AI surveillance on http://www.caribvet.net, and (iii) a diagnostic network for the Caribbean including AI virus molecular diagnostic capability in Guadeloupe and technology transfer. Altogether 303 samples from four Caribbean countries were tested between June 2006 and March 2009 by real time PCR either for importation purposes or following clinical suspicion. Following AI H5N2 outbreaks in the Dominican Republic in 2007, a questionnaire was developed to collect data for risk analysis of AI spread in the region through fighting cocks. The infection pathway of Martinique commercial poultry sector by AI through introduction of infected cocks was designed and recommendations were provided to the Caribbean veterinary services to improve fighting cock movement controls and biosecurity measures. Altogether, these CaribVET activities contribute to strengthen surveillance of AI in the Caribbean region and may allow the development of research studies on AI risk analysis.

  13. Uptake and quality of health surveillance for noise and hand-arm vibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, K; Mason, H J; Harris-Roberts, J

    2011-08-01

    Health surveillance (HS) is required for employees if noise or hand-arm vibration (HAV) exposures are likely to be above exposure action levels. The extent to which employers comply with Health and Safety Executive (HSE) regulations is unclear. To establish the uptake and quality of HS for noise and HAV in high-risk industries. A cross-sectional telephone-based questionnaire study involving employers in high-risk industries for noise or HAV. A total of 246 and 386 interviews were completed for noise and HAV, respectively. The uptake of HS in the cohorts was 17 and 10%, respectively. Selection of those companies thought to have 'higher risk' increased the uptake to 25 and 18%, respectively. The proportion of companies carrying out HS was strongly related to the size of the company, with smaller companies less likely to provide this for their employees. A large proportion of companies that reported having HS in place had formal procedures for managing exposed workers (90 and 83% for noise and HAV, respectively), received feedback on individual workers (81 and 80%) and some reported that they used this information to inform their risk management process (58 and 63%). The frequency of HS for HAV was in line with that suggested in HSE guidance in 70% of cases, however, for noise, it was often utilized more frequently. While many of the companies appear to be following HSE guidance, there is a significant number that are not. Further initiatives that engage with smaller companies may help increase HS provision.

  14. Schistosomiasis in Scottish travellers: public health importance of laboratory testing and the need for enhanced surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Claire L; Cottom, Laura; Smith, Kitty; Perrow, Kali; Coyne, Michael; Jones, Brian L

    2018-03-01

    Imported schistosomiasis is of significant public health importance and is likely to be underestimated since infection is often asymptomatic. We describe data from travellers residing in Scotland which includes a subset of group travellers from one of the largest Health Boards in Scotland. Clotted bloods were obtained during the period 2001-15 from a total of 8163 Scottish travellers. This included seven groups comprising of 182 travellers. Sera were examined for the presence of Schistosome species antibody at the Scottish Parasite Diagnostic and Reference Laboratory (SPDRL). Of all, 25% (n = 1623) tested positive with 40% (n = 651) of those patients aged between 20 and 24 years. Although 62% (n = 1006) of those who tested positive reported travel to Africa, important information on the specific region visited was lacking in almost one-third of samples received. Overall, 62 (34%) of group travellers tested positive and 95% (n = 59) reporting travel to Africa. Globalization, affordable air travel and improved awareness, are likely to contribute towards the increasing number of imported schistosomiasis cases. Therefore, enhanced surveillance capturing detailed travel history and fresh water exposures will improve risk stratification, pre-travel advice and optimize testing and treatment regimes for this increasingly important parasitic disease.

  15. Community-based surveillance of zoonotic parasites in a 'One Health' world: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schurer, J M; Mosites, E; Li, C; Meschke, S; Rabinowitz, P

    2016-12-01

    The One Health (OH) concept provides an integrated framework for observing and improving health issues involving human, animal, and environmental factors, and has been applied in particular to zoonotic disease problems. We conducted a systematic review of English and Chinese language peer-reviewed and grey literature databases to identify zoonotic endoparasite research utilizing an OH approach in community-based settings. Our review identified 32 articles where specimens collected simultaneously from all three OH domains (people, animals, and the environment) were assessed for endoparasite infection or exposure. Study sites spanned 23 countries, and research teams brought together an average of seven authors from two countries. Surveillance of blood-borne and gastrointestinal protozoa were most frequently reported (19 of 32; 59%), followed by trematodes, nematodes, and cestodes. Laboratory techniques varied greatly between studies, and only 16 identified parasites using Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) in all three OH domains. Our review identified important gaps in parasitology research operating under an OH framework. We recommend that investigators working in the realm of zoonotic disease strive to evaluate all three OH domains by integrating modern molecular tools as well as techniques provided by economists and social scientists.

  16. Air surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patton, G.W.

    1995-01-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the air surveillance and monitoring programs currently in operation at that Hanford Site. Atmospheric releases of pollutants from Hanford to the surrounding region are a potential source of human exposure. For that reason, both radioactive and nonradioactive materials in air are monitored at a number of locations. The influence of Hanford emissions on local radionuclide concentrations was evaluated by comparing concentrations measured at distant locations within the region to concentrations measured at the Site perimeter. This section discusses sample collection, analytical methods, and the results of the Hanford air surveillance program. A complete listing of all analytical results summarized in this section is reported separately by Bisping (1995)

  17. Air surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patton, G.W.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the air surveillance and monitoring programs currently in operation at that Hanford Site. Atmospheric releases of pollutants from Hanford to the surrounding region are a potential source of human exposure. For that reason, both radioactive and nonradioactive materials in air are monitored at a number of locations. The influence of Hanford emissions on local radionuclide concentrations was evaluated by comparing concentrations measured at distant locations within the region to concentrations measured at the Site perimeter. This section discusses sample collection, analytical methods, and the results of the Hanford air surveillance program. A complete listing of all analytical results summarized in this section is reported separately by Bisping (1995).

  18. Program Planning in Health Professions Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Steven W.; Lawson, Luan

    2018-01-01

    In this chapter, the major concepts from program planning in adult education will be applied to health professions education (HPE). Curriculum planning and program planning will be differentiated, and program development and planning will be grounded in a systems thinking approach.

  19. Improving work functioning and mental health of health care employees using an e-mental health approach to workers' health surveillance: pretest-posttest study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketelaar, Sarah M; Nieuwenhuijsen, Karen; Bolier, Linda; Smeets, Odile; Sluiter, Judith K

    2014-12-01

    Mental health complaints are quite common in health care employees and can have adverse effects on work functioning. The aim of this study was to evaluate an e-mental health (EMH) approach to workers' health surveillance (WHS) for nurses and allied health professionals. Using the waiting-list group of a previous randomized controlled trial with high dropout and low compliance to the intervention, we studied the pre- and posteffects of the EMH approach in a larger group of participants. We applied a pretest-posttest study design. The WHS consisted of online screening on impaired work functioning and mental health followed by online automatically generated personalized feedback, online tailored advice, and access to self-help EMH interventions. The effects on work functioning, stress, and work-related fatigue after 3 months were analyzed using paired t tests and effect sizes. One hundred and twenty-eight nurses and allied health professionals participated at pretest as well as posttest. Significant improvements were found on work functioning (p = 0.01) and work-related fatigue (p Work functioning had relevantly improved in 30% of participants. A small meaningful effect on stress was found (Cohen d = .23) in the participants who had logged onto an EMH intervention (20%, n = 26). The EMH approach to WHS improves the work functioning and mental health of nurses and allied health professionals. However, because we found small effects and participation in the offered EMH interventions was low, there is ample room for improvement.

  20. Finding the Right Fit: Understanding Health Tracking in Workplace Wellness Programs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chung, Chia-Fang; Jensen, Nanna Gorm; Shklovski, Irina

    2017-01-01

    Workplace health and wellness programs are increasingly integrating personal health tracking technologies, such as Fitbit and Apple Watch. Many question whether these technologies truly support employees in their pursuit of better wellness levels, raising objections about workplace surveillance...... and further blurring of boundaries between work and personal life. We conducted a study to understand how tracking tools are adopted in wellness programs and employees' opinions about these programs. We find that employees are generally positive about incentivized health tracking in the workplace, as it helps...... raise awareness of activity levels. However, there is a gap between the intentions of the programs and individual experiences and health goals. This sometimes results in confusion and creates barriers to participation. Even if this gap can be addressed, health tracking in the workplace...

  1. First experiences in the implementation of biometric technology to link data from Health and Demographic Surveillance Systems with health facility data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adwoa Serwaa-Bonsu

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: In developing countries, Health and Demographic Surveillance Systems (HDSSs provide a framework for tracking demographic and health dynamics over time in a defined geographical area. Many HDSSs co-exist with facility-based data sources in the form of Health Management Information Systems (HMIS. Integrating both data sources through reliable record linkage could provide both numerator and denominator populations to estimate disease prevalence and incidence rates in the population and enable determination of accurate health service coverage. Objective: To measure the acceptability and performance of fingerprint biometrics to identify individuals in demographic surveillance populations and those attending health care facilities serving the surveillance populations. Methodology: Two HDSS sites used fingerprint biometrics for patient and/or surveillance population participant identification. The proportion of individuals for whom a fingerprint could be successfully enrolled were characterised in terms of age and sex. Results: Adult (18–65 years fingerprint enrolment rates varied between 94.1% (95% CI 93.6–94.5 for facility-based fingerprint data collection at the Africa Centre site to 96.7% (95% CI 95.9–97.6 for population-based fingerprint data collection at the Agincourt site. Fingerprint enrolment rates in children under 1 year old (Africa Centre site were only 55.1% (95% CI 52.7–57.4. By age 5, child fingerprint enrolment rates were comparable to those of adults. Conclusion: This work demonstrates the feasibility of fingerprint-based individual identification for population-based research in developing countries. Record linkage between demographic surveillance population databases and health care facility data based on biometric identification systems would allow for a more comprehensive evaluation of population health, including the ability to study health service utilisation from a population perspective, rather than the

  2. First experiences in the implementation of biometric technology to link data from Health and Demographic Surveillance Systems with health facility data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serwaa-Bonsu, Adwoa; Herbst, Abraham J; Reniers, Georges; Ijaa, Wilfred; Clark, Benjamin; Kabudula, Chodziwadziwa; Sankoh, Osman

    2010-02-24

    In developing countries, Health and Demographic Surveillance Systems (HDSSs) provide a framework for tracking demographic and health dynamics over time in a defined geographical area. Many HDSSs co-exist with facility-based data sources in the form of Health Management Information Systems (HMIS). Integrating both data sources through reliable record linkage could provide both numerator and denominator populations to estimate disease prevalence and incidence rates in the population and enable determination of accurate health service coverage. To measure the acceptability and performance of fingerprint biometrics to identify individuals in demographic surveillance populations and those attending health care facilities serving the surveillance populations. Two HDSS sites used fingerprint biometrics for patient and/or surveillance population participant identification. The proportion of individuals for whom a fingerprint could be successfully enrolled were characterised in terms of age and sex. Adult (18-65 years) fingerprint enrolment rates varied between 94.1% (95% CI 93.6-94.5) for facility-based fingerprint data collection at the Africa Centre site to 96.7% (95% CI 95.9-97.6) for population-based fingerprint data collection at the Agincourt site. Fingerprint enrolment rates in children under 1 year old (Africa Centre site) were only 55.1% (95% CI 52.7-57.4). By age 5, child fingerprint enrolment rates were comparable to those of adults. This work demonstrates the feasibility of fingerprint-based individual identification for population-based research in developing countries. Record linkage between demographic surveillance population databases and health care facility data based on biometric identification systems would allow for a more comprehensive evaluation of population health, including the ability to study health service utilisation from a population perspective, rather than the more restrictive health service perspective.

  3. Health surveillance assistants as intermediates between the community and health sector in Malawi: exploring how relationships influence performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, Maryse C; Namakhoma, Ireen; Nyirenda, Lot; Chikaphupha, Kingsley; Broerse, Jacqueline E W; Dieleman, Marjolein; Taegtmeyer, Miriam; Theobald, Sally

    2016-05-03

    There is increasing global interest in how best to support the role of community health workers (CHWs) in building bridges between communities and the health sector. CHWs' intermediary position means that interpersonal relationships are an important factor shaping CHW performance. This study aimed to obtain in-depth insight into the facilitators of and barriers to interpersonal relationships between health surveillance assistants (HSAs) and actors in the community and health sector in hard-to-reach settings in two districts in Malawi, in order to inform policy and practice on optimizing HSA performance. The study followed a qualitative design. Forty-four semi-structured interviews and 16 focus group discussions were conducted with HSAs, different community members and managers in Mchinji and Salima districts. Data were recorded, transcribed, translated, coded and thematically analysed. HSAs had relatively strong interpersonal relationships with traditional leaders and volunteers, who were generally supportive of their work. From the health sector side, HSAs linked to health professionals and managers, but found them less supportive. Accountability structures at the community level were not well-established and those within the health sector were executed irregularly. Mistrust from the community, volunteers or HSAs regarding incentives and expectations that could not be met by "higher levels" undermined support structures and led to demotivation and hampered performance. Supervision and training were sometimes a source of mistrust and demotivation for HSAs, because of the perceived disinterest of supervisors, uncoordinated supervision and favouritism in selection of training participants. Rural HSAs were seen as more disadvantaged than HSAs in urban areas. HSAs' intermediary position necessitates trusting relationships between them and all actors within the community and the health sector. There is a need to improve support and accountability structures that

  4. Kennedy Space Center environmental health program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marmaro, G.M.; Cardinale, M.A.; Summerfield, B.R.; Tipton, D.A.

    1992-01-01

    The Kennedy Space Center's environmental health organization is responsible for programs which assure its employees a healthful workplace under diverse and varied working conditions. These programs encompass the disciplines of industrial hygiene, radiation protection (health physics), and environmental sanitation/pollution control. Activities range from the routine, such as normal office work, to the highly specialized, such as the processing of highly toxic and hazardous materials

  5. Development of containers sealing system like part of surveillance program of the vessel in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero C, J.; Hernandez C, R.; Fernandez T, F.; Rocamontes A, M.; Perez R, N.

    2009-10-01

    The owners of nuclear power plants should be demonstrate that the embrittlement effects by neutronic radiation do not commit the structural integrity from the pressure vessel of nuclear reactors, during conditions of routine operation and below postulate accident. For this reason, there are surveillance programs of vessels of nuclear power plants, in which are present surveillance capsules. A surveillance capsule is compound by the support, six containers for test tubes and dosimeters. The containers for test tubes are of two types: rectangular container for test tubes, Charpy V and Cylindrical Container for tension test tubes. These test tubes are subject to a same or bigger neutronic flow to that of vessel, being representative of vessel mechanical conditions. The test tubes are rehearsed to watch over the increase of embrittlement that presents the vessel. This work describes the development of welding system to seal the containers for test tubes, these should be filled with helium of ultra high purity, to a pressure of an atmosphere. In this system the welding process Gas Tungsten Arc Welding is used, a hermetic camera that allows to place the containers with three grades of freedom, a vacuum subsystem and pressure, high technology equipment's like: power source with integrated computer, arc starter of high frequency, helium flow controller, among others. Finally, the advances in the inspection system for the qualification of sealing system are mentioned, system that should measure the internal pressure of containers and the helium purity inside these. (Author)

  6. A conceptual framework for economic optimization of an animal health surveillance portfolio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, X; Claassen, G D H; Oude Lansink, A G J M; Saatkamp, H W

    2016-04-01

    Decision making on hazard surveillance in livestock product chains is a multi-hazard, multi-stakeholder, and multi-criteria process that includes a variety of decision alternatives. The multi-hazard aspect means that the allocation of the scarce resource for surveillance should be optimized from the point of view of a surveillance portfolio (SP) rather than a single hazard. In this paper, we present a novel conceptual approach for economic optimization of a SP to address the resource allocation problem for a surveillance organization from a theoretical perspective. This approach uses multi-criteria techniques to evaluate the performances of different settings of a SP, taking cost-benefit aspects of surveillance and stakeholders' preferences into account. The credibility of the approach has also been checked for conceptual validity, data needs and operational validity; the application potentials of the approach are also discussed.

  7. Using health and demographic surveillance for the early detection of cholera outbreaks: analysis of community- and hospital-based data from Matlab, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saulnier, Dell D; Persson, Lars-Åke; Streatfield, Peter Kim; Faruque, A S G; Rahman, Anisur

    2016-01-01

    Cholera outbreaks are a continuing problem in Bangladesh, and the timely detection of an outbreak is important for reducing morbidity and mortality. In Matlab, the ongoing Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) data records symptoms of diarrhea in children under the age of 5 years at the community level. Cholera surveillance in Matlab currently uses hospital-based data. The objective of this study is to determine whether increases in cholera in Matlab can be detected earlier by using HDSS diarrhea symptom data in a syndromic surveillance analysis, when compared to hospital admissions for cholera. HDSS diarrhea symptom data and hospital admissions for cholera in children under 5 years of age over a 2-year period were analyzed with the syndromic surveillance statistical program EARS (Early Aberration Reporting System). Dates when significant increases in either symptoms or cholera cases occurred were compared to one another. The analysis revealed that there were 43 days over 16 months when the cholera cases or diarrhea symptoms increased significantly. There were 8 months when both data sets detected days with significant increases. In 5 of the 8 months, increases in diarrheal symptoms occurred before increases of cholera cases. The increases in symptoms occurred between 1 and 15 days before the increases in cholera cases. The results suggest that the HDSS survey data may be able to detect an increase in cholera before an increase in hospital admissions is seen. However, there was no direct link between diarrheal symptom increases and cholera cases, and this, as well as other methodological weaknesses, should be taken into consideration.

  8. Introduction to:Forest health monitoring program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark J. Ambrose

    2009-01-01

    This annual technical report is a product of the Forest Health Monitoring (FHM) Program. The repo